Sample records for recanalized paraumbilical vein

  1. Transjugular Endovascular Recanalization of Splenic Vein in Patients with Regional Portal Hypertension Complicated by Gastrointestinal Bleeding

    SciTech Connect

    Luo, Xuefeng; Nie, Ling; Wang, Zhu; Tsauo, Jiaywei; Tang, Chengwei; Li, Xiao, E-mail: simonlixiao@126.com [West China Hospital, Sichuan University, Department of Gastroenterology (China)

    2013-05-02

    PurposeRegional portal hypertension (RPH) is an uncommon clinical syndrome resulting from splenic vein stenosis/occlusion, which may cause gastrointestinal (GI) bleeding from the esophagogastric varices. The present study evaluated the safety and efficacy of transjugular endovascular recanalization of splenic vein in patients with GI bleeding secondary to RPH.MethodsFrom December 2008 to May 2011, 11 patients who were diagnosed with RPH complicated by GI bleeding and had undergone transjugular endovascular recanalization of splenic vein were reviewed retrospectively. Contrast-enhanced computed tomography revealed splenic vein stenosis in six cases and splenic vein occlusion in five. Etiology of RPH was chronic pancreatitis (n = 7), acute pancreatitis with pancreatic pseudocyst (n = 2), pancreatic injury (n = 1), and isolated pancreatic tuberculosis (n = 1).ResultsTechnical success was achieved in 8 of 11 patients via the transjugular approach, including six patients with splenic vein stenosis and two patients with splenic vein occlusion. Two patients underwent splenic vein venoplasty only, whereas four patients underwent bare stents deployment and two covered stents. Splenic vein pressure gradient (SPG) was reduced from 21.5 ± 7.3 to 2.9 ± 1.4 mmHg after the procedure (P < 0.01). For the remaining three patients who had technical failures, splenic artery embolization and subsequent splenectomy was performed. During a median follow-up time of 17.5 (range, 3–34) months, no recurrence of GI bleeding was observed.ConclusionsTransjugular endovascular recanalization of splenic vein is a safe and effective therapeutic option in patients with RPH complicated by GI bleeding and is not associated with an increased risk of procedure-related complications.

  2. Sharp Recanalization for Chronic Left Iliac Vein Occlusion

    SciTech Connect

    Ito, Nobutake, E-mail: nobutake@rad.med.keio.ac.jp; Isfort, Peter; Penzkofer, Tobias [RWTH Aachen University, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, University Hospital (Germany); Grommes, Jochen; Greiner, Andreas [RWTH Aachen University, Department of Vascular Surgery, University Hospital (Germany); Mahnken, Andreas [RWTH Aachen University, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, University Hospital (Germany)

    2012-08-15

    Endovascular treatment has emerged as a first-line treatment for venous occlusions, but is sometimes challenging with conventional approaches. This article describes a helpful technique using a Roesch-Uchida needle to cross a chronic occlusion of the iliac vein when conventional techniques have failed.

  3. Recanalization of an Occluded Infrainguinal Vein Graft Complicated by Graft Aneurysm

    SciTech Connect

    Kakani, Nirmal; Travis, Simon; Hancock, John [Royal Cornwall Hospital, Department of Clinical Imaging (United Kingdom)], E-mail: John.Hancock@rcht.cornwall.nhs.uk

    2007-11-15

    The technique of subintimal angioplasty has been described for the recanalisation of native vessels after occlusion of infrainguinal vascular bypass grafts. We report a case in which an attempt at such treatment resulted in inadvertent but successful recanalisation of the occluded vein graft instead. This was complicated by graft perforation and subsequent graft aneurysm which was successfully treated with a covered stent.

  4. Endovenous laser with miniphlebectomy for treatment of varicose veins and effect of different levels of laser energy on recanalization. A single center experience.

    PubMed

    Golbasi, Ilhan; Turkay, Cengiz; Erbasan, Ozan; Kemalo?lu, Cemal; Sanli, Suat; Turkay, Mehtap; Bayezid, Ömer

    2015-01-01

    Varicose veins, associated with great saphenous vein (GSV) incompetence, are traditionally treated with conventional surgery. In recent years, minimally invasive alternatives to surgical treatment such as the endovenous laser ablation (EVLA) and radiofrequency (RF) ablation have been developed with promising results. Residual varicose veins following EVLA, regress untouched, or phlebectomy or foam sclerotherapy can be concomitantly performed. The aim of the present study was to investigate the safety and efficacy of EVLA with different levels of laser energy in patients with varicose veins secondary to saphenous vein reflux. From February 2006 to August 2011, 740 EVLA, usually with concomitant miniphlebectomies, were performed in 552 patients. A total of 665 GSV, 53 small saphenous veins (SSV), and 22 both GSV and SSV were treated with EVLA under duplex USG. At 84 patients, bilateral intervention is made. In addition, miniphlebectomy was performed in 540 patients. A duplex ultrasound (US) is performed to patients preoccupying chronic venous insufficiency (with visible varicose veins, ankle edema, skin changes, or ulcer). Saphenous vein incompetence was diagnosed with saphenofemoral, saphenopopliteal, or truncal vein reflux in response to manual compression and release with patient standing. The procedures were performed under local anesthesia with light sedation or spinal anesthesia. Endovenous 980-nm diode laser source was used at a continuous mode. The mean energy applied per length of GSV during the treatment was 77.5?±?17.0 J (range 60-100 J/cm). An US evaluation was performed at first week of the procedure. Follow-up evaluation and duplex US scanning were performed at 1 and 6 months, and at 1 and 2 years to assess treatment efficacy and adverse reactions. Average follow-up period was 32?±?4 months (3-55 months). There were one patient with infection and two patients with thrombus extension into the femoral vein after EVLA. Overall occlusion rate was 95%. No post-procedural deep venous thrombosis or pulmonary embolism occurred. Laser energy, less than 80 J/cm, was significantly associated with increased recanalization of saphenous vein, among the other energy levels. EVLA seems a good alternative to surgery by the application of energy of not less than 80 J/cm. It is both safe and effective. It is a well-tolerated procedure with rare and relatively minor complications. PMID:24993399

  5. Equipoise among recanalization strategies

    PubMed Central

    Tomsick, T.A.; Khatri, P.; Jovin, T.; Demaerschalk, B.; Malisch, T.; Demchuk, A.; Hill, M.D.; Jauch, E.; Spilker, J.; Broderick, J.P.

    2010-01-01

    Modern acute ischemic stroke therapy is based on the premise that recanalization and subsequent reperfusion are essential for the preservation of brain tissue and favorable clinical outcomes. We outline key issues that we think underlie equipoise regarding the comparative clinical efficacy of IV recombinant tissue-type plasminogen activator (rt-PA) and intra-arterial (IA) reperfusion therapies for acute ischemic stroke. On the one hand, IV rt-PA therapy has the benefit of speed with presumed lower rates of recanalization of large artery occlusions as compared to IA methods. More recent reports of major arterial occlusions treated with IV rt-PA, as measured by transcranial Doppler and magnetic resonance angiography, demonstrate higher rates of recanalization. Conversely, IA therapies report higher recanalization rates, but are hampered by procedural delays and risks, even failing to be applied at all in occasional patients where time to reperfusion remains a critical factor. Higher rates of recanalization in IA trials using clot-removal devices have not translated into improved patient functional outcome as compared to trials of IV therapy. Combined IV-IA therapy promises to offer advantages of both, but perhaps only when applied in the timeliest of fashions, compared to IV therapy alone. Where equipoise exists, randomizing subjects to either IV rt-PA therapy or IV therapy followed by IA intervention, while incorporating new interventions into the study design, is a rational and appropriate research approach. GLOSSARY IA = intra-arterial; IMS = Interventional Management of Stroke; MCA = middle cerebral artery; rt-PA = recombinant tissue-type plasminogen activator. PMID:20350981

  6. Sharp Central Venous Recanalization by Means of a TIPS Needle

    SciTech Connect

    Honnef, Dagmar, E-mail: honnef@rad.rwth-aachen.de; Wingen, Markus; Guenther, Rolf W.; Haage, Patrick [University Hospital, Department of Diagnostic Radiology (Germany)

    2005-06-15

    The purpose of this study was to perform an alternative technique for recanalization of a chronic occlusion of the left brachiocephalic vein that could not be traversed with a guidewire. Restoration of a completely thrombosed left brachiocephalic vein was attempted in a 76-year-old male hemodialysis patient with massive upper inflow obstruction, massive edema of the face, neck, shoulder, and arm, and occlusion of the stented right brachiocephalic vein/superior vena cava. Vessel negotiation with several guidewires and multipurpose catheters proved unsuccessful. The procedure was also non-viable using a long, 21G puncture needle. Puncture of the superior vena cava (SVC) at the distal circumference of the stent in the right brachiocephalic vein/superior vena cava, however, was feasible with a transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt (TIPS) set under biplanar fluoroscopy using the distal end of the right brachiocephalic vein as a target, followed by balloon dilatation and partial extraction of thrombotic material of the left brachiocephalic vein with a wire basket. Finally, two overlapping stents were deployed to avoid early re-occlusion. Venography demonstrated complete vessel patency with free contrast media flow via the stents into the SVC, which was reconfirmed in follow-up examinations. Immediate clinical improvement was observed. Venous vascular recanalization of chronic venous occlusion by means of a TIPS needle is feasible as a last resort under certain precautions.

  7. Cholecystocutaneous fistula: an unusual complication of a para-umbilical hernia repair.

    PubMed

    Dixon, Steven; Sharma, Mitesh; Holtham, Stephen

    2014-01-01

    This case describes a 94-year-old woman who presented 2?years postsutured para-umbilical hernia repair with a painful black lump protruding through her scar with blood stained discharge. This was initially thought to be either ischaemic bowel secondary to strangulated incisional hernia or a large organised haematoma. An urgent CT scan was performed following which the patient passed two large calculi and bile-stained fluid spontaneously through the wound, making the diagnosis somewhat clearer. The scan revealed an incisional hernia containing the gallbladder and two large calculi at the skin surface and an incidental large caecal cancer with surrounding lymphadenopathy. Frail health and the incidental finding of a colon cancer rendered invasive surgical management inappropriate. Therefore, she was managed conservatively with antibiotics. A catheter was inserted into the fistula tract to allow free drainage and alleviate pressure-related symptoms. The patient was discharged following a multidisciplinary team discussion. PMID:24862413

  8. Endovascular Recanalization of a Thrombosed Native Arteriovenous Fistula Complicated with an Aneurysm: Technical Aspects and Outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Ahn, Su Yeon; Choi, Young Ho; Jung, In Mok; Chung, Jung Kee

    2015-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the technical aspects and outcomes of endovascular recanalization of a thrombosed native arteriovenous fistula (AVF) complicated with an aneurysm. Materials and Methods Sixteen patients who had a thrombosed AVF complicated with an aneurysm (two radiocephalic and 14 brachiocephalic) were included in this study. Recanalization procedures were performed by mechanical thrombectomy using the Arrow-Trerotola percutaneous thrombectomy device and adjunctive treatments. We evaluated dose of thrombolytic agent, underlying stenosis, procedure time, technical and clinical success, and complications. The primary and secondary patency rates were calculated using the Kaplan-Meier analysis. Results The thrombolytic agents used were 100000 U urokinase mixed with 500 IU heparin (n = 10) or a double dose of the mixture (n = 6). The thrombi in aneurysms were removed in all but two patients with non-flow limiting residual thrombi. One recanalization failure occurred due to a device failure. Aspiration thrombectomy was performed in 87.5% of cases (n = 14). Underlying stenoses were found in the outflow draining vein (n = 16), arteriovenous anastomosis or juxtaanastomosis area (n = 5), and the central vein (n = 3). Balloon angioplasty was performed for all stenoses in 15 patients. Two patients with a symptomatic central vein stenosis underwent insertion of a stent after balloon angioplasty. Mean procedure time was 116.3 minutes. Minor extravasation (n = 1) was resolved by manual compression. Both technical and clinical success rates were 93.8% (n = 15). The primary patency rates at 3, 6, and 12 months were 70.5%, 54.8%, and 31.3%, respectively. The secondary patency rates at 3, 6, and 12 months were 70.5%, 70.5%, and 47.0%, respectively. Conclusion Thrombosed AVF complicated with an aneurysm can be successfully recanalized, and secondary patency can be prolonged with endovascular treatment. PMID:25741197

  9. Novel Percutaneous Radiofrequency Ablation of Portal Vein Tumor Thrombus: Safety and Feasibility

    SciTech Connect

    Mizandari, Malkhaz [High Technology Medical Center, Tbilisi State Medical University (Georgia)] [High Technology Medical Center, Tbilisi State Medical University (Georgia); Ao, Guokun [The 309 Hospital of People's Liberation Army, Department on Oncology (China)] [The 309 Hospital of People's Liberation Army, Department on Oncology (China); Zhang Yaojun; Feng Xi [Imperial College London, Department of Surgery and Cancer (United Kingdom)] [Imperial College London, Department of Surgery and Cancer (United Kingdom); Shen Qiang [The First Minimally Invasive Department of Eastern Hepatobiliary Surgery Hospital (China)] [The First Minimally Invasive Department of Eastern Hepatobiliary Surgery Hospital (China); Chen Minshan [Cancer Centre of Sun Yat-Sen University, Department of Hepatobiliary Surgery (China)] [Cancer Centre of Sun Yat-Sen University, Department of Hepatobiliary Surgery (China); Lau, Wan Yee [Chinese University of Hong Kong, Department of Surgery, Faculty of Medicine (Hong Kong)] [Chinese University of Hong Kong, Department of Surgery, Faculty of Medicine (Hong Kong); Nicholls, Joanna; Jiao Long; Habib, Nagy, E-mail: nagy.habib@imperial.ac.uk [Imperial College London, Department of Surgery and Cancer (United Kingdom)] [Imperial College London, Department of Surgery and Cancer (United Kingdom)

    2013-02-15

    We report our experience of the safety of partial recanalization of the portal vein using a novel endovascular radiofrequency (RF) catheter for portal vein tumor thrombosis. Six patients with liver cancer and tumor thrombus in the portal vein underwent percutaneous intravascular radiofrequency ablation (RFA) using an endovascular bipolar RF device. A 0.035-inch guidewire was introduced into a tributary of the portal vein and through which a 5G guide catheter was introduced into the main portal vein. After manipulation of the guide catheter over the thrombus under digital subtraction angiography, the endovascular RF device was inserted and activated around the thrombus. There were no observed technique specific complications, such as hemorrhage, vessel perforation, or infection. Post-RFA portography showed partial recanalization of portal vein. RFA of portal vein tumor thrombus in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma is technically feasible and warrants further investigation to assess efficacy compared with current recanalization techniques.

  10. Factors Associated with Recurrence of Varicose Veins after Thermal Ablation: Results of The Recurrent Veins after Thermal Ablation Study

    PubMed Central

    Bush, R. G.; Bush, P.; Flanagan, J.; Fritz, R.; Gueldner, T.; Koziarski, J.; McMullen, K.; Zumbro, G.

    2014-01-01

    Background. The goal of this retrospective cohort study (REVATA) was to determine the site, source, and contributory factors of varicose vein recurrence after radiofrequency (RF) and laser ablation. Methods. Seven centers enrolled patients into the study over a 1-year period. All patients underwent previous thermal ablation of the great saphenous vein (GSV), small saphenous vein (SSV), or anterior accessory great saphenous vein (AAGSV). From a specific designed study tool, the etiology of recurrence was identified. Results. 2,380 patients were evaluated during this time frame. A total of 164 patients had varicose vein recurrence at a median of 3 years. GSV ablation was the initial treatment in 159 patients (RF: 33, laser: 126, 52 of these patients had either SSV or AAGSV ablation concurrently). Total or partial GSV recanalization occurred in 47 patients. New AAGSV reflux occurred in 40 patients, and new SSV reflux occurred in 24 patients. Perforator pathology was present in 64% of patients. Conclusion. Recurrence of varicose veins occurred at a median of 3 years after procedure. The four most important factors associated with recurrent veins included perforating veins, recanalized GSV, new AAGSV reflux, and new SSV reflux in decreasing frequency. Patients who underwent RF treatment had a statistically higher rate of recanalization than those treated with laser. PMID:24592172

  11. Portal Vein Thrombosis in Cirrhosis

    PubMed Central

    Raja, Kaiser; Jacob, Mathew; Asthana, Sonal

    2013-01-01

    Portal vein thrombosis (PVT) is being increasingly recognized in patients with advanced cirrhosis and in those undergoing liver transplantation. Reduced flow in the portal vein is probably responsible for clotting in the spleno-porto-mesenteric venous system. There is also increasing evidence that hypercoagulability occurs in advanced liver disease and contributes to the risk of PVT. Ultrasound based studies have reported a prevalence of PVT in 10–25% of cirrhotic patients without hepatocellular carcinoma. Partial thrombosis of the portal vein is more common and may not have pathophysiological consequences. However, there is high risk of progression of partial PVT to complete PVT that may cause exacerbation of portal hypertension and progression of liver insufficiency. It is thus, essential to accurately diagnose and stage PVT in patients waiting for transplantation and consider anticoagulation therapy. Therapy with low molecular weight heparin and vitamin K antagonists has been shown to achieve complete and partial recanalization in 33–45% and 15–35% of cases respectively. There are however, no guidelines to help determine the dose and therapeutic efficacy of anticoagulation in patients with cirrhosis. Anticoagulation therapy related bleeding is the most feared complication but it appears that the risk of variceal bleeding is more likely to be dependent on portal pressure rather than solely related to coagulation status. TIPS has also been reported to restore patency of the portal vein. Patients with complete PVT currently do not form an absolute contraindication for liver transplantation. Thrombectomy or thromboendovenectomy is possible in more than 75% of patients followed by anatomical end-to-end portal anastomosis. When patency of the portal vein and/or superior mesenteric vein is not achieved, only non-anatomical techniques (reno-portal anastomosis or cavo-portal hemitransposition) can be performed. These techniques, which do not fully reverse portal hypertension, are associated with higher morbidity and mortality risks in the short term. PMID:25755579

  12. Portal vein thrombosis in cirrhosis.

    PubMed

    Raja, Kaiser; Jacob, Mathew; Asthana, Sonal

    2014-12-01

    Portal vein thrombosis (PVT) is being increasingly recognized in patients with advanced cirrhosis and in those undergoing liver transplantation. Reduced flow in the portal vein is probably responsible for clotting in the spleno-porto-mesenteric venous system. There is also increasing evidence that hypercoagulability occurs in advanced liver disease and contributes to the risk of PVT. Ultrasound based studies have reported a prevalence of PVT in 10-25% of cirrhotic patients without hepatocellular carcinoma. Partial thrombosis of the portal vein is more common and may not have pathophysiological consequences. However, there is high risk of progression of partial PVT to complete PVT that may cause exacerbation of portal hypertension and progression of liver insufficiency. It is thus, essential to accurately diagnose and stage PVT in patients waiting for transplantation and consider anticoagulation therapy. Therapy with low molecular weight heparin and vitamin K antagonists has been shown to achieve complete and partial recanalization in 33-45% and 15-35% of cases respectively. There are however, no guidelines to help determine the dose and therapeutic efficacy of anticoagulation in patients with cirrhosis. Anticoagulation therapy related bleeding is the most feared complication but it appears that the risk of variceal bleeding is more likely to be dependent on portal pressure rather than solely related to coagulation status. TIPS has also been reported to restore patency of the portal vein. Patients with complete PVT currently do not form an absolute contraindication for liver transplantation. Thrombectomy or thromboendovenectomy is possible in more than 75% of patients followed by anatomical end-to-end portal anastomosis. When patency of the portal vein and/or superior mesenteric vein is not achieved, only non-anatomical techniques (reno-portal anastomosis or cavo-portal hemitransposition) can be performed. These techniques, which do not fully reverse portal hypertension, are associated with higher morbidity and mortality risks in the short term. PMID:25755579

  13. Transvaginal fluoroscopic recanalization of a proximally occluded oviduct

    SciTech Connect

    Platia, M.P.; Krudy, A.G.

    1985-11-01

    A hysterosalpingogram performed on a patient with infertility showed bilateral interstitial obstruction with partial intramural patency of the right tube and complete intramural obstruction of the left. Recanalization of the tube under fluoroscopy resulted in unilateral tubal patency and an intrauterine pregnancy followed. 7 references, 3 figures.

  14. Vein Problems Related to Varicose Veins

    MedlinePLUS

    ... varicose veins include venous lakes, reticular veins, and hemorrhoids. Venous lakes are varicose veins that appear on ... flat blue veins often seen behind the knees. Hemorrhoids are varicose veins in and around the anus. ...

  15. Procedural Safety and Potential Vascular Complication of Endovascular Recanalization for Chronic Cervical Internal Carotid Artery Occlusion

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mao-Shin Lin; Lung-Chun Lin; Hung-Yuan Li; Cheng-Hsin Lin; Chi-Chao Chao; Chih-Neng Hsu; Yen-Hung Lin; Shih-Chung Chen; Yen-Wen Wu; Hsien-Li Kao

    Background—Patients with chronic cervical internal carotid artery occlusion (ICAO) and cerebral ischemia may benefit from revascularization. The feasibility of endovascular recanalization for chronic ICAO has been reported recently, but its safety is still unproven. We report the follow-up results of 54 chronic ICAO patients who underwent endovascular recanalization, focusing on potential vascular complications and corresponding management. Methods and Results—Endovascular recanalization

  16. Varicose vein stripping

    MedlinePLUS

    Vein stripping with ligation, avulsion, or ablation; vein ligation and stripping; vein surgery ... Surgical vein stripping reduces pain and improves the appearance of your leg. Rarely, vein stripping causes scars. Mild leg ...

  17. Pull-Through Technique for Recanalization of Occluded Portosystemic Shunts (TIPS): Technical Note and Review of the Literature

    SciTech Connect

    Tanaka, Toshihiro, E-mail: toshihir@bf6.so-net.ne.jp; Guenther, Rolf W., E-mail: guenther@rad.rwth-aachen.de; Isfort, Peter, E-mail: isfort@hia.rwth-aachen.de [RWTH Aachen University, Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Aachen University Hospital (Germany); Kichikawa, Kimihiko, E-mail: kkichika@naramed-u.ac.jp [Nara Medical University, Department of Radiology (Japan); Mahnken, Andreas H., E-mail: mahnken@rad.rwth-aachen.de [RWTH Aachen University, Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Aachen University Hospital (Germany)

    2011-04-15

    Transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt (TIPS) dysfunction is an important problem after creation of shunts. Most commonly, TIPS recanalization is performed via the jugular vein approach. Occasionally it is difficult to cross the occlusion. We describe a hybrid technique for TIPS revision via a direct transhepatic access combined with a transjugular approach. In two cases, bare metal stents or polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE)-covered stent grafts had been placed in TIPS tract previously, and they were completely obstructed. The tracts were inaccessible via the jugular vein route alone. In each case, after fluoroscopy or computed tomography-guided transhepatic puncture of the stented segment of the TIPS, a wire was threaded through the shunt and snared into the right jugular vein. The TIPS was revised by balloon angioplasty and additional in-stent placement of PTFE-covered stent grafts. The patients were discharged without any complications. Doppler sonography 6 weeks after TIPS revision confirmed patency in the TIPS tract and the disappearance of ascites. We conclude that this technique is feasible and useful, even in patients with previous PTFE-covered stent graft placement.

  18. Use of Nitinol Stents Following Recanalization of Central Venous Occlusions in Hemodialysis Patients

    SciTech Connect

    Rajan, Dheeraj K., E-mail: dheeraj.rajan@uhn.on.ca; Saluja, Jasdeep S. [Toronto General Hospital, University Health Network University of Toronto, Division of Vascular and Interventional Radiology, Department of Medical Imaging (Canada)

    2007-07-15

    Purpose. To retrospectively review the patency of endovascular interventions with nitinol stent placement for symptomatic central venous occlusions in hemodialysis patients. Methods. A retrospective review of all patients who underwent endovascular interventions for dysfunctional hemodialysis grafts and fistulas was performed from April 2004 to August 2006. A total of 6 patients presented with arm and/or neck and facial swelling and left brachiocephalic vein occlusion. The study group consisted of 3 men and 3 women with a mean age of 79.5 years (SD 11.2 years). Of these 6 patients, 1 had a graft and 5 had fistulas in the left arm. The primary indication for nitinol stent placement was technical failure of angioplasty following successful traversal of occluded central venous segments. Patency was assessed from repeat fistulograms and central venograms performed when patients redeveloped symptoms or were referred for access dysfunction determined by the ultrasound dilution technique. No patients were lost to follow-up. Results. Nitinol stent placement to obtain technically successful recanalization of occluded venous segments was initially successful in 5 of 6 patients (83%). In 1 patient, incorrect stent positioning resulted in partial migration to the superior vena cava requiring restenting to prevent further migration. Clinical success was observed in all patients (100%). Over the follow-up period, 2 patients underwent repeat intervention with angioplasty alone. Primary patency was 83.3% (95% CI 0.5-1.2) at 3 months, and 66.7% at 6 and 12 months (0.2-1.1, 0.1-1.2). Secondary patency was 100% at 12 months with 3 patients censored over that time period. Mean primary patency was 10.4 months with a mean follow-up of 12.4 months. No complications related to recanalization of the occluded central venous segments were observed. Conclusion. Our initial experience has demonstrated that use of nitinol stents for central venous occlusion in hemodialysis patients is associated with good mid-term patency and may exceed historical observations with prior use of Wallstents.

  19. Retrograde Percutaneous Recanalization of Chronic Total Occlusion of the Coronary Arteries Procedural Outcomes and Predictors of Success in Contemporary Practice

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sudhir Rathore; Osamu Katoh; Hitoshi Matsuo; Mitsuyasu Terashima; Nobuyoshi Tanaka; Yoshihisa Kinoshita; Masashi Kimura; Etsuo Tsuchikane; Mariko Ehara; Keiko Asakura; Yasushi Asakura; Takahiko Suzuki

    2010-01-01

    Background—Retrograde approach through collaterals has been introduced for percutaneous recanalization of chronic total occlusion (CTO) of the coronary arteries. We investigated the safety and efficacy of retrograde approaches used for percutaneous recanalization of CTO in a consecutive series of patients. Methods and Results—We studied 157 consecutive patients who underwent retrograde CTO recanalization between 2003 and 2008 at a single center.

  20. Patterns of recurrent disease after recanalization of femoropopliteal artery occlusions

    SciTech Connect

    Vroegindeweij, Dammis; Tielbeek, Alexander V. [Catharina Hospital, Department of Radiology (Netherlands); Buth, Jaap [Catharina Hospital, Department of Vascular Surgery (Netherlands); Vos, Louwerens D.; Bosch, Harrie C. M. van den [Catharina Hospital, Department of Radiology (Netherlands)

    1997-07-15

    Purpose. In this prospective study we investigated the site, occurrence, and development of stenoses and occlusions following recanalization of superficial femoral artery occlusions. Methods. Recanalization of an occluded femoropopliteal artery was attempted in 62 patients. Follow-up examinations included clinical examination and color-flow duplex scanning at regular intervals. Arteriography was used to determine the localization of the recurrent disease relative to the initially occluded segment. Results. During a mean follow-up of 23 months (range 0-69 months) 14 high-grade restenoses, indicated by a peak systolic velocity ratio {>=}3.0, were detected by color-flow duplex scanning. Occlusion of the treated segment occurred in 11 patients. The cumulative 3-year primary patency rate for high-grade restenoses and occlusions combined was 44% (SE 9%). By arteriographic examination the site of restenosis was localized in the distal half of the treated vessel segment in 16 of 21 cases. Conclusion. Most restenoses and occlusions occurred during the first year and most disease developed at the previous intervention site. The site of restenosis is more frequently in the distal part of the initially treated segment, a finding that may have therapeutic implications.

  1. Impacts of Rapid Recanalization and Collateral Circulation on Clinical Outcome after Intraarterial Thrombolysis

    PubMed Central

    Jeong, Hye Seon; Kwon, Hyon-Jo; Song, Hee-Jung; Koh, Hyeon-Song; Kim, Yong Soo; Lee, Ju Hun; Shin, Jee Eun; Lee, Suk Hoon

    2015-01-01

    Background and Purpose Rapid recanalization might improve clinical outcomes after intraarterial thrombolysis (IAT) for acute ischemic stroke patients with collateral circulation. We determined whether rapid recanalization and collateral circulation affect clinical outcomes after IAT. Methods We retrospectively evaluated the clinical and radiological data of 134 consecutive patients who underwent IAT for intracranial artery occlusion. The interval from symptom onset to recanalization after IAT (onset-to-recanalization time) as an estimate of the probability of good clinical outcome (modified Rankin scale 0-2) was calculated in patients with collateral circulation in the ischemic hemisphere, which was rated poor (0/1 American Society of Interventional and Therapeutic Neuroradiology criteria) or good (2-4). Changes in National Institute of Health Stroke Scale (NHISS) score before and after IAT and modified Rankins scale scores 3 months after discharge were compared with respect to onset-to-recanalization time. Results In patients with good collateral circulation, the estimated onset-to-recanalization time for a 0.5 probability of a good clinical outcome was 347 minutes; with poor collateral circulation, it was 172 minutes for a 0.2 probability of good clinical outcome. Outcome analyses according to onset-to-recanalization time showed patients recanalized <6 hours had lower NHISS scores (<4.5, 4.5-6, >6 hours of onset-to-recanalization time, and non-recanalization: 5.1, 6.9, 11.9, and 19.8, respectively) at discharge and higher percentages of good clinical outcome (69%, 66.7%, 21.9%, and 0%, respectively) 3 months after IAT. Conclusions The time window to expect a high probability of a good clinical outcome after IAT is highly dependent on the collateral circulation. PMID:25692110

  2. Varicose Veins and Other Vein Disorders

    MedlinePLUS

    ... the skin’s surface. Varicose veins are usually dark purple or blue in color, and may look “ropey” or twisted. Smaller varicose veins may be thinner and red rather than purple and swollen; these are called “spider veins.” Other ...

  3. Deep Vein Thrombosis

    MedlinePLUS

    MENU Return to Web version Deep Vein Thrombosis Overview What is deep vein thrombosis? Deep vein thrombosis (also called DVT) is a blood clot in a vein deep inside your body. These clots usually occur in ...

  4. [Treatment of nontumoral portal vein thrombosis in cirrhosis].

    PubMed

    Bañares, Rafael; Catalina, María-Vega

    2014-07-01

    Portal vein thrombosis in cirrhosis is a relatively common complication associated with the presence of an accompanying prothrombotic phenotype of advanced cirrhosis. The consequences of portal vein thrombosis are relevant because it can be associated with impaired hepatic function, might contraindicate hepatic transplantation and could increase morbidity in the surgical procedure. There is controversy concerning the most effective treatment of portal vein thrombosis, which is based on information that is seldom robust and whose primary objective is to achieve a return to vessel patency. Various studies have suggested that starting anticoagulation therapy early is associated with portal vein repatency more frequently than without treatment and has a low rate of complications. There are no proven data on the type of anticoagulant (low-molecular-weight heparins or dicoumarin agents) and the treatment duration. The implementation of TIPS is technically feasible in thrombosis without cavernous transformation and is associated with portal vein recanalization in a significant proportion of cases. Thrombolytic therapy does not appear to present an adequate balance between efficacy and safety; its use is therefore not supported for this indication. The proper definition of treatment for portal vein thrombosis requires properly designed studies to delimit the efficacy and safety of the various alternatives. PMID:25087714

  5. Deep Vein Thrombosis

    MedlinePLUS

    Deep vein thrombosis, or DVT, is a blood clot that forms in a vein deep in the body. Most deep vein clots occur in the lower leg or ... vein swells, the condition is called thrombophlebitis. A deep vein thrombosis can break loose and cause a ...

  6. Effect of coronary artery recanalization on right ventricular function in patients with acute myocardial infarction

    SciTech Connect

    Verani, M.S.; Tortoledo, F.E.; Batty, J.W.; Raizner, A.E.

    1985-05-01

    The effects of coronary artery recanalization by intracoronary administration of streptokinase on left ventricular function during acute myocardial infarction have received increasing attention in recent years. Although myocardial dysfunction is often more pronounced in the right ventricle than in the left ventricle in patients with acute inferior wall myocardial infarction, the effect of coronary artery recanalization on right ventricular dysfunction has not been previously addressed. Accordingly, in this investigation, 54 patients who participated in a prospective, controlled, randomized trial of recanalization during acute myocardial infarction were studied. Among 30 patients with inferior wall infarction, 19 had right ventricular dysfunction on admission; 11 of these 19 had positive uptake of technetium-99m pyrophosphate in the right ventricle, indicative of right ventricular infarction. Patients with successful recanalization exhibited improved right ventricular ejection fraction from admission to day 10. However, control patients and patients who did not undergo recanalization also exhibited improvement. These data indicate that the right ventricular dysfunction commonly associated with inferior wall infarction is often transient, and improvement is the rule, irrespective of early recanalization of the infarct vessel.

  7. Percutaneous Transsplenic Access to the Portal Vein for Management of Vascular Complication in Patients with Chronic Liver Disease

    SciTech Connect

    Chu, Hee Ho; Kim, Hyo-Cheol, E-mail: angiointervention@gmail.com; Jae, Hwan Jun [Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul National University Medical Research Center, Seoul National University Hospital, Department of Radiology, Institute of Radiation Medicine, Clinical Research Institute (Korea, Republic of); Yi, Nam-Joon; Lee, Kwang-Woong; Suh, Kyung-Suk [Seoul National University College of Medicine and Seoul National University Hospital, Department of Surgery (Korea, Republic of); Chung, Jin Wook; Park, Jae Hyung [Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul National University Medical Research Center, Seoul National University Hospital, Department of Radiology, Institute of Radiation Medicine, Clinical Research Institute (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-12-15

    Purpose: To evaluate the safety and feasibility of percutaneous transsplenic access to the portal vein for management of vascular complication in patients with chronic liver diseases. Methods: Between Sept 2009 and April 2011, percutaneous transsplenic access to the portal vein was attempted in nine patients with chronic liver disease. Splenic vein puncture was performed under ultrasonographic guidance with a Chiba needle, followed by introduction of a 4 to 9F sheath. Four patients with hematemesis or hematochezia underwent variceal embolization. Another two patients underwent portosystemic shunt embolization in order to improve portal venous blood flow. Portal vein recanalization was attempted in three patients with a transplanted liver. The percutaneous transsplenic access site was closed using coils and glue. Results: Percutaneous transsplenic splenic vein catheterization was performed successfully in all patients. Gastric or jejunal varix embolization with glue and lipiodol mixture was performed successfully in four patients. In two patients with a massive portosystemic shunt, embolization of the shunting vessel with a vascular plug, microcoils, glue, and lipiodol mixture was achieved successfully. Portal vein recanalization was attempted in three patients with a transplanted liver; however, only one patient was treated successfully. Complete closure of the percutaneous transsplenic tract was achieved using coils and glue without bleeding complication in all patients. Conclusion: Percutaneous transsplenic access to the portal vein can be an alternative route for portography and further endovascular management in patients for whom conventional approaches are difficult or impossible.

  8. Preventing Deep Vein Thrombosis

    MedlinePLUS

    What is deep vein thrombosis (DVT)? Deep vein thrombosis is a condition in which blood clots (or thrombi) form in deep ... of Obstetricians and Gynecologists f AQ • What is deep vein thrombosis (DVT)? • How does a clot form ...

  9. Deep Vein Thrombosis

    MedlinePLUS

    ... page from the NHLBI on Twitter. What Is Deep Vein Thrombosis? Español Deep vein thrombosis (throm-BO-sis), or DVT, is a blood clot that forms in a vein deep in the body. Blood clots occur when blood ...

  10. Percutaneous Recanalization of Acute Internal Carotid Artery Occlusions in Patients with Severe Stroke

    SciTech Connect

    Dabitz, Rainer [Klinikum Ingolstadt, Department of Neurology (Germany); Triebe, Stefan [Klinikum Ingolstadt, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology (Germany); Leppmeier, Ullrich; Ochs, Guenther [Klinikum Ingolstadt, Department of Neurology (Germany); Vorwerk, Dierk [Klinikum Ingolstadt, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology (Germany)], E-mail: dierk.vorwerk@klinikum-ingolstadt.de

    2007-02-15

    Background. Sudden symptomatic occlusions of the proximal internal carotid artery (ICA) resulting in severe middle cerebral artery (MCA) ischemia and stroke are usually not accessible by rt-PA thrombolysis and the prognosis is usually very poor. Mechanical recanalization of the proximal ICA combined with intravenous and intra-arterial thrombolysis was therefore used as a rescue procedure. Methods. Ten patients (9 men, 1 woman; mean age 56.1 years) were treated with emergency recanalization of the proximal carotid artery by using stents and/or balloon angioplasty as a rescue procedure. Three patients showed dissection, and 7 had atherothrombotic occlusions. Nine of 10 presented with an initial modified Rankin Scale (mRS) of 5, the remaining patient with mRS 4 (average NIHSS 21.4). After sonographic confirmation of ICA with associated MCA/distal ICA occlusion and bridging with rt-PA (without abciximab) an emergency angiography was performed with subsequent mechanical recanalization by percutaneous transluminal angioplasty (PTA) (n = 1) or primary stenting (n = 9) using self-expanding stents. Distal protection was used in 1 of 10 patients. Results. Recanalization of the proximal ICA was achieved in all. At least partial recanalization of the intracerebral arteries was achieved in all, and complete recanalization in 5. In 4 of 10 patients limited hemorrhage was detected during CT controls. Major complications included 2 patients who had to undergo hemicraniectomy. One patient died from malignant infarction. At the time of discharge from the stroke unit 9 of 10 patients had improved markedly, 5 patients having an mRS of {<=}2, and 3 patients a mRS of 3. At control after a mean of 20 weeks, 7 of 8 (88%) patients had a mRS {<=}2, and 1 a mRS of 3. Conclusions. Primary mechanical recanalization of ICA occlusions by stent and PTA combined with fibrinolysis and/or GPIIb/IIIa-receptor antagonists seems to be feasible to improve patient outcome significantly.

  11. Recanalization of Splenic Artery Aneurysm After Transcatheter Arterial Embolization Using N-Butyl Cyanoacrylate

    SciTech Connect

    Matsumoto, Keiji; Ushijima, Yasuhiro, E-mail: ushijima@radiol.med.kyushu-u.ac.jp; Tajima, Tsuyoshi; Nishie, Akihiro; Hirakawa, Masakazu; Ishigami, Kousei [Kyushu University, Department of Clinical Radiology, Graduate School of Medical Sciences (Japan); Yamaji, Yukiko [Kyushu University, Department of Medicine and Biosystemic Science, Graduate School of Medical Sciences (Japan); Honda, Hiroshi [Kyushu University, Department of Clinical Radiology, Graduate School of Medical Sciences (Japan)

    2010-02-15

    A 65-year-old woman who had been diagnosed as having microscopic polyangiitis developed sudden abdominal pain and entered a state of shock. Abdominal CT showed massive hemoperitoneum, and emergent angiography revealed a ruptured splenic artery aneurysm. After direct catheterization attempts failed due to tortuous vessels and angiospasm, transcatheter arterial embolization using an n-butyl cyanoacrylate (NBCA)-lipiodol mixture was successfully performed. Fifty days later, the patient developed sudden abdominal pain again. Repeated angiography demonstrated recanalization of the splenic artery and splenic artery aneurysm. This time, the recanalized aneurysm was embolized using metallic coils with the isolation method. Physicians should keep in mind that recanalization can occur after transcatheter arterial embolization using N-butyl cyanoacrylate, which has been used as a permanent embolic agent.

  12. Triaxial System in Re-Embolization for Recanalization of Pulmonary Arteriovenous Malformations

    PubMed Central

    Shimohira, Masashi; Hashizume, Takuya; Kawai, Tatsuya; Muto, Masahiro; Ohta, Kengo; Suzuki, Kazushi; Shibamoto, Yuta

    2015-01-01

    Summary Background Recanalization occurs occasionally, following coil embolization of pulmonary arteriovenous malformations (PAVM), and can lead to ischemic stroke; therefore re-embolization is important. A 1.9-Fr. no-taper microcatheter that can be inserted into a 2.7-Fr. microcatheter (named the triaxial system) has recently become available, and contributes to super-selective catheterization for small or tortuous vessels. The aim of this study was to evaluate the usefulness of re-embolization for recanalization of PAVM using the triaxial system. Material/Methods Recanalization was diagnosed in 8 patients with 13 PAVMs between June 2011 and November 2012, and re-embolization was attempted with a conventional microcatheter at first in all 13 PAVMs. However, in three of them it failed with the conventional microcatheter, and then the system was exchanged to the triaxial system. Thus, re-embolization using the triaxial system was performed in 3 PAVMs of 3 female patients, with a median age of 63 years (range, 46–73 years). We assessed technical success, complications, and outcome. Results The disappearance of recanalization was confirmed by angiography in all re-embolization procedures (technical success rate was 100%). Re-embolization was then successfully achieved inside the original coils, and no branch artery of normal lung tissue was embolized. There were no complications related with this procedure. The blood flow of recanalization was decreased in all cases in a follow-up of 27–33 months (median, 31). Conclusions Triaxial system appears to be useful for recanalization of PAVM, especially in difficult cases with a conventional system. PMID:25691920

  13. Reappraisal of Anatomic Outcome Scales of Coiled Intracranial Aneurysms in the Prediction of Recanalization

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Jong Young; Cho, Young Dae; Kang, Hyun-Seung; Han, Moon Hee

    2013-01-01

    Objective Several scales are currently used to assess occlusion rates of coiled cerebral aneurysms. This study compared these scales as predictors of recanalization. Methods Clinical data of 827 patients harboring 901 aneurysms treated by coiling were retrospectively reviewed. Occlusion rates were assessed using angiographic grading scale (AGS), two-dimensional percent occlusion (2DPO), and volumetric packing density (vPD). Every scale had 3 categories. Followed patients were dichotomized into either presence or absence of recanalization. Kaplan-Meier analysis was conducted, and Cox proportional hazards analysis was performed to identify surviving probabilities of recanalization. Lastly, the predictive accuracies of three different scales were measured via Harrell's C index. Results The cumulative risk of recanalization was 7% at 12-month, 10% at 24-month, and 13% at 36-month of postembolization, and significantly higher for the second and third categories of every scale (p<0.001). Multivariate-adjusted hazard ratios (HRs) of the second and third categories as compared with the first category of AGS (HR : 3.95 and 4.15, p=0.004 and 0.001) and 2DPO (HR : 4.87 and 3.12, p<0.001 and 0.01) were similar. For vPD, there was no association between occlusion rates and recanalization. The validated and optimism-adjusted C-indices were 0.50 [confidence (CI) : -1.09-2.09], 0.47 (CI : -1.10-2.09) and 0.44 (CI : -1.10-2.08) for AGS, 2DPO, and vPD, respectively. Conclusion Total occlusion should be reasonably tried in coiling to maximize the benefit of the treatment. AGS may be the best to predict recanalization, whereas vPD should not be used alone. PMID:24003368

  14. Successful Recanalization of a Longstanding Right Common Iliac Artery Occlusion with a Radiofrequency Guidewire

    SciTech Connect

    Tapping, C. R.; Uri, I. F.; Dixon, S.; Bratby, M. J.; Anthony, S.; Uberoi, R., E-mail: raman.uberoi@orh.nhs.uk [John Radcliffe Hospital, Department of Radiology (United Kingdom)

    2012-10-15

    We describe a case of successful recanalization of a longstanding right common iliac occlusion with a radiofrequency (RF) guidewire. The patient had been symptomatic with claudication for 3 years, and a preliminary attempt to cross the lesion using conventional techniques proved unsuccessful. Using low and medium intensity RF pulses and a PowerWire, a tract through the occlusion was established, which allowed subsequent stenting with an excellent angiographic result and a good immediate clinical response. We propose this as a useful technique in the peripheral arterial system for occlusive lesions not amenable to traditional recanalization techniques.

  15. Subintimal Recanalization of Occluded Stents: The Substent Technique

    SciTech Connect

    Diamantopoulos, Athanasios, E-mail: adiamant@upatras.gr; Katsanos, Konstantinos; Spiliopoulos, Stavros; Karnabatidis, Dimitris; Siablis, Dimitris [School of Medicine, Patras University Hospital, Department of Interventional Radiology (Greece)

    2013-08-01

    PurposeApplication of metal stents is complicated by neointimal hyperplasia leading to vessel restenosis and reocclusion. Treatment options in cases presenting with complete occlusion of the stented segment and recurrent critical limb ischemia (CLI) are limited. We present the option of the subintimal/substent technique in dealing with occluded stents.MethodsThe study included patients presenting with recurrent CLI due to impaired blood flow as a result of complete occlusion of previously inserted metal stents and unsuccessful intraluminal crossing of the lesion via either the antegrade or retrograde approach. In these cases, crossing the occlusion through the subintimal/substent plane was attempted. Primary end points included technical success, safety of the procedure, clinical improvement, and limb salvage, while secondary end points were patient survival, primary patency, and vessel restenosis rates at 1-year follow-up. Study end points were calculated by Kaplan-Meier survival analysis.ResultsBetween July 2006 and October 2011, a total of 14 patients (mean age 69.14 {+-} 12.59 years, 12 men) were treated with the substent technique and included in the analysis. Technical success rate was 85.71 % (12 of 14), with a total lesion length of 193.57 {+-} 90.78 mm. The mean occluded stented segment length was 90.21 {+-} 44.34 mm. In 10 (83.33 %) of 12 cases, a new stent had to be placed by the side of the old occluded one, while the remaining two cases (16.67 %) were treated only with balloon angioplasty. No serious adverse events were noted during the immediate postprocedural period. All successfully treated patients improved clinically. Estimated limb salvage was 90.9 %, and patient survival rate was 90.0 % at 1 year's follow-up. Primary patency was 45.50 % and vessel restenosis 77.30 %.ConclusionSubintimal recanalization of occluded metal stents through the substent plane is a valuable alternative treatment option, especially in patients with recurrent CLI with few alternatives.

  16. Endovenous laser ablation of saphenous vein is an effective treatment modality for lower extremity varicose veins.

    PubMed

    Kavuturu, S; Girishkumar, H; Ehrlich, F

    2006-08-01

    We present our first experiences with the use of a new minimally invasive treatment of lower extremity varicose veins. We studied the occlusion rates of the great saphenous vein (GSV) with laser ablation, its failure rates, and its complications. Sixty-six limbs in 62 consecutive patients were treated and followed-up for 1 year. All of the patients had incompetent GSV proven by means of duplex scanning. The GSV segment from 2 cm distal to the sapheno-femoral junction to just above the knee was ablated by using laser energy. In addition, all patients had stab avulsions of the varicose veins of the leg with Crochet hooks. All patients were followed postoperatively on the 3rd day, 1 month, 3 months, and 1 year after surgery. All patients were treated as day-case surgeries. Among 62 patients studied, 46 patients were women (74%) and 16 were men (26%). The median age of the patients was 53 years (range 28-69 years). Median operation time was 65 min (range 40-140 min). Successful treatment (total obliteration of the GSV on duplex) was accomplished in 64 of 66 limbs (97%). In two cases, recanalization of the lower one-third of the treated segment of the GSV was noted after 3 months. There were no instances of neuropathy or skin burn. Endovenous laser ablation of varicose veins is effective in inducing thrombotic vessel occlusion and is associated with only minor adverse effects. The procedure seems to be a promising alternative for surgical stripping of the GSV. PMID:16913308

  17. Portal vein thrombosis.

    PubMed

    Cohen, Ronny; Mallet, Thierry; Gale, Michael; Soltys, Remigiusz; Loarte, Pablo

    2015-01-01

    Portal vein thrombosis (PVT) is the blockage or narrowing of the portal vein by a thrombus. It is relatively rare and has been linked with the presence of an underlying liver disease or prothrombotic disorders. We present a case of a young male who presented with vague abdominal symptoms for approximately one week. Imaging revealed the presence of multiple nonocclusive thrombi involving the right portal vein, the splenic vein, and the left renal vein, as well as complete occlusion of the left portal vein and the superior mesenteric vein. We discuss pathogenesis, clinical presentation, and management of both acute and chronic thrombosis. The presence of PVT should be considered as a clue for prothrombotic disorders, liver disease, and other local and general factors that must be carefully investigated. It is hoped that this case report will help increase awareness of the complexity associated with portal vein thrombosis among the medical community. PMID:25802795

  18. Varicose vein - noninvasive treatment

    MedlinePLUS

    ... The vein will harden and then disappear. Laser treatment can be used on the surface of the skin. Small bursts of light make small varicose veins disappear. Phlebectomy treats surface ... guide treatment. This may be done along with other procedures, ...

  19. Portal Vein Thrombosis

    PubMed Central

    Mallet, Thierry; Soltys, Remigiusz; Loarte, Pablo

    2015-01-01

    Portal vein thrombosis (PVT) is the blockage or narrowing of the portal vein by a thrombus. It is relatively rare and has been linked with the presence of an underlying liver disease or prothrombotic disorders. We present a case of a young male who presented with vague abdominal symptoms for approximately one week. Imaging revealed the presence of multiple nonocclusive thrombi involving the right portal vein, the splenic vein, and the left renal vein, as well as complete occlusion of the left portal vein and the superior mesenteric vein. We discuss pathogenesis, clinical presentation, and management of both acute and chronic thrombosis. The presence of PVT should be considered as a clue for prothrombotic disorders, liver disease, and other local and general factors that must be carefully investigated. It is hoped that this case report will help increase awareness of the complexity associated with portal vein thrombosis among the medical community.

  20. Transjugular Intrahepatic Portosystemic Shunt in a Patient with Cavernomatous Portal Vein Occlusion

    SciTech Connect

    Kawamata, Hiroshi; Kumazaki, Tatsuo [Department of Radiology, Nippon Medical School, 1-1-5 Sendagi, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8603 (Japan); Kanazawa, Hidenori [Third Department of Internal Medicine, Nippon Medical School, 1-1-5 Sendagi, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8603 (Japan); Takahashi, Shuji; Tajima, Hiroyuki; Hayashi, Hiromitsu [Department of Radiology, Nippon Medical School, 1-1-5 Sendagi, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8603 (Japan)

    2000-03-15

    A 23-year-old woman with liver cirrhosis secondary to primary sclerosing cholangitis was referred to us for the treatment of recurrent bleeding from esophageal varices that had been refractory to endoscopic sclerotherapy. Her portal vein was occluded, associated with cavernous transformation. A transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt (TIPS) was performed after a preprocedural three-dimensional computed tomographic angiography evaluation to determine feasibility. The portal vein system was recanalized and portal blood flow increased markedly after TIPS. Esophageal varices disappeared 3 weeks after TIPS. Re-bleeding and hepatic encephalopathy were absent for 3 years after the procedure. We conclude that with adequate preprocedural evaluation, TIPS can be performed safely even in patients with portal vein occlusion associated with cavernous transformation.

  1. Recent Portal or Mesenteric Venous Thrombosis: Increased Recognition and Frequent Recanalization on Anticoagulant Therapy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Bertrand Condat; Fabienne Pessione; Marie Helene Denninger; Sophie Hillaire; Dominique Valla

    2000-01-01

    Characteristics and outcomes of recent portal or mesenteric venous thrombosis are ill-known. We intended to compare these features with those of patients with portal cavernoma, and also to assess the incidence of recanalization of recent thrombosis on anticoagulation therapy. All patients seen between 1983 and 1999 were enrolled into this retrospective study if recent portal or mesenteric venous thrombosis or

  2. Major Neurologic Improvement following Endovascular Recanalization Therapy for Acute Ischemic Stroke

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Shyam Prabhakaran; Michael Chen; Jae H. Choi; Sundeep Mangla; Sean D. Lavine; John Pile-Spellman; Philip M. Meyers; Ji Y Chong

    2008-01-01

    Background: We aimed to identify the rate of major neurologic improvement (MNI) at 24 h following endovascular recanalization therapy (ERT) for acute ischemic stroke and its association with short-term outcome. Methods: We retrospectively reviewed consecutive acute ischemic stroke patients presenting to our institution over 4 years and undergoing ERT. Angiograms were independently reviewed. Data on demographics, medical history, initial NIHSS

  3. Recanalization of Occluded Arteries using CO2 Lasers and Infrared Optical Fibers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gal, D.; Wolf, N.; Battler, A.; Bass, M.; Neufeld, H.; Levite, A.; Gaaton, E.

    1986-01-01

    Silver halide AgClxBr1-x fibers were inserted into cardiological catheters to form CO2 laser catheters. Human arteries which had been blocked by atherosclerotic plaque were transplanted into dogs. The laser catheter was used to recanalize the blocked arteries in an in vivo experiment.

  4. Sharp recanalization of the esophageal occlusion using transjugular access set. Report of two cases.

    PubMed

    Keussen, Inger; Cwikiel, Wojciech; von Holstein, Christer Staël

    2014-10-01

    Two male patients, 75 and 53 years old, with totally occluded esophagus were treated. Sharp recanalization was performed using a combined radiologic and endoscopic technique. Following successful penetration with the needle through the occluded segment and balloon dilation, the created channel was stabilized with esophageal stent, with subsequent palliative effect. PMID:24190635

  5. Effect of Early and Delayed Recanalization on Infarct Pattern in Proximal Middle Cerebral Artery Occlusion

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Marek Humpich; Oliver C. Singer; Richard du Mesnil de Rochemont; Christian Foerch; Heiner Lanfermann; Tobias Neumann-Haefelin

    2006-01-01

    Background: To investigate the effect of early (<6 h) versus delayed (>6 h) recanalization on infarct pattern in acute middle cerebral artery (MCA) occlusion. Methods: 35 patients with acute MCA occlusion (M1 segment; symptom onset <6 h) were analyzed. Stroke MRI was performed immediately after admission (day 0), and on days 1 and 7. In addition, vessel status was assessed

  6. Central Vein Dilatation Prior to Concomitant Port Implantation

    SciTech Connect

    Krombach, Gabriele A., E-mail: krombach@rad.rwth-aachen.de; Plumhans, Cedric; Goerg, Fabian; Guenther, Rolf W. [University of Technology (RWTH) Aachen, Department of Diagnostic Radiology, University Hospital (Germany)

    2010-04-15

    Implantation of subcutaneous port systems is routinely performed in patients requiring repeated long-term infusion therapy. Ultrasound- and fluoroscopy-guided implantation under local anesthesia is broadly established in interventional radiology and has decreased the rate of complications compared to the surgical approach. In addition, interventional radiology offers the unique possibility of simultaneous management of venous occlusion. We present a technique for recanalization of central venous occlusion and angioplasty combined with port placement in a single intervention which we performed in two patients. Surgical port placement was impossible owing to occlusion of the superior vena cava following placement of a cardiac pacemaker and occlusion of multiple central veins due to paraneoplastic coagulopathy, respectively. In both cases the affected vessel segments were dilated with balloon catheters and the port systems were placed thereafter. After successful dilatation, the venous access was secured with a 25-cm-long, 8-Fr introducer sheath, a subcutaneous pocket prepared, and the port catheter tunneled to the venipuncture site. The port catheter was introduced through the sheath with the proximal end connected to a 5-Fr catheter. This catheter was pulled through the tunnel in order to preserve the tunnel and, at the same time, allow safe removal of the long sheath over the wire. The port system functioned well in both cases. The combination of recanalization and port placement in a single intervention is a straightforward alternative for patients with central venous occlusion that can only be offered by interventional radiology.

  7. Less Invasive Ultrasonography-Guided High Ligation of Great Saphenous Vein in Endovenous Laser Ablation

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Endovenous laser ablation (EVLA) has two pitfalls: endovenous heat-induced thrombosis (EHIT) and great saphenous vein (GSV) recanalization. To eliminate these complications, we developed ultrasonographyguided high ligation (UGHL) using a puncture-sized incision as an adjunct treatment to EVLA. UGHL combined with EVLA was used in 20 patients. The GSV was encircled with 2-0 silk thread at 2 cm distal to the saphenofemoral junction through two incisions of 2–3 mm by using a Deschamps aneurysm needle under ultrasonographic guidance. UGHL was technically feasible in all cases, and no case presented with complications. UGHL may be used in addition to EVLA. PMID:23825509

  8. Thrombosis and spontaneous recanalization of a giant intracranial aneurysm: diagnostic and management pearls in a pediatric patient.

    PubMed

    Kooshkabadi, Ali; Jankowitz, Brian; Choi, Phillip A; Weiner, Gregory M; Greene, Stephanie

    2015-01-01

    The authors present the case of a boy who was successfully managed through the spontaneous thrombosis of a cavernous internal carotid artery (ICA) aneurysm, the subsequent occlusion of the ICA, its recanalization, and ultimate endovascular sacrifice, using only two angiograms because of the diagnostic capability of CT angiography. Spontaneous recanalization of the ICA following occlusion in the setting of a giant aneurysm has not been previously reported. PMID:25380175

  9. Percutaneous Retrograde Recanalization of the Celiac Artery by Way of the Superior Mesenteric Artery for Chronic Mesenteric Ischemia

    SciTech Connect

    Joseph, George, E-mail: joseph59@gmail.com; Chacko, Sujith Thomas [Christian Medical College, Department of Cardiology (India)] [Christian Medical College, Department of Cardiology (India)

    2013-02-15

    A 52-year-old man presented with recurrent postprandial abdominal pain, sitophobia, and progressive weight loss. Chronic mesenteric ischemia (CMI) due to subtotal occlusion of the superior mesenteric artery (SMA) and flush occlusion of the celiac artery (CA) was diagnosed. Retrograde recanalization of the CA by way of a collateral channel from the SMA was performed using contemporary recanalization equipment. The CA and SMA were then stented, resulting in sustained resolution of CMI-related symptoms.

  10. Mechanical Thrombectomy of Iliac Vein Thrombosis in a Pig Model Using the Rotarex and Aspirex Catheters

    SciTech Connect

    Minko, P., E-mail: peterminko@yahoo.com; Bücker, A. [University Hospital Homburg/Saar, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology (Germany); Laschke, M.; Menger, M. [University Hospital Homburg/Saar, Institute of Clinical and Experimental Surgery (Germany); Bohle, R. [University Hospital Homburg/Saar, Department of Pathology (Germany); Katoh, M. [University Hospital Homburg/Saar, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology (Germany)

    2013-06-08

    PurposeTo investigate the efficacy and safety of mechanical thrombectomy for iliac vein thrombosis using Rotarex and Aspirex catheters in a pig model.Materials and MethodsIliac vein thrombosis was induced in six pigs by means of an occlusion-balloon catheter and thrombin injection. The presence of thrombi was verified by digital subtraction angiography (DSA) and computed tomography (CT). Thrombectomy was performed using 6F and 8F Rotarex and 6F, 8F, and 10F Aspirex catheters (Straub Medical AG, Wangs, Switzerland). After intervention, DSA and CT were repeated to evaluate the efficacy of mechanical thrombectomy and to exclude local complications. In addition, pulmonary CT was performed to rule out pulmonary embolism. Finally, all pigs were killed, and iliac veins were dissected to perform macroscopic and histological examination.ResultsThrombus induction was successfully achieved in all animals as verified by DSA and CT. Subsequent thrombectomy lead to incomplete recanalization of the iliac veins with residual thrombi in all cases. However, the use of the 6F and 8F Rotarex catheters caused vessel perforation and retroperitoneal hemorrhage in all cases. Application of the Aspirex device caused one small transmural perforation in a vessel treated with a 10F Aspirex catheter, and this was only seen microscopically. Pulmonary embolism was detected in one animal treated with the Rotarex catheters, whereas no pulmonary emboli were seen in animals treated with the Aspirex catheters.ConclusionThe Aspirex catheter allowed subtotal and safe recanalization of iliac vein thrombosis. In contrast, the use of the Rotarex catheter caused macroscopically obvious vessel perforations in all cases.

  11. Endovenous Laser Ablation of the Small Saphenous Vein Sparing the Saphenopopliteal Junction

    SciTech Connect

    Janne d'Othee, Bertrand, E-mail: bjannedothee@umm.edu; Walker, T. Gregory; Kalva, Sanjeeva P.; Ganguli, Suvranu; Davison, Brian [Massachusetts General Hospital-Harvard Medical School, Department of Imaging, Division of Vascular Imaging and Intervention (United States)

    2010-08-15

    To assess outcomes after endovenous laser ablation (EVLA) of the small saphenous vein (SSV). Retrospective review was performed of all consecutive EVLA procedures performed over a 39-month period at three neighboring vein practices for symptomatic, duplex ultrasound-proven incompetence of the SSV. EVLA was performed under ultrasound guidance with an 810- or 980-nm diode laser in continuous mode using the pullback method while sparing the deep, most cephalad segment of the SSV near the saphenopopliteal junction. Follow-up after EVLA included patient symptoms, physical examination, and duplex ultrasound. Pretreatment variables were similar across all three practices. EVLA was performed to treat 67 incompetent SSVs in 63 patients (86% women; mean age and 95% confidence interval, 50 {+-} 3 years; range, 20-82 years). Average energy delivered was 92 J/cm. Immediate technical success and occlusion of the treated vein at 1-2 weeks was 100%. Imaging follow-up length was 243 {+-} 65 days (range, 3-893 days). Clinical follow-up (243 {+-} 66 days) showed symptomatic improvement in 66 (99%) of 67 patients; one patient had recanalization with recurrent reflux by ultrasound (2%). Complications included one case of paresthesias lasting beyond 1 month of follow-up (2%) and three cases of superficial phlebitis (4%), but no deep vein thrombosis, skin burns, or other complications. Although ablation involved only the superficial portion of the SSV and spared its deep segment in the popliteal fossa, SSV occlusion typically extended up to the saphenopopliteal junction or to a gastrocnemial collateral, without popliteal vein involvement. EVLA of the SSV is safe and effective when the saphenopopliteal junction and popliteal fossa are avoided. This approach may help reduce the risk of paresthesias or other complications while maintaining low recanalization rates.

  12. Transsinusoidal Portal Vein Embolization with Ethylene Vinyl Alcohol Copolymer (Onyx): A Feasibility Study in Pigs

    SciTech Connect

    Smits, Maarten L. J., E-mail: m.l.j.smits-3@umcutrecht.nl [University Medical Center Utrecht, Department of Radiology (Netherlands); Vanlangenhove, Peter, E-mail: peter.vanlangenhove@uzgent.be; Sturm, Emiel J. C., E-mail: ejcsturm@gmail.com [Ghent University Hospital, Department of Vascular and Interventional Radiology (Belgium); Bosch, Maurice A. A. J. van den, E-mail: mbosch@umcutrecht.nl [University Medical Center Utrecht, Department of Radiology (Netherlands); Hav, Monirath, E-mail: hav.monirath@gmail.com; Praet, Marleen, E-mail: marleen.praet@ugent.be [Ghent University Hospital, N. Goormaghtigh Institute of Pathology (Belgium); Vente, Maarten A. D., E-mail: m.vente@umcutrecht.nl [University Medical Center Utrecht, Department of Radiology (Netherlands); Snaps, Frederic R., E-mail: fsnaps@ulg.ac.be [University of Liege, Department of Clinical Sciences, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine (Belgium); Defreyne, Luc, E-mail: luc.defreyne@ugent.be [Ghent University Hospital, Department of Vascular and Interventional Radiology (Belgium)

    2012-10-15

    Purpose: Portal vein embolization is performed to increase the future liver remnant before liver surgery in patients with liver malignancies. This study assesses the feasibility of a transsinusoidal approach for portal vein embolization (PVE) with the ethylene vinyl alcohol copolymer, Onyx. Methods: Indirect portography through contrast injection in the cranial mesenteric artery was performed in eight healthy pigs. Onyx was slowly injected through a microcatheter from a wedged position in the hepatic vein and advanced through the liver lobules into the portal system. The progression of Onyx was followed under fluoroscopy, and the extent of embolization was monitored by indirect portography. The pigs were euthanized immediately (n = 2), at 7 days (n = 4), or at 21 days postprocedure (n = 2). All pigs underwent necropsy and the ex vivo livers were grossly and histopathologically analyzed. Results: Transsinusoidal PVE was successfully performed in five of eight pigs (63%). In 14 of 21 injections (67%), a segmental portal vein could be filled completely. A mean of 1.6 liver lobes per pig was embolized (range 1-2 lobes). There were no periprocedural adverse events. Focal capsular scarring was visible on the surface of two resected livers, yet the capsules remained intact. Histopathological examination showed no signs of recanalization or abscess formation. Mild inflammatory reaction to Onyx was observed in the perivascular parenchyma. Conclusions: The porcine portal vein can be embolized through injection of Onyx from a wedged position in the hepatic vein. Possible complications of transsinusoidal PVE and the effect on contralateral hypertrophy need further study.

  13. Recanalization of Obstructed Tenckhoff Peritoneal Dialysis Catheter: Wire/Stylet Manipulation Combined with Endoluminal Electrocauterization

    SciTech Connect

    Lim, Sang Joon; Shim, Hyung Jin [Department of Radiology, College of Medicine, Chung-Ang University, 82-1, Pil-dong 2 ka, Chung-ku, Seoul 100-272 (Korea, Republic of); Kwak, Byung Gook [Department of Internal Medicine, College of Medicine, Chung-Ang University, 82-1, Pil-dong 2 ka, Chung-ku, Seoul 100-272 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Hyeon Joo; Park, Hyo Jin; Sa, Eun Jin [Department of Radiology, College of Medicine, Chung-Ang University, 82-1, Pil-dong 2 ka, Chung-ku, Seoul 100-272 (Korea, Republic of); Min, Cheol Hong [Department of Internal Medicine, College of Medicine, Chung-Ang University, 82-1, Pil-dong 2 ka, Chung-ku, Seoul 100-272 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Yong Chul; Kim, Kun Sang [Department of Radiology, College of Medicine, Chung-Ang University, 82-1, Pil-dong 2 ka, Chung-ku, Seoul 100-272 (Korea, Republic of)

    1998-09-15

    We report the results of fluoroscopically guided wire/stylet manipulation combined with endoluminal electrocauterization in seven patients with obstructed Tenckhoff peritoneal dialysis catheters. In preparation for clinical application, electrocauterization was performed using a stone basket to recanalize surgically removed Tenckhoff catheters obstructed with omental fat ingrowing through the side holes. All ingrowing omental fat was removed easily by electrocauterization with the rotating movement of a stone basket. The technique was then applied in vivo in seven cases with ingrowing omental fat and malpositioned catheter; six (86%) were successfully recanalized. Among those six cases with initial success, four maintained good catheter function with durable patency (mean 261.3 days). No significant complication was noted.

  14. Recanalization of extracranial internal carotid artery occlusion: A 12-year retrospective study.

    PubMed

    Jiao, Liqun; Song, Gang; Hua, Yang; Ma, Yan; Chen, Yanfei; Wang, Yabing; Ling, Feng

    2013-08-15

    This study aimed to summarize therapy experience of carotid endarterectomy, carotid endarterectomy combined with Fogarty catheter embolectomy, and hybrid surgery for the treatment of extracranial internal carotid artery occlusion. The study included 65 patients with extracranial internal carotid artery occlusion who underwent carotid endarterectomy, carotid endarterectomy combined with Fogarty catheter embolectomy, or hybrid surgery in the Department of Neurosurgery, Xuanwu Hospital, Capital Medical University, China between January 2006 and December 2012. Prior to surgery, all patients underwent perfusion CT or xenon CT to evaluate the occlusion. The procedure for each patient was chosen according to digital subtraction angiography data. The carotid artery was successfully recanalized in 46 of 51 patients who underwent carotid endarterectomy, 9 of 10 patients who underwent carotid endarterectomy combined with Fogarty catheter embolectomy, and 3 of 4 patients who underwent hybrid surgery. In patients with symptomatic carotid artery occlusion, the carotid artery can be recanalized by choosing a treatment procedure based on imaging examination findings. PMID:25206530

  15. Salpingitis Isthmica Nodosa: Technical Success and Outcome of Fluoroscopic Transcervical Fallopian Tube Recanalization

    SciTech Connect

    Houston, J. Graeme; Machan, Lindsay S. [Department of Radiology, University Site, Vancouver Hospital, Vancouver, BC, V6T 1Z3 (Canada)

    1998-01-15

    Purpose: To evaluate the technical success and outcome of fallopian tube recanalization (FTR) in salpingitis isthmica nodosa (SIN). Methods: SIN is a well-recognized pathological condition affecting the proximal fallopian tube and is associated with infertility and ectopic pregnancy. We reviewed the presentations, films, and case records of all patients attending for FTR for infertility from 1990 to 1994. Technical success and total, intrauterine, and ectopic pregnancy rates at follow-up were determined. Results: SIN was observed in 22 of 349 (6%) patients. FTR was attempted in 34 tubes in these 22 patients. Technical success was achieved in 23 of 34 (68%) tubes affected by SIN. In 5 of the 11 failed recanalizations, failure was due to distal obstruction. At least one tube was patent on selective postprocedural salpingography in 17 of 22 (77%) patients. There were no recorded perforations or complications. At follow-up (mean 14 months), total, intrauterine, and ectopic pregnancy rates were 23%, 18%, and 4.5%, respectively. Conclusion: FTR in SIN is technically successful and, compared with previously reported results in unselected infertility patients, is associated with only a slightly less favorable intrauterine pregnancy rate and a comparable ectopic pregnancy rate. The findings of SIN at FTR should not discourage attempted fluoroscopic transcervical recanalization.

  16. How Are Varicose Veins Treated?

    MedlinePLUS

    ... a vein using a very fine needle. The chemical scars the inner lining of the vein, causing it to close off. Laser Surgery This procedure applies light energy from a laser onto a varicose vein. The ...

  17. Real-Time MRI-Guided Endovascular Recanalization of Chronic Total Arterial Occlusion in a Swine Model

    PubMed Central

    Raval, Amish N.; Karmarkar, Parag V.; Guttman, Michael A.; Ozturk, Cengizhan; Sampath, Smita; DeSilva, Ranil; Aviles, Ronnier J.; Xu, Minnan; Wright, Victor J.; Schenke, William H.; Kocaturk, Ozgur; Dick, Alexander J.; Raman, Venkatesh K.; Atalar, Ergin; McVeigh, Elliot R.; Lederman, Robert J.

    2006-01-01

    Background Endovascular recanalization (guidewire traversal) of peripheral artery chronic total occlusion (CTO) can be challenging. X-Ray angiography resolves CTO poorly. Virtually “blind” device advancement during X-ray-guided interventions can lead to procedure failure, perforation and hemorrhage. Alternatively, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) may delineate the artery within the occluded segment to enhance procedural safety and success. We hypothesized that real-time MRI (rtMRI) guided CTO recanalization can be accomplished in an animal model. Methods and Results Carotid artery CTO was created by balloon injury in 19 lipid overfed swine. After 6–8 weeks, two underwent direct necropsy analysis for histology, three underwent primary X-ray-guided CTO recanalization attempts, and the remaining 14 underwent rtMRI-guided recanalization attempts in a 1.5T interventional MRI system. rtMRI intervention used custom CTO catheters and guidewires that incorporated MRI receiver antennae to enhance device visibility. The mean length of the occluded segments was 13.3 ± 1.6cm. rtMRI-guided CTO recanalization was successful in 11/14 swine and only 1/3 swine using X-ray alone. After unsuccessful rtMRI (n = 3), X-ray-guided attempts also were all unsuccessful. Conclusions Recanalization of long CTO is feasible entirely using rtMRI guidance. Low profile clinical-grade devices will be required to translate this experience to humans. Endovascular recanalization of chronic total arterial occlusion (CTO) is challenging under conventional X-ray guidance because devices are advanced almost blindly. MRI can image CTO borders and luminal contents, and could potentially guide these procedures. We test the feasibility of real-time MRI guided wire traversal in a swine model of peripheral artery CTO using custom active MRI catheters. PMID:16490819

  18. Living donor liver transplantation using a right liver graft with additional vein reconstructions for patient with situs inversus.

    PubMed

    Kamei, H; Onishi, Y; Ogawa, K; Uemoto, S; Ogura, Y

    2014-06-01

    Living donor liver transplantation (LDLT) using a right liver graft with additional vein reconstructions has not been previously reported in a situs inversus (SI) patient. A 60-year-old man with SI was referred for LDLT for end-stage cirrhosis secondary to hepatitis B. The calculated regional volumes of the individual hepatic vein territories in the right liver graft suggested that the middle hepatic vein (MHV) tributaries and the inferior right hepatic veins (IRHVs) should be reconstructed in addition to the right hepatic vein (RHV). On the back-table, the recipient's recanalized umbilical vein graft was anastomosed to the V5 opening, and the other side of vein graft was anastomosed to the RHV and V8 opening to create a large single orifice. After total hepatectomy, the right liver graft was placed in the left subphrenic space at the reversed position. The common orifice of hepatic venous drainage from RHV, V8 and V5 was anastomosed to the anatomical RHV conduit of the recipient, followed by IRHV anastomosis to the inferior vena cava. Postoperative course was almost uneventful, and no vascular complications were experienced. Even for SI patients, LDLT using a right liver graft with reconstructions of the MHV tributaries and the IRHVs is feasible. PMID:24725262

  19. Deep vein thrombosis - discharge

    MedlinePLUS

    You were treated for deep venous thrombosis (DVT). This is a condition in which a blood clot forms in a vein that is not on ... especially if it gets worse upon taking a deep breath in You cough up blood

  20. Focus on Varicose Veins

    MedlinePLUS

    ... procedure can be performed in the outpatient setting. Recovery time is usually fast with positive short and mid-term results. • RF treatment involves controlled delivery of radio- frequency (RF) energy directly to a vein wall by a thin ...

  1. Spontaneous Recanalization of Superior Mesenteric Artery Occlusion Following Angioplasty and Stenting of Inferior Mesenteric Artery

    SciTech Connect

    Akpinar, Erhan, E-mail: eakp0@Lycos.com; Cil, Barbaros E.; Arat, Anil [Hacettepe University, Departments of Radiology (Turkey); Baykal, Atac; Karaman, Kerem [Hacettepe University, Departments of General Surgery (Turkey); Balkanci, Ferhun [Hacettepe University, Departments of Radiology (Turkey)

    2006-02-15

    An 84-year-old woman with a history of hypertension and coronary artery disease was admitted with a progressively worsening diffuse abdominal pain. Computed tomography scan of the abdomen and angiography revealed occlusion of the origin and proximal portion of superior mesenteric artery. Aortography also showed severe origin stenosis of inferior mesenteric artery and that the distal part of the superior mesenteric artery was supplied by a prominent marginal artery of Drummond. Patient was effectively treated with percutaneous transluminal angioplasty and stenting of the inferior mesenteric artery. Follow-up imaging studies demonstrated patency of the stent and spontaneous recanalization of superior mesenteric artery occlusion.

  2. Diagnosis of deep vein thrombosis, and prevention of deep vein thrombosis recurrence and the post-thrombotic syndrome in the primary care medicine setting anno 2014

    PubMed Central

    Michiels, Jan Jacques; Michiels, Janneke Maria; Moossdorff, Wim; Lao, Mildred; Maasland, Hanny; Palareti, Gualtiero

    2015-01-01

    The requirement for a safe diagnostic strategy of deep vein thrombosis (DVT) should be based on an overall objective post incidence of venous thromboembolism (VTE) of less than 1% during 3 mo follow-up. Compression ultrasonography (CUS) of the leg veins has a negative predictive value (NPV) of 97%-98% indicating the need of repeated CUS testing within one week. A negative ELISA VIDAS safely excludes DVT and VTE with a NPV between 99% and 100% at a low clinical score of zero. The combination of low clinical score and a less sensitive D-dimer test (Simplify) is not sensitive enough to exclude DVT and VTE in routine daily practice. From prospective clinical research studies it may be concluded that complete recanalization within 3 mo and no reflux is associated with a low or no risk of PTS obviating the need of MECS 6 mo after DVT. Partial and complete recanalization after 3 to more than 6 mo is usually complicated by reflux due to valve destruction and symptomatic PTS. Reflux seems to be a main determinant for PTS and DVT recurrence, the latter as a main contributing factor in worsening PTS. This hypothesis is supported by the relation between the persistent residual vein thrombosis (RVT = partial recanalization) and the risk of VTE recurrence in prospective studies. Absence of RVT at 3 mo post-DVT and no reflux is predicted to be associated with no recurrence of DVT (1.2%) during follow-up obviating the need of wearing medical elastic stockings and anticoagulation at 6 mo post-DVT. The presence or absence of RVT but with reflux at 3 to 6 mo post-DVT is associated with both symptomatic PTS and an increased risk of VTE recurrence in about one third in the post-DVT period after regular discontinuation of anticoagulant treatment. To test this hypothesis we designed a prospective DVT and postthrombotic syndrome (PTS) Bridging the Gap Study by addressing at least four unanswered questions in the treatment of DVT and PTS. Which DVT patient has a clear indication for long-term compression stocking therapy to prevent PTS after the initial anticoagulant treatment in the acute phase of DVT? Is 3 mo the appropriate point in time to determine candidates at risk to develop DVT recurrence and PTS? Which high risk symptomatic PTS patients need extended anticoagulant treatment? PMID:25685720

  3. [Radiologically-guided vascular prosthesis after laser recanalization of occlusive lesions of the blood vessels of the lower limbs].

    PubMed

    Rabkin, I Kh; Natsvlishvili, Z G; Kavteladze, Z A

    1991-04-01

    The article deals with the first clinical experience in radiologically-guided prosthetics after laser recanalization of occluded vessels of the lower limbs in 20 patients. The method was introduced into clinical practice after applying separately the methods of radiologically-guided endovascular prosthetics and laser recanalization with subsequent dilatation and experimental substantiation on dogs with artificially created chronic occlusions of the femoral artery. The first results are promising, although the true place of the method in sparing treatment of vessels will be ascertained after rich clinical experience is accumulated and the late-term results studied. PMID:2059500

  4. Efficacy of Salpingography and Transcervical Recanalization in Diagnosis, Categorization, and Treatment of Fallopian Tube Obstruction

    SciTech Connect

    Lang, Erich K. [Department of Radiology, Tulane Medical Center, 1430 Tulane Avenue, SL 54, New Orleans, LA 70112 (United States); Dunaway, Herbert E. [Division of Reproductive Gynecology, 4700 I-10 Service Road, Lakeside Hospital, Metairie, LA 70008 (United States)

    2000-11-15

    Purpose: The efficacy of selective salpingography (SS) and transcervical recanalization (TCR) in diagnosis, categorization, and determination of optimal treatment modality for fallopian tube obstruction was investigated.Methods: SS and, in some patients, TCR was performed in 430 patients with a diagnosis of obstruction of one or both fallopian tubes, as determined by hysterosalpingograms (HSG). All patients (age 21-46 years) had an infertility problem for at least 18 months.Results: In 196 patients, 325 tubes were patent on SS. TCR recanalized 243 tubes in 176 patients. Disease of the distal tube was demonstrated in 66 patients. There were 39 live babies in a group of 176 patients with successful TCR. Best live birth rate was in 7 of 12 (58%) patients with underlying endometriosis, followed by postsurgical strictures in inflammatory disease, 6 of 31 (19%), and salpingitis isthmica nodosa in 25 of 168 (15%). There were no pregnancies in patients with cobblestone pattern of the distal tubes.Conclusions: SS and TCR were capable of correcting obstruction of the proximal tubes in 243 of 465 tubes in 176 of 234 patients (75%). With patency of the proximal tube restored, the distal tube could be assessed for changes indicative of damage to the ciliated epithelium which was likely to reduce the ability to become pregnant. This allowed for the triage of patients into groups benefiting from the relatively inexpensive and low complication TCR or patients in need of in vitro fertilization or similar assisted reproductive technologies.

  5. Recanalization of experimental thrombotic arterial occlusion by radiofrequency thermal angioplasty: an angioscopic observation.

    PubMed

    Tamura, Y; Yamazoe, M; Matsubara, T; Igarashi, Y; Izumi, T; Shibata, A; Hayashi, S; Toyoshima, H; Saito, Y; Makino, H

    1989-08-01

    The efficacy of radiofrequency (RF) angioplasty for recanalization of arterial thrombosis was assessed angioscopically in five dogs. A thrombus was induced by balloon injury of the left femoral artery. Within two hr, thrombi led to total occlusion of the artery in three dogs, subtotal occlusion in one, and about 70% obstruction in one. A metal-tipped catheter, with a tip size of 2.0 mm x 5.7 mm, was advanced into the thrombus and RF at 13.56 MHz was delivered repeatedly with gradually increased energies. The arterial lumina were recanalized or enlarged in all dogs. The thrombus surface had a shaggy appearance, and were dark (charring), or mixed dark and white in color. There were relatively large variations in the energies required; 140 J in one, 200 J in two and 250 J in two. The present results suggest that thrombotic arterial occlusion, such as acute occlusion complicating balloon angioplasty, can be treated with RF thermal angioplasty. Angioscopy provided detailed information about thrombus surfaces. The variations in required energies indicate the inability to control the thermal effect by energy settings alone. A more sophisticated method such as measurement of tip temperature will be able to overcome this difficulty. PMID:2531479

  6. Pelvic Vein Embolisation in the Management of Varicose Veins

    SciTech Connect

    Ratnam, Lakshmi A. [St. George's Hospital, Department of Radiology (United Kingdom); Marsh, Petra; Holdstock, Judy M.; Harrison, Charmaine S. [Stirling House, Whiteley Clinic (United Kingdom); Hussain, Fuad F. [Royal Surrey County Hospital, Department of Radiology (United Kingdom); Whiteley, Mark S. [Stirling House, Whiteley Clinic (United Kingdom); Lopez, Anthony, E-mail: consultant@radiologist.co.u [Royal Surrey County Hospital, Department of Radiology (United Kingdom)

    2008-11-15

    Pelvic vein incompetence is common in patients with atypical varicose veins, contributing to their recurrence after surgery. Therefore, refluxing pelvic veins should be identified and treated. We present our experience with pelvic vein embolisation in patients presenting with varicose veins. Patients presenting with varicose veins with a duplex-proven contribution from perivulval veins undergo transvaginal duplex sonography (TVUS) to identify refluxing pelvic veins. Those with positive scans undergo embolisation before surgical treatment of their lower limb varicose veins. A total of 218 women (mean age of 46.3 years) were treated. Parity was documented in the first 60 patients, of whom 47 (78.3%) were multiparous, 11 (18.3%) had had one previous pregnancy, and 2 (3.3%) were nulliparous. The left ovarian vein was embolised in 78%, the right internal iliac in 64.7%, the left internal iliac in 56.4%, and the right ovarian vein in 42.2% of patients. At follow-up TVUS, mild reflux only was seen in 16, marked persistent reflux in 6, and new reflux in 3 patients. These 9 women underwent successful repeat embolisation. Two patients experienced pulmonary embolisation of the coils, of whom 1 was asymptomatic and 1 was successfully retrieved; 1 patient had a misplaced coil protruding into the common femoral vein; and 1 patient had perineal thrombophlebitis. The results of our study showed that pelvic venous embolisation by way of a transjugular approach is a safe and effective technique in the treatment of pelvic vein reflux.

  7. Portal vein thrombosis.

    PubMed

    Basit, Syed Abdul; Stone, Christian D; Gish, Robert

    2015-02-01

    Portal vein thrombosis (PVT) is a rare event in the general medical setting that commonly complicates cirrhosis with portal hypertension, and can also occur with liver tumors. The diagnosis is often incidental when a thrombus is found in the portal vein on imaging tests. However, PVT may also present with clinical symptoms and can progress to life-threatening complications of ischemic hepatitis, liver failure, and/or small intestinal infarction. This article reviews the pathophysiology of this disorder, with a major focus on PVT in patients with cirrhosis, and presents detailed guidelines on optimal diagnostic and therapeutic strategies. PMID:25454305

  8. Transluminal Recanalization of Chronic Total Occlusion of Radial Artery Using Rendezvous Technique: A Case Report and Literature Review

    PubMed Central

    Arabi, Mohammad; Ahmed, Ishtiaq; Qattan, Nabeel

    2014-01-01

    Although endovascular management of lower extremity peripheral arterial disease (PAD) is well studied, little information exists regarding endovascular treatment of critical upper limb ischemia. We report a case of transluminal recanalization of right radial artery chronic total occlusion (CTO) using rendezvous technique in a patient with critical hand ischemia and dry gangrene of the right index finger. PMID:25161805

  9. Living with Deep Vein Thrombosis

    MedlinePLUS

    ... page from the NHLBI on Twitter. Living With Deep Vein Thrombosis NHLBI Resources Pulmonary Embolism (Health Topics) Non-NHLBI Resources Deep Vein Thrombosis (MedlinePlus) Pulmonary Embolism (MedlinePlus) Clinical Trials ...

  10. Treatment of varicose veins.

    PubMed

    Nael, Raha; Rathbun, Suman

    2009-04-01

    Varicose veins (VVs) are the most common manifestation of chronic venous insufficiency, affecting 25% of women and 15% of men. Reticular veins and telangiectasias (spider veins) are found in more than 80% of the general population. VVs produce symptoms of pain, swelling, heaviness, fatigue, and pruritus and predispose patients to complications including bleeding, superficial thrombophlebitis, and ulcerations that interfere with activities of daily living and result in lost time from work. Current treatments for VVs include conservative measures, and when these are unsuccessful, more invasive surgical and endovenous interventions primarily aimed at reducing venous hypertension and preventing progression to chronic inflammation and ulcerations. Surgical procedures including saphenous vein stripping, ligation of the saphenofemoral junction, and ambulatory phlebectomy are effective in the treatment of VVs but are associated with a high complication rate and recovery time. Emerging endovenous therapies, including endovenous laser therapy, radiofrequency ablation, and endovenous foam sclerotherapy, have shown similar efficacy in the treatment of VVs compared with more invasive surgical procedures, with lower complication rates and less time lost from work. PMID:19289022

  11. Postpartum Ovarian Vein Thrombosis

    PubMed Central

    Romano, Nicola; Bimbi, Marco; Lorenzetti, Luca; Pietrasanta, Dario; Goletti, Orlando

    2011-01-01

    Background: Ovarian vein thrombosis (OVT) is a rare but potentially serious postpartum complication, which occurs in 0.05% to 0.18% of pregnancies and is diagnosed on the right side in 80% to 90% of the cases. Case Report: A 32-year-old woman presented at 15 days postpartum to our emergency department with severe abdominal pain, fever, and abdominal distension. Abdominal examination revealed right lower quadrant pain with rebound tenderness. The plain abdominal radiography evidenced a diffuse fecal stasis; abdominal ultrasound showed the presence of free fluid in the Douglas’ pouch and between small bowel loops. Diagnosis of acute appendicitis was made. The patient immediately underwent explorative laparoscopy; at surgery, a woody tumoration consistent with right ovarian vein thrombosis was found. Laparoscopic ultrasound confirmed the diagnosis. Anticoagulation therapy and antibiotics were instituted. CT-scan confirmed the presence of thrombosis up to the vena cava. The patient was discharged on postoperative day 4. At 1-month follow-up, she remained stable and symptom free. Discussion: Even though postpartum ovarian vein thrombosis is rare, recognition and treatment is needed to institute adequate therapy and avoid potential serious sequelae. The diagnosis can be established by ultrasound, CT scan, and MRI examinations, although, as in the case described, the limitation of ultrasound includes obscuration of the gonadic vein by overlying bowel gas. Conclusion: OVT should be considered in any woman in the postpartum period with lower abdominal pain, fever, and leucocytosis. PMID:21902992

  12. Final infarct volume estimation on 1-week follow-up MR imaging is feasible and is dependent on recanalization status

    PubMed Central

    Krongold, Mark; Almekhlafi, Mohammed A.; Demchuk, Andrew M.; Coutts, Shelagh B.; Frayne, Richard; Eilaghi, Armin

    2014-01-01

    Purpose We aim to characterize infarct volume evolution within the first month post-ischemic stroke and to determine the effect of recanalization status on early infarct volume estimation. Methods Ischemic stroke patients recruited for the MONITOR and VISION studies were retrospectively screened and patients who had infarcts on diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) at baseline and had at least two follow-up MR scans (n = 56) were included. Pre-defined target imaging time points, obtained on a 3-T MR scanner, were 12 hours (h), 24 h, 7 days, and ?30 days post-stroke. Infarct tissue was manually traced blinded to the images at the other time points. Infarct expansion index was calculated by dividing infarct volume at each follow-up time point by the baseline DWI infarct volume. Recanalization was assessed within 24 h post-stroke. Correlation and statistical comparison analysis were done using the Spearman, Mann–Whitney, and Kruskal–Wallis tests. Results Follow-up infarct volumes were positively correlated with the baseline infarct volume (? > 0.81; p < 0.001) where the strongest correlation existed between baseline and 7-day post-stroke infarct volumes (? = 0.92; p < 0.001). The strongest correlation among the follow-up imaging was found between infarct volumes 7-day post-stroke and ?30-day time points (? = 0.93; p < 0.001). Linear regression showed a close-to unity slope between 7-day and final infarct volumes (slope = 1.043; p < 0.001). Infarct expansion was higher in the non-recanalized group than the recanalized group at the 7-day (p = 0.001) and ?30-day (p = 0.038) time points. Conclusions Final infarct volume can be approximated as early as 7 days post-stroke. Final infarct volume approximation is significantly associated with recanalization status. PMID:25429356

  13. Lattice Boltzmann method simulating hemodynamics in the three-dimensional stenosed and recanalized human carotid bifurcations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kang, XiuYing

    2015-01-01

    By using the lattice Boltzmann method (LBM) pulsatile blood flows were simulated in three-dimensional moderate stenosed and recanalized carotid bifurcations to understand local hemodynamics and its relevance in arterial atherosclerosis formation and progression. The helical flow patterns, secondary flow and wall dynamical pressure spatiotemporal distributions were investigated, which leads to the disturbed shear forces in the carotid artery bifurcations. The wall shear stress distributions indicated by time-averaged wall shear stress (TAWSS), oscillatory shear index (OSI), and the relative residence time (RRT) in a cardiac cycle revealed the regions where atherosclerotic plaques are prone to form, extend or rupture. This study also illustrates the point that locally disturbed flow may be considered as an indicator for early atherosclerosis diagnosis. Additionally the present work demonstrates the robust and highly efficient advantages of the LBM for the hemodynamics study of the human blood vessel system.

  14. Percutaneous Transhepatic Portography for the Treatment of Early Portal Vein Thrombosis After Surgery

    SciTech Connect

    Adani, Gian Luigi, E-mail: adanigl@hotmail.com; Baccarani, Umberto; Risaliti, Andrea [University Hospital of Udine, Department of Surgery and Transplantation (Italy); Sponza, Massimo; Gasparini, Daniele [University Hospital of Udine, Department of Interventional Radiology (Italy); Bresadola, Fabrizio; Anna, Dino de; Bresadola, Vittorio [University Hospital of Udine, Department of Surgery and Transplantation (Italy)

    2007-11-15

    We treated three cases of early portal vein thrombosis (PVT) by minimally invasive percutaneous transhepatic portography. All patients developed PVT within 30 days of major hepatic surgery (one case each of orthotopic liver transplantation, splenectomy in a previous liver transplant recipient, and right extended hepatectomy with resection and reconstruction of the left branch of the portal vein for tumor infiltration). In all cases minimally invasive percutaneous transhepatic portography was adopted to treat this complication by mechanical fragmentation and pharmacological lysis of the thrombus. A vascular stent was also positioned in the two cases in which the thrombosis was related to a surgical technical problem. Mechanical fragmentation of the thrombus with contemporaneous local urokinase administration resulted in complete removal of the clot and allowed restoration of normal blood flow to the liver after a median follow-up of 37 months. PVT is an uncommon but severe complication after major surgery or liver transplantation. Surgical thrombectomy, with or without reconstruction of the portal vein, and retransplantation are characterized by important surgical morbidity and mortality. Based on our experience, minimally invasive percutaneous transhepatic portography should be considered an option toward successful recanalization of early PVT after major liver surgery including transplantation. Balloon dilatation and placement of a vascular stent could help to decrease the risk of recurrent thrombosis when a defective surgical technique is the reason for the thrombosis.

  15. Point of Care Perioperative Coagulation Management in Liver Transplantation and Complete Portal Vein Thrombosis

    PubMed Central

    Piangatelli, Cristiano; Faloia, Lucia; Valentini, Ilaria; Vivarelli, Marco

    2014-01-01

    Liver transplantation (LT) is a serious hemostatic challenge in patients with portal vein thrombosis (PVT). Advances in monitoring systems have improved surgery in this setting. We report the successful application of a point-of-care (POC) rotational viscoelastic thromboelastometry-guided (TEM) testing system (ROTEM) which allowed management of coagulation during LT in a 64-year-old cirrhotic patient with a model for end-stage liver disease (MELD) score of 16. Perioperatively, the patient showed complete PVT, hepatomegaly, splenomegaly, recanalization of the umbilical vein, and portosystemic shunt. Macroscopic liver and spleen adherences with collateral circulation were evident. Coagulation factors and fibrinolysis were assessed preoperatively and at graft reperfusion to evaluate the need of hemostatic therapy. Based on ROTEM findings, the patient received 16?g of human fibrinogen concentrate, half preoperatively (with prothrombin complex concentrate 2000?IU, tranexamic acid 1?g, and platelets 2?IU), and two doses of 4?g before and after graft reperfusion; we achieved normalization of all monitored parameters. No ischemia-reperfusion syndrome was present. Postoperatively portal vein flux at Color-Doppler ultrasonography was normal. After a 3-day ICU stay, the patient was moved to the Department of Surgery and discharged on day 14. The postoperative course was uneventful and did not require any further haemostatic therapy. PMID:24653855

  16. [First experience in forming a multi-flap valve of the common femoral vein in avalvulation of the deep veins of lower extremities].

    PubMed

    Ignat'ev, I M; Akhmetzianov, R V; Bredikhin, R A

    2010-01-01

    From 2008 to 2009, we operated on a total often 40-to-54-year-old patients (eight women and two men). In four cases, avalvulation of the deep veins was congenital (primary) and in the remaining six instances, it was secondary to postthrombotic lesions of the valves with complete recanalization and pronounced vertical reflux along the deep veins. The distribution of the patients according to the CEAP classification was as followed: two patients were found to have grade C4b, seven patients were diagnosed with grade C5 and one patient suffered grade C6. All patients were subjected ultrasonographic duplex scanning. Four patients required additional procedures following aortic repair. Retrograde phlebography performed in all the patients revealed that all had grade 4 pathological reflux according to R. Kistner's classification. Nine patients had a history of previously performed interventions on the superficial and perforating veins. The operation was indicated in severe forms of chronic venous insufficiency and failure of conventional methods of surgical and conservative treatment. The formation of a multi-flap valve of the common femoral vein was carried out according to an original technique suggested by J. C. Opie (2008). Clinical improvement (i.e., pain syndrome relief, decreased oedemas, lowered degree of trophic disorders in crural soft tissue, permanent healing of trophic ulcers) was observed in eight (80%) patients. According to the VCSS scale, we registered a significant decrease in intensity of manifestations of chronic venous insufficiency along all parameters. The integrated index decreased from 7.53 +/- 0.54 to 4.33 +/- 0.42 (chi2 = 4.67; p < 0.01). The malleolar volume decreased from 271.1 +/- 4.7 to 231.5 +/- 5.7 mm (chi2 = 7.17; P < 0.001). Pathological reflux of blood was corrected in all patients within the follow-up terms amounting to 8 months. No thrombotic complications were observed. PMID:20635720

  17. Mechanical Recanalization of Subacute Vessel Occlusion in Peripheral Arterial Disease with a Directional Atherectomy Catheter

    SciTech Connect

    Massmann, Alexander, E-mail: Alexander.Massmann@uks.eu; Katoh, Marcus [Saarland University Hospital, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology (Germany); Shayesteh-Kheslat, Roushanak [Saarland University Hospital, Department of General Surgery, Visceral, Vascular, and Pediatric Surgery (Germany); Buecker, Arno [Saarland University Hospital, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology (Germany)

    2012-10-15

    Purpose: To retrospectively examine the technical feasibility and safety of directional atherectomy for treatment of subacute infrainguinal arterial vessel occlusions. Methods: Five patients (one woman, four men, age range 51-81 years) with peripheral arterial disease who experienced sudden worsening of their peripheral arterial disease-related symptoms during the last 2-6 weeks underwent digital subtraction angiography, which revealed vessel occlusion in native popliteal artery (n = 4) and in-stent occlusion of the superficial femoral artery (n = 1). Subsequently, all patients were treated by atherectomy with the SilverHawk (ev3 Endovascular, USA) device. Results: The mean diameter of treated vessels was 5.1 {+-} 1.0 mm. The length of the occlusion ranged 2-14 cm. The primary technical success rate was 100%. One patient experienced a reocclusion during hospitalization due to heparin-induced thrombocytopenia. There were no further periprocedural complications, in particular no peripheral embolizations, until hospital discharge or during the follow-up period of 1 year. Conclusion: The recanalization of infrainguinal arterial vessel occlusions by atherectomy with the SilverHawk device is technically feasible and safe. In our limited retrospective study, it was associated with a high technical success rate and a low procedure-related complication rate.

  18. Fluoroscopically Guided Transcervical Fallopian Tube Recanalization of Post-Sterilization Reversal Mid-Tubal Obstructions

    SciTech Connect

    Houston, J. Graeme [Department of Radiology, Ninewells Hospital and Medical School, Tayside University Hospitals NHS Trust, Dundee DD1 9SY, Scotland (United Kingdom); Anderson, David; Mills, John; Harrold, Anthony [Assisted Conception Unit, Ninewells Hospital and Medical School, Tayside University Hospitals NHS Trust, Dundee DD1 9SY, Scotland (United Kingdom)

    2000-03-15

    Purpose: To assess the technical success and early outcome of fluoroscopically guided transcervical fallopian tube recanalization (FTR) in mid-tubal occlusion following sterilization reversal surgery.Methods: From July 1995 to January 1998, patients with greater than 12 months secondary infertility underwent hysterosalpingography (HSG). FTR was performed in proximal or mid-tubal occlusion. Cases of FTR in mid-tubal occlusion were included in this study. Technical success (defined as complete tubal patency) using a standard guidewire and hydrophilic glidewire, the number of patients with at least one patent tube, and the intrauterine and ectopic pregnancy rates were determined.Results: Twenty-six infertile patients with previous sterilization reversal underwent HSG. Eight of 26 (31%) patients (mean age 32 years, range 23-37 years), had attempted FTR for mid-tubal occlusion at the site of surgical anastomosis. Fourteen tubes were attempted as there were two previous salpingectomies. Technical success was achieved in eight of 14 (57%) tubes attempted, resulting in five of eight (62%) patients having at least one patent tube. At follow-up (mean 18 months, range 12-28 months) in these five patients there was one intrauterine pregnancy. There were no ectopic pregnancies.Conclusions: FTR in mid-tubal obstruction in infertile patients following sterilization reversal surgery is technically feasible and may result in intrauterine pregnancy. In this small group there was a lower technical success rate and lower pregnancy rate than in unselected proximal tubal occlusion.

  19. Successful recanalization with multimodality endovascular interventional therapy in acute ischemic stroke

    PubMed Central

    Jongsathapongpan, Amorn; Raumthanthong, Anuchit; Muengtaweepongsa, Sombat

    2014-01-01

    Stroke is an important cause of death and disability in adults. However, effective treatments for patients with acute ischemic stroke are limited. Intravenous recombinant tissue plasminogen activator (iv rtPA) within 4.5 h after onset has been approved as a standard treatment for patients with acute ischemic stroke. However, due to time constraints, less than one percent of acute ischemic stroke patients in Thailand are able to obtain iv rtPA. Although endovascular interventional therapy has not yet been approved as standard treatment in acute ischemic stroke, it is the one of the potentially effective treatment options. There are several reliable methods of endovascular therapy for acute ischemic stroke patients. Endovascular interventional therapy has rarely been done in Thailand. We report seven patients with successful recanalization after endovascular treatment in acute large vessel stroke from a single stroke center in Thailand. Patient screening and selection with multimodal imaging protocol and multimodality methods of endovascular interventional therapy are described. PMID:24653991

  20. Achieving Faster Recanalization Times by IA Thrombolysis in Acute Ischemic Stroke: Where Should We Direct Our Efforts?

    PubMed Central

    Eesa, M.; K Menon, B.; Hill, M.D.; Demchuk, A.; Goyal, M.

    2011-01-01

    Summary Faster recanalization correlates with better outcomes in acute ischemic stroke. We analyzed times from arrival in ER to end of treatment in patients undergoing endovascular treatment for acute ischemic stroke at our institution. We retrospectively studied patients who underwent IA procedures for stroke from 2005 to 2009 noting the times of arrival to ER, CT scan, arrival to DSA, arterial puncture and recanalization from our endovascular database. A subgroup analysis was performed based on administration of GA, use of mechanical devices and whether the procedure was performed during regular hours or after hours. Of 101 patients, 53 were male, with a median age of 66 years (range 18-87). There were 81 anterior circulation strokes. Median ER to CT time was 22 min (2-1025), CT to DSA arrival time 80 min (range 4-990), DSA arrival to puncture time 24 min (range 0-75) and puncture to recanalization time 84 min (range 11-206). 23.3% of patients had an ER to CT time interval of > 60 min and 71.3 % had a CT to DSA time interval of > 60 min contributing to significant in-hospital delays. For subgroup analysis the Mann-Whitney test was used. No significant differences in CT to DSA arrival (p=0.8), DSA arrival to puncture (p=0.1) and puncture to recanalization (p=0.59) times were noted between patients with and without GA. No significant difference was noted in puncture to recanalization times with or without device (p=0.78). 39 cases were done during regular (R) hours and 62 after (A) hours. Median ER to CT time (R=18 min, A = 27 min, p 0.02), CT to DSA arrival time (R=64 min, A=90 min, p 0.004) and DSA arrival to puncture time (R=18 min, A=25 min, p 0.003) was significantly higher after hours. ER to CT and CT to DSA arrival times in patients undergoing endovascular stroke therapy show wide variability and therefore, considerable scope for reduction. Time differences during regular and after hours should serve as a reminder to make efforts to reduce overall ischemic times in spite of staffing patterns and resource availability. PMID:21696664

  1. How Is Deep Vein Thrombosis Treated?

    MedlinePLUS

    ... page from the NHLBI on Twitter. How Is Deep Vein Thrombosis Treated? Doctors treat deep vein thrombosis (DVT) with medicines and other devices ... stockings. Rate This Content: Next >> October 28, 2011 Deep Vein Thrombosis Clinical Trials Clinical trials are research ...

  2. Who Is at Risk for Varicose Veins?

    MedlinePLUS

    ... for varicose veins. This is because staying in one position for a long time may force your veins to work harder to ... Veins Clinical Trials Clinical trials are research studies that explore whether ...

  3. The economics of vein disease.

    PubMed

    Sales, Clifford M; Podnos, Joan; Levison, Jonathan

    2007-09-01

    The management of cosmetic vein problems requires a very different approach than that for the majority of most other vascular disorders that occur in a vascular surgery practice. This article focuses on the business aspects of a cosmetic vein practice, with particular attention to the uniqueness of these issues. Managing patient expectations is critical to the success of a cosmetic vein practice. Maneuvering within the insurance can be difficult and frustrating for both the patient and the practice. Practices should use cost accounting principles to evaluate the success of their vein work. Vein surgery--especially if performed within the office--can undergo an accurate break-even analysis to determine its profitability. PMID:17911565

  4. Varicose Veins - Sclerotherapy

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Patient Education Institute

    This patient education program explains the benefits and risks of sclerotherapy for varicose veins. It also reviews the anatomy of the cardiovascular system, symptoms, causes, preventive measures, what the procedure involves, and possible complications. This resource is a MedlinePlus Interactive Health Tutorial from the National Library of Medicine, designed and developed by the Patient Education Institute. NOTE: This tutorial requires a special Flash plug-in, version 4 or above. If you do not have Flash, you will be prompted to obtain a free download of the software before you start the tutorial. You will also need an Acrobat Reader, available as a free download, in order to view the Reference Summary.

  5. Follow-up results of acute portal and splenic vein thrombosis with or without anticoagulation therapy after hepatobiliary and pancreatic surgery

    PubMed Central

    Cho, Chan Woo; Kim, Young-Wook; Choi, Sung Ho; Heo, Jin Seok; Choi, Dong Wook; Kim, Dong-Ik

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Acute portal and splenic vein thrombosis (APSVT) after hepatobiliary and pancreatic (HBP) surgery is a rare but serious complication and a treatment strategy has not been well established. To assess the safety and efficacy of anticoagulation therapy for treating APSVT after HBP surgery. Methods We performed a retrospective case-control study of 82 patients who were diagnosed with APSVT within 4 weeks after HBP surgery from October 2002 to November 2012 at a single institute. We assigned patients to the anticoagulation group (n = 32) or nonanticoagulation group (n = 50) and compared patient characteristics, complications, and the recanalization rate of APSVT between these two groups. Results APSVT was diagnosed a mean of 8.6 ± 4.8 days after HBP surgery. Patients' characteristics were not significantly different between the two groups. There were no bleeding complications related to anticoagulation therapy. The 1-year cumulative recanalization rate of anticoagulation group and nonanticoagulation group were 71.4% and 34.1%, respectively, which is statistically significant (log-rank test, P = 0.0001). In Cox regression model for multivariate analysis, independent factors associated with the recanalization rate of APSVT after HBP surgery were anticoagulation therapy (P = 0.003; hazard ration [HR], 2.364; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.341-4.168), the absence of a vein reconstruction procedure (P = 0.027; HR, 2.557; 95% CI, 1.111-5.885), and operation type (liver resection rather than pancreatic resection; P = 0.005, HR, 2.350; 95% CI, 1.286-4.296). Conclusion Anticoagulation therapy appears to be a safe and effective treatment for patients with APSVT after HBP surgery. Further prospective studies of larger patient populations are necessary to confirm our findings.

  6. Thrombus just beneath a retrievable inferior vena cava filter in a pregnant woman with deep vein thrombosis: its removal requiring catheter thrombus fragmentation with fibrinolysis.

    PubMed

    Horie, Kenji; Suzuki, Hirotada; Ohkuchi, Akihide; Matsubara, Shigeki; Ikemoto, Tomokazu; Suzuki, Mitsuaki

    2014-02-01

    Recently, transient inferior vena cava (IVC) filters have been employed to protect against pulmonary embolism (PE) in pregnant women with deep vein thrombosis. A 34-year-old primiparous Japanese woman with a history of myomectomy was diagnosed with deep vein thrombosis by ultrasound at 27 weeks of gestation. Unfractionated heparin was administered, which soon ameliorated swelling in the right thigh. A transient IVC filter was implanted just before cesarean section. An enhanced computed tomography scan 2 days after cesarean section revealed a wide thrombus just distal to the filter. We performed catheter thrombus fragmentation with fibrinolysis just before the removal of the IVC filter, resulting in re-canalization of blood flow. No significant PE occurred. Although a transient IVC filter may work well for the prophylaxis of PE during labor and delivery, catheter fragmentation with fibrinolysis may become necessary at removal of the filter. PMID:24118502

  7. Sagittal vein thrombosis caused by central vein catheter.

    PubMed

    Sabzi, Feridoun; Karim, Hosein; Heydar Pour, Behzad; Faraji, Reza

    2015-03-01

    Cerebral venous thrombosis, including thrombosis of cerebral veins and major dural sinuses, is an uncommon disorder in the general population. However, it has a higher frequency among patients younger than 40 years of age, patients with thrombophilia, pregnant patients or those receiving hormonal contraceptive therapy or has foreign body such as catheter in their veins or arterial system. In this case report, we described clinical and radiological findings in a patient with protein C-S deficiency and malposition of central vein catheter. PMID:25796028

  8. Learning from the pulmonary veins.

    PubMed

    Porres, Diego Varona; Morenza, Oscar Persiva; Pallisa, Esther; Roque, Alberto; Andreu, Jorge; Martínez, Manel

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to review the basic embryology and anatomy of the pulmonary veins and the various imaging techniques used to evaluate the pulmonary veins, as well as the radiologic findings in diseases affecting these structures. Specific cases highlight the clinical importance of the imaging features, particularly the findings obtained with multidetector computed tomography (CT). Pulmonary vein disease can be broadly classified into congenital or acquired conditions. Congenital disease, which often goes unnoticed until patients are adults, mainly includes (a) anomalies in the number or diameter of the vessels and (b) abnormal drainage or connection with the pulmonary arterial tree. Acquired disease can be grouped into (a) stenosis and obstruction, (b) hypertension, (c) thrombosis, (d) calcifications, and (e) collateral circulation. Pulmonary vein stenosis or obstruction, which often has important clinical repercussions, is frequently a result of radiofrequency ablation complications, neoplastic infiltration, or fibrosing mediastinitis. The most common cause of pulmonary venous hypertension is chronic left ventricular failure. This condition is difficult to differentiate from veno-occlusive pulmonary disease, which requires a completely different treatment. Pulmonary vein thrombosis is a rare, potentially severe condition that can have a local or distant cause. Calcifications have been described in rheumatic mitral valve disease and chronic renal failure. Finally, the pulmonary veins can act as conduits for collateral circulation in cases of obstruction of the superior vena cava. Multidetector CT is an excellent modality for imaging evaluation of the pulmonary veins, even when the examination is not specifically tailored for their assessment. PMID:23842969

  9. [Preoperative portal vein embolization with Amplatzer(®) vascular plugs (AVP): a review of 17 cases].

    PubMed

    Kalenderian, A-C; Chabrot, P; Buc, E; Cassagnes, L; Ravel, A; Pezet, D; Boyer, L

    2011-10-01

    The purpose was to determine the efficacy and technical particularities related to the use of Amplatzer(®) Vascular Plugs (AVP) for preoperative portal vein embolization. Between 2005 and 2009, a total of 48 type I AVP were embolized into the portal venous system of 17 patients (51-83 years) prior to extended hepatic resection where the residual liver volume (RLV) was deemed sufficient (RLV < 35-40% in patients with underlying hepatocellular disease, < 25-30% in patients with normal liver). AVP were used alone in seven patients and combined to other embolization agents in 10 patients (coils: n=5, microparticles: n=1, resorbable gel foam: n=4). The procedure was technically successful in 100% of cases with immediate success rate of 94.1% (imcomplete embolization of a segmental branch of segment VIII). The procedure was well tolerated clinically in 94.1% of cases, and in 100% of cases based on laboratory values. The rate of recanalization on follow-up CT at 5 weeks (2-22) was 11.7%. The rate of complications, major (left portal vein thrombosis following right portal vein embolization) and minor (one case of portovenous fistula), was 11.7%. The rate of RLV growth was from +13 to +285 cm(3) (mean at +122 cm(3)), or +4.98 to +78.51% (mean at +33.3%) (hepatocellular carcinoma: mean of +30.7%, metastases: mean of +19.7%). The rate of surgical candicacy was 94.1% (two patients were excluded: insufficient growth of RLV, development of peritoneal carcinomatosis). AVP appear to be reliable and effective for the preoperative embolization of the portal vein, with low morbidity and sufficient growth of RLV. PMID:22000611

  10. Vein matching using artificial neural network in vein authentication systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Noori Hoshyar, Azadeh; Sulaiman, Riza

    2011-10-01

    Personal identification technology as security systems is developing rapidly. Traditional authentication modes like key; password; card are not safe enough because they could be stolen or easily forgotten. Biometric as developed technology has been applied to a wide range of systems. According to different researchers, vein biometric is a good candidate among other biometric traits such as fingerprint, hand geometry, voice, DNA and etc for authentication systems. Vein authentication systems can be designed by different methodologies. All the methodologies consist of matching stage which is too important for final verification of the system. Neural Network is an effective methodology for matching and recognizing individuals in authentication systems. Therefore, this paper explains and implements the Neural Network methodology for finger vein authentication system. Neural Network is trained in Matlab to match the vein features of authentication system. The Network simulation shows the quality of matching as 95% which is a good performance for authentication system matching.

  11. The hyperdense vessel sign on CT predicts successful recanalization with the Merci device in acute ischemic stroke

    PubMed Central

    Froehler, Michael T; Tateshima, Satoshi; Duckwiler, Gary; Jahan, Reza; Gonzalez, Nestor; Vinuela, Fernando; Liebeskind, David; Saver, Jeffrey L; Villablanca, J Pablo

    2014-01-01

    Background The success of mechanical clot retrieval for acute ischemic stroke may be influenced by the characteristics of the occlusive thrombus. The thrombus can be partly characterized by CT, as the hyperdense vessel sign (HVS) suggests erythrocyte-rich clot whereas fibrin-rich clot may be isodense. We hypothesized that the physical clot characteristics that determine CT density may also determine likelihood of retrieval with the Merci device. Methods We reviewed all acute stroke cases initially imaged with non-contrast CT before attempted Merci clot retrieval at a single center between 2004 and 2010. Each CT was blindly assessed for the presence or absence of the HVS, and post-retrieval angiograms were blindly assessed for reperfusion using the TICI scale. Results Of 67 patients analyzed (mean age 69; median NIHSS 19; 61% female), the HVS was seen in 42, and no HVS was present in 25. Successful recanalization was achieved in 79% of patients with the HVS (33/42), but in only 36% (9/25) of patients without HVS (p=0.001). The HVS was the only significant predictor of recanalization while accounting for age, treatment with IV-tPA, clot location, stroke etiology, time to treatment, and number of retrieval attempts. Conclusion The HVS in acute ischemic stroke was strongly predictive of successful recanalization using the Merci device. The HVS may indicate thrombi that are less adhesive compared with isodense clots that are more resistant to mechanical retrieval. The absence of HVS on pre-treatment CT may thus suggest the need for a more aggressive or alternative therapeutic approach. PMID:22619467

  12. How Are Varicose Veins Diagnosed?

    MedlinePLUS

    ... pain you're having. Diagnostic Tests and Procedures Duplex Ultrasound Your doctor may recommend duplex ultrasound to check blood flow in your veins and to look for blood clots. Duplex ultrasound combines traditional with Doppler ultrasound. Traditional ultrasound ...

  13. Endovascular recanalization of infrapopliteal occlusions in patients with critical limb ischemia

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Gagan D.; Armstrong, Ehrin J.; Yeo, Khung-Keong; Singh, Satinder; Westin, Gregory G.; Pevec, William C.; Dawson, David L.; Laird, John R.

    2014-01-01

    Background Endovascular therapies are increasingly used for treatment of critical limb ischemia (CLI). Infrapopliteal (IP) occlusions are common in CLI, and successful limb salvage may require restoration of arterial flow in the distribution of a chronically occluded vessel. We sought to describe the procedural characteristics and outcomes of patients with IP occlusions who underwent endovascular intervention for treatment of CLI. Methods All patients with IP interventions for treatment of CLI from 2006 to 2012 were included. Angiographic and procedural data were compared between patients who underwent intervention for IP occlusions vs IP stenosis. Restenosis was determined by Doppler ultrasound imaging. Limb salvage was the primary end point of the study. Additional end points included primary patency, primary assisted patency, secondary patency, occlusion crossing success, procedural success, and amputation-free survival. Results A total of 187 patients with CLI underwent interventions for 356 IP lesions, and 77 patients (41%) had interventions for an IP occlusion. Patients with an intervention for IP occlusion were more likely to have zero to one vessel runoff (83% vs 56%; P < .001) compared with interventions for stenosis. Compared with IP stenoses, IP occlusions were longer (118 ± 86 vs 73 ± 67 mm; P < .001) and had a smaller vessel diameter (2.5 ± 0.8 vs 2.7 ± 0.5 mm; P =.02). Wire crossing was achieved in 83% of IP occlusions, and the overall procedural success for IP occlusions was 79%. The overall 1-year limb salvage rate was 84%. Limb salvage was highest in the stenosis group, slightly lower in the successful occlusion group, and lowest in the failed occlusion group (92% vs 75% vs 58%, respectively; P = .02). Unsuccessfully treated IP occlusions were associated with a significantly higher likelihood of major amputation (hazard ratio, 5.79; 95% confidence interval, 1.89–17.7) and major amputation or death (hazard ratio, 2.69; 95% confidence interval, 1.09–6.63). Conclusions Successful endovascular recanalization of IP occlusions can be achieved with guidewire and support catheter techniques in most patients. In patients selected for an endovascular-first approach for IP occlusions in CLI, this strategy can be successfully implemented with favorable rates of limb salvage. PMID:24393279

  14. Absence of retromandibular vein associated with atypical formation of external jugular vein in the parotid region.

    PubMed

    Patil, Jyothsna; Kumar, Naveen; Swamy, Ravindra S; D'Souza, Melanie R; Guru, Anitha; Nayak, Satheesha B

    2014-06-01

    Veins of the head and neck exhibiting anatomical variations or malformations are clinically significant. Anatomical variation in the external jugular vein is very common. However, anatomical variation in the retromandibular vein is rare. In this paper, we report a rare case of complete absence of the retromandibular vein. In the absence of the retromandibular vein, the maxillary vein divided into anterior and posterior divisions. The posterior division joined the superficial temporal vein to form an atypical external jugular vein, and the anterior division joined the facial vein to form an anonymous vein. In clinical practice, radiologists and surgeons use the retromandibular vein as a guide to expose the branches of the facial nerve during superficial parotidectomy. Therefore, absence of the retromandibular vein is a hurdle during this procedure and may affect the venous drainage pattern from the head and neck. PMID:24987551

  15. Recanalization and Reperfusion Therapies of Acute Ischemic Stroke: What have We Learned, What are the Major Research Questions, and Where are We Headed?

    PubMed Central

    Gomis, Meritxell; Dávalos, Antoni

    2014-01-01

    Two placebo-controlled trials have shown that early administration of intravenous recombinant tissue plasminogen activator (rt-PA) after ischemic stroke improves outcomes up to 4.5?h after symptoms onset; however, six other trials contradict these results. We also know from analysis of the pooled data that benefits from treatment decrease as time from stroke onset to start of treatment increases. In addition to time, another important factor is patient selection through multimodal imaging, combining data from artery status, and salvageable tissue measures. Nonetheless, at the present time randomized controlled trials (RCTs) cannot demonstrate any beneficial outcomes for neuroimaging mismatch selection after 4.5?h from symptoms onset. By focusing on cases of large arterial occlusion, we know that recanalization is crucial, so endovascular treatment is an approach of interest. The use of intra-arterial thrombolysis was tested in two small RCTs that demonstrated clear benefits in terms of higher recanalization and also in clinical outcomes. But a new paradigm of stroke treatment may have begun with mechanical thrombectomy. In this field, Merci devices have been overtaken by fully deployed closed-cell self-expanding stents (stent-retrievers or “stent-trievers”). However, despite the high rate of recanalization achieved with stent-retrievers compared with other recanalization treatments, the use of these devices cannot clearly demonstrate better outcomes. Thus, futile recanalization occurs when successful recanalization fails to improve functional outcome. Recently, three RCTs, namely synthesis, IMS-III, and MR-rescue, have not been demonstrated any clear benefit for endovascular treatment. Most likely, these trials were not adequately designed to prove the superiority of endovascular treatment because they did not use optimal target populations, vascular status was not evaluated in all patients, relatively high rates of patients did not have enough mismatch, time from baseline neuroimaging to recanalization were too long or the devices used are now obsolete relative to stent-retrievers. Several RCTs currently underway are trying to determine whether bridging therapy is more effective than intravenous treatment and if mechanical thrombectomy is more effective than best medical treatment in patients ineligible for intravenous thrombolysis. PMID:25477857

  16. Quartz Vein in the Gunsight Formation

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    Quartz vein in biotite-rich rock in the Gunsight Formation of the Mesoproterozoic Lemhi Group. Bluish green copper-bearing minerals coat the quartz vein. Pale pinkish cobalt bloom and white caliche coat adjacent biotite-rich wallrock....

  17. Deep Vein Thrombosis (DVT) (Beyond the Basics)

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Find synonyms Find synonyms Find exact match Print DEEP VEIN THROMBOSIS OVERVIEW Venous thrombosis is a condition ... pain. Most commonly, venous thrombosis occurs in the "deep veins" in the legs, thighs, or pelvis ( figure ...

  18. If I Had - Deep Vein Thrombosis

    MedlinePLUS

    ... with Dr. Kenneth Saag, MD) If I Had - Deep Vein Thrombosis - Dr. David Lee, MD In the Spotlight - Dr. ... Researcher Back to Home Page If I Had - Deep Vein Thrombosis - Dr. David Lee, MD (November 15, 2007 - Insidermedicine) ...

  19. The Treatment of Varicose Veins

    PubMed Central

    Subramonia, S; Lees, TA

    2007-01-01

    INTRODUCTION Over the past few years, there has been a move to less invasive endoluminal methods in the treatment of lower limb varicose veins combined with a renewed interest in sclerotherapy, with the recent addition of foam sclerotherapy. The development of these new techniques has led many to question some of the more conventional teaching on the treatment of varicose veins. This review examines these new treatments for lower limb varicose veins and the current evidence for their use. MATERIALS AND METHODS An extensive search of available electronic and paper-based databases was performed to identify studies relevant to the treatment of varicose veins with particular emphasis on those published within the last 10 years. These were analysed by both reviewers independently. RESULTS There is no single method of treatment appropriate for all cases. Conventional surgery is safe and effective and is still widely practised. Whilst the new treatments may be popular with both surgeons and patients, it is important that they are carefully evaluated not only for their clinical benefits and complications when compared to existing treatments but also for their cost prior to their wider acceptance into clinical practice. PMID:17346396

  20. Blackberry Yellow Vein Disease Complex

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A new virus disease has emerged in the Midsouth and Southeastern United States and was named blackberry yellow vein disease (BYVD). Originally, it was thought the disease was caused by Tobacco ringspot virus (TRSV) as the virus was found in many diseased plants and symptoms were very similar to thos...

  1. Vaginal vein thrombosis in pregnancy.

    PubMed Central

    Gitstein, S.; Ballas, S.; Peyser, M. R.

    1983-01-01

    Vaginal vein thrombosis in a pregnant woman is reported. This entity should be differentiated from vaginal arteriovenous fistula which may cause severe antepartum, intrapartum and post-partum haemorrhage. The humoral and mechanical factors which favour the occurrence of varicosities and thrombosis are briefly described. Surgical management is suggested as being both simple and effective. Images Fig. 1 PMID:6634550

  2. Combined Retrograde-Antegrade Arterial Recanalization Through Collateral Vessels: Redefinition of the Technique for Below-the-Knee Arteries

    SciTech Connect

    Graziani, L., E-mail: langrazi@tin.it; Morelli, L. G. [Istituto Clinico Citta di Brescia, Servizio di Emodinamica (Italy)

    2011-02-15

    The effectiveness of below-the-knee PTA to obtain successful revascularization in patients with critical limb ischemia (CLI) has been well established, and many centers have adopted endovascular intervention as the first-line treatment in patients with chronic lower-extremity disease. The well-known complex and multilevel arterial disease in patients with CLI have lead to interventionists to continuously implement different technologies and techniques. The aim of the present study was to standardize and redefine a technique characterized for combined retrograde-antegrade recanalization of a native leg artery through a collateral arterial branch by using a single access. This concept has been well described in coronary arteries and recently in pelvic and tibial arteries.

  3. Recanalization of Acute and Subacute Femoropopliteal Artery Occlusions with the Rotarex Catheter: One Year Follow-up, Single Center Experience

    SciTech Connect

    Duc, Sylvain R., E-mail: Sylvain.duc@balgrist.ch; Schoch, Eric [Kantonsspital Winterthur, Department of Radiology (Switzerland); Pfyffer, Markus; Jenelten, Regula [Section of Angiology, Kantonsspital Winterthur, Department of Internal Medicine (Switzerland); Zollikofer, Christoph L. [Kantonsspital Winterthur, Department of Radiology (Switzerland)

    2005-06-15

    Purpose:To assess the efficacy and safety of a new rotational catheter for percutaneous removal of fresh and organized thrombi in the femoropopliteal artery.Methods:Forty-one limbs in 38 patients (age 56-90 years, mean 75.6 years) with acute, subacute or chronic femoropopliteal occlusions of 1-180 days' duration (mean 31.6 days) were treated with the Rotarex device. The Fontaine stage was mainly IIB (Rutherford 2-3, 22 patients) or III (Rutherford 4, 14 patients). The length of occlusion varied from 2 to 35 cm (mean 13.1 cm). After recanalization percutaneous transluminal angioplasty (PTA) was performed if there was a residual stenosis of >25%. Patients were followed up with color Doppler ultrasound at 48 hr and clinically with Doppler pressures and oscillometry at 3, 6, and 12 months.Results:After an average of two passages with the Rotarex catheter all but two limbs required PTA for residual stenosis >25%. Five patients needed additional stenting. Major complications were one groin hematoma requiring blood transfusion and one arteriovenous fistula spontaneously thrombosing after unsuccessful primary prolonged balloon dilation. Distal embolizations occurred in 10 patients; 6 clinically relevant emboli were aspirated. All occlusions were technically successfully recanalised there were 2 early reocclusions after 1 day and two at 2 weeks. Brachial-ankle indices improved from an average of 0.41 before to 0.93 after recanalization. Primary and secondary patency rates were 62% / 84% after 6 months and 39% / 68% after 1 year. The amputation-free survival at 12 months was 100%.Conclusion:The Rotarex mechanical thrombectomy device is an efficient, quick, easy to handle, and safe tool for the treatment of acute, subacute or even chronic peripheral arterial thromboembolic occlusions. It can be used for short or long occlusions with equal success, provided the obstruction is not heavily calcified and has been safely passed with a guidewire first.

  4. Surgical Access to Jejunal Veins for Local Thrombolysis and Stent Placement in Portal Vein Thrombosis

    SciTech Connect

    Schellhammer, Frank, E-mail: frank.schellhammer@med.uni-duesseldorf.d [University Hospital Duesseldorf, Institute of Diagnostic Radiology (Germany); Esch, Jan Schulte am [University Hospital Duesseldorf, Department of General, Visceral and Pediatric Surgery (Germany); Hammerschlag, Sascha [University Hospital Duesseldorf, Institute of Diagnostic Radiology (Germany); Knoefel, Wolfram Trudo [University Hospital Duesseldorf, Department of General, Visceral and Pediatric Surgery (Germany); Fuerst, Guenter [University Hospital Duesseldorf, Institute of Diagnostic Radiology (Germany)

    2008-07-15

    Portal vein thrombosis is an infrequent entity, which may cause high morbidity and mortality. We report a case of portal vein thrombosis due to benign stenosis following partial pancreatoduodenectomy with segmental replacement of the portal vein by a Gore-tex graft. Using a surgical access to jenunal veins, local thrombolysis, mechanical fragmentation of thrombus, and stent placement were successfully performed.

  5. A Model of Vein Graft Intimal Hyperplasia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Roger Tran-Son-Tay; Minki Hwang; Scott A. Berceli; C. Keith Ozaki; Marc Garbey

    2007-01-01

    When vein graft is implanted in the arterial system, the vein graft wall becomes thicker as an adaptive process. We have developed a model of early adaptive vein graft intimal thickening induced by shear stress. Intimal thickness and the rate of intimal thickening are expressed as functions of shear stress and time based on experimental data. The model describes the

  6. Abnormal patterns of the renal veins

    PubMed Central

    Azari, Hassan; Abedinzadeh, Mehdi

    2012-01-01

    Knowledge of the renal vascular anatomy may greatly contribute to the success of surgical, invasive and radiological procedures of the retroperitoneal region. Here, morphometric and histological studies of a human cadaveric specimen presented a complex, anomalous pattern of renal veins. The left renal vein had an oblique retro-aortic course and received two lumbar veins. It bifurcated near its drainage point into the inferior vena cava. The right renal vein received the right testicular vein. In addition, the left kidney was located at a low position. The spleen was enlarged. The present case is unique and provides information that may help surgeons or angiologists to apply safer interventions. PMID:22536553

  7. Historical overview of varicose vein surgery.

    PubMed

    van den Bremer, Jephta; Moll, Frans L

    2010-04-01

    Varicose veins are as old as Hippocrates. Varicose vein treatments come and go. Surgery for varicose vein disease is one of the commonest elective general surgical procedures. The history of varicose vein surgery has been traced. We note the first descriptions of varicose veins, and we particularly focus on the ligation of the saphenofemoral junction, stripping of the great saphenous veins, phlebectomy, and perforant vein surgery. We end with the rapid rise of minimally invasive procedures, such as foam sclerotherapy, radiofrequency ablation, and endovenous lasertherapy. Within 10 years, the advantages of minimal invasiveness for these procedures, combined with claims of equivalent short-term outcomes and even better long-term results, have already influenced our everyday practice. At present, the gold standard treatment of varicose veins still is surgical ligation and stripping of the insufficient vein. Concomitantly or sequentially with the treatment of truncal insufficiency, residual varicosities can be treated by phlebectomy. New minimally invasive techniques, however, have changed the clinical landscape for varicose vein surgery tremendously. The dramatic changes of the last decade are probably the precursors of the next generation. PMID:20144527

  8. High Rate of Complete Recanalization and Dramatic Clinical Recovery During tPA Infusion When Continuously Monitored With 2MHz Transcranial Doppler Monitoring

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Andrei V. Alexandrov; Andrew M. Demchuk; Robert A. Felberg; Ioannis Christou; Philip A. Barber; W. Scott Burgin; Marc Malkoff; Anne W. Wojner; James C. Grotta

    2010-01-01

    Background and Purpose—Clot dissolution with tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) can lead to early clinical recovery after stroke. Transcranial Doppler (TCD) with low MHz frequency can determine arterial occlusion and monitor recanalization and may potentiate thrombolysis. Methods—Stroke patients receiving intravenous tPA were monitored during infusion with portable TCD (Multigon 500M; DWL MultiDop-T) and headframe (Marc series; Spencer Technologies). Residual flow signals

  9. Five-year results from the prospective European multicentre cohort study on radiofrequency segmental thermal ablation for incompetent great saphenous veins

    PubMed Central

    Proebstle, T M; Alm, B J; Göckeritz, O; Wenzel, C; Noppeney, T; Lebard, C; Sessa, C; Creton, D; Pichot, O

    2015-01-01

    Background This was a prospective study of radiofrequency segmental thermal ablation (RFA) for the treatment of incompetent varicose great saphenous veins (GSVs). The present report describes long-term follow-up at 5 years. Methods The 5-year follow-up of this multicentre European study included assessment of the Venous Clinical Severity Score (VCSS), and GSV occlusion and reflux on duplex imaging. Results A total of 225 patients had 295 GSVs treated by RFA, achieving an initial vein occlusion rate of 100 per cent. With 80·0 per cent compliance, Kaplan–Meier analyses showed a GSV occlusion rate of 91·9 per cent and a reflux-free rate of 94·9 per cent at 5 years. Among the 15 GSVs noted with reflux during follow-up, only three showed full recanalization of the GSV at 1 week, 6 months and 3 years. Of the 12 legs with partial recanalization, reflux originated at the saphenofemoral junction in ten, with a mean length of the patent segment of 5·8 (range 3·2–10) cm; only six patients were symptomatic. Mean(s.d.) VCSS scores improved from 3·9(2·1) at baseline to 0·6(1·2), 0·9(1·3) and 1·3(1·7) at 1, 3 and 5 years. Conclusion At 5 years RFA proved to be an efficient endovenous treatment for incompetent GSVs in terms of sustained clinical and anatomical success for the vast majority of treated patients. PMID:25627262

  10. Endovenous laser treatment for primary varicose veins.

    PubMed

    Van den Bussche, D; Moreels, N; De Letter, J; Lanckneus, M

    2006-01-01

    Venous insufficiency of the lower extremities is a highly prevalent condition. Successful treatment of superficial venous insufficiency will most often necessitate treatment of the saphenofemoral junction incompetence with correction of saphenous vein reflux. In the majority of patients it concerns a reflux of the greater saphenous vein. The standard procedure consists of ligation and stripping of the greater saphenous vein combined with with additional phlebectomies or ligation of insufficient perforant veins if necessary. Although the standard procedure is widely known and accepted, the postoperative morbidity and postoperative limitations of activity are high. In this context minimally invasive percutaneous endovenous techniques were developed to improve the patients comfort and faster resumption of work. Among these, endovenous laser ablation of the greater saphenous vein is a relatively new procedure. Percutaneous introduction of a laser fiber into the incompetent vein and ablation with pulsed laser energy is far less invasive than stripping. PMID:16612909

  11. Deep Vein Thrombosis (DVT) / Pulmonary Embolism (PE) - Blood Clot Forming in a Vein

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Form Controls NCBDDD Cancel Submit Search The CDC Deep Vein Thrombosis (DVT) / Pulmonary Embolism (PE) â?? Blood ... Español (Spanish) Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Deep Vein Thrombosis and Pulmonary Embolism (DVT/PE) are ...

  12. MR Venography for the Assessment of Deep Vein Thrombosis in Lower Extremities with Varicose Veins

    PubMed Central

    Nakahara, Hideki

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To assess the performance of magnetic resonance venography (MRV) for pelvis and deep vein thrombosis in the lower extremities before surgical interventions for varicose veins. Materials and Methods: We enrolled 72 patients who underwent MRV and ultrasonography before stripping for varicose veins of lower extremities. All images of the deep venous systems were evaluated by time-of-flight MRV. Results: Forty-six patients (63.9%) of all were female. Mean age was 65.2 ± 10.2 years (37–81 years). There were forty patients (55.6%) with varicose veins in both legs. Two deep vein thrombosis (2.8%) and three iliac vein thrombosis (4.2%) were diagnosed. All patients without deep vein thrombosis underwent the stripping of saphenous veins, and post-thrombotic change was avoided in all cases. Conclusion: MRV, without contrast medium, is considered clinically useful for the lower extremity venous system. PMID:25593625

  13. Nephrotic syndrome might be an inhibitor of the endovascular recanalization in a patient with acute ischemic stroke.

    PubMed

    Nakanishi, Toshihito; Watanabe, Masaki; Nakajima, Makoto; Nojiri, Nao; Oda, Akira; Ando, Yukio

    2015-01-01

    A 65-year-old man with left hemiparesis was referred to our hospital by ambulance. Diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (DWI-MRI) showed a slight hyperintensity area in the right basal ganglion and deep white matter, and brain magnetic resonance angiography (MRA) revealed right middle cerebral artery (MCA) occlusion in the M1 proximal segment. Receiving intravenous rt-PA therapy, the patient showed no neurological improvement. Therefore emergency neuroendovascular revasculization was decided. After the first evacuation of the clot, the occlusion site was partly recanalyzed. However it was re-occluded after a few minutes. Then, mechanical disruption using balloon catheters were added for the occlusion site allowing it to be recanalyzed. After the acute ischemic stroke therapy, the patient was diagnosed as nephrotic syndrome, because his blood chemistry test indicated hypoproteinemia and urine examination showed proteinuria. Renal biopsy confirmed nephrotic syndrome due to AL amyloidosis. Nephrotic syndrome causes hypercoagulability and increases platelet aggregation. Thus we speculated that nephrotic syndrome inhibited the early recanalization in this patient. PMID:25672860

  14. Remodelling of the Superior Caval Vein After Angioplasty in an Infant with Superior Caval Vein Syndrome

    SciTech Connect

    Mert, Murat [Istanbul University, Institute of Cardiology, Department of Cardiovascular Surgery (Turkey)], E-mail: mmert@superonline.com; Saltik, Levent [Istanbul University, Cerrahpasa Medical School, Department of Pediatric Cardiology (Turkey); Gunay, Ilhan [Istanbul University, Institute of Cardiology, Department of Cardiovascular Surgery (Turkey)

    2004-08-15

    An 8-month old girl was presented with superior caval vein syndrome early after cardiac surgery. Angiography showed severe stenosis of the superior caval vein with 50 mmHg pressure gradient. Following balloon angioplasty, the pressure gradient was reduced to 7 mmHg with some residual stenosis of the superior caval vein. When the patient was reevaluated 5 months after the procedure, angiography revealed a normal diameter of the superior caval vein without a pressure gradient.

  15. Serotonin (5HT) in Veins: Not All in Vain

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Elizabeth Linder; Wei Ni; Jessica L. Diaz; Theodora Szasz; Robert Burnett; Stephanie W. Watts

    2007-01-01

    The circulatory system consists of veins and arteries. Com- pared with arteries, veins have been neglected in cardiovascu- lar research. Although veins are significantly less muscular than similarly sized arteries, the contribution of veins to cardiovas- cular homeostasis cannot be left un-noted because veins ac- commodate 70% of the circulating blood. Circulating blood platelets contain the majority of systemic 5-HT

  16. Nitroxidergic nerve stimulation relaxes human uterine vein

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Noboru Toda; Toshio Kimura; Tomio Okamura

    1995-01-01

    The predominant action of nitroglycerin, a nitric oxide (NO) donor, on veins over arterioles is well recognized. This study was carried out to determine whether endogenous NO derived from vasodilator nerve regulates the tone of human uterine venous strips. The isolated vein partially contracted with prostaglandin F2? responded to nicotine with a contraction or a relaxation; the contraction was reversed

  17. Biometric Identification through Hand Vein Patterns

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Yu?ksel; L. Akarun; B. Sankur

    2010-01-01

    Vein pattern is the vast network of blood vessels underneath a person's skin. These patterns in the hands are assumed to be unique to each individual and they do not change over time except in size. The properties of uniqueness, stability and strong immunity to forgery of the vein patterns make it a potentially good biometric trait. In this study,

  18. Arteries and veins of the zebra fish

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Katie Hale (CSUF; Biological Sciences)

    2007-06-19

    Arteries and veins are blood vessels and are part of the circulatory system. Arteries take oxygenated blood away from the heart and veins bring blood back to the heart after it has circulated through the body. The circulatory system distributes oxygen to the body and also moves around nutrients.

  19. JAMA Patient Page: Treatment of Varicose Veins

    MedlinePLUS

    ... socks that fit tightly over the legs and ankle can be used for symptom relief. For patients with varicose veins resulting from clots in the large, deep veins ( postthrombotic syndrome ) or patients with skin ulcers, stockings applying 30 to 40 mm Hg of ...

  20. Improving the management of varicose veins.

    PubMed

    Onida, Sarah; Lane, Tristan R A; Davies, Alun H

    2013-01-01

    Up to 30% of the UK population are affected by varicose veins. They are a manifestation of increased venous pressure in the lower limb caused by impaired venous return. Primary varicosities result from poor drainage from the superficial to the deep venous system. Secondary varicosities arise as a result of underlying pathology impeding venous drainage, such as deep venous thrombosis or increased intra-abdominal pressure caused by a mass, pregnancy or obesity. Patients with bleeding varicose veins should be referred to a vascular service immediately. Referral is also indicated in the following cases: symptomatic primary or recurrent varicose veins; lower limb skin changes thought to be caused by chronic venous insufficiency; superficial vein thrombosis and suspected venous incompetence; a venous leg ulcer or healed venous leg ulcer. Imaging is crucial in the assessment of the superficial and deep venous system to enable assessment of venous competence. The gold standard imaging technique is colour duplex ultrasonography. Duplex ultrasound should be used to confirm the diagnosis of varicose veins and the extent of truncal reflux, and to plan treatment for patients with suspected primary or recurrent varicose veins. Superficial vein ligation, phlebectomy and stripping have been the mainstay of treatment. In recent years, new techniques have been developed that are minimally invasive, enabling treatment of superficial venous incompetence with reduced morbidity. NICE recommends that endothermal ablation, in the form of radiofrequency or laser treatment, should be offered as treatment for patients with confirmed varicose veins and truncal reflux. PMID:24555256

  1. Element transport in veins during serpentinization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schwarzenbach, E. M.; Beard, J. S.; Caddick, M. J.

    2013-12-01

    Serpentinization of ultramafic rocks has wide ranging implications for the petrology, rheology, and petrophysical properties of the oceanic lithosphere. During hydration of the peridotite, fluid-rock ratios and temperature control mineral formation in the veins. We studied a partly serpentinized peridotite from the Santa Elena ophiolite complex in Costa Rica and tracked element mobility during water-rock interaction. Serpentinization of the studied harzburgite is around 30 to 40%, with serpentinization of olivine being more advanced than serpentinization of orthopyroxene. Element mapping and point analyses show that the veins preserve characteristic element distributions within orthopyroxene and olivine, and with distance to orthopyroxene-hosted serpentine veins. With increasing distance from the orthopyroxene the following vein assemblages were observed in olivine: pure serpentine veins, serpentine + brucite veins, serpentine + brucite + magnetite veins. Veins are enriched in SiO2 in the proximity of orthopyroxene suggesting that a net transfer of SiO2 takes place from serpentinizing orthopyroxene to olivine. The magnetite-bearing serpentine veins mostly consist of Mg-rich serpentine (Mg# = 90 - 95) and Fe-rich brucite (Mg# = 70 - 75) finely intergrown. In contrast, the center of these veins contains a thin zone of high-Mg serpentine (Mg# 97), and high-Mg brucite (Mg# 92 - 94) next to magnetite. We infer from thermodynamic calculations that these mineral assemblages are controlled by H2O activity and low SiO2 activities. Within orthopyroxene, serpentine (Mg# = 84 - 89) with an elevated Al2O3 content (< 4.14wt.%) was detected, but talc was absent, indicating net loss of SiO2 from orthopyroxene during serpentinization. CaO and Al2O3 migrate from orthopyroxene, but occur only as trace components in serpentine at > 100 ?m and > 200 ?m, respectively, from the orthopyroxene. We infer that brucite is not stable in close proximity to orthopyroxene due to elevated SiO2 derived from orthopyroxene breakdown. Orthopyroxene serpentinization results in net transfer of Al2O3 into serpentine, but only in the immediate vicinity of the orthopyroxene. Overall, our study indicates that the extent of orthopyroxene serpentinization controls SiO2 and Al2O3 availability in the fluid and therefore the mineral assemblages present in the veins. The net transfer of SiO2 is manifested by the lack of talc in serpentine veins in orthopyroxene and the lack of brucite in serpentine veins proximal to orthopyroxene grain boundaries. Within veins, local transport of Si, Mg and Fe takes place during reaction of serpentine + brucite with H2O to form magnetite + Mg-rich serpentine + Mg-rich brucite.

  2. 21 CFR 880.6970 - Liquid crystal vein locator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Liquid crystal vein locator. 880.6970 Section 880...Miscellaneous Devices § 880.6970 Liquid crystal vein locator. (a) Identification. A liquid crystal vein locator is a device used to...

  3. 21 CFR 880.6970 - Liquid crystal vein locator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Liquid crystal vein locator. 880.6970 Section 880...Miscellaneous Devices § 880.6970 Liquid crystal vein locator. (a) Identification. A liquid crystal vein locator is a device used to...

  4. 21 CFR 870.4885 - External vein stripper.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false External vein stripper. 870.4885 Section...Cardiovascular Surgical Devices § 870.4885 External vein stripper. (a) Identification. An external vein stripper is an extravascular...

  5. 21 CFR 870.4885 - External vein stripper.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 2011-04-01 false External vein stripper. 870.4885 Section 870.4885 Food...Devices § 870.4885 External vein stripper. (a) Identification. An external vein stripper is an extravascular device used to...

  6. Abbreviated method of determining vein volume in balloon-controlled vein ablation.

    PubMed

    Raines, J K; Garcia de Quevedo, W; Jahrmarkt, S; Mackay, E; Morrison, N; Almeida, J I

    2007-01-01

    Traditional surgical ligation and stripping for the treatment of saphenous vein incompetence has been replaced by minimally invasive alternative treatments during the last five years. Endovenous ablation with radiofrequency (RP) and laser (EVL) have proven to be safe, durable, and widely accepted by patients. Catheter-delivered sclerotherapy (CDS) with foam and liquid for ablation of the great saphenous vein is also under investigation. In this technique, vein volume must be measured accurately by ultrasound just prior to the procedure and can require up to 11 diameter measurements. The purpose of this study was to identify an abbreviated method of determining vein volume to expedite associated endovenous procedures. Seventy-five veins were treated in 55 subjects with catheter-directed sclerotherapy in a three-center clinical study using a standardized protocol. Vein volume was carefully calculated by determining vein diameter over the Treatment Length in 4 cm intervals. These measurements were compared to vein volume calculations where only three measurements were taken. Our results suggest that the abbreviated method is capable of significantly reducing the number of diameter measurements without sacrificing accuracy. We found the method produced a vein volume that fell within 1 mL or 15% of the actual vein volume in 80% of cases. The abbreviated method cannot be used with accuracy in veins that are Erratic. PMID:18265553

  7. MAPping Out Arteries and Veins

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Ryan E. Lamont (Canada; University of Calgary, Calgary AB REV)

    2006-10-03

    Growing evidence suggests that a genetic program specifies the identity of arteries and veins before the onset of circulation. A signaling cascade involving sonic hedgehog (Shh), vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), the VEGF receptor 2 (VEGFR2), homeobox proteins Foxc1 and Foxc2, the Notch receptor, and the downstream transcription factor gridlock is required for expression of arterial markers, whereas only a single transcription factor, COUP-TFII (chicken ovalbumin upstream promoter–transcription factor II), has previously been implicated in maintaining venous fate. Recent work has now implicated two competing pathways downstream of VEGFR2 in arterial versus venous specification: Activation of the phospholipase C–? (PLC-?)–mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway acts in arterial specification, whereas the phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K)–Akt pathway acts to allow a venous fate by inhibition of the PLC-?–MAPK pathway. Here, we review this work and discuss how activation of the MAPK signaling cascade could stimulate an arterial fate.

  8. Retinal vein occlusion: current treatment.

    PubMed

    Lattanzio, Rosangela; Torres Gimeno, Ana; Battaglia Parodi, Maurizio; Bandello, Francesco

    2011-01-01

    Retinal vein occlusion (RVO) is a pathology noted for more than 150 years. Although a lot has been written on the matter, it is still a frequent condition with multifactorial etiopathogenesis with many unclear aspects. The RVO pathogenesis has varied systemic and local implications that make it difficult to elaborate treatment guidelines. The management of the patient with RVO is very complex and a multidisciplinary approach is required in order to identify and correct the associated risk factors. Laser therapy remains the gold standard in RVO, but only modest functional improvement has been shown in branch retinal occlusion forms. Multicenter studies of intravitreal drugs present them as an option to combine with laser. Anti-vascular endothelial growth factor, corticosteroids and sustained-release implants are the future weapons to stop disease progression and get a better visual outcome. Consequently, it is useful to clarify some aspects of the pathology that allow a better patient management. PMID:20938213

  9. Varicose vein surgery and endovenous laser therapy.

    PubMed

    Reijnen, Michel M P J; Disselhoff, Ben C V M; Zeebregts, Clark J

    2007-01-01

    Varicose veins are a widespread problem, and are encountered by various medical specialists. Symptoms can appear from mild, such as tiredness of the legs, to severe chronic ulcers. Varicose veins are generally caused by the reflux of an incompetent saphenofemoral junction and long saphenous vein. In the presence of reflux, the treatment should be directed at the ablation of the hydrostatic forces of the reflux. Conventional surgical treatment consists of a high ligation of the saphenofemoral junction and stripping of the saphenous vein. In the era of minimally invasive surgery, various endovenous techniques have been developed, including endovenous laser therapy. This technique is relatively cheap and can be performed under only local anesthesia. During endovenous laser therapy, energy is delivered to the vein wall, causing it to shrink and eventually occlude. Currently, the mechanisms of action involved in laser treatment are not fully understood. Clinical studies have shown occlusion rates to be very competitive to conventional high ligation and stripping and superior cosmetics. Complications may include mild to moderate pain, ecchymosis, induration, hematoma, and phlebitis. All of these are generally self-limiting. In the challenge of finding the correct balance between a low incidence of varicose vein recurrence and complications and optimal cosmetic results, endovenous laser therapy is a promising modality. However, controlled studies that assess the effectiveness of endovenous laser therapy in comparison to saphenofemoral ligation with saphenous vein stripping are crucial before considering endovenous laser therapy as the new standard treatment. PMID:17429785

  10. Personal authentication through dorsal hand vein patterns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hsu, Chih-Bin; Hao, Shu-Sheng; Lee, Jen-Chun

    2011-08-01

    Biometric identification is an emerging technology that can solve security problems in our networked society. A reliable and robust personal verification approach using dorsal hand vein patterns is proposed in this paper. The characteristic of the approach needs less computational and memory requirements and has a higher recognition accuracy. In our work, the near-infrared charge-coupled device (CCD) camera is adopted as an input device for capturing dorsal hand vein images, it has the advantages of the low-cost and noncontact imaging. In the proposed approach, two finger-peaks are automatically selected as the datum points to define the region of interest (ROI) in the dorsal hand vein images. The modified two-directional two-dimensional principal component analysis, which performs an alternate two-dimensional PCA (2DPCA) in the column direction of images in the 2DPCA subspace, is proposed to exploit the correlation of vein features inside the ROI between images. The major advantage of the proposed method is that it requires fewer coefficients for efficient dorsal hand vein image representation and recognition. The experimental results on our large dorsal hand vein database show that the presented schema achieves promising performance (false reject rate: 0.97% and false acceptance rate: 0.05%) and is feasible for dorsal hand vein recognition.

  11. Systematic review of treatments for varicose veins.

    PubMed

    Leopardi, Deanne; Hoggan, Ben L; Fitridge, Robert A; Woodruff, Peter W H; Maddern, Guy J

    2009-03-01

    This systematic review compares the safety and efficacy of varicose vein treatments, including conservative therapy, sclerotherapy, phlebectomy, endovenous laser therapy, radiofrequency ablation, and surgery involving saphenous ligation and stripping. Systematic searches of medical bibliographic databases were conducted in February 2008 to identify suitable studies published from January 1988 onward. Articles were considered eligible for inclusion through the application of a predetermined protocol. Safety and effectiveness data from the comparison of two or more varicose vein procedures were extracted and analyzed. Seventeen studies, published between 2003 and 2007, were included in this review. Serious adverse events were rare. Minor adverse events were more common but generally self-limiting. All treatments displayed levels of effectiveness depending on the extent of the vein in question. Short-term advantages appeared to be associated with sclerotherapy and endovenous treatments, and long-term effectiveness was more apparent following surgical intervention. Evidence suggests conservative therapy is less effective than sclerotherapy and surgery for the treatment of varicose veins. Ligation with stripping plus phlebectomy is generally regarded as the "gold standard" for treating primary long saphenous veins. Sclerotherapy and surgery both appear to have a place in the management of varicose veins. Sclerotherapy and phlebectomy may also be more appropriate in patients with minor superficial varicose veins not related to reflux of the saphenous system or as a post- or adjunctive treatment to other procedures, such as surgery. Current evidence suggests endovenous laser therapy and radiofrequency ablation are as safe and effective as surgery, particularly in the treatment of saphenous veins. Most importantly, the type of varicose vein should govern the intervention of choice, with no single treatment universally employed. PMID:19059756

  12. A Reappraisal of Saphenous Vein Grafting

    PubMed Central

    Yuan, Shi-Min; Jing, Hua

    2011-01-01

    Autologous saphenous vein grafting has been broadly used as a bypass conduit, interposition graft, and patch graft in a variety of operations in cardiac, thoracic, neurovascular, general vascular, vascular access, and urology surgeries, since they are superior to prosthetic veins. Modified saphenous vein grafts (SVG), including spiral and cylindrical grafts, and vein cuffs or patches, are employed in vascular revascularization to satisfy the large size of the receipt vessels or to obtain a better patency. A loop SVG helps flap survival in a muscle flap transfer in plastic and reconstructive surgery. For dialysis or transfusion purposes, a straight or loop arteriovenous fistula created in the forearm or the thigh with an SVG has acceptable patency. The saphenous vein has even been used as a stent cover to minimize the potential complications of standard angioplasty technique. However, the use of saphenous vein grafting is now largely diminished in treating cerebrovascular disorders, superior vena cava syndrome, and visceral revascularization due to the introduction of angioplasty and stenting techniques. The SVG remains the preferable biomaterial in coronary artery bypass, coronary ostioplasty, free flap transfer, and surgical treatment of Peyronie disease. Implications associated with saphenous vein grafting in vascular access surgery for the purpose of dialysis and chemotherapy are considerable. Vascular cuffs and patches have been developed as an important and effective means of enhancing the patency rates of the grafts by linking the synthetic material to the receipt vessel. In addition, saphenous veins can be a cell source for tissue engineering. We review the versatile roles that saphenous vein grafting has played as well as its current status in therapy. PMID:21245602

  13. Hand vein recognition based on orientation of LBP

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bu, Wei; Wu, Xiangqian; Gao, Enying

    2012-06-01

    Vein recognition is becoming an effective method for personal recognition. Vein patterns lie under the skin surface of human body, and hence provide higher reliability than other biometric traits and hard to be damaged or faked. This paper proposes a novel vein feature representation method call orientation of local binary pattern (OLBP) which is an extension of local binary pattern (LBP). OLBP can represent the orientation information of the vein pixel which is an important characteristic of vein patterns. Moreover, the OLBP can also indicate on which side of the vein centerline the pixel locates. The OLBP feature maps are encoded by 4-bit binary values and an orientation distance is developed for efficient feature matching. Based on OLBP feature representation, we construct a hand vein recognition system employing multiple hand vein patterns include palm vein, dorsal vein, and three finger veins (index, middle, and ring finger). The experimental results on a large database demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed approach.

  14. Impact of laser fiber design on outcome of endovenous ablation of lower-extremity varicose veins: results from a single practice.

    PubMed

    Prince, Ethan A; Soares, Gregory M; Silva, MaryLou; Taner, Anil; Ahn, SunHo; Dubel, Gregory J; Jay, Bryan S

    2011-06-01

    The design of laser fibers used for endovenous laser ablation (EVLA) in the management of lower-extremity varicose vein disease may affect treatment success. The purpose of this investigation is to report our experience using the gold-tip NeverTouch VenaCure laser fiber (AngioDynamics, Queensbury, NY) and to compare that to our experience with standard bare-tip fibers. A retrospective chart review of 363 consecutive EVLA treatments using the gold-tip laser fiber was performed. Demographic data including patient age, sex, history of previous varicose vein stripping, vein identity, laterality, treatment length, total applied energy in joules (J), use of adjuvant sclerotherapy and ambulatory phlebectomy, treatment-related complications, and treatment failure, which was defined as recanalization of any portion of the treated vein during follow-up as assessed by duplex ultrasound examination-were entered into a spreadsheet. These data were compared with a control group of 471 EVLA treatments performed with a standard bare-tip laser fiber. Data were analyzed using independent-samples Student's t test, chi-square test, and multivariate analysis. Demographic data were similar between the two groups. Treatments with the gold-tip fiber had a failure rate of 11.1%, whereas treatment with a bare-tip fiber had a failure rate of 2.3% during a similar follow-up period. This difference was highly statistically significant (p<0.0001). Multivariate analysis showed fiber type as the most significant factor associated with treatment failure. We conclude that laser fiber design has a significant effect on treatment success in the performance of EVLA. PMID:20556384

  15. Impact of Laser Fiber Design on Outcome of Endovenous Ablation of Lower-Extremity Varicose Veins: Results from a Single Practice

    SciTech Connect

    Prince, Ethan A., E-mail: eprince@lifespan.org; Soares, Gregory M.; Silva, MaryLou; Taner, Anil; Ahn, SunHo; Dubel, Gregory J.; Jay, Bryan S. [Brown University/Rhode Island Hospital, Warren Alpert School of Medicine (United States)

    2011-06-15

    The design of laser fibers used for endovenous laser ablation (EVLA) in the management of lower-extremity varicose vein disease may affect treatment success. The purpose of this investigation is to report our experience using the gold-tip NeverTouch VenaCure laser fiber (AngioDynamics, Queensbury, NY) and to compare that to our experience with standard bare-tip fibers. A retrospective chart review of 363 consecutive EVLA treatments using the gold-tip laser fiber was performed. Demographic data including patient age, sex, history of previous varicose vein stripping, vein identity, laterality, treatment length, total applied energy in joules (J), use of adjuvant sclerotherapy and ambulatory phlebectomy, treatment-related complications, and treatment failure, which was defined as recanalization of any portion of the treated vein during follow-up as assessed by duplex ultrasound examination-were entered into a spreadsheet. These data were compared with a control group of 471 EVLA treatments performed with a standard bare-tip laser fiber. Data were analyzed using independent-samples Student's t test, chi-square test, and multivariate analysis. Demographic data were similar between the two groups. Treatments with the gold-tip fiber had a failure rate of 11.1%, whereas treatment with a bare-tip fiber had a failure rate of 2.3% during a similar follow-up period. This difference was highly statistically significant (p < 0.0001). Multivariate analysis showed fiber type as the most significant factor associated with treatment failure. We conclude that laser fiber design has a significant effect on treatment success in the performance of EVLA.

  16. Successful Recanalization of Acute Superior Mesenteric Artery Thromboembolic Occlusion by a Combination of Intraarterial Thrombolysis and Mechanical Thrombectomy with a Carotid Filter

    SciTech Connect

    Zelenak, Kamil, E-mail: zelenak@unm.sk [University Hospital, Department of Radiology (Slovakia); Sinak, Igor; Janik, Jan; Mikolajcik, Anton; Mistuna, Dusan [University Hospital, Department of Surgery (Slovakia)

    2013-06-15

    Acute superior mesenteric artery (SMA) occlusion is a life-threatening disease, and acute intestinal ischemia develops from the sudden decrease in perfusion to the intestines. The key to saving the patient's life is early diagnosis, and prompt revascularization of the SMA can prevent intestinal infarction and decrease the risk of bowel segment necrosis. Computed tomographic angiography may be useful for rapid diagnosis. We report recanalization of an SMA occlusion in an 80-year-old man with a combination of intraarterial thrombolysis and mechanical thrombectomy with a carotid filter.

  17. Plantar vein thrombosis and pulmonary embolism.

    PubMed

    Barros, Mvl; Nascimento, Is; Barros, Tls; Labropoulos, N

    2015-02-01

    Plantar vein thrombosis is an unusual and under-diagnosed condition that affects the plantar deep venous system. Current ultrasound investigation protocols for deep venous thrombosis neglect this entity. To our knowledge, there are only seven reports in the literature of 20 patients with plantar vein thrombosis detected with sonography without an associated pulmonary embolism. We present a case report of a patient with a plantar vein thrombosis associated with pulmonary embolism. Patients who present with pain and/or swelling of the foot should undergo ultrasound examination and careful evaluation for respiratory symptoms. PMID:24429378

  18. Portal vein stenting to treat portal vein tumor thrombus in hepatocellular carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Higaki, I; Hirohashi, K; Kubo, S; Tanaka, H; Tsukamoto, T; Omura, T; Kinoshita, H

    2000-12-01

    Tumor thrombus in the portal vein is refractory to therapy and a serious negative prognostic factor in hepatocellular carcinoma. We describe herein the case of a patient in whom an expandable metallic stent was successfully employed to treat portal vein tumor thrombus by restoring blood flow. An expandable metallic stent was implanted in a patient with severe main portal vein stenosis caused by tumor thrombus protruding from the left portal vein branch. Immediately after stent placement, the stenotic lesion was effectively dilated, the portal blood flow restored, and portal hypertension relieved. Angiography, computed tomography, and doppler ultrasonography done 2 months after the stent placement revealed continued patency of the portal vein. Thus, intraportal placement of an expandable metallic stent appears to be an effective treatment for major portal vein tumor PMID:11252736

  19. MRI diagnosis of bilateral adrenal vein thrombosis.

    PubMed

    Ryan, M F; Murphy, J P; Jay, R; Callum, J; MacDonald, D

    2003-08-01

    We report a case of bilateral adrenal vein thrombosis in an adult female who had a history of breast cancer. The patient does not have clinical, serological or imaging evidence of metastatic disease 14 months from the initial diagnosis. Adrenal vein thrombosis is a rare entity. There have been no previous reports specifically stating an association between adrenal vein thrombosis and hypercoaguability, but there are many cases in the literature documenting venous thrombosis elsewhere within the body in patients with hypercoaguable states. Laboratory testing performed to exclude a hypercoaguable state, revealed heterozygosity for the Factor V Leiden mutation/activated protein C resistance and elevated factor VIII levels [3660 IU l(-1) (<1500)]. This is the first reported case of bilateral metachronous adrenal vein thrombosis in which MRI established the diagnosis. PMID:12893701

  20. Isolated inferior mesenteric portal hypertension with giant inferior mesenteric vein and anomalous inferior mesenteric vein insertion.

    PubMed

    Prasad, G Raghavendra; Billa, Srikar; Bhandari, Pavaneel; Hussain, Aijaz

    2013-04-01

    Extrahepatic portal hypertension is not an uncommon disease in childhood, but isolated inferior mesenteric portal varices and lower gastrointestinal (GI) bleed have not been reported till date. A 4-year-old girl presented with lower GI bleed. Surgical exploration revealed extrahepatic portal vein obstruction with giant inferior mesenteric vein and colonic varices. Inferior mesenteric vein was joining the superior mesenteric vein. The child was treated successfully with inferior mesenteric - inferior vena caval anastomosis. The child was relieved of GI bleed during the follow-up. PMID:23798814

  1. Fatal bilateral pneumothoraces complicating subclavian vein catheterization.

    PubMed

    Maggs, P R; Schwaber, J R

    1977-04-01

    Bilateral pneumothoraces complicating attempted bilateral subclavian vein catheterization culminated in the iatrogenic death of the patient. Complications of subclavian vein catheterization are reviewed briefly. This procedure should be limited to patients in whom its use is clearly indicated and should be performed only by individuals who are experienced in the anatomy of the region, who are trained in the technique of subclavian puncture, and who have the means and ability to perform immediate tube thoracostomy should pneumothorax occur. PMID:404118

  2. [Portal vein embolization prior to liver surgery].

    PubMed

    Andersen, Poul Erik; Mahdi, Bassam; Nielsen, Henning Overgaard

    2013-01-14

    Portal vein embolization is performed with the intention to occlude the portal veins to liver segments with malignancies and direct the portal flow to the healthy part (usually the left lobe) of the liver. Thus, hyperperfusion through the non-embolized part of the liver will create hyperplasia and hyperfunction, which allow extensive liverresection at a later stage in patients where it otherwise would have been contradictory to operate because of too small volume of the residual liver. PMID:23331942

  3. Primary leiomyosarcoma of the innominate vein.

    PubMed

    Illuminati, Giulio; Miraldi, Fabio; Mazzesi, Giuseppe; D'urso, Antonio; Ceccanei, Gianluca; Bezzi, Marcello

    2007-01-01

    Primary venous leiomyosarcoma is rare. We report the case of a primary leiomyosarcoma of the left innominate vein, with neoplastic thrombus extending into the left jugular and subclavian veins. The tumor was curatively resected en bloc with anterior mediastinal and laterocervical lymphatics, through a median sternotomy prolonged into left cervicotomy. Primary venous sarcomas may be associated with prolonged survival in individual cases, with curative resection recommended as the standard treatment, in the absence of distant spread. PMID:17349340

  4. Current evaluation and treatment of lower extremity varicose veins.

    PubMed

    Kouri, Brian

    2009-06-01

    Historically, treatment for symptomatic lower extremity varicose veins has consisted primarily of surgical stripping of pathologic veins. Over the past 2 decades, therapeutic options for lower extremity varicose veins has greatly expanded and now includes several percutaneous and endovascular techniques. This article will discuss the pathophysiology, clinical significance and current therapy for varicose veins. PMID:19486710

  5. Biometric identification through palm and dorsal hand vein patterns

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sanchit; Mauricio Ramalho; Paulo Lobato Correia; Luis Ducla Soares

    2011-01-01

    Hand vein patterns are among the biometric traits being investigated today for identification purposes, attracting interest from both the research community and industry. This paper presents a multimodal system that combines hand-palm vein and hand-dorsal vein biometrics information at the score level. The palm and dorsal veins are considered as texture samples being automatically extracted from the user's hand image.

  6. Subclavian vein thrombosis: A continuing challenge

    SciTech Connect

    Hill, S.L.; Berry, R.E. (Community Hospital of Roanoke Valley, Roanoke Memorial Hospital, VA (USA))

    1990-07-01

    Subclavian vein thrombosis is a relatively uncommon but potentially morbid disease entity. To determine the frequency, cause, and best mode of treatment of this problem, we performed a chart review of all patients with a diagnosis of subclavian vein thrombosis at two major metropolitan hospitals during a 6-year period. A total of 40 patients were identified with subclavian vein thrombosis, which represented 3.5% of all venous thromboses detected during the 6-year period. No side or sex predilection was noted and the majority of patients were outpatients. The cause was fairly evenly divided among intravenous catheters (32%), anatomic abnormalities (45%), and carcinoma with postoperative radiation (22.5%). Despite the increasing use of the subclavian veins for pacemaker leads, hyperalimentation, and permanent intravenous access for chemotherapy, there has not been an increase in diagnosed subclavian vein thrombosis. Anatomic abnormalities with compression of the vein respond well to either heparinization or lytic therapy but require surgery if the venous abnormality persists. Treatment consisted of lytic therapy in 20%, heparinization in 55%, and elevation with removal of the central line in 25% of patients. All patients responded well to treatment, with a decrease in swelling and symptoms; no patient progressed to venous gangrene and only one (2.5%) had a documented pulmonary embolus. Medical treatment provides excellent long-term benefit in most cases unless complicated by an anatomic abnormality.

  7. Veins Improve Fracture Toughness of Insect Wings

    PubMed Central

    Dirks, Jan-Henning; Taylor, David

    2012-01-01

    During the lifetime of a flying insect, its wings are subjected to mechanical forces and deformations for millions of cycles. Defects in the micrometre thin membranes or veins may reduce the insect’s flight performance. How do insects prevent crack related material failure in their wings and what role does the characteristic vein pattern play? Fracture toughness is a parameter, which characterises a material’s resistance to crack propagation. Our results show that, compared to other body parts, the hind wing membrane of the migratory locust S. gregaria itself is not exceptionally tough (1.04±0.25 MPa?m). However, the cross veins increase the wing’s toughness by 50% by acting as barriers to crack propagation. Using fracture mechanics, we show that the morphological spacing of most wing veins matches the critical crack length of the material (1132 µm). This finding directly demonstrates how the biomechanical properties and the morphology of locust wings are functionally correlated in locusts, providing a mechanically ‘optimal’ solution with high toughness and low weight. The vein pattern found in insect wings thus might inspire the design of more durable and lightweight artificial ‘venous’ wings for micro-air-vehicles. Using the vein spacing as indicator, our approach might also provide a basis to estimate the wing properties of endangered or extinct insect species. PMID:22927966

  8. Pharmacology of the human saphenous vein.

    PubMed

    Joviliano, Edwaldo E; Dellalibera-Joviliano, Renata; Celotto, Andrea Carla; Capellini, Verena K; Dalio, Marcelo B; Picconato, Carlos E; Evora, Paulo Roberto B

    2011-07-01

    Nowadays, the great saphenous vein is the vascular conduit that is most frequently employed in coronary and peripheral revascularization surgery. It is known that saphenous vein bypass grafts have shorter patency than arterial ones, partly because the wall of the normal saphenous vein has different structural and functional characteristics. The features of this vein can be affected by the large distention pressures it is submitted to during its preparation and insertion into the arterial system. Indeed, a vein graft is subjected to considerable changes in hemodynamic forces upon implantation into the arterial circulation, since it is transplanted from a non-pulsatile, low-pressure, low-flow environment with minimal shear stress to a highpressure system with pulsatile flow, where it undergoes cyclic strain and elevated shear. These changes can be responsible for functional and morphological alterations in the vessel wall, culminating in intima hyperproliferation and atherosclerotic degeneration, which contribute to early graft thrombosis. This review has followed a predetermined strategy for updating information on the human saphenous vein (HSV). Besides presenting the aspects relative to the basic pharmacology, this text also includes surgical aspects concerning HSV harvesting, the possible effects of the major groups of cardiovascular drugs on the HSV, and finally the interference of major cardiovascular diseases in the vascular reactivity of the HSV. PMID:21143161

  9. Corrosion cast study of the canine hepatic veins.

    PubMed

    Urši?, M; Vrecl, M; Fazarinc, G

    2014-11-01

    This study presents a detailed description of the distribution, diameters and drainage patterns of hepatic veins on the basis of the corrosion cast analysis in 18 dogs. We classified the hepatic veins in three main groups: the right hepatic veins of the caudate process and right lateral liver lobe, the middle hepatic veins of the right medial and quadrate lobes and the left hepatic veins of both left liver lobes and the papillary process. The corrosion cast study showed that the number of the veins in the Nomina Anatomica Veterinaria and most anatomical textbooks is underestimated. The number of various-sized hepatic veins of the right liver division ranged from 3 to 5 and included 1 to 4 veins from the caudate process and 2 to 4 veins from the right lateral liver lobe. Generally, in all corrosion casts, one middle-sized vein from the right part of the right medial lobe, which emptied separately in the caudal vena cava, was established. The other vein was a large-sized vein from the remainder of the central division, which frequently joined the common left hepatic vein from the left liver lobes. The common left hepatic vein was the largest of all the aforementioned hepatic veins. PMID:25448906

  10. Deep vein thrombosis: a clinical review

    PubMed Central

    Kesieme, Emeka; Kesieme, Chinenye; Jebbin, Nze; Irekpita, Eshiobo; Dongo, Andrew

    2011-01-01

    Background: Deep vein thrombosis (DVT) is the formation of blood clots (thrombi) in the deep veins. It commonly affects the deep leg veins (such as the calf veins, femoral vein, or popliteal vein) or the deep veins of the pelvis. It is a potentially dangerous condition that can lead to preventable morbidity and mortality. Aim: To present an update on the causes and management of DVT. Methods: A review of publications obtained from Medline search, medical libraries, and Google. Results: DVT affects 0.1% of persons per year. It is predominantly a disease of the elderly and has a slight male preponderance. The approach to making a diagnosis currently involves an algorithm combining pretest probability, D-dimer testing, and compression ultrasonography. This will guide further investigations if necessary. Prophylaxis is both mechanical and pharmacological. The goals of treatment are to prevent extension of thrombi, pulmonary embolism, recurrence of thrombi, and the development of complications such as pulmonary hypertension and post-thrombotic syndrome. Conclusion: DVT is a potentially dangerous condition with a myriad of risk factors. Prophylaxis is very important and can be mechanical and pharmacological. The mainstay of treatment is anticoagulant therapy. Low-molecular-weight heparin, unfractionated heparin, and vitamin K antagonists have been the treatment of choice. Currently anticoagulants specifically targeting components of the common pathway have been recommended for prophylaxis. These include fondaparinux, a selective indirect factor Xa inhibitor and the new oral selective direct thrombin inhibitors (dabigatran) and selective factor Xa inhibitors (rivaroxaban and apixaban). Others are currently undergoing trials. Thrombolytics and vena caval filters are very rarely indicated in special circumstances. PMID:22287864

  11. Endovascular Radiofrequency Ablation for Varicose Veins

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Executive Summary Objective The objective of the MAS evidence review was to conduct a systematic review of the available evidence on the safety, effectiveness, durability and cost–effectiveness of endovascular radiofrequency ablation (RFA) for the treatment of primary symptomatic varicose veins. Background The Ontario Health Technology Advisory Committee (OHTAC) met on August 26th, 2010 to review the safety, effectiveness, durability, and cost-effectiveness of RFA for the treatment of primary symptomatic varicose veins based on an evidence-based review by the Medical Advisory Secretariat (MAS). Clinical Condition Varicose veins (VV) are tortuous, twisted, or elongated veins. This can be due to existing (inherited) valve dysfunction or decreased vein elasticity (primary venous reflux) or valve damage from prior thrombotic events (secondary venous reflux). The end result is pooling of blood in the veins, increased venous pressure and subsequent vein enlargement. As a result of high venous pressure, branch vessels balloon out leading to varicosities (varicose veins). Symptoms typically affect the lower extremities and include (but are not limited to): aching, swelling, throbbing, night cramps, restless legs, leg fatigue, itching and burning. Left untreated, venous reflux tends to be progressive, often leading to chronic venous insufficiency (CVI). A number of complications are associated with untreated venous reflux: including superficial thrombophlebitis as well as variceal rupture and haemorrhage. CVI often results in chronic skin changes referred to as stasis dermatitis. Stasis dermatitis is comprised of a spectrum of cutaneous abnormalities including edema, hyperpigmentation, eczema, lipodermatosclerosis and stasis ulceration. Ulceration represents the disease end point for severe CVI. CVI is associated with a reduced quality of life particularly in relation to pain, physical function and mobility. In severe cases, VV with ulcers, QOL has been rated to be as bad or worse as other chronic diseases such as back pain and arthritis. Lower limb VV is a very common disease affecting adults – estimated to be the 7th most common reason for physician referral in the US. There is a very strong familial predisposition to VV. The risk in offspring is 90% if both parents affected, 20% when neither affected and 45% (25% boys, 62% girls) if one parent affected. The prevalence of VV worldwide ranges from 5% to 15% among men and 3% to 29% among women varying by the age, gender and ethnicity of the study population, survey methods and disease definition and measurement. The annual incidence of VV estimated from the Framingham Study was reported to be 2.6% among women and 1.9% among men and did not vary within the age range (40-89 years) studied. Approximately 1% of the adult population has a stasis ulcer of venous origin at any one time with 4% at risk. The majority of leg ulcer patients are elderly with simple superficial vein reflux. Stasis ulcers are often lengthy medical problems and can last for several years and, despite effective compression therapy and multilayer bandaging are associated with high recurrence rates. Recent trials involving surgical treatment of superficial vein reflux have resulted in healing and significantly reduced recurrence rates. Endovascular Radiofrequency Ablation for Varicose Veins RFA is an image-guided minimally invasive treatment alternative to surgical stripping of superficial venous reflux. RFA does not require an operating room or general anaesthesia and has been performed in an outpatient setting by a variety of medical specialties including surgeons and interventional radiologists. Rather than surgically removing the vein, RFA works by destroying or ablating the refluxing vein segment using thermal energy delivered through a radiofrequency catheter. Prior to performing RFA, color-flow Doppler ultrasonography is used to confirm and map all areas of venous reflux to devise a safe and effective treatment plan. The RFA procedure involves the introduction of a guide wire into the target v

  12. Ligation of superior mesenteric vein and portal to splenic vein anastomosis after superior mesenteric-portal vein confluence resection during pancreaticoduodenectomy – Case report

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Jianlin; Abbas, Jihad; Hoetzl, Katherine; Allison, David; Osman, Mahamed; Williams, Mallory; Zelenock, Gerald B.

    2014-01-01

    62 year old Caucasian female with pancreatic head mass abutting the superior mesenteric vein (SMV) presented with fine needle aspiration biopsy confirmed diagnosis of ductal adenocarcinoma. CT scan showed near complete obstruction of portal vein and large SMV collateral development. After 3 months of neoadjuvant therapy, her portal vein flow improved significantly, SMV collateral circulation was diminished. Pancreaticoduodenectomy (PD) and superior mesenteric portal vein (SMPV) confluence resection were performed; A saphenous vein interposition graft thrombosed immediately. The splenic vein remnant was distended and adjacent to the stump of the portal vein. Harvesting an internal jugular vein graft required extra time and using a synthetic graft posed a risk of graft thrombosis or infection. As a result, we chose to perform a direct anastomosis of the portal and splenic vein in a desperate situation. The anastomosis decompressed the mesenteric venous system, so we then ligated the SMV. The patient had an uneventful postoperative course, except transient ascites. She redeveloped ascites more than one year later. At that time a PET scan showed bilateral lung and right femur metastatic disease. She expired 15 months after PD. Conclusion The lessons we learned are (1) Before SMPV confluence resection, internal jugular vein graft should be ready for reconstruction. (2) Synthetic graft is an alternative for internal jugular vein graft. (3) Direct portal vein to SMV anastomosis can be achieved by mobilizing liver. (4) It is possible that venous collaterals secondary to SMV tumor obstruction may have allowed this patient's post-operative survival. PMID:25568802

  13. The anatomy of the cardiac veins in mice

    PubMed Central

    Ciszek, Bogdan; Skubiszewska, Daria; Ratajska, Anna

    2007-01-01

    Although the cardiac coronary system in mice has been the studied in detail by many research laboratories, knowledge of the cardiac veins remains poor. This is because of the difficulty in marking the venous system with a technique that would allow visualization of these large vessels with thin walls. Here we present the visualization of the coronary venous system by perfusion of latex dye through the right caudal vein. Latex injected intravenously does not penetrate into the capillary system. Murine cardiac veins consist of several principal branches (with large diameters), the distal parts of which are located in the subepicardium. We have described the major branches of the left atrial veins, the vein of the left ventricle, the caudal veins, the vein of the right ventricle and the conal veins forming the conal venous circle or the prepulmonary conal venous arch running around the conus of the right ventricle. The venous system of the heart drains the blood to the coronary sinus (the left cranial caval vein) to the right atrium or to the right cranial caval vein. Systemic veins such as the left cranial caval, the right cranial caval and the caudal vein open to the right atrium. Knowledge of cardiac vein location may help to elucidate abnormal vein patterns in certain genetic malformations. PMID:17553104

  14. Phasic activity of human dorsal foot veins.

    PubMed

    Barthel, W; Koth, W

    1988-01-01

    Phasic contractions of the dorsal foot veins were detected in 7 male subjects, aged 23 to 49 years, by means of a linear variable differential transformer (LVDT) after congesting the veins by a pressure of 6.7 kPa (50 torr). This phasic activity (PA) had a frequency of 3 to 7 contractions per minute and led to a periodic diminution of the diameter of the distended veins by 12 to 44%. Using a double LVDT, the PA was shown to represent peristaltic waves travelling along the vessel wall concomitantly with the venous return. Determined in 3 out of the 7 subjects, the velocity of the waves amounted to 3.6 to 6.1 mm per second. A rheological significance of the peristaltic waves is assumed. PMID:3178793

  15. 3 alternatives to standard varicose vein treatment.

    PubMed

    Schoonover, Jeffery P; King, J Theodore; Gray, Captain; Campbell, Keith; Sherman, Christopher

    2009-10-01

    Discuss minimally invasive procedures with patients considering surgery for treatment of chronic venous insufficiency. Thermal ablation, in particular, has higher success rates than vein stripping. Consider endovenous chemical ablation for treatment of tortuous saphenous tributary varicosities that cannot be treated with thermal ablation. Foamed sclerosant, injected under ultrasound guidance, allows for direct visualization and has equivalent efficacy rates when compared to venous stripping. Pregnancy, active deep vein thrombosis, poor health with limited mobility, and severe peripheral vascular disease are contraindications for both thermal and chemical ablation. PMID:19874730

  16. Endovascular Laser Therapy for Varicose Veins

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Executive Summary Objective The objective of the MAS evidence review was to conduct a systematic review of the available evidence on the safety, effectiveness, durability and cost–effectiveness of endovascular laser therapy (ELT) for the treatment of primary symptomatic varicose veins (VV). Background The Ontario Health Technology Advisory Committee (OHTAC) met on November 27, 2009 to review the safety, effectiveness, durability and cost-effectiveness of ELT for the treatment of primary VV based on an evidence-based review by the Medical Advisory Secretariat (MAS). Clinical Condition VV are tortuous, twisted, or elongated veins. This can be due to existing (inherited) valve dysfunction or decreased vein elasticity (primary venous reflux) or valve damage from prior thrombotic events (secondary venous reflux). The end result is pooling of blood in the veins, increased venous pressure and subsequent vein enlargement. As a result of high venous pressure, branch vessels balloon out leading to varicosities (varicose veins). Symptoms typically affect the lower extremities and include (but are not limited to): aching, swelling, throbbing, night cramps, restless legs, leg fatigue, itching and burning. Left untreated, venous reflux tends to be progressive, often leading to chronic venous insufficiency (CVI). A number of complications are associated with untreated venous reflux: including superficial thrombophlebitis as well as variceal rupture and haemorrhage. CVI often results in chronic skin changes referred to as stasis dermatitis. Stasis dermatitis is comprised of a spectrum of cutaneous abnormalities including edema, hyperpigmentation, eczema, lipodermatosclerosis and stasis ulceration. Ulceration represents the disease end point for severe CVI. CVI is associated with a reduced quality of life particularly in relation to pain, physical function and mobility. In severe cases, VV with ulcers, QOL has been rated to be as bad or worse as other chronic diseases such as back pain and arthritis. Lower limb VV is a common disease affecting adults and estimated to be the seventh most common reason for physician referral in the US. There is a strong familial predisposition to VV with the risk in offspring being 90% if both parents affected, 20% when neither is affected, and 45% (25% boys, 62% girls) if one parent is affected. Globally, the prevalence of VV ranges from 5% to 15% among men and 3% to 29% among women varying by the age, gender and ethnicity of the study population, survey methods and disease definition and measurement. The annual incidence of VV estimated from the Framingham Study was reported to be 2.6% among women and 1.9% among men and did not vary within the age range (40-89 years) studied. Approximately 1% of the adult population has a stasis ulcer of venous origin at any one time with 4% at risk. The majority of leg ulcer patients are elderly with simple superficial vein reflux. Stasis ulcers are often lengthy medical problems and can last for several years and, despite effective compression therapy and multilayer bandaging are associated with high recurrence rates. Recent trials involving surgical treatment of superficial vein reflux have resulted in healing and significantly reduced recurrence rates. Endovascular Laser Therapy for VV ELT is an image-guided, minimally invasive treatment alternative to surgical stripping of superficial venous reflux. It does not require an operating room or general anesthesia and has been performed in outpatient settings by a variety of medical specialties including surgeons (vascular or general), interventional radiologists and phlebologists. Rather than surgically removing the vein, ELT works by destroying, cauterizing or ablating the refluxing vein segment using heat energy delivered via laser fibre. Prior to ELT, colour-flow Doppler ultrasonography is used to confirm and map all areas of venous reflux to devise a safe and effective treatment plan. The ELT procedure involves the introduction of a guide wire into the target vein under ultrasound guidance followed by the inse

  17. Percutaneous Portal Vein Access and Transhepatic Tract Hemostasis

    PubMed Central

    Saad, Wael E. A.; Madoff, David C.

    2012-01-01

    Percutaneous portal vein interventions require minimally invasive access to the portal venous system. Common approaches to the portal vein include transjugular hepatic vein to portal vein access and direct transhepatic portal vein access. A major concern of the transhepatic route is the risk of postprocedural bleeding, which is increased when patients are anticoagulated or receiving pharmaceutical thrombolytic therapy. Thus percutaneous portal vein access and subsequent closure are important technical parts of percutaneous portal vein procedures. At present, various techniques have been used for either portal access or subsequent transhepatic tract closure and hemostasis. Regardless of the method used, meticulous technique is required to achieve the overall safety and effectiveness of portal venous procedures. This article reviews the various techniques of percutaneous transhepatic portal vein access and the various closure and hemostatic methods used to reduce the risk of postprocedural bleeding. PMID:23729976

  18. What Are the Signs and Symptoms of Deep Vein Thrombosis?

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Twitter. What Are the Signs and Symptoms of Deep Vein Thrombosis? The signs and symptoms of deep ... serious, possibly life-threatening problems if not treated. Deep Vein Thrombosis Only about half of the people ...

  19. Varicose Veins: Role of Mechanotransduction of Venous Hypertension

    PubMed Central

    Atta, Hussein M.

    2012-01-01

    Varicose veins affect approximately one-third of the adult population and result in significant psychological, physical, and financial burden. Nevertheless, the molecular pathogenesis of varicose vein formation remains unidentified. Venous hypertension exerted on veins of the lower extremity is considered the principal factor in varicose vein formation. The role of mechanotransduction of the high venous pressure in the pathogenesis of varicose vein formation has not been adequately investigated despite a good progress in understanding the mechanomolecular mechanisms involved in transduction of high blood pressure in the arterial wall. Understanding the nature of the mechanical forces, the mechanosensors and mechanotransducers in the vein wall, and the downstream signaling pathways will provide new molecular targets for the prevention and treatment of varicose veins. This paper summarized the current understanding of mechano-molecular pathways involved in transduction of hemodynamic forces induced by blood pressure and tries to relate this information to setting of venous hypertension in varicose veins. PMID:22489273

  20. Crossectomy and great saphenous vein stripping.

    PubMed

    Winterborn, R J; Earnshaw, J J

    2006-02-01

    Crossectomy and stripping have been the standard of care for primary great saphenous varicose veins since the high failure rates of sclerotherapy became apparent in the 1970s. As the specialty of venous surgery has evolved, a number of clinical trials have established the optimal methods of surgical treatment, and the clinical benefit of routine stripping. Long-term trials, however, have uncovered a high recurrence rate after varicose vein surgery that approaches 70% after 10 years. There is much debate about whether this is the result of the dilatation of existing tributaries in the groin or the growth of new veins as a result of angiogenesis that follows surgical treatment and healing (neovascularisation). The addition of barrier technology to current crossectomy has the potential to improve the results of surgery in the future. In the meanwhile, new techniques are evolving to obliterate the great saphenous vein, including endovenous laser, radiofrequency ablation and foam sclerotherapy. Randomised clinical trials are urgently required to compare these new treatments against standard surgery, and they will need to focus on whether the short-term gains in reduced convalescence and morbidity are balanced by durable long-term results. PMID:16434942

  1. Preoperative portal vein embolization for hepatocellular carcinoma

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hiroaki Kinoshita; Katsuji Sakai; Kazuhiro Hirohashi; Sumito Igawa; Osamu Yamasaki; Shoji Kubo

    1986-01-01

    As a countermeasure to portal tumor thrombi, which are a serious danger in liver cancer, we did portal vein embolization (PVE) during percutaneous transhepatic portography. Our 21 patients later underwent hepatic resection. After PVE, portal pressure increased and there was slight liver function damage, but this procedure was safer than transarterial embolization (TAE). We examined the pathologic specimens to view

  2. Diagnostic Methods for Deep Vein Thrombosis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Brownell Wheeler

    1995-01-01

    Clinical diagnosis of deep vein thrombosis (DVT) is unreliable, and treatment should not be undertaken without objective confirmation. The traditional ‘gold standard’ for the diagnosis of DVT has been venography, but ultrasonic imaging has now replaced venography as the new diagnostic standard in many hospitals. A variety of noninvasive physiologic tests are also useful in selected circumstances. These include plethysmography,

  3. Isolated thrombosis of the external jugular vein.

    PubMed

    Colomina, M J; Godet, C; Bagó, J; Pellisé, F; Puig, O; Villanueva, C

    2000-08-01

    Thrombosis of the external jugular vein (EJV) is an infrequent clinical condition that has been associated with central venous catheterization, head and neck infections, intravenous drug abuse, and compression at the affected site. The authors report a case of thrombotic obstruction of the EJV in the late postoperative period after laparoscopic anterior lumbar interbody fusion. A 40-year-old morbidly obese woman with a depressive syndrome was diagnosed with L5-S1 discopathy and was submitted to laparoscopic anterior isthmic fusion. The operation lasted approximately 6 hours, during which the patient remained in a supine decubitus and Trendelenburg position. The left radial artery, peripheral veins, and right internal jugular vein were canalized. The internal jugular vein catheter was electively withdrawn 24 hours after the intervention. The postoperative period was satisfactory, and the patient was started on prophylaxis with low-molecular-weight heparin. She sat up and began walking at 24 hours and was discharged to her home 4 days after the procedure. Eight days after discharge she returned, experiencing right cervical pain. Palpation revealed a painful induration and erythematous area under the anterior edge of the sternocleidomastoid muscle. Results of otoscopy and laryngoscopy were normal. Cervical echo-Doppler disclosed an image consistent with EJV thrombosis. The most frequent causes of jugular vein thrombosis are mentioned above. A higher incidence has been described after upper abdomen and pelvic surgery; other contributing factors are age, obesity, and associated illness. There are few references in the literature to position-induced EJV thrombosis in the late postoperative period. The authors' patient presented signs and symptoms of EJV thrombosis (probably because of various factors), which was confirmed by echo-Doppler study and treated with 10 days of calcic heparin. PMID:10961761

  4. Long-term assessment of cryopreserved vein bypass grafting success

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Linda Harris; Monica O'Brien-Irr; John J. Ricotta

    2001-01-01

    Purpose: When autogenous vein is unavailable, cryopreserved veins have been used in patients as a means of attempted limb salvage. We evaluated the long-term patency and limb salvage rates for patients undergoing bypass grafting with cryopreserved veins. Methods: Medical records were reviewed for patients undergoing cryovein bypass grafting at two hospitals from 1992 to 1997. Follow-up data were obtained from

  5. Laser treatment of varicose veins: order out of chaos.

    PubMed

    Ash, Jennifer L; Moore, Colleen J

    2010-06-01

    Varicose veins of the lower extremity are commonly encountered by vascular surgeons. Historically, the standard treatment of varicose veins has been high ligation and stripping of the great saphenous vein. Endovenous ablation techniques have been adopted by many surgeons over the past few years. Techniques of endovenous laser surgery are reviewed, as are the common complications and expected outcomes. PMID:20685564

  6. Who Is at Risk for Deep Vein Thrombosis?

    MedlinePLUS

    ... NHLBI on Twitter. Who Is at Risk for Deep Vein Thrombosis? The risk factors for deep vein thrombosis (DVT) include: A history of DVT. ... increase the risk of clotting. Injury to a deep vein from surgery, a broken bone, or other ...

  7. Sand veins and wedges in cold aeolian environments

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Julian B. Murton; Peter Worsley; Jan Gozdzik

    2000-01-01

    Sedimentary structures formed by the progressive primary infilling of thermal contraction cracks with sand are termed primary sand veins and sand wedges. In addition to simple vein- or wedge-shapes irregularities can be caused by sand veins branching from their sides and toes. Primary sand wedges form widely in sandy polar deserts, locally in sandy areas of tundra and probably in

  8. A unique virus complex causes Ageratum yellow vein disease

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Keith Saunders; Ian D. Bedford; Rob W. Briddon; Peter G. Markham; Sek Man Wong; John Stanley

    2000-01-01

    Ageratum conyzoides L., a weed species widely distributed throughout southeast Asia, frequently exhibits striking yellow vein symptoms associated with infection by Ageratum yellow vein virus (AYVV), a member of the Geminiviridae (genus Begomovirus). Most begomoviruses have bipartite genomes (DNAs A and B), but only a DNA A has been identified for AYVV. We demonstrate that yellow vein disease of A.

  9. Aneurysm of external jugular vein mimicking hemangioma of neck.

    PubMed

    Aiyappan, Senthil Kumar; Ranga, Upasana; Veeraiyan, Saveetha

    2013-12-01

    Venous aneurysms are one of the rare causes of neck swellings. Among neck veins, external jugular vein aneurysms are uncommon. We present a case of a woman who presented with a nontender compressible swelling in the left lower neck region, which initially thought to be hemangioma, was later found to be external jugular vein aneurysm on Doppler ultrasound and CT angiography. PMID:24465108

  10. Spermatic vein phlebography in patients with testicular tumors.

    PubMed

    Karparov, M; Gospodinov, G; Baldjiisky, A; Zlatanov, T; Karadimov, A

    1977-01-01

    The performance of funicular lymphography and spermatic vein phlebography during orchiectomy in patients with testicular tumors demonstrates the close proximity of the spermatic vein to the lymph nodes draining the testicles. In the case of metastatic lymph node involvement the spermatic vein phlebography may add supplementary diagnostic information. The examination was proved successful in eight patients with malignant testicular tumors. PMID:904745

  11. Wound healing around and within saphenous vein bypass grafts

    Microsoft Academic Search

    James E. O'Brien; Yi Shi; Ali Fard; Thomas Bauer; Andrew Zalewski; John D. Mannion

    1997-01-01

    Background: Myofibroblasts are a prominent cell type in wound healing. The goal of this study was to examine the extent to which myofibroblasts contribute to structural changes in saphenous vein bypass grafts. Methods and results: Control veins and reversed saphenous vein bypass conduits of porcine carotid arteries were examined 2 to 4, 7 to 14, and 30 to 90 days

  12. Internal vein texture and vein evolution of the epithermal Shila-Paula district, southern Peru

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chauvet, Alain; Bailly, Laurent; André, Anne-Sylvie; Monié, Patrick; Cassard, Daniel; Tajada, Fernando Llosa; Vargas, Juan Rosas; Tuduri, Johann

    2006-07-01

    The epithermal Shila-Paula Au-Ag district is characterized by numerous veins hosted in Tertiary volcanic rocks of the Western Cordillera (southern Peru). Field studies of the ore bodies reveal a systematic association of a main E-W vein with secondary N55-60°W veins—two directions that are also reflected by the orientation of fluid-inclusion planes in quartz crystals of the host rock. In areas where this pattern is not recognized, such as the Apacheta sector, vein emplacement seems to have been guided by regional N40°E and N40°W fractures. Two main vein-filling stages are identified. stage 1 is a quartz-adularia-pyrite-galena-sphalerite-chalcopyrite-electrum-Mn silicate-carbonate assemblage that fills the main E-W veins. stage 2, which contains most of the precious-metal mineralization, is divided into pre-bonanza and bonanza substages. The pre-bonanza substage consists of a quartz-adularia-carbonate assemblage that is observed within the secondary N45-60°W veins, in veinlets that cut the stage 1 assemblage, and in final open-space fillings. The two latter structures are finally filled by the bonanza substage characterized by a Fe-poor sphalerite-chalcopyrite-pyrite-galena-tennantite-tetrahedrite-polybasite-pearceite-electrum assemblage. The ore in the main veins is systematically brecciated, whereas the ore in the secondary veins and geodes is characteristic of open-space crystallization. Microthermometric measurements on sphalerite from both stages and on quartz and calcite from stage 2 indicate a salinity range of 0 to 15.5 wt% NaCl equivalent and homogenization temperatures bracketed between 200 and 330°C. Secondary CO2-, N2- and H2S-bearing fluid inclusions are also identified. The age of vein emplacement, based on 40Ar/39Ar ages obtained on adularia of different veins, is estimated at around 11 Ma, with some overlap between adularia of stage 1 (11.4±0.4 Ma) and of stage 2 (10.8±0.3 Ma). A three-phase tectonic model has been constructed to explain the vein formation. Phase 1 corresponds to the assumed development of E-W sinistral shear zones and associated N60°W cleavages under the effects of a NE-SW shortening direction that is recognized at Andean scale. These structures contain the stage 1 ore assemblage that was brecciated during ongoing deformation. Phase 2 is a reactivation of earlier structures under a NW-SE shortening direction that allowed the reopening of the preexisting schistosity and the formation of scarce N50°E-striking S2-cleavage planes filled by the stage 2 pre-bonanza minerals. Phase 3 coincides with the bonanza ore emplacement in the secondary N45-60°W veins and also in open-space in the core of the main E-W veins. Our combined tectonic, textural, mineralogical, fluid-inclusion, and geochronological study presents a complete model of vein formation in which the reactivation of previously formed tectonic structures plays a significant role in ore formation.

  13. MDCT Venography Evaluation of a Rare Collateral Vein Draining from the Left Subclavian Vein to the Great Cardiac Vein

    PubMed Central

    Abchee, Antoine; Saade, Charbel; Al-Mohiy, Hussain; El-Merhi, Fadi

    2014-01-01

    Congenital vascular anomalies of the venous drainage in the chest affect both cardiac and non-cardiac structures. Collateral venous drainage from the left subclavian vein to the great cardiac vein is a rare venous drainage pattern. These anomalies present a diagnostic challenge. Multi-detector computed tomography (MDCT) is useful in the diagnosis and treatment planning of these clinically complex disorders. We present a case report of an 18-year-old Caucasian male who came to our institute for evaluation of venous drainage patterns to the heart. We describe the contrast technique of bilateral dual injection MDCT venography and the imaging features of the venous drainage patterns to the heart. PMID:25379351

  14. Transcutaneous laser treatment of leg veins.

    PubMed

    Meesters, Arne A; Pitassi, Luiza H U; Campos, Valeria; Wolkerstorfer, Albert; Dierickx, Christine C

    2014-03-01

    Leg telangiectasias and reticular veins are a common complaint affecting more than 80% of the population to some extent. To date, the gold standard remains sclerotherapy for most patients. However, there may be some specific situations, where sclerotherapy is contraindicated such as needle phobia, allergy to certain sclerosing agents, and the presence of vessels smaller than the diameter of a 30-gauge needle (including telangiectatic matting). In these cases, transcutaneous laser therapy is a valuable alternative. Currently, different laser modalities have been proposed for the management of leg veins. The aim of this article is to present an overview of the basic principles of transcutaneous laser therapy of leg veins and to review the existing literature on this subject, including the most recent developments. The 532-nm potassium titanyl phosphate (KTP) laser, the 585-600-nm pulsed dye laser, the 755-nm alexandrite laser, various 800-983-nm diode lasers, and the 1,064-nm neodymium yttrium-aluminum-garnet (Nd:YAG) laser and various intense pulsed light sources have been investigated for this indication. The KTP and pulsed dye laser are an effective treatment option for small vessels (<1 mm). The side effect profile is usually favorable to that of longer wavelength modalities. For larger veins, the use of a longer wavelength is required. According to the scarce evidence available, the Nd:YAG laser produces better clinical results than the alexandrite and diode laser. Penetration depth is high, whereas absorption by melanin is low, making the Nd:YAG laser suitable for the treatment of larger and deeply located veins and for the treatment of patients with dark skin types. Clinical outcome of Nd:YAG laser therapy approximates that of sclerotherapy, although the latter is associated with less pain. New developments include (1) the use of a nonuniform pulse sequence or a dual-wavelength modality, inducing methemoglobin formation and enhancing the optical absorption properties of the target structure, (2) pulse stacking and multiple pass laser treatment, (3) combination of laser therapy with sclerotherapy or radiofrequency, and (4) indocyanin green enhanced laser therapy. Future studies will have to confirm the role of these developments in the treatment of leg veins. The literature still lacks double-blind controlled clinical trials comparing the different laser modalities with each other and with sclerotherapy. Such trials should be the focus of future research. PMID:24220848

  15. Finger vein extraction using gradient normalization and principal curvature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Joon Hwan; Song, Wonseok; Kim, Taejeong; Lee, Seung-Rae; Kim, Hee Chan

    2009-02-01

    Finger vein authentication is a personal identification technology using finger vein images acquired by infrared imaging. It is one of the newest technologies in biometrics. Its main advantage over other biometrics is the low risk of forgery or theft, due to the fact that finger veins are not normally visible to others. Extracting finger vein patterns from infrared images is the most difficult part in finger vein authentication. Uneven illumination, varying tissues and bones, and changes in the physical conditions and the blood flow make the thickness and brightness of the same vein different in each acquisition. Accordingly, extracting finger veins at their accurate positions regardless of their thickness and brightness is necessary for accurate personal identification. For this purpose, we propose a new finger vein extraction method which is composed of gradient normalization, principal curvature calculation, and binarization. As local brightness variation has little effect on the curvature and as gradient normalization makes the curvature fairly uniform at vein pixels, our method effectively extracts finger vein patterns regardless of the vein thickness or brightness. In our experiment, the proposed method showed notable improvement as compared with the existing methods.

  16. Nanophthalmos and hemiretinal vein occlusion: A case report

    PubMed Central

    Albar, Ahmad A.; Nowilaty, Sawsan R.; Ghazi, Nicola G.

    2014-01-01

    Many risk factors have been linked to retinal vein occlusions (RVOs) whether central or branch retinal vein occlusion. Ocular risk factors include glaucoma and hypermetropia. Controversy exists to whether short axial length is a risk factor for retinal vein occlusions. We report an extreme case that supports the latter hypothesis. A 33-year-old male presented with decreased visual acuity in the left eye. He turned out to have nanophthalmos with hemiretinal vein occlusion and macular edema with unremarkable systemic work up for retinal vein occlusion except for a glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) level of 7%. To our knowledge this is the first case report of hemiretinal vein occlusion in the setting of nanophthalmos and suggests that short axial length may be a risk factor for retinal vein occlusion.

  17. Atypical penile Mondor's disease - involvement of the circumflex vein.

    PubMed

    Arora, Rahul; Sonthalia, Sidharth; Gera, Tanu; Sarkar, Rashmi

    2015-04-01

    Mondor's disease is a rare condition characterised by superficial thrombophlebitis of subcutaneous veins, most commonly over the anterior chest wall. Penile Mondor's disease is rarer, arising out of thrombophlebitis of the penile veins. It typically involves the dorsal vein of the penis and presents with a cord-like indurated lesion with a beaded feel, palpable along the length of the involved vein. Though penile Mondor's disease involving the dorsal vein of the penis has been reported by many authors, we report a peculiar case of penile Mondor's disease in a 26-year-old sexually active man with thrombophlebitis of the circumflex vein of the penis with sparing of the dorsal vein. Diagnosis was confirmed on Doppler ultrasonography of the penile venous system. Despite exhaustive history taking, no cause could be elicited. The lesion completely subsided within three days with daily local hot fomentation. We propose the term 'atypical penile Mondor's disease' for such a case. PMID:24867818

  18. Dilated vein of Galen in Kabuki syndrome.

    PubMed

    Sánchez-Carpintero, Rocío; Herranz, Ana; Reynoso, César; Zubieta, José Luis

    2012-01-01

    Kabuki syndrome (KS) comprises multiple congenital abnormalities and is characterized by a peculiar facial appearance, dermatoglyphic anomalies, mental retardation, skeletal abnormalities and postnatal growth retardation. We describe the case of a 23-month-old boy with the typical features of KS who had several malformations in the veins of the brain, which had not previously been described in patients with this syndrome. The MRI phlebogram of this patient showed that the vein of Galen was dilated and that it drained anomalously. The sinus rectus was abnormal and the longitudinal inferior venous sinus was absent. In view of this finding, together with the fact that structural brain abnormalities in KS are more frequent than in other congenital syndromes with multiple malformations, we propose that MRI be used in the diagnostic work-up of all patients with KS. PMID:21330077

  19. Finger Vein Recognition with Personalized Feature Selection

    PubMed Central

    Xi, Xiaoming; Yang, Gongping; Yin, Yilong; Meng, Xianjing

    2013-01-01

    Finger veins are a promising biometric pattern for personalized identification in terms of their advantages over existing biometrics. Based on the spatial pyramid representation and the combination of more effective information such as gray, texture and shape, this paper proposes a simple but powerful feature, called Pyramid Histograms of Gray, Texture and Orientation Gradients (PHGTOG). For a finger vein image, PHGTOG can reflect the global spatial layout and local details of gray, texture and shape. To further improve the recognition performance and reduce the computational complexity, we select a personalized subset of features from PHGTOG for each subject by using the sparse weight vector, which is trained by using LASSO and called PFS-PHGTOG. We conduct extensive experiments to demonstrate the promise of the PHGTOG and PFS-PHGTOG, experimental results on our databases show that PHGTOG outperforms the other existing features. Moreover, PFS-PHGTOG can further boost the performance in comparison with PHGTOG. PMID:23974154

  20. Brucellosis Associated with Deep Vein Thrombosis

    PubMed Central

    Tolaj, Ilir; Mehmeti, Murat; Ramadani, Hamdi; Tolaj, Jasmina; Dedushi, Kreshnike; Fejza, Hajrullah

    2014-01-01

    Over the past 10 years more than 700 cases of brucellosis have been reported in Kosovo, which is heavily oriented towards agriculture and animal husbandry. Here, brucellosis is still endemic and represents an uncontrolled public health problem. Human brucellosis may present with a broad spectrum of clinical manifestations; among them, vascular complications are uncommon. Hereby we describe the case of a 37-year-old male patient with brucellosis complicated by deep vein thrombosis on his left leg. PMID:25568754

  1. Brucellosis associated with deep vein thrombosis.

    PubMed

    Tolaj, Ilir; Mehmeti, Murat; Ramadani, Hamdi; Tolaj, Jasmina; Dedushi, Kreshnike; Fejza, Hajrullah

    2014-11-19

    Over the past 10 years more than 700 cases of brucellosis have been reported in Kosovo, which is heavily oriented towards agriculture and animal husbandry. Here, brucellosis is still endemic and represents an uncontrolled public health problem. Human brucellosis may present with a broad spectrum of clinical manifestations; among them, vascular complications are uncommon. Hereby we describe the case of a 37-year-old male patient with brucellosis complicated by deep vein thrombosis on his left leg. PMID:25568754

  2. Percutaneous Transumbilical Portal Vein Embolization in a Patient with a Ruptured Hepatocellular Carcinoma Supplied by the Portal Vein

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Soo Chin; Kim, Hyo-Cheol, E-mail: angiointervention@gmail.com; Chung, Jin Wook; Jae, Hwan Jun; Park, Jae Hyung [Seoul National University College of Medicine, Department of Radiology (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-02-15

    We describe a case of a ruptured hepatocellular carcinoma supplied by the portal vein that was successfully treated with portal vein embolization via a percutaneous transumbilical approach. A contrast material-enhanced computed tomographic (CT) scan showed the presence of a large hypervascular tumor on portal venous phase as well as right hepatic vein thrombosis and hemoperitoneum that prevented portal vein embolization by the use of the percutaneous and transjugular transhepatic approach. The use of percutaneous transumbilical portal vein embolization can be an alternative option in this situation.

  3. Patterning of Leaf Vein Networks by Convergent Auxin Transport Pathways

    PubMed Central

    Sawchuk, Megan G.; Edgar, Alexander; Scarpella, Enrico

    2013-01-01

    The formation of leaf vein patterns has fascinated biologists for centuries. Transport of the plant signal auxin has long been implicated in vein patterning, but molecular details have remained unclear. Varied evidence suggests a central role for the plasma-membrane (PM)-localized PIN-FORMED1 (PIN1) intercellular auxin transporter of Arabidopsis thaliana in auxin-transport-dependent vein patterning. However, in contrast to the severe vein-pattern defects induced by auxin transport inhibitors, pin1 mutant leaves have only mild vein-pattern defects. These defects have been interpreted as evidence of redundancy between PIN1 and the other four PM-localized PIN proteins in vein patterning, redundancy that underlies many developmental processes. By contrast, we show here that vein patterning in the Arabidopsis leaf is controlled by two distinct and convergent auxin-transport pathways: intercellular auxin transport mediated by PM-localized PIN1 and intracellular auxin transport mediated by the evolutionarily older, endoplasmic-reticulum-localized PIN6, PIN8, and PIN5. PIN6 and PIN8 are expressed, as PIN1 and PIN5, at sites of vein formation. pin6 synthetically enhances pin1 vein-pattern defects, and pin8 quantitatively enhances pin1pin6 vein-pattern defects. Function of PIN6 is necessary, redundantly with that of PIN8, and sufficient to control auxin response levels, PIN1 expression, and vein network formation; and the vein pattern defects induced by ectopic PIN6 expression are mimicked by ectopic PIN8 expression. Finally, vein patterning functions of PIN6 and PIN8 are antagonized by PIN5 function. Our data define a new level of control of vein patterning, one with repercussions on other patterning processes in the plant, and suggest a mechanism to select cell files specialized for vascular function that predates evolution of PM-localized PIN proteins. PMID:23437008

  4. Management of proximal deep vein thrombosis.

    PubMed

    Nyamekye, I; Merker, L

    2012-01-01

    Iliofemoral DVT constitutes approximately 20-25% of lower limb DVT and represents a specific subgroup of patients at highest risk for post-thrombotic syndrome (PTS). Anticoagulation alone has no significant thrombolytic activity and has not impact on PTS prevention. Early thrombus removal has reduced PTS in uncontrolled reports and reviews but major trials are awaited. The optimal timing for treatment appear to be thrombus <2 weeks old and, methods for thrombus removal include direct open or suction thrombectomy, catheter directed thrombolysis (CDT), with or without percutaneous mechanical thrombectomy (PMT) devices. Three principle types of PMT device are in use (rotational, rheolytic and ultrasound enhanced devices) and are combined with CDT in pharmocomechanical thrombolysis (PhMT) to enhance early thrombus removal. These devices have individual device specific attributes and side effects that are additional to the bleeding complications of thrombolysis. A number of additional interventions may be utilised to the improve results of CDT and PhMT. IVC filter deployment to reduce periprocedural PE, is supported by little evidence unless an indication for its use already exists. However, balloon venoplasty and vein stents undoubtedly vein patency after treatment. Early thrombus removal comes with additional upfront costs derived from devices, imaging and critical care bed usage. However, significant potential savings from reduction in PTS and rethrombosis rates may reduce overall societal costs. This review focuses on iliofemoral thrombosis, however, the less commonly encountered but clinically important subclavian vein thrombosis is also discussed. PMID:22457306

  5. How I treat splanchnic vein thrombosis.

    PubMed

    Ageno, Walter; Dentali, Francesco; Squizzato, Alessandro

    2014-12-11

    Antithrombotic treatment of splanchnic vein thrombosis (SVT) is a clinical challenge. Depending on the site of thrombosis, patients are at risk of developing liver insufficiency, portal hypertension, or bowel infarction and may experience recurrence in both the splanchnic veins and other vein segments. To prevent recurrence, anticoagulant therapy should be started as soon as possible after diagnosis and is often continued for an indefinite period of time. However, active bleeding is not infrequent at the time of SVT diagnosis, and major risk factors for bleeding, such as esophageal varices or a low platelet count, are frequently present in these patients. In real-world clinical practice, a proportion of SVT patients are left untreated because the risks associated with anticoagulant therapy are felt to exceed its benefits. However, the majority of patients receive anticoagulant drugs, with heterogeneous timing of initiation, drug choice, and dosages. Evidence to drive treatment decisions is limited because no randomized controlled trials have been carried out in these patients. This review provides practical guidance for the use of anticoagulant drugs in patients presenting with SVT, including symptomatic as well as incidentally detected events. PMID:25320239

  6. Isolated and Complex Scimitar Vein Anomalies and Their Differentiation from the Meandering Right Pulmonary Vein

    PubMed Central

    2007-01-01

    Purpose Four pediatric patients with isolated (the adult form) and complex (the infantile form) scimitar vein anomalies were reviewed and compared with patients with meandering right pulmonary veins. Materials and Methods From January 1990 to December 2006, 4 female patients, aged 2 days to 3.5 years, with isolated and complex scimitar vein anomalies were retrospectively studied. The clinical features, chest radiographs, echocardiography, magnetic resonance imaging, magnetic resonance angiography, computer tomography, bronchography, cardiac catheterization with angiography, surgery, and autopsy were reviewed to substantiate the diagnosis of isolated and complex scimitar vein anomalies. Results Clinical manifestations were lung infections with radiographic scimitar signs in 4 patients (3 right; 1 left), respiratory distress, congestive heart failure, pulmonary hypertension and/or cyanosis in 3 patients, dextrocardia, heterotaxy, and/or right atrial isomerism in 2 patients, as well as dextroversion, right bronchial isomerism, bronchial stenosis, and/or sepsis in 1 patient. Two patients with right atrial isomerism expired. Conclusion The clinical discrimination between scimitar vein anomaly with and without cardiovascular and bronchopulmonary malformations is crucial for the outcomes vary. PMID:18159589

  7. A vein display system based on three-dimensional reconstruction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Danting; Zhou, Ya; Hu, Xiaoming; Wu, Zhaoguo; Dai, Xiaobin

    2014-10-01

    Venipuncture is the most common way of all invasive medical procedures. A vein display system can make vein access easier by capturing the vein information and projecting a visible vein image onto the skin, which is correctly aligned with the subject's vein. The existing systems achieve correct alignment by the design of coaxial structure. Such a structure causes complex optical and mechanical design and big physical dimensions inevitably. In this paper, we design a stereovision- based vein display system, which consists of a pair of cameras, a DLP projector and a near-infrared light source. We recover the three-dimensional venous structure from image pair acquired from two near-infrared cameras. Then the vein image from the viewpoint of projector is generated from the three-dimensional venous structure and projected exactly onto skin by the DLP projector. Since the stereo cameras get the depth information of vessels, the system can make sure the alignment of projected veins and the real veins without a coaxial structure. The experiment results prove that we propose a feasible solution for a portable and low-cost vein display device.

  8. Development of HIFU Therapy System for Lower Extremity Varicose Veins

    SciTech Connect

    Ota, Ryuhei; Yoshinaka, Kiyoshi; Takagi, Shu; Matsumoto, Yoichiro [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Tokyo 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8656 (Japan); Suzuki, Jun; Deguchi, Juno; Miyata, Tetsuro [Vascular Surgery, Department of Surgery, University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-0033 (Japan)

    2009-04-14

    High-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) treatment utilizing microbubbles was investigated in the present study. It is known that microbubbles have the potential to enhance the heating effects of an ultrasound field. In this study, the heat accompanying microbubble oscillation was used to occlude varicose veins. Alteration of veins was observed after ultrasound irradiation. Veins were resected by stripping. In this study, two vein conditions were adopted during HIFU irradiation; non-compressed and compressed. Compressing the vein was expected to improve occlusion by rubbing the altered intima under compressed conditions. The frequency of the ultrasound was 1.7 MHz, the intensity at the focus was 2800 W/cm{sup 2}, and the irradiation time was 20 s. In this study, the contrast agent Levovist registered was chosen as a microbubble source, and the void fraction (ratio of total gas volume to liquid) in the vein was fixed at 10{sup -5}. Under non-compressed conditions, changes were observed only at the adventitia of the vein anterior wall. In contrast, under compressed conditions, changes were observed from the intima to the adventitia of both the anterior and posterior walls, and they were partly stuck together. In addition, more experiments with hematoxylin-eosin staining suggested that the changes in the vein were more substantial under the latter conditions. From these results, it was confirmed that the vein was occluded more easily with vein compression.

  9. Pre-operative long saphenous vein mapping predicts vein anatomy and quality leading to improved post-operative leg morbidity.

    PubMed

    Luckraz, Heyman; Lowe, Julie; Pugh, Neil; Azzu, Ahmed A

    2008-04-01

    Long saphenous vein harvesting for coronary bypass surgery is associated with significant morbidity. Furthermore, vein quality is often variable sometimes requiring incisions in both legs. This prospective randomised control study assessed the usefulness of pre-operative long saphenous vein mapping in terms of conduit quality and location, incision lengths and post-operative morbidity. The long saphenous vein was assessed and mapped pre-operatively (n=31) by venous Doppler ultrasound or not (n=30). The size and anatomical distribution of the long saphenous vein was well predicted by the ultrasound study (correlation coefficient=0.87). Intra-operatively, the mean length of leg wound incision per vein graft performed was significantly less in the mapped group [16.8 (4.0) vs. 24.1 (10.4) cm, P=0.005]. This translated in a shorter operative time for vein harvesting per length of vein graft needed [36 (13) vs. 47 (17) min, P=0.04]. Post-operatively there was a tendency to less leg wound complications in the mapped group (P=0.08) and earlier hospital discharge (median length of stay 6.5 days vs. 8.0 days, P=0.05). Thus, long saphenous vein mapping pre-operatively predicted the size and anatomy of the vein appropriately. This led to a selective leg wound incision and reduced operative time with the benefit of reduced leg complication post-operatively. PMID:18203766

  10. A Novel Device for True Lumen Re-Entry After Subintimal Recanalization of Superficial Femoral Arteries: First-in-Man Experience and Technical Description

    SciTech Connect

    Airoldi, Flavio, E-mail: flavio.airoldi@multimedica.it; Faglia, Ezio, E-mail: ezio.faglia@multimedica.it; Losa, Sergio, E-mail: sergio.losa@multimedica.it; Tavano, Davide, E-mail: davide.tavano@multimedica.it [Multimedica IRCCS, Cardiovascular Department (Italy); Latib, Azeem, E-mail: alatib@gmail.com [University of Cape Town, Division of Cardiology (South Africa); Mantero, Manuela, E-mail: manuela.mantero@multimedica.it; Lanza, Gaetano, E-mail: gaetano.lanza@multimedica.it; Clerici, Giacomo, E-mail: giacomo.clerici@multimedica.it [Multimedica IRCCS, Cardiovascular Department (Italy)

    2011-02-15

    Subintimal angioplasty (SAP) is frequently performed for the treatment of critical limb ischemia (CLI) and has been recognized as an effective technique for these patients. Nevertheless, this approach is limited by the lack of controlled re-entry into the true lumen of the target vessel. We describe a novel device for true lumen re-entry after subintimal recanalization of superficial femoral arteries (SFA). We report our experience with six patients treated between April 2009 and January 2010 with a novel system designed to facilitate true lumen re-entry. The device was advanced by ipsilateral antegrade approach through a 6-French sheath. Successful reaccess into the true lumen was obtained in five of six patients without complications. The patient in whom the reaccess to the true lumen was not possible underwent successful bypass surgery. At 30 days follow-up, the SFA was patent in all patients according to echo-Doppler examination. Our preliminary experience indicates that this novel re-entry device increases the success rate of percutaneous revascularization of chronically occluded SFA.

  11. Extracorporeal shock waves as curative therapy for varicose veins?

    PubMed Central

    Angehrn, Fiorenzo; Kuhn, Christoph; Sonnabend, Ortrud; Voss, Axel

    2008-01-01

    In this prospective design study the effects of low-energy partially focused extracorporeal generated shock waves (ESW) onto a subcutaneous located varicose vein – left vena saphena magna (VSM) – are investigated. The treatment consisted of 4 ESW applications within 21 days. The varicose VSM of both sides were removed by surgery, and samples analyzed comparing the treated and untreated by means of histopathology. No damage to the treated varicose vein in particular and no mechanical destruction to the varicose vein’s wall could be demonstrated. However, an induction of neo-collagenogenesis was observed. The thickness of the varicose vein’s wall increased. Optimization of critical application parameters by investigating a larger number of patients may turn ESW into a non-invasive curative varicose treatment. PMID:18488887

  12. Portal vein arterialization technique for liver transplantation patients

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Kun; Jiang, Yi; Lv, Li-Zhi; Cai, Qiu-Cheng; Yang, Fang; Hu, Huan-Zhang; Zhang, Xiao-Jin

    2014-01-01

    Liver transplantations were performed on two patients with hepatic failure caused by liver cirrhosis. Hard obsolete thrombi and portal venous sclerosis were observed in the major portal veins of both patients. The arteria colica media of one recipient and the portal vein of the donor were anastomosed end-to-end. The hepatic artery of the first donor was anastomosed end-to end with the gastroduodenal artery of the first recipient; meanwhile, the portal vein of the second donor was simultaneously anastomosed end- to-end with the common hepatic artery of the second recipient. The blood flow of the portal vein, the perfusion of the donor liver and liver function were satisfactory after surgery. Portal vein arterialization might be an effective treatment for patients whose portal vein reconstruction was difficult. PMID:25232274

  13. Use of varicose veins as arterial bypass grafts.

    PubMed

    Moritz, A; Grabenwöger, F; Raderer, F; Ptakovsky, H; Magometschnigg, H; Ullrich, R; Staudacher, M

    1993-10-01

    Varicose veins are not generally used as arterial bypass grafts despite their physiological endothelial flow surface. The large, irregular diameter and the thin wall renders these veins inadequate. Experimental studies have shown that a considerable reduction in the diameter of veins can be achieved by external wrapping without the generation of obstructing folds of the vein wall. A Dacron mesh tube surrounding varicose veins was used as a bypass graft in 13 infrainguinal arterial reconstructions. Ligated larger side branches and connections of the mesh segments caused irregularities of the otherwise smooth flow surfaces. Ten grafts were patent after a mean follow-up of 17 months. Two grafts have remained patent despite severe outflow obstruction in one and proximal occlusion in the other; both underwent successful interventions. The antithrombogenic properties of these grafts were partly due to a marked increase of the vasa vasorum. Externally constricted varicose veins may be used as arterial bypass conduits with good intermediate-term patency. PMID:8076087

  14. [Spondylogenic hypertension of deep veins of the brain].

    PubMed

    Gongal'ski?, V V; Prokopovich, E V

    2005-01-01

    The cerebral deep veins hypertension criteria using bloodstream in large cerebral vein (Galen's vein) are worked up. An increase in venous pressure was proved to be connected with congenital and acquired pathology of cervical spine and craniovertebral isthmus. The new roentgenologic sign of pathology located in craniovertebral isthmus is determined. It is characterized by abnormal high front arc of the atlas, that hinders the outflow of venous blood from the cranial cavity. PMID:15915998

  15. An idiopathic azygos vein aneurysm mimicking a mediastinal mass.

    PubMed

    Ichiki, Yoshinobu; Hamatsu, Takayuki; Suehiro, Taketoshi; Koike, Makiko; Tanaka, Fumihiro; Sugimachi, Keizo

    2014-07-01

    Azygos vein aneurysms are very rare causes of mediastinal masses and are usually accidental findings on chest roentgenography. Most are detected in patients with portal hypertension or venous malformations. An idiopathic azygos vein aneurysm is assumed to be congenital and is much more exceptional. We present the case of a 76-year-old man who underwent excision of an idiopathic azygos vein aneurysm by video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery (VATS). PMID:24996721

  16. Partial anomalous connection of both superior pulmonary veins.

    PubMed

    Marianeschi, Stefano M; Cannata, Aldo; Uricchio, Nicola; Pedretti, Stefano; Vignati, Gabriele

    2012-08-01

    Several patterns of anomalous pulmonary venous drainage have been described in the literature, and bilateral partial pulmonary anomalous vein connection (PAPVC) has been described as a rare congenital cardiac anomaly. We report an unusual type of bilateral PAPVC, involving both the superior right and left pulmonary veins draining into the left brachiocephalic vein in a young adult who was symptomatic with dyspnea and a dry cough. PMID:22818314

  17. Can vein patterns be used to estimate rock permeabilities?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koehn, Daniel; Vass, Anna; Ghani, Irfan; Toussaint, Renaud; Bons, Paul; Gomez-Rivas, Enrique; Urai, Janos L.; Arndt, Max; Virgo, Simon; Wendler, Frank; Blum, Philipp; Schwarz, Jens-Oliver

    2014-05-01

    Fracturing of rocks due to tectonic stresses or local high fluid pressures and the formation of fluid pathways is important for a whole range of industrially relevant processes in the Earth's upper crust reaching from groundwater transport, hydrocarbon migration to geothermal systems. Fracturing and the opening of fluid pathways become especially important in tight rocks where fluid migration through the rock matrix is restricted. In addition observations show that fractures are often partly or completely sealed and occur as veins in geological systems. How can we interpret the permeability of these vein systems? The internal structure of veins often indicates that they are formed by several cracking and sealing events. In addition some geological systems contain partly sealed veins that have a preserved porosity and may add to the overall permeability of the system. We are comparing field areas that contain different vein patterns with hydrodynamic numerical models where fractures develop as a function of gravity, extension and fluid pressure gradients. In addition fractures seal where the developing veins can have variable properties in terms of elasticity, breaking strength and porosity. Results indicate that permeability in such systems is not a constant but may vary strongly over time. In an active system the amount of veins and number of open fractures depends not only on the timing of sealing but also on the breaking strength of the veins. Strong veins can clog the system whereas weak veins tend to lead to possible connected fracture networks. In addition one cannot link veins directly to fluid flow, intense veining does not mean that the system has or had a high permeability. We will present a first attempt to classify different fracturing and sealing systems based on field observations and numerical models.

  18. Origin of pegmatitic segregation veins within flood basalts

    Microsoft Academic Search

    JOHN H. PUFFER; DAWN L. HORTER

    1993-01-01

    Subhorizontal veins and lenses of coarse-grained rock composed of plagioclase, augite, and Fe-Ti oxides in a glassy and vesicular mesostasis occur within several thick subaerial basalt flows in the Columbia River Basalt province of Washington and in the eastern North American Mesozoic basalt province. The veins and lenses, referred to as pegmatitic segregation veins, are typically 1-10 cm thick and

  19. Accuracy of clinical assessment of deep-vein thrombosis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Philip S. Wells; Jack Hirsh; David R. Anderson; Anthony W. A. Lensing; Gary Foster; Clive Kearon; Jeffrey Weitz; Robert D'Ovidio; Alberto Cogo; Paolo Prandoni; Antonio Girolami; Jeffrey S. Ginsberg

    1995-01-01

    The clinical diagnosis of deep-vein thrombosis is generally thought to be unreliable. From experience, we hypothesised that this widely held view might be incorrect. We developed a clinical model and prospectively tested its ability in three tertiary care centres to stratify symptomatic outpatients with suspected deep-vein thrombosis into groups with high, moderate, or low probability groups of deep-vein thrombosis. We

  20. Endovenous saphenous vein ablation in patients with acute isolated superficial-vein thrombosis

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Objective: The possible benefits of endovenous saphenous ablation (EVSA) as initial treatment in patients presenting with isolated superficial-vein thrombosis (SVT) and saphenous vein reflux include: (1) definitive treatment of the underlying pathology and (2) elimination of the saphenous vein as a path for pulmonary emboli, which (3) may eliminate the need for anticoagulation. Methods: In a ten-year review of 115 limbs presenting with acute isolated SVT, 72 limbs (71 patients) with saphenous reflux were given a choice of two treatments following an explanation of the risks and benefits of each. Group I limbs (n?=?41) were treated with office EVSA using radiofrequency or laser with or without thrombophlebectomy if performed within 45 days of diagnosis. Post-treatment anticoagulants were not given. Group II limbs (n?=?31) were treated with compression hose and repeat Duplex within one week, with added anticoagulants if SVT extended into the thigh. Results: In group I, mean interval from diagnosis to treatment was 13.7 days. One calf deep vein thrombosis was noted. In group II no complications were noted. In late follow-up of group II patients, 12/29 underwent EVSA more than 45 days after initial presentation. Conclusions: The safety and efficacy of EVSA and thrombophlebectomy appear indistinguishable from conservative measures and may be offered as initial treatment to patients presenting with SVT and saphenous reflux. PMID:24307241

  1. [Idiopathic palmar vein thrombosis of the fingers - rare but relevant].

    PubMed

    Spies, C K; Schwarz-Furlan, S; Hahn, P; Oppermann, J; Unglaub, F

    2013-10-01

    Idiopathic thrombosis of palmar finger veins is rare and women suffer from it almost exclusively. Synovial cysts, epidermoid inclusion cysts, giant cell tumours and haemangiomatous lesions should be considered in the process of diagnosis. We present a 56-year-old woman with idiopathic and symptomatic thrombosis of palmar finger veins. Using the palmar approach the painful veins were identified and excised completely. An uncomplicated wound healing has followed with completely unrestricted and painless range of motion. Surgical excision of the finger vein thrombosis should be considered if there is continuing pain. PMID:24089306

  2. Congenitally absent pulmonary veins--diagnostic pitfalls. Two case reports.

    PubMed

    Van der Merwe, P L; Kalis, N N; Gie, R P; Dumoulin, M; Gewillig, M

    1996-06-01

    Two patients with partial absence of the right and left pulmonary veins respectively are described. Congenitally absent pulmonary veins are a rare phenomenon and the diagnosis is often missed or delayed. When children present with haemoptysis and/or recurrent respiratory infections with no obvious underlying cause, absence of the pulmonary veins must be part of the differential diagnosis. Special investigations to be done in these patients are chest roentgenograph to compare the lung volumes, radio-isotope scan, echocardiography and cardiac catheterisation. Magnetic resonance imaging may be helpful in defining the cause and site of obstruction of the pulmonary veins. Depending on the cause, surgery might be considered. PMID:8768776

  3. Two cases of jugular vein thrombosis in severely burned patients

    PubMed Central

    Cen, Hanghui; He, Xiaojie

    2013-01-01

    Here we present two cases of jugular vein thrombosis in burn patients, with diagnosis, risk factor analysis, and treatment approaches. Severely burned patients have high risk of deep vein thrombosis occurrence due to multiple surgeries. The deep vein catheter should be carefully performed. Once deep vein thrombosis is detected, a wide ultrasonography helps to find other thrombosis sites. During the acute phase, low molecular weight heparin can be used. Upon long-term anti-thrombosis treatment, combined use of herbal medicine during rehabilitation is helpful. PMID:23885177

  4. Finger-vein verification based on multi-features fusion.

    PubMed

    Qin, Huafeng; Qin, Lan; Xue, Lian; He, Xiping; Yu, Chengbo; Liang, Xinyuan

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a new scheme to improve the performance of finger-vein identification systems. Firstly, a vein pattern extraction method to extract the finger-vein shape and orientation features is proposed. Secondly, to accommodate the potential local and global variations at the same time, a region-based matching scheme is investigated by employing the Scale Invariant Feature Transform (SIFT) matching method. Finally, the finger-vein shape, orientation and SIFT features are combined to further enhance the performance. The experimental results on databases of 426 and 170 fingers demonstrate the consistent superiority of the proposed approach. PMID:24196433

  5. Absence of the superior petrosal veins and sinus: Surgical considerations

    PubMed Central

    Matsushima, Ken; Ribas, Eduardo Santamaria Carvalhal; Kiyosue, Hiro; Komune, Noritaka; Miki, Koichi; Rhoton, Albert L.

    2015-01-01

    Background: The superior petrosal vein, one of the most constant and largest drainage pathways in the posterior fossa, may result in complications if occluded. This study calls attention to a unique variant in which the superior petrosal veins and sinus were absent unilaterally, and the venous drainage was through the galenic and tentorial drainage groups. Methods: This study examines one venogram and another anatomic specimen in which the superior petrosal vein and sinus were absent. Results: The superior petrosal veins, described as 1–3 bridging veins, emptying into the superior petrosal sinus, are the major drainage pathways of the petrosal group of posterior fossa veins. In the cases presented, the superior petrosal vein and sinus were absent and venous drainage was through the galenic and tentorial groups, including the lateral mesencephalic or bridging vein on the tentorial cerebellar surface. Conclusions: In cases in which the superior petrosal sinus and veins are absent, care should be directed to preserving the collateral drainage through the galenic and tentorial tributaries. Although surgical strategies for intraoperative management and preservation of venous structures are still controversial, knowledge of the possible anatomical variations is considered to be essential to improve surgical outcomes.

  6. Multiple abdominal veins thrombosis secondary to protein s deficiency - a case report.

    PubMed

    Kodali, Venkata Umakant; Borra, Seshulakshmi; Mandarapu, Surendra Babu; Sanda, Mallikarjuna Rao; Bolla, Srinivasa Rao

    2014-06-01

    Abdominal venous thrombosis may present either as Budd-Chiari syndrome (BCS) caused by hepatic vein or proximal inferior vena cava (IVC) obstruction or as an extra hepatic portal obstruction (EHPVO) caused by Portal vein thrombosis or mesenteric vein thrombosis, but a mixed involvement is uncommon. Multiple abdominal venous obstructions presenting with thrombosis of hepatic vein, IVC, portal vein and renal vein are very rarely seen . We are reporting a rare case with thrombosis of IVC, hepatic vein, portal vein and renal vein, with protein S and protein C deficiencies, which was managed by giving anticoagulant therapy. PMID:25121018

  7. Reconstruction of middle hepatic vein of a living-donor right lobe liver graft with recipient left portal vein.

    PubMed

    Cattral, M S; Greig, P D; Muradali, D; Grant, D

    2001-06-27

    Venous outflow problems in right lobe, living-donor liver transplantation are uncommon, but devastating when they occur. We describe the successful use of the recipient's left portal vein as an interposition graft to drain a dominant middle hepatic vein in a right lobe liver transplant. Two weeks after transplantation, the vein graft accounted for 56% of the total venous outflow of the liver. PMID:11455273

  8. Vein Power Plane for Printed Circuit Board Based on Constructal Theory

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hui-Fen Huang; Wei-Guo; Qing-Xin Chu

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, a novel vein power tree design tech- nique based on constructal theory is introduced for optimal direct current performance. The designed vein tree has multifunctions of low electrical resistance, equidistribution, and compactness. In the meantime, a vein power plane based on the vein tree is de- veloped for printed circuit board. The designed vein power plane example

  9. Guidelines for the management of varicose veins.

    PubMed

    Gloviczki, P; Gloviczki, M L

    2012-03-01

    Recently published evidence-based guidelines of the Society for Vascular Surgery (SVS) and the American Venous Forum (AVF) include recommendations for evaluation, classification, outcome assessment and therapy of patients with varicose veins and more advanced chronic venous insufficiency (CVI). The need for such guidelines has been evident since imaging techniques and minimally invasive technologies have progressed by leaps and bounds and radiofrequency ablation, laser and sclerotherapy have largely replaced classical open surgery of saphenous stripping. This report reviews the most important guidelines recommended by the SVS/AVF Venous Guideline Committee. It is obvious, however, that some of the technology that is recommended in North America is either not available or not affordable in some parts of the world for patients with varicose veins and CVI. The readers are urged therefore to also consult the guidelines of their national societies, recent publications of the National Institute for Clinical Excellence and the Venous Forum of the Royal Society of Medicine. Venous specialists should also keep in mind that scientific evidence should always be combined with the physician's clinical experience and the patient's preference when the best treatment is selected for an individual patient. PMID:22312060

  10. Portal vein thrombosis: what is new?

    PubMed

    Manzano-Robleda, María Del Carmen; Barranco-Fragoso, Beatriz; Uribe, Misael; Méndez-Sánchez, Nahum

    2015-01-01

    Portal vein thrombosis (PVT) is one of the most common vascular disorders of the liver with significant morbidity and mortality. Large cohort studies have reported a global prevalence of 1%, but in some risk groups it can be up to 26%. Causes of PVT are cirrhosis, hepatobiliary malignancy, abdominal infectious or inflammatory diseases, and myeloproliferative disorders. Most patients with PVT have a general risk factor. The natural history of PVT results in portal hypertension leading to splenomegaly and the formation of portosystemic collateral blood vessels and esophageal, gastric, duodenal, and jejunal varices. Diagnosis of PVT is made by imaging, mainly Doppler ultrasonography. According to its time of development, localization, pathophysiology, and evolution, PVT should be classified in every patient. Some clinical features such as cirrhosis, hepatocellular carcinoma, and hepatic transplantation are areas of special interest and are discussed in this review. The goal of treatment of acute PVT is to reconstruct the blocked veins. Endoscopic variceal ligation is safe and highly effective in patients with variceal bleeding caused by chronic PVT. In conclusion, PVT is the most common cause of vascular disease of the liver and its prevalence has being increasing, especially among patients with an underlying liver disease. All patients should be investigated for thrombophilic conditions, and in those with cirrhosis, anticoagulation prophylaxis should be considered. PMID:25536638

  11. Pulmonary embolism and deep vein thrombosis.

    PubMed

    Goldhaber, Samuel Z; Bounameaux, Henri

    2012-05-12

    Pulmonary embolism is the third most common cause of death from cardiovascular disease after heart attack and stroke. Sequelae occurring after venous thromboembolism include chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension and post-thrombotic syndrome. Venous thromboembolism and atherothrombosis share common risk factors and the common pathophysiological characteristics of inflammation, hypercoagulability, and endothelial injury. Clinical probability assessment helps to identify patients with low clinical probability for whom the diagnosis of venous thromboembolism can be excluded solely with a negative result from a plasma D-dimer test. The diagnosis is usually confirmed with compression ultrasound showing deep vein thrombosis or with chest CT showing pulmonary embolism. Most patients with venous thromboembolism will respond to anticoagulation, which is the foundation of treatment. Patients with pulmonary embolism should undergo risk stratification to establish whether they will benefit from the addition of advanced treatment, such as thrombolysis or embolectomy. Several novel oral anticoagulant drugs are in development. These drugs, which could replace vitamin K antagonists and heparins in many patients, are prescribed in fixed doses and do not need any coagulation monitoring in the laboratory. Although rigorous clinical trials have reported the effectiveness and safety of pharmacological prevention with low, fixed doses of anticoagulant drugs, prophylaxis remains underused in patients admitted to hospital at moderate risk and high risk for venous thromboembolism. In this Seminar, we discuss pulmonary embolism and deep vein thrombosis of the legs. PMID:22494827

  12. Subclavian Vein Compression and Thrombosis Presenting as Upper Extremity Pain

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jihad G. Jiha; Charles E. Laurito; Richard W. Rosenquist

    1997-01-01

    e report a case of upper extremity pain that eluded diagnosis. Only after ultrasonography was repeated with the patient in the sitting position was external compression of the subclavian vein and a subclavian vein thrombosis detected. The patient was diagnosed as having hypertrophied ante- rior scalene muscles that compressed the venous structures when he assumed the upright position. Per- formance

  13. Composition of arsenopyrite from topaz greisen veins in southeastern Missouri

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. R. Lowell; C. Gasparrini

    1982-01-01

    Arsenopyrite occurs in greisen-sulfide veins hosted by unmetamorphosed Precambrian granite and rhyolite in the Silver Mine district of southeastern Missouri, Greisenization and sulfide mineralization appear to have been a continuous depositional sequence which recorded falling temperature in a near-surface vein environment. Textural criteria imply that equilibrium existed between arsenopyrite and pyrite and that this pair crystallized in an intermediate paragenetic

  14. Significance of minor-vein anatomy to carbohydrate transport

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Linda L. Flora; Monica A. Madore

    1996-01-01

    Plant species which translocate distinct combinations of carbohydrates in the phloem were investigated to assess whether differences in minor-vein anatomy were associated with differences in carbohydrate composition of the phloem sap. In Vicia faba L., a species in which the minor-vein companion cells are modified into transfer cells, sucrose alone was found to be the translocated form of carbohydrate. In

  15. La duplicité de la veine cave inférieure sous-rénale

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. Pillet; P. Albaret; J. Y. Soret; J. M. Chevalier; B. Enon; A. Dauver; C. Caron-Poitreau

    1980-01-01

    Résumé A l'occasion d'anomalies de la veine cave inférieure dont 6 cas nouveaux sont présentés, l'étude de l'organogenèse de la veine cave inférieure est reprise à partir de la littérature et de reconstructions personnelles d'embryons: l'évolution de cette organogenèse est précisée par rapport aux stades de Streeter.

  16. Pulmonary Vein Stenosis After Catheter Ablation of Atrial Fibrillation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ivan M. Robbins; Edward V. Colvin; Thomas P. Doyle; W. Evans Kemp; James E. Loyd; William S. McMahon; G. Neal Kay

    Background—This report describes the complication of pulmonary vein stenosis with resultant severe pulmonary hypertension that developed in 2 patients after successful catheter ablation of chronic atrial fibrillation. Methods and Results—Three months after successful catheter ablation of atrial fibrillation, both patients developed progressive dyspnea and pulmonary hypertension. Both were found to have severe stenosis of all 4 pulmonary veins near the

  17. Plantar Vein Thrombosis—Evaluation by Ultrasound and Clinical Outcome

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Marcio Vinicius Lins Barros; Nicos Labropoulos

    2010-01-01

    Objective: This study was designed to describe the characteristics and clinical outcome of patients diagnosed with plantar vein thrombosis. Methods: Patients presenting with sudden pain and\\/or swelling of the foot were evaluated by duplex scanning of the affected leg. All the main foot veins were imaged with high resolution multi-linear array transducers. The location and extent of thrombosis was recorded

  18. Finger-vein image separation algorithms and realization with MATLAB

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Xiaoyan; Ma, Junshan; Wu, Jiajie

    2010-10-01

    According to the characteristics of the finger-vein image, we adopted a series of methods to enhance the contrast of the image in order to separate the finger-vein areas from the background areas, and made prepare for the subsequent research such as feature extraction and recognition processing . The method consists of three steps: denoising, contrast enhancement and image binarization. In denoising, considering the relationship between gray levels in the adjacent areas of the finger-vein image, we adopted the Gradient Inverse Weighted Smoothing method. In contrast enhancement, we improved the conventional High Frequency Stress Filtering method and adopted a method which combined the traditional High Frequency Stress Filtering algorithm together with the Histogram Equalization. With this method, the contrast of the finger-vein area and the background area has been enhanced significantly. During the binarization process, after taking the differences of the gray levels between the different areas of the finger-vein image into consideration, we proposed a method which combined the binarization by dividing the image into several segments and the Morphological Image Processing means. Our experiment results show that after a series of processing mentioned above by using MATLAB, the finger-vein areas can be separated from the background areas obviously. We can get a vivid figure of the finger-vein which provided some references for the following research such as finger-vein image feature extraction, matching and identification.

  19. Renal Vein Leiomyoma: A Rare Entity with Review of Literature

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Santosh; Mittal, Ankur; Devana, Sudheer Kumar; Singh, Shrawan Kumar

    2014-01-01

    Tumors of vascular origin are unusual. These tumors are predominantly malignant and commonly arise from the inferior vena cava. Benign smooth muscle tumors arising from renal vein are very rare. We present a case of leiomyoma of renal vein in a post-menopausal woman that clinically resembled a retroperitoneal paraganglioma. PMID:25161811

  20. Blackberry Yellow Vein Disease is Caused by Multiple Virus Complexes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Blackberry yellow vein disease, with symptoms of vein clearing, yellow mottling, ringspots and plant decline has been observed in blackberry in the southeastern United States since about 2000. At least six viruses have been identified by cloning and sequencing of double-stranded RNA from diseased p...

  1. PREVALENCE OF HYPERHOMOCYSTEINEMIA IN PATIENTS WITH RETINAL VEIN OCCLUSION

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. R. Manaviat; M. R. Shoja; M. R. Besharaty

    Recently multiple studies have shown that elevated homocysteine levels may be associated with ophthalmic vascular disease. To investigate the role of high plasma levels of homocysteine in the patients with retinal vein occlusion, 21 patients with retinal vein occlusion (RVO) and 20 age and sex matched controls without RVO were included in this retrospective case-control study. Information regarding sex, age,

  2. Hemodynamically Driven Vein Graft Remodeling: A Systems Biology Approach

    E-print Network

    Garbey, Marc

    in an animal vein graft model, human phase I and II clinical studies were initiated.1-3 Demonstrating safety-PAAuthorManuscriptNIH-PAAuthorManuscriptNIH-PAAuthorManuscript #12;promising therapies that should move forward into clinical testing are inadequate and (2) tools components and providing predictive models to anticipate these results, offers an alternative approach. Vein

  3. Adrenal vein sampling in primary aldosteronism: towards a standardised protocol.

    PubMed

    Monticone, Silvia; Viola, Andrea; Rossato, Denis; Veglio, Franco; Reincke, Martin; Gomez-Sanchez, Celso; Mulatero, Paolo

    2015-04-01

    Primary aldosteronism comprises subtypes that need different therapeutic strategies. Adrenal vein sampling is recognised by Endocrine Society guidelines as the only reliable way to correctly diagnose the subtype of primary aldosteronism. Unfortunately, despite being the gold-standard procedure, no standardised procedure exists either in terms of performance or interpretation criteria. In this Personal View, we address several questions that clinicians are presented with when considering adrenal vein sampling. For each of these questions we provide responses based on the available evidence, and opinions based on our experience. In particular, we discuss the most appropriate way to prepare the patient, whether adrenal vein sampling can be avoided for some subgroups of patients, the use of ACTH (1-24) during the procedure, the most appropriate criteria for interpretation of adrenal vein cannulation and lateralisation, the use of contralateral suppression, and strategies to improve success rates of adrenal vein sampling in centres with little experience. PMID:24831990

  4. Design of a clinical vein contrast enhancing projector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeman, Herbert D.; Lovhoiden, Gunnar; Deshmukh, Harshal

    2001-06-01

    A clinical study has been initiated to compare an experimental IR device, the Vein Contrast Enhancer (VCE), with standard techniques for finding veins for venipuncture. The aims of this proposal are (1) to evaluate the performance of the VCE in a clinical setting, specifically by comparing its sensitivity of detection with existing vein-finding techniques used by experienced nurses or phlebotomists, (2) to study its usefulness in subjects who are obese, who have difficult venous access or thrombosed veins, or whose veins are not visible or difficult to palpate, and (3) to show that it performs as well on subjects with darkly pigmented skin as on subjects with lightly pigmented skin. The VCE will first be studied in adult subjects, and then in pediatric subjects.

  5. Portal Vein Embolization: What Do We Know?

    SciTech Connect

    Denys, Alban, E-mail: Alban.Denys@chuv.ch [Centre Hospitalo Universitaire Vaudois, Department of Radiology and Interventional Radiology Unit (Switzerland); Prior, John [Centre Hospitalo Universitaire Vaudois, Department of Nuclear Medicine (Switzerland); Bize, Pierre; Duran, Rafael [Centre Hospitalo Universitaire Vaudois, Department of Radiology and Interventional Radiology Unit (Switzerland); Baere, Thierry De [Institut Gustave Roussy, Department of Interventional Radiology (France); Halkic, Nermin; Demartines, Nicolas [Centre Hospitalo Universitaire Vaudois, Department of Visceral Surgery (Switzerland)

    2012-10-15

    Portal vein embolization (PVE) has been developed to increase the size of the future remnant liver (FRL) left in place after major hepatectomy, thus reducing the risk of postoperative liver insufficiency. PVE consist in embolizing preoperatively portal branches of the segments that will be resected. Indication is based on preoperative measurements of the FRL by computed tomography and its ratio with either the theoretical liver volume or by direct measurement of the functional liver volume. After PVE, the volume and function of the FRL increases in 3 to 6 weeks, permitting extensive resections in patients otherwise contraindicated for liver resection. The PVE technique is variable from one center to another; however n-butyl-cyano-acrylate provides an interesting compromise between hypertrophy rate and procedure risk.

  6. Warfarin-induced deep vein thrombosis

    PubMed Central

    Binymin, Khalid A; Nasher, Magda; Patel, Dipti

    2014-01-01

    We are presenting a 72-year-old female who was admitted to hospital with deep vein thrombosis (DVT). She was known to have atrial fibrillation and was initiated on warfarin for stroke prophylaxis 3 days earlier. She was given warfarin therapy without low molecular weight heparin cover as per “slow-start regimen” protocol. The warfarin dose was increased after 3 days to achieve rapid anticoagulation, resulting in DVT in the left leg. We propose that the higher unopposed warfarin dose utilized in this case resulted in DVT. Warfarin loading doses may paradoxically result in a hypercoagulable state and potential clot formation because of significant reductions in protein C and protein S levels. PMID:25246809

  7. Practical management of retinal vein occlusions.

    PubMed

    La Spina, Carlo; De Benedetto, Umberto; Parodi, Maurizio Battaglia; Coscas, Gabriel; Bandello, Francesco

    2012-12-01

    Retinal vein occlusion (RVO) is the second most common cause of visual impairment due to retinal disease after diabetic retinopathy. Nowadays, the introduction of new, powerful diagnostic tools, such as spectral domain optical coherence tomography, and the widespread diffusion of intravitreal drugs, such as vascular endothelial grow factor inhibitors or implantable steroids, have dramatically changed the management and prognosis of RVO. The authors aim to summarize and review the main clinical, diagnostic, and therapeutic aspects of this condition. The authors conducted a review of the most relevant clinical trials and observational studies published within the last 30 years using a keyword search of MEDLINE, EMBASE, Current Contents, and Cochrane Library. Furthermore, for all treatments discussed, the level of evidence supporting its use, as per the US Preventive Task Force Ranking System, is provided. PMID:25135583

  8. Development of HIFU Treatment for Lower Extremity Varicose Veins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Senoo, Naohiko; Ushijima, Hiroyuki; Suzuki, Jun; Yoshinaka, Kiyoshi; Deguchi, Juno; Takagi, Shu; Miyata, Tetsuro; Matsumoto, Yoichiro

    2011-09-01

    High-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) has recently been developed as a noninvasive therapeutic method. In our study, a novel noninvasive therapy with HIFU was proposed for occlusion of lower extremity varicose veins. The temperature increase caused by HIFU is used to occlude varicose veins. Occluded veins became fibrotic, resulting in complete recovery. Our final goal is the medical application of HIFU treatment for varicose veins. In this study, we attempted to occlude the veins of rabbits. Prior to venous occlusion experiments, the area heated by HIFU was investigated using bovine serum albumin (BSA) gel, which denatures at >70 °C. The results indicate that the size of the heated area mainly depends on intensity at the focal point and the exposure time. A tendency was also seen for the heated area to extend toward the transducer with increasing exposure time. In animal experiments, skin burns during HIFU exposure represented a critical problem. We therefore examined the safe range of HIFU intensities in abdominal exposure experiments before conducting venous occlusion experiments. The ultrasound frequency was 1.7 MHz. Intensity at the focal point was 900 W/cm2, and the exposure time was 20 s. Rabbits underwent chemical depilation and echo gel was applied to the exposed skin to fill the boundary gap. Target veins were compressed during HIFU exposure to avoid thermal dissipation, and hyaluronan water solution was injected between the veins and skin to maintain the distance between the skin and veins at ?5 mm. Veins were then exposed to HIFU and occluded. The capability of HIFU treatment to occlude lower extremity varicose veins was verified by the present study.

  9. Repair of peripheral nerve with vein wrapping*

    PubMed Central

    LEUZZI, S.; ARMENIO, A.; LEONE, L.; DE SANTIS, V.; DI TURI, A.; ANNOSCIA, P.; BUFANO, L.; PASCONE, M.

    2014-01-01

    Objective The post–traumatic neuro-anastomosis must be protected from the surrounding environment. This barrier must be biologically inert, biodegradable, not compressing but protecting the nerve. Formation of painful neuroma is one of the major issues with neuro-anastomosis; currently there is no consensus on post-repair neuroma prevention. Aim of this study is to evaluate the efficacy of neuroanastomosis performed with venous sheath to reduce painful neuromas formation, improve the electrical conductivity of the repaired nerve, and reduce the discrepancies of the sectioned nerve stumps. Patients and methods From a trauma population of 320 patients treated in a single centre between January 2008 and December 2011, twenty-six patients were identified as having an injury to at least one of the peripheral nerves of the arm and enrolled in the study. Patients were divided into two groups. In the group A (16 patients) the end-to-end nerve suture was wrapped in a vein sheath and compared with the group B (10 patients) in which a simple end-to-end neurorrhaphy was performed. The venous segment used to cover the nerve micro-suture was harvested from the superficial veins of the forearm. The parameters analyzed were: functional recovery of motor nerves, sensitivity and pain. Results Average follow-up was 14 months (range: 12–24 months). The group A showed a more rapid motor and sensory recovery and a reduction of the painful symptoms compared to the control group (B). Conclusions The Authors demonstrated that, in their experience, the venous sheath provides a valid solution to avoid the dispersion of the nerve fibres, to prevent adherent scars and painful neuromas formation. Moreover it can compensate the different size of two nerve stumps, allowing, thereby, a more rapid functional and sensitive recovery without expensive devices. PMID:24841688

  10. Ipomoviruses: Squash vein yellowing virus, Cucumber vein yellowing virus, Cassava brown streak virus, and Ugandan cassava brown streak virus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Ipomoviruses including Squash vein yellowing virus, Cucumber vein yellowing virus and Cassava brown streak virus are currently causing significant economic impact on crop production in several regions of the world. Only recently have results of detailed characterization of their whitefly transmissi...

  11. Aneurysmal dilatation of persistent vitelline vein with thrombus in a neonate.

    PubMed

    Kang, Kun Woo; Sung, Deuk Jae; Park, Beom Jin; Kim, Min Ju; Cho, Sung Bum

    2014-07-01

    The paired vitelline veins selectively involute and form a part of the portal vein during embryonic development. The presence of a persistent vitelline vein segment after birth is very rare and can be confused with anomalies of the portal and umbilical veins. We present sonographic, CT and MRI findings of aneurysmal dilatation of a persistent vitelline vein with thrombus in a neonate; this case was first misdiagnosed as an umbilical vein varix by prenatal US. MRI was used to identify the persistent vitelline vein segment and the remnant umbilical vein segment. PMID:24306734

  12. Coil Protruding into the Common Femoral Vein Following Pelvic Venous Embolization

    SciTech Connect

    Marsh, Petra, E-mail: petra@thewhiteleyclinic.co.uk; Holdstock, Judith M. [The Whiteley Clinic (United Kingdom); Bacon, Jennifer L.; Lopez, Anthony J. [The Royal Surrey County Hospital (United Kingdom); Whiteley, Mark S.; Price, Barrie A. [The Whiteley Clinic (United Kingdom)

    2008-03-15

    Pelvic venous embolization is performed for pelvic congestion syndrome and prior to lower limb varicose vein surgery in females with associated pelvic venous insufficiency. The procedure is analogous to varicocele embolization in males, although refluxing internal iliac vein tributaries may also be embolized. We report a case of inadvertent coil placement in the common femoral vein while embolizing the obturator vein, during pelvic vein embolization for recurrent lower limb varicose veins. There were no clinical consequences and the coil was left in situ. We advise caution when embolizing internal iliac vein tributaries where there is clinically significant communication with veins of the lower limb.

  13. Influence of vein fabric on strain distribution and fold kinematics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Torremans, Koen; Muchez, Philippe; Sintubin, Manuel

    2014-05-01

    Abundant pre-folding, bedding-parallel fibrous dolomite veins in shale are found associated with the Nkana-Mindola stratiform Cu-Co deposit in the Central African Copperbelt, Zambia. These monomineralic veins extend for several meters along strike, with a fibrous infill orthogonal to low-tortuosity vein walls. Growth morphologies vary from antitaxial with a pronounced median surface to asymmetric syntaxial, always with small but quantifiable growth competition. Subsequently, these veins were folded. In this study, we aim to constrain the kinematic fold mechanism by which strain is accommodated in these veins, estimate paleorheology at time of deformation and investigate the influence of vein fabric on deformation during folding. Finally, the influence of the deformation on known metallogenetic stages is assessed. Various deformation styles are observed, ultimately related to vein attitude across tight to close lower-order, hectometre-scale folds. In fold hinges, at low to average dips, veins are (poly-)harmonically to disharmonically folded as parasitic folds in single or multilayer systems. With increasing distance from the fold hinge, parasitic fold amplitude decreases and asymmetry increases. At high dips in the limbs, low-displacement duplication thrusts of veins at low angles to bedding are abundant. Slickenfibres and slickenlines are sub-perpendicular to fold hinges and shallow-dipping slickenfibre-step lineations are parallel to local fold hinge lines. A dip isogon analysis of reconstructed fold geometries prior to homogeneous shortening reveals type 1B parallel folds for the veins and type 1C for the matrix. Two main deformation mechanisms are identified in folded veins. Firstly, undulatory extinction, subgrains and fluid inclusions planes parallel the fibre long axis, with deformation intensity increasing away from the fold hinges, indicate intracrystalline strain accumulation. Secondly, intergranular deformation through bookshelf rotation of fibres, via collective parallel rotation of fibres and shearing along fibre grain boundaries, is clearly observed under cathodoluminescence. We analysed the internal strain distribution by quantifying simple shear strain caused by deflection of the initially orthogonal fibres relative to layer inclination at a given position across the fold. Shear angle, and thus shear strain, steadily increases towards the limbs away from the fold hinge. Comparison of observed shear strain to theoretical distribution for kinematic mechanisms, amongst other lines of evidence, clearly points to pure flexural flow followed by homogeneous shortening. As flexural flow is not the expected kinematic folding mechanism for competent layers in an incompetent shale matrix, our analysis shows that the internal vein fabric in these dolomite veins can exhibit a first-order influence on folding mechanisms. In addition, quantitative analysis shows that these veins acted as rigid objects with high viscosity contrast relative to the incompetent carbonaceous shale, rather than as semi-passive markers. Later folding-related syn-orogenic veins, intensely mineralised with Cu-Co sulphides, are strongly related to deformation of these pre-folding veins. The high viscosity contrast created by the pre-folding fibrous dolomite veins was therefore essential in creating transient permeability for subsequent mineralising stages in the veining history.

  14. Palm Vein Verification Using Multiple Features and Locality Preserving Projections

    PubMed Central

    Bu, Wei; Wu, Xiangqian; Zhao, Qiushi

    2014-01-01

    Biometrics is defined as identifying people by their physiological characteristic, such as iris pattern, fingerprint, and face, or by some aspects of their behavior, such as voice, signature, and gesture. Considerable attention has been drawn on these issues during the last several decades. And many biometric systems for commercial applications have been successfully developed. Recently, the vein pattern biometric becomes increasingly attractive for its uniqueness, stability, and noninvasiveness. A vein pattern is the physical distribution structure of the blood vessels underneath a person's skin. The palm vein pattern is very ganglion and it shows a huge number of vessels. The attitude of the palm vein vessels stays in the same location for the whole life and its pattern is definitely unique. In our work, the matching filter method is proposed for the palm vein image enhancement. New palm vein features extraction methods, global feature extracted based on wavelet coefficients and locality preserving projections (WLPP), and local feature based on local binary pattern variance and locality preserving projections (LBPV_LPP) have been proposed. Finally, the nearest neighbour matching method has been proposed that verified the test palm vein images. The experimental result shows that the EER to the proposed method is 0.1378%. PMID:24693230

  15. [Reconstructive surgery of the large intrathoracic veins, four cases report].

    PubMed

    Abreu, Rodolfo; Valentim, Hugo; Martelo, Fernando; Rodrigues, Hugo; Bravio, Ivan; Gonçalves, Frederico; Ferreira, Maria E; Castro, João A; Fragata, J; Capitão, L Mota; Castro, João M

    2013-01-01

    The resection and reconstruction of the large venous vessels of the chest is a procedure intended to treat the symptoms of venous hypertension caused by the Superior Vena Cava Syndrome and to allow resection of mediastinal tumors that invade the superior vena cava (SVC) and the left and right innominate veins. We report four clinical cases of mediastinal tumors involving the large intrathoracic venous vessels, submitted to surgery between 2010 and 2013. In all cases our purpose was to completely resect the tumor. We intended to evaluate the surgical results in terms of improvement of symptoms, complications of the procedures, permeability of the bypasses in the short and medium term and mortality rates. We used ringed ePTFE grafts to perform the following vascular reconstructions: - Y configuration bypass from the left subclavian vein and the left internal jugular vein to the left inominate vein; - two bypasses from the top of the left innominate vein to the right atrial appendage; - bypass from the left innominate vein to the right atrial appendage and a bypass from the right innominate vein to the SVC. All patients were discharged, and all the bypasses were patent at discharge and after 30 days . There were two cases of late thrombosis, but patients remained asymptomatic. Our series shows the feasibility of these technically complex surgeries, which are an excellent example of the benefits of multidisciplinary collaboration between vascular and thoracic surgeons. PMID:24730017

  16. Palm vein verification using multiple features and locality preserving projections.

    PubMed

    Al-Juboori, Ali Mohsin; Bu, Wei; Wu, Xiangqian; Zhao, Qiushi

    2014-01-01

    Biometrics is defined as identifying people by their physiological characteristic, such as iris pattern, fingerprint, and face, or by some aspects of their behavior, such as voice, signature, and gesture. Considerable attention has been drawn on these issues during the last several decades. And many biometric systems for commercial applications have been successfully developed. Recently, the vein pattern biometric becomes increasingly attractive for its uniqueness, stability, and noninvasiveness. A vein pattern is the physical distribution structure of the blood vessels underneath a person's skin. The palm vein pattern is very ganglion and it shows a huge number of vessels. The attitude of the palm vein vessels stays in the same location for the whole life and its pattern is definitely unique. In our work, the matching filter method is proposed for the palm vein image enhancement. New palm vein features extraction methods, global feature extracted based on wavelet coefficients and locality preserving projections (WLPP), and local feature based on local binary pattern variance and locality preserving projections (LBPV_LPP) have been proposed. Finally, the nearest neighbour matching method has been proposed that verified the test palm vein images. The experimental result shows that the EER to the proposed method is 0.1378%. PMID:24693230

  17. Endovenous radiofrequency ablation for the treatment of varicose veins.

    PubMed

    Dietzek, Alan M

    2007-01-01

    Chronic venous insufficiency (CVI) is the most common vascular disease and represents a significant health care problem in the United States. Reflux of the great saphenous vein is the most common cause of this condition, whose symptoms include varicose veins, leg swelling, skin discoloration, and ulceration. The traditional treatment of this condition is saphenofemoral ligation with stripping of the saphenous vein followed by varicose vein removal, if necessary. Recent advances in minimally invasive endovenous therapy have led to the development of catheter-based radiofrequency ablation (RFA) of the saphenous vein, which has gained an increasing acceptance in clinical practice. Endovenous RFA was introduced into clinical practice in Europe in 1998 and in the United States in 1999. Since then, over 250,000 procedures have been performed worldwide. Procedure safety and efficacy are well understood, with over 60 publications on the subject in the peer review literature, including four randomized trials comparing this technology with traditional vein stripping surgery. With the advent of tumescent anesthesia, the majority of RFA procedures are now performed in an office setting. This article examines the current technology using RFA in saphenous vein ablation with the Closure catheter system. Procedural techniques and clinical outcome using RFA in saphenous vein ablation are discussed. Clinical data comparing RFA versus saphenous vein stripping are also examined. Lastly, the clinical utility of a new RFA catheter, ClosureFAST, is discussed. ClosureFAST is a new generation of RFA catheter and has exhibited significant improvement in the ease of use and the procedure speed over the previous generation catheters while maintaining the favorable patient recovery profile seen with the RFA technology. PMID:17976324

  18. Endothelin receptor expression and pharmacology in human saphenous vein graft

    PubMed Central

    Maguire, Janet J; Davenport, Anthony P

    1999-01-01

    We have investigated the expression and pharmacology of endothelin (ET) receptors in human aortocoronary saphenous vein grafts. Subtype-selective ligands were used to autoradiographically identify ETA ([125I]-PD151242) and ETB ([125I]-BQ3020) receptors. In graft saphenous vein ETA receptors predominated in the media, with few ETB receptors identified. Neither subtype was detected in the thickened neointima. The ratio of medial ETA:ETB receptors was 75%?:?25% in both graft and control saphenous vein. ET-1 contracted control (EC50 2.9?nM) and graft (EC50 4.5?nM) saphenous vein more potently than diseased coronary artery (EC50 25.5?nM). In all three blood vessels ET-1 was 100 times more potent than ET-3 and three times more potent than sarafotoxin 6b (S6b). Little or no response was obtained in any vessel with the ETB agonist sarafotoxin 6c (S6c). The ETA antagonist PD156707 (100?nM) blocked ET-1 responses in all three vessels with pKb values of approximately 8.0. For individual graft veins the EC50 value for ET-1 and ‘age' of graft in years showed a significant negative correlation. In conclusion there is no alteration in ET receptor expression in the media of saphenous veins grafted into the coronary circulation compared to control veins. ETA receptors predominantly mediate the vasoconstrictor response to ET-1 in graft vein, with no apparent up-regulation of ETB receptors. The sensitivity of the graft vein to ET-1 increased with graft ‘age', suggesting that these vessels may be particularly vulnerable to the increased plasma ET levels that are detected in patients with cardiovascular disease. PMID:10077237

  19. Endovenous laser ablation for the treatment of varicose veins.

    PubMed

    O?uzkurt, Levent

    2012-01-01

    Lower extremity venous insufficiency secondary to saphenous vein insufficiency is a common medical condition that decreases a patient's quality of life. Traditionally treated with high ligation and stripping, minimally invasive procedures using endovenous thermal ablation techniques, such as endovenous laser ablation, have evolved. The use of detailed imaging and advances in the understanding of the anatomy of truncal vein insufficiency are important for performing the endovenous laser ablation procedure successfully. Endovenous laser ablation eliminates reflux with less morbidity, faster recovery, and improved cosmetic results with high patient satisfaction. As such, it has become the preferred treatment method for varicose veins since it was first introduced a decade ago. PMID:22205579

  20. Endoscopic subfascial dissection of the perforating veins: treatment results.

    PubMed

    Jugenheimer, Michael; Mayer, Wolfgang; Uckele, Matthias

    2003-01-01

    Before introduction of endoscopic subfascial dissection, surgical treatment of the perforating veins was a neglected topic. High error rates in the preoperatively marked perforating veins, wound-healing problems due to the incision in trophically disturbed areas, and leg ulcers prevented correct surgical treatment. Endoscopic subfascial dissection allows the accurate elimination of all clinically relevant, insufficient perforating veins in the lower leg. Therefore, it has become an accepted, improved treatment concept in the surgical therapy of primary varicosis in all three stages of chronic venous insufficiency. This experience is demonstrated based on a prospective study of the patients treated in the year 2000. PMID:12931302

  1. Pylephlebitis of a variant mesenteric vein complicating sigmoid diverticulitis.

    PubMed

    Falkowski, Anna L; Cathomas, Gieri; Zerz, Andreas; Rasch, Helmut; Tarr, Philip E

    2014-02-01

    Pylephlebitis--suppurative thrombophlebitis of the portal and/or mesenteric veins--is a rare complication of abdominal infections, especially diverticulitis. It can lead to severe complications such as hepatic abscess, sepsis, peritonitis, bowel ischemia, etc., which increase the mortality rate. Here we present a case of suppurative thrombophlebitis of the inferior mesenteric vein, as a complication of sigmoid diverticulitis. The epidemiology, clinical and radiological features as well as treatment strategies are discussed. We also review the anatomy of the mesenteric vein given its anatomic variation in the present case and how this anatomic knowledge might influence the operative approach should surgery be necessary. PMID:24967018

  2. Upper extremity deep vein thrombosis with tourniquet use

    PubMed Central

    Desai, Karan; Dinh, Trish P.; Chung, Susan; Pierpont, Yvonne N.; Naidu, Deepak K.; Payne, Wyatt G.

    2014-01-01

    INTRODUCTION Upper extremity deep vein thrombosis is an increasingly important clinical finding with significant morbidity and mortality. The condition may be under-diagnosed in trauma and surgery settings. PRESENTATION OF CASE We present a case of upper extremity thrombosis with venous congestive symptoms secondary to the use of an operative tourniquet. A literature review and discussion of the causes of upper extremity deep vein thrombosis and the pathophysiological disturbances seen with tourniquet use are presented. DISCUSSION Upper extremity deep venous thrombosis is uncommon. In this case the likely cause was operative tourniquet use. CONCLUSION Operative tourniquet may be a risk factor in upper extremity deep vein thrombosis. PMID:25524302

  3. Endovenous radiofrequency ablation for the treatment of varicose veins

    PubMed Central

    Kayssi, Ahmed; Pope, Marc; Vucemilo, Ivica; Werneck, Christiane

    2015-01-01

    Summary Varicose veins are a common condition that can be treated surgically. Available operative modalities include saphenous venous ligation and stripping, phlebectomy, endovenous laser therapy and radiofrequency ablation. Radiofrequency ablation is the newest of these technologies, and to our knowledge our group was the first to use it in Canada. Our experience suggests that it is a safe and effective treatment for varicose veins, with high levels of patient satisfaction reported at short-term follow-up. More studies are needed to assess long-term effectiveness and compare the various available treatment options for varicose veins. PMID:25799244

  4. Mars Opportunity rover finds gypsum veins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Showstack, Randy

    2011-12-01

    Bright linear features about the width of a human thumb that were found on Mars by NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity appear to be gypsum veins deposited by groundwater, a team of scientists announced at a 7 December news briefing at the AGU Fall Meeting in San Francisco, Calif. “To me, this is the single most powerful piece of evidence for liquid water on Mars that has been discovered by the Opportunity rover,” said Steve Squyres, a geoscientist at Cornell University in Ithaca, N. Y., and principal investigator for NASA Mars Exploration Rovers Opportunity and Spirit. “We have found sulfates before. Those sulfates were formed somewhere; we don't know where. They have been moved around by the wind, they've been mixed with other materials. It's a big, jumbled, fascinating mess. This stuff was formed right here. There was a fracture in the rock, water flowed through it, gypsum was precipitated from the water. End of story. Okay, there is no ambiguity about this. This is what makes it so cool.”

  5. Circumaortic left renal vein-a rare case report.

    PubMed

    Panagar, Anupama Doddappaiah; Subhash, R Lakshmi Prabha; Suresh, B S; Nagaraj, D N

    2014-03-01

    During routine dissection which was carried out for the medical students, a circumaortic left renal vein draining into inferior vena cava was observed. There were 2 renal veins through which the left kidney drained into the inferior vena cava, of which the larger one ran ventral to aorta and the other smaller one ran posterior to aorta and received lumbar veins before opening into inferior vena cava. This is a relatively rare condition which can result in left renal hypertension (LRVH) syndrome which is otherwise called as anterior and posterior nutcracker syndromes. This venous anomaly results from the errors of embryological development. It is of clinical significance, mainly during retroperitoneal surgeries and intra caval interventions. It is also important in conditions which warrant extensive venous dissections, venous reconstructions as in transplantations and invasion of veins by cancerous tissue, resulting in life threatening haemorrhage. PMID:24783096

  6. Bilateral anomalous pulmonary venous connection to bilateral superior caval veins.

    PubMed

    Sasikumar, Navaneetha; Ramanan, Sowmya; Chidambaram, Shanthi; Rema, Krishna Manohar Soman; Cherian, Kootturathu Mammen

    2014-01-01

    A four-year-old girl presented with superior vena cava (SVC) type of sinus venosus defect, right upper pulmonary vein draining into right SVC-right atrium junction, left upper lobe pulmonary veins draining into the lower part of persistent left SVC (LSVC), and a patent ductus arteriosus. The anomalous pulmonary venous drainage to LSVC was overlooked in the preoperative evaluation and was found intraoperatively. Warden procedure was performed for right-sided veins. Lower LSVC draining the anomalous pulmonary veins was anastomosed to the left atrial appendage. The short stump of LSVC was diverted to left pulmonary artery. Anomalous pulmonary venous connections to LSVC are rare. Embryology of venous development is analyzed with respect to this rare anomaly, and options for surgical correction are discussed. PMID:24403371

  7. Left renal vein transposition is effective for posterior nutcracker syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Yuedong; Xing, Jinchun; Liu, Fei

    2014-01-01

    An 8-year-old girl was enrolled in hospital with intermittent gross hematuria in a period of 3 years. Bloody efflux from the left ureteral orifice was diagnosed in this patient with urethrocystoscopy. A retroaortic left renal vein appeared to be compressed by the aorta as detected by computerized tomography. The left renal vein was compressed between the aorta and the spine. A groove in the anterior surface of the left renal vein was detected. A transposition surgery of the left renal vein to a site in front of the aorta was performed for the patient. The patient was discharged after recovery and the hematuria symptom was not found during the 15-month follow-up investigation. PMID:25664135

  8. Circumaortic Left Renal Vein-A Rare Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Panagar, Anupama Doddappaiah; Subhash, R. Lakshmi Prabha; Suresh, B.S.; Nagaraj, D.N.

    2014-01-01

    During routine dissection which was carried out for the medical students, a circumaortic left renal vein draining into inferior vena cava was observed. There were 2 renal veins through which the left kidney drained into the inferior vena cava, of which the larger one ran ventral to aorta and the other smaller one ran posterior to aorta and received lumbar veins before opening into inferior vena cava. This is a relatively rare condition which can result in left renal hypertension (LRVH) syndrome which is otherwise called as anterior and posterior nutcracker syndromes. This venous anomaly results from the errors of embryological development. It is of clinical significance, mainly during retroperitoneal surgeries and intra caval interventions. It is also important in conditions which warrant extensive venous dissections, venous reconstructions as in transplantations and invasion of veins by cancerous tissue, resulting in life threatening haemorrhage. PMID:24783096

  9. Squash vein yellowing virus affecting watermelon in Puerto Rico

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In this study, we report the first detection of Squash vein yellowing virus (SqVYV)-induced watermelon vine decline outside of the continental U.S. This has implications for management of cucurbit virus diseases throughout the Caribbean....

  10. Options in the management of varicose veins, 2008.

    PubMed

    Hirsch, S A; Dillavou, E

    2008-02-01

    Modern management of varicose veins requires knowledge of the principal procedures currently utilized, which are compression sclerotherapy, foam sclerotherapy, endovenous laser therapy, radiofrequency closure, microincision phlebectomy, transilluminated powered phlebectomy, radiofrequency closure of perforating veins, perforation invagination stripping, subfascial endoscopic perforator surgery, saphenous valvuloplasty and external laser therapy. A review of the above procedures is presented with a brief description of their indications, performance and results. PMID:18212684

  11. Bitumen veins and Eocene transpression, Neuquén Basin, Argentina

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cobbold, P. R.; Diraison, M.; Rossello, E. A.

    1999-12-01

    In the northwestern part of the petroleum-rich Neuquén Basin, veins of solid hydrocarbon (bitumen) have been reported from over 150 localities. The bitumen veins are mostly steeply-dipping and show intrusive relationships with their wall rocks. The largest are some 8 m wide, 8 km long and probably several kilometres deep. The bitumen probably formed in the earliest stages of thermal maturation of organically-rich source rocks. The most likely source rocks for the bitumen, as well as for most of the oil and gas in the Neuquén Basin, are black marine shales of the Vaca Muerta and Agrio formations. These were deposited in a rift setting during the late Jurassic and Early Cretaceous. According to subsidence models, the source rocks should have reached thermal maturity in the latest Cretaceous or Paleocene and should have remained in the oil window ever since. Although the bitumen has not been dated directly, the veins probably formed soon after maturation of the source rocks, in other words, in the Paleocene or Eocene. The wall rocks of the veins are mostly the source rocks themselves. Other veins have been emplaced into overlying strata of Early Cretaceous to Paleocene ages or into underlying sediments of Jurassic age. The bitumen veins have preferred orientations. The dominant trend is 060° and subsidiary trends are either 000° to 020° or 100°. As in other basins worldwide, the majority of bitumen veins in the Neuquén Basin probably formed by tensile failure, in orientations perpendicular to the least compressive stress, under the combined effects of regional tectonics and fluid overpressures. The orientations of the veins are compatible with the direction of oblique convergence between continental South America and the oceanic Nazca plate in the Eocene. Many major structures in the Neuquén Basin are also of Eocene age and may have formed under right-lateral transpression.

  12. Endovascular Treatment of a Portal Vein Tear During TIPSS

    SciTech Connect

    Owen, Richard J.T.; Rose, John D.G. [Department of Clinical Radiology, Freeman Hospital, Newcastle upon Tyne, NE7 7DN (United Kingdom)

    2000-03-15

    During a transjugular portosystemic stent-shunt (TIPSS) procedure a portal vein laceration occurred with subsequent intraperitoneal hemorrhage. A PTFE-covered nitinol stent was successfully placed eliminating the leak and creating a functioning portosystemic shunt. This case demonstrates both the importance of portal vein puncture more than 1 cm from the bifurcation and the necessity of maintaining a stock of available stent-grafts.

  13. The cutoff value of saphenous vein diameter to predict reflux

    PubMed Central

    Park, Ho-Chul

    2013-01-01

    Purpose Increased saphenous vein diameter is a common consequence of saphenous vein reflux. Until now, there have been no reports about the correlation between diameter and reflux of saphenous vein in Korea. The aim of this study was to investigate the correlation between saphenous vein reflux and diameter changes. Methods From April 2009 to August 2012, 777 patients were sent to the vascular laboratory for evaluation of venous reflux. The diameter of the saphenous vein was measured with B-mode imaging, and reflux was quantified based on valve closure time using Doppler spectral tracings. Receiver operating characteristics curve analysis was applied to determine the best saphenous vein diameter cutoff for predicting reflux. Results The mean diameters of normal great saphenous vein (GSV) and refluxed GSV were 5.0 ± 2.4 mm and 6.4 ± 2.0 mm, respectively. The mean diameters of normal small saphenous vein (SSV) and refluxed SSV were 3.1 ± 1.3 mm and 5.2 ± 2.7 mm, respectively. The diameter differences between the normal and refluxed GSV and SSV were 1.4 mm and 2.1 mm, respectively, and these differences were statistically significant (P < 0.0001). A GSV threshold diameter of 5.05 mm had the best positive predictive value for reflux. The sensitivity and specificity at 5.05 mm were 76% and 60%, respectively. The best SSV diameter for predicting reflux was 3.55 mm. The sensitivity and specificity at 3.55 mm were 87% and 71%, respectively. Conclusion GSV diameter of ?5.05 mm had the best positive predictive value for pathologic reflux. For pathologic reflux of SSV, the best cutoff diameter was 3.55 mm. PMID:24106683

  14. Primary subclavian—axillary vein thrombosis: consensus and commentary

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. B Rutherford; S. N Hurlbert

    1996-01-01

    Fifteen multiple-choice questions concerning options in the management of primary subclavian-axillary vein thrombosis were discussed by a panel of experts and then voted upon by 25 attending vascular surgeons with a special interest in venous disease and considerable experience in subclavian-axillary vein thrombosis. The large majority favored, or agreed upon: (1) early clot removal for active, healthy patients with a

  15. Reactivity of Aorta and Portal Vein in Germfree Rats

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Bella T. Altura; Burton M. Altura; Silvio Baez

    1975-01-01

    The responsiveness of conventional and germfree rat aortas and portal veins to vasoactive agents were compared in vitro. The results indicate: (1) aortas and portal veins from germfree rats exhibit an attenuated reactivity to angiotensin, vasopressin and epinephrine but not to KC1; (2) the dose-response curves for epi-nephrine and the peptides were shifted to the right concomitant with a decrease

  16. DEM modeling of fracture propagation in veined rock

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Virgo, S.; Abe, S.; Urai, J. L.

    2012-04-01

    One fundamental aspect of crack seal veins is that an existing vein can act as a heterogeneity in the rock which controls the localization of successive fracturing at unchanged mean stress orientations. Observations from crack-seal vein systems suggest that existing veins fundamentally influence the fracture behavior of a rock even in cases where the orientation of the stress field is highly incompatible with the orientation of the vein. We used a series of 3D Discrete Element Simulations to systematically investigate the influence of existing veins with varying orientation and mechanical properties on an approaching fracture. The models consist of a tabular heterogeneity within a bonded particle volume fractured under uniaxial tension. The parameters varied in the study are the orientation of the heterogeneity relative to the direction of uniaxial extension and therefore relative to the orientation of the favorable fracture plane as well as the fracture strength ratio between the matrix material, the vein material and the interface between vein and matrix material. The elastic parameters (e.g. Young's modulus) are kept homogeneous throughout the model. Thereby it is ensured that the results are not altered by stress field perturbation induced by stiffness contrasts. The model materials used were carefully tested and calibrated to ensure comparability with natural examples in terms of their fracture-mechanical properties. The simulations were repeated for several random particle packings to eliminate the effect of heterogeneities in the packing on the results. The results show a strong influence of the tabular heterogeneity on the fracture propagation for all orientations and at cohesion ratios within the range of natural systems. Besides curving and deflection of the fracture path associated with changes in fracture mode, bifurcation of fractures as well as arrest of propagation and nucleation of new fractures can be observed.

  17. Iliac vein compression in an asymptomatic patient population

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Melina R Kibbe; Michael Ujiki; A. Lee Goodwin; Mark Eskandari; James Yao; Jon Matsumura

    2004-01-01

    ObjectiveMay-Thurner syndrome is a well-recognized anatomic variant that is associated with the development of symptomatic acute venous thrombosis of the left iliac vein. However, the natural frequency of compression of the left iliac vein and its clinical significance in asymptomatic disease has not been established. Therefore the purpose of this descriptive anatomic study was to determine the incidence of left

  18. Sequential vein growth with fault displacement: An example from the Austin Chalk Formation, Texas

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Young-Joon Lee; David V. Wiltschko; Ethan L. Grossman; John W. Morse; William M. Lamb

    1997-01-01

    To determine the opening and precipitation history and characteristics of vein-forming fluids, analyses of oxygen and carbon isotopes and trace elements were carried out on multilayered crack-seal calcite veins in the Austin Chalk Formation near San Antonio, Texas. The veins developed within the normal fault zones possessing unique chemical and textural characteristics which indicate sequential vein development. They are composed

  19. Sequential vein growth with fault displacement: An example from the Austin Chalk Formation, Texas

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Young-Joon Lee; David V. Wiltschko; Ethan L. Grossman; John W. Morse; William M. Lamb

    1997-01-01

    To determine the opening and precipitation history and characteristics of vein- forming fluids, analyses of oxygen and carbon isotopes and trace elements were carried out on multilayered crack-seal calcite veins in the Austin Chalk Formation near San Antonio, Texas. The veins developed within the normal fault zones possessing unique chemical and textural characteristics which indicate sequential vein development. They are

  20. Robust Finger Vein ROI Localization Based on Flexible Segmentation

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Yu; Xie, Shan Juan; Yoon, Sook; Yang, Jucheng; Park, Dong Sun

    2013-01-01

    Finger veins have been proved to be an effective biometric for personal identification in the recent years. However, finger vein images are easily affected by influences such as image translation, orientation, scale, scattering, finger structure, complicated background, uneven illumination, and collection posture. All these factors may contribute to inaccurate region of interest (ROI) definition, and so degrade the performance of finger vein identification system. To improve this problem, in this paper, we propose a finger vein ROI localization method that has high effectiveness and robustness against the above factors. The proposed method consists of a set of steps to localize ROIs accurately, namely segmentation, orientation correction, and ROI detection. Accurate finger region segmentation and correct calculated orientation can support each other to produce higher accuracy in localizing ROIs. Extensive experiments have been performed on the finger vein image database, MMCBNU_6000, to verify the robustness of the proposed method. The proposed method shows the segmentation accuracy of 100%. Furthermore, the average processing time of the proposed method is 22 ms for an acquired image, which satisfies the criterion of a real-time finger vein identification system. PMID:24284769

  1. Classification of the drainage patterns of the renal veins.

    PubMed Central

    Satyapal, K S

    1995-01-01

    Variations in the drainage patterns of the renal veins are well described, but existing classifications of the renal veins have deficiencies. This study aimed to formulate a practical classification of their drainage patterns, taking into consideration the number of primary tributaries, additional renal veins and variations. The venous system of 306 kidneys (from 131 males and 22 females) obtained from 100 pairs of resin casts and 53 pairs of plastinated kidneys were analysed. Based on a proposed definition of the renal vein, 3 major types (I, II, III) were identified using the drainage pattern of the primary renal vein tributaries and the renal vein as a basis on both the left and right sides. Type IA occurred most frequently (38.6%) and was commoner on the left. Type IB was the second most frequent (25.2%), with the other types showing lower and similar frequencies (10.1-14.4%). Statistically significant differences were noted between the left and right kidneys with regard to the classification into the different types (P < 0.0001). The proposed classification system is practical and has surgical and uroradiological relevance. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 PMID:7649831

  2. [Study on correlation of valvular function of deep vein and clinical symptoms].

    PubMed

    Yang, Z H; Gu, X P; Zhang, J W

    1994-03-01

    The material consists of 291 cases (299 limbs) in which all limbs have varicosity of superficial vein. Routine conventional venographic examinations were performed. Valsalva's test was adauted to observe the valvular function of the deep vein. The statistics showed close corelationship between valvular functional state and clinic manifestations (P < 0.005). In maintenance of the normal function of the vein in lower extremities, the valvular function of femoral vein together with that of the popliteal vein is better than each alone. The valvular function of the femoral vein is more efficient than that of popliteal vein. PMID:7842900

  3. [Portal vein stenting as a bridge to chemotherapy for perihilar cancer with portal vein stenosis - a case report].

    PubMed

    Tsukamoto, Tadashi; Kanazawa, Akishige; Shimizu, Sadatoshi; Sakae, Masayuki; Kurihara, Shigeaki; Tashima, Tetsuzo; Deguchi, Sota; Goto, Wataru; Kotsuka, Masaya; Ishikawa, Akira; Yoshii, Mami; Nakajima, Takayoshi; Mori, Yukihiro; Ohira, Go; Tachimori, Akiko; Tamamori, Yutaka; Yamamoto, Atsushi; Inoue, Toru; Yamashita, Yoshito; Nishiguchi, Yukio

    2014-11-01

    The stenting strategy for portal vein stenosis in cases with unresectable hilar malignancies reduces portal hypertension and maintains portal vein blood flow. This not only improves quality of life, but also leads to aggressive therapy with anticancer agents. A 65-year-old woman presented with painless jaundice 8 months after left hemihepatectomy with lymph node dissection for intrahepatic cholangiocellular carcinoma. Seven months after biliary stenting for bile duct stenosis, progressing pancytopenia and ascites were noted. Imaging studies revealed portal vein stenosis by the tumor at the hepatic hilum. Percutaneous transhepatic portal vein stent placement was performed, and pancytopenia and ascites improved immediately thereafter. Chemotherapy for recurrence of intrahepatic cholangiocellular carcinoma at the hepatic hilum has been initiated, and the patient has been alive 15 months since. PMID:25731245

  4. The Aristotelian account of "heart and veins".

    PubMed

    Shoja, Mohammadali M; Tubbs, R Shane; Loukas, Marios; Ardalan, Mohammad R

    2008-04-25

    The exploration of the cardiovascular (CV) system has a history of at least five millennia. The model of the heart and veins represented by Aristotle (384-322 B.C.) is one of the earliest and accurate descriptions of the CV system. With his own specific metaphysical approach, Aristotle discussed why there might be a vascular tree composed of two vessels and also why these vessels must extend throughout the entire body. Herein, the authors present a history of the original account of the CV system based on the studies and teachings of Aristotle who made detailed observations and experimented upon animals and human corpses to explore the anatomy of the heart and vessels and thus provided the basis for modern CV medicine. The Aristotelian CV model consisted of two related but slightly dissimilar passages based on experimentation and tradition, which could be perceived as the morphology and metaphysical accounts of physiology, respectively. Restricted by his own methodology of dissecting dead animals, Aristotle was the first to describe the anatomy of the heart and blood vessels. A thorough reading of his Historia Animalium showed that he was able to morphologically delineate the right atrium in addition to three distinct heart cavities corresponding to the left atrium and right and left ventricles. The authors conclude that when interpreting Aristotelian doctrine, the methodology and terminology should be taken into account in order to prevent potential misconceptions. It is the early work of such scientists as Aristotle on which we base our current understanding of the CV system. PMID:17662491

  5. [Blood-pressure behavior in rats following the diversion of renal-vein blood into the portal vein].

    PubMed

    Medrano, J; Jakubowski, H D; Löbermann, H

    1975-01-01

    Experimental studies on 22 hypertonic rats which had previously one kidney removed show that the deviation of the renal vein blood into the portal vein through a cavorportal or splenoportal anastomosis does not result in a lowering of the experimentally induced renovascular hypertension. These anastomoses did not alter the blood pressure in 3 normotonic rats. The prophylactic use of these anastomoses could not prevent the development of experimental renal hypertension in 2 of 3 test animals. PMID:1207277

  6. Fluid overpressure estimates from the aspect ratios of mineral veins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Philipp, Sonja L.

    2012-12-01

    Several hundred calcite veins and (mostly) normal faults were studied in limestone and shale layers of a Mesozoic sedimentary basin next to the village of Kilve at the Bristol Channel (SW-England). The veins strike mostly E-W (239 measurements), that is, parallel with the associated normal faults. The mean vein dip is 73°N (44 measurements). Field observations indicate that these faults transported the fluids up into the limestone layers. The vein outcrop (trace) length (0.025-10.3 m) and thickness (0.1-28 mm) size distributions are log-normal. Taking the thickness as the dependent variable and the outcrop length as the independent variable, linear regression gives a coefficient of determination (goodness of fit) of R2 = 0.74 (significant with 99% confidence), but natural logarithmic transformation of the thickness-length data increases the coefficient of determination to R2 = 0.98, indicating that nearly all the variation in thickness can be explained in terms of variation in trace length. The geometric mean of the aspect (length/thickness) ratio, 451, gives the best representation of the data set. With 95% confidence, the true geometric mean of the aspect ratios of the veins lies in the interval 409-497. Using elastic crack theory, appropriate elastic properties of the host rock, and the mean aspect ratio, the fluid overpressure (that is, the total fluid pressure minus the normal stress on the fracture plane) at the time of vein formation is estimated at around 18 MPa. From these results, and using the average host rock and water densities, the depth to the sources of the fluids (below the present exposures) forming the veins is estimated at between around 300 m and 1200 m. These results are in agreement to those obtained by independent isotopic studies and indicate that the fluids were of rather local origin, probably injected from sill-like sources (water sills) inside the sedimentary basin.

  7. Huebnerite veins near Round Mountain, Nye County, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    Shawe, D.R.; Foord, E.E.; Conklin, N.M.

    1984-01-01

    Small huebnerite-bearing quartz veins occur in and near Cretaceous (about 95 m.y. old) granite east and south of Round Mountain. The veins are short, lenticular, and strike mostly northeast and northwest in several narrow east-trending belts. The quartz veins were formed about 80 m.y. ago near the end of an episode of doming and metamorphism of the granite and emplacement of aplite and pegmatite dikes in and near the granite. An initial hydrothermal stage involved deposition of muscovite, quartz, huebnerite, fluorite, and barite in the veins. Veins were then sheared, broken, and recrystallized. A second hydrothermal stage, possibly associated with emplacement of a rhyolite dike swarm and granodiorite stock about 35 m.y. ago, saw deposition of more muscovite, quartz, fluorite, and barite, and addition of scheelite, tetrahedrite-tennantite, several sulfide minerals, and chalcedony. Finally, as a result of near-surface weathering, secondary sulfide and numerous oxide, tungstate, carbonate, sulfate, phosphate, and silicate minerals formed in the veins. Depth of burial at the time of formation of the veins, based on geologic reconstruction, was about 3-3.5 km. The initial hydrothermal stage ended with deposition of quartz at a temperature of about 210/sup 0/C and pressures of about 240 to 280 bars from fluids with salinity of about 5 wt % sodium chloride. Fluorite then was deposited at about 250/sup 0/ to 280/sup 0/C from solutions of similar salinity and containing a small amount of carbon dioxide. During shearing that followed initial mineralization, quartz was recrystallized at a temperature of 270/sup 0/ to 290/sup 0/C and in association with fluids of about 5 wt % sodium chloride equivalent and containing carbon dioxide. Late-stage fluorite was deposited from fluids with similar salinity but devoid of carbon dioxide at a temperature of about 210/sup 0/C. 76 refs., 38 figs., 8 tabs.

  8. Stable Isotope Data of Veins From the 2007 SAFOD Core

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kirschner, D. L.; Chester, J.; Chester, F.; Evans, J.; Hickman, S.

    2008-12-01

    In 2007, the SAFOD drilling project obtained excellent core across two serpentinite-bearing fault strands in the San Andreas fault zone north of Parkfield, California. The fault strands are active and have deformed the casing that was cemented in the hole in 2005. The 2007 cores are now in the process of being cut and distributed for petrological, geochemical, structural, and mechanical studies. Approximately 100 carbonate veins have been sampled by microdrilling of the cores and isotopic data from approximately 40 samples have been obtained to date. An additional 500 nondestructive, in-situ XRF analyses were also made at approximately 250 locations on the same cores. The XRF data is being processed at this time. The stable isotope data of veins sampled from the 2007 core are similar in values to data obtained from the 2005 cuttings that were obtained during rotary drilling. The veins can be separated into two groups in carbon-oxygen isotope space. Veins with oxygen values of +13 per mil and carbon values above +1 per mil are in the deformed siltstone-shale sequence at measured depths (MD; depth as measured down the inclined drill hole) of 3187 to 3193 m. Veins in the second group have oxygen isotope values between +17 and +20 per mil, and carbon isotope values from +4 to -13 per mil. Veins with the heavier carbon isotope values are preferentially hosted in the sheared siltstones and mudstones immediately southeast of the serpentinite-bearing fault strand at 3297 to 3299 m MD. Veins with the lighter carbon isotope values are preferentially located in and immediately west of both serpentinite-bearing fault strands and also in the sediments below 3303 m MD. This data is consistent with the veins of the second group having precipitated from a fluid charged with hydrocarbons. These hydrocarbons are probably from the Great Valley sequence on the east side of the fault zone. Although much work needs to be done in correlating the isotopic data with the spatial distribution, orientations, and degree of deformation of the veins, there does appear to be a systematic decrease in carbon isotope values within meters of the fault core at 3297 to 3299 m MD. This systematic variation could be reflectively of hydrocarbon-charged fluids having flowed longitudinally within and immediately adjacent to the core of this particular fault strand.

  9. [Femoropopliteal vascular replacement: vein, ePTFE or ovine collagen?].

    PubMed

    Koch, G; Gutschi, S; Pascher, O; Fruhwirth, J; Hauser, H

    1996-01-01

    In an eight year-period from 1988 to 1995 653 femoropopliteal and femorocrural bypasses were performed. 347 above-knee reconstructions 206 below-knee reconstructions and at last 100 femorocrural bypasses were analysed. The cumulative patency rate after a follow up of three years for above-knee vein bypasses was 90%, patency rate for PTFE grafts in the same period was 52%, for ovine collagen grafts 56%. For below-knee bypasses with autologous saphenous vein a function rate of 76% could be observed in the same period, the rate of PTFE grafts in this position was only 30%. In this position 3-year patency rates of 50% were achieved with ovine collagen grafts. This difference was statistically significant. Three years cumulative patency rate for femorocrural reconstructions with greater saphenous vein was 72%, the function rate for PTFE in this position was below 30% after a follow up of one year, with ovine grafts below 40%. Graft infection, aneurysm formation and postoperative mortality were low in all groups. Our data demonstrate, that patency rates of autologous vein bypasses could not be achieved with PTFE or ovine collagen prosthesis in any femoropopliteal the femorocrural position. We therefore cannot confirm the recommendation to use alloplastic grafts as primary choice for above knee bypasses to spare the saphenous vein. PMID:9012236

  10. Alteration and vein mineralization, Ladwig uranium mine, Jefferson County, Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wallace, Alan R.

    1979-01-01

    Uranium ore at the Ladwig mine, Jefferson County, Colo., occurs in steeply dipping, northwest-striking faults and related fractures with a carbonate-adularia assemblage that forms in altered wallrocks and fills veins. The faults occur between large intrusive pegmatites and garnetiferous gneisses of Precambrian age, and were reactivated as the result of the early Paleocene uplift of the Front Range foothills. Mineralization in the deposit includes both wallrock alteration and vein filling. Alteration was intense but local, and chiefly involved the carbonatization of mafic minerals in the wallrocks. Felsic minerals in the wallrocks are relatively unaltered. The veins are filled with an adularia-pitchblende-carbonate assemblage with minor related sulfides and coffinite. Many of the iron-bearing carbonates in both the alteration and vein assemblages have been altered to hematite. The mineralization and alteration are believed to have formed in response to initially high amounts of CO2 and the subsequent release of dissolved CO2 by boiling or effervescence. Uranium, carried in a dicarbonate complex, was precipitated directly as pitchblende when the CO2 was released. The expulsion of H+ during boiling created a net oxidizing environment which oxidized the iron-bearing carbonates. Late stage calcite and sulfides were deposited in existing voids in the veins.

  11. Finger Vein Recognition Based on Personalized Weight Maps

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Gongping; Xiao, Rongyang; Yin, Yilong; Yang, Lu

    2013-01-01

    Finger vein recognition is a promising biometric recognition technology, which verifies identities via the vein patterns in the fingers. Binary pattern based methods were thoroughly studied in order to cope with the difficulties of extracting the blood vessel network. However, current binary pattern based finger vein matching methods treat every bit of feature codes derived from different image of various individuals as equally important and assign the same weight value to them. In this paper, we propose a finger vein recognition method based on personalized weight maps (PWMs). The different bits have different weight values according to their stabilities in a certain number of training samples from an individual. Firstly we present the concept of PWM, and then propose the finger vein recognition framework, which mainly consists of preprocessing, feature extraction, and matching. Finally, we design extensive experiments to evaluate the effectiveness of our proposal. Experimental results show that PWM achieves not only better performance, but also high robustness and reliability. In addition, PWM can be used as a general framework for binary pattern based recognition. PMID:24025556

  12. Palm vein recognition based on directional empirical mode decomposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Jen-Chun; Chang, Chien-Ping; Chen, Wei-Kuei

    2014-04-01

    Directional empirical mode decomposition (DEMD) has recently been proposed to make empirical mode decomposition suitable for the processing of texture analysis. Using DEMD, samples are decomposed into a series of images, referred to as two-dimensional intrinsic mode functions (2-D IMFs), from finer to large scale. A DEMD-based 2 linear discriminant analysis (LDA) for palm vein recognition is proposed. The proposed method progresses through three steps: (i) a set of 2-D IMF features of various scale and orientation are extracted using DEMD, (ii) the 2LDA method is then applied to reduce the dimensionality of the feature space in both the row and column directions, and (iii) the nearest neighbor classifier is used for classification. We also propose two strategies for using the set of 2-D IMF features: ensemble DEMD vein representation (EDVR) and multichannel DEMD vein representation (MDVR). In experiments using palm vein databases, the proposed MDVR-based 2LDA method achieved recognition accuracy of 99.73%, thereby demonstrating its feasibility for palm vein recognition.

  13. SWI enhances vein detection using gadolinium in multiple sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Mazzoni, Lorenzo N; Moretti, Marco; Grammatico, Matteo; Chiti, Stefano; Massacesi, Luca

    2015-01-01

    Susceptibility weighted imaging (SWI) combined with the FLAIR sequence provides the ability to depict in vivo the perivenous location of inflammatory demyelinating lesions – one of the most specific pathologic features of multiple sclerosis (MS). In addition, in MS white matter (WM) lesions, gadolinium-based contrast media (CM) can increase vein signal loss on SWI. This report focuses on two cases of WM inflammatory lesions enhancing on SWI images after CM injection. In these lesions in fact the CM increased the contrast between the parenchyma and the central vein allowing as well, in one of the two cases, the detection of a vein not visible on the same SWI sequence acquired before CM injection.

  14. Finger Vein Recognition Based on a Personalized Best Bit Map

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Gongping; Xi, Xiaoming; Yin, Yilong

    2012-01-01

    Finger vein patterns have recently been recognized as an effective biometric identifier. In this paper, we propose a finger vein recognition method based on a personalized best bit map (PBBM). Our method is rooted in a local binary pattern based method and then inclined to use the best bits only for matching. We first present the concept of PBBM and the generating algorithm. Then we propose the finger vein recognition framework, which consists of preprocessing, feature extraction, and matching. Finally, we design extensive experiments to evaluate the effectiveness of our proposal. Experimental results show that PBBM achieves not only better performance, but also high robustness and reliability. In addition, PBBM can be used as a general framework for binary pattern based recognition. PMID:22438735

  15. Transileocolic vein obliteration for bleeding rectal varices with portal thrombus.

    PubMed

    Arai, Hirotaka; Kobayashi, Takeshi; Takizawa, Daichi; Toyoda, Mitsuo; Takayama, Hisashi; Abe, Takehiko

    2013-01-01

    We report a case of rectal varices treated successfully with transileocolic vein obliteration (TIO). A 70-year-old man was admitted to our hospital for evaluation of fresh bloody stools in January 2011. Emergent colonoscopy revealed fresh blood in the rectum and tortuous rectal varices. Three-dimensional computed tomography was used as a non-invasive method for the identification of rectal varices and thrombus in the extrahepatic portal vein. Angiography demonstrated that rectal varices were supplied with backward blood flow by the inferior mesenteric vein. Transileocolic variceal obliteration was performed using coils and 5% ethanolamine oleate with iopamidol. Complete hemostasis was achieved without complications. We conclude that TIO is a safe and effective hemostatic measure for ruptured rectal varices with portal thrombus. PMID:23626507

  16. SWI enhances vein detection using gadolinium in multiple sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Maggi, Pietro; Mazzoni, Lorenzo N; Moretti, Marco; Grammatico, Matteo; Chiti, Stefano; Massacesi, Luca

    2015-03-01

    Susceptibility weighted imaging (SWI) combined with the FLAIR sequence provides the ability to depict in vivo the perivenous location of inflammatory demyelinating lesions - one of the most specific pathologic features of multiple sclerosis (MS). In addition, in MS white matter (WM) lesions, gadolinium-based contrast media (CM) can increase vein signal loss on SWI. This report focuses on two cases of WM inflammatory lesions enhancing on SWI images after CM injection. In these lesions in fact the CM increased the contrast between the parenchyma and the central vein allowing as well, in one of the two cases, the detection of a vein not visible on the same SWI sequence acquired before CM injection. PMID:25815209

  17. Arteriovenous graft with outflow in the proximal axillary vein.

    PubMed

    Teruya, Theodore H; Schaeffer, David; Abou-Zamzam, Ahmed M; Bianchi, Christian

    2009-01-01

    Arteriovenous access can result in complications including extremity ischemia and swelling. Use of the nondominant upper extremity is preferred because complications will result in less severe disability. The distal axillary vein in the axilla is usually considered to be the end point for arteriovenous access in the upper extremity. Vascular surgeons are familiar with exposure of the proximal axillary artery via an infraclavicular incision. The axillary vein is also easily exposed through this technique. Use of this vein for arteriovenous graft outflow can preserve the dominant arm for future use. Nine patients with arteriovenous grafts with venous outflow in the proximal arm for future use. All patients had exposure to the proximal axillary vein via an infraclavicular incision. There were six women and three men. All patients had multiple failed access in the ipsilateral extremity. One patient had a loop configuration graft, while the six others had a straight graft with arterial inflow via the brachial artery. One patient had a bovine mesenteric vein graft, while the remaining six had expanded polytetrafluoroethylene grafts. Six of the seven patients had ambulatory surgery, while one patient was admitted postoperatively with mental status changes. Patency rates were 78%, with mean follow-up of 16 months. One patient had early failure due to steal and one patient failed at 22 months. Six of seven patients are alive at current follow-up. Three patients required secondary procedures including venous angioplasty (n=2) and subclavian artery stenting (n=1). The infraclavicular axillary vein can be used as an effective outflow for arteriovenous grafts. This procedure can be done as an outpatient surgery with a low complication rate. This procedure can preserve the dominant arm for future access and provides a possible alternative to surgery on another extremity. PMID:18809289

  18. Palm-Vein Classification Based on Principal Orientation Features

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Yujia; Liu, Yaqin; Feng, Qianjin; Yang, Feng; Huang, Jing; Nie, Yixiao

    2014-01-01

    Personal recognition using palm–vein patterns has emerged as a promising alternative for human recognition because of its uniqueness, stability, live body identification, flexibility, and difficulty to cheat. With the expanding application of palm–vein pattern recognition, the corresponding growth of the database has resulted in a long response time. To shorten the response time of identification, this paper proposes a simple and useful classification for palm–vein identification based on principal direction features. In the registration process, the Gaussian-Radon transform is adopted to extract the orientation matrix and then compute the principal direction of a palm–vein image based on the orientation matrix. The database can be classified into six bins based on the value of the principal direction. In the identification process, the principal direction of the test sample is first extracted to ascertain the corresponding bin. One-by-one matching with the training samples is then performed in the bin. To improve recognition efficiency while maintaining better recognition accuracy, two neighborhood bins of the corresponding bin are continuously searched to identify the input palm–vein image. Evaluation experiments are conducted on three different databases, namely, PolyU, CASIA, and the database of this study. Experimental results show that the searching range of one test sample in PolyU, CASIA and our database by the proposed method for palm–vein identification can be reduced to 14.29%, 14.50%, and 14.28%, with retrieval accuracy of 96.67%, 96.00%, and 97.71%, respectively. With 10,000 training samples in the database, the execution time of the identification process by the traditional method is 18.56 s, while that by the proposed approach is 3.16 s. The experimental results confirm that the proposed approach is more efficient than the traditional method, especially for a large database. PMID:25383715

  19. Vasorelaxant Effect of 17?-Ethynylestradiol on Human Saphenous Vein

    PubMed Central

    Jodati, Ahmad Reza; Babaei, Hossein; Azarmi, Yadollah; Fallah, Sahar; Gharebageri, Afsaneh; Fadaei Fouladi, Danial; Safaei, Naser

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: A protective effect for estrogens against cardiovascular problems has long been known. The aim of this study was to investigate the vasorelaxant effect of 17?-Ethynylestradiol (17?-EE) on human saphenous vein. Methods: The veins were suspended horizontally between two triangular stainless steel hooks for the measurement of isometric tension in individual organ baths containing 10ml Krebs solution, at 37°C and gassed with carbogen under 3gr optimum tension. The effect of different concentrations of 17?-EE (2-40 ?M) on vascular tone was investigated in veins precontracted with PGF2?. Relaxation was measured after 40min and expressed as the percent decrease of initial contraction. To determine the involvement of potassium channels, endothelium, nitric oxide synthase, guanylylcyclase and prostaglandins in the vasorelaxant effect of estrogen, the veins were incubated with tetraethyl ammonium, N-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester, methylene blue or indomethacin, respectively for 20min prior to experimentation. Responses to 17?-EE were directly compared to those obtained in the same tissues in the absence of the inhibitors. Results: The mean relaxations induced by 17?-EE with concentrations of 2, 5, 10, 20 and 40?M in tissues precontracted with PGF2? were 19.8 ±5.5%, 26.1±10.8%, 32.2±7.4%, 48.6±10.8%and56±7.6%, respectively. The results of the inhibition of potassium channels, nitric oxide synthase, guanylylcyclase, cyclooxygenase and removing endothelium in relaxation induced by 17?-EE on precontracted veins with PGF2? proved no significant differences. Conclusion: This study showed that 17?-EE has significant vasorelaxant effect on human saphenous vein in a concentration-dependent manner. This effect is probably independent of potassium channels, nitric oxide synthase, guanylylcyclase, prostaglandin synthesis and endothelium functions. PMID:25789224

  20. Automatic classification of retinal vessels into arteries and veins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niemeijer, Meindert; van Ginneken, Bram; Abràmoff, Michael D.

    2009-02-01

    Separating the retinal vascular tree into arteries and veins is important for quantifying vessel changes that preferentially affect either the veins or the arteries. For example the ratio of arterial to venous diameter, the retinal a/v ratio, is well established to be predictive of stroke and other cardiovascular events in adults, as well as the staging of retinopathy of prematurity in premature infants. This work presents a supervised, automatic method that can determine whether a vessel is an artery or a vein based on intensity and derivative information. After thinning of the vessel segmentation, vessel crossing and bifurcation points are removed leaving a set of vessel segments containing centerline pixels. A set of features is extracted from each centerline pixel and using these each is assigned a soft label indicating the likelihood that it is part of a vein. As all centerline pixels in a connected segment should be the same type we average the soft labels and assign this average label to each centerline pixel in the segment. We train and test the algorithm using the data (40 color fundus photographs) from the DRIVE database1 with an enhanced reference standard. In the enhanced reference standard a fellowship trained retinal specialist (MDA) labeled all vessels for which it was possible to visually determine whether it was a vein or an artery. After applying the proposed method to the 20 images of the DRIVE test set we obtained an area under the receiver operator characteristic (ROC) curve of 0.88 for correctly assigning centerline pixels to either the vein or artery classes.

  1. Rational Classification of Portal Vein Thrombosis and Its Clinical Significance

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Jingqin; Yan, Zhiping; Luo, Jianjun; Liu, Qingxin; Wang, Jianhua; Qiu, Shijing

    2014-01-01

    Portal vein thrombosis (PVT) is commonly classified into acute (symptom duration <60 days and absence of portal carvernoma and portal hypertension) and chronic types. However, the rationality of this classification has received little attention. In this study, 60 patients (40 men and 20 women) with PVT were examined using contrast-enhanced computed tomography (CT). The percentage of vein occlusion, including portal vein (PV) and superior mesenteric vein (SMV), was measured on CT image. Of 60 patients, 17 (28.3%) met the criterion of acute PVT. Symptoms occurred more frequently in patients with superior mesenteric vein thrombosis (SMVT) compared to those without SMVT (p<0.001). However, there was no significant difference in PV occlusion between patients with and without symptoms. The frequency of cavernous transformation was significantly higher in patients with complete PVT than those with partial PVT (p<0.001). Complications of portal hypertension were significantly associated with cirrhosis (p<0.001) rather than with the severity of PVT and presence of cavernoma. These results suggest that the severity of PVT is only associated with the formation of portal cavernoma but unrelated to the onset of symptoms and the development of portal hypertension. We classified PVT into complete and partial types, and each was subclassified into with and without portal cavernoma. In conclusion, neither symptom duration nor cavernous transformation can clearly distinguish between acute and chronic PVT. The new classification system can determine the pathological alterations of PVT, patency of portal vein and outcome of treatment in a longitudinal study. PMID:25393320

  2. Blood pressure and flow rate in the giraffe jugular vein.

    PubMed

    Pedley, T J; Brook, B S; Seymour, R S

    1996-07-29

    Experimental measurements in the jugular veins of upright giraffes have shown that the internal pressure is somewhat above atmospheric and increases with height above the heart. A simple model of steady viscous flow in an inverted U-tube shows that these observations are inconsistent with a model in which the blood vessels in the head and neck are effectively rigid and the system resembles a siphon. Instead, the observations indicate that the veins are collapsed and have a high resistance to flow. However, laboratory experiments with collapsible drain tubing in place of the down arm of the U-tube show internal pressure to be exactly atmospheric and uniform with height. A model of viscous flow in a collapsible tube with non-uniform properties is used to suggest that the observed pressure distribution may be a consequence of the intrinsic cross-sectional area and/or compliance of the veins increasing with distance towards the heart, or the external, tissue pressure falling. Finally, the effect of fluid inertia on steady flow in vertical collapsible tubes with uniform intrinsic properties is analysed, and it is shown that a phenomenon of flow limitation is theoretically possible, in which the supercritical flow in the collapsed vein cannot return to the presumably subcritical flow in the open vena cava, even with the help of an 'elastic jump', if the flow rate is too large. The computed critical flow-rate, of about 80 ml s-1, is about twice the flow-rate estimated to be present in the normal giraffe jugular vein. If there were circumstances in which flow limitation occurred in the jugular veins, it would mean that the cerebral blood flow would be limited by downstream conditions, not directly by local requirements. PMID:8856806

  3. Review of intravascular approaches to the treatment of varicose veins.

    PubMed

    Nootheti, Pavan K; Cadag, Kristian M; Goldman, Mitchel P

    2007-10-01

    This is an in-depth review article for intravascular approaches to the treatment of varicose veins. The review discusses thermocoagulation of abnormal veins performed by an endoluminal radiofrequency device or laser. The article sites specific findings and is based on our clinical experience and extensive literature search. It was found that the two techniques were less invasive, less expensive, and faster alternative to treat varicose saphenous trunks compared to ligation and stripping. Minor adjustments to the technique prevented or minimized side effects to patients. Ambulatory phlebectomy in conjunction with treatment produced optimal long-term results. PMID:17903148

  4. Pulsatile Tinnitus Caused by a Dilated Mastoid Emissary Vein

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Seung-Hwan; Kim, Sam Soo; Sung, Kun-Yong

    2013-01-01

    Although pulsatile tinnitus can be audible, objective demonstration of this heartbeat-synchronous sound has rarely been successful. We report a rare case of pulsatile tinnitus in a 44-yr-old female patient, which was induced by a large mastoid emissary vein (MEV) and objectively documented by Doppler sonography of the left posterior auricular region. The tinnitus was intermittent and the patient could adapt to the tinnitus without intervention on the mastoid emissary vein. These findings suggest that a single large MEV can cause pulsatile tinnitus in the absence of other vascular abnormalities, and imaging studies of the posterior fossa and Doppler ultrasonography can aid the diagnosis in such cases. PMID:23580003

  5. Interictal regional delta slowing in cerebral sinus vein thrombosis.

    PubMed

    Aharoni, Sharon; Goldberg-Stern, Hadassa; Kornreich, Liora; Shuper, Avinoam

    2015-02-01

    The electroencephalographic finding of regional delta activity should alert to the possibility of an underlying structural abnormality of the brain as a cause. A 5-year-old boy, who presented with severe headache and focal seizures, had normal neurological examination and brain CT findings. The initial electroencephalograph showed focal delta activity. An emergent brain MRI disclosed a thrombosis of the left sigmoid sinus and jugular vein, but no parenchymal lesions. The regional delta activity can presumably serve as a marker for brain tissue damage in cerebral sinus vein thrombosis, and sometimes, even to add information to that gained from imaging studies. PMID:25692516

  6. Clinical pharmacology, physiology and pathophysiology of superficial veins--1.

    PubMed

    Aellig, W H

    1994-09-01

    1. Venous resistance contributes very little to total peripheral resistance; more than half of the total blood volume, however, is contained in the extrathoracic veins. Owing to marked differences between venous and arterial anatomy and physiology, studies on veins and arteries usually require different methodological approaches. Whereas for arteries the most relevant parameters are resistance, pressure and flow, for veins volume and compliance are most important. For studies of general aspects of the peripheral circulatory system, venous occlusion plethysmography is probably the most useful method. The determination of both the rate of rise in limb volume and the total volume rise after inflating a proximally applied occlusion cuff to a subdiastolic pressure permits the concomitant estimation of both arterial flow and venous compliance. 2. Studies of direct pharmacological or physiological effects on veins, interactions of various pharmacological or physiological stimuli, or pathophysiological changes in venous responsiveness have been facilitated by the development of investigational techniques relying on direct measurements of the compliance of single human veins in vivo. One of these, relying on the use of a linear variable differential transformer (LVDT) for determining changes in the compliance of superficial veins at a standardized congestion pressure, has been found very suitable for the practical application in both patients and healthy subjects. 3. Physiological studies were carried out on the effect of age, exercise, temperature, and the menstrual cycle on venous compliance and venous responsiveness to various stimuli. In addition, interindividual variability in venous responsiveness in monozygotic and dizygotic twins and in unrelated subjects was investigated, and studies on the function of the endothelium were carried out in man in vivo. 4. Pathophysiological studies using this technique were reported from patients with hypertension, orthostatic hypotension, myocardial infarction, varicosis, cystic fibrosis, asthma, diabetes, systemic sclerosis, and cluster headache. 5. Clinical pharmacological studies represent a most important field for the use of this method. Studies were carried out on the effects of a large number of constrictor and dilator agents, and also on drug interactions on human veins in vivo. Venoconstriction was observed after local administration of alpha-adrenoceptor and 5-HT-receptor agonists, ergot derivatives, angiotensinogen, angiotensin I and II, and several prostaglandins. 6. Owing to the low venous tone present under effects can usually be quantified only on veins e.g. noradrenaline or 5-hydroxytryptamine. Under these conditions dilatation was observed after the administration of beta-adrenoceptor agonists, cholinergic (muscarinic) agonists, nitrates, calcium antagonists, bradykinin, substance P and several prostaglandins. PMID:7826819

  7. Endovascular treatment of iliac vein compression syndrome (May-Thurner).

    PubMed

    Budnur, Srinivas Chikkaswamy; Singh, Bhupinder; Mahadevappa, Nagesh Chamarajnagar; Reddy, Babu; Nanjappa, Manjunath C

    2013-01-01

    May-Thurner syndrome is a rare condition that results from narrowing of the left common iliac vein (CIV) lumen due to pulsatile compression from the right common iliac artery (CIA) as it crosses anterior to it. We present a case of 24-years old female with left lower limb deep venous thrombosis (DVT). Duplex ultrasonography revealed extensive left-sided DVT. Magnetic resonance venogram suggested DVT with left CIV being compressed by right CIA. Pharmaco-mechanical catheter directed thrombolysis-thrombectomy followed by left iliac vein stent placement restored patency to the venous system, with resolution of symptoms. PMID:22829161

  8. 3D Multispectral Light Propagation Model For Subcutaneous Veins Imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Paquit, Vincent C [ORNL; Price, Jeffery R [ORNL; Meriaudeau, Fabrice [ORNL; Tobin Jr, Kenneth William [ORNL

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, we describe a new 3D light propagation model aimed at understanding the effects of various physiological properties on subcutaneous vein imaging. In particular, we build upon the well known MCML (Monte Carlo Multi Layer) code and present a tissue model that improves upon the current state-of-the-art by: incorporating physiological variation, such as melanin concentration, fat content, and layer thickness; including veins of varying depth and diameter; using curved surfaces from real arm shapes; and modeling the vessel wall interface. We describe our model, present results from the Monte Carlo modeling, and compare these results with those obtained with other Monte Carlo methods.

  9. Superior mesenteric vein thrombosis after laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy.

    PubMed

    Pineda, Lucas; Sarhan, Mohammad; Ahmed, Leaque

    2013-08-01

    Laparoscopic procedures for morbid obesity are becoming standard of care which, in experienced hands, has a very low mortality and morbidity. Superior mesenteric vein thrombosis has been reported in the literature after different bariatric and nonbariatric laparoscopic procedures. Laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy is a relatively new procedure in the treatment of morbid obesity; its complications being well-known including staple line leak, bleeding, and stricture among others. We present a case of superior mesenteric vein thrombosis after laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy successfully managed conservatively with therapeutic anticoagulation, and propose a different hypothesis for the development of such a complication. PMID:23917607

  10. Finger Vein Recognition Using Local Line Binary Pattern

    PubMed Central

    Rosdi, Bakhtiar Affendi; Shing, Chai Wuh; Suandi, Shahrel Azmin

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, a personal verification method using finger vein is presented. Finger vein can be considered more secured compared to other hands based biometric traits such as fingerprint and palm print because the features are inside the human body. In the proposed method, a new texture descriptor called local line binary pattern (LLBP) is utilized as feature extraction technique. The neighbourhood shape in LLBP is a straight line, unlike in local binary pattern (LBP) which is a square shape. Experimental results show that the proposed method using LLBP has better performance than the previous methods using LBP and local derivative pattern (LDP). PMID:22247670

  11. Clinical pharmacology, physiology and pathophysiology of superficial veins--1.

    PubMed Central

    Aellig, W H

    1994-01-01

    1. Venous resistance contributes very little to total peripheral resistance; more than half of the total blood volume, however, is contained in the extrathoracic veins. Owing to marked differences between venous and arterial anatomy and physiology, studies on veins and arteries usually require different methodological approaches. Whereas for arteries the most relevant parameters are resistance, pressure and flow, for veins volume and compliance are most important. For studies of general aspects of the peripheral circulatory system, venous occlusion plethysmography is probably the most useful method. The determination of both the rate of rise in limb volume and the total volume rise after inflating a proximally applied occlusion cuff to a subdiastolic pressure permits the concomitant estimation of both arterial flow and venous compliance. 2. Studies of direct pharmacological or physiological effects on veins, interactions of various pharmacological or physiological stimuli, or pathophysiological changes in venous responsiveness have been facilitated by the development of investigational techniques relying on direct measurements of the compliance of single human veins in vivo. One of these, relying on the use of a linear variable differential transformer (LVDT) for determining changes in the compliance of superficial veins at a standardized congestion pressure, has been found very suitable for the practical application in both patients and healthy subjects. 3. Physiological studies were carried out on the effect of age, exercise, temperature, and the menstrual cycle on venous compliance and venous responsiveness to various stimuli. In addition, interindividual variability in venous responsiveness in monozygotic and dizygotic twins and in unrelated subjects was investigated, and studies on the function of the endothelium were carried out in man in vivo. 4. Pathophysiological studies using this technique were reported from patients with hypertension, orthostatic hypotension, myocardial infarction, varicosis, cystic fibrosis, asthma, diabetes, systemic sclerosis, and cluster headache. 5. Clinical pharmacological studies represent a most important field for the use of this method. Studies were carried out on the effects of a large number of constrictor and dilator agents, and also on drug interactions on human veins in vivo. Venoconstriction was observed after local administration of alpha-adrenoceptor and 5-HT-receptor agonists, ergot derivatives, angiotensinogen, angiotensin I and II, and several prostaglandins. 6. Owing to the low venous tone present under effects can usually be quantified only on veins e.g. noradrenaline or 5-hydroxytryptamine. Under these conditions dilatation was observed after the administration of beta-adrenoceptor agonists, cholinergic (muscarinic) agonists, nitrates, calcium antagonists, bradykinin, substance P and several prostaglandins. PMID:7826819

  12. Conditions for veining and origin of mineralizing fluids in the Alpi Apuane (NW Tuscany, Italy): Evidence from structural and geochemical analyses on calcite veins hosted in Carrara marbles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vaselli, Luca; Cortecci, Gianni; Tonarini, Sonia; Ottria, Giuseppe; Mussi, Mario

    2012-11-01

    This work deals with structural and geochemical (chemical and isotopic) analyses of calcite veins hosted in Carrara marbles in the Alpi Apuane, NW Tuscany, Italy. Geometric features and spatial distribution of veins provided estimations of stress ratio (? = (?2 - ?3)/(?1 - ?3)), driving stress ratio (R' = (Pf - ?3)/(?1 - ?3)) and fluid overpressure (?si = Pf - ?3) at the time of vein formation. The obtained values of ? = 32 and R' = 0.43 reveal that fluid pressure was higher than the intermediate principal stress at the time of veins formation, whereas the estimated ?si ranging from 129 to 207 MPa indicates that veins formed under supra-hydrostatic to lithostatic pressure conditions. Carbon (?13CV-PDB = 1.81-2.10‰ for veins and 1.95-2.51‰ for host marbles), oxygen (?18OV-SMOW = 28.71-29.57‰ for veins and 28.90-29.36‰ for host marbles) and strontium (87Sr/86Sr = 0.707716-0.707985 for veins and 0.0707708-0.707900 for host marbles) isotope compositions in vein/host marble pairs were internally quite consistent. Combining our structural and geochemical data, a modeling approach was performed to investigate the compositional features and temperatures of calcite depositing fluids. The results of our studies give evidence that (1) pore-fluids in Carrara marble, consisting of metamorphic formation waters, were re-mobilized during veining event and migrated within the veins in closed system conditions, (2) veins formed after ductile folding phases and before high-angle brittle faulting events, at temperature and pressure around 250 °C and 210 MPa, and finally (3) about 12 g H2O/m3 marble are calculated to have been available as vein parental fluid at the time of vein formation.

  13. Geometry and texture of quartz veins in Wadi Atalla area, Central Eastern Desert, Egypt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akawy, Ahmed

    2007-02-01

    Several quartz vein sets with varying orientation, geometry and internal structure were recognized in the Atalla area. The veins were associated with the deformation phases affecting the area. En echelon and extensional veins are the main geometrical types. Syn-kinematic veins associated with the major northeast-over-southwest thrust faults were later boudinaged, folded and re-folded. En echelon veins, fibrous veins, and extensional veins are associated with the NNW-SSE faults. Other veins are associated with the NW-SE, N-S, NE-SW and E-W faults. Veins are concentrated at the intersection zones between faults. The internal structure of the veins comprises syntaxial, antitaxial, and composite types and reflects a change from a compressive stress regime to an extensional one. Chocolate-tablet structures and synchronous and co-genetic vein networks indicate later multi-directional extension of the area. Interaction between cracking and sealing of fractures is a common feature in the study area indicating that it was easy for the pore pressure to open pre-existing fractures instead of creating new ones. The reopening of pre-existing fractures rather than creating new ones is also indicated by the scattering of vein data around ?3. There is an alteration and change in characteristics of the wall rock due to increase in fluid flow rate. Fault-valving probably is also a cause of the complex geometry of some veins.

  14. Hepatocellular Carcinoma Invading the Main Portal Vein: Treatment with Transcatheter Arterial Chemoembolization and Portal Vein Stenting

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang Xuebin, E-mail: zhangxuebinwqy@163.com; Wang Jianhua, E-mail: wang.jianhua@zs-hospital.sh.cn; Yan Zhiping, E-mail: yan.zhiping@zs-hospital.sh.cn; Qian Sheng, E-mail: qian.sheng@zs-hospital.sh.cn; Liu Rong, E-mail: liu.rong@zs-hospital.sh.c [Fudan University, Department of Radiology, Zhong Shan Hospital (China)

    2009-01-15

    To retrospectively analyze the therapeutic results of percutaneous transhepatic portal vein stenting (PTPVS) and transcatheter arterial chemoembolization (TACE) treatment in 58 patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) invading the main portal vein (MPV). A total of 58 procedures of PTPVS were performed, immediately after which TACE was undertaken to control HCC. The clinical effects, complications, digital subtraction angiographic appearance, stent patency rates, cumulative survival rates, and predictive factors for survival were evaluated. The Kaplan-Meyer method and the log rank test were used for survival analysis. Multivariable analysis was also conducted by the Cox proportional hazard model. No patient died during stent placement or within the first 24 h. No severe procedure-related complications were observed. After stent placement, the mean {+-} standard deviation portal venous pressure levels decreased from 41.43 {+-} 8.56 cmH{sub 2}O to 37.19 {+-} 7.89 cmH{sub 2}O (p < 0.01). At the time of analysis, 9 of the 58 patients survived. The 60-, 180-, 360-, and 720-day cumulative patency rates were 98.1%, 71.0%, 52.6%, and 42.1%, respectively, with a mean patency time of 552.9 {+-} 88.2 days and a median patency time of 639.00 {+-} 310.00 (95% confidence interval [95% CI], 31.40-1246.60) days. The 60-, 180-, 360-, and 720-day cumulative survival rates for the total study population were 74.1%, 27.1%, 17.2%, and 13.8%, respectively, with a median survival time of 113 {+-} 27.29 (95% CI, 59.51-166.49) days. In the univariate analysis, the following six variables were significantly associated with the prognosis: (1) HCC type; (2) Child-Pugh grade; (3) MPV stenosis/occlusion; (4) arteriovenous shunt; (5) iodized oil deposition; and (6) number of TACE procedure. In addition, having diffuse-type HCC and Child-Pugh grade B disease were each independent factors associated with decreased survival time in the multivariate analysis. PTPVS-TACE is feasible and may be useful to control HCC invading the MPV.

  15. Identification and Partial Characterisation of Lettuce big-vein associated virus and Mirafiori lettuce big-vein virus in Common Weeds Found Amongst Spanish Lettuce Crops and their Role in Lettuce Big-vein Disease Transmission

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jose A. Navarro; Francisco Botella; Antonio Marhuenda; Pedro Sastre; M. Amelia Sánchez-Pina; Vicente Pallas

    2005-01-01

    The potential role of 10 frequently occurring weed species found amongst Spanish lettuce crops as host plants for the two\\u000a viruses associated with the lettuce big-vein disease, Lettuce big-vein associated virus (LBVaV) and Mirafiori lettuce big-vein virus (MLBVV), was studied. The results showed that both viruses can infect naturally growing Sonchus oleraceus (common sowthistle) plants, the unique susceptible species detected

  16. Deep vein thrombosis as a rare complication of brucellosis

    PubMed Central

    Davoudi, Ali Reza; Tayebi, Atefe; Najafi, Narges; Kasiri, Elnaz

    2014-01-01

    Background: Brucellosis can involve almost any organ system and may present with a broad spectrum of clinical presentations. In this study, we present a case of deep vein thrombosis due to human brucellosis. Case Presentation: A 15- year old boy presented with acute pain and swelling in his left thigh in June 2011, when he complained of fever, chills and lower extremity pain in which he could barely walk. In family history, his older brother had brucellosis 3 weeks ago and appropriate medication was given. The tubal standard agglutination test (wright test) and 2ME test were positive (in a titer of 1/1280 and 1/640, respectively). Peripheral venous doppler ultrasound of left lower extremity showed that common iliac, femoral, external iliac, superficial and deep femoral vein and popliteal vein were enlarged and contained with echogenous clot. He was treated with rifampicin 600 mg once a day, doxycycline 100 mg twice a day (both for three months) and amikacin 500 mg twice a day (for 2 weeks) accompanied with anti-coagulant. Ten days after the onset of this treatment, thrombophlebitis was cured. The follow up of the patient showed no abnormality after approximately one year later. Conclusion: In brucellosis endemic areas, the clinicians who encounter patients with deep vein thrombosis and current history of a febrile illness, should consider the likelihood of brucellosis. PMID:24778791

  17. Minimally invasive techniques in the treatment of saphenous varicose veins.

    PubMed

    Nijsten, Tamar; van den Bos, Renate R; Goldman, Mitchel P; Kockaert, Michael A; Proebstle, Thomas M; Rabe, Eberhard; Sadick, Neil S; Weiss, Robert A; Neumann, Martino H A

    2009-01-01

    Lower extremity venous insufficiency is common and increases with age. In addition to classical symptoms, it may result in skin changes and venous ulcers. Chronic venous insufficiency has a great impact on patients' health-related quality of life and is associated with considerable health care costs. Surgical ligation of the junction with or without stripping has been the standard of care in the treatment of insufficient great and small saphenous veins. However, the recurrence rates are relatively high and surgery may be associated with serious adverse events and considerable down time; it is also cosmetically suboptimal. To improve efficacy, patients' health-related quality of life and treatment satisfaction and to reduce serious side effects, costs, and postoperative pain, several minimally invasive techniques have been introduced in the last decade. Dermatologists have played an important role in the development of these new therapies of truncal varicose veins. Of the new therapies, ultrasound-guided foam sclerotherapy, endovenous laser therapy, and radiofrequency ablation are the most common and challenge surgery as the "gold standard" of care for patients with varicose veins. The objective of this review is to inform clinicians about these 3 therapeutic options for truncal varicose veins and to describe and compare the procedures, indications, efficacy, and safety profile. PMID:18835063

  18. Plant pathology Immunogold labelling of beet necrotic yellow vein

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Plant pathology Immunogold labelling of beet necrotic yellow vein virus particles inside its fungal- * Present address: University of Agriculture, Department of Plant Pathology, 165 21 Praha ainsi que sa transmission à la plante hôte, des coupes ultrafines ont été réali- sées dans des

  19. Argon laser panretinal photocoagulation in ischemic central retinal vein occlusion

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sohan Singh Hayreh; Marie R. Klugman; Patricia Podhajsky; Gary E. Servais; Edward S. Perkins

    1990-01-01

    We conducted a prospective, planned study of argon laser panretinal photocoagulation (PRP) in ischemic central retinal vein occlusion (CRVO) over a 10-year period in 123 eyes. On comparing the lasered eyes versus the nonlasered eyes, there was no statistically significant difference between the two groups in the incidence of development of angle neovascularization (NV), neovascular glaucoma (NVG), retinal and\\/or optic

  20. Reconstruction and visualisation of melt topology in veined microdioritic enclaves

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Stefano Pugliese; Nick Petford

    2001-01-01

    A number of xenocrystic microdioritic enclaves within the Ross of Mull Granite contain narrow veins of monzonitic material that have formed through the selective partial fusion of granitic magma mechanically incorporated into the microdiorite magma. Field evidence suggests that, as melting of the granitic material ensued, a monzonitic melt formed and exfiltrated from the surrounding microdioritic matrix resulting in Saffman–Taylor

  1. Who do you want to treat your varicose veins?

    PubMed

    Lewis, David R

    2009-05-22

    The management of varicose veins is evolving at pace but the speed of change often outstrips the evidence. Patients should expect to be offered the whole range of treatment options that are suitable for their particular circumstances. This range should include conservative management, surgery, endovenous ablation techniques, and ultrasound guided sclerotherapy. If all the options are not discussed, patients should ask why. PMID:19648987

  2. Mathematical modeling of radiofrequency ablation for varicose veins.

    PubMed

    Choi, Sun Young; Kwak, Byung Kook; Seo, Taewon

    2014-01-01

    We present a three-dimensional mathematical model for the study of radiofrequency ablation (RFA) with blood flow for varicose vein. The model designed to analyze temperature distribution heated by radiofrequency energy and cooled by blood flow includes a cylindrically symmetric blood vessel with a homogeneous vein wall. The simulated blood velocity conditions are U = 0, 1, 2.5, 5, 10, 20, and 40 mm/s. The lower the blood velocity, the higher the temperature in the vein wall and the greater the tissue damage. The region that is influenced by temperature in the case of the stagnant flow occupies approximately 28.5% of the whole geometry, while the region that is influenced by temperature in the case of continuously moving electrode against the flow direction is about 50%. The generated RF energy induces a temperature rise of the blood in the lumen and leads to an occlusion of the blood vessel. The result of the study demonstrated that higher blood velocity led to smaller thermal region and lower ablation efficiency. Since the peak temperature along the venous wall depends on the blood velocity and pullback velocity, the temperature distribution in the model influences ablation efficiency. The vein wall absorbs more energy in the low pullback velocity than in the high one. PMID:25587351

  3. Vein of Galen arteriovenous malformation mimicking coarctation of the aorta.

    PubMed

    Firdouse, Mohammed; Agarwal, Arnav; Mondal, Tapas

    2014-12-01

    Arteriovenous malformation of the vein of Galen is a rare congenital intracranial anomaly lacking a capillary bed and subsequent aneurysmal enlargement of the arterial and venous system, warranting careful management due to associated morbidity and mortality. Coarctations of aorta demonstrate similar neonatal echocardiographic signs to the vein of Galen arterial malformation (VGAM). We present a boy at 37 weeks of gestation whose initial ultrasound and echocardiographic investigations showed a dominant right ventricle and isthmal hypoplasia, suggestive of coarctation of aorta. Follow-up ultrasound and echocardiography revealed an arteriovenous malformation involving middle and posterior cerebral artery branches, eliminating coarctation of aorta. VGAM was confirmed by further ultrasound and angiographic investigation, which demonstrated a tangle of cerebral and choroidal arterial branches centrally feeding into an enlarged vein of Galen. The boy's hemodynamic and neurological statuses were confirmed to be stable despite increased venous pressure. Elective embolization at 7 months of age was complicated by a cerebrovascular accident, resulting in right hemiparesis despite no residual cardiac issues. This case demonstrates that rarely, arteriovenous malformations such as the vein of Galen malformations may be the primary cause of patients presenting with coarctation of aorta. The rarity of this condition and its guarded prognosis make our case of special interest to cardiologists and the perinatal care team. PMID:25368688

  4. Preoperative portal vein embolization for extension of hepatectomy indications

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T de Baere; A Roche; D Elias; P Lasser; C Lagrange; V Bousson

    1996-01-01

    To render hepatectomy feasible in patients with an initially deficient volume of the future remnant liver (FRL), we redistributed portal blood flow rich in hepatotrophic substances toward the FRL. Redistribution was achieved with preoperative portal vein embolization (POPE) feeding the future resected liver. POPE was performed in 31 patients, under fluoroscopic guidance, via a percutaneous access. POPE was well tolerated

  5. Physiological effects of Squash vein yellowing virus infection on watermelon

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Squash vein yellowing virus (SqVYV) is the cause of viral watermelon vine decline. In this study, watermelon plants of different ages were inoculated with SqVYV to characterize the physiological response to infection and provide new insights into watermelon vine decline. Physiological responses to...

  6. Vein graphite deposits: geological settings, origin, and economic significance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luque, F. J.; Huizenga, J.-M.; Crespo-Feo, E.; Wada, H.; Ortega, L.; Barrenechea, J. F.

    2014-02-01

    Graphite deposits result from the metamorphism of sedimentary rocks rich in carbonaceous matter or from precipitation from carbon-bearing fluids (or melts). The latter process forms vein deposits which are structurally controlled and usually occur in granulites or igneous rocks. The origin of carbon, the mechanisms of transport, and the factors controlling graphite deposition are discussed in relation to their geological settings. Carbon in granulite-hosted graphite veins derives from sublithospheric sources or from decarbonation reactions of carbonate-bearing lithologies, and it is transported mainly in CO2-rich fluids from which it can precipitate. Graphite precipitation can occur by cooling, water removal by retrograde hydration reactions, or reduction when the CO2-rich fluid passes through relatively low-fO2 rocks. In igneous settings, carbon is derived from assimilation of crustal materials rich in organic matter, which causes immiscibility and the formation of carbon-rich fluids or melts. Carbon in these igneous-hosted deposits is transported as CO2 and/or CH4 and eventually precipitates as graphite by cooling and/or by hydration reactions affecting the host rock. Independently of the geological setting, vein graphite is characterized by its high purity and crystallinity, which are required for applications in advanced technologies. In addition, recent discovery of highly crystalline graphite precipitation from carbon-bearing fluids at moderate temperatures in vein deposits might provide an alternative method for the manufacture of synthetic graphite suitable for these new applications.

  7. A case of portal vein arterialization after a liver transplant.

    PubMed

    Melandro, Fabio; Lai, Quirino; Levi Sandri, Giovanni B; Guglielmo, Nicola; Di Laudo, Marco; Morabito, Vincenzo; Pretagostini, Renzo; Berloco, Pasquale B; Rossi, Massimo

    2013-06-01

    Hepatic artery thrombosis represents a potentially deadly complication after a liver transplant. Portal vein arterialization recently has been proposed as a bridge approach in patients with hepatic artery thrombosis needing a retransplant. We report the case of a 53-year-old man treated with a liver transplant for a cryptogenetic cirrhosis. One month after a liver transplant, a hepatic artery thrombosis was documented, and a portal vein arterialization as bridge therapy for another liver transplant was performed. After surgery, improvement in the patient's liver functioning was seen. No signs of portal hypertension or hepatic abscesses were documented. Unfortunately, 8 months after the liver transplant, the patient experienced a severe urinary infection caused by a multidrug-resistant Klebsiella and died. An increase in the oxygen supply to the liver parenchyma after portal vein arterializations represents rationale use for managing hepatic artery thromboses. Several cases of treating post liver transplant hepatic artery thromboses have been reported in the literature. Portal vein arterializations can be used as bridge therapy in well-selected situations of post-liver transplant hepatic artery thromboses. Strict surveillance should be used to prevent the onset of complications that can exclude a patient from a transplant. The correct timing for retransplant is not fully known, but we think the shorter the time to retransplant, the better is the patient survival. PMID:23767946

  8. Squash vein yellowing virus and its effects on watermelon

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Squash vein yellowing virus (SqVYV), a novel whitefly-transmitted member of the Potyviridae was recently shown to cause a watermelon vine decline in Florida. Watermelon plants were grown under whitefly-free conditions in a greenhouse and inoculated with buffer (mock), SqVYV, or SqVYV and Papaya rin...

  9. Testicular vein ligation and fertility in men with varicoceles

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H W Baker; H G Burger; D M de Kretser; B Hudson; G C Rennie; W G Straffon

    1985-01-01

    Pregnancy rates in 651 subfertile couples in which the man had a varicocele were analysed by life table methods and were not found to be significantly different before and after testicular vein ligation performed in 283 patients. Estimated proportions of couples conceiving were roughly 30% by one year and 45% by two years in both groups. The operation was also

  10. Internal jugular vein pyogenic capillary hemangioma: a case report.

    PubMed

    Cera, Chiara; Calvagna, Cristiano; Sgorlon, Giada; Zamolo, Francesca; Pancrazio, Francesco; Adovasio, Roberto

    2015-02-01

    Internal jugular vein hemangioma, also called pyogenic granuloma, is a rare tumor. Such a neoformation was accidentally discovered and excised in a middle-aged man. Histologic and immunohistochemical investigations were performed, and this case is compared with the poor amount of similar ones described in the literature. PMID:25462549

  11. Saccular aneurysm of the external jugular vein: a case report.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hae Young; Cho, Sung Ho; Ko, Taek Yong; Kim, Hyun Su; Kim, Jong In; Park, Sung Dal; Cho, Sung Rae; Chun, Bong Kwon

    2014-04-01

    Saccular aneurysm of the external jugular vein presenting as a neck mass is very rare. We report the surgical treatment of an external jugular venous aneurysm in a 48-year-old female patient due to the cosmetic problem of neck engorgement, concomitant with thyroidectomy for cancer. PMID:24782973

  12. Why Do Some Pregnant Women Get Varicose Veins?

    MedlinePLUS

    ... and squeeze the veins to help push the blood back toward the heart. They differ from regular pantyhose because they apply gradual amounts of pressure to the leg, with most compression occurring at the ankle and less further up the leg. It's important ...

  13. Deep Vein Thrombosis - Multiple Languages: MedlinePlus

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Return to top Somali (af Soomaali) Deep Vein Thrombosis (DVT) Xinjir ku Sameysantay Xidid Dhiig oo Arooriye ah oo Hoos Jira - af Soomaali (Somali) Bilingual PDF Health Information Translations Return to top Spanish (español) Trombosis venosa profunda Return to top Date last updated: 24 ...

  14. Characteristics of whitefly transmission of Squash vein yellowing virus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Squash vein yellowing virus (SqVYV), a recently described ipomovirus, is transmitted by the whitefly, Bemisia tabaci Gennadius, B strain. Understanding the characteristics of transmission is essential for developing management strategies for this virus, which is the causal agent for watermelon vine ...

  15. Liver transplantation in patients with portal vein thrombosis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gerardo Manzanet; Fernando Sanjuán; Paco Orbis; Rafael López; Ángel Moya; Manuel Juan; Juanjo Vila; Josep Asensi; Pedro Sendra; José Ru??z; Mart??n Prieto; José Mir

    2001-01-01

    The aim of this study is to analyze the incidence, risk factors, management, and follow-up of patients with portal vein thrombosis (PVT) undergoing primary orthotopic liver transplantation (OLT). Four hundred fifteen OLTs were performed in 391 patients. In 62 patients, partial (group 1; n = 48) or complete (group 2; n = 14) PVT was found at the time of

  16. Mathematical Modeling of Radiofrequency Ablation for Varicose Veins

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Sun Young; Kwak, Byung Kook

    2014-01-01

    We present a three-dimensional mathematical model for the study of radiofrequency ablation (RFA) with blood flow for varicose vein. The model designed to analyze temperature distribution heated by radiofrequency energy and cooled by blood flow includes a cylindrically symmetric blood vessel with a homogeneous vein wall. The simulated blood velocity conditions are U = 0, 1, 2.5, 5, 10, 20, and 40?mm/s. The lower the blood velocity, the higher the temperature in the vein wall and the greater the tissue damage. The region that is influenced by temperature in the case of the stagnant flow occupies approximately 28.5% of the whole geometry, while the region that is influenced by temperature in the case of continuously moving electrode against the flow direction is about 50%. The generated RF energy induces a temperature rise of the blood in the lumen and leads to an occlusion of the blood vessel. The result of the study demonstrated that higher blood velocity led to smaller thermal region and lower ablation efficiency. Since the peak temperature along the venous wall depends on the blood velocity and pullback velocity, the temperature distribution in the model influences ablation efficiency. The vein wall absorbs more energy in the low pullback velocity than in the high one. PMID:25587351

  17. Diodia vein chlorosis virus is a group-1 crinivirus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Members of the Closteroviridae have emerged as a major problem in agricultural crops in the past two decades. Diodia vein chlorosis virus (DVCV) is an understudied whitefly-transmitted closterovirus. Given the presence of the primary host for the virus in major agricultural production areas in the U...

  18. Complete nucleotide sequence of Nootka lupine vein-clearing virus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The complete genome sequence of Nootka lupine vein-clearing virus (NLVCV) was determined to be 4,172 nucleotides in length containing four open reading frames ORFs with a similar genetic organization and conceptual translations of virus species in the genus Carmovirus, family Tombusviridae. The orde...

  19. Controversies in the Use of Portal Vein Embolization

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Thomas M. van Gulik; Jacomina W. van den Esschert; Wilmar de Graaf; Krijn P. van Lienden; Olivier R. C. Busch; Michal Heger; Otto M. van Delden; Johan S. Laméris; Dirk J. Gouma

    2008-01-01

    Background\\/Aims: Portal vein embolization (PVE) has reached worldwide acceptance to increase future remnant liver (FRL) volume before undertaking major liver resection. The aim of this overview is to point out and discuss current controversies in the application of PVE. Methods: Review of literature pertaining to techniques of PVE, complications, tumor proliferation, timing of resection, and hypertrophy response after PVE. Results:

  20. Arteries masquerading as varicose veins: A trap for phlebologists.

    PubMed

    Jones, L; Parsi, K

    2014-07-25

    Ultrasound guided sclerotherapy may be complicated by intra-arterial injections resulting in significant tissue necrosis. Here, we present a 69-year-old man with a history of right small saphenous vein "stripping", presenting for the treatment of symptomatic lower limb varicose veins. Duplex ultrasound of the right lower limb outlined the pathway of venous incompetence. Despite the history of "stripping", the small saphenous vein was present but the sapheno-popliteal junction was ligated at the level of the knee crease. No other unusual findings were reported at the time. During ultrasound guided sclerotherapy, subcutaneous vessels of the right posterior calf were noted to be pulsatile on B-mode ultrasound. Treatment was interrupted. Subsequent angiography and sonography showed absence of the right distal popliteal artery. A cluster of subcutaneous vessels of the right medial and posterior calf were found to be arterial collaterals masquerading as varicose veins. Injection sclerotherapy of these vessels would have resulted in significant tissue loss. This case highlights the importance of vigilance at the time of treatment and the invaluable role of ultrasound in guiding endovenous interventions. PMID:25062681

  1. The surgical anatomy of the superficial and perforating veins of the lower limb.

    PubMed Central

    Thomson, H.

    1979-01-01

    The superficial venous system was dissected in 60 legs. A possible function is ascribed to the long saphenous vein and an argument against its stripping in varicose veins presented. Abnormality of the long saphenous vein and its association with varicose veins is described. Particular features of the saphenous tributaries are noted and their relevance in varicosity discussed. The perforator system is described, the distinguishing properties of the medial ankle perforators being examined and their anatomical confinement delineated. Images FIG. 1 PMID:485047

  2. Local SIFT analysis for hand vein pattern verification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yunxin; Wang, Dayong; Liu, Tiegen; Li, Xiuyan

    2009-11-01

    The newly emerging hand vein recognition technology has attracted remarkable attention for its uniqueness, noninvasion, friendliness and high reliability. It is unavoidable to produce small location deviation of human hand in the practical application; however, the existing recognition methods are sensitive to the hand shift or rotation. The test sample is matched with a series of registered images after affine transformation including the shift or rotation by most of researches, this affine transform method can remedy the location deviation to some extent, but the limited range for hand shift and rotation brings users much inconvenience and the computational cost also increases greatly. Aiming at this issue, a hand vein recognition algorithm based on local SIFT (Scale Invariant Feature Transform) analysis is developed in this contribution, which has practical significance due to its translation and rotation invariance. First, the hand vein image is preprocessed to remove the background and reduce image noises, and then SIFT features are extracted to describe the gradient information of hand vein. Many one-to-more matching pairs are produced by the common matching method of SIFT features, thus the matching rule is improved by appending a constrained condition to ensure the one-to-one matching, which is achieved by selecting feature point with the nearest distance as the optimal match. Finally the match ratio of features between the registered and test images is calculated as the similarity measurement to verify the personal identification. The experiment results show that FRR (False Rejection Rate) is only 0.93% when FAR (False Acceptance Rate) is 0.002%, and EER (Equal Error Rate) is low to 0.12%, which demonstrate the proposed approach is valid and effective for hand vein authentication.

  3. Automatic determination of the artery vein ratio in retinal images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niemeijer, Meindert; van Ginneken, Bram; Abràmoff, Michael D.

    2010-03-01

    A lower ratio between the width of the arteries and veins (Arteriolar-to-Venular diameter Ratio, AVR) on the retina, is well established to be predictive of stroke and other cardiovascular events in adults, as well as an increased risk of retinopathy of prematurity in premature infants. This work presents an automatic method that detects the location of the optic disc, determines the appropriate region of interest (ROI), classifies the vessels in the ROI into arteries and veins, measures their widths and calculates the AVR. After vessel segmentation and vessel width determination the optic disc is located and the system eliminates all vessels outside the AVR measurement ROI. The remaining vessels are thinned, vessel crossing and bifurcation points are removed leaving a set of vessel segments containing centerline pixels. Features are extracted from each centerline pixel that are used to assign them a soft label indicating the likelihood the pixel is part of a vein. As all centerline pixels in a connected segment should be the same type, the median soft label is assigned to each centerline pixel in the segment. Next artery vein pairs are matched using an iterative algorithm and the widths of the vessels is used to calculate the AVR. We train and test the algorithm using a set of 25 high resolution digital color fundus photographs a reference standard that indicates for the major vessels in the images whether they are an artery or a vein. We compared the AVR values produced by our system with those determined using a computer assisted method in 15 high resolution digital color fundus photographs and obtained a correlation coefficient of 0.881.

  4. Duplex ultrasound, clinical score, thrombotic risk, and D-dimer testing for evidence based diagnosis and management of deep vein thrombosis and alternative diagnoses in the primary care setting and outpatient ward.

    PubMed

    Michiels, J J; Moosdorff, W; Maasland, H; Michiels, J M; Lao, M U; Neumann, H A; Dulicek, P; Stvrtinova, V; Barth, J; Palareti, G

    2014-02-01

    Deep vein thrombosis (DVT) has an annual incidence of 0.2% in the urban population. First episodes of calf vein thrombosis (CVT) and proximal DVT are frequently elicited by risk factors, including varicose veins, cancer, pregnancy/postpartum, oral contraceptives below the age of 50 years, immobility or surgery. Leg pain and tenderness in the calf and popliteal fossa on physical examination may result from other conditions than DVT labeled as alternative diagnosis (AD) Congenital venous thrombophilia is present in every third first DVT, increased FVIII in every fourth first DVT, and FV Leiden/FII mutation in 40% of women on oral anticonceptive pill before reaching the menopause. Routine thrombophilia testing for FV Leiden/prothrombin mutation and FVIII as main risk factor for venous thrombosis is recommended. Primary superficial venous thrombosis (SVT) and DVT patients with a autosomal dominant family history of DVT are candidates for thrombophilia testing for congenital AT, PC and PS deficiency. The requirement for a safe diagnostic strategy of CVT and DVT should be based on an objective post-test incidence of venous thromboembolism (VTE) of less than 0.1% with a negative predictive value for exclusion of DVT of 99.9% during 3 months follow-up. Modification of the Wells score by elimination of the "minus 2 points" for AD is mandatory and will improve the diagnostic accuracy of CVT/DVT suspicion in the primary care setting and outpatient ward. The sequential use of complete DUS, ELISA D-dimer testing and modified clinical Wells' score assessment is safe and effective for the exclusion and diagnosis of CVT, DVT and AD. About 10% to 20% of patients with DVT develop overt post-thrombotic syndrome (PTS) at one year post-DVT, and both PTS and DVT recurrences further increase to about 30% during long-term follow-up. Objective risk stratification of PTS complications using DUS for recanalization and reflux and D-dimer testing will become an integral part in routine clinical practice to assess the optimal duration of wearing medical elastic stockings and anticoagulation for the prevention DVT recurrence as the best option to reduce the incidence and costs of suffering from irreversible PTS. PMID:24452081

  5. Genesis of self-organized zebra textures in burial dolomites: Displacive veins, induced stress, and dolomitization

    E-print Network

    Polly, David

    the host dolostone as they grew. Evidence that the veins are displacive includes a) small transform - disregards evidence to the contrary. The idea that flat voids did form in dolostones is incompatible of many incipient, randomly-spaced, parallel veins just starting to grow in a host dolostone, each vein

  6. Depolarization of atrial epicardium near pulmonary veins orifices in hypertensive ISIAH rats.

    PubMed

    Smirnova, S L; Roshchevskii, M P; Roshchevskaya, I M

    2014-07-01

    The formation of early activation regions was demonstrated in the area of the pulmonary vein orifice in hypertensive rats. The appearance of early activation zones on the dorsal side of the left atrium near the pulmonary veins simultaneously with the sinoatrial node in rats with arterial hypertension indicates the possibility of ectopic foci formation in the area of pulmonary vein sleeves. PMID:25065312

  7. The Rat Ear Vein Model for Investigating In Vivo Thrombogenicity of Ultrafine Particles (UFP)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Vanessa M Silva; Nancy Corson; Alison Elder; Gunter Oberdorster

    2005-01-01

    Recent studies in rodents indicate that intravenous or intra- tracheal administration of ultrafine particles (UFP) increases thrombogenesis in a surgically exposed peripheral vein after photodynamic excitation of intravenously injected rose bengal (RB). We sought to adapt the invasive peripheral vein RB model to a noninvasive monitoring of ear veins under an inverted microscope. Animals received one of the following: an

  8. Suprahepatic vein oxygen tension in alcoholics with severe and mild liver damage

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Daniel Bunout; Patricia Moya; María Pía de la Maza; Margarita Petermann; Hernán Iturriaga; Sandra Hirsch

    1995-01-01

    We measured suprahepatic vein and arterial partial oxygen pressure in 35 alcoholics with severe (N=7) or mild (N=28) histological liver damage and without evidence of clinical liver failure. The suprahepatic vein was punctured with a fine needle, using a percutaneous approach. Suprahepatic vein partial oxygen pressure was lower and arterial-suprahepatic gradient higher in alcoholics with severe liver damage compared to

  9. Riedel-shear control on the development of pennant veins: Field example and analogue modelling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coelho, Sara; Passchier, Cees; Marques, Fernando

    2006-09-01

    The wall rocks of a crustal scale sinistral ductile shear zone in Namibia, the Purros Mylonite Zone, contain two types of asymmetric quartz veins. Bedding surfaces contain sigmoidal quartz veins with limited thickness along their symmetry axes that can be classified as tension gashes. A second type of veins consists of a striated central fault vein separating pennant-type quartz filled terminations. The tips of these "pennant veins" have a different orientation to those of the tension gashes. Analogue experiments were carried out using a sheet of silicone powder suspended on a slab of poly-dimethyl-siloxane (PDMS), both deformed in simple shear. These experiments produced open fractures very similar to the pennant veins that form by intersection of R and R' Riedel shear fractures. These fractures rotate and slip during progressive deformation, opening pennant shaped gaps. We interpret the natural pennant veins to form by the same mechanism of R and R' shear fracture initiation, and subsequent rotation and opening. Since this mechanism differs from that of previously described vein types such as wing cracks, tension gashes and swordtail or fishmouth termination veins, which mainly open as tension veins, we consider pennant veins as in new independent class of asymmetric mineral-filled veins.

  10. Deep Vein Thrombosis in Patients Admitted for Exacerbation of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease

    Microsoft Academic Search

    W Y Pek; A Johan; S S Tan; P Lee; C B E Chee; Y T Wang

    Introduction: There is a lack of data on the pre- valence of deep vein thrombosis and pulmonary embolism in patients admitted to hospital for exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Studies have found that most pulmonary embolism originate from deep vein thrombosis in the lower limbs, thus the prevalence of deep vein thrombosis may give an accurate reflection of the

  11. Proximal extent of pelvic vein thrombosis and its association with pulmonary embolism

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Barbara Borst-Krafek; Astrid Maria Fink; Claudia Lipp; Helmut Umek; Horst Köhn; Andreas Steiner

    2003-01-01

    Objective: Conventional methods such as duplex ultrasound scanning do not provide accurate information about proximal extension of pelvic vein thrombosis. We evaluated proximal extent of thrombus toward pelvic veins with magnetic resonance imaging in patients with suspected deep vein thrombosis (DVT) proximal to the inguinal ligament on the basis of duplex ultrasound scans. In addition, frequency of pulmonary embolism (PE)

  12. Gene delivery to aortocoronary saphenous vein grafts in a large animal model of intimal hyperplasia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jason A Petrofski; Jonathan A Hata; Thomas R Gehrig; Steven I Hanish; Matthew L Williams; Richard B Thompson; Cyrus J Parsa; Walter J Koch; Carmelo A Milano

    2004-01-01

    ObjectiveMore than 50% of aortocoronary saphenous vein grafts are occluded 10 years after surgery. Intimal hyperplasia is an initial, critical step in the progression toward occlusion. To date, no clinically relevant large animal models of aortocoronary saphenous vein graft intimal hyperplasia have been fully characterized. Gene therapy holds promise as a novel treatment for aortocoronary saphenous vein graft intimal hyperplasia.

  13. Accessory Veins in Nonmaturing Autogenous Arteriovenous Fistulae: Analysis of Anatomic Features and Impact on Fistula Maturation.

    PubMed

    Engstrom, Bjorn I; Grimm, Lars J; Ronald, James; Smith, Tony P; Kim, Charles Y

    2014-12-01

    The appropriate management of nonmaturing arteriovenous (AV) fistulae continues to be a controversial issue. While coil embolization of accessory side-branch veins can be performed to encourage maturation of nonmaturing AV fistulae, the true efficacy and optimal patient population are not well understood. Fistulagrams performed on nonmaturing AV fistulae were retrospectively reviewed in 145 patients (86 males, median age 63 years) for the presence of accessory veins. Fistula and accessory vein measurements were obtained, as were rates of eventual fistula maturation after accessory vein coil embolization. Of 145 nonmaturing fistulae, 49 (34%) had a stenosis without any accessory veins, 76 (52%) had a stenosis and one or more accessory veins, and 20 (14%) had an accessory vein without concurrent stenosis. Eighteen AV fistulae had one or more accessory veins without coexisting stenosis. Nine fistulae had a caliber decrease immediately downstream from the accessory vein. Coil embolization of dominant accessory veins with a caliber decrease immediately downstream (n = 6) resulted in a 100% eventual fistula maturation rate versus 67% for fistulae without this configuration (n = 6, p = 0.15). Accessory vein size was not correlated with maturation rates (p = 0.51). The majority of nonmaturing fistulae with accessory veins had a coexisting stenosis. Higher maturation rates may result with selected anatomic parameters, although additional studies with more robust sample sizes are needed prior to definitive conclusions. PMID:25482275

  14. A Model For Syntectonic Fibrous Vein Growth Inferred From Microtextures. Ouachitas Orogen, Arkansas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cervantes, P.; Wiltschko, D. V.

    2005-12-01

    Veins from the Lower Ordovician Mazarn Formation in the Arkansas' Ouachitas show two processes of vein growth, 1) continuous localized fracturing and filling and 2) recrystallization, tied to the deformation history of the area under study. Evidence for continuous localized fracturing includes the presence of veinlets near or at the vein-host interface. Veinlets are long and narrow features parallel to the main body of the vein, filled mainly with quartz, between 5 and 25 ?m wide. Veinlets cut and displaced host grains. Displacement of host grains is evident because the material precipitated on veinlets show different luminescence than host grains. Remnants of these veinlets are observed in completely recrystallized fibers. Evidence for recrystallization includes, 1) wide fibers (more than 100 ?m) with fluid inclusion trails parallel to fiber length that span the entire fiber length, 2) luminescence in the central part of the vein is different than luminescence in the external part of the vein (close to host-vein interface), 3) remnants of original luminescence in the central part of the vein suggesting that recrystallization is a later process. We hypothesize that in this region folding followed by flattening gave rise to boudinage of resistant layers accompanying abundant pressure solution providing the vein forming material. Precipitation of material took place along necks of boudins, which fractured repeatedly allowing veins to grow in width and length. Late thrust faults led to open system conditions which gave rise to new vein growth and recrystallization. Recrystallization altered the shape of previously formed veins.

  15. Pregnancy causes diminished myogenic tone and outward hypotrophic remodeling of the cerebral vein of Galen

    PubMed Central

    van der Wijk, Anne-Eva; Schreurs, Malou P H; Cipolla, Marilyn J

    2013-01-01

    Pregnancy increases the risk of several complications associated with the cerebral veins, including thrombosis and hemorrhage. In contrast to the cerebral arteries and arterioles, few studies have focused on the effect of pregnancy on the cerebral venous side. Here, we investigated for the first time the effect of pregnancy on the function and structure of the cerebral vein of Galen in rats. Our major finding was that cerebral veins from late-pregnant (LP, n=11) rats had larger lumen diameters and thinner walls than veins from nonpregnant (NP, n=13) rats, indicating that pregnancy caused outward hypotrophic remodeling of the vein of Galen. Moreover, veins from NP animals had a small amount of myogenic tone at 10?mm?Hg (3.9±1.0%) that was diminished in veins during pregnancy (0.8±0.3% P<0.01). However, endothelium-dependent and -independent vasodilation of the veins was unchanged during pregnancy. Using immunohistochemistry, we show that the vein of Galen receives perivascular innervation, and that serotonergic innervation of cerebral veins is significantly higher in veins from LP animals. Outward hypotrophic remodeling and diminished tone of cerebral veins during pregnancy may contribute to the development of venous pathology through elevated wall tension and wall stress, and possibly by promoting venous blood stasis. PMID:23281424

  16. Varicose Veins in Women Cotton Workers. An Epidemiological Study in England and Egypt

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Siza Mekky; R. S. F. Schilling; Joan Walford

    1969-01-01

    The prevalence of varicose veins was studied in 504 women cotton workers in England and 467 in Egypt, by a standardized questionary and a specially developed method of examination. The English mill population showed a much higher prevalence of varicose veins than the Egyptian, probably owing to environmental rather than ethnic reasons.Among the European women the prevalence of varicose veins

  17. Use of AccuVein™ for preventing complications from accidental venipuncture when administering dermal filler injections.

    PubMed

    Lee, Georgia S K

    2015-02-01

    Abstract Near-infrared technology is used to map out superficial veins to improve the safety of esthetic dermal filler injections. The use of the AccuVein™ device is described and illustrated. Possible benefits of regular use of vein finder technology are discussed. PMID:25260136

  18. Prevalence of varicose veins and chronic venous insufficiency in men and women in the general population: Edinburgh Vein Study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. J. Evans; F. G. Fowkes; C. V. Ruckley; A. J. Lee

    1999-01-01

    STUDY OBJECTIVE: To determine the prevalence of varicose veins and chronic venous insufficiency (CVI) in the general population. DESIGN: Cross sectional survey. SETTING: City of Edinburgh. PARTICIPANTS: Men and women aged 18-64 years selected randomly from age-sex registers of 12 general practices. MAIN RESULTS: In 1566 subjects examined, the age adjusted prevalence of trunk varices was 40% in men and

  19. First report of soybean vein necrosis disease caused by soybean vein necrosis-associated virus in Wisconsin and Iowa

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Several viral diseases of soybean (Glycine max) have been previously identified in the north-central U.S. soybean production area, which includes Wisconsin and Iowa (Hartman et al., 1999). In September 2012, soybean plants with symptoms similar to those reported for soybean vein necrosis disease (SV...

  20. Palliative Portal Vein Stent Placement in Malignant and Symptomatic Extrinsic Portal Vein Stenosis or Occlusion

    SciTech Connect

    Novellas, Sebastien [Hopital Archet, Department of Radiology and Interventional Radiology (France); Denys, Alban, E-mail: Alban.Denys@chuv.ch; Bize, Pierre, E-mail: pierrebize@bluewin.c [Centre Hospitalier Universitaire Vaudois, Department of Radiology and Interventional Radiology (Switzerland); Brunner, Philippe; Motamedi, Jean Paul [Hopital Archet, Department of Radiology and Interventional Radiology (France); Gugenheim, Jean [Hopital Archet, Department of Surgery (France); Caroli, Francois-Xavier [Hopital Archet, Department of Medical Oncology (France); Chevallier, Patrick [Hopital Archet, Department of Radiology and Interventional Radiology (France)

    2009-05-15

    This article evaluates the results of portal vein (PV) stent placement in patients with malignant extrinsic lesions stenosing or obstructing the PV and causing symptomatic PV hypertension (PVHT). Fourteen patients with bile duct cancer (n = 7), pancreatic adenocarcinoma (n = 4), or another cancer (n = 3) underwent percutaneous transhepatic portal venous stent placement because of gastroesophageal or jejunal varices (n = 9), ascites (n = 7), and/or thrombocytopenia (n = 2). Concurrent tumoral obstruction of the main bile duct was treated via the transhepatic route in the same session in four patients. Changes in portal venous pressure, complications, stent patency, and survival were evaluated. Mean {+-} standard deviation (SD) gradient of portal venous pressure decreased significantly immediately after stent placement from 11.2 mmHg {+-} 4.6 to 1.1 mmHg {+-} 1.0 (P < 0.00001). Three patients had minor complications, and one developed a liver abscess. During a mean {+-} SD follow-up of 134.4 {+-} 123.3 days, portal stents remained patent in 11 patients (78.6%); stent occlusion occurred in 3 patients, 2 of whom had undergone previous major hepatectomy. After stent placement, PVHT symptoms were relieved in four (57.1%) of seven patients who died (mean survival, 97 {+-} 71.2 days), and relieved in six (85.7%) of seven patients still alive at the end of follow-up (mean follow-up, 171.7 {+-} 153.5 days). Stent placement in the PV is feasible and relatively safe. It helped to relieve PVHT symptoms in a single session.

  1. Effects of bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells transplanted via the portal vein or tail vein on liver injury in rats with liver cirrhosis

    PubMed Central

    SONG, YING-MING; LIAN, CHANG-HONG; WU, CHENG-SONG; JI, AI-FANG; XIANG, JUAN-JUAN; WANG, XIAO-YAN

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to compare the effects of bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) transplanted via the portal vein or tail vein on liver injury in rats with liver cirrhosis. BMSCs were isolated from rat bone marrow and labeled with green fluorescent protein (GFP). Then, the labeled BMSCs were injected into rats with liver injury via the portal vein or tail vein. Two weeks after transplantation, three rats in each group were sacrificed to test the distribution of GFP in the liver and the serum levels of alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and albumin. Six weeks later, the remaining rats were sacrificed, and serum ALT, AST, albumin, hyaluronic acid (HA), laminin (LN) and procollagen type III (PC-III) levels were measured. The expression of albumin in the liver was analyzed by immunohistochemistry. Two weeks after BMSC transplantation, GFP-positive cells were detected in the livers of rats with BMSCs transplanted via the portal vein and tail vein. Compared with pre-transplantation levels, the ALT levels of the groups with BMSC transplantation via the portal vein and tail vein were significantly decreased after two and six weeks of BMSC transplantation (P<0.05), whereas the AST and albumin levels were not significantly different at two weeks after BMSC transplantation in the two groups (all P>0.05). However, the AST and albumin levels were significantly reduced at six weeks after BMSC transplantation (all P<0.05). At six weeks after BMSC transplantation, the serum HA, LN and PC-III levels in rats transplanted with BMSCs via the portal vein or tail vein had decreased significantly (all P<0.05), as compared with the levels prior to BMSC transplantation. BMSCs transplanted via the portal vein and tail vein achieved similar improvements in liver function in rats with liver cirrhosis, which suggests that peripheral venous administration is a convenient and effective route for BMSC transplantation. PMID:25780424

  2. Centerline Tracking for Quantification of Reverse Structural Remodeling of the Pulmonary Veins Following Cardiac Ablation Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Rettmann, Maryam E.; Gunawan, Mia S.; Holmes, David R.; Breen, Jerome F.; Packer, Douglas L.; Robb, Richard A.

    2012-01-01

    Rationale and Objectives Patients with atrial fibrillation undergo structural remodeling resulting in increased pulmonary vein sizes. Studies have demonstrated that these changes are reversible following successful ablation therapy. To date, analyses of pulmonary vein structure have focussed on measurements at the pulmonary vein ostia and the full extent of reverse remodeling along the length of the pulmonary veins has not yet been fully characterized. Materials and Methods An automated, three-dimensional method is proposed which quantifies pulmonary vein geometry starting at the ostia and extending several centimeters into the veins. A centerline is tracked along the length of the pulmonary vein and orthogonal planes are computed along the curve. The method is validated against manual measurements on each of the four pulmonary veins for 10 subjects. The proposed methodology is used to analyze the pulmonary veins in 21 patients undergoing cardiac ablation therapy with pre- and post-operative CT scans. Results Validation results demonstrate that the automated measurements closely follow the manual measurements with an overall mean difference of 11.50 mm2. Significant differences in cross-sectional area at the two time-points were observed at all pulmonary vein ostia and extending for 1.5 cm (excluding the 1.0 cm interval) into the left inferior pulmonary vein, 3.0 cm into the left superior pulmonary vein, and 0.5 cm into the right superior pulmonary vein. Conclusions Quantitative analysis along the length of the pulmonary veins can be accomplished using centerline tracking and measurements from orthogonal planes along the curve. The patient study demonstrates that reverse structural remodeling following ablation therapy occurs not only at the ostia, but for several centimeters extending into the pulmonary veins. PMID:22889735

  3. Radiofrequency Ablation of Typical Atrial Flutter via Right Jugular Vein due to Bilateral Obstructed Iliac Veins in a Patient with Dilated Cardiomyopathy

    PubMed Central

    Aksu, Tolga; Guler, Tumer Erdem; Golcuk, Sukriye Ebru; Ozcan, Kaz?m Serhan; Erden, Ismail

    2015-01-01

    Ablation of cavotricuspid isthmus (CTI) is the gold standard method in the treatment of isthmus dependent atrial flutter (AFl). Venous access was obtained usually via right or left femoral veins. In rare cases of obstruction of iliofemoral veins, ablation of CTI can be performed only through the superior approach. We present a 74-year-old woman of typical AFl and dilated cardiomyopathy that was ablated through the right jugular vein because of obstruction of the left and the right iliac veins. This is the first report of successful ablation of CTI in a patient with dilated cardiomyopathy via superior approach. PMID:25692044

  4. Endovenous Laser Ablation of Incompetent Perforator Veins: A New Technique in Treatment of Chronic Venous Disease

    SciTech Connect

    Ozkan, Ugur, E-mail: radugur@yahoo.co [Baskent University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiology (Turkey)

    2009-09-15

    The aim of this study was to assess the feasibility of endovenous laser ablation of incompetent perforator veins in a patient with incompetency of the small saphenous vein and multiple perforator veins. Two different methods were used to ablate seven perforator veins with a laser giving 50-60 J/cm energy. Total occlusion was observed in six perforators, and partial ablation in one perforator, at 1-month follow-up. To our knowledge, endovenous laser ablation of incompetent perforator veins is easy and a good therapeutic method.

  5. Internal jugular vein ectasia--a rare cause for paroxysmal cough.

    PubMed

    Padmanabhan, K; Vaishali, B; Indudharan, R

    2007-08-01

    Internal jugular vein ectasia (dilatation of the internal jugular vein) is a rare clinical entity, often undiagnosed. Usually it presents as an asymptomatic, soft, compressible neck swelling that increases in size on Valsalva's manoeuvre. Our report describes right internal jugular vein ectasia in a 15-year-old girl who presented to us with intractable paroxysmal cough. The entity was suspected on ultrasound imaging and confirmed by computed tomography scan and Doppler. Ligation and excision of the dilated vein almost immediately cured her cough. The probable reason for the cough was the pressure exerted by the dilated vein on the vagus nerve. PMID:17166329

  6. A review of the anatomy and clinical significance of adrenal veins.

    PubMed

    Cesmebasi, Alper; Du Plessis, Maira; Iannatuono, Mark; Shah, Sameer; Tubbs, R Shane; Loukas, Marios

    2014-11-01

    The adrenal veins may present with a multitude of anatomical variants, which surgeons must be aware of when performing adrenalectomies. The adrenal veins originate during the formation of the prerenal inferior vena cava (IVC) and are remnants of the caudal portion of the subcardinal veins, cranial to the subcardinal sinus in the embryo. The many communications between the posterior cardinal, supracardinal, and subcardinal veins of the primordial venous system provide an explanation for the variable anatomy. Most commonly, one central vein drains each adrenal gland. The long left adrenal vein joins the inferior phrenic vein and drains into the left renal vein, while the short right adrenal vein drains immediately into the IVC. Multiple variations exist bilaterally and may pose the risk of surgical complications. Due to the potential for collaterals and accessory adrenal vessels, great caution must be taken during an adrenalectomy. Adrenal venous sampling, the gold standard in diagnosing primary hyperaldosteronism, also requires the clinician to have a thorough knowledge of the adrenal vein anatomy to avoid iatrogenic injury. The adrenal vein acts as an important conduit in portosystemic shunts, thus the nature of the anatomy and hypercoagulable states pose the risk of thrombosis. PMID:24737134

  7. Multiple variations of the superficial jugular veins: case report and clinical relevance.

    PubMed

    Paraskevas, George; Natsis, Konstantinos; Ioannidis, Orestis; Kitsoulis, Panagiotis; Anastasopoulos, Nikolaos; Spyridakis, Ioannis

    2014-01-01

    The jugular venous system constitutes the primary venous drainage of the head and neck. It includes a profundus or subfascial venous system, formed by the two internal jugular veins, and a superficial or subcutaneous one, formed by the two anterior and two external jugular veins. We report one case of unilateral anatomical variations of the external and anterior jugular veins. Particularly, on the right side, three external jugular veins co-existed with two anterior jugular veins. Such a combination of venous anomalies is extremely rare. The awareness of the variability of these veins is essential to anesthesiologists and radiologists, since the external jugular vein constitutes a common route for catheterization. Their knowledge is also important to surgeons performing head and neck surgery. PMID:25006662

  8. Iliac Vein Compression Syndrome due to Bladder Distention Caused by Urethral Calculi

    PubMed Central

    Ikegami, Akiko; Kondo, Takeshi; Tsukamoto, Tomoko; Ohira, Yoshiyuki; Ikusaka, Masatomi

    2015-01-01

    We report a rare case of iliac vein compression syndrome caused by urethral calculus. A 71-year-old man had a history of urethral stenosis. He complained of bilateral leg edema and dysuria for 1 week. Physical examination revealed bilateral distention of the superficial epigastric veins, so obstruction of both common iliac veins or the inferior vena cava was suspected. Plain abdominal computed tomography showed a calculus in the pendulous urethra, distention of the bladder (as well as the right renal pelvis and ureter), and compression of the bilateral common iliac veins by the distended bladder. Iliac vein compression syndrome was diagnosed. Bilateral iliac vein compression due to bladder distention (secondary to neurogenic bladder, benign prostatic hyperplasia, or urethral calculus as in this case) is an infrequent cause of acute bilateral leg edema. Detecting distention of the superficial epigastric veins provides a clue for diagnosis of this syndrome. PMID:25802794

  9. Fetal umbilical vein transplantation for the repair of middle cerebral artery injury

    PubMed Central

    Hou, Xuhui; Yuan, Yi; Yin, Jian; Yang, Songbai; Xie, Lili; Wang, Shiji

    2013-01-01

    It is necessary to investigate the longitudinal tensile mechanical characteristics of the middle cerebral artery and the fetal umbilical vein prior to applying fetal umbilical vein transplantation for repair of injured middle cerebral artery. Fifteen fresh fetal umbilical vein specimens and 15 normal human fresh cadaver middle cerebral artery specimens were collected for longitudinal tensile testing at the speed of 0.5 mm/min and at normal human temperature. The results showed that under 16.0 kPa physiological stress, the strain value of fetal umbilical vein specimens was larger, while the maximal stress and elastic modulus values were less than those of middle cerebral artery specimens. Our findings indicate that fetal umbilical vein has good elastic properties and the stress-strain curve of the fetal umbilical vein is similar to that of the middle cerebral artery. Fetal umbilical vein transplantation can, therefore, potentially repair the injured middle cerebral artery. PMID:25206646

  10. Cephalic vein: Saviour in the microsurgical reconstruction of breast and head and neck cancers

    PubMed Central

    Shankhdhar, Vinay K.; Yadav, Prabha S.; Dushyant, Jaiswal; SeethaRaman, Sakthipalan Selva; Chinmay, Wingkar

    2012-01-01

    Background: Reconstruction with microvascular free flaps is considered the reconstructive option of choice in cancer of the head and neck regions and breast. Rarely, there is paucity of vessels, especially the veins, at the recipient site. The cephalic vein with its good caliber and constant anatomy is a reliable recipient vein available in such situations. Materials and Methods: It is a retrospective study from January 2010 to July 2012 and includes 26 patients in whom cephalic vein was used for free-flap reconstruction in head and neck (3 cases) and breast cancers (23 cases). Results: All flaps in which cephalic vein was used survived completely. Conclusion: Cephalic vein can be considered as a reliable source of venous drainage when there is a non-availability/unusable of veins during free-flap reconstruction in the head and neck region and breast and also when additional source of venous drainage is required in these cases. PMID:23450746

  11. [High ligation and vein stripping. The classic procedure].

    PubMed

    Stenger, D; Hartmann, M

    2012-08-01

    The guidelines of the Society for Vascular Surgery and the American Venous Forum for management of patients with varicose veins recommend at level 1B endovenous thermal ablation for treatment of saphenous incompetence. High ligation and stripping is recommended only at level 2B. Consequently today most of the surgical procedures in the US are done endoluminally. The situation in Germany is different. The vast majority of the over 300,000 procedures done annually for varicose veins are surgical. In specialized centers in Germany, post-operative failures after high ligation are uncommon. Improper operative approaches seem likely in many of the randomized controlled trials (RCT). After proper high ligation, the results are very good. PMID:22806122

  12. Spontaneous rupture of uterine vein in twin pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Doger, Emek; Cakiroglu, Yigit; Yildirim Kopuk, Sule; Akar, Bertan; Caliskan, Eray; Yucesoy, Gulseren

    2013-01-01

    Objective. Aim of our study is to present a case of a twin pregnancy following invitro fertilization cycle complicated with hemoperitoneum at third trimester. Case. A 26-year-old nulliparous pregnant woman at 32 weeks of gestation with twin pregnancy following invitro fertilization cycle complained of abdominal pain. After 48 hours of admission, laparotomy was performed with indications of aggravated abdominal pain and decreased hemoglobin levels. Utero-ovarian vein branch rupture was detected on the right posterior side of uterus and bleeding was stopped by suturing the vein. Etiopathogenesis of the present case still remains unclear. Conclusion. Spontaneous rupture of the uterine vessels during pregnancy is a rare complication and may lead to maternal and fetal morbidity and mortality. Diagnosis and treatment are based on the clinical symptoms of acute abdominal pain and laboratory tests of hypovolemic shock signs. PMID:24455353

  13. Spontaneous Rupture of Uterine Vein in Twin Pregnancy

    PubMed Central

    Doger, Emek; Cakiroglu, Yigit; Yildirim Kopuk, Sule; Akar, Bertan; Caliskan, Eray; Yucesoy, Gulseren

    2013-01-01

    Objective. Aim of our study is to present a case of a twin pregnancy following invitro fertilization cycle complicated with hemoperitoneum at third trimester. Case. A 26-year-old nulliparous pregnant woman at 32 weeks of gestation with twin pregnancy following invitro fertilization cycle complained of abdominal pain. After 48 hours of admission, laparotomy was performed with indications of aggravated abdominal pain and decreased hemoglobin levels. Utero-ovarian vein branch rupture was detected on the right posterior side of uterus and bleeding was stopped by suturing the vein. Etiopathogenesis of the present case still remains unclear. Conclusion. Spontaneous rupture of the uterine vessels during pregnancy is a rare complication and may lead to maternal and fetal morbidity and mortality. Diagnosis and treatment are based on the clinical symptoms of acute abdominal pain and laboratory tests of hypovolemic shock signs. PMID:24455353

  14. Inferior Vena Cava Anomaly: A Risk for Deep Vein Thrombosis

    PubMed Central

    Sitwala, Puja S; Ladia, Vatsal M; Brahmbhatt, Parag B; Jain, Vinay; Bajaj, Kailash

    2014-01-01

    Context: Inferior vena cava (IVC) anomalies have a 0.5% incidence rate and could be associated with other congenital abnormalities. In later stage of the disease, trophic ulcers with or without deep vein thrombosis (DVT) is consistent finding. Case Report: A 29-year-old male patient presented with recurrent lower extremity ulcers. Further workup revealed an absent infrahepatic inferior vena cava, prominently dilated azygos and hemiazygos veins with enlarged retroperitoneal collaterals without DVT. Conclusion: IVC anomaly should be suspected in a young patient presenting with unexplained venous thrombosis and recurrent ulcers of a lower extremity. IVC anomaly would inherently lead to blood flow stasis and endothelial injury. Thus per Virchow's triad, other risk factors for hypercoagulability such as physical inactivity, smoking tobacco, oral contraceptive pills should be avoided and when hereditary thrombophilias or other irreversible risk factors are present, lifelong anticoagulation should be considered. PMID:25535612

  15. Branch Retinal Vein Occlusion: Pathogenesis, Visual Prognosis, and Treatment Modalities

    PubMed Central

    Rehak, Jiri; Rehak, Matus

    2008-01-01

    In branch retinal vein occlusion (BRVO), abnormal arteriovenous crossing with vein compression, degenerative changes of the vessel wall and abnormal hematological factors constitute the primary mechanism of vessel occlusion. In general, BRVO has a good prognosis: 50–60% of eyes are reported to have a final visual acuity (VA) of 20/40 or better even without treatment. One important prognostic factor for final VA appears to be the initial VA. Grid laser photocoagulation is an established treatment for macular edema in a particular group of patients with BRVO, while promising results for this condition are shown by intravitreal application of steroids or new vascular endothelial growth factor inhibitors. Vitrectomy with or without arteriovenous sheathotomy combined with removal of the internal limiting membrane may improve vision in eyes with macular edema which are unresponsive to or ineligible for laser treatment. PMID:18293182

  16. Isolated rupture of the superficial vein of the penis

    PubMed Central

    Eken, Alper; Acil, Meltem; Arpaci, Taner

    2014-01-01

    Penile emergencies are rare but when they do occur, prompt diagnosis and treatment are warranted. Emergent conditions of the male genitalia are mainly traumatic, vascular or infectious. Penile emergencies are usually caused by trauma to the penis, during sexual intercourse or manipulation of an erect penis during masturbation. One of the traumatic vascular penile emergencies is superficial penile dorsal vein rupture. This is a rare condition, with just a few reported cases. It is usually taken into differential diagnosis with the other acute penile injuries that present, such as acute penile edema or ecchymosis. We report a case of 59-year-old male with a superficial penile dorsal vein rupture which occurred during manipulation of the erect penis. PMID:24940469

  17. Varicose vein trauma: a risk for pulmonary embolism.

    PubMed

    Joy, Parijat S; Marak, Creticus P; Ponea, Anna M; Guddati, Achuta K

    2014-10-01

    Pulmonary embolism (PE) is a deceptive condition which is often incorrectly diagnosed leading to high morbidity and mortality. We present a case where symptoms were localised to different areas of the body starting with post-traumatic pain over lower extremity varicosities that migrated sequentially over a month to the knee, hip, back, abdomen and chest finally presenting as syncope. Despite a low pre-test clinical probability, a very high index of suspicion led to a timely diagnosis of a massive bilateral PE that eventually caused a troponin leak. The aetiology is highly suspicious of a thrombus which originated in the veins of the leg due to trauma over varicose veins.The case described here exemplifies the importance of considering trauma to varicosities as a risk factor for embolism when the clinical picture is concerning but other signs and symptoms of PE are not apparent. PMID:25478387

  18. Characterization of the promoter of Grapevine vein clearing virus.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Y; Angel, C A; Valdes, S; Qiu, W; Schoelz, J E

    2015-01-01

    Grapevine vein clearing virus (GVCV) is a recently discovered DNA virus in grapevine that is closely associated with the grapevine vein clearing syndrome observed in vineyards in Missouri and surrounding states. The genome sequence of GVCV indicates that it belongs to the genus Badnavirus in the family Caulimoviridae. To identify the GVCV promoter, we cloned portions of the GVCV large intergenic region in front of a GFP gene present in an Agrobacterium tumefaciens binary vector. GFP expression was assessed by ELISA 3 days after agroinfiltration of Nicotiana benthamiana leaves. We found that the GVCV DNA segment between nts 7332 and 7672 directed expression of GFP and this expression was stronger than expression using the Cauliflower mosaic virus 35S promoter. It was revealed by 5' and 3' RACE that transcription was initiated predominantly at nt 7571 and terminated at nt 7676. PMID:25281563

  19. Varicose Vein Trauma: A Risk for Pulmonary Embolism

    PubMed Central

    Marak, Creticus P; Ponea, Anna M; Guddati, Achuta K

    2014-01-01

    Pulmonary embolism (PE) is a deceptive condition which is often incorrectly diagnosed leading to high morbidity and mortality. We present a case where symptoms were localised to different areas of the body starting with post-traumatic pain over lower extremity varicosities that migrated sequentially over a month to the knee, hip, back, abdomen and chest finally presenting as syncope. Despite a low pre-test clinical probability, a very high index of suspicion led to a timely diagnosis of a massive bilateral PE that eventually caused a troponin leak. The aetiology is highly suspicious of a thrombus which originated in the veins of the leg due to trauma over varicose veins.The case described here exemplifies the importance of considering trauma to varicosities as a risk factor for embolism when the clinical picture is concerning but other signs and symptoms of PE are not apparent. PMID:25478387

  20. Venous haemodynamics of the upper extremity after subclavian vein thrombosis.

    PubMed

    Lindblad, B; Bornmyr, S; Kullendorff, B; Bergqvist, D

    1990-01-01

    Late post-thrombotic complaints after subclavian vein thrombosis are reported with highly varying frequencies (8-80% severe disability). The therapeutic approach depends partly on this frequency. With the aim to evaluate late sequelae a questionnaire was answered by 26 patients with arm-shoulder symptoms leading to arm phlebography, but where the examination did not reveal any thrombi. 65% had remaining symptoms 2-9 years after the examination. 3 had to change profession. 36 patients with phlebographically shown subclavian vein thrombosis answered the same questionnaire. Only 9 (25%) had remaining symptoms and in 4 it was classified as mild, in 4 as moderate and only in 1 patient as severe leading to change of profession. Venous haemodynamics in the upper extremity were also studied in 3 groups of patients; I) healthy volunteers (n = 16 arms), II) patients with arm-shoulder disabilities with negative arm phlebography (n = 7 disabled arms, n = 7 non-disabled arms), III) patients with phlebographically verified subclavian vein thrombi (n = 10 arms with DVT, n = 8 arms without DVT). Strain gauge plethysmography was used measuring venous capacity and maximal venous outflow. Venous pressure measurements were made both with the arms in a resting position and in a military position with and without work-load. Repeat phlebography of arms with symptoms were made. Maximal venous outflow was significantly lower in arms with previous subclavian vein thrombi (p less than 0.05) and venous pressure measurements with the arm in military position was significantly higher in those arms. However, no correlation between these measurements and the degree of arm disability was noted.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:2238816

  1. Endoscopic vein harvesting in coronary artery bypass surgery

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. Huber; P. Bergmann; S. Schweiger; H. Mächler; P. Oberwalder; B. Rigler

    2007-01-01

    Summary  BACKGROUND: Leg wound complications and infections after harvesting of the greater saphenous vein (GSV) in coronary artery\\u000a bypass surgery (CABG) represent a serious source of patient morbidity. Especially, in patients with obesity, diabetes and\\u000a peripheral vascular disease, severe wound complications with increased pain occur more often. METHODS: Our aim was to evaluate\\u000a the feasibility and the results of the endoscopic

  2. Vein of Galen malformations: epidemiology, clinical presentations, management.

    PubMed

    Recinos, Pablo F; Rahmathulla, Gazanfar; Pearl, Monica; Recinos, Violette Renard; Jallo, George I; Gailloud, Philippe; Ahn, Edward S

    2012-01-01

    The vein of Galen aneurysmal malformation is a congenital vascular malformation that comprises 30% of the pediatric vascular and 1% of all pediatric congenital anomalies. Treatment is dependent on the timing of presentation and clinical manifestations. With the development of endovascular techniques, treatment paradigms have changed and clinical outcomes have significantly improved. In this article, the developmental embryology, clinical features and pathophysiology, diagnostic workup, and management strategies are reviewed. PMID:22107867

  3. Drosophila Smad2 Opposes Mad Signaling during Wing Vein Development

    PubMed Central

    Sander, Veronika; Eivers, Edward; Choi, Renee H.; De Robertis, Edward M.

    2010-01-01

    In the vertebrates, the BMP/Smad1 and TGF-?/Smad2 signaling pathways execute antagonistic functions in different contexts of development. The differentiation of specific structures results from the balance between these two pathways. For example, the gastrula organizer/node of the vertebrates requires a region of low Smad1 and high Smad2 signaling. In Drosophila, Mad regulates tissue determination and growth in the wing, but the function of dSmad2 in wing patterning is largely unknown. In this study, we used an RNAi loss-of-function approach to investigate dSmad2 signaling during wing development. RNAi-mediated knockdown of dSmad2 caused formation of extra vein tissue, with phenotypes similar to those seen in Dpp/Mad gain-of-function. Clonal analyses revealed that the normal function of dSmad2 is to inhibit the response of wing intervein cells to the extracellular Dpp morphogen gradient that specifies vein formation, as measured by expression of the activated phospho-Mad protein. The effect of dSmad2 depletion in promoting vein differentiation was dependent on Medea, the co-factor shared by Mad and dSmad2. Furthermore, double RNAi experiments showed that Mad is epistatic to dSmad2. In other words, depletion of Smad2 had no effect in Mad-deficient wings. Our results demonstrate a novel role for dSmad2 in opposing Mad-mediated vein formation in the wing. We propose that the main function of dActivin/dSmad2 in Drosophila wing development is to antagonize Dpp/Mad signaling. Possible molecular mechanisms for the opposition between dSmad2 and Mad signaling are discussed. PMID:20442782

  4. Deep Dorsal Vein Arterialization in Pure Cavernoocclusive Dysfunction

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ahmet Metin

    2000-01-01

    Purpose: We report our 4–year experience with deep dorsal vein arterialization at 3 years’ follow–up in young patients with pure cavernoocclusive dysfunction as an alternative to penile prosthesis implantation.Materials and Methods: We performed a modified Furlow–Fisher operation (circumflex collaterals are preserved and the deep dorsal venous valves are not disrupted by a stipper) in 25 patients who did not have

  5. Bilateral Central Vein Occlusion in a Case of Diaphragmatic Eventration

    PubMed Central

    STER, Anda-Maria; STAN, Cristina; GHERVAN, Mihaela

    2014-01-01

    Central Retinal Vein Occlusion (CRVO) is a severe retinal pathology, which causes visual impairment usually after the age of 40. Mostly unilateral, less than 10% of cases are bilateral. Affected young adults (under the age of 40), usually exhibit a hidden, underlying systemic disease. Thorough testing has to be done in order to spot the pathogenic agent. We present the case of a 25 years old woman with bilateral CRVO caused by Diaphragmatic Eventration and Chronic Respiratory Failure. PMID:25705293

  6. Origin of pegmatitic segregation veins within flood basalts

    SciTech Connect

    Puffer, J.H.; Horter, D.L. (Rutgers Univ., Newark, NJ (United States))

    1993-06-01

    Subhorizontal veins and lenses of coarse-grained rock composed of plagioclase, augite, and Fe-Ti oxides in a glassy and vesicular mesostasis occur within several thick subaerial basalt flows in the Columbia River Basalt province of Washington and in the eastern North American Mesozoic basalt province. The veins and lenses, referred to as pegmatitic segregation veins, are typically 1-10 cm thick and are enriched in Fe, Ti, K, P, Cu, Zr, Ba, and REE by a factor of about 1.1 to 3 over the host basalt; Al, Ca, Sr, Mg, Ni, and Cr are lower, and Si and Na are typically unchanged. We interpret the pegmatitic segregation veins as the product of residual melt carried in vapor bubbles from the lower crystallization front of partially crystallized flows to the crystal mush within the upper crystallization front. Movement through the elevated temperatures of flow interiors fused any crystal nuclei in the segregation melt. Diminished nucleation density during crystallization may partially account for coarse grain sizes. In addition, diffusion of ions to large, rapidly growing skeletal crystals was probably enhanced by the viscosity-reduction effect of water enrichment. The water content of accumulated segregation melt may have increased whenever the escape of volatiles from partially crystallized flows was temporarily sealed off under a rigid barrier of solidified basalt. Rupture of the barrier by downward propagation of columnar joints would allow the resumption of effervescence and any remaining partially crystallized segregation melt-phase would be degassed and quenched into a glassy and vesicular mesostasis. 59 refs., 8 figs., 2 tabs.

  7. Interposition vein graft for giant coronary aneurysm repair

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Firstenberg, M. S.; Azoury, F.; Lytle, B. W.; Thomas, J. D.

    2000-01-01

    Coronary aneurysms in adults are rare. Surgical treatment is often concomitant to treating obstructing coronary lesions. However, the ideal treatment strategy is poorly defined. We present a case of successful treatment of a large coronary artery aneurysm with a reverse saphenous interposition vein graft. This modality offers important benefits over other current surgical and percutaneous techniques and should be considered as an option for patients requiring treatment for coronary aneurysms.

  8. The natural history of endothelial structure and function in arterialized vein grafts.

    PubMed

    Bush, H L; Jakubowski, J A; Curl, G R; Deykin, D; Nabseth, D C

    1986-02-01

    When the saphenous vein is used in the in situ position for arterial bypass surgery, it is associated with more optimal preservation of the endothelial lining and with improved graft patency compared with reversed vein grafts. However, it is not clear whether preservation of endothelial integrity persists after arterialization. The goal of this study was to establish whether preservation of the endothelium before arterialization is a critical factor in the development of late functional and morphologic abnormalities of autogenous vein grafts. Paired reversed and in situ vein grafts were created in 75 mongrel dogs. Veins to be used in the reversed position were excised and stored in either heparinized whole blood at 37 degrees C or saline solution at 4 degrees C. Veins were studied before and after arterialization. The veins were arterialized by anastomosis to the carotid artery and excised at intervals of 1 day to 12 weeks for studies of the luminal production of prostacyclin and thromboxane A2 in addition to luminal morphology. Before arterialization, normothermic whole blood preserved biochemical function of the endothelium significantly better than hypothermic saline solution, but not as well as the in situ vein procedure. Soon after arterialization, all three vein grafts showed significant functional and morphologic abnormalities consistent with injury of the vein graft. Morphologic healing of the endothelial monolayer progressed slowly back to normal; however, the biochemical capacity of the vein graft never matched that of the prearterialized vein, nor that of normal host arteries. Regardless of surgical technique, all vein grafts exhibited a period of abnormal structure and function, which exposed them to the risk of thrombogenesis. This period of potential leukocyte or platelet interaction with the vein wall could lead to release phenomena as well as proliferative changes in the vessel wall. PMID:3511302

  9. Endovenous therapies of varicose veins: indications, procedures, efficacy and safety.

    PubMed

    Biemans, A A M; Van Den Bos, R R; Nijsten, T

    2010-04-01

    Venous insufficiency of the lower-extremity is common and the prevalence increases with age. Chronic venous insufficiency has a high impact on patients' health related quality of life (HRQOL) and is associated with considerable health care costs. In addition to classical symptoms, it may result in skin changes and venous ulcers. Since more than hundred years, surgical ligation of the junction with or without stripping has been the standard of care in the treatment of insufficient great and small saphenous veins. However, the recurrence rates are relatively high and surgery may be associated with serious adverse events, considerable down time and is cosmetically suboptimal. In the last decade several minimally invasive techniques have been introduced, to improve efficacy, patients' HRQOL and treatment satisfaction, and to reduce serious side effects, costs and postoperative pain. Dermatologists have played an important role in the development of minimal invasive therapies Ultrasound guided foam sclerotherapy, endovenous laser therapy and radiofrequency ablation are the most commonly used therapies, and challenge surgery as the gold standard of care in patients with varicose veins. The objective of this review is to inform clinicians about these three therapeutic options for saphenous varicose veins and to describe and compare the indications, procedures, efficacy and safety profile. PMID:20467390

  10. An unusual case of Y-shaped right renal vein.

    PubMed

    Lavy, M; Martin, L; Eouzan, D; Turco, C; Heyd, B; Mantion, G; Parratte, B; Tatu, L

    2015-01-01

    Vascular renal anomalies are frequent, multiple and well described and result from errors in vessel embryogenesis between the 6th and 10th week of gestation. Historically, variations are described in anatomic dissection and currently mostly in image interpretation. We report an anatomic variation concerning the right renal vein which, to our knowledge, has never been described in the literature either by dissection or by radiological examination. This variation was discovered during the routine dissection of an embalmed male body. It consists of a Y-shaped right renal vein and is associated with multiple retroperitoneal variations: a bilateral accessory renal artery, a trident ending of the right renal artery and a left testicular vein variation. Venous and arterial renal anatomy and its variations are fundamentally important in renal surgery, especially concerning living donor renal grafts. These variations may be diagnosed thanks to injected tomodensitometry which has a good sensitivity and specificity for anomalies. Preoperative diagnosis of an anatomic vascular renal variation may reduce morbidity during surgery, which is why precise examination of injected tomography should be mandatory. PMID:24614923

  11. Fossil evidence for Cretaceous escalation in angiosperm leaf vein evolution

    PubMed Central

    Feild, Taylor S.; Brodribb, Timothy J.; Iglesias, Ari; Chatelet, David S.; Baresch, Andres; Upchurch, Garland R.; Gomez, Bernard; Mohr, Barbara A. R.; Coiffard, Clement; Kvacek, Jiri; Jaramillo, Carlos

    2011-01-01

    The flowering plants that dominate modern vegetation possess leaf gas exchange potentials that far exceed those of all other living or extinct plants. The great divide in maximal ability to exchange CO2 for water between leaves of nonangiosperms and angiosperms forms the mechanistic foundation for speculation about how angiosperms drove sweeping ecological and biogeochemical change during the Cretaceous. However, there is no empirical evidence that angiosperms evolved highly photosynthetically active leaves during the Cretaceous. Using vein density (DV) measurements of fossil angiosperm leaves, we show that the leaf hydraulic capacities of angiosperms escalated several-fold during the Cretaceous. During the first 30 million years of angiosperm leaf evolution, angiosperm leaves exhibited uniformly low vein DV that overlapped the DV range of dominant Early Cretaceous ferns and gymnosperms. Fossil angiosperm vein densities reveal a subsequent biphasic increase in DV. During the first mid-Cretaceous surge, angiosperm DV first surpassed the upper bound of DV limits for nonangiosperms. However, the upper limits of DV typical of modern megathermal rainforest trees first appear during a second wave of increased DV during the Cretaceous-Tertiary transition. Thus, our findings provide fossil evidence for the hypothesis that significant ecosystem change brought about by angiosperms lagged behind the Early Cretaceous taxonomic diversification of angiosperms. PMID:21536892

  12. Blood vessel classification into arteries and veins in retinal images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kondermann, Claudia; Kondermann, Daniel; Yan, Michelle

    2007-03-01

    The prevalence of diabetes is expected to increase dramatically in coming years; already today it accounts for a major proportion of the health care budget in many countries. Diabetic Retinopathy (DR), a micro vascular complication very often seen in diabetes patients, is the most common cause of visual loss in working age population of developed countries today. Since the possibility of slowing or even stopping the progress of this disease depends on the early detection of DR, an automatic analysis of fundus images would be of great help to the ophthalmologist due to the small size of the symptoms and the large number of patients. An important symptom for DR are abnormally wide veins leading to an unusually low ratio of the average diameter of arteries to veins (AVR). There are also other diseases like high blood pressure or diseases of the pancreas with one symptom being an abnormal AVR value. To determine it, a classification of vessels as arteries or veins is indispensable. As to our knowledge despite the importance there have only been two approaches to vessel classification yet. Therefore we propose an improved method. We compare two feature extraction methods and two classification methods based on support vector machines and neural networks. Given a hand-segmentation of vessels our approach achieves 95.32% correctly classified vessel pixels. This value decreases by 10% on average, if the result of a segmentation algorithm is used as basis for the classification.

  13. Potential Risk Factors for Varicose Veins with Superficial Venous Reflux

    PubMed Central

    Uzun Kulao?lu, Tülin; Fen, Turgay; Kap?s?z, Hasan Fahri

    2014-01-01

    The objective of the study is to evaluate a range of potential risk factors in the etiology of varicose veins with superficial venous reflux. Forty-nine patients attending a cardiovascular surgery clinic for the management of varicose disease between 2009 and 2010 were enrolled for the study. The age range of the patient group was 44,04 ± 15,05 years and female/male (F/M) ratio was 30/19. Twenty-six normal, healthy volunteers with the age of 40,94 ± 13,60 years and with the female/male ratio of 15/11 acted as control subjects. We investigated several parameters including body mass index, age, birth number > 1, standing for a long time (standing for 8 or more hours without taking a break), systemic diseases, family history, venous Doppler f?ndings, the levels of homocysteine, ferritin, vitamin B12, and hemoglobin, sedimentation rate, mean corpuscular volume, low density lipoprotein, and rheumatoid factor of the patient group and the control group. We also determined the contribution of the methylene tetrahydrofolate reductase 677 C>T and 1298 A>C gene polymorphisms and FV Leiden in both groups. In this small study, there appears to be no association between varicose veins and body mass index, smoking, type 2 DM, hypertension, family history, and birth number. A history of increased standing duration period (>8 hours) and rheumatoid factor positivity have association with varicose veins with superficial venous reflux. PMID:25302121

  14. Fabrication of subcutaneous veins phantom for vessel visualization system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Kai; Narita, Kazuyuki; Morita, Yusuke; Nakamachi, Eiji; Honda, Norihiro; Awazu, Kunio

    2013-09-01

    The technique of subcutaneous veins imaging by using NIR (Near Infrared Radiation) is widely used in medical applications, such as the intravenous injection and the blood sampling. In the previous study, an automatic 3D blood vessel search and automatic blood sampling system was newly developed. In order to validate this NIR imaging system, we adopted the subcutaneous vein in the human arm and its artificial phantom, which imitate the human fat and blood vessel. The human skin and subcutaneous vein is characterized as the uncertainty object, which has the individual specificity, non-accurate depth information, non-steady state and hardly to be fixed in the examination apparatus. On the other hand, the conventional phantom was quite distinct from the human's characteristics, such as the non-multilayer structure, disagreement of optical property. In this study, we develop a multilayer phantom, which is quite similar with human skin, for improvement of NIR detection system evaluation. The phantom consists of three layers, such as the epidermis layer, the dermis layer and the subcutaneous fat layer. In subcutaneous fat layer, we built a blood vessel. We use the intralipid to imitate the optical scattering characteristics of human skin, and the hemoglobin and melanin for the optical absorption characteristics. In this study, we did two subjects. First, we decide the fabrication process of the phantom. Second, we compared newly developed phantoms with human skin by using our NIR detecting system, and confirm the availability of these phantoms.

  15. Thrombosis of the great cerebral vein in a hemodialysis patient.

    PubMed

    Ratkovic, Marina; Basic-Jukic, Nikolina; Gledovic, Branka; Radunovic, Danilo

    2014-01-01

    Cerebral venous thrombosis is a rare condition with various clinical presentations which may delay diagnosis. It is frequently associated with severe consequences. We present the first documented case of thrombosis of the great cerebral vein in a hemodialysis patient. A 29-year-old female patient with end-stage renal disease of unknown etiology was admitted to a hospital with altered consciousness and nausea. Severe headache in the right parietal area had started 2 days before. On examination, she was in the poor overall condition, dysartric, with a severe nystagmus. Urgent brain multislice computerized tomography and magnetic resonance imaging revealed thrombosis of the great cerebral vein with hypodense zones in hypothalamus, thalamus and basal ganglia. She was treated with heparin bolus of 25000 IU with a favorable outcome. Detailed examination demonstrated increased lupus anticoagulant (LA) 1 and LA2 and increased LA1/LA2. Control magnetic resonance imaging performed 1 year later revealed multiple vascular lesions within the brain. Acetylsalicylate was introduced in therapy. Thrombosis of the cerebral veins should be suspected in patients with end-stage renal disease, altered neurological status and signs of increased intracranial pressure. PMID:23998712

  16. Force-Sensing Microneedle for Assisted Retinal Vein Cannulation*

    PubMed Central

    Gonenc, Berk; Gehlbach, Peter; Handa, James; Taylor, Russell H.; Iordachita, Iulian

    2014-01-01

    Retinal vein cannulation (RVC) is a challenging procedure proposed for drug delivery into the very small retinal veins. The available glass cannulas for this procedure are both hard to visualize and fragile thereby limiting the feasibility of both robot-assisted and manual RVC approaches. In this study, we develop and test a new force-sensing RVC instrument that can be easily integrated with the existing manual and robotic devices. The tool enables (1) the measurement of the forces required for puncturing retinal veins in vivo and (2) an assistive method to inform the operator of the needle piercing the vessel wall. The fiber Bragg grating based sensor can be inserted into the eye through a small (? 0.9 mm) opening and provides a quantitative assessment at the tool tip with a resolution smaller than 0.25 mN. Assessment of forces during vessel penetration in the chorioallantoic membranes of chicken embryos have revealed a consistent sharp drop in tool tip force upon vessel puncture that has been used as a signature to provide auditory feedback to the user to stop needle advancement and begin drug delivery. PMID:25580178

  17. Finger vein recognition based on the hyperinformation feature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xi, Xiaoming; Yang, Gongping; Yin, Yilong; Yang, Lu

    2014-01-01

    The finger vein is a promising biometric pattern for personal identification due to its advantages over other existing biometrics. In finger vein recognition, feature extraction is a critical step, and many feature extraction methods have been proposed to extract the gray, texture, or shape of the finger vein. We treat them as low-level features and present a high-level feature extraction framework. Under this framework, base attribute is first defined to represent the characteristics of a certain subcategory of a subject. Then, for an image, the correlation coefficient is used for constructing the high-level feature, which reflects the correlation between this image and all base attributes. Since the high-level feature can reveal characteristics of more subcategories and contain more discriminative information, we call it hyperinformation feature (HIF). Compared with low-level features, which only represent the characteristics of one subcategory, HIF is more powerful and robust. In order to demonstrate the potential of the proposed framework, we provide a case study to extract HIF. We conduct comprehensive experiments to show the generality of the proposed framework and the efficiency of HIF on our databases, respectively. Experimental results show that HIF significantly outperforms the low-level features.

  18. Metachronous renal vein and artery injure after percutaneous nephrostolithotomy

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Percutaneous nephrostolithotomy is important approach for kidney stones removal. A percutaneous nephrostomy drainage tube placement is an effective method to stop venous bleeding. Occasionally, the catheter can pierce into the renal parenchyma, and migrate into the renal vein even to the vena cava. Case presentation A 66-year-old woman underwent a percutaneous nephrostolithotomy for kidney staghorn stone complicating severe bleeding. A computed tomography angiography showed the percutaneous nephrostomy drainage tube inside the renal vein. The percutaneous nephrostomy drainage tube was withdrawn 3 cm back to the renal parenchyma/sinus/pelvis in stages with the surgical team on standby. Seven days later, the patient developed severe hematuria. Computed tomography angiography demonstrated the pseudoaneurysm located near the percutaneous nephrostomy drainage tube. Pseudoaneurysm is embolized successfully. Conclusion Our case shows intravenous misplacement of the nephrostomy tube and subsequent pseudoaneurysm after percutaneous nephrostolithotomy. To our knowledge, this seems to be the first documentation of major bleeding from the injury to both renal vein and artery. The percutaneous nephrostomy drainage tube can be withdrawn back to the renal parenchyma/sinus/pelvis in stages with the surgical team on standby, and the withdrawn distance may vary according to patient and catheter position. PMID:24304827

  19. Color Doppler flow imaging of the facial artery and vein.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Z; Li, S; Xu, J; Li, Y; Huang, W; Yang, M; Mu, L; Liu, Y; Zhai, H; Jin, J; Li, J; Li, J; Fu, X

    2000-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to provide some guidelines with respect to the location of the facial vessels, display the potential inverted blood flow of the facial artery, and reemphasize the value of color Doppler ultrasound studies in flap planning. An anatomic study of the facial artery and vein was done using color Doppler ultrasonography in 12 adults. The artery and the vein were located together at the lower border of the mandible. Around the oral commissure and under the nasal ala, they were located apart from each other with variable distances. This divergence of the facial vein from the artery is important information in the planning of axial pattern flaps. Furthermore, the reverse flow was observed in 12 patients after the blood flow of the facial artery was stopped by applying pressure manually at the lower border of the mandible. Observation of the reversed flow confirms the possibility of safe elevation of a retrograde flow-arterialized flap based on the distal portion of the facial artery. PMID:11083553

  20. Extensional failure and hydraulic valving at Minas da Panasqueira, Portugal: evidence from vein spatial distributions, displacements and geometries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Foxford, K. A.; Nicholson, R.; Polya, D. A.; Hebblethwaite, R. P. B.

    2000-08-01

    At Panasqueira, Portugal, exceptional exposure and demonstrable vein connectivity allow robust characterisation of brittle/elastic failure mechanisms in intrusive-related environments. Extensional failure was driven by cycles of fluid injection (hydraulic valving) and vein growth under conditions with ?v?1 and differential stress <4 T. Failure was episodic and produced a swarm of W-Sn-bearing quartz veins characterised by positive volumetric strain. Worked veins consist of families of co-planar vein-lobes linked at branch-points. Geometrically coherent vein displacements constrain an elliptical anomaly (the damage zone) in which values of extensional strain are symmetrically distributed, decreasing systematically away from a centrally located maxima to zero at a tip-line loop. Vein textures indicate rapid, episodic, vein opening, ?m- to dm-scale vein apertures, spatially and temporally variable rates of vein filling and periodic baffling of fluid migration pathways. Although the vein swarm represents a single vein cluster, vein thickness and spacing populations are typically non-power law and define anomaly-scale heterogeneous strain with inhomogeneously deformed marginal zones surrounding a homogeneously deformed high-strain core. Deviations from power-law behaviour were promoted by competitive vein growth that provided mechanisms for (i) inhibiting vein nucleation and (ii) localising deformation onto a few evenly spaced veins.

  1. Embolization of Incompetent Pelvic Veins for the Treatment of Recurrent Varicose Veins in Lower Limbs and Pelvic Congestion Syndrome

    SciTech Connect

    Meneses, Luis, E-mail: lmeneseq@gmail.com; Fava, Mario; Diaz, Pia; Andia, Marcelo [Pontificia Universidad Catolica de Chile, Radiology Department and Biomedical Imaging Center (Chile)] [Pontificia Universidad Catolica de Chile, Radiology Department and Biomedical Imaging Center (Chile); Tejos, Cristian; Irarrazabal, Pablo [Pontificia Universidad Catolica de Chile, Biomedical Imaging Center (Chile)] [Pontificia Universidad Catolica de Chile, Biomedical Imaging Center (Chile); Uribe, Sergio, E-mail: suribe@med.puc.cl [Pontificia Universidad Catolica de Chile, Radiology Department and Biomedical Imaging Center (Chile)] [Pontificia Universidad Catolica de Chile, Radiology Department and Biomedical Imaging Center (Chile)

    2013-02-15

    We present our experience with embolization of incompetent pelvic veins (IPV) in women with recurrence of varicose veins (VV) in lower limbs, as well as symptoms of pelvic congestion syndrome (PCS), after first surgery. In addition, we evaluated the effects of embolization in decreasing the symptoms of VV before surgery as well as its effects on PCS symptoms. We included 10 women who had consulted a vascular surgeon because of recurrent VV in lower limbs after surgery. All of these patients were included in the study because they also had symptoms of PCS, probably due to IPV. In patients who had confirmed IPV, we performed embolization before a second surgery. VV and PCS were assessed before and at 3 months after embolization (before the second surgery) using a venous clinical severity score (VCSS) and a visual analog pain scale (VAS), respectively. Patients were controlled between 3 and 6 months after embolization. Paired Student t test analysis was used for comparing data before and after embolization. Fifteen vein segments in 10 women were suitable for embolization. There was a significant (p < 0.001) decrease of VCSS after embolization, and recurrence of VV was not detected within a period of 6 months. There was also significant (p < 0.01) relief of chronic pelvic pain related to PCS evaluated using VAS at 3 months after embolization. Embolization decreases the risk of VV recurrence after surgery and also improves PCS symptoms in women with VV in lower limbs and IPV.

  2. Computer-assisted diagnostic tool to quantify the pulmonary veins in sickle cell associated pulmonary hypertension

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jajamovich, Guido H.; Pamulapati, Vivek; Alam, Shoaib; Mehari, Alem; Kato, Gregory J.; Wood, Bradford J.; Linguraru, Marius George

    2012-03-01

    Pulmonary hypertension is a common cause of death among patients with sickle cell disease. This study investigates the use of pulmonary vein analysis to assist the diagnosis of pulmonary hypertension non-invasively with CT-Angiography images. The characterization of the pulmonary veins from CT presents two main challenges. Firstly, the number of pulmonary veins is unknown a priori and secondly, the contrast material is degraded when reaching the pulmonary veins, making the edges of these vessels to appear faint. Each image is first denoised and a fast marching approach is used to segment the left atrium and pulmonary veins. Afterward, a geodesic active contour is employed to isolate the left atrium. A thinning technique is then used to extract the skeleton of the atrium and the veins. The locations of the pulmonary veins ostia are determined by the intersection of the skeleton and the contour of the atrium. The diameters of the pulmonary veins are measured in each vein at fixed distances from the corresponding ostium, and for each distance, the sum of the diameters of all the veins is computed. These indicators are shown to be significantly larger in sickle-cell patients with pulmonary hypertension as compared to controls (p-values < 0.01).

  3. Effects of cobalt chloride on phenotypes of normal human saphenous vein smooth muscle cells

    PubMed Central

    Li, Jing; Wang, Huai-Ming

    2014-01-01

    To explore the cellular adaptations and responses to hypoxia in normal human saphenous vein smooth muscle cells (SMCs) and presume what roles phenotypic modulation of normal human saphenous vein SMCs would play in varicose vein of lower extremity, we used cobalt chloride (CoCl2), a hypoxia mimetic, to treat normal human saphenous vein SMCs in vitro. The proliferating ability of cells exposed to serial dilutions of CoCl2 (0, 200, 300, 400 and 500 ?M) at 24 h, 48 h and 72 h respectively was detected by MTT assay. Wound healing assay was used to observe the migrating ability of cells under CoCl2 (200 ?M) treatment for 8 days continuously. Hoechst 33258 stain was used to determine whether hypoxia induced by CoCl2 could cause apoptosis of normal human saphenous vein SMCs. We found that CoCl2 enhanced the proliferation and inhibited the migration of normal human saphenous vein SMCs. The apparent morphous of normal human saphenous vein SMCs under chronic CoCl2 treatment was significantly changed compared to no CoCl2 treated control, but this process did not relate to cell apoptosis. To conclude, our results support the concept that the phenotypes of normal human saphenous vein SMCs could be influenced by hypoxia stimulus. Cellular structural and functional changes under chronic hypoxia in normal human saphenous vein SMCs might play important roles in the development of varicose veins of lower extremity. PMID:25663990

  4. Development of an image acquisition system for hand vein based on an embedded system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Xiuyan; Liu, Tiegen; Wang, Yunxin; Yuan, Chenhu; Deng, Shichao

    2009-07-01

    As one kind of the latest forms of biometrics, the human hand vein recognition utilizes a state-of-the-art recognition algorithm based on unique veins and capillaries found on human dorsal hand, which possesses the advantages such as well anti-falsification and high noise immunity. For the hand vein recognition, the most important premise is acquiring the high quality hand vein image. According to the special effect of human hand vein on the near infrared (NIR), when a hand is scanned by an image sensor, the vein pattern appears darker than its surroundings. Depending on this characteristic, the NIR light source was utilized to illuminate the image acquisition system for hand vein. And the optimal parameters of light source were chosen and the light source with high uniformity illuminance was manufactured to acquire the more clear hand vein image. Simultaneously, for the purpose of system miniaturization and design flexibility, the embedded image acquisition system for hand vein was designed based on the technology of system on programmable chip (SOPC). FPGA and CMOS image sensor were taken as the core components in the system, and the hardware of acquisition module is realized by configuring NiosII soft-core CPU and some corresponding interface modules on a FPGA. The software was developed by using the NiosII IDE to realize the initialization control to CMOS image sensor and collection, storage and transmission for the image data gathered from CMOS. Then the collected hand vein image was simply preprocessed, which further improved the image quality. Through experiments, the results indicated that this system could obtain the hand vein image with high performance, and it supplied the embedded development platform for hand vein recognition simultaneously. It was significant to develop the hand vein recognition system with small size and high speed.

  5. Retro-Aortic Inverted Left Renal Vein: A Rare Anomaly Found in a Renal Donor

    PubMed Central

    Sabouri, Sofia; Hosseini, Ashrafsadat; Shivaei, Seyedeh Shirin

    2015-01-01

    Awareness of the renal vascular anatomy including variants of the renal vein is important for abdominal and renal surgeries, such as renal transplantation. The complex embryological development of the renal vein results in the following variations: additional renal veins on the left side, circum-aortic renal collar and retro-aortic renal veins. In this report, we present a case of a 35-year-old renal donor who had a rare renal vein anomaly that had been shown by computed tomography (CT) angiography. The left renal vein was single, and just before draining into the inferior vena cava (IVC) made two branches craniocaudally, which both passed posteriorly to the aorta and entered separately into the IVC. PMID:25901255

  6. Phlebectasia of the external jugular vein with thrombosis: report of a case.

    PubMed

    Matsunaga, Keiko; Kishi, Kazuo

    2014-06-01

    An 81-year-old male presented with a soft mass on his neck noted in the supine position. After undergoing an operation for an inguinal hernia, the mass was noted to persist regardless of the patient's position. Computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging revealed phlebectasia of the external jugular vein with an associated thrombosis. Under general anesthesia, the external jugular vein was ligated and removed, along with the thrombus. A histological section revealed that the tunica media of the external jugular vein was absent, and the smooth muscle layer and elastic fibers were attenuated in the fusiform area of the vein. Due to the risk of propagation of the clot and pulmonary embolism, resection of the external jugular vein is advised in cases of phlebectasia of the external jugular vein. PMID:23589057

  7. Is pulmonary vein isolation still the cornerstone in atrial fibrillation ablation?

    PubMed Central

    Cutler, Michael J.

    2015-01-01

    Radiofrequency catheter ablation for atrial fibrillation (AF) has become a frequently used therapy after failure of at least one antiarrhythmic drug. The cornerstone of AF ablation has been durable pulmonary vein isolation. However, understanding the positive and negative outcomes of catheter ablation of AF is severely limited by diverse ablation methodologies that do not seem to result in durable pulmonary vein isolation. Without durable pulmonary isolation ablation, it is unclear if ablation strategies need to be modified to include extrapulmonary vein ablation targets in combination with pulmonary vein isolation or alone to improve long-term procedural success rates. The marked discrepancy between AF ablation procedure success rates and actual long-term pulmonary vein isolation rates does suggest that targeting other mechanisms can be considered to achieve similar or better results when compared to pulmonary vein isolation alone. PMID:25713728

  8. Evaluation of arterialized vein graft permeability with Evans blue dye and iodine 125-labeled albumin

    SciTech Connect

    Finck, S.J.; Mashburn, J.P.; Kottke, B.A.; Orszulak, T.A. (Mayo Clinic Jacksonville, FL (USA))

    1989-11-01

    This study measured endothelial permeability, quantitatively (with iodine 125-labeled albumin) and qualitatively (with Evans blue dye) in arterialized vein grafts in 9 adult dogs. In each dog, the right common carotid artery was ligated and arterial flow was reconstituted with a 5-cm bypass graft of right external jugular vein. Twenty-four hours before the dogs were killed, each dog received both {sup 125}I-labeled albumin (8 microCi/kg) and Evans blue dye (15 mg/kg) intravenously. After the dogs' death, each arterialized vein graft and each left external jugular vein (as control) was harvested and studied. Arterialized vein graft permeability was significantly increased over control at 1, 3, and 6 months (3 dogs at each interval). Scanning electron microscopy revealed confluent endothelium in all specimens. This increased permeability may play a role in vein graft atherosclerosis.

  9. Palm vein for efficient person recognition based on 2D Gabor filter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Jixing; He, Yuqing; Zhu, Jiadan; Gao, Xinru; Cui, Yongsheng

    2013-05-01

    Palm vein recognition is a relatively new method in biometrics. This paper presents an effective palm vein feature extraction approach for improving the efficiency of palm vein identification. In this paper, relevant preprocessing steps as rotation and extraction of the Region of Interest are presented. In feature extraction, multiple 2D Gabor filters with 4 orientations are employed to extract the phase information on a palm vein image, which is then merged into unique feature according to an encoding rule. Hamming distance is used for vein recognition. Experiments are carried on a selfmade palm vein database. Experimental results show that the method in this paper achieved a higher correct recognition rate and a faster speed.

  10. Bipolar radiofrequency-induced thermotherapy of great saphenous vein: Our initial experience

    PubMed Central

    Kasi, Venkatesh; Kalyanpur, Tejas M; Narsinghpura, Kaustubh; Chakravarthy, Deyananda; Mehta, Pankaj; Cherian, Mathew

    2012-01-01

    The incidence of varicose veins in lower limbs is increasing in the Indian subcontinent. With the advent of radiofrequency ablation (RFA), an effective minimally invasive technique is now available to treat varicose veins. RFA can be performed with either unipolar or bipolar probes. We present a simple technique for bipolar radiofrequency-induced thermotherapy of the great saphenous vein. This can be a safe and effective alternative to surgical procedures. PMID:23162247

  11. Improving deep vein thrombosis prophylaxis with mechanical modalities in surgical intensive care unit.

    PubMed

    Restrepo, Paula; Jameson, Deborah L; Carroll, Diane L

    2015-01-01

    Deep vein thrombosis remains a source of adverse outcomes in surgical patients. Deep vein thrombosis is preventable with prophylactic intervention. The success of noninvasive mechanical modalities for prophylaxis relies on compliance with correct application. The goals of this project were to create a guideline that reflected current evidence and expert thinking about mechanical modalities use, assess compliance with mechanical modalities, and develop strategies to disseminate an evidence-based guideline for deep vein thrombosis prophylaxis. PMID:24991980

  12. Ultrasound, computed tomography, and magnetic resonance imaging of ovarian vein thrombosis in obstetrical and nonobstetrical patients.

    PubMed

    Virmani, Vivek; Kaza, Ravi; Sadaf, Arifa; Fasih, Najla; Fraser-Hill, Margaret

    2012-05-01

    Ovarian vein thrombosis is an uncommon clinical entity, most familiar to radiologists as a source of postpartum sepsis, which, if unrecognized and left untreated, has the potential for septic shock, pulmonary thromboembolism, and death. Ovarian vein thrombosis also occurs with other common inflammatory and malignant conditions in the nonobstetrical patient. This article reviews the pathophysiology, predisposing conditions, clinical findings, imaging features on ultrasonography, computed tomography, and magnetic resonance imaging of acute and chronic ovarian vein thrombosis and its appropriate clinical management. PMID:20870377

  13. Increased Nitric Oxide Production in the Spermatic Vein of Patients with Varicocele

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Emin Ozbek; Yusuf Turkoz; Remzi Gokdeniz; Mursel Davarci; Fikret Ozugurlu

    2000-01-01

    Objective: To define the level of nitric oxide (NO) in the spermatic vein of patients with varicocele and its relation with male infertility.Materials and Methods: Following physical and color Doppler ultrasonographic examination, whole blood samples were drawn from a peripheral vein and a dilated varicocele vein from fourteen patients with clinically palpable varicocele (G2–3) before ligation. NO levels in the

  14. Fluid immiscibility in late-Alpine gold-bearing veins, Eastern and Northwestern European Alps

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. Craw; D. A. H. Teagle; R. Belocky

    1993-01-01

    Gold-bearing quartz veins fill late-Alpine brittle structures in Pennine nappes of Austria (in the Tauern window) and in northern Italy. The veins formed in the latter stages of uplift of the Alps. Fluid inclusions in veins sampled from Böckstein, Austria, and Valle Anzasca, Italy have a wide variety of compositions, ranging from aqueous brine (about 5 wt% NaCl equiv.) to

  15. Red blood cell gastrointestinal bleeding scintigraphy. Appearance of the left ovarian vein

    SciTech Connect

    Camele, R.A.; Bansal, S.K.; Turbiner, E.H.

    1984-05-01

    A case report is presented describing visualization of the left ovarian vein during technetium-99m labeled red blood cell (Tc-99m RBC) gastrointestinal scintigraphy. It demonstrates the usefulness of early dynamic images in differentiating the left ovarian vein from activity within the left ureter that may occur secondary to excretion of free technetium. The left ovarian vein may be visualized during Tc-99m RBC gastrointestinal scintigraphy and should not be mistaken for aberrant vasculature.

  16. Divided Saphenectomy for Varicose Vein in Ambulatory Surgery

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    We performed divided saphenectomy (DS) for varicose vein in ambulatory surgery with minimal incisions. Under tumescent local anesthesia, this procedure ligates all perforators in the thigh, preserving a route of venous drainage, and reduces bruising by ligating all tributaries. Also, DS does not need any special surgical instrument. Subcutaneous inguinal hemorrhage was observed in 4.9% (3/61), mild bruises were observed in 19.7% (12/61), and saphenous nerve neuralgia was 1.6% (1/61). Wound infection, deep venous thrombosis, and edema were not observed. DS is a minimally invasive, simple, and cost-effective procedure. PMID:24995071

  17. Alteration and vein mineralization, Schwartzwalder uranium deposit, Front Range, Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wallace, Alan R.

    1983-01-01

    The Schwartzwalder uranium deposit, in the Front Range west of Denver, Colorado, is the largest vein-type uranium deposit in the United States. The deposit is situated in a steeply dipping fault system that cuts Proterozoic metamorphic rocks. The host rocks represent a submarine volcanic system with associated chert and iron- and sulfide-rich pelitic rocks. Where faulted, the more competent garnetiferous and quartzitic units behaved brittlely and created a deep, narrow conduit. The ores formed 70-72 m.y. ago beneath 3 km of Phanerozoic sedimentary rocks. Mineralization included two episodes of alteration and three stages of vein-mineralization. Early carbonate-sericite alteration pseudomorphically replaced mafic minerals, whereas the ensuing hematite-adularia episode replaced only the earlier alteration assemblage. Early vein mineralization produced a minor sulfide-adularia-carbonate assemblage. Later vein mineralization generated the uranium ores in two successive stages. Carbonates, sulfides, and adularia filled the remaining voids. Clastic dikes composed of fault gouge and, locally, ore were injected into new and existing fractures. Geologic and chemical evidence suggest that virtually all components of the deposit were derived from major hornblende gneiss units and related rocks. The initial fluids were evolved connate/metamorphic water that infiltrated and resided along the extensive fault zones. Complex fault movements in the frontal zone of the eastern Front Range caused the fluids to migrate to the most permeable segments of the fault zones. Heat was supplied by increased crustal heat flow related to igneous activity in the nearby Colorado mineral belt. Temperatures decreased from 225?C to 125?C during later mineralization, and the pressure episodically dropped from 1000 bars. The CO2 fugacity was initially near 100 bars, and uranium was carried as a dicarbonate complex. Sudden decreases in confining pressure during fault movement caused evolution of CO2 and a consequent increase in pH. Uranium was released with destruction of the uranyl complexes; it was subsequently reduced by aqueous sulfur species, thereby leading to the precipitation of pitchblende.

  18. Circumaortic Left Renal Vein Associated with Juxtarenal Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    The patient was an 82-year-old man who was found to have a juxtarenal abdominal aortic aneurysm accompanied by a circumaortic left renal vein (CLRV). During dissection of the proximal anastomosis site the CLRV was injured, but was successfully repaired. A graft implantation was performed below the renal arteries. The incidence of CLRV is thought to be rare, however it is found in 7% of cadavers donated for anatomy. CLRV may cause unexpected bleeding by inadvertent dissection of the abdominal aorta. To prevent unexpected bleeding, surgeons should always keep in mind this potential risk when performing surgery. PMID:24130625

  19. Melt inclusions in veins: linking magmas and porphyry Cu deposits.

    PubMed

    Harris, Anthony C; Kamenetsky, Vadim S; White, Noel C; van Achterbergh, Esmé; Ryan, Chris G

    2003-12-19

    At a porphyry copper-gold deposit in Bajo de la Alumbrera, Argentina, silicate-melt inclusions coexist with hypersaline liquid- and vapor-rich inclusions in the earliest magmatic-hydrothermal quartz veins. Copper concentrations of the hypersaline liquid and vapor inclusions reached maxima of 10.0 weight % (wt %) and 4.5 wt %, respectively. These unusually copper-rich inclusions are considered to be the most primitive ore fluid found thus far. Their preservation with coexisting melt allows for the direct quantification of important oreforming processes, including determination of bulk partition coefficients of metals from magma into ore-forming magmatic volatile phases. PMID:14684818

  20. Acute Pancreatitis and Splenic Vein Thrombosis due to Hypertriglyceridemia

    PubMed Central

    Gündüz, Ercan; Dursun, Recep; ?çer, Mustafa; Zengin, Y?lmaz; Gülo?lu, Cahfer

    2015-01-01

    Acute pancreatitis (AP) is a condition characterised by the activation of the normally inactive digestive enzymes due to an etiological factor and digestion of the pancreatic tissues, resulting in extensive inflammation and leading to local, regional, and systemic complications in the organism. It may vary from the mild edematous to the hemorrhagic and severely necrotising form. The most common causes are biliary stones and alcohol abuse. In this case study, we would like to present a patient with AP due to hypertriglyceridemia (HPTG), which is a rare cause of pancreatitis, and splenic vein thrombosis, which is a rare complication of pancreatitis. PMID:25802772

  1. INTERACTIONS OF HUMAN UMBILICAL VEIN ENDOTHELIAL CELLS WITH TOBACCO TREATED STREPTOCOCCUS MUTANS

    E-print Network

    Zhou, Yaoqi

    INTERACTIONS OF HUMAN UMBILICAL VEIN ENDOTHELIAL CELLS WITH TOBACCO TREATED STREPTOCOCCUS MUTANS University School of Dentistry, Indianapolis, IN 46202 Streptococcus mutans and tobacco are risk factors

  2. Association of a distinct strain of hollyhock yellow vein mosaic virus and Ludwigia leaf distortion betasatellite with yellow vein mosaic disease of hollyhock (Alcea rosea) in India.

    PubMed

    Srivastava, A; Kumar, S; Raj, S K; Pande, S S

    2014-10-01

    A distinct strain of hollyhock yellow vein mosaic virus (HoYVMV) and Ludwigia leaf distortion betasatellite (LuLDB) were associated with yellow vein mosaic of hollyhock. The viral DNA genome (JQ911766) and betasatellite (JQ408216) shared highest nucleotide sequence identity (89.2 %) with HoYVMV (the only available sequence in GenBank) and 92 % identity with LuLDB. Agroinfiltration of HoYVMV and LuLDB induced yellow vein mosaic symptoms on hollyhock, thereby demonstrating causality of the disease. PMID:24810100

  3. Case report of deep vein thrombosis caused by artificial urinary sphincter reservoir compressing right external iliac vein

    PubMed Central

    Yip, Marcus J.; Jhamb, Ashu; Goad, Jeremy R.

    2015-01-01

    Artificial urinary sphincters (AUSs) are commonly used after radical prostatectomy for those who are incontinent of urine. However, they are associated with complications, the most common being reservoir uprising or migration. We present a unique case of occlusive external iliac and femoral vein obstruction by the AUS reservoir causing thrombosis. Deflation of the reservoir and anticoagulation has, thus far, not been successful at decreasing thrombus burden. We present this case as a rare, but significant surgical complication; explore the risk factors that may have contributed, and other potential endovascular therapies to address this previously unreported AUS complication. PMID:25657561

  4. Inorganic phosphate inhibits sympathetic neurotransmission in canine saphenous veins

    SciTech Connect

    Edoute, Y.; Vanhoutte, P.M.; Shepherd, J.T.

    1987-01-01

    Inorganic phosphate has been proposed as the initiator of metabolic vasodilatation in active skeletal muscle. The present study was primarily designed to determine if this substance has an inhibitory effect on adrenergic neurotransmission. Rings of canine saphenous veins were suspended for isometric tension recording in organ chambers. A comparison was made of the ability of inorganic phosphate (3 to 14 mM) to relax rings contracted to the same degree by electrical stimulation, exogenous norepinephrine, and prostaglandin F/sub 2..cap alpha../. The relaxation during electrical stimulation was significantly greater at all concentrations of phosphate. In strips of saphenous veins previously incubated with (/sup 3/H)norepinephrine, the depression of the contractile response caused by phosphate during electrical stimulated was accompanied by a significant reduction in the overflow of labeled neurotransmitter. Thus inorganic phosphate inhibits sympathetic neurotransmission and hence may have a key role in the sympatholysis in the active skeletal muscles during exercise. By contrast, in this preparation, it has a modest direct relaxing action on the vascular smooth muscle.

  5. Arteries are formed by vein-derived endothelial tip cells

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Cong; Hasan, Sana S.; Schmidt, Inga; Rocha, Susana F.; Pitulescu, Mara E.; Bussmann, Jeroen; Meyen, Dana; Raz, Erez; Adams, Ralf H.; Siekmann, Arndt F.

    2014-01-01

    Tissue vascularization entails the formation of a blood vessel plexus, which remodels into arteries and veins. Here we show, by using time-lapse imaging of zebrafish fin regeneration and genetic lineage tracing of endothelial cells in the mouse retina, that vein-derived endothelial tip cells contribute to emerging arteries. Our movies uncover that arterial-fated tip cells change migration direction and migrate backwards within the expanding vascular plexus. This behaviour critically depends on chemokine receptor cxcr4a function. We show that the relevant Cxcr4a ligand Cxcl12a selectively accumulates in newly forming bone tissue even when ubiquitously overexpressed, pointing towards a tissue-intrinsic mode of chemokine gradient formation. Furthermore, we find that cxcr4a mutant cells can contribute to developing arteries when in association with wild-type cells, suggesting collective migration of endothelial cells. Together, our findings reveal specific cell migratory behaviours in the developing blood vessel plexus and uncover a conserved mode of artery formation. PMID:25502622

  6. A method for quickly and exactly extracting hepatic vein

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiong, Qing; Yuan, Rong; Wang, Luyao; Wang, Yanchun; Li, Zhen; Hu, Daoyu; Xie, Qingguo

    2013-02-01

    It is of vital importance that providing detailed and accurate information about hepatic vein (HV) for liver surgery planning, such as pre-operative planning of living donor liver transplantation (LDLT). Due to the different blood flow rate of intra-hepatic vascular systems and the restrictions of CT scan, it is common that HV and hepatic portal vein (HPV) are both filled with contrast medium during the scan and in high intensity in the hepatic venous phase images. As a result, the HV segmentation result obtained from the hepatic venous phase images is always contaminated by HPV which makes accurate HV modeling difficult. In this paper, we proposed a method for quick and accurate HV extraction. Based on the topological structure of intra-hepatic vessels, we analyzed the anatomical features of HV and HPV. According to the analysis, three conditions were presented to identify the nodes that connect HV with HPV in the topological structure, and thus to distinguish HV from HPV. The method costs less than one minute to extract HV and provides a correct and detailed HV model even with variations in vessels. Evaluated by two experienced radiologists, the accuracy of the HV model obtained from our method is over 97%. In the following work, we will extend our work to a comprehensive clinical evaluation and apply this method to actual LDLT surgical planning.

  7. Arterial blood pressure and vascular function in human saphenous vein.

    PubMed

    Momin, A; Sharabiani, Mta; Wendler, O; Angelini, G D; Desai, J

    2015-04-01

    Hypertension is a risk factor for accelerated saphenous vein (SV) graft disease and endothelial dysfunction in a number of vascular territories. We examined the relationship between blood pressure (BP) and vascular function in SV from 94 male patients undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG). Patients were pretreated with respect to cholesterol (3.4±1.2 mmol/L) and BP (systolic 139±22 mmHg, diastolic 74±13 mmHg). All patients were taking aspirin, 85% statins, 50% angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors and 70% beta-blockers. We demonstrate in human SV rings ex vivo that increased BP has no effect on acetylcholine-mediated vasodilatation (p=0.58), nor on the constrictor response to L-NMMA (p=0.98), but has a positive association with the constrictor response to phenylephrine (p=0.008) and a negative correlation with the vasodilator response to sodium nitroprusside (p=0.03). These results may provide further explanation for the high incidence of early vein graft failure after CABG in hypertensive patients and support an aggressive approach to optimize BP before surgery. PMID:24963039

  8. Diameter, pressure and compliance relationships in dorsal hand veins.

    PubMed

    Shykoff, B E; Hawari, F I; Izzo, J L

    2001-01-01

    The diameter-pressure characteristics of dorsal hand veins previously have not been characterized. In this study, the effects of distending pressure with and without infused norepinephrine on diameter and compliance were observed. The elevation needed for venous collapse was measured, and the effects of baseline constriction on venous reactivity were assessed. In seven supine subjects, a brachial cuff on an elevated arm was used to generate distending pressures while a linear variable displacement transformer (LVDT) measured changes in venous diameter. Arctangent functions of distending pressure were fitted to the normalized diameter, then compliance functions were calculated. In supine subjects, 5-15 cm of elevation emptied dorsal hand veins. Norepinephrine decreased the venous diameter at any distending pressure by increasing the P50 without significantly changing the midpoint slope. Compliance was a nearly single-valued function of the normalized diameter with a maximum value at about 60% distention. Reactivity depends on distending pressure and baseline P50. Percentage constriction is a function of initial and final P50 and of distending pressure. PMID:11530971

  9. Arteries are formed by vein-derived endothelial tip cells.

    PubMed

    Xu, Cong; Hasan, Sana S; Schmidt, Inga; Rocha, Susana F; Pitulescu, Mara E; Bussmann, Jeroen; Meyen, Dana; Raz, Erez; Adams, Ralf H; Siekmann, Arndt F

    2014-01-01

    Tissue vascularization entails the formation of a blood vessel plexus, which remodels into arteries and veins. Here we show, by using time-lapse imaging of zebrafish fin regeneration and genetic lineage tracing of endothelial cells in the mouse retina, that vein-derived endothelial tip cells contribute to emerging arteries. Our movies uncover that arterial-fated tip cells change migration direction and migrate backwards within the expanding vascular plexus. This behaviour critically depends on chemokine receptor cxcr4a function. We show that the relevant Cxcr4a ligand Cxcl12a selectively accumulates in newly forming bone tissue even when ubiquitously overexpressed, pointing towards a tissue-intrinsic mode of chemokine gradient formation. Furthermore, we find that cxcr4a mutant cells can contribute to developing arteries when in association with wild-type cells, suggesting collective migration of endothelial cells. Together, our findings reveal specific cell migratory behaviours in the developing blood vessel plexus and uncover a conserved mode of artery formation. PMID:25502622

  10. [NHG guideline 'Deep-vein thrombosis and pulmonary embolus'].

    PubMed

    de Jong, J; Lucassen, W A M; Geersing, G J; Burgers, J S; Wiersma, Tj

    2015-01-01

    - The revised Dutch College of General Practitioners (Nederlands Huisartsen Genootschap [NHG]) guideline 'Deep-vein thrombosis and pulmonary embolus' includes recommendations for the treatment of patients with deep-vein thrombosis (DVT) and thrombophlebitis, and for the exclusion of pulmonary embolism (PE).- The general practitioner (GP) can exclude the presence of DVT or PE in some patients by using a decision rule and a D-dimer test.- When using D-dimer test as a point-of-care test, meticulous care is essential during the test procedure and storage of blood.- The GP can treat many patients with DVT; the NHG guideline does not advise use of direct oral anticoagulants.- In the case of an isolated DVT in the calf, treatment with anticoagulants or ultrasound follow-up can be chosen in consultation with the patient or on the basis of regional agreements.- In the case of patients with superficial thrombophlebitis, a wait-and-see approach is usually sufficient. PMID:25761297

  11. Management of subclavian-axillary vein thrombosis: a review

    PubMed Central

    Hicken, Gary J.; Ameli, F. Michael

    1998-01-01

    Objective To study, by literature review, the management of subclavian-axillary vein thrombosis (SAVT) and to make recommendations. Data sources The MEDLINE database and cross-referenced articles. Study selection Key words subclavian-axillary vein thrombosis, venous thrombosis, Paget–Schroetter syndrome, anticoagulation, and thrombolysis were used to extract articles related to SAVT. Data extraction Independent extraction of articles by 2 observers. Data synthesis Although numerous studies are available in the literature, they vary widely in their patient selection, treatment methods, follow-up and conclusions. As such, the management of patients with SAVT remains controversial. Conclusions Anticoagulation remains the initial treatment of choice for acute SAVT although there is definitely a role for thrombolysis and surgery in selected cases. Surgical intervention should be reserved for patients in whom there is a specific indication. Since chronic symptoms depend largely on the etiology of the disease, treatment should be tailored to address the causative factors. A multicentre, prospective study is necessary to evaluate the optimum management strategies for patients with SAVT. PMID:9492744

  12. Canalization-based vein formation in a growing leaf.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sang-Woo; Feugier, Francois Gabriel; Morishita, Yoshihiro

    2014-07-21

    Vein formation is an important process in plant leaf development. The phytohormone auxin is known as the most important molecule for the control of venation patterning; and the canalization model, in which cells experiencing higher auxin flux differentiate into specific cells for auxin transportation, is widely accepted. To date, several mathematical models based on the canalization hypothesis have been proposed that have succeeded in reproducing vein patterns similar to those observed in actual leaves. However, most previous studies focused on patterning in fixed domains, and, in a few exceptional studies, limited tissue growth - such as cell proliferation at leaf margins and small deformations without large changes in cell number - were dealt with. Considering that, in actual leaf development, venation patterning occurs in an exponentially growing tissue, whether the canalization hypothesis still applies is an important issue to be addressed. In this study, we first show through a pilot simulation that the coupling of chemical dynamics for canalization and tissue growth as independent models cannot reproduce normal venation patterning. We then examine conditions sufficient for achieving normal patterning in a growing leaf by introducing various constraints on chemical dynamics, tissue growth, and cell mechanics; in doing so, we found that auxin flux- or differentiation-dependent modification of the cell cycle and elasticity of cell edges are essential. The predictions given by our simulation study will serve as guideposts in experiments aimed at finding the key factors for achieving normal venation patterning in developing plant leaves. PMID:24632445

  13. Numerical modelling of the formation of fibrous bedding-parallel veins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Torremans, Koen; Muchez, Philippe; Sintubin, Manuel

    2014-05-01

    Bedding-parallel veins with a fibrous infill oriented orthogonal to the vein wall, are often observed in fine-grained metasedimentary sequences. Several mechanisms have been proposed for their formation, mostly with respect to effects of fluid overpressures and anisotropy of the host-rock fabric in order to explain the inferred extensional failure with sub-vertical opening. Abundant pre-folding, bedding-parallel fibrous dolomite veins are found associated with the Nkana-Mindola stratiform Cu-Co deposit in Zambia. The goal of this study is to better understand the formation mechanisms of these veins and to explain their particular spatial and thickness distribution, with respect to failure of transversely isotropic rocks. The spatial distribution and thickness variation of these veins was quantified during a field campaign in thirteen line transects perpendicular to undeformed veins in underground crosscuts. The fibrous dolomite veins studied are not related to lithological contrasts, but to a strong bedding-parallel shaly fabric, typical for the black shale facies of the Copperbelt Orebody Member. The host rock can hence be considered as transversely isotropic. Growth morphologies vary from antitaxial with a pronounced median surface to asymmetric syntaxial, always with small but quantifiable growth competition. A microstructural fabric study reveals that the undeformed dolomite veins show low-tortuosity vein walls and quantifiable growth competition. Here, we use a Discrete Element Method numerical modelling approach with ESyS-Particle (http://launchpad.net/esys-particle) to simulate the observed properties of the veins. Calibrated numerical specimens with a transversely isotropic matrix are repeatedly brought to failure under constant strain rates by changing the effective strain rates at model boundaries. After each fracture event, fractures in the numerical model are filled with cohesive vein material and the experiment is repeated. By systematically varying stress states, fluid pressures and mechanical properties of materials (host rock, vein infill and interface), we attempt to reproduce the characteristics of spatial distribution and thickness variation of the veins. Four parameter sets of mechanical micro-properties are defined in the models, essentially yielding (1) a competent and (2) incompetent matrix, (3) a vein material and (4) a vein-matrix interface. Each combination of parameters and particle packings is calibrated to fit a predetermined Mohr-Coulomb type failure envelope, via an automated calibration procedure. Preliminary tests already show that by varying these parameters, we are able to simulate realistically distributed cracking through crack-seal processes. Different types of veins and vein generations can be modelled, ranging from single veins, over crack-seal veins to anastomosing veins, by varying the mechanical strength of competent and incompetent matrix, vein and interface material. Further results of this approach will be presented. We will discuss our results with respect to mechanisms proposed in the literature for bedding-parallel, fibrous veins in metasedimentary rock sequences.

  14. Cholinesterase activity in human pulmonary arteries and veins.

    PubMed

    Walch, L; Taisne, C; Gascard, J P; Nashashibi, N; Brink, C; Norel, X

    1997-07-01

    1. Human isolated pulmonary vessels were treated with cholinesterase (ChE) inhibitors to determine the role of these enzymes in regulating vascular muscle tone. In addition, kinetic parameters were determined for acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and butyrylcholinesterase (BChE) in human pulmonary vessel homogenates. 2. Carbachol (CCh) and acetylcholine (ACh) were equipotent contractile agonists in human pulmonary arteries (pD2 values, 5.28 +/- 0.05 and 5.65 +/- 0.16; Emax, 0.91 +/- 0.26 and 0.98 +/- 0.30 g wt. for CCh and ACh, respectively; n = 7). In venous preparations, ACh was ineffective and CCh induced small contractions (Emax, 0.08 +/- 0.04 g wt; n = 13). 3. In human pulmonary arteries following pretreatment with tetraisopropylpyrophosphoramide (iso-OMPA, 100 microM), an increased sensitivity to the contractile agonist ACh was observed (pD2 values, 5.80 +/- 0.13 and 6.37 +/- 0.19 for control and treated preparations, respectively; n = 5). This pretreatment had no effect on the CCh concentration response curve. In contrast, human pulmonary veins pretreated with iso-OMPA failed to elicit a contractile response to ACh. 4. Neither Iso-OMPA nor neostigmine elicited concentration-dependent contractions in human isolated pulmonary arteries or veins. These results suggest the absence of sufficient spontaneous release of ACh to modulate human pulmonary vessel basal tone. 5. CCh was less potent than ACh in relaxing precontracted human isolated pulmonary arteries (pD2 value, CCh: 6.55 +/- 0.15 and ACh: 7.16 +/- 0.13, n = 4) and veins (pD2 value, CCh: 4.95 +/- 0.13; n = 5 and ACh: 5.56 +/- 0.17; n = 6). Pretreatment of vessels with either iso-OMPA or neostigmine did not modify ACh relaxant responses in either type of preparation. 6. In human pulmonary veins, the ChE activity was two fold greater than in arteries (n = 6). Vmax for AChE was 1.73 +/- 0.24 and 3.36 +/- 0.26 miu mg-1 protein in arteries and veins, respectively, whereas Vss for BChE was 1.83 +/- 0.22 and 4.71 +/- 0.17 miu mg-1 protein, in these respectively. 7. In human pulmonary arteries, BChE activity may play a role in the smooth muscle contraction but not on the smooth muscle endothelium-dependent relaxation induced by ACh. A role for ChE activity in the control of venous tone is presently difficult to observe, even though this tissue contains a greater amount of enzyme than the artery. PMID:9222557

  15. Incidence of Central Vein Stenosis and Occlusion Following Upper Extremity PICC and Port Placement

    SciTech Connect

    Gonsalves, Carin F., E-mail: Carin.Gonsalves@mail.tju.edu; Eschelman, David J.; Sullivan, Kevin L.; DuBois, Nancy; Bonn, Joseph [Jefferson MedicalCollege/Thomas Jefferson University Hospital, Suite 4200 GibbonBuilding, 111 South 11th Street, Philadelphia, PA 19107, Department of Radiology (United States)

    2003-04-15

    The purpose of this study was to determine the incidence of central vein stenosis and occlusion following upper extremity placement of peripherally inserted central venous catheters(PICCs) and venous ports. One hundred fifty-four patients who underwent venography of the ipsilateral central veins prior to initial and subsequent venous access device insertion were retrospectively identified. All follow-up venograms were interpreted at the time of catheter placement by one interventional radiologist over a 5-year period and compared to the findings on initial venography. For patients with central vein abnormalities, hospital and home infusion service records and radiology reports were reviewed to determine catheter dwelltime and potential alternative etiologies of central vein stenosis or occlusion. The effect of catheter caliber and dwell time on development of central vein abnormalities was evaluated. Venography performed prior to initial catheter placement showed that 150 patients had normal central veins. Three patients had central vein stenosis, and one had central vein occlusion. Subsequent venograms (n = 154)at the time of additional venous access device placement demonstrated 8 patients with occlusions and 10 with stenoses. Three of the 18 patients with abnormal follow-up venograms were found to have potential alternative causes of central vein abnormalities. Excluding these 3 patients and the 4 patients with abnormal initial venograms, a 7% incidence of central vein stenosis or occlusion was found in patients with prior indwelling catheters and normal initial venograms. Catheter caliber showed no effect on the subsequent development of central vein abnormalities. Patients who developed new or worsened central vein stenosis or occlusion had significantly (p =0.03) longer catheter dwell times than patients without central vein abnormalities. New central vein stenosis or occlusion occurred in 7% of patients following upper arm placement of venous access devices.Patients with longer catheter dwell time were more likely to develop central vein abnormalities. In order to preserve vascular access for dialysis fistulae and grafts and adhere to Dialysis Outcomes Quality Initiative guidelines, alternative venous access sites should be considered for patients with chronic renal insufficiency and end-stage renal disease.

  16. Uranium-series age determination of calcite veins, VC-1 drill core, Valles Caldera, New Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sturchio, Neil C.; Binz, Carl M.

    1988-06-01

    Uranium-series analysis (238U-234U-230Th) of 13 calcite veins from the hydrothermally altered Madera Limestone in the VC-1 drill core was performed to determine the ages of the veins and their relation to the Valles hydrothermal system. Thermal water from VC-1 and two hot springs in San Diego Canyon was analyzed for U and (234U/238U) to help evaluate the constancy of initial (234U/238U). The (230Th/234U) age of one of the veins is ˜95 kyr, and those of two other veins are ˜230 and ˜250 kyr. Five of the veins have near equilibrium (230Th/234U) and are probably older than ˜0.3 m.y. Uranium concentrations in the remaining veins are too low for analysis by the ?-spectrometry techniques employed in this study. Of the five veins near (230Th/234U) equilibrium, four are also near (234U/238U) equilibrium, suggesting ages greater than ˜1.0 m.y., but one has (234U/238U) = 1.15, suggesting an age between ˜0.3 and ˜1.0 m.y. Calculated initial (234U/238U) of the veins yielding relatively young ages are neither equal to each other nor to (234U/238U) in thermal water from VC-1, indicating inconstancy of initial (234U/238U) that may be related to variations in groundwater mixing proportions. Three of the four veins that yield relatively young ages consist of coarse, sparry, vuggy calcite, suggesting that this may be the type of calcite vein which forms under conditions resembling those encountered presently in VC-1. The analytical data are consistent with closed-system behavior of U and Th in the VC-1 calcite veins.

  17. Complete bandgap arising from the effects of hollow, veins, and intersecting veins in a square lattice of square dielectric rods photonic crystal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ho, Hong-Fa; Chau, Yuan-Fong; Yeh, Hsiao-Yu; Wu, Fong-Lin

    2011-06-01

    We perform numerical analysis of ultralarge complete photonic bandgap (CPBG) of two-dimensional photonic crystals, which are square arrays of dielectric-shell rods, with dielectric veins and intersecting veins to link them. It is shown how a maximum CPBG, ?? = 0.222592(2?c/a), is obtained within the fabrication tolerance by tuning the structural parameters. In addition, the effects on CPBG arising from the metamaterial are also discussed.

  18. Treatment of major vein injury with the hemostatic fleece TachoSil by interposing a peritoneal patch to avoid vein thrombosis: A feasibility study in pigs

    PubMed Central

    Dregelid, Einar B; Pedersen, Gustav

    2011-01-01

    Background: Vein lacerations in awkward locations are difficult to repair and carry high mortality. The hemostatic fleece, TachoSil, is effective in preventing intraoperative bleeding in different settings, but has not been recommended for use in large vein injury. TachoSil with a peritoneal patch interposed to avoid vein thrombosis has been reported as a method to obtain hemostasis in vein laceration, but further studies of this method are needed. Materials and Methods: A 1.5 × 1 cm defect was created in the vena cava in five pigs. A 26 × 32 mm peritoneal patch was applied on the coagulant side of a 48 × 48 mm TachoSil sheet, and used to cover the defect. Light compression with a wet sponge was applied for 3 min. No vascular suturing was performed. Results: Successful hemostasis was obtained in four out of the five pigs although the minimum TachoSil gluing zone surrounding the peritoneal patch was only 0–2 mm. The fifth pig died of hemorrhage 30 min after surgery due to a 4-mm stretch with no TachoSil gluing zone outside the peritoneal patch. At six days postoperatively the peritoneal patch was well integrated into the vein wall. After 28 days, the peritoneal patch was almost indiscernible from surrounding vein endothelium. Conclusions: Vein wall defects can be repaired using TachoSil with a peritoneal patch interposed to prevent contact between the thrombogenic TachoSil sheet and the vein lumen. An adequate TachoSil gluing zone all around the patch is essential. PMID:21633573

  19. Role of B-mode venous mapping in infrainguinal in situ vein-arterial bypasses.

    PubMed

    Leopold, P W; Shandall, A; Kupinkski, A M; Chang, B B; Kaufman, J; Shah, D M; Leather, R P

    1989-03-01

    Two hundred and eighty patients underwent B-mode mapping (B-map) of their saphenous vein over a period of 3 years (1984-1987) before lower limb revascularization. B-map deemed that 229 veins were suitable for bypass, 26 were questionable and 25 were unsuitable. A successful bypass was achieved in 97.8 per cent of the suitable group (all in situ), 85 per cent of the questionable group (in situ and composite vein), and 80 per cent of the unsuitable group (composite vein). At a minimum follow-up period of 1 year the overall patency rate was 95.0 per cent with a revision rate of 15.8 per cent. There was no correlation between revision rate and vein complexity or calf vein diameter. Calf vein diameter greater than 2.5 mm was correlated with a successful bypass (P less than 0.001). It is concluded that B-map is the investigation of choice for saphenous vein assessment before infrainguinal bypass surgery. PMID:2655814

  20. Clinical Significance of Muscular Deep-vein Thrombosis after Total Knee Arthroplasty

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ching-Jen Wang; Jun-Wen Wang; Lin-Hsiu Weng; Chung-Cheng Huang; Pao-Chu Yu

    Background: The definition of gastrocneumus and soleus deep-vein thrombosis (DVT) remains controversial. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the clinical significance of muscular deep-vein thrombosis after total knee arthroplasty (TKA). Methods: This study consisted of 359 consecutive patients undergoing TKA evaluated for DVT by ascending venography. Venographies were performed 5 to 7 days after surgery. Those patients showing

  1. Assessment of human long saphenous vein function with minimally invasive harvesting with the Mayo stripper

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. J. O'Regan; J. A. A. Borland; A. H. Chester; D. J. Pennell; M. Yacoub; J. R. Pepper

    Background: The use of the Mayo Stripper to harvest the long saphenous vein has been shown to improve morbidity from leg wound incisions. It has not been universally accepted because of a perceived increase in injury to the venous conduit. Objective: To compare the function of undistended autologous long saphenous vein harvested by a Mayo stripper with the traditional 'open'

  2. Assessment of human long saphenous vein function with minimally invasive harvesting with the Mayo stripper

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. O'Regan; J. A. A. Borland; A. H. Chester; D. J. Pennell; M. Yacoub; J. R. Pepper

    1997-01-01

    Background: The use of the Mayo Stripper to harvest the long saphenous vein has been shown to improve morbidity from leg wound incisions. It has not been universally accepted because of a perceived increase in injury to the venous conduit. Objective: To compare the function of undistended autologous long saphenous vein harvested by a Mayo stripper with the traditional ‘open’

  3. Dedolomitization in tectonic veins and stylolites: evidence for rapid fluid migration during deformation

    SciTech Connect

    Budai, J.M.

    1984-04-01

    Jurassic through Tertiary thrust-belt deformation of the Mississippian Madison Group has introduced complex fracturing, stylolitization, and carbonate vein mineralization. Host rocks are dominantly dolostone and dolomitic limestone. Tectonic veins are mineralized first by dolomite and then by multiple calcite phases. Dolomite and some generations of calcite which line veins are highly luminescent, while host-rock dolomite have been corroded and replaced by subsequent generations of calcite mineralization. These textural relationships suggest that fluids associated with thrust-belt deformation were in part extraformational and had not equilibrated with host-rock dolomite. Because thrust-belt deformation moved from west to east with time, the isotopic composition (/sup 18/O, /sup 13/O) of vein and stylolite mineralization can be used to evaluate fluid migration during deformation. In three sections located along an east-west transect in the southern overthrust belt, calcite vein mineralization displays a wide range of isotopic compositions that are distinctly depleted relative to the host-rock composition. These vein-lining exhibit systematic compositional changes with both time of deformation and with geographic position relative to major thrust faults. These isotopic changes in vein mineralization and pressure-solution products, together with the textural evidence for calcitization of host-rock and vein dolomite, suggest that these rocks were open to allochthonous fluid migration during deformation.

  4. Branching vertical vein with multiple sites of obstruction in supracardiac total anomalous pulmonary venous connection

    PubMed Central

    Sasikumar, Navaneetha; Chidambaram, Shanthi; Subramanyan, Raghavan; Cherian, Koothurathu Mammen

    2014-01-01

    We present the case of an infant with total anomalous pulmonary venous connection and a branching vertical vein with multiple points of narrowing, draining the confluence into the innominate vein. The embryology and clinical relevance of this interesting anatomy is discussed. PMID:24701095

  5. Branching vertical vein with multiple sites of obstruction in supracardiac total anomalous pulmonary venous connection.

    PubMed

    Sasikumar, Navaneetha; Chidambaram, Shanthi; Subramanyan, Raghavan; Cherian, Koothurathu Mammen

    2014-01-01

    We present the case of an infant with total anomalous pulmonary venous connection and a branching vertical vein with multiple points of narrowing, draining the confluence into the innominate vein. The embryology and clinical relevance of this interesting anatomy is discussed. PMID:24701095

  6. On the Vulnerability of Finger Vein Recognition to Spoofing Pedro Tome, Matthias Vanoni and Sebastien Marcel

    E-print Network

    of identity is a crucial point. However, biometric systems are vulnerable to attacks which could decrease%, thus showing that finger vein biometrics is vulnerable to spoofing attacks, pointing out the importanceOn the Vulnerability of Finger Vein Recognition to Spoofing Pedro Tome, Matthias Vanoni and S

  7. Incidence of Central Vein Stenosis and Occlusion Following Upper Extremity PICC and Port Placement

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Carin F. Gonsalves; David J. Eschelman; Kevin L. Sullivan; Nancy DuBois; Joseph Bonn

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the incidence of central vein stenosis and occlusion following upper extremity placement of peripherally inserted central venous catheters (PICCs) and venous ports. One hundred fifty-four patients who underwent venography of the ipsilateral central veins prior to initial and subsequent venous access device insertion were retrospectively identified. All follow-up venograms were interpreted at

  8. Current outcome of portal vein thrombosis in adults: Risk and benefit of anticoagulant therapy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Bertrand Condat; Fabienne Pessione; Sophie Hillaire; Marie-Helene Denninger; Marie-Claude Guillin; Marc Poliquin; Antoine Hadengue; Serge Erlinger; Dominique Valla

    2001-01-01

    Background & Aims: The outcome of portal vein thrombosis in relation to associated prothrombotic states has not been evaluated. We assessed current outcome and predictors of bleeding and thrombotic events in a cohort of 136 adults with nonmalignant, noncirrhotic portal vein thrombosis, of whom 84 received anticoagulant therapy.Methods: Multivariate Cox model analysis for event-free survival and analysis taking into account

  9. Molecular analysis of complete genomic sequences of four isolates of Gooseberry vein banding associated virus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Presence of Gooseberry vein banding associated virus (GVBaV), a badnavirus in the family Caulimoviridae, is strongly correlated with gooseberry vein banding disease in Ribes spp. In this study, full-length genomic sequences of four GVBaV isolates from different hosts and geographic regions were det...

  10. Squash vein yellowing virus, a novel ipomovirus, isolated from squash and watermelon in Florida

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A novel whitefly-transmitted member of the family Potyviridae was isolated from a squash plant (Cucurbita pepo) with vein yellowing symptoms in Florida. The virus, for which the name Squash vein yellowing virus (SqVYV) is proposed, has flexuous rod-shaped particles of ~840 nm in length. SqVYV was ...

  11. Expression and significance of NELIN and SM22? in varicose vein tissue

    PubMed Central

    CHEN, SHIHUI; QIN, SHIYONG; WANG, MINGHAI; ZHANG, SHUGUANG

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the expression of NELIN and SM22? in lower extremity varicose vein tissue, and their association with varicose veins. Tissue samples were collected from 18 patients with lower extremity varicose veins for the experimental group, while normal great saphenous vein tissue was reserved during coronary artery bypass surgery from 14 patients for the controls. Reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) analysis was applied to detect the mRNA expression levels of NELIN and SM22?, while immunohistochemical techniques were used to detect the protein expression levels in the normal and abnormal veins. RT-PCR results revealed that the mRNA expression levels of NELIN and SM22? in the experimental group decreased significantly when compared with the control group (P<0.01). In the two groups, immunohistochemical staining demonstrated that NELIN and SM22? were primarily expressed in the cytoplasm of smooth muscle cells, and the expression quantity decreased significantly in the experimental group when compared with the control group (P<0.05). The low expression of SM22? in the primary lower limb varicose vein tissue indicated that the vascular smooth muscle cell layer had transformed from a contractile to a secretory phenotype, which may have resulted in the remodeling of the vein walls and the occurrence of varicose veins. Therefore, NELIN and SM22? were demonstrated to play a key role in the development of varicosity. PMID:25667639

  12. Rex shunt for portal vein thrombosis after adult living donor liver transplantation.

    PubMed

    Soejima, Yuji; Shirabe, Ken; Yoshizumi, Tomoharu; Uchiyama, Hideaki; Ikegami, Toru; Yamashita, Yo-Ichi; Ikeda, Tetsuo; Kawanaka, Hirofumi; Sugimachi, Keishi; Mimori, Koshi; Watanabe, Masayuki; Morita, Masaru; Oki, Eiji; Saeki, Hiroshi; Maehara, Yoshihiko

    2013-11-01

    Portal vein thrombosis (PVT) after liver transplantation is a relatively common but serious complication which could lead to portal hypertension or a direct graft loss. A "Rex" shunt created between the superior mesenteric vein (SMV) and the umbilical portion of the left portal vein can be a useful option to treat PVT after pediatric liver transplantation, however, its application to adult patients has not been reported so far because appropriate vein grafts are hardly available. Herein we present a case of PVT after left lobe living donor liver transplantation (LDLT) who underwent the procedure using the own inferior jugular vein and the gonadal vein as a shunt graft. The shunt was patent immediately after the procedure but was thrombosed 2 days after probably due to the insufficient inflow from the SMV and the absence of anticoagulation therapy, for which emergent thrombectomy and ligation of the significant hepatofugal collateral veins followed by full anti-coagulation therapy were performed. The shunt remains open at 8 month after the procedure with a normal anmonia level and liver function. In conclusion, the Rex shunt using recipient's autologous vein grafts is a feasible and valuable option for adult patients to treat PVT after LDLT. PMID:24620643

  13. Pulsed Wave and Color Doppler Echocardiography and Cardiac Catheterization Findings in Bilateral Pulmonary Vein Stenosis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jong-Won Ha; Namsik Chung; Junghan Yoon; Yangsoo Jang; Byung-Ok Kim; Seung-Yun Cho; Bum-Koo Cho

    1998-01-01

    Pulmonary vein stenosis is a rare condition that usually is congenital in origin; it is almost invariably fatal in its bilateral and severe forms. It is often overlooked, however, during clinical examination, routine echocardiography, and even at cardiac catheterization. This report describes the pulsed Doppler, color flow echocardiography, and hemodynamic findings of bilateral pulmonary vein stenosis that accompany ventricular septal

  14. Internal jugular vein thrombosis in a warfarinised patient: a case report

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Elizabeth Ball; Gareth Morris-Stiff; Mari Coxon; Michael H Lewis

    2007-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Internal jugular vein thrombosis (IJVT) is a rare but potentially fatal condition. It usually arises following trauma to the internal jugular vein but is also seen in association with coagulopathies and advanced malignancies as part of a para-neoplastic syndrome. CASE PRESENTATION: We report a case of a 44 year old woman with a strong past medical history and family

  15. Duplex Ultrasonography for the Detection of Deep Vein Thrombi After Total Hip or Knee Arthroplasty

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. Gregory Elliott; Mary Suchyta; Steven C. Rose; Steve Talbot; Clynn Ford; Gary Raskob; Russell Hull; Bruce Davidson

    1993-01-01

    The usefulness of real-time duplex ultrasonography (DU) as a screening test for deep vein thrombosis (DVT) in high-risk patients remains uncertain. To determine the sensitivity and specificity of DU for the detection of DVT, the authors prospectively studied 178 consecutive patients after total hip (n=113) or total knee (n = 66) arthroplasty. The deep veins from the inguinal ligament to

  16. Subcutaneous, video-assisted saphenous vein harvest: report of the first 30 cases

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. B Lumsden; F. F Eaves; J. C Ofenloch; W. D Jordan

    1996-01-01

    Harvest of the saphenous vein is a commonly performed procedure in cardiovascular surgery. The incision required for its removal is the longest used anywhere. In this report, the authors describe a minimally invasive technique for removal of the vein. This has been used in 30 patients undergoing peripheral arterial bypass (n = 27), venovenous bypass (n = 2), and a

  17. Variations of the cubital superficial vein investigated by using the intravenous illuminator

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Hyunsu; Lee, Sang-Hoon; Kim, Sung-Jin; Choi, Woo-Ik; Lee, Jae-Ho

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to report variations of the cubital superficial vein patterns in the Korean subjects, which was investigated by using venous illuminator, AccuVein. The 200 Korean subjects were randomly chosen from the patients and staff of the Keimyung University Dongsan Medical Center in Daegu, Korea. After excluding the inappropriate cases for detecting venous pattern, we collected 174 cases of right upper limbs and 179 cases of left upper limbs. The superficial veins of the cubital fossa were detected and classified into four types according to the presence of the median cubital vein (MCV) or median antebrachial vein. The type II, presenting the both cephalic and basilic vein connected by the MCV, was most common (177 upper limbs, 50.1%). Although the most common type in male and female was different as type I (108 upper limbs, 49.3%) and type II (75 upper limbs, 56.0%), respectively, statistical significance was not detected (P=0.241). The frequency of the each types between right and left upper limbs was also not different (P=0.973). Among 154 subjects who were observed the venous pattern in the both upper limbs, 76 subjects (49.3%) had the same venous pattern. Using AccuVein to investigate the venous pattern has an advantage of lager scale examination compared to the cadaver study. Our results might be helpful for medical practitioner to be aware of the variation of the superficial cubital superficial vein.

  18. A microstructural study of a "crack-seal" type serpentine vein using SEM and TEM techniques

    E-print Network

    A microstructural study of a "crack-seal" type serpentine vein using SEM and TEM techniques MURIEL.Andreani@obs.ujf-grenoble.fr ** CRMC2-CNRS, Campus Luminy, case 913, 13288 Marseille Cedex 9, France Abstract: Serpentine banded veins are frequently observed in massive serpentinized peridotites. They form by extension or extensional shearing

  19. Prevention of venous ulceration by use of compression after deep vein thrombosis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Cathryn L. Vogeley; Harriet Coeling

    2000-01-01

    Venous ulcers may result from damage to the lining of the veins after an occurrence of deep vein thrombosis (DVT). As the pressure in the damaged venous system remains pathologically high, a result of DVT, swelling develops, hemosiderin staining develops around the ankle area, and varicosities often develop. These symptoms are part of the postphlebitic syndrome and are a precursor

  20. Leg ulcer treatment by superficial vein surgery and saline-gauze dressing

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rolandas Dagilaitis; Vytautas Triponis; Ingrida Gudgalytë; Dalia Triponienë

    Objective To determine the effectiveness of phlebectomy and topic saline in patients with leg ulcer caused by isolated superficial vein reflux. Materials and methods One hundred and thirty consecutive patients with 143 ulcers were operated for superficial varicose veins and venous ulcer. Patients with deep reflux, peripheral arterial disease (ankle\\/brachial index <0.9), diabetes, history of circular venous ulcer, malignancies, mental

  1. Massive hemoptysis due to pulmonary vein stenosis following catheter ablation for atrial fibrillation.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jung Yeon; Chon, Gyu Rak; Park, Jong Hoon; Kang, Byung Ju; Shim, Tae Sun; Jo, Kyung-Wook

    2015-03-01

    Pulmonary vein stenosis, which is one of the rare complications of radiofrequency catheter ablation for atrial fibrillation, has various symptoms. Here, we report a rare case of massive hemoptysis due to pulmonary vein stenosis following radiofrequency catheter ablation, which was successfully managed with pneumonectomy. PMID:25316885

  2. Reviewing models of auxin canalisation in the context of vein pattern formation in Arabidopsis

    E-print Network

    Prusinkiewicz, Przemyslaw

    Reviewing models of auxin canalisation in the context of vein pattern formation in Arabidopsis formation. Sachs proposed that veins develop as a result of the gradual canalisation of auxin: the auxin transport capacity of some cell files increases, draining auxin from neighbouring cell files. Mitchison

  3. Abnormal Deposition of Extracellular Matrix Proteins by Cultured Smooth Muscle Cells from Human Varicose Veins

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Patricia Sansilvestri-Morel; Isabelle Nonotte; Marie-Pierre Fournet-Bourguignon; Alain Rupin; Jean-Noël Fabiani; Tony J. Verbeuren; Paul M. Vanhoutte

    1998-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to verify whether the modifications of the extracellular matrix, described in varicose veins, are also present in cultures of smooth muscle cells from human varicose veins. The accumulation of collagen type III and fibronectin was determined by immunofluorescence in cultures of smooth muscle cells at passage 2–3 during the proliferation phase. After 5

  4. Vein of Galen aneurysm: anatomical study of an adult autopsy case.

    PubMed

    Porzionato, Andrea; Macchi, Veronica; Parenti, Anna; De Caro, Raffaele

    2004-09-01

    We present a case of vein of Galen aneurysmal malformation in an adult, the rupture of which caused a fatal hemorrhage. Macroscopic examination, together with plastination of specimen with S10, and microscopic examination showed connection of the aneurysm with the right thalamoperforating artery and, bilaterally, with the posterior choroidal and mesencephalic arteries. Histology also showed thinning of the aneurysmal wall, due to marked reduction of the muscular media at the point of rupture, and its connection with an arteriovenous malformation of the left thalamus. A review of the anatomy of the Galenic system shows that the medullary veins curve at an acute angle to form the paired internal cerebral veins, with a sudden change in flow and that, from late fetal life, the vein of Galen curves around the splenium to enter the straight sinus at an angle opposing its flow. Based on anatomical study and a review of the literature, we suggest that aneurysmatic dilatation of the vein of Galen may result from a combination of pathological and predisposing anatomical factors. The anatomical characteristics of the origin of the internal cerebral veins and of the entry of the vein of Galen into the straight sinus make particularly susceptible to the hemodynamic effects of arteriovenous shunts the vein of Galen itself, which is situated in the cisterna ambiens, an anatomical space that does not impede its enlargement. PMID:15300864

  5. Balloon angioplasty for the the treatment of lesions in saphenous vein bypass grafts

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Suylen van R-J; E. J. Topol; P. W. J. C. Serruys; Feyter de P. J; Jaegere de P

    1993-01-01

    OBJECTIVES. The purpose of this review is to assess the value and limitations of balloon angioplasty for the treatment of saphenous vein bypass graft obstructions. The potential efficacy of new interventional techniques is discussed. BACKGROUND. Treatment of ischemia due to saphenous vein bypass graft obstructions poses a difficult problem that will be encountered more often as the pool of surgically

  6. Electric currents along earthquake faults and the magnetization of pseudotachylite veins

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Friedemann Freund; Manuel A. Salgueiro da Silva; Bobby W. S. Lau; Akihiro Takeuchi; Hollis H. Jones

    2007-01-01

    Pseudotachylites occur in the form of thin glassy veins quenched from frictional melts along the fault planes of major earthquakes. They contain finely grained magnetite and often exhibit a high natural remanent magnetization (NRM). High NRM values imply strong local electric currents. These currents must persist for some time, while the pseudotachylite veins cool through the Curie temperature of magnetite

  7. Gas Embolism Caused by Portal Vein Gas: Case Report and Literature Review

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Chiaki Kamikado; Shinjiro Nagano; Kouji Takumi; Terutoshi Senokuchi; Masaaki Kubo; Shinji Mitsue; Toshitaka Fukumoto; Shouji Natugoe; Takashi Aikou

    2008-01-01

    Introduction: We describe a case of pulmonary gas embolism caused by portal vein gas (PVG) observed using echocardiography. Echography revealed gas flowing through the hepatic vein, inferior vena cava, right atrium, and right ventricle, as well as pulmonary hypertension. The patient was diagnosed as having pulmonary gas embolism caused by PVG. Objective: We consider PVG routes to pulmonary circulation, diagnosis

  8. Zoning in the Carboniferous-Lower Permian Cracow epithermal vein system, central Queensland, Australia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. Y. Dong; T. Zhou

    1996-01-01

    Four epithermal vein deposits (i.e. Dawn, Central Extended, Rose's Pride and Klondyke) in the Cracow gold field, central Queensland were investigated in terms of paragenesis, mineralogy, vein textures, fluid inclusions and stable isotopes. The Cracow epithermal field is confined to an area approximately 6 by 5 kilometers. All the deposits are hosted by the massive Camboon Andesite of Upper Carboniferous

  9. Hydrothermal Alteration and Mineralization Zoning in Iron-Oxide(-Cu-Au) Vein Deposits, near Copiap, Chile

    E-print Network

    Barton, Mark D.

    as a function of structural levels. Two vein systems hosted in La Brea diorite phase of the Copiapó batholith vein formed near the upper contact of the host La Brea diorite. Few IOCG systems have well documented and Sollner, 2006; M.D. Barton et al., unpubl. data). The plutons are broadly dioritic in composition

  10. Congenital absence of the portal vein in an adult woman: A case report

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Peter Kornprat; Cord Langner; Karl Fritz; Hans J. Mischinger

    2005-01-01

    Summary Congenital absence of the portal vein is a rare malformation. Mesenteric and splenic venous blood bypasses the liver and drains into the renal veins or directly into the inferior vena cava. The malformation occurs predominantly in females and children and is often associated with other anomalies such as hepatic tumors, cardiac malformations and skeletal abnormalities. We describe a 23-year-old

  11. A model for time-dependent flow in (giraffe jugular) veins: uniform tube properties

    Microsoft Academic Search

    B. S. Brook; T. J. Pedley

    2002-01-01

    Computations are reported for a one-dimensional model of time-dependent flow in collapsible tubes representing long mammalian veins. The tubes are taken to have uniform intrinsic properties and we concentrate on the effect of longitudinal gravity. The main application is to the jugular vein of the upright giraffe, with given inflow rate from the head, a given pressure, slightly above the

  12. Receptors for kinins in the human isolated umbilical vein.

    PubMed Central

    Gobeil, F.; Pheng, L. H.; Badini, I.; Nguyen-Le, X. K.; Pizard, A.; Rizzi, A.; Blouin, D.; Regoli, D.

    1996-01-01

    1. The human umbilical vein has been found to contract in response to bradykinin (BK) and desArg9BK. 2. The rank order of potency of agonists, in the presence of the B1 receptor antagonist Lys[Leu8]desArg9BK, is as follows: [Hyp3, Tyr(Me)8]BK (pD2 8.88) = [Hyp3]BK (pD2 8.86) = LysBK (pD2 8.81) > or = BK (pD2 8.60) >> [Aib7]BK (pD2 6.38) >> desArg9BK and LysdesArg9BK (inactive). 3. Hoe 140 (pA2 8.42) inhibits the effects of BK while other B2 receptor peptide antagonists are very weak and WIN 64338 is practically inactive. 4. Venoconstrictor responses to desArg9BK of fresh tissues increase with time during the in vitro incubation and reach a maximum after 4-6 h. The activity of Hoe 140 (pA2 5.48) is negligible against B1 receptor agonists. 5. When measured in the presence of the selective B2 receptor antagonist Hoe 140 (400 nM), the order of potency of kinin related peptides on the B1 receptor is Lys[desArg9]BK (pD2 8.60) > desArg9BK (pD2 6.69). BK, LysBK, [Hyp3]BK and other B2 receptor agonists are inactive. 6. The B1 receptor antagonist, Lys[Leu8]desArg9BK (pA2 7.99), inhibits the response of the human vein to B1 receptor agonists (LysdesArg9BK or desArg9BK), but do not alter the effect of BK. 7. The results summarized in this paper indicate that the human isolated umbilical vein is a sensitive preparation containing both B1 and B2 receptors. The human B2 receptor shows some similarity with that of the rabbit (at least for agonist potencies) and differs from the B2 receptor of the guinea-pig. Compared to the rabbit B1 receptor, the human B1 receptor shows low sensitivity to peptides that lack the N-terminal Lys. PMID:8735629

  13. Physiologic and therapeutic aspects in congenital vein valve aplasia of the lower limb.

    PubMed

    Plate, G; Brudin, L; Eklöf, B; Jensen, R; Ohlin, P

    1983-08-01

    Ten patients with congenital vein valve aplasia verified at contrast phlebography were evaluated clinically and by physiologic examinations. All had orthostatic edema and varicose veins, but leg ulcers and other "postphlebitic" sequelae were infrequent. Foot volumetry and measurement of ambulatory foot vein pressures revealed a severe deep venous incompetence with a defective muscle pump function and considerable reflux. Eight limbs were operated on with conventional varicose vein surgery and physiologically re-examined six to 26 weeks after the operation. All had an improved ambulatory pressure reduction (p less than 0.001). Foot volumetry revealed better muscle pump function (p less than 0.01), while the reflux flow was unchanged. Surgery of the incompetent superficial venous system is therefore recommended in cases with deep venous insufficiency due to congenital vein valve aplasia. PMID:6870381

  14. Congenital Agenesis of the Internal Jugular Vein: An Extremely Rare Anomaly

    PubMed Central

    Kayiran, Oguz; Calli, Caglar; Emre, Abdulkadir; Soy, Fatih Kemal

    2015-01-01

    Vascular anomalies of major venous vessels are rarely seen. Moreover, congenital absence of internal jugular vein is extremely uncommon. In our case, a female patient presented with primary unknown left cervical mass. Cervical ultrasonography demonstrated absence of right internal jugular vein. In addition, computed tomography and dynamic magnetic resonance imaging scans confirmed this diagnosis. Compensatory left internal jugular vein enlargement mimicked sort of cervical mass. Venous magnetic resonance imaging images revealed the absence of right internal jugular vein with compensatory left internal jugular vein dominance. In the literature, the agenesis of IJV was mentioned in a case with concomitant multiple problems. Here, an asymptomatic case is reported with an incident diagnosis. No interventions were planned upon the patient's request. It should be kept in mind that any kind of anomalies can be seen during venous access and neck surgery.

  15. Finger-vein and fingerprint recognition based on a feature-level fusion method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Jinfeng; Hong, Bofeng

    2013-07-01

    Multimodal biometrics based on the finger identification is a hot topic in recent years. In this paper, a novel fingerprint-vein based biometric method is proposed to improve the reliability and accuracy of the finger recognition system. First, the second order steerable filters are used here to enhance and extract the minutiae features of the fingerprint (FP) and finger-vein (FV). Second, the texture features of fingerprint and finger-vein are extracted by a bank of Gabor filter. Third, a new triangle-region fusion method is proposed to integrate all the fingerprint and finger-vein features in feature-level. Thus, the fusion features contain both the finger texture-information and the minutiae triangular geometry structure. Finally, experimental results performed on the self-constructed finger-vein and fingerprint databases are shown that the proposed method is reliable and precise in personal identification.

  16. [Cockett's syndrome, May-Thurner syndrome, or iliac vein compression syndrome].

    PubMed

    Gil Martín, A R; Carreras Aja, M; Arrieta Ardieta, I; Labayen Azparren, I

    2014-01-01

    Iliac vein compression syndrome (also known as May-Thurner syndrome or Cockett's syndrome) is a rare clinical entity in which the left common iliac vein is compressed when it passes between the right common iliac artery and the spine. The sustained compression and trauma caused by the pulsatile force of the artery on the vein damage the intima and lead to the formation of membranes or bands in the vascular lumen that hinder or obstruct the flow of blood in the vein, favoring thrombus formation. The current treatment strategy of choice is endovascular vein patch angioplasty and stenting with the aim of improving the caliber of the lumen and enabling normal venous drainage. We present two cases of May-Thurner syndrome and review the clinical and CT findings. PMID:22621823

  17. Portal Vein Delivery of Viral Vectors for Gene Therapy for Hemophilia

    PubMed Central

    Sherman, Alexandra; Schlachterman, Alexander; Cooper, Mario; Merricks, Elizabeth P.; Raymer, Robin A.; Bellinger, Dwight A.; Herzog, Roland W.; Nichols, Timothy C.

    2014-01-01

    The liver is a very complex organ with a large variety of functions, making it an attractive organ for gene replacement therapy. Many genetic disorders can be corrected by delivering gene products directly into the liver using viral vectors. In this chapter, we will describe gene delivery via portal vein administration in mice and dogs to correct the blood coagulation disorder hemophilia B. Although there are multiple delivery routes for both viral and non-viral vectors in animals, portal vein administration delivers vectors directly and efficiently into the liver. Complete correction of murine hemophilia B and multi-year near-correction of canine hemophilia B have been achieved following portal vein delivery of adeno-associated viral (AAV) vectors expressing factor IX from hepatocyte-specific promoters. Peripheral vein injection can lead to increased vector dissemination to off-target organ such as the lung and spleen. Below, we will describe portal vein injection delivery route via laparotomy. PMID:24557919

  18. Spontaneous superior ophthalmic vein thrombosis: a rare entity with potentially devastating consequences

    PubMed Central

    Lim, L H; Scawn, R L; Whipple, K M; Oh, S R; Lucarelli, M J; Korn, B S; Kikkawa, D O

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Spontaneous superior ophthalmic vein thrombosis (SOVT) is a rare entity. We describe three patients with spontaneous ophthalmic vein thrombosis, each with various risk factors. Patients and Methods A retrospective review of three patients with a diagnosis of superior ophthalmic vein thrombosis. Clinical characteristics, radiographic features, management techniques and outcomes are described. Results All patients presented with unilateral painful proptosis. Two patients had intact light perception, whereas one patient presented with absent light perception. All patients had identifiable risk factors for thrombosis, which included sickle cell trait, hereditary hemorrhagic telangectasia and colon cancer with recurrent deep vein thrombosis. Anticoagulation was initiated in two patients. Resolution of proptosis was seen in all patients, with no recovery of vision in one patient. Conclusions Risk factors for spontaneous superior ophthalmic vein thrombosis are multifactorial. MRI and MRV confirm the diagnosis of SOVT. Despite urgent intervention devastating visual loss may occur. PMID:24357838

  19. [The jugular vein system and its homologies in Latimeria chalmunae (Pisces, Crossopterygii, Coelacanthidae)].

    PubMed

    Robineau, D

    1975-07-01

    The jugular vein of Latimeria is derived, as in actinopterygians and dipnoans, from two embryonic veins: the vena capitis medialis anteriorly and the vena capitalis lateralis posteriorly. It is continued caudally, until the Cuvieran duct, by the vena cardinalis anterior. With the enormous difference of growth between cranial box and brain, the cerebral veins have undergone important modifications. A very long antero-posterior shift exists between the origin and the ending of the anterior cerebral vein. In addition, the mid and posterior cerebral veins are transformed into big venous sinuses, which have lost, in the adult, almost any contact with the brain, impressed as they are against the wall of the posterior cranial cavity. PMID:810261

  20. Computational simulation of the adaptive capacity of vein grafts in response to increased pressure.

    PubMed

    Ramachandra, Abhay B; Sankaran, Sethuraman; Humphrey, Jay D; Marsden, Alison L

    2015-03-01

    Vein maladaptation, leading to poor long-term patency, is a serious clinical problem in patients receiving coronary artery bypass grafts (CABGs) or undergoing related clinical procedures that subject veins to elevated blood flow and pressure. We propose a computational model of venous adaptation to altered pressure based on a constrained mixture theory of growth and remodeling (G&R). We identify constitutive parameters that optimally match biaxial data from a mouse vena cava, then numerically subject the vein to altered pressure conditions and quantify the extent of adaptation for a biologically reasonable set of bounds for G&R parameters. We identify conditions under which a vein graft can adapt optimally and explore physiological constraints that lead to maladaptation. Finally, we test the hypothesis that a gradual, rather than a step, change in pressure will reduce maladaptation. Optimization is used to accelerate parameter identification and numerically evaluate hypotheses of vein remodeling. PMID:25376151

  1. Deep vein thrombosis in the disabled pediatric population.

    PubMed

    Radecki, R T; Gaebler-Spira, D

    1994-03-01

    The incidence of deep vein thrombosis (DVT) in the disabled pediatric population has rarely been studied. The purpose of our retrospective study was to define the incidence in patients younger than 18 years of age who were in a rehabilitation center. We reviewed the charts of 532 children admitted to the center from 1983 through 1987, and found a 2.2% overall incidence of DVT. The largest group of children under 18 of age with documented or suspected DVT was the group with spinal cord injuries (SCI). There were 87 SCI children, 67 of whom were between the ages of 15 and 18. Of the 67, 7 (10%) had DVT: 1 of the 20 SCI children under age 15 had DVT. There were single cases of DVT documented in children with: meningoencephalitis, arteriovenous malformation, closed head injuries, and Guillian-Barré syndrome. We studied the risk involved in treating DVT with heparin and formulated recommendations based on our findings. PMID:8129573

  2. Respiratory hemodynamics in the hepatic veins-abnormal patterns.

    PubMed

    Fadel, Bahaa M; Alkalbani, Ahmad; Husain, Aysha; Dahdouh, Ziad; Di Salvo, Giovanni

    2015-04-01

    The flow pattern in the hepatic veins (HVs) is dependent on the cardiac cycle and right heart hemodynamics and influenced by the respiratory cycle and the liver parenchyma. Most disease states that affect the right heart alter the HV Doppler in a manner independent of the respiratory cycle. Some diseases that typically involve the pericardium, right ventricular myocardium, or respiratory system confer characteristic changes to the HV flow in a manner dependent on the respiratory cycle. Analysis of the HV Doppler with assessment of the respiratory changes in flow and their timing helps to distinguish among the various disease states. In this manuscript, we discuss the effect of respiration on HV flow in patients with abnormal right heart function and illustrate the use of the respiratory changes in the HV Doppler as a tool for diagnosis. PMID:25252115

  3. How metalliferous brines line Mexican epithermal veins with silver

    PubMed Central

    Wilkinson, Jamie J.; Simmons, Stuart F.; Stoffell, Barry

    2013-01-01

    We determined the composition of ~30-m.y.-old solutions extracted from fluid inclusions in one of the world's largest and richest silver ore deposits at Fresnillo, Mexico. Silver concentrations average 14 ppm and have a maximum of 27 ppm. The highest silver, lead and zinc concentrations correlate with salinity, consistent with transport by chloro-complexes and confirming the importance of brines in ore formation. The temporal distribution of these fluids within the veins suggests mineralization occurred episodically when they were injected into a fracture system dominated by low salinity, metal-poor fluids. Mass balance shows that a modest volume of brine, most likely of magmatic origin, is sufficient to supply the metal found in large Mexican silver deposits. The results suggest that ancient epithermal ore-forming events may involve fluid packets not captured in modern geothermal sampling and that giant ore deposits can form rapidly from small volumes of metal-rich fluid. PMID:23792776

  4. Naftazone accelerates human saphenous vein endothelial cell proliferation in vitro.

    PubMed

    Klein-Soyer, C; Bloy, C; Archipoff, G; Beretz, A; Cazenave, J P

    1995-01-01

    Restoration of a haemocompatible surface after endothelial damage induced by treatments such as embolectomy, angioplasty, endarterectomy or irradiation or following vascular graft implantation is an important factor for the ultimate success of these interventions. The development of substances which enhance endothelial cell growth and accelerate their proliferation is therefore of great interest in such situations. In the present work naftazone was shown to accelerate human saphenous vein endothelial cell proliferation in vitro at concentrations which did not alter the hemostatic balance, resulting in a cell density at confluence 20% higher than in controls. This compound was able to partially substitute for serum requirements and further displayed additive effects in the presence of fibroblast growth factors. Thus naftazone, an original synthetic molecule distinct from growth factor peptides, is a promising candidate drug for the amelioration of vascular repair. PMID:7567435

  5. Transesophageal Echocardiography during Pulmonary Vein Cryoballoon Ablation for Atrial Fibrillation.

    PubMed

    Kerut, Edmund Kenneth; Hanawalt, Curtis; McKinnie, James

    2015-02-01

    We describe our first 20 cases of cryoablation of atrial fibrillation (AF) using transesophageal echocardiography (TEE). Continuous procedural monitoring with TEE by a cardiologist and senior sonographer assists the electrophysiologist in performance of the cryoballoon procedure of AF. Previously using intracardiac echocardiography (ICE) we have found TEE to have better overall procedural imaging, and monitoring for pericardial effusion or thrombus formation. We have found TEE monitoring to be helpful with positioning for interatrial septal (IAS) puncture, catheter tip avoidance of the left atrial appendage (LAA), and guidance of the balloon catheter into each pulmonary vein (PV), with proper positioning within each PV orifice, and documentation of PV occlusion for the cryoballoon procedure. Procedural equipment and the cryoballoon protocol used are presented in detail. The role of TEE imaging during the procedure and in preventing potential dangers is illustrated. It is the goal of this study to demonstrate how the electrophysiology and echocardiography laboratories work together in this cryoablation procedure. PMID:24813802

  6. Respiratory hemodynamics in the hepatic veins-normal pattern.

    PubMed

    Fadel, Bahaa M; Alkalbani, Ahmad; Husain, Aysha; Dahdouh, Ziad; Di Salvo, Giovanno

    2015-03-01

    Doppler interrogation of blood flow in the hepatic veins (HVs) is a part of any comprehensive echocardiographic examination. Data derived from the HV Doppler provide a useful tool for the assessment of right heart function. Beyond its dependence on the cardiac cycle, right heart hemodynamics, and compliance of the liver parenchyma, blood flow in the HVs is influenced by the respiratory cycle. Systematic analysis of the behavior of the HV Doppler during respiration allows one to recognize normal and abnormal flow-patterns and distinguish among various disease states that involve the right heart. In this manuscript we discuss the effect of respiration on the HV Doppler in individuals with normal right heart function. PMID:25220604

  7. Modelling the liquid-water vein system within polar ice sheets as a potential microbial habitat

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dani, K. G. Srikanta; Mader, Heidy M.; Wolff, Eric W.; Wadham, Jemma L.

    2012-06-01

    Based on the fundamental and distinctive physical properties of polycrystalline ice Ih, the chemical and temperature profiles within the polar ice sheets, and the observed selective partitioning of bacteria into liquid water filled veins in the ice, we consider the possibility that microbial life could survive and be sustained within glacial systems. Here, we present a set of modelled vertical profiles of vein diameter, vein chemical concentration, and vein water volume variability across a range of polar ice sheets using their ice core chemical profiles. A sensitivity analysis of VeinsInIce1.0, the numerical model used in this study shows that the ice grain size and the local borehole temperature are the most significant factors that influence the intergranular liquid vein size and the amount of freeze-concentrated impurities partitioned into the veins respectively. Model results estimate the concentration and characteristics of the chemical broth in the veins to be a potential extremophilic microbial medium. The vein sizes are estimated to vary between 0.3 ?m to 8 ?m across the vertical length of many polar ice sheets and they may contain up to 2 ?L of liquid water per litre of solid ice. The results suggest that these veins in polar ice sheets could accommodate populations of psychrophilic and hyperacidophilic ultra-small bacteria and in some regions even support the habitation of unicellular eukaryotes. This highlights the importance of understanding the potential impact of englacial microbial metabolism on polar ice core chemical profiles and provides a model for similar extreme habitats elsewhere in the universe.

  8. Toward an Optimal Position for IVC Filters: Computational Modeling of the Impact of Renal Vein Inflow

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, S L; Singer, M A

    2009-07-13

    The purpose of this report is to evaluate the hemodynamic effects of renal vein inflow and filter position on unoccluded and partially occluded IVC filters using three-dimensional computational fluid dynamics. Three-dimensional models of the TrapEase and Gunther Celect IVC filters, spherical thrombi, and an IVC with renal veins were constructed. Hemodynamics of steady-state flow was examined for unoccluded and partially occluded TrapEase and Gunther Celect IVC filters in varying proximity to the renal veins. Flow past the unoccluded filters demonstrated minimal disruption. Natural regions of stagnant/recirculating flow in the IVC are observed superior to the bilateral renal vein inflows, and high flow velocities and elevated shear stresses are observed in the vicinity of renal inflow. Spherical thrombi induce stagnant and/or recirculating flow downstream of the thrombus. Placement of the TrapEase filter in the suprarenal vein position resulted in a large area of low shear stress/stagnant flow within the filter just downstream of thrombus trapped in the upstream trapping position. Filter position with respect to renal vein inflow influences the hemodynamics of filter trapping. Placement of the TrapEase filter in a suprarenal location may be thrombogenic with redundant areas of stagnant/recirculating flow and low shear stress along the caval wall due to the upstream trapping position and the naturally occurring region of stagnant flow from the renal veins. Infrarenal vein placement of IVC filters in a near juxtarenal position with the downstream cone near the renal vein inflow likely confers increased levels of mechanical lysis of trapped thrombi due to increased shear stress from renal vein inflow.

  9. MR Venography of Deep Veins: Changes with Uterine Fibroid Embolization

    SciTech Connect

    Katsumori, Tetsuya, E-mail: katsumo@eurus.dti.ne.jp; Kasahara, Toshiyuki; Tsuchida, Yoko; Nara, Yoshinori [Saiseikai Shiga Hospital, Department of Radiology (Japan)

    2009-03-15

    Deep veins (DVs) can be compressed by a uterus enlarged with fibroids. The purpose of this study was to assess the degree of luminal narrowing of DVs caused by a myomatous uterus, and the change in DV narrowing in women with symptomatic fibroids after embolization using time-of-flight (TOF)-magnetic resonance venography (MRV). Twenty-nine consecutive women with symptomatic uterine fibroids underwent TOF-MRV and pelvic MRI before and 4 months after embolization. Based on the TOF-MRV, we evaluated the luminal narrowing of three DVs, including the inferior vena cava, and the bilateral common and external iliac veins, and divided the findings into three grades. The scores for each DV were added for each patient (lowest, 0; highest, 6). DV scores and symptom severity (SS) scores were compared between the baseline and 4 months after embolization using the paired t-test. The relationship between DV scores and uterine volume was investigated using Pearson's test. DV scores decreased significantly, from 1.52 {+-} 1.70 at baseline to 0.93 {+-} 1.56 at 4 months after embolization (p = 0.004). The uterine volume decreased from 948 {+-} 647 mL at baseline to 617 {+-} 417 mL at 4 months after embolization (p < 0.001). DV score correlated with uterine volume (r = 0.856, p < 0.001). SS scores decreased from 54.5 {+-} 14.6 at baseline to 26.8 {+-} 15.4 at 4 months after embolization (p < 0.001). In conclusion, the degree of luminal narrowing of DVs caused by a uterus with fibroids is correlated with the uterine volume. Uterine artery embolization may induce an improvement of luminal narrowing of DVs due to a reduction of the myomatous uterus volume.

  10. Percutaneous Antegrade Varicocele Embolization Via the Testicular Vein in a Patient with Recurrent Varicocele After Surgical Repair.

    PubMed

    Guevara, Carlos J; El-Hilal, Alexander H; Darcy, Michael D

    2014-09-01

    This is a case report of an adolescent male who underwent surgical ligation for a left-sided varicocele that recurred 2 years later. Standard retrograde embolization via the left renal vein was not possible, because there was no connection from the renal vein to the gonadal vein following surgical ligation. The patient was treated via antegrade access of the spermatic vein at the inguinal level with subsequent coil embolization. PMID:25192950

  11. Blood Vessel Classification into Arteries and Veins in Retinal Claudia Kondermann and Daniel Kondermanna and Michelle Yanb

    E-print Network

    Cremers, Daniel

    Blood Vessel Classification into Arteries and Veins in Retinal Images Claudia Kondermann and Daniel for DR are abnormally wide veins leading to an unusually low ratio of the average diameter of arteries symptom being an abnormal AVR value. To determine it, a classification of vessels as arteries or veins

  12. A structural analysis of the Minas da Panasqueira vein network and related fracture generations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jacques, Dominique; Vieira, Romeu; Muchez, Philippe; Sintubin, Manuel

    2014-05-01

    The Minas da Panasqueira is a world-class W-Cu-Sn vein-type deposit, situated within the Central Iberian Zone of the Palaeozoic Iberian Massif (Portugal). The deposit consists of a network of subhorizontal, sill-like massive quartz veins situated above the southwestern extremity of a greisen cupola, within regionally metamorphosed, isoclinally folded, lower-greenschist slates and greywackes. The greisen cupola is part of a larger intrusive complex, emplaced during the late- to post-tectonic stage of the Variscan orogeny. The late-Variscan granitoid(s) underlying the Panasqueira deposit is considered to have served as a major metal source. The structure of the network of subhorizontal extension veins, consists of numerous planar vein lobes that are separated by host-rock bridges and merge at branch-points. A structural analysis demonstrates that not only within the Panasqueira mine, but also on a more regional scale, one or more generations of flat-lying fractures are present. The veins clearly exploited these pre-existing discontinuities, as confirmed by (1) the vein geometry being directly influenced by variations in the orientation of the initial fracture sets and (2) the geometry of the rock bridges and overlapping vein morphologies, consistently showing straight-line propagating crack tips. If veining is governed by a preferential, strongly developed anisotropy in the host rock, the hypothesis of vein lobes and rock bridges forming during propagation of the parent crack by tip-line bifurcation and confinement processes (Foxford et al., 2000) does not seem plausible. Instead, we propose that the rock bridges formed from several, initially separate and small veinlets that eventually overlapped in an en echelon arrangement during progressive propagation and inflation. Bending of the rock bridges and incipient vein rotation indicate that veining occurred near the brittle-ductile transition. Using a quantitative analysis of bridge orientations, vein aspect ratios and tip lines, we try to sort out if a dominant ?2 propagation direction, typical for hydrofractures, exists within the vein network. By doing so, we can evaluate whether the subhorizontal vein network formed under a compressive stress regime, or was mainly dictated by the strength anisotropy of the rocks under near-isotropic stress conditions of ?hmax ? ?hmin. The regional dominance of subhorizontal aplites, pegmatites and hydrothermal veins, exploiting subhorizontal fracture networks, occurs over a wide area of more than 100 km2 along the Serra de Estrela granitic massif (Derré et al., 1986). This orientation contrasts with the more common vertical attitude of granite-related hydrothermal veins, observed throughout the Iberian massif. A detailed orientation analysis of the fracture sets should allow to explore the possible causes of this particular late orogenic, flat-lying fracture network related to the granitic intrusion. References Derré, C., Lecolle, M., Roger, G., Tavares de Freitas Carvalho, J., 1986. Tectonics, magmatism, hydrothermalism and sets of flat joints locally filled by Sn-W, aplite-pegmatite and quartz veins, southeastern border of the Serra de Estrela granitic massif (Beira Baixa, Portugal). Ore Geology Reviews 1, 43-56. Foxford, K. A., Nicholson, R., Polya, D. A., and Hebblethwaite, R. P. B., 2000. Extensional failure and hydraulic valving at Minas da Panasqueira, Portugal; evidence from vein spatial distributions, displacements and geometries. Journal of Structural Geology 22, 1065-1086.

  13. Minimally invasive, endovenous laser treatment of varicose veins in patients with von Willebrand disease.

    PubMed

    Terlecki, Piotr; Zubilewicz, Tomasz; Przywara, Stanis?aw; I??ecki, Marek; Karaku?a, Wac?aw; Hus, Marek; Nowaczy?ska, Aleksandra; Kuczy?ski, Maciej

    2013-01-01

    The presented report presents a minimally invasive approach for the treatment of varicose veins in patients with chronic venous disease and coexisting von Willebrand disease, the most common inherited bleeding disorder. Conventional stripping of an insufficient great saphenous vein and varicose vein surgery, carries a potential risk of serious bleeding complications in this specific group of patients. It is related to the extent of open surgery, significant tissue trauma, and possible post-operative bleeding of wounds. Less aggressive techniques, such as endovenous laser treatment or radiofrequency ablation, gain increasing popularity as a valuable and equally efficient alternative to conventional surgery in patients with varicose veins. Both of these endovenous techniques seem to have special indications in patients with bleeding disorders. Shortening of hospitalization, quick recovery time and return to normal daily activities, optimal cosmetic effect of the procedure, are also advantageous. The paper presents the technique and results of endovenous laser treatment of great saphenous vein insufficiency and varicose veins in a patient with type I von Willebrand disease. Available data on peri-operative care standards, optimization of the safety of procedures, and prevention of bleeding complications in surgical patients with von Willebrand disease, specifically undergoing varicose veins surgery are analysed. PMID:24364473

  14. Blood Flows in Tributaries of the Portal Vein: Anatomical and Angiographic Studies in Normal Beagle Dogs.

    PubMed

    Mogicato, G; Vautravers, G; Meynaud-Collard, P; Deviers, A; Sautet, J

    2014-11-01

    Liver anatomy, particularly its vascularization, has been investigated in many studies in dogs. Knowledge of blood flow from the main tributaries of the portal vein (PV) is necessary to explain the preferential sites of secondary lesions within the liver based on the site of the initial malignant lesion. How these flows come together was established in an earlier ex vivo study. Here, we highlight in vivo the blood flows from the main PV tributaries and their distribution in the liver of normal dogs. Portographs of the main PV tributaries were obtained in seven dogs after injection of an angiographic contrast medium. After euthanasia, the livers and their portal vascularization (PV and tributaries) were extracted for a comparative corrosion cast study. Flows were demonstrated in the cranial mesenteric vein, caudal mesenteric vein and splenic vein. However, no proper flow could be distinguished for the gastroduodenal and ileocolic veins. All these tributaries primarily supply the lateral liver lobes (right or left). Most of our observations indicate that the cranial mesenteric, caudal mesenteric and splenic veins primarily supply the right lateral lobe and the caudate process of the caudate lobe and secondarily the left lateral lobe, left medial lobe and the quadrate lobe. The two other tributaries (gastroduodenal and ileocolic veins) primarily supply the right lateral lobe and the caudate process of the caudate lobe. PMID:25376527

  15. Arterial Shear Stress Reduces Eph-B4 Expression in Adult Human Veins

    PubMed Central

    Model, Lynn S.; Hall, Michael R.; Wong, Daniel J.; Muto, Akihito; Kondo, Yuka; Ziegler, Kenneth R.; Feigel, Amanda; Quint, Clay; Niklason, Laura; Dardik, Alan

    2014-01-01

    Vein graft adaptation to the arterial environment is characterized by loss of venous identity, with reduced Ephrin type-B receptor 4 (Eph-B4) expression but without increased Ephrin-B2 expression. We examined changes of vessel identity of human saphenous veins in a flow circuit in which shear stress could be precisely controlled. Medium circulated at arterial or venous magnitudes of laminar shear stress for 24 hours; histologic, protein, and RNA analyses of vein segments were performed. Vein endothelium remained viable and functional, with platelet endothelial cell adhesion molecule (PECAM)-expressing cells on the luminal surface. Venous Eph-B4 expression diminished (p = .002), Ephrin-B2 expression was not induced (p = .268), and expression of osteopontin (p = .002) was increased with exposure to arterial magnitudes of shear stress. Similar changes were not found in veins placed under venous flow or static conditions. These data show that human saphenous veins remain viable during ex vivo application of shear stress in a bioreactor, without loss of the venous endothelium. Arterial magnitudes of shear stress cause loss of venous identity without gain of arterial identity in human veins perfused ex vivo. Shear stress alone, without immunologic or hormonal influence, is capable of inducing changes in vessel identity and, specifically, loss of venous identity. PMID:25191151

  16. Intraosseous Venography with Carbon Dioxide in Percutaneous Vertebroplasty: Carbon Dioxide Retention in Renal Veins

    SciTech Connect

    Komemushi, Atsushi, E-mail: kome64@yo.rim.or.jp; Tanigawa, Noboru; Kariya, Shuji; Kojima, Hiroyuki; Shomura, Yuzo; Tokuda, Takanori; Nomura, Motoo; Terada, Jiro; Kamata, Minoru; Sawada, Satoshi [Kansai Medical University, Department of Radiology (Japan)

    2008-11-15

    The objective of the present study was to determine the frequency of gas retention in the renal vein following carbon dioxide intraosseous venography in the prone position and, while citing references, to examine its onset mechanisms. All percutaneous vertebroplasties performed at our hospital from January to December 2005 were registered and retrospectively analyzed. Of 43 registered procedures treating 79 vertebrae, 28 procedures treating 54 vertebrae were analyzed. Vertebral intraosseous venography was performed using carbon dioxide as a contrast agent in all percutaneous vertebroplasty procedures. In preoperative and postoperative vertebral CT, gas retention in the renal vein and other areas was assessed. Preoperative CT did not show gas retention (0/28 procedures; 0%). Postoperative CT confirmed gas retention in the renal vein in 10 of the 28 procedures (35.7%). Gas retention was seen in the right renal vein in 8 procedures (28.6%), in the left renal vein in 5 procedures (17.9%), in the left and right renal veins in 3 procedures (10.7%), in vertebrae in 22 procedures (78.6%), in the soft tissue around vertebrae in 14 procedures (50.0%), in the spinal canal in 12 procedures (42.9%), and in the subcutaneous tissue in 5 procedures (17.9%). In conclusion, in our study, carbon dioxide gas injected into the vertebra frequently reached and remained in the renal vein.

  17. Immunomodulation of vascular endothelium: Effects of ultraviolet B irradiation on vein allograft rejection

    SciTech Connect

    Marin, M.L.; Hardy, M.A.; Gordon, R.E.; Reemtsma, K.; Benvenisty, A.I. (Columbia Univ. College of Physicians and Surgeons, New York, NY (USA))

    1990-01-01

    Prosthetic grafts of vein allografts are inadequate as small-diameter vessel substitutes. We have applied ultraviolet B (UVB) irradiation to modulate the immunogenicity of vein allografts to avoid immunologic injury. The veins of male ACI rats were irradiated with UVB (60 mJ/cm2) in situ and transplanted to male ACI rats (autografts) and female Lewis rats (allografts). Nonirradiated veins served as controls. At 4, 7, 14, and 28 days, all grafts were patent and were studied for morphologic changes by scanning electron microscopy and for immunogold labeling of major histocompatibility complex class II antigen expression. In autografts, scanning electron microscopy demonstrated minimal endothelial loss after grafting, regardless of UVB irradiation. Untreated allografts showed severe endothelial injury 4, 7, and 14 days after transplantation. UVB irradiation of veins protected allografts from injury to the endothelium and basement membrane. Major histocompatibility complex class II-positive endothelial cells were not seen in autografts but were seen in 40% of cells 4 days after transplantation in untreated allografts. UVB-treated allografts showed MHC class II antigen expression labeling of 20% of the endothelial cells. Barr body analysis demonstrated the donor origin of these endothelial cells. UVB irradiation of rat vein allografts prolongs endothelial survival while decreasing endothelial surface expression of class II antigens. These data suggest that modification of vein immunogenicity with UVB irradiation may permit functional survival of small-vessel allografts without chronic immunosuppression.

  18. Misinsertion of central venous catheter into the suspected vertebral vein: a case report

    PubMed Central

    Yang, So-Hee; Jung, Sung-Mee

    2014-01-01

    We experienced a case in which a central venous catheter (CVC) was misplaced into the wrong vein, which was mistaken for the internal jugular vein (IJV), identified by chest x-ray and ultrasound. The vertebral vein passes through the transverse foramina from the atlas to the 6th cervical vertebra. After exiting the transverse foramen of the 6th vertebra, the vein subsequently runs anterolateral to the vertebral artery and posterior to the IJV and drains the innominate vein. In this case, chest x-ray and ultrasound revealed that the inserted CVC had a course very similar to the vertebral vein. The misplacement of a CVC into the vertebral vein might occur from excessive rotation of the patient's head, which leads to alterations in the cervical vascular anatomy, and from deep insertion of the puncture needle. Therefore, it is advised, for safe CVC insertion, to minimize a patient's head rotation and to make use of ultrasound when the anatomical structures cannot be clearly identified. PMID:25473464

  19. Paleomagnetic dating of fracturing using breccia veins in Durness group carbonates, NW Scotland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Douglas Elmore, R.; Burr, Rika; Engel, Michael; Parnell, John

    2010-12-01

    A paleomagnetic study of red fault-related breccia veins in the Cambro-Ordovician Durness Group in NW Scotland was conducted to determine the time of brecciation, the origin of the veins, and the nature and timing of associated fluid-related diagenetic alteration. The veins contain brecciated fragments of the host Durness Group and strike either east-west or north-south. Clasts of breccia cemented by calcite suggest multiple brecciation events. The host Durness Limestone is a gray dolomite and contains a Devonian chemical remanent magnetization (CRM) that resides in magnetite. The veins contain magnetizations that reside in hematite and are interpreted as CRMs. The breccias in north-south veins contain a Triassic CRM whereas the veins with east-west strikes contain a Jurassic CRM. Authigenic hematite is common in the breccias along growth planes in the calcite cements. The two CRMs within the veins are interpreted as dating two separate brecciation and fluid flow events that precipitated authigenic hematite. The brecciation and fluid flow events are interpreted to be related to extension in the Mesozoic which is consistent with the extensional history of the northern Atlantic margins.

  20. Contact-Free Palm-Vein Recognition Based on Local Invariant Features

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Wenxiong; Liu, Yang; Wu, Qiuxia; Yue, Xishun

    2014-01-01

    Contact-free palm-vein recognition is one of the most challenging and promising areas in hand biometrics. In view of the existing problems in contact-free palm-vein imaging, including projection transformation, uneven illumination and difficulty in extracting exact ROIs, this paper presents a novel recognition approach for contact-free palm-vein recognition that performs feature extraction and matching on all vein textures distributed over the palm surface, including finger veins and palm veins, to minimize the loss of feature information. First, a hierarchical enhancement algorithm, which combines a DOG filter and histogram equalization, is adopted to alleviate uneven illumination and to highlight vein textures. Second, RootSIFT, a more stable local invariant feature extraction method in comparison to SIFT, is adopted to overcome the projection transformation in contact-free mode. Subsequently, a novel hierarchical mismatching removal algorithm based on neighborhood searching and LBP histograms is adopted to improve the accuracy of feature matching. Finally, we rigorously evaluated the proposed approach using two different databases and obtained 0.996% and 3.112% Equal Error Rates (EERs), respectively, which demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed approach. PMID:24866176

  1. Long-term results of in situ saphenous vein bypass. Analysis of 2058 cases.

    PubMed Central

    Shah, D M; Darling, R C; Chang, B B; Fitzgerald, K M; Paty, P S; Leather, R P

    1995-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The authors evaluated the long-term patency and outcome of patients undergoing infrainguinal reconstruction using the in situ saphenous vein. SUMMARY BACKGROUND DATA: The in situ saphenous vein bypass has demonstrated excellent patency and limb salvage rates in numerous studies. The authors previously reported their early results with these bypass procedures, and this article represents their long-term experience with 2058 in situ saphenous vein bypasses during a 20-year period. This comprises the largest series with long-term follow-up of in situ saphenous vein bypasses in the literature. METHODS: From 1975 to 1995, 3148 autogenous vein bypasses were performed at the authors' institution, of which 2058 used the saphenous vein in situ. The indication for operation was limb-threatening ischemia in 1875 of 2058 patients (91%). In 88% of patients with an intact ipsilateral saphenous vein, an in situ bypass was completed successfully. One thousand twenty-three bypasses (69%) were terminated at the infrapopliteal level. Of these bypasses, 1562 of 2058 (76%) were completed using the closed in situ technique. RESULTS: The 30-day patency rate was 96%, and the cumulative secondary patency was 91%, 81%, and 70% at 1, 5, and 10 years, respectively. Limb salvage rates using the in situ bypass were 97%, 95%, and 90% at 1, 5, and 10 years, respectively. CONCLUSION: The infrainguinal inflow source, length of bypass, specific outflow vessel, or vein diameter did not have a significant effect on immediate or long-term bypass performance. These data suggest that the in situ saphenous vein is an excellent conduit for femoropopliteal and femoral to infrageniculate bypasses for limb salvage. PMID:7574925

  2. Preoperative predictors of portal vein thrombosis after splenectomy with periesophagogastric devascularization

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yu; Wen, Tian-Fu; Yan, Lu-Nan; Yang, Hong-Ji; Deng, Xiao-Fan; Li, Chuan; Wang, Chuan; Liang, Guan-Lin

    2012-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate the predictive value of preoperative predictors for portal vein thrombosis (PVT) after splenectomy with periesophagogastric devascularization. METHODS: In this prospective study, 69 continuous patients with portal hypertension caused by hepatitis B cirrhosis underwent splenectomy with periesophagogastric devascularization in West China Hospital of Sichuan University from January 2007 to August 2010. The portal vein flow velocity and the diameter of portal vein were measured by Doppler sonography. The hepatic congestion index and the ratio of velocity and diameter were calculated before operation. The prothrombin time (PT) and platelet (PLT) levels were measured before and after operation. The patients’ spleens were weighed postoperatively. RESULTS: The diameter of portal vein was negatively correlated with the portal vein flow velocity (P < 0.05). Thirty-three cases (47.83%) suffered from postoperative PVT. There was no statistically significant difference in the Child-Pugh score, the spleen weights, the PT, or PLT levels between patients with PVT and without PVT. Receiver operating characteristic curves showed four variables (portal vein flow velocity, the ratio of velocity and diameter, hepatic congestion index and diameter of portal vein) could be used as preoperative predictors of postoperative portal vein thrombosis. The respective values of the area under the curve were 0.865, 0.893, 0.884 and 0.742, and the respective cut-off values (24.45 cm/s, 19.4333/s, 0.1138 cm/s-1 and 13.5 mm) were of diagnostically efficient, generating sensitivity values of 87.9%, 93.9%, 87.9% and 81.8%, respectively, specificities of 75%, 77.8%, 86.1% and 63.9%, respectively. CONCLUSION: The ratio of velocity and diameter was the most accurate preoperative predictor of portal vein thrombosis after splenectomy with periesophagogastric devascularization in hepatitis B cirrhosis-related portal hypertension. PMID:22553410

  3. Bone Marrow Mesenchymal Stem Cell and Vein Conduit on Sciatic Nerve Repair in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Seyed Foroutan, Kamal; Khodarahmi, Ali; Alavi, Hootan; Pedram, Sepehr; Baghaban Eslaminejad, Mohamad Reza; Bordbar, Sima

    2015-01-01

    Background: Peripheral nerve repair with sufficient functional recovery is an important issue in reconstructive surgery. Stem cells have attracted extensive research interest in recent years. Objectives: The purpose of this study was to compare the vein conduit technique, with and without the addition of mesenchymal stem cells in gap-less nerve injury repair in rats. Materials and Methods: In this study, 36 Wistar rats were randomly allocated to three groups: In the first group, nerve repair was performed with simple neurorrhaphy (control group), in the second group, nerve repair was done with vein conduit over site (vein conduit group) and in the third group, bone marrow stem cells were instilled into the vein conduit (stem cell group) after nerve repair with vein conduit over site. Six weeks after the intervention, the sciatic function index, electrophysiological study and histological examination were performed. Results: All animals tolerated the surgical procedures and survived well. The sciatic function index and latency were significantly improved in the vein conduit (P = 0.04 and 0.03, respectively) and stem cell group (P = 0.02 and 0.03, respectively) compared with the control group. No significant difference was observed in sciatic function and latency between the vein conduit and stem-cell groups. Moreover, histological analysis showed no significant difference in regenerative density between these two groups. Conclusions: The results of this study showed that the meticulous microsurgical nerve repair, which was performed using the vein tubulization induced significantly better sciatic nerve regeneration. However, the addition of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cell to vein conduit failed to promote any significant changes in regeneration outcome.

  4. Vein Visualization Using a Smart Phone With Multispectral Wiener Estimation for Point-of-Care Applications.

    PubMed

    Song, Jae Hee; Kim, Choye; Yoo, Yangmo

    2015-03-01

    Effective vein visualization is clinically important for various point-of-care applications, such as needle insertion. It can be achieved by utilizing ultrasound imaging or by applying infrared laser excitation and monitoring its absorption. However, while these approaches can be used for vein visualization, they are not suitable for point-of-care applications because of their cost, time, and accessibility. In this paper, a new vein visualization method based on multispectral Wiener estimation is proposed and its real-time implementation on a smart phone is presented. In the proposed method, a conventional RGB camera on a commercial smart phone (i.e., Galaxy Note 2, Samsung Electronics Inc., Suwon, Korea) is used to acquire reflectance information from veins. Wiener estimation is then applied to extract the multispectral information from the veins. To evaluate the performance of the proposed method, an experiment was conducted using a color calibration chart (ColorChecker Classic, X-rite, Grand Rapids, MI, USA) and an average root-mean-square error of 12.0% was obtained. In addition, an in vivo subcutaneous vein imaging experiment was performed to explore the clinical performance of the smart phone-based Wiener estimation. From the in vivo experiment, the veins at various sites were successfully localized using the reconstructed multispectral images and these results were confirmed by ultrasound B-mode and color Doppler images. These results indicate that the presented multispectral Wiener estimation method can be used for visualizing veins using a commercial smart phone for point-of-care applications (e.g., vein puncture guidance). PMID:24691170

  5. How do leaf veins influence the worldwide leaf economic spectrum? Review and synthesis.

    PubMed

    Sack, Lawren; Scoffoni, Christine; John, Grace P; Poorter, Hendrik; Mason, Chase M; Mendez-Alonzo, Rodrigo; Donovan, Lisa A

    2013-10-01

    Leaf vein traits are implicated in the determination of gas exchange rates and plant performance. These traits are increasingly considered as causal factors affecting the 'leaf economic spectrum' (LES), which includes the light-saturated rate of photosynthesis, dark respiration, foliar nitrogen concentration, leaf dry mass per area (LMA) and leaf longevity. This article reviews the support for two contrasting hypotheses regarding a key vein trait, vein length per unit leaf area (VLA). Recently, Blonder et al. (2011, 2013) proposed that vein traits, including VLA, can be described as the 'origin' of the LES by structurally determining LMA and leaf thickness, and thereby vein traits would predict LES traits according to specific equations. Careful re-examination of leaf anatomy, published datasets, and a newly compiled global database for diverse species did not support the 'vein origin' hypothesis, and moreover showed that the apparent power of those equations to predict LES traits arose from circularity. This review provides a 'flux trait network' hypothesis for the effects of vein traits on the LES and on plant performance, based on a synthesis of the previous literature. According to this hypothesis, VLA, while virtually independent of LMA, strongly influences hydraulic conductance, and thus stomatal conductance and photosynthetic rate. We also review (i) the specific physiological roles of VLA; (ii) the role of leaf major veins in influencing LES traits; and (iii) the role of VLA in determining photosynthetic rate per leaf dry mass and plant relative growth rate. A clear understanding of leaf vein traits provides a new perspective on plant function independently of the LES and can enhance the ability to explain and predict whole plant performance under dynamic conditions, with applications towards breeding improved crop varieties. PMID:24123455

  6. Acute subdural hematoma from bridging vein rupture: a potential mechanism for growth.

    PubMed

    Miller, Jimmy D; Nader, Remi

    2014-06-01

    Most acute subdural hematomas (ASDHs) develop after rupture of a bridging vein or veins. The anatomy of the bridging vein predisposes to its tearing within the border cell layer of the dura mater. Thus, the subdural hematoma actually forms within the dura. The hematoma grows by continued bleeding into the border cell layer. However, the venous pressure would not be expected to cause a large hematoma. Therefore, some type of mechanism must account for the hematoma's expansion. Cerebral venous pressure (CVP) has been demonstrated in animal models to be slightly higher than intracranial pressure (ICP), and CVP tracks the ICP as pressure variations occur. The elevation of CVP as the ICP increases is thought to result from an increase in outflow resistance of the terminal portion of the bridging veins. This probably results from a Starling resistor model or, less likely, from a muscular sphincter. A hypothesis is derived to explain the mechanism of ASDH enlargement. Tearing of one or more bridging veins causes these vessels to bleed into the dural border cell layer. Subsequent ICP elevation from the ASDH, cerebral swelling, or other cause results in elevation of the CVP by increased outflow resistance in the intact bridging veins. The increased ICP causes further bleeding into the hematoma cavity via the torn bridging veins. Thus, the ASDH enlarges via a positive feedback mechanism. Enlargement of an ASDH would cease as blood within the hematoma cavity coagulates. This would stop the dissection of the dural border cell layer, and pressure within the hematoma cavity would equalize with that in the torn bridging vein or veins. PMID:24313607

  7. Plasma DNA is Elevated in Patients with Deep Vein Thrombosis

    PubMed Central

    Diaz, J.A.; Fuchs, T.A.; Jackson, T.O.; Hovinga, J.A. Kremer; Lämmle, B.; Henke, P.K.; Myers, D.D.; Wagner, D.D.; Wakefield, T.W.

    2013-01-01

    Objective To investigate if plasma DNA is elevated in patients with deep vein thrombosis (DVT) and to determine whether there is a correlation with other biomarkers of DVT. Background Leukocytes release DNA to form extracellular traps (ETs), which have recently been linked to experimental DVT. In baboons and mice, extracellular DNA co-localized with von Willebrand factor (VWF) in the thrombus and DNA appeared in circulation at the time of thrombus formation. ETs have not been associated with clinical DVT. Setting From December 2008 to August 2010, patients were screened through the University of Michigan Diagnostic Vascular Unit and were divided into three distinct groups: 1) the DVT positive group, consisting of patients who were symptomatic for DVT, which was confirmed by compression duplex ultrasound (n=47); 2) the DVT negative group, consisting of patients that present with swelling and leg pain but had a negative compression duplex ultrasound, (n=28); and 3) a control group of healthy non-pregnant volunteers without signs or symptoms of active or previous DVT (n=19). Patients were excluded if they were less than 18 years of age, unwillingness to consent, pregnant, on an anticoagulant therapy, or diagnosed with isolated calf vein thrombosis. Methods Blood was collected for circulating DNA, CRP, D-dimer, VWF activity, myeloperoxidase (MPO), ADAMTS13 and VWF. The Wells score for a patient’s risk of DVT was assessed. The Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC) curve was generated to determine the strength of the relationship between circulating DNA levels and the presence of DVT. A Spearman correlation was performed to determine the relationship between the DNA levels and the biomarkers and the Wells score. Additionally the ratio of ADAMTS13/VWF was assessed. Results Our results showed that circulating DNA (a surrogate marker for NETs) was significantly elevated in DVT patients, compared to both DVT negative patients (57.7±6.3 vs. 17.9±3.5ng/mL, P<.01) and controls (57.7±6.3 vs. 23.9±2.1ng/mL, P<.01). There was a strong positive correlation with CRP (P<.01), D-dimer (P<.01), VWF (P<.01), Wells score (P<.01) and myeloperoxidase (MPO) (P<.01), along with a strong negative correlation with ADAMTS13 (P<.01) and the ADAMTS13/VWF ratio. The logistic regression model showed a strong association between plasma DNA and the presence of DVT (ROC curve was determined to be 0.814). Conclusions Plasma DNA is elevated in patients with deep vein thrombosis and correlates with biomarkers of DVT. A strong correlation between circulating DNA and MPO suggests that neutrophils may be a source of plasma DNA in patients with DVT. PMID:24187669

  8. The azygos vein pathway: an overview from anatomical variations to pathological changes.

    PubMed

    Piciucchi, Sara; Barone, Domenico; Sanna, Stefano; Dubini, Alessandra; Goodman, Lawrence R; Oboldi, Devil; Bertocco, Mauro; Ciccotosto, Cesario; Gavelli, Giampaolo; Carloni, Angelo; Poletti, Venerino

    2014-10-01

    The azygos venous system represents an accessory venous pathway supplying an important collateral circulation between the superior and inferior vena cava. The aim of this article is to revise the wide spectrum of changes ranging from normal to pathological conditions involving the azygos system. Teaching points • The azygos vein is a collateral venous pathway, becoming a vital shunt if major pathways of venous return are obstructed. • In azygos continuation, the azygos vein becomes significantly enlarged due to inferior vena cava interruption. • Fibrosing mediastinitis is an underestimated acquired disorder. • Fibrosing mediastinitis induces a variable engorgement of collateral veins. • Fibrosing mediastinitis leads to superior vena cava syndrome. PMID:25171956

  9. Congenital internal jugular vein aneurysm in an infant: A rare entity.

    PubMed

    Awasthy, Neeraj; Khandelwal, Nidhi; Iyer, Krishna S

    2014-11-24

    A 1-month old baby boy presented with a mass at the root of the neck. On investigation, a saccular aneurysm arising from the internal jugular vein was diagnosed. The aneurysm was excised after ligating the patent internal jugular vein above and below the origin of the aneurysm. Histopathology confirmed the diagnosis of a vascular malformation. Vascular malformation of the internal jugular vein, presenting as neck mass, is extremely rare with no case described in neonates. We present one such interesting case. PMID:25425716

  10. A Proposed Anatomic Typing of the Right Internal Spermatic Vein: Importance for Percutaneous Sclerotherapy of Varicocele

    SciTech Connect

    Siegel, Yoel [Rabin Medical Center Beilinson Campus, Sackler Medical School Tel Aviv University, Department of Radiology (Israel)], E-mail: yo@actcom.co.il; Gat, Yigal [Rabin Medical Center Beilinson Campus, Sackler Medical School Tel Aviv University, Andrology Unit, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology (Israel); Bacher, Gil N.; Gornish, Michael [Rabin Medical Center Beilinson Campus, Sackler Medical School Tel Aviv University, Department of Radiology (Israel)

    2006-04-15

    Purpose. To classify the anatomic types of the right internal spermatic vein (ISV). Methods. We evaluated venograms obtained in 150 consecutive patients with idiopathic varicocele referred for transfemoral sclerotherapy .Results. Six anatomic types of the right internal spermatic vein (ISV) were recognized. These were classified by the location of their orifices and the tributary venous patterns. In roughly half the patients (53%), the ISV appeared as a simple vein with no remarkable retroperitoneal interconnections. In the remainder, complex retroperitoneal anastomoses were encountered. Conclusion. By understanding these anatomic variations, the angiographer can approach treatment of right-sided varicocele with foreknowledge of the nature of these types and the presence of valves and collaterals.

  11. Finger vein recognition based on (2D)² PCA and metric learning.

    PubMed

    Yang, Gongping; Xi, Xiaoming; Yin, Yilong

    2012-01-01

    Finger vein recognition is a promising biometric recognition technology, which verifies identities via the vein patterns in the fingers. In this paper, (2D)² PCA is applied to extract features of finger veins, based on which a new recognition method is proposed in conjunction with metric learning. It learns a KNN classifier for each individual, which is different from the traditional methods where a fixed threshold is employed for all individuals. Besides, the SMOTE technology is adopted to solve the class-imbalance problem. Our experiments show that the proposed method is effective by achieving a recognition rate of 99.17%. PMID:22675248

  12. [Thrombosed external jugular vein aneurysm: a rare cause of neck mass].

    PubMed

    Martins, Inês Santiago; Pacheco, Hugo Pisco; Sapeira, Isabel

    2014-01-01

    Venous aneurysms are rarely responsible for neck masses, and regarding the neck veins, external jugular vein aneurysms are extremely uncommon, with a few cases reported in the literature. Although most cases are asymptomatic, they may cause pain, be complicated by thrombosis or even rupture. Imaging studies have a role in the diagnosis and surgical planning of this pathology. With emphasis on the imaging techniques, the authors present a case of an external jugular vein aneurysm, initially asymptomatic but thereafter complicated with thrombosis. PMID:25203964

  13. [Spontaneous splenic vein rupture complicating liver cirrhosis: an autopsy case report].

    PubMed

    Okubo, Satoshi; Kiriyama, Kazuo; Usui, Takeo; Takemura, Tadaharu; Ikeda, Kouichiro; Kanayama, Yoshio

    2013-03-01

    A 70-year-old woman, who had hepatitis-C related liver cirrhosis died suddenly. Autopsy showed a massive retroperitoneal hematoma and ruptured splenic vein, as well as densely bloody ascites. This suggested that chronic and unnoticed retroperitoneal leak from the ruptured vein preceded the acute and fatal outcome of the intra-abdominal bleeding. Spontaneous rupture of the splenic vein is rarely reported in liver cirrhosis despite the presence of portal hypertension. This rare association is discussed with a literature review. PMID:23459537

  14. Detection of Reflux in Jugular and Vertebral Veins Through Directional Multigate Quality Doppler Profiles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Forzoni, Leonardo; Morovic, Sandra; Semplici, Paolo; Corsi, Massino; Ricci, Stefano; Tortoli, Piero

    Chronic Cerebro-Spinal Venous Insufficiency (CCSVI) is a medical condition where deoxygenated blood flows from the veins surrounding the brain and spine is slowed down or blocked in its return to the heart. The diagnosis and severity of CCSVI can be assessed by investigating the possible presence and the extent of such reflux and/or blockage in neck veins and intracranial veins, with the patient in both sitting and supine positions. During such examinations, B-Mode and Color Doppler ultrasound are not always capable of accurately detect the flow behavior in all subjects.

  15. Human radicular veins: regulation of venous reflux in the absence of valves.

    PubMed

    van der Kuip, M; Hoogland, P V; Groen, R J

    1999-02-01

    In the literature it is generally assumed that venous reflux within the radicular veins is prevented by the presence of bicuspid valves and narrowing of the transdural part of these vessels. Recently, we performed a human cadaver study of the internal vertebral venous plexus. Surprisingly, a large number of radicular and perimedullary veins appeared to be filled with Araldite CY 221 mixture, after injection of this material into the vertebral venous system, implicating reflux via the radicular veins and suggesting insufficiency of the presumed anti-reflux mechanism. Therefore, it was decided to study the radicular veins in order to determine and to investigate the presence or absence of anti-reflux mechanisms within this system. The vertebral venous systems of ten fresh human cadavers, between 64 and 93 years of age, were injected with Araldite CY 221 mixture. After polymerization, all cadavers were dissected and the spinal nerve sheaths, including nerve roots, radicular veins and epidural veins, were excised as a whole. After macroscopical examination, serial sections (40 microm) were cut on a freezing microtome and stained in Von Gieson medium. Every third section was stained immunohistochemically with smooth muscle antigen (SMA), to visualize smooth muscle cells. In all cadavers, a number of intradural radicular veins was filled with Araldite. Employing microscopical examination, no bicuspid valves were found. However, four structures were encountered that might serve as ananti-reflux-mechanism: 1) intravenous dural folds, 2) meandrous configuration, and 3) narrowing of the radicular veins at the point of penetration of the dura mater, and 4) varying numbers of smooth muscle fibers in the walls of the intradural and extradural parts of the radicular veins. Reflux via the radicular veins seems to be a physiological phenomenon. Structural valves have not been encountered during this study. Intravenous dural folds, meandrous configuration and narrowing of the transdural part of the radicular veins, and the presence of large numbers of smooth muscle cells in the radicular venous walls suggest the existence of a dynamic reflux-regulating system that has the ability to increase the intravascular resistance under conditions of venous hyperpression, in order to protect the spinal cord from venous pressure waves. Possibly, venous reflux via the radicular veins has a role in selective cooling of the spinal cord. PMID:9972802

  16. Finger Vein Recognition Based on (2D)2 PCA and Metric Learning

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Gongping; Xi, Xiaoming; Yin, Yilong

    2012-01-01

    Finger vein recognition is a promising biometric recognition technology, which verifies identities via the vein patterns in the fingers. In this paper, (2D)2 PCA is applied to extract features of finger veins, based on which a new recognition method is proposed in conjunction with metric learning. It learns a KNN classifier for each individual, which is different from the traditional methods where a fixed threshold is employed for all individuals. Besides, the SMOTE technology is adopted to solve the class-imbalance problem. Our experiments show that the proposed method is effective by achieving a recognition rate of 99.17%. PMID:22675248

  17. The Investigation on Fibrous Veins and Their Host from Mt. Ida, Ouachita Mountains, Arkansas

    E-print Network

    Chung, Jae Won

    2004-09-30

    increases from the coarse-grained layer toward the fine-grained layer. f) Saw-tooth (serrated) texture is shown in grain boundaries. g) N7E veins consist of fibrous or blocky calcite near the vein wall and blocky quartz grains in center which are wider... than calcite grains. h) Calcareous sandstone containing N7E veins is grouped into two layers: fine grained calcite-poor layer (CPL) and coarse-grained calcite-rich layer (CRL). Cc:calcite, Qtz: quartz, S: stylolites, and St: saw-tooth (serrated...

  18. Thrombosis of a Superior Mesenteric Vein Aneurysm: Transarterial Thrombolysis and Transhepatic Aspiration Thrombectomy

    SciTech Connect

    Hechelhammer, L.; Crook, D.W. [University Hospital of Zuerich, Institute of Diagnostic Radiology (Switzerland); Widmer, U. [University Hospital of Zuerich, Department of Medicine (Switzerland); Wildermuth, S.; Pfammatter, T. [University Hospital of Zuerich, Institute of Diagnostic Radiology (Switzerland)], E-mail: thomas.pfammatter@usz.ch

    2004-09-15

    We report the case of a 31-year-old woman presenting with abdominal pain due to acute thrombosis of a superior and inferior mesenteric vein aneurysm, which was treated by a combination of arterial thrombolysis and transhepatic thrombus aspiration. At the last follow-up CT, 21 months following this procedure, there was no evidence of rethrombosis, and the patient continues to do well under oral anticoagulation. The literature regarding these uncommon mesenteric vein aneurysms without portal vein involvement, as well as their treatment options, is reviewed.

  19. Kinematics of fibrous vein growth: insights from stable isotopes and trace element data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fischer, M. P.; Lefticariu, L.; Romanek, C.; Perry, E. C.

    2005-12-01

    Veins are important recorders of thermal, hydrological, structural, and geochemical conditions during deformation. Fibrous or bladed veins are particularly useful, because the mineral fibers are believed to grow continuously or episodically over what may be a significant geologic time period. Thus, individual mineral fibers document the complex, dynamic changes occurring coeval with vein growth and mineral precipitation. Geochemical and structural analyses have been used to constrain the kinematic history of a bed-parallel fibrous calcite vein from the Upper Jurassic La Casita Formation, Sierra Madre Oriental, Mexico. The La Casita Formation, correlative with the Smackover Formation of the northern US Gulf Coast, consists of shale and is part of a sedimentary succession that unconformably overlies evaporites of the Minas Viejas Formation. The fibrous vein examined in this study was taken from the backlimb of the frontal fold of the Monterrey salient near Saltillo. Optical petrographic observation reveals that the calcite fibers have blade or tapering lath shapes with widths from 0.1-1.0 mm. Other minerals present in the vein are pyrite, gypsum, bitumen, and iron oxides. High-resolution, closely spaced stable isotope and elemental analyses were carried out along five traverses across the vein width. The d18O values vary in a narrow range, with an average value of +20.8 permil (VSMOW). The d13C values increase systematically along the fibers, from the walls of the vein toward the suture plane. In all five traverses, the d13C increase is relatively constant, with lower values next to the vein wall (+1.2 to +1.6 permil PDB) and higher values along the suture line (+3.6 to +4.1 permil PDB). The vein minerals, fibrous calcite and accessory pyrite, are interpreted to be the products of high temperature reactions between light hydrocarbons and dissolved sulfate, known as thermochemical sulfate reduction (TSR). Reactants such as light hydrocarbons and products such as CO2, H2S, and H2O contributed to what are interpreted to have been high fluid pressures during vein growth. The origin of vein minerals is probably related to: (1) methanogenesis and decarbonation reactions within the shale, and (2) migration of high-temperature brine during late stages of folding.

  20. Amplatzer vascular plug for transcatheter closure of persistent unligated vertical vein after repair of infracardiac total anomalous pulmonary venous connection.

    PubMed

    Kobayashi, Daisuke; Forbes, Thomas J; Delius, Ralph E; Aggarwal, Sanjeev

    2012-08-01

    Repair of total anomalous pulmonary venous connection (TAPVC) involves anastomosing the pulmonary venous confluence with the left atrium and ligating the vertical vein. Sometimes, the vertical vein needs to be left open as a pop off with the idea that it will close over time. Infrequently an unligated vertical vein may remain patent after repair of infaracardiac TAPVC leading to hemodynamic instability. We report an infant in whom an unligated vertical vein remained patent after the repair of infracardiac TAPVC and caused hemodynamically significant left-to-right shunting. A successful transcatheter closure of persistent patent unligated vertical vein was performed using the Amplatzer Vascular Plug-I device. PMID:22422595