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Sample records for reappraisal positive reappraisal

  1. The Role of Mindfulness in Positive Reappraisal

    PubMed Central

    Garland, Eric; Gaylord, Susan; Park, Jongbae

    2009-01-01

    Mindfulness meditation is increasingly well known for therapeutic efficacy in a variety of illnesses and conditions, but its mechanism of action is still under debate in scientific circles. In this paper we propose a hypothetical causal model that argues for the role of mindfulness in positive reappraisal coping. Positive reappraisal is a critical component of meaning-based coping that enables individuals to adapt successfully to stressful life events. Mindfulness, as a metacognitive form of awareness, involves the process of decentering, a shifting of cognitive sets that enables alternate appraisals of life events. We review the concept of positive reappraisal in transactional stress and coping theory; then describe research and traditional literature related to mindfulness and cognitive reappraisal, and detail the central role of mindfulness in the reappraisal process. With this understanding, we present a causal model explicating the proposed mechanism. The discussion has implications for clinical practice, suggesting how mindfulness-based integrative medicine interventions can be designed to support adaptive coping processes. PMID:19114262

  2. Turn Down the Volume or Change the Channel?: Emotional Effects of Detached Versus Positive Reappraisal

    PubMed Central

    Shiota, Michelle N.; Levenson, Robert W.

    2013-01-01

    Cognitive reappraisal, or changing one’s interpretation of an event in order to alter the emotional response to it, is thought to be a healthy and effective emotion regulation strategy. Although researchers recognize several distinct varieties of reappraisal, few studies have explicitly compared the effects of multiple reappraisal strategies on emotional responding. The present study compares the effects of detached and positive reappraisal on thought content, subjective emotional experience, physiological reactivity, and facial expressions of emotion while viewing film clips evoking sadness and disgust. While both forms of reappraisal reduced overall emotional responding to unpleasant stimuli, the effects of detached reappraisal were stronger in this regard, and positive reappraisal was more likely to maintain subjective experience and facial expression of stimulus-appropriate positive emotions. The two reappraisal strategies also produced somewhat different profiles of physiological responding. Differences between detached and positive reappraisal with respect to subjective experience and facial expression were more pronounced among men than women; the reverse was true for differences with respect to physiological responding. Beyond these effects on individual emotion response systems, detached and positive reappraisal also had somewhat different effects on coherence in change across response systems. Implications for our understanding of emotion regulation processes, and for emotion theory more broadly, are discussed. PMID:22746676

  3. Trait Reappraisal Predicts Affective Reactivity to Daily Positive and Negative Events

    PubMed Central

    Gunaydin, Gul; Selcuk, Emre; Ong, Anthony D.

    2016-01-01

    Past research on emotion regulation has provided evidence that cognitive reappraisal predicts reactivity to affective stimuli and challenge tests in laboratory settings. However, little is known about how trait reappraisal might contribute to affective reactivity to everyday positive and negative events. Using a large, life-span sample of adults (N = 1755), the present study addressed this important gap in the literature. Respondents completed a measure of trait reappraisal and reported on their daily experiences of positive and negative events and positive and negative affect for eight consecutive days. Results showed that trait reappraisal predicted lower increases in negative affect in response to daily negative events and lower increases in positive affect in response to daily positive events. These findings advance our understanding of the role of reappraisal in emotion regulation by showing how individual differences in the use of this strategy relate to emotional reactions to both positive and negative events outside the laboratory. PMID:27445954

  4. Impaired cognitive reappraisal in panic disorder revealed by the late positive potential.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Bing-Wei; Xu, Jing; Chang, Yi; Wang, He; Yao, Hong; Tang, Di

    2016-01-20

    According to the cognitive model of panic disorder (PD), panic attacks are triggered and maintained by catastrophic misappraisals of bodily sensations. Clinically, PD is associated with impaired cognitive emotion regulation strategies involving cognitive reappraisal. To investigate the neural correlates and time course of cognitive reappraisal in patients with PD, event-related potentials were recorded from patients with PD and demographically matched control group during passive viewing of affective images under three conditions: (a) neutral pictures preceded by neutral descriptions, (b) unpleasant pictures preceded by negative descriptions, and (c) unpleasant pictures preceded by neutral descriptions. The late positive potential (LPP), an event-related potential component sensitive to cognitive change strategies, was examined as an index of cognitive reappraisal. Consistent with previous results, the unpleasant pictures preceded by negative descriptions had decreased valence ratings, increased arousal ratings, and increased LPP amplitudes compared with the unpleasant pictures preceded by neutral descriptions in the control group. In contrast, no reliable effect of description condition was observed for valence ratings in the PD group. The patients demonstrated differing response patterns from the control participants, with higher arousal ratings and larger LPPs during the 1000-2000 ms window when unpleasant pictures were preceded by a neutral description than when unpleasant pictures were preceded by a negative description. The present study suggests that emotion regulation is impaired in patients with PD. These findings describe the first electrophysiological correlates of abnormal cognitive reappraisal in patients with PD. PMID:26656936

  5. Reappraisal but not suppression downregulates the experience of positive and negative emotion.

    PubMed

    Kalokerinos, Elise K; Greenaway, Katharine H; Denson, Thomas F

    2015-06-01

    The emotion regulation literature is growing exponentially, but there is limited understanding of the comparative strengths of emotion regulation strategies in downregulating positive emotional experiences. The present research made the first systematic investigation examining the consequences of using expressive suppression and cognitive reappraisal strategies to downregulate positive and negative emotion within a single design. Two experiments with over 1,300 participants demonstrated that reappraisal successfully reduced the experience of negative and positive affect compared with suppression and control conditions. Suppression did not reduce the experience of either positive or negative emotion relative to the control condition. This finding provides evidence against the assumption that expressive suppression reduces the experience of positive emotion. This work speaks to an emerging literature on the benefits of downregulating positive emotion, showing that suppression is an appropriate strategy when one wishes to reduce positive emotion displays while maintaining the benefits of positive emotional experience. PMID:25286074

  6. Differential effects of self- and situation-focused reappraisal.

    PubMed

    Willroth, Emily C; Hilimire, Matthew R

    2016-06-01

    In the present research, we investigated the effects of self- and situation-focused reappraisal, which are 2 distinct types of cognitive reappraisal, on emotion experiences, memory, and electrocortical responses to unpleasant pictures. In Study 1, situation-focused reappraisal was found to improve recall accuracy, whereas self-focused reappraisal had no effect. Both strategy types were associated with reductions in self-reported negative emotion, with larger reductions during situation-focused reappraisal. In Study 2, event-related potentials (ERPs) were measured while participants engaged in the 2 strategy types. Situation-focused, but not self-focused, reappraisal was associated with reductions in the late positive potential, an ERP that reflects facilitated attention to emotional stimuli. Taken together, these findings suggest that reappraisal is not a homogenous regulation strategy; on the contrary, subtypes of reappraisal elicit distinct consequence profiles. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:26641270

  7. The value of "negative" appraisals for resilience. Is positive (re)appraisal always good and negative always bad?

    PubMed

    Freund, Alexandra M; Staudinger, Ursula M

    2015-01-01

    In contrast to the PASTOR model by Kalisch et al. we point to the potential negative long-term effects of positive (re)appraisals of events for resilience. This perspective posits that emotional reactions to events provide important guidelines as to which events, environments, or social relations should be sought out and which ones should be avoided in the future. PMID:26785853

  8. Introduction: Reappraising Paul Feyerabend.

    PubMed

    Brown, Matthew J; Kidd, Ian James

    2016-06-01

    This volume is devoted to a reappraisal of the philosophy of Paul Feyerabend. It has four aims. The first is to reassess his already well-known work from the 1960s and 1970s in light of contemporary developments in the history and philosophy of science. The second is to explore themes in his neglected later work, including recently published and previously unavailable writings. The third is to assess the contributions that Feyerabend can make to contemporary debate, on topics such as perspectivism, realism, and political philosophy of science. The fourth and final aim is to reconsider Feyerabend's place within the history of philosophy of science in the light of new scholarship. PMID:27269258

  9. Neural Correlates of Cognitive Reappraisal in Children: An ERP Study

    PubMed Central

    DeCicco, Jennifer M.; Solomon, Beylul; Dennis, Tracy A.

    2011-01-01

    Cognitive emotion regulation strategies, such as reappraising the emotional meaning of events, are linked to positive adjustment and are disrupted in individuals showing emotional distress, like anxiety. The late positive potential (LPP) is sensitive to reappraisal: LPP amplitudes are reduced when unpleasant pictures are reappraised in a positive light, suggesting regulation of negative emotion. However, only one study has examined reappraisal in children using the LPP. The present study examined whether directed reappraisals reduce the LPP in a group of 5- to 7-year-olds, and correlate with individual differences in fear and anxiety. EEG was recorded from 32 typically-developing children via 64 scalp electrodes during a directed reappraisal task. Mothers reported on child anxiety. Fearful behavior was observed. As predicted, LPP amplitudes were larger to unpleasant versus neutral pictures; counter to predictions, the LPP was not sensitive to reappraisal. The degree to which unpleasant versus neutral pictures elicited larger LPPs was correlated with greater anxiety and fear. Results suggest that reappraisal in young children is still developing, but that the LPP is sensitive to individual differences related to fear and anxiety. The utility of the LPP as a measure of cognitive emotion regulation and emotional processing biases in children is discussed. PMID:22163262

  10. The cut-off criterion for a positive hydrogen breath test in children: a reappraisal.

    PubMed

    Solomons, N W; Barillas, C

    1986-01-01

    Seventy-three preschool children with adequate nutritional status underwent interval-sampling, 3-hour breath-hydrogen carbohydrate absorption tests after consuming either 240 ml of intact milk (containing 12 g of lactose) or the same volume of milk with 90-95% of its lactose prehydrolyzed in vitro (containing less than 1 g lactose, with the remaining sugar as glucose and galactose). Results were examined in a reappraisal of the cut-off criterion for the rise of breath H2 concentration signifying biologically incomplete absorption. If the greater than or equal to 10-ppm criterion advocated by some investigators is used, 83% of our subjects would have been classified as incomplete lactose digesters and 30% would have their tests with the monosaccharide-rich milk classified as positive. With the greater than or equal to 20 ppm criterion used in our laboratory and others, the prevalence of lactose maldigestion in the sample becomes 60% and only 4% of subjects have apparent monosaccharide absorption, 96% having a rise below the cut-off level with prehydrolyzed milk. At least in Guatemalan preschoolers, the 20-ppm criterion for a positive breath H2 test provides a superior specificity-sensitivity balance and more reasonable diagnostic conclusions. PMID:3794911

  11. Cognitive reappraisal increases neuroendocrine reactivity to acute social stress and physical pain.

    PubMed

    Denson, Thomas F; Creswell, J David; Terides, Matthew D; Blundell, Kate

    2014-11-01

    Cognitive reappraisal can foster emotion regulation, yet less is known about whether cognitive reappraisal alters neuroendocrine stress reactivity. Some initial evidence suggests that although long-term training in cognitive behavioral therapy techniques (which include reappraisal as a primary training component) can reduce cortisol reactivity to stress, some studies also suggest that reappraisal is associated with heightened cortisol stress reactivity. To address this mixed evidence, the present report describes two experimental studies that randomly assigned young adult volunteers to use cognitive reappraisal while undergoing laboratory stressors. Relative to the control condition, participants in the reappraisal conditions showed greater peak cortisol reactivity in response to a socially evaluative speech task (Experiment 1, N=90) and to a physical pain cold pressor task (Experiment 2, N=94). Participants in the cognitive reappraisal group also reported enhanced anticipatory psychological appraisals of self-efficacy and control in Experiment 2 and greater post-stressor self-efficacy. There were no effects of the reappraisal manipulation on positive and negative subjective affect, pain, or heart rate in either experiment. These findings suggest that although cognitive reappraisal fosters psychological perceptions of self-efficacy and control under stress, this effortful emotion regulation strategy in the short-term may increase cortisol reactivity. Discussion focuses on promising psychological mechanisms for these cognitive reappraisal effects. PMID:25063879

  12. The Effects of Experimentally Induced Rumination, Positive Reappraisal, Acceptance, and Distancing when Thinking about a Stressful Event on Affect States in Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rood, Lea; Roelofs, Jeffrey; Bogels, Susan M.; Arntz, Arnoud

    2012-01-01

    The current study compares the effects of experimentally induced rumination, positive reappraisal, distancing, and acceptance on affect states in adolescents aged 13-18. Participants (N = 160) were instructed to think about a recent stressful event. Next, they received specific instructions on how to think about that event in each condition.…

  13. 43 CFR 5473.4-1 - Reappraisal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... Time for Cutting and Removal § 5473.4-1 Reappraisal. (a) If an extension is granted under § 5473.4(a... extension. (c) For a scale sale each species of timber remaining on the contract area shall be...

  14. 43 CFR 5473.4-1 - Reappraisal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Time for Cutting and Removal § 5473.4-1 Reappraisal. (a) If an extension is granted under § 5473.4(a... extension. (c) For a scale sale each species of timber remaining on the contract area shall be...

  15. 43 CFR 5473.4-1 - Reappraisal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... Time for Cutting and Removal § 5473.4-1 Reappraisal. (a) If an extension is granted under § 5473.4(a... extension. (c) For a scale sale each species of timber remaining on the contract area shall be...

  16. 43 CFR 5473.4-1 - Reappraisal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... Time for Cutting and Removal § 5473.4-1 Reappraisal. (a) If an extension is granted under § 5473.4(a... extension. (c) For a scale sale each species of timber remaining on the contract area shall be...

  17. Reappraisal mitigates overestimation of remembered pain in anxious individuals.

    PubMed

    Hovasapian, Arpine; Levine, Linda J

    2016-09-01

    Anxiety sensitivity, a trait characterised by fear of anxiety-related body sensations, has been linked to heightened attention to pain, appraising body sensations as threatening, and remembering threat-related information. We assessed whether individuals with greater anxiety sensitivity overestimate in remembering pain. We also assessed whether emotion regulation strategies that direct attention away from pain (distraction), or alter appraisals of pain (reappraisal), alleviate memory bias. Participants (N = 137) were randomly assigned to one of two emotion regulation conditions or to a control condition before taking part in a cold pressor task. Greater anxiety sensitivity was associated with overestimation in remembering pain. Engaging in reappraisal mitigated this memory bias but engaging in distraction did not. This is the first study to examine the relations among anxiety sensitivity, emotion regulation and memory for pain. The findings suggest that health-care practitioners can encourage reappraisal to promote more positive memories of procedural pain, particularly in patients high in anxiety sensitivity. PMID:26192160

  18. Reappraisal generation after acquired brain damage: The role of laterality and cognitive control

    PubMed Central

    Salas, Christian E.; Gross, James J.; Turnbull, Oliver H.

    2014-01-01

    In the past decade, there has been growing interest in the neuroanatomical and neuropsychological bases of reappraisal. Findings suggest that reappraisal activates a set of areas in the left hemisphere (LH), which are commonly associated with language abilities and verbally mediated cognitive control. The main goal of this study was to investigate whether individuals with focal damage to the LH (n = 8) were more markedly impaired on a reappraisal generation task than individuals with right hemisphere lesions (RH, n = 8), and healthy controls (HC, n = 14). The reappraisal generation task consisted of a set of ten pictures from the IAPS, depicting negative events of different sorts. Participants were asked to quickly generate as many positive reinterpretations as possible for each picture. Two scores were derived from this task, namely difficulty and productivity. A second goal of this study was to explore which cognitive control processes were associated with performance on the reappraisal task. For this purpose, participants were assessed on several measures of cognitive control. Findings indicated that reappraisal difficulty – defined as the time taken to generate a first reappraisal – did not differ between LH and RH groups. However, differences were found between patients with brain injury (LH + RH) and HC, suggesting that brain damage in either hemisphere influences reappraisal difficulty. No differences in reappraisal productivity were found across groups, suggesting that neurological groups and HC are equally productive when time constraints are not considered. Finally, only two cognitive control processes inhibition and verbal fluency- were inversely associated with reappraisal difficulty. Implications for the neuroanatomical and neuropsychological bases of reappraisal generation are discussed, and implications for neuro-rehabilitation are considered. PMID:24711799

  19. The Neural Bases of Distraction and Reappraisal

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McRae, Kateri; Hughes, Brent; Chopra, Sita; Gabrieli, John D. E.; Gross, James J.; Ochsner, Kevin N.

    2010-01-01

    Distraction and reappraisal are two commonly used forms of cognitive emotion regulation. Functional neuroimaging studies have shown that each one depends upon interactions between pFC, interpreted as implementing cognitive control, and limbic regions, interpreted as mediating emotional responses. However, no study has directly compared distraction…

  20. Expelling Stress for Primary School Teachers: Self-Affirmation Increases Positive Emotions in Teaching and Emotion Reappraisal.

    PubMed

    Morgan, James; Atkin, Lisa

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the present pilot study was to assess the effect of a brief work-related self-affirming implementation intention (WS-AII) on the well-being of primary school teachers. Participants were randomly allocated to one of two conditions: one in which they were asked to create a WS-AII or one in which they were asked to create a control implementation intention (C-II). State anxiety was measured pre- and post-manipulation, self-efficacy at post-manipulation only, and emotions in teaching and emotion regulation at baseline and at a two-week follow-up. There were statistically significant differences between the WS-AII condition and the control. Teachers who created work-related self-affirming implementation intentions reported an immediate reduction in state anxiety. Positive effects extended over the two-week period, with teachers in the WS-AII condition also reporting more positive emotions in teaching and the use of reappraisal emotion regulation strategies rather than emotion suppression. Results suggest that the integration of the WS-AII into existing organisational practice may be of benefit to the well-being of teachers and other highly stressed workers. PMID:27187437

  1. Expelling Stress for Primary School Teachers: Self-Affirmation Increases Positive Emotions in Teaching and Emotion Reappraisal

    PubMed Central

    Morgan, James; Atkin, Lisa

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the present pilot study was to assess the effect of a brief work-related self-affirming implementation intention (WS-AII) on the well-being of primary school teachers. Participants were randomly allocated to one of two conditions: one in which they were asked to create a WS-AII or one in which they were asked to create a control implementation intention (C-II). State anxiety was measured pre- and post-manipulation, self-efficacy at post-manipulation only, and emotions in teaching and emotion regulation at baseline and at a two-week follow-up. There were statistically significant differences between the WS-AII condition and the control. Teachers who created work-related self-affirming implementation intentions reported an immediate reduction in state anxiety. Positive effects extended over the two-week period, with teachers in the WS-AII condition also reporting more positive emotions in teaching and the use of reappraisal emotion regulation strategies rather than emotion suppression. Results suggest that the integration of the WS-AII into existing organisational practice may be of benefit to the well-being of teachers and other highly stressed workers. PMID:27187437

  2. A test for the implementation-maintenance model of reappraisal.

    PubMed

    Paret, Christian; Brenninkmeyer, Jessica; Meyer, Benjamin; Yuen, Kenneth S L; Gartmann, Nina; Mechias, Marie-Luise; Kalisch, Raffael

    2011-01-01

    Reappraisal has been defined as a conscious, deliberate change in the way an emotional stimulus is interpreted, initiated in order to change its emotion-eliciting character (Gross, 2002). Reappraisal can be used to down-regulate negative emotions, including anxiety (reviewed in Kalisch, 2009). There is currently a strong interest in identifying the cognitive processes and neural substrates that mediate reappraisal. We have recently proposed a model (termed implementation-maintenance model or IMMO) that conceptualizes reappraisal as a temporally extended, dynamic, and multi-componential process (Kalisch, 2009). A key tenet of IMMO is that reappraisal episodes are marked by an early phase of implementation that may comprise strategy selection and retrieval of reappraisal material into working memory, and a later phase of maintenance that may comprise working memory and performance monitoring processes. These should be supported by dissociable neural networks. We here show, using a detachment-from-threat paradigm and concurrent functional magnetic resonance imaging, that reappraisal-related brain activity shifts from left posterior to right anterior parts of the lateral frontal cortex during the course of a reappraisal episode. Our data provide first empirical evidence for the existence of two separable reappraisal stages. Implications for further model development are discussed. PMID:21922013

  3. A Test for the Implementation–Maintenance Model of Reappraisal

    PubMed Central

    Paret, Christian; Brenninkmeyer, Jessica; Meyer, Benjamin; Yuen, Kenneth S. L.; Gartmann, Nina; Mechias, Marie-Luise; Kalisch, Raffael

    2011-01-01

    Reappraisal has been defined as a conscious, deliberate change in the way an emotional stimulus is interpreted, initiated in order to change its emotion-eliciting character (Gross, 2002). Reappraisal can be used to down-regulate negative emotions, including anxiety (reviewed in Kalisch, 2009). There is currently a strong interest in identifying the cognitive processes and neural substrates that mediate reappraisal. We have recently proposed a model (termed implementation–maintenance model or IMMO) that conceptualizes reappraisal as a temporally extended, dynamic, and multi-componential process (Kalisch, 2009). A key tenet of IMMO is that reappraisal episodes are marked by an early phase of implementation that may comprise strategy selection and retrieval of reappraisal material into working memory, and a later phase of maintenance that may comprise working memory and performance monitoring processes. These should be supported by dissociable neural networks. We here show, using a detachment-from-threat paradigm and concurrent functional magnetic resonance imaging, that reappraisal-related brain activity shifts from left posterior to right anterior parts of the lateral frontal cortex during the course of a reappraisal episode. Our data provide first empirical evidence for the existence of two separable reappraisal stages. Implications for further model development are discussed. PMID:21922013

  4. Prefrontal Engagement by Cognitive Reappraisal of Negative Faces

    PubMed Central

    Nelson, Brady D.; Fitzgerald, Daniel A.; Klumpp, Heide; Shankman, Stewart A.; Phan, K. Luan

    2014-01-01

    Cognitive reappraisal has been associated with increased activation in prefrontal cortex (PFC) and cingulate regions implicated in cognitive control and affect regulation. To date, neuroimaging studies of reappraisal have primarily used emotionally evocative scenes, and it remains unclear whether the same cognitive strategy applied to emotional facial expressions would involve similar or different neural underpinnings. The present study used fMRI to examine brain activation during cognitive reappraisal of negatively valenced facial expressions relative to passive viewing of negative and neutral facial expressions. Twenty-two healthy adults completed a cognitive reappraisal task comprised of three different conditions (Look-Neutral, Maintain-Negative, Reappraise-Negative). Results indicated that reappraisal was associated with a decrease in negative affect and engagement of PFC brain regions implicated in cognitive control and affect regulation (DLPFC, mPFC, and VLPFC). Furthermore, individual differences in habitual reappraisal use were associated with greater DLPFC and mPFC activation, while suppression use was associated with greater amygdala activation. The present study provides preliminary evidence that facial expressions are effective alternative ‘targets’ of prefrontal engagement during cognitive reappraisal. These findings are particularly relevant for future research probing the neural bases of emotion regulation in populations for whom aversive scenes may be less appropriate (e.g., children) and illnesses in which aberrant responses to social signals of threat and negative feedback are cardinal phenotypes. PMID:25433095

  5. The Effect of Reappraising Social Exclusion on Emotional Distress

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kitchens, Michael B.; Gohm, Carol L.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to examine whether reappraisal, which is a strategy where the personal meaning of an event is reevaluated, would influence participants' emotional reactions to social exclusion feedback. It was expected that reappraising this event would reduce the emotional distress that accompanies social exclusion, but…

  6. God rest our hearts: Religiosity and cognitive reappraisal.

    PubMed

    Vishkin, Allon; Bigman, Yochanan E; Porat, Roni; Solak, Nevin; Halperin, Eran; Tamir, Maya

    2016-03-01

    Although religiosity is often accompanied by more intense emotions, we propose that people who are more religious may be better at using 1 of the most effective emotion regulation strategies-namely, cognitive reappraisal. We argue that religion, which is a meaning-making system, is linked to better cognitive reappraisal, which involves changing the meaning of emotional stimuli. Four studies (N = 2,078) supported our hypotheses. In Study 1, religiosity was associated with more frequent use of cognitive reappraisal in 3 distinct religions (i.e., Islam, Christianity, Judaism). In Studies 2A-2B, we replicated these findings using 2 indices of cognitive reappraisal and in a large representative sample. In Studies 3-4, individuals more (vs. less) religious were more effective in using cognitive reappraisal in the laboratory. We discuss how these findings inform our understanding of the psychology of religion and of emotion regulation. PMID:26461249

  7. Time course of emotion-related responding during distraction and reappraisal

    PubMed Central

    Schönfelder, Sandra; Kanske, Philipp; Heissler, Janine

    2014-01-01

    Theoretical accounts of emotion regulation (ER) discriminate various cognitive strategies to voluntarily modify emotional states. Amongst these, attentional deployment (i.e. distraction) and cognitive change (i.e. reappraisal), have been shown to successfully down-regulate emotions. Neuroimaging studies found that both strategies differentially engage neural structures associated with selective attention, working memory and cognitive control. The aim of this study was to further delineate similarities and differences between the ER strategies reappraisal and distraction by investigating their temporal brain dynamics using event-related potentials (ERPs) and their patterns of facial expressive behavior. Twenty-one participants completed an ER experiment in which they had to either passively view positive, neutral and negative pictures, reinterpret them to down-regulate affective responses (reappraisal), or solve a concurrently presented mathematical equation (distraction). Results demonstrate the efficacy of both strategies in the subjective control of emotion, accompanied by reductions of facial expressive activity (Corrugator supercilii and Zygomaticus major). ERP results indicated that distraction, compared with reappraisal, yielded a stronger and earlier attenuation of the late positive potential (LPP) magnitude for negative pictures. For positive pictures, only distraction but not reappraisal had significant effect on LPP attenuation. The results support the process model of ER, separating subtypes of cognitive strategies based on their specific time course. PMID:23988760

  8. Emotion regulation in heavy smokers: experiential, expressive and physiological consequences of cognitive reappraisal

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Lingdan; Winkler, Markus H.; Wieser, Matthias J.; Andreatta, Marta; Li, Yonghui; Pauli, Paul

    2015-01-01

    Emotion regulation dysfunctions are assumed to contribute to the development of tobacco addiction and relapses among smokers attempting to quit. To further examine this hypothesis, the present study compared heavy smokers with non-smokers (NS) in a reappraisal task. Specifically, we investigated whether non-deprived smokers (NDS) and deprived smokers (DS) differ from non-smokers in cognitive emotion regulation and whether there is an association between the outcome of emotion regulation and the cigarette craving. Sixty-five participants (23 non-smokers, 22 NDS, and 20 DS) were instructed to down-regulate emotions by reappraising negative or positive pictorial scenarios. Self-ratings of valence, arousal, and cigarette craving as well as facial electromyography and electroencephalograph activities were measured. Ratings, facial electromyography, and electroencephalograph data indicated that both NDS and DS performed comparably to nonsmokers in regulating emotional responses via reappraisal, irrespective of the valence of pictorial stimuli. Interestingly, changes in cigarette craving were positively associated with regulation of emotional arousal irrespective of emotional valence. These results suggest that heavy smokers are capable to regulate emotion via deliberate reappraisal and smokers’ cigarette craving is associated with emotional arousal rather than emotional valence. This study provides preliminary support for the therapeutic use of reappraisal to replace maladaptive emotion-regulation strategies in nicotine addicts. PMID:26528213

  9. Age-related changes in reappraisal of appetitive cravings during adolescence.

    PubMed

    Giuliani, Nicole R; Pfeifer, Jennifer H

    2015-03-01

    The ability to regulate temptation and manage appetitive cravings is an important aspect of healthy adolescent development, but the neural systems underlying this process are understudied. In the present study, 60 healthy females evenly distributed from 10 to 23years of age used reappraisal to regulate the desire to consume personally-craved and not craved unhealthy foods. Reappraisal elicited activity in common self-regulation regions including the dorsal and ventral lateral prefrontal cortex (specifically superior and inferior frontal gyri), dorsal anterior cingulate cortex, and inferior parietal lobule. Viewing personally-craved foods (versus not craved foods) elicited activity in regions including the ventral striatum, as well as more rostral and ventral anterior cingulate cortex extending into the orbitofrontal cortex. Age positively correlated with regulation-related activity in the right inferior frontal gyrus, and negatively correlated with reactivity-related activity in the right superior and dorsolateral prefrontal cortices. Age-adjusted BMI negatively correlated with regulation-related activity in the predominantly left lateralized frontal and parietal regions. These results suggest that the age-related changes seen in the reappraisal of negative emotion may not be as pronounced in the reappraisal of food craving. Therefore, reappraisal of food craving in particular may be an effective way to teach teenagers to manage cravings for other temptations encountered in adolescence, including alcohol, drugs, and unhealthy food. PMID:25536500

  10. Distract or reappraise? Age-related differences in emotion-regulation choice.

    PubMed

    Scheibe, Susanne; Sheppes, Gal; Staudinger, Ursula M

    2015-12-01

    Does aging impact strategy choice with regard to regulating negative emotions? Based on the assumption that older adults are highly motivated to quickly defuse negative states, we predicted that older adults, relative to young adults, would show an increased preference for distraction (a cognitive disengagement strategy) over reappraisal (a cognitive engagement strategy) in the face of negative material. A stronger preference for distraction, in turn, should be associated with higher affective well-being at older ages, as it helps to avoid high physiological arousal. Young (19-28 years, n = 38) and older (65-75 years, n = 39) adults completed a laboratory task of emotion-regulation choice in which they viewed negative pictures of high and low intensity and chose between distraction and reappraisal to regulate their emotional response. Confirming predictions, age was associated with an increased preference to choose distraction over reappraisal. Among older but not young adults, the relative preference for distraction to reappraisal predicted higher state-affective well-being. In addition, across age groups, the preference for distraction over reappraisal was positively predicted by stimulus intensity and negatively by cognitive resources. Findings support the notion of an age-related shift toward disengagement strategies to regulate negative emotions, which maps onto older adults' prohedonic orientation and holds affective benefits. PMID:25961143

  11. 26 CFR 403.45 - Re-appraisal of property involved in an allowed petition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 18 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Re-appraisal of property involved in an allowed... Forfeitures § 403.45 Re-appraisal of property involved in an allowed petition. In determining the nature and... appraisal thereof made pursuant to § 403.26(a)(2) but if the petitioner desires re-appraisal of the...

  12. 27 CFR 72.41 - Re-appraisal of property involved in an allowed petition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Re-appraisal of property... OF SEIZED PERSONAL PROPERTY Remission or Mitigation of Forfeitures § 72.41 Re-appraisal of property... an up-to-date re-appraisal made of the property or carrier, after notification as to the terms...

  13. 26 CFR 403.45 - Re-appraisal of property involved in an allowed petition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 18 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Re-appraisal of property involved in an allowed... Forfeitures § 403.45 Re-appraisal of property involved in an allowed petition. In determining the nature and... appraisal thereof made pursuant to § 403.26(a)(2) but if the petitioner desires re-appraisal of the...

  14. 27 CFR 72.41 - Re-appraisal of property involved in an allowed petition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Re-appraisal of property... OF SEIZED PERSONAL PROPERTY Remission or Mitigation of Forfeitures § 72.41 Re-appraisal of property... an up-to-date re-appraisal made of the property or carrier, after notification as to the terms...

  15. The influences of reappraisal and suppression instructions on memory for neutral words in negative background.

    PubMed

    Liu, Fang; Cui, Lixia; Zhang, Qin

    2015-12-01

    Previous studies have investigated the influences of emotion regulation on memory for emotional stimuli. However, whether and how emotion regulation impacts recognition memory for neutral items in negative background is still unclear. Thus, the present study used event-related potentials and the study-recognition memory task to examine the effects of the two commonly used emotion regulation strategies, cognitive reappraisal and expressive suppression, on recognition memory of neutral words centrally presented on negative pictures. The behavior results showed that, compared with suppression, the reappraisal strategy enhanced the neutral words memory. Moreover, the event-related potential data demonstrated larger FN400 old/new effect indexing familiarity and late positive component old/new effect presenting episodic information recollection for the reappraisal condition relative to view and suppression conditions. These might be due to significant elaboration encouraged by this strategy. PMID:26426858

  16. Behavioral effects of longitudinal training in cognitive reappraisal

    PubMed Central

    Denny, Bryan T.; Ochsner, Kevin N.

    2014-01-01

    While recent emotion regulation research has identified effective regulatory strategies that participants can employ during single experimental sessions, a critical but unresolved question is whether one can increase the efficacy with which one can deploy these strategies through repeated practice. To address this issue we focused on one strategy, reappraisal, which involves cognitively reframing affective events in ways that modulate one's emotional response to them. With a commonly used reappraisal task, we assessed the behavioral correlates of four laboratory sessions of guided practice in down-regulating responses to aversive photos. Two groups received practice in one of two different types of reappraisal tactics: psychological distancing and reinterpretation. A third no-regulation control group viewed images in each session without instructions to regulate. Three key findings were observed. First, both distancing and reinterpretation training resulted in reductions over time in self-reported negative affect. Second, distancing participants also showed a reduction over time in negative affect on baseline trials where they responded naturally. Only distancing group participants showed such a reduction over and above the reduction observed in the no-regulation control group, indicating that it was not attributable to habituation. Third, only participants who distanced reported less perceived stress in their daily lives. The present results provide the first evidence for the longitudinal trainability of reappraisal in healthy adults using short courses of reappraisal practice, particularly using psychological distancing. PMID:24364856

  17. Behavioral effects of longitudinal training in cognitive reappraisal.

    PubMed

    Denny, Bryan T; Ochsner, Kevin N

    2014-04-01

    Although recent emotion regulation research has identified effective regulatory strategies that participants can employ during single experimental sessions, a critical but unresolved question is whether one can increase the efficacy with which one can deploy these strategies through repeated practice. To address this issue, we focused on one strategy, reappraisal, which involves cognitively reframing affective events in ways that modulate one's emotional response to them. With a commonly used reappraisal task, we assessed the behavioral correlates of four laboratory sessions of guided practice in down-regulating responses to aversive photos. Two groups received practice in one of two types of reappraisal tactics: psychological distancing and reinterpretation. A third no-regulation control group viewed images in each session without instructions to regulate. Three key findings were observed. First, both distancing and reinterpretation training resulted in reductions over time in self-reported negative affect. Second, distancing participants also showed a reduction over time in negative affect on baseline trials in which they responded naturally. Only distancing group participants showed such a reduction over and above the reduction observed in the no-regulation control group, indicating that it was not attributable to habituation. Third, only participants who distanced reported less perceived stress in their daily lives. The present results provide the first evidence for the longitudinal trainability of reappraisal in healthy adults using short courses of reappraisal practice, particularly using psychological distancing. PMID:24364856

  18. Subjective responses to emotional stimuli during labeling, reappraisal, and distraction.

    PubMed

    Lieberman, Matthew D; Inagaki, Tristen K; Tabibnia, Golnaz; Crockett, Molly J

    2011-06-01

    Although multiple neuroimaging studies suggest that affect labeling (i.e., putting feelings into words) can dampen affect-related responses in the amygdala, the consequences of affect labeling have not been examined in other channels of emotional responding. We conducted four studies examining the effect of affect labeling on self-reported emotional experience. In study one, self-reported distress was lower during affect labeling, compared to passive watching, of negative emotional pictures. Studies two and three added reappraisal and distraction conditions, respectively. Affect labeling showed similar effects on self-reported distress as both of these intentional emotion regulation strategies. In each of the first three studies, however, participant predictions about the effects of affect labeling suggest that unlike reappraisal and distraction, people do not believe affect labeling to be an effective emotion regulation strategy. Even after having the experience of affect labels leading to lower distress, participants still predicted that affect labeling would increase distress in the future. Thus, affect labeling is best described as an incidental emotion regulation process. Finally, study four employed positive emotional pictures and here, affect labeling was associated with diminished self-reported pleasure, relative to passive watching. This suggests that affect labeling tends to dampen affective responses in general, rather than specifically alleviating negative affect. PMID:21534661

  19. Reappraisal and Mindfulness: A Comparison of Subjective Effects and Cognitive Costs

    PubMed Central

    Keng, Shian-Ling; Robins, Clive J.; Smoski, Moria J.; Dagenbach, Jana; Leary, Mark R.

    2014-01-01

    The present study investigated the relative effects of mindfulness and reappraisal in reducing sad mood and whether trait mindfulness and habitual reappraisal moderated the effects. The study also compared the extent to which implementation of these strategies incurred cognitive resources. A total of 129 participants were randomly assigned to receiving training in mindfulness, reappraisal, or no training prior to undergoing an autobiographical sad mood induction. Results showed that mindfulness and reappraisal were superior to no training, and equivalent in their effects in lowering sad mood. Compared to mindfulness, reappraisal resulted in significantly higher interference scores on a subsequent Stroop test, reflecting greater depletion of cognitive resources. Higher trait mindfulness, but not habitual reappraisal, predicted greater reductions in sadness across conditions. The study suggests that although mindfulness and reappraisal are equally effective in down-regulating sad mood, they incur different levels of cognitive costs. PMID:24225174

  20. Differential Effects of Goal Setting and Value Reappraisal on College Women's Motivation and Achievement in Statistics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Acee, Taylor Wayne

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this dissertation was to investigate the differential effects of goal setting and value reappraisal on female students' self-efficacy beliefs, value perceptions, exam performance and continued interest in statistics. It was hypothesized that the Enhanced Goal Setting Intervention (GS-E) would positively impact students'…

  1. Latex medical gloves: time for a reappraisal.

    PubMed

    Palosuo, Timo; Antoniadou, Irini; Gottrup, Finn; Phillips, Peter

    2011-01-01

    Many hospitals have implemented policies to restrict or ban the use of devices made of natural rubber latex (NRL) in healthcare as precautionary measures against the perceived risk of NRL allergy. Changes in glove technology, progress in measuring the specific allergenic potential of gloves and a dramatic decrease in the prevalence of NRL allergies after interventions and education prompted us to revisit the basis for justifiable glove selection policies. The published Anglophone literature from 1990 to 2010 was reviewed for original articles and reviews dealing with the barrier and performance properties of NRL and synthetic gloves and the role of glove powder. The review shows that NRL medical gloves, when compared with synthetic gloves, tend to be stronger, more flexible and better accepted by clinicians. The introduction of powder-free gloves has been associated with reductions in protein content and associated allergies. Recently, new methods to quantify clinically relevant NRL allergens have enabled the identification of gloves with low allergenic potential. The use of low-protein, low-allergenic, powder-free gloves is associated with a significant decrease in the prevalence of type I allergic reactions to NRL among healthcare workers. Given the excellent barrier properties and operating characteristics, dramatically reduced incidences of allergic reactions, availability of specific tests for selection of low-allergen gloves, competitive costs and low environmental impact, the use of NRL gloves within the hospital environment warrants reappraisal. PMID:21720169

  2. Information and anxiety: a critical reappraisal.

    PubMed

    Teasdale, K

    1993-07-01

    A series of British and North American research studies into information-giving and the relief of patient anxiety is reviewed. The research results are inconsistent and the theory that information relieves anxiety in hospitalized patients appears to be an oversimplification. It is argued that 'information' is conventionally viewed as a neutral and objective entity which can be transmitted to patients in semantic form through language. However, recent advances in the philosophy of language suggest that human communication depends less on the decoding of semantic information than upon the inferences which recipients draw from context. Communication, therefore, becomes a problem-solving process in which communicators selectively present what they know in order to induce recipients to infer the intended meanings. This inferential model of communication provides a theoretical basis from which research studies can be reappraised. Viewed from an inferential perspective, the results suggest that patient anxiety can be relieved more reliably by the use of re-framing and empowering interventions than by the presentation of information in a neutral way with no direct attempt to influence the inferences which patients may make. PMID:8370904

  3. Feet and Syllables in "Elephants" and "Missiles": A Reappraisal

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zonneveld, Wim; van der Pas, Brigit; de Bree, Elise

    2007-01-01

    Using data from a case study presented in Chiat (1989), Marshall and Chiat (2003) compare two different approaches to account for the realization of intervocalic consonants in child phonology: "coda capture theory" and the "foot domain account". They argue in favour of the latter account. In this note, we present a reappraisal of this argument…

  4. Intergroup Contact and Ingroup Reappraisal: Examining the Deprovincialization Thesis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Verkuyten, Maykel; Thijs, Jochem; Bekhuis, Hidde

    2010-01-01

    According to the deprovincialization thesis, interethnic contact involves a reappraisal and distancing from the ingroup. Contact can broaden one's horizon by acknowledging and recognizing the value of other cultures and thereby putting the taken-for-granted own cultural standards into perspective. The current research uses data from three surveys…

  5. Autopoiesis: a review and a reappraisal.

    PubMed

    Luisi, Pier Luigi

    2003-02-01

    the theory of autopoiesis had, and still has, a difficult time being accepted into the mainstream of life-science research. Finally, it is pointed out that the new interest in system biology and complexity theories may lead to a reappraisal of autopoiesis and related notions, as outlined also by other authors, such as Tibor Ganti and Stuart Kauffmann. PMID:12590297

  6. Differences in emotion modulation using cognitive reappraisal in individuals with and without suicidal ideation: An ERP study.

    PubMed

    Kudinova, Anastacia Y; Owens, Max; Burkhouse, Katie L; Barretto, Kenneth M; Bonanno, George A; Gibb, Brandon E

    2016-08-01

    Difficulties in emotion regulation have been associated with increased suicidal thoughts and behaviours. The majority of studies have examined self-reported use of emotion regulation strategies. In contrast, the current study focused on a direct measure of individuals' ability to use a specific emotion regulation strategy, cognitive reappraisal, using the late positive potential (LPP), an event-related potential component that reflects attention to emotional stimuli. Specifically, the cognitive reappraisal ability of 33 undergraduate students was assessed via an image-viewing task during which the participants had to passively view, increase or reduce their emotions in response to looking at neutral, positive or dysphoric images. We found that participants with a history of suicidal ideation (SI) had significantly higher LPP when asked to reduce negative emotion in response to dysphoric images, compared to individuals with no history of SI. These findings suggest that difficulties with using cognitive reappraisal, specifically to decrease negative affect, might be linked to suicide risk. PMID:25978547

  7. Reappraisal writing relieves social anxiety and may be accompanied by changes in frontal alpha asymmetry

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Fen; Wang, Changming; Yin, Qin; Wang, Kui; Li, Dongdong; Mao, Mengchai; Zhu, Chaozhe; Huang, Yuxia

    2015-01-01

    It is widely reported that expressive writing can improve mental and physical health. However, to date, the neural correlates of expressive writing have not been reported. The current study examined the neural electrical correlates of expressive writing in a reappraisal approach. Three groups of participants were required to give a public speech. Before speaking, the reappraisal writing group was asked to write about the current stressful task in a reappraisal manner. The irrelevant writing group was asked to write about their weekly plan, and the non-writing group did not write anything. It was found that following the experimental writing manipulation, both reappraisal and irrelevant writing conditions decreased self-reported anxiety levels. But when re-exposed to the stressful situation, participants in the irrelevant writing group showed increased anxiety levels, while anxiety levels remained lower in the reappraisal group. During the experimental writing manipulation period, participants in the reappraisal group had lower frontal alpha asymmetry scores than those in the irrelevant writing group. However, following re-exposure to stress, participants in the reappraisal group showed higher frontal alpha asymmetry scores than those in the irrelevant writing group. Self-reported anxiety and frontal alpha asymmetry of the non-writing condition did not change significantly across these different stages. It is noteworthy that expressive writing in a reappraisal style seems not to be a fast-acting treatment but may instead take effect in the long run. PMID:26539146

  8. Reappraisal as a mediator in the link between 5-HTTLPR and social anxiety symptoms.

    PubMed

    Miu, Andrei C; Vulturar, Romana; Chiş, Adina; Ungureanu, Loredana; Gross, James J

    2013-12-01

    Social anxiety symptoms have been related to (a) polymorphisms in the serotonin-transporter gene-promoter region (also, serotonin-transporter-linked polymorphic region; 5-HTTLPR) and (b) reduced use of adaptive forms of emotion regulation such as reappraisal. It is not known, however, whether reappraisal functions as a mediator in the link between 5-HTTLPR and social anxiety. To address this issue, 182 unselected community volunteers were tested for 5-HTTLPR status, and self-report measures of social anxiety symptoms and reappraisal use were obtained. Relative to other participants, those with two low-expressing alleles displayed increased social anxiety and decreased reappraisal. As predicted, the influence of 5-HTTLPR on social anxiety symptoms was transmitted via reappraisal, and this effect of 5-HTTLPR was observed using two different measures of reappraisal. These findings suggest that cognitive reappraisal may be an intermediate phenotype of the social anxiety spectrum, and that individuals with low-expressing 5-HTTLPR genotypes may benefit the most from cognitive-behavioral psychotherapy because they do not appear to engage as frequently as others in reappraisal. PMID:23795589

  9. Emotion Regulation Strategies That Promote Learning: Reappraisal Enhances Children's Memory for Educational Information

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Elizabeth L.; Levine, Linda J.

    2013-01-01

    The link between emotion regulation and academic achievement is well documented. Less is known about specific emotion regulation strategies that promote learning. Six- to 13-year-olds ("N" = 126) viewed a sad film and were instructed to reappraise the importance, reappraise the outcome, or ruminate about the sad events; another group received no…

  10. Habitual suppression relates to difficulty in regulating emotion with cognitive reappraisal.

    PubMed

    Che, Xianwei; Luo, Xi; Tong, Dandan; Fitzgibbon, Bernadette M; Yang, Juan

    2015-12-01

    One common strategy to cope with the difficulties of daily life is suppression. Habitual users of suppression tend to suppress their feelings rather than expressing them. Although this strategy may reduce outward response to emotion, it is not thought to lessen induced negative affect. Moreover, it remains unclear whether people with high suppression scores can reduce negative affect through cognitive reappraisal. In the present study, twenty-nine healthy participants differing in suppression scores were directed to reappraise aversive stimuli during functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Results showed that higher suppression scores correlated with decreased response of dorsomedial prefrontal cortex (dmPFC) during cognitive reappraisal. Further, high suppression scores related to enhanced negative affect to stimuli with greater negative affect correlating with decreased dmPFC response during cognitive reappraisal. This study suggests that people with high suppression scores experience difficulty in reducing negative affect through cognitive reappraisal and implicates neurobiological processes that may underlie this difficulty. PMID:26435254

  11. Neural Mechanisms of Cognitive Reappraisal of Negative Self-Beliefs in Social Anxiety Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Goldin, Philippe R.; Ball, Tali M.; Werner, Kelly; Heimberg, Richard; Gross, James J.

    2009-01-01

    Background Social anxiety disorder (SAD) is characterized by distorted negative self-beliefs (NSBs) which are thought to enhance emotional reactivity, interfere with emotion regulation, and undermine social functioning. Cognitive reappraisal is a type of emotion regulation used to alter NSBs, with the goal of modulating emotional reactivity. Despite its relevance, little is known about the neural bases and temporal features of cognitive reappraisal in patients with SAD. Methods Twenty-seven patients with SAD and 27 healthy controls (HC) were trained to react and to implement cognitive reappraisal in order to down-regulate negative emotional reactivity to NSBs while undergoing functional magnetic resonance imaging and providing ratings of negative emotion experience. Results Behaviorally, compared with HC, patients with SAD reported greater negative emotion both while reacting to and reappraising NSBs. However, when cued, participants in both groups were able to use cognitive reappraisal to decrease emotion. Neurally, reacting to NSBs resulted in early amygdala response in both groups. Reappraising NSBs resulted in greater early cognitive control, language, and visual processing in HC, but greater late cognitive control, visceral, and visual processing in patients with SAD. Functional connectivity analysis during reappraisal identified more regulatory regions inversely related to left amygdala in HCs than in patients with SAD. Reappraisal-related brain regions that differentiated patients and controls were associated with negative emotion ratings and cognitive reappraisal self-efficacy. Conclusions Findings regarding cognitive reappraisal suggest neural timing, connectivity, and brain-behavioral associations specific to patients with SAD, and elucidate neural mechanisms that might serve as biomarkers of interventions for SAD. PMID:19717138

  12. An Experimental Study on the Effectiveness of Disclosing Stressful Life Events and Support Messages: When Cognitive Reappraisal Support Decreases Emotional Distress, and Emotional Support Is Like Saying Nothing at All

    PubMed Central

    Batenburg, Anika; Das, Enny

    2014-01-01

    How can we best support others in difficult times? Studies testing the effects of supportive communication revealed mixed findings. The current study focuses on the effects of supportive communication following different disclosure styles, and includes outcome measures to assess emotional well-being. Hypotheses were tested in a 2 (disclosure style: cognitive reappraisal disclosure vs. emotional disclosure) ×3 (support message: cognitive reappraisal response vs. socio-affective response vs. no response) between subjects factorial design. Receiving a cognitive reappraisal response, rather than a socio-affective response or no response, decreased emotional distress in the emotional disclosure group. Support messages showed no effects in the cognitive reappraisal disclosure group. Although socio-affective responses were positively evaluated, cognitive reappraisal responses may be more effective during emotional upheaval because they provide a positive way out of negative emotions. PMID:25531509

  13. Reappraisal of the somatosensory homunculus and its discontinuities.

    PubMed

    Parpia, Pasha

    2011-12-01

    Neuroscience folklore has it that somatotopy in human primary somatosensory cortex (SI) has two significant discontinuities: the hands and face map onto adjacent regions in SI, as do the feet and genitalia. It has been proposed that these conjunctions in SI result from coincident sources of stimulation in the fetal position, where the hands frequently touch the face, and the feet the genitalia. Computer modeling using a Hebbian variant of the self-organizing Kohonen net is consistent with this proposal. However, recent work reveals that the genital representation in SI for cutaneous sensations (as opposed to tumescence) is continuous with that of the lower trunk and thigh. This result, in conjunction with reports of separate face innervation and its earlier onset of sensory function, compared to that of the rest of the body, allows a reappraisal of homuncular organization. It is proposed that the somatosensory homunculus comprises two distinct somatotopic regions: the face representation and that of the rest of the body. Principles of self-organization do not account satisfactorily for the overall homuncular map. These results may serve to alert computational modelers that intrinsic developmental factors can override simple rules of plasticity. PMID:21732862

  14. A reappraisal of loop diuretic choice in heart failure patients.

    PubMed

    Buggey, Jonathan; Mentz, Robert J; Pitt, Bertram; Eisenstein, Eric L; Anstrom, Kevin J; Velazquez, Eric J; O'Connor, Christopher M

    2015-03-01

    The health and economic burden of heart failure is significant and continues to grow each year. Loop diuretics are an integral part of symptom management in heart failure. Furosemide is used disproportionately compared with other loop diuretics, and there is currently no guidance for physicians regarding which agent to choose. However, there exist pharmacologic differences as well as other mechanistic differences that appear to favor torsemide use over furosemide. Compared with furosemide, torsemide improves surrogate markers of heart failure severity such as left ventricular function, plasma brain natriuretic peptide levels, and New York Heart Association functional class and may also reduce hospitalizations, readmissions, and mortality. Data suggest that these benefits could be mediated through torsemide's ability to positively affect the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system. Specifically, torsemide has been shown to inhibit aldosterone secretion, synthesis, and receptor binding in vitro, as well as decrease transcardiac extraction of aldosterone, myocardial collagen production, and cardiac fibrosis in patients with heart failure. We identified pertinent literature using keyword MEDLINE searches and cross-referencing prior bibliographies. We summarize the available data suggesting potential benefits with torsemide over furosemide, and call attention to the need for a reappraisal of diuretic use in heart failure patients and also for a well-powered, randomized control trial assessing torsemide versus furosemide use. PMID:25728721

  15. A reappraisal of loop diuretic choice in heart failure patients

    PubMed Central

    Buggey, Jonathan; Mentz, Robert J.; Pitt, Bertram; Eisenstein, Eric L.; Anstrom, Kevin J.; Velazquez, Eric J.; O’Connor, Christopher M.

    2015-01-01

    The health and economic burden of heart failure is significant, and continues to grow each year. Loop diuretics are an integral part of symptom management in heart failure. Furosemide is used disproportionately compared to other loop diuretics and there is currently no guidance for physicians regarding which agent to choose. However, there exist pharmacologic differences as well as other mechanistic differences that appear to favor torsemide use over furosemide. Compared to furosemide, torsemide improves surrogate markers of heart failure severity such as left ventricular function, plasma brain natriuretic peptide levels, and New York Heart Association functional class and may also reduce hospitalizations, readmissions, and mortality. Data suggest these benefits could be mediated through torsemide’s ability to positively affect the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system. Specifically, torsemide has been shown to inhibit aldosterone secretion, synthesis, and receptor binding in vitro, as well as decrease transcardiac extraction of aldosterone, myocardial collagen production and cardiac fibrosis in patients with heart failure. We identified pertinent literature using keyword MEDLINE searches and cross-referencing prior bibliographies. We summarize the available data suggesting potential benefits with torsemide over furosemide, and call attention to the need for a reappraisal of diuretic use in heart failure patients and also for a well powered, randomized control trial assessing torsemide versus furosemide use. PMID:25728721

  16. Carbonates in Martian Meteorites - A Reappraisal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grady, M. M.; Wright, I. P.; Douglas, C.; Pillinger, C. T.

    1995-09-01

    The occurrence of carbonates in martian meteorites was first established after acid dissolution and stepped combustion analyses of whole-rock Nakhla [1]. The release of CO2 after a 24 hr. reaction with 100% H3PO4 at 25 degrees C was taken to imply that the carbonate mineral present was calcite, a proposal subsequently confirmed by petrographic examination [2]. The isotopic composition of the carbon comprising the calcite was enriched in 13C (isotopically heavy) with delta^(l3)C ~ +12 per mil. An extended period of acid attack, also at 25 degrees C, released small quantities of even more 13C-enriched CO2 (delta^(13)C ~ +49 per mil), but the isotopic data were considered uncertain, and thus little significance was attached to the result, beyond the suggestion that some carbonate was perhaps dolomite or iron-bearing. Now, however, following the analysis of Fe-Mg-rich carbonates in ALH 84001 [3-5], it is apparent that previously-reported data might underestimate the abundance and delta^(13)C of carbonates in SNCs [6], and that a much higher proportion might occur as siderite or dolomite end-members. Iron- and magnesium-rich carbonates are only partially attacked at 25 degrees C, even after extended exposure to H3PO4 [7]. Given that the delta^(13)C of carbonates in SNCs has been used to deduce both environmental conditions on Mars [4, 6], and the evolution of the martian atmosphere [8], it is desirable that correct delta^(l3)c values are known. We have undertaken a reappraisal of the chemical and isotopic composition of carbonates in martian meteorites, by a programme of high resolution stepped combustion analyses and high temperature (75 degrees C) acid dissolution . Carbonates in most martian meteorites are extremely fine-grained. and therefore not easv to identify by traditional optical microscopic methods; it is not possible to determine readily the mineralogical composition of the grains. Comparison of combustion data from SNCs with that from pure materials allows

  17. Electrocortical evidence of increased post-reappraisal neural reactivity and its link to depressive symptoms.

    PubMed

    Parvaz, Muhammad A; Moeller, Scott J; Goldstein, Rita Z; Proudfit, Greg H

    2015-01-01

    Few studies have examined whether effortful emotion regulation has a protracted impact on subsequent affective appraisal, and even fewer have investigated this effect on a trial-by-trial basis. In this study, we hypothesized that engaging cognitive resources via reappraisal during a trial would result in a subsequent period of increased reactivity on the next trial, as quantified using event-related potentials and oscillations. Forty-eight healthy individuals passively viewed unpleasant and neutral pictures followed by an auditory instruction to either continue viewing normally or reappraise emotional response to pictures. Viewing unpleasant pictures yielded increased late positive potential (LPP) and decreased posterior alpha (8-13 Hz) compared with neutral pictures. A similar pattern was observed on trials that immediately 'followed' emotion regulation instructions. Moreover, individuals with increased self-reported depressive symptoms showed greater LPP and alpha modulation following emotion regulation, suggesting that these responses may relate to compromised emotion regulation ability. This study demonstrates that cognitive reappraisal induces subsequent heightened reactivity that may reflect transient resource depletion, and these effects are more pronounced among those with increased depressive symptoms. Interventions that focus on emotion regulation might use these electrocortical markers to track changes in regulatory efficacy. PMID:24526188

  18. Electrocortical evidence of increased post-reappraisal neural reactivity and its link to depressive symptoms

    PubMed Central

    Moeller, Scott J.; Goldstein, Rita Z.; Proudfit, Greg H.

    2015-01-01

    Few studies have examined whether effortful emotion regulation has a protracted impact on subsequent affective appraisal, and even fewer have investigated this effect on a trial-by-trial basis. In this study, we hypothesized that engaging cognitive resources via reappraisal during a trial would result in a subsequent period of increased reactivity on the next trial, as quantified using event-related potentials and oscillations. Forty-eight healthy individuals passively viewed unpleasant and neutral pictures followed by an auditory instruction to either continue viewing normally or reappraise emotional response to pictures. Viewing unpleasant pictures yielded increased late positive potential (LPP) and decreased posterior alpha (8–13 Hz) compared with neutral pictures. A similar pattern was observed on trials that immediately ‘followed’ emotion regulation instructions. Moreover, individuals with increased self-reported depressive symptoms showed greater LPP and alpha modulation following emotion regulation, suggesting that these responses may relate to compromised emotion regulation ability. This study demonstrates that cognitive reappraisal induces subsequent heightened reactivity that may reflect transient resource depletion, and these effects are more pronounced among those with increased depressive symptoms. Interventions that focus on emotion regulation might use these electrocortical markers to track changes in regulatory efficacy. PMID:24526188

  19. Cognitive emotion regulation in patients with schizophrenia: Evidence for effective reappraisal and distraction.

    PubMed

    Grezellschak, Sarah; Lincoln, Tania M; Westermann, Stefan

    2015-09-30

    Negative emotions trigger psychotic symptoms, according to a growing body of evidence. Thus, there is a need for effective emotion regulation in schizophrenia. Reappraisal is an effective, cognitive emotion regulation strategy in healthy individuals. However, it is an open research question whether individuals with schizophrenia have difficulties in successfully applying reappraisal. This study experimentally tests the efficacy of reappraisal compared to distraction in patients with schizophrenia and non-clinical controls. An experimental design with group as between-subject factor (non-clinical controls versus patients with schizophrenia) and emotion regulation during anxiety induction as within-subject factor (reappraisal, distraction, no regulation). Seventeen patients with schizophrenia and 27 healthy participants were instructed to respond to anxiety-inducing stimuli by either using reappraisal, distraction or by just watching. Both reappraisal and distraction were effective in down-regulating anxiety, compared to no regulation. The main effect of group and the interaction of emotion regulation condition and group were not significant indicating that the efficacy of both cognitive emotion regulation strategies was independent of group. Patients with schizophrenia are able to apply reappraisal successfully under experimental conditions. Conclusions are limited by the small sample size of this pilot study. Clinical implications for cognitive behavioral therapy for psychosis are discussed. PMID:26231583

  20. Gut check: reappraisal of disgust helps explain liberal-conservative differences on issues of purity.

    PubMed

    Feinberg, Matthew; Antonenko, Olga; Willer, Robb; Horberg, E J; John, Oliver P

    2014-06-01

    Disgust plays an important role in conservatives' moral and political judgments, helping to explain why conservatives and liberals differ in their attitudes on issues related to purity. We examined the extent to which the emotion-regulation strategy reappraisal drives the disgust-conservatism relationship. We hypothesized that disgust has less influence on the political and moral judgments of liberals because they tend to regulate disgust reactions through emotional reappraisal more than conservatives. Study 1a found that a greater tendency to reappraise disgust was negatively associated with conservatism, independent of disgust sensitivity. Study 1b replicated this finding, demonstrating that the effect of reappraisal is unique to disgust. In Study 2, liberals condemned a disgusting act less than conservatives, and did so to the extent that they reappraised their initial disgust response. Study 3 manipulated participants' use of reappraisal when exposed to a video of men kissing. Conservatives instructed to reappraise their emotional reactions subsequently expressed more support for same-sex marriage than conservatives in the control condition, demonstrating attitudes statistically equivalent to liberal participants. PMID:24098928

  1. A reappraisal of the morphology and systematic position of the theropod dinosaur Sigilmassasaurus from the "middle" Cretaceous of Morocco.

    PubMed

    Evers, Serjoscha W; Rauhut, Oliver W M; Milner, Angela C; McFeeters, Bradley; Allain, Ronan

    2015-01-01

    Sigilmassasaurus brevicollis is an enigmatic theropod dinosaur from the early Late Cretaceous (Cenomanian) of Morocco, originally based on a few isolated cervical vertebrae. Ever since its original description, both its taxonomic validity and systematic affinities were contentious. Originally considered to represent its own family, Sigilmassasauridae, the genus has variously been suggested to represent a carcharodontosaurid, an ornithischian, and, more recently, a spinosaurid. Here we describe new remains referrable to this taxon and re-evaluate its taxonomic status and systematic affinities. Based on the new remains, a re-evaluation of the original materials, and comparisons with other spinosaurids, the holotype of Sigilmassasaurus brevicollis is identified as an anterior dorsal, rather than a cervical vertebra, and differences between elements referred to this taxon can be explained by different positions of the elements in question within the vertebral column. Many characters used previously to diagnose the genus and species are found to be more widespread among basal tetanurans, and specifically spinosaurids. However, the taxon shows several autapomorphies that support its validity, including the presence of a strongly rugose, ventrally offset triangular platform that is confluent with a ventral keel anteriorly in the mid-cervical vertebral centra and a strongly reduced lateral neural arch lamination, with no or an incomplete distinction between anterior and posterior centrodiapophyseal laminae in the posterior cervical and anterior dorsal vertebrae. We argue furthermore that Spinosaurus maroccanus, also described on the basis of isolated cervical vertebrae from the same stratigraphic unit and in the same paper as Sigilmassasaurus brevicollis, is a subjective synonym of the latter. Both a detailed comparison of this taxon with other theropods and a formal phylogenetic analysis support spinosaurid affintities for Sigilmassasaurus. However, we reject the recently

  2. Suppression (but not reappraisal) impairs subsequent error detection: an ERP study of emotion regulation's resource-depleting effect.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yan; Yang, Lixia; Wang, Yan

    2014-01-01

    Past event-related potentials (ERPs) research shows that, after exerting effortful emotion inhibition, the neural correlates of performance monitoring (e.g. error-related negativity) were weakened. An undetermined issue is whether all forms of emotion regulation uniformly impair later performance monitoring. The present study compared the cognitive consequences of two emotion regulation strategies, namely suppression and reappraisal. Participants were instructed to suppress their emotions while watching a sad movie, or to adopt a neutral and objective attitude toward the movie, or to just watch the movie carefully. Then after a mood scale, all participants completed an ostensibly unrelated Stroop task, during which ERPs (i.e. error-related negativity (ERN), post-error positivity (Pe) and N450) were obtained. Reappraisal group successfully decreased their sad emotion, relative to the other two groups. Compared with participants in the control group and the reappraisal group, those who suppressed their emotions during the sad movie showed reduced ERN after error commission. Participants in the suppression group also made more errors in incongruent Stroop trials than the other two groups. There were no significant main effects or interactions of group for reaction time, Pe and N450. Results suggest that reappraisal is both more effective and less resource-depleting than suppression. PMID:24777113

  3. Neural Systems Underlying the Reappraisal of Personally Craved Foods

    PubMed Central

    Giuliani, Nicole R.; Mann, Traci; Tomiyama, A. Janet; Berkman, Elliot T.

    2014-01-01

    Craving of unhealthy food is a common target of self-regulation, but the neural systems underlying this process are understudied. In this study, participants used cognitive reappraisal to regulate their desire to consume idiosyncratically craved or not craved energy-dense foods, and neural activity during regulation was compared with each other and with the activity during passive viewing of energy-dense foods. Regulation of both food types elicited activation in classic top–down self-regulation regions including the dorsolateral prefrontal, inferior frontal, and dorsal anterior cingulate cortices. This main effect of regulation was qualified by an interaction, such that activation in these regions was significantly greater during reappraisal of craved (versus not craved) foods and several regions, including the dorsolateral prefrontal, inferior frontal, medial frontal, and dorsal anterior cingulate cortices, were uniquely active during regulation of personally craved foods. Body mass index significantly negatively correlated with regulation-related activation in the right dorsolateral PFC, thalamus, and bilateral dorsal ACC and with activity in nucleus accumbens during passive viewing of craved (vs. neutral, low-energy density) foods. These results suggest that several of the brain regions involved in the self-regulation of food craving are similar to other kinds of affective self-regulation and that others are sensitive to the self-relevance of the regulation target. PMID:24392892

  4. Lead Me Not into Temptation: Using Cognitive Reappraisal to Reduce Goal Inconsistent Behavior

    PubMed Central

    Leroy, Véronique; Grégoire, Jacques; Magen, Eran; Gross, James J.; Mikolajczak, Moïra

    2012-01-01

    Temptations besiege us, and we must resist their appeal if we are to achieve our long-term goals. In two studies, we tested the hypothesis that cognitive reappraisal could be used to successfully maintain performance in a task embedded in temptation. In Study 1, 62 participants had to search for information on the Internet while resisting attractive task-irrelevant content on preselected sites. In Study 2, 58 participants had to count target words in a funny TV sequence. Compared to the no-reappraisal condition, participants who understood the situation as a test of willpower (the reappraisal condition) (1) performed better at the task (Studies 1 and 2), and (2) were less tempted by the attractive content of the TV sequence (Study 2). These findings suggest that, by making the temptation less attractive and the task more appealing, cognitive reappraisal can help us resist temptation. PMID:22911686

  5. Mind over Matter: Reappraising Arousal Improves Cardiovascular and Cognitive Responses to Stress

    PubMed Central

    Jamieson, Jeremy P.; Nock, Matthew K.; Mendes, Wendy Berry

    2012-01-01

    Researchers have theorized that changing the way we think about our bodily responses can improve our physiological and cognitive reactions to stressful events. However, the underlying processes through which mental states improve downstream outcomes are not well-understood. To this end, we examined whether reappraising stress-induced arousal could improve cardiovascular outcomes and decrease attentional bias for emotionally-negative information. Participants were randomly assigned to either a reappraisal condition in which they were instructed to think about their physiological arousal during a stressful task as functional and adaptive, or to one of two control conditions: attention reorientation and no instructions. Relative to controls, participants instructed to reappraise their arousal exhibited more adaptive cardiovascular stress responses – increased cardiac efficiency and lower vascular resistance – and decreased attentional bias. Thus, reappraising arousal shows physiological and cognitive benefits. Implications for health and potential clinical applications are discussed. PMID:21942377

  6. Individual differences in the habitual use of cognitive reappraisal predict the reward-related processing.

    PubMed

    Sai, Liyang; Wang, Sisi; Ward, Anne; Ku, Yixuan; Sang, Biao

    2015-01-01

    Recent studies have shown that instructed cognitive reappraisal can regulate the neural processing of reward. However, it is still unclear whether the habitual use of cognitive reappraisal in everyday life is related to brain activity involved in reward processing. In the present study, participants' neural responses to reward were measured using electroencephalography (EEG) recorded during a gambling task and their tendency to use cognitive reappraisal was assessed using the Emotion Regulation Questionnaire (ERQ). Event-related potential (ERP) results indicated that losses on the gambling task elicited greater negative reward-related feedback negativity (FN) than gains. The differential FN between losses and gains was significantly correlated with cognitive reappraisal scores across participants such that individuals with a higher tendency to use cognitive reappraisal showed stronger reward processing (i.e., amplified FN difference between losses and gains). This correlation remained significant after controlling for expressive suppression scores. However, expressive suppression per se was not correlated with FN differences. Taken together, these results suggest that the habitual use of cognitive reappraisal is associated with increased neural processing of reward. PMID:26388796

  7. Individual differences in the habitual use of cognitive reappraisal predict the reward-related processing

    PubMed Central

    Sai, Liyang; Wang, Sisi; Ward, Anne; Ku, Yixuan; Sang, Biao

    2015-01-01

    Recent studies have shown that instructed cognitive reappraisal can regulate the neural processing of reward. However, it is still unclear whether the habitual use of cognitive reappraisal in everyday life is related to brain activity involved in reward processing. In the present study, participants’ neural responses to reward were measured using electroencephalography (EEG) recorded during a gambling task and their tendency to use cognitive reappraisal was assessed using the Emotion Regulation Questionnaire (ERQ). Event-related potential (ERP) results indicated that losses on the gambling task elicited greater negative reward-related feedback negativity (FN) than gains. The differential FN between losses and gains was significantly correlated with cognitive reappraisal scores across participants such that individuals with a higher tendency to use cognitive reappraisal showed stronger reward processing (i.e., amplified FN difference between losses and gains). This correlation remained significant after controlling for expressive suppression scores. However, expressive suppression per se was not correlated with FN differences. Taken together, these results suggest that the habitual use of cognitive reappraisal is associated with increased neural processing of reward. PMID:26388796

  8. Executive and semantic processes in reappraisal of negative stimuli: insights from a meta-analysis of neuroimaging studies

    PubMed Central

    Messina, Irene; Bianco, Simone; Sambin, Marco; Viviani, Roberto

    2015-01-01

    Neuroimaging investigations have identified the neural correlates of reappraisal in executive areas. These findings have been interpreted as evidence for recruitment of controlled processes, at the expense of automatic processes when responding to emotional stimuli. However, activation of semantic areas has also been reported. The aim of the present work was to address the issue of the importance of semantic areas in emotion regulation by comparing recruitment of executive and semantic neural substrates in studies investigating different reappraisal strategies. With this aim, we reviewed neuroimaging studies on reappraisal and we classified them in two main categories: reappraisal of stimuli (RS) and reappraisal via perspective taking (RPT). We applied a coordinate-based meta-analysis to summarize the results of fMRI studies on different reappraisal strategies. Our results showed that reappraisal, when considered regardless of the specific instruction used in the studies, involved both executive and semantic areas of the brain. When considering different reappraisal strategies separately, in contrast, we found areas associated with executive function to be prominently recruited by RS, even if also semantic areas were activated. Instead, in RPT the most important clusters of brain activity were found in parietal and temporal semantic areas, without significant clusters in executive areas. These results indicate that modulation of activity in semantic areas may constitute an important aspect of emotion regulation in reappraisal, suggesting that semantic processes may be more important to understand the mechanism of emotion regulation than previously thought. PMID:26217277

  9. Worrying about the future: An episodic specificity induction impacts problem solving, reappraisal, and well-being.

    PubMed

    Jing, Helen G; Madore, Kevin P; Schacter, Daniel L

    2016-04-01

    Previous research has demonstrated that an episodic specificity induction--brief training in recollecting details of a recent experience--enhances performance on various subsequent tasks thought to draw upon episodic memory processes. Existing work has also shown that mental simulation can be beneficial for emotion regulation and coping with stressors. Here we focus on understanding how episodic detail can affect problem solving, reappraisal, and psychological well-being regarding worrisome future events. In Experiment 1, an episodic specificity induction significantly improved participants' performance on a subsequent means-end problem solving task (i.e., more relevant steps) and an episodic reappraisal task (i.e., more episodic details) involving personally worrisome future events compared with a control induction not focused on episodic specificity. Imagining constructive behaviors with increased episodic detail via the specificity induction was also related to significantly larger decreases in anxiety, perceived likelihood of a bad outcome, and perceived difficulty to cope with a bad outcome, as well as larger increases in perceived likelihood of a good outcome and indicated use of active coping behaviors compared with the control. In Experiment 2, we extended these findings using a more stringent control induction, and found preliminary evidence that the specificity induction was related to an increase in positive affect and decrease in negative affect compared with the control. Our findings support the idea that episodic memory processes are involved in means-end problem solving and episodic reappraisal, and that increasing the episodic specificity of imagining constructive behaviors regarding worrisome events may be related to improved psychological well-being. PMID:26820166

  10. [A reappraisal of the works of Elisabeth Kubler-Ross].

    PubMed

    Afonso, Selene Beviláqua Chaves; Minayo, Maria Cecília de Souza

    2013-09-01

    This article presents a reappraisal of part of the works of Elizabeth Kubler-Ross, one of the most quoted authors addressing the end of life process, mourning and dying. Her work has contributed to a clearer understanding of these issues by health professionals, families, religious and lay people who handle and/or experience mourning. She has also been the subject of controversy related to ethical issues and the scientific rigor of her work. The books analyzed in this article are: On death and dying (1969); Questions and answers on death and dying (1971); Living with death and dying (1981); On children and death(1983); On life after death (1991) and Life lessons (2000). PMID:23989580

  11. Description-based reappraisal regulate the emotion induced by erotic and neutral images in a Chinese population

    PubMed Central

    Peng, Jiaxin; Qu, Chen; Gu, Ruolei; Luo, Yue-Jia

    2013-01-01

    Previous emotion-regulation research has shown that the late positive potential (LPP) is sensitive to the down-regulation of emotion; however, whether LPP is also sensitive to the up-regulation of emotion remains unclear. The present study examined the description-based reappraisal effects on the up-regulation of positive emotions induced by erotic and neutral images in a Chinese population. Self-reported ratings and event-related potential (ERP) were recorded when subjects viewed pleasant and neutral images, which were shown after either a neutral or positive description. Self-reported results showed that images following positive descriptions were rated as more pleasant compared to images following neutral descriptions. ERP results revealed that the P2, P3, and slow wave (SW) components were larger for erotic pictures than for neutral pictures, while the positive description condition yielded attenuated erotic image-induced P2, P3 and SW and increased SW induced by neutral images. The results demonstrated that description-based reappraisal, as a method of reappraisal, significantly modulates the emotional experience and ERP responses to erotic and neutral images. PMID:23335894

  12. Negotiators' profit predicted by cognitive reappraisal, suppression of emotions, misrepresentation of information, and tolerance of ambiguity.

    PubMed

    Yurtsever, Gülçimen

    2008-04-01

    This study examined the relationship between negative emotions and variables that affect negotiators' profit. Based on a simulated negotiation, this study induced emotions by providing negative feedback on how negotiating partners perceived and evaluated each other's behavior. Then relationships were examined between negative emotions and emotional regulation strategies, misrepresentation of information, tolerance of ambiguity, and negotiators' profit. A total of 228 undergraduate students enrolled in an economics course in the Faculty of Law and the Faculty of Management at a university in Ankara participated. There were 130 students in the experimental group and 98 students in the control group; 102 were men and 126 were women, ages 17 to 35 years (M =22.6 yr., SD = 2.3). A simulated negotiation process was used. Regression coefficients suggested positive relation between Emotional Reaction and the use of a Suppression strategy and Misrepresentation of Information. Negative coefficients were obtained from scores between Emotional Reaction and Cognitive Reappraisal and Tolerance of Ambiguity. The regression also suggested there were negative regression coefficients linking Misrepresentation of Information and Suppression strategies to Negotiators' Profit. Positive regression coefficients linked Tolerance of Ambiguity to Negotiators' Profit. Mediating variables explained 55% of variance in Negotiators' Profit; the majority (43%) was explained by Cognitive Reappraisal. PMID:18556912

  13. Depression, Antidepressants, and Neurogenesis: A Critical Reappraisal

    PubMed Central

    Hanson, Nicola D; Owens, Michael J; Nemeroff, Charles B

    2011-01-01

    The neurogenesis hypothesis of depression posits (1) that neurogenesis in the subgranular zone of the dentate gyrus is regulated negatively by stressful experiences and positively by treatment with antidepressant drugs and (2) that alterations in the rate of neurogenesis play a fundamental role in the pathology and treatment of major depression. This hypothesis is supported by important experimental observations, but is challenged by equally compelling contradictory reports. This review summarizes the phenomenon of adult hippocampal neurogenesis, the initial and continued evidence leading to the development of the neurogenesis hypothesis of depression, and the recent studies that have disputed and/or qualified those findings, to conclude that it can be affected by stress and antidepressants under certain conditions, but that these effects do not appear in all cases of psychological stress, depression, and antidepressant treatment. PMID:21937982

  14. [Hepatitis E virus seroprevalence: a reappraisal].

    PubMed

    Covarrubías, Natalia; Hurtado, Carmen; Díaz, Alex; Mezzano, Gabriel; Brahm, Javier; Venegas, Mauricio

    2015-08-01

    Reported seroprevalence of hepatitis E virus (HEV) in developed countries is between 0.3-53%. Published data relies on the assays used and its technical performance. Sensitivity on new available tests has improved, which has changed HEV seroprevalence around the world. We re-evaluated retrospectively, 178 serum samples of patients with previous anti HEV IgG determination between 2009 and 2012. Initial analysis was performed with ELISA kit Genelabs (Singapore), with 7.3% positivity. The reevaluation was done with ELISA kit AccuDiag TM HEV-IgG (Diagnostic Automation, United States), with reported sensitivity and specificity over 99.8%. With the new assay, 32.6% positive samples were found, significantly greater to the previous result (p<0.001) (4.5 times more). There were no differences in gender but a significant association between age and HEV IgG seropositivity was found (p<0.001). This suggests that previous testing might have underestimated HEV seroprevalence in Chile, which should be reevaluated using the new available test. PMID:26436799

  15. A reappraisal of early hominid phylogeny.

    PubMed

    Strait, D S; Grine, F E; Moniz, M A

    1997-01-01

    We report here on the results of a new cladistic analysis of early hominid relationships. Ingroup taxa included Australopithecus afarensis, Australopithecus africanus, Australopithecus aethiopicus, Australopithecus robustus, Australopithecus boisei, Homo habilis, Homo rudolfensis, Homo ergaster and Homo sapiens. Outgroup taxa included Pan troglodytes and Gorilla gorilla. Sixty craniodental characters were selected for analysis. These were drawn from the trait lists of other studies and our own observations. Eight parsimony analyses were performed that differed with respect to the number of characters examined and the manner in which the characters were treated. Seven employed ordered characters, and included analyses in which (1) taxa that were variable with respect to a character were coded as having an intermediate state, (2) characters with variable states in any taxon were excluded; (3) a variable taxon was coded as having the state exhibited by the majority of its hypodigm, (4) variable taxa were coded as missing data for that character, (5) some characters were considered irreversible, (6) masticatory characters were excluded, and (7) characters whose states were unknown in some taxa were excluded. In the final analysis, (8) all characters were unordered. All analyses were performed using PAUP 3.0s. Despite the fact that the eight analyses differed with respect to methodology, they produced several consistent results. All agreed that the "robust" australopithecines form a clade, A. afarensis is the sister taxon of all other hominids, and the genus Australopithecus, as conventionally defined, is paraphyletic. All eight also supported trees in which A. africanus is the sister taxon of a joint Homo+ "robust" clade, although in one analysis an equally parsimonious topology found A. africanus to be the sister of the "robust" species. In most analyses, the relationships of A. africanus and H. habilis were unstable, in the sense that their positions vary in trees

  16. Comparing Experiential Acceptance and Cognitive Reappraisal of Psychotic Symptoms as Predictors of Functional Outcome among Individuals with Serious Mental Illness

    PubMed Central

    Vilardaga, Roger; Hayes, Steven C.; Atkins, David C.; Bresee, Christie; Kambiz, Alaei

    2013-01-01

    Background Two psychological regulation strategies to cope with psychotic symptoms proposed by the cognitive behavioral tradition were examined in this study: cognitive reappraisal and experiential acceptance. Although cognitive behavior therapy for psychosis has increasing empirical support, little is known about the role of these two strategies using methods of known ecological validity. Methods Intensive longitudinal data was gathered from 25 individuals diagnosed with a psychiatric disorder with psychotic features. During the course of six days we measured contextual factors, psychotic and stressful events, psychological regulation strategies and functional outcome. Results Positive psychotic symptoms and stressful events had negative associations with quality of life and affect, whereas experiential acceptance had positive associations with them. Cognitive reappraisal had inconsistent associations with quality of life and no association with affect. Social interactions and engagement in activities had a positive association with quality of life. Results were supported by additional and exploratory analyses. Conclusions Across measures of functional outcome, experiential acceptance appears to be an effective coping strategy for individuals facing psychotic and stressful experiences, whereas cognitive reappraisal does not. Results suggest the need to further investigate the role of these psychological regulation strategies using ecologically valid methods in order to inform treatment development efforts. PMID:23747581

  17. Impaired regulation of emotion: neural correlates of reappraisal and distraction in bipolar disorder and unaffected relatives

    PubMed Central

    Kanske, P; Schönfelder, S; Forneck, J; Wessa, M

    2015-01-01

    Deficient emotion regulation has been proposed as a crucial pathological mechanism in bipolar disorder (BD). We therefore investigated emotion regulation impairments in BD, the related neural underpinnings and their etiological relevance for the disorder. Twenty-two euthymic patients with bipolar-I disorder and 17 unaffected first-degree relatives of BD-I patients, as well as two groups of healthy gender-, age- and education-matched controls (N=22/17, respectively) were included. Participants underwent functional magnetic resonance imaging while applying two different emotion regulation techniques, reappraisal and distraction, when presented with emotional images. BD patients and relatives showed impaired downregulation of amygdala activity during reappraisal, but not during distraction, when compared with controls. This deficit was correlated with the habitual use of reappraisal. The negative connectivity of amygdala and orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) observed during reappraisal in controls was reversed in BD patients and relatives. There were no significant differences between BD patients and relatives. As being observed in BD patients and unaffected relatives, deficits in emotion regulation through reappraisal may represent heritable neurobiological abnormalities underlying BD. The neural mechanisms include impaired control of amygdala reactivity to emotional stimuli and dysfunctional connectivity of the amygdala to regulatory control regions in the OFC. These are, thus, important aspects of the neurobiological basis of increased vulnerability for BD. PMID:25603413

  18. An fMRI investigation of the cognitive reappraisal of negative memories

    PubMed Central

    Holland, Alisha C.; Kensinger, Elizabeth A.

    2013-01-01

    Episodic memory retrieval can be influenced by individuals’ current goals, including those that are emotional in nature. Participants underwent an fMRI scan while reappraising, or changing the way they thought about aversive images they had previously encoded, to down-regulate (i.e., decrease), up-regulate (i.e., increase), or maintain the emotional intensity associated with their recall. A conjunction analysis between down- and up-regulation during the entire 12-sec recall period revealed that both commonly activated reappraisal-related regions, particularly in the lateral and medial prefrontal cortex (PFC). However, when we analyzed a reappraisal instruction phase prior to recall and then divided the recall phase into the time when individuals were first searching for their memories and later elaborating on their details, we found that down- and up-regulation engaged greater neural activity at different time points. Up-regulation engaged greater PFC activity than down-regulation or maintenance during the reappraisal instruction phase. In contrast, down-regulation engaged greater lateral PFC activity as images were being searched for and retrieved. Maintaining the emotional intensity associated with the aversive images engaged similar regions to a greater extent than either reappraisal condition as participants elaborated on the details of the images they were holding in mind. Our findings suggest that down- and up-regulation engage similar neural regions during memory retrieval, but differ in the timing of this engagement. PMID:23500898

  19. Liberating reason from the passions: overriding intuitionist moral judgments through emotion reappraisal.

    PubMed

    Feinberg, Matthew; Willer, Robb; Antonenko, Olga; John, Oliver P

    2012-07-01

    A classic problem in moral psychology concerns whether and when moral judgments are driven by intuition versus deliberate reasoning. In this investigation, we explored the role of reappraisal, an emotion-regulation strategy that involves construing an emotion-eliciting situation in a way that diminishes the intensity of the emotional experience. We hypothesized that although emotional reactions evoke initial moral intuitions, reappraisal weakens the influence of these intuitions, leading to more deliberative moral judgments. Three studies of moral judgments in emotionally evocative, disgust-eliciting moral dilemmas supported our hypothesis. A greater tendency to reappraise was related to fewer intuition-based judgments (Study 1). Content analysis of open-ended descriptions of moral-reasoning processes revealed that reappraisal was associated with longer time spent in deliberation and with fewer intuitionist moral judgments (Study 2). Finally, in comparison with participants who simply watched an emotion-inducing film, participants who had been instructed to reappraise their reactions while watching the film subsequently reported less intense emotional reactions to moral dilemmas, and these dampened reactions led, in turn, to fewer intuitionist moral judgments (Study 3). PMID:22636202

  20. Turning the knots in your stomach into bows: Reappraising arousal improves performance on the GRE

    PubMed Central

    Jamieson, Jeremy P.; Mendes, Wendy Berry; Blackstock, Erin; Schmader, Toni

    2009-01-01

    This research examined the benefits of interpreting physiological arousal as a challenge response on practice and actual Graduate Record Examination (GRE) scores. Participants who were preparing to take the GRE reported to the laboratory for a practice GRE study. Participants assigned to a reappraisal condition were told arousal improves performance, whereas control participants were not given this information. We collected saliva samples at baseline and after the appraisal manipulation, which were then assayed for salivary alpha amylase (sAA), a measure of sympathetic nervous system activation. Reappraisal participants exhibited a significant increase in sAA and outperformed controls on the GRE-math section. One to three months later, participants returned to the lab and provided their score reports from their actual GRE. Again, reappraisal participants scored higher than controls on the GRE-math section. These findings illuminate the powerful influence appraisal has on physiology and performance both in and out of the laboratory. PMID:20161454

  1. Distracted by the Unthought - Suppression and Reappraisal of Mind Wandering under Stereotype Threat.

    PubMed

    Schuster, Carolin; Martiny, Sarah E; Schmader, Toni

    2015-01-01

    Previous research has found that subtle reminders of negative stereotypes about one's group can lead individuals to underperform on stereotype-relevant tests (e.g., women in math, ethnic minorities on intelligence tests). This so called stereotype threat effect can contribute to systematic group differences in performance that can obscure the true abilities of certain social groups and thereby sustain social inequalities. In the present study, we examined processes underlying stereotype threat effects on women's math performance, specifically focusing on the role of suppression of mind wandering (i.e., task-irrelevant thinking) in stereotype threat (ST) and no threat (NT) situations. Based on a process model of stereotype threat effects on performance, we hypothesized that women under stereotype threat spontaneously suppress mind wandering, and that this suppression impairs performance. An alternative regulation strategy that prevents suppression (i.e., reappraising task-irrelevant thoughts as normal) was predicted to prevent stereotype threat effects on performance. We manipulated stereotype threat (ST vs. NT) and cognitive regulation strategy (suppression, reappraisal, or no strategy) and measured women's performance on a math and a concentration task (N = 113). We expected three groups to perform relatively more poorly: Those in ST with either no strategy or suppression and those in NT with a suppression strategy. We tested the performance of these groups against the remaining three groups hypothesized to perform relatively better: those in NT with no strategy or reappraisal and those in ST with reappraisal. The results showed the expected pattern for participants' math performance, but not for concentration achievement. This pattern suggests that ineffective self-regulation by suppressing mind wandering can at least partly explain stereotype threat effects on performance, whereas a reappraisal strategy can prevent this impairment. We discuss implications for

  2. Distracted by the Unthought – Suppression and Reappraisal of Mind Wandering under Stereotype Threat

    PubMed Central

    Schuster, Carolin; Martiny, Sarah E.; Schmader, Toni

    2015-01-01

    Previous research has found that subtle reminders of negative stereotypes about one’s group can lead individuals to underperform on stereotype-relevant tests (e.g., women in math, ethnic minorities on intelligence tests). This so called stereotype threat effect can contribute to systematic group differences in performance that can obscure the true abilities of certain social groups and thereby sustain social inequalities. In the present study, we examined processes underlying stereotype threat effects on women’s math performance, specifically focusing on the role of suppression of mind wandering (i.e., task-irrelevant thinking) in stereotype threat (ST) and no threat (NT) situations. Based on a process model of stereotype threat effects on performance, we hypothesized that women under stereotype threat spontaneously suppress mind wandering, and that this suppression impairs performance. An alternative regulation strategy that prevents suppression (i.e., reappraising task-irrelevant thoughts as normal) was predicted to prevent stereotype threat effects on performance. We manipulated stereotype threat (ST vs. NT) and cognitive regulation strategy (suppression, reappraisal, or no strategy) and measured women’s performance on a math and a concentration task (N = 113). We expected three groups to perform relatively more poorly: Those in ST with either no strategy or suppression and those in NT with a suppression strategy. We tested the performance of these groups against the remaining three groups hypothesized to perform relatively better: those in NT with no strategy or reappraisal and those in ST with reappraisal. The results showed the expected pattern for participants’ math performance, but not for concentration achievement. This pattern suggests that ineffective self-regulation by suppressing mind wandering can at least partly explain stereotype threat effects on performance, whereas a reappraisal strategy can prevent this impairment. We discuss

  3. Non-organic failure to thrive: a reappraisal.

    PubMed

    Skuse, D H

    1985-02-01

    Non-organic failure to thrive has traditionally been regarded as due primarily to maternal rejection and neglect. A critical reappraisal of the evidence suggests a more balanced view of the mother-child relationship should be taken. A classification of the condition, founded on facts not concepts, is urgently required. Non-organic failure to thrive should be viewed in a multidimensional context, in which potential influences upon the symptomatic infant are considered. Inadequacy of nutrition is caused by both a failure of adequate provision of food and by inadequate intake. A vicious circle of maladaptive behavioural interaction between caregiver and infant is often present, sustained by high emotional tensions. Clinical intervention should aim to clarify the contributions made by both caregiver and infant to that interaction and thus break the cycle. The basis on which intervention is made should be direct observation of the parent and child relationship in as many different environmental contexts as feasible, especially during feeding. The multidisciplinary team has an important role to play in management. An emphasis on parental culpability in the aetiology of non-organic failure to thrive, in the absence of direct evidence of neglect, is wrong. PMID:3883912

  4. Reappraising Abstract Paintings after Exposure to Background Information

    PubMed Central

    Park, Seongmin A.; Yun, Kyongsik; Jeong, Jaeseung

    2015-01-01

    Can knowledge help viewers when they appreciate an artwork? Experts’ judgments of the aesthetic value of a painting often differ from the estimates of naïve viewers, and this phenomenon is especially pronounced in the aesthetic judgment of abstract paintings. We compared the changes in aesthetic judgments of naïve viewers while they were progressively exposed to five pieces of background information. The participants were asked to report their aesthetic judgments of a given painting after each piece of information was presented. We found that commentaries by the artist and a critic significantly increased the subjective aesthetic ratings. Does knowledge enable experts to attend to the visual features in a painting and to link it to the evaluative conventions, thus potentially causing different aesthetic judgments? To investigate whether a specific pattern of attention is essential for the knowledge-based appreciation, we tracked the eye movements of subjects while viewing a painting with a commentary by the artist and with a commentary by a critic. We observed that critics’ commentaries directed the viewers’ attention to the visual components that were highly relevant to the presented commentary. However, attention to specific features of a painting was not necessary for increasing the subjective aesthetic judgment when the artists’ commentary was presented. Our results suggest that at least two different cognitive mechanisms may be involved in knowledge- guided aesthetic judgments while viewers reappraise a painting. PMID:25945789

  5. EDUCATIONAL RESEARCH AND A REAPPRAISAL OF THE PROCESS OF ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    REQUA, ELOISE; THOMASINE, SISTER M.

    A CONFERENCE WAS HELD TO PROVIDE 30 PARTICIPATING SCHOLARS AN OPPORTUNITY TO DISCUSS THE ECONOMIC AND SOCIAL PROBLEMS OF UNDERDEVELOPED NATIONS IN RELATION TO EDUCATIONAL RESEARCH. THE THIRD IN A SERIES OF BIENNIAL CONFERENCES, IT POOLED INTERDISCIPLINARY RESOURCES FOR REAPPRAISAL OF THE MOST RECENT FINDINGS, AND PROVIDED THE ATMOSPHERE FOR AN…

  6. Effects of a Value-Reappraisal Intervention on Statistics Students' Motivation and Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Acee, Taylor W.; Weinstein, Claire Ellen

    2010-01-01

    The authors investigated the effects of an exploratory value-reappraisal intervention on students' motivation and performance in an undergraduate introductory statistics course. They sampled 82 students from 2 instructors' sections during both the fall and spring semesters. Students were randomly assigned within each section to either the…

  7. Resisting the Sirens of Temptation while Studying: Using Reappraisal to Increase Focus, Enthusiasm, and Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leroy, Veronique; Gregoire, Jacques; Magen, Eran; Gross, James J.; Mikolajczak, Moira

    2012-01-01

    One of the major obstacles in the learning process is temptation, which has the power to divert students from even their most important goals (e.g. getting a degree). In two studies, we tested the hypothesis that cognitive reappraisal could be used to successfully resist temptation. Participants had to memorize tedious material while being tempted…

  8. Mind over Matter: Reappraising Arousal Improves Cardiovascular and Cognitive Responses to Stress

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jamieson, Jeremy P.; Nock, Matthew K.; Mendes, Wendy Berry

    2012-01-01

    Researchers have theorized that changing the way we think about our bodily responses can improve our physiological and cognitive reactions to stressful events. However, the underlying processes through which mental states improve downstream outcomes are not well understood. To this end, we examined whether reappraising stress-induced arousal could…

  9. Morphological and genetic reappraisal of the Orius fauna of the western United States (Hemiptera: Heteroptera: Anthocoridae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Examination of minute pirate bugs, Orius spp. (Hemiptera: Heteroptera: Anthocoridae) from a broad geographic range in the western U.S. prompted a reappraisal of the taxonomic composition and geographic distribution of the fauna native to the western U.S. and Canada. Collecting efforts led to the di...

  10. Bio-optical properties of oceanic waters: A reappraisal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morel, André; Maritorena, StéPhane

    2001-04-01

    The apparent optical properties (AOPs) of oceanic case 1 waters were previously analyzed [Morel, 1988] and statistically related to the chlorophyll concentration ([Chl]) used as a global index describing the trophic conditions of water bodies. From these empirical relationships a bio-optical model of the upper layer was developed. With objectives and structure similar to those of the previous study the present reappraisal utilizes AOPs determined during recent Joint Global Ocean Flux Study cruises, namely, spectral attenuation for downward irradiance Kd(λ) and irradiance reflectance R(λ). This revision also benefits from improved knowledge of inherent optical properties (IOPs), namely, pure water absorption coefficients and particle scattering and absorption coefficients, and from better pigment quantification (via a systematic use of high-performance liquid chromatography). Nonlinear trends, already observed between optical properties and algal biomass, are fully confirmed, yet with numerical differences. The previous Kd(λ) model, and subsequently the R(λ) model, is modified to account for these new relationships. The R(λ) values predicted as a function of [Chl] and the predicted ratios of reflectances at two wavelengths, which are commonly used in ocean color algorithms, compare well with field values (not used when developing the reflectance model). This good agreement means that semianalytical ocean color algorithms can be successfully applied to satellite data. Going further into purely analytical approaches, ideally based on radiative transfer computations combined with a suite of relationships between the IOPs and [Chl], remains presently problematic, especially because of the insufficient knowledge of the phase function and backscattering efficiency of oceanic particles.

  11. Adherent endotoxin on dental implant surfaces: a reappraisal.

    PubMed

    Morra, Marco; Cassinelli, Clara; Bollati, Daniele; Cascardo, Giovanna; Bellanda, Marco

    2015-02-01

    Osteoimmunology is the crosstalk between cells from the immune and skeletal systems, suggesting a role of pro-inflammatory cytokines in the stimulation of osteoclast activity. Endotoxin or bacterial challenges to inflammatory cells are directly relevant to dental implant pathologies involving bone resorption, such as osseointegration failure and peri-implantitis. While the endotoxin amount on implant devices is regulated by standards, it is unknown whether commercially available dental implants elicit different levels of adherent-endotoxin stimulated cytokines. The objective of this work is to develop a model system and evaluate endotoxin-induced expression of pro-inflammatory cytokine genes relevant to osteoclast activation on commercially available dental implants. Murine J774-A1 macrophages were cultured on Ti disks with different level of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) contamination to define the time-course of the inflammatory response to endotoxin, as evaluated by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction analysis. The developed protocol was then used to measure adherent endotoxin on commercially available packaged and sterile dental implants in the "as-implanted" condition. Results show that tested dental implants induce variable expression of endotoxin-stimulated genes, sometimes above the level expected to promote bone resorption in vivo. Results are unaffected by the specific surface treatment; rather, they likely reflect care in cleaning and packaging protocols. In conclusion, expression of genes that enhance osteoclast activity through endotoxin stimulation of inflammatory cells is widely different on commercially available dental implants. A reappraisal of the clinical impact of adherent endotoxins on dental (and bone) implant devices is required in light of increasing knowledge on crosstalk between cells from the immune and skeletal systems. PMID:25699642

  12. The effects of distraction and reappraisal on children's parasympathetic regulation of sadness and fear.

    PubMed

    Davis, Elizabeth L; Quiñones-Camacho, Laura E; Buss, Kristin A

    2016-02-01

    Children commonly experience negative emotions like sadness and fear, and much recent empirical attention has been devoted to understanding the factors supporting and predicting effective emotion regulation. Respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA), a cardiac index of parasympathetic function, has emerged as a key physiological correlate of children's self-regulation. But little is known about how children's use of specific cognitive emotion regulation strategies corresponds to concurrent parasympathetic regulation (i.e., RSA reactivity while watching an emotion-eliciting video). The current study describes an experimental paradigm in which 101 5- and 6-year-olds were randomly assigned to one of three different emotion regulation conditions: Control, Distraction, or Reappraisal. All children watched a sad film and a scary film (order counterbalanced), and children in the Distraction and Reappraisal conditions received instructions to deploy the target strategy to manage sadness/fear while they watched. Consistent with predictions, children assigned to use either emotion regulation strategy showed greater RSA augmentation from baseline than children in the Control condition (all children showed an overall increase in RSA levels from baseline), suggesting enhanced parasympathetic calming when children used distraction or reappraisal to regulate sadness and fear. But this pattern was found only among children who viewed the sad film before the scary film. Among children who viewed the scary film first, reappraisal promoted marginally better parasympathetic regulation of fear (no condition differences emerged for parasympathetic regulation of sadness when the sad film was viewed second). Results are discussed in terms of their implications for our understanding of children's emotion regulation and affective physiology. PMID:26601786

  13. Emotion Regulation as the Foundation of Political Attitudes: Does Reappraisal Decrease Support for Conservative Policies?

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Jooa Julia; Sohn, Yunkyu; Fowler, James H.

    2013-01-01

    Cognitive scientists, behavior geneticists, and political scientists have identified several ways in which emotions influence political attitudes, and psychologists have shown that emotion regulation can have an important causal effect on physiology, cognition, and subjective experience. However, no work to date explores the possibility that emotion regulation may shape political ideology and attitudes toward policies. Here, we conduct four studies that investigate the role of a particular emotion regulation strategy – reappraisal in particular. Two observational studies show that individual differences in emotion regulation styles predict variation in political orientations and support for conservative policies. In the third study, we experimentally induce disgust as the target emotion to be regulated and show that use of reappraisal reduces the experience of disgust, thereby decreasing moral concerns associated with conservatism. In the final experimental study, we show that use of reappraisal successfully attenuates the relationship between trait-level disgust sensitivity and support for conservative policies. Our findings provide the first evidence of a critical link between emotion regulation and political attitudes. PMID:24367583

  14. Interactions Between the Prefrontal Cortex and Attentional Systems During Volitional Affective Regulation: An Effective Connectivity Reappraisal Study.

    PubMed

    Ligeza, Tomasz S; Wyczesany, Miroslaw; Tymorek, Agnieszka D; Kamiński, Maciej

    2016-03-01

    Reappraisal is an emotion regulation strategy used to change reactions to emotion-related stimuli by reinterpreting their meaning. During down-regulation of negative emotions, wide areas of the prefrontal cortex (PFC) inhibit emotion-related brain areas such as the amygdala. Little is known, however, about how this control activity influences the earliest stages of affective responses by modulating perceptual and attentional areas. The aim of this study is to identify the connectivity patterns between the PFC and the core regions of two well-known attentional networks: the dorsal attentional network (which controls attention volitionally) and the ventral attentional network (which controls attention spontaneously) during reappraisal. We used a novel method to study emotional control processes: the directed transfer function, an autoregressive effective connectivity method based on Granger causality. It was applied to EEG recordings to quantify the direction and intensity of information flow during passively watching (control condition) or reappraising (experimental condition) negative film clips. Reappraisal was mostly associated with increased top-down influences from the right dorsolateral PFC over attentional and perceptual areas, reaching areas including dorsal attentional regions. The left dorsolateral PFC was associated with the activation of the ventral attentional network. Passively watching clips (control condition) resulted in increased flow from attentional areas to the left dorsolateral PFC, what is interpreted as a monitoring process. Thus, reappraisal seems to be related to both volitional and automatic control of attention, triggered by the right and left dorsolateral PFC respectively. PMID:26440605

  15. Functional overlap of top-down emotion regulation and generation: an fMRI study identifying common neural substrates between cognitive reappraisal and cognitively generated emotions.

    PubMed

    Otto, Benjamin; Misra, Supriya; Prasad, Aditya; McRae, Kateri

    2014-09-01

    One factor that influences the success of emotion regulation is the manner in which the regulated emotion was generated. Recent research has suggested that reappraisal, a top-down emotion regulation strategy, is more effective in decreasing self-reported negative affect when emotions were generated from the top-down, versus the bottom-up. On the basis of a process overlap framework, we hypothesized that the neural regions active during reappraisal would overlap more with emotions that were generated from the top-down, rather than from the bottom-up. In addition, we hypothesized that increased neural overlap between reappraisal and the history effects of top-down emotion generation would be associated with increased reappraisal success. The results of several analyses suggested that reappraisal and emotions that were generated from the top-down share a core network of prefrontal, temporal, and cingulate regions. This overlap is specific; no such overlap was observed between reappraisal and emotions that were generated in a bottom-up fashion. This network consists of regions previously implicated in linguistic processing, cognitive control, and self-relevant appraisals, which are processes thought to be crucial to both reappraisal and top-down emotion generation. Furthermore, individuals with high reappraisal success demonstrated greater neural overlap between reappraisal and the history of top-down emotion generation than did those with low reappraisal success. The overlap of these key regions, reflecting overlapping processes, provides an initial insight into the mechanism by which generation history may facilitate emotion regulation. PMID:24430617

  16. Autonomic effects of cognitive reappraisal and acceptance in social anxiety: evidence for common and distinct pathways for parasympathetic reactivity.

    PubMed

    Cristea, Ioana A; Valenza, Gaetano; Scilingo, Enzo Pasquale; Szentágotai Tătar, Aurora; Gentili, Claudio; David, Daniel

    2014-12-01

    Few studies investigated the effects of emotion regulation strategies on autonomic parameters in socially anxious individuals. We asked 99 socially anxious participants to give an impromptu speech in front of an audience in a virtual reality environment. In the anticipation phase, they practiced an emotion regulation strategy: negative functional reappraisal, acceptance, negative dysfunctional reappraisal. All strategies led to decreases in parasympathetic activity and increases in heart rate during anticipation. Parasympathetic activity remained low in the recovery phase, while heart rate increased, indicating a possible rebound effect of social performance. Exploratory moderation analysis revealed that for subjects with higher social anxiety, acceptance led to increased parasympathetic activity in the anticipation and recovery phases than negative functional reappraisal. Our results indicate that although globally parasympathetic reactivity seems to be a more general marker of simply attempting to regulate emotions, it could help distinguish between emotion regulation strategies for some participant subgroups. PMID:25265548

  17. The role of the cervix in fertility: is it time for a reappraisal?

    PubMed

    Martyn, F; McAuliffe, F M; Wingfield, M

    2014-10-10

    Knowledge regarding the role of the cervix in fertility has expanded considerably over the past 20 years and in this article, we propose that it is now time for its function to be reappraised. First, we review the anatomy of the cervix and the vaginal ecosystem that it inhabits. Then, we examine the physiology and the role of the cervical mucus. The ongoing mystery of the exact mechanism of the sperm-cervical mucus interaction is reviewed and the key players that may unlock this mystery in the future are discussed. The soluble and cellular biomarkers of the lower female genital tract which are slowly being defined by contemporary research are reviewed. Attempts to standardize these markers, in this milieu, are hindered by the changes that may be attributed to endogenous or exogenous factors such as: age, hormonal changes during the menstrual cycle, ectropion, infection, smoking and exposure to semen during sexual intercourse. We review what is known about the immunology of the cervix. With the widespread use of large loop excision of the transformation zone (LLETZ) for treatment of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia, the anatomy of the cervix is changing for many women. While LLETZ surgery has had very positive effects in the fight against cervical cancer, we debate the impact it could have on a woman's fertility. PMID:25069501

  18. Positive inversion tectonics in foreland fold-and-thrust belts: A reappraisal of the Umbria-Marche Northern Apennines (Central Italy) by integrating geological and geophysical data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scisciani, Vittorio; Agostini, Simone; Calamita, Fernando; Pace, Paolo; Cilli, Andrea; Giori, Italiano; Paltrinieri, Werter

    2014-12-01

    Unraveling the tectonic style in the outer zones of fold-and-thrust belts is generally puzzling because the basement-cover relationships are often hidden in the subsurface as in the outer Northern Apennines of Italy. This study aims to reconstruct the deep setting of the Northern Apennine foreland thrust belt by integrating surface structural-geological and subsurface seismic reflection profile and well data, corroborated by a gravity-magnetic modeling. A remarkable mountain ridge, the Umbria-Marche Apennine Ridge (UMAR), which corresponds to a prominent area of structural and topographic elevation, characterizes the morphology of the Northern Apennines. This mountain ridge is constituted by Meso-Cenozoic carbonates involved in Neogene compressive structures and is surrounded by wide exposures of foredeep deposits. The basement-cover relationships are poorly constrained and both thin- and thick-skinned tectonic styles have been applied. The interpretation of subsurface data allowed recognizing a thick pre-Jurassic sedimentary sequence filling a late Paleozoic(?)-Triassic symmetric fault-bounded extensional basin, lying directly below the UMAR. This deep-rooted basin underwent positive inversion during the Neogene compression and thrust-fold development. The reconstructed thick-skinned inversion tectonic model is consistent with both the modest amount of shortening and the remarkable structural elevation of the UMAR. The outcomes of this study reveal that prominent mountain ridges occurring in foreland thrust belts are most likely related to the deep-rooted basement-involved positive inversion of pre-existing extensional basins.

  19. A reappraisal of the morphology and systematic position of the theropod dinosaur Sigilmassasaurus from the “middle” Cretaceous of Morocco

    PubMed Central

    Rauhut, Oliver W.M.; Milner, Angela C.; McFeeters, Bradley; Allain, Ronan

    2015-01-01

    Sigilmassasaurus brevicollis is an enigmatic theropod dinosaur from the early Late Cretaceous (Cenomanian) of Morocco, originally based on a few isolated cervical vertebrae. Ever since its original description, both its taxonomic validity and systematic affinities were contentious. Originally considered to represent its own family, Sigilmassasauridae, the genus has variously been suggested to represent a carcharodontosaurid, an ornithischian, and, more recently, a spinosaurid. Here we describe new remains referrable to this taxon and re-evaluate its taxonomic status and systematic affinities. Based on the new remains, a re-evaluation of the original materials, and comparisons with other spinosaurids, the holotype of Sigilmassasaurus brevicollis is identified as an anterior dorsal, rather than a cervical vertebra, and differences between elements referred to this taxon can be explained by different positions of the elements in question within the vertebral column. Many characters used previously to diagnose the genus and species are found to be more widespread among basal tetanurans, and specifically spinosaurids. However, the taxon shows several autapomorphies that support its validity, including the presence of a strongly rugose, ventrally offset triangular platform that is confluent with a ventral keel anteriorly in the mid-cervical vertebral centra and a strongly reduced lateral neural arch lamination, with no or an incomplete distinction between anterior and posterior centrodiapophyseal laminae in the posterior cervical and anterior dorsal vertebrae. We argue furthermore that Spinosaurus maroccanus, also described on the basis of isolated cervical vertebrae from the same stratigraphic unit and in the same paper as Sigilmassasaurus brevicollis, is a subjective synonym of the latter. Both a detailed comparison of this taxon with other theropods and a formal phylogenetic analysis support spinosaurid affintities for Sigilmassasaurus. However, we reject the recently

  20. Efficacy of a Web-Based, Crowdsourced Peer-To-Peer Cognitive Reappraisal Platform for Depression: Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Schueller, Stephen M; Picard, Rosalind W

    2015-01-01

    Background Self-guided, Web-based interventions for depression show promising results but suffer from high attrition and low user engagement. Online peer support networks can be highly engaging, but they show mixed results and lack evidence-based content. Objective Our aim was to introduce and evaluate a novel Web-based, peer-to-peer cognitive reappraisal platform designed to promote evidence-based techniques, with the hypotheses that (1) repeated use of the platform increases reappraisal and reduces depression and (2) that the social, crowdsourced interactions enhance engagement. Methods Participants aged 18-35 were recruited online and were randomly assigned to the treatment group, “Panoply” (n=84), or an active control group, online expressive writing (n=82). Both are fully automated Web-based platforms. Participants were asked to use their assigned platform for a minimum of 25 minutes per week for 3 weeks. Both platforms involved posting descriptions of stressful thoughts and situations. Participants on the Panoply platform additionally received crowdsourced reappraisal support immediately after submitting a post (median response time=9 minutes). Panoply participants could also practice reappraising stressful situations submitted by other users. Online questionnaires administered at baseline and 3 weeks assessed depression symptoms, reappraisal, and perseverative thinking. Engagement was assessed through self-report measures, session data, and activity levels. Results The Panoply platform produced significant improvements from pre to post for depression (P=.001), reappraisal (P<.001), and perseverative thinking (P<.001). The expressive writing platform yielded significant pre to post improvements for depression (P=.02) and perseverative thinking (P<.001), but not reappraisal (P=.45). The two groups did not diverge significantly at post-test on measures of depression or perseverative thinking, though Panoply users had significantly higher reappraisal scores

  1. Self-compassion enhances the efficacy of explicit cognitive reappraisal as an emotion regulation strategy in individuals with major depressive disorder.

    PubMed

    Diedrich, Alice; Hofmann, Stefan G; Cuijpers, Pim; Berking, Matthias

    2016-07-01

    Cognitive reappraisal has been shown to be an effective strategy to regulate depressed mood in healthy and remitted depressed individuals. However, individuals currently suffering from a clinical depression often experience difficulties in utilizing this strategy. Therefore, the goal of this study was to examine whether the efficacy of explicit cognitive reappraisal in major depressive disorder can be enhanced through the use of self-compassion and emotion-focused acceptance as preparatory strategies. Thereby, explicit cognitive reappraisal refers to purposefully identifying, challenging, and modifying depressiogenic cognitions to reduce depressed mood. To test our hypotheses, we induced depressed mood at four points in time in 54 participants (64.8% female; age M = 35.59, SD = 11.49 years) meeting criteria for major depressive disorder. After each mood induction, participants were instructed to either wait, or employ self-compassion, acceptance, or reappraisal to regulate their depressed mood. Depressed mood was assessed before and after each mood induction and regulation period on a visual analog scale. Results indicated that participants who had utilized self-compassion as a preparatory strategy experienced a significantly greater reduction of depressed mood during reappraisal than did those who had been instructed to wait prior to reappraisal. Participants who had used acceptance as a preparatory strategy did not experience a significantly greater reduction of depressed mood during subsequent reappraisal than those in the waiting condition. These findings provide preliminary evidence that the efficacy of explicit cognitive reappraisal is moderated by the precursory use of other emotion regulation strategies. In particular, they suggest that depressed individuals might benefit from using self-compassion to facilitate the subsequent use of explicit cognitive reappraisal. PMID:27152671

  2. Fanconi anemia (FA) and crosslinker sensitivity: Re-appraising the origins of FA definition.

    PubMed

    Pagano, Giovanni; d'Ischia, Marco; Pallardó, Federico V

    2015-07-01

    The commonly accepted definition of Fanconi anemia (FA) relying on DNA repair deficiency is submitted to a critical review starting from the early reports pointing to mitomycin C bioactivation and to the toxicity mechanisms of diepoxybutane and a group of nitrogen mustards causing DNA crosslinks in FA cells. A critical analysis of the literature prompts revisiting the FA phenotype and crosslinker sensitivity in terms of an oxidative stress (OS) background, redox-related anomalies of FA (FANC) proteins, and mitochondrial dysfunction. This re-appraisal of FA basic defect might lead to innovative approaches both in elucidating FA phenotypes and in clinical management. PMID:25732180

  3. Reappraisal of flow to tile drains III. Drains with limited flow capacity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khan, S.; Rushton, K. R.

    1996-09-01

    This third paper of the series on the reappraisal of flow to tile drains considers the time-variant situations in tile drain drainage systems when the quantity of water carried by tile drains is limited due to the capacity of the drains or the pumping equipment. Two categories of problem are analysed in this paper: (i) a series of parallel tile drains with a maximum specified flow and (ii) interceptor drains in the vicinity of canals. Complete details for satisfying the maximum specified flow conditions in tile drains are given. The effect of different capacities of tile drains on the performance of drainage system is explored.

  4. Using critical evaluation to reappraise plausibility judgments: A critical cognitive component of conceptual change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lombardi, D.

    2011-12-01

    Plausibility judgments-although well represented in conceptual change theories (see, for example, Chi, 2005; diSessa, 1993; Dole & Sinatra, 1998; Posner et al., 1982)-have received little empirical attention until our recent work investigating teachers' and students' understanding of and perceptions about human-induced climate change (Lombardi & Sinatra, 2010, 2011). In our first study with undergraduate students, we found that greater plausibility perceptions of human-induced climate accounted for significantly greater understanding of weather and climate distinctions after instruction, even after accounting for students' prior knowledge (Lombardi & Sinatra, 2010). In a follow-up study with inservice science and preservice elementary teachers, we showed that anger about the topic of climate change and teaching about climate change was significantly related to implausible perceptions about human-induced climate change (Lombardi & Sinatra, 2011). Results from our recent studies helped to inform our development of a model of the role of plausibility judgments in conceptual change situations. The model applies to situations involving cognitive dissonance, where background knowledge conflicts with an incoming message. In such situations, we define plausibility as a judgment on the relative potential truthfulness of incoming information compared to one's existing mental representations (Rescher, 1976). Students may not consciously think when making plausibility judgments, expending only minimal mental effort in what is referred to as an automatic cognitive process (Stanovich, 2009). However, well-designed instruction could facilitate students' reappraisal of plausibility judgments in more effortful and conscious cognitive processing. Critical evaluation specifically may be one effective method to promote plausibility reappraisal in a classroom setting (Lombardi & Sinatra, in progress). In science education, critical evaluation involves the analysis of how evidentiary

  5. Beyond Hegemony: Reappraising the History of Philanthropy and African-American Higher Education in the Nineteenth Century

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Freeman, Tyrone McKinley

    2010-01-01

    This historiographic essay urges a reappraisal of the revisionist view of philanthropy and African-American higher education in the nineteenth century as hegemonic by adopting agency as a theoretical framework to excavate the institutional histories and other primary sources on the northern black colleges--specifically Wilberforce University--for…

  6. Threat Reappraisal as a Mediator of Symptom Change in Cognitive-Behavioral Treatment of Anxiety Disorders: A Systematic Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smits, Jasper A. J.; Julian, Kristin; Rosenfield, David; Powers, Mark B.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Identifying mediators of therapeutic change is important to the development of interventions and augmentation strategies. Threat reappraisal is considered a key mediator underlying the effects of cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) for anxiety disorders. The present study systematically reviewed the evidence for the threat reappraisal…

  7. Cognitive Reappraisal Self-Efficacy Mediates the Effects of Individual Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy for Social Anxiety Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldin, Philippe R.; Ziv, Michal; Jazaieri, Hooria; Werner, Kelly; Kraemer, Helena; Heimberg, Richard G.; Gross, James J.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To examine whether changes in cognitive reappraisal self-efficacy (CR-SE) mediate the effects of individually administered cognitive-behavioral therapy (I-CBT) for social anxiety disorder (SAD) on severity of social anxiety symptoms. Method: A randomized controlled trial in which 75 adult patients (21-55 years of age; 53% male; 57%…

  8. Age-related differences in neural recruitment during the use of cognitive reappraisal and selective attention as emotion regulation strategies

    PubMed Central

    Allard, Eric S.; Kensinger, Elizabeth A.

    2014-01-01

    The present study examined age differences in the timing and neural recruitment within lateral and medial PFC while younger and older adults hedonically regulated their responses to unpleasant film clips. When analyses focused on activity during the emotional peak of the film clip (the most emotionally salient portion of the film), several age differences emerged. When comparing regulation to passive viewing (combined effects of selective attention and reappraisal) younger adults showed greater regulation related activity in lateral PFC (DLPFC, VLPFC, OFC) and medial PFC (ACC) while older adults showed greater activation within a region DLPFC. When assessing distinct effects of the regulation conditions, an ANOVA revealed a significant Age × Regulation Condition interaction within bilateral DLPFC and ACC; older adults but not young adults showed greater recruitment within these regions for reappraisal than selective attention. When examining activity at the onset of the film clip and at its emotional peak, the timing of reappraisal-related activity within VLPFC differed between age groups: younger adults showed greater activity at film onset while older adults showed heightened activity during the peak. Our results suggest that older adults rely more heavily on PFC recruitment when engaging cognitively demanding reappraisal strategies while PFC-mediated regulation might not be as task-specific for younger adults. Older adults' greater reliance on cognitive control processing during emotion regulation may also be reflected in the time needed to implement these strategies. PMID:24782800

  9. Towards Clinical Applications of Anti-endotoxin Antibodies; A Re-appraisal of the Disconnect

    PubMed Central

    Hurley, James C.

    2013-01-01

    Endotoxin is a potent mediator of a broad range of patho-physiological effects in humans. It is present in all Gram negative (GN) bacteria. It would be expected that anti-endotoxin therapies, whether antibody based or not, would have an important adjuvant therapeutic role along with antibiotics and other supportive therapies for GN infections. Indeed there is an extensive literature relating to both pre-clinical and clinical studies of anti-endotoxin antibodies. However, the extent of disconnect between the generally successful pre-clinical studies versus the failures of the numerous large clinical trials of antibody based and other anti-endotoxin therapies is under-appreciated and unexplained. Seeking a reconciliation of this disconnect is not an abstract academic question as clinical trials of interventions to reduce levels of endotoxemia levels are ongoing. The aim of this review is to examine new insights into the complex relationship between endotoxemia and sepsis in an attempt to bridge this disconnect. Several new factors to consider in this reappraisal include the frequency and types of GN bacteremia and the underlying mortality risk in the various study populations. For a range of reasons, endotoxemia can no longer be considered as a single entity. There are old clinical trials which warrant a re-appraisal in light of these recent advances in the understanding of the structure-function relationship of endotoxin. Fundamentally however, the disconnect not only remains, it has enlarged. PMID:24351718

  10. Neural Systems for Cognitive Reappraisal in Children and Adolescents with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Pitskel, Naomi B.; Bolling, Danielle Z.; Kaiser, Martha D.; Pelphrey, Kevin A.; Crowley, Michael J.

    2014-01-01

    Despite substantial clinical and anecdotal evidence for emotion dysregulation in individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD), little is known about the neural substrates underlying this phenomenon. We sought to explore neural mechanisms for cognitive reappraisal in children and adolescents with ASD using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). We studied 16 youth with ASD and 15 age- and IQ-matched typically developing (TD) comparison youth. Participants were instructed in the use of cognitive reappraisal strategies to increase and decrease their emotional responses to disgusting images. Participants in both groups displayed distinct patterns of brain activity for increasing versus decreasing their emotions. TD participants showed downregulation of bilateral insula and left amygdala on decrease trials, whereas ASD participants showed no modulation of insula and upregulation of left amygdala. Furthermore, TD youth exhibited increased functional connectivity between amygdala and ventrolateral prefrontal cortex compared to ASD participants when downregulating disgust, as well as decreased functional connectivity between amygdala and orbitofrontal cortex. These findings have important implications for our understanding of emotion dysregulation and its treatment in ASD. In particular, the relative lack of prefrontal-amygdala connectivity provides a potential target for treatment-related outcome measurements. PMID:25198094

  11. A reappraisal of adult thoracic and abdominal surface anatomy via CT scan in Chinese population.

    PubMed

    Shen, Xin-Hua; Su, Bai-Yan; Liu, Jing-Juan; Zhang, Gu-Muyang; Xue, Hua-Dan; Jin, Zheng-Yu; Mirjalili, S Ali; Ma, Chao

    2016-03-01

    Accurate surface anatomy is essential for safe clinical practice. There are numerous inconsistencies in clinically important surface markings among and within contemporary anatomical reference texts. The aim of this study was to investigate key thoracic and abdominal surface anatomy landmarks in living Chinese adults using computed tomography (CT). A total of 100 thoracic and 100 abdominal CT scans were examined. Our results indicated that the following key surface landmarks differed from current commonly-accepted descriptions: the positions of the tracheal bifurcation, azygos vein termination, and pulmonary trunk bifurcation (all below the plane of the sternal angle at vertebral level T5-T6 in most individuals); the superior vena cava formation and junction with the right atrium (most often behind the 1st and 4th intercostal spaces, respectively); and the level at which the inferior vena cava and esophagus traverse the diaphragm (T10 and T11, respectively). The renal arteries were most commonly at L1; the midpoint of the renal hila was most frequently at L2; the 11th rib was posterior to the left kidney in only 29% of scans; and the spleen was most frequently located between the 10th and 12th ribs. A number of significant sex- and age-related differences were noted. The Chinese population was also compared with western populations on the basis of published reports. Reappraisal of surface anatomy using modern imaging tools in vivo will provide both quantitative and qualitative evidence to facilitate the clinical application of these key surface landmarks. Clin. Anat. 29:165-174, 2016. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26032163

  12. On nonlinear viscoelastic deformations: a reappraisal of Fung's quasi-linear viscoelastic model

    PubMed Central

    De Pascalis, Riccardo; Abrahams, I. David; Parnell, William J.

    2014-01-01

    This paper offers a reappraisal of Fung's model for quasi-linear viscoelasticity. It is shown that a number of negative features exhibited in other works, commonly attributed to the Fung approach, are merely a consequence of the way it has been applied. The approach outlined herein is shown to yield improved behaviour and offers a straightforward scheme for solving a wide range of models. Results from the new model are contrasted with those in the literature for the case of uniaxial elongation of a bar: for an imposed stretch of an incompressible bar and for an imposed load. In the latter case, a numerical solution to a Volterra integral equation is required to obtain the results. This is achieved by a high-order discretization scheme. Finally, the stretch of a compressible viscoelastic bar is determined for two distinct materials: Horgan–Murphy and Gent. PMID:24910527

  13. Differences in Insula and Pre-/Frontal Responses during Reappraisal of Food in Lean and Obese Humans.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Saurabh; Grundeis, Felicitas; Brand, Cristin; Hwang, Han-Jeong; Mehnert, Jan; Pleger, Burkhard

    2016-01-01

    Brain regions involved in the reappraisal of tasty but unhealthy foods are of special interest for the development of new therapeutic interventions for obesity, such as non-invasive brain stimulation or neurofeedback. Here, we visually presented food items (i.e., high/low caloric) to obese and lean individuals during electroencephalogram (EEG) recordings, while they either admitted or regulated their food desire. During admitting the desire for low and high calorie foods, obese as well as lean individuals showed higher activity in the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC), whereas the right frontal operculum was involved in the reappraisal of the same foods, suggesting interplay between executive control and gustatory regions. Only in lean participants, we found an interaction between calorie content and the regulate/admit conditions in bilateral anterior insular cortices, suggesting that the anterior insula, assumed to primarily host gustatory processes, also underpins higher cognitive processes involved in food choices, such as evaluating the foods' calorie content for its reappraisal. PMID:27458355

  14. Differences in Insula and Pre-/Frontal Responses during Reappraisal of Food in Lean and Obese Humans

    PubMed Central

    Grundeis, Felicitas; Brand, Cristin; Hwang, Han-Jeong; Mehnert, Jan; Pleger, Burkhard

    2016-01-01

    Brain regions involved in the reappraisal of tasty but unhealthy foods are of special interest for the development of new therapeutic interventions for obesity, such as non-invasive brain stimulation or neurofeedback. Here, we visually presented food items (i.e., high/low caloric) to obese and lean individuals during electroencephalogram (EEG) recordings, while they either admitted or regulated their food desire. During admitting the desire for low and high calorie foods, obese as well as lean individuals showed higher activity in the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC), whereas the right frontal operculum was involved in the reappraisal of the same foods, suggesting interplay between executive control and gustatory regions. Only in lean participants, we found an interaction between calorie content and the regulate/admit conditions in bilateral anterior insular cortices, suggesting that the anterior insula, assumed to primarily host gustatory processes, also underpins higher cognitive processes involved in food choices, such as evaluating the foods’ calorie content for its reappraisal. PMID:27458355

  15. Judgment Deferred: Reappraisal of Rehabilitation Counseling Movement toward Licensure Parity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tarvydas, Vilia; Leahy, Michael J.; Zanskas, Stephen A.

    2009-01-01

    Fifteen years have passed since an analysis of the position of rehabilitation counselors in the national counselor licensure movement by Tarvydas and Leahy. This article addresses the question of how well their efforts to achieve licensure parity with other counselors have fared. This question will be addressed by discussing (a) rehabilitation…

  16. Clinical reappraisal of the Composite International Diagnostic Interview Screening Scales (CIDI-SC) in the Army Study to Assess Risk and Resilience in Servicemembers (Army STARRS)

    PubMed Central

    Kessler, Ronald C.; Santiago, Patcho N.; Colpe, Lisa J.; Dempsey, Catherine L.; First, Michael B.; Heeringa, Steven G.; Stein, Murray B.; Fullerton, Carol S.; Gruber, Michael J.; Naifeh, James A.; Nock, Matthew K.; Sampson, Nancy A.; Schoenbaum, Michael; Zaslavsky, Alan M.; Ursano, Robert J.

    2014-01-01

    A clinical reappraisal study was carried out in conjunction with the Army STARRS All-Army Study (AAS) to evaluate concordance of DSM-IV diagnoses based on the Composite International Diagnostic Interview screening scales (CIDI-SC) and PTSD Checklist (PCL) with diagnoses based on independent clinical reappraisal interviews (Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV [SCID]). Diagnoses included: lifetime mania/hypomania, panic disorder, and intermittent explosive disorder; 6-month adult attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder; and 30-day major depressive episode, generalized anxiety disorder, PTSD, and substance (alcohol or drug) use disorder (abuse or dependence). The sample (n=460) was weighted for over-sampling CIDI-SC/PCL screened positives. Diagnostic thresholds were set to equalize false positives and false negatives. Good individual-level concordance was found between CIDI-SC/PCL and SCID diagnoses at these thresholds (AUC = .69–.79). AUC was considerably higher for continuous than dichotomous screening scale scores (AUC = .80–.90), arguing for substantive analyses using not only dichotomous case designations but also continuous measures of predicted probabilities of clinical diagnoses. PMID:24318219

  17. Biofabrication: reappraising the definition of an evolving field.

    PubMed

    Groll, Jürgen; Boland, Thomas; Blunk, Torsten; Burdick, Jason A; Cho, Dong-Woo; Dalton, Paul D; Derby, Brian; Forgacs, Gabor; Li, Qing; Mironov, Vladimir A; Moroni, Lorenzo; Nakamura, Makoto; Shu, Wenmiao; Takeuchi, Shoji; Vozzi, Giovanni; Woodfield, Tim B F; Xu, Tao; Yoo, James J; Malda, Jos

    2016-03-01

    Biofabrication is an evolving research field that has recently received significant attention. In particular, the adoption of Biofabrication concepts within the field of Tissue Engineering and Regenerative Medicine has grown tremendously, and has been accompanied by a growing inconsistency in terminology. This article aims at clarifying the position of Biofabrication as a research field with a special focus on its relation to and application for Tissue Engineering and Regenerative Medicine. Within this context, we propose a refined working definition of Biofabrication, including Bioprinting and Bioassembly as complementary strategies within Biofabrication. PMID:26744832

  18. Frailty, disability and old age: a re-appraisal.

    PubMed

    Gilleard, Chris; Higgs, Paul

    2011-09-01

    Frailty has become a topic of increasing interest in health care. No longer treated as a catch-all term for agedness, decline and disablement it has acquired a more precise definition, applied to those individuals whose 'aged' state is seen to put them at risk of adverse outcomes. This transformation is we argue the outcome of a more general differentiation of terms that were previously used to categorize the weak and marginal within society. Old age re-labelled as 'later life' has become re-articulated as a successful life stage relatively free from impairment. Disability has been re-positioned and its links with impairment attenuated while chronic illness has acquired a new narrative of its own. This has left frailty behind, redolent still with all the old negative attributes of marginality, but now more than ever evacuated of any remaining elements of 'status' or 'agency'. Frailty is defined less by the identities of those who are deemed frail than by what frailty seems to augur in its direction of travel - a journey towards unspecified adverse outcomes. This re-positioning, we suggest, helps lay the foundation of a social imaginary of 'the fourth age' as the new location of old age. PMID:21169203

  19. Towards a phylogenetic reappraisal of Parmulariaceae and Asterinaceae (Dothideomycetes).

    PubMed

    Guatimosim, E; Firmino, A L; Bezerra, J L; Pereira, O L; Barreto, R W; Crous, P W

    2015-12-01

    Members of the Asterinaceae and Parmulariaceae are obligate biotrophic fungi with a pantropical distribution that grow in direct association with living plant tissues and produce external ascomata and bitunicate asci. These fungi are poorly known, with limited information about their taxonomic position in the Dothideomycetes. Much of what is known is conjectural and based on observation of morphological characters. An assessment of the phylogenetic position of the Asterinaceae and Parmulariaceae is provided based on a phylogenetic analysis of the nrDNA operon (ITS) and the large subunit rDNA (LSU) sequence data obtained from fresh material of selected species collected in Brazil. Three key species were included and epitypified, namely Asterina melastomatis, which is the type species for the type genus of the Asterinaceae; Prillieuxina baccharidincola (Asterinaceae); and Parmularia styracis, which is the type species for the type genus of the Parmulariaceae. An LSU rDNA phylogenetic analysis was performed indicating the correct phylogenetic placement of the Asterinales within the Dothideomycetes. From this initial analysis it is clear that the Parmulariaceae as currently circumscribed is polyphyletic, and that the Asterinaceae and Parmulariaceae are related, which justifies the maintenance of the order Asterinales. Asterotexis cucurbitacearum is recognised as distinct from other Dothideomycetes and placed in the newly proposed family and order (Asterotexiaceae, Asterotexiales), while the higher order phylogeny of Inocyclus angularis remains unresolved. Additionally, Lembosia abaxialis is introduced as a novel species and the phylogenetic placement of the genera Batistinula and Prillieuxina is clarified. PMID:26823634

  20. Minireview: Translocator Protein (TSPO) and Steroidogenesis: A Reappraisal

    PubMed Central

    Stocco, Douglas M.; Tu, Lan N.

    2015-01-01

    The 18-kDa translocator protein (TSPO), also known as the peripheral benzodiazepine receptor, is a transmembrane protein in the outer mitochondrial membrane. TSPO has long been described as being indispensable for mitochondrial cholesterol import that is essential for steroid hormone production. In contrast to this initial proposition, recent experiments reexamining TSPO function have demonstrated that it is not involved in steroidogenesis. This fundamental change has forced a reexamination of the functional interpretations made for TSPO that broadly impacts both basic and clinical research across multiple fields. In this minireview, we recapitulate the key studies from 25 years of TSPO research and concurrently examine their limitations that perhaps led towards the incorrect association of TSPO and steroid hormone production. Although this shift in understanding raises new questions regarding the molecular function of TSPO, these recent developments are poised to have a significant positive impact for research progress in steroid endocrinology. PMID:25730708

  1. Local allergic rhinitis: A critical reappraisal from a paediatric perspective.

    PubMed

    Arasi, Stefania; Pajno, Giovanni Battista; Lau, Susanne; Matricardi, Paolo Maria

    2016-09-01

    The so-called local allergic rhinitis (LAR) has been proposed as a phenotype of rhinitis with Th2-driven prominent local allergic inflammation, nasal synthesis of specific IgE and a positive response to a nasal allergen provocation test, in the absence of 'systemic' atopy (negative skin prick test and serum allergen-specific IgE antibodies). To date, available data on LAR are mostly focused on adults. The purpose of this 'Rostrum' was to critically discuss data and implications of the 'LAR concept' in paediatrics. In the natural history of rhinitis due to IgE-mediated reactions triggered by exposure to allergens, a 'LAR' can be either the initial, transient stage of classical allergic rhinitis or a stable phenotype never evolving to 'systemic' IgE sensitization. Given the present difficulties in performing routinely nasal allergen provocation test in children, the development of sensitive and specific tests to detect IgE in the child's nasal secretions is a research priority. We suggest also the hypothetical role of allergen immunoprophylaxis or immunotherapy in LAR. Last, the term 'local allergic rhinitis' may be inappropriate, as rhinitis is always 'local', while IgE sensitization can be either 'local' or 'systemic'. PMID:27098888

  2. Von Neumann's `No Hidden Variables' Proof: A Re-Appraisal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bub, Jeffrey

    2010-10-01

    Since the analysis by John Bell in 1965, the consensus in the literature is that von Neumann’s ‘no hidden variables’ proof fails to exclude any significant class of hidden variables. Bell raised the question whether it could be shown that any hidden variable theory would have to be nonlocal, and in this sense ‘like Bohm’s theory.’ His seminal result provides a positive answer to the question. I argue that Bell’s analysis misconstrues von Neumann’s argument. What von Neumann proved was the impossibility of recovering the quantum probabilities from a hidden variable theory of dispersion free (deterministic) states in which the quantum observables are represented as the ‘beables’ of the theory, to use Bell’s term. That is, the quantum probabilities could not reflect the distribution of pre-measurement values of beables, but would have to be derived in some other way, e.g., as in Bohm’s theory, where the probabilities are an artefact of a dynamical process that is not in fact a measurement of any beable of the system.

  3. The two-process model of sleep regulation: a reappraisal.

    PubMed

    Borbély, Alexander A; Daan, Serge; Wirz-Justice, Anna; Deboer, Tom

    2016-04-01

    In the last three decades the two-process model of sleep regulation has served as a major conceptual framework in sleep research. It has been applied widely in studies on fatigue and performance and to dissect individual differences in sleep regulation. The model posits that a homeostatic process (Process S) interacts with a process controlled by the circadian pacemaker (Process C), with time-courses derived from physiological and behavioural variables. The model simulates successfully the timing and intensity of sleep in diverse experimental protocols. Electrophysiological recordings from the suprachiasmatic nuclei (SCN) suggest that S and C interact continuously. Oscillators outside the SCN that are linked to energy metabolism are evident in SCN-lesioned arrhythmic animals subjected to restricted feeding or methamphetamine administration, as well as in human subjects during internal desynchronization. In intact animals these peripheral oscillators may dissociate from the central pacemaker rhythm. A sleep/fast and wake/feed phase segregate antagonistic anabolic and catabolic metabolic processes in peripheral tissues. A deficiency of Process S was proposed to account for both depressive sleep disturbances and the antidepressant effect of sleep deprivation. The model supported the development of novel non-pharmacological treatment paradigms in psychiatry, based on manipulating circadian phase, sleep and light exposure. In conclusion, the model remains conceptually useful for promoting the integration of sleep and circadian rhythm research. Sleep appears to have not only a short-term, use-dependent function; it also serves to enforce rest and fasting, thereby supporting the optimization of metabolic processes at the appropriate phase of the 24-h cycle. PMID:26762182

  4. Radionuclide esophageal transit of a liquid bolus: A reappraisal

    SciTech Connect

    Holloway, R.H.; Lange, R.C.; Magyar, L.; Greene, R.; McCallum, R.W.

    1984-01-01

    Measurement of radionuclide esophageal transit (RT) using a liquid bolus has been suggested as a screening test for esophageal motor disorders (EMD). The authors prospectively evaluated RT in 49 patients referred for esophageal manometry. Ten subjects with normal manometry served as controls. RT was performed using two 10 ml boluses of water labeled with 250 ..mu..Ci /sup 99m/Tc-sulfur colloid. Patients were studied supine and the swallow sequences framed in 1 second intervals. Transit time was measured from the time of entry to the time of exit from the esophagus. Mean transit time in normal subjects was 9.1 +- 2.1 (SD) sec. The test was abnormal if the transit time was prolonged (> 15 sec) in at least 1 of 2 swallows. RT agreed with manometry in 36/49 patients (75%), including 9/9 achalasics, 3/3 diffuse esophageal spasm, 3/7 'nutcracker esophagus' and 7/8 non-specific motor disorders (NSMD). 4/18 patients with normal manometry had abnormal RT. 9/31 patients with abnormal manometry had normal RT, including 4/7 nutcracker esophagus, 3/3 hypertrensive LES, 1/1 scleroderma and 1/8 NSMD. Sensitivity of RT was 70% and specificity 77%. The false positive rate was 15% and the false negative rate 39%. The authors conclude the following: 1) RT identifies patients with absent or impaired peristalsis; 2) There is substantial incidence of false negatives among patients with manometric disorders but normal peristalsis; and 3) Abnormal RT did occur in some patients with normal menometry. RT using a liquid bolus may not be sensitive enough as a screening test for EMD, but it may be an important adjunct to manometry.

  5. Rhegmatogenous retinal detachment: a reappraisal of its pathophysiology and treatment.

    PubMed

    Kuhn, Ferenc; Aylward, Bill

    2014-01-01

    chorioretinal scar around the tear and aided by some form of intraocular tamponade. The main function of the tamponade is not to temporarily cover the break but to significantly reduce the intraocular currents and thus prevent fluid entry through the break until the chorioretinal adhesion will have become sufficiently strong to seal the retinal edge around the tear; postoperative positioning is therefore not as important as currently assumed. PMID:24158005

  6. Sentinel lymph node mapping in breast cancer: a critical reappraisal of the internal mammary chain issue.

    PubMed

    Manca, G; Volterrani, D; Mazzarri, S; Duce, V; Svirydenka, A; Giuliano, A; Mariani, G

    2014-06-01

    Although, like the axilla, the internal mammary nodes (IMNs) are a first-echelon nodal drainage site in breast cancer, the importance of their treatment has long been debated. Seminal randomized trials have failed to demonstrate a survival benefit from surgical IMN dissection, and several retrospective studies have shown that IMNs are rarely the first site of recurrence. However, the recent widespread adoption of sentinel lymph node (SLN) biopsy has stimulated a critical reappraisal of such early results. Furthermore, the higher proportion of screening-detected cancers, improved imaging and techniques (i.e., lymphoscintigraphy for radioguided SLN biopsy) make it possible to visualize lymphatic drainage to the IMNs. The virtually systematic application of adjuvant systemic and/or loco-regional radiotherapy encourages re-examination of the significance of IMN metastases. Moreover, randomized trials testing the value of postmastectomy irradiation and a meta-analysis of 78 randomized trials have provided high levels of evidence that local-regional tumor control is associated with long-term survival improvements. This benefit was limited to trials that used systemic chemotherapy, which was not routinely administered in the earlier studies. However, the contribution from IMN treatment is unclear. Lymphoscintigraphic studies have shown that a significant proportion of breast cancers have primary drainage to the IMNs, including approximately 30% of medial tumors and 15% of lateral tumors. In the few studies where IMN biopsy was performed, 20% of sentinel IMNs were metastatic. The risk of IMN involvement is higher in patients with medial tumors and positive axillary nodes. IMN metastasis has prognostic significance, as recognized by its inclusion in the American Joint Committee on Cancer staging criteria, and seems to have similar prognostic importance as axillary nodal involvement. Although routine IMN evaluation might be indicated, it has not been routinely performed

  7. Reappraisal of the extinction of Canariomys bravoi, the giant rat from Tenerife (Canary Islands)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rando, Juan Carlos; Alcover, Josep Antoni; Galván, Bertila; Navarro, Juan Francisco

    2014-06-01

    All the Quaternary endemic rodents of the Canary Islands are currently extinct. The Lava Mouse Malpaisomys insularis inhabited the easternmost islands, whereas the giant rats Canariomys bravoi and Canariomys tamarani lived in the central islands of Tenerife and Gran Canaria, respectively. Bones of C. bravoi have appeared in archaeological sites together with shellfish and butchery remains. Traditionally, they have been considered as an evidence of the sporadic consumption of C. bravoi by the aboriginal people, in some instances as recently as the time of the first European contact (14th century AD). Accordingly, the extinction of C. bravoi has been linked to the European colonization of Tenerife. The plausibility of this extinction date has been explored through new radiocarbon dates obtained on selected C. bravoi bones and through a reappraisal of the published dates. Our analysis allowed us to establish an earlier last documented occurrence age for C. bravoi, prior to the third century cal BC, much earlier than previously assumed. The analysis of formerly published 14C dates of archaeological remains from Tenerife shows that samples with confidence intervals (95.54%) that are older or overlap with the last documented record of C. bravoi were performed on materials with large sources of error (such as wood, charcoal or bulk ash-sediments). Conversely, the new radiocarbon dates and analyses presented herein are in agreement with the occurrence of an earlier rapid extinction linked to the first human presence on the island.

  8. An integrative approach to reappraising species validity in Pseudexostoma (Teleostei: Sisoridae).

    PubMed

    Yang, Kunfeng; Jiang, Wansheng; Chen, Xiaoyong; Zhou, Wei; Yang, Junxing

    2016-01-01

    The catfish genus Pseudexostoma (Sisoridae) currently contains three species: P. yunnanensis from the upper Irrawaddy River (Dayingjiang), and P. brachysoma and P. longipterus from the upper Salween River (Nujiang). We adopted an integrative approach combining both morphology-based (traditional measurements, truss-based and geometric morphometrics, fin skeleton examination and X-ray photography) and molecular approaches (genetic distances, haplotype network, phylogenetic relationships) to reappraise species validity in Pseudexostoma. Our results showed that P. longipterus cannot be distinguished from P. brachysoma from either morphological or molecular analyses, and that the former name should thus be considered a junior synonym of the latter. The two remaining geographically isolated species, P. yunnanensis and P. brachysoma, showed a distinct genetic distance equated to the typical 2% sequence divergence threshold delineating different species of fishes, and with a divergence time dated to approximately 1.22-2.14 million years ago. Although P. yunnanensis and P. brachysoma share some morphological characters that appear gradually diverging (body depth at anus and interorbital distance), some degree of overlap still exists, we suggest the two species are distinct based on the total evidence. PMID:27615890

  9. A reappraisal of classical archetype theory and its implications for theory and practice.

    PubMed

    Merchant, John

    2009-06-01

    This paper begins with an overview of contemporary approaches to archetype theory and notes the radical nature of certain deductions. Some argue that there is no 'archetype-as-such' as a pre-existing entity at the core of a complex driving its formation whilst the findings of current neuroscience are calling into question one very thing on which the classical theory is built--innatism. Knox's argument for image schemas raises the question as to the extent to which archetypes can be conceived in any preformationist sense. The question is then posed--to what extent can Jung's classical theory of archetypes be read in light of these current models? The case examples Jung uses to evidence the existence of archetypes, his explications of synchronicity and his own Philemon experience are then reappraised. The conclusion is drawn that it is difficult to evidence the existence of autonomous archetypes unrelated to personal affective experience. Not only would this be expected by emergent/developmental models of archetype but it can explain many of Jung's disjunctive statements about archetype constellation; the difficulties in separating personal and collective psychic content and Jung's apparent Lamarckianism. The implications of these models for theory, clinical practice and analyst training are then offered for discussion. PMID:19531124

  10. A reappraisal of the 1835 eruption of Cosigüina and its atmospheric impact

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Self, S.; Rampino, M. R.; Carr, M. J.

    1989-10-01

    In the “great” January 1835 eruption of Cosigüina volcano, Nicaragua, andesitic magma and lithic material were erupted over a period of at least three days. Proximal facies consist of clastogenic lava, scoria-fall, and lithic ash-fall produced by phreatomagmatic to vulcanian or plinian activity, together with surge deposits and lithic block-falls. Pyroclastic flow deposits covered some flanks of the volcano and entered the sea in the Gulf of Fonseca. Little record exists of the distal ash-fall, thus the total bulk volume erupted can only be roughly constrained to 2.9 5.6 km3. Furthermore, the amount of juvenile material is thought to be small. A recent study of volatiles in 1835 scoria suggests sulfur release from the magma was negligible. This reappraisal indicates that the Cosigüina eruption probably had little global climatic impact. Despite its violent nature, the magnitude of the eruption was modest. The eruption occurred too late to initiate the Northern Hemisphere cooling trend form 1828 1836. Dry fogs and other atmospheric optical phenomena usually observed after eruptions that contribute significantly to the stratospheric aerosol burden were not recorded after 1835.

  11. Functional connectivity of the amygdala and subgenual cingulate during cognitive reappraisal of emotions in children with MDD history is associated with rumination.

    PubMed

    Murphy, Eric R; Barch, Deanna M; Pagliaccio, David; Luby, Joan L; Belden, Andy C

    2016-04-01

    Major Depressive Disorder (MDD) is characterized by poor emotion regulation. Rumination, a maladaptive strategy for dealing with negative emotions, is common in MDD, and is associated with impaired inhibition and cognitive inflexibility that may contribute to impaired emotion regulation abilities. However, it is unclear whether rumination is differently associated with emotion regulation in individuals with MDD history (MDD-ever) and healthy individuals. In this study, children (8-15 years old) performed a cognitive reappraisal task in which they attempted to decrease their emotional response to sad images during fMRI scanning. Functional connectivity (FC) between both the amygdala and subgenual anterior cingulate (sACC) increased with cortical control regions during reappraisal as rumination increased in MDD-ever, while connectivity between those regions decreased during reappraisal as rumination increased in healthy controls. As the role of cortical control regions is to down-regulate activity of emotion processing regions during reappraisal, this suggests that rumination in MDD-ever, but not controls, is associated with inefficient regulation. This finding suggests that rumination may be particularly associated with poor emotion regulation in MDD-ever, and may also indicate qualitative group differences in whether rumination is maladaptive. These differences in rumination may provide important insight into depressive risk and potential avenues for treatment. PMID:26746624

  12. Reappraising prosthodontic treatment goals for older, partially dentate people: Part II. Case for a sustainable dentition?

    PubMed

    Omar, Ridwaan

    2004-07-01

    The second of this two-part series, on the theme of estimating prosthodontic treatment needs and goals for older, partially dentate people, examines the roles of patient-perceived functional impairment, treatment outcome and changing demographic profiles in influencing these goals. In contradistinction with the lack of compelling evidence for the basis of the traditional, morphologically-driven prosthodontic treatment strategy, the evidence that the assessment of treatment need should take greater account of individuals' felt oral functional concerns, and thereby assuming a more problem-oriented, outcomes-based approach to prosthodontic decision-making, is gaining strength. Furthermore, the current blueprint guiding prosthodontic planning and procedures cannot be exempt from the far-reaching changes in society brought about by new economic and social realities, and will need to transform itself in the light of new evidence. How these realities translate in a developing country context is not certain, but it is known that inequalities in access to, and the provision of healthcare are related to socio-economic factors, be they prevailing or of residual nature from past structural conditions. Such conditions adversely affect peoples' health status and add urgency to the pursuit of viable and appropriate management strategies. In the context of a reappraisal of current prosthodontic paradigms, the shortened dental arch concept is presented as a potentially compelling strategy for the appropriate management of the ageing, partially dentate patients in South Africa, whose access to healthcare is inequitable. Since dental and oral health status is variable, the management strategy highlighted here should be seen as one, albeit an important one, within a range of available options. PMID:15457908

  13. Acute middle cerebral artery occlusion: reappraisal of the role of endovascular revascularization.

    PubMed

    Cohen, José E

    2013-02-01

    Intravenous tissue plasminogen activator was the first successful stroke therapy in acute ischaemic stroke, after innumerable failed attempts at neuroprotection and neurorestoration. However, intravenous tissue type plasminogen activator has been shown to be effective in recanalizing middle cerebral artery occlusions in only about one-third of cases. The natural history of untreated acute middle cerebral artery occlusion is poor, leading to long-term disability in >70% and mortality in 20%. Recanalization alone is not the name of the game. Only timely, very rapid recanalization, achieved within minutes or at most a few hours after stroke has occurred, before irreversible brain damage develops, is effective. Is intravenous tissue type plasminogen activator the best available option we have for these patients? With recently introduced stent-based thrombectomy devices, neurointerventionalists have achieved complete recanalization rates of more than 90% in middle cerebral artery and 'T' occlusions, with a mean procedural recanalization time of less than one-hour and negligible complication rates. More than 80% of patients less than 80 years of age who were treated within eight-hours after stroke onset in our centre achieved a modified Rankin score of 0-2 at three-month follow-up. The site of arterial occlusion is a factor driving the choice between a standard intravenous tissue type plasminogen activator protocol and an alternative intervention such as intravenous and/or mechanical thrombolysis to achieve early recanalization. The role of intravenous tissue type plasminogen activator must be redefined in major occlusions, and the indications for endovascular therapy must also be reappraised. PMID:23336262

  14. A Pilot Randomized Trial of a Cognitive Reappraisal Obesity Prevention Program

    PubMed Central

    Stice, Eric; Yokum, Sonja; Burger, Kyle; Rohde, Paul; Shaw, Heather; Gau, Jeff M.

    2014-01-01

    Background/Objectives Evaluate a selective obesity prevention program promoting use of cognitive reappraisals to reduce reward region response and increase inhibitory region response to high-fat/high-sugar foods and reduce intake of fat and sugar to prevent blunted reward region response to intake of such foods. Subjects/Methods Young adults at risk for future weight gain by virtue of weight concerns (N = 148) were randomized to this new prevention program (Minding Health), an alternative prevention program promoting participant-driven gradual reductions in caloric intake and increases in physical activity (Healthy Weight), or an obesity education video control condition, completing assessments at pre, post, and 6-month follow-up. A subset of Minding Health and control participants completed an fMRI scan at pre and post assessing neural response to images of high-fat/sugar foods and to receipt and anticipated receipt of a high-fat/sugar food. Results Minding Health participants showed significantly greater reductions in body fat than controls and caloric intake from fat and sugar than Healthy Weight participants. However, Healthy Weight participants showed greater reductions in BMI and eating disorder symptoms than Minding Health participants and Minding Health participants showed greater activation of an inhibitory control region and reduced activation of an attention/expectation region in response to palatable food images relative to pretest and controls. Conclusions Although the Minding Health intervention produced some of the hypothesized effects, it did not produce lasting reductions in body fat or BMI and showed limited effects on neural responsivity, implying it will be vital to increase the efficacy of this new prevention program. PMID:25447334

  15. Detaching from the negative by reappraisal: the role of right superior frontal gyrus (BA9/32)

    PubMed Central

    Falquez, Rosalux; Couto, Blas; Ibanez, Agustin; Freitag, Martin T.; Berger, Moritz; Arens, Elisabeth A.; Lang, Simone; Barnow, Sven

    2014-01-01

    The ability to reappraise the emotional impact of events is related to long-term mental health. Self-focused reappraisal (REAPPself), i.e., reducing the personal relevance of the negative events, has been previously associated with neural activity in regions near right medial prefrontal cortex, but rarely investigated among brain-damaged individuals. Thus, we aimed to examine the REAPPself ability of brain-damaged patients and healthy controls considering structural atrophies and gray matter intensities, respectively. Twenty patients with well-defined cortex lesions due to an acquired circumscribed tumor or cyst and 23 healthy controls performed a REAPPself task, in which they had to either observe negative stimuli or decrease emotional responding by REAPPself. Next, they rated the impact of negative arousal and valence. REAPPself ability scores were calculated by subtracting the negative picture ratings after applying REAPPself from the ratings of the observing condition. The scores of the patients were included in a voxel-based lesion-symptom mapping (VLSM) analysis to identify deficit related areas (ROI). Then, a ROI group-wise comparison was performed. Additionally, a whole-brain voxel-based-morphometry (VBM) analysis was run, in which healthy participant's REAPPself ability scores were correlated with gray matter intensities. Results showed that (1) regions in the right superior frontal gyrus (SFG), comprising the right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (BA9) and the right dorsal anterior cingulate cortex (BA32), were associated with patient's impaired down-regulation of arousal, (2) a lesion in the depicted ROI occasioned significant REAPPself impairments, (3) REAPPself ability of controls was linked with increased gray matter intensities in the ROI regions. Our findings show for the first time that the neural integrity and the structural volume of right SFG regions (BA9/32) might be indispensable for REAPPself. Implications for neurofeedback research are

  16. The Cognitive Building Blocks of Emotion Regulation: Ability to Update Working Memory Moderates the Efficacy of Rumination and Reappraisal on Emotion

    PubMed Central

    Pe, Madeline Lee; Raes, Filip; Kuppens, Peter

    2013-01-01

    The ability to regulate emotions is a critical component of healthy emotional functioning. Therefore, it is important to determine factors that contribute to the efficacy of emotion regulation. The present article examined whether the ability to update emotional information in working memory is a predictor of the efficacy of rumination and reappraisal on affective experience both at the trait level (Study 1) and in daily life (Study 2). In both studies, results revealed that the relationship between use of reappraisal and high arousal negative emotions was moderated by updating ability. Specifically, use of reappraisal was associated with decreased high arousal negative emotions for participants with high updating ability, while no significant relationship was found for those with low updating ability. In addition, both studies also revealed that the relationship between rumination and high arousal negative emotions was moderated by updating ability. In general, use of rumination was associated with elevated high arousal negative emotions. However, this relationship was blunted for participants with high updating ability. That is, use of rumination was associated with less elevated high arousal negative emotions for participants with high updating ability. These results identify the ability to update emotional information in working memory as a crucial process modulating the efficacy of emotion regulation efforts. PMID:23874872

  17. Geochemistry and geochronology of Tobago Island: a preliminary re-appraisal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neill, I.; Kerr, A. C.; Snoke, A. W.; Hastie, A.; Pindell, J. L.; Chamberlain, K.; Millar, I. L.

    2009-12-01

    A unifying model to constrain the sources, polarity and geometry of the Great Arc of the Caribbean during the Jurassic-Cretaceous remains elusive. The arc was the leading edge of the Caribbean plate prior to, and during, its late Cretaceous tectonic emplacement between the Americas1,2. Tobago Island in the SE Caribbean has long been considered a partial cross-section through at least two generations of mid-Cretaceous Great Arc magmatism3. ICP-OES/MS and Nd-Hf-Pb radiogenic isotope whole rock determinations are combined with three new U-Pb zircon LA-ICP-MS and several existing mineral ages to present a geochemical and geochronological re-appraisal of the origin of the igneous suites on Tobago. The North Coast Schist (>115 Ma3) is a suite of tholeiitic mafic-felsic tuffs and volcanic breccias with variable Nb-Ta, Ti and slight Th depletions indicative of an arc or back-arc origin. This suite was deformed and metamorphosed to greenschist facies prior to the formation of the Tobago pluton and volcanic suite. The pluton (104±1 Ma3) comprises peridotite cumulates, gabbro-diorites and hornblende pegmatites. It is cogenetic with the volcanic suite, which consists of mafic volcanic breccias, tuffs and lavas (~104 Ma3), and a suite of mafic dykes (~105-91 Ma3). The volcano-plutonic suite has a tholeiitic island arc composition and appears geochemically similar to the North Coast Schist. A 6 km-long tonalite body cross-cuts the pluton and has a trondhjemitic composition, with high Si, Al, La/Yb and Sr/Y, low MgO, Y and Nb. It may be derived from partial melting of an enriched, garnet-bearing basaltic or amphibolitic source region. Furthermore, several mafic-to-granitic dykes have non-arc highly enriched signatures consistent with a plume source and may be related to the ~90 Ma Caribbean Oceanic Plateau2. The data indicate a more complex magmatic history for the igneous rocks of Tobago than suggested by previous studies3 and thus they require a more detailed tectonomagmatic

  18. Could Carlos Chagas' assumption on the relationship between goiter and chronic Chagas heart disease be correct? A historical reappraisal.

    PubMed

    Bestetti, Reinaldo B; Cardinalli-Neto, Augusto; Restini, Carolina B A; Couto, Lucelio B

    2016-01-01

    In 1910, Chagas divided the clinical manifestations of the chronic form of Chagas disease according to heart, Central Nervous System, and thyroid involvement, particularly the presence of goiter. Chagas emphasized the association of goiter with poor houses infested with kissing bugs, the similarity of the clinical picture with that of patients underwent partial thyroidectomy, and with the presence of thyroid sclerosis (inflammation) on histological examination. In addition, Chagas observed that all people living in poor houses infested by sucking bugs had goiter, contrasting with persons who lived in the same region, drinking the same water, but living in good houses, which did not have goiter. Furthermore, Chagas stressed the fact that people without any evidence of thyroid disease that migrated to live in poor houses in areas infested by sucking bugs developed thyroid disease some time later. Finally, and more importantly, Chagas emphasized the association of goiter with cardiac abnormalities in 80% of patients with chronic Chagas heart disease. Despite this, other authors working in different regions did not confirm such an association. A reappraisal of data from a work published in 1949 clearly shows that the presence of goiter was statistically associated with chronic Chagas heart disease and with chronic Chagas disease. Our paper highlights once more the grandiosity of Chagas' work, which has been proved to be correct even in the history of goiter, and justifies our claim for a posthumous Nobel Prize inasmuch as his work was not perceived by the Karolinska Institute. PMID:26433162

  19. Pathology of the adrenal cortex: a reappraisal of the past 25 years focusing on adrenal cortical tumors.

    PubMed

    Papotti, Mauro; Duregon, Eleonora; Volante, Marco; McNicol, Anne Marie

    2014-03-01

    A reappraisal of the major advances in the diagnostic pathology of adrenal cortical lesions and tumors in the last 25 years is presented, with special reference to the definition of malignancy in primary adrenal cancer and its variants. Slightly more than 25 years ago, Weiss proposed his diagnostic scoring system for adrenal cortical carcinoma. This represented a milestone for adrenal pathologists and the starting point for further modifications of the system, either through minor changes in the scoring procedure itself or concentrating on some particular Weiss criterion such as mitotic index, integrated into alternative scoring schemes or algorithms that are currently under validation. Improvements in diagnostic immunohistochemistry have led to the identification of markers of cortical origin, such as Melan-A, alpha-inhibin, and SF-1 and of prognostic factors in carcinoma, such as the Ki-67 proliferation index and SF-1 itself. With regard to hyperplastic conditions, genetic investigations have allowed the association of the majority of cases of primary pigmented nodular adrenocortical disease (PPNAD) in Carney complex to mutations in the gene encoding the regulatory subunit 1A of protein kinase A (PRKAR1A). Other hereditary conditions are also associated with adrenal cortical tumors, including the Li-Fraumeni, Beckwith-Wiedemann, Gardner, multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1, and neurofibromatosis type 1 syndromes. Moreover, several advances have been made in the knowledge of the molecular background of sporadic tumors, and a number of molecules/genes are of particular interest as potential diagnostic and prognostic biomarkers. PMID:24382573

  20. Broadening the definition of resilience and "reappraising" the use of appetitive motivation.

    PubMed

    Soenke, Melissa; O'Connor, Mary-Frances; Greenberg, Jeff

    2015-01-01

    Kalisch et al.'s PASTOR model synthesizes current knowledge of resilience, focusing on mechanisms as a common pathway to outcomes and highlighting neuroscience as a method for exploring this. We propose the model broaden its definition of resiliency to include positive indices of recovery, include positive affect as a mechanism, and approach motivation as distinct from overcoming aversive motivation. PMID:26785906

  1. A reappraisal of the Ortolani examination in children with developmental dysplasia of the hip.

    PubMed

    Lipton, Glenn E; Guille, James T; Altiok, Haluk; Bowen, J Richard; Harcke, H Theodore

    2007-01-01

    The Ortolani maneuver is currently accepted as an accurate test to detect developmental dislocation of the hip. However, the clinical sign does not always correlate with the findings seen on ultrasound. The ultrasound-documented position of the femoral head was correlated with the result of the clinical Ortolani examination to better understand the value and validity of the Ortolani test. Two populations were compared: hips with a positive Ortolani sign and hips with a negative Ortolani sign but with an ultrasound-documented dislocated hip. In the Ortolani-positive group, there were 45 patients (53 affected hips), and in the Ortolani-negative group, there were 24 patients (25 dislocated hips). Position of the femoral head at rest, side of involvement, and sex showed no significant difference between the Ortolani-positive and -negative groups. Mean age of patients in the Ortolani-positive group was less (mean, 28 days) and was statistically different (P < 0.05) from those in the Ortolani-negative group (mean, 91 days). In conclusion, dislocated hips that show similar femoral head movement can produce an Ortolani-positive examination in a younger patient and an Ortolani-negative examination in an older patient. The classic clinical method described by Ortolani for detecting hip dislocation in which the thigh of the affected hip is abducted and the femoral head was thought to be reducing into the acetabulum can be erroneous. All Ortolani-positive hips were abnormal, as the sensation characteristic of a positive Ortolani examination may be felt without full reduction and, in some cases, with no reduction, as documented by ultrasound. PMID:17195793

  2. Reappraising the Importance of Class in Higher Education Entry and Persistence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Field, John; Morgan-Klein, Natalie

    2013-01-01

    Social class is a major determining factor of people's life chances. Much sociology-based research shows that socio-economic position is still one of the best predictors of who will achieve success, prosperity and social status and, in particular, who will enjoy the highest levels of educational outcomes. Survey data and qualitative studies…

  3. A molecular phylogenetic reappraisal of the Hysteriaceae, Mytilinidiaceae and Gloniaceae (Pleosporomycetidae, Dothideomycetes) with keys to world species

    PubMed Central

    Boehm, E.W.A.; Mugambi, G.K.; Miller, A.N.; Huhndorf, S.M.; Marincowitz, S.; Spatafora, J.W.; Schoch, C.L.

    2009-01-01

    A reappraisal of the phylogenetic integrity of bitunicate ascomycete fungi belonging to or previously affiliated with the Hysteriaceae, Mytilinidiaceae, Gloniaceae and Patellariaceae is presented, based on an analysis of 121 isolates and four nuclear genes, the ribosomal large and small subunits, transcription elongation factor 1 and the second largest RNA polymerase II subunit. A geographically diverse and high density taxon sampling strategy was employed, including multiple isolates/species from the following genera: Anteaglonium (6/4), Encephalographa (1/1), Farlowiella (3/1), Gloniopsis (8/4), Glonium (4/2), Hysterium (12/5), Hysterobrevium (14/3), Hysterographium (2/1), Hysteropatella (2/2), Lophium (4/2), Mytilinidion (13/10), Oedohysterium (5/3), Ostreichnion (2/2), Patellaria (1/1), Psiloglonium (11/3), Quasiconcha (1/1), Rhytidhysteron (8/3), and 24 outgroup taxa. Sequence data indicate that although the Hysteriales are closely related to the Pleosporales, sufficient branch support exists for their separation into separate orders within the Pleosporomycetidae. The Mytilinidiales are more distantly related within the subclass and show a close association with the Gloniaceae. Although there are examples of concordance between morphological and molecular data, these are few. Molecular data instead support the premise of a large number of convergent evolutionary lineages, which do not correspond to previously held assumptions of synapomorphy relating to spore morphology. Thus, within the Hysteriaceae, the genera Gloniopsis, Glonium, Hysterium and Hysterographium are highly polyphyletic. This necessitated the transfer of two species of Hysterium to Oedohysterium gen. nov. (Od. insidens comb. nov. and Od. sinense comb. nov.), the description of a new species, Hysterium barrianum sp. nov., and the transfer of two species of Gloniopsis to Hysterobrevium gen. nov. (Hb. smilacis comb. nov. and Hb. constrictum comb. nov.). While Hysterographium, with the type Hg

  4. Protein Phylogenies and Signature Sequences: A Reappraisal of Evolutionary Relationships among Archaebacteria, Eubacteria, and Eukaryotes

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Radhey S.

    1998-01-01

    The presence of shared conserved insertion or deletions (indels) in protein sequences is a special type of signature sequence that shows considerable promise for phylogenetic inference. An alternative model of microbial evolution based on the use of indels of conserved proteins and the morphological features of prokaryotic organisms is proposed. In this model, extant archaebacteria and gram-positive bacteria, which have a simple, single-layered cell wall structure, are termed monoderm prokaryotes. They are believed to be descended from the most primitive organisms. Evidence from indels supports the view that the archaebacteria probably evolved from gram-positive bacteria, and I suggest that this evolution occurred in response to antibiotic selection pressures. Evidence is presented that diderm prokaryotes (i.e., gram-negative bacteria), which have a bilayered cell wall, are derived from monoderm prokaryotes. Signature sequences in different proteins provide a means to define a number of different taxa within prokaryotes (namely, low G+C and high G+C gram-positive, Deinococcus-Thermus, cyanobacteria, chlamydia-cytophaga related, and two different groups of Proteobacteria) and to indicate how they evolved from a common ancestor. Based on phylogenetic information from indels in different protein sequences, it is hypothesized that all eukaryotes, including amitochondriate and aplastidic organisms, received major gene contributions from both an archaebacterium and a gram-negative eubacterium. In this model, the ancestral eukaryotic cell is a chimera that resulted from a unique fusion event between the two separate groups of prokaryotes followed by integration of their genomes. PMID:9841678

  5. Clinicopathologic Spectrum of Gastrointestinal T-cell Lymphoma: Reappraisal Based on T-cell Receptor Immunophenotypes.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Tsutomu; Yamamoto, Hideko; Elsayed, Ahmed Ali; Satou, Akira; Asano, Naoko; Kohno, Kei; Kinoshita, Tomohiro; Niwa, Yasumasa; Goto, Hidemi; Nakamura, Shigeo; Kato, Seiichi

    2016-06-01

    The differential diagnosis of primary gastrointestinal EBV T-cell lymphoma (GITCL) includes enteropathy-associated T-cell lymphoma (EATL), peripheral T-cell lymphoma, not otherwise specified, adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma, and anaplastic large cell lymphoma. Type II EATL is considered to be a tumor of intraepithelial lymphocytes. However, the evaluation of intraepithelial lymphocytosis by biopsy specimens is challenging, which poses a diagnostic problem between the EATL and peripheral T-cell lymphoma, not otherwise specified. This situation requested us to establish a pragmatic diagnostic approach for the classification of GITCL. We identified 42 cases of GITCL and analyzed clinicopathologic features, especially addressing their T-cell receptor (TCR) phenotype. Nine (21%) of 42 GITCL cases were positive for TCRγ protein expression. Among these TCRγ cases, TCRβ expression or not was detected in 5 and 4, respectively, but resulted in no further clinicopathologic differences. TCRβ positivity without TCRγ expression (βγ) was seen in 9 GITCL patients (21%). Twenty-four patients (57%) were negative for TCRβ and γ expression (βγ). Compared with TCRβγ or βγ type, TCRγ cases were characterized by exclusive involvement of intestinal sites (100% vs. 11%, P<0.001; 100% vs. 58%, P=0.032, respectively), but not of stomach (0% vs. 78%, P=0.002; 0% vs. 38%, P=0.039, respectively). Notably, TCRγ positivity was an independent unfavorable prognostic factor among our GITCL patients (P<0.001). Considering our results, TCRγ GITCL, that is, intestinal γδ T-cell lymphoma, appears to constitute a distinct disease entity. PMID:26975035

  6. Informal caregiving and its impact on health: a reappraisal from population-based studies.

    PubMed

    Roth, David L; Fredman, Lisa; Haley, William E

    2015-04-01

    Considerable research and public discourse on family caregiving portrays it as a stressful and burdensome experience with serious negative health consequences. A landmark study by Schulz and Beach that reported higher mortality rates for strained spouse caregivers has been widely cited as evidence for the physical health risks of caregiving and is often a centerpiece of advocacy for improved caregiver services. However, 5 subsequent population-based studies have found reduced mortality and extended longevity for caregivers as a whole compared with noncaregiving controls. Most caregivers also report benefits from caregiving, and many report little or no caregiving-related strain. Policy reports, media portrayals, and many research reports commonly present an overly dire picture of the health risks associated with caregiving and largely ignore alternative positive findings. As the pool of traditional family caregivers declines in the coming years, a more balanced and updated portrayal of the health effects of caregiving is needed to encourage more persons to take on caregiving roles, and to better target evidence-based services to the subgroup of caregivers who are highly strained or otherwise at risk. Recommendations are discussed for research that will better integrate and clarify both the negative and potential positive health effects of informal caregiving. PMID:26035608

  7. The Concept of Thinking: A Reappraisal of Ryle’s Work

    PubMed Central

    Das, Nilanjan

    2011-01-01

    In The Concept of Mind, Ryle’s official position seems to be that mental acts cannot be intrinsically private. In The Concept of Mind as well as his later work on thinking, Ryle views thinking as an activity that terminates in a thought, which is a state of being prepared for a performance. Thinking is characterised by what Ryle calls intention-parasitism; for it is, insofar as its underlying motive is concerned, parasitic on the final performance which will take place later. Ryle shows that acts of thinking, owing to their intention-parasitism, can be described in a tactical idiom, with reference to the final performance for which it was intended. However, this framework of intention-parasitism is not adequate to describe all instances of thinking in all their aspects, which therefore remain inextricably private. The task of this paper is to accommodate such privacy within the theoretical framework suggested in The Concept of Mind. PMID:21694977

  8. Fluorescence In Situ Hybridization for Melanoma Diagnosis: A Review and a Reappraisal.

    PubMed

    Ferrara, Gerardo; De Vanna, Anna Chiara

    2016-04-01

    Although conventional histopathological examination is the undisputable mainstay for the diagnosis of melanocytic skin neoplasms, fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) has the potential to provide important information to morphologically challenging cases. The standard melanoma FISH test targeting RREB1 (6p25), MYB (6q23), CCND1 (11q13), and centromere 6 is an effective compromise between cost, technical complexity, and sensitivity. The authors use the standard FISH-positivity as a tie-breaker for challenging melanocytic neoplasms mainly in a non-Spitzoid morphologic context because the currently available test leaves several unresolved issues: namely, a relatively low diagnostic accuracy in morphologically ambiguous melanocytic neoplasms; a relatively low sensitivity and specificity in Spitzoid neoplasms; and the occurrence of false positives due to tetraploidy in Spitz nevi and in nevi with an atypical epithelioid component. Under investigation is currently a new melanoma probe cocktail targeting RREB1 (6p25), C-MYC (8q24), CDKN2A (9p21), and CCND1 (11q13). However, CDKN2A is a significant parameter only if lost in homozygosis, and this complicates the interpretation of the results. Furthermore, the new melanoma probe cocktail has been tested on cases of atypical Spitzoid proliferations with fatal outcomes which at present are too few to allow definite conclusions. The authors propose the implementation of a FISH algorithm (standard 4-probe test followed by either C-MYC or CDKN2A/centromere 9) to assist the histopathological diagnosis and minimize the technical problems. Nevertheless, because the diagnostic accuracy of the FISH technique is far from being absolute, the overall clinicopathological context must always guide the decision-making process about the management of morphobiologically ambiguous melanocytic proliferations. PMID:26999337

  9. So-called massive retinal gliosis: A critical review and reappraisal.

    PubMed

    Jakobiec, Frederick A; Thanos, Aristomenis; Stagner, Anna M; Grossniklaus, Hans E; Proia, Alan D

    2016-01-01

    Massive retinal gliosis, a nonneoplastic retinal glial proliferation, was first described in detail over 25 years ago, before the era of immunohistochemistry, in a series of 38 cases-to which can be added 30 case reports or small series (no more than 3 cases) subsequently. We analyze a new series of 3 nontumoral intraretinal glioses and 15 cases of tumoral retinal gliosis, not all of which, strictly speaking, were massive. The data from this series are compared with the findings in previously published cases. Included are 2 cases of massive retinal gliosis diagnosed from evisceration specimens. In reviewing all published and current cases, we were able to establish 3 subgroups of retinal tumoral glioses rather than a single "massive" category: focal nodular gliosis, submassive gliosis, and massive gliosis. Among 43 reported cases, including the present series, but excluding the previous large series of 38 cases in which substantial clinical data were omitted, there were 19 men and 24 women. Their mean and median ages were 36.2 years and 36 years, respectively, with a range of 2 to 79 years. All lesions were composed of mitotically quiet, compact spindled fibrous astrocytes devoid of an Alcian blue-positive myxoid matrix. The most common associated ocular conditions were phthisis bulbi and congenital diseases or malformations. Histopathologically, all 3 tumoral categories were accompanied by progressively more extensive fibrous and osseous metaplasia of the pigment epithelium, the latter forming a clinically and diagnostically useful, almost continuous, outer rim of eggshell calcification in the submassive and massive categories that should be detectable with appropriate imaging studies. In decreasing order of frequency, microcysts and macrocysts, vascular sclerosis, exudates, calcospherites, and Rosenthal fibers were observed among the proliferating fibrous astrocytes. Immunohistochemistry was positive for glial fibrillary acidic protein in all cases and nestin

  10. Reappraisal of the serotonin 5-HT(1B) receptor gene in alcoholism: of mice and men.

    PubMed

    Gorwood, Philip; Aissi, Franck; Batel, Philippe; Adès, Jean; Cohen-Salmon, Charles; Hamon, Michel; Boni, Claudette; Lanfumey, Laurence

    2002-01-01

    Because pharmacological and genetic data supported the idea that serotonin receptors of the 5-HT(1B) type can play a modulatory role in alcohol consumption in both human and rodents, the 5-HT(1B) receptor gene is considered as a candidate gene for alcohol dependence. However, contradictory results have been reported as a positive association between alcohol dependence, and either the 861C or the 861G allele of the G861C polymorphism of the 5-HT(1B) receptor gene can be found in the literature. Further investigations in a population of 136 male alcoholics compared with 72 male control subjects demonstrated that none of these alleles was actually associated with alcohol dependence. In addition, in contrast with previous results of the literature, ethanol intake under free choice conditions (i.e., ethanol solution vs. water) was found to be similar in 5-HT(1B)-/- knock mice and paired wild-type controls. The 5-HT(1B) receptor gene may thus not be a key component in the genetic background underlying alcohol dependence in human and alcohol preference in rodents, although these results should be considered as preliminary according to the small size of our sample. PMID:11827742

  11. How does Stroop interference change with practice? A reappraisal from the musical Stroop paradigm.

    PubMed

    Grégoire, Laurent; Perruchet, Pierre; Poulin-Charronnat, Bénédicte

    2015-03-01

    Most earlier studies investigating the evolution of the Stroop effect with the amount of reading practice have reported data consistent with an inverted U-shaped curve, whereby the Stroop effect appears early during reading acquisition, reaches a peak after 2 or 3 years of practice, and then continuously decreases until adulthood. The downward component of the curve suggests that skilled performers would be able to control their performance better than less-skilled performers. However, in these studies, the level of reading practice entirely coincides with age due to obvious practical and ethical constraints, and it is possible that the observed reduction in the Stroop interference is due to a growing ability of older children to inhibit nonrelevant information. In the present study, word reading, as source of interference, was replaced by note naming in musicians. The major advantage is that musical training can be easily decoupled from age. In 2 experiments exploiting the musical Stroop paradigm (Grégoire, Perruchet, & Poulin-Charronnat, 2013), we observed an early appearance of the interference effect, as reported for the color-word and picture-word Stroop tasks, but we did not replicate the inverted U-shaped curve. Experiment 2 revealed a linear and positive relation between the amplitude of the musical Stroop effect and the amount of musical practice across 5 years of musical training. These results suggest that reading practice in itself does not lead to increased control over reading and that the usual pattern of results is most likely due to the strong correlation between age and reading practice. PMID:25068858

  12. A reappraisal of current dosing strategies for intravenous fosfomycin in children and neonates.

    PubMed

    Traunmüller, Friederike; Popovic, Martin; Konz, Karl-Heinz; Vavken, Patrick; Leithner, Andreas; Joukhadar, Christian

    2011-08-01

    The rising incidence of multi-drug resistant bacterial pathogens has renewed interest in the long-known antibacterial fosfomycin. Not least because of its low toxicological potential, there is good clinical experience with intravenous fosfomycin for various Gram-positive and Gram-negative infections in the treatment of children and neonates. However, the current dosing recommendations for intravenous fosfomycin vary widely in paediatric patients. In the present review, we summarized available plasma pharmacokinetic data derived from neonates or children following intravenous administration of fosfomycin. Subsequently, we used this information for recalculation of different dosing strategies and simulated a variety of clinically applied dosing regimens. The percentage of time above the minimal inhibitory concentration (T>MIC) was calculated for each dosing strategy, as this pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic parameter was shown to be most predictive of antimicrobial and clinical success of fosfomycin treatment. Our data corroborate the current practice of selecting the dosage of intravenous fosfomycin primarily on the basis of bodyweight and age in paediatric patients. As with other 'time-dependent' antibacterials, a dosing interval of 6-8 hours should be preferred over 12 hours except for immature neonates. Given a T>MIC target of 40-70%, currently recommended dosing strategies appear to be insufficient in children aged 1-12 years, if pathogens with MICs of ≥32 mg/L are suspected and subjects are presenting with normal renal function. Likewise, the lowest recommended daily dose for neonates and infants (aged up to 12 months) of 100 mg/kg bodyweight of fosfomycin should be considered only for pre-term neonates with a postmenstrual age below 40 weeks. PMID:21740073

  13. A reappraisal of Microthyriaceae

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Hai X.; Schoch, Conrad L.; Boonmee, Saranyaphat; Bahkali, Ali H.; Chomnunti, Putarak

    2012-01-01

    The family Microthyriaceae sensu Lumbsch and Huhndorf 2010 is a poorly known but interesting family comprising 50 genera consisting of foliar epiphytes or saprobes on dead leaves and stems. We re-visited the family based on examinations of generic types where possible. Members are distributed in Aulographaceae, Asterinaceae, Microthyriaceae, Micropeltidaceae and Palmulariaceae and notes are provided on each of these families. Nine genera are transferred from Microthyriaceae to Asterinaceae, and two to Aulographaceae based on the splitting or dissolving nature of the thyriothecia to release ascospores. New sequence data for a number of species and genera are provided. Microthyriaceous members growing on other fungi and lichens differ from Microthyriaceae sensu stricto and the family Trichothyriaceae is reinstated to accommodate these taxa. Other genera of Microthyriaceae belong in Rhytismataceae, Stictidaceae, Venturiales incertae cedis, Dothideomyetes genera incertae cedis, Hypocreales incertae cedis and Ascomycota genera incertae cedis. The family Microthyriaceae is reduced to seven genera characterised by superficial, flattened thyriothecia, with the cells of the upper wall radiating in parallel arrangement from the distinct central ostiolar opening, while the lower peridium is generally poorly developed. Sequence data is provided for five species with thyriothecia and Paramicrothyrium and Neomicrothyrium are described as new genera and Micropeltis zingiberacicola is introduced as a new species. Our phylogenetic analysis underscores the high genetic diversity for thyriotheciate species and there is no clear clade that can be well defined as Microthyriales. Nuclear ribosomal data support multiple polyphyletic lineages within Microthyriaceae and Micropeltidaceae. Some unexpected DNA based phylogenetic relationships such as those between Muyocopron and Saccardoella will require corroboration with more complete taxon sampling as well as additional non ribosomal markers. There are few differences between Aulographaceae, Asterinaceae and Palmulariaceae and these families may need synonymising. PMID:22408574

  14. Archie's law - a reappraisal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glover, Paul W. J.

    2016-07-01

    When scientists apply Archie's first law they often include an extra parameter a, which was introduced about 10 years after the equation's first publication by Winsauer et al. (1952), and which is sometimes called the "tortuosity" or "lithology" parameter. This parameter is not, however, theoretically justified. Paradoxically, the Winsauer et al. (1952) form of Archie's law often performs better than the original, more theoretically correct version. The difference in the cementation exponent calculated from these two forms of Archie's law is important, and can lead to a misestimation of reserves by at least 20 % for typical reservoir parameter values. We have examined the apparent paradox, and conclude that while the theoretical form of the law is correct, the data that we have been analysing with Archie's law have been in error. There are at least three types of systematic error that are present in most measurements: (i) a porosity error, (ii) a pore fluid salinity error, and (iii) a temperature error. Each of these systematic errors is sufficient to ensure that a non-unity value of the parameter a is required in order to fit the electrical data well. Fortunately, the inclusion of this parameter in the fit has compensated for the presence of the systematic errors in the electrical and porosity data, leading to a value of cementation exponent that is correct. The exceptions are those cementation exponents that have been calculated for individual core plugs. We make a number of recommendations for reducing the systematic errors that contribute to the problem and suggest that the value of the parameter a may now be used as an indication of data quality.

  15. The Alcohol Use Disorder and Associated Disabilities Interview Schedule-5 (AUDADIS-5): procedural validity of substance use disorders modules through clinical re-appraisal in a general population sample

    PubMed Central

    Hasin, Deborah S.; Greenstein, Eliana; Aivadyan, Christina; Stohl, Malka; Aharonovich, Efrat; Saha, Tulshi; Goldstein, Rise; Nunes, Edward V.; Jung, Jeesun; Zhang, Haitao; Grant, Bridget F.

    2015-01-01

    Background The purpose of this study was to assess the procedural validity of the substance disorder modules of the lay-administered Alcohol Use Disorder and Associated Disabilities Interview Schedule, Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition (DSM-5) Version (AUDADIS-5) through clinician re-appraisal re-interviews. Methods The study employed a test-retest design among 712 respondents from the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions-III (NESARC-III). A clinician-administered, semi-structured interview, the Psychiatric Research Interview for Substance and Mental Disorders, DSM-5 version (PRISM-5) was used as the re-appraisal. Kappa coeffients indicated concordance of the AUDADIS-5 and PRISM-5 for DSM-5 substance use disorder diagnoses, while intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC) indicated concordance on dimensional scales indicating the DSM-5 criteria count for each disorder. Results With few exceptions, concordance of the AUDADIS-5 and the PRISM-5 for DSM-5 diagnoses of substance use disorders ranged from fair to good (κ=0.40–0.72). Concordance on dimensional scales was excellent (ICC≥0.75) for the majority of DSM-5 SUD diagnoses, and fair to good (ICC=0.43–0.72) for most of the rest. Conclusions As indicated by concordance with a semi-structured clinician-administered re-appraisal, the procedural validity of the AUDADIS-5 DSM-5 substance use disorder diagnoses found in this study indicates that these AUDADIS-5 diagnoses are useful tools in epidemiologic studies. The considerably stronger concordance of the AUDADIS-5 and PRISM-5 dimensional DSM-5 SUD measures supports a current movement to place more emphasis on dimensional measures of psychopathology, and suggests that such measures may be more informative than binary diagnoses for research, and possibly for clinical purposes as well. PMID:25595052

  16. Listening to victims: use of a Critical Incident Reporting System to enable adult victims of childhood sexual abuse to participate in a political reappraisal process in Germany.

    PubMed

    Rassenhofer, Miriam; Spröber, Nina; Schneider, Thekla; Fegert, Jörg M

    2013-09-01

    Recent revelations about the scope and severity of past child sexual abuse in German institutions set off a broad public debate on this issue, and led to the establishment of a politically appointed Round Table committee and an Independent Commissioner whose mandates were to reappraise the issue and develop recommendations for future policies. A media campaign was launched to publicize the establishment of a Critical Incident Reporting System (CIRS) whereby now-adult victims of past abuse could anonymously provide testimonials and let policy makers know what issues were important to them. Respondents could either call a hotline number or communicate by mail or email. The information collected was documented and analyzed by a research team, and the results of interim reports were included in the recommendations of the Independent Commissioner and the Round Table committee. Most of the respondents described severe and repeated occurrences of childhood sexual abuse. For many, priorities were improvements in therapy and counseling services, the abolishment of the statute of limitations on prosecuting offenders, and financial compensation. Based on the recommendations of the Round Table and the Independent Commissioner, two new laws were adopted as well as an action plan and some guidelines. In addition to rules for recompensation of victims in an institutional context a fund for victims of sexual abuse in intrafamilial context was established by the Federal Government. Another effect of this process was raising societal sensitivity to the problem of child sexual abuse. The use of a CIRS enabled those directly affected by childhood sexual abuse to have some input into a political process designed to address this issue. Such an approach could have applicability in other countries or in other domains of public health and other forms of societal conflict as well. PMID:23796600

  17. Toward determining the uncertainties associated with the seismic histories retrieved from in situ 36Cl cosmogenic nuclide fault scarp dating: model reappraisal.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tesson, Jim; Benedetti, Lucilla

    2016-04-01

    How the past seismic activity of faults has varied over the last 20 ky is a crucial information for seismic hazard assessment and for the understanding of fault-interaction processes. Chlorine 36 in situ produced cosmogenic nuclide is increasingly used to retrieve past earthquakes histories on seismically exhumed limestone normal fault-scarps. Schlagenhauf et al. in 2010 developed a modeling code with a forward approach enabling the test of scenarii generated with a priori constraints (number of events, age and slip of events and pre-exposure time). The main shortcomings of this forward approach were the limited number of testable scenarii and the difficulty to derive the associated uncertainties. We present here a reappraisal methodology with an inverse approach using an optimization algorithm. This modelling approach enables 1-exploring the parameter space (age and slip of events), 2-finding the best scenario without a priori constraints and 3-precisely quantifying the associated uncertainties by determining the range of plausible models. Through a series of synthetic tests, we observed that the algorithm revealed a great capacity to constrain event slips and ages in a short computational time (several hours) with an accuracy that can reach 0.1 ky and 0.5 m for the age and slip of exhumation event, respectively. We also explore the influence of the pre-exposure history (amount of 36Cl accumulated when the sampled fault-plane was still buried under the colluvial wedge) and show that it has an important impact on the generated scenarii. This new modeling also allows now to accurately determining this parameter. Finally, the results show that any given [36Cl] profile results in a unique exhumation solution. We then apply this new model to the Magnola fault (Italy) dataset (Schlgenhauf et al. 2011). In agreement the previously published results, our model also results in 3 intense periods of seismic activity. However, the contribution of the pre-exposure history is

  18. Reappraisal of the role of postoperative radiation therapy in patients with pIIIa-N2 non-small cell lung cancer: A propensity score matching analysis

    PubMed Central

    Cao, Qinchen; Zhang, Baozhong; Zhao, Lujun; Wang, Changli; Gong, Liqun; Wang, Jun; Pang, Qingsong; Li, Kai; Liu, Weishuai; Li, Xue; Wang, Peng; Wang, Ping

    2015-01-01

    Background Reappraisal of the role of postoperative radiotherapy in pN2 non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients according to N1 lymph node involvement. Methods A total of 218 pIIIa-N2 NSCLC patients who underwent complete surgical resection with systematic nodal dissections were enrolled. Propensity scores were used for matching N1 involvement. Overall survival (OS) and disease-free survival (DFS) were analyzed retrospectively. Results After matching, pN2b patients without N1 involvement (pN0N2b) exhibited better prognoses than those with N1 involvement (pN1N2b) (5-year OS: 37.5% vs. 7.1%, P = 0.008; 5-year DFS: 31.8% vs. 4.6%, P = 0.004). Similar results were not detected in pN2a disease (5-year OS: 37.8% vs. 31.0%, P = 0.517; 5-year DFS: 27.1% vs. 20.2%, P = 0.788). The five-year OS of patients who received no adjuvant therapy (22 pN2a cases, 7 pN0N2b, 5 pN1N2b), adjuvant chemotherapy alone (74 pN2a cases, 11 pN0N2b, 17 pN1N2b) or chemoradiotherapy (25 pN2a cases, 7 pN0N2b, 6 pN1N2b) were compared (pN2a: 31.3%, 37.0%, and 32.0%, P = 0.808; pN0N2b: 0.0%, 18.2%, and 71.4%, P = 0.108; pN1N2b: 0.0%, 0.0%, and 33.3%, P < 0.0001). The five-year DFS was also analyzed (pN2a: 31.6%, 24.0%, and 18.3%, P = 0.410; pN0N2b: 0.0%, 11.1%, and 57.1%, P = 0.192; pN1N2b: 0.0%, 0.0%, and 16.7%, P < 0.0001). Multivariate analysis revealed that the novel classification based on N1 involvement and pN2a/pN2b staging was an independent prognostic factor of OS and DFS. Conclusion N1 involvement significantly impacted the prognosis of pN2b NSCLC patients. The benefit of adjuvant therapy in pN2a and pN0N2b patients requires confirmation by further study. PMID:26445605

  19. A further investigation and reappraisal of the thio effect in the cleavage reaction catalyzed by a hammerhead ribozyme

    PubMed Central

    Yoshinari, Koichi; Taira, Kazunari

    2000-01-01

    We synthesized three types of 11mer substrate, namely the natural substrate S11O and the thiosubstituted substrates S11SpS and S11RpS, in which the respective pro-Sp and pro-Rp oxygen atoms were replaced by sulfur, and subjected them to detailed kinetic analysis in the cleavage reaction catalyzed by a hammerhead ribozyme. In agreement with previous findings, in the presence of Mg2+ or Ca2+ ions the rate of ribozyme-catalyzed cleavage of S11SpS was as high as that of S11O, whereas the corresponding rate for S11RpS was nearly four orders of magnitude lower than that for either S11O or S11SpS. However, the rate of the ribozyme-catalyzed reaction with each of the three substrates was enhanced by Cd2+ ions. Such results have generally been taken as evidence that supports the direct interaction of the sulfur atom at the Rp position of the cleavage site with the added Cd2+ ion. However, our present analysis demonstrates that (i) the added Cd2+ ion binds at the P9 site; (ii) the bound Cd2+ ion at the P9 site replaces two Mg2+ or two Ca2+ ions, an observation that suggests a different mode of interaction with the added Cd2+ ion; and, most importantly and in contrast to the conclusion reached by other investigators, (iii) the Cd2+ ion does not interact with the sulfur atom at the Rp position of the scissile phosphate either in the ground state or in the transition state. PMID:10734192

  20. Reappraisal of the palaeomagnetism of the Miocene intramontane Pag and Drniš-Sinj basins, External Dinarides (Croatia)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Márton, Emő; Pavelić, Davor; Vranjković, Alan; Ćosović, Vlasta

    2016-04-01

    This paper presents palaeomagnetic results from the Miocene offshore Pag and the twin onshore (Drniš-Sinj) basins. Earlier magnetostratigraphic results were published from both basins, which documented that the lake sediments were good targets for palaeomagnetism. From the Pag basin, we sampled the oldest and youngest segments of the 1200 m long Crnika section and obtained statistically different palaeomagnetic directions from the two parts. During a repeated visit to the section it was revealed that modern gravity-driven creeping can account for this, i.e. the results from the Pag basin should be rejected from regional tectonic interpretation. The overall-mean palaeomagnetic direction for the Drniš-Sinj basin has excellent statistical parameters, its high quality is further supported by positive regional fold/tilt and reversal tests, based on seven geographically distributed localities. The results suggests 13-20° CCW rotation with respect to Africa and 21-27° with respect to stable Europe, during the last 15 million years. As the External Dinarides are the loci of a complicated network of Miocene and even younger tectonic zones, we cannot export the observed rotation for the whole unit, but consider our results as one step in obtaining robust kinematic constraints for the post-Oligocene tectonic history of the External Dinarides.

  1. Plasmacytoid dendritic cells are short-lived: reappraising the influence of migration, genetic factors and activation on estimation of lifespan.

    PubMed

    Zhan, Yifan; Chow, Kevin V; Soo, Priscilla; Xu, Zhen; Brady, Jamie L; Lawlor, Kate E; Masters, Seth L; O'keeffe, Meredith; Shortman, Ken; Zhang, Jian-Guo; Lew, Andrew M

    2016-01-01

    Plasmacytoid dendritic cells (pDCs) play an important role in immunity to certain pathogens and immunopathology in some autoimmune diseases. They are thought to have a longer lifespan than conventional DCs (cDCs), largely based on a slower rate of BrdU labeling by splenic pDCs. Here we demonstrated that pDC expansion and therefore BrdU labeling by pDCs occurs in bone marrow (BM). The rate of labeling was similar between BM pDCs and spleen cDCs. Therefore, slower BrdU labeling of spleen pDCs likely reflects the "migration time" (∼2 days) for BrdU labeled pDCs to traffic to the spleen, not necessarily reflecting longer life span. Tracking the decay of differentiated DCs showed that splenic pDCs and cDCs decayed at a similar rate. We suggest that spleen pDCs have a shorter in vivo lifespan than estimated utilizing some of the previous approaches. Nevertheless, pDC lifespan varies between mouse strains. pDCs from lupus-prone NZB mice survived longer than C57BL/6 pDCs. We also demonstrated that activation either positively or negatively impacted on the survival of pDCs via different cell-death mechanisms. Thus, pDCs are also short-lived. However, the pDC lifespan is regulated by genetic and environmental factors that may have pathological consequence. PMID:27112985

  2. Plasmacytoid dendritic cells are short-lived: reappraising the influence of migration, genetic factors and activation on estimation of lifespan

    PubMed Central

    Zhan, Yifan; Chow, Kevin V.; Soo, Priscilla; Xu, Zhen; Brady, Jamie L.; Lawlor, Kate E.; Masters, Seth L.; O’keeffe, Meredith; Shortman, Ken; Zhang, Jian-Guo; Lew, Andrew M.

    2016-01-01

    Plasmacytoid dendritic cells (pDCs) play an important role in immunity to certain pathogens and immunopathology in some autoimmune diseases. They are thought to have a longer lifespan than conventional DCs (cDCs), largely based on a slower rate of BrdU labeling by splenic pDCs. Here we demonstrated that pDC expansion and therefore BrdU labeling by pDCs occurs in bone marrow (BM). The rate of labeling was similar between BM pDCs and spleen cDCs. Therefore, slower BrdU labeling of spleen pDCs likely reflects the “migration time” (∼2 days) for BrdU labeled pDCs to traffic to the spleen, not necessarily reflecting longer life span. Tracking the decay of differentiated DCs showed that splenic pDCs and cDCs decayed at a similar rate. We suggest that spleen pDCs have a shorter in vivo lifespan than estimated utilizing some of the previous approaches. Nevertheless, pDC lifespan varies between mouse strains. pDCs from lupus-prone NZB mice survived longer than C57BL/6 pDCs. We also demonstrated that activation either positively or negatively impacted on the survival of pDCs via different cell-death mechanisms. Thus, pDCs are also short-lived. However, the pDC lifespan is regulated by genetic and environmental factors that may have pathological consequence. PMID:27112985

  3. Vascular Thalamic Amnesia: A Reappraisal

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carlesimo, Giovanni Augusto; Lombardi, Maria Giovanna; Caltagirone, Carlo

    2011-01-01

    In humans lacunar infarcts in the mesial and anterior regions of the thalami are frequently associated with amnesic syndromes. In this review paper, we scrutinized 41 papers published between 1983 and 2009 that provided data on a total of 83 patients with the critical ischemic lesions (i.e. 17 patients with right-sided lesions, 25 with left-sided…

  4. Sex Differences Reappraised: A Rebuttal

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tolor, Alexander; Brannigan, Gary G.

    1975-01-01

    This rebuttal of the criticisms made by Evans and Sperekas points to the fact that sex differences have been found by the authors on locus of control scales, that the purported sex-biased items in the Future Events Test are not necessarily outside the response repetoire of women, and the criticism of including female relevant items cannot be…

  5. Kennebunk glacial advance: A reappraisal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Geoffrey W.

    1981-06-01

    Evidence for the Kennebunk glacial advance (readvance) in southwestern Maine is discussed in light of recent geologic mapping. Orientations of glacially produced lineations record the response of ice to major topographic controls and do not indicate glacial readvance. Minor end moraines and large stratified end moraines associated with deformed marine sediments of the Presumpscot Formation occur throughout the southwestern coastal zone. These features outline the general pattern of ice retreat from this part of the coastal zone and suggest that withdrawal of the last ice from southwestern Maine occurred with minor stillstands and local frontal fluctuations but without significant readvance. The Kennebunk glacial advance (readvance) appears to have been one of many local fluctuations of the ice front during general recession, occurring at about 13,200 yr B.P.

  6. Richardson's Barotropic Forecast: A Reappraisal.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lynch, Peter

    1992-01-01

    To elucidate his numerical technique and to examine the effectiveness of geostrophic initial winds, Lewis Fry Richardson carried out an idealized forecast using the linear shallow-water equations and simple analytical pressure and velocity fields. This barotropic forecast has been repeated and extended using a global numerical model, and the results are presented in this paper. Richardson's conclusions regarding the use of geostrophic winds as initial data are reconsidered.An analysis of Richardson's data into normal modes shows that almost 85% of the energy is accounted for by a single eigenmode, the gravest symmetric rotational Hough mode, which travels westward with a period of about five days. This five-day wave has been detected in analyses of stratospheric data. It is striking that the fields chosen by Richardson on considerations of smoothness should so closely resemble a natural oscillation of the atmosphere.The numerical model employed in this study uses an implicit differencing technique, which is stable for large time steps. The numerical instability that would have destroyed Richardson's barotropic forecast, had it been extended, is thereby circumvented. It is sometimes said that computational instability was the cause of the failure of Richardson's baroclinic forecast, for which he obtained a pressure tendency value two orders of magnitude too large. However, the initial tendency is independent of the time step (at least for the explicit scheme used by Richardson). In fact, the spurious tendency resulted from the presence of unrealistically large high-frequency gravity-wave components in the initial fields.High-frequency oscillations are also found in the evolution starting from the idealized data in the barotropic forecast. They are shown to be due to the gravity-wave components of the initial data. These oscillations may be removed by a slight modification of the initial fields. This initialization is effected by means of a simple digital filtering technique, which is applicable not only to the linear equations used here but also to a general nonlinear system.

  7. Brief report: Attention to positive information mediates the relationship between hope and psychosocial well-being of adolescents.

    PubMed

    Yeung, Dannii Y; Ho, Samuel M Y; Mak, Christine W Y

    2015-07-01

    This study tested the mediating roles of cognitive reappraisal and attentional preferences in the relationship between hope and psychosocial well-being among 712 adolescents. Results of the structural equation modeling revealed that the beneficial relation of hope to subjective happiness, anxiety, depressive symptoms, and interpersonal difficulties was partially mediated by attention to positive information but not cognitive reappraisal. Findings of this study may inform the design of intervention research by highlighting the importance of hopeful thinking style and attention to positive information in mental health of adolescents. PMID:25968107

  8. Compassion-based emotion regulation up-regulates experienced positive affect and associated neural networks.

    PubMed

    Engen, Haakon G; Singer, Tania

    2015-09-01

    Emotion regulation research has primarily focused on techniques that attenuate or modulate the impact of emotional stimuli. Recent evidence suggests that this mode regulation can be problematic in the context of regulation of emotion elicited by the suffering of others, resulting in reduced emotional connectedness. Here, we investigated the effects of an alternative emotion regulation technique based on the up-regulation of positive affect via Compassion-meditation on experiential and neural affective responses to depictions of individuals in distress, and compared these with the established emotion regulation strategy of Reappraisal. Using fMRI, we scanned 15 expert practitioners of Compassion-meditation either passively viewing, or using Compassion-meditation or Reappraisal to modulate their emotional reactions to film clips depicting people in distress. Both strategies effectively, but differentially regulated experienced affect, with Compassion primarily increasing positive and Reappraisal primarily decreasing negative affect. Imaging results showed that Compassion, relative to both passive-viewing and Reappraisal increased activation in regions involved in affiliation, positive affect and reward processing including ventral striatum and medial orbitfrontal cortex. This network was shown to be active prior to stimulus presentation, suggesting that the regulatory mechanism of Compassion is the stimulus-independent endogenous generation of positive affect. PMID:25698699

  9. Against All Odds: Positive Life Experiences of People with Advanced Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Jenny M.; McNicoll, Paule

    1998-01-01

    Describes the nature of positive life experiences of 13 people coping exceptionally well while living with advanced amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), or Lou Gehrig's, disease and the resulting significant physical disabilities. Emerging themes were the use of cognitive reappraisal, reframing, and intellectual stimulation as coping mechanisms;…

  10. Lung cancer risk of low-level exposures to alpha emitters: critical reappraisal and experiments based on a new cytodynamic model

    SciTech Connect

    Bogen, Kenneth T.

    1999-02-20

    Ecologic U.S. county data suggest negative associations between residential radon exposure and lung cancer mortality (LCM)-inconsistent with clearly positive associations revealed by occupational data on individual miners, but perhaps explained by competing effects of cell killing vs. mutations in alpha-exposed bronchial epithelium. To assess the latter possibility, a biologically based "cytodynamic 2-stage" (CD2) cancer-risk model was fit to combined 1950-54 age- specific person-year data on lung cancer mortality (LCM) in white females of age 40+ y in 2,821 U.S. counties (-90% never-smokers), and in 5 cohorts of underground miners who never smoked. New estimates of household annual average radon exposure in U.S. counties were used, which were found to have a significant negative ecologic association with 1950-54 LCM in U.S. white females, adjusted for age and all subsets of two among 21 socioeconomic, climatic and other factors considered. A good CD2 fit was obtained to the combined residential/miner data, using biologically plausible parameter values. Without further optimization, the fit also predicted independent inverse dose-rate effects shown (for the first time) to occur in nonsmoking miners. Using the same U.S. county-level LCM data, a separate study revealed a positive ecologic association between LCM and bituminous coal use in the U.S., in agreement with epidemiological data on LCM in women in China. The modeling results obtained are consistent with the CD2-based hypothesis that residential radon exposure has a nonlinear U-shaped relation to LCM risk, and that current linear no-threshold extrapolation models substantially overestimate such risk. A U-shaped dose-response corresponds to a CD2-model prediction that alpha radiation kills more premalignant cells than it generates at low exposure levels, but not at higher levels. To test this hypothesis, groups of Japanese medaka (ricefish minnows) were exposed for 10 to 14 weeks to different concentrations of

  11. Reappraisal of Peri-Arabic ophiolites and geodynamics: Why the Kermanshah ophiolite (SW Iran) is a Paleocene-Eocene magmatic arc at the foot of Eurasia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Whitechurch, Hubert; Omrani, Jafar; Agard, Philippe; Humbert, Fabien; Montigny, Raymond; Jolivet, Laurent

    2013-04-01

    The nature and significance of the Kermanshah ophiolite (Zagros, Iran), classically identified as one of the few remnants of the Peri-Arabic ophiolite system obducted onto Arabia during the Late Cretaceous, are reinvestigated in this study. Systematic major and trace element geochemistry was performed, mainly on magmatic rocks, from two distinct areas: the Kamaryan Paleocene to Eocene arc and the so-called Harsin-Sahneh "ophiolites". Both domains display low to medium-K calc-alkaline signatures with variably negative anomalies in Nb, Ta, and Ti and positive ones in Sr, Ba, Th, and U. The magmatic activity of the Palaeocene-Eocene magmatic group shows an evolution through time, with a geochemical signature close to tholeiitic Back-Arc Basin-Basalts (BAB) for Palaeocene rocks and a clear calc-alkaline arc signature for Eocene volcanics. The presumably ophiolitic gabbros of the Harsin-Sahneh complex intruding harzburgites, as well as the associated dykes, also show a BAB geochemical signature. Overall, field relationships and geochemical patterns suggest that these rocks were emplaced on a mantle substratum close to the ocean-continent transition. This Palaeocene-Eocene magmatic activity in Kermanshah, which extended further to the north-west into Turkey, coincided with a marked slowing of the Arabia/Eurasia convergence. It furthermore occurred after the stopping of the Sanandaj-Sirjan magmatism (Mesozoic arc) but before the development of the Urumieh-Dokhtar magmatic arc (Tertiary arc). We relate this transient magmatic activity to slab retreat and back-arc extension at the foot of the Eurasian margin and to lithospheric-scale reconstructions across the Neotethys between Turkey and Iran.

  12. Radiation treatment of carcinoma of the cervix with extension into the endometrium - a reappraisal of its significance. [4 Mev Photons; Radium Implants

    SciTech Connect

    Prempree, T.; Patanaphan, V.; Viravathana, T.; Sewchand, W.; Cho, Y.K.; Scott, R.M.

    1982-05-15

    During the period from 1969-1974, 561 patients with proven invasive squamous cell carcinoma of the cervix were treated by irradiation only in the Department of Radiation Therapy, University of Maryland Hospital. Of these, 82 patients were identified as having D and C positive for squamous cell cancer present in the curettings with or without endometrial tissue. Clinical staging was done using FIGO guidelines and the treatment of endometrial extension was the same as with regular cervical cancer. Of 82 cases who are eligible for a minimum five-year follow-up, the absolute five-year survival is as follows: Stage I, 68% (17/25); Stage II, 62% (18/29); Stage III, 40% (10/25); Stage IV, 0% (0/3). The most interesting features are the local and distant failures in Stage I and II disease. Local failure in Stage I and II in this study is in line with other series. Distant metastasis, however, occurs at the rate of 20% in Stage I between 1-2 years after treatment (as compared to the control of 5%). In Stage II, the distant disease increases to 24% with a substantial number of local failure with distant metastasis. Based on our findings and others, it seems appropriate to suggest D and C be done routinely in order to identify the extension of cancer into the endometrium and treat them properly. Also it appears appropriate to re-examine our policy of treatment to minimize both local and distant failures with suggestions outlined in Schema I and II along with possibility of a future chemotherapeutic management to minimize the distant disease.

  13. Myxoid Leiomyosarcoma of the Uterus: A Clinicopathologic Analysis of 30 Cases and Review of the Literature With Reappraisal of Its Distinction From Other Uterine Myxoid Mesenchymal Neoplasms.

    PubMed

    Parra-Herran, Carlos; Schoolmeester, John K; Yuan, Liping; Dal Cin, Paola; Fletcher, Christopher D M; Quade, Bradley J; Nucci, Marisa R

    2016-03-01

    Myxoid leiomyosarcoma (mLMS) of the uterus is a rare neoplasm; thus, knowledge of its clinical behavior and morphology remains limited. We therefore reviewed 30 cases initially diagnosed as uterine mLMS to better characterize its clinicopathologic features. Diagnosis was confirmed in 25 subjects (average age 51.5 y), of whom 80% were stage 1 at presentation. The average tumor size was 10.8 cm. An infiltrative tumor border was observed microscopically in 24 cases (96%); the border in 1 case could not be assessed. Fourteen cases (56%) had >10 mitoses per 10 high-power fields, 8 (32%) had between 2 and 10, and 3 cases (12%) had <2 mitoses. Geographic tumor necrosis and moderate to severe nuclear pleomorphism were seen concurrently in 12 cases (48%). All tumors expressed smooth muscle markers. Estrogen receptor was expressed in 29.4% of cases. Eighteen of 21 cases (85.7%) were negative for ALK by immunohistochemistry. Follow-up information was available in 18 subjects: 8 died of disease, 6 were alive with local and/or distant recurrence, and 4 were alive with no evidence of disease. Individuals who died of disease tended to have tumors with >10 mitoses per 10 high-power fields. Among cases with ≥5-year follow-up, overall survival was 11.1%, significantly worse compared with reported survival rates for conventional LMS. The initial diagnosis of mLMS was revised in 5 cases. Four had a distinctive loose myxoid appearance, nuclei with vesicular chromatin, and ALK positivity by immunohistochemistry, suggesting, suggesting inflammatory myofibroblastic tumor. This diagnosis was confirmed by in situ hybridization in 2 cases. One additional myxoid tumor lacked smooth muscle or myofibroblastic features and could not be classified further. mLMS is an aggressive neoplasm characterized by infiltrative tumor borders and variability of other features (mitotic count, atypia, and necrosis). The differential diagnosis includes myxoid leiomyoma and inflammatory myofibroblastic tumor

  14. Late Paleozoic-Mesozoic tectonic evolution of SW Japan: A review - Reappraisal of the accretionary orogeny and revalidation of the collisional model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Charvet, Jacques

    2013-08-01

    exhumation story of Sanbagawa HP schists suggests the setting of a continental subduction. The petrological and new geochemical data from the literature strongly support the existence, beneath the nappes of accretionary complexes, of continental bodies showing affinities with South China, from which they were once separated. The episodic collision, underthrusting, of such blocks was responsible for the tectonic piling. Tectonic erosion plaid likely a major role in removing material during the intervening subduction stages. A revised geodynamic model, implying the collision of the Honshu, South Kitakami-Kurosegawa, and Shimanto Blocks, is proposed for explaining the three orogenic crises which took place respectively at around 240, 130, and 80-60 Ma ago in SW Japan. The paleogeographic position and affinity of the Hida block with surrounding units, in the hinterland, are still unclear. More work is needed to solve this question.

  15. In the footsteps of Darwin at Santiago (Cape Verde Island): new insights from a field reappraisal of the (white sedimentary layer)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sarti, Giovanni; Bertocchini, Federico; Chiesura, Guido; Bini, Monica; Cascella, Antonio; Ribolini, Adriano; Patacca, Etta; Casacchia, Claudia

    2014-05-01

    -rich deposits, characterized by the abundance of Oyster colony and Turritella, from a white limestone/sandstone layer that commonly shows at its base accumulation of rodholits (the "Nulliporae" of Darwin). This obviously implies that a significant chronological hiatus is recorded in the section. As a whole the white limestone/sandstone layer is organized in a fining and deepening upward sequence that is abruptly truncated by a subaerial basalt unit in the Eastern side of the Praia Harbour and by a subaqueous pillows lava unit to the West. In addition the limestone/sandstone layer outcrops patchily at different quotes, from more than 30 m above sea level down to plunge below the sea. Ours study highlights how the white sedimentary layer, that so much aroused the curiosity of Darwin, records more than one depositional event. At least the position of four palaeoshores can be identified, evidencing how the island undergone to several phases of relative sea-level variations driven by eustatic and/ or tectonic factors.

  16. Reappraisal of hydrocarbon biomarkers in Archean rocks.

    PubMed

    French, Katherine L; Hallmann, Christian; Hope, Janet M; Schoon, Petra L; Zumberge, J Alex; Hoshino, Yosuke; Peters, Carl A; George, Simon C; Love, Gordon D; Brocks, Jochen J; Buick, Roger; Summons, Roger E

    2015-05-12

    Hopanes and steranes found in Archean rocks have been presented as key evidence supporting the early rise of oxygenic photosynthesis and eukaryotes, but the syngeneity of these hydrocarbon biomarkers is controversial. To resolve this debate, we performed a multilaboratory study of new cores from the Pilbara Craton, Australia, that were drilled and sampled using unprecedented hydrocarbon-clean protocols. Hopanes and steranes in rock extracts and hydropyrolysates from these new cores were typically at or below our femtogram detection limit, but when they were detectable, they had total hopane (<37.9 pg per gram of rock) and total sterane (<32.9 pg per gram of rock) concentrations comparable to those measured in blanks and negative control samples. In contrast, hopanes and steranes measured in the exteriors of conventionally drilled and curated rocks of stratigraphic equivalence reach concentrations of 389.5 pg per gram of rock and 1,039 pg per gram of rock, respectively. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and diamondoids, which exceed blank concentrations, exhibit individual concentrations up to 80 ng per gram of rock in rock extracts and up to 1,000 ng per gram of rock in hydropyrolysates from the ultraclean cores. These results demonstrate that previously studied Archean samples host mixtures of biomarker contaminants and indigenous overmature hydrocarbons. Therefore, existing lipid biomarker evidence cannot be invoked to support the emergence of oxygenic photosynthesis and eukaryotes by ∼ 2.7 billion years ago. Although suitable Proterozoic rocks exist, no currently known Archean strata lie within the appropriate thermal maturity window for syngenetic hydrocarbon biomarker preservation, so future exploration for Archean biomarkers should screen for rocks with milder thermal histories. PMID:25918387

  17. Reappraisal of hydrocarbon biomarkers in Archean rocks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    French, Katherine L.; Hallmann, Christian; Hope, Janet M.; Schoon, Petra L.; Zumberge, J. Alex; Hoshino, Yosuke; Peters, Carl A.; George, Simon C.; Love, Gordon D.; Brocks, Jochen J.; Buick, Roger; Summons, Roger E.

    2015-05-01

    Hopanes and steranes found in Archean rocks have been presented as key evidence supporting the early rise of oxygenic photosynthesis and eukaryotes, but the syngeneity of these hydrocarbon biomarkers is controversial. To resolve this debate, we performed a multilaboratory study of new cores from the Pilbara Craton, Australia, that were drilled and sampled using unprecedented hydrocarbon-clean protocols. Hopanes and steranes in rock extracts and hydropyrolysates from these new cores were typically at or below our femtogram detection limit, but when they were detectable, they had total hopane (<37.9 pg per gram of rock) and total sterane (<32.9 pg per gram of rock) concentrations comparable to those measured in blanks and negative control samples. In contrast, hopanes and steranes measured in the exteriors of conventionally drilled and curated rocks of stratigraphic equivalence reach concentrations of 389.5 pg per gram of rock and 1,039 pg per gram of rock, respectively. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and diamondoids, which exceed blank concentrations, exhibit individual concentrations up to 80 ng per gram of rock in rock extracts and up to 1,000 ng per gram of rock in hydropyrolysates from the ultraclean cores. These results demonstrate that previously studied Archean samples host mixtures of biomarker contaminants and indigenous overmature hydrocarbons. Therefore, existing lipid biomarker evidence cannot be invoked to support the emergence of oxygenic photosynthesis and eukaryotes by ∼2.7 billion years ago. Although suitable Proterozoic rocks exist, no currently known Archean strata lie within the appropriate thermal maturity window for syngenetic hydrocarbon biomarker preservation, so future exploration for Archean biomarkers should screen for rocks with milder thermal histories.

  18. The metabolic balance technique: a critical reappraisal.

    PubMed

    Lentner, C; Lauffenburger, T; Guncaga, J; Dambacher, M A; Haas, H G

    1975-04-01

    Twenty-six metabolic balance studies (MBS) of Ca, Mg, and P have been conducted in 11 postmenopausal women with osteoporosis and in 4 patients suffering from Paget's disease of bone. Subjects were given a liquid formula diet (LFD) matched as closely as possible to the patient's home diet. Studies lasted for 25 days, separated into 5-day periods by a carmine marker combines with Cr2O3 as continuous fecal marker. The balance studies were combined with a tracer technique using 47Ca to detect a possible loss of Ca by perspiration. The reliability of analytical methods necessary for mineral balances was tested. In 22 of the 26 MBS a steady state (SS) reflecting the patient's regular living conditions was demonstrated, while a non-SS situation possibly due to changes of physical activity was seen in four instances. The overall precision and accuracy of this balance method for Ca and P was found to be better than plus or minus 50 mg/day after four periods and plus or minus 40 mg/day after five periods, as related to an average daily intake of 920 mg Ca and 1230 mg P. For Mg (intake 190 mg/day), a precision of plus or minus 10 mg/day was recorded. The dermal loss of Ca was found to be less than 20 mg/day. As shown for Ca, Mg and P, the precision of a balance study is only little enhanced when the investigation is continued for more than four periods. At the present time is not possible to predict non-SS situations before starting such a study but a simple formula is proposed to detect those which were not performed under SS conditions. PMID:1117838

  19. Activated charcoal for acute overdose: a reappraisal.

    PubMed

    Juurlink, David N

    2016-03-01

    Sometimes mistakenly characterized as a 'universal antidote,' activated charcoal (AC) is the most frequently employed method of gastrointestinal decontamination in the developed world. Typically administered as a single dose (SDAC), its tremendous surface area permits the binding of many drugs and toxins in the gastrointestinal lumen, reducing their systemic absorption. Like other decontamination procedures, the utility of SDAC attenuates with time, and, although generally safe, it is not free of risk. A large body of evidence demonstrates that SDAC can reduce the absorption of drugs and xenobiotics but most such studies involve volunteers and have little generalizability to clinical practice. Few rigorous clinical trials of SDAC have been conducted, and none validate or refute its utility in those patients who are intuitively most likely to benefit. Over the past decade, a growing body of observational data have demonstrated that SDAC can elicit substantial reductions in drug absorption in acutely poisoned patients. The challenge for clinicians rests in differentiating those patients most likely to benefit from SDAC from those in whom meaningful improvement is doubtful. This is often a difficult determination not well suited to an algorithmic approach. The present narrative review summarizes the data supporting the benefits and harms of SDAC, and offers pragmatic suggestions for clinical practice. PMID:26409027

  20. The Feingold Diet: A Current Reappraisal.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mattes, Jeffrey A.

    1983-01-01

    The article reviews published completed studies on the Feingold diet, which advocates elimination of artificial colorings, artificial flavorings, and salicylates to remediate hyperactivity. The review indicates that the diet is probably not effective, except perhaps in a small percentage of children. (Author/CL)

  1. Reappraisal of the significance of volcanic fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cañón-Tapia, Edgardo

    2016-01-01

    "Volcanic field" is a term commonly used to loosely describe a group of volcanoes. Often, it is implicitly assumed that the volcanoes on a volcanic field are small, monogenetic and dominantly basaltic, but none of those attributes is indispensable on some definitions of the term. Actually, the term "volcanic field" can be used to describe a group of purely monogenetic edifices, a group of mixed monogenetic and polygenetic edifices, or even a group formed only by purely polygenetic edifices. Differences between each of those alternatives might be important, but the extent to which those differences are truly relevant remains still to be explored. Furthermore, there are several limitations on the current knowledge of this type of volcanic activity that explain the lack of a comprehensive effort to study volcanic fields in global contexts. In this work, issues concerning current definitions of a volcanic field are examined, and some criteria that can be used to distinguish volcanic fields from non-field volcanoes are suggested. Special attention is given to the role played by spatial scale on such a distinction. Also, the tectonic implications of their spatial distribution are explored. In particular, it is shown that volcanic fields are an important component of volcanic activity at a global scale that is closely associated to diffuse plate boundaries, and might well be considered the archetypical volcanic form of such tectonic scenarios.

  2. Cardiac assistance from skeletal muscle: a reappraisal.

    PubMed

    Salmons, Stanley

    2009-02-01

    Cardiac assistance from skeletal muscle offers an attractive surgical solution to the problem of end-stage heart failure, yet it is widely regarded as a failed approach. I argue here that this is an outdated assessment. Systematic progress has been made over the last 25 years in understanding the relevant basic science. In the light of these advances we should be reconsidering the place of skeletal muscle assist in the surgical armamentarium. PMID:18954996

  3. Reappraising Learning Support in Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Avramidis, Elias; Skidmore, David

    2004-01-01

    With the increasing number of disabled students entering the higher education sector, much research work has focused on the support services arena and the elimination of barriers that the disabled students have encountered. While producing useful advice on meeting the needs of disabled students, this line of research has done little to locate…

  4. Haemophilus ducreyi infections--time for reappraisal.

    PubMed Central

    McEntegart, M. G.; Hafiz, S.; Kinghorn, G. R.

    1982-01-01

    As the literature on Haemophilus ducreyi and clinical chancroid is reviewed, it becomes obvious that many significant findings have been forgotten over the years. As a result, from the time of Ducrey's original description of the organism in 1890 until about 1977, both clinical and laboratory experts in the United Kingdom believed that H. ducreyi infections were rare, generally acquired abroad, and almost impossible to confirm in the routine laboratory! In consequence it was a common view that it was not worth looking for H. ducreyi until all other possible causes of genital ulceration had been excluded. Moreover, the search for such an infection stopped as soon as any other cause for the patient's lesions had been found. A decision to ignore this 'rule' in Sheffield led to our looking for H. ducreyi in specimens from an unselected series of patients with genital ulceration including a number with herpes genitalis infections. The surprise finding of H. ducreyi in circumstances suggesting that it was a secondary invader made us re-examine the whole question of H. ducreyi infections and chancroid and wonder if the same organism can act as a primary pathogen and as a secondary invader. An account of the media and methods we used and of the characteristics of the organism is presented. In an attempt to find out more about the characteristic coherent colonies of H. ducreyi we studied them with the scanning electron microscope. It is clear that the whole subject of H. ducreyi infections has been neglected in the United Kingdom, but we believe that interest has now been aroused and progress will surely follow. Some areas for further investigation are suggested. Images Plate 1 PMID:7153512

  5. A Reappraisal of Leadership Theory and Training.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Owens, James

    1981-01-01

    Reviews and organizes modern leadership theories. Notes the research supporting the main thesis of contingency theory and that effective leadership style is contingent upon situational factors. Characteristics of management training based on the contingency approach are identified. (Author/MLF)

  6. Reappraising factors affecting mourning dove perch coos

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sayre, M.W.; Atkinson, R.D.; Baskett, T.S.; Haas, G.H.

    1978-01-01

    Results confirmed pairing as the primary factor influencing perch-cooing rates of wild mourning doves (Zenaida macroura). Marked unmated males cooed at substantially higher rates (6.2x) than mated males, had greater probability of cooing (2.3x) during 3-minute periods, and continued cooing longer each morning than mated males. Population density was not a major factor affecting cooing. Unmated males cooed more frequently in the presence of other cooing doves (P < 0.05) than when alone, but the number of additional doves above 1 was unimportant. Cooing rates of both mated and unmated males on areas with dissimilar dove densities were not significantly different. Within limits of standard call-count procedure, weather exerted no detectable influence on cooing.

  7. Recognising early Archaean mantle: a reappraisal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rollinson, Hugh

    2007-09-01

    This paper examines 3.8 Ga peridotites from Greenland and Labrador to test claims that these samples are unmodified early Archaean mantle. Geochemical criteria were applied in which samples were compared to the mantle array in Mg/Si versus Al/Si (wt%) space, their REE patterns were compared to those of different mantle types and their chromite compositions were compared to mantle chromite compositions as expressed by their cr# and fe#. Geochemical data were used from the previously published works of Friend et al. (2002) and Bennett et al. (2002). Only two samples, from the region south of Isua satisfied all criteria, indicating that the area south of the Isua Greenstone Belt in west Greenland is a suitable place to search for early Archaean mantle. This study also confirms the observation by Friend et al. (2002) that early Archaean mantle from south of Isua is of a different character from Archaean mantle from the subcontinental lithosphere. Calculations presented here show that some mantle fragments from south of Isua experienced a lower degree of melt extraction and were probably more oxidising than early Archaean mantle preserved in the subcontinental lithosphere. Elemental concentrations of Os in early Archaean mantle are lower than the new estimate for the primitive upper mantle of Becker et al. (2006). Peridotites from the Isua greenstone belt are not mantle, but have an affinity with the layered intrusions found south of Isua.

  8. Ordovician orogeny in the Alps: a reappraisal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zurbriggen, Roger

    2015-03-01

    An important part of the pre-Mesozoic basement of the Alps is the product of orogenic processes occurred in Ordovician times. Most of the geological constrains for this reconstruction have been obtained by the study of the Strona-Ceneri zone in the Southern Alps, where Alpine overprint was weak. The erosion of late Pan-African belts delivered large amounts of greywackes and pelites into subduction zones along Gondwana. The sediments were subducted and accreted to form wide complexes. As a result of the large sediment input, subduction retreated and the mantle-derived magmas intruded the base of the fertile "mud pile." This initiated substantial anatexis to produce peraluminous magmas, which intruded and extruded syntectonically. Thereby, the predominantly steeply structured subduction-accretion complex provided ideal pathways for the uprising magmas, and down-thrusting host rocks to result in an isostatically stable crust. The SE Australian Lachlan fold belt is interpreted as an upper crustal analog of the Strona-Ceneri zone. Based on the combination of their geology, a crustal profile through an Alaskan type of orogen is drawn.

  9. Diverticula and Diverticulitis: Time for a Reappraisal

    PubMed Central

    Barroso, Alberto O.; Quigley, Eamonn M. M.

    2015-01-01

    Colonic diverticula are very common and may be associated with symptoms or complicated by diverticulitis and its associated problems. Many of the traditional concepts relating to the pathophysiology, prevention, and management of these entities have been questioned recently based on findings from high-quality prospective studies. Although dietary fiber may protect against symptoms and complications, its impact on the formation of diverticula may be limited. It is now evident that the risk for an episode of diverticulitis in an individual with diverticula is lower than previously thought. Furthermore, the necessity for antibiotic use in uncomplicated diverticulitis has been questioned and serious doubt cast upon the belief that surgery should be performed when a second attack occurs. Although data are far from conclusive, there is some evidence to suggest that diverticulosis may be associated with chronic abdominal symptoms, with or without underlying chronic inflammatory changes in the involved segment of the colon. In addition, colonoscopy is not routinely required after an attack of acute uncomplicated diverticulitis, as the risk of cancer in this population is not much higher than in the general population. PMID:27330495

  10. Amtolmetin: A Reappraisal of NSAID with Gastroprotection

    PubMed Central

    Garg, Amit; Shoeb, Ahsan; Moodahadu, Latha Subramanya; Sharma, Akhilesh; Gandhi, Arul; Akku, Shyam

    2016-01-01

    Aim. To assess the gastrosparing effect of amtolmetin guacyl (AMG) against other nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) in patients with osteo-/rheumatoid arthritis. Methods. A literature search was done in the electronic databases (PubMed, Google Scholar, Embase, and Scopus) with key words “amtolmetin guacyl”, “amtolmetin”, and “arthritis”; filters were applied to obtain publications between 01-Jan-1985 and 01-Oct-2015, which were “clinical trials” in osteo-/rheumatoid arthritis patients and in “English language.” Studies were assessed using the Jadad criteria and trials with score ≥ 3 were included in the analysis to compare the safety and efficacy of AMG against other NSAIDs. Results. Search yielded 19 publications of which 3 were included for analysis. Baseline characteristics of patients were comparable between the AMG group and other NSAIDs (diclofenac, celecoxib, and piroxicam) groups in all trials. Efficacy of AMG was similar to the other NSAIDs compared in the trials. The number of adverse events (AEs) reported was similar between both the groups; however, severe AEs reported were significantly lower in the AMG group. Of note was the significant lower number of duodenal ulcers after treatment in the AMG group. Conclusions. AMG has efficacy similar to other NSAIDs and a safer gastrointestinal AE profile when compared to the other NSAIDs. PMID:27092274

  11. Capitalism and Black Economic Development: A Reappraisal.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Green, Louis C.

    1978-01-01

    Explanations for the inferior socioeconomic status of Blacks are examined and strategies for improving the status of Blacks are discussed. It is concluded that changes in the distribution of wealth will require changes in the structure of the economic system itself. (Author/MC)

  12. Diverticula and Diverticulitis: Time for a Reappraisal.

    PubMed

    Barroso, Alberto O; Quigley, Eamonn M M

    2015-10-01

    Colonic diverticula are very common and may be associated with symptoms or complicated by diverticulitis and its associated problems. Many of the traditional concepts relating to the pathophysiology, prevention, and management of these entities have been questioned recently based on findings from high-quality prospective studies. Although dietary fiber may protect against symptoms and complications, its impact on the formation of diverticula may be limited. It is now evident that the risk for an episode of diverticulitis in an individual with diverticula is lower than previously thought. Furthermore, the necessity for antibiotic use in uncomplicated diverticulitis has been questioned and serious doubt cast upon the belief that surgery should be performed when a second attack occurs. Although data are far from conclusive, there is some evidence to suggest that diverticulosis may be associated with chronic abdominal symptoms, with or without underlying chronic inflammatory changes in the involved segment of the colon. In addition, colonoscopy is not routinely required after an attack of acute uncomplicated diverticulitis, as the risk of cancer in this population is not much higher than in the general population. PMID:27330495

  13. Reappraisal of hydrocarbon biomarkers in Archean rocks

    PubMed Central

    French, Katherine L.; Hallmann, Christian; Hope, Janet M.; Schoon, Petra L.; Zumberge, J. Alex; Hoshino, Yosuke; Peters, Carl A.; George, Simon C.; Love, Gordon D.; Brocks, Jochen J.; Buick, Roger; Summons, Roger E.

    2015-01-01

    Hopanes and steranes found in Archean rocks have been presented as key evidence supporting the early rise of oxygenic photosynthesis and eukaryotes, but the syngeneity of these hydrocarbon biomarkers is controversial. To resolve this debate, we performed a multilaboratory study of new cores from the Pilbara Craton, Australia, that were drilled and sampled using unprecedented hydrocarbon-clean protocols. Hopanes and steranes in rock extracts and hydropyrolysates from these new cores were typically at or below our femtogram detection limit, but when they were detectable, they had total hopane (<37.9 pg per gram of rock) and total sterane (<32.9 pg per gram of rock) concentrations comparable to those measured in blanks and negative control samples. In contrast, hopanes and steranes measured in the exteriors of conventionally drilled and curated rocks of stratigraphic equivalence reach concentrations of 389.5 pg per gram of rock and 1,039 pg per gram of rock, respectively. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and diamondoids, which exceed blank concentrations, exhibit individual concentrations up to 80 ng per gram of rock in rock extracts and up to 1,000 ng per gram of rock in hydropyrolysates from the ultraclean cores. These results demonstrate that previously studied Archean samples host mixtures of biomarker contaminants and indigenous overmature hydrocarbons. Therefore, existing lipid biomarker evidence cannot be invoked to support the emergence of oxygenic photosynthesis and eukaryotes by ∼2.7 billion years ago. Although suitable Proterozoic rocks exist, no currently known Archean strata lie within the appropriate thermal maturity window for syngenetic hydrocarbon biomarker preservation, so future exploration for Archean biomarkers should screen for rocks with milder thermal histories. PMID:25918387

  14. A Reappraisal of the Nobody's Perfect Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kennett, Deborah J.; Chislett, Gail; Olver, Ashley L. S.

    2012-01-01

    Nobody's Perfect Program (NP), involving 46 participants, was conducted from the spring of 2007 to the fall of 2009 in Peterborough, Canada. Prior to the program, parents completed demographic information, along with self-report measures assessing learned resourcefulness, the types of interactions with their children, parent resourcefulness,…

  15. Acute interstitial nephritis - a reappraisal and update.

    PubMed

    Raghavan, Rajeev; Eknoyan, Garabed

    2014-09-01

    Acute interstitial nephritis (AIN) is an under recognized and under diagnosed cause of acute kidney injury (AKI). It is estimated to account for 15 - 20% of cases of AKI; it is the reported diagnosis in 2.8% of all kidney biopsies, and 13.5% of biopsies done specifically for acute renal failure. Considerable evidence implicates antigen initiated cell-mediated injury in the pathogenesis of AIN. Drugs account for 70% of all cases, with over 150 different agents incriminated. The remaining cases are due to infections, autoimmune diseases, and rarely idiopathic. The central component of renal injury in AIN is altered tubular function, which usually precedes decrements in filtration rate. The key to early diagnosis is vigilance for the presence of tubular dysfunction in non-oliguric individuals, especially in patients with modest but gradual increments in creatinine level. The utility of urinary biomarkers to diagnose AIN in its early nascent and potentially reversible stage remains to be determined. Prompt recognition, elimination of the offending source of antigen, and use of a limited course of steroid therapy where indicated, will result in complete resolution in ~ 65% of cases, partial resolution in up to 20%, and irreversible damage in the rest. PMID:25079860

  16. Reappraisal of the genus Alternariaster (Dothideomycetes).

    PubMed

    Alves, J L; Woudenberg, J H C; Duarte, L L; Crous, P W; Barreto, R W

    2013-12-01

    Alternariaster was erected in 2007 to accommodate Alternaria helianthi, a fungal species known to cause leaf spots on Helianthus annuus (sunflower). It was segregated from Alternaria based on conidial morphology. Recently an unknown alternaria-like dematiaceous fungus was found associated with leaf spots on Bidens sulphurea (yellow cosmos) in Brazil. Based on a multi-gene phylogeny of parts of the ITS and LSU genes, this fungus was placed within the Leptosphaeriaceae with Alternariaster helianthi as its closest neighbour. Additional genes sequenced, RPB2 and GAPDH, confirmed this close relationship. The fungus on B. sulphurea has smaller conidia, 50-97.5 × 12.5-20 μm, compared to Al. helianthi, 80-160 × 18-30 μm, and lacks oblique or transverse septa which can be present in Al. helianthi. Pathogenicity studies on 18 plant species belonging to the Compositae showed that the B. sulphurea fungus only infected B. sulphurea, whereas Al. helianthi infected H. annuus and Galinsoga quadriradiata, a yet unreported host of Al. helianthi. The fungus causing disease on B. sulphurea is hence closely related but phylogenetically, morphologically and pathologically distinct from Al. helianthi, and therefore newly described as Alternariaster bidentis. The collection of a second species in the genus Alternariaster and the multigene phylogenetic analysis of these two species, confirmed Alternariaster to be a well-delimited genus in the Leptosphaeriaceae rather than the Pleosporaceae, to which Alternaria belongs. PMID:24761036

  17. Does Rubella Cause Autism: A 2015 Reappraisal?

    PubMed

    Hutton, Jill

    2016-01-01

    In the 1970s, Stella Chess found a high prevalence of autism in children with congenital rubella syndrome (CRS), 200 times that of the general population at the time. Many researchers quote this fact to add proof to the current theory that maternal infection with immune system activation in pregnancy leads to autism in the offspring. This rubella and autism association is presented with the notion that rubella has been eliminated in today's world. CRS cases are no longer typically seen; yet, autistic children often share findings of CRS including deafness, congenital heart defects, and to a lesser extent visual changes. Autistic children commonly have hyperactivity and spasticity, as do CRS children. Both autistic and CRS individuals may develop type 1 diabetes as young adults. Neuropathology of CRS infants may reveal cerebral vasculitis with narrowed lumens and cerebral necrosis. Neuroradiological findings of children with CRS show calcifications, periventricular leukomalacia, and dilated perivascular spaces. Neuroradiology of autism has also demonstrated hyperintensities, leukomalacia, and prominent perivascular spaces. PET studies of autistic individuals exhibit decreased perfusion to areas of the brain similarly affected by rubella. In both autism and CRS, certain changes in the brain have implicated the immune system. Several children with autism lack antibodies to rubella, as do children with CRS. These numerous similarities increase the probability of an association between rubella virus and autism. Rubella and autism cross many ethnicities in many countries. Contrary to current belief, rubella has not been eradicated and globally affects up to 5% of pregnant women. Susceptibility continues as vaccines are not given worldwide and are not fully protective. Rubella might still cause autism, even in vaccinated populations. PMID:26869906

  18. The decline in child mortality: a reappraisal.

    PubMed Central

    Ahmad, O. B.; Lopez, A. D.; Inoue, M.

    2000-01-01

    The present paper examines, describes and documents country-specific trends in under-five mortality rates (i.e., mortality among children under five years of age) in the 1990s. Our analysis updates previous studies by UNICEF, the World Bank and the United Nations. It identifies countries and WHO regions where sustained improvement has occurred and those where setbacks are evident. A consistent series of estimates of under-five mortality rate is provided and an indication is given of historical trends during the period 1950-2000 for both developed and developing countries. It is estimated that 10.5 million children aged 0-4 years died in 1999, about 2.2 million or 17.5% fewer than a decade earlier. On average about 15% of newborn children in Africa are expected to die before reaching their fifth birthday. The corresponding figures for many other parts of the developing world are in the range 3-8% and that for Europe is under 2%. During the 1990s the decline in child mortality decelerated in all the WHO regions except the Western Pacific but there is no widespread evidence of rising child mortality rates. At the country level there are exceptions in southern Africa where the prevalence of HIV is extremely high and in Asia where a few countries are beset by economic difficulties. The slowdown in the rate of decline is of particular concern in Africa and South-East Asia because it is occurring at relatively high levels of mortality, and in countries experiencing severe economic dislocation. As the HIV/AIDS epidemic continues in Africa, particularly southern Africa, and in parts of Asia, further reductions in child mortality become increasingly unlikely until substantial progress in controlling the spread of HIV is achieved. PMID:11100613

  19. Subclinical Rejection in Renal Transplantation: Reappraised.

    PubMed

    Mehta, Rajil; Sood, Puneet; Hariharan, Sundaram

    2016-08-01

    Short-term outcomes in renal transplantation have improved significantly in the past few years. However, the improvement in long-term outcomes has been modest. The reasons for graft failure beyond the first year of transplantation have been attributed to several different factors. We believe that subclinical rejection (SCR) may be 1 of the factors that contribute to graft loss in the long run. We also believe that there are data to suggest that SCR leads to progressive fibrosis and loss of graft function. This has been demonstrated even in patients who have mild degrees of subclinical inflammation. This review outlines the major studies that have been published on this important topic. It also outlines potential risk factors for the development of SCR. The current approach and diagnostic methods are discussed as well as their pros and cons. Newer noninvasive methods of diagnosis as well as molecular diagnostics and their merits and shortcomings are also discussed in some depth. Thus, the proposed state of the art review on SCR will create a renewed interest at all levels including transplant clinicians, transplant researchers, pharmaceutical industries as well as regulatory organizations. PMID:26985747

  20. Chiari I malformations: clinical and radiologic reappraisal.

    PubMed

    Elster, A D; Chen, M Y

    1992-05-01

    Clinical findings and magnetic resonance (MR) images in 68 patients with Chiari I malformations were retrospectively analyzed to identify those radiologic features that correlated best with clinical symptoms. A statistically significant (P = .03) female predominance of the malformation was observed, with a female: male ratio of approximately 3:2. Associated skeletal anomalies were seen in 24% of patients. Syringomyelia was detected in 40% of patients, most commonly between the C-4 and C-6 levels. Of the 25 patients who presented with spinal symptoms, 23 (92%) proved to have a syrinx at MR imaging. When the syrinx extended into the medulla (n = 3), however, brain stem symptoms predominated. Patients with objective brain stem or cerebellar signs had the largest mean tonsillar herniations. Patients with tonsillar herniations greater than 12 mm were invariably symptomatic, but approximately 30% of patients with tonsils herniating 5-10 mm below the foramen magnum were asymptomatic at MR imaging. "Incidental" Chiari I malformations are thus much more common than previously recognized, and careful clinical assessment remains the cornerstone for proper diagnosis and management. PMID:1561334

  1. Does Rubella Cause Autism: A 2015 Reappraisal?

    PubMed Central

    Hutton, Jill

    2016-01-01

    In the 1970s, Stella Chess found a high prevalence of autism in children with congenital rubella syndrome (CRS), 200 times that of the general population at the time. Many researchers quote this fact to add proof to the current theory that maternal infection with immune system activation in pregnancy leads to autism in the offspring. This rubella and autism association is presented with the notion that rubella has been eliminated in today’s world. CRS cases are no longer typically seen; yet, autistic children often share findings of CRS including deafness, congenital heart defects, and to a lesser extent visual changes. Autistic children commonly have hyperactivity and spasticity, as do CRS children. Both autistic and CRS individuals may develop type 1 diabetes as young adults. Neuropathology of CRS infants may reveal cerebral vasculitis with narrowed lumens and cerebral necrosis. Neuroradiological findings of children with CRS show calcifications, periventricular leukomalacia, and dilated perivascular spaces. Neuroradiology of autism has also demonstrated hyperintensities, leukomalacia, and prominent perivascular spaces. PET studies of autistic individuals exhibit decreased perfusion to areas of the brain similarly affected by rubella. In both autism and CRS, certain changes in the brain have implicated the immune system. Several children with autism lack antibodies to rubella, as do children with CRS. These numerous similarities increase the probability of an association between rubella virus and autism. Rubella and autism cross many ethnicities in many countries. Contrary to current belief, rubella has not been eradicated and globally affects up to 5% of pregnant women. Susceptibility continues as vaccines are not given worldwide and are not fully protective. Rubella might still cause autism, even in vaccinated populations. PMID:26869906

  2. Amtolmetin: A Reappraisal of NSAID with Gastroprotection.

    PubMed

    Garg, Amit; Shoeb, Ahsan; Moodahadu, Latha Subramanya; Sharma, Akhilesh; Gandhi, Arul; Akku, Shyam

    2016-01-01

    Aim. To assess the gastrosparing effect of amtolmetin guacyl (AMG) against other nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) in patients with osteo-/rheumatoid arthritis. Methods. A literature search was done in the electronic databases (PubMed, Google Scholar, Embase, and Scopus) with key words "amtolmetin guacyl", "amtolmetin", and "arthritis"; filters were applied to obtain publications between 01-Jan-1985 and 01-Oct-2015, which were "clinical trials" in osteo-/rheumatoid arthritis patients and in "English language." Studies were assessed using the Jadad criteria and trials with score ≥ 3 were included in the analysis to compare the safety and efficacy of AMG against other NSAIDs. Results. Search yielded 19 publications of which 3 were included for analysis. Baseline characteristics of patients were comparable between the AMG group and other NSAIDs (diclofenac, celecoxib, and piroxicam) groups in all trials. Efficacy of AMG was similar to the other NSAIDs compared in the trials. The number of adverse events (AEs) reported was similar between both the groups; however, severe AEs reported were significantly lower in the AMG group. Of note was the significant lower number of duodenal ulcers after treatment in the AMG group. Conclusions. AMG has efficacy similar to other NSAIDs and a safer gastrointestinal AE profile when compared to the other NSAIDs. PMID:27092274

  3. Social anxiety and emotion regulation in daily life: spillover effects on positive and negative social events.

    PubMed

    Farmer, Antonina Savostyanova; Kashdan, Todd B

    2012-01-01

    To minimize the possibility of scrutiny, people with social anxiety difficulties exert great effort to manage their emotions, particularly during social interactions. We examined how the use of two emotion regulation strategies, emotion suppression and cognitive reappraisal, predict the generation of emotions and social events in daily life. Over 14 consecutive days, 89 participants completed daily diary entries on emotions, positive and negative social events, and their regulation of emotions. Using multilevel modeling, we found that when people high in social anxiety relied more on positive emotion suppression, they reported fewer positive social events and less positive emotion on the subsequent day. In contrast, people low in social anxiety reported fewer negative social events on days subsequent to using cognitive reappraisal to reduce distress; the use of cognitive reappraisal did not influence the daily lives of people high in social anxiety. Our findings support theories of emotion regulation difficulties associated with social anxiety. In particular, for people high in social anxiety, maladaptive strategy use contributed to diminished reward responsiveness. PMID:22428662

  4. Regulation of positive and negative emotion: effects of sociocultural context

    PubMed Central

    Snyder, Sara A.; Heller, S. Megan; Lumian, Daniel S.; McRae, Kateri

    2013-01-01

    Previous research has demonstrated that the use of emotion regulation strategies can vary by sociocultural context. In a previous study, we reported changes in the use of two different emotion regulation strategies at an annual alternative cultural event, Burning Man (McRae et al., 2011). In this sociocultural context, as compared to typically at home, participants reported less use of expressive suppression (a strategy generally associated with maladaptive outcomes), and greater use of cognitive reappraisal (a strategy generally associated with adaptive outcomes). What remained unclear was whether these changes in self-reported emotion regulation strategy use were characterized by changes in the regulation of positive emotion, negative emotion, or both. We addressed this issue in the current study by asking Burning Man participants separate questions about positive and negative emotion. Using multiple datasets, we replicated our previous findings, and found that the decreased use of suppression is primarily driven by reports of decreased suppression of positive emotion at Burning Man. By contrast, the increased use of reappraisal is not characterized by differential reappraisal of positive and negative emotion at Burning Man. Moreover, we observed novel individual differences in the magnitude of these effects. The contextual changes in self-reported suppression that we observe are strongest for men and younger participants. For those who had previously attended Burning Man, we observed lower levels of self-reported suppression in both sociocultural contexts: Burning Man and typically at home. These findings have implications for understanding the ways in which certain sociocultural contexts may decrease suppression, and possibly minimize its associated maladaptive effects. PMID:23840191

  5. The dual systems model: Review, reappraisal, and reaffirmation.

    PubMed

    Shulman, Elizabeth P; Smith, Ashley R; Silva, Karol; Icenogle, Grace; Duell, Natasha; Chein, Jason; Steinberg, Laurence

    2016-02-01

    According to the dual systems perspective, risk taking peaks during adolescence because activation of an early-maturing socioemotional-incentive processing system amplifies adolescents' affinity for exciting, pleasurable, and novel activities at a time when a still immature cognitive control system is not yet strong enough to consistently restrain potentially hazardous impulses. We review evidence from both the psychological and neuroimaging literatures that has emerged since 2008, when this perspective was originally articulated. Although there are occasional exceptions to the general trends, studies show that, as predicted, psychological and neural manifestations of reward sensitivity increase between childhood and adolescence, peak sometime during the late teen years, and decline thereafter, whereas psychological and neural reflections of better cognitive control increase gradually and linearly throughout adolescence and into the early 20s. While some forms of real-world risky behavior peak at a later age than predicted, this likely reflects differential opportunities for risk-taking in late adolescence and young adulthood, rather than neurobiological differences that make this age group more reckless. Although it is admittedly an oversimplification, as a heuristic device, the dual systems model provides a far more accurate account of adolescent risk taking than prior models that have attributed adolescent recklessness to cognitive deficiencies. PMID:26774291

  6. Douglas-fir rotations--Time for reappraisal

    SciTech Connect

    Curtis, R.O. ); Marshall, D.D. )

    1993-07-01

    The combination of social and political pressures (stemming largely from the visual impacts of current forest practices) and concerns raised by some scientists about certain biological aspects of current practices is forcing major changes in forest management practices, with increased emphasis on amenity, wildlife, and recreational values. A variety of alternative practices are being proposed or applied, often referred to under the collective name of New Forestry. A general shortcoming of many of these practices is that the authors have little basis for quantitative estimates of the long-term results--either costs or benefits (if any). For some, this is totally lacking. Yet, this is certainly a time to re-examine entrenched ideas. This paper discusses extended rotations as a possible means of reducing conflicts between timber production and other forest values.

  7. Origin of hydrocarbons in Gulf of Mexico basin: A reappraisal

    SciTech Connect

    Bissada, K.K.; Katz, B.J.; Barnicle, S.C.; Schunk, D.J.

    1988-01-01

    The origin of hydrocarbons in the Gulf of Mexico basin has been a subject of controversy for many years. One argument invokes source rocks of average organic enrichment, pervasively distributed throughout the Tertiary sequence and closely associated with the reservoir system. Another argument invokes exceptionally rich, discrete source rocks not in contact with the reservoirs, possibly in pre-Tertiary sequences. Continued exploration success in the basin hinges on the resolution of this controversy because of implications on patterns of hydrocarbon migration within the basin and the timing of petroleum generation relative to reservoir and trap development. Geochemical analyses of hundreds of crude oils, natural gases, and nonreservoir rocks from the Mesozoic and Cenozoic trends along the northern Gulf of Mexico basin indicate the general inadequacy of the Tertiary section to source the huge oil accumulations within Cenozoic reservoirs. Furthermore, other than the biogenic gas, isotopic data indicate that the majority of nonassociated gases found in Cenozoic accumulations have been thermogenically derived from much greater depths where maturation is consistent with dry gas generation. Geochemical data from several Mesozoic units in the basin, but outside the Cenozoic trend proper, indicate the existence of excellent Mesozoic source rocks. It is proposed that such units extend below the Cenozoic producing trends and are drained by deep-seated faults and piercement salt structures. Maturation history, structural style, and patterns of migration and remigration control the variable productivity along the various trends.

  8. Abdominal aortic calcification: A reappraisal of epidemiological and pathophysiological data.

    PubMed

    Szulc, Pawel

    2016-03-01

    In men and women, there is a significant association between the risk of cardiovascular event (myocardial infarction, stroke) and risk of major fragility fracture (hip, vertebra). Abdominal aortic calcification (AAC) can be assessed using semiquantitative scores on spine radiographs and spine scans obtained by DXA. Severe AAC is associated with higher risk of major cardiovascular event. Not only does severe AAC reflect poor cardiovascular health status, but also directly disturbs blood flow in the vascular system. Severe (but not mild or moderate) AAC is associated with lower bone mineral density (BMD), faster bone loss and higher risk of major fragility fracture. The fracture risk remains increased after adjustment for BMD and other potential risk factors. The association between severe AAC and fracture risk was found in both sexes, mainly in the follow-ups of less than 10years. Many factors contribute to initiation and progression of AAC: lifestyle, co-morbidities, inorganic ions, dyslipidemia, hormones, cytokines (e.g. inflammatory cytokines, RANKL), matrix vesicles, microRNAs, structural proteins (e.g. elastin), vitamin K-dependent proteins, and medications (e.g. vitamin K antagonists). Osteogenic transdifferentiation of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMC) and circulating osteoprogenitors penetrating into vascular wall plays a major role in the AAC initiation and progression. Vitamin K-dependent proteins protect vascular tunica media against formation of calcified deposits (matrix GLA protein, GLA-rich protein) and against VSMC apoptosis (Gas6). Further studies are needed to investigate clinical utility of AAC for the assessment of fracture and cardiovascular risk at the individual level and develop new medications permitting to prevent AAC progression. PMID:26688274

  9. Thiamine deficiency induced neurochemical, neuroanatomical, and neuropsychological alterations: a reappraisal.

    PubMed

    Nardone, Raffaele; Höller, Yvonne; Storti, Monica; Christova, Monica; Tezzon, Frediano; Golaszewski, Stefan; Trinka, Eugen; Brigo, Francesco

    2013-01-01

    Nutritional deficiency can cause, mainly in chronic alcoholic subjects, the Wernicke encephalopathy and its chronic neurological sequela, the Wernicke-Korsakoff syndrome (WKS). Long-term chronic ethanol abuse results in hippocampal and cortical cell loss. Thiamine deficiency also alters principally hippocampal- and frontal cortical-dependent neurochemistry; moreover in WKS patients, important pathological damage to the diencephalon can occur. In fact, the amnesic syndrome typical for WKS is mainly due to the damage in the diencephalic-hippocampal circuitry, including thalamic nuclei and mammillary bodies. The loss of cholinergic cells in the basal forebrain region results in decreased cholinergic input to the hippocampus and the cortex and reduced choline acetyltransferase and acetylcholinesterase activities and function, as well as in acetylcholine receptor downregulation within these brain regions. In this narrative review, we will focus on the neurochemical, neuroanatomical, and neuropsychological studies shedding light on the effects of thiamine deficiency in experimental models and in humans. PMID:24235882

  10. The Nuremberg Code and the Nuremberg Trial. A reappraisal.

    PubMed

    Katz, J

    1996-11-27

    The Nuremberg Code includes 10 principles to guide physician-investigators in experiments involving human subjects. These principles, particularly the first principle on "voluntary consent," primarily were based on legal concepts because medical codes of ethics existent at the time of the Nazi atrocities did not address consent and other safeguards for human subjects. The US judges who presided over the proceedings did not intend the Code to apply only to the case before them, to be a response to the atrocities committed by the Nazi physicians, or to be inapplicable to research as it is customarily carried on in medical institutions. Instead, a careful reading of the judgment suggests that they wrote the Code for the practice of human experimentation whenever it is being conducted. PMID:8922453

  11. Malnutrition in South Asia-A Critical Reappraisal.

    PubMed

    Akhtar, Saeed

    2016-10-25

    Malnutrition continues to be a major public health challenge especially in South Asian developing countries. The aim of the present review is to spotlight the magnitude of the prevalence of malnutrition and its dynamics in South Asian region and to suggest potential approaches for the prevention and control of this issue of public health significance. An extensive review of literature, covering malnutrition and its determinants, health and economic consequences and pragmatic preventive strategies was performed on computer based bibliographic databases (PubMed, Google Scholar, Scopus, Medline and Sciencedirect.com ) to retrieve abstracts and full texts for India, Pakistan, Bangladesh, Sri Lanka and Nepal. All relevant titles and abstracts were examined and evaluated for malnutrition and its prevalence in South Asia. The results revealed malnutrition to be a major public health problem and a potential cause of high disease burden and mortality in South Asia. Compelling evidence suggests malnutrition to be the leading cause of stunting, wasting and underweight with drastic economic consequences among vulnerable populations. Reduced cognitive performance and low productivity have also been associated with micronutrients malnutrition. Suboptimal breastfeeding, inadequate food supply, micronutrient deficiencies, low household income, poor health care system, increased healthcare costs, illiteracy, unhygienic and substandard living, inappropriate child's care and the caregiver, food insecurity and on top of that vicious cycle of poverty, have been recognized as principal indicators for growing malnutrition prevalence in South Asia. Global organizations, local governments, program managers, NGOs, academia, industry in particular and the society at large need to take up the challenge to completely confiscate malnutrition from the region for economic prosperity and a healthier future. PMID:25830938

  12. What Is Religious Education All about? A Hermeneutic Reappraisal

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aldridge, David

    2011-01-01

    There has been limited engagement with Gadamer in the pedagogy of English religious education (RE) to date. Currently there remains confusion about the subject matter of RE and the application of the National Framework attainment targets, learning about and learning from. Instrumental justifications of RE are in tension with the desire to defend…

  13. Neocytolysis: none, one or many? A reappraisal and future perspectives

    PubMed Central

    Risso, Angela; Ciana, Annarita; Achilli, Cesare; Antonutto, Guglielmo; Minetti, Giampaolo

    2014-01-01

    Neocytolysis is the hypothesis formulated to explain experimental evidence of selective lysis of young red blood cells (RBCs) (neocytes) associated with decreased plasma levels of erythropoietin (EPO). In humans, it appears to take place whenever a fast RBC mass reduction is required, i.e., in astronauts during the first days of spaceflight under weightlessness, where a fast reduction in plasma volume and increase in haematocrit occur. EPO plasma levels then decline and a decrease in RBC mass takes place, apparently because of the selective lysis of the youngest, recently generated RBCs (neocytes). The same process seems to occur in people descending to sea level after acclimatization at high altitude. After descent, the polycythaemia developed at high altitude must be abrogated, and a rapid reduction in the number of circulating RBCs is obtained by a decrease in EPO synthesis and the lysis of what seem to be young RBCs. In vivo, neocytolysis seems to be abolished by EPO administration. More recent research has ascribed to neocytolysis the RBC destruction that occurs under such disparate pathophysiologic conditions as nephropathy, severe obstructive pulmonary disease, blood doping, and even malaria anaemia. According to the theory, EPO's central role would be not only to stimulate the production of new RBCs in conditions of anaemia, as maintained by the orthodox view, but also that of a cytoprotective factor for circulating young RBCs. Why neocytes are specifically destroyed and how is this related to decreased EPO levels has not yet been elucidated. Changes in membrane molecules of young RBCs isolated from astronauts or mountain climbers upon return to normal conditions seem to indicate a higher susceptibility of neocytes to ingestion by macrophages. By limiting the context to space missions and high altitude expeditions, this review will address unresolved and critical issues that in our opinion have not been sufficiently highlighted in previous works. PMID:24592241

  14. Clinician-Educators as Dual Professionals: A Contemporary Reappraisal.

    PubMed

    Stoddard, Hugh A; Brownfield, Erica D

    2016-07-01

    Physicians who teach face unique responsibilities and expectations because they must educate learners while simultaneously caring for patients. Recently this has become even more difficult as the environment for clinician-educators has been undermined by public antipathy toward both the education profession and the medicine profession.Erosion of public confidence in both professions is evidenced by three trends. First, the democratizing nature of the Internet and the availability of technical knowledge to laypeople have encroached on the domain of professional knowledge. Second, the responsibility of a professional to make decisions has been undercut by legal interpretations regarding how physicians are paid for patient care and how teachers are evaluated on performance. And finally, altruistic motivations in both professions have been called into question by external forces promoting "accountability" rather than trusting professionals to act for the best interest of their patients or students.In this climate of increasing accountability and decreasing trust for professionals, clinician-educators can best serve patients and learners through transdisciplinary collaboration with professional educators. Clinician-educators should rely on professional educators for judgment and specialized knowledge in the field of education rather than embodying both professions by themselves. Health care practice has become more team oriented; health care education should do likewise to counteract the social and political trends eroding public confidence in medicine and education. Relying on collaboration with education professionals constitutes a substantial change to how clinician-educators define themselves, but it holds the best promise for medical training in the current social milieu. PMID:27119327

  15. Reappraisal of the regulation of lactococcal L-lactate dehydrogenase.

    PubMed

    van Niel, Ed W J; Palmfeldt, Johan; Martin, Rani; Paese, Marco; Hahn-Hägerdal, Bärbel

    2004-03-01

    Lactococcal lactate dehydrogenases (LDHs) are coregulated at the substrate level by at least two mechanisms: the fructose-1,6-biphosphate/phosphate ratio and the NADH/NAD ratio. Among the Lactococcus lactis species, there are strains that are predominantly regulated by the first mechanism (e.g., strain 65.1) or by the second mechanism (e.g., strain NCDO 2118). A more complete model of the kinetics of the regulation of lactococcal LDH is discussed. PMID:15006814

  16. A reappraisal of the extent of world hunger.

    PubMed

    Poleman, T T

    1981-11-01

    The variation between different estimates of the magnitude of the world food problem are enormous. The author questions the basis of the major surveys of FAO, the World Bank, and USDA, and suggests that they have grossly overestimated the extent of world hunger. By analyzing the connection between population, food, and economic participation, a more realistic view is obtained, suggesting a return to targeted assistance programs for the improvement of maternal and child health. PMID:12337650

  17. A reappraisal of Cerebavis cenomanica (Aves, Ornithurae), from Melovatka, Russia.

    PubMed

    Walsh, Stig A; Milner, Angela C; Bourdon, Estelle

    2016-08-01

    The evolution of the avian brain is of crucial importance to studies of the transition from non-avian dinosaurs to modern birds, but very few avian fossils provide information on brain morphological development during the Mesozoic. An isolated specimen from the Cenomanian of Melovatka in Russia was described by Kurochkin and others as a fossilized brain, designated the holotype of Cerebavis cenomanica Kurochkin and Saveliev and tentatively referred to Enantiornithes. We have previously highlighted that this specimen is an incomplete skull, rendering the diagnostic characters invalid and Cerebavis cenomanica a nomen dubium. We provide here a revised diagnosis of Cerebavis cenomanica based on osteological characters, and a reconstruction of the endocranial morphology (= brain shape) based on μCT investigation of the braincase. Absence of temporal fenestrae indicates an ornithurine affinity for Cerebavis. The brain of this taxon was clearly closer to that of modern birds than to Archaeopteryx and does not represent a divergent evolutionary pathway as originally concluded by Kurochkin and others. No telencephalic wulst is present, suggesting that this advanced avian neurological feature was not recognizably developed 93 million years ago. PMID:26553244

  18. Reappraising the Theoretical Goals of Research in Social Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shaver, James P.

    1982-01-01

    Examines why social science/social studies educational research does not generate theories. The author concludes that the subject matter of this kind of research--human beings in their sociocultural milieu--makes it difficult to make objective observations from which theoretical principles can be derived. (AM)

  19. NEW SPECIES OF HALIMEDA: A TAXONOMIC REAPPRAISAL(1) (2).

    PubMed

    Colinvaux, L H

    1968-03-01

    A study of new Halimeda material available from the International Indian Ocean Expedition, and of type and other specimens not previously available to me, further indicated that Halimeda opuntia is a composite of species rather than a single species. The characteristics of some of its infraspecific taxa differ sufficiently from typical H. opuntia that I have elevated them to species. Extended diagnoses of three, H. hederacea, H. minima, and H. distorta, are given in this paper. Some characteristics new in Halimeda taxonomy are introduced, and distinguishing macroscopic and microscopic characteristics for the new species are discussed. Available ecological data are included. PMID:27067770

  20. Neuroprotection and Acute Spinal Cord Injury: A Reappraisal

    PubMed Central

    Hall, Edward D.; Springer, Joe E.

    2004-01-01

    Summary: It has long been recognized that much of the post-traumatic degeneration of the spinal cord following injury is caused by a multi-factorial secondary injury process that occurs during the first minutes, hours, and days after spinal cord injury (SCI). A key biochemical event in that process is reactive oxygen-induced lipid peroxidation (LP). In 1990 the results of the Second National Acute Spinal Cord Injury Study (NASCIS II) were published, which showed that the administration of a high-dose regimen of the glucocorticoid steroid methylprednisolone (MP), which had been previously shown to inhibit post-traumatic LP in animal models of SCI, could improve neurological recovery in spinal-cord-injured humans. This resulted in the registration of high-dose MP for acute SCI in several countries, although not in the U.S. Nevertheless, this treatment quickly became the standard of care for acute SCI since the drug was already on the U.S. market for many other indications. Subsequently, it was demonstrated that the non-glucocorticoid 21-aminosteroid tirilazad could duplicate the antioxidant neuroprotective efficacy of MP in SCI models, and evidence of human efficacy was obtained in a third NASCIS trial (NASCIS III). In recent years, the use of high-dose MP in acute SCI has become controversial largely on the basis of the risk of serious adverse effects versus what is perceived to be on average a modest neurological benefit. The opiate receptor antagonist naloxone was also tested in NASCIS II based upon the demonstration of its beneficial effects in SCI models. Although it did not a significant overall effect, some evidence of efficacy was seen in incomplete (i.e., paretic) patients. The monosialoganglioside GM1 has also been examined in a recently completed clinical trial in which the patients first received high-dose MP treatment. However, GM1 failed to show any evidence of a significant enhancement in the extent of neurological recovery over the level afforded by MP therapy alone. The present paper reviews the past development of MP, naloxone, tirilazad, and GM1 for acute SCI, the ongoing MP-SCI controversy, identifies the regulatory complications involved in future SCI drug development, and suggests some promising neuroprotective approaches that could either replace or be used in combination with high-dose MP. PMID:15717009

  1. No rheumatoid arthritis in ancient Egypt: a reappraisal.

    PubMed

    Kwiecinski, Jakub; Rothschild, Bruce M

    2016-06-01

    Antiquity of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) remains controversial, and its origins in Americas or in the Old World are disputed. Proponents of the latter frequently refer to RA in ancient Egypt, but validity of those claims has never been examined. Review of all reported RA cases from ancient Egypt revealed that none of them represent real RA, instead being either examples of changing naming conventions or of imprecise diagnostic criteria. Most cases represented osteoarthritis or spondyloarthropathies. Also review of preserved ancient Egyptian medical writings revealed many descriptions of musculoskeletal disorders, but none of them resembled RA. This suggests that RA was absent in ancient Egypt and supports the hypothesis of the New World origin of RA and its subsequent global spread in the last several centuries. PMID:26650735

  2. ATP synthesis during exogenous NADH oxidation. A reappraisal.

    PubMed

    Bernardi, P; Azzone, G F

    1982-01-20

    This paper reports a reinvestigation on the pathway for mitochondrial oxidation of exogenous NADH and on the related ATP synthesis, first reported 30 years ago (Lehninger, A.L. (1951) J. Biol. Chem. 190, 345-359). NADH oxidation, both in intact and in water-treated mitochondria, is 90% inhibited by mersalyl, an inhibitor of the outer membrane NADH-cytochrome b5 reductase, and 10% inhibited by rotenone. The mersalyl-sensitive, but not the rotenone-sensitive, portion of NADH oxidation is stimulated by exogenous cytochrome c. Part of ATP synthesis is independent of exogenous NADH and cytochrome c, and is inhibited by rotenone and antimycin A, and is therefore due to oxidation of endogenous substrates. Another part of ATP synthesis is dependent on exogenous NADH and cytochrome c, is insensitive to rotenone and antimycin A, and is due to operation of cytochrome oxidase. It is concluded that (i) oxidation of exogenous NADH in the presence of cytochrome c proceeds mostly through NADH-cytochrome b5 reductase and cytochrome b5 on the outer membrane and then through cytochrome oxidase via the cytochrome c shuttle, and (ii) ATP synthesis during oxidation of exogenous NADH is partly due to oxidation of endogenous substrates and partly to operation of cytochrome oxidase receiving electrons from the outer membrane via cytochrome c. PMID:6275889

  3. Oral Insulin and Buccal Insulin: A Critical Reappraisal

    PubMed Central

    Heinemann, Lutz; Jacques, Yves

    2009-01-01

    Despite the availability of modern insulin injection devices with needles that are so sharp and thin that practically no injection pain takes place, it is still the dream of patients with diabetes to, for example, swallow a tablet with insulin. This is not associated with any pain and would allow more discretion. Therefore, availability of oral insulin would not only ease insulin therapy, it would certainly increase compliance. However, despite numerous attempts to develop such a “tablet” in the past 85 years, still no oral insulin is commercially available. Buccal insulin is currently in the last stages of clinical development by one company and might become available in the United States and Europe in the coming years (it is already on the market in some other countries). The aim of this review is to critically describe the different approaches that are currently under development. Optimal coverage of prandial insulin requirements is the aim with both routes of insulin administration (at least with most approaches). The speed of onset of metabolic effect seen with some oral insulin approaches is rapid, but absorption appears to be lower when the tablet is taken immediately prior to a meal. With all approaches, considerable amounts of insulin have to be applied in order to induce therapeutically relevant increases in the metabolic effect because of the low relative biopotency of buccal insulin. Unfortunately, the number of publications about clinical–experimental and clinical studies is surprisingly low. In addition, there is no study published in which the variability of the metabolic effect induced (with and without a meal) was studied adequately. In summary, after the failure of inhaled insulin, oral insulin and buccal insulin are hot candidates to come to the market as the next alternative routes of insulin administration. PMID:20144297

  4. A reappraisal of Polyptychodon (Plesiosauria) from the Cretaceous of England

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Pliosauridae is a globally distributed clade of aquatic predatory amniotes whose fossil record spans from the Lower Jurassic to the Upper Cretaceous. However, the knowledge of pliosaurid interrelationships remains limited. In part, this is a consequence of a few key taxa awaiting detailed reassessment. Among them, the taxon Polyptychodon is of special importance. It was established on isolated teeth from the mid-Cretaceous strata of East and South East England and subsequently associated with numerous finds of near-cosmopolitan distribution. Here the taxon is reassessed based on the original dental material from England, with special focus on a large collection of late Albian material from the Cambridge Greensand near Cambridge. The dental material is reviewed here from historical and stratigraphic perspective, described in detail, and discussed in terms of its diagnostic nature. The considerable morphological variability observed in the teeth attributed to Polyptychodon, together with a wide stratigraphic range of the ascribed material, possibly exceeding 35 Ma (early Aptian to ?middle Santonian), suggests that the taxon is based on a multispecies assemblage, possibly incorporating members of different plesiosaur clades. Due to the absence of any autapomorphic characters or unique character combinations in the original material, Polyptychodon interruptus, the type species of Polyptychodon, is considered nomen dubium. From a global perspective, Polyptychodon is viewed as a wastebasket taxon whose material originating from different localities should be reconsidered separately. PMID:27190712

  5. Stem Cell Transplantation for Indolent Lymphoma. A Reappraisal

    PubMed Central

    van Besien, Koen

    2011-01-01

    Summary Allogeneic transplantation is established as a curative treatment for follicular lymphoma, but with considerable short and long-term morbidity and mortality. Data and controversies regarding conditioning regimen, donor source, GVHD prophylaxis, post transplant interventions and approaches to predict and reduce morbidity and mortality are reviewed. Total body irradiation is very effective but toxic and reduced intensity conditioning is often preferred though associated with somewhat higher rates of recurrence. The risk of chronic GVHD and its late sequelae can be markedly reduced by in-vivo T-cell depletion using alemtuzumab but also leads to somewhat higher incidence of disease recurrence. When using such treatment strategies, one can consider prophylactic or preemptive donor lymphocyte infusions or low toxicity medical treatment such as rituximab. Overall the long term outcomes, particularly survival and current progression free survival of patients undergoing allogeneic transplantation for indolent lymphoma have steadily improved and transplant can now often safely be considered up to the sixth decade of life. Outcomes of unrelated donor transplantation approach those of HLA-identical sibling transplant and even mismatched umbilical cord transplant can be considered in selected patients. The assessment of risks and benefits is aided by the use of various novel tools. PMID:21641099

  6. The clinical spectrum of narcolepsy with cataplexy: a reappraisal.

    PubMed

    Sturzenegger, Christian; Bassetti, Claudio L

    2004-12-01

    In the absence of a golden standard for the diagnosis of narcolepsy, the clinical spectrum of disorder remains controversial. The aims of this study were (1) to determine frequency and characteristics of sleep-wake symptoms in patients with narcolepsy with cataplexy, (2) to compare clinical characteristics with results of ancillary tests, and (3) to identify factors that discriminate narcolepsy from other conditions with excessive daytime sleepiness (EDS). We prospectively studied 57 narcoleptics with cataplexy, 56 patients with non-narcoleptic hypersomnia (H), and 40 normal controls (No). Based on suggested and published criteria, we differentiated between narcoleptics with definite cataplexy (N) and narcoleptics without definite cataplexy (possible cataplexy, NpC). Assessment consisted of questionnaires [all patients and controls, including the Ullanlinna Narcolepsy Score (UNS)], polysomnography (all patients), multiple sleep latency test (MSLT) and human leukocyte antigen typing (in most narcoleptics). A new narcolepsy score based on five questions was developed. Data were compared with those of 12 hypocretin-deficient narcoleptics (N-hd). There were significant differences between N and NpC (including mean sleep latency on MSLT), but none between N and N-hd. A score of sleep propensity during active situations (SPAS) and the frequency of sleep paralysis/hallucinations at sleep onset, dreams of flying, and history of sleep shouting discriminated N from H and No (P < 0.001). Cataplexy-like symptoms in H (18%) and No (8%) could be discriminated from 'true' cataplexy in N on the basis of topography of motor effects, triggering emotions and triggering situations (P < 0.001). Our narcolepsy score had a similar sensitivity (96% versus 98%) but a higher specificity (98% versus 56%) than the UNS. Analysis of co-occurring symptoms in narcolepsy revealed two symptom complexes: EDS, cataplexy, automatic behaviors; and sleep paralysis, hallucinations, parasomnias. Low/undetectable cerebrospinal fluid hypocretin-1 levels and a history of definite cataplexy identify similar subgroups of narcoleptics. Specific questions on severity of EDS (SPAS score) and characteristics of cataplexy allow the recognition of subgroups of narcoleptics and their differentiation from non-narcoleptic EDS patients, including those reporting cataplexy-like episodes. The existence of co-occurring symptoms supports the hypothesis of a distinct pathophysiology of single narcoleptic symptoms. PMID:15560774

  7. Ventilation during CPR: two-rescuer standards reappraised.

    PubMed

    Melker, R J; Banner, M J

    1985-05-01

    Current American Heart Association standards for ventilation during two-rescuer CPR recommend that a 0.8- to 1.2-L breath be delivered in 0.5 second after every fifth chest compression. Delivering a high-volume breath over a brief inspiratory time (TI) may lead to hypoventilation and gastric insufflation in victims with an unprotected airway. We reasoned that lengthening TI would lower peak inspiratory pressure and peak inspiratory flow rate, and thus improve lung inflation. To study this possibility, a mechanical model of the airway and upper gastrointestinal tract was designed. A ventilator delivering a sinusoidal wave form was used to simulate artificial ventilation. A 0.8-L breath was delivered at 0.5, 1.0, or 1.5 seconds at three lung compliances (CLs). Also, the effect of lengthening TI was studied with increased airway resistance. Lengthening TI improved lung inflation and decreased gastric insufflation at all CLs, but more so with normal CL than with decreased CL. This study demonstrates the need for evaluating alternative ventilatory patterns with longer TI during CPR. PMID:3857015

  8. Radical re-appraisal of water structure in hydrophilic confinement☆

    PubMed Central

    Soper, Alan K.

    2013-01-01

    The structure of water confined in MCM41 silica cylindrical pores is studied to determine whether confined water is simply a version of the bulk liquid which can be substantially supercooled without crystallisation. A combination of total neutron scattering from the porous silica, both wet and dry, and computer simulation using a realistic model of the scattering substrate is used. The water in the pore is divided into three regions: core, interfacial and overlap. The average local densities of water in these simulations are found to be about 20% lower than bulk water density, while the density in the core region is below, but closer to, the bulk density. There is a decrease in both local and core densities when the temperature is lowered from 298 K to 210 K. The radical proposal is made here that water in hydrophilic confinement is under significant tension, around −100 MPa, inside the pore. PMID:25843963

  9. Acute interstitial nephritis – a reappraisal and update

    PubMed Central

    Raghavan, Rajeev; Eknoyan, Garabed

    2014-01-01

    Acute interstitial nephritis (AIN) is an under recognized and under diagnosed cause of acute kidney injury (AKI). It is estimated to account for 15 – 20% of cases of AKI; it is the reported diagnosis in 2.8% of all kidney biopsies, and 13.5% of biopsies done specifically for acute renal failure. Considerable evidence implicates antigen initiated cell-mediated injury in the pathogenesis of AIN. Drugs account for 70% of all cases, with over 150 different agents incriminated. The remaining cases are due to infections, autoimmune diseases, and rarely idiopathic. The central component of renal injury in AIN is altered tubular function, which usually precedes decrements in filtration rate. The key to early diagnosis is vigilance for the presence of tubular dysfunction in non-oliguric individuals, especially in patients with modest but gradual increments in creatinine level. The utility of urinary biomarkers to diagnose AIN in its early nascent and potentially reversible stage remains to be determined. Prompt recognition, elimination of the offending source of antigen, and use of a limited course of steroid therapy where indicated, will result in complete resolution in ~ 65% of cases, partial resolution in up to 20%, and irreversible damage in the rest. PMID:25079860

  10. Volcanic Eruption and Intrusion Processes on 4 Vesta: A Reappraisal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keil, K.; Wilson, L.

    2012-03-01

    A new analysis supports our earlier predictions of sizes of lava flows and pyroclast deposits on Vesta, but argues against a magma ocean, instead suggesting eruptions were fed by magma from large sill-like intrusions at the base of the lithosphere.

  11. Genetic effects of the atomic bombs: a reappraisal

    SciTech Connect

    Schull, W.J.; Otake, M.; Neel, J.V.

    1981-09-11

    Data are presented on four indicators of genetic effects from studies of children born to survivors of the atomic bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki. The indicators are frequency of untoward pregnancy outcomes (stillbirth, major congenital defect, death during the first postnatal weak); occurrence of death in live-born children, through an average of life expectancy of 17 years; frequency of children with sex chromosome aneuploidy; and frequency of children with mutation resulting in an eletrophoretic variant. In no instance is there a statistically significant effect of parental exposure; but for all indicators the observed effect is in the direction suggested by the hypothesis that genetic damage resulted from the exposure. On the basis of assumptions concerning the contribution that spontaneous mutation in the preceding generation makes to the indicators in question, it is possible to estimate the genetic doubling dose for radiation for the first three indicators (the data base is still too small for the fourth). The average of these estimates is 156 rems. This is some four times higher than the results from experimental studies on the mouse with comparable radiation sources, which have been the principal guide to the presumed human sensitivities. The relevance of these data in setting permissible limits for human exposures is discussed briefly.

  12. Genetic effects of the atomic bombs: a reappraisal

    SciTech Connect

    Schull, W.J.; Otake, M.; Neel, J.V.

    1981-09-11

    Data are presented on four indicators of genetic effects from studies of children born to survivors of the atomic bombings of Hiroshima and Negasaki. The indicators are frequency of un toward pregnancy outcomes (stillbirth, major congenital defect, death during first postnatal week); occurrence of death in live-born children, through an average life expectancy of 17 years; frequency of children with sex chromosome aneuploidy; and frequency of children with mutation resulting in an electrophoretic variant. In no instance is there a statistically significant effect of parental exposure; but for all indicators the observed effect is in the direction suggested by the hypothesis that genetic damage resulted from the exposure. On the basis of assumptions concerning the contribution that spontaneous mutation in the preceding generation makes to the indicators in question, it is possible to estimate the genetic doubling dose for radiation for the first three indicators (the data base is still too small for the fourth). The average of these estimates is 156 rems. This is some four times higher than the results from experimental studies on the mouse with comparable radiation sources, which have been the principal guide to the presumed human sensitivities. The relevance of these data in setting permissible limits for human exposures is discussed briefly.

  13. Reappraisal of emergency room thoracotomy in a changing environment.

    PubMed

    Esposito, T J; Jurkovich, G J; Rice, C L; Maier, R V; Copass, M K; Ashbaugh, D G

    1991-07-01

    The efficacy of resuscitative emergency room thoracotomy (ERT), particularly in blunt injury, has been questioned. Wide application of the procedure may not be cost effective. The risk of exposure and lethal infection to medical personnel during ERT is considerable. For the past decade, the policy at this institution has been to perform ERT on all moribund patients sustaining penetrating torso injury and all patients sustaining blunt injury with any evidence of cardiac electrical activity. To evaluate whether such a liberal policy is currently justified, the charts of all patients undergoing ERT over a 4-year period were reviewed. One hundred twelve patients underwent ERT; 24 (21%) sustained penetrating injury, 88 (79%) blunt injury. The overall survival rate was 1.8%. Penetrating injury had a 4.2% survival and blunt injury 1.1%. No patients with CPR initiated at the scene and required throughout transport survived. In those patients with both blood pressure and spontaneous respirations present in the field, survival rate was 11.8%. Survival rate in patients manifesting sinus rhythm or ventricular fibrillation upon arrival at the ER was 6.4%. No survivors were noted among patients coming to the hospital with an idioventricular rhythm or asystole. The total hospital charges for patients undergoing ERT exceeded reimbursement by $59,565. Screening for HIV and hepatitis could be documented in only two patients; both were negative. Liberal performance of ERT has dismal results, incurs monetary loss, and affords a greater potential for exposure to lethal infection. Emergency room thoracotomy is justified only when vital signs or a resuscitatible cardiac rhythm are present in the field or ER and deteriorate shortly before thoracotomy.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:2072424

  14. Thiamine Deficiency Induced Neurochemical, Neuroanatomical, and Neuropsychological Alterations: A Reappraisal

    PubMed Central

    Höller, Yvonne; Storti, Monica; Christova, Monica; Tezzon, Frediano; Golaszewski, Stefan; Trinka, Eugen

    2013-01-01

    Nutritional deficiency can cause, mainly in chronic alcoholic subjects, the Wernicke encephalopathy and its chronic neurological sequela, the Wernicke-Korsakoff syndrome (WKS). Long-term chronic ethanol abuse results in hippocampal and cortical cell loss. Thiamine deficiency also alters principally hippocampal- and frontal cortical-dependent neurochemistry; moreover in WKS patients, important pathological damage to the diencephalon can occur. In fact, the amnesic syndrome typical for WKS is mainly due to the damage in the diencephalic-hippocampal circuitry, including thalamic nuclei and mammillary bodies. The loss of cholinergic cells in the basal forebrain region results in decreased cholinergic input to the hippocampus and the cortex and reduced choline acetyltransferase and acetylcholinesterase activities and function, as well as in acetylcholine receptor downregulation within these brain regions. In this narrative review, we will focus on the neurochemical, neuroanatomical, and neuropsychological studies shedding light on the effects of thiamine deficiency in experimental models and in humans. PMID:24235882

  15. A reappraisal of Kendell and Jablensky's account of validity.

    PubMed

    Fellowes, Sam

    2016-08-01

    Kendell and Jablensky argue that validity in psychiatry requires either unique biological characteristics or a zone of rarity, where few symptoms of one syndrome are present in another syndrome. Meeting either of these criteria allows the inference that the syndrome is caused by a specific biological mechanism not present in other syndromes. Failing to meet either of these criteria means the syndrome has been arbitrarily grouped and is invalid. Kendell and Jablensky's account of validity is too restrictive. Scientific phenomena are generally produced by a multiplicity of unstable overlapping causes, the causes for one phenomenon typically also present in other phenomena. Despite this, scientific phenomena are not automatically arbitrary. Science employs idealistic models that can successfully describe phenomena produced by overlapping causes and can gain approximately true knowledge of that phenomenon. The specific biological mechanisms that Kendell and Jablensky see as delivering validity are only specific in an idealized sense. Also, approximate truth means Kendell and Jablensky are mistaken to see validity as invariant and independent of context. An alternative approach to inferring causes is the common cause and unifications. Scientists often see otherwise unrelated phenomena regularly co-occur, and this legitimizes inferring common causes responsible for the phenomena. Applied to psychiatry, I show how syndromes that cover many different unrelated phenomena allow an inference to common causes, and this delivers validity. Zones of rarity can actually decrease validity. Idealized models often produce more information about causes by covering more phenomena, whereas zones of rarity often reduce the number of symptoms covered by a syndrome. Ignoring zones of rarity in favour of syndromes that cover many symptoms can sometimes increase validity. This can also occur when validating syndromes through corroborations with other factors. Increasing corroborations may require reducing the number of symptoms, potentially reducing validity. PMID:27133584

  16. A Reappraisal of the 4/3/2 Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boers, Frank

    2014-01-01

    In the 4/3/2 activity learners deliver the same talk three times under increasing time pressure. The activity is intended first and foremost to foster fluency, but accuracy and complexity have also been said to benefit from this activity. The present study investigates whether immediate repetition of monologues under increasing time pressure…

  17. A re-appraisal of wood-fired combustion.

    PubMed

    McIlveen-Wright, D R; Williams, B C; McMullan, J T

    2001-02-01

    Targets for a considerable increase in electricity generation from renewables have been set in order to reduce greenhouse gas emissions and fossil fuel dependence. Extensive planting of willow, poplar and alder as energy crops has been planned for power generation plants which use wood as the fuel. The current trend is to use gasification or pyrolysis technology, but alternatively a case may be made for wood combustion, if wood becomes readily available. A range of wood-fired circulating fluidised bed combustion (CFBC) plants, using from 10 to 10,000 dry tonne equivalent (DTE)/day, was examined using the ECLIPSE process simulation package. Various factors, such as wood moisture content, harvest yield, afforestation level (AL) and discounted cash flow rate (DCF) were investigated to test their influence on the efficiency and the economics of the systems. Steam cycle conditions and wood moisture content were found to have the biggest effects on the system efficiencies; DCF and AL had the largest influences on the economics. Plants which could handle more than 500 dry tonnes/day could be economically viable; those using more than 1000 dry tonnes wood/day could be competitive with large-scale, conventional coal-fired plants, if sufficient wood were available. PMID:11198168

  18. Ethical reappraisal of 15 years of cord-blood transplantation.

    PubMed

    Burgio, Giuseppe Roberto; Gluckman, Eliane; Locatelli, Franco

    2003-01-18

    Since the first successful use of cord blood as source of haemopoietic stem cells for transplantation in 1988, more than 2000 patients with malignant or non-malignant disorders have been treated with this procedure. Collection and storage of cord blood has prompted ethical considerations, mainly dealing with the issues of autonomy in making decisions about donation of cord blood, and of privacy and confidentiality in the tests required before use of placental cells for transplantation. The ethical implications of possible storage of cord-blood cells for autologous use has also been discussed. Preimplantation selection of HLA-matched embryos to obtain a donor of cells for cord-blood transplantation of a sibling with a life-threatening disease has raised the issue of the extent to which this approach complies with the principles of bioethics. PMID:12547553

  19. A reappraisal of oophorectomy in carcinoma of the breast.

    PubMed

    Veronesi, U; Cascinelli, N; Greco, M; Di Fronzo, G; Oriana, R; Merson, M; Galluzzo, D; Bufalino, R; Belli, F; Sacchini, V

    1987-01-01

    Bilateral oophorectomy was used to treat 601 patients with disseminated breast carcinoma from 1974-1984. The total response rate was 31.2%. Complete regression occurred in 10.5% of patients and partial regression occurred in 20.8%, whereas 28.3% of patients showed no change and the disease progressed in 36.9% of patients. The patients who had a total regression had good survival rates (60.8% at 5 years and 47.3% at 7 years). No significant differences were found in the various age groups or with different types of dissemination. Patients with syncronous primary carcinoma and distant metastases had a high rate of regression as did patients with slow-growing carcinomas that metastasized many years after primary treatment. Estrogen receptor (ER) rates were good indicators of response only when determined on metastatic tissue at the time of oophorectomy. The value of ER determined on the primary tumor was of limited predictivity of response. A total of 220 patients received chemotherapy before oophorectomy. In this group the response rate was 22.3%, lower than that observed in patients who did not receive chemotherapy (36.6%). No important differences in total response rates were found among patients with amenorrhea and without amenorrhea although total regressions were more frequent in the latter patients than in the former patients. PMID:3800458

  20. Abciximab: a reappraisal of its use in coronary care

    PubMed Central

    Valgimigli, Marco; Campo, Gianluca; Tebaldi, Matteo; Carletti, Roberto; Arcozzi, Chiara; Ferrari, Roberto; Percoco, Gianfranco

    2008-01-01

    Platelet reactivity plays a pivotal role in the pathogenesis of ischemic adverse events during and after acute coronary syndromes (ACS), and percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). Glycoprotein (GP) IIb/IIIa inhibitors are the strongest antiplatelet agents currently available on the market and three different compounds, namely abciximab, tirofiban, and eptifibatide, have been approved for clinical use. Abciximab has been investigated in the clinical field far more extensively than the other GPIIb/IIIa inhibitors. Abciximab is an anti-integrin Fab fragment of a human – mouse chimeric monoclonal antibody with high affinity and a slow dissociation rate from the GP IIb/IIIa platelet receptor. Abciximab, given shortly before the coronary intervention, is superior to placebo in reducing the acute risk of ischemic complications (EPIC, EPISTENT, EPILOG trials); moreover, in the ISAR-REACT 2 study abciximab has been shown to reduce the risk of adverse events in patients with non ST-segment elevation ACS who are undergoing PCI even after optimal pre-treatment with 600 mg of clopidogrel. Finally, abciximab has been also used in abciximab-coated stent, with only bolus administration regimen and for direct intracoronary use with promising results that may extend and/or modify its current use in clinical practice in future. PMID:19707425

  1. Reappraisal of the Electric Dipole Moment Enhancement Factor for Thallium

    SciTech Connect

    Nataraj, H. S.; Sahoo, B. K.; Das, B. P.; Mukherjee, D.

    2011-05-20

    The electric dipole moment (EDM) enhancement factor of atomic Tl is of considerable interest as it has been used in determining the most accurate limit on the electron EDM to date. However, its value varies from -179 to -1041 in different approximations. In view of the large uncertainties associated with many of these calculations, we perform an accurate calculation employing the relativistic coupled-cluster theory and obtain -466, which in combination with the most accurate measurement of Tl EDM [Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 071805 (2002)] yields a new limit for the electron EDM: |d{sub e}|<2.0x10{sup -27}e cm.

  2. Interruptions and Distractions in Healthcare: Review and Reappraisal

    PubMed Central

    Rivera, A. Joy; Karsh, Ben-Tzion

    2010-01-01

    Healthcare settings can be hectic, demanding, time-constrained environments. Within these environments, health care professionals (HCP) are expected to perform tasks that often require their undivided attention. However, HCPs are frequently interrupted, which can distract their attention and add to the complexity of their work. That said, not all interruptions are bad; many interruptions are essential to the patient care process and provide HCPs with necessary information. This paper systematically reviews the peer-reviewed literature on interruptions in healthcare settings to determine the state of the science and to identify gaps. It then provides a complex sociotechnical systems approach to understanding interruptions in healthcare. PMID:20378621

  3. A Reappraisal of Bennett Reimer and His Meanings of Art

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allsup, Randall Everett; Lewis, Judy

    2015-01-01

    Consistent throughout his writings on aesthetics and education, Bennett Reimer maintained the idea that music must be understood and studied as non-conceptual. Music's forms of knowing point to the subjective realms of life and operate effectively without the assistance or necessity of language. An education in the arts is an education in…

  4. Reappraisal of risk factors for monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance.

    PubMed

    Boursi, Ben; Weiss, Brendan M; Haynes, Kevin; Mamtani, Ronac; Yang, Yu-Xiao

    2016-06-01

    A number of epidemiologic studies have demonstrated associations between obesity and diabetes and the risk of monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance (MGUS). However, since MGUS is an asymptomatic condition we evaluated whether these are true associations or the result of detection-bias. We conducted a nested case-control study using a large primary-care database. Cases were defined as those with incident diagnosis of MGUS. For every case, four eligible controls matched on age, sex, practice site, and duration of follow-up were selected. Exposure variables included obesity and diabetes (including antidiabetic therapies) as well as other metabolic risk factors. Odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were estimated using conditional logistic regression. The study included 2363 MGUS patients and 9193 matched controls. In the primary analysis, obesity and diabetes were associated with higher MGUS risk with an adjusted ORs of 1.15 (95% CI 1.02-1.29) and 1.30 (95% CI 1.13-1.50), respectively. However, after adjustment to the number of laboratory tests prior to the MGUS diagnosis, there was no association between obesity and diabetes and MGUS risk (ORs of 1.08, 95% CI 0.96-1.22 and 1.08, 95% CI 0.93-1.25, respectively). In an additional analysis of antidiabetic therapies and MGUS risk, there was a nonsignificant decrease in MGUS risk among diabetes patients treated with metformin alone compared to subjects without diabetes (OR 0.77, 95% CI 0.56-1.05). In summary, while previously described risk factors for MGUS might be the result of detection bias, metformin should be further evaluated as a possible chemoprevention modality. Am. J. Hematol. 91:581-584, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26953904

  5. Implementation science: a reappraisal of our journal mission and scope.

    PubMed

    Foy, Robbie; Sales, Anne; Wensing, Michel; Aarons, Gregory A; Flottorp, Signe; Kent, Bridie; Michie, Susan; O'Connor, Denise; Rogers, Anne; Sevdalis, Nick; Straus, Sharon; Wilson, Paul

    2015-01-01

    The implementation of research findings into healthcare practice has become increasingly recognised as a major priority for researchers, service providers, research funders and policymakers over the past decade. Nine years after its establishment, Implementation Science, an international online open access journal, currently publishes over 150 articles each year. This is fewer than 30% of those submitted for publication. The majority of manuscript rejections occur at the point of initial editorial screening, frequently because we judge them to fall outside of journal scope. There are a number of common reasons as to why manuscripts are rejected on grounds of scope. Furthermore, as the field of implementation research has evolved and our journal submissions have risen, we have, out of necessity, had to become more selective in what we publish. We have also expanded our scope, particularly around patient-mediated and population health interventions, and will monitor the impact of such changes. We hope this editorial on our evolving priorities and common reasons for rejection without peer review will help authors to better judge the relevance of their papers to Implementation Science. PMID:25928695

  6. Hepatocellular carcinoma in non-cirrhotic liver: a reappraisal.

    PubMed

    Trevisani, Franco; Frigerio, Marta; Santi, Valentina; Grignaschi, Alice; Bernardi, Mauro

    2010-05-01

    Although not frequently, hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) can ensue in a non-cirrhotic liver. As compared to cirrhotic HCC, this kind of tumour has some peculiarities, such as: (a) a lower male preponderance and a bimodal age distribution; (b) a lower prevalence of the three main risk factors (hepatitis B and C virus infections and alcohol abuse), with an increased prevalence of other etiologic factors, such as exposure to genotoxic substances and sex hormones, inherited diseases, genetic mutations; (c) a more advanced tumour stage at the time of diagnosis, as it is usually detected due to the occurrence of cancer-related symptoms, outside any scheduled surveillance program; (d) a much higher amenability to hepatic resection, due to the low risk of liver failure even after extended parenchymal mutilation; (e) overall and disease-free survivals after resection of non-advanced tumours (meeting the Milano criteria) comparable to that obtained with liver transplantation in cirrhotic patients carrying an early tumour; (f) overall survival strictly dependent on tumour burden (and its recurrence) and barely influenced by liver function. PMID:19828388

  7. Parenteral use of medium-chain triglycerides: a reappraisal.

    PubMed

    Ulrich, H; Pastores, S M; Katz, D P; Kvetan, V

    1996-04-01

    Over the last two decades, the clinical use of intravenous fat emulsions for the nutritional support of hospitalized patients has become routine. During this time long-chain triglycerides (LCT) derived from soybean and/or safflower oils were the exclusive lipid source for these emulsions, providing both a safe calorically dense alternative to dextrose and essential fatty acids needed for biologic membranes and the maintenance of immune function. During the past decade, the availability of novel experimental triglycerides for parenteral use has generated interest in the use of these substrates for nutritional and metabolic support. Medium-chain triglycerides (MCT), long advocated as a superior substrate for parenteral use, possess many unique physiochemical and metabolic properties that make them theoretically advantageous over their LCT counterparts. Although not yet approved in the United States, preparations containing MCT have been widely available in Europe. Intravenous MCT preparations, either as physical mixtures or structured lipids, have been used clinically in patients with immunosuppresion, critical illness, liver and pulmonary disease and in premature infants. Despite great promise, the clinical data comparing the efficacy of MCT-based lipid emulsions to their LCT counterparts has been equivocal. This may be due in part to the limited nature of the published clinical trials. Measures of efficacy for parenteral or enteral nutritional products has taken on new meaning, in light of the reported experience using immunomodulatory nutrients. Current concerns about cost of medical care and resource use warrant careful deliberation about the utility of any new and expensive therapy. Until clinical data can fulfill expectations derived from animal studies, it is difficult to advocate the general use of MCT-based lipid emulsions. Future clinical studies with MCT-based emulsions should have clear outcome objectives sufficient to prove their theorized metabolic superiority. PMID:8862527

  8. Reappraisal of trimodal combination therapy for maxillary sinus carcinoma

    SciTech Connect

    Shibuya, H.; Suzuki, S.; Horiuchi, J.; Takagi, M.; Okuyama, T.; Suzuki, H.; Takeda, M.

    1982-12-15

    The introduction of trimodal combination therapy (surgery + radiation + intraarterial infusion) for maxillary carcinoma resulted in a change in the sites of recurrence and no satisfactory improvement in the local control rate. To examine the cause of these phenomena, external carotid angiography was performed on 51 patients prior to the start of the therapy and the results of the treatment were studied. Angiographic findings indicated that maxillary carcinoma is fed not only by the maxillary artery, but also by the internal carotid, facial, transverse facial and other arteries from the external carotid artery. The multiplicity of feeders causes irregular distribution of the intraarterially infused antimetabolites. Irregular and local low distribution of antimetabolites may well bring about the high rate of recurrence. The results of intraarterial transcatheter Tc-99m-MAA injection were also in accord with the angiographic findings.

  9. Lung cancer mortality among U. S. uranium miners: a reappraisal

    SciTech Connect

    Whittemore, A.S.; McMillan, A.

    1983-09-01

    This report examines lung cancer mortality among a cohort of white underground uranium miners in the Colorado plateau and is based on mortality follow-up through December 31, 1977. The analytic methods represent a miner's annual age-specific lung cancer mortality rate as the (unspecified) rate among nonsmoking men born at the same time and with no mining history, multiplied by the relative risk factor R. This factor depends on the miner's total exposures to radon daughters (in working level months (WLM) and to cigarettes (in packs), accumulated from start of exposure until 10 years before his current age. Among those examined, the relative risk function giving the highest likelihood of the data was R . (1 + 0.31 X 10(-/sup 2/) WLM)(1 + 0.51 X 10(-/sup 3/) packs). This multiplicative function specifies that ratios of mortality rates for miners versus nonminers with similar age and smoking characteristics do not depend on smoking status. By contrast, differences between miners' and nonminers' mortality rates are substantially higher for smokers than for nonsmokers. The data rejected (P . .01) several additive functions for R that specify relative risk as a sum of components due to radiation and to cigarette smoking. Cumulative exposures to both radiation and cigarettes gave better fits to the data than did average annual exposure rates. Age at start of underground mining had no effect on risk, after controlling for age at lung cancer death, year of birth, and cumulative radiation and smoking exposures.

  10. Critical reappraisal of DBS targeting for movement disorders.

    PubMed

    Guzzi, Giusy; Della Torre, Attilio; Chirchiglia, Domenico; Volpentesta, Giorgio; Lavano, Angelo

    2016-06-01

    Deep brain stimulation (DBS) is used as a surgical treatment of movement disorders such as Parkinson's disease, dystonia and essential tremor. Fundamental understanding of DBS effects on the pathological neural circuitry remains insufficient. In 2002 DBS of the subthalamic nucleus (STN) and the globus pallidus internus (GPi) was approved for use in patients with PD. Next year, DBS of Gpi and STN for dystonia received a Humanitarian Device exemption from the FDA. The commonly targets for DBS are subthalamic nucleus (STN) or globus pallidus internus (GPi) for Parkinson's disease, Gpi for dystonia and ventro-intermediate (VIM) nucleus of the thalamus for essential tremor. However, VIM DBS cannot sufficiently improve akinesia and rigidity. Pedunculopontine nucleus (PPN) is currently investigated as potential target to improve gait and posture. It is determined that DBS sometimes influences not only motor functions but also the cognitive and affective functions of patients. In this article we review the present state of DBS for movement disorders, appropriate indications, practical effects and stimulation-induced adverse events established in previous studies. We discuss target selection and the effect of DBS on motor and non-motor symptoms of Parkinson's disease, dystonia and essential tremor. PMID:27015393