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Sample records for receptors molecular cloning

  1. Gene Transfer and Molecular Cloning of the Human NGF Receptor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chao, Moses V.; Bothwell, Mark A.; Ross, Alonzo H.; Koprowski, Hilary; Lanahan, Anthony A.; Buck, C. Randall; Sehgal, Amita

    1986-04-01

    Nerve growth factor (NGF) and its receptor are important in the development of cells derived from the neural crest. Mouse L cell transformants have been generated that stably express the human NGF receptor gene transfer with total human DNA. Affinity cross-linking, metabolic labeling and immunoprecipitation, and equilibrium binding with 125I-labeled NGF revealed that this NGF receptor had the same size and binding characteristics as the receptor from human melanoma cells and rat PC12 cells. The sequences encoding the NGF receptor were molecularly cloned using the human Alu repetitive sequence as a probe. A cosmid clone that contained the human NGF receptor gene allowed efficient transfection and expression of the receptor.

  2. Molecular cloning of estrogen receptor alpha of the Nile crocodile.

    PubMed

    Katsu, Yoshinao; Myburgh, Jan; Kohno, Satomi; Swan, Gerry E; Guillette, Louis J; Iguchi, Taisen

    2006-03-01

    Estrogens are essential for normal reproductive activity in female and male vertebrates. In female reptiles, they are essential for ovarian differentiation during a critical developmental stage. To understand the molecular mechanisms of estrogen action in the Nile crocodile (Crocodylus niloticus), we have isolated cDNA encoding the estrogen receptor alpha (ERalpha) from the ovary. Degenerate PCR primers specific to ER were designed and used to amplify Nile crocodile cDNA from the ovary. The full-length Nile crocodile ERalpha cDNA was obtained using 5' and 3' rapid amplification cDNA ends (RACE). The deduced amino acid sequence of the Nile crocodile ERalpha showed high identity to the American alligator ERalpha (98%), caiman ER (98%), lizard ER (82%) and chicken ERalpha (92%), although phylogenetic analysis suggested profound differences in the rate of sequence evolution for vertebrate ER sequences. Expression of ERalpha was observed in the ovary and testis of juvenile Nile crocodiles. These data provide a novel tool allowing future studies examining the regulation and ontogenic expression of ERalpha in crocodiles and expands our knowledge of estrogen receptor evolution. PMID:16455277

  3. The 5-HT4 receptor: molecular cloning and pharmacological characterization of two splice variants.

    PubMed Central

    Gerald, C; Adham, N; Kao, H T; Olsen, M A; Laz, T M; Schechter, L E; Bard, J A; Vaysse, P J; Hartig, P R; Branchek, T A

    1995-01-01

    Molecular cloning efforts have provided primary amino acid sequence and signal transduction data for a large collection of serotonin receptor subtypes. These include five 5-HT1-like receptors, three 5-HT2 receptors, one 5-HT3 receptor, two 5-HT5 receptors, one 5-HT6 receptor and one 5-HT7 receptor. Molecular biological information on the 5-HT4 receptor is notably absent from this list. We now report the cloning of the pharmacologically defined 5-HT4 receptor. Using degenerate oligonucleotide primers, we identified a rat brain PCR fragment which encoded a '5-HT receptor-like' amino acid sequence. The corresponding full length cDNA was isolated from a rat brain cDNA library. Transiently expressed in COS-7 cells, this receptor stimulates adenylyl cyclase activity and is sensitive to the benzamide derivative cisapride. The response is also blocked by ICS-205930. Interestingly, we isolated two splice variants of the receptor, 5-HT4L and 5-HT4S, differing in the length and sequence of their C-termini. In rat brain, the 5-HT4S transcripts are restricted to the striatum, but the 5-HT4L transcripts are expressed throughout the brain, except in the cerebellum where it was barely detectable. In peripheral tissues, differential expression was also observed in the atrium of the heart where only the 5-HT4S isoform was detectable. Images PMID:7796807

  4. Human GluR6 kainate receptor (GRIK2): Molecular cloning, expression, polymorphism, and chromosomal assignment

    SciTech Connect

    Paschen, W.; Blackstone, C.D.; Huganir, R.L. ); Ross, C.A. Max-Planck-Institute for Neurological Research, Koeln )

    1994-04-01

    Glutamate receptors mediate the majority of excitatory neurotransmission in the brain, and molecular cloning studies have revealed several distinct families. Because neuropathological states and possibly human disorders may involve kainate-preferring glutamate receptors, the authors have isolated a cDNA clone for the human GluR6 kainate-preferring receptor. This clone shows a very high sequence similarity with that of the rat, except for a part of the 3[prime] untranslated region in which there is a TAA triplet repeat. When the protein was overexpressed in human embryonic kidney 293 cells, it had a molecular weight, an antibody recognition, and a glutamate ligand-binding profile similar to those of the rate GluR6 receptor. Northern analysis showed expression in both human cerebral and cerebellar cortices. By PCR analysis of rodent-human monochromosomal cell lines, the human GluR6 could be assigned to chromosome 6. The length of the TAA triplet repeat was polymorphic in the normal population, with at least four alleles and an observed heterozygosity of about 45%. These studies should provide the basis for expression or linkage studies of the GluR6 kainate receptor in human disease or neuropathologic states. 53 refs., 7 figs.

  5. Molecular cloning and expression of a GABA receptor subunit from the crayfish Procambarus clarkii.

    PubMed

    Jiménez-Vázquez, Eric N; Díaz-Velásquez, Clara E; Uribe, R M; Arias, Juan M; García, Ubaldo

    2016-02-01

    Molecular cloning has introduced an unexpected, large diversity of neurotransmitter hetero- oligomeric receptors. Extensive research on the molecular structure of the γ-aminobutyric acid receptor (GABAR) has been of great significance for understanding how the nervous system works in both vertebrates and invertebrates. However, only two examples of functional homo-oligomeric GABA-activated Cl(-) channels have been reported. In the vertebrate retina, the GABAρ1 subunit of various species forms homo-oligomeric receptors; in invertebrates, a cDNA encoding a functional GABA-activated Cl(-) channel has been isolated from a Drosophila melanogaster head cDNA library. When expressed in Xenopus laevis oocytes, these subunits function efficiently as a homo-oligomeric complex. To investigate the structure-function of GABA channels from the crayfish Procambarus clarkii, we cloned a subunit and expressed it in human embryonic kidney cells. Electrophysiological recordings show that this subunit forms a homo-oligomeric ionotropic GABAR that gates a bicuculline-insensitive Cl(-) current. The order of potency of the agonists was GABA > trans-4-amino-crotonic acid = cis-4-aminocrotonic acid > muscimol. These data support the notion that X-organ sinus gland neurons express at least two GABA subunits responsible for the formation of hetero-oligomeric and homo-oligomeric receptors. In addition, by in situ hybridization studies we demonstrate that most X-organ neurons from crayfish eyestalk express the isolated pcGABAA β subunit. This study increases the knowledge of the genetics of the crayfish, furthers the understanding of this important neurotransmitter receptor family, and provides insight into the evolution of these genes among vertebrates and invertebrates. PMID:26577600

  6. Molecular characterization of a mouse prostaglandin D receptor and functional expression of the cloned gene.

    PubMed

    Hirata, M; Kakizuka, A; Aizawa, M; Ushikubi, F; Narumiya, S

    1994-11-01

    Prostanoid receptors belong to the family of G protein-coupled receptors with seven transmembrane domains. By taking advantage of nucleotide sequence homology among the prostanoid receptors, we have isolated and identified a cDNA fragment and its gene encoding a mouse prostaglandin (PG) D receptor by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction and gene cloning. This gene codes for a polypeptide of 357 amino acids, with a calculated molecular weight of 40,012. The deduced amino acid sequence has a high degree of similarity with the mouse PGI receptor and the EP2 subtype of the PGE receptor, which together form a subgroup of the prostanoid receptors. Chinese hamster ovary cells stably expressing the gene showed a single class of binding sites for [#H]PGD2 with a Kd of 40 nM. This binding was displaced by unlabeled ligands in the following order: PGD2 > BW 245C (a PGD agonist) > BW A868C (a PGD antagonist) > STA2 (a thromboxane A2 agonist). PGE2, PGF2 alpha, and iloprost showed little displacement activity at concentrations up to 10 microM. PGD2 and BW 245C also increased cAMP levels in Chinese hamster ovary cells expressing the receptor, in a concentration-dependent manner. BW A868C showed a partial agonist activity in the cAMP assay. Northern blotting analysis with mouse poly(A)+ RNA identified a major mRNA species of 3.5 kb that was most abundantly expressed in the ileum, followed by lung, stomach, and uterus. PMID:7972033

  7. Molecular cloning and sequencing of a novel human P2 nucleotide receptor.

    PubMed

    Southey, M C; Hammet, F; Hutchins, A M; Paidhungat, M; Somers, G R; Venter, D J

    1996-11-11

    A novel human P2 nucleotide receptor has been cloned from a T-cell cDNA library. The predicted amino acid sequence shows characteristics of a G-protein-coupled receptor, and shares 88% homology with a recently characterised rat P2 nucleotide receptor sequence. Distinctive features include an extremely short cytoplasmic tail with only one putative protein kinase C phosphorylation site. Northern blot analysis revealed a 1.9 kb transcript expressed in the placenta. PMID:8950181

  8. Molecular cloning and pharmacological characterization of giant panda (Ailuropoda melanoleuca) melanocortin-4 receptor.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhi-Qiang; Wang, Wei; Shi, Lin; Chai, Ji-Tian; Zhang, Xin-Jun; Tao, Ya-Xiong

    2016-04-01

    The melanocortin-4 receptor (MC4R) is critical in regulating mammalian food intake and energy expenditure. Giant panda (Ailuropoda melanoleuca), famous as the living fossil, is an endangered species endemic to China. We are interested in exploring the functions of the giant panda MC4R (amMC4R) in regulating energy homeostasis and report herein the molecular cloning and pharmacology of the amMC4R. Sequence analysis revealed that amMC4R was highly homologous (>88%) at nucleotide and amino acid sequences to several mammalian MC4Rs. Western blot revealed that the expression construct myc-amMC4R in pcDNA3.1 was successfully constructed and expressed in HEK293T cells. With human MC4R (hMC4R) as a control, pharmacological characteristics of amMC4R were analyzed with binding and signaling assays. Four agonists, including [Nle(4), D-Phe(7)]-α-melanocyte stimulating hormone (NDP-MSH), α- and β-MSH, and a small molecule agonist, THIQ, were used in binding and signaling assays. We showed that amMC4R bound NDP-MSH with the highest affinity followed by THIQ, α-MSH, and β-MSH, with the same ranking order as hMC4R. Treatment of HEK293T cells expressing amMC4R with different concentrations of agonists resulted in dose-dependent increase of intracellular cAMP levels, with similar EC50s for the four agonists. The results suggested that the cloned amMC4R encoded a functional MC4R. The availability of amMC4R and its binding and signaling properties will facilitate the investigation of amMC4R in regulating food intake and energy homeostasis. PMID:26896843

  9. Molecular cloning and functional characterization of the diapause hormone receptor in the corn earworm Helicoverpa zea

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The diapause hormone (DH) in the heliothine moth has shown its activity in termination of pupal diapause, while the orthology in the silkworm is known to induce embryonic diapause. In the current study, we cloned the diapause hormone receptor from the corn earworm Helicoverpa zea (HzDHr) and tested ...

  10. Molecular cloning and characterization of a nuclear androgen receptor activated by 11-ketotestosterone

    PubMed Central

    Olsson, Per-Erik; Berg, A Håkan; von Hofsten, Jonas; Grahn, Birgitta; Hellqvist, Anna; Larsson, Anders; Karlsson, Johnny; Modig, Carina; Borg, Bertil; Thomas, Peter

    2005-01-01

    Although 11-ketotestosterone is a potent androgen and induces male secondary sex characteristics in many teleosts, androgen receptors with high binding affinity for 11-ketotestosterone or preferential activation by 11-ketotestosterone have not been identified. So, the mechanism by which 11-ketotestosterone exhibits such high potency remains unclear. Recently we cloned the cDNA of an 11-ketotestosterone regulated protein, spiggin, from three-spined stickleback renal tissue. As spiggin is the only identified gene product regulated by 11-ketotestosterone, the stickleback kidney is ideal for determination of the mechanism of 11-ketotestosterone gene regulation. A single androgen receptor gene with two splicing variants, belonging to the androgen receptor-β subfamily was cloned from stickleback kidney. A high affinity, saturable, single class of androgen specific binding sites, with the characteristics of an androgen receptor, was identified in renal cytosolic and nuclear fractions. Measurement of ligand binding moieties in the cytosolic and nuclear fractions as well as to the recombinant receptor revealed lower affinity for 11-ketotestosterone than for dihydrotestosterone. Treatment with different androgens did not up-regulate androgen receptor mRNA level or increase receptor abundance, suggesting that auto-regulation is not involved in differential ligand activation. However, comparison of the trans-activation potential of the stickleback androgen receptor with the human androgen receptor, in both human HepG2 cells and zebrafish ZFL cells, revealed preferential activation by 11-ketotestosterone of the stickleback receptor, but not of the human receptor. These findings demonstrate the presence of a receptor preferentially activated by 11-ketotestosterone in the three-spined stickleback, so far the only one known in any animal. PMID:16107211

  11. Molecular cloning and functional expression of a brain-specific somatostatin receptor.

    PubMed Central

    Bruno, J F; Xu, Y; Song, J; Berelowitz, M

    1992-01-01

    The PCR and conventional library screening were used to clone the brain-specific somatostatin receptor rSSTR-4 from a rat genomic library. The deduced amino acid sequence encodes a protein of 384 amino acids and displays structural and sequence homologies with members of the G protein-receptor superfamily. The amino acid sequence of rSSTR-4 is 60% and 48% identical to that of somatostatin receptors SSTR-1 and SSTR-2, respectively, two recently cloned subtypes. Competition curve analysis of the binding properties of the receptor transiently expressed in COS-1 cells revealed a higher apparent affinity for somatostatin 14 than for somatostatin 28. In contrast, the somatostatin analogs SMS 201-995, IM 4-28, and MK-678 failed to displace specific binding in transfected cells. These characteristics resemble the pharmacological binding properties of the previously described brain-specific somatostatin-receptor subtype. Examination of the tissue distribution of mRNA for rSSTR-4 revealed expression limited to various brain regions with highest levels in the cortex and hippocampus. Thus, based on the pharmacology and tissue localization of this receptor, we conclude that rSSTR-4 represents a brain-specific somatostatin receptor. Images PMID:1360663

  12. Molecular cloning and expression of an additional epidermal growth factor receptor-related gene.

    PubMed Central

    Plowman, G D; Whitney, G S; Neubauer, M G; Green, J M; McDonald, V L; Todaro, G J; Shoyab, M

    1990-01-01

    Epidermal growth factor (EGF), transforming growth factor alpha (TGF-alpha), and amphiregulin are structurally and functionally related growth regulatory proteins. These secreted polypeptides all bind to the 170-kDa cell-surface EGF receptor, activating its intrinsic kinase activity. However, amphiregulin exhibits different activities than EGF and TGF-alpha in a number of biological assays. Amphiregulin only partially competes with EGF for binding EGF receptor, and amphiregulin does not induce anchorage-independent growth of normal rat kidney cells (NRK) in the presence of TGF-beta. Amphiregulin also appears to abrogate the stimulatory effect of TGF-alpha on the growth of several aggressive epithelial carcinomas that overexpress EGF receptor. These findings suggest that amphiregulin may interact with a separate receptor in certain cell types. Here we report the cloning of another member of the human EGF receptor (HER) family of receptor tyrosine kinases, which we have named "HER3/ERRB3." The cDNA was isolated from a human carcinoma cell line, and its 6-kilobase transcript was identified in various human tissues. We have generated peptide-specific antisera that recognizes the 160-kDa HER3 protein when transiently expressed in COS cells. These reagents will allow us to determine whether HER3 binds amphiregulin or other growth regulatory proteins and what role HER3 protein plays in the regulation of cell growth. Images PMID:2164210

  13. Molecular cloning and functional analysis of Photobacterium damselae subsp. piscicida haem receptor gene.

    PubMed

    Naka, H; Hirono, I; Aoki, T

    2005-02-01

    A haem receptor gene from Photobacterium damselae subsp. piscicida (formerly known as Pasteurella piscicida) has been cloned, sequenced and analysed for its function. The gene, designated as pph, has an open reading frame consisting of 2154 bp, a predicted 718 amino acid residues and exists as a single copy. It is homologous with the haem receptors of Vibrio anguillarum hupA, V. cholerae hutA, V. mimicus mhuA and V. vulnificus hupA at 32.7, 32.7, 45.6 and 30.9%, respectively, and is highly conserved, consisting of a Phe-Arg-Ala-Pro sequence (FRAP), an iron transport related molecule (TonB) and a Asn-Pron-Asn-Leu sequence (NPNL), binding motifs associated with haem receptors. As a single gene knockout mutant P. damselae subsp. piscicida was able to bind haem in the absence of pph, suggesting that other receptors may be involved in its iron transport system. This study shows that the P. damselae subsp. piscicida pph belongs to the haem receptor family, is conserved and that its iron-binding system may involve more than one receptor. PMID:15705153

  14. Molecular cloning, characterization, and expression profiles of androgen receptors in spotted scat (Scatophagus argus).

    PubMed

    Chen, H P; Deng, S P; Dai, M L; Zhu, C H; Li, G L

    2016-01-01

    Androgen plays critical roles in vertebrate reproductive systems via androgen receptors (ARs). In the present study, the full-length spotted scat (Scatophagus argus) androgen receptor (sAR) cDNA sequence was cloned from testis. The sAR cDNA measured 2448 bp in length with an open-reading frame of 2289 bp, encoding 763 amino acids. Amino acid alignment analyses showed that the sARs exhibited highly evolutionary conserved functional domains. Phylogenetically, the sARs clustered within the ARβ common vertebrate group. Real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) revealed that sAR expression varied in level and distribution throughout the tissues of both females and males. sAR expression was detected during testicular development by quantitative RT-PCR. The results showed that the highest transcription of sARs was observed in the mid-testicular stage, and remained at a high expression level until the late-testicular stage. In addition, the effects of 17α-methyltestosterone (MT) and estrogen (E2) on the expression of sARs in ovaries were determined using quantitative RT-PCR. sAR expression increased at 12 and 24 h post-MT treatment and decreased with E2 treatment. The present study provides preliminary evidence indicating gonadal plasticity of spotted scat under exogenous steroidal hormone treatments. It also provides a theoretical basis for sex reversal and production of artificial pseudo-males for female monosex breeding. PMID:27173207

  15. Molecular cloning and expression analysis of mannose receptor C type 1 in grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella).

    PubMed

    Wang, Li; Liu, Lichun; Zhou, Yang; Zhao, Xiaoheng; Xi, Mingjun; Wei, Shun; Fang, Rui; Ji, Wei; Chen, Nan; Gu, Zemao; Liu, Xueqin; Wang, Weimin; Asim, Muhammad; Liu, Xiaoling; Lin, Li

    2014-03-01

    Mannose receptor C type 1 (MRC1) is a pattern-recognition receptor (PRR) which plays a significant role in immune responses. Much work on MRC1 has been done in mammals and birds while little in fish. In this study, we cloned and characterized MRC1 in grass carp (gcMR). The full-length gcMR contained 5291bp encoding a putative protein of 1432 amino acids. The predicted amino acid sequences showed that gcMR contained a signal peptide, a cysteine-rich (CR) domain, a fibronectin type II (FN II) domain, eight C-type lectin-like domains (CTLDs), a transmembrane domain and a short cytoplasmic domain. gcMR were constitutively expressed in different organs with the higher expression in spleen and head kidney. During embryonic development, gcMR transcript levels were highest at cleavage stage. The up-regulation expression of gcMR, IL-1β and TNF-α in liver, spleen, head kidney and intestine after Aeromonas hydrophila infection indicating it involved in innate immune regulation during bacterial infections. PMID:24184700

  16. Molecular cloning of the estrogen and progesterone receptors of the American alligator.

    PubMed

    Katsu, Yoshinao; Bermudez, Dieldrich S; Braun, Edward L; Helbing, Caren; Miyagawa, Shinichi; Gunderson, Mark P; Kohno, Satomi; Bryan, Teresa A; Guillette, Louis J; Iguchi, Taisen

    2004-03-01

    Steroid hormones perform many essential roles in vertebrates during embryonic development, reproduction, growth, water balance, and responses to stress. The estrogens are essential for normal reproductive activity in female and male vertebrates and appear to have direct actions during sex determination in some vertebrates. To begin to understand the molecular mechanisms of estrogen action in alligators, we have isolated cDNAs encoding the estrogen receptors (ER) from the ovary. Degenerate PCR primers specific to ER were designed and used to amplify alligator ovary RNA. Two different DNA fragments (ERalpha and ERbeta) were obtained and the full-length alligator ERalpha cDNA was obtained using 5' and 3' RACE. The inferred amino acid sequence of alligator ERalpha (aERalpha) was very similar to the chicken ERalpha (91% identity), although phylogenetic analyses suggested profound differences in the rate of sequence evolution for vertebrate ER sequences. We also isolated partial DNA fragments encoding ERbeta and the progesterone receptor (PR) of the alligator, both of which show strong sequence similarities to avian ERbeta and PR. We examined the expression levels of these three steroid receptors (ERalpha, ERbeta, and PR) in the ovary of juvenile alligators and observed detectable levels of all three receptors. Quantitative RT-PCR showed that gonadal ERalpha transcript levels in juvenile alligators decreased after E2 treatment whereas ERbeta and PR transcripts were not changed. These results provide tools that will allow future studies examining the regulation and ontogenic expression of steroid receptors in alligators and expand our knowledge of vertebrate steroid receptor evolution. PMID:14980803

  17. Molecular cloning and characterization of a glycine-like receptor gene from the cattle tick Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus (Acari: Ixodidae)

    PubMed Central

    Flores-Fernández, José Miguel; Gutiérrez-Ortega, Abel; Padilla-Camberos, Eduardo; Rosario-Cruz, Rodrigo; Hernández-Gutiérrez, Rodolfo; Martínez-Velázquez, Moisés

    2014-01-01

    The cattle tick Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus is the most economically important ectoparasite affecting the cattle industry in tropical and subtropical areas around the world. The principal method of tick control has relied mainly on the use of chemical acaricides, including ivermectin; however, cattle tick populations resistant to ivermectin have recently been reported in Brazil, Mexico, and Uruguay. Currently, the molecular basis for ivermectin susceptibility and resistance are not well understood in R. microplus. This prompted us to search for potential molecular targets for ivermectin. Here, we report the cloning and molecular characterization of a R. microplus glycine-like receptor (RmGlyR) gene. The characterized mRNA encodes for a 464-amino acid polypeptide, which contains features common to ligand-gated ion channels, such as a large N-terminal extracellular domain, four transmembrane domains, a large intracellular loop and a short C-terminal extracellular domain. The deduced amino acid sequence showed around 30% identity to GlyRs from some invertebrate and vertebrate organisms. The polypeptide also contains the PAR motif, which is important for forming anion channels, and a conserved glycine residue at the third transmembrane domain, which is essential for high ivermectin sensitivity. PCR analyses showed that RmGlyR is expressed at egg, larval and adult developmental stages. Our findings suggest that the deduced receptor is an additional molecular target to ivermectin and it might be involved in ivermectin resistance in R. microplus. PMID:25174962

  18. Molecular cloning and characterization of a glycine-like receptor gene from the cattle tick Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus (Acari: Ixodidae).

    PubMed

    Flores-Fernández, José Miguel; Gutiérrez-Ortega, Abel; Padilla-Camberos, Eduardo; Rosario-Cruz, Rodrigo; Hernández-Gutiérrez, Rodolfo; Martínez-Velázquez, Moisés

    2014-01-01

    The cattle tick Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus is the most economically important ectoparasite affecting the cattle industry in tropical and subtropical areas around the world. The principal method of tick control has relied mainly on the use of chemical acaricides, including ivermectin; however, cattle tick populations resistant to ivermectin have recently been reported in Brazil, Mexico, and Uruguay. Currently, the molecular basis for ivermectin susceptibility and resistance are not well understood in R. microplus. This prompted us to search for potential molecular targets for ivermectin. Here, we report the cloning and molecular characterization of a R. microplus glycine-like receptor (RmGlyR) gene. The characterized mRNA encodes for a 464-amino acid polypeptide, which contains features common to ligand-gated ion channels, such as a large N-terminal extracellular domain, four transmembrane domains, a large intracellular loop and a short C-terminal extracellular domain. The deduced amino acid sequence showed around 30% identity to GlyRs from some invertebrate and vertebrate organisms. The polypeptide also contains the PAR motif, which is important for forming anion channels, and a conserved glycine residue at the third transmembrane domain, which is essential for high ivermectin sensitivity. PCR analyses showed that RmGlyR is expressed at egg, larval and adult developmental stages. Our findings suggest that the deduced receptor is an additional molecular target to ivermectin and it might be involved in ivermectin resistance in R. microplus. PMID:25174962

  19. [Advances in Molecular Cloning].

    PubMed

    Ashwini, M; Murugan, S B; Balamurugan, S; Sathishkumar, R

    2016-01-01

    "Molecular cloning" meaning creation of recombinant DNA molecules has impelled advancement throughout life sciences. DNA manipulation has become easy due to powerful tools showing exponential growth in applications and sophistication of recombinant DNA technology. Cloning genes has become simple what led to an explosion in the understanding of gene function by seamlessly stitching together multiple DNA fragments or by the use of swappable gene cassettes, maximizing swiftness and litheness. A novel archetype might materialize in the near future with synthetic biology techniques that will facilitate quicker assembly and iteration of DNA clones, accelerating the progress of gene therapy vectors, recombinant protein production processes and new vaccines by in vitro chemical synthesis of any in silico-specified DNA construct. The advent of innovative cloning techniques has opened the door to more refined applications such as identification and mapping of epigenetic modifications and high-throughput assembly of combinatorial libraries. In this review, we will examine the major breakthroughs in cloning techniques and their applications in various areas of biological research that have evolved mainly due to easy construction of novel expression systems. PMID:27028806

  20. Molecular cloning and functional characterization of the diapause hormone receptor in the corn earworm Helicoverpa zea

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Hongbo; Wei, Zhaojun; Nachman, Ronald J.; Park, Yoonseong

    2013-01-01

    The diapause hormone (DH) in the heliothine moth has shown its activity in termination of pupal diapause, while the orthology in the silkworm is known to induce embryonic diapause. In the current study, we cloned the diapause hormone receptor from the corn earworm Helicoverpa zea (HzDHr) and tested its ligand specificities in a heterologous reporter system. HzDHr was expressed in Chinese Hamster Ovary (CHO) cells, which were co-transfected with the aequorin reporter, and was used to measure the ligand activities. A total of 68 chemicals, including natural DH analogs and structurally similar peptide mimetics, were tested for agonistic and antagonistic activities. Several peptide mimetics with a 2-amino-7-bromofluorene-succinoyl (2Abf-Suc) N-terminal modification showed strong agonistic activities; these mimetics included 2Abf-Suc-F[dA]PRLamide, 2Abf-Suc-F[dR]PRLamide, 2Abf-Suc-FKPRLamide and 2Abf-Suc-FGPRLamide. Antagonistic activity was found in the ecdysis triggering hormone in Drosophila melanogaster (FFLKITKNVPRLamide). Interestingly, HzDHr does not discriminate between DH (WFGPRLamide C-terminal motif) and another closely related endogenous peptide, pyrokinin 1 (FXPRXamide; a C-terminal motif that is separate from WFGPRLamide). We provide large-scale in vitro data that serve as a reference for the development of agonists and antagonists to disrupt the DH signaling pathway. PMID:24257143

  1. Molecular cloning and sequencing analysis of the interferon receptor (IFNAR-1) from Columba livia

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Wei Shan

    2014-01-01

    Objective Partial sequence cloning of interferon receptor (IFNAR-1) of Columba livia. Material and methods In order to obtain a certain length (630 bp) of gene, a pair of primers was designed according to the conserved nucleotide sequence of Gallus (EU477527.1) and Taeniopygia guttata (XM_002189232.1) IFNAR-1 gene fragment that was published by GenBank. Special primers were designed by the Race method to amplify the 3'terminal cDNA. Results The Columba livia IFNAR-1 displayed 88.5%, 80.5% and 73.8% nucleotide identity to Falco peregrinus, Gallus and Taeniopygia guttata, respectively. Phylogenetic analysis of the IFNAR1 gene showed that the relationship of Columba livia, Falco peregrinus and chicken had high homology. Conclusions We successfully obtained a Columba livia IFNAR-1 gene partial sequence. Analysis of the genetic tree showed that the relationship of Columba livia and Falco peregrinus IFNAR-1 had high homology. This result can be used as reference for further research and practical application. PMID:26155117

  2. Molecular cloning, characterization, and expression analysis of an ecdysone receptor homolog in Teleogryllus emma (Orthoptera: Gryllidae).

    PubMed

    He, Hui; Xi, Gengsi; Lu, Xiao

    2015-01-01

    Ecdysteroids are steroid hormones that play important roles in the regulation of Arthropoda animal growth development, larvae ecdysis, and reproduction. The effect of ecdysteroids is mediated by ecdysteroid receptor (EcR). The ecdysone receptor (EcR) belongs to the superfamily of nuclear receptors (NRs) that are ligand-dependent transcription factors. Ecdysone receptor is present only in invertebrates and plays a critical role in regulating the expression of a series of genes during development and reproduction. Here, we isolated and characterized cDNA of the cricket Teleopgryllus emma (Ohmachi & Matsuura) (Orthoptera: Gryllidae) and studied mRNA expression pattern using real time-polymerase chain reaction. The full-length cDNA of T. emma EcR, termed TeEcR, is 2,558 bp and contains a 5'-untranslated region of 555 bp and a 3'-untranslated region of 407 bp. The open reading frame of TeEcR encodes deduced 531-amino acid peptides with a predicted molecular mass of 60.7 kDa. The amino acid sequence of T. emma EcR was similar to that of known EcR especially in the ligand-binding domain of insect EcR. Real-time quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction was performed to compare TeEcR mRNA expression level at the whole body and gonad during T. emma development. The data revealed that TeEcR mRNA is differentially expressed during T. emma development, with the highest expression level in late-instar larvae of the body and lowest in third instar. The levels of TeEcR transcripts also vary among gonads development, and levels in ovaries were higher than in testes at every developmental stage. These results suggest that TeEcR may have potential significance to regulate the morphological structure and gonad development of T. emma, due to its expression in different developmental periods. PMID:25797799

  3. Molecular cloning and characterization of a novel dopamine receptor (D3) as a target for neuroleptics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sokoloff, Pierre; Giros, Bruno; Martres, Marie-Pascale; Bouthenet, Marie-Louise; Schwartz, Jean-Charles

    1990-09-01

    A dopamine receptor has been characterized which differs in its pharmacology and signalling system from the D1 or D2 receptor and represents both an autoreceptor and a postsynaptic receptor. The D3 receptor is localized to limbic areas of the brain, which are associated with cognitive, emotional and endocrine functions. It seems to mediate some of the effects of antipsychotic drugs and drugs used against Parkinson's disease, that were previously thought to interact only with D2 receptors.

  4. Molecular Cloning, Functional Characterization, and Evolutionary Analysis of Vitamin D Receptors Isolated from Basal Vertebrates

    PubMed Central

    Kollitz, Erin M.; Zhang, Guozhu; Hawkins, Mary Beth; Whitfield, G. Kerr; Reif, David M.; Kullman, Seth W.

    2015-01-01

    The vertebrate genome is a result of two rapid and successive rounds of whole genome duplication, referred to as 1R and 2R. Furthermore, teleost fish have undergone a third whole genome duplication (3R) specific to their lineage, resulting in the retention of multiple gene paralogs. The more recent 3R event in teleosts provides a unique opportunity to gain insight into how genes evolve through specific evolutionary processes. In this study we compare molecular activities of vitamin D receptors (VDR) from basal species that diverged at key points in vertebrate evolution in order to infer derived and ancestral VDR functions of teleost paralogs. Species include the sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus), a 1R jawless fish; the little skate (Leucoraja erinacea), a cartilaginous fish that diverged after the 2R event; and the Senegal bichir (Polypterus senegalus), a primitive 2R ray-finned fish. Saturation binding assays and gel mobility shift assays demonstrate high affinity ligand binding and classic DNA binding characteristics of VDR has been conserved across vertebrate evolution. Concentration response curves in transient transfection assays reveal EC50 values in the low nanomolar range, however maximum transactivational efficacy varies significantly between receptor orthologs. Protein-protein interactions were investigated using co-transfection, mammalian 2-hybrid assays, and mutations of coregulator activation domains. We then combined these results with our previous study of VDR paralogs from 3R teleosts into a bioinformatics analysis. Our results suggest that 1, 25D3 acts as a partial agonist in basal species. Furthermore, our bioinformatics analysis suggests that functional differences between VDR orthologs and paralogs are influenced by differential protein interactions with essential coregulator proteins. We speculate that we may be observing a change in the pharmacodynamics relationship between VDR and 1, 25D3 throughout vertebrate evolution that may have been

  5. Molecular cloning, functional characterization, and evolutionary analysis of vitamin D receptors isolated from basal vertebrates.

    PubMed

    Kollitz, Erin M; Zhang, Guozhu; Hawkins, Mary Beth; Whitfield, G Kerr; Reif, David M; Kullman, Seth W

    2015-01-01

    The vertebrate genome is a result of two rapid and successive rounds of whole genome duplication, referred to as 1R and 2R. Furthermore, teleost fish have undergone a third whole genome duplication (3R) specific to their lineage, resulting in the retention of multiple gene paralogs. The more recent 3R event in teleosts provides a unique opportunity to gain insight into how genes evolve through specific evolutionary processes. In this study we compare molecular activities of vitamin D receptors (VDR) from basal species that diverged at key points in vertebrate evolution in order to infer derived and ancestral VDR functions of teleost paralogs. Species include the sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus), a 1R jawless fish; the little skate (Leucoraja erinacea), a cartilaginous fish that diverged after the 2R event; and the Senegal bichir (Polypterus senegalus), a primitive 2R ray-finned fish. Saturation binding assays and gel mobility shift assays demonstrate high affinity ligand binding and classic DNA binding characteristics of VDR has been conserved across vertebrate evolution. Concentration response curves in transient transfection assays reveal EC50 values in the low nanomolar range, however maximum transactivational efficacy varies significantly between receptor orthologs. Protein-protein interactions were investigated using co-transfection, mammalian 2-hybrid assays, and mutations of coregulator activation domains. We then combined these results with our previous study of VDR paralogs from 3R teleosts into a bioinformatics analysis. Our results suggest that 1, 25D3 acts as a partial agonist in basal species. Furthermore, our bioinformatics analysis suggests that functional differences between VDR orthologs and paralogs are influenced by differential protein interactions with essential coregulator proteins. We speculate that we may be observing a change in the pharmacodynamics relationship between VDR and 1, 25D3 throughout vertebrate evolution that may have been

  6. Molecular cloning, tissue distribution, and pharmacological characterization of melanocortin-4 receptor in spotted scat, Scatophagus argus.

    PubMed

    Li, Jian-Tao; Yang, Zhao; Chen, Hua-Pu; Zhu, Chun-Hua; Deng, Si-Ping; Li, Guang-Li; Tao, Ya-Xiong

    2016-05-01

    Melanocortin-4 receptor (MC4R) plays an important role in the regulation of food intake and energy expenditure in mammals. The functions of the MC4R in fish have not been investigated extensively. We herein reported on the cloning, tissue distribution, and pharmacological characterization of spotted scat (Scatophagus argus) MC4R (SAMC4R). It consisted of a 984bp open reading frame predicted to encode a protein of 327 amino acids. Sequence analysis revealed that SAMC4R was highly homologous (>80%) at amino acid levels to several teleost MC4Rs. Phylogenetic analyses showed that SAMC4R was closely related to piscine MC4R. Using RT-PCR, we showed that in addition to brain, pituitary, and gonads, mc4r mRNA was also widely expressed in peripheral tissues of spotted scat in sexually divergent pattern. With human MC4R (hMC4R) as a control, several agonists including α-melanocyte stimulating hormone (α-MSH), [Nle(4), D-Phe(7)]-α-MSH (NDP-MSH), adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) and THIQ (N-[(3R)-1,2,3,4-tetrahydroisoquinolinium3-ylcarbonyl]-(1R)-1-(4-chlorobenzyl)-2-[4-cyclohexyl-4-(1H-1,2,4-triazol-1-ylmethyl)piperidin-1-yl]-2-oxoethylamine), were used to investigate the binding and signaling properties of SAMC4R. The results showed that SAMC4R bound NDP-MSH with the highest affinity followed by ACTH (1-24) and α-MSH. Similar ranking was also found for hMC4R, although SAMC4R had two to five-fold higher affinities for these ligands. THIQ did not displace NDP-MSH from SAMC4R, different from hMC4R. α-MSH, NDP-MSH, and ACTH (1-24) were identified as potent agonists to stimulate cAMP generation followed by THIQ in SAMC4R. The availability of SAMC4R and its pharmacological characteristics will facilitate the investigation of its function in regulating diverse physiological processes in spotted scat. PMID:27080551

  7. Molecular cloning and properties of a full-length putative thyroid hormone receptor coactivator.

    PubMed

    Takeshita, A; Yen, P M; Misiti, S; Cardona, G R; Liu, Y; Chin, W W

    1996-08-01

    Thyroid hormone receptors (TRs) are ligand-dependent transcription factors that regulate target gene transcription. The conserved carboxy-terminal region of the ligand-binding domain (AF-2) has been thought to play a critical role in mediating ligand-dependent transactivation by the interaction with coactivator(s). Using bacterially-expressed TR as a probe, far-Western-based expression cDNA library screening identified cDNAs that encode, in part, the recently reported partial steroid receptor coactivator-1 (SRC-1) sequence. Additional work, including 5' RACE, has characterized a full-length cDNA that encodes a approximately 160 kD protein as a putative thyroid hormone receptor coactivator (F-SRC-1). In vitro binding studies show that F-SRC-1 binds to a variety of nuclear hormone receptors in a ligand-dependent manner, along with TBP and TFIIB, suggesting that F-SRC-1 may play a role as a bridging molecule between nuclear hormone receptors and general transcription factors. Interestingly, AF-2 mutants also retain ligand-dependent interaction with F-SRC-1. Although F-SRC-1 recognizes the ligand-induced conformational changes of nuclear hormone receptors, our observations suggest that F-SRC-1 may bind directly with subregion(s) in nuclear hormone receptors other than the AF-2 region. PMID:8754792

  8. Molecular cloning and gene expression of the gonadotropin-releasing hormone receptor in the orange-spotted grouper, Epinephelus coioides.

    PubMed

    Hsieh, S L; Chuang, H C; Nan, F H; Ruan, Y H; Kuo, C M

    2007-06-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the molecular mechanisms of gonadotropin-releasing hormone receptor (GnRH-R) involved in the endocrine regulation of reproduction in the orange-spotted grouper, Epinephelus coioides. The full-length cDNA encoding GnRH-R type I was successfully cloned from the pituitary by reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and rapid amplification of cDNA end (RACE) methods in the grouper. The complete GnRH-R type I cDNA is 1607 bp, which includes an open reading frame of 1092 bp encoding a protein of 364 amino acids, a seven-alpha helix transmembrane domain, a N-terminal extracellular domain, and a C-terminal cytoplasmic domain. The expression of GnRH-R type I was found to be highest in the pituitary. An intramuscular injection of various GnRH types in vivo was attempted. The expression of GnRH-R type I was stimulated by a single injection of salmon GnRH, while in the case of chicken GnRH II treatment, the expression of GnRH-R type I was inhibited. This suggests that the action of chick GnRH II is probably enhanced through the GnRH receptor of different forms. Furthermore, none of them were expressed by an injection of seabream GnRH, and this is likely attributed to the injection dose being below the threshold level, and this remains to be further examined. In conclusion, GnRHs of various types are effective in stimulating the expression of gonadotropins through various forms of the GnRH-R, and multiple forms of the receptor gene likely exist in teleosts. PMID:17329139

  9. Molecular cloning and characterization of the allatotropin precursor and receptor in the desert locust, Schistocerca gregaria

    PubMed Central

    Lismont, Els; Vleugels, Rut; Marchal, Elisabeth; Badisco, Liesbeth; Van Wielendaele, Pieter; Lenaerts, Cynthia; Zels, Sven; Tobe, Stephen S.; Vanden Broeck, Jozef; Verlinden, Heleen

    2015-01-01

    Allatotropins (ATs) are pleiotropic neuropeptides initially isolated from the tobacco hornworm, Manduca sexta. In 2008, the first receptor for AT-like peptides (ATR) was characterized in Bombyx mori. Since then, ATRs have also been characterized in M. sexta, Tribolium castaneum, Aedes aegypti and Bombus terrestris. These receptors show sequence similarity to vertebrate orexin (ORX) receptors. When generating an EST-database of the desert locust (Schistocerca gregaria) central nervous system, we found cDNA sequences encoding the Schgr-AT precursor and a fragment of its putative receptor. This receptor cDNA has now been completed and functionally expressed in mammalian cell lines. Activation of this receptor, designated as Schgr-ATR, by Schgr-AT caused an increase in intracellular calcium ions, as well as cyclic AMP (cAMP), with an EC50 value in the nanomolar range. In addition, the transcript distribution of both the Schgr-AT precursor and Schgr-ATR was investigated by means of quantitative real-time PCR. Moreover, we found more evidence for the myotropic and allatostimulatory actions of Schgr-AT in the desert locust. These data are discussed and situated in a broader context by comparison with literature data on AT and ATR in insects. PMID:25814925

  10. Molecular cloning and characterization of a Toll receptor gene from Macrobrachium rosenbergii.

    PubMed

    Srisuk, Chutima; Longyant, Siwaporn; Senapin, Saengchan; Sithigorngul, Paisarn; Chaivisuthangkura, Parin

    2014-02-01

    Toll receptors are cell surface molecules acting as pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) that have been implicated in the signaling pathway of innate immune responses. In this study, the full-length cDNA of a Toll receptor gene of Macrobrachium rosenbergii, designated MrToll, was successfully isolated using designed degenerate primers and the rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE). The MrToll gene sequence contained an open reading frame (ORF) of 2799 nucleotides encoding a protein of 932 amino acid residues. The protein contained distinct structural motifs of the Toll-like receptor (TLR) family, including an extracellular domain containing 15 leucine-rich repeats (LRRs), a transmembrane segment of 23 amino acids, and a cytoplasmic Toll/interleukin-1R (TIR) domain of 139 residues. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that MrToll and Toll receptor of Marsupenaeus japonicus (MjToll) evolved closely. However, the MrToll ORF demonstrated only 48-49% identity with shrimp Toll1, suggesting that MrToll isolated from a palaemonid shrimp might belong to a novel class of Toll receptors in shrimp. The transcripts of the MrToll gene were constitutively expressed in various tissues, with high levels in hemocytes, the stomach and muscle. A reverse transcriptase PCR assay demonstrated that the expression patterns of MrToll were distinctly modulated after Aeromonas caviae stimulation, with significant enhancement at 3-12 h post-challenge and a decline to basal levels at 24 h post-challenge. In addition, when MrToll-silenced shrimp were challenged with A. caviae, there was a significant increase in mortality and bacterial CFU counts. These results suggest that MrToll might be involved in host innate defense, especially against the pathogen A. caviae. PMID:24398262

  11. Molecular cloning and functional analysis of an ethylene receptor gene from sugarcane (Saccharum spp.) by hormone and environmental stresses

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Ethylene receptor (ethylene response sensor, ERS) is the primary component involving in the ethylene biosynthesis and ethylene signal transduction pathway. In the present study, a GZ-ERS gene encoding ERS was cloned from a sugarcane cv. YL17 (Saccharum spp.) using RT-PCR and ligation-mediated PCR wi...

  12. Molecular Cloning and Characterization of Four Genes Encoding Ethylene Receptors Associated with Pineapple (Ananas comosus L.) Flowering.

    PubMed

    Li, Yun-He; Wu, Qing-Song; Huang, Xia; Liu, Sheng-Hui; Zhang, Hong-Na; Zhang, Zhi; Sun, Guang-Ming

    2016-01-01

    Exogenous ethylene, or ethephon, has been widely used to induce pineapple flowering, but the molecular mechanism behind ethephon induction is still unclear. In this study, we cloned four genes encoding ethylene receptors (designated AcERS1a, AcERS1b, AcETR2a, and AcETR2b). The 5' flanking sequences of these four genes were also cloned by self-formed adaptor PCR and SiteFinding-PCR, and a group of putative cis-acting elements was identified. Phylogenetic tree analysis indicated that AcERS1a, AcERS1b, AcETR2a, and AcETR2b belonged to the plant ERS1s and ETR2/EIN4-like groups. Quantitative real-time PCR showed that AcETR2a and AcETR2b (subfamily 2) were more sensitive to ethylene treatment compared with AcERS1a and AcERS1b (subfamily 1). The relative expression of AcERS1b, AcETR2a, and AcETR2b was significantly increased during the earlier period of pineapple inflorescence formation, especially at 1-9 days after ethylene treatment (DAET), whereas AcERS1a expression changed less than these three genes. In situ hybridization results showed that bract primordia (BP) and flower primordia (FP) appeared at 9 and 21 DAET, respectively, and flowers were formed at 37 DAET. AcERS1a, AcERS1b, AcETR2a, and AcETR2b were mainly expressed in the shoot apex at 1-4 DAET; thereafter, with the appearance of BP and FP, higher expression of these genes was found in these new structures. Finally, at 37 DAET, the expression of these genes was mainly focused in the flower but was also low in other structures. These findings indicate that these four ethylene receptor genes, especially AcERS1b, AcETR2a, and AcETR2b, play important roles during pineapple flowering induced by exogenous ethephon. PMID:27252725

  13. Molecular Cloning and Characterization of Four Genes Encoding Ethylene Receptors Associated with Pineapple (Ananas comosus L.) Flowering

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yun-He; Wu, Qing-Song; Huang, Xia; Liu, Sheng-Hui; Zhang, Hong-Na; Zhang, Zhi; Sun, Guang-Ming

    2016-01-01

    Exogenous ethylene, or ethephon, has been widely used to induce pineapple flowering, but the molecular mechanism behind ethephon induction is still unclear. In this study, we cloned four genes encoding ethylene receptors (designated AcERS1a, AcERS1b, AcETR2a, and AcETR2b). The 5′ flanking sequences of these four genes were also cloned by self-formed adaptor PCR and SiteFinding-PCR, and a group of putative cis-acting elements was identified. Phylogenetic tree analysis indicated that AcERS1a, AcERS1b, AcETR2a, and AcETR2b belonged to the plant ERS1s and ETR2/EIN4-like groups. Quantitative real-time PCR showed that AcETR2a and AcETR2b (subfamily 2) were more sensitive to ethylene treatment compared with AcERS1a and AcERS1b (subfamily 1). The relative expression of AcERS1b, AcETR2a, and AcETR2b was significantly increased during the earlier period of pineapple inflorescence formation, especially at 1–9 days after ethylene treatment (DAET), whereas AcERS1a expression changed less than these three genes. In situ hybridization results showed that bract primordia (BP) and flower primordia (FP) appeared at 9 and 21 DAET, respectively, and flowers were formed at 37 DAET. AcERS1a, AcERS1b, AcETR2a, and AcETR2b were mainly expressed in the shoot apex at 1–4 DAET; thereafter, with the appearance of BP and FP, higher expression of these genes was found in these new structures. Finally, at 37 DAET, the expression of these genes was mainly focused in the flower but was also low in other structures. These findings indicate that these four ethylene receptor genes, especially AcERS1b, AcETR2a, and AcETR2b, play important roles during pineapple flowering induced by exogenous ethephon. PMID:27252725

  14. Molecular cloning and tissue distribution of cholecystokinin-1 receptor (CCK-1R) in yellowtail Seriola quinqueradiata and its response to feeding and in vitro CCK treatment.

    PubMed

    Furutani, Takahiro; Masumoto, Toshiro; Fukada, Haruhisa

    2013-06-01

    In vertebrates, the peptide cholecystokinin (CCK) is one of the most important neuroregulatory digestive hormones. CCK acts via CCK receptors that are classified into two subtypes, CCK-1 receptor (CCK-1R; formally CCK-A) and CCK-2 receptor (formally CCK-B). In particular, the CCK-1R is involved in digestion and is regulated by CCK. However, very little information is known about CCK-1R in fish. Therefore, we performed molecular cloning of CCK-1R cDNA from the digestive tract of yellowtail Seriola quinqueradiata. Phylogenetic tree analysis showed a high sequence identity between the cloned yellowtail CCK receptor cDNA and CCK-1R, which belongs to the CCK-1R cluster. Furthermore, the expression of yellowtail CCK receptor mRNA was observed in gallbladder, pyloric caeca, and intestines, similarly to CCK-1R mRNA expression in mammals, suggesting that the cloned cDNA is of CCK-1R from yellowtail. In in vivo experiments, the CCK-1R mRNA levels increased in the gallbladder and pyloric caeca after feeding, whereas in vitro, mRNA levels of CCK-1R and digestive enzymes in cultured pyloric caeca increased by the addition of CCK. These results suggest that CCK-1R plays an important role in digestion stimulated by CCK in yellowtail. PMID:23467070

  15. Molecular cloning, expression and potential functions of the human proteinase-activated receptor-2.

    PubMed Central

    Bohm, S K; Kong, W; Bromme, D; Smeekens, S P; Anderson, D C; Connolly, A; Kahn, M; Nelken, N A; Coughlin, S R; Payan, D G; Bunnett, N W

    1996-01-01

    We used PCR to amplify proteinase activated receptor-2 (PAR-2) from human kidney cDNA. The open reading frame comprised 1191 bp and encoded a protein of 397 residues with 83% identity with mouse PAR-2. In KNRK cells (a line of kirsten murine sarcoma virus-transformed rat kidney epithelial cells) transfected with this cDNA, trypsin and activating peptide (AP) corresponding to the tethered ligand exposed by trypsin cleavage (SLIGKV-NH2) induced a prompt increase in cytosolic calcium ion concentration ([Ca2+]i). Human PAR-2 (hPAR-2) resided both on the plasma membrane and in the Golgi apparatus. hPAR-2 mRNA was highly expressed in human pancreas, kidney, colon, liver and small intestine, and by A549 lung and SW480 colon adenocarcinoma cells. Hybridization in situ revealed high expression in intestinal epithelial cells throughout the gut. Trypsin and AP stimulated an increase in [Ca2+]i in a rat intestinal epithelial cell line (hBRIE 380) and stimulated amylase secretion in isolated pancreatic acini. In A549 cells, which also responded to trypsin and AP with mobilization of cytosolic Ca2+, AP inhibited colony formation. Thus PAR-2 may serve as a trypsin sensor in the gut. Its expression by cells and tissues not normally exposed to pancreatic trypsin suggests that other proteases could serve as physiological activators. PMID:8615752

  16. Molecular cloning and characterization of two nicotinic acetylcholine receptor β subunit genes from Apis cerana cerana.

    PubMed

    Yu, Xiaoli; Wang, Mian; Kang, Mingjiang; Liu, Li; Guo, Xingqi; Xu, Baohua

    2011-08-01

    Nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) mediate fast cholinergic synaptic transmission in the insect nervous system and are important targets for insecticides. In this study, we identified and characterized two novel β subunit genes (Accβ1 and Accβ2) from Apis cerana cerana. Homology analysis indicated that Accβ1 and Accβ2 possess characteristics that are typical of nAChR subunits although Accβ2 was distinct from Accβ1 and the other nAChR subunits, due to its unusual transmembrane structure and uncommon exon-intron boundary within the genomic region encoding the TM1 transmembrane domain. Analysis of the 5' flanking regions indicated that Accβ1 and Accβ2 possess different regulatory elements, suggesting that the genes might exhibit various expression and regulatory patterns. RT-PCR analysis demonstrated that Accβ2 was expressed at a much higher level than Accβ1 in the tissues of adult bees. During development, Accβ1 was highly expressed at the pupal stages, whereas Accβ2 was abundantly expressed at the larval stages. Furthermore, Accβ1 and Accβ2 were both induced by exposure to various insecticides and environmental stresses although Accβ2 was more responsive than Accβ1. These results indicate that Accβ1 and Accβ2 may have distinct roles in insect growth and development and that they may belong to separate regulatory pathways involved in the response to insecticides and environmental stresses. This report is the first description of the differences between the nAChR β subunit genes in the Chinese honey bee and establishes an initial foundation for further study. PMID:21618599

  17. Molecular cloning and expression of the porcine trigeminal ganglion cDNA encoding a 5-ht(1F) receptor.

    PubMed

    Bhalla, Pankaj; Sharma, Hari S; Wurch, Thierry; Pauwels, Petrus J; Saxena, Pramod R

    2002-02-01

    Using a combination of reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and inverse-PCR techniques, we amplified, cloned and sequenced a full-length porcine 5-hydroxytryptamine 1F (5-ht(1F)) receptor complementary DNA (cDNA) derived from porcine trigeminal ganglion. Sequence analysis revealed 1101 base pairs (bp) encoding an open reading frame of 366 amino acids showing a high similarity (>90%) with the 5-ht(1F) receptor sequences from other species, including human. The recombinant porcine 5-ht(1F) receptor was expressed in African green monkey kidney cell lines (COS-7 cells) and its ligand binding profile was determined using [3H]5-HT. The affinities of several agonists (LY334370 (5-(4-fluorobenzoyl)amino-3-(1-methylpiperidin-4-yl)-1H-indole fumarate)>CP122638 (N-methyl-3 [pyrrolidin 2(R)-yl methyl]-1H-indol-5-ylmethyl sulphonamide)=naratriptan =5HT>eletriptan>sumatriptan>frovatriptan =avitriptan>dihydroergotamine>zolmitriptan>5-carboxamidotryptamine>rizatriptan>alniditan=donitriptan>L694247 (2-[5-[3-(4-methylsulphonylamino)benzyl-1,2,4-oxadiazol-5-yl]-1H-indole-3-yl] ethylamine) and putative antagonists (methiothepin>GR127935 (N-[4-methoxy-3-(4-methyl-1-piperazinyl) phenyl]-2'-methyl 4'-(5-methyl-1,2,4-oxadiazol-3-yl) [1,1-biphenyl]-4-carboxamide hydrochloride)>ritanserin>SB224289 (2,3,6,7-tetrahydro-1'-methyl-5-[2'-methyl-4'(5-methyl-1,2,4-oxadiazol-3-yl) biphenyl-4-carbonyl] furo [2,3-f] indole-3-spiro-4'-piperidine hydrochloride)>BRL155572 ([1-(3-chlorophenyl)-4-[3,3-diphenyl (2-(S,R) hydroxypropanyl)piperazine] hydrochloride)>ketanserin=pindolol) correlated highly with those described for the recombinant human 5-ht(1F) receptor (Spearman correlation coefficient; r(s)=0.942). Nevertheless, as compared to the human homologue, some triptans (i.e. sumatriptan, zolmitriptan and rizatriptan) displayed a 10- to 15-fold lower affinity for the porcine 5-ht(1F) receptor. Using RT-PCR technique, the expression of porcine 5-ht(1F) receptor mRNA was observed in

  18. The receptor of Bacillus sphaericus binary toxin in Culex pipiens (Diptera: Culicidae) midgut: molecular cloning and expression.

    PubMed

    Darboux, I; Nielsen-LeRoux, C; Charles, J F; Pauron, D

    2001-09-01

    Culex pipiens larval midgut is the primary target of the binary toxin (Bin) present in parasporal inclusions of Bacillus sphaericus. Cpm1, a 60-kDa protein purified from brush border membranes, has been proposed as the receptor of the Bin toxin in the midgut epithelial cells of mosquitoes. We have cloned and characterized the corresponding cDNA from midgut of Culex pipiens larvae. The open reading frame predicted a 580 amino-acid protein with a putative signal peptide at the N-terminus and a putative GPI-anchoring signal at the C-terminus. The amino acid sequence of the cloned Cpm1 exhibited 39-43% identities with insect maltases (alpha-glucosidases and alpha-amylases). Recombinant Cpm1 expressed in E. coli specifically bound to the Bin toxin and had a significant alpha-glucosidase activity but no alpha-amylase activity. These results support the view that Cpm1 is an alpha-glucosidase expressed in Culex midgut where it constitutes the receptor for the Bin toxin. To date, this is the first component involved in the mosquitocidal activity of the Bacillus sphaericus Bin toxin to be characterized. Its identification provides a key step to elucidate the mode of action of the Bin toxin and the mechanisms of resistance developed against it by some mosquito strains. PMID:11483434

  19. Molecular cloning of the canine c-Met/HGF receptor and its expression in normal and regenerated liver.

    PubMed

    Neo, Sakurako; Kansaku, Norio; Furuichi, Mitsuru; Watanabe, Masashi; Hisamatsu, Sin; Ohno, Koichi; Hisasue, Masaharu; Tsuchiya, Ryo; Yamada, Takatsugu

    2005-05-01

    The c-Met proto-oncogene is the receptor for hepatocyte growth factor (HGF), which is a member of the tyrosine kinase family. Activation of the HGF/c-Met signal pathway leads to cell proliferation, motility, regeneration, and morphogenesis. In this study, the complete nucleotide sequence of complementary DNA (cDNA) of canine c-Met was cloned, and its distribution was determined in tissues. The canine c-Met cDNA clone had an open reading frame of 4419 bp that encoded a putative polypeptide of 1383 amino acids. The c-Met mRNA was expressed in a variety of canine tissues including peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC), bone marrow, liver, kidney, lung, stomach, uterus, testis, thymus, lymph node, small intestine, colon, adrenal gland, thyroid gland, heart, muscle, skin, pancreas, ovary, prostate, spleen, fat, cerebrum, and cerebellum. In addition, the c-Met mRNA expression in normal and regenerated liver was examined. The levels of the mRNA increased 2-fold in regenerated liver compared to that found in normal liver, indicating that c-Met is involved in various functions including remodeling of canine hepatocytes. PMID:15942139

  20. Molecular Cloning and Functional Characterization of Mannose Receptor in Zebra Fish (Danio rerio) during Infection with Aeromonas sobria.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Feifei; Asim, Muhammad; Lan, Jiangfeng; Zhao, Lijuan; Wei, Shun; Chen, Nan; Liu, Xiaoling; Zhou, Yang; Lin, Li

    2015-01-01

    Mannose receptor (MR) is a member of pattern-recognition receptors (PRRs), which plays a significant role in immunity responses. Much work on MR has been done in mammals and birds while little in fish. In this report, a MR gene (designated as zfMR) was cloned from zebra fish (Danio rerio), which is an attractive model for the studies of animal diseases. The full-length cDNA of zfMR contains 6248 bp encoding a putative protein of 1428 amino acids. The predicted amino acid sequences showed that zfMR contained a cysteine-rich domain, a single fibronectin type II (FN II) domain, eight C-type lectin-like domains (CTLDs), a transmembrane domain and a short C-terminal cytoplasmic domain, sharing highly conserved structures with MRs from the other species. The MR mRNA could be detected in all examined tissues with highest level in kidney. The temporal expression patterns of MR, IL-1β and TNF-α mRNAs were analyzed in the liver, spleen, kidney and intestine post of infection with Aeromonas sobria. By immunohistochemistry assay, slight enhancement of MR protein was also observed in the spleen and intestine of the infected zebra fish. The established zebra fish-A. sobria infection model will be valuable for elucidating the role of MR in fish immune responses to infection. PMID:25988382

  1. Molecular Cloning and Characterization of Estrogen, Androgen, and Progesterone Nuclear Receptors from a Freshwater Turtle (Pseudemys nelsoni)

    PubMed Central

    Katsu, Yoshinao; Ichikawa, Rie; Ikeuchi, Toshitaka; Kohno, Satomi; Guillette, Louis J.; Iguchi, Taisen

    2008-01-01

    Steroid hormones are essential for the normal function of many organ systems in vertebrates. Reproductive activity in females and males, such as the differentiation, growth, and maintenance of the reproductive system, requires signaling by the sex steroids. Although extensively studied in mammals and a few fish, amphibians, and bird species, the molecular mechanisms of sex steroid hormone (estrogens, androgens, and progestins) action are poorly understood in reptiles. Here we evaluate hormone receptor ligand interactions in a freshwater turtle, the red-belly slider (Pseudemys nelsoni), after the isolation of cDNAs encoding an estrogen receptor alpha (ERα), an androgen receptor (AR), and a progesterone receptor (PR). The full-length red-belly slider turtle (t)ERα, tAR, and tPR cDNAs were obtained using 5′ and 3′ rapid amplification cDNA ends. The deduced amino acid sequences showed high identity to the chicken orthologs (tERα, 90%; tAR, 71%; tPR, 71%). Using transient transfection assays of mammalian cells, tERα protein displayed estrogen-dependent activation of transcription from an estrogen-responsive element-containing promoter. The other receptor proteins, tAR and tPR, also displayed androgen- or progestin-dependent activation of transcription from androgen- and progestin-responsive murine mammary tumor virus promoters. We further examined the transactivation of tERα, tAR and tPR by ligands using a modified GAL4-transactivation system. We found that the GAL4-transactivation system was not suitable for the measurement of tAR and tPR transactivations. This is the first report of the full coding regions of a reptilian AR and PR and the examination of their transactivation by steroid hormones. PMID:17916628

  2. Molecular cloning and expression of toll-like receptor 4 (tlr4) in the blunt snout bream (Megalobrama amblycephala).

    PubMed

    Lai, Ruifang; Liu, Han; Jakovlić, Ivan; Zhan, Fanbin; Wei, Jin; Yang, Pinhong; Wang, Weimin

    2016-06-01

    Toll-like receptors (TLRs) play a pivotal role in teleost innate immune system. In this study, Megalobrama amblycephala (ma) tlr4 gene was cloned, its putative polypeptide product characterized, and expression analysed. Matlr4 cDNA is 2862 bp long, with an open reading frame of 2364 bp encoding 787 amino acids. MaTlr4 is a typical TLR protein, including the extracellular part with nine leucine-rich repeat motifs, a transmembrane region and a cytoplasmic Toll/interleukin-1 receptor domain. MaTlr4 has the highest level of identity (94%) and similarity (97%) with the grass carp Tlr4.2 homolog. This was also corroborated by the phylogenetic analysis, which placed MaTlr4 in a cluster with other cyprinid homologs. Matlr4 mRNA was ubiquitously expressed in all examined tissues and during all sampled developmental stages. The observed peak in matlr4 mRNA expression during gastrula and somite stages is in good agreement with its proposed role in the development of the neural system. Temporal expression patterns of matlr4 and maMyD88 mRNAs and proteins were analyzed in liver, spleen, head kidney, trunk kidney and intestine after Aeromonas hydrophila infection. And mRNA expression varied between different time-points. Both MaTlr4 and MaMyD88 protein expressions at 12 hpi were significantly enhanced in head kidney and intestine. These results indicate that matlr4 is involved in the immune response in M. amblycephala, and that it is indeed a functional homologue of tlr4s described in other animal species. PMID:26802439

  3. Molecular cloning, characterisation and mRNA expression of the ryanodine receptor from the peach-potato aphid, Myzus persicae.

    PubMed

    Troczka, B J; Williams, A J; Bass, C; Williamson, M S; Field, L M; Davies, T G E

    2015-02-10

    The peach potato aphid, Myzus persicae, is one of the most important agricultural pests of temperate climates. It is mainly controlled through the judicious application of insecticides; however, over time, aphids have developed resistance to many insecticidal classes. The recent introduction of synthetic diamide insecticides, with a novel mode of action, potentially offers new tools to control aphid populations. These diamides act on the ryanodine receptor (RyR), a large endoplasmic calcium release channel. In this study we have cloned cDNAs encoding the complete open reading frame of the RyR from M. persicae. The open reading frame is 15,306 base pairs long and encodes a protein of 5101 amino acids. The aphid RyR shares many of the features of other insect and vertebrate RyRs, including a highly conserved transmembrane region. However, unlike the other RyRs characterised to date, the M. persicae channel does not display alternative splicing at any stage of its developmental cycle, so it cannot generate functional variants of the channel. PMID:25447916

  4. Molecular cloning, characterisation and mRNA expression of the ryanodine receptor from the peach-potato aphid, Myzus persicae

    PubMed Central

    Troczka, B.J.; Williams, A.J.; Bass, C.; Williamson, M.S.; Field, L.M.; Davies, T.G.E.

    2015-01-01

    The peach potato aphid, Myzus persicae, is one of the most important agricultural pests of temperate climates. It is mainly controlled through the judicious application of insecticides; however, over time, aphids have developed resistance to many insecticidal classes. The recent introduction of synthetic diamide insecticides, with a novel mode of action, potentially offers new tools to control aphid populations. These diamides act on the ryanodine receptor (RyR), a large endoplasmic calcium release channel. In this study we have cloned cDNAs encoding the complete open reading frame of the RyR from M. persicae. The open reading frame is 15,306 base pairs long and encodes a protein of 5101 amino acids. The aphid RyR shares many of the features of other insect and vertebrate RyRs, including a highly conserved transmembrane region. However, unlike the other RyRs characterised to date, the M. persicae channel does not display alternative splicing at any stage of its developmental cycle, so it cannot generate functional variants of the channel. PMID:25447916

  5. Molecular cloning and analysis of a receptor-like promoter of Gbvdr3 gene in sea island cotton.

    PubMed

    Zhang, B-J; Zhang, H-P; Chen, Q-Z; Tang, N; Wang, L-K; Wang, R-F; Zhang, B-L

    2016-01-01

    Verticillium wilt caused by soil borne fungus Verticillium dahliae could significantly reduce cotton yield. The Ve1 homologous gene Gbvdr3 is resistant to Verticillium wilt. In order to understand of the function of the promoter Gbvdr3 in Gossypium barbadense, the promoter region of the receptor-like gene Gbvdr3 was obtained by genome walking, and the cis-element in the promoter was identified using the PLACE software in this study. The sequence analysis showed that the promoter contained elements related to stress resistance and light regulation. The cloned promoter was fused to the GUS reporter gene and transformed into Arabidopsis. GUS expression was specifically detected in roots, flowers, and seeds, suggesting that the expression of Gbvdr3 is tissue-specific. Separation and characterization analysis of the promoter of Gbvdr3 provides a platform for further research and application of this gene. Thorough understanding of the function of the Gbvdr3 promoter is important for better understanding of Gbvdr3 function. These results indicated that the promoter of Gbvdr3 was a tissue-specific promoter. PMID:27323087

  6. Molecular cloning and functional analysis of the FSH receptor gene promoter from the volcano mouse (Neotomodon alstoni alstoni).

    PubMed

    Pérez-Solis, Marco Allán; Macías, Héctor; Acosta-MontesdeOca, Adriana; Pasapera, Ana María; Fierro, Reyna; Ulloa-Aguirre, Alfredo; Gutiérrez-Sagal, Rubén

    2010-02-01

    To gain further insights on the genetic divergence and the species-specific characteristics of the follicle-stimulating hormone receptor (FSHR), we cloned 946 bp of the 5'-flanking region of the FSHR gene from the volcano mouse (Neotomodon alstoni alstoni), and compared its features with those from other mammalian species. The sequence of neotomodon FSHR (nFSHR) gene from the translation initiation site to -946 is 74, 71, 64, and 59% homologous to rat, mouse (129/J), human, and sheep, respectively. The nFSHR 5'-flanking region exhibits new interesting putative cis-regulatory elements including those for the SRY transcription factor, which had not been previously related to the FSHR gene. The transcriptional regulation properties of nFSHR gene were studied in mouse Sertoli (MSC-1) and non-Sertoli (H441) cell lines, and compared with those obtained with similar 129/J constructs. All constructs tested were more active in H441 than in MSC-1 cells. The low transcription levels detected in MSC-1 cells probably reflect the recruitment of Sertoli cells-specific nuclear factors that repress transcription of the FSHR gene. In H441 cells, 129/J constructs were more active than their neotomodon counterparts, indicating important species-specific differences in their transcription pattern. Functional analysis of a series of progressive 5'-deletion mutants identified regions involved in positive and negative transcriptional regulation as well as the strongest minimal promoter spanning 260 bp upstream the translation initiation site. The identification of inhibitory nuclear transcription factors, which are apparently expressed in MSC-1 cells, may contribute to a better understanding of the transcriptional regulation of the FSHR gene. PMID:19862645

  7. Molecular cloning and evolutionary analysis of captive forest musk deer bitter taste receptor gene T2R16.

    PubMed

    Zhao, G J; Wu, N; Li, D Y; Zeng, D J; Chen, Q; Lu, L; Feng, X L; Zhang, C L; Zheng, C L; Jie, H

    2015-01-01

    Sensing bitter tastes is crucial for most animals because it can prevent them from ingesting harmful food. This process is mainly mediated by the bitter taste receptors (T2R) that are largely expressed in the taste buds. Previous studies have identified some T2R gene repertoires. Marked variation in repertoire size has been noted among species. However, research on T2Rs is still limited and the mechanisms underlying the evolution of vertebrate T2Rs remain poorly understood. In the present study, we analyzed the structure and features of the protein encoded by the forest musk deer (Moschus berezovskii) T2R16 and submitted the gene sequence to NCBI GenBank. The results showed that the full coding DNA sequence (CDS) of musk deer T2R16 (GenBank accession No. KP677279) was 906 bp, encoding 301 amino acids, which contained ATG start codon and TGA stop codon, with a calculated molecular weight of 35.03 kDa and an isoelectric point of 9.56. The T2R16 protein receptor had seven conserved transmembrane regions. Hydrophobicity analysis showed that most amino acid residues in T2R16 protein were hydrophobic, and the grand average of hydrophobicity (GRAVY) was 0.657. Phylogenetic analysis based on this gene revealed that forest musk deer had the closest association with sheep (Ovis aries), as compared to cow (Bos taurus), Tursiops truncatus, and other species, whereas it was genetically farthest from humans (Homo sapiens). We hope these results would complement the existing data on T2R16 and encourage further research in this respect. PMID:26662411

  8. Molecular cloning and expression of Pgp-1. The mouse homolog of the human H-CAM (Hermes) lymphocyte homing receptor.

    PubMed

    Zhou, D F; Ding, J F; Picker, L J; Bargatze, R F; Butcher, E C; Goeddel, D V

    1989-11-15

    Mouse phagocytic glycoprotein-1 (Pgp-1; Ly-24) is a 95-kDa glycoprotein of unknown function that has served as an important T cell/leukocyte differentiation marker. Recent work has suggested that it may be related to a human 85- to 95-kDa glycoprotein (termed variously the Hermes Ag/lymphocyte homing receptor, ECMRIII, P80, and CD44) that is involved in lymphocyte binding to high endothelial venules in the process of lymphocyte homing, and has been implicated in other cell adhesion events. The widespread expression of this molecular class in diverse organ systems suggests a broad role in cellular adhesion, and has led to the unifying designation homing-cellular adhesion molecule (H-CAM). By using human H-CAM cDNA probes, we have isolated a full-length cDNA for the mouse homolog. Comparison of the human and mouse sequences reveals that an N-terminal domain homologous to cartilage proteoglycan core and link proteins, as well as the C-terminal transmembrane and cytoplasmic sequences, are highly conserved (89% and 86% identity, respectively). In contrast, a proximal extracellular domain thought to serve as a target for O-glycosylation and chondroitin sulfate attachment has undergone substantial divergence (only 42% identity). Transient expression of the cDNA in CHO cells followed by immunologic staining confirms that this mouse H-CAM cDNA encodes Pgp-1.1, one of two known Pgp-1 alloantigens. PMID:2681416

  9. Molecular cloning of a putative receptor protein kinase gene encoded at the self-incompatibility locus of Brassica oleracea

    SciTech Connect

    Stein, J.C.; Howlett, B.; Boyes, D.C.; Nasrallah, M.E.; Nasrallah, J.B. )

    1991-10-01

    Self-recognition between pollen and stigma during pollination in Brassica oleracea is genetically controlled by the multiallelic self-incompatibility locus (S). The authors describe the S receptor kinase (SRK) gene, a previously uncharacterized gene that residues at the S locus. The nucleotide sequences of genomic DNA and of cDNAs corresponding to SRK predict a putative transmembrane receptor having serine/threonine-specific protein kinase activity. Its extracellular domain exhibits striking homology to the secreted product of the S-locus genotypes are highly polymorphic and have apparently evolved in unison with genetically linked alleles of SLG. SRK directs the synthesis of several alternative transcripts, which potentially encode different protein products, and these transcripts were detected exclusively in reproductive organs. The identification of SRK may provide new perspectives into the signal transduction mechanism underlying pollen recognition.

  10. Cloning, Expression Analysis, and Molecular Modeling of the Gamma-Aminobutyric Acid Receptor Alpha2 Subunit Gene from the Common Cutworm, Spodoptera litura

    PubMed Central

    Zuo, Hongliang; Gao, Lu; Hu, Zhen; Liu, Haiyuan; Zhong, Guohua

    2013-01-01

    Intensive research on the molecule structures of the gamma-nminobutyric acid (GABA) receptor in agricultural pests has great significance to the mechanism investigation, resistance prevention, and molecular design of novel pesticides. The GABA receptor a2 (SlGABARα2) subunit gene in Spodoptera litura (Fabricius) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) was cloned using the technologies of reverse transcription PCR and rapid amplification of cDNA ends. The gemonic DNA sequence of SlGABARα2 has 5164 bp with 8 exons and 7 introns that were in accordance with the GT-AG splicing formula. The complete mRNA sequence of SlGABARα2 was 1965 bp, with an open reading frame of 1500 bp encoding a protein of 499 amino acids. The GABA receptor is highly conserved among insects. The conserved regions include several N-glycosylation, Oglycosylation, and phosphorylation sites, as well as 4 transmembrane domains. The identities that SlGABARα2 shared with the GABA receptor a2 subunit of Spodoptera exigua, Heliothis virescens, Chilo suppressalis, Plutella xylostella, Bombyx mori ranged from 99.2% to 87.2% at the amino acid level. The comparative 3-dimensional model of SlGABARα2 showed that its tertiary structure was composed of 4 major α-helixes located at the 4 putative transmembrane domains on one side, with some β-sheets and 1 small α-helix on the other side. SlGABARα2 may be attached to the membrane by 4 α-helixes that bind ions in other conserved domains to transport them through the membrane. The results of quantitative real time PCR demonstrated that SlGABARα2 was expressed in all developmental stages of S. litura. The relative expression level of SlGABARα2 was the lowest in eggs and increased with larval growth, while it declined slightly in pupae and reached the peak in adults. The expressions of SlGABARα2 in larvae varied among different tissues; it was extremely high in the brain but was low in the midgut, epicuticle, Malpighian tube, and fat body. PMID:23909412

  11. Cloning, expression analysis, and molecular modeling of the gamma-aminobutyric acid receptor alpha2 subunit gene from the common cutworm, Spodoptera litura.

    PubMed

    Zuo, Hongliang; Gao, Lu; Hu, Zhen; Liu, Haiyuan; Zhong, Guohua

    2013-01-01

    Intensive research on the molecule structures of the gamma-nminobutyric acid (GABA) receptor in agricultural pests has great significance to the mechanism investigation, resistance prevention, and molecular design of novel pesticides. The GABA receptor a2 (SlGABARα2) subunit gene in Spodoptera litura (Fabricius) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) was cloned using the technologies of reverse transcription PCR and rapid amplification of cDNA ends. The gemonic DNA sequence of SlGABARα2 has 5164 bp with 8 exons and 7 introns that were in accordance with the GT-AG splicing formula. The complete mRNA sequence of SlGABARα2 was 1965 bp, with an open reading frame of 1500 bp encoding a protein of 499 amino acids. The GABA receptor is highly conserved among insects. The conserved regions include several N-glycosylation, Oglycosylation, and phosphorylation sites, as well as 4 transmembrane domains. The identities that SlGABARα2 shared with the GABA receptor a2 subunit of Spodoptera exigua, Heliothis virescens, Chilo suppressalis, Plutella xylostella, Bombyx mori ranged from 99.2% to 87.2% at the amino acid level. The comparative 3-dimensional model of SlGABARα2 showed that its tertiary structure was composed of 4 major α-helixes located at the 4 putative transmembrane domains on one side, with some β-sheets and 1 small α-helix on the other side. SlGABARα2 may be attached to the membrane by 4 α-helixes that bind ions in other conserved domains to transport them through the membrane. The results of quantitative real time PCR demonstrated that SlGABARα2 was expressed in all developmental stages of S. litura. The relative expression level of SlGABARα2 was the lowest in eggs and increased with larval growth, while it declined slightly in pupae and reached the peak in adults. The expressions of SlGABARα2 in larvae varied among different tissues; it was extremely high in the brain but was low in the midgut, epicuticle, Malpighian tube, and fat body. PMID:23909412

  12. Molecular cloning and functional expression of two monocyte chemoattractant protein 1 receptors reveals alternative splicing of the carboxyl-terminal tails.

    PubMed Central

    Charo, I F; Myers, S J; Herman, A; Franci, C; Connolly, A J; Coughlin, S R

    1994-01-01

    Monocyte chemoattractant protein 1 (MCP-1) is a member of the chemokine family of cytokines that mediate leukocyte chemotaxis. The potent and specific activation of monocytes by MCP-1 may mediate the monocytic infiltration of tissues in atherosclerosis and other inflammatory diseases. We have isolated cDNAs that encode two MCP-1-specific receptors with alternatively spliced carboxyl tails. Expression of the receptors in Xenopus oocytes conferred robust mobilization of intracellular calcium in response to nanomolar concentrations of MCP-1 but not to related chemokines. The MCP-1 receptors are most closely related to the receptor for the chemokines macrophage inflammatory protein 1 alpha and RANTES (regulated on activation, normal T expressed and secreted). The identification of the MCP-1 receptor and cloning of two distinct isoforms provide powerful tools for understanding the specificity and signaling mechanisms of this important chemokine. Images PMID:8146186

  13. Molecular cloning, expression, and stress response of the estrogen-related receptor gene (AccERR) from Apis cerana cerana

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Weixing; Zhu, Ming; Zhang, Ge; Liu, Feng; Wang, Hongfang; Guo, Xingqi; Xu, Baohua

    2016-04-01

    Estrogen-related receptor (ERR), which belongs to the nuclear receptor superfamily, has been implicated in diverse physiological processes involving the estrogen signaling pathway. However, little information is available on ERR in Apis cerana cerana. In this report, we isolated the ERR gene and investigated its involvement in antioxidant defense. Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) revealed that the highest mRNA expression occurred in eggs during different developmental stages. The expression levels of AccERR were highest in the muscle, followed by the rectum. The predicted transcription factor binding sites in the promoter of AccERR suggested that AccERR potentially functions in early development and in environmental stress responses. The expression of AccERR was induced by cold (4 °C), heat (42 °C), ultraviolet light (UV), HgCl2, and various types of pesticides (phoxim, deltamethrin, triadimefon, and cyhalothrin). Western blot was used to measure the expression levels of AccERR protein. These data suggested that AccERR might play a vital role in abiotic stress responses.

  14. Molecular cloning, expression, and stress response of the estrogen-related receptor gene (AccERR) from Apis cerana cerana.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Weixing; Zhu, Ming; Zhang, Ge; Liu, Feng; Wang, Hongfang; Guo, Xingqi; Xu, Baohua

    2016-04-01

    Estrogen-related receptor (ERR), which belongs to the nuclear receptor superfamily, has been implicated in diverse physiological processes involving the estrogen signaling pathway. However, little information is available on ERR in Apis cerana cerana. In this report, we isolated the ERR gene and investigated its involvement in antioxidant defense. Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) revealed that the highest mRNA expression occurred in eggs during different developmental stages. The expression levels of AccERR were highest in the muscle, followed by the rectum. The predicted transcription factor binding sites in the promoter of AccERR suggested that AccERR potentially functions in early development and in environmental stress responses. The expression of AccERR was induced by cold (4 °C), heat (42 °C), ultraviolet light (UV), HgCl2, and various types of pesticides (phoxim, deltamethrin, triadimefon, and cyhalothrin). Western blot was used to measure the expression levels of AccERR protein. These data suggested that AccERR might play a vital role in abiotic stress responses. PMID:26922780

  15. Molecular cloning of a type A chicken corticotropin-releasing factor receptor with high affinity for urotensin I.

    PubMed

    Yu, J; Xie, L Y; Abou-Samra, A B

    1996-01-01

    The hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis is an essential physiological system in many species. CRF, the major neuropeptide regulating ACTH secretion, is highly conserved in its primary sequence. Evolutionary conservation of the CRF sequence suggests that the CRF receptor (CRF-R) complementary DNA and examined its properties. The avian CRF-R complementary DNA encodes a 420-amino acid protein that is 87-88% identical to those of human, rat, and mouse. Most sequence divergence occurs in the putative signal peptide and the extracellular amino-terminus of the receptor. Five additional amino acids are inserted in the amino-terminus of the cCRF-R. When expressed in COS-7 cells, the cCRF-R binds the CRF and urotensin I radioligands with high affinities. Urotensin I competes for binding to the chicken CRF-R, expressed in COS-7 cells, with an apparent affinity 20 times higher than that of CRF. Both urotensin I and sauvagine were more effective in stimulating cAMP accumulation in COS-7 cells transfected with the cCRF-R than CRF. The effects of CRF and urotensin I on inositol phosphate accumulation were also tested. Urotensin I was an effective as CRF in stimulating inositol phosphate accumulation in COS-7 cells transfected with the cCRF-R. These data suggest that the sequence of the CRF-R is highly conserved from avian to mammalian species and that, despite its high sequence homology to the type A mammalian CRF-R, the ligand binding properties of cCRF-R are similar to those of the type B CRF-R i.e. a higher affinity for urotensin I than for CRF. PMID:8536612

  16. Molecular cloning and characterization of the human interleukin-11 receptor {alpha}-chain gene, IL11RA, located on chromosome 9p13

    SciTech Connect

    Van Leuven, F.; Stas, L.; Hilliker, C.

    1996-01-01

    The human gene coding for the interleukin-11 receptor (IL11RA) was cloned and its structure analyzed. The gene is composed of 13 exons comprising nearly 10 kb of DNA that was completely sequenced. The intron-exon boundaries were determined based on the mouse Etl2 and interleukin-11 receptor cDNAs that were recently cloned. The protein sequence predicted by the human gene was over 83% identical with its murine counterpart, with very strict conservation of functionally important domains and signatures. Fluorescence in situ hybridization showed the gene to be located on human chromosome 9p13, syntenic with the mouse etl2 gene on chromosome 4. The coding exons of the interleukin-11 gene were sequenced in a patient with the cartilage-hair hypoplasia syndrome, which has been linked to a gene on chromosome 9, but no functional mutations were detected. 26 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs.

  17. Molecular cloning and expression analysis of interleukin (IL)-15 and IL-15 receptor α from rock bream, Oplegnathus fasciatus.

    PubMed

    Bae, Jin-Sol; Shim, Sang Hee; Hwang, Seong Don; Kim, Ju-Won; Park, Dae-Won; Park, Chan-Il

    2013-10-01

    Mammalian interleukin (IL)-15 plays an important role in the activation of CD8(+) T cells and natural killer (NK) cells along with its receptor α (IL-15Rα). To understand the potential roles of IL-15 and IL-15Rα in fish, we identified IL-15 and IL-15Rα cDNA from rock bream (Oplegnathus fasciatus) and investigated their gene expression profiles after bacterial and viral infection. Coding regions of rock bream (Rb) IL-15 and RbIL-15Rα cDNAs were 534 and 402 bp encoding 177 and 133 amino acid residues, respectively. The sushi domain of IL-15Rα was highly conserved between rock bream and other species. Unlike other IL-15Rαs, RbIL-15Rα does not have a transmembrane region. Gene expression of RbIL-15 and RbIL-15Rα was widely expressed in different tissues of healthy fish, especially immune-related tissues. RbIL-15 and RbIL-15Rα were highly induced in the kidney and spleen after infection with Edwardsiella tarda, Streptococcus iniae and red seabream iridovirus. Gene expression patterns of RbIL-15 and RbIL-15Rα were similar in the kidney and spleen after pathogen infection. However, these genes were differentially induced in the liver after pathogen infection. These results suggest that the different responses of RbIL-15 and RbIL-15Rα to pathogen infection may be induced by different tissues or cell types. PMID:23911652

  18. Molecular cloning and expression analysis of prostaglandin E receptor 2 gene in cashmere goat (Capra hircus) skin during hair follicle development.

    PubMed

    Geng, Rong-Qing; Yuan, Chao; Chen, Yu-Lin

    2014-04-01

    As a member of the four subtypes of receptors for prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), prostaglandin E receptor 2 (PTGER2) is in the family of G-protein coupled receptors and has been characterized to be involved in the development and growth of hair follicles. In this study, we cloned and characterized the full-length coding sequence (CDS) of PTGER2 gene from cashmere goat skin. The entire open reading frame (ORF) of PTGER2 gene was 1047 bp and encoded 348 amino acid residues. The deduced protein contained one G-protein coupled receptors family 1 signature, seven transmembrane domains, and other potential sites. Tissue expression analysis showed that PTGER2 gene was expressed strongly in the skin. The general expression tendency of PTGER2 gene at different hair follicle developmental stages in the skin was gradually decreased from anagen to catagen to telogen. After comparing with the expression of BMP4 gene and related reports, we further presume that it seems to have a relationship between the hair follicle cycle and the expression level of PTGER2 gene in cashmere goat skin. PMID:24555795

  19. Cloning, molecular characterization, and chromosomal assignment of a gene encoding a second D1 dopamine receptor subtype: differential expression pattern in rat brain compared with the D1A receptor.

    PubMed Central

    Tiberi, M; Jarvie, K R; Silvia, C; Falardeau, P; Gingrich, J A; Godinot, N; Bertrand, L; Yang-Feng, T L; Fremeau, R T; Caron, M G

    1991-01-01

    Multiple D1 dopaminergic receptor subtypes have been postulated on the basis of pharmacological, biochemical, and genetic studies. We describe the isolation and characterization of a rat gene encoding a dopamine receptor that is structurally and functionally similar to the D1 dopamine receptor. The coding region, which is intronless, encodes a protein of 475 amino acids (Mr 52,834) with structural features that are consistent with receptors coupled to guanine nucleotide-binding regulatory proteins. The expressed protein binds dopaminergic ligands and mediates stimulation of adenylyl cyclase with pharmacological properties similar to those of the D1 dopamine receptor. The gene encoding the human homologue of this receptor subtype is located to the short arm of chromosome 4 (4p16.3), the same region as the Huntington disease gene. In striking contrast to the previously cloned D1 receptor, little or no mRNA for the receptor described here was observed in striatum, nucleus accumbens, olfactory tubercle, and frontal cortex. High levels of mRNA for this receptor were found in distinct layers of the hippocampus, the mammillary nuclei, and the anterior pretectal nuclei, brain regions that have been shown to exhibit little or no D1 dopamine receptor binding. On the basis of its properties we propose that this dopamine receptor subtype be called D1B. Images PMID:1831904

  20. Cloning, molecular characterization, and chromosomal assignment of a gene encoding a second D sub 1 dopamine receptor subtype: Differential expression pattern in rat brain compared with the D sup 1A receptor

    SciTech Connect

    Tiberi, M.; Jarvie, K.R.; Silvia, C.; Falardeau, P.; Gingrich, J.A.; Godinot, N.; Bertrand, L.; Fremeau, R.T. Jr.; Caron, M.G. ); Yang-Feng, T.L. )

    1991-09-01

    Multiple D{sub 1} dopaminergic receptor subtypes have been postulated on the basis of pharmacological, biochemical, and genetic studies. The authors describe the isolation and characterization of a rat gene encoding a dopamine receptor that is structurally and functionally similar to the D{sub 1} dopamine receptor. The coding region, which is intronless, encodes a protein of 475 amino acids (M{sub r} 52,834) with structural features that are consistent with receptors coupled to guanine nucleotide-binding regulatory proteins. The expressed protein binds dopaminergic ligands and mediates stimulation of adenylyl cyclase with pharmacological properties similar to those of the D{sub 1} dopamine receptor. The gene encoding the human homologue of this receptor subtype is located to the short arm of chromosome 4 (4p16.3), the same region as the Huntington disease gene. In striking contrast to the previously cloned D{sub 1} receptor, little or no mRNA for the receptor described here was observed in striatum, nucleus accumbens, olfactory tubercle, and frontal cortex. High levels of mRNA for this receptor were found in distinct layers of the hippocampus, the mammillary nuclei, and the anterior pretectal nuclei, brain regions that have been shown to exhibit little or no D{sub 1} dopamine receptor binding. On the basis of its properties the authors propose that this dopamine receptor subtype be called D{sub 1B}.

  1. Molecular cloning of TRPC3a, an N-terminally extended, store-operated variant of the human C3 transient receptor potential channel.

    PubMed

    Yildirim, Eda; Kawasaki, Brian T; Birnbaumer, Lutz

    2005-03-01

    AK032317 is the GenBank accession no. of a full-length RIKEN mouse cDNA. It encodes a putative variant of the C3-type TRPC (transient receptor potential channel) that differs from the previously cloned murine TRPC3 cDNA in that it has a 5' extension stemming from inclusion of an additional exon (exon 0). The extended cDNA adds 62 aa to the sequence of the murine TRPC3. Here, we report the cloning of a cDNA encoding the human homologue of this extended TRPC3 having a highly homologous 73-aa N-terminal extension, referred to as hTRPC3a. A query of the GenBank genomic database predicts the existence of a similar gene product also in rats. Transient expression of the longer TRPC3a in human embryonic kidney (HEK) cells showed that it mediates Ca2+ entry in response to stimulation of the Gq-phospholipase C beta pathway, which is similar to that mediated by the shorter hTRPC3. However, after isolation of HEK cells expressing hTRPC3 in stable form, TRPC3a gave rise to Ca2+-entry channels that are not only activated by the Gq-phospholipase C beta pathway (receptor-activated Ca entry) but also by thapsigargin triggered store depletion. In conjunction with findings from our and other laboratories that TRPC1, TRPC2, TRPC4, TRPC5, and TRPC7, can each mediate store-depletion-activated Ca2+ entry in mammalian cells, our findings with hTRC3a support our previous proposal that TRPCs form capacitative Ca-entry channels. PMID:15728370

  2. Group III human metabotropic glutamate receptors 4, 7 and 8: molecular cloning, functional expression, and comparison of pharmacological properties in RGT cells.

    PubMed

    Wu, S; Wright, R A; Rockey, P K; Burgett, S G; Arnold, J S; Rosteck, P R; Johnson, B G; Schoepp, D D; Belagaje, R M

    1998-01-01

    Cloning and expression in a stable mammalian cell line co-transfected with a glutamate transporter (RGT cells) were used as tools for studying the functions and pharmacological properties of group III metabotropic glutamate receptors (mGluRs). Complementary DNAs (cDNAs) encoding the human mGluR4, human mGluR7, and human mGluR8 were isolated from human cerebellum, fetal brain or retinal cDNA libraries. The human mGluR4, mGluR7 and mGluR8 receptors were 912, 915 and 908 amino acid residues long and share 67-70% amino acid similarity with each other and 42-45% similarity with the members of mGluR subgroups I and II. The human mGluR4 and mGluR7 had amino acid identity of 96% and 99.5% with rat mGluR4 and 7, respectively, whereas the human mGluR8 has 98.8% amino acid identity with the mouse mGluR8. The nucleotide and amino acid sequences in the coding region of human mGluR4 and mGluR7 were found to be identical to the previously published sequences by Flor et al. and Makoff et al. Following stable expression in RGT cells, highly significant inhibitions of forskolin stimulation of cAMP production by group III agonists were found for each receptor. The relative potencies of the group III agonist L-AP4 varied greatly between the group III clones, being mGluR8>mGluR4 > mGluR7. The reported group II mGluR agonist L-CCG-I was a highly potent mGluR8 agonist (EC50=0.35 microM), with significant agonist activities at both mGluR4 (EC50=3.7 microM) and mGluR7 (EC50=47 microM). The antagonist potency of the purported group III mGluR antagonist MPPG also varied among the receptors being human mGluR8 > mGluR4 = mGluR7. The expression and second messenger coupling of human group III mGluRs expressed in the RGT cell line are useful to clearly define the subtype selectivities of mGluR ligands. PMID:9473604

  3. Methods in molecular cardiology: in silico cloning

    PubMed Central

    Passier, R.; Doevendans, P.A.

    2004-01-01

    Advancements in sequencing technology have made it possible to obtain more information about the DNA sequence, structure and the transcript products of the genome from different species. This information is collected in DNA databases. These databases contain many genes of which the functions have not yet been discovered. By using online biotechnology tools novel genes and their transcripts can be identified. The identification of novel genes using DNA database analysis is referred to as in silico cloning. In silico cloning may not only provide new information on genes and their biological function, it may also lead to identification of molecular targets for drug discovery activities. In this review we describe the process of in silico cloning and its application in biomedical research. ImagesFigure 1Figure 3 PMID:25696371

  4. Molecular cloning, genomic structure, and genetic mapping of two Rdl-orthologous genes of GABA receptors in the diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Guorui; Gao, Weiyue; Yang, Yihua; Wu, Yidong

    2010-06-01

    The Resistance to dieldrin (Rdl) gene encodes a subunit of the insect gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) receptor. Cyclodiene resistance in many insects is associated with replacement of a single amino acid (alanine at position 302) with either a serine or a glycine in the Rdl gene. Two Rdl-orthologous genes of GABA receptors (PxGABARalpha1 and PxGABARalpha2) were cloned and sequenced from a susceptible strain (Roth) of Plutella xylostella. PxGABARalpha1 and PxGABARalpha2 showed 84% and 77% identity with the Rdl gene of Drosophila melanogaster at an amino acid level, respectively. The coding regions of PxGABARalpha1 and PxGABARalpha2 both comprise ten exons, with two alternative RNA-splicing forms in exon 3 of both genes. At the orthologous position of alanine-302 in D. melanogaster Rdl, PxGABARalpha1 has a conserved alanine at position 282. PxGABARalpha2 has a serine instead of an alanine at the equivalent position. With two informative DNA markers, both PxGABARalpha1 and PxGABARalpha2 were mapped onto the Z chromosome of P. xylostella. PMID:20513056

  5. Molecular cloning, characterization and expression analysis of Toll-like receptor 5M gene in Japanese sea perch (Lateolabrax japonicas) after bacterial infection.

    PubMed

    Wang, Chengyang; Zhao, Chao; Fu, Mingjun; Bao, Weiyang; Qiu, Lihua

    2016-09-01

    Toll-like receptor 5M belongs to Toll-like receptors (TLRs) family, which plays a crucial role in innate immunity due to its important role in the recognition of bacteria invasion and in the activation of immune related pathways downstream. In the present study, we firstly cloned the full-length cDNAs of TLR 5M (LjTLR 5M) from Japanese sea perch (Lateolabrax japonicas). The full-length cDNAs of LjTLR 5M include an open reading frame (ORF) of 2676 bp encoding a polypeptide of 891 amino acid residues. The deduced amino acid sequence analysis showed that LiTLR 5M contains LRRs (extracellular leucine rich repeats), transmembrane and TIR (Toll/interleukin-1 receptor) domain. Transcriptional expression analysis indicated that LiTLR 5M mRNAs were ubiquitously expressed in wide array of tissues and the peak level was observed in the head-kidney. The expression patterns of LjTLR 5M after Vibro harveyi and Streptococus agalactiae infection were detected by qRT-PCR, and the results showed that LjTLR 5M was significant up-regulated in spleen, liver and head-kidney. Additionally, the expression patterns of LjTLR 5M in infected spleen and head-kidney were further validated by in situ hybridization (ISH). In summary, these findings indicate that LjTLR 5M is significant induced after different bacterial infection and is involved in immune response. Furthermore, this study will provide foundational information for other TLRs research of L. japonicas against different bacterial pathogens invasion. PMID:27417233

  6. Molecular cloning of the mouse grb2 gene: differential interaction of the Grb2 adaptor protein with epidermal growth factor and nerve growth factor receptors.

    PubMed Central

    Suen, K L; Bustelo, X R; Pawson, T; Barbacid, M

    1993-01-01

    We report the isolation and molecular characterization of the mouse grb2 gene. The product of this gene, the Grb2 protein, is highly related to the Caenorhabditis elegans sem-5 gene product and the human GRB2 protein and displays the same SH3-SH2-SH3 structural motifs. In situ hybridization studies revealed that the mouse grb2 gene is widely expressed throughout embryonic development (E9.5 to P0). However, grb2 transcripts are not uniformly distributed, and in certain tissues (e.g., thymus) they appear to be regulated during development. Recent genetic and biochemical evidence has implicated the Grb2 protein in the signaling pathways that link cell surface tyrosine kinase receptors with Ras. We have investigated the association of the Grb2 protein with epidermal growth factor (EGF) and nerve growth factor (NGF) receptors in PC12 pheochromocytoma cells. EGF treatment of PC12 cells results in the rapid association of Grb2 with the activated EGF receptors, an interaction mediated by the Grb2 SH2 domain. However, Grb2 does not bind to NGF-activated Trk receptors. Mitogenic signaling of NGF in NIH 3T3 cells ectopically expressing Trk receptors also takes place without detectable association between Grb2 and Trk. These results suggest that whereas EGF and NGF can activate the Ras signaling pathway in PC12 cells, only the EGF receptor is likely to do so through a direct interaction with Grb2. Finally, binding studies with glutathione S-transferase fusion proteins indicate that Grb2 binds two distinct subsets of proteins which are individually recognized by its SH2 and SH3 domains. These observations add further support to the concept that Grb2 is a modular adaptor protein. Images PMID:7689150

  7. Molecular cloning, characterization, tissue distribution and mRNA expression changes during the hibernation and reproductive periods of estrogen receptor alpha (ESR1) in Chinese alligator, Alligator sinensis.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ruidong; Hu, Yuehong; Wang, Huan; Yan, Peng; Zhou, Yongkang; Wu, Rong; Wu, Xiaobing

    2016-10-01

    Chinese alligator, Alligator sinensis, is a critically endangered reptile species unique to China. Little is known about the mechanism of growth- and reproduction-related hormones gene expression in Chinese alligator. Estrogens play important roles in regulating multiple reproduction- and non-reproduction-related functions by binding to their corresponding receptors. Here, the full-length cDNA of estrogen receptor alpha (ERα/ESR1) was cloned and sequenced from Chinese alligator for the first time, which comprises 1764bp nucleotides and encodes a predicted protein of 587 amino acids. Phylogenetic analysis of ESR1 showed that crocodilians and turtles were the sister-group of birds. The results of real-time quantitative PCR indicated that the ESR1 mRNA was widely expressed in the brain and peripheral tissues. In the brain and pituitary gland, ESR1 was most highly transcribed in the cerebellum. But in other peripheral tissues, ESR1 mRNA expression level was the highest in the ovary. Compared with hibernation period, ESR1 mRNA expression levels were increased significantly in the reproductive period (P<0.05) in cerebellum, pituitary gland, liver, spleen, lung, kidney and ovary, while no significant change in other examined tissues (P>0.05). The ESR1 mRNA expression levels changes during the two periods of different tissues suggested that ESR1 might play an important role in mediation of estrogenic multiple reproductive effects in Chinese alligator. Furthermore, it was the first time to quantify ESR1 mRNA level in the brain of crocodilians, and the distribution and expression of ESR1 mRNA in the midbrain, cerebellum and medulla oblongata was also reported for the first time in reptiles. PMID:27212643

  8. Molecular Cloning and Functional Characterization of Xenopus tropicalis Frog Transient Receptor Potential Vanilloid 1 Reveal Its Functional Evolution for Heat, Acid, and Capsaicin Sensitivities in Terrestrial Vertebrates*

    PubMed Central

    Ohkita, Masashi; Saito, Shigeru; Imagawa, Toshiaki; Takahashi, Kenji; Tominaga, Makoto; Ohta, Toshio

    2012-01-01

    The functional difference of thermosensitive transient receptor potential (TRP) channels in the evolutionary context has attracted attention, but thus far little information is available on the TRP vanilloid 1 (TRPV1) function of amphibians, which diverged earliest from terrestrial vertebrate lineages. In this study we cloned Xenopus tropicalis frog TRPV1 (xtTRPV1), and functional characterization was performed using HeLa cells heterologously expressing xtTRPV1 (xtTRPV1-HeLa) and dorsal root ganglion neurons isolated from X. tropicalis (xtDRG neurons) by measuring changes in the intracellular calcium concentration ([Ca2+]i). The channel activity was also observed in xtTRPV1-expressing Xenopus oocytes. Furthermore, we tested capsaicin- and heat-induced nocifensive behaviors of the frog X. tropicalis in vivo. At the amino acid level, xtTRPV1 displays ∼60% sequence identity to other terrestrial vertebrate TRPV1 orthologues. Capsaicin induced [Ca2+]i increases in xtTRPV1-HeLa and xtDRG neurons and evoked nocifensive behavior in X. tropicalis. However, its sensitivity was extremely low compared with mammalian orthologues. Low extracellular pH and heat activated xtTRPV1-HeLa and xtDRG neurons. Heat also evoked nocifensive behavior. In oocytes expressing xtTRPV1, inward currents were elicited by heat and low extracellular pH. Mutagenesis analysis revealed that two amino acids (tyrosine 523 and alanine 561) were responsible for the low sensitivity to capsaicin. Taken together, our results indicate that xtTRPV1 functions as a polymodal receptor similar to its mammalian orthologues. The present study demonstrates that TRPV1 functions as a heat- and acid-sensitive channel in the ancestor of terrestrial vertebrates. Because it is possible to examine vanilloid and heat sensitivities in vitro and in vivo, X. tropicalis could be the ideal experimental lower vertebrate animal for the study of TRPV1 function. PMID:22130664

  9. Molecular cloning, genomic structure, and tissue distribution of EW135, a novel chicken egg white protein with group B scavenger receptor cysteine-rich domains.

    PubMed

    Yoo, Whayoung; Nakamura, Tomohiro; Asanuma, Hideki; Matsushita, Misao

    2013-11-01

    Approximately 80 proteins are reported to be present in chicken egg white. The major function of egg white proteins isolated so far is to defend the egg yolk against infections. We recently isolated a novel protein termed EW135 from chicken egg white. In this paper, we have determined the complete amino acid sequence of EW135 based on cDNA cloning. EW135 consists of 970 amino acids with a putative signal peptide of 17 amino acids. It is composed exclusively of tandem repeats of nine group B scavenger receptor cysteine-rich (SRCR) domains separated by eight seven-amino acid peptides. The features of consensus sequences found in the group B SRCR domain were well conserved in EW135. The EW135 gene consists of putative 11 exons, with each SRCR domain being encoded by a single exon. Reverse transcription PCR showed that EW135 is expressed in only the oviduct among the 11 types of tissues tested. EW135 is a second soluble protein belonging to the group B SRCR domain superfamily identified in chickens. One of the important functions of proteins belonging to the group B SRCR domain superfamily is to recognize pathogens in innate immunity. It is, therefore, conceivable that EW135 could be involved in host defense in egg white. PMID:23913278

  10. Molecular cloning and functional characterization of porcine toll-like receptor 7 involved in recognition of single-stranded RNA virus/ssRNA.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yiliang; Guo, Yingjun; Lv, Ke; Wang, Kaiyu; Sun, Shuhan

    2008-02-01

    The interest in understanding interaction between the toll-like receptor and the viral infection has increased because of its importance in disease control. Here we have cloned the porcine TLR7 (pTLR7) cDNA encoding for 1050 amino acids. The pTLR7 Exhibits 90, 87, 87, 86, 84 and 78% similarity to TLR7 from cattle, dog, horse, cat, human and mouse, respectively. RT-PCR data suggested that pTLR7 mRNA was mostly synthesized in secondary lymphoid tissues (spleen, lymph node and tonsil) and antigen-presenting cells (macrophage and B cell). The cellular experiments indicated that immunostimulatory RNA oligonucleotides (ORN) found in foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) activated nuclear factor-kB and induced the expression of IFN-alpha via pTLR7. We found that the ORN induced Th1-type cytokines and activated immunocytes in PBMC. The study provides foundation for further investigation in pTLR7 interactions with its ligands and interactions between the porcine immune system and pathogens. PMID:17889367

  11. Molecular cloning, expression of, and regulation by thyroid-hormone receptor α A in the half-smooth tongue sole Cynoglossus semilaevis during metamorphosis.

    PubMed

    Zhang, W T; Liu, K; Xiang, J S; Zhang, L Y; Liu, W J; Dong, Z D; Li, Y Z; Li, H L; Chen, S L; Wang, N

    2016-05-01

    To elucidate the effect of thyroid hormone receptor α A (thraa) on metamorphosis, the full length cDNA of half-smooth tongue sole Cynoglossus semilaevis was cloned. The relative gene transcript level of thraa at different development stages was quantified using real-time PCR. Transcription of thraa increased and declined rapidly during metamorphosis. Hyperthyroidism was induced in juveniles and larvae with exposure to T3 and T4, and hypothyroidism with thiourea (TU), 2-mercapto-1-methylimidazole (MMI). thraa mRNA was higher in fish treated for 6 days with MMI than in untreated controls, although inhibited larvae did not complete metamorphosis. The addition of exogenous T4 reversed this effect in the MMI-treated group, but not in the TU-treated group. In situ hybridization revealed progressive tail end of body growth and change during developmental stages, with corresponding changes in thraa expression. This process may be induced by thyroid hormones with thraa as a major mediator. The morphological changes of tip of the tail may be associated with the development of lateral swimming. PMID:26953104

  12. Molecular cloning and characterization of canine ICOS.

    PubMed

    Lee, Je-Hwan; Joo, Young-Don; Yim, Daesong; Lee, Richard; Ostrander, Elaine A; Loretz, Carol; Little, Marie-Térèse; Storb, Rainer; Kuhr, Christian S

    2004-10-01

    Inducible costimulatory receptor (ICOS) is one recently identified member of the CD28 family of costimulatory molecules. Evidence suggests ICOS functions as a critical immune regulator and, to evaluate these effects, we employed the canine model system that has been used to develop strategies currently in clinical use for hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. To investigate the effects of blocking the ICOS pathway in the canine hematopoietic cell transplantation model, we tested existing murine and human reagents and cloned the full length of the open reading frame of canine ICOS cDNA to allow the development of reagents specific for the canine ICOS. Canine ICOS contains a major open reading frame of 624 nucleotides, encoding a protein of 208 amino acids, and localizes to chromosome 37. Canine ICOS shares 79% sequence identity with human ICOS, 70% with mouse, and 69% with rat. Canine ICOS expression is limited to stimulated PBMC. PMID:15475250

  13. Molecular cloning and expression analysis of the retinoid X receptor (RXR) gene in golden pompano Trachinotus ovatus fed Artemia nauplii with different enrichments.

    PubMed

    Yang, Qibin; Zheng, Panlong; Ma, Zhenhua; Li, Tao; Jiang, Shigui; Qin, Jian G

    2015-12-01

    The retinoid X receptors (RXRs) are involved in the skeletal development and other biological process such as blood vessel formation and metabolism. Partial sequences of RXRα and β genes were obtained, and their expressions were quantified on golden pompano Trachinotus ovatus at 28 days post hatching (DPH) to explore the molecular response to nutritional manipulation in fish larvae. As live food, Artemia nauplii were separately enriched with Nannochloropsis and Algamac 3080 and non-enriched Artemia nauplii (control) for fish feeding. The expressions of RXRs were detected in the embryos and fish larvae at early stages, suggesting that the skeletal development in golden pompano initiated before yolk re-sorption completion. Fish fed non-enriched Artemia nauplii ended up with higher jaw malformation. The highest specific growth rate was obtained when fish were fed with the Artemia nauplii enriched with Algamac 3080, and the lowest growth rate was observed when fish were fed with unenriched Artemia nauplii. The highest survival was obtained when fish were fed with non-enriched or Nannochloropsis-enriched Artemia nauplii. This study indicates that the use of enriched formula for Artemia nauplii can significantly affect the expression levels of RXRs and jaw malformation of golden pompano larvae, but there is no clear correlation between RXRs expressions and malformation rates when fish are subjected to nutrient challenge. PMID:26159320

  14. Molecular cloning of protein-based polymers.

    PubMed

    Mi, Lixin

    2006-07-01

    Protein-based biopolymers have become a promising class of materials for both biomedical and pharmaceutical applications, as they have well-defined molecular weights, monomer compositions, as well as tunable chemical, biological, and mechanical properties. Using standard molecular biology tools, it is possible to design and construct genes encoding artificial proteins or protein-based polymers containing multiple repeats of amino acid sequences. This article reviews some of the traditional methods used for constructing DNA duplexes encoding these repeat-containing genes, including monomer generation, concatemerization, iterative oligomerization, and seamless cloning. A facile and versatile method, called modules of degenerate codons (MDC), which uses PCR and codon degeneracy to overcome some of the disadvantages of traditional methods, is introduced. Re-engineering of the random coil spacer domain of a bioactive protein, WPT2-3R, is used to demonstrate the utility of the MDC method. MDC re-constructed coding sequences facilitate further manipulations, such as insertion, deletion, and swapping of various sequence modules. A summary of some promising emerging techniques for synthesizing repetitive sequence-containing artificial proteins is also provided. PMID:16827576

  15. Cloning and pharmacological characterization of a rat kappa opioid receptor.

    PubMed Central

    Meng, F; Xie, G X; Thompson, R C; Mansour, A; Goldstein, A; Watson, S J; Akil, H

    1993-01-01

    A full-length cDNA was isolated from a rat striatal library by using low-stringency screening with two PCR fragments, one spanning transmembrane domains 3-6 of the mouse delta opioid receptor and the other unidentified but homologous to the mouse delta receptor from rat brain. The novel cDNA had a long open reading frame encoding a protein of 380 residues with 59% identity to the mouse delta receptor and topography consistent with a seven-helix guanine nucleotide-binding protein-coupled receptor. COS-1 cells transfected with the coding region of this clone showed high-affinity binding to kappa opioid receptor-selective ligands such as dynorphin A and U-50,488 and also nonselective opioid ligands such as bremazocine, ethylketocyclazocine, and naloxone. Not bound at all (or bound with low affinity) were dynorphin A-(2-13), enantiomers of naloxone and levophanol [i.e., (+)-naloxone and dextrorphan], and selective mu and delta opioid receptor ligands. Activation of the expressed receptor by kappa receptor agonists led to inhibition of cAMP. Finally, in situ hybridization revealed a mRNA distribution in rat brain that corresponded well to the distribution of binding sites labeled with kappa-selective ligands. These observations indicate that we have cloned a cDNA encoding a rat kappa receptor of the kappa 1 subtype. Images Fig. 3 PMID:8234341

  16. Molecular cloning of Salmo salar Toll-like receptors (TLR1, TLR22, TLR5M and TLR5S) and expression analysis in SHK-1 cells during Piscirickettsia salmonis infection.

    PubMed

    Salazar, C; Haussmann, D; Kausel, G; Figueroa, J

    2016-02-01

    In fish, the innate immune system is the primary response against infection. Toll-like receptors (TLRs) recognize pathogens through pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs), and some target molecules of TLRs are homologous between fish and mammals. Piscirickettsia salmonis is one of the main pathogens affecting the salmon industry in Chile. Better knowledge of mechanisms underlying its invasive capacity and recognition of target cells is crucial for vaccine development. Therefore, Salmo salar L. TLR1, TLR22, membrane TLR5M and soluble TLR5S sequences were cloned, and expression kinetics were analysed by RT-qPCR in salmon head kidney cells (SHK-1) infected with three different P. salmonis preparations: alive, formaldehyde treated, extract. Clearly, all analysed TLRs were expressed and transcription level changes were revealed at 2 hpi, 12 or 16 hpi and 24 hpi depending on P. salmonis infection scheme. Increased IL1-beta expression confirmed TLR pathway response. Furthermore, significant expression modulations of several members of the TLR pathway in this in vitro model suggest that P. salmonis extract rather than formaldehyde-inactivated bacteria might strengthen the salmon immune system. PMID:25903926

  17. CYTOLOGICAL AND MOLECULAR ANALYSIS OF NORMAL AND CLONED BULLS’ MEIOSIS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cytological and molecular analysis of meiotic cells from two bull clones and three non-clones was performed in order to detect effects of somatic cell nuclear transfer (SNCT) on the meiotic process. Pachytene cells were analyzed by immunohistology using antibodies against the synaptonemal complex pr...

  18. Molecular cloning and comparative responses of Toll-like receptor 22 following ligands stimulation and parasitic infection in yellowtail (Seriola lalandi).

    PubMed

    Reyes-Becerril, Martha; Ascencio-Valle, Felipe; Alamillo, Erika; Hirono, Ikuo; Kondo, Hidehiro; Jirapongpairoj, Walissara; Angulo, Carlos

    2015-10-01

    TLR22 is exclusively present in teleosts and amphibians and is expected to play the distinctive role in innate immunity. In this study, we cloned the full-length cDNA sequence of yellowtail (Seriola lalandi) TLR22 (SlTLR22). The complete cDNA sequence of SlTLR22 was 4208 bp and encodes a polypeptide of 961 amino acids. Analysis of the deduced amino acid sequence indicated that SlTLR22 has typical structural features of proteins belonging to the TLR family. These included 17 LRR domains (residues 91-633) and one C-terminal LRR domain (LRR-CT, residues 693-744) in the extracellular region, and a TIR domain (residues 800-943) in the cytoplasmic region. Comparison with homologous proteins showed that the deduced SlTLR22 has the highest sequence identity to turbot TLR22 (76%). Quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) analysis demonstrated the constitutive expression of SlTLR22 mRNA in all examined tissues with higher levels in the head kidney, intestine, skin and spleen. Further, SlTLR22 expression was significantly up-regulated following TLR ligands injection with lipopolysaccharide (LPS), CpG ODN2006 and polyinosinic: polycytidylic acid (poly I:C) in spleen and liver. Amyloodinium ocellatum infection also induced a high expression of SlTLR22 in spleen, intestine, muscle, skin and gill, with maximum increases ranging from 1000 to 100 fold upon different ligands and organs. Finally, histological examination in gill tissue confirmed infection by the parasite and histopathological lesion was observed also in spleen and skin. These findings suggest a possible role of SlTLR22 in the immune responses to the infections of a broad range of pathogens that include DNA and RNA viruses and parasites. PMID:26102460

  19. Molecular cloning of chicken aggrecan. Structural analyses.

    PubMed Central

    Chandrasekaran, L; Tanzer, M L

    1992-01-01

    The large, aggregating chondroitin sulphate proteoglycan of cartilage, aggrecan, has served as a generic model of proteoglycan structure. Molecular cloning of aggrecans has further defined their amino acid sequences and domain structures. In this study, we have obtained the complete coding sequence of chicken sternal cartilage aggrecan by a combination of cDNA and genomic DNA sequencing. The composite sequence is 6117 bp in length, encoding 1951 amino acids. Comparison of chicken aggrecan protein primary structure with rat, human and bovine aggrecans has disclosed both similarities and differences. The domains which are most highly conserved at 70-80% identity are the N-terminal domains G1 and G2 and the C-terminal domain G3. The chondroitin sulphate domain of chicken aggrecan is smaller than that of rat and human aggrecans and has very distinctive repeat sequences. It has two separate sections, one comprising 12 consecutive Ser-Gly-Glu repeats of 20 amino acids each, adjacent to the other which has 23 discontinuous Ser-Gly-Glu repeats of 10 amino acids each; this latter region, N-terminal to the former one, appears to be unique to chicken aggrecan. The two regions contain a total of 94 potential chondroitin sulphate attachment sites. Genomic comparison shows that, although chicken exons 11-14 are identical in size to the rat and human exons, chicken exon 10 is the smallest of the three species. This is also reflected in the size of its chondroitin sulphate coding region and in the total number of Ser-Gly pairs. The putative keratan sulphate domain shows 31-45% identity with the other species and lacks the repetitive sequences seen in the others. In summary, while the linear arrangement of specific domains of chicken aggrecan is identical to that in the aggrecans of other species, and while there is considerable identity of three separate domains, chicken aggrecan demonstrates unique features, notably in its chondroitin sulphate domain and its keratan sulphate

  20. Molecular cloning and characterization of estrogen receptor gene in the scallop Chlamys farreri: expression profiles in response to endocrine disrupting chemicals.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Hui; Pan, Luqing; Zhang, Lin

    2012-06-01

    In order to gain insights into the mechanism of sex steroid signaling in molluscs, the full-length cDNA of estrogen receptor (ER) was isolated and characterized from Chlamys farreri for the first time. The positions of cysteine residues and other residues around them that constitute the two zinc finger motifs and the P-box are conserved. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that the CfER is an ortholog of the other mollusk ERs. Tissue distribution analysis of the CfER mRNA revealed that the expression of ER mRNA was observed in various tissues, and highest in the gonad of males and females. C. farreri were exposed for 10 days to endocrine disrupting chemicals including Benzo(a)pyrene (B(a)p) and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (BDE-47). B(a)p exposure at 0.4 and 2 μg/L caused significant increase in mRNA expression of ER and VTG, but B(a)p at 10 μg/L down-regulated CfER and VTG mRNA expression compared to control. Varying increase of ER and VTG mRNA transcripts was resulted in by BDE-47 at 0.1, 1 and 10 μg/L. These results elucidate potential roles of CfER induced by xenobiotics in C. farreri and can be helpful for investigating the mechanism of sex steroid signaling in bivalve mollusks. PMID:22507668

  1. Molecular cloning, pathologically-correlated expression and functional characterization of the colonystimulating factor 1 receptor (CSF-1R) gene from a teleost, Plecoglossus altivelis

    PubMed Central

    CHEN, Qiang; LU, Xin-Jiang; LI, Ming-Yun; CHEN, Jiong

    2016-01-01

    Colony-stimulating factor 1 receptor (CSF-1R) is an important regulator of monocytes/macrophages (MO/MΦ). Although several CSF-1R genes have been identified in teleosts, the precise role of CSF- 1R in ayu (Plecoglossus altivelis) remains unclear. In this study, we characterized the CSF-1R homologue from P. altivelis, and named it PaCSF-1R. Multiple sequence alignment and phylogenetic tree analysis showed that PaCSF-1R was most closely related to that of Japanese ricefish (Oryzias latipes). Tissue distribution and expression analysis showed that the PaCSF-1R transcript was mainly expressed in the head kidney-derived MO/MΦ, spleen, and head kidney, and its expression was significantly altered in various tissues upon Vibrio anguillarum infection. After PaCSF-1R neutralization for 48 h, the phagocytic activity of MO/MΦ was significantly decreased, suggesting that PaCSF-1R plays a role in regulating the phagocytic function of ayu MO/MΦ. PMID:27029867

  2. Molecular cloning, expression profile and transcriptional modulation of two splice variants of very low density lipoprotein receptor during ovarian follicle development in geese (Anser cygnoide).

    PubMed

    Hu, Shenqiang; Liu, Hehe; Pan, Zhixiong; Xia, Lu; Dong, Xia; Li, Liang; Xu, Feng; He, Hua; Wang, Jiwen

    2014-10-01

    Very low density lipoprotein receptor (VLDLR)-mediated endocytosis of plasma lipoproteins into the ovary is essential for ovarian follicle development. Two splice variants of VLDLR have been identified in several species, yet little is known about their distinctive roles in ovarian developing follicles. In the present study, the full-length cDNAs of two splice isoforms of VLDLR were obtained from geese (Anser cygnoide) ovaries using the RACE method. The longer isoform (TypeI VLDLR) is 3141bp and contains five conserved structural domains, while the other (TypeII VLDLR) lacks 90bp encoding for the O-linked sugar domain. TypeII VLDLR was predominantly expressed in the ovary, with greater amounts of mRNA in theca and granulosa cells from early stages of follicle development but decreased during vitellogenesis. However, there was minimal expression of the TypeI VLDLR gene in theca cells and expression was almost undetectable in granulosa cells throughout follicle development. Yolk VLDL concentrations decreased as stage of development advanced while yolk triglyceride and cholesterol concentrations increased in a follicular size-dependent manner. The significant correlations between transcripts of TypeII VLDLR and yolk lipids supported its important role on yolk lipid deposition. In addition, in vitro experiments suggested that exogenous cholesterol, 25-hydroxycholesterol and mevinolin (a highly potent competitive inhibitor of HMG-CoA) treatment could significantly alter TypeII VLDLR gene expression in granulosa cells from both pre-hierarchical and pre-ovulatory follicles. Collectively, data from the present study indicate that TypeII VLDLR is more important for the transport of plasma lipoproteins into developing follicles than TypeI VLDLR, and provide new evidence about the influence of steroids in modulating VLDLR gene expression in ovarian cells. PMID:25018046

  3. [Molecular physiology of glycine receptors in nervous system of vertebrates].

    PubMed

    2014-03-01

    Glycine receptor is the anion-selective channel, providing fast synaptic transmission in the central nervous system of vertebrates. Together with the nicotinic acetylcholine, GABA and serotonin (5-HT3R) receptors, it belongs to the superfamily of pentameric cys-loop receptors. It has been cloned one beta and four alpha subunits of glycine receptor, which are specifically distributed in different areas of the nervous system. Due to their specific molecular properties and distribution, different subunits ensure important physiological functions: from control of motor activity and regulation of neuronal differentiation to sensory information processing and modulation of pain sensitivity. In this review we briefly describe main functions of these transmembrane proteins, their distribution and molecular architecture. Special attention is paid to recent studies on the molecular physiology of these receptors, as well as on presenting of molecular domains responsible for their modulation and dysfunction. PMID:25508361

  4. [Molecular physiology of glycine receptors in nervous system of vertebrates].

    PubMed

    Maleeva, G V; Brezhestovskiĭ, P D

    2014-03-01

    Glycine receptor is the anion-selective channel, providing fast synaptic transmission in the central nervous system of vertebrates. Together with the nicotinic acetylcholine, GABA and serotonin (5-HT3R) receptors, it belongs to the superfamily of pentameric cys-loop receptors. It has been cloned one beta and four alpha subunits of glycine receptor, which are specifically distributed in different areas of the nervous system. Due to their specific molecular properties and distribution, different subunits ensure important physiological functions: from control of motor activity and regulation of neuronal differentiation to sensory information processing and modulation of pain sensitivity. In this review we briefly describe main functions of these transmembrane proteins, their distribution and molecular architecture. Special attention is paid to recent studies on the molecular physiology of these receptors, as well as on presenting of molecular domains responsible for their modulation and dysfunction. PMID:25464730

  5. Molecular cloning of a second subunit of the receptor for human granulocyte - macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF): Reconstitution of a high-affinity GM-CSF receptor

    SciTech Connect

    Hayashida, Kazuhiro; Kitamura, Toshio; Gorman, D.M.; Miyajima, Atsushi ); Arai, Kenichi; Yokota, Takashi )

    1990-12-01

    Using the mouse interleukin 3 (IL-3) receptor cDNA as a probe, the authors obtained a monologous cDNA (KH97) from a cDNA library of a human hemopoietic cell line, TF-1. The protein encoded by the KH97 cDNA has 56% amino acid sequence identity with the mouse IL-3 receptor and retains features common to the family of cytokine receptors. Fibroblasts transfected with the KH97 cDNA expressed a protein of 120 kDa but did not bind any human cytokines, including IL-3 and granulocyte - macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF). Interestingly, cotransfection of cDNAs for KH97 and the low-affinity human GM-CSF receptor in fibroblasts resulted in formation of a high-affinity receptor for GM-CSF. The dissociation rate of GM-CSF from the reconstituted high-affinity receptor was slower than that from the low-affinity site, whereas the association rate was unchanged. Cross-linking of {sup 125}I-labeled GM-CSF to fibroblasts cotransfected with both cDNAs revealed the same cross-linking patterns as in TF-1 cells - i.e., two major proteins of 80 and 120 kDa which correspond to the low-affinity GM-CSF receptor and the KH97 protein, respectively. These results indicate that the high-affinity GM-CSF receptor is composed of at least two components in a manner analogous to the IL-2 receptor. They therefore propose to designate the low-affinity GM-CSF receptor and the KH97 protein as the {alpha} and {beta} subunits of the GM-CSF receptor, respectively.

  6. Molecular characterization of opioid receptors

    SciTech Connect

    Howard, A.D.

    1986-01-01

    The aim of this research was to purify and characterize active opioid receptors and elucidate molecular aspects of opioid receptor heterogeneity. Purification to apparent homogeneity of an opioid binding protein from bovine caudate was achieved by solubilization in the non-ionic detergent, digitonin, followed by sequential chromatography on the opiate affinity matrix, ..beta..-naltrexylethylenediamine-CH-Sepharose 4B, and on the lectine affinity matrix, wheat germ agglutinin-agarose. Polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis in the presence of sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS-PAGE) followed by autoradiography revealed that radioiodinated purified receptor gave a single band. Purified receptor preparations showed a specific activity of 12,000-15,000 fmol of opiate bound per mg of protein. Radioiodinated human beta-endorphin (/sup 125/I-beta-end/sub H/) was used as a probe to investigate the ligand binding subunits of mu and delta opioid receptors. /sup 125/I-beta-end/sub H/ was shown to bind to a variety of opioid receptor-containing tissues with high affinity and specificity with preference for mu and delta sites, and with little, if any, binding to kappa sites. Affinity crosslinking techniques were employed to covalently link /sup 125/I-beta-end/sub H/ to opioid receptors, utilizing derivatives of bis-succinimidyl esters that are bifunctional crosslinkers with specificities for amino and sulfhydryl groups. This, and competition experiments with high type-selective ligands, permitted the assignment of two labeled peptides to their receptor types, namely a peptide of M/sub r/ = 65,000 for mu receptors and one of M/sub r/ = 53,000 for delta receptors.

  7. Molecular cloning and characterization of multidomain xylanase from manure library

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The gene (manf-x10) encoding xylanase from an environmental genomic DNA library was cloned and expressed in Escherichia coli. The encoded enzyme was predicted to be 467 amino acids with a molecular mass of 50.3 kD. The recombinant ManF-X10 was purified by HisTrap affinity column and showed activit...

  8. Advances and applications of molecular cloning in clinical microbiology.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Kamal; Mishra, Ajay Kumar; Mehraj, Vikram; Duraisamy, Ganesh Selvaraj

    2014-10-01

    Molecular cloning is based on isolation of a DNA sequence of interest to obtain multiple copies of it in vitro. Application of this technique has become an increasingly important tool in clinical microbiology due to its simplicity, cost effectiveness, rapidity, and reliability. This review entails the recent advances in molecular cloning and its application in the clinical microbiology in the context of polymicrobial infections, recombinant antigens, recombinant vaccines, diagnostic probes, antimicrobial peptides, and recombinant cytokines. Culture-based methods in polymicrobial infection have many limitation, which has been overcome by cloning techniques and provide gold standard technique. Recombinant antigens produced by cloning technique are now being used for screening of HIV, HCV, HBV, CMV, Treponema pallidum, and other clinical infectious agents. Recombinant vaccines for hepatitis B, cholera, influenza A, and other diseases also use recombinant antigens which have replaced the use of live vaccines and thus reduce the risk for adverse effects. Gene probes developed by gene cloning have many applications including in early diagnosis of hereditary diseases, forensic investigations, and routine diagnosis. Industrial application of this technology produces new antibiotics in the form of antimicrobial peptides and recombinant cytokines that can be used as therapeutic agents. PMID:25023463

  9. Molecular cloning, cDNA analysis, and localization of a monomer of the N-acetylglucosamine-specific receptor of the thyroid, NAGR1, to chromosome 19p13. 3-13. 2

    SciTech Connect

    Blanck, O.; Perrin, C.; Mziaut, H.; Miquelis, R. ); Darbon, H. ); Mattei, M.G. )

    1994-05-01

    The authors have proposed that the GlcNAc thyroid receptor triggers selective recycling of immature GlcNAc-bearing thyroglobulin molecules through the Golgi back to the apical membrane for further processing until maturation is achieved. This process, which is called [open quotes]receptor-mediated exocytosis,[close quotes] prevents lysosomal degradation of thyroid prohormones. In the present study, the authors report cloning of the cDNA encoding the (or one of the) monomer(s) constituting the human GlcNAc thyroid receptor. This novel gene, called NAGR1, was assigned by in situ hybridization to subbands p13.3-p13.2 of chromosome 19. Northern blot analysis showed that the mRNA encoding NAGR1 was present as a single transcript of 2.1 kb in the thyroid, but not in the heart, brain, placenta, lung, liver, skeletal muscle, kidney, and pancreas. The deduced amino acid sequence comprised a 51-kDa type I membrane protein with a single spanning region and a short intracytoplasmic domain. Sequence analysis showed that NAGR1 is a glycine-, tryptophan-, and methionine-rich protein with no cysteine residues or glycosylation site. No sequence homology with any known cDNA or protein was noted. The extracellular domain is composed of 420 amino acids and contains a region of 204 residues showing 15 repeats of 4 amino acids, each 1 having an acidic amino acid presumably involved in calcium coordination. The intracellular domain contained what appeared to be a tyrosine internalization signal. The usefulness of this clone in glycobiology, cell biology, and thyroid pathology studies is discussed. 53 refs., 6 figs.

  10. Molecular and cytogenetic characterization of expanded B-cell clones from multiclonal versus monoclonal B-cell chronic lymphoproliferative disorders

    PubMed Central

    Henriques, Ana; Rodríguez-Caballero, Arancha; Criado, Ignacio; Langerak, Anton W.; Nieto, Wendy G.; Lécrevisse, Quentin; González, Marcos; Cortesão, Emília; Paiva, Artur; Almeida, Julia; Orfao, Alberto

    2014-01-01

    Chronic antigen-stimulation has been recurrently involved in the earlier stages of monoclonal B-cell lymphocytosis, chronic lymphocytic leukemia and other B-cell chronic lymphoproliferative disorders. The expansion of two or more B-cell clones has frequently been reported in individuals with these conditions; potentially, such coexisting clones have a greater probability of interaction with common immunological determinants. Here, we analyzed the B-cell receptor repertoire and molecular profile, as well as the phenotypic, cytogenetic and hematologic features, of 228 chronic lymphocytic leukemia-like and non-chronic lymphocytic leukemia-like clones comparing multiclonal (n=85 clones from 41 cases) versus monoclonal (n=143 clones) monoclonal B-cell lymphocytosis, chronic lymphocytic leukemia and other B-cell chronic lymphoproliferative disorders. The B-cell receptor of B-cell clones from multiclonal cases showed a slightly higher degree of HCDR3 homology than B-cell clones from mono clonal cases, in association with unique hematologic (e.g. lower B-lymphocyte counts) and cytogenetic (e.g. lower frequency of cytogenetically altered clones) features usually related to earlier stages of the disease. Moreover, a subgroup of coexisting B-cell clones from individual multiclonal cases which were found to be phylogenetically related showed unique molecular and cytogenetic features: they more frequently shared IGHV3 gene usage, shorter HCDR3 sequences with a greater proportion of IGHV mutations and del(13q14.3), than other unrelated B-cell clones. These results would support the antigen-driven nature of such multiclonal B-cell expansions, with potential involvement of multiple antigens/epitopes. PMID:24488564

  11. Cloning

    MedlinePlus

    Cloning describes the processes used to create an exact genetic replica of another cell, tissue or organism. ... named Dolly. There are three different types of cloning: Gene cloning, which creates copies of genes or ...

  12. Molecular cloning and amino acid sequence of human 5-lipoxygenase

    SciTech Connect

    Matsumoto, T.; Funk, C.D.; Radmark, O.; Hoeoeg, J.O.; Joernvall, H.; Samuelsson, B.

    1988-01-01

    5-Lipoxygenase (EC 1.13.11.34), a Ca/sup 2 +/- and ATP-requiring enzyme, catalyzes the first two steps in the biosynthesis of the peptidoleukotrienes and the chemotactic factor leukotriene B/sub 4/. A cDNA clone corresponding to 5-lipoxygenase was isolated from a human lung lambda gt11 expression library by immunoscreening with a polyclonal antibody. Additional clones from a human placenta lambda gt11 cDNA library were obtained by plaque hybridization with the /sup 32/P-labeled lung cDNA clone. Sequence data obtained from several overlapping clones indicate that the composite DNAs contain the complete coding region for the enzyme. From the deduced primary structure, 5-lipoxygenase encodes a 673 amino acid protein with a calculated molecular weight of 77,839. Direct analysis of the native protein and its proteolytic fragments confirmed the deduced composition, the amino-terminal amino acid sequence, and the structure of many internal segments. 5-Lipoxygenase has no apparent sequence homology with leukotriene A/sub 4/ hydrolase or Ca/sup 2 +/-binding proteins. RNA blot analysis indicated substantial amounts of an mRNA species of approx. = 2700 nucleotides in leukocytes, lung, and placenta.

  13. Molecular cloning and physical mapping of murine cytomegalovirus DNA.

    PubMed Central

    Ebeling, A; Keil, G M; Knust, E; Koszinowski, U H

    1983-01-01

    Murine cytomegalovirus (MCMV) Smith strain DNA is cleaved by restriction endonuclease HindIII into 16 fragments, ranging in size from 0.64 to 22.25 megadaltons. Of the 16 HindIII fragments, 15 were cloned in plasmid pACYC177 in Escherichia coli HB101 (recA). The recombinant plasmid clones were characterized by cleavage with the enzymes XbaI and EcoRI. In addition, fragments generated by double digestion of cloned fragments with HindIII and XbaI were inserted into the plasmid vector pACYC184. The results obtained after hybridization of 32P-labeled cloned fragments to Southern blots of MCMV DNA cleaved with HindIII, XbaI, EcoRI, BamHI, ApaI, ClaI, EcoRV, or KpnI allowed us to construct complete physical maps of the viral DNA for the restriction endonucleases HindIII, XbaI, and EcoRI. On the basis of the cloning and mapping experiments, it was calculated that the MCMV genome spans about 235 kilobase pairs, corresponding to a molecular weight of 155,000,000. All fragments were found to be present in equimolar concentrations, and no cross-hybridization between any of the fragments was seen. We conclude that the MCMV DNA molecule consists of a long unique sequence without large terminal or internal repeat regions. Thus, the structural organization of the MCMV genome is fundamentally different from that of the human cytomegalovirus or herpes simplex virus genome. Images PMID:6312075

  14. Cloning, constitutive activity and expression profiling of two receptors related to relaxin receptors in Drosophila melanogaster.

    PubMed

    Van Hiel, Matthias B; Vandersmissen, Hans Peter; Proost, Paul; Vanden Broeck, Jozef

    2015-06-01

    Leucine-rich repeat containing G protein-coupled receptors (LGRs) comprise a cluster of transmembrane proteins, characterized by the presence of a large N-terminal extracellular domain. This receptor group can be classified into three subtypes. Belonging to the subtype C LGRs are the mammalian relaxin receptors LGR7 (RXFP1) and LGR8 (RXFP2), which mediate important reproductive and other processes. We identified two related receptors in the genome of the fruit fly and cloned their open reading frames into an expression vector. Interestingly, dLGR3 demonstrated constitutive activity at very low doses of transfected plasmid, whereas dLGR4 did not show any basal activity. Both receptors exhibited a similar expression pattern during development, with relatively high transcript levels during the first larval stage. In addition, both receptors displayed higher expression in male adult flies as compared to female flies. Analysis of the tissue distribution of both receptor transcripts revealed a high expression of dLGR3 in the female fat body, while the expression of dLGR4 peaked in the midgut of both the wandering and adult stage. PMID:25064813

  15. Molecular cloning of canine co-chaperone small glutamine-rich tetratricopeptide repeat-containing protein α (SGTA) and investigation of its ability to suppress androgen receptor signalling in androgen-independent prostate cancer.

    PubMed

    Kato, Yuiko; Ochiai, Kazuhiko; Michishita, Masaki; Azakami, Daigo; Nakahira, Rei; Morimatsu, Masami; Ishiguro-Oonuma, Toshina; Yoshikawa, Yasunaga; Kobayashi, Masato; Bonkobara, Makoto; Kobayashi, Masanori; Takahashi, Kimimasa; Watanabe, Masami; Omi, Toshinori

    2015-11-01

    Although the morbidity of canine prostate cancer is low, the majority of cases present with resistance to androgen therapy and poor clinical outcomes. These pathological conditions are similar to the signs of the terminal stage of human androgen-independent prostate cancer. The co-chaperone small glutamine-rich tetratricopeptide repeat-containing protein α (SGTA) is known to be overexpressed in human androgen-independent prostate cancer. However, there is little information about the structure and function of canine SGTA. In this study, canine SGTA was cloned and analysed for its ability to suppress androgen receptor signalling. The full-length open reading frame (ORF) of the canine SGTA gene was amplified by RT-PCR using primers designed from canine-expressed sequence tags that were homologous to human SGTA. The canine SGTA ORF has high homology with the corresponding human (89%) and mouse (81%) sequences. SGTA dimerisation region and tetratricopeptide repeat (TPR) domains are conserved across the three species. The ability of canine SGTA to undergo homodimerisation was demonstrated by a mammalian two-hybrid system and a pull-down assay. The negative impact of canine SGTA on androgen receptor (AR) signalling was demonstrated using a reporter assay in androgen-independent human prostate cancer cell lines. Pathological analysis showed overexpression of SGTA in canine prostate cancer, but not in hyperplasia. A reporter assay in prostate cells demonstrated suppression of AR signalling by canine SGTA. Altogether, these results suggest that canine SGTA may play an important role in the acquisition of androgen independence by canine prostate cancer cells. PMID:26346258

  16. Dopamine receptor genes: new tools for molecular psychiatry.

    PubMed Central

    Niznik, H B; Van Tol, H H

    1992-01-01

    For over a decade it has been generally assumed that all the pharmacological and biochemical actions of dopamine within the central nervous system and periphery were mediated by two distinct dopamine receptors. These receptors, termed D1 and D2, were defined as those coupled to the stimulation or inhibition of adenylate cyclase, respectively, and by their selectivity and avidity for various drugs and compounds. The concept that two dopamine receptors were sufficient to account for all the effects mediated by dopamine was an oversimplification. Recent molecular biological studies have identified five distinct genes which encode at least eight functional dopamine receptors. The members of the expanded dopamine receptor family, however, can still be codifed by way of the original D1 and D2 receptor dichotomy. These include two genes encoding dopamine D1-like receptors (D1 [D1A]/D5 [D1B]) and three genes encoding D2-like receptors (D2/D3/D4). We review here our recent work on the cloning and characterization of some of the members of the dopamine receptor gene family (D1, D2, D4, D5), their relationship to neuropsychiatric disorders and their potential role in antipsychotic drug action. Images Fig. 1 PMID:1450188

  17. Functional properties of a cloned 5-hydroxytryptamine ionotropic receptor subunit: comparison with native mouse receptors.

    PubMed

    Hussy, N; Lukas, W; Jones, K A

    1994-12-01

    1. A comparative study of the whole-cell and single-channel properties of cloned and native mouse 5-hydroxytryptamine ionotropic receptors (5-HT3) was undertaken using mammalian cell lines expressing the cloned 5-HT3 receptor subunit A (5-HT3R-A), superior cervical ganglia (SCG) neurones and N1E-115 cells. 2. No pharmacological difference was found in the sensitivity to the agonists 5-HT and 2-methyl-5-HT, or to the antagonists d-tubocurare and 3-tropanyl-3,5-dichlorobenzoate (MDL-72222). 3. Current-voltage (I-V) relationships of whole-cell currents showed inward rectification in the three preparations. Rectification was stronger both in cells expressing the 5-HT3R-A subunit and in N1E-115 cells when compared with SCG neurones. 4. No clear openings could be resolved in 5-HT-activated currents in patches excised from cells expressing the 5-HT3R-A subunit or N1E-115 cells. Current fluctuation analysis of whole-cell and excised-patch records revealed a slope conductance of 0.4-0.6 pS in both preparations. Current-voltage relationships of these channels showed strong rectification that fully accounted for the whole-cell voltage dependence. 5. In contrast, single channels of about 10 pS were activated by 5-HT in patches excised from SCG neurones. The weak voltage dependence of their conductance did not account completely for the rectification of whole-cell currents. A lower unitary conductance (3.4 pS) was inferred from whole-cell noise analysis. 6. We conclude that the receptor expressed from the cloned cDNA is indistinguishable from the 5-HT3 receptor of N1E-115 cells, suggesting an identical structure for these two receptors. The higher conductance and different voltage dependence of the 5-HT3 receptor in SCG neurones might indicate the participation of an additional subunit in the structure of native ganglionic 5-HT3 receptors. Homo-oligomeric 5-HT3R-A channels may also be present as suggested by the lower conductance estimated by whole-cell noise analysis. PMID

  18. Molecular cloning and expression analysis on LPL of Coilia nasus.

    PubMed

    Wang, Meiyao; Xu, Dongpo; Liu, Kai; Yang, Jian; Xu, Pao

    2016-06-01

    Coilia nasus is one important commercial anadromous species which mainly distributed in the Yangtze River in China. At present, it has been on the "National Key Protective Species List" because of its severe resource damage. Lipid metabolism is very important during its long-distance migration. To make further research on lipid metabolism of C. nasus, we cloned lipoprotein lipase gene with homologous cloning method. A full-length cDNA of LPL of C. nasus was cloned from liver which covered 3537 bp with a 1519 bp open reading frame encoding 505 deduced amino acids whose molecular mass was 57.5 kDa and theoretical isoelectric point was 7.58. The deduced amino acids had high similarity with the reported LPL sequence of other species. It had typical conserved domain of LPL protein containing catalytic triad, N-linked glycosylation sites and conserved heparin-binding site, etc. We adopted quantitative real-time RT-PCR method to detect the mRNA expression of LPL of C. nasus in ten tissues including mesenteric adipose, liver, muscle, stomach, spleen, heart, head kidney, trunk kidney, gill and brain with β-actin as internal reference. LPL expressed in all the detected tissues. The highest expression was in mesenteric adipose, and followed by liver, muscle, stomach. Lipid expressed lowly in spleen, heart, head kidney, trunk kidney, gill and brain. The research on the cloning and differential expression of LPL of C. nasus will lay foundation for further research on lipid metabolism of C. nasus. PMID:26877109

  19. Expression cloning of a rat brain somatostatin receptor cDNA.

    PubMed Central

    Kluxen, F W; Bruns, C; Lübbert, H

    1992-01-01

    We have used an expression-cloning strategy to isolate a cDNA encoding a somatostatin (somatotropin release-inhibiting factor, SRIF) receptor from rat cortex and hippocampus. A positive clone was identified by autoradiography after binding of radiolabeled SRIF to COS-1 cells previously transfected with pools of cDNA clones. The deduced amino acid sequence of the receptor displays sequence and structural homology to the family of G-protein-coupled receptors. The affinity of various SRIF analogs to the expressed receptor resembles their effects on growth hormone release from pituitary cells. In addition, the distribution of the mRNA in various tissues corresponds to that described for native SRIF receptors. Therefore, we conclude that we have isolated a rat brain SRIF receptor cDNA. Images PMID:1374909

  20. Isolation and partial characterization of cDNA clone of human ceruloplasmin receptor.

    PubMed

    Sasina, L K; Tsymbalenko, N V; Platonova, N A; Puchkova, L V; Voronina, O V; Gyulikhandanova, N E; Gaitskhoki, V S

    2000-05-01

    An individual clone, presumably carrying a 3 bp fragment of ceruloplasmin receptor cDNA was isolated from the expression library of human placenta cDNA using polyclonal specific antibodies to ceruloplasmin receptors. EcoR1-hydrolysate of isolated DNA was cloned in a pTZ19 bacterial vector and sequenced in the forward and reverse direction. The comparison of the revealed sequence with known sequences of human genome revealed its high similarity to ceruloplasmin cDNA. PMID:10977961

  1. Characteristic molecular vibrations of adenosine receptor ligands.

    PubMed

    Chee, Hyun Keun; Yang, Jin-San; Joung, Je-Gun; Zhang, Byoung-Tak; Oh, S June

    2015-02-13

    Although the regulation of membrane receptor activation is known to be crucial for molecular signal transduction, the molecular mechanism underlying receptor activation is not fully elucidated. Here we study the physicochemical nature of membrane receptor behavior by investigating the characteristic molecular vibrations of receptor ligands using computational chemistry and informatics methods. By using information gain, t-tests, and support vector machines, we have identified highly informative features of adenosine receptor (AdoR) ligand and corresponding functional amino acid residues such as Asn (6.55) of AdoR that has informative significance and is indispensable for ligand recognition of AdoRs. These findings may provide new perspectives and insights into the fundamental mechanism of class A G protein-coupled receptor activation. PMID:25622891

  2. Cloning of the cDNA and gene for a human D sub 2 dopamine receptor

    SciTech Connect

    Grady, D.K.; Makam, H.; Stofko, R.E.; Bunzow, J.R.; Civelli, O. ); Marchionni, M.A.; Alfano, M.; Frothingham, L.; Fischer, J.B.; Burke-Howie, K.J.; Server, A.C. )

    1989-12-01

    A clone encoding a human D{sub 2} dopamine receptor was isolated from a pituitary cDNA library and sequenced. The deduced protein sequence is 96% identical with that of the cloned rat receptor with one major difference: the human receptor contains an additional 29 amino acids in its putative third cytoplasmic loop. Southern blotting demonstrated the presence of only one human D{sub 2} receptor gene. Two overlapping phage containing the gene were isolated and characterized. DNA sequence analysis of these clones showed that the coding sequence is interrupted by six introns and that the additional amino acids present in the human pituitary receptor are encoded by a single exon of 87 base pairs. The involvement of this sequence in alternative splicing and its biological significance are discussed.

  3. A highly efficient molecular cloning platform that utilises a small bacterial toxin gene.

    PubMed

    Mok, Wendy W K; Li, Yingfu

    2013-04-15

    Molecular cloning technologies that have emerged in recent years are more efficient and simpler to use than traditional strategies, but many have the disadvantages of requiring multiple steps and expensive proprietary enzymes. We have engineered cloning vectors containing variants of IbsC, a 19-residue toxin from Escherichia coli K-12. These toxic peptides offer selectivity to minimise the background, labour, and cost associated with conventional molecular cloning. As demonstrated with the cloning of reporter genes, this "detox cloning" system consistently produced over 95 % positive clones. Purification steps between digestion and ligation are not necessary, and the total time between digestion and plating of transformants can be as little as three hours. Thus, these IbsC-based cloning vectors are as reliable and amenable to high-throughput cloning as commercially available systems, and have the advantage of being more time-efficient and cost-effective. PMID:23512843

  4. Molecular cloning of the extracellular endodextranase of Streptococcus salivarius.

    PubMed Central

    Lawman, P; Bleiweis, A S

    1991-01-01

    We report the cloning in Escherichia coli of the gene encoding an extracellular endodextranase (alpha-1,6-glucanhydrolase, EC 3.2.1.11) from Streptococcus salivarius PC-1. Recombinants from a S. salivarius PC-1-Lambda ZAP II genomic library specifying dextranase activity were identified as plaques surrounded by zones of clearing on blue dextran agar. One such clone, PD1, had a 6.3-kb EcoRI fragment insert which encoded a 190-kDa protein with dextranase activity. The recombinant strain also produced two lower-molecular-mass polypeptides (90 and 70 kDa) that had dextranase activity. Native dextranase was recovered from concentrated culture fluids of S. salivarius as a single 110-kDa polypeptide. PD1 phage lysate and PC-1 culture supernatant fluid extract were used to measure substrate specificity of the recombinant and native forms of dextranase, respectively. Analysis of these reaction products by thin-layer chromatography revealed the expected isomaltosaccharide products yielded by the recombinant-specified enzyme but was unable to resolve the larger polysaccharide products of the native enzyme. Furthermore, S. salivarius utilized neither the substrates nor the products of dextran hydrolysis for growth. Images FIG. 1 FIG. 2 FIG. 3 FIG. 4 PMID:1938938

  5. Ab initio multiple cloning algorithm for quantum nonadiabatic molecular dynamics

    SciTech Connect

    Makhov, Dmitry V.; Shalashilin, Dmitrii V.; Glover, William J.; Martinez, Todd J.

    2014-08-07

    We present a new algorithm for ab initio quantum nonadiabatic molecular dynamics that combines the best features of ab initio Multiple Spawning (AIMS) and Multiconfigurational Ehrenfest (MCE) methods. In this new method, ab initio multiple cloning (AIMC), the individual trajectory basis functions (TBFs) follow Ehrenfest equations of motion (as in MCE). However, the basis set is expanded (as in AIMS) when these TBFs become sufficiently mixed, preventing prolonged evolution on an averaged potential energy surface. We refer to the expansion of the basis set as “cloning,” in analogy to the “spawning” procedure in AIMS. This synthesis of AIMS and MCE allows us to leverage the benefits of mean-field evolution during periods of strong nonadiabatic coupling while simultaneously avoiding mean-field artifacts in Ehrenfest dynamics. We explore the use of time-displaced basis sets, “trains,” as a means of expanding the basis set for little cost. We also introduce a new bra-ket averaged Taylor expansion (BAT) to approximate the necessary potential energy and nonadiabatic coupling matrix elements. The BAT approximation avoids the necessity of computing electronic structure information at intermediate points between TBFs, as is usually done in saddle-point approximations used in AIMS. The efficiency of AIMC is demonstrated on the nonradiative decay of the first excited state of ethylene. The AIMC method has been implemented within the AIMS-MOLPRO package, which was extended to include Ehrenfest basis functions.

  6. Ab initio multiple cloning algorithm for quantum nonadiabatic molecular dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Makhov, Dmitry V.; Glover, William J.; Martinez, Todd J.; Shalashilin, Dmitrii V.

    2014-08-01

    We present a new algorithm for ab initio quantum nonadiabatic molecular dynamics that combines the best features of ab initio Multiple Spawning (AIMS) and Multiconfigurational Ehrenfest (MCE) methods. In this new method, ab initio multiple cloning (AIMC), the individual trajectory basis functions (TBFs) follow Ehrenfest equations of motion (as in MCE). However, the basis set is expanded (as in AIMS) when these TBFs become sufficiently mixed, preventing prolonged evolution on an averaged potential energy surface. We refer to the expansion of the basis set as "cloning," in analogy to the "spawning" procedure in AIMS. This synthesis of AIMS and MCE allows us to leverage the benefits of mean-field evolution during periods of strong nonadiabatic coupling while simultaneously avoiding mean-field artifacts in Ehrenfest dynamics. We explore the use of time-displaced basis sets, "trains," as a means of expanding the basis set for little cost. We also introduce a new bra-ket averaged Taylor expansion (BAT) to approximate the necessary potential energy and nonadiabatic coupling matrix elements. The BAT approximation avoids the necessity of computing electronic structure information at intermediate points between TBFs, as is usually done in saddle-point approximations used in AIMS. The efficiency of AIMC is demonstrated on the nonradiative decay of the first excited state of ethylene. The AIMC method has been implemented within the AIMS-MOLPRO package, which was extended to include Ehrenfest basis functions.

  7. Ab initio multiple cloning algorithm for quantum nonadiabatic molecular dynamics.

    PubMed

    Makhov, Dmitry V; Glover, William J; Martinez, Todd J; Shalashilin, Dmitrii V

    2014-08-01

    We present a new algorithm for ab initio quantum nonadiabatic molecular dynamics that combines the best features of ab initio Multiple Spawning (AIMS) and Multiconfigurational Ehrenfest (MCE) methods. In this new method, ab initio multiple cloning (AIMC), the individual trajectory basis functions (TBFs) follow Ehrenfest equations of motion (as in MCE). However, the basis set is expanded (as in AIMS) when these TBFs become sufficiently mixed, preventing prolonged evolution on an averaged potential energy surface. We refer to the expansion of the basis set as "cloning," in analogy to the "spawning" procedure in AIMS. This synthesis of AIMS and MCE allows us to leverage the benefits of mean-field evolution during periods of strong nonadiabatic coupling while simultaneously avoiding mean-field artifacts in Ehrenfest dynamics. We explore the use of time-displaced basis sets, "trains," as a means of expanding the basis set for little cost. We also introduce a new bra-ket averaged Taylor expansion (BAT) to approximate the necessary potential energy and nonadiabatic coupling matrix elements. The BAT approximation avoids the necessity of computing electronic structure information at intermediate points between TBFs, as is usually done in saddle-point approximations used in AIMS. The efficiency of AIMC is demonstrated on the nonradiative decay of the first excited state of ethylene. The AIMC method has been implemented within the AIMS-MOLPRO package, which was extended to include Ehrenfest basis functions. PMID:25106573

  8. Characterization of new monoclonal antibodies against porcine lymphocytes: molecular characterization of clone 7G3, an antibody reactive with the constant region of the T-cell receptor delta-chains.

    PubMed

    Tang, W-R; Shioya, N; Eguchi, T; Ebata, T; Matsui, J; Takenouchi, H; Honma, D; Yasue, H; Takagaki, Y; Enosawa, S; Itagaki, M; Taguchi, T; Kiyokawa, N; Amemiya, H; Fujimoto, J

    2005-01-10

    A battery of mouse monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) reactive with porcine peripheral blood (PB) leukocytes was generated. Among the mAbs, 6F10 was found to react probably with cluster of differentiation (CD)8 alpha-chain, while 7G3 and 3E12 were found to recognize gammadelta T-cells, as revealed by two-color flow cytometric and immunoprecipitation studies. 7G3 was shown to react with the constant (C) region of the T-cell receptor (TCR) delta-chain by the following facts: (1) 7G3 immunoprecipitated full-length TCR delta-chain protein fused with glutathione S-transferase (GST) produced by Esherichia coli and (2) 7G3 reacted with TCR delta-chain expressing Cos-7 cells transfected with either full-length or N-terminal deleted mutant cDNA, but did not react with Cos-7 cells transfected with C-terminal deleted mutant TCR delta-chain cDNA. All three mAbs produced high-quality immunostaining results on frozen sections, revealing a distinct distribution of gammadelta T-cells and CD8(+) cells. This report precisely characterizes mAbs against porcine TCR for the first time, facilitating molecular biological investigations of the porcine immune system. PMID:15626467

  9. Cloning

    MedlinePlus

    ... DNA Reproductive cloning, which creates copies of whole animals Therapeutic cloning, which creates embryonic stem cells. Researchers hope to use these cells to grow healthy tissue to replace injured or diseased tissues in the human body. NIH: National Human Genome Research Institute

  10. Using "Pseudomonas Putida xylE" Gene to Teach Molecular Cloning Techniques for Undergraduates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dong, Xu; Xin, Yi; Ye, Li; Ma, Yufang

    2009-01-01

    We have developed and implemented a serial experiment in molecular cloning laboratory course for undergraduate students majored in biotechnology. "Pseudomonas putida xylE" gene, encoding catechol 2, 3-dioxygenase, was manipulated to learn molecular biology techniques. The integration of cloning, expression, and enzyme assay gave students a chance…

  11. Molecular and biological characterization of a neurovirulent molecular clone of simian immunodeficiency virus.

    PubMed Central

    Flaherty, M T; Hauer, D A; Mankowski, J L; Zink, M C; Clements, J E

    1997-01-01

    To identify the molecular determinants of neurovirulence, we constructed an infectious simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) molecular clone, SIV/17E-Fr, that contained the 3' end of a neurovirulent strain of SIV, SIV/17E-Br, derived by in vivo virus passage. SIV/17E-Fr is macrophage tropic in vitro and neurovirulent in macaques. In contrast, a molecular clone, SIV/17E-Cl, that contains the SU and a portion of the TM sequences of SIV/17E-Br is macrophage tropic but not neurovirulent. To identify the amino acids that accounted for the replication differences between SIV/17E-Fr and SIV/17E-Cl in primary macaque cells in vitro, additional infectious molecular clones were constructed. Analysis of these recombinant viruses revealed that changes in the TM portion of the envelope protein were required for the highest level of replication in primary macaque macrophages and brain cells derived from the microvessel endothelium. In addition, a full-length Nef protein is necessary for optimum virus replication in both of these cell types. Finally, viruses expressing a full-length Nef protein in conjunction with the changes in the TM had the highest specific infectivity in a sMAGI assay. Thus, changes in the TM and nef genes between SIV/17E-Cl and SIV/17E-Fr account for replication differences in vitro and correlate with replication in the central nervous system in vivo. PMID:9223467

  12. Molecular properties of muscarinic acetylcholine receptors

    PubMed Central

    HAGA, Tatsuya

    2013-01-01

    Muscarinic acetylcholine receptors, which comprise five subtypes (M1-M5 receptors), are expressed in both the CNS and PNS (particularly the target organs of parasympathetic neurons). M1-M5 receptors are integral membrane proteins with seven transmembrane segments, bind with acetylcholine (ACh) in the extracellular phase, and thereafter interact with and activate GTP-binding regulatory proteins (G proteins) in the intracellular phase: M1, M3, and M5 receptors interact with Gq-type G proteins, and M2 and M4 receptors with Gi/Go-type G proteins. Activated G proteins initiate a number of intracellular signal transduction systems. Agonist-bound muscarinic receptors are phosphorylated by G protein-coupled receptor kinases, which initiate their desensitization through uncoupling from G proteins, receptor internalization, and receptor breakdown (down regulation). Recently the crystal structures of M2 and M3 receptors were determined and are expected to contribute to the development of drugs targeted to muscarinic receptors. This paper summarizes the molecular properties of muscarinic receptors with reference to the historical background and bias to studies performed in our laboratories. PMID:23759942

  13. 3D modeling, ligand binding and activation studies of the cloned mouse delta, mu; and kappa opioid receptors.

    PubMed

    Filizola, M; Laakkonen, L; Loew, G H

    1999-11-01

    Refined 3D models of the transmembrane domains of the cloned delta, mu and kappa opioid receptors belonging to the superfamily of G-protein coupled receptors (GPCRs) were constructed from a multiple sequence alignment using the alpha carbon template of rhodopsin recently reported. Other key steps in the procedure were relaxation of the 3D helix bundle by unconstrained energy optimization and assessment of the stability of the structure by performing unconstrained molecular dynamics simulations of the energy optimized structure. The results were stable ligand-free models of the TM domains of the three opioid receptors. The ligand-free delta receptor was then used to develop a systematic and reliable procedure to identify and assess putative binding sites that would be suitable for similar investigation of the other two receptors and GPCRs in general. To this end, a non-selective, 'universal' antagonist, naltrexone, and agonist, etorphine, were used as probes. These ligands were first docked in all sites of the model delta opioid receptor which were sterically accessible and to which the protonated amine of the ligands could be anchored to a complementary proton-accepting residue. Using these criteria, nine ligand-receptor complexes with different binding pockets were identified and refined by energy minimization. The properties of all these possible ligand-substrate complexes were then examined for consistency with known experimental results of mutations in both opioid and other GPCRs. Using this procedure, the lowest energy agonist-receptor and antagonist-receptor complexes consistent with these experimental results were identified. These complexes were then used to probe the mechanism of receptor activation by identifying differences in receptor conformation between the agonist and the antagonist complex during unconstrained dynamics simulation. The results lent support to a possible activation mechanism of the mouse delta opioid receptor similar to that recently

  14. Molecular Pharmacology of Chemokine Receptors.

    PubMed

    de Wit, Raymond H; de Munnik, Sabrina M; Leurs, Rob; Vischer, Henry F; Smit, Martine J

    2016-01-01

    Chemokine receptors are involved in various pathologies such as inflammatory diseases, cancer, and HIV infection. Small molecule and antibody-based antagonists have been developed to inhibit chemokine-induced receptor activity. Currently two small molecule inhibitors targeting CXCR4 and CCR5 are on the market for stem cell mobilization and the treatment of HIV infection, respectively. Antibody fragments (e.g., nanobodies) targeting chemokine receptors are primarily orthosteric ligands, competing for the chemokine binding site. This is opposed by most small molecules, which act as allosteric modulators and bind to the receptor at a topographically distinct site as compared to chemokines. Allosteric modulators can be distinguished from orthosteric ligands by unique features, such as a saturable effect and probe dependency. For successful drug development, it is essential to determine pharmacological parameters (i.e., affinity, potency, and efficacy) and the mode of action of potential drugs during early stages of research in order to predict the biological effect of chemokine receptor targeting drugs in the clinic. This chapter explains how the pharmacological profile of chemokine receptor targeting ligands can be determined and quantified using binding and functional experiments. PMID:26921959

  15. Cloning and expression of prostaglandin E2 receptor subtype 1 (ep 1 ) in Bostrichthys sinensis.

    PubMed

    Lai, Xiao Jian; Hong, Wan Shu; Liu, Fang; Zhang, Yu Ting; Chen, Shi Xi

    2014-08-01

    Our previous studies suggested that prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) is a putative sex pheromone in Chinese black sleeper Bostrichthys sinensis, a fish species that inhabits intertidal zones and mates and spawns inside a muddy burrow. We found immunoreactivities of PGE2 receptor subtypes (Ep1-3) expressed in the olfactory sac, but only Ep1 presented higher density of immunoreactivity in mature fish than that in immature fish in both sexes. To gain a better understanding of the underlying molecular mechanism for the detection of PGE2 in the olfactory system, we cloned an ep 1 cDNA from the adult olfactory sac. The open-reading frame of the ep 1 consisted of 1,134-bp nucleotides that encoded a 378-amino acid-long protein with a seven-transmembrane domain, typical for the G protein-coupled receptors superfamily. Expression of ep 1 mRNA was observed in all tissues examined, with higher levels obtained in the olfactory sacs and testes. The expression of ep 1 mRNA in the olfactory sacs and gonads was significantly higher in both sexes of mature fish than in those of immature ones. Taken together, our results suggested that Ep1, which is highly expressed in the olfactory sacs and gonads of mature fish, is important for the control of reproduction and may be involved in PGE2-initiated spawning behavior in B. sinensis. PMID:24566823

  16. Molecular Mechanisms of Prolactin and Its Receptor

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Prolactin and the prolactin receptors are members of a family of hormone/receptor pairs which include GH, erythropoietin, and other ligand/receptor pairs. The mechanisms of these ligand/receptor pairs have broad similarities, including general structures, ligand/receptor stoichiometries, and activation of several common signaling pathways. But significant variations in the structural and mechanistic details are present among these hormones and their type 1 receptors. The prolactin receptor is particularly interesting because it can be activated by three sequence-diverse human hormones: prolactin, GH, and placental lactogen. This system offers a unique opportunity to compare the detailed molecular mechanisms of these related hormone/receptor pairs. This review critically evaluates selected literature that informs these mechanisms, compares the mechanisms of the three lactogenic hormones, compares the mechanism with those of other class 1 ligand/receptor pairs, and identifies information that will be required to resolve mechanistic ambiguities. The literature describes distinct mechanistic differences between the three lactogenic hormones and their interaction with the prolactin receptor and describes more significant differences between the mechanisms by which other related ligands interact with and activate their receptors. PMID:22577091

  17. Molecular characterization of an. alpha. sub 2B -adrenergic receptor

    SciTech Connect

    Harrison, J.K.; Dewan Zeng; D'Angelo, D.D.; Tucker, A.L.; Zhihong Lu; Barber, C.M.; Lynch, K.R. )

    1990-02-26

    {alpha}{sub 2}-Adrenergic receptors comprise a heterogeneous population based on pharmacologic and molecular evidence. The authors have isolated a cDNA clone (pRNG{alpha}2) encoding a previously undescribed third subtype of an {alpha}{sub 2}-adrenergic receptor from a rat kidney cDNA library. The library was screened with an oligonucleotide encoding a highly conserved region found in all biogenic amine receptors described to date. The deduced amino acid sequence displays many features of G-protein coupled receptors with exception of the absence of the consensus N-linked glycosylation site at the amino terminus. Membranes prepared from COS-1 cells transfected with pRNG{alpha}2 display high affinity and saturable binding to {sup 3}H-rauwolscine (K{sub d}=2 nM).Competition curve data analysis shows that pRNG{alpha}2 protein binds to a variety of adrenergic drugs with the following rank order of potency: yohimbine {ge} cholorpromazine > prazosin {ge} clonidine > norepinephrine {ge} oxymetazoline. pRNG{alpha}2 RNA accumulates in both adult rat kidney and rat neonatal lung (predominant species is 4.0 kb). They conclude that pRNG{alpha}2 likely represents a cDNA for the {alpha}{sub 2B}-adrenergic receptor.

  18. Databasing Molecular Identities of Louisiana, Florida, and Texas Sugarcane Clones

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sugarcane (Saccharum spp. hybrids) clones (cultivars and superior breeding lines) are routinely exchanged across geographic locations for field-testing or crossing. It is crucial to maintain the genetic identity of these clones during field collection, shipping, and quarantine. Traditionally, suga...

  19. Cloning and retinal expression of melatonin receptors in the European sea bass, Dicentrarchus labrax.

    PubMed

    Sauzet, Sandrine; Besseau, Laurence; Herrera Perez, Patricia; Covès, Denis; Chatain, Béatrice; Peyric, Elodie; Boeuf, Gilles; Muñoz-Cueto, José Antonio; Falcón, Jack

    2008-06-01

    Melatonin contributes to synchronizing behaviors and physiological functions to daily and seasonal rhythm in fish. However, no coherent vision emerges because the effects vary with the species, sex, age, moment of the year or sexual cycle. And, scarce information is available concerning the melatonin receptors, which is crucial to our understanding of the role melatonin plays. We report here the full length cloning of three different melatonin receptor subtypes in the sea bass Dicentrarchus labrax, belonging, respectively, to the MT1, MT2 and Mel1c subtypes. MT1, the most abundantly expressed, was detected in the central nervous system, retina, and gills. MT2 was detected in the pituitary gland, blood cells and, to a lesser extend, in the optic tectum, diencephalon, liver and retina. Mel1c was mainly expressed in the skin; traces were found in the retina. The cellular sites of MT1 and MT2 expressions were investigated by in situ hybridization in the retina of pigmented and albino fish. The strongest signals were obtained with the MT1 riboprobes. Expression was seen in cells also known to express the enzymes of the melatonin biosynthesis, i.e., in the photoreceptor, inner nuclear and ganglion cell layers. MT1 receptor mRNAs were also abundant in the retinal pigment epithelium. The results are consistent with the idea that melatonin is an autocrine (neural retina) and paracrine (retinal pigment epithelium) regulator of retinal function. The molecular tools provided here will be of valuable interest to further investigate the targets and role of melatonin in nervous and peripheral tissues of fish. PMID:18555069

  20. Applications of the Restriction Free (RF) cloning procedure for molecular manipulations and protein expression.

    PubMed

    Unger, Tamar; Jacobovitch, Yossi; Dantes, Ada; Bernheim, Reut; Peleg, Yoav

    2010-10-01

    Molecular manipulations, including DNA cloning and mutagenesis are basic tools used on a routine basis in all life-science disciplines. Over the last decade new methodologies have emerged that facilitated and expanded the applications for DNA cloning and mutagenesis. Ligation-Independent Cloning (LIC) techniques were developed and replaced the classical Ligation Dependent Cloning (LDC) platform. Restriction Free (RF) cloning was originally developed for introduction of foreign DNA into a plasmid at any predetermined position. RF cloning is based on PCR amplification of a DNA fragment, which serves as a mega-primer for the linear amplification of the vector and insert. Here we present several novel applications of the Restriction Free (RF) cloning platform for DNA cloning and mutagenesis. The new applications include simultaneous cloning of several DNA fragments into distinct positions within an expression vector, simultaneous multi-component assembly, and parallel cloning of the same PCR product into a series of different vectors. In addition, we have expanded the application of the RF cloning platform for multiple alterations of the target DNA, including simultaneous multiple-site mutagenesis and simultaneous introduction of deletions and insertions at different positions. We further demonstrate the robustness of the new applications for facilitating recombinant protein expression in the Escherichia coli system. PMID:20600952

  1. Molecular cloning, characterization, and expression of sheep FGF5 gene.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Lihua; He, Sangang; Liu, Mingjun; Liu, Guosong; Yuan, Zheng; Liu, Chenxi; Zhang, Xumei; Zhang, Ning; Li, Wenrong

    2015-01-25

    The fibroblast growth factor 5 gene (FGF5) is a member of the FGF gene family, and represents a candidate gene for hair length because of its role in the regulation of the hair follicle growth cycle. In our current study, we cloned, sequenced, and characterized the full-length FGF5 cDNA of Chinese Merino sheep. We obtained the complete genomic sequence of the FGF5 gene from sheep blood samples, and compared it to other FGF5 sequences in GenBank. We found that the FGF5 gene spanned 21,743bp of genomic DNA, and consisted of 3 exons and 2 introns, both of which differed from those of a previously annotated FGF5 genomic sequence from sheep. We also identified a previously undescribed FGF5 mRNA splicing variant, FGF5S, and the western blot analysis showed that the molecular weights of the FGF5 (34kDa) and FGF5s (17kDa) proteins were consistent with the estimates based on the genomic and cDNA sequence data. We examined the expression of both FGF5 mRNAs in various tissues of sheep, and found that the expression of the FGF5S mRNA was restricted to the brain, spleen, and skin tissue. The single-nucleotide polymorphism analysis of the genomic sequence revealed 72 genetic variants of the FGF5 gene. Our findings provide insight into the functions of the FGF5 gene in Chinese Merino. PMID:25445274

  2. Cloning and expression of an A1 adenosine receptor from rat brain

    SciTech Connect

    Mahan, L.C.; McVittie, L.D.; Smyk-Randall, E.M.; Nakata, H.; Monsma, F.J. Jr.; Gerfen, C.R.; Sibley, D.R. )

    1991-07-01

    The authors have used the polymerase chain reaction technique to selectively amplify guanine nucleotide-binding regulatory protein (G protein)-coupled receptor cDNA sequences from rat striatal mRNA, using sets of highly degenerate primers derived from transmembrane sequences of previously cloned G protein-coupled receptors. A novel cDNA fragment was identified, which exhibits considerable homology to various members of the G protein-coupled receptor family. This fragment was used to isolate a full-length cDNA from a rat striatal library. A 2.2-kilobase clone was obtained that encodes a protein of 326 amino acids with seven transmembrane domains, as predicted by hydropathy analysis. Stably transfected mouse A9-L cells and Chinese hamster ovary cells that expressed mRNA for this clone were screened with putative receptor ligands. Saturable and specific binding sites for the A1 adenosine antagonist (3H)-1,3-dipropyl-8-cyclopentylxanthine were identified on membranes from transfected cells. The rank order of potency and affinities of various adenosine agonist and antagonist ligands confirmed the identity of this cDNA clone as an A1 adenosine receptor. The high affinity binding of A1 adenosine agonists was shown to be sensitive to the nonhydrolyzable GTP analog guanylyl-5{prime}-imidodiphosphate. In adenylyl cyclase assays, adenosine agonists inhibited forskolin-stimulated cAMP production by greater than 50%, in a pharmacologically specific fashion. Northern blot and in situ hybridization analyses of receptor mRNA in brain tissues revealed two transcripts of 5.6 and 3.1 kilobases, both of which were abundant in cortex, cerebellum, hippocampus, and thalamus, with lower levels in olfactory bulb, striatum, mesencephalon, and retina. These regional distribution data are in good agreement with previous receptor autoradiographic studies involving the A1 adenosine receptor.

  3. RTA, a candidate G protein-coupled receptor: cloning, sequencing, and tissue distribution.

    PubMed Central

    Ross, P C; Figler, R A; Corjay, M H; Barber, C M; Adam, N; Harcus, D R; Lynch, K R

    1990-01-01

    Genomic and cDNA clones, encoding a protein that is a member of the guanine nucleotide-binding regulatory protein (G protein)-coupled receptor superfamily, were isolated by screening rat genomic and thoracic aorta cDNA libraries with an oligonucleotide encoding a highly conserved region of the M1 muscarinic acetylcholine receptor. Sequence analyses of these clones showed that they encode a 343-amino acid protein (named RTA). The RTA gene is single copy, as demonstrated by restriction mapping and Southern blotting of genomic clones and rat genomic DNA. Sequence analysis of the genomic clone further showed that the RTA gene has an intron interrupting the region encoding the amino terminus of the protein. RTA RNA sequences are relatively abundant throughout the gut, vas deferens, uterus, and aorta but are only barely detectable (on Northern blots) in liver, kidney, lung, and salivary gland. In the rat brain, RTA sequences are markedly abundant in the cerebellum. RTA is most closely related to the mas oncogene (34% identity), which has been suggested to be a forebrain angiotensin receptor. We cannot detect angiotensin binding to the RTA protein after introducing the cognate cDNA or mRNA into COS cells or Xenopus oocytes, respectively, nor can we detect an electrophysiologic response in the oocyte after application of angiotensin peptides. We conclude that RTA is not an angiotensin receptor; to date, we have been unable to identify its ligand. Images PMID:2109324

  4. mu opiate receptor: cDNA cloning and expression.

    PubMed Central

    Wang, J B; Imai, Y; Eppler, C M; Gregor, P; Spivak, C E; Uhl, G R

    1993-01-01

    mu opiate receptors recognize morphine with high affinity. A 2.1-kb rat brain cDNA whose predicted translation product displays 63% identity with recently described delta and kappa opiate receptor sequences was identified through polymerase chain reaction and cDNA homology approaches. This cDNA recognizes a 10.5-kb mRNA that is expressed in thalamic neurons. COS-cell expression confers naloxonazine-, Na(+)-, and GTP-sensitive binding of mu but not delta or kappa opioid ligands. Expressing cells bind morphine, [D-Ala2,N-methyl-Phe4,glyol5]enkephalin (DAMGO), and [D-Ala2,D-Leu5]enkephalin (DADLE) with nanomolar or subnanomolar affinities, defining a mu opiate receptor that avidly recognizes analgesic and euphoric opiate drugs and opioid peptides. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 3 PMID:8234282

  5. Cloning of a factor required for activity of the Ah (dioxin) receptor

    SciTech Connect

    Hoffman, E.C.; Reyes, H.; Chu, Fongfong; Sander, F.; Conley, L.H.; Brooks, B.A.; Hankinson, O. )

    1991-05-17

    The aryl hydrocarbon (Ah) receptor binds various environmental pollutants, such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, heterocyclic amines, and polychlorinated aromatic compounds (dioxins, dibenzofurans, and biphenyls), and mediates the carcinogenic effects of these agents. The complementary DNA and part of the gene for an 87-kilodalton human protein that is necessary for Ah receptor function have been cloned. The protein is not the ligand-binding subunit of the receptor but is a factor that is required for the ligand-binding subunit to translocate from the cytosol to the nucleus after binding ligand. The requirement for this factor distinguishes the Ah receptor from the glucocorticoid receptor, to which the Ah receptor has been presumed to be similar. Two portions of the 87-kilodalton protein share sequence similarities with two Drosophila proteins, Per and Sim. Another segment of the protein shows conformity to the consensus sequence for the basic helix-loop-helix motif found in proteins that bind DNA as homodimers or heterodimers.

  6. Problem-Solving Test: Expression Cloning of the Erythropoietin Receptor

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Szeberenyi, Jozsef

    2008-01-01

    Terms to be familiar with before you start to solve the test: cytokines, cytokine receptors, cDNA library, cDNA synthesis, poly(A)[superscript +] RNA, primer, template, reverse transcriptase, restriction endonucleases, cohesive ends, expression vector, promoter, Shine-Dalgarno sequence, poly(A) signal, DNA helicase, DNA ligase, topoisomerases,…

  7. Molecular characterization of human thyroid hormone receptor β isoform 4.

    PubMed

    Moriyama, Kenji; Yamamoto, Hiroyuki; Futawaka, Kumi; Atake, Asami; Kasahara, Masato; Tagami, Tetsuya

    2016-01-01

    Thyroid hormone exerts a pleiotropic effect on development, differentiation, and metabolism through thyroid hormone receptor (TR). A novel thyroid hormone receptor β isoform (TRβ4) was cloned using PCR from a human pituitary cDNA library as a template. We report here the characterization of TRβ4 from a molecular basis. Temporal expression of TRβ4 during the fetal period is abundant in the brain and kidney, comparable with the adult pattern. Western blot analysis revealed that TRs are ubiquitination labile proteins, while TRβ1 is potentially stable. TRβ1, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPAR), and vitamin D receptor (VDR), which belong to class II transcription factors that function via the formation of heterodimeric complexes with retinoid X receptor (RXR), were suppressed by TRβ4 in a dose-dependent manner. Thus, TRβ4 exhibits ligand-independent transcriptional silencing, possibly as a substitute for dimerized RXR. In this study, TRβ1 and TRβ4 transcripts were detected in several cell lines. Quantitative RT-PCR assay showed that the expression of TRβ4 in human embryonic carcinoma cells of the testis was suppressed by sex hormone in a reciprocal manner to TRβ1. In contrast, TRβ4 was expressed under a high dose of triiodothyronine (T3) in a reciprocal manner to TRβ1. Finally, in transiently transfected NIH-3T3 cells, green fluorescence protein (GFP)-tagged TRβ4 was mostly nuclear in both the absence and the presence of T3. By mutating defined regions of both TRβs, we found that both TRβ1 and TRβ4 had altered nuclear/cytoplasmic distribution as compared with wild-type, and different to T3 and the nuclear receptor corepressor (NCoR). Thus, site-specific DNA binding is not essential for maintaining TRβs within the nucleus. PMID:26513165

  8. Molecular cloning of viral DNA from human genital warts.

    PubMed Central

    de Villiers, E M; Gissmann, L; zur Hausen, H

    1981-01-01

    The DNA of human papilloma virus type 6 (HPV 6) has been cloned in Escherichia coli K-12 by using pBR322 as vector. The DNA was cloned at the BamHI and EcoRI cleavage sites. This DNA was mapped by employing further restriction endonucleases and by terminal labeling. No major differences were noted as compared to HPV 6 DNA originating directly from a genital wart. The existence of at least two DNA subtypes (HPV 6a and 6b) became apparent. Images PMID:6275126

  9. Molecular cloning of gluconobacter oxydans DSM 2003 xylitol dehydrogenase gene

    PubMed Central

    Sadeghi, H. Mir Mohammad; Ahmadi, R.; Aghaabdollahian, S.; Mofid, M.R.; Ghaemi, Y.; Abedi, D.

    2011-01-01

    Due to the widespread applications of xylitol dehydrogenase, an enzyme used for the production of xylitol, the present study was designed for the cloning of xylitol dehydrogenase gene from Glcunobacter oxydans DSM 2003. After extraction of genomic DNA from this bacterium, xylitol dehydrogenase gene was replicated using polymerase chain reaction (PCR). The amplified product was entered into pTZ57R cloning vector by T/A cloning method and transformation was performed by heat shocking of the E. coli XL1-blue competent cells. Following plasmid preparation, the cloned gene was digested out and ligated into the expression vector pET-22b(+). Electrophoresis of PCR product showed a 789 bp band. Recombinant plasmid (rpTZ57R) was then constructed. This plasmid was double digested with XhoI and EcoRI resulting in 800 bp and 2900 bp bands. The obtained insert was ligated into pET-22b(+) vector and its orientation was confirmed with XhoI and BamHI restriction enzymes. In conclusion, in the present study the recombinant expression vector containing xylitol dehydrogenase gene has been constructed and can be used for the production of this enzyme in high quantities. PMID:22110522

  10. Molecular cloning and functional characterization of avian interleukin-19

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The present study describes the cloning and functional characterization of avian interleukin (IL)-19, a cytokine that, in mammals, alters the balance of Th1 and Th2 cells in favor of the Th2 phenotype. The full-length avian IL-19 gene, located on chromosome 26, was amplified from LPS-stimulated chi...

  11. Molecular cloning and characterization of duck interleukin-17

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Interleukin-17 (IL-17) belonging to the Th17 family is a proinflammatory cytokine produced by activated T cells. A 1034-bp cDNA encoding duck IL-17 (duIL-17) was cloned from ConA-activated splenic lymphocytes of ducks. The encoded protein, predicted to consisted of 169 amino acids, displayed a molec...

  12. [Molecular mechanisms for AMPA receptor trafficking].

    PubMed

    Fukata, Masaki; Fukata, Yuko

    2008-06-01

    Finely tuned synaptic transmission in the brain provides the molecular basis for learning and memory. The misregulation of synaptic transmission is involved in the pathogenesis of various neurological disorders like epilepsy. AMPA-typed glutamate receptors (AMPARs) mediate the most prominent form of excitatory neurotransmission in the brain. Dynamic regulation of AMPARs is thought to be a primary mechanism for controlling synaptic strength. We have analyzed the molecular mechanism for AMPAR-trafficking and function by focusing on PSD-95, a major postsynaptic scaffolding protein. Here, we review the novel regulatory mechanisms of AMPARs by 1) the PSD-95 palmitoylating enzyme, which determines the position of PSD-95 at postsynapses, and 2) the epilepsy related ligand/receptor, LGI1/ADAM22, identified as the PSD-95-interacting protein. PMID:18646599

  13. Molecular Cloning and Analysis of a DNA Repetitive Element from the Mouse Genome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Geisinger, Adriana; Cossio, Gabriela; Wettstein, Rodolfo

    2006-01-01

    We report the development of a 3-week laboratory activity for an undergraduate molecular biology course. This activity introduces students to the practice of basic molecular techniques such as restriction enzyme digestion, agarose gel electrophoresis, cloning, plasmid DNA purification, Southern blotting, and sequencing. Students learn how to carry…

  14. Functional cloning of a gp100-reactive T-cell receptor from vitiligo patient skin.

    PubMed

    Klarquist, Jared; Eby, Jonathan M; Henning, Steven W; Li, Mingli; Wainwright, Derek A; Westerhof, Wiete; Luiten, Rosalie M; Nishimura, Michael I; Le Poole, I Caroline

    2016-05-01

    We isolated gp100-reactive T cells from perilesional skin of a patient with progressive vitiligo with superior reactivity toward melanoma cells compared with tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes 1520, a melanoma-derived T-cell line reactive with the same cognate peptide. After dimer enrichment and limited dilution cloning, amplified cells were subjected to reverse transcription and 5' RACE to identify the variable TCRα and TCRβ subunit sequences. The full-length sequence was cloned into a retroviral vector separating both subunits by a P2A slippage sequence and introduced into Jurkat cells and primary T cells. Cytokine secreted by transduced cells in response to cognate peptide and gp100-expressing targets signifies that we have successfully cloned a gp100-reactive T-cell receptor from actively depigmenting skin. PMID:26824221

  15. Anti-idiotypes, receptors, and molecular mimicry

    SciTech Connect

    Linthicum, D.S.; Farid, N.R.

    1987-01-01

    This book provides a review of new methods and results in anti-idiotypes, receptors, and molecular mimicry. It begins with a discussion of the theoretical background of the anti-idiotypic network, it's role in the regulation of immune response, and the physical characteristics of anti-idiotypic antibodies. It then goes on to explore many applications in such areas as insulin action, thyroid cell function, the neurosciences, cardiology, virology, pharmacology, and reproduction.

  16. Molecular cloning of mannose-binding lectins from Clivia miniata.

    PubMed

    Van Damme, E J; Smeets, K; Van Leuven, F; Peumans, W J

    1994-03-01

    Screening of a cDNA library constructed from total RNA isolated from young developing ovaries of Clivia miniata Regel with the amaryllis lectin cDNA clone resulted in the isolation of four different isolectin clones which clearly differ from each other in their nucleotide sequences and hence also in their deduced amino acid sequences. Apparently the lectin is translated from an mRNA of ca. 800 nucleotides encoding a precursor polypeptide of 163 amino acids. Northern blot analysis of total RNA isolated from different tissues of Clivia miniata has shown that the lectin is expressed in most plant tissues with very high lectin mRNA concentrations in the ovary and the seed endosperm. PMID:8193308

  17. Cloning and functional characterization of Chondrichthyes, cloudy catshark, Scyliorhinus torazame and whale shark, Rhincodon typus estrogen receptors.

    PubMed

    Katsu, Yoshinao; Kohno, Satomi; Narita, Haruka; Urushitani, Hiroshi; Yamane, Koudai; Hara, Akihiko; Clauss, Tonya M; Walsh, Michael T; Miyagawa, Shinichi; Guillette, Louis J; Iguchi, Taisen

    2010-09-15

    Sex-steroid hormones are essential for normal reproductive activity in both sexes in all vertebrates. Estrogens are required for ovarian differentiation during a critical developmental stage and promote the growth and differentiation of the female reproductive system following puberty. Recent studies have shown that environmental estrogens influence the developing reproductive system as well as gametogenesis, especially in males. To understand the molecular mechanisms of estrogen actions and to evaluate estrogen receptor-ligand interactions in Elasmobranchii, we cloned a single estrogen receptor (ESR) from two shark species, the cloudy catshark (Scyliorhinus torazame) and whale shark (Rhincodon typus) and used an ERE-luciferase reporter assay system to characterize the interaction of these receptors with steroidal and other environmental estrogens. In the transient transfection ERE-luciferase reporter assay system, both shark ESR proteins displayed estrogen-dependent activation of transcription, and shark ESRs were more sensitive to 17beta-estradiol compared with other natural and synthetic estrogens. Further, the environmental chemicals, bisphenol A, nonylphenol, octylphenol and DDT could activate both shark ESRs. The assay system provides a tool for future studies examining the receptor-ligand interactions and estrogen disrupting mechanisms in Elasmobranchii. PMID:20600039

  18. Molecular Cloning and Physical Mapping of the Daptomycin Gene Cluster from Streptomyces roseosporus

    PubMed Central

    Mchenney, Margaret A.; Hosted, Thomas J.; Dehoff, Bradley S.; Rosteck, Paul R.; Baltz, Richard H.

    1998-01-01

    The daptomycin biosynthetic gene cluster of Streptomyces roseosporus was analyzed by Tn5099 mutagenesis, molecular cloning, partial DNA sequencing, and insertional mutagenesis with cloned segments of DNA. The daptomycin biosynthetic gene cluster spans at least 50 kb and is located about 400 to 500 kb from one end of the ∼7,100-kb linear chromosome. We identified two peptide synthetase coding regions interrupted by a 10- to 20-kb region that may encode other functions in lipopeptide biosynthesis. PMID:9422604

  19. Generation of transmissible hepatitis C virions from a molecular clone in chimpanzees.

    PubMed

    Hong, Z; Beaudet-Miller, M; Lanford, R E; Guerra, B; Wright-Minogue, J; Skelton, A; Baroudy, B M; Reyes, G R; Lau, J Y

    1999-03-30

    Multiple alignments of hepatitis C virus (HCV) polyproteins from six different genotypes identified a total of 22 nonconsensus mutations in a clone derived from the Hutchinson (H77) isolate. These mutations, collectively, may have contributed to the failure in generating a "functionally correct" or "infectious" clone in earlier attempts. A consensus clone was constructed after systematic repair of these mutations, which yielded infectious virions in a chimpanzee after direct intrahepatic inoculation of in vitro transcribed RNAs. This RNA-infected chimpanzee has developed hepatitis and remained HCV positive for more than 11 months. To further verify this RNA-derived infectivity, a second naive chimpanzee was injected intravenously with serum collected from the first chimpanzee. Infectivity analysis of the second chimpanzee demonstrated that the HCV infection was successfully transmitted, which validated unequivocally the infectivity of our repaired molecular clone. Amino acid sequence comparisons revealed that our repaired infectious clone had 4 mismatches with the isogenic clone reported by Kolykhalov et al. (1997, Science 277, 570-574) and 8 mismatches with that reported by Yanagi et al. (1997, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 94, 8738-8743). At the RNA level, more mismatches (43 and 67, respectively) were identified; most of them were synonymous substitutions. Further comparisons with 16 isolates from different genotypes demonstrated that our repaired clone shares greater consensus than the reported isogenic clones. This approach of generating infectious HCV RNA validates the importance of amino acid sequence consensus in relation to the biology of HCV. PMID:10087224

  20. GABAA receptor beta subunit heterogeneity: functional expression of cloned cDNAs.

    PubMed Central

    Ymer, S; Schofield, P R; Draguhn, A; Werner, P; Köhler, M; Seeburg, P H

    1989-01-01

    Cloned cDNAs encoding two new beta subunits of the rat and bovine GABAA receptor have been isolated using a degenerate oligonucleotide probe based on a highly conserved peptide sequence in the second transmembrane domain of GABAA receptor subunits. The beta 2 and beta 3 subunits share approximately 72% sequence identity with the previously characterized beta 1 polypeptide. Northern analysis showed that both beta 2 and beta 3 mRNAs are more abundant in the brain than beta 1 mRNA. All three beta subunit encoding cDNAs were also identified in a library constructed from adrenal medulla RNA. Each beta subunit, when co-expressed in Xenopus oocytes with an alpha subunit, forms functional GABAA receptors. These results, together with the known alpha subunit heterogeneity, suggest that a variety of related but functionally distinct GABAA receptor subtypes are generated by different subunit combinations. Images PMID:2548852

  1. Purification, molecular cloning, and expression of the mammalian sigma1-binding site.

    PubMed Central

    Hanner, M; Moebius, F F; Flandorfer, A; Knaus, H G; Striessnig, J; Kempner, E; Glossmann, H

    1996-01-01

    Sigma-ligands comprise several chemically unrelated drugs such as haloperidol, pentazocine, and ditolylguanidine, which bind to a family of low molecular mass proteins in the endoplasmic reticulum. These so-called sigma-receptors are believed to mediate various pharmacological effects of sigma-ligands by as yet unknown mechanisms. Based on their opposite enantioselectivity for benzomorphans and different molecular masses, two subtypes are differentiated. We purified the sigma1-binding site as a single 30-kDa protein from guinea pig liver employing the benzomorphan(+)[3H]pentazocine and the arylazide (-)[3H]azidopamil as specific probes. The purified (+)[3H]pentazocine-binding protein retained its high affinity for haloperidol, pentazocine, and ditolylguanidine. Partial amino acid sequence obtained after trypsinolysis revealed no homology to known proteins. Radiation inactivation of the pentazocine-labeled sigma1-binding site yielded a molecular mass of 24 +/- 2 kDa. The corresponding cDNA was cloned using degenerate oligonucleotides and cDNA library screening. Its open reading frame encoded a 25.3-kDa protein with at least one putative transmembrane segment. The protein expressed in yeast cells transformed with the cDNA showed the pharmacological characteristics of the brain and liver sigma1-binding site. The deduced amino acid sequence was structurally unrelated to known mammalian proteins but it shared homology with fungal proteins involved in sterol synthesis. Northern blots showed high densities of the sigma1-binding site mRNA in sterol-producing tissues. This is also in agreement with the known ability of sigma1-binding sites to interact with steroids, such as progesterone. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 PMID:8755605

  2. Prototypical Recombinant Multi-Protease Inhibitor Resistant Infectious Molecular Clones of Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type-1.

    PubMed

    Varghese, Vici; Mitsuya, Yumi; Fessel, W Jeffrey; Liu, Tommy F; Melikian, George L; Katzenstein, David A; Schiffer, Celia A; Holmes, Susan P; Shafer, Robert W

    2013-06-24

    The many genetic manifestations of HIV-1 protease inhibitor (PI) resistance present challenges to research into the mechanisms of PI-resistance and the assessment of new PIs. To address these challenges, we created a panel of recombinant multi-PI resistant infectious molecular clones designed to represent the spectrum of clinically relevant multi-PI resistant viruses. To assess the representativeness of this panel, we examined the sequences of the panel's viruses in the context of a correlation network of PI-resistance amino acid substitutions in sequences from more than 10,000 patients. The panel of recombinant infectious molecular clones comprised 29 of 41 study-defined PI-resistance amino acid substitutions and 23 of the 27 tightest amino acid substitution clusters. Based on their phenotypic properties, the clones were classified into four groups with increasing cross-resistance to the PIs most commonly used for salvage therapy: lopinavir (LPV), tipranavir (TPV), and darunavir (DRV). The panel of recombinant infectious molecular clones has been made available without restriction through the NIH AIDS Research and Reference Reagent Program. The public availability of the panel makes it possible to compare the inhibitory activity of different PIs with one another. The diversity of the panel and the high-level PI resistance of its clones suggest that investigational PIs active against the clones in this panel will retain antiviral activity against most, if not all clinically relevant PI-resistant viruses. PMID:23796938

  3. Mannose receptor contribution to Candida albicans phagocytosis by murine E-clone J774 macrophages.

    PubMed

    Porcaro, Isabelle; Vidal, Michel; Jouvert, Sylvie; Stahl, Philip D; Giaimis, Jean

    2003-08-01

    Mannoproteins, as the main constituents of the outer layer of yeast cell walls, are able to interact with phagocytic cells in an opsonin-independent manner through the mannose receptor (MR) and to induce yeast ingestion by the professional phagocytes. Moreover, the MR also mediates endocytosis of soluble ligands through clathrin-coated pits. Here, we studied some aspects of the interaction between the MR and Candida albicans using murine E-clone macrophages and the consequences on MR trafficking. Using a pull-down assay involving mixture E-clone macrophage detergent lysate with mannosylated Sepharose beads and glutaraldehyde-fixed, heat-killed (HK) C. albicans, we found that binding of solubilized MR to mannosylated particles occurred with characteristics similar to the receptor's cell-surface mannose-binding activity. We then demonstrated that MR expressed on E-clone macrophages contributed to phagocytosis of unopsonized, HK C. albicans and that yeast phagocytosis induced a decrease in MR endocytic activity without concomitant degradation of the receptor in the time lapse studied. PMID:12885937

  4. Cloning, expression and pharmacological characterization of rabbit adenosine A1 and A3 receptors.

    PubMed

    Hill, R J; Oleynek, J J; Hoth, C F; Kiron, M A; Weng, W; Wester, R T; Tracey, W R; Knight, D R; Buchholz, R A; Kennedy, S P

    1997-01-01

    The role of adenosine A1 and A3 receptors in mediating cardioprotection has been studied predominantly in rabbits, yet the pharmacological characteristics of rabbit adenosine A1 and A3 receptor subtypes are unknown. Thus, the rabbit adenosine A3 receptor was cloned and expressed, and its pharmacology was compared with that of cloned adenosine A1 receptors. Stable transfection of rabbit A1 or A3 cDNAs in Chinese hamster ovary-K1 cells resulted in high levels of expression of each of the receptors, as demonstrated by high-affinity binding of the A1/A3 adenosine receptor agonist N6-(4-amino-3-[125I]iodobenzyl)adenosine (125I-ABA). For both receptors, binding of 125I-ABA was inhibited by the GTP analog 5'-guanylimidodiphosphate, and forskolin-stimulated cyclic AMP accumulation was inhibited by the adenosine receptor agonist (R)-phenylisopropyladenosine. The rank orders of potency of adenosine receptor agonists for inhibition of 125I-ABA binding were as follows: rabbit A1, N6-cyclopentyladenosine = (R)-phenylisopropyladenosine > N-ethylcarboxamidoadenosine > or = I-ABA > or = N6-2-(4-aminophenyl) ethyladenosine > > N6-(3-iodobenzyl)adenosine-5'-N-methyluronamide > N6-(4-amino-3-benzyl)adenosine; rabbit A3, N6-(3-iodobenzyl)adenosine-5'-N-methyluronamide > or = I-ABA > > N-ethylcarboxamidoadenosine > N6-2-(4-aminophenyl) ethyladenosine = N6-cyclopentyladenosine = (R)-phenylisopropyladenosine > N6-(4-amino-3-benzyl)adenosine. The adenosine receptor antagonist rank orders were as follow: rabbit A1, 8-cyclopentyl-1,3-dipropylxanthine > 1,3- dipropyl-8-(4-acrylate)phenylxanthine > or = xanthine amine congener > > 8-(p-sulfophenyl)theophylline; rabbit A3, xanthine amine congener > 1,3-dipropyl-8-(4-acrylate)phenylxanthine > or = 8-cyclopentyl-1,3-dipropylxanthine > > 8-(p-sulfophenyl)theophylline. These observations confirm the identity of the expressed proteins as A1 and A3 receptors. The results will facilitate further in-depth studies of the roles of A1 and A3 receptors in

  5. Molecular Pharmacology of δ-Opioid Receptors.

    PubMed

    Gendron, Louis; Cahill, Catherine M; von Zastrow, Mark; Schiller, Peter W; Pineyro, Graciela

    2016-07-01

    Opioids are among the most effective analgesics available and are the first choice in the treatment of acute severe pain. However, partial efficacy, a tendency to produce tolerance, and a host of ill-tolerated side effects make clinically available opioids less effective in the management of chronic pain syndromes. Given that most therapeutic opioids produce their actions via µ-opioid receptors (MOPrs), other targets are constantly being explored, among which δ-opioid receptors (DOPrs) are being increasingly considered as promising alternatives. This review addresses DOPrs from the perspective of cellular and molecular determinants of their pharmacological diversity. Thus, DOPr ligands are examined in terms of structural and functional variety, DOPrs' capacity to engage a multiplicity of canonical and noncanonical G protein-dependent responses is surveyed, and evidence supporting ligand-specific signaling and regulation is analyzed. Pharmacological DOPr subtypes are examined in light of the ability of DOPr to organize into multimeric arrays and to adopt multiple active conformations as well as differences in ligand kinetics. Current knowledge on DOPr targeting to the membrane is examined as a means of understanding how these receptors are especially active in chronic pain management. Insight into cellular and molecular mechanisms of pharmacological diversity should guide the rational design of more effective, longer-lasting, and better-tolerated opioid analgesics for chronic pain management. PMID:27343248

  6. The GPCR, class C, group 6, subtype A (GPRC6A) receptor: from cloning to physiological function

    PubMed Central

    Clemmensen, C; Smajilovic, S; Wellendorph, P; Bräuner-Osborne, H

    2014-01-01

    GPRC6A (GPCR, class C, group 6, subtype A) is a class C GPCR that has been cloned from human, mouse and rat. Several groups have shown that the receptor is activated by a range of basic and small aliphatic L-α-amino acids of which L-arginine, L-lysine and L-ornithine are the most potent compounds with EC50 values in the mid-micromolar range. In addition, several groups have shown that the receptor is either directly activated or positively modulated by divalent cations such as Ca2+ albeit in concentrations above 5 mM, which is above the physiological concentration in most tissues. More recently, the peptide osteocalcin and the steroid testosterone have also been suggested to be endogenous GPRC6A agonists. The receptor is widely expressed in all three species which, along with the omnipresence of the amino acids and divalent cation ligands, suggest that the receptor could be involved in a broad range of physiological functions. So far, this has mainly been addressed by analyses of genetically modified mice where the GPRC6A receptor has been ablated. Although there has been some discrepancies among results reported from different groups, there is increasing evidence that the receptor is involved in regulation of inflammation, metabolism and endocrine functions. GPRC6A could thus be an interesting target for new drugs in these therapeutic areas. Linked ArticlesThis article is part of a themed section on Molecular Pharmacology of GPCRs. To view the other articles in this section visit http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/bph.2014.171.issue-5 PMID:24032653

  7. Cloning and pharmacological characterization of the dog P2X7 receptor

    PubMed Central

    Roman, S; Cusdin, FS; Fonfria, E; Goodwin, JA; Reeves, J; Lappin, SC; Chambers, L; Walter, DS; Clay, WC; Michel, AD

    2009-01-01

    Background and purpose: Human and rodent P2X7 receptors exhibit differences in their sensitivity to antagonists. In this study we have cloned and characterized the dog P2X7 receptor to determine if its antagonist sensitivity more closely resembles the human or rodent orthologues. Experimental approach: A cDNA encoding the dog P2X7 receptor was isolated from a dog heart cDNA library, expressed in U-2 OS cells using the BacMam viral expression system and characterized in electrophysiological, ethidium accumulation and radioligand binding studies. Native P2X7 receptors were examined by measuring ATP-stimulated interleukin-1β release in dog and human whole blood. Key results: The dog P2X7 receptor was 595 amino acids long and exhibited high homology (>70%) to the human and rodent orthologues although it contained an additional threonine at position 284 and an amino acid deletion at position 538. ATP possessed low millimolar potency at dog P2X7 receptors. 2′-&3′-O-(4benzoylbenzoyl) ATP had slightly higher potency but was a partial agonist. Dog P2X7 receptors possessed relatively high affinity for a number of selective antagonists of the human P2X7 receptor although there were some differences in potency between the species. Compound affinities in human and dog blood exhibited a similar rank order of potency as observed in studies on the recombinant receptor although absolute potency was considerably lower. Conclusions and implications: Dog recombinant and native P2X7 receptors display a number of pharmacological similarities to the human P2X7 receptor. Thus, dog may be a suitable species for assessing target-related toxicity of antagonists intended for evaluation in the clinic. PMID:19814727

  8. Cloning and expression of a rat brain. alpha. sub 2B -adrenergic receptor

    SciTech Connect

    Flordellis, C.S.; Handy, D.E.; Bresnahan, M.R.; Zannis, V.I.; Gavras, H. )

    1991-02-01

    The authors isolated a cDNA clone (RB{alpha}{sub 2B}) and its homologous gene (GR{alpha}{sub 2B}) encoding an {alpha}{sub 2B}-adrenergic receptor subtype by screening a rat brain cDNA and a rat genomic library. Nucleotide sequence analysis showed that both clones code for a protein of 458 amino acids, which is 87% homologous to the human kidney glycosylated adrenergic receptor ({alpha}{sub 2}-C4) and divergent from the rat kidney nonglycosylated {alpha}{sub 2B} subtype (RNG{alpha}{sub 2}). Transient expression of RB{alpha}{sub 2B} in COS-7 cells resulted in high-affinity saturable binding for ({sup 3}H)rauwolscine and a high receptor number in the membranes of transfected COS-7 cells. Pharmacological analysis demonstrated that the expressed receptor bound adrenergic ligands with the following order of potency: rauwolscine {gt} yohimbine {gt} prazosin {gt} oxymetazoline, with a prazosin-to-oxymetazoline K{sub i} ratio of 0.34. This profile is characteristic of the {alpha}{sub 2B}-adrenergic receptor subtype. Blotting analysis of rat brain mRNA gave one major and two minor mRNA species, and hybridization with strand-specific probes showed that both DNA strands of GR{alpha}{sub 2B} may be transcriptionally active. These findings show that rat brain expresses an {alpha}{sub 2B}-adrenergic receptor subtype that is structurally different from the rat kidney nonglycosylated {alpha}{sub 2B} subtype. Thus the rat expresses at least two divergent {alpha}{sub 2B}-adrenergic receptors.

  9. A novel IL-1 receptor, cloned from B cells by mammalian expression, is expressed in many cell types.

    PubMed Central

    McMahan, C J; Slack, J L; Mosley, B; Cosman, D; Lupton, S D; Brunton, L L; Grubin, C E; Wignall, J M; Jenkins, N A; Brannan, C I

    1991-01-01

    cDNA clones corresponding to an Mr approximately 80,000 receptor (type I receptor) for interleukin-1 (IL-1) have been isolated previously by mammalian expression. Here, we report the use of an improved expression cloning method to isolate human and murine cDNA clones encoding a second type (Mr approximately 60,000) of IL-1 receptor (type II receptor). The mature type II IL-1 receptor consists of (i) a ligand binding portion comprised of three immunoglobulin-like domains; (ii) a single transmembrane region; and (iii) a short cytoplasmic domain of 29 amino acids. This last contrasts with the approximately 215 amino acid cytoplasmic domain of the type I receptor, and suggests that the two IL-1 receptors may interact with different signal transduction pathways. The type II receptor is expressed in a number of different tissues, including both B and T lymphocytes, and can be induced in several cell types by treatment with phorbol ester. Both IL-1 receptors appear to be well conserved in evolution, and map to the same chromosomal location. Like the type I receptor, the human type II IL-1 receptor can bind all three forms of IL-1 (IL-1 alpha, IL-1 beta and IL-1ra). Vaccinia virus contains an open reading frame bearing strong resemblance to the type II IL-1 receptor. Images PMID:1833184

  10. Molecular cloning of virulence genes from Erwinia stewartii.

    PubMed Central

    Coplin, D L; Frederick, R D; Majerczak, D R; Haas, E S

    1986-01-01

    A library of Erwinia stewartii DNA was constructed in cosmid pVK100 and used to complement spontaneous and Mu pf7701-induced (designated by the prefix MU) avirulent mutants. Plasmid pES4507 restored water-soaking ability and extracellular polysaccharide (EPS) synthesis to mutants MU14110 and MU2B70 (group I); pES1044 restored water-soaking ability to MU43, MU51, MU136, MU141, and RDF6011 (group II); and pES2144 complemented four spontaneous EPS- mutants (group III). Hybridization of labeled plasmid DNA to Southern blots of genomic DNA from the mutants revealed that a Mu pf7701 insertion was associated with the respective cloned region in all mutants except MU2B70 and MU223. In these strains, the plasmid may be suppressing the avirulent phenotype rather than complementing the mutation. Images PMID:3782017

  11. Molecular cloning and expression vector construction of bovine TRIM28.

    PubMed

    Ma, X; Zhai, Z C; Zhang, M L; Song, B H; Zhu, Y R; Yang, S B; Dong, X Q; Su, L Y; Wang, C F; Ma, H X; Luan, W M

    2016-01-01

    The bovine TRIM28 gene was amplified from ovary tissue by using RT-PCR. The TRIM28 gene was inserted into the eukaryotic expression vector pIRES2-EGFP and transfected into bovine fetal fibroblasts by using Lipofectamine 3000. TRIM28 mRNA and protein were detected by fluorescence microscope and western blotting. The results showed that the full length of TRIM28 was cloned and pIRES2-EGFP-TRIM28 was constructed successfully. EGFP expression was observed, and the pIRES2-EGFP-TRIM28 transfected group expressed more TRIM28 protein than that by the pIRES2-EGFP group. The TIMR28 gene has been successfully transferred into bovine fetal fibroblasts. PMID:27420979

  12. Cloning of human genes encoding novel G protein-coupled receptors

    SciTech Connect

    Marchese, A.; Docherty, J.M.; Heiber, M.

    1994-10-01

    We report the isolation and characterization of several novel human genes encoding G protein-coupled receptors. Each of the receptors contained the familiar seven transmembrane topography and most closely resembled peptide binding receptors. Gene GPR1 encoded a receptor protein that is intronless in the coding region and that shared identity (43% in the transmembrane regions) with the opioid receptors. Northern blot analysis revealed that GPR1 transcripts were expressed in the human hippocampus, and the gene was localized to chromosome 15q21.6. Gene GPR2 encoded a protein that most closely resembled an interleukin-8 receptor (51% in the transmembrane regions), and this gene, not expressed in the six brain regions examined, was localized to chromosome 17q2.1-q21.3. A third gene, GPR3, showed identity (56% in the transmembrane regions) with a previously characterized cDNA clone from rat and was localized to chromosome 1p35-p36.1. 31 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.

  13. Molecular cloning of a hyaluronidase from Bothrops pauloensis venom gland

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Hyaluronate is one of the major components of extracellular matrix from vertebrates whose breakdown is catalyzed by the enzyme hyaluronidase. These enzymes are widely described in snake venoms, in which they facilitate the spreading of the main toxins in the victim’s body during the envenoming. Snake venoms also present some variants (hyaluronidases-like substances) that are probably originated by alternative splicing, even though their relevance in envenomation is still under investigation. Hyaluronidases-like proteins have not yet been purified from any snake venom, but the cDNA that encodes these toxins was already identified in snake venom glands by transcriptomic analysis. Herein, we report the cloning and in silico analysis of the first hyaluronidase-like proteins from a Brazilian snake venom. Methods The cDNA sequence of hyaluronidase was cloned from the transcriptome of Bothrops pauloensis venom glands. This sequence was submitted to multiple alignment with other related sequences by ClustalW. A phylogenetic analysis was performed using MEGA 4 software by the neighbor joining (NJ) method. Results The cDNA from Bothrops pauloensis venom gland that corresponds to hyaluronidase comprises 1175 bp and codifies a protein containing 194 amino acid residues. The sequence, denominated BpHyase, was identified as hyaluronidase-like since it shows high sequence identities (above 83%) with other described snake venom hyaluronidase-like sequences. Hyaluronidases-like proteins are thought to be products of alternative splicing implicated in deletions of central amino acids, including the catalytic residues. Structure-based sequence alignment of BpHyase to human hyaluronidase hHyal-1 demonstrates a loss of some key secondary structures. The phylogenetic analysis indicates an independent evolution of BpHyal when compared to other hyaluronidases. However, these toxins might share a common ancestor, thus suggesting a broad hyaluronidase-like distribution among

  14. (Molecular cloning and structural characteristics of the R complex of maize)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-01-01

    Studies on the R complex in Maize continued Progress is discussed in the following areas: Establishing identity of R components and cloning of R components; CO allele origin; molecular organization of R-r complex; NCO allele origin; genetic analysis of R-r complex; studies of the Sn locus and reverse paramutation.

  15. [Molecular cloning and structural characteristics of the R complex of maize]. Annual progress report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-07-01

    Studies on the R complex in Maize continued Progress is discussed in the following areas: Establishing identity of R components and cloning of R components; CO allele origin; molecular organization of R-r complex; NCO allele origin; genetic analysis of R-r complex; studies of the Sn locus and reverse paramutation.

  16. Molecular cloning and characterization of Schistosoma japonicum aldose reductase.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jian; Wang, Jipeng; Wang, Shuqi; Xu, Bin; Liu, Xiufeng; Wang, Xiaoning; Hu, Wei

    2013-02-01

    Antioxidant defense is an essential mechanism for schistosomes to cope with damage from host immune-generated reactive oxygen species. The evaluation of the effects of aldose reductase, an important enzyme that may be involved in this system, has long been neglected. In the present study, aldose reductase of Schistosoma japonicum (SjAR) was cloned and characterized. The activity of SjAR was assessed in vitro and was suppressed by the reported inhibitor, epalrestat. RT-PCR analysis revealed that SjAR was expressed at each of the development stages analyzed with increased levels in cercariae. The results also showed that SjAR was expressed at higher levels in adult male worms than in adult female worms. Indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and western blot analysis indicated that the purified recombinant SjAR (rSjAR) protein displayed a significant level of antigenicity. Immunolocalization analysis revealed that SjAR was mainly distributed in the gynecophoral canal of adult male worms. BALB/c mice immunized with rSjAR induced a 32.91 % worm reduction compared to the adjuvant group (P < 0.01). Moreover, a 28.27 % reduction in egg development in the liver (P > 0.05) and a 42.75 % reduction in egg development in the fecal samples (P < 0.05) were also observed. These results suggested that SjAR may be a potential new drug target or vaccine candidate for schistosomes. PMID:23160889

  17. Molecular cloning and expression analysis of pig CD138.

    PubMed

    Bae, Joonbeom; Jeong, Seonah; Lee, Ju Yeon; Lee, Hyun-Jeong; Choi, Bong-Hwan; Kim, Ji-Eun; Choi, Inho; Chun, Taehoon

    2013-12-01

    CD138 (syndecan-1) interacts with various components of the extracellular matrix and associates with the actin cytoskeleton. In this study, we cloned pig CD138 cDNA and determined its complete cDNA sequence. Pig CD138 cDNA contained an open reading frame (930 bp) encoding 309 amino acids with five well conserved putative glycosaminoglycan attachment sites, a putative cleavage site for matrix metalloproteinases, and conserved motifs involved in signal transduction among mammalian species. Pig CD138 mRNA was detected in various tissues, including lymphoid and non-lymphoid organs, indicating the multicellular functions of CD138 in pigs. Western blot and flow cytometry analyses detected an approximate 35 kDa pig CD138 protein expressed on the cell surface. Further immunohistochemistry analysis revealed that CD138 expression was mainly observed in submucosa and lamina propria of the pig small intestine. Further study will be necessary to define the functional importance of CD138 during specific infectious diseases in pigs. PMID:24128845

  18. Molecular cloning of cecropin B responsive endonucleases in Yersinia ruckeri

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We have previously demonstrated that Yersinia ruckeri resists cecropin B in an inducible manner. In this study, we sought to identify the molecular changes responsible for the inducible cecropin B resistance of Y. ruckeri. Differences in gene expression associated with the inducible resistance were ...

  19. Immunoglobulin M receptors on memory cells of immunoglobulin G antibody-forming cell clones.

    PubMed

    Abney, E R; Keeler, K D; Parkhouse, R M; Willcox, H N

    1976-06-01

    The memory cells of two antibody-forming cell clones had receptors of the IgM class, even though the clones had been producing IgG1 or IgG2a anti-2,4-dinitrophenyl antibodies for 9-15 months previously (on exposure to antigen). Thus a phenotypic switch in heavy chain constant region evidently occurred after re-exposure of these memory cells to antigen. To show that, we first removed the clonal cells' surface immunoglobins by "capping" and "stripping", with class- or subclass-specific antisera. Then, to assay their remaining receptor activity, the cells were incubated with antigen in vitro, washed and transferred (together with carrier primed cells) to irradiated recipients, and their antibody responses to this in vitro boost were assayed by iselectric focusing. Pretreatment with anti-mu serum, as well as with anti-Fab(kappa), prevented the responses of the IgG1 and IgG2a clones to an in vitro boost, while anti-gamma1 and anti-gamma2a antisera had no effect. An antiserum to the putative mouse IgD also had no effect. The anti-mu serum failed to react with the IgG1 and IgG2A clonal serum antibodies in the test tube. Some other contaminating clones were suppressed completely only by the anti-Fab serum. This result strongly suggests that switching in class commitment may occur during the differentiation of memory cells to antibody producers, and may therefore be antigen-dependent. It also implies that some apparently naive cells with surface IgM may, in reality, be B memory cells. PMID:825376

  20. Cloning and characterization of an immunoglobulin A Fc receptor from cattle.

    PubMed

    Morton, H Craig; Pleass, Richard J; Storset, Anne K; Dissen, Erik; Williams, John L; Brandtzaeg, Per; Woof, Jenny M

    2004-02-01

    Here, we describe the cloning, sequencing and characterization of an immunoglobulin A (IgA) Fc receptor from cattle (bFcalphaR). By screening a translated EST database with the protein sequence of the human IgA Fc receptor (CD89) we identified a putative bovine homologue. Subsequent polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification confirmed that the identified full-length cDNA was expressed in bovine cells. COS-1 cells transfected with a plasmid containing the cloned cDNA bound to beads coated with either bovine or human IgA, but not to beads coated with bovine IgG2 or human IgG. The bFcalphaR cDNA is 873 nucleotides long and is predicted to encode a 269 amino-acid transmembrane glycoprotein composed of two immunoglobulin-like extracellular domains, a transmembrane region and a short cytoplasmic tail devoid of known signalling motifs. Genetically, bFcalphaR is more closely related to CD89, bFcgamma2R, NKp46, and the KIR and LILR gene families than to other FcRs. Moreover, the bFcalphaR gene maps to the bovine leucocyte receptor complex on chromosome 18. Identification of the bFcalphaR will aid in the understanding of IgA-FcalphaR interactions, and may facilitate the isolation of FcalphaR from other species. PMID:15027906

  1. Biological, molecular, and structural analysis of a cytopathic variant from a molecularly cloned simian immunodeficiency virus.

    PubMed Central

    LaBranche, C C; Sauter, M M; Haggarty, B S; Vance, P J; Romano, J; Hart, T K; Bugelski, P J; Hoxie, J A

    1994-01-01

    Some isolates of simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) have been shown to infect Sup-T1 cells with slow kinetics and in the absence of cytopathic effects, including cell fusion or CD4 down-modulation (J. A. Hoxie, B. S. Haggarty, S. Bonser, J. Rackowski, H. Shan, and P. Kanki, J. Virol. 62:2557-2568, 1988). In the present study, we describe the isolation and characterization of a SIVmac variant, derived from the BK28 infectious molecular clone, that became highly cytopathic for Sup-T1 cells. This variant, termed CP-MAC, exhibited a number of differences from BK28, including (i) an altered tropism which largely restricted its host range to Sup-T1 cells, (ii) the ability to induce cell fusion and CD4 down-modulation, and (iii) a highly stable interaction of its external (SU) and transmembrane (TM) envelope glycoproteins. In addition, a marked increase in the level of surface envelope glycoproteins was observed both on CP-MAC-infected cells and on virions. The CP-MAC env gene was PCR amplified from infected cells, and sequence analysis identified five amino acid changes in SU and six in TM compared with BK28. The introduction of these changes into BK28 was shown to fully reconstitute the biological and morphological properties of CP-MAC. The limited number of mutations in CP-MAC should enable the molecular determinants to be more precisely defined and help to identify the underlying mechanisms responsible for the striking biological and structural alterations exhibited by this virus. Images PMID:8057433

  2. Cloning and functional characterization of the rabbit C-C chemokine receptor 2

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Deshun; Yuan, Xiu-juan; Evans, Robert J; Pappas, Amy T; Wang, He; Su, Eric W; Hamdouchi, Chafiq; Venkataraman, Chandrasekar

    2005-01-01

    Background CC-family chemokine receptor 2 (CCR2) is implicated in the trafficking of blood-borne monocytes to sites of inflammation and is implicated in the pathogenesis of several inflammatory diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis, multiple sclerosis and atherosclerosis. The major challenge in the development of small molecule chemokine receptor antagonists is the lack of cross-species activity to the receptor in the preclinical species. Rabbit models have been widely used to study the role of various inflammatory molecules in the development of inflammatory processes. Therefore, in this study, we report the cloning and characterization of rabbit CCR2. Data regarding the activity of the CCR2 antagonist will provide valuable tools to perform toxicology and efficacy studies in the rabbit model. Results Sequence alignment indicated that rabbit CCR2 shares 80 % identity to human CCR2b. Tissue distribution indicated that rabbit CCR2 is abundantly expressed in spleen and lung. Recombinant rabbit CCR2 expressed as stable transfectants in U-937 cells binds radiolabeled 125I-mouse JE (murine MCP-1) with a calculated Kd of 0.1 nM. In competition binding assays, binding of radiolabeled mouse JE to rabbit CCR2 is differentially competed by human MCP-1, -2, -3 and -4, but not by RANTES, MIP-1α or MIP-1β. U-937/rabbit CCR2 stable transfectants undergo chemotaxis in response to both human MCP-1 and mouse JE with potencies comparable to those reported for human CCR2b. Finally, TAK-779, a dual CCR2/CCR5 antagonist effectively inhibits the binding of 125I-mouse JE (IC50 = 2.3 nM) to rabbit CCR2 and effectively blocks CCR2-mediated chemotaxis. Conclusion In this study, we report the cloning of rabbit CCR2 and demonstrate that this receptor is a functional chemotactic receptor for MCP-1. PMID:16001983

  3. Cloning and expression of the VHDL receptor from fat body of the corn ear worm, Helicoverpa zea

    PubMed Central

    Persaud, Deryck R.; Haunerland, Norbert H.

    2004-01-01

    In Noctuids, storage proteins are taken up into fat body by receptor-mediated endocytosis. These include arylphorin and a second, structurally unrelated very high-density lipoprotein (VHDL). Previously, we have isolated a single storage protein receptor from the corn earworm, Helicoverpa zea, which binds both VHDL and arylphorin. The receptor protein is a basic, N-terminally blocked, ∼80 kDa protein that is associated with fat body membranes. Microsequencing of proteolytic fragments of the isolated receptor protein revealed internal sequences that were used to clone the complete cDNA of the VHDL receptor by 3′ and 5′ RACE techniques. The receptor protein, when expressed in vitro via a suitable insect expression vector, reacted with antibodies against the native VHDL receptor and bound strongly to its ligand VHDL, thus confirming that the cloned cDNA represents indeed the previously purified VHDL receptor. The receptor protein and a second, similar protein also found associated with the fat body membrane show considerable homology to putative basic juvenile hormone suppressible proteins cloned previously from other Noctuid species. Sequence analysis revealed that the receptor is likely a peripheral membrane protein that may mediate the selective uptake of VHDL. Abbreviation: BJHSP basic juvenile hormone suppressible protein FITC fluorescein isothiocyanate HRP horseraddish peroxidase RACE rapid amplification of cDNA ends VHDL very high density lipoprotein PMID:15861222

  4. Cloning and expression of the VHDL receptor from fat body of the corn ear worm, Helicoverpa zea.

    PubMed

    Persaud, Deryck R; Haunerland, Norbert H

    2004-01-01

    In Noctuids, storage proteins are taken up into fat body by receptor-mediated endocytosis. These include arylphorin and a second, structurally unrelated very high-density lipoprotein (VHDL). Previously, we have isolated a single storage protein receptor from the corn earworm, Helicoverpa zea, which binds both VHDL and arylphorin. The receptor protein is a basic, N-terminally blocked, approximately 80 kDa protein that is associated with fat body membranes. Microsequencing of proteolytic fragments of the isolated receptor protein revealed internal sequences that were used to clone the complete cDNA of the VHDL receptor by 3' and 5' RACE techniques. The receptor protein, when expressed in vitro via a suitable insect expression vector, reacted with antibodies against the native VHDL receptor and bound strongly to its ligand VHDL, thus confirming that the cloned cDNA represents indeed the previously purified VHDL receptor. The receptor protein and a second, similar protein also found associated with the fat body membrane show considerable homology to putative basic juvenile hormone suppressible proteins cloned previously from other Noctuid species. Sequence analysis revealed that the receptor is likely a peripheral membrane protein that may mediate the selective uptake of VHDL. PMID:15861222

  5. Molecular cloning, expression and characterization of pyridoxamine–pyruvate aminotransferase

    PubMed Central

    Yoshikane, Yu; Yokochi, Nana; Ohnishi, Kouhei; Hayashi, Hideyuki; Yagi, Toshiharu

    2006-01-01

    Pyridoxamine–pyruvate aminotransferase is a PLP (pyridoxal 5′-phosphate) (a coenzyme form of vitamin B6)-independent aminotransferase which catalyses a reversible transamination reaction between pyridoxamine and pyruvate to form pyridoxal and L-alanine. The gene encoding the enzyme has been identified, cloned and overexpressed for the first time. The mlr6806 gene on the chromosome of a symbiotic nitrogen-fixing bacterium, Mesorhizobium loti, encoded the enzyme, which consists of 393 amino acid residues. The primary sequence was identical with those of archaeal aspartate aminotransferase and rat serine–pyruvate aminotransferase, which are PLP-dependent aminotransferases. The results of fold-type analysis and the consensus amino acid residues found around the active-site lysine residue identified in the present study showed that the enzyme could be classified into class V aminotransferases of fold type I or the AT IV subfamily of the α family of the PLP-dependent enzymes. Analyses of the absorption and CD spectra of the wild-type and point-mutated enzymes showed that Lys197 was essential for the enzyme activity, and was the active-site lysine residue that corresponded to that found in the PLP-dependent aminotransferases, as had been suggested previously [Hodsdon, Kolb, Snell and Cole (1978) Biochem. J. 169, 429–432]. The Kd value for pyridoxal determined by means of CD was 100-fold lower than the Km value for it, suggesting that Schiff base formation between pyridoxal and the active-site lysine residue is partially rate determining in the catalysis of pyridoxal. The active-site structure and evolutionary aspects of the enzyme are discussed. PMID:16545075

  6. CDNA CLONING OF FATHEAD MINNOW (PIMEPHALES PROMELAS) ESTROGEN AND ANDROGEN RECEPTORS FOR USE IN STEROID RECEPTOR EXTRAPOLATION STUDIES FOR ENDOCRINE DISRUPTING CHEMICALS

    EPA Science Inventory

    cDNA Cloning of Fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas) Estrogen and Androgen Receptors for Use in Steroid Receptor Extrapolation Studies for Endocrine Disrupting Chemicals.

    Wilson, V.S.1,, Korte, J.2, Hartig P. 1, Ankley, G.T.2, Gray, L.E., Jr 1, , and Welch, J.E.1. 1U.S...

  7. Behavior of a cloned murine interferon alpha/beta receptor expressed in homospecific or heterospecific background.

    PubMed Central

    Uzé, G; Lutfalla, G; Bandu, M T; Proudhon, D; Mogensen, K E

    1992-01-01

    A murine interferon (IFN) alpha/beta receptor was cloned from the IFN-sensitive L1210 cell line on the basis of its homology with the human receptor. A combination of methods that includes the screening of random-primed and oligo(dT)-primed cDNA libraries and polymerase chain reactions with a single-side specificity was used. At the amino acid level, the murine IFN-alpha/beta shows 46% identity with its human counterpart. Both human WISH cells presenting a low sensitivity to mouse IFN and a murine L1210 mutant subline that does not express the receptor have been stably transfected with the murine IFN-alpha/beta receptor. Whereas transfected human cells became sensitive to a limited number of mouse IFN-alpha/beta subtypes, the transfected murine L1210 mutant was found to be fully complemented and became sensitive to all mouse IFN-alpha/beta subtypes tested, including those that were not active on transfected human cells. These results strongly suggest that the receptor described here is implicated in the mediation of the activities of all murine IFN-alpha/beta subtypes. Images PMID:1533935

  8. Molecular cloning and characterization of l-methionine γ-lyase from Streptomyces avermitilis.

    PubMed

    Kudou, Daizou; Yasuda, Eri; Hirai, Yoshiyuki; Tamura, Takashi; Inagaki, Kenji

    2015-10-01

    A pyridoxal 5'-phosphate-dependent methionine γ-lyase (MGL) was cloned from Streptomyces avermitilis catalyzed the degradation of methionine to α-ketobutyrate, methanethiol, and ammonia. The sav7062 gene (1,242 bp) was corresponded to 413 amino acid residues with a molecular mass of 42,994 Da. The deduced amino acid sequence showed a high degree of similarity to those of other MGL enzymes. The sav7062 gene was overexpressed in Escherichia coli. The enzyme was purified to homogeneity and exhibited the MGL catalytic activities. We cloned the enzyme that has the MGL activity in Streptomyces for the first time. PMID:25817696

  9. Construction and Characterization of an Infectious Molecular Clone of Koala Retrovirus

    PubMed Central

    Shojima, Takayuki; Hoshino, Shigeki; Abe, Masumi; Yasuda, Jiro; Shogen, Hiroko; Kobayashi, Takeshi

    2013-01-01

    Koala retrovirus (KoRV) is a gammaretrovirus that is currently endogenizing into koalas. Studies on KoRV infection have been hampered by the lack of a replication-competent molecular clone. In this study, we constructed an infectious molecular clone, termed plasmid pKoRV522, of a KoRV isolate (strain Aki) from a koala reared in a Japanese zoo. The virus KoRV522, derived from pKoRV522, grew efficiently in human embryonic kidney (HEK293T) cells, attaining 106 focus-forming units/ml. Several mutations in the Gag (L domain) and Env regions reported to be involved in reduction in viral infection/production in vitro are found in pKoRV522, yet KoRV522 replicated well, suggesting that any effects of these mutations are limited. Indeed, a reporter virus pseudotyped with pKoRV522 Env was found to infect human, feline, and mink cell lines efficiently. Analyses of KoRV L-domain mutants showed that an additional PPXY sequence, PPPY, in Gag plays a critical role in KoRV budding. Altogether, our results demonstrate the construction and characterization of the first infectious molecular clone of KoRV. The infectious clone reported here will be useful for elucidating the mechanism of endogenization of the virus in koalas and screening for antiretroviral drugs for KoRV-infected koalas. PMID:23427161

  10. Anandamide, an endogenous cannabimimetic eicosanoid, binds to the cloned human cannabinoid receptor and stimulates receptor-mediated signal transduction.

    PubMed Central

    Felder, C C; Briley, E M; Axelrod, J; Simpson, J T; Mackie, K; Devane, W A

    1993-01-01

    Arachidonylethanolamide (anandamide), a candidate endogenous cannabinoid ligand, has recently been isolated from porcine brain and displayed cannabinoid-like binding activity to synaptosomal membrane preparations and mimicked cannabinoid-induced inhibition of the twitch response in isolated murine vas deferens. In this study, anandamide and several congeners were evaluated as cannabinoid agonists by examining their ability to bind to the cloned cannabinoid receptor, inhibit forskolin-stimulated cAMP accumulation, inhibit N-type calcium channels, and stimulate one or more functional second messenger responses. Synthetic anandamide, and all but one congener, competed for [3H]CP55,940 binding to plasma membranes prepared from L cells expressing the rat cannabinoid receptor. The ability of anandamide to activate receptor-mediated signal transduction was evaluated in Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells expressing the human cannabinoid receptor (HCR, termed CHO-HCR cells) and compared to control CHO cells expressing the muscarinic m5 receptor (CHOm5 cells). Anandamide inhibited forskolin-stimulated cAMP accumulation in CHO-HCR cells, but not in CHOm5 cells, and this response was blocked with pertussis toxin. N-type calcium channels were inhibited by anandamide and several active congeners in N18 neuroblastoma cells. Anandamide stimulated arachidonic acid and intracellular calcium release in both CHOm5 and CHO-HCR cells and had no effect on the release of inositol phosphates or phosphatidylethanol, generated after activation of phospholipase C and D, respectively. Anandamide appears to exhibit the essential criteria required to be classified as a cannabinoid/anandamide receptor agonist and shares similar nonreceptor effects on arachidonic acid and intracellular calcium release as other cannabinoid agonists. PMID:8395053

  11. Mole ghrelin: cDNA cloning, gene expression, and diverse molecular forms in Mogera imaizumii.

    PubMed

    Satou, Motoyasu; Kaiya, Hiroyuki; Nishi, Yoshihiro; Shinohara, Akio; Kawada, Shin-Ichiro; Miyazato, Mikiya; Kangawa, Kenji; Sugimoto, Hiroyuki

    2016-06-01

    Here, we describe cDNA cloning and purification of the ghrelin gene sequences and ghrelin peptides from the Japanese true mole, Mogera imaizumii. The gene spans >2.9kbp, has four exons and three introns, and shares structural similarity with those of terrestrial animals. Mature mole ghrelin peptide was predicted to be 28 amino acids long (GSSFLSPEHQKVQQRKESKKPPSKPQPR) and processed from a prepropeptide of 116 amino acids. To further elucidate molecular characteristics, we purified ghrelin peptides from mole stomach. By mass spectrometry, we found that the mole ghrelin peptides had higher ratios of the odd-number fatty acids (C9 and C11 as much as C8) attached to the third serine residue than other vertebrate ghrelin. Truncated forms of ghrelins such as [1-27], [1-19], [1-16] and [1-15], and that lacked the 14th glutamine residue (des-Gln14 ghrelin) were produced in the stomach. Marked expression of ghrelin mRNA in lung was observed as in stomach and brain. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that the branch of M. imaizumii has slightly higher dN/dS ratios (the nucleotide substitution rates at non-synonymous and synonymous sites) than did other eulipotyphlans. Peptide length was positively correlated with human ghrelin receptor activation, whereas the length of fatty-acyl chains showed no obvious functional correlation. The basal higher luciferase activities of the 5'-proximal promoter region of mole ghrelin were detected in ghrelin-negative C2C12 cells and hypoxic culture conditions impaired transcriptional activity. These results indicated that moles have acquired diverse species of ghrelin probably through distinctive fatty acid metabolism because of their food preferences. The results provide a gateway to understanding ghrelin metabolism in fossorial animals. PMID:27102942

  12. Cloning of a type I cytokine receptor most related to the IL-2 receptor β chain

    PubMed Central

    Ozaki, Katsutoshi; Kikly, Kristine; Michalovich, David; Young, Peter R.; Leonard, Warren J.

    2000-01-01

    We have identified a type I cytokine receptor, which we have termed novel interleukin receptor (NILR), that is most related to the IL-2 receptor β chain (IL-2Rβ) and physically adjacent to the IL-4 receptor α chain gene on chromosome 16. NILR mRNA is most highly expressed in thymus and spleen, and is induced by phytohemagglutinin in human peripheral blood mononuclear cells. NILR protein was detected on human T cell lymphotropic virus type I-transformed T cell lines, Raji B cells, and YT natural killer-like cells. Artificial homodimerization of the NILR cytoplasmic domain confers proliferation to Ba/F3 murine pro-B cells but not to 32D myeloid progenitor cells or CTLL-2 murine helper T cells. In these latter cells, heterodimerization of IL-2Rβ and the common cytokine receptor γ chain (γc) cytoplasmic domains allows potent proliferation, whereas such heterodimerization of NILR with γc does not. This finding suggests that NILR has signaling potential but that a full understanding of its signaling partner(s) is not yet clear. Like IL-2Rβ, NILR associates with Jak1 and mediates Stat5 activation. PMID:11016959

  13. Molecular cloning and expression of Corynebacterium glutamicum genes for amino acid synthesis in Escherichia coli cells

    SciTech Connect

    Beskrovnaya, O.Yu.; Fonshtein, M.Yu.; Kolibaba, L.G.; Yankovskii, N.K.; Debabov, V.G.

    1989-01-01

    Molecular cloning of Corynebacterium glutamicum genes for threonine and lysine synthesis has been done in Escherichia coli cells. The clonal library of EcoRI fragments of chromosomal DNA of C. glutamicum was constructed on the plasmid vector /lambda/pSL5. The genes for threonine and lysine synthesis were identified by complementation of E. coli mutations in thrB and lysA genes, respectively. Recombinant plasmids, isolated from independent ThrB/sup +/ clone have a common 4.1-kb long EcoRI DNA fragment. Hybrid plasmids isolated from LysA/sup +/ transductants of E. coli have common 2.2 and 3.3 kb long EcoRI fragments of C. glutamicum DNA. The hybrid plasmids consistently transduced the markers thrB/sup +/ and lysA/sup +/. The Southern hybridization analysis showed that the cloned DNA fragments hybridized with the fragments of identical length in C. glutamicum chromosomes.

  14. The neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptor {alpha}7 subunit gene: Cloning, mapping, structure, and targeting in mouse

    SciTech Connect

    Orr-Urtreger, A.; Baldini, A.; Beaudet, A.L.

    1994-09-01

    The neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptor {alpha}7 subunit is a member of a family of ligand-gated ion channels, and is the only subunit know to bind {alpha}-bungarotoxin in mammalian brain. {alpha}-Bungarotoxin binding sites are known to be more abundant in the hippocampus of mouse strains that are particularly sensitive to nicotine-induced seizures. The {alpha}7 receptor is highly permeable to calcium, which could suggest a role in synaptic plasticity in the nervous system. Auditory gating deficiency, an abnormal response to a second auditory stimulus, is characteristic of schizophrenia. Mouse strains that exhibit a similar gating deficit have reduced hippocampal expression of the {alpha}7 subunit. We have cloned and sequenced the full length cDNA for the mouse {alpha}7 gene (Acra-7) and characterized its gene structure. The murine {alpha}7 shares amino acid identity of 99% and 93% with the rat and human {alpha}7 subunits, respectively. Using an interspecies backcross panel, the murine gene was mapped to chromosome 7 near the p locus, a region syntenic with human chromosome 15; the human gene (CHRNA7) was confirmed to map to 15q13-q14 by FISH. To generate a mouse {alpha}7 mutant by homologous recombination, we have constructed a replacement vector which will delete transmembrane domains II-IV and the cytoplasmic domain from the gene product. Recombinant embryonic stem (ES) cell clones were selected and used to develop mouse chimeras that are currently being bred to obtain germline transmission.

  15. Development and characterization of an in vivo pathogenic molecular clone of equine infectious anemia virus.

    PubMed

    Cook, R F; Leroux, C; Cook, S J; Berger, S L; Lichtenstein, D L; Ghabrial, N N; Montelaro, R C; Issel, C J

    1998-02-01

    An infectious nonpathogenic molecular clone (19-2-6A) of equine infectious anemia virus (EIAV) was modified by substitution of a 3.3-kbp fragment amplified by PCR techniques from a pathogenic variant (EIAV(PV)) of the cell culture-adapted strain of EIAV (EIAV(PR)). This substitution consisted of coding sequences for 77 amino acids at the carboxyl terminus of the integrase, the S1 (encoding the second exon of tat), S2, and S3 (encoding the second exon of rev) open reading frames, the complete env gene (including the first exon of rev), and the 3' long terminal repeat (LTR). Modified 19-2-6A molecular clones were designated EIAV(PV3.3), and infection of a single pony (678) with viruses derived from a mixture of five of these molecular clones induced clinical signs of acute equine infectious anemia (EIA) at 23 days postinfection (dpi). As a consequence of this initial study, a single molecular clone, EIAV(PV3.3#3) (redesignated EIAV(UK)), was selected for further study and inoculated into two ponies (613 and 614) and two horses (700 and 764). Pony 614 and the two horses developed febrile responses by 12 dpi, which was accompanied by a 48 to 64% reduction in platelet number, whereas pony 613 did not develop fever (40.6 degrees C) until 76 dpi. EIAV could be isolated from the plasma of these animals by 5 to 7 dpi, and all became seropositive for antibodies to this virus by 21 dpi. Analysis of the complete nucleotide sequence demonstrated that the 3.3-kbp 3' fragment of EIAV(UK) differed from the consensus sequence of EIAV(PV) by just a single amino acid residue in the second exon of the rev gene. Complete homology with the EIAV(PV) consensus sequence was observed in the hypervariable region of the LTR. However, EIAV(UK) was found to contain an unusual 68-bp nucleotide insertion/duplication in a normally conserved region of the LTR sequence. These results demonstrate that substitution of a 3.3-kbp fragment from the EIAV(PV) strain into the infectious nonpathogenic

  16. Cloning, characterization, and tissue distribution of prolactin receptor in the sea bream (Sparus aurata).

    PubMed

    Santos, C R; Ingleton, P M; Cavaco, J E; Kelly, P A; Edery, M; Power, D M

    2001-01-01

    The prolactin receptor (PRLR) was cloned and its tissue distribution characterized in adults of the protandrous hermaphrodite marine teleost, the sea bream (Sparus aurata). An homologous cDNA probe for sea bream PRLR (sbPRLR) was obtained by RT-PCR using gill mRNA. This probe was used to screen intestine and kidney cDNA libraries from which two overlapping clones (1100 and 2425 bp, respectively) were obtained. These clones had 100% sequence identity in the overlapping region (893 bp) and were used to deduce the complete amino acid sequence of sbPRLR. The receptor spans 2640 bp and encodes a protein of 537 amino acids. Features characteristic of PRLR, two pairs of cysteines, WS box, hydrophobic transmembrane domain, box 1, and box 2, were identified and showed a high degree of sequence identity to PRLRs from other vertebrate species. SbPRLR is 29 and 32% identical to tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) and goldfish (Carassius auratus) PRLRs, respectively. In the sea bream two PRLR transcripts of 2.8 and 3.2 kb were detected in the intestine, kidney, and gills and a single transcript of 2.8 kb was detected in skin and pituitary by Northern blot. Spermiating gonads (more than 95% male tissue; gonado-somatic index of 0.6) contained, in addition to the 2.8-kb transcript, three more transcripts of 1.9, 1.3, and 1.1 kb. RT-PCR, which is a far more sensitive method than Northern blot, detected PRLR mRNA in gills, intestine, brain, pituitary, kidney, liver, gonads, spleen, head-kidney, heart, muscle, and bone. Immunohistochemistry using specific polyclonal antibodies raised against an oligopeptide from the extracellular domain of sbPRLR detected PRLR in several epithelial tissues of juvenile sea bream, including the anterior gut, renal tubule, choroid membrane of the third ventricle, saccus vasculosus, branchial chloride cells, and branchial cartilage. PMID:11161768

  17. Structure of a cannabinoid receptor and functional expression of the cloned cDNA.

    PubMed

    Matsuda, L A; Lolait, S J; Brownstein, M J; Young, A C; Bonner, T I

    1990-08-01

    Marijuana and many of its constituent cannabinoids influence the central nervous system (CNS) in a complex and dose-dependent manner. Although CNS depression and analgesia are well documented effects of the cannabinoids, the mechanisms responsible for these and other cannabinoid-induced effects are not so far known. The hydrophobic nature of these substances has suggested that cannabinoids resemble anaesthetic agents in their action, that is, they nonspecifically disrupt cellular membranes. Recent evidence, however, has supported a mechanism involving a G protein-coupled receptor found in brain and neural cell lines, and which inhibits adenylate cyclase activity in a dose-dependent, stereoselective and pertussis toxin-sensitive manner. Also, the receptor is more responsive to psychoactive cannabinoids than to non-psychoactive cannabinoids. Here we report the cloning and expression of a complementary DNA that encodes a G protein-coupled receptor with all of these properties. Its messenger RNA is found in cell lines and regions of the brain that have cannabinoid receptors. These findings suggest that this protein is involved in cannabinoid-induced CNS effects (including alterations in mood and cognition) experienced by users of marijuana. PMID:2165569

  18. Molecular cloning and bioinformatic analysis of SPATA4 gene.

    PubMed

    Liu, Shang-feng; Ai, Chao; Ge, Zhong-qi; Liu, Hai-luo; Liu, Bo-wen; He, Shan; Wang, Zhao

    2005-11-30

    Full-length cDNA sequences of four novel SPATA4 genes in chimpanzee, cow, chicken and ascidian were identified by bioinformatic analysis using mouse or human SPATA4 cDNA fragment as electronic probe. All these genes have 6 exons and have similar protein molecular weight and do not localize in sex chromosome. The mouse SPATA4 sequence is identified as significantly changed in cryptorchidism, which shares no significant homology with any known protein in swissprot databases except for the homologous genes in various vertebrates. Our searching results showed that all SPATA4 proteins have a putative conserved domain DUF1042. The percentages of putative SPATA4 protein sequence identity ranging from 30 % to 99 %. The high similarity was also found in 1 kb promoter regions of human, mouse and rat SPATA4 gene. The similarities of the sequences upstream of SPATA4 promoter also have a high proportion. The results of searching SymAtlas (http://symatlas.gnf.org/SymAtlas/) showed that human SPATA4 has a high expression in testis, especially in testis interstitial, leydig cell, seminiferous tubule and germ cell. Mouse SPATA4 was observed exclusively in adult mouse testis and almost no signal was detected in other tissues. The pI values of the protein are negative, ranging from 9.44 to 10.15. The subcellular location of the protein is usually in the nucleus. And the signal peptide possibilities for SPATA4 are always zero. Using the SNPs data in NCBI, we found 33 SNPs in human SPATA4 gene genomic DNA region, with the distribution of 29 SNPs in the introns. CpG island searching gives the data about CpG island, which shows that the regions of the CpG island have a high similarity with each other, though the length of the CpG island is different from each other. This research is a fundamental work in the fields of the bioinformational analysis, and also put forward a new way for the bioinformatic analysis of other genes. PMID:16336790

  19. [Molecular structure of luminal diuretic receptors].

    PubMed

    Gamba, G

    1995-01-01

    Since day to day sodium and water intake is more or less constant, the output by urinary sodium excretion is the key to maintain extracellular fluid volume within physiologic ranges. To achieve this goal, the kidneys ensure that most of the large quantities of filtered sodium are reabsorbed, a function that takes place in the proximal tubule, the loop of Henle and the distal tubule, and then the kidneys adjust the small amount of sodium that is excreted in urine in such a way that sodium balance is maintained. This adjustment occurs in the collecting duct. Three groups of diuretic-sensitive sodium transport mechanisms have been identified in the apical membranes of the distal nephron based on their different sensitivities to diuretics and requirements for chloride and potassium: 1) the sulfamoylbenzoic (or bumetanide)-sensitive Na+:K+:2CI- and Na+:CI- symporters in the thick ascending loop of Henle; 2) the benzothiadiazine (or thiazide)-sensitive Na+:CI- cotransporter in the distal tubule; and 3) the amiloride-sensitive Na+ channel in the collecting tubule. The inhibition of any one of these proteins by diuretics results in increased sodium urinary excretion. Recently, the use of molecular biology techniques, specially the functional expression cloning in Xenopus laevis oocytes, has led to the identification of cDNA's encoding members of the three groups of diuretic-sensitive transport proteins. The present paper reviews the primary structure and some aspects of the relationship between structure and function of these transporters as well as the new protein families emerging from these sequences. It also discusses the future implications of these discoveries on the physiology and pathophysiology of kidney disease and sodium retaining states. PMID:7569367

  20. Molecular cloning of a putative tetrodotoxin-resistant rat heart Na+ channel isoform.

    PubMed Central

    Rogart, R B; Cribbs, L L; Muglia, L K; Kephart, D D; Kaiser, M W

    1989-01-01

    Voltage-gated Na+ channels in mammalian heart differ from those in nerve and skeletal muscle. One major difference is that tetrodotoxin (TTX)-resistant cardiac Na+ channels are blocked by 1-10 microM TTX, whereas TTX-sensitive nerve Na+ channels are blocked by nanomolar TTX concentrations. We constructed a cDNA library from 6-day-old rat hearts, where only low-affinity [3H]saxitoxin receptors, corresponding to TTX-resistant Na+ channels, were detected. We isolated several overlapping cDNA clones encompassing 7542 nucleotides and encoding the entire alpha subunit of a cardiac-specific Na+ channel isoform (designated rat heart I) as well as several rat brain I Na+ channel cDNA clones. The derived amino acid sequence of rat heart I was highly homologous to, but distinct from, previous Na+ channel clones. RNase protection studies showed that the corresponding mRNA species is abundant in newborn and adult rat hearts, but not detectable in brain or innervated skeletal muscle. The same mRNA species appears upon denervation of skeletal muscle, likely accounting for expression of new TTX-resistant Na+ channels. Thus, this cardiac-specific Na+ channel clone appears to encode a distinct TTX-resistant isoform and is another member of the mammalian Na+ channel multigene family, found in newborn heart and denervated skeletal muscles. Images PMID:2554302

  1. Cloning and olfactory expression of progestin receptors in the Chinese black sleeper Bostrichthys sinensis.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yu Ting; Liu, Dong Teng; Zhu, Yong; Chen, Shi Xi; Hong, Wan Shu

    2016-05-01

    Our previous studies suggested that 17α,20β-dihydroxy-4-pregnen-3-one (DHP), an oocyte maturation inducing progestin, also acts as a sex pheromone in Chinese black sleeper Bostrichthys sinensis, a fish species that inhabits intertidal zones and mates and spawns inside a muddy burrow. The electro-olfactogram response to DHP increased during the breeding season. In the present study, we cloned the cDNAs of the nine progestin receptors (pgr, paqr5, 6, 7(a, b), 8, 9, pgrmc1, 2) from B. sinensis, analyzed their tissue distribution, and determined the expression in the olfactory rosette during the reproductive cycle in female and male fish. The deduced amino acid sequences of the nine progestin receptors share high sequence identities with those of other fish species and relatively lower homology with their mammalian counterparts, and phylogenetic analyses classified the nine B. sinensis progestin receptors into their respective progestin receptor groups. Tissue distribution of B. sinensis progestin receptors showed differential expression patterns, but all these nine genes were expressed in the olfactory rosette. Interestingly, paqr5 mRNA was found in the intermediate and basal parts of the olfactory epithelium but not in the central core using in situ hybridization, and its expression level was the highest in the olfactory rosette among the tissues examined. These results suggested Paqr5 may have an important role for transmitting progestin signaling in the olfactory system. The expression levels of paqr7a and paqr7b, pgr and pgrmc2 mRNA peaked around the mid meiotic stage, and that of paqr8 peaked at late meiotic stage in the olfactory rosette in males, while the olfactory expression of paqr5 decreased gradually as spermatogenesis progressed. In contrast, the expression of the progestin receptors did not change significantly during the development of the ovary in the olfactory rosette in females, except that of pgr. Interestingly, the changes of paqr8 expression in

  2. Particle infectivity of HIV-1 full-length genome infectious molecular clones in a subtype C heterosexual transmission pair following high fidelity amplification and unbiased cloning

    SciTech Connect

    Deymier, Martin J.; Claiborne, Daniel T.; Ende, Zachary; Ratner, Hannah K.; Kilembe, William; Hunter, Eric

    2014-11-15

    The high genetic diversity of HIV-1 impedes high throughput, large-scale sequencing and full-length genome cloning by common restriction enzyme based methods. Applying novel methods that employ a high-fidelity polymerase for amplification and an unbiased fusion-based cloning strategy, we have generated several HIV-1 full-length genome infectious molecular clones from an epidemiologically linked transmission pair. These clones represent the transmitted/founder virus and phylogenetically diverse non-transmitted variants from the chronically infected individual's diverse quasispecies near the time of transmission. We demonstrate that, using this approach, PCR-induced mutations in full-length clones derived from their cognate single genome amplicons are rare. Furthermore, all eight non-transmitted genomes tested produced functional virus with a range of infectivities, belying the previous assumption that a majority of circulating viruses in chronic HIV-1 infection are defective. Thus, these methods provide important tools to update protocols in molecular biology that can be universally applied to the study of human viral pathogens. - Highlights: • Our novel methodology demonstrates accurate amplification and cloning of full-length HIV-1 genomes. • A majority of plasma derived HIV variants from a chronically infected individual are infectious. • The transmitted/founder was more infectious than the majority of the variants from the chronically infected donor.

  3. Structural and Molecular Modeling Features of P2X Receptors

    PubMed Central

    Alves, Luiz Anastacio; da Silva, João Herminio Martins; Ferreira, Dinarte Neto Moreira; Fidalgo-Neto, Antonio Augusto; Teixeira, Pedro Celso Nogueira; de Souza, Cristina Alves Magalhães; Caffarena, Ernesto Raúl; de Freitas, Mônica Santos

    2014-01-01

    Currently, adenosine 5′-triphosphate (ATP) is recognized as the extracellular messenger that acts through P2 receptors. P2 receptors are divided into two subtypes: P2Y metabotropic receptors and P2X ionotropic receptors, both of which are found in virtually all mammalian cell types studied. Due to the difficulty in studying membrane protein structures by X-ray crystallography or NMR techniques, there is little information about these structures available in the literature. Two structures of the P2X4 receptor in truncated form have been solved by crystallography. Molecular modeling has proven to be an excellent tool for studying ionotropic receptors. Recently, modeling studies carried out on P2X receptors have advanced our knowledge of the P2X receptor structure-function relationships. This review presents a brief history of ion channel structural studies and shows how modeling approaches can be used to address relevant questions about P2X receptors. PMID:24637936

  4. Molecular Mechanisms of Opioid Receptor-Dependent Signaling and Behavior

    PubMed Central

    Al-Hasani, Ream; Bruchas, Michael R.

    2013-01-01

    Opioid receptors have been targeted for the treatment of pain and related disorders for thousands of years, and remain the most widely used analgesics in the clinic. Mu (μ), kappa (κ), and delta (δ) opioid receptors represent the originally classified receptor subtypes, with opioid receptor like-1 (ORL1) being the least characterized. All four receptors are G-protein coupled, and activate inhibitory G-proteins. These receptors form homo- and hetereodimeric complexes, signal to kinase cascades, and scaffold a variety of proteins. In this review, we discuss classical mechanisms and developments in understanding opioid tolerance, opioid receptor signaling, and highlight advances in opioid molecular pharmacology, behavioral pharmacology, and human genetics. We put into context how opioid receptor signaling leads to the modulation of behavior with the potential for therapeutic intervention. Finally, we conclude that there is a continued need for more translational work on opioid receptors in vivo. PMID:22020140

  5. Immersing Undergraduate Students in the Research Experience: A Practical Laboratory Module on Molecular Cloning of Microbial Genes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Jack T. H.; Schembri, Mark A.; Ramakrishna, Mathitha; Sagulenko, Evgeny; Fuerst, John A.

    2012-01-01

    Molecular cloning skills are an essential component of biological research, yet students often do not receive this training during their undergraduate studies. This can be attributed to the complexities of the cloning process, which may require many weeks of progressive design and experimentation. To address this issue, we incorporated an…

  6. Cloning of a putative G-protein-coupled receptor from Arabidopsis thaliana.

    PubMed

    Josefsson, L G; Rask, L

    1997-10-15

    We have cloned and characterized a cDNA from Arabidopsis thaliana that most likely encodes a novel member of the vast superfamily of G-protein-coupled receptor proteins (GPCRs). By taking advantage of amino acid sequence similarities between plant expressed sequence tags (ESTs) and established G-protein-coupled receptor sequences, a probe was obtained which was used for the screening of an Arabidopsis cDNA library. The cDNA which was found is very infrequently represented in the cDNA library, suggesting a low and/or spatially restricted expression. A region of the translated sequence of the cDNA shows the highest similarity to cAMP receptors from the slime mold Dictyostelium discoideum. The same region is also similar to that in members of the animal calcitonin family of receptors. Another region of the putative receptor, however, is similar to sequences of serotonin receptors and other receptors of the so-called rhodopsin family of GPCRs. The rhodopsin family has numerous members in higher vertebrate species. Alignments and phylogenetic analyses of the regions of similarity yielded results in accordance with other evolutionary considerations. Our cDNA thus occurred on a distinct major branch in relation to the rest of the rhodopsin family. In relation to the calcitonin family, our cDNA and cAMP receptors occurred together on a distinct major branch but appear to have diverged from each other shortly after their divergence from the rest of the calcitonin family. Other features further argue for a tentative identification of it as a GPCR. It displays seven discrete and strongly predicted transmembrane domains when analyzed in hydropathy plots. The preferred orientation is with the amino terminus towards the outside. It has one Cys residue in extracellular loop 1 and another in extracellular loop 2. Cys residues in these loops are known to form disulfide bridges in many other GPCRs. Finally, it has several fully conserved amino acids that belong to the most conserved

  7. Cloning and expression profile of ionotropic receptors in the parasitoid wasp Microplitis mediator (Hymenoptera: Braconidae).

    PubMed

    Wang, Shan-Ning; Peng, Yong; Lu, Zi-Yun; Dhiloo, Khalid Hussain; Zheng, Yao; Shan, Shuang; Li, Rui-Jun; Zhang, Yong-Jun; Guo, Yu-Yuan

    2016-07-01

    Ionotropic receptors (IRs) mainly detect the acids and amines having great importance in many insect species, representing an ancient olfactory receptor family in insects. In the present work, we performed RNAseq of Microplitis mediator antennae and identified seventeen IRs. Full-length MmedIRs were cloned and sequenced. Phylogenetic analysis of the Hymenoptera IRs revealed that ten MmedIR genes encoded "antennal IRs" and seven encoded "divergent IRs". Among the IR25a orthologous groups, two genes, MmedIR25a.1 and MmedIR25a.2, were found in M. mediator. Gene structure analysis of MmedIR25a revealed a tandem duplication of IR25a in M. mediator. The tissue distribution and development specific expression of the MmedIR genes suggested that these genes showed a broad expression profile. Quantitative gene expression analysis showed that most of the genes are highly enriched in adult antennae, indicating the candidate chemosensory function of this family in parasitic wasps. Using immunocytochemistry, we confirmed that one co-receptor, MmedIR8a, was expressed in the olfactory sensory neurons. Our data will supply fundamental information for functional analysis of the IRs in parasitoid wasp chemoreception. PMID:27208597

  8. Cloning and expression of a human kidney cDNA for an /alpha//sub 2/-adrenergic receptor subtype

    SciTech Connect

    Regan, J.W.; Kobilka, T.S.; Yang-Feng, T.L.; Caron, M.G.; Lefkowitz, R.J.; Kobilka, B.K.

    1988-09-01

    An /alpha//sub 2/-adrenergic receptor subtype has been cloned from a human kidney cDNA library using the gene for the human platelet /alpha//sub 2/-adrenergic receptor as a probe. The deduced amino acid sequence resembles the human platelet /alpha//sub 2/-adrenergic receptor and is consistent with the structure of other members of he family of guanine nucleotide-binding protein-coupled receptors. The cDNA was expressed in a mammalian cell line (COS-7), and the /alpha//sub 2/-adrenergic ligand (/sup 3/H)rauwolscine was bound. Competition curve analysis with a variety of adrenergic ligands suggests that this cDNA clone represents the /alpha//sub 2/B-adrenergic receptor. The gene for this receptor is on human chromosome 4, whereas the gene for the human platelet /alpha//sub 2/-adrenergic receptor (/alpha//sub 2/A) lies on chromosome 10. This ability to express the receptor in mammalian cells, free of other adrenergic receptor subtypes, should help in developing more selective /alpha/-adrenergic ligands.

  9. Molecular cloning and expression of an Erwinia sp. gene encoding diphenyl ether cleavage in Escherichia coli.

    PubMed Central

    Liaw, H J; Srinivasan, V R

    1989-01-01

    A 2.1-kilobase fragment obtained by restriction enzyme HindIII digestion of Erwinia sp. genomic DNA was cloned into plasmid pUC19 and introduced into Escherichia coli by transformation. The transformants with diphenyl ether cleaving activity (Dpe+) were selected on agar plates with a specially designed medium (LTFN) containing 4-nitrodiphenyl ether. The positive clones showed a clear zone around the colonies. Analysis of mutants obtained by transposon mini-Mu dI(lacZ Kmr) mutagenesis indicated the coding region of the gene (dpe) and the utilization of a lacZ promoter of pUC19 for transcription of dpe. Clones with dpe in the opposite orientation in pUC19 were not expressed, confirming the need for a lacZ promoter. Utilization of a lacZ promoter in pUC19 was further confirmed by the observation that the degradation of 4-nitrodiphenyl ether was enhanced in the presence of isopropyl-beta-D-thiogalactoside. Expression of dpe was also found in pDPE7321, generated from cloning this gene into another plasmid, pSP73. Analysis of the plasmid-encoded proteins by the maxicell technique showed a polypeptide of 21,000 molecular weight as the product of dpe. Images PMID:2679381

  10. Bovine viral diarrhea virus: molecular cloning of genomic RNA and its diagnostic application

    SciTech Connect

    Brock, K.V.

    1987-01-01

    Molecular cloning of a field isolate of bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) strain 72 RNA was done in this study. The sensitivity and specificity of cloned cDNA sequences in hybridization assays with various BVDV strains were determined. cDNA was synthesized from polyadenylated BVDV RNA templates with oligo-dT primers, reverse transcriptase, and DNA polymerase I. The newly synthesized double-stranded BVDV cDNA was C-tailed with terminal deoxytransferase and annealed into G-tailed, Pst-1-cut pUC9 plasmid. Escherichia coli was transformed with the recombinant plasmids and a library of approximately 200 BVDV specific cDNA clones varying in length from 0.5 to 2.6 kilobases were isolated. The sensitivity and specificity of hybridization between the labelled cDNA and BVDV target sequences were determined. Cloned BVDV sequences were isolated from pUC9 plasmid DNA and labelled with /sup 32/P by nick translation. The detection limit by dot blot hybridization assay was 20 pg of purified genomic BVDV RNA. cDNA hybridization probes were specific for all strains of BVDV tested, regardless of whether they were noncytopathic and cytopathic, but did not hybridize with heterologous bovine viruses tested. Probes did not hybridize with uninfected cell culture or cellular RNA. Hybridization probes were at least as sensitive as infectivity assays in detecting homologous virus.

  11. Cloning, expression and functional analysis of the duck Toll-like receptor 5 (TLR5) gene

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Yuqiang; Sun, Yingjie; Wang, Hengan; Shi, Shuduan; Yan, Yaxian; Li, Jing

    2015-01-01

    Toll-like receptor 5 (TLR5) is responsible for the recognition of bacterial flagellin in vertebrates. In the present study, the first TLR5 gene in duck was cloned. The open reading frame (ORF) of duck TLR5 (dTLR5) cDNA is 2580 bp and encodes a polypeptide of 859 amino acids. We also cloned partial sequences of myeloid differentiation factor 88, 2'-5'-oligoadenylate synthetase (OAS), and myxovirus resistance (Mx) genes from duck. dTLR5 mRNA was highly expressed in the bursa of Fabricius, spleen, trachea, lung, jejunum, rectum, and skin; moderately expressed in the muscular and glandular tissues, duodenum, ileum, caecum, and pancreas; and minimally expressed in the heart, liver, kidney, and muscle. DF-1 or HeLa cells transfected with DNA constructs encoding dTLR5 can activate NF-κB leading to the activation of interleukin-6 (IL-6) promoter. When we challenged ducks with a Herts33 Newcastle disease virus (NDV), mRNA transcription of the antiviral molecules Mx, Double stranded RNA activated protein kinase (PKR), and OAS was up-regulated in the liver, lung, and spleen 1 and 2 days post-inoculation. PMID:25269719

  12. Cloning and functional expression of the equine luteinizing hormone/chorionic gonadotrophin receptor.

    PubMed

    Saint-Dizier, Marie; Foulon-Gauze, Florence; Lecompte, François; Combarnous, Yves; Chopineau, Maryse

    2004-12-01

    Pituitary equine luteinizing hormone (eLH) and fetal chorionic gonadotrophin (eCG) have identical polypeptidic chains, but different linked carbohydrates. In equine tissues, eCG and eLH bind only to the LH/CG receptor (eLH/CG-R) and have no FSH activity. However, radio-receptor assays on equine luteal or testicular tissues have shown that eCG binds to the eLH/CG-R with only 2-4% of the binding activity of eLH. In order to study the structure-function relationship of eLH and eCG in a homologous system, we undertook the cloning and functional expression of the eLH/CG-R. Based on sequence homologies among mammalian sequences for the LH/CG-R, overlapping partial fragments of LH/CG-R cDNAs were obtained from mare luteal RNA using reverse transcription-PCR and 5'-rapid amplification of cDNA ends. Ligations of the partial cDNA fragments encoded a part of the signal peptide followed by a putative 672 amino acid eLH/CG-R mature protein. The mature eLH/CG-R displayed 88.2-92.8% overall sequence homology with the other mammalian LH/CG-Rs and contained one unique seventh N-glycosylation site in its extracellular domain. COS-7 cells were transiently transfected with a cDNA construct encoding an engineered complete signal peptide and the mature eLH/CG-R. Membrane preparations from transfected COS-7 cells bound 125I-eLH with high affinity (Kd 3.8 x 10(-10) M). On a molar basis, eCG competed with 125I-eLH on membrane preparations with only 12.4% of the eLH binding activity. In transfected COS-7, both eLH and eCG increased the extracellular cAMP concentration in a dose-dependent manner, whereas eFSH did not. Furthermore, on a molar basis, eCG stimulated cAMP production with only 13.9% of the eLH stimulating activity. We conclude that the cloned cDNA encodes a The differences functional eLH/CG-R. between eLH and eCG activities towards this receptor will be useful in studies of the influence of carbohydrates on gonadotrophin receptor binding and activation. PMID:15590981

  13. Molecular determinants of NMDA receptor internalization.

    PubMed

    Roche, K W; Standley, S; McCallum, J; Dune Ly, C; Ehlers, M D; Wenthold, R J

    2001-08-01

    Although synaptic AMPA receptors have been shown to rapidly internalize, synaptic NMDA receptors are reported to be static. It is not certain whether NMDA receptor stability at synaptic sites is an inherent property of the receptor, or is due to stabilization by scaffolding proteins. In this study, we demonstrate that NMDA receptors are internalized in both heterologous cells and neurons, and we define an internalization motif, YEKL, on the distal C-terminus of NR2B. In addition, we show that the synaptic protein PSD-95 inhibits NR2B-mediated internalization, and that deletion of the PDZ-binding domain of NR2B increases internalization in neurons. This suggests an involvement for PSD-95 in NMDA receptor regulation and an explanation for NMDA receptor stability at synaptic sites. PMID:11477425

  14. Molecular evolution of GPCRs: Ghrelin/ghrelin receptors.

    PubMed

    Kaiya, Hiroyuki; Kangawa, Kenji; Miyazato, Mikiya

    2014-06-01

    After the discovery in 1996 of the GH secretagogue-receptor type-1a (GHS-R1a) as an orphan G-protein coupled receptor, many research groups attempted to identify the endogenous ligand. Finally, Kojima and colleagues successfully isolated the peptide ligand from rat stomach extracts, determined its structure, and named it ghrelin. The GHS-R1a is now accepted to be the ghrelin receptor. The existence of the ghrelin system has been demonstrated in many animal classes through biochemical and molecular biological strategies as well as through genome projects. Our work, focused on identifying the ghrelin receptor and its ligand ghrelin in laboratory animals, particularly nonmammalian vertebrates, has provided new insights into the molecular evolution of the ghrelin receptor. In mammals, it is assumed that the ghrelin receptor evolution is in line with the plate tectonics theory. In contrast, the evolution of the ghrelin receptor in nonmammalian vertebrates differs from that of mammals: multiplicity of the ghrelin receptor isoforms is observed in nonmammalian vertebrates only. This multiplicity is due to genome duplication and polyploidization events that particularly occurred in Teleostei. Furthermore, it is likely that the evolution of the ghrelin receptor is distinct from that of its ligand, ghrelin, because only one ghrelin isoform has been detected in all species examined so far. In this review, we summarize current knowledge related to the molecular evolution of the ghrelin receptor in mammalian and nonmammalian vertebrates. PMID:24353285

  15. A dedicated database program for cataloging recombinant clones and other laboratory products of molecular biology technology.

    PubMed

    Jenson, H B

    1989-06-01

    A novel computer database program dedicated to storing, cataloging, and accessing information about recombinant clones and libraries has been developed for the IBM (or compatible) personal computer. This program, named CLONES, also stores information about bacterial strains and plasmid and bacteriophage vectors used in molecular biology. The advantages of this method are improved organization of data, fast and easy assimilation of new data, automatic association of new data with existing data, and rapid retrieval of desired records using search criteria specified by the user. Individual records are indexed in the database using B-trees, which automatically index new entries and expedite later access. The use of multiple windows, pull-down menus, scrolling pick-lists, and field-input techniques make the program intuitive to understand and easy to use. Daughter databases can be created to include all records of a particular type, or only those records matching user-specified search criteria. Separate databases can also be merged into a larger database. This computer program provides an easy-to-use and accurate means to organize, maintain, access, and share information about recombinant clones and other laboratory products of molecular biology technology. PMID:2631777

  16. Particle infectivity of HIV-1 full-length genome infectious molecular clones in a subtype C heterosexual transmission pair following high fidelity amplification and unbiased cloning

    PubMed Central

    Deymier, Martin J.; Claiborne, Daniel T.; Ende, Zachary; Ratner, Hannah K.; Kilembe, William; Allen, Susan; Hunter, Eric

    2014-01-01

    The high genetic diversity of HIV-1 impedes high throughput, large-scale sequencing and full-length genome cloning by common restriction enzyme based methods. Applying novel methods that employ a high-fidelity polymerase for amplification and an unbiased fusion-based cloning strategy, we have generated several HIV-1 full-length genome infectious molecular clones from an epidemiologically linked transmission pair. These clones represent the transmitted/founder virus and phylogenetically diverse non-transmitted variants from the chronically infected individual's diverse quasispecies near the time of transmission. We demonstrate that, using this approach, PCR-induced mutations in full-length clones derived from their cognate single genome amplicons are rare. Furthermore, all eight non-transmitted genomes tested produced functional virus with a range of infectivities, belying the previous assumption that a majority of circulating viruses in chronic HIV-1 infection are defective. Thus, these methods provide important tools to update protocols in molecular biology that could be universally applied to the study of human viral pathogens. PMID:25243334

  17. Molecular characterization of cloned variants of Coxiella burnetii isolated in China.

    PubMed

    Ning, Z; Yu, S R; Quan, Y G; Xue, Z

    1992-03-01

    To study the molecular properties of Coxiella burnetii phase variants we cloned the phase variants of C. burnetii Qiyi (CBQY) strain by the red plaque technique. Three cloned strains, CBQYIC3 (phase I), CBQYIIC7 (phase II) and CBQYIIC5 (semirough-phase) were analysed by SDS-PAGE, immunoblot assay, plasmid isolation and agarose gel electrophoresis of DNA restriction fragments. The results suggest that the unique phase-dependent substance is a lipopolysaccharide and that most protein components of phase I and phase II cells are shared. No significant differences of DNA restriction fragments were found between clonal isolates of phase I and phase II C. burnetii CBQY strains. A plasmid of approximately 56 Kb was isolated from both phase I and phase II variants indicating that phase variation probably could not be attributed to its presence or absence. PMID:1359769

  18. CD8+ T-cell clones deficient in the expression of the CD45 protein tyrosine phosphatase have impaired responses to T-cell receptor stimuli.

    PubMed Central

    Weaver, C T; Pingel, J T; Nelson, J O; Thomas, M L

    1991-01-01

    CD45 is a high-molecular-weight transmembrane protein tyrosine phosphatase expressed only by nucleated cells of hematopoietic origin. To examine function, mouse CD8+ cytolytic T-cell clones were derived that had a specific defect in the expression of CD45. Northern (RNA) blot analysis indicates that the CD45 deficiency is due to either a transcriptional defect or mRNA instability. The CD45-deficient cells were greatly diminished in their ability to respond to antigen. All functional parameters of T-cell receptor signalling analyzed (cytolysis of targets, proliferation, and cytokine production) were markedly diminished. A CD45+ revertant was isolated, and the ability to respond to antigen was restored. These results support a central and immediate role for this transmembrane protein tyrosine phosphatase in T-cell receptor signalling. Images PMID:1652055

  19. Cloning and mapping of the mouse {alpha}7-neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptor

    SciTech Connect

    Orr-Urtreger, A.; Baldini, A.; Beaudet, A.L.

    1995-03-20

    We report the isolation of cDNA clones for the mouse {alpha}7 neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptor subunit (gene symbol Acra7), the only nicotinic receptor subunit known to bind a-bungarotoxin in mammalian brain. This gene may have relevance to nicotine sensitivity and to some electrophysiologic findings in schizophrenia. The mouse {alpha}7 subunit gene encodes a protein of 502 amino acids with substantial identity to the rat (99.6%), human (92.8%), and chicken (87.5%) amino acid sequences. The {alpha}7 gene was mapped to mouse chromosome 7 near the p locus with the following gene order from proximal to distal: Myod1-3.5 {+-}1.7 cM-Gas2-0.9 cM {+-} 0.9 cM-D7Mit70-1.8 {+-} 1.2 cM- Acra7-4.4 {+-}1.0 cM-Hras1-ps11/Igf1r/Snrp2a. The human gene was confirmed to map to the homologous region of human chromosome 15q13-q14. 26 refs., 3 figs.

  20. Molecular tracking of antigen-specific T cell clones in neurological immune-mediated disorders

    PubMed Central

    Muraro, Paolo A.; Wandinger, Klaus-Peter; Bielekova, Bibiana; Gran, Bruno; Marques, Adriana; Utz, Ursula; McFarland, Henry F.; Jacobson, Steve; Martin, Roland

    2016-01-01

    Summary T cells recognizing self or microbial antigens may trigger or reactivate immune-mediated diseases. Monitoring the frequency of specific T cell clonotypes to assess a possible link with the course of disease has been a difficult task with currently available technology. Our goal was to track individual candidate pathogenic T cell clones, selected on the basis of previous extensive studies from patients with immune-mediated disorders of the CNS, including multiple sclerosis, HTLV-I associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis (HAM/ TSP) and chronic Lyme neuroborreliosis. We developed and applied a highly specific and sensitive technique to track single CD4+ and CD8+ T cell clones through the detection and quantification of T cell receptor (TCR) α or β chain complementarity-determining region 3 transcripts by real-time reverse transcriptase (RT)-PCR. We examined the frequency of the candidate pathogenic T cell clones in the peripheral blood and CSF during the course of neurological disease. Using this approach, we detected variations of clonal frequencies that appeared to be related to clinical course, significant enrichment in the CSF, or both. By integrating clono-type tracking with direct visualization of antigen-specific staining, we showed that a single T cell clone contributed substantially to the overall recognition of the viral peptide/MHC complex in a patient with HAM/ TSP. T cell clonotype tracking is a powerful new technology enabling further elucidation of the dynamics of expansion of autoreactive or pathogen-specific T cells that mediate pathological or protective immune responses in neurological disorders. PMID:12477694

  1. Cloning of the cat TSH receptor and evidence against an autoimmune etiology of feline hyperthyroidism.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Lynda Q; Arseven, Onur Karamanoglu; Gerber, Hans; Stein, Barbara S; Jameson, J Larry; Kopp, Peter

    2002-02-01

    Cats are the only nonhuman mammalian species with a high incidence of hyperthyroidism, and a better understanding of the pathogenesis of feline hyperthyroidism is of clinical relevance for veterinary medicine. The etiology of this disease in cats remains controversial. Both an intrinsic autonomy of growth and function of follicular cells as well as an autoimmune-related mechanism have been proposed. To explore the role of the autologous TSH receptor (TSHR) in the pathogenesis of hyperthyroidism in cats, we cloned the coding sequence of the feline TSHR by RT-PCR. The open reading frame consists of 2292 nucleotides and encodes a 763-amino acid protein, one amino acid less than the human TSHR. Species comparison reveals that the cat TSHR is most closely related to the canine TSHR, with 96% identity and 97% similarity in amino acid sequence. cAMP accumulation, inositol phosphate production, and TSH binding were similar in the feline TSHR, compared with the human receptor. Analogous to the human TSHR, the cat TSHR also displays basal constitutive activity. To test the possibility that hyperthyroid cats develop antibodies that stimulate the autologous receptor, transfected cells expressing the feline TSHR were treated with sera or purified IgG obtained from 16 hyperthyroid cats. There was no increase in cAMP-dependent luciferase activity in the hyperthyroid cats, suggesting the absence of stimulatory autoantibodies. These sera were also negative for TSH-binding inhibitory Igs in an RRA. At least in the animals included in this study, there is no evidence for the presence of circulating thyroid stimulating factors as a mechanism underlying the pathogenesis of feline hyperthyroidism, and the findings support a model involving intrinsic autonomy of thyroid follicular cell growth and function. PMID:11796491

  2. Molecular transformation, gene cloning, and gene expression systems for filamentous fungi

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gold, Scott E.; Duick, John W.; Redman, Regina S.; Rodriguez, Rusty J.

    2001-01-01

    This chapter discusses the molecular transformation, gene cloning, and gene expression systems for filamentous fungi. Molecular transformation involves the movement of discrete amounts of DNA into cells, the expression of genes on the transported DNA, and the sustainable replication of the transforming DNA. The ability to transform fungi is dependent on the stable replication and expression of genes located on the transforming DNA. Three phenomena observed in bacteria, that is, competence, plasmids, and restriction enzymes to facilitate cloning, were responsible for the development of molecular transformation in fungi. Initial transformation success with filamentous fungi, involving the complementation of auxotrophic mutants by exposure to sheared genomic DNA or RNA from wt isolates, occurred with low transformation efficiencies. In addition, it was difficult to retrieve complementing DNA fragments and isolate genes of interest. This prompted the development of transformation vectors and methods to increase efficiencies. The physiological studies performed with fungi indicated that the cell wall could be removed to generate protoplasts. It was evident that protoplasts could be transformed with significantly greater efficiencies than walled cells.

  3. A simple and rapid strategy for the molecular cloning and monitoring of mouse HtrA2 serine protease.

    PubMed

    Kim, Goo-Young; Nam, Min-Kyung; Kim, Sang-Soo; Kim, Ho-Young; Lee, Sang-Kyu; Rhim, Hyangshuk

    2008-03-01

    A simple and rapid strategy for molecular cloning using a gel-free and antibiotic selection method is described which allows for the complete elimination of DNA extraction by gel electrophoresis, and thus has several advantages over gel-based cloning methods, including: (i) a cloning efficiency that is approximately 10-times higher due to the prevention of ethidium bromide ultraviolet-induced DNA damage and contamination with ligase inhibitors; (ii) the amount of plasmid DNA required is approximately five times less; and (iii) the cloning time is several hours less. Once the target gene, such as mouse HtrA2 serine protease, was cloned into the pEGFP-N3 plasmid, the integrity of the kanamycin-resistant molecular clone encoding the GFP fusion protein was verified by immunoblot and immunofluorescence assays. In addition, the integrity of the ampicillin-resistant molecular clone was directly evaluated by analyzing the expression and affinity purification of the GST fusion protein and by measuring its enzymatic activity. Therefore, this method is suitable for the routine construction of a plasmid expressing the gene of interest, and the usefulness of this strategy can be demonstrated by monitoring the expression of the target gene in E. coli and mammalian cells. PMID:17939055

  4. Virtual Screening of Receptor Sites for Molecularly Imprinted Polymers.

    PubMed

    Bates, Ferdia; Cela-Pérez, María Concepción; Karim, Kal; Piletsky, Sergey; López-Vilariño, José Manuel

    2016-08-01

    Molecularly Imprinted Polymers (MIPs) are highly advantageous in the field of analytical chemistry. However, interference from secondary molecules can also impede capture of a target by a MIP receptor. This greatly complicates the design process and often requires extensive laboratory screening which is time consuming, costly, and creates substantial waste products. Herein, is presented a new technique for screening of "virtually imprinted receptors" for rebinding of the molecular template as well as secondary structures, correlating the virtual predictions with experimentally acquired data in three case studies. This novel technique is particularly applicable to the evaluation and prediction of MIP receptor specificity and efficiency in complex aqueous systems. PMID:27076379

  5. Molecular cloning and functional analysis of a 10-epi-junenol synthase from Inula hupehensis.

    PubMed

    Gou, Jun-Bo; Li, Zhen-Qiu; Li, Chang-Fu; Chen, Fang-Fang; Lv, Shi-You; Zhang, Yan-Sheng

    2016-09-01

    Junenol based-eudesmanolides have been detected in many compositae plant species and were reported to exhibit various pharmacological activities. So far, the gene encoding junenol synthase has never been isolated. Here we report the molecular cloning and functional analysis of a 10-epi-junenol synthase from Inula hupehensis (designated IhsTPS1). IhsTPS1 converts the substrate farnesyl diphosphate into multiple sesquiterpenes with the product 10-epi-junenol being predominant. The transcript levels of IhsTPS1 correlate well with the accumulation pattern of 10-epi-junenol in I. hupehensis organs, supporting its biochemical roles in vivo. PMID:27231873

  6. Molecular cloning, expression, and characterization of endoglucanase genes from Fibrobacter succinogenes AR1.

    PubMed Central

    Cavicchioli, R; Watson, K

    1991-01-01

    A cosmid gene library was constructed in Escherichia coli from genomic DNA isolated from the ruminal anaerobe Fibrobacter succinogenes AR1. Clones were screened on carboxymethyl cellulose, and 8 colonies that produced large clearing zones and 25 colonies that produced small clearing zones were identified. Southern blot hybridization revealed the existence of at least three separate genes encoding cellulase activity. pRC093, which is representative of cosmid clones that produce large clearing zones, was subcloned in pGem-1, and the resulting hybrid pRCEH directed synthesis of endoglucanase activity localized on a 2.1-kb EcoRI-HindIII insert. Activity was expressed from this fragment when it was cloned in both orientations in pGem-1 and pGem-2, indicating that F. succinogenes promoters functioned successfully in E. coli. A high level of endoglucanase activity was detected on acid-swollen cellulose, ball-milled cellulose, and carboxymethyl cellulose; and a moderate level was detected on filter paper, Avicel, lichenan, and xylan. Most activity (80%) was localized in the periplasm of E. coli, with low but significant levels (16%) being detected in the extracellular medium. The periplasmic endoglucanase had an estimated molecular weight of 46,500, had an optimum temperature of 39 degrees C, and exhibited activity over a broad pH range, with a maximum at pH 5.0. Images PMID:2014986

  7. Molecular cloning, expression, and sequence of the pilin gene from nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae M37.

    PubMed Central

    Coleman, T; Grass, S; Munson, R

    1991-01-01

    Nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae M37 adheres to human buccal epithelial cells and exhibits mannose-resistant hemagglutination of human erythrocytes. An isogenic variant of this strain which was deficient in hemagglutination was isolated. A protein with an apparent molecular weight of 22,000 was present in the sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel profile of sarcosyl-insoluble proteins from the hemagglutination-proficient strain but was absent from the profile of the isogenic hemagglutination-deficient variant. A monoclonal antibody which reacts with the hemagglutination-proficient isolate but not with the hemagglutination-deficient isolate has been characterized. This monoclonal antibody was employed in an affinity column for purification of the protein as well as to screen a genomic library for recombinant clones expressing the gene. Several clones which contained overlapping genomic fragments were identified by reaction with the monoclonal antibody. The gene for the 22-kDa protein was subcloned and sequenced. The gene for the type b pilin from H. influenzae type b strain MinnA was also cloned and sequenced. The DNA sequence of the strain MinnA gene was identical to that reported previously for two other type b strains. The DNA sequence of the strain M37 gene is 77% identical to that of the type b pilin gene, and the derived amino acid sequence is 68% identical to that of the type b pilin. Images PMID:1673447

  8. Establishment and Characterization of Molecular Clones of Porcine Endogenous Retroviruses Replicating on Human Cells

    PubMed Central

    Czauderna, Frank; Fischer, Nicole; Boller, Klaus; Kurth, Reinhard; Tönjes, Ralf R.

    2000-01-01

    The use of pig xenografts is being considered to alleviate the shortage of allogeneic organs for transplantation. In addition to the problems overcoming immunological and physiological barriers, the existence of numerous porcine microorganisms poses the risk of initiating a xenozoonosis. Recently, different classes of type C porcine endogenous retoviruses (PERV) which are infectious for human cells in vitro have been partially described. We therefore examined whether completely intact proviruses exist that produce infectious and replication-competent virions. Several proviral PERV sequences were cloned and characterized. One molecular PERV class B clone, PERV-B(43), generated infectious particles after transfection into human 293 cells. A second clone, PERV-B(33), which was highly homologous to PERV-B(43), showed a G-to-A mutation in the first start codon (Met to Ile) of the env gene, preventing this provirus from replicating. However, a genetic recombinant, PERV-B(33)/ATG, carrying a restored env start codon, became infectious and could be serially passaged on 293 cells similar to virus clone PERV-B(43). PERV protein expression was detected 24 to 48 h posttransfection (p.t.) using cross-reacting antiserum, and reverse transcriptase activity was found at 12 to 14 days p.t. The transcriptional start and stop sites as well as the splice donor and splice acceptor sites of PERV mRNA were mapped, yielding a subgenomic env transcript of 3.1 kb. PERV-B(33) and PERV-B(43) differ in the number of copies of a 39-bp segment in the U3 region of the long terminal repeat. Strategies to identify and to specifically suppress or eliminate those proviruses from the pig genome might help in the production of PERV-free animals. PMID:10756014

  9. Molecular Physiology of Enteric Opioid Receptors

    PubMed Central

    Galligan, James J.; Akbarali, Hamid I.

    2015-01-01

    Opioid drugs have powerful antidiarrheal effects and many patients taking these drugs for chronic pain relief experience chronic constipation that can progress to opioid-induced bowel dysfunction. Three classes of opioid receptors are expressed by enteric neurons: μ-, δ-, and κ-opioid receptors (MOR, DOR, and KOR). MOR and DOR couple to inhibition of adenylate cylase and nerve terminal Ca2+ channels and activation of K+ channels. These effects reduce neuronal activity and neurotransmitter release. KOR couples to inhibition of Ca2+ channels and inhibition of neurotransmitter release. In the human gastrointestinal tract, MOR, DOR, and KOR link to inhibition of acetylcholine release from enteric interneurons and purine/nitric oxide release from inhibitory motorneurons. These actions inhibit propulsive motility. MOR and DOR also link to inhibition of submucosal secretomotor neurons, reducing active Cl− secretion and passive water movement into the colonic lumen. These effects account for the constipation caused by opioid receptor agonists. Tolerance develops to the analgesic effects of opioid receptor agonists but not to the constipating actions. This may be due to differential β-arrestin-2-dependent opioid receptor desensitization and internalization in enteric nerves in the colon compared with the small intestine and in neuronal pain pathways. Further studies of differential opioid receptor desensitization and tolerance in subsets of enteric neurons may identify new drugs or other treatment strategies of opioid-induced bowel dysfunction. PMID:25207608

  10. Molecular physiology of enteric opioid receptors.

    PubMed

    Galligan, James J; Akbarali, Hamid I

    2014-09-10

    Opioid drugs have powerful antidiarrheal effects and many patients taking these drugs for chronic pain relief experience chronic constipation that can progress to opioid-induced bowel dysfunction. Three classes of opioid receptors are expressed by enteric neurons: μ-, δ-, and κ-opioid receptors (MOR, DOR, and KOR). MOR and DOR couple to inhibition of adenylate cylase and nerve terminal Ca(2+) channels and activation of K(+) channels. These effects reduce neuronal activity and neurotransmitter release. KOR couples to inhibition of Ca(2+) channels and inhibition of neurotransmitter release. In the human gastrointestinal tract, MOR, DOR, and KOR link to inhibition of acetylcholine release from enteric interneurons and purine/nitric oxide release from inhibitory motorneurons. These actions inhibit propulsive motility. MOR and DOR also link to inhibition of submucosal secretomotor neurons, reducing active Cl(-) secretion and passive water movement into the colonic lumen. These effects account for the constipation caused by opioid receptor agonists. Tolerance develops to the analgesic effects of opioid receptor agonists but not to the constipating actions. This may be due to differential β-arrestin-2-dependent opioid receptor desensitization and internalization in enteric nerves in the colon compared with the small intestine and in neuronal pain pathways. Further studies of differential opioid receptor desensitization and tolerance in subsets of enteric neurons may identify new drugs or other treatment strategies of opioid-induced bowel dysfunction. PMID:25207608

  11. Cloning and functional expression of a rat kidney extracellular calcium/polyvalent cation-sensing receptor.

    PubMed Central

    Riccardi, D; Park, J; Lee, W S; Gamba, G; Brown, E M; Hebert, S C

    1995-01-01

    The maintenance of a stable extracellular concentration of ionized calcium depends on the integrated function of a number of specialized cells (e.g., parathyroid and certain kidney epithelial cells). We recently identified another G protein-coupled receptor (BoPCaRI) from bovine parathyroid that responds to changes in extracellular Ca2+ within the millimolar range and provides a key mechanism for regulating the secretion of parathyroid hormone. Using an homology-based strategy, we now report the isolation of a cDNA encoding an extracellular Ca2+/polyvalent cation-sensing receptor (RaKCaR) from rat kidney. The predicted RaKCaR protein shares 92% identity with BoPCaR1 receptor and features a seven membrane-spanning domain, characteristic of the G protein-coupled receptors, which is preceded by a large hydrophilic extracellular NH2 terminus believed to be involved in cation binding. RaKCaR cRNA-injected Xenopus oocytes responded to extracellular Ca2+, Mg2+, Gd3+, and neomycin with characteristic activation of inositol phospholipid-dependent, intracellular Ca(2+)-induced Cl- currents. In rat kidney, Northern analysis revealed RaKCaR transcripts of 4 and 7 kb, and in situ hybridization showed localization primarily in outer medulla and cortical medullary rays. Our results provide important insights into the molecular structure of an extracellular Ca2+/polyvalent cation-sensing receptor in rat kidney and provide another basis on which to understand the role of extracellular divalent cations in regulating kidney function in mineral metabolism. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 PMID:7816802

  12. Molecular cloning and biochemical characterization of carbonic anhydrase from Populus tremula x tremuloides.

    PubMed

    Larsson, S; Björkbacka, H; Forsman, C; Samuelsson, G; Olsson, O

    1997-07-01

    A leaf cDNA library from hybrid aspen, Populus tremula x tremuloides, was constructed. From this two different cDNA clones, denoted CA1a and CA1b, encoding a chloroplastic carbonic anhydrase (CA) were isolated and DNA sequenced. Analysis of the deduced amino acid sequences showed that the isolated CAs belong to the beta-CA family, and have identities around 70% to other dicotyledonous plant CAs. The two hybrid aspen cDNA clones display a high nucleotide sequence identity, only 12 nucleotides differ. Since only one gene copy of this soluble chloroplastic CA is present in the nuclear genome, we postulate that the two isolated cDNA clones are alleles. Northern blot hybridization revealed a CA transcript of ca. 1300 bases, 140 bases shorter than in pea. Western and northern blot hybridizations on crude protein extracts and on total RNA, respectively, isolated from stem and leaves, showed that hybrid aspen CA is expressed specifically in the leaf under the growth conditions used. Based on the deduced amino acid sequence, the mature hybrid aspen CA enzyme subunit has a molecular mass of 24.8 kDa. The enzyme was over-expressed in Escherichia coli, and purified by affinity chromatography. Biochemical characterization showed that the protein structure and the CO2-hydration activity are similar to the pea enzyme. Molecular characterization of a CA from a perennial plant has not previously been performed, and it demonstrates that both the structure and activity of hybrid aspen CA resembles CAs from annual plants. PMID:9247540

  13. From lesions to viral clones: biological and molecular diversity amongst autochthonous Brazilian vaccinia virus.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Graziele; Assis, Felipe; Almeida, Gabriel; Albarnaz, Jonas; Lima, Maurício; Andrade, Ana Cláudia; Calixto, Rafael; Oliveira, Cairo; Diomedes Neto, José; Trindade, Giliane; Ferreira, Paulo César; Kroon, Erna Geessien; Abrahão, Jônatas

    2015-03-01

    Vaccinia virus (VACV) has had an important role for humanity because of its use during the smallpox eradication campaign. VACV is the etiologic agent of the bovine vaccinia (BV), an emerging zoonosis that has been associated with economic, social, veterinary and public health problems, mainly in Brazil and India. Despite the current and historical VACV importance, there is little information about its circulation, prevalence, origins and maintenance in the environment, natural reservoirs and diversity. Brazilian VACV (VACV-BR) are grouped into at least two groups based on genetic and biological diversity: group 1 (G1) and group 2 (G2). In this study, we went to the field and investigated VACV clonal diversity directly from exanthemous lesions, during BV outbreaks. Our results demonstrate that the G1 VACV-BR were more frequently isolated. Furthermore, we were able to co-detect the two variants (G1 and G2) in the same sample. Molecular and biological analysis corroborated previous reports and confirmed the co-circulation of two VACV-BR lineages. The detected G2 clones presented exclusive genetic and biological markers, distinct to reference isolates, including VACV-Western Reserve. Two clones presented a mosaic profile, with both G1 and G2 features based on the molecular analysis of A56R, A26L and C23L genes. Indeed, some SNPs and INDELs in A56R nucleotide sequences were observed among clones of the same virus population, maybe as a result of an increased mutation rate in a mixed population. These results provide information about the diversity profile in VACV populations, highlighting its importance to VACV evolution and maintenance in the environment. PMID:25785515

  14. From Lesions to Viral Clones: Biological and Molecular Diversity amongst Autochthonous Brazilian Vaccinia Virus

    PubMed Central

    Oliveira, Graziele; Assis, Felipe; Almeida, Gabriel; Albarnaz, Jonas; Lima, Maurício; Andrade, Ana Cláudia; Calixto, Rafael; Oliveira, Cairo; Neto, José Diomedes; Trindade, Giliane; Ferreira, Paulo César; Kroon, Erna Geessien; Abrahão, Jônatas

    2015-01-01

    Vaccinia virus (VACV) has had an important role for humanity because of its use during the smallpox eradication campaign. VACV is the etiologic agent of the bovine vaccinia (BV), an emerging zoonosis that has been associated with economic, social, veterinary and public health problems, mainly in Brazil and India. Despite the current and historical VACV importance, there is little information about its circulation, prevalence, origins and maintenance in the environment, natural reservoirs and diversity. Brazilian VACV (VACV-BR) are grouped into at least two groups based on genetic and biological diversity: group 1 (G1) and group 2 (G2). In this study, we went to the field and investigated VACV clonal diversity directly from exanthemous lesions, during BV outbreaks. Our results demonstrate that the G1 VACV-BR were more frequently isolated. Furthermore, we were able to co-detect the two variants (G1 and G2) in the same sample. Molecular and biological analysis corroborated previous reports and confirmed the co-circulation of two VACV-BR lineages. The detected G2 clones presented exclusive genetic and biological markers, distinct to reference isolates, including VACV-Western Reserve. Two clones presented a mosaic profile, with both G1 and G2 features based on the molecular analysis of A56R, A26L and C23L genes. Indeed, some SNPs and INDELs in A56R nucleotide sequences were observed among clones of the same virus population, maybe as a result of an increased mutation rate in a mixed population. These results provide information about the diversity profile in VACV populations, highlighting its importance to VACV evolution and maintenance in the environment. PMID:25785515

  15. Cloning, expression, and molecular dynamics simulations of a xylosidase obtained from Thermomyces lanuginosus.

    PubMed

    Gramany, Vashni; Khan, Faez Iqbal; Govender, Algasan; Bisetty, Krishna; Singh, Suren; Permaul, Kugenthiren

    2016-08-01

    The aim of this study was to clone, express, and characterize a β-xylosidase (Tlxyn1) from the thermophilic fungus Thermomyces lanuginosus SSBP in Pichia pastoris GS115 as well as analyze optimal activity and stability using computational and experimental methods. The enzyme was constitutively expressed using the GAP promoter and secreted into the medium due to the alpha-mating factor secretion signal present on the expression vector pBGPI. The 1276 bp gene consists of an open reading frame that does not contain introns. A 12% SDS-PAGE gel revealed a major protein band at an estimated molecular mass of 50 kDa which corresponded to zymogram analysis. The three-dimensional structure of β-xylosidase was predicted, and molecular dynamics simulations at different ranges of temperature and pH were performed in order to predict optimal activity and folding energy. The results suggested a strong conformational temperature and pH dependence. The recombinant enzyme exhibited optimal activity at pH 7 and 50°C and retained 80% activity at 50°C, pH 7 for about 45 min. This is the first report of the cloning, functional expression, and simulations study of a β-xylosidase from Thermomyces species in a fungal host. PMID:26336893

  16. Cloning yeast actin cDNA leads to an investigative approach for the molecular biology laboratory.

    PubMed

    Black, Michael W; Tuan, Alice; Jonasson, Erin

    2008-05-01

    The emergence of molecular tools in multiple disciplines has elevated the importance of undergraduate laboratory courses that train students in molecular biology techniques. Although it would also be desirable to provide students with opportunities to apply these techniques in an investigative manner, this is generally not possible in the classroom because of the preparation, expense, and logistics involved in independent student projects. The authors have designed a 10-week lab series that mimics the research environment by tying separate fundamental lab techniques to a common goal: to build a plasmid with yeast actin cDNA cloned in a particular orientation. In the process of completing this goal, a problem arises in that students are unable to obtain the target plasmid and instead only recover the gene cloned in the opposite orientation. To address this problem, students identify four plausible hypotheses and work in teams to address them by designing and executing experiments. This project reinforces the utility and flexibility of techniques covered earlier in the class and serves to develop their skills in experimental design and analysis. As the project is focused on one problem, the diversity of experimental approaches is limited and may be prepared in advance with little additional expense in reagents or technical support. PMID:21591194

  17. Cloning and expression of a cell surface receptor for advanced glycosylation end products of proteins.

    PubMed

    Neeper, M; Schmidt, A M; Brett, J; Yan, S D; Wang, F; Pan, Y C; Elliston, K; Stern, D; Shaw, A

    1992-07-25

    Advanced glycosylation end products of proteins (AGEs) are nonenzymatically glycosylated proteins which accumulate in vascular tissue in aging and at an accelerated rate in diabetes. A approximately 35-kDa polypeptide with a unique NH2-terminal sequence has been isolated from bovine lung and found to be present on the surface of endothelial cells where it mediates the binding of AGEs (receptor for advanced glycosylation end product or RAGE). Using an oligonucleotide probe based on the amino-terminal sequence of RAGE, an apparently full-length cDNA of 1.5 kilobases was isolated from a bovine lung cDNA library. This cDNA encoded a 394 amino acid mature protein comprised of the following putative domains: an extracellular domain of 332 amino acids, a single hydrophobic membrane spanning domain of 19 amino acids, and a carboxyl-terminal domain of 43 amino acids. A partial clone encoding the human counterpart of RAGE, isolated from a human lung library, was found to be approximately 90% homologous to the bovine molecule. Based on computer analysis of the amino acid sequence of RAGE and comparison with databases, RAGE is a new member of the immunoglobulin superfamily of cell surface molecules and shares significant homology with MUC 18, NCAM, and the cytoplasmic domain of CD20. Expression of the RAGE cDNA in 293 cells allowed them to bind 125I-AGE-albumin in a saturable and dose-dependent manner (Kd approximately 100 nM), blocked by antibody to RAGE. Western blots of 293 cells transfected with RAGE cDNA probed with anti-RAGE IgG demonstrated expression of immunoreactive protein compared to its absence in mock-transfected cells. These results suggest that RAGE functions as a cell surface receptor for AGEs, which could potentially mediate cellular effects of this class of glycosylated proteins. PMID:1378843

  18. [Cloning and regulation of pig estrogen related receptor β gene (ESRRB) promoter].

    PubMed

    Yang, Yang; Wang, Yaxian; Du, Lixia; Wang, Huayan

    2015-04-01

    The estrogen related receptor family member Esrrb (Estrogen related receptor β) is a gene that expresses in the early stage of embryo and plays an important role in the core pluripotent network. Its function has been analyzed in human and mouse, although no report so far related to pig. Therefore, to explore its mechanism of transcriptional regulation and expression pattern, we cloned a 3.3 kb pig ESRRB promoter by PCR and constructed the green fluorescence protein (GFP) reporter vector pE3.3. We used these vectors to study the ESRRB expression pattern in 293T, Hela and C2C12. Sequence was analyzed for regulatory elements that share homology to known transcription factor binding sites by TFSEARCH and JASPER program. Some pluripotency related genes such as SMAD, STAT3, MYC, KLF4 and ESRRB have been found within the 3.3 kb sequence by co-transfected pig ESRRB promoter and these potential regulators. We found that ESRRB only expressed in 293T and SMAD could activate ESRRB expression obviously. To determine the core promoter region, a series of ESRRB promoter fragments with gradually truncated 5'-end were produced by PCR and inserted into pGL3-Basic vector. After transient transfection into 293T, dual luciferase assay was used to measure these promoter activities. The result suggested that the core promoter of pig ESRRB located within -25 bp to -269 bp region. These results suggest that these transcription factor binding sites and the core promoter region may be essential for transcriptional regulation of pig ESRRB gene. PMID:26380406

  19. Cloning, Characterization, and Expression Profile of Estrogen Receptor in Common Chinese Cuttlefish, Sepiella japonica.

    PubMed

    Lü, Zhen-Ming; Liu, Wan; Liu, Li-Qin; Wang, Tian-Ming; Shi, Hui-Lai; Ping, Hong-Ling; Chi, Chang-Feng; Yang, Jing-Wen; Wu, Chang-Wen

    2016-03-01

    Sex steroid hormones are widely detected in molluscs and play important roles in sex determination, gonadal tissue maturation, and gametogenesis. Nevertheless, the signaling pathways of sex steroids in cephalopod have not yet been clearly elucidated. In the present study, a full-length sequence encoding the estrogen receptor (ER) was isolated from common Chinese cuttlefish, Sepiella japonica. The sjER cDNA clone was found to contain 1,788 nucleotides including a 1,470 bp open reading frame encoding 489 amino acid (aa) residues. The deduced ER protein consisted of six nuclear receptor characteristic domains. Based on a phylogenetic analysis, the ER DNA-binding domain and ligand-binding domain are highly conserved compared to other mollusc ERs. Highest aa identities were found for sjER with common octopus (Octopus vulgaris) ER (89%) and pacific oyster (Crassostrea gigas) ER (61%). Tissue expression analysis confirmed that sjER was widely distributed among tissues and predominantly expressed in the brain, liver, gonad (testis and ovary), and other accessory sexual gland (nidamental gland). The ER expression was temporally upregulated in the brain, liver, and ovary during the early sexual maturation period in S. japonica, which is coincident with the fluctuation of ovary estradiol content. These suggest that sjER may be involved in regulating the reproductive cycle of S. japonica. A fusion protein transient transfections assay showed that sjER was mainly located in the nucleus, suggesting a possible orthodox working mechanism of S. japonica ER in the nucleus through a ligand-dependent activation of specific gene transcription. PMID:27076436

  20. Cloning and characterization of two nuclear receptors from the filarial nematode Brugia pahangi.

    PubMed Central

    Moore, J; Devaney, E

    1999-01-01

    Nuclear receptors (NRs) encompass a superfamily of cytoplasmic/nuclear localized receptors that on ligand binding (or by phosphorylation) directly regulate the transcription of target genes. NRs are involved in many developmental processes, including moulting in insects and dauer larva formation in Caenorhabditis elegans. Here we report the isolation of two genes related to NRs from the filarial nematode Brugia pahangi. Bp-nhr-1 is a member of the NGF1-B subfamily of NRs and is expressed at very low levels in post-infective larval stage 3 (L3) after their transmission to the mammalian host. The second gene, Bp-nhr-2, is related to XR78E/F of Drosophila, a gene involved in the ecdysone response, over the region of its DNA-binding domain. cDNA and genomic clones have been isolated that correspond to Bp-nhr-2. The most striking feature of the encoded protein is that, although there is a DNA-binding domain similar to that of other NRs, the ligand-binding domain is absent. To investigate the pattern of transcription of Bp-nhr-2 in the filarial life cycle, semi-quantitative reverse-transcriptase-mediated PCR was performed; this analysis demonstrated that the gene is expressed in early stages after infection and in the adult and microfilariae, and is up-regulated just before the moult between L3 and L4 but is not expressed during the moult between L4 and adult. Antibodies raised against a peptide corresponding to the transactivation domain of Bp-nhr-2 demonstrate that the protein is expressed in microfilariae and adult samples and that another cross-reactive protein is expressed in these life-cycle stages. PMID:10548557

  1. Production of retroviral constructs for effective transfer and expression of T-cell receptor genes using Golden Gate cloning.

    PubMed

    Coren, Lori V; Jain, Sumiti; Trivett, Matthew T; Ohlen, Claes; Ott, David E

    2015-03-01

    Here we present an improved strategy for producing T-cell receptor (TCR)-expressing retroviral vectors using a Golden Gate cloning strategy. This method takes advantage of the modular nature of TCR genes by directly amplifying TCR α and β variable regions from RNA or cDNA, then cloning and fusing them with their respective constant region genes resident in a retroviral TCR expression vector. Our one-step approach greatly streamlines the TCR vector production process in comparison to the traditional three-step procedure that typically involves cloning whole TCR genes, producing a TCR expression cassette, and constructing a retroviral construct. To date, we have generated TCR vectors that transferred seven functional human/rhesus macaque TCRs into primary T cells. The approach also holds promise for the assembly of other genes with defined variable regions, such as immunoglobulins. PMID:25757546

  2. Receptor Activity-modifying Proteins 2 and 3 Generate Adrenomedullin Receptor Subtypes with Distinct Molecular Properties.

    PubMed

    Watkins, Harriet A; Chakravarthy, Madhuri; Abhayawardana, Rekhati S; Gingell, Joseph J; Garelja, Michael; Pardamwar, Meenakshi; McElhinney, James M W R; Lathbridge, Alex; Constantine, Arran; Harris, Paul W R; Yuen, Tsz-Ying; Brimble, Margaret A; Barwell, James; Poyner, David R; Woolley, Michael J; Conner, Alex C; Pioszak, Augen A; Reynolds, Christopher A; Hay, Debbie L

    2016-05-27

    Adrenomedullin (AM) is a peptide hormone with numerous effects in the vascular systems. AM signals through the AM1 and AM2 receptors formed by the obligate heterodimerization of a G protein-coupled receptor, the calcitonin receptor-like receptor (CLR), and receptor activity-modifying proteins 2 and 3 (RAMP2 and RAMP3), respectively. These different CLR-RAMP interactions yield discrete receptor pharmacology and physiological effects. The effective design of therapeutics that target the individual AM receptors is dependent on understanding the molecular details of the effects of RAMPs on CLR. To understand the role of RAMP2 and -3 on the activation and conformation of the CLR subunit of AM receptors, we mutated 68 individual amino acids in the juxtamembrane region of CLR, a key region for activation of AM receptors, and determined the effects on cAMP signaling. Sixteen CLR mutations had differential effects between the AM1 and AM2 receptors. Accompanying this, independent molecular modeling of the full-length AM-bound AM1 and AM2 receptors predicted differences in the binding pocket and differences in the electrostatic potential of the two AM receptors. Druggability analysis indicated unique features that could be used to develop selective small molecule ligands for each receptor. The interaction of RAMP2 or RAMP3 with CLR induces conformational variation in the juxtamembrane region, yielding distinct binding pockets, probably via an allosteric mechanism. These subtype-specific differences have implications for the design of therapeutics aimed at specific AM receptors and for understanding the mechanisms by which accessory proteins affect G protein-coupled receptor function. PMID:27013657

  3. Receptor Activity-modifying Proteins 2 and 3 Generate Adrenomedullin Receptor Subtypes with Distinct Molecular Properties*

    PubMed Central

    Watkins, Harriet A.; Chakravarthy, Madhuri; Abhayawardana, Rekhati S.; Gingell, Joseph J.; Garelja, Michael; Pardamwar, Meenakshi; McElhinney, James M. W. R.; Lathbridge, Alex; Constantine, Arran; Harris, Paul W. R.; Yuen, Tsz-Ying; Brimble, Margaret A.; Barwell, James; Poyner, David R.; Woolley, Michael J.; Conner, Alex C.; Pioszak, Augen A.; Reynolds, Christopher A.

    2016-01-01

    Adrenomedullin (AM) is a peptide hormone with numerous effects in the vascular systems. AM signals through the AM1 and AM2 receptors formed by the obligate heterodimerization of a G protein-coupled receptor, the calcitonin receptor-like receptor (CLR), and receptor activity-modifying proteins 2 and 3 (RAMP2 and RAMP3), respectively. These different CLR-RAMP interactions yield discrete receptor pharmacology and physiological effects. The effective design of therapeutics that target the individual AM receptors is dependent on understanding the molecular details of the effects of RAMPs on CLR. To understand the role of RAMP2 and -3 on the activation and conformation of the CLR subunit of AM receptors, we mutated 68 individual amino acids in the juxtamembrane region of CLR, a key region for activation of AM receptors, and determined the effects on cAMP signaling. Sixteen CLR mutations had differential effects between the AM1 and AM2 receptors. Accompanying this, independent molecular modeling of the full-length AM-bound AM1 and AM2 receptors predicted differences in the binding pocket and differences in the electrostatic potential of the two AM receptors. Druggability analysis indicated unique features that could be used to develop selective small molecule ligands for each receptor. The interaction of RAMP2 or RAMP3 with CLR induces conformational variation in the juxtamembrane region, yielding distinct binding pockets, probably via an allosteric mechanism. These subtype-specific differences have implications for the design of therapeutics aimed at specific AM receptors and for understanding the mechanisms by which accessory proteins affect G protein-coupled receptor function. PMID:27013657

  4. Molecular cloning and nucleotide sequence of a transforming gene detected by transfection of chicken B-cell lymphoma DNA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goubin, Gerard; Goldman, Debra S.; Luce, Judith; Neiman, Paul E.; Cooper, Geoffrey M.

    1983-03-01

    A transforming gene detected by transfection of chicken B-cell lymphoma DNA has been isolated by molecular cloning. It is homologous to a conserved family of sequences present in normal chicken and human DNAs but is not related to transforming genes of acutely transforming retroviruses. The nucleotide sequence of the cloned transforming gene suggests that it encodes a protein that is partially homologous to the amino terminus of transferrin and related proteins although only about one tenth the size of transferrin.

  5. Molecular Cloning and Gene Expression of Canine Apoptosis Inhibitor of Macrophage

    PubMed Central

    TOMURA, Shintaro; UCHIDA, Mona; YONEZAWA, Tomohiro; KOBAYASHI, Masato; BONKOBARA, Makoto; ARAI, Satoko; MIYAZAKI, Toru; TAMAHARA, Satoshi; MATSUKI, Naoaki

    2014-01-01

    Apoptosis inhibitor of macrophage (AIM) plays roles in survival of macrophages. In this study, we cloned canine AIM cDNA and observed its transcriptional expression levels in various tissues. The coding sequence of canine AIM was 1,023 bp encoding 340 amino acid residues, which had around 65% homology with those of the human, mouse and rat. Transcriptional expression of AIM was observed in the spleen, lung, liver and lymph node, which confirmed the expression of canine AIM in tissue macrophages. Moreover, AIM was highly expressed in one of the canine histiocytic sarcoma cell lines. CD36, the receptor of AIM, was also expressed in various tissues and these cell lines. These findings are useful to reveal the actual functions of canine AIM. PMID:25649949

  6. Cloning and expression analysis of androgen receptor gene in chicken embryogenesis.

    PubMed

    Katoh, Hironori; Ogino, Yukiko; Yamada, Gen

    2006-03-01

    We cloned a full-length androgen receptor (AR) cDNA from chicken (Gallus gallus) gonads. The cDNA sequence has an open reading frame of 2109 bp encoding 703 amino acids. The chicken AR (cAR) shares high homology with ARs from other species in its amino acid sequences, in particular DNA binding domain (DBD) and ligand binding domain (LBD). RT-PCR analysis revealed that cAR mRNA is expressed in several embryonic tissues of both sexes, and relatively higher expression was observed in left ovary compared with testis. The immunoreactive signal of AR was co-localized within the ovarian cell nucleus, while such nuclear localization was not detected in those of testis. To get insight on the possible role of androgen-AR signaling during gonadal development, non-steroidal AR antagonist, flutamide, was administrated in ovo. The treatment induced the disorganization of sex cords in ovarian cortex at day 12 of incubation. The effect was restored by testosterone co-treatment, implying the possibility that AR mediated signaling may be involved in ovarian morphogenesis. Furthermore, co-treatment of flutamide with estradiol-17beta (E2) also restored the phenotype, suggesting androgen-AR signaling might activate aromatase expression that is necessary for estrogen synthesis. These findings suggest androgen-AR signaling might contribute to chicken embryonic ovarian development. PMID:16480982

  7. Cloning of the gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) rho 1 cDNA: a GABA receptor subunit highly expressed in the retina.

    PubMed Central

    Cutting, G R; Lu, L; O'Hara, B F; Kasch, L M; Montrose-Rafizadeh, C; Donovan, D M; Shimada, S; Antonarakis, S E; Guggino, W B; Uhl, G R

    1991-01-01

    Type A gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABAA) receptors are a family of ligand-gated chloride channels that are the major inhibitory neurotransmitter receptors in the nervous system. Molecular cloning has revealed diversity in the subunits that compose this heterooligomeric receptor, but each previously elucidated subunit displays amino acid similarity in conserved structural elements. We have used these highly conserved regions to identify additional members of this family by using the polymerase chain reaction (PCR). One PCR product was used to isolate a full-length cDNA from a human retina cDNA library. The mature protein predicted from this cDNA sequence in 458 amino acids long and displays between 30 and 38% amino acid similarity to the previously identified GABAA subunits. This gene is expressed primarily in the retina but transcripts are also detected in the brain, lung, and thymus. Injection of Xenopus oocytes with RNA transcribed in vitro produces a GABA-responsive chloride conductance and expression of the cDNA in COS cells yields GABA-displaceable muscimol binding. These features are consistent with our identification of a GABA subunit, GABA rho 1, with prominent retinal expression that increases the diversity and tissue specificity of this ligand-gated ion-channel receptor family. Images PMID:1849271

  8. Molecular characterization of thyroid hormone receptors from the leopard gecko, and their differential expression in the skin.

    PubMed

    Kanaho, Yoh-Ichiro; Endo, Daisuke; Park, Min Kyun

    2006-06-01

    Thyroid hormones (THs) play crucial roles in various developmental and physiological processes in vertebrates, including squamate reptiles. The effect of THs on shedding frequency is interesting in Squamata, since the effects on lizards are quite the reverse of those in snakes: injection of thyroxine increases shedding frequency in lizards, but decreases it in snakes. However, the mechanism underlying this differential effect remains unclear. To facilitate the investigation of the molecular mechanism of the physiological functions of THs in Squamata, their two specific receptor (TRalpha and beta) cDNAs, which are members of the nuclear hormone receptor superfamily, were cloned from a lizard, the leopard gecko, Eublepharis macularius. This is the first molecular cloning of thyroid hormone receptors (TRs) from reptiles. The deduced amino acid sequences showed high identity with those of other species, especially in the C and E/F domains, which are characteristic domains in nuclear hormone receptors. Expression analysis revealed that TRs were widely expressed in many tissues and organs, as in other animals. To analyze their role in the skin, temporal expression analysis was performed by RT-PCR, revealing that the two TRs had opposing expression patterns: TRalpha was expressed more strongly after than before skin shedding, whereas TRbeta was expressed more strongly before than after skin shedding. This provides good evidence that THs play important roles in the skin, and that the roles of their two receptor isoforms are distinct from each other. PMID:16849843

  9. Characterization of an infectious molecular clone of human T-cell leukemia virus type I.

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, T M; Robinson, M A; Bowers, F S; Kindt, T J

    1995-01-01

    An infectious molecular clone of human T-cell leukemia virus type I (HTLV-I) was derived from an HTLV-I-transformed rabbit T-cell line, RH/K30, obtained by coculture of rabbit peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) with the human HTLV-I-transformed cell line MT-2. The RH/K30 cell line contained two integrated proviruses, an intact HTLV-I genome and an apparently defective provirus with an in-frame stop codon in the env gene. A genomic DNA fragment containing the intact HTLV-I provirus was cloned into bacteriophage lambda (K30 phi) and subcloned into a plasmid vector (K30p). HTLV-I p24gag protein was detected in culture supernatants of human and rabbit T-cell and fibroblast lines transfected with these clones, at levels comparable to those of the parental cell line RH/K30. Persistent expression of virus was observed in one of these lines, RL-5/K30p, for more than 24 months. Biologic characterization of this cell line revealed the presence of integrated HTLV-I provirus, spliced and unspliced mRNA transcripts, and typical extracellular type C retrovirus particles. As expected, these virus particles contained HTLV-I RNA and reverse transcriptase activity. The transfected cells also expressed surface major histocompatibility complex class II, whereas no expression of this molecule was detected in the parental RL-5 cell line. Virus was passaged by cocultivation of irradiated RL-5/K30p cells with either rabbit PBMC or human cord blood mononuclear cells, demonstrating in vitro infectivity. The virus produced in these cells was also infectious in vivo, since rabbits injected with RL-5/K30p cells became productively infected, as evidenced by seroconversion, amplification of HTLV-I-specific sequences by PCR from PBMC DNA, and virus isolation from PBMC. Availability of infectious molecular clones will facilitate functional studies of HTLV-I genes and gene products. PMID:7884847

  10. Cloning and characterization of a human Mac-2-binding protein, a new member of the superfamily defined by the macrophage scavenger receptor cysteine-rich domain.

    PubMed

    Koths, K; Taylor, E; Halenbeck, R; Casipit, C; Wang, A

    1993-07-01

    We have purified and sequenced a secreted glycoprotein from both the human breast carcinoma cell line, SK-BR-3, and human breast milk. The native protein binds specifically to a human macrophage-associated lectin known as Mac-2. This Mac-2 binding protein (Mac-2-BP) has an apparent native molecular mass of several million daltons and contains subunits of 85-97 kDa that are very susceptible to proteolysis at a dibasic cleavage site. Western analysis suggests that Mac-2-BP is found in serum, semen, saliva, urine, and tears, in addition to breast milk. The gene encoding Mac-2-BP was cloned from a cDNA bank of a human monocytic cell line, using degenerate PCR primers based on the protein sequence. Recombinant Mac-2-BP was expressed in Cos cells and secreted as a high molecular weight complex. The cDNA clone encodes a mature protein of 567 amino acids, preceded by an 18-amino acid leader. The mature protein contains 16 cysteines and has seven potential N-linked glycosylation sites. The first 106 amino acids represent a domain that is highly similar to an ancient protein superfamily defined by the macrophage scavenger receptor cysteine-rich domain. PMID:8390986

  11. Snake acetylcholine receptor: cloning of the domain containing the four extracellular cysteines of the alpha subunit.

    PubMed

    Neumann, D; Barchan, D; Horowitz, M; Kochva, E; Fuchs, S

    1989-09-01

    The acetylcholine receptor (AcChoR) at the neuromuscular junction of elapid snakes binds cholinergic ligands but unlike other muscle AcChoRs does not bind alpha-bungarotoxin. Numerous studies indicate that the ligand-binding site of the AcChoR includes cysteine residues at positions 192 and 193 of the alpha subunit. We have previously shown that a synthetic dodecapeptide corresponding to residues 185-196 of the Torpedo AcChoR alpha subunit contains the essential elements of the ligand-binding site. In an attempt to elucidate the structural basis for the precise binding properties of snake AcChoR, we sequenced a portion of the snake AcChoR alpha subunit. First, a mouse AcChoR alpha-subunit cDNA probe was used to screen a size-selected snake (Natrix tessellata) genomic library. A genomic clone was isolated and was found to contain sequences homologous to the exon including the first two cysteines (Cys-128 and -142) of AcChoR alpha subunit. The domain of the alpha subunit from Natrix and cobra AcChoR (amino acid residues 119-222), which contains the four extracellular cysteines (128, 142, 192, and 193), was amplified by reverse transcription of mRNA and the polymerase chain reaction and then sequenced. The deduced amino acid sequence showed that the snake alpha subunit contains the two tandem cysteines at positions 192 and 193, resembling all other AcChoR alpha subunits. Sequence comparison revealed that the cloned region of the snake alpha subunit is highly homologous (75-80%) to other muscle AcChoRs and not to neuronal AcChoR, which also does not bind alpha-bungarotoxin. In the presumed ligand-binding site, in the vicinity of Cys-192 and Cys-193, four major substitutions occur in the snake sequence--at positions 184 (Trp----Phe), 185 (Lys----Trp), 187 (Trp----Ser), and 194 (Pro----Leu). In addition, Asn-189 is a putative N-glycosylation site, present only in the snake. These changes, or part of them, may explain the lack of alpha-bungarotoxin-binding to snake Ac

  12. Snake acetylcholine receptor: cloning of the domain containing the four extracellular cysteines of the alpha subunit.

    PubMed Central

    Neumann, D; Barchan, D; Horowitz, M; Kochva, E; Fuchs, S

    1989-01-01

    The acetylcholine receptor (AcChoR) at the neuromuscular junction of elapid snakes binds cholinergic ligands but unlike other muscle AcChoRs does not bind alpha-bungarotoxin. Numerous studies indicate that the ligand-binding site of the AcChoR includes cysteine residues at positions 192 and 193 of the alpha subunit. We have previously shown that a synthetic dodecapeptide corresponding to residues 185-196 of the Torpedo AcChoR alpha subunit contains the essential elements of the ligand-binding site. In an attempt to elucidate the structural basis for the precise binding properties of snake AcChoR, we sequenced a portion of the snake AcChoR alpha subunit. First, a mouse AcChoR alpha-subunit cDNA probe was used to screen a size-selected snake (Natrix tessellata) genomic library. A genomic clone was isolated and was found to contain sequences homologous to the exon including the first two cysteines (Cys-128 and -142) of AcChoR alpha subunit. The domain of the alpha subunit from Natrix and cobra AcChoR (amino acid residues 119-222), which contains the four extracellular cysteines (128, 142, 192, and 193), was amplified by reverse transcription of mRNA and the polymerase chain reaction and then sequenced. The deduced amino acid sequence showed that the snake alpha subunit contains the two tandem cysteines at positions 192 and 193, resembling all other AcChoR alpha subunits. Sequence comparison revealed that the cloned region of the snake alpha subunit is highly homologous (75-80%) to other muscle AcChoRs and not to neuronal AcChoR, which also does not bind alpha-bungarotoxin. In the presumed ligand-binding site, in the vicinity of Cys-192 and Cys-193, four major substitutions occur in the snake sequence--at positions 184 (Trp----Phe), 185 (Lys----Trp), 187 (Trp----Ser), and 194 (Pro----Leu). In addition, Asn-189 is a putative N-glycosylation site, present only in the snake. These changes, or part of them, may explain the lack of alpha-bungarotoxin-binding to snake Ac

  13. Molecular evidence for zoonotic transmission of an emergent, highly pathogenic Campylobacter jejuni clone in the United States.

    PubMed

    Sahin, Orhan; Fitzgerald, Collette; Stroika, Steven; Zhao, Shaohua; Sippy, Rachel J; Kwan, Patrick; Plummer, Paul J; Han, Jing; Yaeger, Michael J; Zhang, Qijing

    2012-03-01

    Campylobacter jejuni is a major zoonotic pathogen. A highly virulent, tetracycline-resistant C. jejuni clone (clone SA) has recently emerged in ruminant reservoirs and has become the predominant cause of sheep abortion in the United States. To determine whether clone SA is associated with human disease, we compared the clinical isolates of clone SA from sheep abortions with the human isolates of the PulseNet National Campylobacter databases at the CDC and the FDA using pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE), multilocus sequence typing (MLST), and serotyping. The combined SmaI and KpnI PFGE pattern designations of clone SA from sheep were indistinguishable from those of 123 (9.03%) human C. jejuni isolates (total, 1,361) in the CDC database, among which 56 were associated with sporadic infections and 67 were associated with outbreaks that occurred in multiple states from 2003 to 2010. Most of the outbreaks were attributed to raw milk, while the sources for most of the sporadic cases were unknown. All clone SA isolates examined, including PFGE-matched human isolates, belong to sequence type 8 (ST-8) by MLST and serotype HS:1,8, further indicating the clonality of the related isolates from different host species. Additionally, C. jejuni clone SA was identified in raw milk, cattle feces, the feces and bile of healthy sheep, and abortion cases of cattle and goats, indicating the broad distribution of this pathogenic clone in ruminants. These results provide strong molecular and epidemiological evidence for zoonotic transmission of this emergent clone from ruminants to humans and indicate that C. jejuni clone SA is an important threat to public health. PMID:22189122

  14. Molecular mechanisms of platelet P2Y(12) receptor regulation.

    PubMed

    Cunningham, Margaret R; Nisar, Shaista P; Mundell, Stuart J

    2013-02-01

    Platelets are critical for haemostasis, however inappropriate activation can lead to the development of arterial thrombosis, which can result in heart attack and stroke. ADP is a key platelet agonist that exerts its actions via stimulation of two surface GPCRs (G-protein-coupled receptors), P2Y(1) and P2Y(12). Similar to most GPCRs, P2Y receptor activity is tightly regulated by a number of complex mechanisms including receptor desensitization, internalization and recycling. In the present article, we review the molecular mechanisms that underlie P2Y(1) and P2Y(12) receptor regulation, with particular emphasis on the structural motifs within the P2Y(12) receptor, which are required to maintain regulatory protein interaction. The implications of these findings for platelet responsiveness are also discussed. PMID:23356287

  15. Neuromedin B and Its Receptor: Gene Cloning, Tissue Distribution and Expression Levels of the Reproductive Axis in Pigs

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Zhiyu; Su, Juan; Guo, Tingting; Jin, Mengmeng; Li, Xiang; Lei, Zhihai; Hou, Yuanlong; Li, Xiaoliang; Jia, Cuicui; Zhang, Zheng; Ahmed, Ejlal

    2016-01-01

    Neuromedin B is one member of a family of bombesin-like peptides, which performs a variety of physiological functions via their receptor (NMBR) in most mammals. However, the genes encoding NMB and NMBR and their functions especially reproduction of the pigs are currently not fully understood. To research the physiological functions of NMB, we cloned and analyzed the NMB and NMBR genes, and systematically investigated the expression levels of NMB and NMBR mRNA using relative real-time PCR and the distribution of NMBR by immunohistochemistry (IHC). Experimental results show that the sequences of the amino acid and gene of NMB and NMBR were highly conservative and homology in many species, Significantly, the relative RT-PCR results revealed that NMB was mainly expressed in the central nervous system (CNS), whereas NMBR is highly expressed in peripheral tissues and organs, such as endocrine tissues, glands and reproductive organs. The IHC results show that NMBR positive cells were widely distributed in the body, such as respiratory and circulatory system, digestive system, urogenital system, in lymphatic organs and in the endocrine system. We also systematically investigated expression levels of NMB and NMBR in the reproductive axis using relative real-time PCR. In sow estrous cycle, the hypothalamic levels of both NMB and NMBR mRAN were similar, but the expression levels of the pituitary were negatively correlated. Expression levels in the ovarian system are lowest in metestrus phases and highest in proestrus and estrus phases. In boar post-natal development stages, the hypothalamic, pituitary and testicular levels of NMB and NMBR mRNAs showed developmental changes on postnatal day 30, 60, 90 and 120. Taken together, this study provided molecular and morphological data necessary for further research of physiological function of NMB/NMBR system in the pigs. PMID:27010315

  16. Neuromedin B and Its Receptor: Gene Cloning, Tissue Distribution and Expression Levels of the Reproductive Axis in Pigs.

    PubMed

    Ma, Zhiyu; Su, Juan; Guo, Tingting; Jin, Mengmeng; Li, Xiang; Lei, Zhihai; Hou, Yuanlong; Li, Xiaoliang; Jia, Cuicui; Zhang, Zheng; Ahmed, Ejlal

    2016-01-01

    Neuromedin B is one member of a family of bombesin-like peptides, which performs a variety of physiological functions via their receptor (NMBR) in most mammals. However, the genes encoding NMB and NMBR and their functions especially reproduction of the pigs are currently not fully understood. To research the physiological functions of NMB, we cloned and analyzed the NMB and NMBR genes, and systematically investigated the expression levels of NMB and NMBR mRNA using relative real-time PCR and the distribution of NMBR by immunohistochemistry (IHC). Experimental results show that the sequences of the amino acid and gene of NMB and NMBR were highly conservative and homology in many species, Significantly, the relative RT-PCR results revealed that NMB was mainly expressed in the central nervous system (CNS), whereas NMBR is highly expressed in peripheral tissues and organs, such as endocrine tissues, glands and reproductive organs. The IHC results show that NMBR positive cells were widely distributed in the body, such as respiratory and circulatory system, digestive system, urogenital system, in lymphatic organs and in the endocrine system. We also systematically investigated expression levels of NMB and NMBR in the reproductive axis using relative real-time PCR. In sow estrous cycle, the hypothalamic levels of both NMB and NMBR mRAN were similar, but the expression levels of the pituitary were negatively correlated. Expression levels in the ovarian system are lowest in metestrus phases and highest in proestrus and estrus phases. In boar post-natal development stages, the hypothalamic, pituitary and testicular levels of NMB and NMBR mRNAs showed developmental changes on postnatal day 30, 60, 90 and 120. Taken together, this study provided molecular and morphological data necessary for further research of physiological function of NMB/NMBR system in the pigs. PMID:27010315

  17. Construction and characterization of a full-length infectious simian T-cell lymphotropic virus type 3 molecular clone.

    PubMed

    Chevalier, Sébastien Alain; Walic, Marine; Calattini, Sara; Mallet, Adeline; Prévost, Marie-Christine; Gessain, Antoine; Mahieux, Renaud

    2007-06-01

    Together with their simian T-cell lymphotropic virus (STLV) equivalent, human T-cell lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1), HTLV-2, and HTLV-3 form the primate T-cell lymphotropic virus (PTLV) group. Over the years, understanding the biology and pathogenesis of HTLV-1 and HTLV-2 has been widely improved by the creation of molecular clones. In contrast, so far, PTLV-3 experimental studies have been restricted to the overexpression of the tax gene using reporter assays. We have therefore decided to construct an STLV-3 molecular clone. We generated a full-length STLV-3 proviral clone (8,891 bp) by PCR amplification of overlapping fragments. This STLV-3 molecular clone was then transfected into 293T cells. Reverse transcriptase PCR experiments followed by sequence analysis of the amplified products allowed us to establish that both gag and tax/rex mRNAs were transcribed. Western blotting further demonstrated the presence of the STLV-3 p24gag protein in the cell culture supernatant from transfected cells. Transient transfection of 293T cells and of 293T-long terminal repeat-green fluorescent protein cells with the STLV-3 clone promoted syncytium formation, a hallmark of PTLV Env expression, as well as the appearance of fluorescent cells, also demonstrating that the Tax3 protein was expressed. Virus particles were visible by electron microscopy. These particles are infectious, as demonstrated by our cell-free-infection experiments with purified virions. All together, our data demonstrate that the STLV-3 molecular clone is functional and infectious. This clone will give us a unique opportunity to study in vitro the different pX transcripts and the putative presence of antisense transcripts and to evaluate the PTLV-3 pathogenicity in vivo. PMID:17428869

  18. Hyperspectral molecular imaging of multiple receptors using immunolabeled plasmonic nanoparticles

    PubMed Central

    Seekell, Kevin; Crow, Matthew J.; Marinakos, Stella; Ostrander, Julie; Chilkoti, Ashutosh; Wax, Adam

    2011-01-01

    This work presents simultaneous imaging and detection of three different cell receptors using three types of plasmonic nanoparticles (NPs). The size, shape, and composition-dependent scattering profiles of these NPs allow for a system of multiple distinct molecular markers using a single optical source. With this goal in mind, tags consisting of anti-epidermal growth factor receptor gold nanorods, anti-insulin-like growth factor 1-R silver nanospheres, and human epidermal growth factor receptor 2Ab gold nanospheres were developed to monitor the expression of receptors commonly overexpressed by cancer cells. These labels were chosen because they scatter strongly in distinct spectral windows. A hyperspectral darkfield microspectroscopy system was developed to record the scattering spectra of cells labeled with these molecular tags. Simultaneous monitoring of multiple tags may lead to applications such as profiling of cell line immunophenotype and investigation of receptor signaling pathways. Single, dual, and triple tag experiments were performed to analyze NP tag specificity as well as their interactions. Distinct resonance peaks were observed in these studies, showing the ability to characterize cell lines using conjugated NPs. However, interpreting shifts in these peaks due to changes in a cellular dielectric environment may be complicated by plasmon coupling between NPs bound to proximal receptors and other coupling mechanisms due to the receptors themselves. PMID:22112108

  19. Hyperspectral molecular imaging of multiple receptors using immunolabeled plasmonic nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seekell, Kevin; Crow, Matthew J.; Marinakos, Stella; Ostrander, Julie; Chilkoti, Ashutosh; Wax, Adam

    2011-11-01

    This work presents simultaneous imaging and detection of three different cell receptors using three types of plasmonic nanoparticles (NPs). The size, shape, and composition-dependent scattering profiles of these NPs allow for a system of multiple distinct molecular markers using a single optical source. With this goal in mind, tags consisting of anti-epidermal growth factor receptor gold nanorods, anti-insulin-like growth factor 1-R silver nanospheres, and human epidermal growth factor receptor 2Ab gold nanospheres were developed to monitor the expression of receptors commonly overexpressed by cancer cells. These labels were chosen because they scatter strongly in distinct spectral windows. A hyperspectral darkfield microspectroscopy system was developed to record the scattering spectra of cells labeled with these molecular tags. Simultaneous monitoring of multiple tags may lead to applications such as profiling of cell line immunophenotype and investigation of receptor signaling pathways. Single, dual, and triple tag experiments were performed to analyze NP tag specificity as well as their interactions. Distinct resonance peaks were observed in these studies, showing the ability to characterize cell lines using conjugated NPs. However, interpreting shifts in these peaks due to changes in a cellular dielectric environment may be complicated by plasmon coupling between NPs bound to proximal receptors and other coupling mechanisms due to the receptors themselves.

  20. An infectious molecular clone of an unusual macrophage-tropic and highly cytopathic strain of human immunodeficiency virus type 1.

    PubMed Central

    Collman, R; Balliet, J W; Gregory, S A; Friedman, H; Kolson, D L; Nathanson, N; Srinivasan, A

    1992-01-01

    We isolated and molecularly cloned a human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) strain (89.6) which is unusual because it is both macrophage-tropic and extremely cytopathic in lymphocytes. Moreover, this is the first well-characterized infectious molecularly cloned macrophage-tropic HIV-1 strain derived from peripheral blood. HIV-1 89.6 differs markedly from other macrophage-tropic isolates within the envelope V3 region, which is important in determining cell tropism and cytopathicity. HIV-1 89.6 may thus represent a transitional isolate between noncytopathic macrophage-tropic viruses and cytopathic lymphocyte-tropic viruses. Images PMID:1433527

  1. Molecular cloning and functional characterization of borneol dehydrogenase from the glandular trichomes of Lavandula x intermedia.

    PubMed

    Sarker, Lukman S; Galata, Mariana; Demissie, Zerihun A; Mahmoud, Soheil S

    2012-12-15

    Several varieties of Lavandula x intermedia (lavandins) are cultivated for their essential oils (EOs) for use in cosmetic, hygiene and personal care products. These EOs are mainly constituted of monoterpenes including camphor, which contributes an off odor reducing the olfactory appeal of the oil. We have recently constructed a cDNA library from the glandular trichomes (the sites of EO synthesis) of L. x intermedia plants. Here, we describe the cloning of a borneol dehydrogenase cDNA (LiBDH) from this library. The 780 bp open reading frame of the cDNA encoded a 259 amino acid short chain alcohol dehydrogenase with a predicted molecular mass of ca. 27.5 kDa. The recombinant LiBDH was expressed in Escherichia coli, purified by Ni-NTA agarose affinity chromatography, and functionally characterized in vitro. The bacterially produced enzyme specifically converted borneol to camphor as the only product with K(m) and k(cat) values of 53 μM and 4.0 × 10(-4) s(-1), respectively. The LiBDH transcripts were specifically expressed in glandular trichomes of mature flowers indicating that like other Lavandula monoterpene synthases the expression of this gene is regulated in a tissue-specific manner. The cloning of LiBDH has far reaching implications in improving the quality of Lavandula EOs through metabolic engineering. PMID:23058847

  2. Cloning and molecular characterization of a putative voltage-gated sodium channel gene in the crayfish.

    PubMed

    Coskun, Cagil; Purali, Nuhan

    2016-06-01

    Voltage-gated sodium channel genes and associated proteins have been cloned and studied in many mammalian and invertebrate species. However, there is no data available about the sodium channel gene(s) in the crayfish, although the animal has frequently been used as a model to investigate various aspects of neural cellular and circuit function. In the present work, by using RNA extracts from crayfish abdominal ganglia samples, the complete open reading frame of a putative sodium channel gene has firstly been cloned and molecular properties of the associated peptide have been analyzed. The open reading frame of the gene has a length of 5793 bp that encodes for the synthesis of a peptide, with 1930 amino acids, that is 82% similar to the α-peptide of a sodium channel in a neighboring species, Cancer borealis. The transmembrane topology analysis of the crayfish peptide indicated a pattern of four folding domains with several transmembrane segments, as observed in other known voltage-gated sodium channels. Upon analysis of the obtained sequence, functional regions of the putative sodium channel responsible for the selectivity filter, inactivation gate, voltage sensor, and phosphorylation have been predicted. The expression level of the putative sodium channel gene, as defined by a qPCR method, was measured and found to be the highest in nervous tissue. PMID:27032955

  3. Cloning, molecular characterization, and expression pattern of FGF5 in Cashmere goat (Capra hircus).

    PubMed

    Bao, W L; Yao, R Y; He, Q; Guo, Z X; Bao, C; Wang, Y F; Wang, Z G

    2015-01-01

    Fibroblast growth factor 5 (FGF5) is a secreted signaling protein that belongs to the FGF family, and was found to be associated with hair growth in humans and other animals. The Inner Mongolia Cashmere goat (Capra hircus) is a goat breed that provides superior cashmere; this breed was formed by spontaneous mutation in China. Here, we report the cloning, molecular characterization, and expression pattern of the Cashmere goat FGF5. The cloned FGF5 cDNA was 813 base pairs (KM596772), including an open reading frame encoding a 270-amino-acid polypeptide. The nucleotide sequence shared 99% homology with Ovis aries FGF5 (NM_001246263.1). Bioinformatic analysis revealed that FGF5 contained a signal peptide, an FGF domain, and a heparin-binding growth factor/FGF family signature. There was 1 cAMP- and cGMP-dependent protein kinase phosphorylation site, 11 protein kinase C phosphorylation sites, 4 casein kinase II phosphorylation sites, 1 amidation site, 1 N-glycosylation site, and 1 tyrosine kinase phosphorylation site in FGF5. Real-time polymerase chain reaction showed that FGF5 mRNA levels were higher in testis than in the pancreas and liver. These data suggest that FGF5 may play a crucial role in Cashmere goat hair growth. PMID:26400346

  4. Characterization and cloning of a receptor for BMP-2 and BMP-4 from NIH 3T3 cells.

    PubMed Central

    Koenig, B B; Cook, J S; Wolsing, D H; Ting, J; Tiesman, J P; Correa, P E; Olson, C A; Pecquet, A L; Ventura, F; Grant, R A

    1994-01-01

    The bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) are a group of transforming growth factor beta (TGF-beta)-related factors whose only receptor identified to date is the product of the daf-4 gene from Caenorhabditis elegans. Mouse embryonic NIH 3T3 fibroblasts display high-affinity 125I-BMP-4 binding sites. Binding assays are not possible with the isoform 125I-BMP-2 unless the positively charged N-terminal sequence is removed to create a modified BMP-2, 125I-DR-BMP-2. Cross-competition experiments reveal that BMP-2 and BMP-4 interact with the same binding sites. Affinity cross-linking assays show that both BMPs interact with cell surface proteins corresponding in size to the type I (57- to 62-kDa) and type II (75- to 82-kDa) receptor components for TGF-beta and activin. Using a PCR approach, we have cloned a cDNA from NIH 3T3 cells which encodes a novel member of the transmembrane serine/threonine kinase family most closely resembling the cloned type I receptors for TGF-beta and activin. Transient expression of this receptor in COS-7 cells leads to an increase in specific 125I-BMP-4 binding and the appearance of a major affinity-labeled product of approximately 64 kDa that can be labeled by either tracer. This receptor has been named BRK-1 in recognition of its ability to bind BMP-2 and BMP-4 and its receptor kinase structure. Although BRK-1 does not require cotransfection of a type II receptor in order to bind ligand in COS cells, complex formation between BRK-1 and the BMP type II receptor DAF-4 can be demonstrated when the two receptors are coexpressed, affinity labeled, and immunoprecipitated with antibodies to either receptor subunit. We conclude that BRK-1 is a putative BMP type I receptor capable of interacting with a known type II receptor for BMPs. Images PMID:8065329

  5. Applications of molecular replacement to G protein-coupled receptors

    SciTech Connect

    Kruse, Andrew C.; Manglik, Aashish; Kobilka, Brian K.; Weis, William I.

    2013-11-01

    The use of molecular replacement in solving the structures of G protein-coupled receptors is discussed, with specific examples being described in detail. G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) are a large class of integral membrane proteins involved in regulating virtually every aspect of human physiology. Despite their profound importance in human health and disease, structural information regarding GPCRs has been extremely limited until recently. With the advent of a variety of new biochemical and crystallographic techniques, the structural biology of GPCRs has advanced rapidly, offering key molecular insights into GPCR activation and signal transduction. To date, almost all GPCR structures have been solved using molecular-replacement techniques. Here, the unique aspects of molecular replacement as applied to individual GPCRs and to signaling complexes of these important proteins are discussed.

  6. Molecular cloning of α-2-macroglobulin from hemocytes of common periwinkle Littorina littorea.

    PubMed

    Borisova, Elena A; Gorbushin, Alexander M

    2014-08-01

    We report the sequence of the proteinase inhibitor with a wide inhibition spectrum, α-2-macroglobulin (α2M), belonging to the thioester superfamily of proteins. This is the first α2M sequence from coenogastropod prosobranch snails. The full-length cDNA was cloned by RACE method, spans 7897 bp and contains an open reading frame of 5460 bp. The ORF encodes a protein of 1819 amino acids. The deduced mature protein contains 1795 amino acids with a molecular weight of 200 kDa and isoelectric point of 5.00. Littorina littorea α2M bears 4 conserved α2M domains and one internal thioester. Phylogenetic analysis showed that the sequence forms well supported cluster with Mollusca species and other representatives of Lophotrochozoa. PMID:24830774

  7. Molecular cloning, tissue distribution, and functional analysis of porcine Akirin2.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xiaoling; Huang, Zhiqing; Jia, Gang; Wu, Xiuqun; Wu, Caimei

    2012-04-01

    Akirin2 is a recently discovered gene that is involved in innate immune response. In this study, the porcine Akirin2 gene was cloned. The full-length coding sequence (CDS) of porcine Akirin2 consists of 612 bp and encodes 203 amino acids with a molecular mass of 22493 kD. The homology tree analysis showed that the pig Akirin2 has closer genetic relationships and distance with the known mammalian Akirin2. Real time quantitative PCR analysis showed that the porcine Akirin2 transcript was most abundant in the lung, followed by the skeletal muscle, heart, liver, fat, thymus, lymph node, small intestine, kidney, and spleen. Overexpression of porcine Akirin2 increased expression of IL-6 in porcine jejunal epithelial cell line IPEC-J2 cells. Our data suggest that porcine Akirin2 could play an important role in intestinal immune regulation. PMID:22537061

  8. Molecular cloning of an Onchocerca volvulus extracellular Cu-Zn superoxide dismutase.

    PubMed Central

    James, E R; McLean, D C; Perler, F

    1994-01-01

    Onchocerca volvulus, a human parasitic nematode, is the third leading cause of preventable blindness worldwide. This study describes the molecular cloning of a novel superoxide dismutase (SOD) from the parasite. This putative O. volvulus extracellular SOD (OvEcSOD) is 628 nucleotides (nt) long, including a 22-nt 5' spliced leader (SL1) and a portion encoding an N-terminal hydrophobic 42-amino-acid signal peptide. The remainder of the cDNA shares 71% identity with an O. volvulus cytosolic SOD sequence and is 3 nt longer. All residues involved in metal ion binding, active site formation, folding, and dimer formation in SODs are conserved. Data indicate the OvEcSOD and O. volvulus cytosolic SOD are separate gene products and that the OvEcSOD appears to possess the characteristics of a membrane-bound or secreted enzyme which may be involved in the parasite defense against phagocyte-generated reactive oxygen species. Images PMID:8300230

  9. Molecular Cloning and Characterisation of Farnesyl Pyrophosphate Synthase from Tripterygium wilfordii

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Yu-Jun; Chen, Xin; Zhang, Meng; Su, Ping; Liu, Yu-Jia; Tong, Yu-Ru; Wang, Xiu-Juan; Huang, Lu-Qi; Gao, Wei

    2015-01-01

    Farnesylpyrophosphate synthase (FPS) catalyzes the biosynthesis of farnesyl pyrophosphate (FPP), which is an important precursor of sesquiterpenoids such as artemisinin and wilfordine. In the present study, we report the molecular cloning and characterization of two full-length cDNAs encoding FPSs from Tripterygium wilfordii (TwFPSs). TwFPSs maintained their capability to synthesise FPP in vitro when purified as recombinant proteins from E. coli. Consistent with the endogenous role of FPS in FPP biosynthesis, TwFPSs were highly expressed in T. wilfordii roots, and were up-regulated upon methyl jasmonate (MeJA) treatment. The global gene expression profiles suggested that the TwFPSs might play an important regulatory role interpenoid biosynthesis in T. wilfordii, laying the groundwork for the future study of the synthetic biology of natural terpene products. PMID:25938487

  10. A murine platelet-activating factor receptor gene: cloning, chromosomal localization and up-regulation of expression by lipopolysaccharide in peritoneal resident macrophages.

    PubMed Central

    Ishii, S; Matsuda, Y; Nakamura, M; Waga, I; Kume, K; Izumi, T; Shimizu, T

    1996-01-01

    A murine gene encoding a platelet-activating factor receptor (PAFR) was cloned. The gene was mapped to a region of the D2.2 band of chromosome 4 both by fluorescence in situ hybridization and by molecular linkage analysis. Northern blot analysis showed a high expression of the PAFR message in peritoneal macrophages. When C3H/HeN macrophages were treated with bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS) or synthetic lipid A, the PAFR gene expression was induced. Bacterial LPS, but not lipid A, induced the level of PAFR mRNA in LPS unresponsive C3H/HeJ macrophages. These induction patterns were parallel to those of tumor necrosis factor-alpha mRNA. Thus the PAFR in macrophages is important in LPS-induced pathologies. PMID:8670084

  11. Molecular cloning of the alpha-globin transcription factor CP2.

    PubMed Central

    Lim, L C; Swendeman, S L; Sheffery, M

    1992-01-01

    CP2, a transcription factor that binds the murine alpha-globin promoter, was purified and subjected to amino acid sequence analysis. Oligonucleotide primers derived from the sequence were used to obtain murine and human cDNA clones for the factor. The murine cDNA spans approximately 4 kb and contains two coextensive open reading frames (ORFs) which encode deduced polypeptides of 529 (ORF-1; molecular weight, 59,802) and 502 (ORF-2; molecular weight, 56,957) amino acids, slightly smaller than the purified factor as estimated from its mobility in sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gels (64,000 to 66,000). The human cDNA contains a single ORF of 501 amino acids that is nearly contiguous with murine ORF-2. Indeed, comparison of deduced human and murine amino acid sequences shows that the two polypeptides are 96.4% identical. A strictly conserved region is rich in serine and threonine (17.5%) and in proline (11%) residues (S-T-P domain). This S-T-P domain is immediately amino terminal to a string of 10 glutamines (in the human sequence) or a tract of alternating glutamine and proline residues (in the mouse sequence). Bacterial expression of the full-length (502-amino-acid) murine factor or of a core region comprising amino acids 133 to 395 generated polypeptides with the DNA binding specificity of CP2. These results confirmed the cloning of CP2 and delimited the region sufficient for specific DNA sequence recognition. Antisera produced against the core region recognized polypeptide species with Mrs of 64,000 and 66,000 in immune blots of nuclear extracts prepared from both murine and human cell lines, consistent with the size of the purified factor. Lastly, a data base search revealed that amino acids 63 to 270 of the murine factor are distantly related to a domain in the Drosophila gene regulatory factor Elf-1. Images PMID:1732747

  12. Characterization of nonprimate hepacivirus and construction of a functional molecular clone

    PubMed Central

    Scheel, Troels K. H.; Kapoor, Amit; Nishiuchi, Eiko; Brock, Kenny V.; Yu, Yingpu; Andrus, Linda; Gu, Meigang; Renshaw, Randall W.; Dubovi, Edward J.; McDonough, Sean P.; Van de Walle, Gerlinde R.; Lipkin, W. Ian; Divers, Thomas J.; Tennant, Bud C.; Rice, Charles M.

    2015-01-01

    Nonprimate hepacivirus (NPHV) is the closest known relative of hepatitis C virus (HCV) and its study could enrich our understanding of HCV evolution, immunity, and pathogenesis. High seropositivity is found in horses worldwide with ∼3% viremic. NPHV natural history and molecular virology remain largely unexplored, however. Here, we show that NPHV, like HCV, can cause persistent infection for over a decade, with high titers and negative strand RNA in the liver. NPHV is a near-universal contaminant of commercial horse sera for cell culture. The complete NPHV 3′-UTR was determined and consists of interspersed homopolymer tracts and an HCV-like 3′-terminal poly(U)-X-tail. NPHV translation is stimulated by miR-122 and the 3′-UTR and, similar to HCV, the NPHV NS3-4A protease can cleave mitochondrial antiviral-signaling protein to inactivate the retinoic acid-inducible gene I pathway. Using an NPHV consensus cDNA clone, replication was not observed in primary equine fetal liver cultures or after electroporation of selectable replicons. However, intrahepatic RNA inoculation of a horse initiated infection, yielding high RNA titers in the serum and liver. Delayed seroconversion, slightly elevated circulating liver enzymes and mild hepatitis was observed, followed by viral clearance. This establishes the molecular components of a functional NPHV genome. Thus, NPHV appears to resemble HCV not only in genome structure but also in its ability to establish chronic infection with delayed seroconversion and hepatitis. This NPHV infectious clone and resulting acute phase sera will facilitate more detailed studies on the natural history, pathogenesis, and immunity of this novel hepacivirus in its natural host. PMID:25646476

  13. Alternative Radioligands for Investigating the Molecular Pharmacology of Melatonin Receptors.

    PubMed

    Legros, Céline; Brasseur, Chantal; Delagrange, Philippe; Ducrot, Pierre; Nosjean, Olivier; Boutin, Jean A

    2016-03-01

    Melatonin exerts a variety of physiologic activities that are mainly relayed through the melatonin receptors MT1 and MT2 Low expressions of these receptors in tissues have led to widespread experimental use of the agonist 2-[(125)I]-iodomelatonin as a substitute for melatonin. We describe three iodinated ligands: 2-(2-[(2-iodo-4,5-dimethoxyphenyl)methyl]-4,5-dimethoxy phenyl) (DIV880) and (2-iodo-N-2-[5-methoxy-2-(naphthalen-1-yl)-1H-pyrrolo[3,2-b]pyridine-3-yl])acetamide (S70254), which are specific ligands at MT2 receptors, and N-[2-(5-methoxy-1H-indol-3-yl)ethyl]iodoacetamide (SD6), an analog of 2-[(125)I]-iodomelatonin with slightly different characteristics. Here, we further characterized these new ligands with regards to their molecular pharmacology. We performed binding experiments, saturation assays, association/dissociation rate measurements, and autoradiography using sheep and rat tissues and recombinant cell lines. Our results showed that [(125)I]-S70254 is receptor, and can be used with both cells and tissue. This radioligand can be used in autoradiography. Similarly, DIV880, a partial agonist [43% of melatonin on guanosine 5'-3-O-(thio)triphosphate binding assay], selective for MT2, can be used as a tool to selectively describe the pharmacology of this receptor in tissue samples. The molecular pharmacology of both human melatonin receptors MT1 and MT2, using a series of 24 ligands at these receptors and the new radioligands, did not lead to noticeable variations in the profiles. For the first time, we described radiolabeled tools that are specific for one of the melatonin receptors (MT2). These tools are amenable to binding experiments and to autoradiography using sheep or rat tissues. These specific tools will permit better understanding of the role and implication in physiopathologic processes of the melatonin receptors. PMID:26759496

  14. Molecular Modeling of Estrogen Receptor Using Molecular Operating Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roy, Urmi; Luck, Linda A.

    2007-01-01

    Molecular modeling is pervasive in the pharmaceutical industry that employs many of our students from Biology, Chemistry and the interdisciplinary majors. To expose our students to this important aspect of their education we have incorporated a set of tutorials in our Biochemistry class. The present article describes one of our tutorials where…

  15. Molecular cloning, expression, and hormonal regulation of the chicken microsomal triglyceride transfer protein.

    PubMed

    Ivessa, N Erwin; Rehberg, Edward; Kienzle, Bernadette; Seif, Fridolin; Hermann, Robert; Hermann, Marcela; Schneider, Wolfgang J; Gordon, David A

    2013-07-01

    During an egg-laying cycle, oviparous animals transfer massive amounts of triglycerides, the major lipid component of very low density lipoprotein (VLDL), from the liver to the developing oocytes. A major stimulus for this process is the rise in estrogen associated with the onset of an egg-laying cycle. In mammals, the microsomal triglyceride transfer protein (MTP) is required for VLDL assembly and secretion. To enable studies to determine if MTP plays a role in basal and estrogen-stimulated VLDL assembly and secretion in an oviparous vertebrate, we have cloned and sequenced the chicken MTP cDNA. This cDNA encodes a protein of 893 amino acids with an N-terminal signal sequence. The primary sequence of chicken MTP is, on average, 65% identical to that of mammalian homologs, and 23% identical to the Drosophila melanogaster protein. We have obtained a clone of chicken embryo fibroblast cells that stably express the avian MTP cDNA and show that these cells display MTP activity as measured by the transfer of a fluorescently labeled neutral lipid. As in mammals, chicken MTP is localized to the endoplasmic reticulum as revealed by indirect immunofluorescence and by the fact that its N-linked oligosaccharide moiety remains sensitive to endoglycosidase H. Endogenous, enzymatically active MTP is also expressed in an estrogen receptor-expressing chicken hepatoma cell line that secretes apolipoprotein B-containing lipoproteins. In this cell line and in vivo, the expression and activity of MTP are not influenced by estrogen. Therefore, up-regulation of MTP in the liver is not required for the increased VLDL assembly during egg production in the chicken. This indicates that MTP is not rate-limiting, even for the massive estrogen-induced secretion of VLDL accompanying an egg-laying cycle. PMID:23542778

  16. Molecular cloning of five individual stage- and tissue-specific mRNA sequences from sea urchin pluteus embryos.

    PubMed Central

    Fregien, N; Dolecki, G J; Mandel, M; Humphreys, T

    1983-01-01

    Five developmentally regulated sea urchin mRNA sequences which increase in abundance between the blastula and pluteus stages of development were isolated by molecular cloning of cDNA. The regulated sequences all appeared in moderately abundant mRNA molecules of pluteus cells and represented 4% of the clones tested. There were no regulated sequences detected in the 40% of the clones which hybridized to the most abundant mRNA, and the screening procedures were inadequate to detect possible regulation in the 20 to 30% of the clones presumably derived from rare-class mRNA. The reaction of 32P[cDNA] from blastula and pluteus mRNA to dots of the cloned DNAs on nitrocellulose filters indicated that the mRNAs complementary to the different cloned pluteus-specific sequences were between 3- and 47-fold more prevalent at the pluteus stage than at the blastula stage. Polyadenylated RNA from different developmental stages was transferred from electrophoretic gels to nitrocellulose filters and reacted to the different cloned sequences. The regulated mRNAs were undetectable in the RNA of 3-h embryos, became evident at the hatching blastula stage, and reached a maximum in abundance by the gastrula or pluteus stage. Certain of the clones reacted to two sizes of mRNA which did not vary coordinately with development. Transfers of RNA isolated from each of the three cell layers of pluteus embryos that were reacted to the cloned sequences revealed that two of the sequences were found in the mRNA of all three layers, two were ectoderm specific, and one was endoderm specific. Four of the regulated sequences were complementary to one or two major bands and one to at least 50 bands on Southern transfers of restriction endonuclease-digested total sea urchin DNA. Images PMID:6688291

  17. Molecular cloning of tetracycline resistance genes from Streptomyces rimosus in Streptomyces griseus and characterization of the cloned genes.

    PubMed Central

    Ohnuki, T; Katoh, T; Imanaka, T; Aiba, S

    1985-01-01

    Two tetracycline resistance genes of Streptomyces rimosus, an oxytetracycline producer, were cloned in Streptomyces griseus by using pOA15 as a vector plasmid. Expression of the cloned genes, designated as tetA and tetB was inducible in S. griseus as well as in the donor strain. The tetracycline resistance directed by tetA and tetB was characterized by examining the uptake of tetracycline and in vitro polyphenylalanine synthesis by the sensitive host and transformants with the resultant hybrid plasmids. Polyphenylalanine synthesis with crude ribosomes and the S150 fraction from S. griseus carrying the tetA plasmid was resistant to tetracycline, and, by a cross-test of ribosomes and S150 fraction coming from both the sensitive host and the resistant transformant, the resistance directed by tetA was revealed to reside mainly in crude ribosomes and slightly in the S150 fraction. However, the resistance in the crude ribosomes disappeared when they were washed with 1 M ammonium chloride. These results suggest that tetA specified the tetracycline resistance of the machinery for protein synthesis not through ribosomal subunits, but via an unidentified cytoplasmic factor. In contrast, S. griseus carrying the tetB plasmid accumulated less intracellular tetracycline than did the host, and the protein synthesis by reconstituting the ribosomes and S150 fraction was sensitive to the drug. Therefore, it is conceivable that tetB coded a tetracycline resistance determinant responsible for the reduced accumulation of tetracycline. Images PMID:2982781

  18. Molecular and Physiological Mechanisms of Membrane Receptor Systems Functioning

    PubMed Central

    Severin, E.S.; Savvateeva, M.V.

    2011-01-01

    Molecular physiology is a new interdisciplinary field of knowledge that looks into how complicated biological systems function. The living cell is a relatively simple, but at the same time very sophisticated biological system. After the sequencing of the human genome, molecular physiology has endeavored to investigate the systems of cellular interactions at a completely new level based on knowledge of the spatial organization and functions of receptors, their ligands, and protein-protein interactions. In recent years, the achievements in molecular physiology have centered on the study of sensor reception mechanisms and intercellular data transfer, as well as the immune system physiology, amongst other processes. PMID:22649671

  19. Solubilisation and molecular characterisation of muscarinic acetylcholine receptors.

    PubMed

    Hulme, E C; Berrie, C P; Haga, T; Birdsall, N J; Burgen, A S; Stockton, J

    1983-01-01

    Stable, soluble preparations of rat brain muscarinic receptors can be prepared by extracting membranes with digitonin, or with combinations of sodium cholate and sodium chloride. The stability of the cholate/NaCl extract is enhanced by the addition of egg phosphatidylcholine, which, at the same time, suppresses the considerable dispersity apparent in the hydrodynamic behaviour of the solubilised receptor. The Stokes radius of the brain muscarinic receptor in cholate/NaCl/lecithin extracts is 6.7 nm, with very similar values in other detergents, including digitonin and sodium dodecyl sulphate. Its sedimentation coefficient is 3.78s, and its molecular weight approximately 110,000 after correction for detergent binding. The isoelectric point of the digitonin - solubilised receptor is approximately 4.5. PMID:6854547

  20. Molecular cloning and characterization of two hypersensitive induced reaction genes from wheat infected by stripe rust pathogen

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A novel gene induced during hypersensitive reaction (HIR) in wheat was identified using in silico cloning and designated as TaHIR2. The TaHIR2 gene was deduced to encode a 284-amino acid protein, whose molecular mass and isoelectric point (pI) were 31.05 kD and 5.18, respectively. Amino acid sequenc...

  1. Use of molecularly cloned avian leukosis virus to study antigenic variation following infection of meat-type chickens

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A molecularly cloned strain of subgroup J avian leukosis virus (ALV-J) termed R5-4 was used to study antigenic variation following infection of meat-type chickens. Chickens were inoculated with R5-4 virus at either 8 days of embryonation or at 1 week of age. Each chicken was housed in a separate is...

  2. Expression cloning of a human IL-12 receptor component: A new member of the cytokine receptor superfamily with strong homology to gp130

    SciTech Connect

    Chua, A.O.; Chizzonite, R.; Desai, B.B.; Truitt, T.P.; Nunes, P.; Minetti, L.J.; Warrier, R.R.; Presky, D.H.; Levine, J.F.; Gately, M.K. )

    1994-07-01

    A cDNA encoding a human IL-12R subunit was isolated by expression cloning. This subunit is a 662 amino acid type I transmembrane protein with an extracellular domain of 516 amino acids and a cytoplasmic domain of 91 amino acids. It is a member of the hemopoietin receptor superfamily and is most closely related over its entire length to gp130 and the receptors for granulocyte-CSF (G-CSF) and leukemia-inhibitory factor. When expressed in COS cells, this IL-12R subunit binds both human and murine IL-12 with an apparent affinity of 2 to 4 nM. The transfected COS cells express both monomers and disulfide-linked dimers or oligomers of the IL-12R subunit on their surface. However, unlike the IL-6-induced dimerization of gp130, the oligomerization of the IL-12R subunit is not dependent on binding of IL-12. Only the IL-12R subunit/dimers/oligomers but not the monomers bind IL-12 with an affinity of 2 to 5 nM. A polyclonal antiserum raised against this receptor subunit specifically inhibits IL-12-induced proliferation of PHA-activated PBMC. The data are consistent with the hypothesis that (1) a dimer/oligomer of the cloned IL-12R subunit (IL-2R-[beta]) represents the low affinity IL-12 binding site identified on human lymphoblasts, (2) the cloned receptor subunit is involved in IL-12 signal transduction, and (3) an additional, as of yet unidentified, subunit is required to generate a high affinity IL-12R complex. 40 refs., 6 figs.

  3. Nuclear receptors CAR and PXR: Molecular, functional, and biomedical aspects.

    PubMed

    di Masi, Alessandra; De Marinis, Elisabetta; Ascenzi, Paolo; Marino, Maria

    2009-10-01

    Nuclear receptors (NRs) are ligand-activated transcription factors sharing a common evolutionary history and having similar sequence features at the protein level. Selective ligand(s) for some NRs is not known, therefore these NRs have been named "orphan receptors". Whenever ligands have been recognized for any of the orphan receptor, it has been categorized and grouped as "adopted" orphan receptor. This group includes the constitutive androstane receptor (CAR) and the pregnane X receptor (PXR). They function as sensors of toxic byproducts derived from endogenous metabolites and of exogenous chemicals, in order to enhance their elimination. This unique function of CAR and PXR sets them apart from the steroid hormone receptors. The broad response profile has established that CAR and PXR are xenobiotic sensors that coordinately regulate xenobiotic clearance in the liver and intestine via induction of genes involved in drug and xenobiotic metabolism. In the past few years, research has revealed new and mostly unsuspected roles for CAR and PXR in modulating hormone, lipid, and energy homeostasis as well as cancer and liver steatosis. The purpose of this review is to highlight the structural and molecular bases of CAR and PXR impact on human health, providing information on mechanisms through which diet, chemical exposure, and environment ultimately impact health and disease. PMID:19427329

  4. Molecular and Cellular Designs of Insect Taste Receptor System

    PubMed Central

    Isono, Kunio; Morita, Hiromi

    2010-01-01

    The insect gustatory receptors (GRs) are members of a large G-protein coupled receptor family distantly related to the insect olfactory receptors. They are phylogenetically different from taste receptors of most other animals. GRs are often coexpressed with other GRs in single receptor neurons. Taste receptors other than GRs are also expressed in some neurons. Recent molecular studies in the fruitfly Drosophila revealed that the insect taste receptor system not only covers a wide ligand spectrum of sugars, bitter substances or salts that are common to mammals but also includes reception of pheromone and somatosensory stimulants. However, the central mechanism to perceive and discriminate taste information is not yet elucidated. Analysis of the primary projection of taste neurons to the brain shows that the projection profiles depend basically on the peripheral locations of the neurons as well as the GRs that they express. These results suggest that both peripheral and central design principles of insect taste perception are different from those of olfactory perception. PMID:20617187

  5. Molecular cloning and functional characterization of a putative sulfite oxidase (SO) ortholog from Nicotiana benthamiana.

    PubMed

    Xia, Zongliang; Su, Xinhong; Wu, Jianyu; Wu, Ke; Zhang, Hua

    2012-03-01

    Sulfite oxidase (SO) catalyzes the oxidation of sulfite to sulfate and thus has important roles in diverse metabolic processes. However, systematic molecular and functional investigations on the putative SO from tobacco (Nicotiana benthamiana) have hitherto not been reported. In this work, a full-length cDNA encoding putative sulfite oxidase from N. benthamiana (NbSO) was isolated. The deduced NbSO protein shares high homology and typical structural features with other species SOs. Phylogenetic analysis indicates that NbSO cDNA clone encodes a tobacco SO isoform. Southern blot analysis suggests that NbSO is a single-copy gene in the N. benthamiana genome. The NbSO transcript levels were higher in aerial tissues and were up-regulated in N. benthamiana during sulfite stress. Reducing the SO expression levels through virus-induced gene silencing caused a substantial accumulation in sulfite content and less sulfate accumulation in N. benthamiana leaves when exposed to sulfite stress, and thus resulted in decreased tolerance to sulfite stress. Taken together, this study improves our understanding on the molecular and functional properties of plant SO and provides genetic evidence on the involvement of SO in sulfite detoxification in a sulfite-oxidizing manner in N. benthamiana plants. PMID:21667106

  6. Molecular cloning and phylogenetic analysis of Clonorchis sinensis elongation factor-1alpha.

    PubMed

    Kim, Tae Yun; Cho, Pyo Yun; Na, Jong Won; Hong, Sung-Jong

    2007-11-01

    Elongation factor-1 (EF-1) plays a primary role in protein synthesis, e.g., in the regulation of cell growth, aging, motility, embryogenesis, and signal transduction. The authors identified a clone CsIH23 by immunoscreening a Clonorchis sinensis cDNA library. The cDNA of CsIH23 was found to have a putative open reading frame containing 461 amino acids with a predicted molecular mass of 50.5 kDa. Its polypeptide sequence was highly homologous with EF-1alpha of parasites and vertebrate animals. CsIH23 polypeptide contained three GTP/GDP-binding sites, one ribosome-binding domain, one actin-binding domain, one tRNA-binding domain, and two glyceryl-phosphoryl-ethanolamine attachment sites. Based on these primary and secondary structural similarities, it was concluded that CsIH23 cDNA encodes C. sinensis EF-1alpha (CsEF-1alpha). In a molecular phylogenic tree, CsEF-1alpha clustered with the EF-1alpha of helminthic parasites. Subsequently, CsEF-1alpha recombinant protein was bacterially overexpressed and purified by Ni-NTA affinity column chromatography. Immunoblotting using CsEF-1alpha recombinant protein produced positive signals for all serum samples tested from clonorchiasis, opisthorchiasis viverinii, and paragonimiasis westermani patients and normal healthy controls. These findings suggest that recombinant CsEF-1alpha is of limited usefulness as serodiagnostic antigen for clonorchiasis. PMID:17674047

  7. Molecular cloning and characterization of a Candida tsukubaensis alpha-glucosidase gene in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Kinsella, B T; Larkin, A; Bolton, M; Cantwell, B A

    1991-07-01

    The molecular cloning of an alpha-glucosidase gene isolated from a Candida tsukubaensis (CBS 6389) genomic library in Saccharomyces cervisiae is reported. The cloned gene is contained within a 6.2 kb Sau3A DNA fragment and directs the synthesis and secretion of an amylolytic enzyme into the extracellular medium of the recombinant host, S. cerevisiae. The cloned enzyme was found to have an unusually broad substrate specificity and is capable of hydrolysing alpha-1,2, alpha-1,3, alpha-1,4 and alpha-1,6 linked, as well as aryl and alkyl, D-glucosides. On the basis of its substrate specificity profile, the cloned enzyme was classified as an alpha-glucosidase (E.C. 3.2.1.20). It has a pH optimum in the range 4.2-4.6, a temperature optimum of 58 degrees C and is readily inactivated at pasteurization temperature (60 degrees C). Southern blot analysis failed to reveal any homology between the cloned gene and genomic DNA isolated from other well characterized amylolytic yeasts. A rapid plate-assay, based on the utilization of a chromogenic substrate X-alpha-D-glucoside to detect the expression of the cloned alpha-glucosidase in S. cerevisiae transformants, was developed. PMID:1934116

  8. Cloning of neuromedin B and its receptor in the rabbit and generating a polyclonal antibody to the neuromedin B protein.

    PubMed

    Guo, Ting-Ting; Su, Juan; Ma, Zhi-Yu; Ma, Jun-Xiao; Jin, Meng-Meng; Li, Xiang; Lei, Zhi-Hai

    2015-06-10

    Neuromedin B (NMB) is a highly conserved bombesin-related neuropeptide found in mammals. Neuromedin B (NMB) executes its effect by binding to the cell surface receptor, neuromedin B receptor (NMBR). In this study, we cloned the rabbit NMB and NMBR genes. The similarity and phylogenetic analyses of NMB and NMBR gene sequences were performed. The expression of NMB and NMBR mRNA in the rabbit was investigated using real-time RT-PCR. Our bioinformatic analysis demonstrated that the cloned rabbit NMB precursor cDNA encoded Gly-His-Phe-Met-NH2 amino acids at the C-terminus, and that its receptor possessed typical transmembrane features. The NMB mRNA was highly expressed in the CNS, while the NMBR mRNA was widely expressed in many tissues, with the highest expression in the gastrointestinal tract. The studies on the NMB distribution and function are limited by the lack of a specific antibody to this neuropeptide. In this paper, polyclonal NMB antibody was generated in mice. Western blotting analysis revealed that the prepared antibody could specifically recognize the recombinant and the endogenous NMB proteins. Immunohistochemistry analysis indicated that the NMB protein was localized in the cytoplasm of the pituitary cells. The existence of NMB protein in the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis suggests that NMB might function in rabbit reproduction. PMID:25796599

  9. Molecular cloning and characterization of beta-expansin gene related to root hair formation in barley.

    PubMed

    Kwasniewski, Miroslaw; Szarejko, Iwona

    2006-07-01

    Root hairs are specialized epidermal cells that play a role in the uptake of water and nutrients from the rhizosphere and serve as a site of interaction with soil microorganisms. The process of root hair formation is well characterized in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana); however, there is a very little information about the genetic and molecular basis of root hair development in monocots. Here, we report on isolation and cloning of the beta-expansin (EXPB) gene HvEXPB1, tightly related to root hair initiation in barley (Hordeum vulgare). Using root transcriptome differentiation in the wild-type/root-hairless mutant system, a cDNA fragment present in roots of wild-type plants only was identified. After cloning of full-length cDNA and genomic sequences flanking the identified fragment, the subsequent bioinformatics analyses revealed homology of the protein coded by the identified gene to the EXPB family. Reverse transcription-PCR showed that expression of HvEXPB1 cosegregated with the root hair phenotype in F2 progeny of the cross between the hairless mutant rhl1.a and the wild-type Karat parent variety. Expression of the HvEXPB1 gene was root specific; it was expressed in roots of wild-type forms, but not in coleoptiles, leaves, tillers, and spikes. The identified gene was active in roots of two other analyzed root hair mutants: rhp1.a developing root hair primordia only and rhs1.a with very short root hairs. Contrary to this, a complete lack of HvEXPB1 expression was observed in roots of the spontaneous root-hairless mutant bald root barley. All these observations suggest a role of the HvEXPB1 gene in the process of root hair formation in barley. PMID:16679418

  10. Molecular cloning and functional characterization of a rainbow trout liver Oatp

    PubMed Central

    Steiner, Konstanze; Hagenbuch, Bruno; Dietrich, Daniel R.

    2014-01-01

    Cyanobacterial blooms have an impact on the aquatic ecosystem due to the production of toxins (e.g. microcystins, MCs), which constrains fish health or even cause fish death. However the toxicokinetics of the most abundant toxin, microcystin-LR (MC-LR), are not yet fully understood. To investigate the uptake mechanism, the novel Oatp1d1 in rainbow trout (rtOatp1d1) was cloned, identified and characterized. The cDNA isolated from a clone library consisted of 2772 bp containing a 2115 bp open reading frame coding for a 705 aa protein with an approximate molecular mass of 80 kDa. This fish specific transporter belongs to the OATP1 family and has most likely evolved from a common ancestor of OATP1C1. Real time PCR analysis showed that rtOatp1d1 is predominantly expressed in the liver, followed by the brain while expression in other organs was not detectable. Transient transfection in HEK293 cells was used for further characterization. Like its human homologs OATP1A1, OATP1B1 and OATP1B3, rtOatp1d1 displayed multi-specific transport including endogenous and xenobiotic substrates. Kinetic analyses revealed a Km value of 13.9 μM and 13.4 μM for estrone-3-sulfate and methotrexate, respectively and a rather low affinity for taurocholate with a Km value of 103 μM. Furthermore, it was confirmed that rtOatp1d1 is a MC-LR transporter and therefore most likely plays a key role in the susceptibility of rainbow trout to MC intoxications. PMID:25218291

  11. Molecular cloning and characterization of genistein 4'-O-glucoside specific glycosyltransferase from Bacopa monniera.

    PubMed

    Ruby; Santosh Kumar, R J; Vishwakarma, Rishi K; Singh, Somesh; Khan, Bashir M

    2014-07-01

    Health related benefits of isoflavones such as genistein are well known. Glycosylation of genistein yields different glycosides like genistein 7-O-glycoside (genistin) and genistein 4'-O-glycoside (sophoricoside). This is the first report on isolation, cloning and functional characterization of a glycosyltransferase specific for genistein 4'-O-glucoside from Bacopa monniera, an important Indian medicinal herb. The glycosyltransferase from B. monniera (UGT74W1) showed 49% identity at amino acid level with the glycosyltransferases from Lycium barbarum. The UGT74W1 sequence contained all the conserved motifs present in plant glycosyltransferases. UGT74W1 was cloned in pET-30b (+) expression vector and transformed into E. coli. The molecular mass of over expressed protein was found to be around 52 kDa. Functional characterization of the enzyme was performed using different substrates. Product analysis was done using LC-MS and HPLC, which confirmed its specificity for genistein 4'-O-glucoside. Immuno-localization studies of the UGT74W1 showed its localization in the vascular bundle. Spatio-temporal expression studies under normal and stressed conditions were also performed. The control B. monniera plant showed maximum expression of UGT74W1 in leaves followed by roots and stem. Salicylic acid treatment causes almost tenfold increase in UGT74W1 expression in roots, while leaves and stem showed decrease in expression. Since salicylic acid is generated at the time of injury or wound caused by pathogens, this increase in UGT74W1 expression under salicylic acid stress might point towards its role in defense mechanism. PMID:24664316

  12. Molecular cloning and functional characterization of a rainbow trout liver Oatp.

    PubMed

    Steiner, Konstanze; Hagenbuch, Bruno; Dietrich, Daniel R

    2014-11-01

    Cyanobacterial blooms have an impact on the aquatic ecosystem due to the production of toxins (e.g. microcystins, MCs), which constrain fish health or even cause fish death. However the toxicokinetics of the most abundant toxin, microcystin-LR (MC-LR), are not yet fully understood. To investigate the uptake mechanism, the novel Oatp1d1 in rainbow trout (rtOatp1d1) was cloned, identified and characterized. The cDNA isolated from a clone library consisted of 2772bp containing a 2115bp open reading frame coding for a 705 aa protein with an approximate molecular mass of 80kDa. This fish specific transporter belongs to the OATP1 family and has most likely evolved from a common ancestor of OATP1C1. Real time PCR analysis showed that rtOatp1d1 is predominantly expressed in the liver, followed by the brain while expression in other organs was not detectable. Transient transfection in HEK293 cells was used for further characterization. Like its human homologues OATP1A1, OATP1B1 and OATP1B3, rtOatp1d1 displayed multi-specific transport including endogenous and xenobiotic substrates. Kinetic analyses revealed a Km value of 13.9μM and 13.4μM for estrone-3-sulfate and methotrexate, respectively and a rather low affinity for taurocholate with a Km value of 103μM. Furthermore, it was confirmed that rtOatp1d1 is a MC-LR transporter and therefore most likely plays a key role in the susceptibility of rainbow trout to MC intoxications. PMID:25218291

  13. Molecular cloning and expression in Escherichia coli of a cellodextrinase gene from Bacteroides succinogenes S85.

    PubMed Central

    Gong, J H; Lo, R Y; Forsberg, C W

    1989-01-01

    A DNA fragment coding for a cellodextrinase of Bacteroides succinogenes S85 was isolated by screening of a pBR322 gene library in Escherichia coli HB101. Of 100,000 colonies screened on a complex medium with methylumbelliferyl-beta-D-cellobioside as the indicator substrate, two cellodextrinase-positive clones (CB1 and CB2) were isolated. The DNA inserts from the two recombinant plasmids were 7.7 kilobase pairs in size and had similar restriction maps. After subcloning from pCB2, a 2.5-kilobase-pair insert which coded for cellodextrinase activity was isolated. The enzyme was located in the cytoplasm of the E. coli host. It exhibited no activity on carboxymethyl cellulose, Avicel microcrystalline cellulose, acid-swollen cellulose, or cellobiose but hydrolyzed p-nitrophenyl-beta-D-cellobioside and p-nitrophenyl-beta-D-lactoside. The Km (0.1 mM) for the hydrolysis of p-nitrophenyl-cellobioside by the enzyme expressed in E. coli was similar to that reported for the purified enzyme from B. succinogenes. Expression of the cellodextrinase gene was subjected to catabolite repression by glucose and was not induced by cellobiose. The origin of the DNA insert from B. succinogenes was confirmed by Southern blot analysis. Western blotting (immunoblotting) using antibodies raised against the purified B. succinogenes cellodextrinase revealed a protein with a molecular weight of approximately 50,000 in E. coli clones which comigrated with the native enzyme isolated from B. succinogenes. These data indicate that the cellodextrinase gene expressed in E. coli is fully functional and codes for an enzyme with properties similar to those of the native enzyme. Images PMID:2650617

  14. Molecular cloning and functional characterization of a rainbow trout liver Oatp

    SciTech Connect

    Steiner, Konstanze; Hagenbuch, Bruno; Dietrich, Daniel R.

    2014-11-01

    Cyanobacterial blooms have an impact on the aquatic ecosystem due to the production of toxins (e.g. microcystins, MCs), which constrain fish health or even cause fish death. However the toxicokinetics of the most abundant toxin, microcystin-LR (MC-LR), are not yet fully understood. To investigate the uptake mechanism, the novel Oatp1d1 in rainbow trout (rtOatp1d1) was cloned, identified and characterized. The cDNA isolated from a clone library consisted of 2772 bp containing a 2115 bp open reading frame coding for a 705 aa protein with an approximate molecular mass of 80 kDa. This fish specific transporter belongs to the OATP1 family and has most likely evolved from a common ancestor of OATP1C1. Real time PCR analysis showed that rtOatp1d1 is predominantly expressed in the liver, followed by the brain while expression in other organs was not detectable. Transient transfection in HEK293 cells was used for further characterization. Like its human homologues OATP1A1, OATP1B1 and OATP1B3, rtOatp1d1 displayed multi-specific transport including endogenous and xenobiotic substrates. Kinetic analyses revealed a K{sub m} value of 13.9 μM and 13.4 μM for estrone-3-sulfate and methotrexate, respectively and a rather low affinity for taurocholate with a K{sub m} value of 103 μM. Furthermore, it was confirmed that rtOatp1d1 is a MC-LR transporter and therefore most likely plays a key role in the susceptibility of rainbow trout to MC intoxications. - Highlights: • A new Oatp1d1 in rainbow trout (rtOatp1d1) was cloned, identified and characterized. • rtOatp1d1 is predominantly expressed in the liver. • rtOatp1d1 displays multi-specific transport of endogenous and xenobiotic substrates. • rtOatp1d1 is a homologue of the OATP1A1, OATP1B1 and OATP1B3. • rtOatp1d1 is a microcystin (MC) transporter.

  15. Cloning, in Vitro expression, and novel phylogenetic classification of a channel catfish estrogen receptor

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Xia, Z.; Patino, R.; Gale, W.L.; Maule, A.G.; Densmore, L.D.

    1999-01-01

    We obtained two channel catfish estrogen receptor (ccER) cDNA from liver of female fish using RT–PCR. The two fragments were identical in sequence except that the smaller one had an out-of-frame deletion in the E domain, suggesting the existence of ccER splice variants. The larger fragment was used to screen a cDNA library from liver of a prepubescent female. A cDNA was obtained that encoded a 581-amino-acid ER with a deduced molecular weight of 63.8 kDa. Extracts of COS-7 cells transfected with ccER cDNA bound estrogen with high affinity (Kd = 4.7 nM) and specificity. Maximum parsimony and Neighbor Joining analyses were used to generate a phylogenetic classification of ccER on the basis of 18 full-length ER sequences. The tree suggested the existence of two major ER branches. One branch contained two clearly divergent clades which included all piscine ER (except Japanese eel ER) and all tetrapod ERα, respectively. The second major branch contained the eel ER and the mammalian ERβ. The high degree of divergence between the eel ER and mammalian ERβ suggested that they also represent distinct piscine and tetrapod ER. These data suggest that ERα and ERβ are present throughout vertebrates and that these two major ER types evolved by duplication of an ancestral ER gene. Sequence alignments with other members of the nuclear hormone receptor superfamily indicated the presence of 8 amino acids in the E domain that align exclusively among ER. Four of these amino acids have not received prior research attention and their function is unknown. The novel finding of putative ER splice variants in a nonmammalian vertebrate and the novel phylogenetic classification of ER offer new perspectives in understanding the diversification and function of ER.

  16. Molecular cloning, characterization and expression analysis of F-type lectin from pearl oyster Pinctada fucata.

    PubMed

    Anju, A; Jeswin, J; Thomas, P C; Vijayan, K K

    2013-07-01

    F-type lectin is an important type of pattern recognition receptor that can recognize and bind carbohydrate moieties on the surface of potential pathogens through its carbohydrate recognition domains (CRDs). This paper reports the cloning of an F-type lectin (designated as pfF-type lectin) from the pearl oyster (Pinctada fucata) using rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE) PCR. The full-length cDNA of this pfF-type lectin contains an open reading frame (ORF) of 588 bp coding for196 amino acids. A signal peptide at the N-terminus of the deduced polypeptide was predicted by the signal P program and the cleavage site is located between the positions of Gly(19)and Tyr(20). Conserved domain search at NCBI revealed the pfF-type lectin domain extends from Lys(55)to Val(192). Semi-quantitative analysis in adult tissues showed that the pfF-type lectin mRNA was abundantly expressed in haemocytes and gill and rarely expressed in other tissues tested. After challenge with lipopolysaccharide (LPS), expression of pfF-type lectin mRNA in haemocytes was increased, reaching the highest level at 4 h, then dropping to basal levels at 36 h. These results suggest that F-type lectin play a critical role in the innate immune system of the pearl oyster P. fucata. PMID:23624143

  17. Molecular cloning, characterization and expression of the energy homeostasis-associated gene in piglet*

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Sheng-ping; Gao, Yun-ling; Liu, Gang; Deng, Dun; Chen, Rong-jun; Zhang, Yu-zhe; Li, Li-li; Wen, Qing-qi; Hou, Yong-qing; Feng, Ze-meng; Guo, Zhao-hui

    2015-01-01

    The energy homeostasis-associated (Enho) gene encodes a secreted protein, adropin, which regulates the expression of hepatic lipogenic genes and adipose tissue peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ, a major regulator of lipogenesis. In the present study, the porcine (Sus scrofa) homologue of the Enho gene, which was named pEnho, was amplified by reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) using oligonucleotide primers derived from in silico sequences. The gene sequence was submitted into the GenBank of NCBI, and the access number is GQ414763. The pEnho encodes a protein of 76 amino acids which shows 75% similarity to Homo sapiens adropin. The expression profile of pEnho in tissues (liver, muscle, anterior jejunum, posterior jejunum, and ileum) was determined by quantitative real-time RT-PCR. pEnho was localized on porcine chromosome 10 and no introns were found. In conclusion, pEnho was cloned and analysed with the aim of increasing knowledge about glucose and lipid metabolism in piglets and helping to promote the health and growth of piglets through adropin regulation. PMID:26055914

  18. Molecular cloning, characterization and expression of the energy homeostasis-associated gene in piglet.

    PubMed

    Wang, Sheng-ping; Gao, Yun-ling; Liu, Gang; Deng, Dun; Chen, Rong-jun; Zhang, Yu-zhe; Li, Li-li; Wen, Qing-qi; Hou, Yong-qing; Feng, Ze-meng; Guo, Zhao-hui

    2015-06-01

    The energy homeostasis-associated (Enho) gene encodes a secreted protein, adropin, which regulates the expression of hepatic lipogenic genes and adipose tissue peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ, a major regulator of lipogenesis. In the present study, the porcine (Sus scrofa) homologue of the Enho gene, which was named pEnho, was amplified by reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) using oligonucleotide primers derived from in silico sequences. The gene sequence was submitted into the GenBank of NCBI, and the access number is GQ414763. The pEnho encodes a protein of 76 amino acids which shows 75% similarity to Homo sapiens adropin. The expression profile of pEnho in tissues (liver, muscle, anterior jejunum, posterior jejunum, and ileum) was determined by quantitative real-time RT-PCR. pEnho was localized on porcine chromosome 10 and no introns were found. In conclusion, pEnho was cloned and analysed with the aim of increasing knowledge about glucose and lipid metabolism in piglets and helping to promote the health and growth of piglets through adropin regulation. PMID:26055914

  19. Molecular cloning and function characterization of a new macrophage-activating protein from Tremella fuciformis.

    PubMed

    Hung, Chih-Liang; Chang, An-Ju; Kuo, Xhao-Kai; Sheu, Fuu

    2014-02-19

    Silver ear mushroom ( Tremella fuciformis ) is an edible fungus with health benefits. In this study, we purified a new T. fuciformis protein (TFP) and demonstrated its ability to activate primary murine macrophages. The isolation procedure involved ammonium sulfate fractionation and ion exchange chromatography. TFP naturally formed a 24 kDa homodimeric protein and did not contain glycan residues. The TFP gene was cloned using the rapid amplification of cDNA ends method, and the cDNA sequence of TFP was composed of 408 nucleotides with a 336 nucleotide open reading frame encoding a 112 amino acid protein. TFP was capable of stimulating TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-1ra, and IL-12 production in addition to CD86/MHC class II expression, mRNA expression of M1-type chemokines, and nuclear NF-κB accumulation in murine peritoneal macrophage cells. Furthermore, TFP failed to stimulate TLR4-neutralized and TLR4-knockout macrophages, suggesting that TLR4 is a required receptor for TFP signaling on macrophages. Taken together, these results indicate that TFP may be an important bioactive compound from T. fuciformis that induces M1-polarized activation through a TLR4-dependent NF-κB signaling pathway. PMID:24400969

  20. Molecular cloning and functional analysis of duck ubiquitin-specific protease 18 (USP18) gene.

    PubMed

    Qian, Wei; Wei, Xiaoqin; Zhou, Hongbo; Jin, Meilin

    2016-09-01

    In mammals, ubiquitin-specific protease 18 (USP18) is an interferon (IFN)-inducible gene and is a negative regulator of Toll-like receptor-mediated nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) activation. The role of USP18 in ducks (duUSP18) remains poorly understood. In the present study, we cloned and characterized the full-length coding sequence of duUSP18 from duck embryo fibroblasts (DEFs). In healthy ducks, duUSP18 transcripts were broadly expressed in different tissues, with higher expression levels in the spleen, lung and kidney. Quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) analysis revealed that duUSP18 could be induced by treatment with Poly(I:C) or LPS. Overexpression of duUSP18 inhibited NF-κB and IFN-β expression. Furthermore, deletion mutant analysis revealed that the duUSP18 region between aa 75 and 304 was essential for inhibiting NF-κB. In addition, overexpression of duUSP18 also suppressed the secretion of NF-κB-dependent proinflammatory cytokines. Taken together, these results suggest that duUSP18 regulates duck innate immune responses. PMID:27133094

  1. Molecular Physiology of Membrane Guanylyl Cyclase Receptors.

    PubMed

    Kuhn, Michaela

    2016-04-01

    cGMP controls many cellular functions ranging from growth, viability, and differentiation to contractility, secretion, and ion transport. The mammalian genome encodes seven transmembrane guanylyl cyclases (GCs), GC-A to GC-G, which mainly modulate submembrane cGMP microdomains. These GCs share a unique topology comprising an extracellular domain, a short transmembrane region, and an intracellular COOH-terminal catalytic (cGMP synthesizing) region. GC-A mediates the endocrine effects of atrial and B-type natriuretic peptides regulating arterial blood pressure/volume and energy balance. GC-B is activated by C-type natriuretic peptide, stimulating endochondral ossification in autocrine way. GC-C mediates the paracrine effects of guanylins on intestinal ion transport and epithelial turnover. GC-E and GC-F are expressed in photoreceptor cells of the retina, and their activation by intracellular Ca(2+)-regulated proteins is essential for vision. Finally, in the rodent system two olfactorial GCs, GC-D and GC-G, are activated by low concentrations of CO2and by peptidergic (guanylins) and nonpeptidergic odorants as well as by coolness, which has implications for social behaviors. In the past years advances in human and mouse genetics as well as the development of sensitive biosensors monitoring the spatiotemporal dynamics of cGMP in living cells have provided novel relevant information about this receptor family. This increased our understanding of the mechanisms of signal transduction, regulation, and (dys)function of the membrane GCs, clarified their relevance for genetic and acquired diseases and, importantly, has revealed novel targets for therapies. The present review aims to illustrate these different features of membrane GCs and the main open questions in this field. PMID:27030537

  2. The High Molecular Weight Stress Proteins: Identification, Cloning, and Utilization in Cancer Immunotherapy*

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xiang-Yang; Subjeck, John R.

    2013-01-01

    Although the large stress/heat shock proteins (HSPs), i.e., Hsp110 and Grp170, were identified over 30 years ago, these abundant and highly conserved molecules have received much less attention compared to other conventional HSPs. Large stress proteins act as molecular chaperones with exceptional protein-holding capability and prevent the aggregation of proteins induced by thermal stress. The chaperoning properties of Hsp110 and Grp170 are integral to the ability of these molecules to modulate immune functions and are essential for developing large chaperone complex vaccines for cancer immunotherapy. The potent antitumor activity of the Hsp110/Grp170-tumor protein antigen complexes, demonstrated in preclinical studies, has led to a phase I clinical trial through the National Cancer Institute's RAID Program that is presently underway. Here we review aspects of the structure and function of these large stress proteins, their roles as molecular chaperones in the biology of cell stress, and prospects for their use in immune regulation and cancer immunotherapy. Lastly, we will discuss the recently revealed immunosuppressive activity of scavenger receptor A that binds to Hsp110 and Grp170, as well as the feasibility of targeting this receptor to promote T-cell activation and antitumor immunity induced by large HSP vaccines and other immunotherapies. PMID:23829534

  3. High molecular weight stress proteins: Identification, cloning and utilisation in cancer immunotherapy.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiang-Yang; Subjeck, John R

    2013-08-01

    Although the large stress/heat shock proteins (HSPs), i.e. Hsp110 and Grp170, were identified over 30 years ago, these abundant and highly conserved molecules have received much less attention compared to other conventional HSPs. Large stress proteins act as molecular chaperones with exceptional protein-holding capability and prevent the aggregation of proteins induced by thermal stress. The chaperoning properties of Hsp110 and Grp170 are integral to the ability of these molecules to modulate immune functions and are essential for developing large chaperone complex vaccines for cancer immunotherapy. The potent anti-tumour activity of the Hsp110/Grp170-tumour protein antigen complexes demonstrated in preclinical studies has led to a phase I clinical trial through the National Cancer Institute's rapid access to intervention development (RAID) programme that is presently underway. Here we review aspects of the structure and function of these large stress proteins, their roles as molecular chaperones in the biology of cell stress, and prospects for their use in immune regulation and cancer immunotherapy. Lastly, we will discuss the recently revealed immunosuppressive activity of scavenger receptor A that binds to Hsp110 and Grp170, as well as the feasibility of targeting this receptor to promote T-cell activation and anti-tumour immunity induced by large HSP vaccines and other immunotherapies. PMID:23829534

  4. Molecular cloning of the c locus of Zea mays: a locus regulating the anthocyanin pathway.

    PubMed

    Paz-Ares, J; Wienand, U; Peterson, P A; Saedler, H

    1986-05-01

    The c locus of Zea mays, involved in the regulation of anthocyanin biosynthesis, has been cloned by transposon tagging. A clone (# 18En) containing a full size En1 element was initially isolated from the En element-induced mutable allele c-m668655. Sequences of clone # 18En flanking the En1 element were used to clone other c mutants, whose structure was predicted genetically. Clone #23En (isolated from c-m668613) contained a full size En1 element, clone #3Ds (isolated from c-m2) a Ds element and clone # 5 (isolated from c+) had no element on the cloned fragment. From these data we conclude that the clones obtained contain at least part of the c locus. Preliminary data on transcript analysis using a 1-kb DNA fragment from wild-type clone # 5 showed that at least three transcripts are encoded by that part of the locus, indicating that c is a complex locus. PMID:15957214

  5. Molecular cloning, sequence analysis and expression of a novel gene induced by near-UV light in Bipolaris oryzae.

    PubMed

    Kihara, J; Sato, A; Okajima, S; Kumagai, T

    2001-09-01

    A cDNA clone derived from a novel gene (uvi-1) that is inducible by near-UV light was isolated by a differential screening procedure from a cDNA library of the fungus Bipolaris oryzae and characterized further. Sequence analysis of the clone revealed that uvi-1 encodes a protein with a putative molecular mass of 17 kDa; the UVI-1 protein shows significant similarity to a putative protein encoded by a cDNA which is expressed during appressorium formation in the rice blast fungus, Magnaporthe grisea. The corresponding genomic clone was also isolated, and Southern analysis of genomic DNA indicated the presence of a single copy of the uvi-1 gene in B. oryzae. Northern analysis showed that the uvi-1 transcripts are induced by exposure to near-UV light, but not by blue or red light. Furthermore, accumulation of uvi-1 transcripts is observed during differentiation of the appressorium. PMID:11589579

  6. Cloning of ligand-specific cell lines via gene transfer: identification of a D2 dopamine receptor subtype.

    PubMed Central

    Todd, R D; Khurana, T S; Sajovic, P; Stone, K R; O'Malley, K L

    1989-01-01

    Using rat genomic DNA, we have established a transfected mouse fibroblast cell line that expresses a spiperone binding site with the pharmacological characteristics of a D2 dopamine receptor. The expressed D2 receptors are the product of a gene that is distinct from that reported by Bunzow et al. [Bunzow, J. R., Van Tol, H. H. M., Granoly, D. K., Albert, P., Salon, J., Christie, M., Machida, C. A., Neve, K. A. & Civelli, O. (1988) Nature (London) 336, 783-787]. Flow cytometry with the Ca2+-sensitive dye indo-1 demonstrated that activation of the expressed D2 sites resulted in increases in intracellular calcium that were dependent on the influx of external Ca2+. These general cloning procedures should be applicable to the production of cell lines expressing a variety of genes for which only functional assays are available. Images PMID:2532359

  7. Functionalized Congeners of 1,4-Dihydropyridines as Antagonist Molecular Probes for A3 Adenosine Receptors

    PubMed Central

    Li, An-Hu; Chang, Louis; Ji, Xiao-duo; Melman, Neli; Jacobson, Kenneth A.

    2012-01-01

    4-Phenylethynyl-6-phenyl-1,4-dihydropyridine derivatives are selective antagonists at human A3 adenosine receptors, with Ki values in a radioligand binding assay vs [125I]AB-MECA [N6-(4-amino-3-iodobenzyl)-5′-N-methylcarbamoyl-adenosine] in the submicromolar range. In this study, functionalized congeners of 1,4-dihydropyridines were designed as chemically reactive adenosine A3 antagonists, for the purpose of synthesizing molecular probes for this receptor subtype. Selectivity of the new analogues for cloned human A3 adenosine receptors was determined in radioligand binding in comparison to binding at rat brain A1 and A2A receptors. Benzyl ester groups at the 3- and/or 5-positions and phenyl groups at the 2- and/or 6-positions were introduced as potential sites for chain attachment. Structure–activity analysis at A3 adenosine receptors indicated that 3,5-dibenzyl esters, but not 2,6-diphenyl groups, are tolerated in binding. Ring substitution of the 5-benzyl ester with a 4-fluorosulfonyl group provided enhanced A3 receptor affinity resulting in a Ki value of 2.42 nM; however, a long-chain derivative containing terminal amine functionalization at the 4-position of the 5-benzyl ester showed only moderate affinity. This sulfonyl fluoride derivative appeared to bind irreversibly to the human A3 receptor (1 h incubation at 100 nM resulting in the loss of 56% of the specific radioligand binding sites), while the binding of other potent dihydropyridines and other antagonists was generally reversible. At the 3-position of the dihydropyridine ring, an amine-functionalized chain attached at the 4-position of a benzyl ester provided higher A3 receptor affinity than the corresponding 5-position isomer. This amine congener was also used as an intermediate in the synthesis of a biotin conjugate, which bound to A3 receptors with a Ki value of 0.60 μM. PMID:10411465

  8. Hyperspectral molecular imaging of multiple receptors using immunolabeled plasmonic nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crow, Matthew J.; Seekell, Kevin; Marinakos, Stella; Ostrander, Julie; Chilkoti, Ashutosh; Wax, Adam P.

    2011-03-01

    This work presents simultaneous imaging and detection of three types of cell receptors using three types of plasmonic nanoparticles. The size, shape, and composition-dependent scattering profiles of these particles allow for a system of multiple distinct molecular markers using a single optical source. With this goal in mind, a system of tags consisting of anti-EGFR gold nanorods, anti-IGF1R silver nanospheres, and anti-HER-2 gold nanospheres was developed for monitoring the expression of three commonly overexpressed receptors in cancer cells. These labels were chosen because they each scatter strongly in a distinct spectral window. A hyperspectral dark-field microscope was developed to record the scattering spectra of cells labeled with these molecular tags. The ability to monitor multiple tags simultaneously may lead to applications such as profiling the immunophenotype of cell lines and gaining better knowledge of receptor signaling pathways. Single, dual, and triple tag experiments were performed to analyze the specificity of the nanoparticle tags as well as their effect on one another. While distinct resonance peaks in these studies show the ability to characterize cell lines using conjugated nanoparticles, shifts in these peaks also indicate changes in the cellular dielectric environment which may not be distinct from plasmon coupling between nanoparticles bound to proximal receptors.

  9. Molecular characterization of a rat alpha 2B-adrenergic receptor.

    PubMed Central

    Zeng, D W; Harrison, J K; D'Angelo, D D; Barber, C M; Tucker, A L; Lu, Z H; Lynch, K R

    1990-01-01

    Alpha 2-adrenergic receptors comprise a heterogeneous population based on pharmacologic and molecular evidence. We have isolated a cDNA clone (pRNG alpha 2) encoding a rat alpha 2-adrenergic receptor. A rat kidney cDNA library was screened with an oligonucleotide complementary to a highly conserved region found in all biogenic amine receptors described to date. The deduced amino acid sequence displays many features of guanyl nucleotide-binding protein-coupled receptors except it does not have a consensus N-linked glycosylation site near the amino terminus. Membranes prepared from COS cells transfected with pRNG alpha 2 DNA display high affinity and saturable binding to [3H]rauwolscine (Kd = 2 nM). Competition curve data analysis shows that RNG alpha 2 protein binds to a variety of adrenergic drugs with the following rank order of potency: yohimbine greater than or equal to chlorpromazine greater than or equal to prazosin greater than or equal to clonidine greater than norepinephrine greater than or equal to oxymetazoline. RNG alpha 2 RNA accumulates in both rat kidney and neonatal rat lung (predominant species is 4000 nucleotides). When a cysteine residue (Cys-169) that is conserved among all members of the seven-transmembrane-region superfamily is changed to phenylalanine, the RNG alpha 2 protein fails to bind [3H]rauwolscine after expression in COS cells. We conclude that pRNG alpha 2 likely represents a cDNA for a rat alpha 2B-adrenergic receptor. Images PMID:2158103

  10. Molecular cloning of the human eosinophil-derived neurotoxin: A member of the ribonuclease gene family

    SciTech Connect

    Rosenberg, H.F.; Tenen, D.G.; Ackerman, S.J. )

    1989-06-01

    The authors have isolated a 725-base-pair cDNA clone for human eosinophil-derived neurotoxin (EDN). EDN is a distinct cationic protein of the eosinophil's large specific granule known primarily for its ability to induce ataxia, paralysis, and central nervous system cellular degeneration in experimental animals (Gordon phenomenon). The open reading frame encodes a 134-amino acid mature polypeptide with a molecular mass of 15.5 kDa and a 27-residue amino-terminal hydrophobic leader sequence. The sequence of the mature polypeptide is identical to that reported for human urinary ribonuclease, and to the amino-terminal sequence of human liver ribonuclease; the cDNA encodes a tryptophan in position 7. Both EDN and the related granule protein, eosinophil cationic protein, have ribonucleolytic activity; sequence similarities among EDN, eosinophil cationic protein, ribonucleases from liver, urine, and pancreas, and angiogenin define a ribonuclease multigene family. mRNA encoding EDN was detected in uninduced HL-60 cells and was up-regulated in cells induced toward eosinophilic differentiation with B-cell growth factor 2/interleukin 5 and toward neutrophilic differentiation with dimethyl sulfoxide. EDN mRNA was detected in mature neutrophils even though EDN-like neurotoxic activity is not found neutrophil extracts. These results suggest that neutrophils contain a protein that is closely related or identical to EDN.

  11. Molecular cloning and characterization of a galectin-1 homolog in orange-spotted grouper, Epinephelus coioides.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xiuli; Wei, Jingguang; Xu, Meng; Yang, Min; Li, Pingfei; Wei, Shina; Huang, Youhua; Qin, Qiwei

    2016-07-01

    As a member of animal lectin family, galectin has the functions of pathogen recognition, anti-bacteria and anti-virus. In the present study, a galectin-1 homolog (EcGel-1) from grouper (Epinephelus coioides) was cloned and its possible role in fish immunity was analyzed. The full length cDNA of EcGel-1 is 504 bp, including a 408 bp open reading frame (ORF) which encodes 135 amino acids with a molecular mass of 15.19 kDa. Quantitative real-time PCR analysis indicated that EcGel-1 was constitutively expressed in all analyzed tissues of healthy grouper. The expression of EcGel-1 in the spleen of grouper was differentially up-regulated challenged with Singapore grouper iridovirus (SGIV), poly (I:C), and LPS. EcGel-1 was abundantly distributed in the cytoplasm in GS cells. Recombinant EcGel-1(rEcGel-1) protein can make chicken erythrocyte aggregation, and combine with gram negative bacteria and gram positive bacteria in the presence of 2-Mercaptoethanol (β-ME). Taken together, the results showed that EcGel-1 may be an important molecule involved in pathogen recognition and pathogen elimination in the innate immunity of grouper. PMID:27109200

  12. Molecular cloning, expression, and characterization of a novel endo-alpha-N-acetylgalactosaminidase from Enterococcus faecalis.

    PubMed

    Goda, Hatsumi M; Ushigusa, Kota; Ito, Hiromi; Okino, Nozomu; Narimatsu, Hisashi; Ito, Makoto

    2008-10-31

    We report here the molecular cloning, expression and characterization of a novel endo-alpha-N-acetylgalactosaminidase, classified into the GH101 family, from Enterococcus faecalis (endo-EF). The recombinant endo-EF was found to catalyze the liberation of core1-disaccharides (Galbeta1-3GalNAc) from core1-pNP (Galbeta1-3GalNAcalpha-pNP) like other GH101 family enzymes. However, endo-EF seems to differ in specificity from the GH101 enzymes reported to date, because it was able to release trisaccharides from core2-pNP (Galbeta1-3[GlcNAcbeta1-6]GalNAcalpha-pNP) and tetrasaccharides from Gal-core2-pNP (Galbeta1-3[Galbeta1-3GlcNAcbeta1-6]GalNAcalpha-pNP). Interestingly, the enzyme could transfer not only core1-disaccharides but also core2-trisaccharides to alkanols generating alkyl-oligosaccharides. Endo-EF should facilitate O-glycoprotein research. PMID:18725192

  13. Molecular cloning, expression and characterization of acylpeptide hydrolase in the silkworm, Bombyx mori.

    PubMed

    Fu, Ping; Sun, Wei; Zhang, Ze

    2016-04-10

    Acylpeptide hydrolase (APH) can catalyze the release of the N-terminal amino acid from acetylated peptides. There were many documented examples of this enzyme in various prokaryotic and eukaryotic organisms. However, knowledge about APH in insects still remains unknown. In this study, we cloned and sequenced a putative silkworm Bombyx mori APH (BmAPH) gene. The BmAPH gene encodes a protein of 710 amino acids with a predicted molecular mass of 78.5kDa. The putative BmAPH and mammal APHs share about 36% amino acid sequence identity, yet key catalytic residues are conserved (Ser566, Asp654, and His686). Expression and purification of the recombinant BmAPH in Escherichia coli showed that it has acylpeptide hydrolase activity toward the traditional substrate, Ac-Ala-pNA. Furthermore, organophosphorus (OP) insecticides, chlorpyrifos, phoxim, and malathion, significantly inhibited the activity of the APH both in vitro and in vivo. In addition, BmAPH was expressed in all tested tissues and developmental stages of the silkworm. Finally, immunohistochemistry analysis showed that BmAPH protein was localized in the basement membranes. These results suggested that BmAPH may be involved in enhancing silkworm tolerance to the OP insecticides. In a word, our results provide evidence for understanding of the biological function of APH in insects. PMID:26778207

  14. Molecular cloning of mannose-6-phosphate reductase and its developmental expression in celery.

    PubMed Central

    Everard, J D; Cantini, C; Grumet, R; Plummer, J; Loescher, W H

    1997-01-01

    Compared with other primary photosynthetic products (e.g. sucrose and starch), little is known about sugar alcohol metabolism, its regulation, and the manner in which it is integrated with other pathways. Mannose-6-phosphate reductase (M6PR) is a key enzyme that is involved in mannitol biosynthesis in celery (Apium graveolens L.). The M6PR gene was cloned from a leaf cDNA library, and clonal authenticity was established by assays of M6PR activity, western blots, and comparisons of the deduced amino acid sequence with a celery M6PR tryptic digestion product. Recombinant M6PR, purified from Escherichia coli, had specific activity, molecular mass, and kinetic characteristics indistinguishable from those of authentic celery M6PR. Sequence analyses showed M6PR to be a member of the aldo-keto reductase superfamily, which includes both animal and plant enzymes. The greatest sequence similarity was with aldose-6-phosphate reductase (EC 1.1.1.200), a key enzyme in sorbitol synthesis in Rosaceae. Developmental studies showed M6PR to be limited to green tissues and to be under tight transcriptional regulation during leaf initiation, expansion, and maturation. These data confirmed a close relationship between the development of photosynthetic capacity, mannitol synthesis, and M6PR activity. PMID:9112783

  15. Molecular cloning and structural characterization of Ecdysis Triggering Hormone from Choristoneura fumiferana.

    PubMed

    P, Bhagath Kumar; K, Kasi Viswanath; S, Tuleshwori Devi; R, Sampath Kumar; Doucet, Daniel; Retnakaran, Arthur; Krell, Peter J; Feng, Qili; Ampasala, Dinakara Rao

    2016-07-01

    At the end of each stadium, insects undergo a precisely orchestrated process known as ecdysis which results in the replacement of the old cuticle with a new one. This physiological event is necessary to accommodate growth in arthropods since they have a rigid chitinous exoskeleton. Ecdysis is initiated by the direct action of Ecdysis Triggering Hormones on the central nervous system. Choristoneura fumiferana is a major defoliator of coniferous forests in Eastern North America. It is assumed that, studies on the ecdysis behavior of this pest might lead to the development of novel pest management strategies. Hence in this study, the cDNA of CfETH was cloned. The open reading frame of the cDNA sequence was found to encode three putative peptides viz., Pre-Ecdysis Triggering Hormone (PETH), Ecdysis Triggering Hormone (ETH), and Ecdysis Triggering Hormone Associated Peptide (ETH-AP). The CfETH transcript was detected in the epidermal tissue of larval and pupal stages, but not in eggs and adults. In order to explore the structural conformation of ETH, ab initio modelling and Molecular Dynamics (MD) Simulations were performed. Further, a library of insecticides was generated and virtual screening was performed to identify the compounds displaying high binding capacity to ETH. PMID:27012894

  16. Molecular cloning, sequence characteristics, and tissue expression analysis of ECE1 gene in Tibetan pig.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yan-Dong; Zhang, Jian; Li, Chuan-Hao; Xu, Hai-Peng; Chen, Wei; Zeng, Yong-Qing; Wang, Hui

    2015-10-25

    Low air pressure and low oxygen partial pressure at high altitude seriously affect the survival and development of human beings and animals. ECE1 is a recently discovered gene that is involved in anti-hypoxia, but the full-length cDNA sequence has not been obtained. For a better understanding of the structure and function of the ECE1 gene and to study its effect in Tibetan pig, the cDNA of the ECE1 gene from the muscle of Tibetan pig was cloned, sequenced and characterized. The ECE1 full-length cDNA sequence consists of 2262 bp coding sequence (CDS) that encodes 753 amino acids with a molecular mass of 85,449 kD, 2 bp 5'UTR and 1507 bp 3'UTR. In addition, the phylogenetic tree analysis revealed that the Tibetan pig ECE1 has a closer genetic relationship and evolution distance with the land mammals ECE1. Furthermore, analysis by qPCR showed that the ECE1 transcript is constitutively expressed in the 10 tissues tested: the liver, subcutaneous fat, kidney, muscle, stomach, heart, brain, spleen, pancreas, and lung. These results serve as a foundation for further insight into the Tibetan pig ECE1 gene. PMID:26115769

  17. Molecular cloning, sequence characterization, and tissue expression analysis of Hi-Line Brown chicken Akirin2.

    PubMed

    Man, Chaolai; Li, Xiang; Lee, Jongeun

    2011-10-01

    Akirins are novel important nuclear proteins able to modulate transcriptional activities in a gene-specific manner. Akirin2 is an important gene related to immune responses, it is necessary to isolate the akirin2 gene from chicken because it may be associated with vaccine and enhancement of immune response. In this study, a Hi-Line Brown chicken homolog of the vertebrate akirin2 gene was cloned, sequenced, and characterized. The akirin2 full-length coding sequence (CDS) consisted of 576nt and encoded 191 amino acids with a molecular weight of 21.58 kD. The COOH-terminal alpha-helix region was well conserved between chicken and other animals. RT-PCR analysis showed that the akirin2 transcripts were constitutively expressed in 16 tissues tested. Several microRNA target sites were predicted in the CDS of chicken akirin2 gene. We presume that Akirin2 protein may be used as a new-type immunopotentiator in poultry immune system in the future. PMID:21858694

  18. Molecular cloning, genomic organization, and expression of a testicular isoform of hormone-sensitive lipase

    SciTech Connect

    Holst, L.S.; Laurell, H.; Holm, C.

    1996-08-01

    By catalyzing the rate-limiting step in adipose tissue lipolysis, hormone-sensitive lipase (HSL) is an important regulator of energy homeostasis. The role and importance of HSL in tissues other than adipose are poorly understood. We report here the cloning and expression of a testicular isoform, designated HSL{sub tes}. Due to an addition of amino acids at the NH{sub 2}-termini, rat and human HSL{sub tes} consist of 1068 and 1076 amino acids, respectively, compared to the 768 and 775 amino acids, respectively, of the adipocyte isoform (HSL{sub adi}). A novel exon of 1.2 kb, encoding the human testis-specific amino acids, was isolated and mapped to the HSL gene, 16 kb upstream of the exons encoding HSL{sub adi}. The transcribed mRNA of 3.9 kb was specifically expressed in testis. No significant similarity with other known proteins was found for the testis-specific sequence. The amino acid composition differs from the HSL{sub adi} sequence, with a notable hydrophilic character and a high content of prolines and glutamines. COS cells, transfected by the 3.9-kb human testis cDNA, expressed a protein of the expected molecular mass (M{sub r} {approximately}120,000) that exhibited catalytic activity similar to that of HSL{sub adi}. Immunocytochemistry localized HSL to elongating spermatids and spermatozoa; HSL was not detected in interstitial cells. 34 refs., 5 figs.

  19. Simple and versatile molecular method of copy-number measurement using cloned competitors.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hyun-Kyoung; Hwang, Hai-Li; Park, Seong-Yeol; Lee, Kwang Man; Park, Won Cheol; Kim, Han-Seong; Um, Tae-Hyun; Hong, Young Jun; Lee, Jin Kyung; Joo, Sun-Young; Seoh, Ju-Young; Song, Yeong-Wook; Kim, Soo-Youl; Kim, Yong-Nyun; Hong, Kyeong-Man

    2013-01-01

    Variations and alterations of copy numbers (CNVs and CNAs) carry disease susceptibility and drug responsiveness implications. Although there are many molecular methods to measure copy numbers, sensitivity, reproducibility, cost, and time issues remain. In the present study, we were able to solve those problems utilizing our modified real competitive PCR method with cloned competitors (mrcPCR). First, the mrcPCR for ERBB2 copy number was established, and the results were comparable to current standard methods but with a shorter assay time and a lower cost. Second, the mrcPCR assays for 24 drug-target genes were established, and the results in a panel of NCI-60 cells were comparable to those from real-time PCR and microarray. Third, the mrcPCR results for FCGR3A and the FCGR3B CNVs were comparable to those by the paralog ratio test (PRT), but without PRT's limitations. These results suggest that mrcPCR is comparable to the currently available standard or the most sensitive methods. In addition, mrcPCR would be invaluable for measurement of CNVs in genes with variants of similar structures, because combination of the other methods is not necessary, along with its other advantages such as short assay time, small sample amount requirement, and applicability to all sequences and genes. PMID:23936009

  20. Molecular cloning and characterization of the translationally controlled tumor protein gene in Bombyx mori.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jae Man; Kusakabe, Takahiro; Kawaguchi, Yutaka; Miyagawa, Yoshitaka; Takahashi, Masateru; Mon, Hiroaki; Nho, Si-Kab; Koga, Katsumi

    2004-09-01

    Translationally controlled tumor protein (Tctp/p23) is known to be synthesized preferentially in cells during the early growth phase of tumors, but is also expressed in normal cells. To elucidate its molecular basis of the expression and physiological significance, a cDNA encoding for the Bombyx mori Tctp (BmTctp) was deduced by editing the partial cDNA sequences registered in a Bombyx EST database. RT-PCR analyses indicated that the BmTCTP mRNA was transcribed in all larval organs examined and was present constantly during the cell cycle of BmN4 cells. A genomic clone of 4255 nucloetide residues produced by inverse PCR contained the 5'-flanking region, two introns and three exons of the BmTCTP gene. Sequence analysis of the 5'-flanking region indicated that a putative promoter region contains several canonical transcription elements such as GATA box, CCAAT motif, MEF2, E4BP4.01 and AP-1, but lacks a TATA box element. Luciferase reporter assay of the deletion constructs of the 5'-flanking region revealed that the -676 to +66 region enhanced the promoter activity the most markedly. In addition to this, there were at least two enhancer-like elements and several repressor elements. PMID:15364286

  1. Novel glucose dehydrogenase from Mucor prainii: Purification, characterization, molecular cloning and gene expression in Aspergillus sojae.

    PubMed

    Satake, Ryoko; Ichiyanagi, Atsushi; Ichikawa, Keiichi; Hirokawa, Kozo; Araki, Yasuko; Yoshimura, Taro; Gomi, Keiko

    2015-11-01

    Glucose dehydrogenase (GDH) is of interest for its potential applications in the field of glucose sensors. To improve the performance of glucose sensors, GDH is required to have strict substrate specificity. A novel flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD)-dependent GDH was isolated from Mucor prainii NISL0103 and its enzymatic properties were characterized. This FAD-dependent GDH (MpGDH) exhibited high specificity toward glucose. High specificity for glucose was also observed even in the presence of saccharides such as maltose, galactose and xylose. The molecular masses of the glycoforms of GDH ranged from 90 to 130 kDa. After deglycosylation, a single 80 kDa band was observed. The gene encoding MpGDH was cloned and expressed in Aspergillus sojae. The apparent kcat and Km values of recombinant enzyme for glucose were found to be 749.7 s(-1) and 28.3 mM, respectively. The results indicated that the characteristics of MpGDH were suitable for assaying blood glucose levels. PMID:25912449

  2. Characterization and molecular cloning of a serine hydroxymethyltransferase 1 (OsSHM1) in rice.

    PubMed

    Wang, Dekai; Liu, Heqin; Li, Sujuan; Zhai, Guowei; Shao, Jianfeng; Tao, Yuezhi

    2015-09-01

    Serine hydroxymethyltransferase (SHMT) is important for one carbon metabolism and photorespiration in higher plants for its participation in plant growth and development, and resistance to biotic and abiotic stresses. A rice serine hydroxymethyltransferase gene, OsSHM1, an ortholog of Arabidopsis SHM1, was isolated using map-based cloning. The osshm1 mutant had chlorotic lesions and a considerably smaller, lethal phenotype under natural ambient CO2 concentrations, but could be restored to wild type with normal growth under elevated CO2 levels (0.5% CO2 ), showing a typical photorespiratory phenotype. The data from antioxidant enzymes activity measurement suggested that osshm1 was subjected to significant oxidative stress. Also, OsSHM1 was expressed in all organs tested (root, culm, leaf, and young panicle) but predominantly in leaves. OsSHM1 protein is localized to the mitochondria. Our study suggested that molecular function of the OsSHM1 gene is conserved in rice and Arabidopsis. PMID:25641188

  3. Molecular cloning and characterization of a Bombyx mori gene encoding the transcription factor Atonal.

    PubMed

    Hu, Ping; Feng, Fan; Xia, Hengchuan; Chen, Liang; Yao, Qin; Chen, Keping

    2014-01-01

    The atonal genes are an evolutionarily conserved group of genes encoding regulatory basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) transcription factors. These transcription factors have a critical antioncogenic function in the retina, and are necessary for cell fate determination through the regulation of the cell signal pathway. In this study, the atonal gene was cloned from Bombyx mori, and the transcription factor was named BmAtonal. Sequence analysis showed that the BmAtonal protein shares extensive homology with other invertebrate Atonal proteins with the bHLH motif. Reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and Western blot analyses revealed that BmAtonal was expressed in all developmental stages of B. mori and various larval tissues. The BmAtonal protein was expressed in Escherichia coli, and polyclonal antibodies were raised against the purified protein. By immunofluorescence, the BmAtonal protein was localized to both the nucleus and cytoplasm of BmN cells. After knocking out nuclear localization signals (NLS), the BmAtonal protein was only detected in the cytoplasm. In addition, using the B. mori nuclear polyhedrosis virus (BmNPV) baculovirus expression system, the recombinant BmAtonal protein was successfully expressed in the B. mori cell line BmN. This work lays the foundation for exploring the biological functions of the BmAtonal protein, such as identifying its potential binding partners and understanding the molecular control of the formation of sensory organs. PMID:24873037

  4. Characterization, molecular cloning, and expression analysis of Ecsit in the spinyhead croaker, Collichthys lucidus.

    PubMed

    Song, W; Jiang, K J; Zhang, F Y; Wang, J; Ma, L B

    2016-01-01

    Evolutionarily conserved signaling intermediate in Toll pathways (Ecsit) is reported to play an essential role in innate immunity, embryogenesis, and assembly or stability of the mitochondrial complex I. In this study, the full-length cDNA of Ecsit was cloned from the spinyhead croaker Collichthys lucidus based on the expressed sequence tags from our cDNA library constructed using the SMART technique. The cDNA was 1669 bp long, including a 5'-terminal untranslated region (UTR) of 121 bp, a 3'-terminal UTR of 183 bp, and an open reading frame of 1365 bp encoding a 454-amino acid polypeptide. The estimated molecular weight of C. lucidus Ecsit (ClEcsit) was 52.50 kDa with an isoelectric point of 6.14, and contained a typical Ecsit domain that is conserved in other Ecsits. Multiple alignment of ClEcsit with other selected Ecsits suggested that some amino acid residues were highly conserved. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that ClEcsit was more similar to its identities in Sciaenidae and grouped with Ecsits from other Perciformes. Quantitative real-time reverse transcription PCR analysis revealed broad expression of ClEcsit and the transcript was strongly expressed in the gill and weakly expressed in other tissues. PMID:26909903

  5. Molecular Cloning, Expression Analysis, and Functional Characterization of the H(+)-Pyrophosphatase from Jatropha curcas.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yumei; Luo, Zhu; Zhang, Mengru; Liu, Chang; Gong, Ming; Zou, Zhurong

    2016-04-01

    H(+)-pyrophosphatase (H(+)-PPase) is a primary pyrophosphate (PPi)-energized proton pump to generate electrochemical H(+) gradient for ATP production and substance translocations across membranes. It plays an important role in stress adaptation that was intensively substantiated by numerous transgenic plants overexpressing H(+)-PPases yet devoid of any correlated studies pointing to the elite energy plant, Jatropha curcas. Herein, we cloned the full length of J. curcas H(+)-PPase (JcVP1) complementary DNA (cDNA) by reverse transcription PCR, based on the assembled sequence of its ESTs highly matched to Hevea brasiliensis H(+)-PPase. This gene encodes a polypeptide of 765 amino acids that was predicted as a K(+)-dependent H(+)-PPase evolutionarily closest to those of other Euphorbiaceae plants. Many cis-regulatory elements relevant to environmental stresses, molecular signals, or tissue-specificity were identified by promoter prediction within the 1.5-kb region upstream of JcVP1 coding sequence. Meanwhile, the responses of JcVP1 expression to several common abiotic stresses (salt, drought, heat, cold) were characterized with a considerable accordance with the inherent stress tolerance of J. curcas. Moreover, we found that the heterologous expression of JcVP1 could significantly improve the salt tolerance in both recombinant Escherichia coli and Saccharomyces cerevisiae, and this effect could be further fortified in yeast by N-terminal addition of a vacuole-targeting signal peptide from the H(+)-PPase of Trypanosoma cruzi. PMID:26643082

  6. Molecular cloning and characterization of a chlorophyll degradation regulatory gene (ZjSGR) from Zoysia japonica.

    PubMed

    Teng, K; Chang, Z H; Xiao, G Z; Guo, W E; Xu, L X; Chao, Y H; Han, L B

    2016-01-01

    The stay-green gene (SGR) is a key regulatory factor for chlorophyll degradation and senescence. However, to date, little is known about SGR in Zoysia japonica. In this study, ZjSGR was cloned, using rapid amplification of cDNA ends-polymerase chain reaction (PCR). The target sequence is 831 bp in length, corresponding to 276 amino acids. Protein BLAST results showed that ZjSGR belongs to the stay-green superfamily. A phylogenetic analysis implied that ZjSGR is most closely related to ZmSGR1. The subcellular localization of ZjSGR was investigated, using an Agrobacterium-mediated transient expression assay in Nicotiana benthamiana. Our results demonstrated that ZjSGR protein is localized in the chloroplasts. Quantitative real time PCR was carried out to investigate the expression characteristics of ZjSGR. The expression level of ZjSGR was found to be highest in leaves, and could be strongly induced by natural senescence, darkness, abscisic acid (ABA), and methyl jasmonate treatment. Moreover, an in vivo function analysis indicated that transient overexpression of ZjSGR could accelerate chlorophyll degradation, up-regulate the expression of SAG113, and activate ABA biosynthesis. Taken together, these results provide evidence that ZjSGR could play an important regulatory role in leaf chlorophyll degradation and senescence in plants at the molecular level. PMID:27173268

  7. Molecular analysis of Streptococcus pneumoniae clones causing invasive disease in children in Singapore.

    PubMed

    Jefferies, J M C; Tee, W S N; Clarke, S C

    2011-06-01

    Streptococcus pneumoniae remains a leading cause of serious paediatric disease. However, there are few published epidemiological data regarding invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) in many countries in South East Asia, including Singapore. Baseline data for IPD are essential to inform policy regarding pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV) use in Singapore. To our knowledge, this is the first study to use multilocus sequence typing (MLST) to investigate clonal relationships among Singaporean IPD isolates. We characterized 86 invasive pneumococci isolated from Singaporean children between 2001 and 2006 using serotyping and MLST. The objectives were to compare Singaporean MLST data to worldwide data and to assess serotype distribution in relation to current PCV formulations. We observed 50 sequence types (STs), a high proportion of which (n = 16) were novel STs. Despite the presence of these novel STs, serotype distribution was similar to that observed elsewhere. Serotypes 14, 6B, 19A and 19F accounted for 85 % of IPD cases. PCV7, PCV10 and PCV13 covered 85 %, 86 % and 97 % of IPD isolates, respectively. We have demonstrated a pressing need for larger studies to determine the molecular epidemiology and antibiotic susceptibility of circulating pneumococcal clones from both carriage and disease in Singapore. PMID:21330410

  8. Molecular cloning, characterization, and expression of Cuc m 2, a major allergen in Cucumis melo

    PubMed Central

    Sankian, Mojtaba; Mahmoudi, Mahmoud; Varasteh, Abdol-Reza

    2013-01-01

    Background: Several studies reported the clinical features of IgE-mediated hypersensitivity after ingestion of melon. Melon allergy is a common IgE-mediated fruit allergy in Iran. This prompted us to investigate immunochemical and molecular properties of the major allergen in melon fruit, to compare the IgE-binding capacity of the natural protein with the recombinant allergen, and to determine cross-reactivity of the major allergen with closely-related allergens from other plants displaying clinical cross-reactivity with melon. Methods: Identification and molecular characterization of the major melon allergen were performed using IgE immunoblotting, allergen-specific ELISA, affinity-based purifications, cross-inhibition assays, cloning, and expression of the allergen in Escherichia coli. Results: Melon profilin was identified and isolated as a major IgE-binding component and designated as Cuc m 2. Sequencing corresponding cDNA revealed an open reading frame of 363 bp coding for 131 amino acid residues and two fragments of 171 bp and 383 bps for the 5’and 3’ UTRs, respectively. Significant cross-reactivity was found between melon profilin and Cynodon dactylon, tomato, peach, and grape profilins in cross-inhibition assays. Although the highest degree of amino acid identity was revealed with watermelon profilin, there was no significant cross-reactivity between melon and watermelon profilins. Conclusion: Melon profilin is the major IgE-binding component in melon extract, and the recombinant and natural forms exhibited similar IgE-binding capacities. A part of the fruit-fruit and pollen-fruit cross-reactions could be explained by the presence of this conserved protein; however, sequence homology provides insufficient information to predict IgE cross-reactivity of profilins. PMID:26989709

  9. Molecular Cloning and Expression of Pro J 1: A New Allergen of Prosopis Juliflora Pollen.

    PubMed

    Dousti, Fatemeh; Assarehzadegan, Mohammad-Ali; Morakabati, Payam; Khosravi, Gholam Reza; Akbari, Bahareh

    2016-04-01

    Pollen from mesquite (Prosopis juliflora) is one of the important causes of immediate hypersensitivity reactions in the arid and semi-arid regions of the world. The aim of present study is to produce and purify the recombinant form of allergenic Ole e 1-like protein from the pollen of this allergenic tree. Immunological and cross-inhibition assays were performed for the evaluation of IgE-binding capacity of purified recombinant protein. For molecular cloning, the coding sequence of the mesquite Ole e 1-like protein was inserted into pTZ57R/T vector and expressed in Escherichia coli using the vector pET-21b(+). After purification of the recombinant protein, its immunoreactivity was analysed by in vitro assays using sera from twenty one patients with an allergy to mesquite pollen. The purified recombinant allergen was a member of Ole e 1-like protein family and consisted of 150 amino acid residues, with a predicted molecular mass of 16.5 kDa and a calculated isoelectric point (pI) of 4.75. Twelve patients (57.14%) had significant specific IgE levels for this recombinant allergen. Immunodetection and inhibition assays indicated that the purified recombinant allergen might be the same as that in the crude extract. Herein, we introduce an important new allergen from P. juliflora pollen (Pro j 1), which is a member of the Ole e 1-like protein family and exhibits significant identity and similarity to other allergenic members of this family. PMID:27090365

  10. MOLECULAR TARGETS AND MECHANISMS FOR ETHANOL ACTION IN GLYCINE RECEPTORS

    PubMed Central

    Perkins, Daya I.; Trudell, James R.; Crawford, Daniel K.; Alkana, Ronald L.; Davies, Daryl L.

    2010-01-01

    Glycine receptors (GlyRs) are recognized as the primary mediators of neuronal inhibition in the spinal cord, brain stem and higher brain regions known to be sensitive to ethanol. Building evidence supports the notion that ethanol acting on GlyRs causes at least a subset of its behavioral effects and may be involved in modulating ethanol intake. For over two decades, GlyRs have been studied at the molecular level as targets for ethanol action. Despite the advances in understanding the effects of ethanol in vivo and in vitro, the precise molecular sites and mechanisms of action for ethanol in ligand-gated ion channels in general, and in GlyRs specifically, are just now starting to become understood. The present review focuses on advances in our knowledge produced by using molecular biology, pressure antagonism, electrophysiology and molecular modeling strategies over the last two decades to probe, identify and model the initial molecular sites and mechanisms of ethanol action in GlyRs. The molecular targets on the GlyR are covered on a global perspective, which includes the intracellular, transmembrane and extracellular domains. The latter has received increasing attention in recent years. Recent molecular models of the sites of ethanol action in GlyRs and their implications to our understanding of possible mechanism of ethanol action and novel targets for drug development in GlyRs are discussed. PMID:20399807

  11. Cloning the promoter for transforming growth factor-beta type III receptor. Basal and conditional expression in fetal rat osteoblasts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ji, C.; Chen, Y.; McCarthy, T. L.; Centrella, M.

    1999-01-01

    Transforming growth factor-beta binds to three high affinity cell surface molecules that directly or indirectly regulate its biological effects. The type III receptor (TRIII) is a proteoglycan that lacks significant intracellular signaling or enzymatic motifs but may facilitate transforming growth factor-beta binding to other receptors, stabilize multimeric receptor complexes, or segregate growth factor from activating receptors. Because various agents or events that regulate osteoblast function rapidly modulate TRIII expression, we cloned the 5' region of the rat TRIII gene to assess possible control elements. DNA fragments from this region directed high reporter gene expression in osteoblasts. Sequencing showed no consensus TATA or CCAAT boxes, whereas several nuclear factors binding sequences within the 3' region of the promoter co-mapped with multiple transcription initiation sites, DNase I footprints, gel mobility shift analysis, or loss of activity by deletion or mutation. An upstream enhancer was evident 5' proximal to nucleotide -979, and a silencer region occurred between nucleotides -2014 and -2194. Glucocorticoid sensitivity mapped between nucleotides -687 and -253, whereas bone morphogenetic protein 2 sensitivity co-mapped within the silencer region. Thus, the TRIII promoter contains cooperative basal elements and dispersed growth factor- and hormone-sensitive regulatory regions that can control TRIII expression by osteoblasts.

  12. Molecular cloning and characterization of Izumo1 gene from sheep and cashmere goat reveal alternative splicing.

    PubMed

    Xing, Wan-Jin; Han, Bao-Da; Wu, Qi; Zhao, Li; Bao, Xiao-Hong; Bou, Shorgan

    2011-03-01

    We cloned the cDNA and genomic DNA encoding for Izumo1 of cashmere goat (Capra hircus) and sheep (Ovis aries). Analysis of 4.6 kb Izumo1 genomic sequences in sheep and goat revealed a canonical open reading frame (ORF) of 963 bp spliced by eight exons. Sheep and goat Izumo1 genes share >99% identity at both DNA and protein levels and are also highly homologous to the orthologues in cattle, mouse, rat and human. Extensive cloning and analysis of Izumo1 cDNA revealed three (del 69, del 182 and del 217) and two (del 69 and ins 30) alternative splicing isoforms in goat and sheep, respectively. All of the isoforms are derived from splicing at typical GT-AG sites leading to partial or complete truncation of the immunoglobulin (Ig)-like domain. Bioinformatics analysis showed that caprine and ovine Izumo1 proteins share similar structure with their murine orthologue. There are a signal peptide at the N-terminus (1-22 aa), a transmembrane domain at the C-terminus (302-319 aa), and an extracellular Ig-like region in the middle (161-252 aa) with a putative N-linked glycosylation site (N(205)-N-S). Alignment of Izumo1 protein sequences among 15 mammalian species displayed several highly conserved regions, including LDC and YRC motifs with cysteine residues for potential disulfide bridge formation, CPNKCG motif upstream of the Ig-like domain, GLTDYSFYRVW motif upstream of the putative N-linked glycosylation site, and a number of scattered cysteine residues. These distinctive features are very informative to pinpoint the important gene motifs and functions. The C-terminal regions, however, are more variable across species. Izumo1 cDNA sequences of goat, sheep, and cow were found to be largely homologous, and the molecular phylogenetic analysis is consistent with their morphological taxonomy. This implies the Izumo1 gene evolves from the same ancestor, and the mechanism of sperm-egg fusion in mammals may be under the same principle in which Izumo1 plays an important role. PMID

  13. Cloning, Identification and Functional Characterization of Bovine Free Fatty Acid Receptor-1 (FFAR1/GPR40) in Neutrophils

    PubMed Central

    Manosalva, Carolina; Mena, Jaqueline; Velasquez, Zahady; Colenso, Charlotte K.; Brauchi, Sebastian; Burgos, Rafael A.; Hidalgo, Maria A.

    2015-01-01

    Long chain fatty acids (LCFAs), which are ligands for the G-protein coupled receptor FFAR1 (GPR40), are increased in cow plasma after parturition, a period in which they are highly susceptible to infectious diseases. This study identified and analyzed the functional role of the FFAR1 receptor in bovine neutrophils, the first line of host defense against infectious agents. We cloned the putative FFAR1 receptor from bovine neutrophils and analyzed the sequence to construct a homology model. Our results revealed that the sequence of bovine FFAR1 shares 84% identity with human FFAR1 and 31% with human FFAR3/GPR41. Therefore, we constructed a homology model of bovine FFAR1 using human as the template. Expression of the bovine FFAR1 receptor in Chinese hamster ovary (CHO)-K1 cells increased the levels of intracellular calcium induced by the LCFAs, oleic acid (OA) and linoleic acid (LA); no increase in calcium mobilization was observed in the presence of the short chain fatty acid propionic acid. Additionally, the synthetic agonist GW9508 increased intracellular calcium in CHO-K1/bFFAR1 cells. OA and LA increased intracellular calcium in bovine neutrophils. Furthermore, GW1100 (antagonist of FFAR1) and U73122 (phospholipase C (PLC) inhibitor) reduced FFAR1 ligand-induced intracellular calcium in CHO-K1/bFFAR1 cells and neutrophils. Additionally, inhibition of FFAR1, PLC and PKC reduced the FFAR1 ligand-induced release of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-9 granules and reactive oxygen species (ROS) production. Thus, we identified the bovine FFAR1 receptor and demonstrate a functional role for this receptor in neutrophils activated with oleic or linoleic acid. PMID:25790461

  14. Molecular cloning of genes related to aflatoxin biosynthesis by differential screening.

    PubMed Central

    Feng, G H; Chu, F S; Leonard, T J

    1992-01-01

    A differential hybridization strategy was used to clone genes associated with aflatoxin biosynthesis. A genomic library, formed between nuclear DNA and the pUC19 plasmid, was screened with three different cDNA probes by the colony hybridization procedure. Nineteen clones were selected; all were positively correlated with and presumably enriched with genes associated with aflatoxin production. Some of these clones were further characterized by using them as probes in Northern (RNA blot) hybridizations. Five clones hybridized strongly with some polyadenylated RNAs formed during the transition to or during idiophase when aflatoxin was produced. However, little or no corresponding hybridization occurred with polyadenylated RNAs formed in early and mid-log growth phase. Two of the clones were further used as probes to hybridize with polyadenylated RNAs formed under aflatoxin-permissive and nonpermissive temperatures. Hybridization occurred with RNA species formed under the permissive temperature only. Images PMID:1610169

  15. Molecular cloning and biochemical characterization of a novel erythrose reductase from Candida magnoliae JH110

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Erythrose reductase (ER) catalyzes the final step of erythritol production, which is reducing erythrose to erythritol using NAD(P)H as a cofactor. ER has gained interest because of its importance in the production of erythritol, which has extremely low digestibility and approved safety for diabetics. Although ERs were purified and characterized from microbial sources, the entire primary structure and the corresponding DNA for ER still remain unknown in most of erythritol-producing yeasts. Candida magnoliae JH110 isolated from honeycombs produces a significant amount of erythritol, suggesting the presence of erythrose metabolizing enzymes. Here we provide the genetic sequence and functional characteristics of a novel NADPH-dependent ER from C. magnoliae JH110. Results The gene encoding a novel ER was isolated from an osmophilic yeast C. magnoliae JH110. The ER gene composed of 849 nucleotides encodes a polypeptide with a calculated molecular mass of 31.4 kDa. The deduced amino acid sequence of ER showed a high degree of similarity to other members of the aldo-keto reductase superfamily including three ER isozymes from Trichosporonoides megachiliensis SNG-42. The intact coding region of ER from C. magnoliae JH110 was cloned, functionally expressed in Escherichia coli using a combined approach of gene fusion and molecular chaperone co-expression, and subsequently purified to homogeneity. The enzyme displayed a temperature and pH optimum at 42°C and 5.5, respectively. Among various aldoses, the C. magnoliae JH110 ER showed high specific activity for reduction of erythrose to the corresponding alcohol, erythritol. To explore the molecular basis of the catalysis of erythrose reduction with NADPH, homology structural modeling was performed. The result suggested that NADPH binding partners are completely conserved in the C. magnoliae JH110 ER. Furthermore, NADPH interacts with the side chains Lys252, Thr255, and Arg258, which could account for the enzyme

  16. The mineralocorticoid receptor: insights into its molecular and (patho)physiological biology.

    PubMed

    Viengchareun, Say; Le Menuet, Damien; Martinerie, Laetitia; Munier, Mathilde; Pascual-Le Tallec, Laurent; Lombès, Marc

    2007-01-01

    The last decade has witnessed tremendous progress in the understanding of the mineralocorticoid receptor (MR), its molecular mechanism of action, and its implications for physiology and pathophysiology. After the initial cloning of MR, and identification of its gene structure and promoters, it now appears as a major actor in protein-protein interaction networks. The role of transcriptional coregulators and the determinants of mineralocorticoid selectivity have been elucidated. Targeted oncogenesis and transgenic mouse models have identified unexpected sites of MR expression and novel roles for MR in non-epithelial tissues. These experimental approaches have contributed to the generation of new cell lines for the characterization of aldosterone signaling pathways, and have also facilitated a better understanding of MR physiology in the heart, vasculature, brain and adipose tissues. This review describes the structure, molecular mechanism of action and transcriptional regulation mediated by MR, emphasizing the most recent developments at the cellular and molecular level. Finally, through insights obtained from mouse models and human disease, its role in physiology and pathophysiology will be reviewed. Future investigations of MR biology should lead to new therapeutic strategies, modulating cell-specific actions in the management of cardiovascular disease, neuroprotection, mineralocorticoid resistance, and metabolic disorders. PMID:18174920

  17. The mineralocorticoid receptor: insights into its molecular and (patho)physiological biology

    PubMed Central

    Viengchareun, Say; Le Menuet, Damien; Martinerie, Laetitia; Munier, Mathilde; Pascual-Le Tallec, Laurent; Lombès, Marc

    2007-01-01

    The last decade has witnessed tremendous progress in the understanding of the mineralocorticoid receptor (MR), its molecular mechanism of action, and its implications for physiology and pathophysiology. After the initial cloning of MR, and identification of its gene structure and promoters, it now appears as a major actor in protein-protein interaction networks. The role of transcriptional coregulators and the determinants of mineralocorticoid selectivity have been elucidated. Targeted oncogenesis and transgenic mouse models have identified unexpected sites of MR expression and novel roles for MR in non-epithelial tissues. These experimental approaches have contributed to the generation of new cell lines for the characterization of aldosterone signaling pathways, and have also facilitated a better understanding of MR physiology in the heart, vasculature, brain and adipose tissues. This review describes the structure, molecular mechanism of action and transcriptional regulation mediated by MR, emphasizing the most recent developments at the cellular and molecular level. Finally, through insights obtained from mouse models and human disease, its role in physiology and pathophysiology will be reviewed. Future investigations of MR biology should lead to new therapeutic strategies, modulating cell-specific actions in the management of cardiovascular disease, neuroprotection, mineralocorticoid resistance, and metabolic disorders. PMID:18174920

  18. Molecular characterization of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus: characterization of major clones and emergence of epidemic clones of sequence type (ST) 36 and ST 121 in Tehran, Iran.

    PubMed

    Ohadian Moghadam, Solmaz; Pourmand, Mohammad Reza; Mahmoudi, Mahmood; Sadighian, Hooman

    2015-04-01

    Information about the molecular structure of MRSA strains provides significant insights into the epidemiology of this important pathogen. To investigate the molecular characteristics of MRSA isolates, MRSA isolates were subjected to molecular typing by means of spa typing, multilocus sequence typing, Staphylococcal Cassette Chromosome mec (SCCmec) grouping and to phenotypic antimicrobial susceptibility testing by means of disk diffusion assay. Then the presence of pvl genes was evaluated. Cluster analysis by eBURSTv3 showed that MRSA isolates belonged to two major clonal complexes (CC); CC8 (ST239, ST585, ST2732, ST1294) and CC30 (ST30, ST36, ST1163) and four singletons. Subsequent analysis of MRSA isolates revealed that the most prevalent SCCmec type was type III (55.8%) followed by type IV (34.9%) and type II (2.3%). Totally 11 different spa types were discriminated among which types t037 and t030 were predominant. The prevalence of Panton-Valentine leukocidin (PVL)-positive MRSA strains was high (20%), which is a matter of great concern, because the PVL is frequently associated with severe and recurrent SSTIs. ST239-III- t037 represented the most predominant MRSA clone. The presence of sequence type (ST) 36 and ST 121 are being reported for the first time in Iran. PMID:25795589

  19. Molecular Insights into the Transmembrane Domain of the Thyrotropin Receptor

    PubMed Central

    Chantreau, Vanessa; Taddese, Bruck; Munier, Mathilde; Gourdin, Louis; Henrion, Daniel; Rodien, Patrice; Chabbert, Marie

    2015-01-01

    The thyrotropin receptor (TSHR) is a G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) that is member of the leucine-rich repeat subfamily (LGR). In the absence of crystal structure, the success of rational design of ligands targeting the receptor internal cavity depends on the quality of the TSHR models built. In this subfamily, transmembrane helices (TM) 2 and 5 are characterized by the absence of proline compared to most receptors, raising the question of the structural conformation of these helices. To gain insight into the structural properties of these helices, we carried out bioinformatics and experimental studies. Evolutionary analysis of the LGR family revealed a deletion in TM5 but provided no information on TM2. Wild type residues at positions 2.58, 2.59 or 2.60 in TM2 and/or at position 5.50 in TM5 were substituted to proline. Depending on the position of the proline substitution, different effects were observed on membrane expression, glycosylation, constitutive cAMP activity and responses to thyrotropin. Only proline substitution at position 2.59 maintained complex glycosylation and high membrane expression, supporting occurrence of a bulged TM2. The TSHR transmembrane domain was modeled by homology with the orexin 2 receptor, using a protocol that forced the deletion of one residue in the TM5 bulge of the template. The stability of the model was assessed by molecular dynamics simulations. TM5 straightened during the equilibration phase and was stable for the remainder of the simulations. Our data support a structural model of the TSHR transmembrane domain with a bulged TM2 and a straight TM5 that is specific of glycoprotein hormone receptors. PMID:26545118

  20. FROM MOLECULAR PHYLOGENY TOWARDS DIFFERENTIATING PHARMACOLOGY FOR NMDA RECEPTOR SUBTYPES

    PubMed Central

    Platt, Randall J.; Curtice, Kigen J.; Twede, Vernon D.; Watkins, Maren; Gruszczyński, Paweł; Bulaj, Grzegorz; Horvath, Martin P.; Olivera, Baldomero M.

    2014-01-01

    In order to decode the roles that N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptors play in excitatory neurotransmission, synaptic plasticity, and neuropathologies, there is need for ligands that differ in their subtype selectivity. The conantokin family of Conus peptides is the only group of peptidic natural products known to target NMDA receptors. Using a search that was guided by phylogeny, we identified new conantokins from the marine snail Conus bocki that complement the current repertoire of NMDA receptor pharmacology. Channel currents measured in Xenopus oocytes demonstrate conantokins conBk-A, conBk-B, and conBk-C have highest potencies for NR2D containing receptors, in contrast to previously characterized conantokins that preferentially block NR2B containing NMDA receptors. Conantokins are rich in γ-carboxyglutamate, typically 17–34 residues, and adopt helical structure in a calcium-dependent manner. As judged by CD spectroscopy, conBk-C adopts significant helical structure in a calcium ion-dependent manner, while calcium, on its own, appears insufficient to stabilize helical conformations of conBk-A or conBk-B. Molecular dynamics simulations help explain the differences in calcium-stabilized structures. Two-dimensional NMR spectroscopy shows that the 9-residue conBk-B is relatively unstructured but forms a helix in the presence of TFE and calcium ions that is similar to other conantokin structures. These newly discovered conantokins hold promise that further exploration of small peptidic antagonists will lead to a set of pharmacological tools that can be used to characterize the role of NMDA receptors in nervous system function and disease. PMID:24508768

  1. Molecular cloning and characterization of the β-catenin gene from fine-wool sheep.

    PubMed

    Cui, Kai; Yang, Zu; Darwish, Hesham; Zhang, Yuanyuan; Ge, Yaqiong; Zhang, Xiyue; Li, Rongni; Deng, Xuemei

    2014-08-10

    β-Catenin is an evolutionarily conserved molecule that functions as a crucial effector in both cell-to-cell adhesion and Wnt signaling. To gain a better understanding of its role in the development of hair follicles, we cloned the cDNA sequence of the β-catenin gene from the skin of Aohan fine-wool sheep and performed a variety of bioinformatics analyses. We obtained the full-length sequence, which was 4573-bp long and contained a 2346-bp open reading frame encoding a protein of 781 amino acids. The protein had a predicted molecular weight of 85.4 kDa and a theoretical isoelectric point of 5.57. Domain architecture analysis of the β-catenin protein revealed an armadillo repeat region, which is a common feature of β-catenin in other species. The ovine β-catenin gene shares 97.91%, 94.25%, 94.59%, 83.89%, and 89.39% sequence identity with its homologs in Bos taurus, Homo sapiens, Sus scrofa, Gallus gallus, and Mus musculus, respectively, while the amino acid sequence is more than 99% identical with each of these species. The expression of β-catenin mRNA was detected in the heart, liver, spleen, lung, kidney, skin, muscle, and adipose tissue. Expression levels were maximal in the lung and minimal in the muscle, and the difference in expression in these tissues was significant (P<0.01). Western blot analysis revealed the presence of the β-catenin protein in all tissues examined; expression was lowest in the skin and adipose tissues. PMID:24881815

  2. Molecular cloning and bioinformatic analysis of the Streptococcus agalactiae neuA gene isolated from tilapia.

    PubMed

    Wang, E L; Wang, K Y; Chen, D F; Geng, Y; Huang, L Y; Wang, J; He, Y

    2015-01-01

    Cytidine monophosphate (CMP) N-acetylneuraminic acid (NeuNAc) synthetase, which is encoded by the neuA gene, can catalyze the activation of sialic acid with CMP, and plays an important role in Streptococcus agalactiae infection pathogenesis. To study the structure and function of the S. agalactiae neuA gene, we isolated it from diseased tilapia, amplified it using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) with specific primers, and cloned it into a pMD19-T vector. The recombinant plasmid was confirmed by PCR and restriction enzyme digestion, and identified by sequencing. Molecular characterization analyses of the neuA nucleotide amino acid sequence were performed using bioinformatic tools and an online server. The results showed that the neuA nucleotide sequence contained a complete coding region, which comprised 1242 bp, encoding 413 amino acids (aa). The aa sequence was highly conserved and contained a Glyco_tranf_GTA_type superfamily and an SGNH_hydrolase superfamily conserved domain, which are related to sialic acid activation catalysis. The NeuA protein possessed many important sites related to post-translational modification, including 28 potential phosphorylation sites and 2 potential N-glycosylation sites, had no signal peptides or transmembrane regions, and was predicted to reside in the cytoplasm. Moreover, the protein had some B-cell epitopes, which suggests its potential in development of a vaccine against S. agalactiae infection. The codon usage frequency of neuA differed greatly in Escherichia coli and Homo sapiens genes, and neuA may be more efficiently expressed in eukaryotes (yeast). S. agalactiae neuA from tilapia maintains high structural homology and sequence identity with CMP-NeuNAc synthetases from other bacteria. PMID:26125800

  3. Molecular Cloning and Expression of Cu/Zn-Containing Superoxide Dismutase from Fasciola hepatica

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Tong-Soo; Jung, Younghun; Na, Byoung-Kuk; Kim, Ki-Sun; Chung, Pyung-Rim

    2000-01-01

    The cytosolic superoxide dismutase (SOD) of Fasciola hepatica, a causative agent of fascioliasis, was purified and characterized. The enzyme consists of two identical subunits, each with an apparent molecular mass of 17.5 kDa. An analysis of the enzyme's primary structure and inhibition studies revealed that the enzyme is a copper/zinc-containing SOD (Cu/Zn-SOD). The enzyme activity was relatively stable in a broad pH range, from pH 7.0 to 10.0, and the enzyme showed maximum activity at pH 7.5. This enzyme also displayed strong antigenicity against sera of bovine and human subjects with fascioliasis. The SOD gene fragment was amplified by PCR with degenerate oligonucleotide primers derived from amino acid sequences conserved in the Cu/Zn-SODs of other organisms. An F. hepatica cDNA library was screened with the SOD gene fragment as a probe. As a result, a complete gene encoding the Cu/Zn-SOD was identified, and its nucleotide sequence was determined. The gene had an open reading frame of 438 bp and 146 deduced amino acids. Comparison of the deduced amino acid sequence of the enzyme with previously reported Cu/Zn-SOD amino acid sequences revealed considerably high homologies. The coding region of the F. hepatica Cu/Zn-SOD was cloned and expressed in Escherichia coli. Staining of native polyacrylamide gel for SOD activity of the expressed protein revealed SOD activity that was inactivated by potassium cyanide and hydrogen peroxide but not by sodium azide. This means that the presence of the recombinant fusion protein is indicative of Cu/Zn-SOD. The expressed protein also reacted with sera of bovine and human subjects with fascioliasis, but it did not react with sera of uninfected bovine and human subjects. PMID:10858207

  4. Molecular cloning and structural characterization of the human histidase gene (HAL)

    SciTech Connect

    Suchi, Mariko; Sano, Hirofumi; Mizuno, Haruo; Wada, Yoshiro

    1995-09-01

    Histidase (EC 4.3.1.3) is a cytosolic enzyme that catalyzes the nonoxidative determination of histidine to urocanic acid. Histidinemia, resulting from reduced histidase activity as reported in Cambridge stock his/her mice and in humans, is the most frequent inborn metabolic error in Japan. The histidase chromosomal gene (HAL) was isolated from a {lambda}EMBL-3 human genomic library using the human histidase cDNA as a probe. Restriction mapping and Southern blot analysis of the isolated clones reveal a single-copy gene spanning approximately 25 kb and consisting of 21 exons. Exon 1 encodes only 5{prime} untranslated sequence of liver histidase mRNA, with protein coding beginning in exon 2. A rarely observed 5{prime}GC, similar to that reported in the human P-450(SCC) gene, is present in intron 20. All other splicing junctions adhere to the canonical GT/AG rule. A TATA box sequence is located 25 bp upstream of the liver histidase transcription initiation site determined by S1 nuclease protection analysis. Several liver- and epidermis-specific transcription factor binding sites, including C/EBP, NFIL6, HNF5, AP2/ KER1, MNF, and others, are also identified in the 5{prime} flanking region. Consistent with the hepatic and epidermal expression of histidase, this finding suggests that histidase transcription may be regulated by these factors. We further identify a polymorphism (A to G transition) in the histidase coding region of exon 16. The human histidase genomic structure presented here should facilitate the molecular investigation of symptomatic and asymptomatic forms of histidinemia. 69 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  5. Molecular cloning and characterization of crustin from mud crab Scylla paramamosain.

    PubMed

    Imjongjirak, Chanprapa; Amparyup, Piti; Tassanakajon, Anchalee; Sittipraneed, Siriporn

    2009-05-01

    Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) are important components of the host innate immune response against microbial invasion. In the present study, we report the identification and characterization of a crustin (CrusSp) from the hemocyte of mud crab, Scylla paramamosain using an expressed sequence tag (EST) and rapid amplification cDNA end (RACE) approaches. Analysis of the nucleotide sequence revealed seven different variances of the CrusSp cDNA in mud crab. The open reading frame encodes a protein of 111 amino acids with 21 residues signal sequence. The predicted molecular mass of the mature protein (90 amino acids) is 10.27 kDa with an estimated pI of 8.54. Analysis of the protein domain features indicated typical conserved cysteine residues containing a single whey acidic protein (WAP) domain at the C-terminus. A neighbour-joining tree showed that S. paramamosain crustin is closely related to other crustin homologues, and displays the highest similarity to crustin antimicrobial peptide in shore crab Carcinus maenas. Four exons and three introns were identified within the 999 bp genomic DNA sequence of CrusSp. Tissue distribution analysis showed that CrusSp was highly expressed in hemocytes, gills, intestines and muscle but it was not expressed in hepatopancreas and eyestalks. To gain insight into the in vitro antimicrobial activities of CrusSp, the mature peptide coding region was cloned into E. coli for heterologous expression. The recombinant CrusSp could inhibit the growth of gram-positive bacteria but had no inhibition activity against gram-negative bacteria. These results indicated the involvement of CrusSp in the innate immunity of S. paramamosain. PMID:18425600

  6. Molecular cloning of the Escherichia coli B L-fucose-D-arabinose gene cluster.

    PubMed Central

    Elsinghorst, E A; Mortlock, R P

    1994-01-01

    To metabolize the uncommon pentose D-arabinose, enteric bacteria often recruit the enzymes of the L-fucose pathway by a regulatory mutation. However, Escherichia coli B can grow on D-arabinose without the requirement of a mutation, using some of the L-fucose enzymes and a D-ribulokinase that is distinct from the L-fuculokinase of the L-fucose pathway. To study this naturally occurring D-arabinose pathway, we cloned and partially characterized the E. coli B L-fucose-D-arabinose gene cluster and compared it with the L-fucose gene cluster of E. coli K-12. The order of the fucA, -P, -I, and -K genes was the same in the two E. coli strains. However, the E. coli B gene cluster contained a 5.2-kb segment located between the fucA and fucP genes that was not present in E. coli K-12. This segment carried the darK gene, which encodes the D-ribulokinase needed for growth on D-arabinose by E. coli B. The darK gene was not homologous with any of the L-fucose genes or with chromosomal DNA from other D-arabinose-utilizing bacteria. D-Ribulokinase and L-fuculokinase were purified to apparent homogeneity and partially characterized. The molecular weights, substrate specificities, and kinetic parameters of these two enzymes were very dissimilar, which together with DNA hybridization analysis, suggested that these enzymes are not related. D-Arabinose metabolism by E. coli B appears to be the result of acquisitive evolution, but the source of the darK gene has not been determined. Images PMID:7961494

  7. Molecular cloning, characterization and expression profiles of thioredoxin 1 and thioredoxin 2 genes in Mytilus galloprovincialis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Qing; Ning, Xuanxuan; Pei, Dong; Zhao, Jianmin; You, Liping; Wang, Chunyan; Wu, Huifeng

    2013-05-01

    Thioredoxin (Trx) proteins are involved in many biological processes especially the regulation of cellular redox homeostasis. In this study, two Trx cDNAs were cloned from the mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis using rapid amplifi cation of cDNA ends-polymerase chain reaction (RACE-PCR). The two cDNAs were named MgTrx1 and MgTrx2, respectively. The open reading frames of MgTrx1 and MgTrx2 were 318 and 507 base pairs (bp) and they encoded proteins of 105 and 168 amino acids with estimated molecular masses of 11.45 and 18.93 kDa, respectively. Sequence analysis revealed that both proteins possessed the conserved active site dithiol motif Cys-Gly-Pro-Cys. In addition, MgTrx2 also possessed a putative mitochondrial targeting signal suggesting that it is located in the mitochondria. Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) revealed that both MgTrx1 and MgTrx2 were constitutively expressed in all tissues examined. The MgTrx1 transcript was most abundant in hemocytes and gills, whereas the MgTrx2 transcript was most abundant in gonad, hepatopancreas, gill and hemocytes. Following Vibrio anguillarum challenge, the expression of MgTrx1 was up-regulated and reached its peak, at a value 10-fold the initial value, at 24 h. Subsequently, expression returned back to the original level. In contrast, the expression level of MgTrx2 was down-regulated following bacterial stimulation, with one fi fth of the control level evident at 12 h post challenge. These results suggest that MgTrx1 and MgTrx2 may play important roles in the response of M. galloprovincialis to bacterial challenge.

  8. Molecular vibration-activity relationship in the agonism of adenosine receptors.

    PubMed

    Chee, Hyun Keun; Oh, S June

    2013-12-01

    The molecular vibration-activity relationship in the receptor-ligand interaction of adenosine receptors was investigated by structure similarity, molecular vibration, and hierarchical clustering in a dataset of 46 ligands of adenosine receptors. The resulting dendrogram was compared with those of another kind of fingerprint or descriptor. The dendrogram result produced by corralled intensity of molecular vibrational frequency outperformed four other analyses in the current study of adenosine receptor agonism and antagonism. The tree that was produced by clustering analysis of molecular vibration patterns showed its potential for the functional classification of adenosine receptor ligands. PMID:24465242

  9. Molecular Vibration-Activity Relationship in the Agonism of Adenosine Receptors

    PubMed Central

    Chee, Hyun Keun

    2013-01-01

    The molecular vibration-activity relationship in the receptor-ligand interaction of adenosine receptors was investigated by structure similarity, molecular vibration, and hierarchical clustering in a dataset of 46 ligands of adenosine receptors. The resulting dendrogram was compared with those of another kind of fingerprint or descriptor. The dendrogram result produced by corralled intensity of molecular vibrational frequency outperformed four other analyses in the current study of adenosine receptor agonism and antagonism. The tree that was produced by clustering analysis of molecular vibration patterns showed its potential for the functional classification of adenosine receptor ligands. PMID:24465242

  10. Production of interferon-gamma and tumour necrosis factor-alpha by human T-cell clones expressing different forms of the gamma delta receptor.

    PubMed Central

    Christmas, S E; Meager, A

    1990-01-01

    Panels of human T-cell clones bearing the gamma delta T-cell receptor (TcR) were obtained from peripheral blood and decidual tissue and maintained in the presence of interleukin-2 (IL-2). TcR V gamma and V delta gene expression was determined in 40 TcR delta 1+ clones using the gamma delta T-cell subset markers Ti gamma A and delta TCS1, in conjunction with Southern blot analysis using TcR J gamma and J delta probes. gamma delta T-cell clones, together with control alpha beta T-cell clones derived from the same lymphocyte populations, were stimulated with phytohaemagglutinin (PHA) and their ability to produce interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma) and tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) tested using specific ELISA. Many clones representative of the major peripheral V gamma 9/V delta 2J1 subset produced high amounts of both cytokines and mean levels were not significantly different from those produced by alpha beta T-cell clones. Panels of clones expressing V gamma 9 and V delta 2J1 produced significantly higher levels of TNF-alpha than clones not expressing V delta 2J1 and those expressing V delta 1J1. There was no relationship between levels of IFN-gamma and TNF-alpha produced by individual gamma delta T-cell clones and also no relationship between their non-major histocompatibility complex (MHC)-restricted cytotoxic activity and levels of either cytokine. There was a significant tendency for gamma delta T-cell clones to produce more TNF-alpha than IFN-gamma in comparison to alpha beta T-cell clones. The significance of these findings is discussed in the light of the reported differences in distribution in vivo of V delta 1J1+ and V delta 2J1+ cells. Images Figure 1 PMID:2126252

  11. Molecular Characterization of Vitellogenin and Vitellogenin Receptor of Bemisia tabaci.

    PubMed

    Upadhyay, Santosh Kumar; Singh, Harpal; Dixit, Sameer; Mendu, Venugopal; Verma, Praveen C

    2016-01-01

    Vitellogenin (Vg) plays vital role in oocytes and embryo development in insects. Vg is synthesized in the fat body, moves through haemolymph and accumulates in oocytes. Vitellogenin receptors (VgR) present on the surface of oocytes, are responsible for Vg transportation from haemolymph to oocytes. Here, we cloned and characterized these genes from Bemisia tabaci Asia1 (BtA1) species. The cloned BtA1Vg and BtA1VgR genes consisted of 6,330 and 5,430 bp long open reading frames, which encoded 2,109 and 1,809 amino acid (AA) residues long protein. The BtA1Vg protein comprised LPD_N, DUF1943 and VWFD domains, typical R/KXXR/K, DGXR and GL/ICG motifs, and polyserine tracts. BtA1VgR protein contained 12 LDLa, 10 LDLb and 7 EGF domains, and a trans-membrane and cytoplasmic region at C-terminus. Phylogenetic analyses indicated evolutionary association of BtA1Vg and BtA1VgR with the homologous proteins from various insect species. Silencing of BtA1VgR by siRNA did not affect the transcript level of BtA1Vg. However, BtA1Vg protein accumulation in oocytes was directly influenced with the expression level of BtA1VgR. Further, BtA1VgR silencing caused significant mortality and reduced fecundity in adult whiteflies. The results established the role of BtA1VgR in transportation of BtA1Vg in oocytes. Further, these proteins are essential for fecundity, and therefore these can be potential RNAi targets for insect control in crop plants. PMID:27159161

  12. Molecular Characterization of Vitellogenin and Vitellogenin Receptor of Bemisia tabaci

    PubMed Central

    Upadhyay, Santosh Kumar; Singh, Harpal; Dixit, Sameer; Mendu, Venugopal; Verma, Praveen C.

    2016-01-01

    Vitellogenin (Vg) plays vital role in oocytes and embryo development in insects. Vg is synthesized in the fat body, moves through haemolymph and accumulates in oocytes. Vitellogenin receptors (VgR) present on the surface of oocytes, are responsible for Vg transportation from haemolymph to oocytes. Here, we cloned and characterized these genes from Bemisia tabaci Asia1 (BtA1) species. The cloned BtA1Vg and BtA1VgR genes consisted of 6,330 and 5,430 bp long open reading frames, which encoded 2,109 and 1,809 amino acid (AA) residues long protein. The BtA1Vg protein comprised LPD_N, DUF1943 and VWFD domains, typical R/KXXR/K, DGXR and GL/ICG motifs, and polyserine tracts. BtA1VgR protein contained 12 LDLa, 10 LDLb and 7 EGF domains, and a trans-membrane and cytoplasmic region at C-terminus. Phylogenetic analyses indicated evolutionary association of BtA1Vg and BtA1VgR with the homologous proteins from various insect species. Silencing of BtA1VgR by siRNA did not affect the transcript level of BtA1Vg. However, BtA1Vg protein accumulation in oocytes was directly influenced with the expression level of BtA1VgR. Further, BtA1VgR silencing caused significant mortality and reduced fecundity in adult whiteflies. The results established the role of BtA1VgR in transportation of BtA1Vg in oocytes. Further, these proteins are essential for fecundity, and therefore these can be potential RNAi targets for insect control in crop plants. PMID:27159161

  13. Purification, characterization and molecular cloning of alpha-2-macroglobulin in cobia, Rachycentron canadum.

    PubMed

    Chuang, Wen-Hsiao; Liu, Ping-Chung; Hung, Chia-Yu; Lee, Kuo-Kau

    2014-12-01

    Alpha-2-macroglobulin (α-2-M) is a broad spectrum protease inhibitor which is abundant in the plasma of vertebrates and several invertebrates. The α-2-M was purified from cobia (Rachycentron canadum) plasma by a four-step procedure: poly ethylene glycol fractionation, affinity chromatography, hydrophobic interaction chromatography and ion exchange chromatography on Fast Protein liquid chromatography system in the present study. It migrated as one protein band with a molecular mass of about 360 kDa in the native state, whereas in SDS-PAGE it was about 180 kDa under non-reducing condition. This result revealed that the native protein was a dimer. In addition, it was cleaved into two different fragments of molecular mass about 93 and 87 kDa when reduced by dithiothreitol (DTT). The anti-protease activity of the purified α-2-M was apparently decreased as temperature elevated above 50 °C. The α-2-M exhibited highest protease inhibitory activity at pH 9. The results indicate that the α-2-M is a heat-labile and alkaline protease inhibitor. The purified α-2-M exhibited more than 50% protease inhibitory activity against extracellular products (ECP) of Vibrio alginolytius isolated from diseased cobia. It seems that the protease activities in ECP may be affected by the plasma α-2-M. The protease inhibitory activities of cobia plasma or purified α-2-M were decreased when incubated with 10 mM methylamine for 30 min. The α-2-M cDNA consisted of 4611 bp with an open reading frame of 4374 bp had been cloned from cobia liver. This sequence contained thioester domain (GCGEQ) and thirteen predicted N-linked glycosylation sites. In addition, the amino acid sequence of thioester domain and genes of adjacent regions of cobia α-2-M were further compared with sequences of known fish species in GenBank. The unweighted pair group method using arithmetic average (UPGMA) was employed to construct the phylogenetic trees of α-2-M among different fish species (freshwater fish, sea

  14. Molecular cloning and characterization of a complement-depleting factor from king cobra, Ophiophagus hannah.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Lin; Sun, Qian-Yun; Jin, Yang; Zhang, Yong; Lee, Wen-Hui; Zhang, Yun

    2012-09-01

    Cobra venom factor (CVF) is an anti-complement factor existing in cobra venom. CVF proteins have been purified from the venoms of Naja haje, Naja siamensis, Naja atra, Naja kaouthia, Naja naja, Naja melanoleuca and Austrelaps superbus, but only three full-length cDNA sequences of CVF are available. In the present work, a cobra venom factor termed OVF was purified from the crude venom of Ophiophagus hannah by successive gel filtration, ion-exchange and heparin affinity chromatography steps. The purified OVF was homogenous on the SDS-PAGE gel with an apparent molecular weight of 140 kDa under non-reducing conditions. Under reducing conditions, OVF was divided into three bands with apparent molecular weight of 72 kDa (α chain), 45 kDa (β chain) and 32 kDa (γ chain), respectively. OVF consumed complement components with anti-complement activity of 154 units per mg. By using Reverse transcription-PCR and 5'-RACE assay, the open reading frame of OVF was obtained. MALDI-TOF and protein sequencing assays confirmed the cloned cDNA coding for OVF protein. The cDNA sequence of OVF is conservative when aligned with that of other CVFs. Phylogenetic analysis revealed OVF is closer to CVF from N. kaouthia than to AVF-1 and AVF-2 from A. superbus. Our results demonstrated that OVF has its unique features as following: 1) The N-terminal amino acid sequence of OVF γ chain is different from that of other known CVFs, suggesting that the OVF γ chain might be further processed; 2) Unlike N. kaouthia CVF and A. superbus AVF-1, which have potential N-linked glycosylation sites located in both α and β chain, OVF only has N-linked glycosylation site in its α chain as revealed by Schiff's reagent staining and protein sequence analysis; 3) In addition to the 27 well conserved cysteine residues in all known CVFs, OVF have an additional cysteine residue in its γ chain. Understanding the importance of above mentioned specific characteristics might provide useful information on structure

  15. Molecular cloning and characterization of two thermostable carboxyl esterases from Geobacillus stearothermophilus.

    PubMed

    Ewis, Hosam E; Abdelal, Ahmed T; Lu, Chung-Dar

    2004-03-31

    Screening of the genomic libraries of Geobacillus stearothermophilus ATCC12980 and ATCC7954 for esterase/lipase activity led to the isolation of two positive clones. The results of subclonings and sequence analyses identified two genes, est30 and est55, encoding two different carboxylesterases, and genetic rearrangement in the est55 locus was revealed from genomic comparison. The est30 gene encodes a polypeptide of 248 amino acids with a calculated molecular mass of 28338 Da, and the est55 gene encodes a polypeptide of 499 amino acids with a calculated molecular mass of 54867 Da. Both enzymes were purified to near homogeneity from recombinant strains of Escherichia coli. The results of enzyme characterization showed that while both enzymes possess optimal activities with short chain acyl derivatives, Est55 has a broader pH tolerance (pH 8-9) and optimal temperature range (30-60 degrees C) than Est30. The activation energy of Est55 (35.7 kJ/mol) was found to be significantly lower than that of Est30 (101.9 kJ/mol). Both enzymes were stable at 60 degrees C for more than 2 h; at 70 degrees C, the half-life for thermal inactivation was 40 and 180 min for Est55 and Est30, respectively. With p-nitrophenyl caproate as the substrate and assayed at 60 degrees C, Est55 had K(m) and k(cat) values of 0.5 microM and 39758 s(-1) while Est30 exhibited values of 2.16 microM and 38 s(-1). Inhibition studies indicated that both Est30 and Est55 were strongly inhibited by phenylmethanesulfonyl fluoride, p-hydroxymercuribenzoate, and tosyl-l-phenylalanine, consistent with the proposed presence of Ser-His-Glu catalytic triad of the alpha/beta hydrolase family. The enzymatic properties of Est30 and Est55 reported here warrant the potential applications of these enzymes in biotechnological industries. PMID:15033540

  16. Molecular Recognition of Natural Products by Resorc[4]arene Receptors.

    PubMed

    D'Acquarica, Ilaria; Ghirga, Francesca; Quaglio, Deborah; Cerreto, Antonella; Ingallina, Cinzia; Tafi, Andrea; Botta, Bruno

    2016-01-01

    This review is aimed at providing an overview of the up-to-now published literature on resorc[4]arene macrocycles exploited as artificial receptors for the molecular recognition of some classes of natural products. A concise illustration of the main synthetic strategies developed to afford the resorc[4]arene scaffold is followed by a report on the principles of the gas-phase investigation of recognition phenomena by mass spectrometry (MS). Emphasis is placed on gas-phase studies of diastereoisomeric complexes generated inside a Fourier transform-ion cyclotron resonance (FT-ICR) mass spectrometer by resorc[4]arene receptors towards a series of natural products, namely amino acids, amphetamine, ethanolamine neurotransmitters, dipeptides, vinca alkaloids and nucleosides. The literature outcomes discussed here, taken largely from our own revisited work, have been completed by references to other studies, in order to draw a broader picture of this rapidly evolving field of research. PMID:26654589

  17. Vitamin D receptor alleles: Cloning and characterization of the VDR gene and RT-PCR of VDR cDNA

    SciTech Connect

    Javed, A.A.; Huang, Y.; Bombard, A.T.

    1994-09-01

    Vitamin D{sub 3} receptors (VDR) function as regulators through the action of the ligand 1{alpha}, 25-dihydroxy vitamin D{sub 3}. The receptor specifically finds its ligand and exerts it effect on the regulation of the expression of target genes. It has been shown that mutations in the VDR gene affect the function of the receptors and cause a corresponding disorder state. Recently, it has been reported that common allelic variations found normally in the Caucasian (Australian) population pose varying degrees of risk for osteoporosis. We present here the cloning of the VDR gene and RT-PCR of VDR cDNA. Studies are in progress to establish allele frequency in the Black, Hispanic and Caucasian populations to systematically study the influence of allele types and to develop a risk profile for osteoporosis. The present method for detection of various alleles is based on RFLP analysis. We are developing PCR-based methods for the rapid detection and typing of alleles.

  18. Molecular cloning, tissue expression and association of porcine NR4A1 gene with reproductive traits.

    PubMed

    Liu, L Q; Li, F E; Deng, C Y; Xiong, Y Z

    2011-01-01

    Nuclear receptor subfamily 4, group A, member 1 (NR4A1), other aliase NGFI-B, is an immediate-early gene that encodes an orphan nuclear receptor, which play a potential role in the ovulatory process. In this study, a 4,870 bp fragment covered the complete coding region (CDS) and its unique intron sequences of porcine NR4A1 gene was obtained. The reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) indicated that NR4A1 was highly expressed in ovary, uterus, kidney, heart but at very low level in oviduct and not expressed in other tissues. Compared the sequence of CDS and its unique intron of Large White and Meishan pigs, a A/G mutation in intron 5 was found and a PCR-Dde1-RFLP genotyping assay was developed. Association of the SNP and litter size was assessed in two populations [purebred Large White and an experimental synthetic Line (DIV) sows]. Statistical analysis demonstrated that, in the first parity, AG animals in experimental synthetic Line (DIV) sows had 1.805 more piglets born compared to the GG animals (P<0.05). For all parities, in the purebred Large White pigs, those with the GG genotype had an additional 0.877 piglets born and 0.780 piglets born alive compared to the AA animals (P<0.05), those with the AG genotype had additional 0.780 piglets born compared to the AA animals (P<0.05). In addition, significant additive effect of 0.438±0.182 piglets/litter and 0.368±0.165 piglets/litter on piglets born and piglets born alive were detected in the purebred Large White lines (P<0.05), respectively. Therefore, NR4A1 gene was significantly associated with litter size in two populations and could be a useful molecular marker in selection for increasing litter size in pigs. PMID:20333549

  19. Molecular cloning and functional analysis of SUT-1, a sulfate transporter from human high endothelial venules

    PubMed Central

    Girard, Jean-Philippe; Baekkevold, Espen S.; Feliu, Jacques; Brandtzaeg, Per; Amalric, François

    1999-01-01

    High endothelial venules (HEV) are specialized postcapillary venules found in lymphoid organs and chronically inflamed tissues that support high levels of lymphocyte extravasation from the blood. One of the major characteristics of HEV endothelial cells (HEVEC) is their capacity to incorporate large amounts of sulfate into sialomucin-type counter-receptors for the lymphocyte homing receptor L-selectin. Here, we show that HEVEC express two functional classes of sulfate transporters defined by their differential sensitivity to the anion-exchanger inhibitor 4,4′-diisothiocyanostilbene-2,2′-disulfonic acid (DIDS), and we report the molecular characterization of a DIDS-resistant sulfate transporter from human HEVEC, designated SUT-1. SUT-1 belongs to the family of Na+-coupled anion transporters and exhibits 40–50% amino acid identity with the rat renal Na+/sulfate cotransporter, NaSi-1, as well as with the human and rat Na+/dicarboxylate cotransporters, NaDC-1/SDCT1 and NaDC-3/SDCT2. Functional expression studies in cRNA-injected Xenopus laevis oocytes showed that SUT-1 mediates high levels of Na+-dependent sulfate transport, which is resistant to DIDS inhibition. The SUT-1 gene mapped to human chromosome 7q33. Northern blotting analysis revealed that SUT-1 exhibits a highly restricted tissue distribution, with abundant expression in placenta. Reverse transcription–PCR analysis indicated that SUT-1 and the diastrophic dysplasia sulfate transporter (DTD), one of the two known human DIDS-sensitive sulfate transporters, are coexpressed in HEVEC. SUT-1 and DTD could correspond, respectively, to the DIDS-resistant and DIDS-sensitive components of sulfate uptake in HEVEC. Together, these results demonstrate that SUT-1 is a distinct human Na+-coupled sulfate transporter, likely to play a major role in sulfate incorporation in HEV. PMID:10535998

  20. Comparative Transcriptome Analysis of Latex Reveals Molecular Mechanisms Underlying Increased Rubber Yield in Hevea brasiliensis Self-Rooting Juvenile Clones

    PubMed Central

    Li, Hui-Liang; Guo, Dong; Zhu, Jia-Hong; Wang, Ying; Chen, Xiong-Ting; Peng, Shi-Qing

    2016-01-01

    Rubber tree (Hevea brasiliensis) self-rooting juvenile clones (JCs) are promising planting materials for rubber production. In a comparative trial between self-rooting JCs and donor clones (DCs), self-rooting JCs exhibited better performance in rubber yield. To study the molecular mechanism associated with higher rubber yield in self-rooting JCs, we sequenced and comparatively analyzed the latex of rubber tree self-rooting JCs and DCs at the transcriptome level. Total raw reads of 34,632,012 and 35,913,020 bp were obtained from the library of self-rooting JCs and DCs, respectively, by using Illumina HiSeq 2000 sequencing technology. De novo assemblies yielded 54689 unigenes from the library of self-rooting JCs and DCs. Among 54689 genes, 1716 genes were identified as differentially expressed between self-rooting JCs and DCs via comparative transcript profiling. Functional analysis showed that the genes related to the mass of categories were differentially enriched between the two clones. Several genes involved in carbohydrate metabolism, hormone metabolism and reactive oxygen species scavenging were up-regulated in self-rooting JCs, suggesting that the self-rooting JCs provide sufficient molecular basis for the increased rubber yielding, especially in the aspects of improved latex metabolisms and latex flow. Some genes encoding epigenetic modification enzymes were also differentially expressed between self-rooting JCs and DCs. Epigenetic modifications may lead to gene differential expression between self-rooting JCs and DCs. These data will provide new cues to understand the molecular mechanism underlying the improved rubber yield of H. brasiliensis self-rooting clones. PMID:27555864

  1. Comparative Transcriptome Analysis of Latex Reveals Molecular Mechanisms Underlying Increased Rubber Yield in Hevea brasiliensis Self-Rooting Juvenile Clones.

    PubMed

    Li, Hui-Liang; Guo, Dong; Zhu, Jia-Hong; Wang, Ying; Chen, Xiong-Ting; Peng, Shi-Qing

    2016-01-01

    Rubber tree (Hevea brasiliensis) self-rooting juvenile clones (JCs) are promising planting materials for rubber production. In a comparative trial between self-rooting JCs and donor clones (DCs), self-rooting JCs exhibited better performance in rubber yield. To study the molecular mechanism associated with higher rubber yield in self-rooting JCs, we sequenced and comparatively analyzed the latex of rubber tree self-rooting JCs and DCs at the transcriptome level. Total raw reads of 34,632,012 and 35,913,020 bp were obtained from the library of self-rooting JCs and DCs, respectively, by using Illumina HiSeq 2000 sequencing technology. De novo assemblies yielded 54689 unigenes from the library of self-rooting JCs and DCs. Among 54689 genes, 1716 genes were identified as differentially expressed between self-rooting JCs and DCs via comparative transcript profiling. Functional analysis showed that the genes related to the mass of categories were differentially enriched between the two clones. Several genes involved in carbohydrate metabolism, hormone metabolism and reactive oxygen species scavenging were up-regulated in self-rooting JCs, suggesting that the self-rooting JCs provide sufficient molecular basis for the increased rubber yielding, especially in the aspects of improved latex metabolisms and latex flow. Some genes encoding epigenetic modification enzymes were also differentially expressed between self-rooting JCs and DCs. Epigenetic modifications may lead to gene differential expression between self-rooting JCs and DCs. These data will provide new cues to understand the molecular mechanism underlying the improved rubber yield of H. brasiliensis self-rooting clones. PMID:27555864

  2. Isolation, molecular cloning and expression of cellobiohydrolase B (CbhB) from Aspergillus niger in Escherichia coli

    SciTech Connect

    Woon, J. S. K. Murad, A. M. A. Abu Bakar, F. D.

    2015-09-25

    A cellobiohydrolase B (CbhB) from Aspergillus niger ATCC 10574 was cloned and expressed in E. coli. CbhB has an open reading frame of 1611 bp encoding a putative polypeptide of 536 amino acids. Analysis of the encoded polypeptide predicted a molecular mass of 56.2 kDa, a cellulose binding module (CBM) and a catalytic module. In order to obtain the mRNA of cbhB, total RNA was extracted from A. niger cells induced by 1% Avicel. First strand cDNA was synthesized from total RNA via reverse transcription. The full length cDNA of cbhB was amplified by PCR and cloned into the cloning vector, pGEM-T Easy. A comparison between genomic DNA and cDNA sequences of cbhB revealed that the gene is intronless. Upon the removal of the signal peptide, the cDNA of cbhB was cloned into the expression vector pET-32b. However, the recombinant CbhB was expressed in Escherichia coli Origami DE3 as an insoluble protein. A homology model of CbhB predicted the presence of nine disulfide bonds in the protein structure which may have contributed to the improper folding of the protein and thus, resulting in inclusion bodies in E. coli.

  3. Molecular cloning and sequence analysis of the X-prolyl dipeptidyl aminopeptidase gene from Lactococcus lactis subsp. cremoris.

    PubMed Central

    Mayo, B; Kok, J; Venema, K; Bockelmann, W; Teuber, M; Reinke, H; Venema, G

    1991-01-01

    Lactococcus lactis subsp. cremoris P8-2-47 contains an X-prolyl dipeptidyl aminopeptidase (X-PDAP; EC 3.4.14.5). A mixed-oligonucleotide probe prepared on the basis of the N-terminal amino acid sequence of the purified protein was made and used to screen a partial chromosomal DNA bank in Escherichia coli. A partial XbaI fragment cloned in pUC18 specified X-PDAP activity in E. coli clones. The fragment was also able to confer X-PDAP activity on Bacillus subtilis. The fact that none of these organisms contain this enzymatic activity indicated that the structural gene for X-PDAP had been cloned. The cloned fragment fully restored X-PDAP activity in X-PDAP-deficient mutants of L. lactis. We have sequenced a 3.8-kb fragment that includes the X-PDAP gene and its expression signals. The X-PDAP gene, designated pepXP, comprises 2,289 nucleotide residues encoding a protein of 763 amino acids with a predicted molecular weight of 87,787. No homology was detected between pepXP and genes that had been previously sequenced. A second open reading frame, divergently transcribed, was present in the sequenced fragment; the function or relationship to pepXP of this open reading frame is unknown. Images PMID:1674655

  4. Isolation, molecular cloning and expression of cellobiohydrolase B (CbhB) from Aspergillus niger in Escherichia coli

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Woon, J. S. K.; Murad, A. M. A.; Abu Bakar, F. D.

    2015-09-01

    A cellobiohydrolase B (CbhB) from Aspergillus niger ATCC 10574 was cloned and expressed in E. coli. CbhB has an open reading frame of 1611 bp encoding a putative polypeptide of 536 amino acids. Analysis of the encoded polypeptide predicted a molecular mass of 56.2 kDa, a cellulose binding module (CBM) and a catalytic module. In order to obtain the mRNA of cbhB, total RNA was extracted from A. niger cells induced by 1% Avicel. First strand cDNA was synthesized from total RNA via reverse transcription. The full length cDNA of cbhB was amplified by PCR and cloned into the cloning vector, pGEM-T Easy. A comparison between genomic DNA and cDNA sequences of cbhB revealed that the gene is intronless. Upon the removal of the signal peptide, the cDNA of cbhB was cloned into the expression vector pET-32b. However, the recombinant CbhB was expressed in Escherichia coli Origami DE3 as an insoluble protein. A homology model of CbhB predicted the presence of nine disulfide bonds in the protein structure which may have contributed to the improper folding of the protein and thus, resulting in inclusion bodies in E. coli.

  5. Cloning and initial characterization of nuclear and membrane progesterone receptors in the Fathead Minnow, Pimephales promelas

    EPA Science Inventory

    Both native progestagens and synthetic progestins have important effects on reproduction that are mediated through progesterone receptors (PRs). They regulate gamete maturation and can serve as precursors for other steroid hormones in vertebrates and act as reproductive pheromone...

  6. Molecular cloning in Escherichia coli of Erwinia chrysanthemi genes encoding multiple forms of pectate lyase.

    PubMed Central

    Collmer, A; Schoedel, C; Roeder, D L; Ried, J L; Rissler, J F

    1985-01-01

    The phytopathogenic enterobacterium Erwinia chrysanthemi excretes multiple isozymes of the plant tissue-disintegrating enzyme, pectate lyase (PL). Genes encoding PL were cloned from E. chrysanthemi CUCPB 1237 into Escherichia coli HB101 by inserting Sau3A-generated DNA fragments into the BamHI site of pBR322 and then screening recombinant transformants for the ability to sink into pectate semisolid agar. Restriction mapping of the cloned DNA in eight pectolytic transformants revealed overlapping portions of a 9.8-kilobase region of the E. chrysanthemi genome. Deletion derivatives of these plasmids were used to localize the pectolytic genotype to a 2.5-kilobase region of the cloned DNA. PL gene expression in E. coli was independent of vector promoters, repressed by glucose, and not induced by galacturonan. PL accumulated largely in the periplasmic space of E. coli. An activity stain used in conjunction with ultrathin-layer isoelectric focusing resolved the PL in E. chrysanthemi culture supernatants and shock fluids of E. coli clones into multiple forms. One isozyme with an apparent pI of 7.8 was produced at a far higher level in E. coli and was common to all of the pectolytic clones. Activity staining of renatured PL in sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gels revealed that this isozyme comigrated with the corresponding isozyme produced by E. chrysanthemi. The PL isozyme profiles produced by different clones and deletion derivative subclones suggest that the cloned region contains at least two PL isozyme structural genes. Pectolytic E. coli clones possessed a limited ability to macerate potato tuber tissues. Images PMID:2982794

  7. CLONING, EXPRESSION AND CHARACTERIZATION OF THE ANDROGEN RECEPTOR AND ISOLATION OF ESTROGEN RECEPTOR ALPHA FROM THE FATHEAD MINNOW (PIMEPHALES PROMELAS)

    EPA Science Inventory

    In vitro screening assays designed to identify hormone mimics or antagonists, including those recommended for use in the EPA's Tier 1 screening battery, typically use mammalian estrogen (ER) and androgen receptors (AR) such as rat or human. Although we know that the amino acid s...

  8. Molecular and biochemical analysis of symbiotic plant receptor kinase complexes

    SciTech Connect

    Cook, Douglas R; Riely, Brendan K

    2010-09-01

    DE-FG02-01ER15200 was a 36-month project, initiated on Sept 1, 2005 and extended with a one-year no cost extension to August 31, 2009. During the project period we published seven manuscripts (2 in review). Including the prior project period (2002-2005) we published 12 manuscripts in journals that include Science, PNAS, The Plant Cell, Plant Journal, Plant Physiology, and MPMI. The primary focus of this work was to further elucidate the function of the Nod factor signaling pathway that is involved in initiation of the legume-rhizobium symbiosis and in particular to explore the relationship between receptor kinase-like proteins and downstream effectors of symbiotic development. During the project period we have map-base cloned two additional players in symbiotic development, including an ERF transcription factor and an ethylene pathway gene (EIN2) that negatively regulates symbiotic signaling; we have also further characterized the subcellular distribution and function of a nuclear-localized symbiosis-specific ion channel, DMI1. The major outcome of the work has been the development of systems for exploring and validating protein-protein interactions that connect symbiotic receptor-like proteins to downstream responses. In this regard, we have developed both homologous (i.e., in planta) and heterologous (i.e., in yeast) systems to test protein interactions. Using yeast 2-hybrid screens we isolated the only known interactor of the nuclear-localized calcium-responsive kinase DMI3. We have also used yeast 2-hybrid methodology to identify interactions between symbiotic signaling proteins and certain RopGTPase/RopGEF proteins that regulate root hair polar growth. More important to the long-term goals of our work, we have established a TAP tagging system that identifies in planta interactions based on co-immuno precipitation and mass spectrometry. The validity of this approach has been shown using known interactors that either co-iummnoprecipate (i.e., remorin) or co

  9. Production of abiotic receptors by molecular imprinting of proteins

    SciTech Connect

    Braco, L.; Dabulis, K.; Klibanov, A.M. )

    1990-01-01

    When a protein is dissolved in a concentrated aqueous solution of a multifunctional organic compound, freeze-dried, and washed with an anhydrous organic solvent to remove the ligand, the resultant imprinted protein preparation binds up to 30-fold more of the template compound in anhydrous solvents that the nonimprinted protein in the same solvent (and both proteins in water). These artificial receptors exhibit marked ligand selectivity as well as stability in anhydrous media. This phenomenon of molecular imprinting, demonstrated for several unrelated proteins and ligands, may be helpful in the development of unique bioadsorbents and, potentially, new biocatalysts.

  10. Rapid cloning, expression, and functional characterization of paired αβ and γδ T-cell receptor chains from single-cell analysis

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Xi-zhi J; Dash, Pradyot; Calverley, Matthew; Tomchuck, Suzanne; Dallas, Mari H; Thomas, Paul G

    2016-01-01

    Transgenic expression of antigen-specific T-cell receptor (TCR) genes is a promising approach for immunotherapy against infectious diseases and cancers. A key to the efficient application of this approach is the rapid and specific isolation and cloning of TCRs. Current methods are often labor-intensive, nonspecific, and/or relatively slow. Here, we describe an efficient system for antigen-specific αβTCR cloning and CDR3 substitution. We demonstrate the capability of cloning influenza-specific TCRs within 10 days using single-cell polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and Gibson Assembly techniques. This process can be accelerated to 5 days by generating receptor libraries, requiring only the exchange of the antigen-specific CDR3 region into an existing backbone. We describe the construction of this library for human γδ TCRs and report the cloning and expression of a TRGV9/TRDV2 receptor that is activated by zoledronic acid. The functional activity of these αβ and γδ TCRs can be characterized in a novel reporter cell line (Nur77-GFP Jurkat 76 TCRα–β–) for screening of TCR specificity and avidity. In summary, we provide a rapid method for the cloning, expression, and functional characterization of human and mouse TCRs that can assist in the development of TCR-mediated therapeutics. PMID:26858965

  11. Rapid cloning, expression, and functional characterization of paired αβ and γδ T-cell receptor chains from single-cell analysis.

    PubMed

    Guo, Xi-Zhi J; Dash, Pradyot; Calverley, Matthew; Tomchuck, Suzanne; Dallas, Mari H; Thomas, Paul G

    2016-01-01

    Transgenic expression of antigen-specific T-cell receptor (TCR) genes is a promising approach for immunotherapy against infectious diseases and cancers. A key to the efficient application of this approach is the rapid and specific isolation and cloning of TCRs. Current methods are often labor-intensive, nonspecific, and/or relatively slow. Here, we describe an efficient system for antigen-specific αβTCR cloning and CDR3 substitution. We demonstrate the capability of cloning influenza-specific TCRs within 10 days using single-cell polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and Gibson Assembly techniques. This process can be accelerated to 5 days by generating receptor libraries, requiring only the exchange of the antigen-specific CDR3 region into an existing backbone. We describe the construction of this library for human γδ TCRs and report the cloning and expression of a TRGV9/TRDV2 receptor that is activated by zoledronic acid. The functional activity of these αβ and γδ TCRs can be characterized in a novel reporter cell line (Nur77-GFP Jurkat 76 TCRα(-)β(-)) for screening of TCR specificity and avidity. In summary, we provide a rapid method for the cloning, expression, and functional characterization of human and mouse TCRs that can assist in the development of TCR-mediated therapeutics. PMID:26858965

  12. Agouti signalling protein (ASIP) gene: molecular cloning, sequence characterisation and tissue distribution in domestic goose.

    PubMed

    Zhang, J; Wang, C; Liu, Y; Liu, J; Wang, H Y; Liu, A F; He, D Q

    2016-06-01

    Agouti signalling protein (ASIP) is an endogenous antagonist of melanocortin-1 receptor (MC1R) and is involved in the regulation of pigmentation in mammals. The objective of this study was to identify and characterise the ASIP gene in domestic goose. The goose ASIP cDNA consisted of a 44-nucleotide 5'-terminal untranslated region (UTR), a 390-nucleotide open-reading frame (ORF) and a 45-nucleotide 3'-UTR. The length of goose ASIP genomic DNA was 6176 bp, including three coding exons and two introns. Bioinformatic analysis indicated that the ORF encodes a protein of 130 amino-acid residues with a molecular weight of 14.88 kDa and an isoelectric point of 9.73. Multiple sequence alignments and phylogenetic analysis showed that the amino-acid sequence of ASIP was conserved in vertebrates, especially in the avian species. RT-qPCR showed that the goose ASIP mRNA was differentially expressed in the pigment deposition tissues, including eye, foot, feather follicle, skin of the back, as well as in skin of the abdomen. The expression level of the ASIP gene in skin of the abdomen was higher than that in skin of the back. Those findings will contribute to further understanding the functions of the ASIP gene in geese plumage colouring. PMID:26750999

  13. Molecular cloning, expression and characterization of albolamin: a type P-IIa snake venom metalloproteinase from green pit viper (Cryptelytrops albolabris).

    PubMed

    Jangprasert, Panchalee; Rojnuckarin, Ponlapat

    2014-03-01

    Snake venom metalloproteinases (SVMPs) can damage vessel wall, degrade clotting factors, inhibit integrins and block platelet functions. Studying them not only gives us deeper insights in pathogenesis of snakebites, but also potentially yields novel therapeutic agents. Here, we discovered a clone of an RGD-containing SVMP from the green pit viper (Cryptelytrops albolabris) venom gland cDNA library. Sequence analysis revealed that it belonged to the P-IIa subclass of SVMP comprising signal peptide, prodomain, metalloproteinase and disintegrin. Compared with other P-II SVMPs, it contained 2 additional conserved cysteines that were predicted to prevent the release of disintegrin from the metalloproteinase domain in the mature protein. The N-terminal histidine-tagged construct of metalloproteinase and disintegrin domains of albolamin was inserted into the pPICZαA vector and expressed in Pichia pastoris. The recombinant protein molecular weight was approximately 35 kDa on Western blot probed with anti-polyhistidine antibody. The recombinant albolamin could digest human type IV collagen starting within 15 min after incubation. In addition, it dose-dependently inhibited collagen-induced platelet aggregation with the IC50 of 1.8 μM. However, there was no effect on ADP-induced platelet aggregation. Therefore, the inhibition mechanism is probably through blocking collagen receptor(s). Albolamin activities probably contributed to pathology of green pit viper bites. Its disintegrin domain deserves further studies for the potential to be a useful agent affecting platelet functions. PMID:24380672

  14. Affinity, potency and efficacy of tramadol and its metabolites at the cloned human mu-opioid receptor.

    PubMed

    Gillen, C; Haurand, M; Kobelt, D J; Wnendt, S

    2000-08-01

    The present study was conducted to characterise the centrally active analgesic drug tramadol hydrochloride [(1RS,2RS)-2-[(dimethyl-amino)-methyl]-1-(3-methoxyphenyl)-cyclohe xanol hydrochloride] and its metabolites M1, M2, M3, M4 and M5 at the cloned human mu-opioid receptor. Membranes from stably transfected Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells were used to determine the four parameters of the ligand-receptor interaction: the affinity of (+/-)-tramadol and its metabolites was determined by competitive inhibition of [3H]naloxone binding under high and low salt conditions. The agonist-induced stimulation of [35S]GTPgammaS binding permits the measurement of potency (EC50), efficacy (Emax = maximal stimulation) and relative intrinsic efficacy (effect as a function of receptor occupation). The metabolite (+)-M1 showed the highest affinity (Ki=3.4 nM) to the human mu-opioid receptor, followed by (+/-)-M5 (Ki=100 nM), (-)-M1 (Ki=240 nM) and (+/-)-tramadol (Ki=2.4 microM). The [35S]GTPgammaS binding assay revealed an agonistic activity for the metabolites (+)-M1, (-)-M1 and (+/-)-M5 with the following rank order of intrinsic efficacy: (+)-M1>(+/-)-M5>(-)-M1. The metabolites (+/-)-M2, (+/-)-M3 and (+/-)-M4 displayed only weak affinity (Ki> 10 microM) and had no stimulatory effect on GTPgammaS binding. These data indicate that the metabolite (+)-M1 is responsible for the mu-opioid-derived analgesic effect. PMID:10961373

  15. Toward a Molecular Cytogenetic Map for Cultivated Sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) by Landed BAC/BIBAC Clones

    PubMed Central

    Feng, Jiuhuan; Liu, Zhao; Cai, Xiwen; Jan, Chao-Chien

    2013-01-01

    Conventional karyotypes and various genetic linkage maps have been established in sunflower (Helianthus annuus L., 2n = 34). However, the relationship between linkage groups and individual chromosomes of sunflower remains unknown and has considerable relevance for the sunflower research community. Recently, a set of linkage group-specific bacterial /binary bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC/BIBAC) clones was identified from two complementary BAC and BIBAC libraries constructed for cultivated sunflower cv. HA89. In the present study, we used these linkage group-specific clones (∼100 kb in size) as probes to in situ hybridize to HA89 mitotic chromosomes at metaphase using the BAC- fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) technique. Because a characteristic of the sunflower genome is the abundance of repetitive DNA sequences, a high ratio of blocking DNA to probe DNA was applied to hybridization reactions to minimize the background noise. As a result, all sunflower chromosomes were anchored by one or two BAC/BIBAC clones with specific FISH signals. FISH analysis based on tandem repetitive sequences, such as rRNA genes, has been previously reported; however, the BAC-FISH technique developed here using restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP)−derived BAC/BIBAC clones as probes to apply genome-wide analysis is new for sunflower. As chromosome-specific cytogenetic markers, the selected BAC/BIBAC clones that encompass the 17 linkage groups provide a valuable tool for identifying sunflower cytogenetic stocks (such as trisomics) and tracking alien chromosomes in interspecific crosses. This work also demonstrates the potential of using a large-insert DNA library for the development of molecular cytogenetic resources. PMID:23316437

  16. Molecular Background of Estrogen Receptor Gene Expression in Endometriotic Cells.

    PubMed

    Izawa, Masao; Taniguchi, Fuminori; Harada, Tasuku

    2016-07-01

    The molecular background of estrogen receptor (ER) expression is important to understand the pathophysiology of the high estrogen environment in endometriosis. However, the molecular details have not been fully understood. The objective of this study is to evaluate the molecular background of ERα and ERβ messenger RNA (mRNA) expression in endometriotic cells. The following summarizes our observations: (1) ERα mRNA expression in endometriotic cells was estimated to be approximately one-tenth of that in endometrial cells. (2) Three mRNAs, which include 3 different 5'-untranslated exons tagged to an open reading frame of wild-type ERα, were detected. (3) Expression of ERβ mRNA depends mostly on 0N promoter and includes 2 open reading frames: one for a wild-type ERβ1 and another for a splice variant ERβ2. (4) Expression of ERβ1 mRNA was approximately 40-fold higher than that in endometrial cells. (5) Expression of ERβ2 mRNA was almost at a comparable level of the ERβ1. 9 (6) ERα and ERβ mRNAs are equivalently expressed in endometriotic cells. These observations show the molecular background of ER mRNA expression in endometriotic cells and provide a clue to further understanding the estrogen-dependent pathophysiology leading to clinical application in endometriosis. PMID:26704524

  17. Molecular cloning and analysis of Ancylostoma ceylanicum glutamate-cysteine ligase.

    PubMed

    Wiśniewski, Marcin; Lapiński, Maciej; Zdziarska, Anna; Długosz, Ewa; Bąska, Piotr

    2014-08-01

    Glutamate-cysteine ligase (GCL) is a heterodimer enzyme composed of a catalytic subunit (GCLC) and a modifier subunit (GCLM). This enzyme catalyses the synthesis of γ-glutamylcysteine, a precursor of glutathione. cDNAs of the putative glutamate-cysteine ligase catalytic (Ace-GCLC) and modifier subunits (Ace-GCLM) of Ancylostoma ceylanicum were cloned using the RACE-PCR amplification method. The Ace-gclc and Ace-gclm cDNAs encode proteins with 655 and 254 amino acids and calculated molecular masses of 74.76 and 28.51kDa, respectively. The Ace-GCLC amino acid sequence shares about 70% identity and 80% sequence similarity with orthologs in Loa loa, Onchocerca volvulus, Brugia malayi, and Ascaris suum, whereas the Ace-GCLM amino acid sequence has only about 30% sequence identity and 50% similarity to homologous proteins in those species. Real-time PCR analysis of mRNA expression in L3, serum stimulated L3 and adult stages of A. ceylanicum showed the highest level of Ace-GCLC and Ace-GCLM expression occurred in adult worms. No differences were detected among adult hookworms harvested 21 and 35dpi indicating expression of Ace-gclc and Ace-gclm in adult worms is constant during the course of infection. Positive interaction between two subunits of glutamate-cysteine ligase was detected using the yeast two-hybrid system, and by specific enzymatic reaction. Ace-GCL is an intracellular enzyme and is not exposed to the host immune system. Thus, as expected, we did not detect IgG antibodies against Ace-GCLC or Ace-GCLM on days 21, 60 and 120 of A. ceylanicum infection in hamsters. Furthermore, vaccination with one or both antigens did not reduce worm burdens, and resulted in no improvement of clinical parameters (hematocrit and hemoglobin) of infected hamsters. Therefore, due to the significant role of the enzyme in parasite metabolism, our analyses raises hope for the development of a successful new drug against ancylostomiasis based on the specific GCL inhibitor. PMID

  18. The Molecular Mechanism of P2Y1 Receptor Activation.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Shuguang; Chan, H C Stephen; Vogel, Horst; Filipek, Slawomir; Stevens, Raymond C; Palczewski, Krzysztof

    2016-08-22

    Human purinergic G protein-coupled receptor P2Y1 (P2Y1 R) is activated by adenosine 5'-diphosphate (ADP) to induce platelet activation and thereby serves as an important antithrombotic drug target. Crystal structures of P2Y1 R revealed that one ligand (MRS2500) binds to the extracellular vestibule of this GPCR, whereas another (BPTU) occupies the surface between transmembrane (TM) helices TM2 and TM3. We introduced a total of 20 μs all-atom long-timescale molecular dynamic (MD) simulations to inquire why two molecules in completely different locations both serve as antagonists while ADP activates the receptor. Our results indicate that BPTU acts as an antagonist by stabilizing extracellular helix bundles leading to an increase of the lipid order, whereas MRS2500 blocks signaling by occupying the ligand binding site. Both antagonists stabilize an ionic lock within the receptor. However, binding of ADP breaks this ionic lock, forming a continuous water channel that leads to P2Y1 R activation. PMID:27460867

  19. Molecular Control of δ-Opioid Receptor Signaling

    PubMed Central

    Fenalti, Gustavo; Giguere, Patrick M.; Katritch, Vsevolod; Huang, Xi-Ping; Thompson, Aaron A.; Cherezov, Vadim; Roth, Bryan L.; Stevens, Raymond C.

    2013-01-01

    Summary Opioids represent widely prescribed and abused medications, although their signal transduction mechanisms are not well understood. Here we present the 1.8Å high-resolution crystal structure of the human δ-opioid receptor (δ-OR), revealing the presence and fundamental role of a sodium ion mediating allosteric control of receptor functional selectivity and constitutive activity. The distinctive δ-OR sodium ion site architecture is centrally located in a polar interaction network in the 7-transmembrane bundle core, with the sodium ion stabilizing a reduced agonist affinity state, and thereby modulating signal transduction. Site-directed mutagenesis and functional studies reveal that changing the allosteric sodium site residue Asn131 to alanine or valine augments constitutive arrestin-ergic signaling. Asp95Ala, Asn310Ala, and Asn314Ala mutations transform classical δ-opioid antagonists like naltrindole into potent β-arrestin-biased agonists. The data establish the molecular basis for allosteric sodium ion control in opioid signaling, revealing that sodium-coordinating residues act as “efficacy-switches” at a prototypic G protein-coupled receptor. PMID:24413399

  20. The Molecular Mechanism of P2Y1 Receptor Activation

    PubMed Central

    Chan, H. C. Stephen; Vogel, Horst; Filipek, Slawomir

    2016-01-01

    Human purinergic G protein-coupled receptor P2Y1 (P2Y1R) is activated by adenosine 5’-diphosphate (ADP) to induce platelet activation and thereby serves as an important antithrombotic drug target. Crystal structures of P2Y1R revealed that one ligand (MRS2500) binds to the extracellular vestibule of this GPCR, whereas another (BPTU) occupies the surface between transmembrane (TM) helices TM2 and TM3. We introduced a total of 20 µs all-atom long-timescale molecular dynamic (MD) simulations to inquire why two molecules in completely different locations both serve as antagonists while ADP activates the receptor. Our results indicate that BPTU acts as an antagonist by stabilizing extracellular helix bundles leading to an increase of the lipid order, whereas MRS2500 blocks signaling by occupying the ligand binding site. Both antagonists stabilize an ionic lock within the receptor. However, binding of ADP breaks this ionic lock, forming a continuous water channel that leads to P2Y1R activation. PMID:27460867

  1. Molecular Cloning, Nucleotide Sequence, and Expression of Genes Encoding a Polycyclic Aromatic Ring Dioxygenase from Mycobacterium sp. Strain PYR-1

    PubMed Central

    Khan, Ashraf A.; Wang, Rong-Fu; Cao, Wei-Wen; Doerge, Daniel R.; Wennerstrom, David; Cerniglia, Carl E.

    2001-01-01

    Mycobacterium sp. strain PYR-1 degrades high-molecular-weight polycyclic hydrocarbons (PAHs) primarily through the introduction of both atoms of molecular oxygen by a dioxygenase. To clone the dioxygenase genes involved in PAH degradation, two-dimensional (2D) gel electrophoresis of PAH-induced proteins from cultures of Mycobacterium sp. strain PYR-1 was used to detect proteins that increased after phenanthrene, dibenzothiophene, and pyrene exposure. Comparison of proteins from induced and uninduced cultures on 2D gels indicated that at least six major proteins were expressed (105, 81, 52, 50, 43, and 13 kDa). The N-terminal sequence of the 50-kDa protein was similar to those of other dioxygenases. A digoxigenin-labeled oligonucleotide probe designed from this protein sequence was used to screen dioxygenase-positive clones from a genomic library of Mycobacterium sp. strain PYR-1. Three clones, each containing a 5,288-bp DNA insert with three genes of the dioxygenase system, were obtained. The genes in the DNA insert, from the 5′ to the 3′ direction, were a dehydrogenase, the dioxygenase small (β)-subunit, and the dioxygenase large (α)-subunit genes, arranged in a sequence different from those of genes encoding other bacterial dioxygenase systems. Phylogenetic analysis showed that the large α subunit did not cluster with most of the known α-subunit sequences but rather with three newly described α subunits of dioxygenases from Rhodococcus spp. and Nocardioides spp. The genes from Mycobacterium sp. strain PYR-1 were subcloned and overexpressed in Escherichia coli with the pBAD/ThioFusion system. The functionality of the genes for PAH degradation was confirmed in a phagemid clone containing all three genes, as well as in plasmid subclones containing the two genes encoding the dioxygenase subunits. PMID:11472934

  2. Molecular cloning and characterization of potato spindle tuber viroid cDNA sequences

    PubMed Central

    Owens, Robert A.; Cress, Dean E.

    1980-01-01

    Double-stranded cDNA has been synthesized from a polyadenylylated potato spindle tuber viroid (PSTV) template and inserted in the Pst I endonuclease site of plasmid pBR322 by using the oligo(dC)·oligo(dG)-tailing procedure. Tetracycline-resistant ampicillin-sensitive transformants contained sequences complementary to PSTV [32P]cDNA, and one recombinant clone (pDC-29) contains a 460-base-pair insert. This cloned double-stranded PSTV cDNA contains the cleavage sites for six restriction endonucleases predicted by the published primary sequence of PSTV as well as one additional site each for Ava I, Hae III, Hpa II, and Sma I. The additional Ava I, Hpa II, and Sma I sites are explained by the presence of a second C-C-C-G-G-G sequence in the cloned double-stranded cDNA. The largest fragment released by Hae III digestion contains approximately 360 base pairs. These results suggest that we have cloned almost the entire sequence of PSTV, but the sequence cloned differs slightly from that published. Hybridization probes derived from pDC-29 insert have allowed detection and preliminary characterization of RNA molecules having the same size as PSTV but the opposite polarity. This RNA is present during PSTV replication in infected tomato cells. Images PMID:16592877

  3. Identification, cloning, and expression of human estrogen receptor-{alpha}36, a novel variant of human estrogen receptor-{alpha}66

    SciTech Connect

    Wang Zhaoyi; Zhang Xintian; Shen Peng; Loggie, Brian W.; Chang Yunchao; Deuel, Thomas F. . E-mail: tfdeuel@scripps.edu

    2005-11-04

    The identification and subsequent cloning of the 66-kDa human estrogen receptor (here termed hER-{alpha}66), its 46-kDa splice variant hER-{alpha}46, and the closely related hER-{beta} have had a profound impact on the generation of new understanding of estrogen-mediated functions and led to progress in diagnosis and treatment of human breast cancer. However, a persistent problem has been that not all findings previously reported in estrogen-stimulated cell proliferation can be explained through the known properties of the different estrogen receptors described. As the consequence of a search for alternative mechanisms to account for these different findings, we have now identified, cloned, and expressed in HEK 293 cells a previously unrecognized 36-kDa variant of hER-{alpha}66, termed hER-{alpha}36. hER-{alpha}36 differs from hER-{alpha}66 since it lacks both transcriptional activation domains (AF-1 and AF-2) but it retains the DNA-binding domain, and partial dimerization and ligand-binding domains of hER-{alpha}66. It also contains three myristoylation sites postulated to direct ER-{alpha}36 to the plasma membrane. It is concluded that ER-{alpha}36 is a unique variant of ER-{alpha}66; ER-{alpha}36 is predicted to function as a dominant-negative effector of hER-{alpha}66-mediated estrogen-responsive gene pathways and has the potential to trigger membrane-initiated mitogenic estrogen signaling.

  4. Uncovering Molecular Bases Underlying Bone Morphogenetic Protein Receptor Inhibitor Selectivity

    PubMed Central

    Alsamarah, Abdelaziz; LaCuran, Alecander E.; Oelschlaeger, Peter; Hao, Jijun; Luo, Yun

    2015-01-01

    Abnormal alteration of bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) signaling is implicated in many types of diseases including cancer and heterotopic ossifications. Hence, small molecules targeting BMP type I receptors (BMPRI) to interrupt BMP signaling are believed to be an effective approach to treat these diseases. However, lack of understanding of the molecular determinants responsible for the binding selectivity of current BMP inhibitors has been a big hindrance to the development of BMP inhibitors for clinical use. To address this issue, we carried out in silico experiments to test whether computational methods can reproduce and explain the high selectivity of a small molecule BMP inhibitor DMH1 on BMPRI kinase ALK2 vs. the closely related TGF-β type I receptor kinase ALK5 and vascular endothelial growth factor receptor type 2 (VEGFR2) tyrosine kinase. We found that, while the rigid docking method used here gave nearly identical binding affinity scores among the three kinases; free energy perturbation coupled with Hamiltonian replica-exchange molecular dynamics (FEP/H-REMD) simulations reproduced the absolute binding free energies in excellent agreement with experimental data. Furthermore, the binding poses identified by FEP/H-REMD led to a quantitative analysis of physical/chemical determinants governing DMH1 selectivity. The current work illustrates that small changes in the binding site residue type (e.g. pre-hinge region in ALK2 vs. ALK5) or side chain orientation (e.g. Tyr219 in caALK2 vs. wtALK2), as well as a subtle structural modification on the ligand (e.g. DMH1 vs. LDN193189) will cause distinct binding profiles and selectivity among BMP inhibitors. Therefore, the current computational approach represents a new way of investigating BMP inhibitors. Our results provide critical information for designing exclusively selective BMP inhibitors for the development of effective pharmacotherapy for diseases caused by aberrant BMP signaling. PMID:26133550

  5. Beyond Standard Molecular Dynamics: Investigating the Molecular Mechanisms of G Protein-Coupled Receptors with Enhanced Molecular Dynamics Methods

    PubMed Central

    Johnston, Jennifer M.

    2014-01-01

    The majority of biological processes mediated by G Protein-Coupled Receptors (GPCRs) take place on timescales that are not conveniently accessible to standard molecular dynamics (MD) approaches, notwithstanding the current availability of specialized parallel computer architectures, and efficient simulation algorithms. Enhanced MD-based methods have started to assume an important role in the study of the rugged energy landscape of GPCRs by providing mechanistic details of complex receptor processes such as ligand recognition, activation, and oligomerization. We provide here an overview of these methods in their most recent application to the field. PMID:24158803

  6. Leptin receptor gene in the European sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax): Cloning, phylogeny, tissue distribution and neuroanatomical organization.

    PubMed

    Escobar, Sebastián; Rocha, Ana; Felip, Alicia; Carrillo, Manuel; Zanuy, Silvia; Kah, Olivier; Servili, Arianna

    2016-04-01

    In this study, we report the cloning of three transcripts for leptin receptor in the European sea bass, a marine teleost of economic interest. The two shortest variants, generated by different splice sites, encode all functional extracellular and intracellular domains but missed the transmembrane domain. The resulting proteins are therefore potential soluble binding proteins for leptin. The longest transcript (3605bp), termed sblepr, includes all the essential domains for binding and transduction of the signal. Thus, it is proposed as the ortholog for the human LEPR gene, the main responsible for leptin signaling. Phylogenetic analysis shows the sblepr clustered within the teleost leptin receptor group in 100% of the bootstrap replicates. The neuroanatomical localization of sblepr expressing cells has been assessed by in situ hybridization in brains of sea bass of both sexes during their first sexual maturation. At histological level, the distribution pattern of sblepr expressing cells in the brain shows no clear differences regarding sex or reproductive season. Transcripts of the sblepr have a widespread distribution throughout the forebrain and midbrain until the caudal portion of the hypothalamus. A high hybridization signal is detected in the telencephalon, preoptic area, medial basal and caudal hypothalamus and in the pituitary gland. In a more caudal region, sblepr expressing cells are identified in the longitudinal torus. The expression pattern observed for sblepr suggests that in sea bass, leptin is very likely to be involved in the control of food intake, energy reserves and reproduction. PMID:26979276

  7. Molecular Cloning and Sequencing of Hemoglobin-Beta Gene of Channel Catfish, Ictalurus Punctatus Rafinesque

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    : Hemoglobin-y gene of channel catfish , lctalurus punctatus, was cloned and sequenced . Total RNA from head kidneys was isolated, reverse transcribed and amplified . The sequence of the channel catfish hemoglobin-y gene consists of 600 nucleotides . Analysis of the nucleotide sequence reveals one o...

  8. Molecular cloning and expression of channel catfish, Ictalurus punctatus, complement membrane attack complex inhibitor CD59

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The channel catfish, Ictalurus punctatus, complement membrane attack complex inhibitor CD59 gene was cloned and analyzed. Total RNA from tissues was isolated and cDNA libraries were constructed by the rapid amplification cDNA end (RACE) method. The gene-specific primers in conjunction with the RAC...

  9. Molecular Cloning and Characterisation of Heparanase mRNA in Porcine Placenta Throughout Gestation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The placenta contains a complex extracellular matrix composed of several glycosaminoglycans including heparan sulfate (HS). Heparanase (HPSE) is an endoglycosidase that specifically degrades HS. The objective of this study was to clone cDNA encoding porcine HPSE and characterize the expression lev...

  10. Molecular cloning and transcriptional analysis of the Aspergillus terreus gla1 gene encoding a glucoamylase.

    PubMed Central

    Ventura, L; González-Candelas, L; Pérez-González, J A; Ramón, D

    1995-01-01

    The Aspergillus terreus gla1 gene, coding for a glucoamylase, has been cloned by heterologous hybridization. The gene is interrupted by four introns and encodes a protein with an N-terminal catalytic domain and a C-terminal starch-binding domain. The expression of the gene is induced by starch and maltose and repressed by glucose. PMID:7534054

  11. MOLECULAR CLONING AND EXPRESSION OF CHANNEL CATFISH, ICTALURUS PUNCTATUS, COMPLEMENT MEMBRANE ATTACK COMPLEX INHIBITOR CD59

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The channel catfish, Ictalurus punctatus, complement membrane attack complex inhibitor CD59 gene was cloned and analyzed. Total RNA from tissues was isolated and cDNA libraries were constructed by the rapid amplification cDNA end (RACE) method. The gene-specific primers in conjunction with the RAC...

  12. Molecular Characterization of Kastamonu Garlic: An Economically Important Garlic Clone in Turkey

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study was conducted to assess genetic relationship of Kastamonu garlic, which is very popular in Turkey due to its high quality features, along with some previously characterized garlic clones collected from different regions of the world using AFLP and locus specific DNA markers. UPGMA cluste...

  13. Molecular cloning of Reteplase and its expression in E. coli using tac promoter

    PubMed Central

    Aghaabdollahian, Safieh; Rabbani, Mohammad; Ghaedi, Kamran; Sadeghi, Hamid Mir Mohammad

    2014-01-01

    Background and Aims: This study aimed to clone and express the reteplase cDNA, a thrombolytic agent used for the treatment of acute myocardial infarction and stroke, in E. coli, utilizing tac promoter for its expression. Materials and Methods: Reteplase cDNA was amplified by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) with designed primers. The product was then cloned into pTZ57R plasmid. The cloned cDNA was digested out and ligated into pGEX-5x-1 expression vector. The presence of the insert was confirmed by restriction digestion. By using 0.2, 0.5 and 1 mM isopropyl beta-D thiogalactopyranoside (IPTG), expression of reteplase was induced in E. coli TOP10 cells and analyzed by SDS-PAGE. Results: Electrophoresis of PCR product and also double digested recombinant pTZ57R plasmid, also, pGEX-5x-1 vector, showed a 1068bp band of reteplase. SDS-PAGE analysis showed a 60 KDa band of protein product induced with different concentrations of IPTG. Conclusion: In the present study, reteplase cDNA was successfully cloned and expressed using tac promoter. This vector will be used for the optimization of the expression of reteplase in E. coli. PMID:25298959

  14. Molecular Cloning, Expression and Genome Organization of Channel Catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) Matrix Metalloproteinase-9

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In the course of studying pathogenesis of enteric septicemia of catfish, we noted that channel catfish matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) gene was up-regulated after Edwardsiella ictaluri infection. In this study, we cloned, sequenced using the RACE (rapid amplification of cDNA ends) method and cha...

  15. Molecular cloning, functional verification, and evolution of TmPm3, the powdery mildew resistance gene of Triticum monococcum L.

    PubMed

    Zhao, C Z; Li, Y H; Dong, H T; Geng, M M; Liu, W H; Li, F; Ni, Z F; Wang, X J; Xie, C J; Sun, Q X

    2016-01-01

    Powdery mildew (Pm) is one of the most harmful diseases in wheat. Three Pm-resistance genes, Pm3, Pm21, and Pm8, have been cloned but most Pm3/Pm8 alleles have lost their resistance to Pm in hexaploid wheat. In this study, a new Pm3 homolog gene (TmPm3) was isolated from Triticum monococcum L. using a homology-based cloning strategy, being the first report of a functional Pm3 homolog gene from a diploid wheat species. The transient expression of TmPm3 in leaf epidermal cells showed that over-expressed TmPm3 could significantly inhibit the penetration of Blumeria graminis f. sp tritici conidia spores and the formation of haustoria. Sequence analysis of Pm3 alleles shed new light on the evolution of Pm3 genes, providing a better understanding of the molecular basis of disease resistance. This study also suggested that homology-based cloning of resistance genes is a feasible method for the isolation of functional resistance genes from wheat germplasm. PMID:27173250

  16. Molecular cloning, genomic analysis, and biological properties of rat leukemia virus and the onc sequences of Rasheed rat sarcoma virus.

    PubMed Central

    Gonda, M A; Young, H A; Elser, J E; Rasheed, S; Talmadge, C B; Nagashima, K; Li, C C; Gilden, R V

    1982-01-01

    Rasheed rat sarcoma virus (RaSV) has been shown to code for a protein of 29,000 Mr not present in replication-competent rat type C helper virus (RaLV)-infected cells. This protein is a fused gene product consisting of a portion of the RaLV p15 gag protein and the transformation-specific 21,000 Mr (p21) ras protein, which is also found in Harvey murine sarcoma virus. We now report the molecular cloning of both the SD-1 (Sprague-Dawley) strain of RaLV and the transforming ras sequences of RaSV. Heteroduplex analysis of these cloned DNAs demonstrated that the RaSV ras gene (v-Ra-ras) was inserted into the rat type C viral genome with a small deletion of RaLV genetic information in the 5' region of the gag gene and that the v-Ra-ras gene (0.72 kilobase pair) is homologous to and colinear with the p21 ras gene of Harvey murine sarcoma virus (v-Ha-ras). Restriction enzyme mapping confirmed the homology demonstrated by heteroduplex mapping, showing strong site conservation of restriction endonucleases known to cleave v-Ha-ras. Cloned v-Ra-ras DNA transformed NIH 3T3 cells, inducing the synthesis of the p29 RaSVgag-ras protein. Images PMID:6292516

  17. Molecular genetics of X-linked retinitis pigmentosa: Progress towards cloning the RP3 gene

    SciTech Connect

    Fujita, R.; Yan, D.; McHenry, C.

    1994-09-01

    Our goal is to identify the X-linked retinitis pigmentosa (XLRP) gene RP3. The location of RP3 is genetically delimited to a region of 1 Mb, distal to DXS140, CYBB and tctex-1-like gene and proximal to the gene OTC. It is currently thought that RP3 is within 40 kb of the proximal deletion breakpoint of a patient BB. However, a more proximal location of the gene, closer to OTC, is not ruled out. We initiated the isolation of the genomic region between DXS140 to OTC in YACs. One of the clones from DXS140 region (55B) is 460 kb and spans about 200 kb at each side of BB patient`s proximal breakpoint. It contains CYBB, tctex-1-like genes and two additional CpG islands. The 55B clone has been covered by cosmid and phage subclones. Another YAC clone from the OTC region (OTCC) spans about 1 Mb and contains at least 5 CpG islands. In situ hybridization performed with OTCC showed its location in Xp21; however, several derivative cosmids map to chromosome 7, indicating that it is a chimeric YAC. No overlap is evident between 55B and OTCC. We have isolated the YAC end-sequences and isolation of clones to close the gap is in progress. Cosmids are being used for screening eye tissue cDNA libraries, mainly from retina. Screening is done by hybridization to replica filters or by cDNA enrichment methods. Several cDNA clones have been isolated and are being characterized. Exon-amplification is also being used with the cosmids and phages. Genetic analysis is being performed to determine RP3 patients from clinically indistinguishable RP2, located in Xp11.23-p11.4, and to reduce the genetic distance of current flanking markers. For this we are analyzing a number of XLRP families with established markers in the region and with new microsatellites.

  18. Molecular characterization of an estrogen receptor and estrogen-related receptor and their autoregulatory capabilities in two Mytilus species.

    PubMed

    Nagasawa, Kazue; Treen, Nicholas; Kondo, Reki; Otoki, Yurika; Itoh, Naoki; Rotchell, Jeanette M; Osada, Makoto

    2015-06-15

    Vertebrate-like sex steroid hormones have been widely detected in mollusks, and numerous experiments have shown the importance of steroids in gonad development. Nevertheless, their signaling pathways in invertebrates have not been uncovered yet. Steroid receptors are an ancient class of transcription factors with multiple roles in not only vertebrates but also invertebrates. Estrogen signaling is thought to have major roles in mollusk physiology, but the full repertoire of estrogen receptors is unknown. We presented the successful cloning of two novel forms of estrogen receptor-like genes. These receptors are present in two closely related species of Mytilus: Mytilus edulis and Mytilus galloprovincialis, commonly known and widely distributed sentinel species. Our phylogenetic analysis revealed that one of these receptors is an estrogen receptor (ER) and the other one is an estrogen-related receptor (ERR). Studies of expression analysis showed that both receptor mRNAs were localized in the oocytes and follicle cells in contact with developing oocytes in the ovary and Sertoli cells in the testis, and in the ciliated cells of the gill. In addition, we have evidence that one (ER) of these may have a capacity to autoregulate its own expression in the gonadal cells by estrogen (E2) and that this gene is responsive to estrogenic compounds. PMID:25862924

  19. Molecular and functional characterization of the first tick CAP2b (periviscerokinin) receptor from Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The cDNA of the receptor for CAP2b/periviscerokinin (PVK) neuropeptides, designated Rhimi-CAP2b-R, was cloned from synganglia of tick Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus. This receptor is the ortholog of the insect CAP2b/PVK receptor, as concluded from analyses of the predicted protein sequence, ph...

  20. Molecular cloning and characterization of transgelin-like proteins mainly transcribed in newborn larvae of Trichinella spp.

    PubMed

    Nagano, Isao; Wu, Zhiliang; Asano, Kazunobu; Takahashi, Yuzo

    2011-05-31

    A cDNA library was constructed from Trichinella pseudospiralis muscle larvae. One cDNA clone, designated Tp4, contained a cDNA transcript of 783 bp in length, with a single open reading frame that encoded 153 amino acids (16,793 Da as the estimated molecular mass). The predicted amino acid sequence of Tp4 showed that the clone had a calponin homology domain and was approximately 50% identical to the transgelin-like proteins (calponin-family members) present in Bombyx mori or Tribolium castaneum. A homologue of the Tp4 clone was also present in cDNA from Trichinella spiralis, and this clone was designated Ts4. A comparison of the amino acid sequence of the transgelin-like proteins from T. spiralis (Ts4 protein) with the Tp4 protein indicated that the two proteins are very similar (about 94% homology). Real time quantitative polymerase chain reaction results showed that the transcription level of the Tp4 and Ts4 genes was highest in newborn larvae. On Western blot, the recombinant Tp4 and Ts4 proteins migrated at 20 kDa when reacted to an antibody against the recombinant Tp4 and Ts4 proteins, respectively. An antibody against the recombinant Tp4 and Ts4 proteins strongly stained two bands migrating at approximately 9 and 8 kDa in the crude extracts from adult worms and newborn larvae, but only weakly stained proteins in muscle larvae. However, an immunocytochemical study showed that the Tp4 protein was present within the muscle of the muscle larvae of T. pseudospiralis. The antibody level against the recombinant Tp4 antigens in infected mice began to increase from 8 days post-infection, was highest in 13 days post-infection, and then slowly decreased. PMID:21242032

  1. Retinoic acid receptors: from molecular mechanisms to cancer therapy.

    PubMed

    di Masi, Alessandra; Leboffe, Loris; De Marinis, Elisabetta; Pagano, Francesca; Cicconi, Laura; Rochette-Egly, Cécile; Lo-Coco, Francesco; Ascenzi, Paolo; Nervi, Clara

    2015-02-01

    Retinoic acid (RA), the major bioactive metabolite of retinol or vitamin A, induces a spectrum of pleiotropic effects in cell growth and differentiation that are relevant for embryonic development and adult physiology. The RA activity is mediated primarily by members of the retinoic acid receptor (RAR) subfamily, namely RARα, RARβ and RARγ, which belong to the nuclear receptor (NR) superfamily of transcription factors. RARs form heterodimers with members of the retinoid X receptor (RXR) subfamily and act as ligand-regulated transcription factors through binding specific RA response elements (RAREs) located in target genes promoters. RARs also have non-genomic effects and activate kinase signaling pathways, which fine-tune the transcription of the RA target genes. The disruption of RA signaling pathways is thought to underlie the etiology of a number of hematological and non-hematological malignancies, including leukemias, skin cancer, head/neck cancer, lung cancer, breast cancer, ovarian cancer, prostate cancer, renal cell carcinoma, pancreatic cancer, liver cancer, glioblastoma and neuroblastoma. Of note, RA and its derivatives (retinoids) are employed as potential chemotherapeutic or chemopreventive agents because of their differentiation, anti-proliferative, pro-apoptotic, and anti-oxidant effects. In humans, retinoids reverse premalignant epithelial lesions, induce the differentiation of myeloid normal and leukemic cells, and prevent lung, liver, and breast cancer. Here, we provide an overview of the biochemical and molecular mechanisms that regulate the RA and retinoid signaling pathways. Moreover, mechanisms through which deregulation of RA signaling pathways ultimately impact on cancer are examined. Finally, the therapeutic effects of retinoids are reported. PMID:25543955

  2. Nature of 5-HT1-like receptors mediating depressor responses in vagosympathectomized rats; close resemblance to the cloned 5-ht7 receptor.

    PubMed

    De Vries, P; Villalón, C M; Heiligers, J P; Saxena, P R

    1997-07-01

    It has been suggested that the late hypotensive response to serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine; 5-HT) in vagosympathectomized rats is mediated by '5-HT1-like' receptors since this effect is mimicked by 5-carboxamidotryptamine (5-CT), is not modified by cyproheptadine, ketanserin or MDL 72222, but it is blocked by methysergide. The present study was set out to reanalyze this suggestion in terms of the classification schemes proposed in 1994 and 1996 by the NC-IUPHAR subcommittee on the classification and nomenclature of 5-HT receptors. I.v. bolus injections of 5-CT (0.01-0.3 microg x kg(-1)), 5-HT (1-30 microg x kg(-1)) and 5-methoxytryptamine (5-MeO-T; 1-30 microg x kg(-1)) produced dose-dependent hypotensive responses with a rank order of agonist potency: 5-CT > 5-HT > 5-methoxytryptamine with sumatriptan (30-1000 microg x kg(-1)) inactive. The depressor responses to 5-HT and 5-CT were not attenuated by i.v. GR127935 (300-3000 microg x kg(-1)) or equivalent volumes of saline. In contrast, lisuride, methiothepin, mesulergine, metergoline and clozapine dose-dependently antagonized the responses to 5-HT and 5-CT; the rank order of apparent pA2 values against 5-HT and 5-CT, respectively, was: lisuride (7.7; 7.8) > methiothepin (6.8; 7.0) > or = mesulergine (6.4; 6.6) > clozapine (5.7; 5.8); metergoline displayed variable potencies (5.6; 6.4). Except for lisuride, which also affected isoprenaline-induced hypotension, the antagonism by the other drugs was selective. Based upon the above rank order of agonist potency, the blockade by a series of drugs showing high affinity for the cloned 5-ht7 receptor and the lack of blockade by GR127935, our results indicate that the 5-HT receptor mediating hypotension in vagosympathectomized rats is operationally similar to other putative 5-ht7 receptors mediating vascular and non-vascular responses (e.g. relaxation of the rabbit femoral vein, canine coronary and external carotid arteries and guinea-pig ileum as well as feline tachycardia

  3. Differences in the central nervous system distribution and pharmacology of the mouse 5-hydroxytryptamine-6 receptor compared with rat and human receptors investigated by radioligand binding, site-directed mutagenesis, and molecular modeling.

    PubMed

    Hirst, Warren D; Abrahamsen, Bjarke; Blaney, Frank E; Calver, Andrew R; Aloj, Lucia; Price, Gary W; Medhurst, Andrew D

    2003-12-01

    There is increasing evidence for a role of 5-hydroxytrypta-mine-6 (5-HT6) receptors in cognitive function. In the rat and human brain, 5-HT6 receptors are widely expressed and highly enriched in the basal ganglia. However, in the mouse brain, only very low levels of 5-HT6 receptor mRNA and receptor protein, measured by TaqMan reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction and selective radioligand binding, could be detected, with no evidence of enrichment in the basal ganglia. The mouse receptor was cloned and transiently expressed in human embryonic kidney 293 cells to characterize its pharmacological profile. Despite significant sequence homology between human, rat, and mouse 5-HT6 receptors, the pharmacological profile of the mouse receptor was significantly different from the rat and human receptors. Four amino acid residues, conserved in rat and human and divergent in mouse receptors, were identified, and various mutant receptors were generated and their pharmacologies studied. Residues 188 (tyrosine in mouse, phenylalanine in rat and human) in transmembrane region 5 and 290 (serine in mouse, asparagine in rat and human) in transmembrane region 6 were identified as key amino acids responsible for the different pharmacological profiles. Molecular modeling of the receptor and docking of selective and nonselective compounds was undertaken to elucidate the ligand receptor interactions. The binding pocket was predicted to be different in the mouse compared with rat and human 5-HT6 receptors, and the models were in excellent agreement with the observed mutation results and have been used extensively in the design of further selective 5-HT6 antagonists. PMID:14645659

  4. A Swordless Knight: Epidemiology and Molecular Characteristics of the blaKPC-Negative Sequence Type 258 Klebsiella pneumoniae Clone

    PubMed Central

    Paikin, Svetlana; Sterlin, Yelena; Glick, Josef; Edgar, Rotem; Aronov, Rima; Schwaber, Mitchell J.; Carmeli, Yehuda

    2012-01-01

    In June 2010, a blaKPC-negative, ertapenem-resistant ST-258 Klebsiella pneumoniae strain was isolated from a patient in the Laniado Medical Center (LMC). Our aims were (i) to describe its molecular characteristics and resistance mechanisms and (ii) to assess whether the blaKPC-negative ST-258 K. pneumoniae clone spreads as efficiently as its KPC-producing isogenic strain. In a prospective study, surveillance of all ertapenem-resistant, carbapenemase-negative K. pneumoniae (ERCNKP) isolates was conducted from June 2010 to May 2011 at LMC (314 beds) and from July 2008 to December 2010 at the Tel Aviv Sourasky Medical Center (TASMC) (1,200 beds). Molecular typing was done by arbitrarily primed PCR, pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE), and multilocus sequence typing (MLST). A total of 8 of 42 (19%) ERCNKP isolates in LMC and 1 of 32 (3.1%) in TASMC belonged to the ST-258 clone. These strains carried the blaCTX-M-2 or the blaCTX-M-25 extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL) gene. Sequencing of the ompK genes showed a frameshift mutation in the ompK35 gene. The fate of the blaKPC-carrying plasmid, pKpQIL, was determined by S1 analysis and by PCR of the Tn4401 transposon, repA, and the truncated blaOXA-9. Plasmid analysis of the ERCNKP ST-258 isolates showed variability in plasmid composition and absence of the Tn4401 transposon and the pKpQIL plasmid. In addition, the ST-258 clone was identified in 35/35 (100%) of KPC-producing K. pneumoniae isolates but in none of 62 ertapenem-susceptible K. pneumoniae isolates collected in the two centers. Our results suggest that ERCNKP ST-258 evolved by loss of the blaKPC-carrying plasmid pKpQIL. ERCNKP ST-258 appears to have low epidemic potential. PMID:22814467

  5. Molecular cloning and characterisation of two kinds of proteins in excretory-secretory products of Trichinella pseudospiralis.

    PubMed

    Nagano, Isao; Wu, Zhiliang; Boonmars, Thidarut; Takahashi, Yuzo

    2004-03-29

    Two genes encoding Trichinella pseudospiralis excretory-secretory proteins related to the Trichinella spiralis glycoproteins were cloned and the excretory-secretory proteins were characterised. A cloned gene, designated Tp38 (Ts43), contained a cDNA transcript of 1035 bp, and the predicted amino acid sequence of the Tp38 (Ts43) pro-protein had a similarity of about 84% to that of the T. spiralis 43 kDa glycoprotein. A cloned gene, designated Tp53 (Ts53), contained a cDNA transcript of 1239 bp, and the predicted amino acid sequence of the Tp53 (Ts53) pro-protein had a similarity of about 68% to that of the T. spiralis 53 kDa glycoprotein. Southern blots indicated that the Tp38 (Ts43) and Tp53 (Ts53) genes were encoded in a single copy within the T. pseudospiralis genome. Western blots showed that T. pseudospiralis-infected sera recognised the Tp53 (Ts53) recombinant protein, but did not recognise the Tp38 (Ts43) recombinant protein. The Tp38 (Ts43) and Tp53 (Ts53) proteins in the excretory-secretory product were 3 and 9 kDa greater than the expected molecular mass, respectively, and had three isoforms with a similar molecular size. Reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction results showed that the production of the mRNA transcript for the Tp38 (Ts43) or Tp53 (Ts53) gene was restricted predominantly to muscle larvae. Western blots confirmed that the gene products were predominantly expressed by muscle-stage larvae. An immunolocalisation study showed the Tp38 (Ts43) and Tp53 (Ts53) proteins were present within the alpha-stichocyte and the beta-stichocyte of muscle larvae, respectively. PMID:15013739

  6. Molecular cloning and expression of a human heat shock factor, HSF1

    SciTech Connect

    Rabindran, S.K.; Giorgi, G.; Clos, J.; Wu, C. )

    1991-08-15

    Human cells respond to heat stress by inducing the binding of a preexisting transcriptional activator (heat shock factor, HSF) to DNA. The authors isolated recombinant DNA clones for a human cDNA fragment. The human HSF1 probe was produced by the PCR with primers deduced from conserved amino acids in the Drosophila and yeast HSF sequences. The human HSF1 mRNA is constitutively expressed in HeLa cells under nonshock conditions and encodes a protein with four conserved leucine zipper motifs. Like its counterpart in Drosophila, human HSF1 produced in Escherichia coli in the absence of heat shock is active as a DNA binding transcription factor, suggesting that the intrinsic activity of HSF is under negative control in human cells. Surprisingly, an independently isolated human HSF clone, HSF2, is related to but significantly different from HSF.

  7. Cloning and molecular analysis of voraxin-α gene of Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Binod; Ghosh, Srikanta

    2016-03-01

    To identify suitable targets for development of cross-protective tick vaccine, in silico analysis was attempted and male tick derived molecule, voraxin-α was targeted. The voraxin-α homologue of Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus was cloned, sequenced and analyzed employing standard methods. The deduced amino acids sequence analysis of the 419 bp cloned voraxin-α gene of R. (B.) microplus indicated very high (94.6 %) similarity with voraxin-α of the R. appendiculatus and moderate to low identity with Amblyomma hebraeum, Dermacentor silvarum and Haemaphysalis longicornis. The results suggest that recombinant voraxin-α might be a good candidate as cross-protective anti-tick vaccine. PMID:27065622

  8. Molecular cloning of a human protein that binds to the retinoblastoma protein and chromosomal mapping

    SciTech Connect

    Saijo, M.; Sakai, Y.; Taya, Y.

    1995-06-10

    We have isolated distinct clones for cellular proteins that bind to the retinoblastoma protein by direct screening of cDNA expression libraries using purified pRB as a probe. The total nucleotide sequence of one of these clones, RBQ-3, was determined and found to encode a protein of 66 kDa localized in the nucleus. The RBQ-3 preferentially binds to underphosphory-lated pRB. The region used for binding to this protein was mapped to the E1A-binding pocket B of pRB, which has sequence similarity to the general transcription factor TFIIB. We have mapped the gene to 1q32 using polymerase chain reaction analysis on a human-hamster hybrid cell panel and chromosomal fluorescence in situ hybridization. 64 refs., 7 figs.

  9. Molecular cloning of chitinase 33 (chit33) gene from Trichoderma atroviride

    PubMed Central

    Matroudi, S.; Zamani, M.R.; Motallebi, M.

    2008-01-01

    In this study Trichoderma atroviride was selected as over producer of chitinase enzyme among 30 different isolates of Trichoderma sp. on the basis of chitinase specific activity. From this isolate the genomic and cDNA clones encoding chit33 have been isolated and sequenced. Comparison of genomic and cDNA sequences for defining gene structure indicates that this gene contains three short introns and also an open reading frame coding for a protein of 321 amino acids. The deduced amino acid sequence includes a 19 aa putative signal peptide. Homology between this sequence and other reported Trichoderma Chit33 proteins are discussed. The coding sequence of chit33 gene was cloned in pEt26b(+) expression vector and expressed in E. coli. PMID:24031242

  10. Molecular Cloning and Heterologous Expression of the Dehydrophos Biosynthetic Gene Cluster

    PubMed Central

    Circello, Benjamin T.; Eliot, Andrew C.; Lee, Jin-Hee; van der Donk, Wilfred A.; Metcalf, William W.

    2010-01-01

    Summary Dehydrophos is a vinyl phosphonate tripeptide produced by Streptomyces luridus with demonstrated broad spectrum antibiotic activity. To identify genes necessary for biosynthesis of this unusual compound we screened a fosmid library of S. luridus for the presence of the phosphoenolpyruvate mutase gene, which is required for biosynthesis of most phosphonates. Integration of one such fosmid clone into the chromosome of Streptomyces lividans led to heterologous production of dehydrophos. Deletion analysis of this clone allowed identification of the minimal contiguous dehydrophos cluster, which contained 17 open reading frames (ORFs). Bioinformatic analyses of these ORFs are consistent with a proposed biosynthetic pathway that generates dehydrophos from phosphoenolpyruvate. The early steps of this pathway are supported by analysis of intermediates accumulated by blocked mutants and in vitro biochemical experiments. PMID:20416511

  11. Cloning, characterization, expression, and feeding response of thyrotropin receptor in largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides).

    PubMed

    Gao, Y L; Song, W; Jiang, L L; Mao, M X; Wang, C L; Ge, C T; Qian, G Y

    2016-01-01

    Thyrotropin receptor (TSHR) is a G-protein-coupled receptor that regulates the synthesis, storage, and secretion of thyroid hormones in the thyroid tissue. The aims of the present study were to characterize the full-length TSHR cDNA in largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides), and to determine the TSHR gene transcription levels in different tissues. In addition, the response of TSHR transcription levels to daily feeding in thyroid tissue was investigated. The results showed that the full-length cDNA sequence was 2743 bp with an open reading frame of 2340 bp encoding a 779-amino acid peptide. BLAST analysis indicated that the amino acid sequence displayed 58.4-90.2% identity and 5.6-125.8 divergence, compared with other known fish species. The most abundant TSHR transcription levels were found in the spleen, head kidney, and kidney. Feeding did not affect the transcription level of TSHR in thyroid tissue over the course of the day. Thus, the current study suggests that there was no relationship between daily nutritional status and TSHR transcription level in the thyroid tissue of largemouth bass. The spleen, head kidney, and kidney exhibited the most abundant TSHR transcription levels. PMID:27525899

  12. Molecular cloning and characterization of the light-harvesting chlorophyll a/b gene from the pigeon pea (Cajanus cajan).

    PubMed

    Qiao, Guang; Wen, Xiao-Peng; Zhang, Ting

    2015-12-01

    Light-harvesting chlorophyll a/b-binding proteins (LHCB) have been implicated in the stress response. In this study, a gene encoding LHCB in the pigeon pea was cloned and characterized. Based on the sequence of a previously obtained 327 bp Est, a full-length 793 bp cDNA was cloned using the rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE) method. It was designated CcLHCB1 and encoded a 262 amino acid protein. The calculated molecular weight of the CcLHCB1 protein was 27.89 kDa, and the theoretical isoelectric point was 5.29. Homology search and sequence multi-alignment demonstrated that the CcLHCB1 protein sequence shared a high identity with LHCB from other plants. Bioinformatics analysis revealed that CcLHCB1 was a hydrophobic protein with three transmembrane domains. By fluorescent quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR), CcLHCB1 mRNA transcripts were detectable in different tissues (leaf, stem, and root), with the highest level found in the leaf. The expression of CcLHCB1 mRNA in the leaves was up-regulated by drought stimulation and AM inoculation. Our results provide the basis for a better understanding of the molecular organization of LCHB and might be useful for understanding the interaction between plants and microbes in the future. PMID:26329890

  13. Molecular cloning of the human nucleotide-excision-repair gene ERCC4

    SciTech Connect

    Thompson, L.H.; Brookman, K.W.; Weber, C.A.; Salazar, E.P.; Reardon, J.T.; Sancar, A.; Deng, Z.; Siciliano, M.J.

    1994-07-19

    ERCC4 was previously identified in somatic cell hybrids as a human gene that corrects the nucleotide-excision-repair deficiency in mutant hamster cells. The cloning strategy for ERCC4 involved transfection of the repair-deficient hamster cell line UV41 with a human sCos-1 cosmid library derived from chromosome 16. Enhanced UV resistance was seen with one cosmid-library transformant and two secondary transformants of UV41. Cosmid clones carrying a functional ERCC4 gene were isolated from a library of a second transformant by selecting in Escherichia coli for expression of a linked neomycin-resistance gene that was present in the sCos-1 vector. The cosmids mapped to 16p13.13-p13.2, the location assigned to ERCC4 by using somatic cell hybrids. Upon transfection into UV41, six cosmid clones gave partial correction ranging from 30% to 64%, although all appeared to contain the complete gene. The capacity for in vitro excision of thymine dimers from a plasmid by transformant cell extracts correlated qualitatively with enhanced UV resistance.

  14. Molecular cloning of the human CTP synthetase gene by functional complementation with purified human metaphase chromosomes.

    PubMed

    Yamauchi, M; Yamauchi, N; Meuth, M

    1990-07-01

    Successive rounds of chromosome-mediated gene transfer were used to complement a hamster cytidine auxotroph deficient in CTP synthetase activity and eventually to clone human genomic and cDNA fragments coding for the structural gene. Our approach was to isolate human Alu+ fragments from a tertiary transfectant and to utilize these fragments to screen a panel of primary transfectants. In this manner two DNA fragments, both mapping within the structural gene, were identified and used to clone a partial length cDNA. The remaining portion of the open reading frame was obtained through the RACE polymerase chain reaction technique. The open reading frame encodes 591 amino acids having a striking degree of similarity to the Escherichia coli structural gene (48% identical amino acids with 76% overall similarity including conservative substitutions) with the glutamine amide transfer domain being particularly conserved. As regulatory mutations of CTP synthetase confer both multi-drug resistance to agents widely used in cancer chemotherapy and a mutator phenotype, the cloning of the structural gene will be important in assessing the relevance of such phenotypes to the development of cellular drug resistance. PMID:2113467

  15. Molecular cloning and comparative sequence analysis of fungal β-Xylosidases.

    PubMed

    Mustafa, Ghulam; Kousar, Sumaira; Rajoka, Muhammad Ibrahim; Jamil, Amer

    2016-12-01

    Commercial scale degradation of hemicelluloses into easily accessible sugar residues is practically crucial in industrial as well as biochemical processes. Xylanolytic enzymes have a great number of possible applications in many biotechnological processes and therefore, these enzymes are continuously attracting the attention of scientists. Due to this fact, different β-Xylosidases have been isolated, purified and characterized from several bacteria and fungi. Microorganisms in this respect have gained much momentum for production of these significant biocatalysts with remarkable features. It is difficult to propagate microorganisms for efficient and cost-competitive production of β-Xylosidase from hemicelluloses due to expensive conditions of fermentation. The screening of new organisms with an enhanced production of β-Xylosidases has been made possible with the help of recombinant DNA technology. β-Xylosidase genes haven been cloned and expressed on large scale in both homologous and heterologous hosts with the advent of genetic engineering. Therefore, we have reviewed the literature regarding cloning of β-Xylosidase genes into various hosts for their heterologous production along with sequence similarities among different β-Xylosidases. The study provides insight into the current status of cloning, expression and sequence analysis of β-Xylosidases for industrial applications. PMID:27080227

  16. Molecular cloning and expression of the human deoxythymidylate kinase gene in yeast.

    PubMed Central

    Su, J Y; Sclafani, R A

    1991-01-01

    (Deoxy)thymidylate (dTMP) kinase is an enzyme which phosphorylates dTMP to dTDP in the presence of ATP and magnesium. This enzyme is important in cellular DNA synthesis because the synthesis of dTTP, either via the de novo pathway or through the exogenous supply of thymidine, requires the activity of this enzyme. It has been suggested that the activities of the enzymes involved in DNA precursor biosynthesis, such as thymidine kinase, thymidylate synthase, thymidylate kinase, and dihydrofolate reductase, are subjected to cell cycle regulation. Here we describe the cloning of a human dTMP kinase cDNA by functional complementation of a yeast dTMP kinase temperature-sensitive mutant at the non-permissive temperature. The nucleotide sequence of the cloned human cDNA is predicted to encode a 24 KD protein that shows considerable homology with the yeast and vaccinia virus dTMP kinase enzymes. The human enzyme activity has been investigated by expressing it in yeast. In this work, we demonstrate that the cloned human cDNA, when expressed in yeast, produces dTMP kinase activity. Images PMID:2017365

  17. Molecular cloning of starch synthase I from maize (W64) endosperm and expression in Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Knight, M E; Harn, C; Lilley, C E; Guan, H; Singletary, G W; MuForster, C; Wasserman, B P; Keeling, P L

    1998-06-01

    A full length cDNA clone encoding a starch synthase (zSS) from maize endosperm (inbred line W64) was isolated and characterized. The cDNA clone (Ss1) is 2907 bp in length and contains an open reading frame of 1866 bp corresponding to a polypeptide of 622 amino acid residues including a transit peptide of 39 amino acids. The Ss1 cDNA clone was identified as zSSI by its direct alignment with sequences to: (i) the N-terminus obtained from the granule-associated form of the zSSI polypeptide, (ii) four internal peptide fragments obtained from the granule-associated form of the zSSI protein, and (iii) one internal fragment from the soluble form of the zSSI protein. The deduced amino acid sequence of Ss1 shares 75.7% sequence identity with rice soluble Ss and contains the highly conserved KSGGLGDV putative ADP-Glc binding site. Moreover, Ss1 exhibited significant activity when expressed in E. coli and the expressed protein is recognized by the antibody raised against the granule associated zSSI protein. Ss1 transcripts were detected in endosperm beginning at 15 days after pollination, but were not found in embryo, leaf or root. Maize contains a single copy of the Ss1 gene, which maps close to the Waxy locus of chromosome 9. PMID:9675904

  18. Molecular cloning and high-level expression of a bromoperoxidase gene from Streptomyces aureofaciens Tü24.

    PubMed Central

    van Pée, K H

    1988-01-01

    A bromoperoxidase gene was cloned from Streptomyces aureofaciens Tü24 into Streptomyces lividans TK64 by using the promoter-probe vector pIJ486. Subcloning of DNA from the original, unstable clone allowed the gene to be localized to a 1.7-kilobase (kb) fragment of DNA. Southern blotting showed that the cloned 1.7-kb insert hybridized to a 4.3-kb fragment in an SstI digest of S. aureofaciens Tü24 total DNA. The 1.7-kb insert was shown to code for a protein with the electrophoretic properties of the subunits of the nonheme bromoperoxidase isolated from S. aureofaciens Tü24. The protein produced by S. lividans TK64 transformed with pHM621, which contained an 8.0-kb insert, was shown to be identical to the S. aureofaciens Tü24 bromoperoxidase in terms of its electrophoretic mobility on denaturing and nondenaturing polyacrylamide gels and its NH2-terminal amino acid sequence. The bromoperoxidase was overproduced (up to 180 times) by S. lividans TK64 containing pHM621. Based on the heat stability of the S. aureofaciens Tü24 bromoperoxidase, a new and simple purification procedure with very high yields was developed. Images PMID:3142859

  19. Building a human kinase gene repository: Bioinformatics, molecular cloning, and functional validation

    PubMed Central

    Park, Jaehong; Hu, Yanhui; Murthy, T. V. S.; Vannberg, Fredrik; Shen, Binghua; Rolfs, Andreas; Hutti, Jessica E.; Cantley, Lewis C.; LaBaer, Joshua; Harlow, Ed; Brizuela, Leonardo

    2005-01-01

    Kinases catalyze the phosphorylation of proteins, lipids, sugars, nucleosides, and other important cellular metabolites and play key regulatory roles in all aspects of eukaryotic cell physiology. Here, we describe the mining of public databases to collect the sequence information of all identified human kinase genes and the cloning of the corresponding ORFs. We identified 663 genes, 511 encoding protein kinases, and 152 encoding nonprotein kinases. We describe the successful cloning and sequence verification of 270 of these genes. Subcloning of this gene set in mammalian expression vectors and their use in high-throughput cell-based screens allowed the validation of the clones at the level of expression and the identification of previously uncharacterized modulators of the survivin promoter. Moreover, expressions of the kinase genes in bacteria, followed by autophosphorylation assays, identified 21 protein kinases that showed autocatalytic activity. The work described here will facilitate the functional assaying of this important gene family in phenotypic screens and their use in biochemical and structural studies. PMID:15928075

  20. Cloning and chromosomal localization of the human A{sub 2b} adenosine receptor gene (ADORA2B) and its pseudogene

    SciTech Connect

    Jacobson, M.A.; Johnson, R.G.; Luneau, C.J.

    1995-05-20

    To determine the chromosomal localization of the human A{sub 2b} adenosine receptor, the corresponding genomic clone was isolated and used as a probe for fluorescence in situ hybridization to metaphase chromosomes. Partial sequence analysis of the A{sub 2b} gene (ADORA2B) revealed an intron that interrupted the coding region corresponding to the second intracellular loop similar to that reported for A{sub 1} and A{sub 2a} adenosine receptor genes. A pseudogene for the A{sub 2b} receptor was also identified; it exhibited 79% identity to the A{sub 2b} adenosine receptor cDNA coding sequence and contained multiple deletions, point mutations, and frame shifts and two in-frame stops. These changes would result in the inability to encode a functional receptor. The genomic clones were utilized to localize the A{sub 2b} receptor to chromosome 17p12 and the A{sub 2b} pseudogene to chromosome 1q32. 15 refs., 1 fig.

  1. Development of a calcium-sensing receptor molecular imaging agent

    PubMed Central

    Yusof, Adlina Mohd; Kothandaraman, Shankaran; Zhang, Xiaoli; Saji, Motoyasu; Ringel, Matthew D.; Tweedle, Michael F.; Phay, John E.

    2015-01-01

    Background Calcium-sensing receptor (CaSR) is expressed by parathyroid cells and thyroid C-cells (from which medullary thyroid carcinoma [MTC] is derived). A molecular imaging agent localizing to the CaSR could improve the detection of parathyroids and MTC preoperatively or intraoperatively. We synthesized a novel compound containing a fluorine residue for potential future labeling and demonstrated that the compound inhibited CaSR function in vitro. Methods We synthesized compound M, a derivative of a known calcilytic compound, Calhex-231. Human embryonic kidney cells transfected with green-fluorescent protein-tagged CaSR or control vector were preincubated with compound M before the addition of calcium. Immunoblotting for total mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK: ERK1/2), activated MAPK (phosphorylated ERK1/2), and glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase was performed. Results Synthesis of compound M was confirmed by mass spectrometry. Inhibition of the MAPK signaling pathway by compound M was demonstrated in a dose-dependent manner by a decrease in phosphorylated ERK1/2 with no change in total ERK1/2 levels. Compound M inhibited MAPK signaling slightly better than the parent compound. Conclusion We have developed a novel molecule which demonstrates functional inhibition of CaSR and has a favorable structure for labeling. This compound appears to be appropriate for further development as a molecular imaging tool to enhance the surgical treatment of parathyroid disease and MTC. PMID:24238055

  2. Molecular analysis of two cDNA clones encoding acidic class I chitinase in maize.

    PubMed Central

    Wu, S; Kriz, A L; Widholm, J M

    1994-01-01

    The cloning and analysis of two different cDNA clones encoding putative maize (Zea mays L.) chitinases obtained by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and cDNA library screening is described. The cDNA library was made from poly(A)+ RNA from leaves challenged with mercuric chloride for 2 d. The two clones, pCh2 and pCh11, appear to encode class I chitinase isoforms with cysteine-rich domains (not found in pCh11 due to the incomplete sequence) and proline-/glycine-rich or proline-rich hinge domains, respectively. The pCh11 clone resembles a previously reported maize seed chitinase; however, the deduced proteins were found to have acidic isoelectric points. Analysis of all monocot chitinase sequences available to date shows that not all class I chitinases possess the basic isoelectric points usually found in dicotyledonous plants and that monocot class II chitinases do not necessarily exhibit acidic isoelectric points. Based on sequence analysis, the pCh2 protein is apparently synthesized as a precursor polypeptide with a signal peptide. Although these two clones belong to class I chitinases, they share only about 70% amino acid homology in the catalytic domain region. Southern blot analysis showed that pCh2 may be encoded by a small gene family, whereas pCh11 was single copy. Northern blot analysis demonstrated that these genes are differentially regulated by mercuric chloride treatment. Mercuric chloride treatment caused rapid induction of pCh2 from 6 to 48 h, whereas pCh11 responded only slightly to the same treatment. During seed germination, embryos constitutively expressed both chitinase genes and the phytohormone abscisic acid had no effect on the expression. The fungus Aspergillus flavus was able to induce both genes to comparable levels in aleurone layers and embryos but not in endosperm tissue. Maize callus growth on the same plate with A. flavus for 1 week showed induction of the transcripts corresponding to pCh2 but not to pCh11. These studies indicate that

  3. Cloning and expression analysis of a Toll-like receptor 22 (tlr22) gene from turbot, Scophthalmus maximus.

    PubMed

    Hu, Guo-Bin; Zhang, Shou-Feng; Yang, Xi; Liu, Da-Hai; Liu, Qiu-Ming; Zhang, Shi-Cui

    2015-06-01

    Toll-like receptor 22 (TLR22) exists exclusively in aquatic animals and recognizes double stranded RNA (dsRNA). In the present study, a tlr22 gene and its 5'-flanking sequence were cloned from turbot, Scophthalmus maximus, its immune responsive expression was subsequently studied in vivo. The turbot (sm)tlr22 gene spans over 5.6 kb with a structure of 4 exon-3 intron and encodes 962 amino acids. The deduced protein shows the highest sequence identity (76.7%) to Japanese flounder Tlr22 and possesses a signal peptide sequence, a leucine-rich repeat (LRR) domain composed of 27 LRR motifs, a transmembrane region and a Toll/interleukin-1 receptor (TIR) domain. Phylogenetic analysis grouped it with other teleost Tlr22s. The interferon-stimulated response element (ISRE) and signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT) binding site important for the basal transcriptional activity of TLR3 were predicted in the 5'-flanking sequence of smtlr22 gene. Quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) analysis demonstrated the constitutive expression of smtlr22 mRNA in all examined tissues with higher levels in the head kidney, kidney and spleen. Further, smtlr22 expression was significantly up-regulated following challenge with polyinosinic: polycytidylic acid (poly I:C), lipopolysaccharide (LPS) or turbot reddish body iridovirus (TRBIV) in the gills, head kidney, spleen and muscle, with maximum increases ranging from 2.56 to 6.24 fold upon different immunostimulants and organs. These findings suggest a possible role of Smtlr22 in the immune responses to the infections of a broad range of pathogens that include DNA and RNA viruses and Gram-negative bacteria. PMID:25770871

  4. Molecular simulation of receptors of physiologically active compounds for purposes of medical chemistry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baskin, Igor I.; Palyulin, Vladimir A.; Zefirov, Nikolai S.

    2009-06-01

    The general strategy of the molecular simulation of biological receptors and their interaction with ligands is considered. The procedures for construction of 3D protein models, molecular docking, evaluation of model quality, determination of the free energy of protein binding with ligands are discussed. The methods of molecular design of new medicaments based on molecular models of biological targets: virtual screening and de novo design, are presented. Examples of the above-listed approaches for the simulation of a number of pharmacologically significant receptors, analysis of receptor-ligand interactions and design of new biologically active organic compounds are given.

  5. Cockroach GABAB receptor subtypes: molecular characterization, pharmacological properties and tissue distribution.

    PubMed

    Blankenburg, S; Balfanz, S; Hayashi, Y; Shigenobu, S; Miura, T; Baumann, O; Baumann, A; Blenau, W

    2015-01-01

    γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) is the predominant inhibitory neurotransmitter in the central nervous system (CNS). Its effects are mediated by either ionotropic GABAA receptors or metabotropic GABAB receptors. GABAB receptors regulate, via Gi/o G-proteins, ion channels, and adenylyl cyclases. In humans, GABAB receptor subtypes are involved in the etiology of neurologic and psychiatric disorders. In arthropods, however, these members of the G-protein-coupled receptor family are only inadequately characterized. Interestingly, physiological data have revealed important functions of GABAB receptors in the American cockroach, Periplaneta americana. We have cloned cDNAs coding for putative GABAB receptor subtypes 1 and 2 of P. americana (PeaGB1 and PeaGB2). When both receptor proteins are co-expressed in mammalian cells, activation of the receptor heteromer with GABA leads to a dose-dependent decrease in cAMP production. The pharmacological profile differs from that of mammalian and Drosophila GABAB receptors. Western blot analyses with polyclonal antibodies have revealed the expression of PeaGB1 and PeaGB2 in the CNS of the American cockroach. In addition to the widespread distribution in the brain, PeaGB1 is expressed in salivary glands and male accessory glands. Notably, PeaGB1-like immunoreactivity has been detected in the GABAergic salivary neuron 2, suggesting that GABAB receptors act as autoreceptors in this neuron. PMID:25242738

  6. Selectivity profile of the novel muscarinic antagonist UH-AH 37 determined by the use of cloned receptors and isolated tissue preparations.

    PubMed Central

    Wess, J.; Lambrecht, G.; Mutschler, E.; Brann, M. R.; Dörje, F.

    1991-01-01

    1. Functional in vitro experiments were carried out to determine the antimuscarinic potencies of the pirenzepine derivative UH-AH 37 (6-chloro-5,10-dihydro-5-[(1-methyl-4-piperidinyl)acetyl]-11H-dibenzo- [b,e] [1,4] diazepine-11-one hydrochloride) at M1 muscarinic receptors of rabbit vas deferens, M2 receptors of rat left atria and M3 receptors of rat ileum. Furthermore, N-[3H]-methylscopolamine competition binding experiments were performed to obtain its affinities for the five cloned human muscarinic receptors (m1-m5) stably expressed in CHO-K1 cells. Pirenzepine served as a reference drug throughout all experiments. 2. In all preparations used, UH-AH 37 interacted with muscarinic receptors in a fashion characteristic of a simple competitive antagonist. 3. In the functional studies, UH-AH 37, like pirenzepine, showed high affinity for M1 (pA2 8.49) and low affinity for M2 muscarinic receptors (pA2 6.63). In contrast to pirenzepine, UH-AH 37 also displayed high affinity for M3 receptors (pA2 8.04). 4. In agreement with its functional profile, UH-AH 37 bound with highest affinity to m1 (pKi 8.74) and with lowest affinity to m2 receptors (pKi 7.35). Moreover, it showed a 7 fold higher affinity for m3 (pKi 8.19) than for m2 receptors, whereas pirenzepine bound to both receptors with low affinities. 5. The binding affinity of UH-AH 37 for m4 and m5 receptors (pKi 8.32 for both receptors) was only ca. 2.5 fold lower than that for m1 receptors, while the corresponding affinity differences were 6 and 13 fold in case of pirenzepine.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:2043926

  7. Molecular characterization and quantification of the follicle-stimulating hormone receptor in turbot (Scophthalmus maximus).

    PubMed

    Jia, Yudong; Sun, Ai; Meng, Zhen; Liu, Baoliang; Lei, Jilin

    2016-02-01

    Molecular cloning, characterization, and functional analysis of follicle-stimulating hormone receptor (FSHR) in female turbot (Scophthalmus maximus) were evaluated. Results showed that the full-length FSHR cDNA was 3824 bp long and contained a 2202 bp open reading frame that encoded a mature protein of 733 amino acids (aa) and a signal peptide of 18 aa. Multiple sequence analyses showed that turbot FSHR has high homology with the corresponding genes of other teleosts and significant homology with that of Hippoglossus hippoglossus. Turbot FSHR has the typical structural architecture of glycoprotein hormone receptors consisting of a large N-terminal extracellular domain, seven transmembrane domains and short C-terminal intracellular domain. FSHR mRNA was found to be abundant in the ovaries, but deficient in eyes, intestine, brain, muscle, gills, spleen, stomach, heart and kidney. Furthermore, FSHR mRNA was found to increase gradually from pre-vitellogenesis to migratory nucleus stages, with the highest values observed during the late vitellogenesis stage of the reproductive cycle. However, FSHR mRNA was found to decrease dramatically during the atresia stage. Meanwhile, functional analysis with HEK293T cells continual expressing FSHR demonstrated that FSHR was specifically stimulated by ovine FSH, but not ovine LH. These results indicate that turbot FSHR is mainly involved in the stimulation of vitellogenesis, regulation of oocyte maturation as well as promotion of ovarian development via specific ligand binding. These findings open doors to further investigation of physiological functions of FSHR, which will be valuable for fish reproduction and broodstock management. PMID:26358315

  8. Molecular cloning and characterization of the full-length Hsp90 gene from Matricaria recutita.

    PubMed

    Ling, S P; Su, S S; Zhang, H M; Zhang, X S; Liu, X Y; Pan, G F; Yuan, Y

    2014-01-01

    Heat shock protein 90 (Hsp90) is one of the most abundant and conserved chaperone proteins and plays important roles in plant growth and responses to environmental stimuli. However, little is known regarding the sequence and function of Hsp90s in Matricaria recutita. In the present study, we cloned the full-length cDNA sequence of the hsp90 gene from this species. Using rapid amplification of cDNA ends technologies with 2 degenerate primers that were designed based on the hsp90 gene sequence from other members of Asteraceae, we isolated and characterized an Hsp90 homolog gene from M. recutita (Mr-Hsp90). The full-length Mr-hsp90 cDNA sequence, containing 2097 base pairs, encodes a protein of 698 amino acids. Based on amino acid sequence identity, Mr-Hsp90 showed high similarity to other cloned Hsp90 proteins. The Mr-Hsp90 protein was closely clustered with the Lactuca sativa in a phylogenetic tree. These results indicate that the cloned sequence of Mr-Hsp90 is a member of the Hsp90 family, which is reported for the first time in M. recutita. Next, we conducted a salt stress experiment to determine the protein's function under salt stress conditions. Survival of chamomile seedlings subjected to heat-shock pretreatment was significantly increased compared with groups that had not undergone heat-shock pretreatment in a salt stress environment. This indicates that Mr-Hsp90 plays an important role in the salt resistance of chamomile seedlings. PMID:25526220

  9. Molecular cloning and characterization of mutant and wild-type human. beta. -actin genes

    SciTech Connect

    Leavitt, J.; Gunning, P.; Porreca, P.; Ng, S.Y.; Lin, C.H.; Kedes, L.

    1984-10-01

    There are more than 20 ..beta..-actin-specific sequences in the human genome, many of which are pseudogenes. To facilitate the isolation of potentially functional ..beta..-actin genes, they used the new method of B. Seed for selecting genomic clones by homologous recombination. A derivative of the ..pi..VX miniplasmid, ..pi..AN7..beta..1, was constructed by insertion of the 600-base-pair 3' untranslated region of the ..beta..-actin mRNA expressed in human fibroblasts. Five clones containing ..beta..-actin sequences were selected from an amplified human fetal gene library by homologous recombination between library phage and the miniplasmid. One of these clones contained a complete ..beta..-actin gene with a coding sequence identical to that determined for the mRNA of human fibroblasts. A DNA fragment consisting of mostly intervening sequences from this gene was then use to identify 13 independent recombinant copies of the analogous gene from two specially constructed gene libraries, each containing one of the two types of mutant ..beta..-actin genes found in a line of neoplastic human fibroblasts. The amino acid and nucleotide sequences encoded by the unmutated gene predict that a guanine-to-adenine transition is responsible for the glycine-to-aspartic acid mutation at codon 244 and would also result in the loss of a HaeIII site. Detection of this HaeIII polymorphism among the fibroblast-derived closed verified the identity of the ..beta..-actin gene expressed in human fibroblasts.

  10. Hypoxically inducible barley lactate dehydrogenase: cDNA cloning and molecular analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Hondred, D. ); Hanson, A.D. Univ. de Montreal, Quebec )

    1990-09-01

    In the roots of barley and other cereals, hypoxia induces a set of five isozymes of L-lactate dehydrogenase (LDH; (S)-lactate:NADH oxidoreductase, EC 1.1.1.27). Biochemical and genetic data indicate that the five LDH isozymes are tetramers that arise from random association of the products of two Ldh loci. To investigate this system, cDNA clones of LDH were isolated from a {lambda}gt11 cDNA library derived from hypoxically treated barley roots. The library was screened with antiserum raised against barley LDH purified {approx}3,000-fold by an improved three-step procedure. Immunopositive clones were rescreened with a cDNA probe synthesized by the polymerase chain reaction using primers modeled from the amino acid sequences of two tryptic LDH peptides. Two types of LDH clones were found. Nucleotide sequence analysis of one representative insert of each type (respectively, 1,305 and 1,166 base pairs) revealed open reading framed encoding 10 peptide fragments of LDH. The 1,305-base-pair insert included the entire coding region of a 356-residue LDH monomer. The nucleotide sequences of the two LDH cDNAs were 92% identical in the coding region, but highly divergent in the 3{prime} noncoding region, and thus probably correspond to the two postulated Ldh loci. The deduced amino acid sequences of the two barley LDHs were 96% identical to each other and very similar to those from vertebrate and bacterial LDHs. RNA blot hybridization showed a single mRNA band of 1.5 kilobases whose level rose about 8-fold in roots during hypoxic induction, as did the level of translatable LDH message.

  11. Molecular cloning and regulatory analysis of the arylsulfatase structural gene of Neurospora crassa.

    PubMed Central

    Paietta, J V

    1989-01-01

    The ars-1+ gene of Neurospora crassa encodes the enzyme arylsulfatase. ars-1+ is in a group of highly regulated sulfur-related structural genes that are expressed under conditions of sulfur limitation and are under coordinate control of the cys-3+ and scon+ regulatory genes. The ars-1+ gene was cloned by chromosome walking from the qa gene cluster, using a lambda library. Cotransformation of an N. crassa ars-1 mutant with the isolated lambda clones and the benomyl resistance gene, followed by assay for arylsulfatase activity, was used to screen for the ars-1+ gene. Further confirmation that the cloned segment mapped to the ars-1+ locus was obtained by restriction-fragment-length polymorphism analysis. Northern (RNA) blot analysis showed that the ars-1+ gene was transcribed to give an mRNA of 2.3 kilobases. In wild-type cells, the ars-1+ transcript was abundant under sulfur-derepressing conditions but absent under repressing conditions. Time course analysis showed that the appearance of ars-1+ message in sulfur-derepressed cultures paralleled the appearance of arylsulfatase enzyme activity. In addition, transcription of ars-1+ was detected only under derepressing conditions in a nuclear transcription assay. In a cys-3 regulatory mutant that was unable to synthesize arylsulfatase (or other sulfur-controlled enzymes), there was no ars-1+ transcript under repressing or derepressing conditions. In a temperature-sensitive cys-3 mutant, the ars-1+ transcript was present only at the permissive growth temperature and under sulfur derepression. A negative regulatory mutant, sconc, displayed both constitutive expression of arylsulfatase enzyme activity and content of ars-1+ message. Images PMID:2528685

  12. Molecular cloning and characterization of a calreticulin cDNA from the pinewood nematode Bursaphelenchus xylophilus.

    PubMed

    Li, Xundong; Zhuo, Kan; Luo, Mei; Sun, Longhua; Liao, Jinling

    2011-06-01

    The cloning and characterization of a cDNA encoding a calreticulin from the pinewood nematode Bursaphelenchus xylophilus is described herein. The full-length cDNA (Bx-crt-1) contained a 1200 bp open reading frame that could be translated to a 399 amino acid polypeptide. The deduced protein contained highly conserved regions of a calreticulin gene and had 66.2-70.1% amino acid sequence identity to other calreticulin sequences from nematodes. RNAi, RT-PCR amplification, and southern blot suggest that Bx-crt-1 may be important for the development of B. xylophilus. PMID:21371475

  13. Molecular cloning, purification and immunogenicity of recombinant Brucella abortus 544 malate dehydrogenase protein

    PubMed Central

    Reyes, Alisha Wehdnesday Bernardo; Simborio, Hannah Leah Tadeja; Hop, Huynh Tan; Arayan, Lauren Togonon

    2016-01-01

    The Brucella mdh gene was successfully cloned and expressed in E. coli. The purified recombinant malate dehydrogenase protein (rMDH) was reactive to Brucella-positive bovine serum in the early stage, but not reactive in the middle or late stage, and was reactive to Brucella-positive mouse serum in the late stage, but not in the early or middle stage of infection. In addition, rMDH did not react with Brucella-negative bovine or mouse sera. These results suggest that rMDH has the potential for use as a specific antigen in serological diagnosis for early detection of bovine brucellosis. PMID:27051349

  14. Molecular cloning, purification and immunogenicity of recombinant Brucella abortus 544 malate dehydrogenase protein.

    PubMed

    Reyes, Alisha Wehdnesday Bernardo; Simborio, Hannah Leah Tadeja; Hop, Huynh Tan; Arayan, Lauren Togonon; Kim, Suk

    2016-03-01

    The Brucella mdh gene was successfully cloned and expressed in E. coli. The purified recombinant malate dehydrogenase protein (rMDH) was reactive to Brucella-positive bovine serum in the early stage, but not reactive in the middle or late stage, and was reactive to Brucella-positive mouse serum in the late stage, but not in the early or middle stage of infection. In addition, rMDH did not react with Brucella-negative bovine or mouse sera. These results suggest that rMDH has the potential for use as a specific antigen in serological diagnosis for early detection of bovine brucellosis. PMID:27051349

  15. Molecular cloning and expression of the gene for a major leucine-rich protein from human hepatoblastoma cells (HepG2).

    PubMed

    Hou, J; Wang, F; McKeehan, W L

    1994-02-01

    The human hepatoblastoma cell line, HepG2, exhibits an array of stable properties in culture that have made it a popular cell culture model for studies on regulation of liver-specific gene expression and properties of hepatoma cells. In contrast to other hepatoma cell lines, HepG2 cells overexpress a characteristic detergent-extractable, wheat germ lectin-binding protein with apparent molecular mass of 130 kDa. Using an antibody to screen a phage expression library of HepG2 complementary DNA (cDNA), we identified and cloned a 4734 base pair cDNA which codes for a 130-kDa leucine-rich protein (lrp 130) when expressed in transfected cells. The deduced sequence of lrp130 exhibits sequences weakly homologous to the consensus sequence for the ATP binding site in ATP-dependent kinases and the protein kinase C phosphorylation site of the epidermal growth factor receptor. Consistent with the higher levels of expression of lrp130 antigen, Northern hybridization analysis indicated that HepG2 cells express high levels of the major 4.8 kilobase lrp130 mRNA relative to other hepatoma cells. Although currently of unknown function, lrp130 may be of utility as a marker for liver cell lineages represented by the HepG2 cell line. PMID:8012652

  16. [Cloning of gene fragment of estrogen receptor-beta and its expression in mouse embryo].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zi-Feng; Fan, Shao-Hua; Lu, Jun; Wu, Dong-Mei; Shan, Qun; Hu, Bin; Li, Fei; Zheng, Yuan-Lin

    2008-03-01

    In order to study the expression and regulation effects of estrogen receptor-beta (ERbeta) in the development of mouse embryo, the primer of ERbeta was designed, the ERbeta fragment was first obtained by RT-PCR and subcloned into plasmids pGEM- 3Z, then the recombinant plasmids were linearized with the restriction enzymes of EcoRand Hind. Using Sp6 and T7 RNA polymerase, the digoxigenin(dig) labeled sense and anti-sense probes were transcriped in vitro, respectively. Then the expression of ERbeta in mouse embryo was examined with the probes by whole-mount in situ hybridization. The results indicated that ERbeta is expressed in the brain, spinal neural tube, genital ridge, pericardium, limb bud and mandibular arch of 10.5 dpc embryo, and is also expressed in the telencephalon, mesencephalon, medulla oblongata, spinal cord and limb bud of 13.5 dpc embryo. These results suggest that ERbeta maybe play a role of regulation in sexual differentiation, primal differentiation of neural tube, further differentiation of three primary cerebral vesicles and spinal cord, generation and differentiation of bone and cartilage of limb bud, development of pericardium and configuration differentiation of mandibular in mouse embryo. PMID:18332005

  17. Molecular evidence for the existence of an aryl hydrocarbon receptor pathway in scallops Chlamys farreri.

    PubMed

    Cai, Yuefeng; Pan, Luqing; Miao, Jingjing

    2016-01-01

    The aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) is a ligand-activated transcription factor that controls the expression of a diverse set of genes. In this study we cloned full-length cDNAs encoding an AhR homologue (designated CfAhR, Accession number: FJ588640) from scallop Chlamys farreri. The CfAhR sequence was constituted by an open reading frame (ORF) of 2466bp encoding 821 amino acids. The predicted molecular weight was 93.0kDa. The CfAhR showed a high conservation of the residues and domains essential to the function of AhR, including basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) and Per-ARNT-Sim (PAS) domains. Phylogenetic analysis demonstrated that it was clustered within the invertebrate AhR branch. CfAhR expression was detected in gill, digestive gland, ovary, spermary, mantle and adductor, and the highest transcription level was observed in gill. Recombinant plasmid CfAhR-pET32a (designated rCfAhR) was successfully expressed in Escherichia coli BL21. To investigate the molecular detoxification mechanism of benzo(a)pyrene (BaP) detoxification-related genes (AhR; aryl hydrocarbon receptor nuclear translocator, ARNT; heat shock protein 90, HSP90; cytochrome P450 1A1, CYP1A1; glutathione S-transferase pi, GST-pi and P glycoprotein, Pgp) in C. farreri gill, real-time quantitative PCR analysis revealed that the mRNA expression level of CfAhR, xenobiotic-metabolizing enzymes and efflux transporters was induced by BaP and was sensitive to BaP exposure time and concentration, suggesting that BaP influenced the expression of a putative AhR/ARNT signaling pathway in scallops. Our results support the possibility that CfAhR genes are early molecular indicators of BaP through a putative CYP signaling pathway in marine bivalves. PMID:26927881

  18. Cloning and expression of ligand-gated ion-channel receptor L2 in central nervous system

    SciTech Connect

    Houtani, Takeshi; Munemoto, Yumi; Kase, Masahiko; Sakuma, Satoru; Tsutsumi, Toshiyuki; Sugimoto, Tetsuo . E-mail: sugimoto@takii.kmu.ac.jp

    2005-09-23

    An orphan receptor of ligand-gated ion-channel type (L2, also termed ZAC according to the presence of zinc ion for channel activation) was identified by computer-assisted search programs on human genome database. The L2 protein shares partial homology with serotonin receptors 5HT3A and 5HT3B. We have cloned L2 cDNA derived from human caudate nucleus and characterized the exon-intron structure as follows: (1) The L2 protein has four transmembrane regions (M1-M4) and a long cytoplasmic loop between M3 and M4. (2) The sequence is conserved in species including chimpanzee, dog, cow, and opossum. (3) Nine exons form its protein-coding region and especially exon 5 corresponds to a disulfide bond region on the amino-terminal side. Our analysis using multiple tissue cDNA panels revealed that at least two splicing variants of L2 mRNA are present. The cDNA PCR amplification study revealed that L2 mRNA is expressed in tissues including brain, pancreas, liver, lung, heart, kidney, and skeletal muscle while 5HT3A mRNA could be detected in brain, heart, placenta, lung, kidney, pancreas, and skeletal muscle, and 5HT3B mRNA in brain, kidney, and skeletal muscle, suggesting different significance in tissue expression of these receptors. Regional expression of L2 mRNA and protein was examined in brain. The RT-PCR studies confirmed L2 mRNA expression in hippocampus, striatum, amygdala, and thalamus in adult brain. The L2 protein was immunolocalized by using antipeptide antibodies. Immunostained tissue sections revealed that L2-like immunoreactivity was dominantly expressed in the hippocampal CA3 pyramidal cells and in the polymorphic layer of the dentate gyrus. We analyzed the expression of L2 protein in HEK293 cells using GFP fusion protein reporter system. Western blots revealed that L2 protein confers sugar chains on the extracellular side. In transfected HEK293 cells, cellular membranes and intracellular puncta were densely labeled with GFP, suggesting selective dispatch to the

  19. Molecular cloning and characterization of protective outer membrane protein P.69 from Bordetella pertussis.

    PubMed Central

    Charles, I G; Dougan, G; Pickard, D; Chatfield, S; Smith, M; Novotny, P; Morrissey, P; Fairweather, N F

    1989-01-01

    Protein P.69 is localized on the outer membrane of Bordetella pertussis and is one of the virulence factors believed to contribute to the disease state of whooping cough. We demonstrate that protein synthesis of P.69 is under genetic control of the vir locus. Using oligonucleotide probes derived from the protein sequence of a cyanogen bromide fragment, we have cloned the gene for P.69 from B. pertussis CN2992. Analysis of the DNA sequence reveals a G + C-rich gene capable of encoding a protein of 910 amino acids with a Mr of 93,478, suggesting that P.69 is a processed form of a larger precursor. In common with some of the genes in the pertussis toxin operon, the sequence CCTGG was found 5' to the ATG initiation codon. At the 3' end, 29 bases after the TAA stop codon, the sequence GTTTTTCCT was found and may have some function in transcription termination. A full-length clone of the gene for P.69 carried by the cosmid pBPI69 was unable to direct the expression of P.69 protein in an Escherichia coli host. The generation of P.69-fusion products allowed the detection of P.69-specific protein products synthesized in E. coli. Images PMID:2542937

  20. Molecular cloning of a cDNA encoding the human Sm-D autoantigen

    SciTech Connect

    Rokeach, L.A.; Haselby, J.A.; Hoch, S.O. )

    1988-07-01

    Antibodies to the Sm-D polypeptide antigen are closely associated with the rheumatic disease systemic lupus erythematosus. Sm-D exists in the cell as one of the core proteins of the small nuclear ribonucleoprotein complexes implicated in RNA processing. The authors have isolated a cDNA clone, D45-2, coding for the Sm-D human nuclear antigen by screening a human B-lymphocyte cDNA library with synthetic oligonucleotide probes. The 1633-base-pair clone contains an open reading frame (ORF) 357 nucleotides long, capable of encoding a 13,282-dalton polypeptide. The Sm-D coding region is initiated at an AUG codon downstream from a sequence with excellent match to the consensus for the eukaryotic ribosome-binding site. The Sm-D ORF is preceded by a 150-nucleotide-long untranslated leader and followed by a 1126-nucleotide-long untranslated region containing four putative poly(A) signals. The predicted amino acid sequence reveals a (Gly-Arg){sub 9} repeated motif at the C terminus, which may constitute one of the Sm-D immunoreactive determinants. Moreover, this C terminus shows interesting features: (i) a good homology to protamines as expected for a nucleic acid binding protein and (ii) a striking similarity to a region in the Epstein-Barr nuclear antigen.

  1. Molecular cloning and expression analysis of a novel BCCP subunit gene from Aleurites moluccana.

    PubMed

    Xuan, W Y; Zhang, Y; Liu, Z Q; Feng, D; Luo, M Y

    2015-01-01

    Aleurites moluccana L. is grown as a roadside tree in southern China and the oil content of its seed is higher than other oil plants, such as Jatropha curcas and Camellia oleifera. A. moluccana is considered a promising energy plant because its seed oil could be used to produce biodiesel and bio-jet fuel. In addition, the bark, leaves, and kernels of A. moluccana have various medical and commercial uses. Here, a novel gene coding the biotin carboxyl carrier protein subunit (BCCP) was cloned from A. moluccana L. using the homology cloning method combined with rapid amplification of cDNA end (RACE) technology. The isolated full-length cDNA sequence (designated AM-accB) was 1188 bp, containing a 795-bp open reading frame coding for 265 amino acids. The deduced amino acid sequence of AM-accB contained a biotinylated domain located between amino acids 190 and 263. A. moluccana BCCP shows high identity at the amino acid level to its homologues in other higher plants, such as Vernicia fordii, J. curcas, and Ricinus communis (86, 77, and 70%, respectively), which all contain conserved domains for ACCase activity. The expression of the AM-accB gene during the middle stage of development and maturation in A. moluccana seeds was higher than that in early and later stages. The expression pattern of the AM-accB gene is very similar to that of the oil accumulation rate. PMID:26345927

  2. Molecular cloning and expression of bovine kappa-casein in Escherichia coli

    SciTech Connect

    Kang, Y.C.; Richardson, T.

    1988-01-01

    A cDNA library was constructed using poly(A)/sup +/RNA from bovine mammary gland. This cDNA library of 6000 clones was screened employing colony hybridization using /sup 32/P-labelled oligonucleotide probes and restriction endonuclease mapping. The cDNA from the selected plasmid, pKR76, was sequenced using the dideoxy-chain termination method. The cDNA insert of pKR76 carries the full-length sequence, which codes for mature kappa-casein protein. The amino acid sequence deduced from the cDNA sequence fits the published amino acid sequence with three exceptions; the reported pyroglutamic acid at position 1, tyrosine at position 35, and aspartic acid at position 81 are, respectively, a glutamine, a histidine, and an asparagine in the clone containing pKR76. The MspI-, NlaIV-cleaved fragment (630 base pair) from the kappa-casein cDNA insert has been subcloned into expression vectors pUC18 and pKK233-2, which contain a lac promoter and a trc promoter, respectively. Escherichia coli cells carrying the recombinant expression plasmids were shown to produce kappa-casein protein having the expected mobility on sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and being recognized by specific antibodies raised against natural bovine kappa-casein.

  3. Cysteine-rich venom proteins from the snakes of Viperinae subfamily - molecular cloning and phylogenetic relationship.

    PubMed

    Ramazanova, Anna S; Starkov, Vladislav G; Osipov, Alexey V; Ziganshin, Rustam H; Filkin, Sergey Yu; Tsetlin, Victor I; Utkin, Yuri N

    2009-01-01

    Cysteine-rich proteins found in animal venoms (CRISP-Vs) are members of a large family of cysteine-rich secretory proteins (CRISPs). CRISP-Vs acting on different ion channels were found in venoms or mRNA (cDNA) encoding CRISP-Vs were cloned from snakes of three main families (Elapidae, Colubridae and Viperidae). About thirty snake CRISP-Vs were sequenced so far, however no complete sequence for CRISP-V from Viperinae subfamily was reported. We have cloned and sequenced for the first time cDNAs encoding CRISP-Vs from Vipera nikolskii and Vipera berus vipers (Viperinae). The deduced mature CRISP-V amino acid sequences consist of 220 amino acid residues. Phylogenetic analysis showed that viper proteins are closely related to those of Crotalinae snakes. The presence of CRISP-V in the V. berus venom was revealed using a combination of gel-filtration chromatography, electrophoresis and MALDI mass spectrometry. The finding of the putative channel blocker in viper venom may indicate its action on prey nervous system. PMID:19041663

  4. Molecular cloning and characterization of copper amine oxidase from Huperzia serrata.

    PubMed

    Sun, Jieyin; Morita, Hiroyuki; Chen, Guoshen; Noguchi, Hiroshi; Abe, Ikuro

    2012-09-15

    A cDNA encoding a novel copper amine oxidase (CAO) was cloned and sequenced from the Chinese club moss Huperzia serrata (Huperziaceae), which produces the Lycopodium alkaloid huperzine A. A 2043-bp open reading frame encoded an Mr 76,854 protein with 681 amino acids. The deduced amino acid sequence shared 44-56% identity with the known CAOs of plant origin, and contained the active site consensus sequence of Asn-Tyr-Asp/Glu. The phylogenetic tree analysis revealed that HsCAO from the primitive vascular plant H. serrata is closely related to Physcomitrella patens subsp CAO. The recombinant enzyme, heterologously expressed in Escherichia coli, catalyzed the oxidative deamination of aliphatic and aromatic amines. Among them, the enzyme accepted cadaverine as the best substrate to catalyze the oxidative deamination to Δ(1)-piperideine, which is the precursor of the Lycopodium alkaloids. Furthermore, a homology modeling and site-directed mutagenesis studies predicted the active site architecture, which suggested the crucial active site residues for the observed substrate preference. This is the first report of the cloning and characterization of a CAO enzyme from the primitive Lycopodium plant. PMID:22901898

  5. Molecular cloning and nucleotide sequence of cDNA for human liver arginase

    SciTech Connect

    Haraguchi, Y.; Takiguchi, M.; Amaya, Y.; Kawamoto, S.; Matsuda, I.; Mori, M.

    1987-01-01

    Arginase (EC3.5.3.1) catalyzes the last step of the urea cycle in the liver of ureotelic animals. Inherited deficiency of the enzyme results in argininemia, an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by hyperammonemia. To facilitate investigation of the enzyme and gene structures and to elucidate the nature of the mutation in argininemia, the authors isolated cDNA clones for human liver arginase. Oligo(dT)-primed and random primer human liver cDNA libraries in lambda gt11 were screened using isolated rat arginase cDNA as a probe. Two of the positive clones, designated lambda hARG6 and lambda hARG109, contained an overlapping cDNA sequence with an open reading frame encoding a polypeptide of 322 amino acid residues (predicted M/sub r/, 34,732), a 5'-untranslated sequence of 56 base pairs, a 3'-untranslated sequence of 423 base pairs, and a poly(A) segment. Arginase activity was detected in Escherichia coli cells transformed with the plasmid carrying lambda hARG6 cDNA insert. RNA gel blot analysis of human liver RNA showed a single mRNA of 1.6 kilobases. The predicted amino acid sequence of human liver arginase is 87% and 41% identical with those of the rat liver and yeast enzymes, respectively. There are several highly conserved segments among the human, rat, and yeast enzymes.

  6. Cloning and molecular analysis of poly(3-hydroxyalkanoate) biosynthesis genes in Pseudomonas aureofaciens.

    PubMed

    Nishikawa, Tomohiro; Ogawa, Keiko; Kohda, Ryoko; Zhixiong, Wang; Miyasaka, Hitoshi; Umeda, Fusako; Maeda, Isamu; Kawase, Masaya; Yagi, Kiyohito

    2002-02-01

    Pseudomonas aureofaciens grown on octanoate or gluconate synthesized medium-chain-length polyhydroxyalkanoates (mcl-PHAs). To clone the PHA synthase gene(s) (phaC), the genomic library of P. aureofaciens was constructed using a cosmid vector. The recombinant cosmids that clone phaC were detected by the complementation with a PHA-negative mutant, P. putida GPp104. The resulting recombinant cosmid, named pVK6, contained a 13-kbp DNA insert. Genetic analysis of the pha locus in pVK6 revealed the presence of six ORFs, genes encoding two PHA synthases, 1 and 2 (phaC1 and phaC2), PHA depolymerase (phaZ), two PHA granule-associated proteins (phaF and phaI), and an unknown protein (phaD). The heterologous expression of pha genes from P. aureofaciens was confirmed. P. putida GPp104 regained the ability to accumulate PHA on introduction of pVK6. Wild-type strains P. oleovorans and P. fluorescens, which were unable to accumulate PHA when grown on gluconate, acquired the ability to accumulate PHA from gluconate when they possessed pVK6. PMID:11815858

  7. Mitochondrial pyruvate dehydrogenase. Molecular cloning of the E1 alpha subunit and expression analysis.

    PubMed Central

    Grof, C P; Winning, B M; Scaysbrook, T P; Hill, S A; Leaver, C J

    1995-01-01

    A polymerase chain reaction-based approach was used to isolate cDNA clones encoding the E1 alpha subunit of the mitochondrial pyruvate dehydrogenase from higher plants. Putative full-length clones were identified on the basis of similarity to E1 alpha sequences from nonplant sources. Southern blot analysis revealed a small family of genes in potato (Solanum tuberosum L.), whereas in cucumber (Cucumis sativus) there are only one or two genes. Tissue-specific variation in the relative amounts of E1 alpha mRNA was observed in northern blot analysis of different potato tissues, with the highest steady-state transcript levels found in floral tissue. Measurement of pyruvate dehydrogenase activity in cucumber cotyledons showed that there is a transient increase to a maximum at 4 to 5 d postimbibition. Western blot analysis revealed that the amount of E1 alpha protein also peaks at this time. Steady-state transcript levels in germinating cucumber cotyledons also show transient accumulation, peaking 2 d postimbibition. These data are consistent with regulation of E1 alpha at the level of transcription and/or mRNA stability in postgerminative cucumber cotyledons. PMID:7659754

  8. Molecular cloning and expression of the ilvGEDAY genes from Salmonella typhimurium.

    PubMed

    Blazey, D L; Kim, R; Burns, R O

    1981-08-01

    The ilvGEDAY genes of Salmonella typhimurium were cloned in Escherichia coli K-12 by in vitro recombination techniques. A single species of recombinant plasmid, designated pDU1, was obtained by selecting for Valr Ampr transformants of strain SK1592. pDU1 was shown to contain a 14-kilobase EcoRI partial digestion product of the S. typhimurium chromosome inserted into the EcoRI site of the pVH2124 cloning vector. The ilvGEDAY genes were found to occupy a maximum length of 7.5 kilobases. Restriction endonuclease analysis of the S. typhimurium ilv gene cluster provided another demonstration of the gene order as well as established the location of ilv Y between ilvA and ilvC. The presence of a ribosomal ribonucleic acid operon on the pDU1 insert, about 3 kilobases from the 5' end of ilvG, was shown by Southern hybridization. The expression of the ilvGEDA operon from pDU1 was found to be elevated, reflecting the increased gene dosage of the multicopy plasmid. A polarity was observed with respect to ilvEDA expression which is discussed in terms of the possible translational effects of the two internal promoter sequences, one located proximal to ilvE and the other located proximal to ilvD. PMID:6167564

  9. Molecular cloning and expression of the calmodulin gene from guinea pig hearts

    PubMed Central

    FENG, RUI; LIU, YAN; SUN, XUEFEI; WANG, YAN; HU, HUIYUAN; GUO, FENG; ZHAO, JINSHENG; HAO, LIYING

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to isolate and characterize a complementary DNA (cDNA) clone encoding the calmodulin (CaM; GenBank accession no. FJ012165) gene from guinea pig hearts. The CaM gene was amplified from cDNA collected from guinea pig hearts and inserted into a pGEM®-T Easy vector. Subsequently, CaM nucleotide and protein sequence similarity analysis was conducted between guinea pigs and other species. In addition, reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) was performed to investigate the CaM 3 expression patterns in different guinea pig tissues. Sequence analysis revealed that the CaM gene isolated from the guinea pig heart had ∼90% sequence identity with the CaM 3 genes in humans, mice and rats. Furthermore, the deduced peptide sequences of CaM 3 in the guinea pig showed 100% homology to the CaM proteins from other species. In addition, the RT-PCR results indicated that CaM 3 was widely and differentially expressed in guinea pigs. In conclusion, the current study provided valuable information with regard to the cloning and expression of CaM 3 in guinea pig hearts. These findings may be helpful for understanding the function of CaM3 and the possible role of CaM3 in cardiovascular diseases. PMID:26136979

  10. A molecular approach to identify active microbes in environmental eukaryote clone libraries.

    PubMed

    Stoeck, Thorsten; Zuendorf, Alexandra; Breiner, Hans-Werner; Behnke, Anke

    2007-02-01

    A rapid method for the simultaneous extraction of RNA and DNA from eukaryote plankton samples was developed in order to discriminate between indigenous active cells and signals from inactive or even dead organisms. The method was tested using samples from below the chemocline of an anoxic Danish fjord. The simple protocol yielded RNA and DNA of a purity suitable for amplification by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and PCR, respectively. We constructed an rRNA-derived and an rDNA-derived clone library to assess the composition of the microeukaryote assemblage under study and to identify physiologically active constituents of the community. We retrieved nearly 600 protistan target clones, which grouped into 84 different phylotypes (98% sequence similarity). Of these phylotypes, 27% occurred in both libraries, 25% exclusively in the rRNA library, and 48% exclusively in the rDNA library. Both libraries revealed good correspondence of the general community composition in terms of higher taxonomic ranks. They were dominated by anaerobic ciliates and heterotrophic stramenopile flagellates thriving below the fjord's chemocline. The high abundance of these bacterivore organisms points out their role as a major trophic link in anoxic marine systems. A comparison of the two libraries identified phototrophic dinoflagellates, "uncultured marine alveolates group I," and different parasites, which were exclusively detected with the rDNA-derived library, as nonindigenous members of the anoxic microeukaryote community under study. PMID:17264997

  11. Molecular characterization of tobacco sulfite reductase: enzyme purification, gene cloning, and gene expression analysis.

    PubMed

    Yonekura-Sakakibara, K; Ashikari, T; Tanaka, Y; Kusumi, T a; Hase, T

    1998-09-01

    A cDNA clone, NtSiR1, that encodes the precursor of ferredoxin-dependent sulfite reductase (Fd-SiR) has been isolated from a cDNA library of tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum cv. SR1). The identity of the cDNA was established by comparison of the purified protein and the predicted structure with the nucleotide sequence. The amino terminus of the purified enzyme was Thr62 of the precursor protein, and the mature region of NtSiR1 consisted of 632 amino acids. Tobacco Fd-SiR is 82, 77, and 48% identical with Fd-SiRs from Zea mays, Arabidopsis thaliana, and a cyanobacterium, respectively. Significant similarity was also found with Escherichia coli NADPH-SiR in the region involved in ligation of siroheme and the [4Fe-4S] cluster. On Northern blot analysis, a transcript of NtSiR1 was detected in leaves, stems, roots, and petals in similar amounts. We also isolated a genomic SiR clone named gNtSiR1. It consists of 8 exons and 7 introns. Genomic Southern blot analysis indicated that at least two SiR genes are present in the tobacco genome. PMID:9722674

  12. Molecular cloning and expression of the KIF3A gene in the frog brain and testis.

    PubMed

    Nakajima, T; Miura, I; Kashiwagi, A; Nakamura, M

    1997-12-01

    KIF3A is a member of the kinesin superfamily proteins (KIFs), but its gene has been cloned only in mouse and sea urchin. We have cloned a homolog of KIF3A from the frog, Rana rugosa (rrKIF3A). The sequence encoded a 699 amino acid protein that shares 93% similarity with mouse KIF3A (mKIF3A) and 69% with sea urchin kinesin-related protein (SpKRP85). The putative ATP-binding domain was completely identical to that of mKIF3A and SpKRP85. The level of rrKIF3A mRNA appeared to be high in the brain and testis of adult frogs, but low in the heart, lung and kidney. The results suggest that the rrKIF3A gene is expressed in the brain and testis more than other tissues of adult frogs examined, and that KIF3A is widely distributed in eukaryotic organisms. PMID:9520632

  13. Molecular cloning and sequencing analysis of the interferon β from Coturnix.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Bei; Chang, Wei-Shan

    2014-01-01

    One pair of primers was designed according to Gallus and Meleagris gallopavo interferon β (IFN-β) sequences published in GenBank. The primers and RNA extraction from the spleen of Coturnix were used to amplify Coturnix IFN-β cDNA by real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). The product was cloned into pEasy-T1 vector. Evaluating recombinant plasmid by PCR and restriction enzyme digestion. Sequence the cloning sequences, comparing the sequencing results by NCBI. We successfully got a Coturnix IFN-β partial sequence. The sequence was subtyped and put to homologous analysis. The results suggested the homology of IFN-β gene of Coturnix and gene of Coturnix and chicken (88.7%), the homology of IFN-β gene of Coturnix and chicken (88.7%), the homology of IFN-β gene of Coturnix and Anas platyrhynchos (72.5%), the homology of IFN-β sequence registered in GenBank. The analysis of the genetic tree showed that the relationship of Coturnix and chicken IFN-β had a high homology. It can be seen that in this study we successfully got a partial sequence of IFN-β of quail. PMID:26155095

  14. Molecular cloning, sequencing and expression of a serine proteinase inhibitor gene from Toxoplasma gondii.

    PubMed

    Pszenny, V; Angel, S O; Duschak, V G; Paulino, M; Ledesma, B; Yabo, M I; Guarnera, E; Ruiz, A M; Bontempi, E J

    2000-04-15

    A cDNA clone from a Toxoplasma gondii tachyzoite cDNA library encoding a serine proteinase inhibitor (serpin) was isolated. The 1376 bp cDNA sequence encodes a 294 amino acid protein with a putative signal peptide of 23 amino acids resulting in a mature protein with a predicted mass of 30,190 Da and a pI of 4.86. This protein has internal sequence similarity of residues 30-66, 114-150, 181-217 and 247-283 indicating a four-domain structure. The four domains exhibit high identity to serine proteinase inhibitors belonging to the non-classical Kazal-type family. The gene is single copy in the tachyzoite haploid genome of RH strain and was amplified by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Several introns were identified. The sequence encoding the mature protein was amplified by PCR, cloned into the pQE30 vector and expressed in Escherichia coli. Specific antiserum generated against the recombinant protein was used in immunoblot assay and two bands of 38 and 42 kDa were detected in a whole parasite homogenate. The recombinant protein showed trypsin-inhibitory activity, one of the two potential specificities. We discuss the possible roles that T. gondii serpin(s) may play in the survival of the tachyzoites in the host. PMID:10779600

  15. Molecular cloning and characterization of the Dicer-like 2 gene from Brassica rapa.

    PubMed

    Yan, Fei; Peng, Jiejun; Lu, Yuwen; Lin, Lin; Zheng, Hongying; Chen, Hairu; Chen, Jianping; Adams, Michael J

    2009-07-01

    Dicer-like proteins (DCLs) are involved in small RNA-mediated development and viral defense in plants. In model plants, at least four DCLs have been found and a number of studies have helped to understand their function. However, the function of the Dicer or DCLs in other plants is still unclear. Here, we report the full-length cDNA sequence of Brassica rapa ssp. chinensis DCL2 (BrDCL2) gene, which contains a 4,179 bp open reading frame (ORF) encoding a protein of 1,392 amino acids. At the 3' end of BrDCL2, clones with three different lengths of 3' untranslated region were found. An alternative splice variant of BrDCL2, BrDCL2sv, in which one intron was retained between exon9 and exon10, was also cloned. Because of a change in the coding sequence resulting in a premature terminal codon, BrDCL2sv was expected to translate a short peptide containing the whole DEXHc domain. PMID:18607769

  16. Cloning Yeast Actin cDNA Leads to an Investigative Approach for the Molecular Biology Laboratory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Black, Michael W.; Tuan, Alice; Jonasson, Erin

    2008-01-01

    The emergence of molecular tools in multiple disciplines has elevated the importance of undergraduate laboratory courses that train students in molecular biology techniques. Although it would also be desirable to provide students with opportunities to apply these techniques in an investigative manner, this is generally not possible in the…

  17. The Extracellular Surface of the GLP-1 Receptor Is a Molecular Trigger for Biased Agonism.

    PubMed

    Wootten, Denise; Reynolds, Christopher A; Smith, Kevin J; Mobarec, Juan C; Koole, Cassandra; Savage, Emilia E; Pabreja, Kavita; Simms, John; Sridhar, Rohan; Furness, Sebastian G B; Liu, Mengjie; Thompson, Philip E; Miller, Laurence J; Christopoulos, Arthur; Sexton, Patrick M

    2016-06-16

    Ligand-directed signal bias offers opportunities for sculpting molecular events, with the promise of better, safer therapeutics. Critical to the exploitation of signal bias is an understanding of the molecular events coupling ligand binding to intracellular signaling. Activation of class B G protein-coupled receptors is driven by interaction of the peptide N terminus with the receptor core. To understand how this drives signaling, we have used advanced analytical methods that enable separation of effects on pathway-specific signaling from those that modify agonist affinity and mapped the functional consequence of receptor modification onto three-dimensional models of a receptor-ligand complex. This yields molecular insights into the initiation of receptor activation and the mechanistic basis for biased agonism. Our data reveal that peptide agonists can engage different elements of the receptor extracellular face to achieve effector coupling and biased signaling providing a foundation for rational design of biased agonists. PMID:27315480

  18. Cloning and Distribution of a Putative Octopamine/Tyramine Receptor in the Central Nervous System of the Freshwater Prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii

    PubMed Central

    Reyes-Colón, Dalynés; Vázquez-Acevedo, Nietzell; Rivera, Nilsa M.; Jezzini, Sami H.; Rosenthal, Joshua; Ruiz-Rodríguez, Eduardo A.; Baro, Deborah J.; Kohn, Andrea B.; Moroz, Leonid; Sosa, María A.

    2010-01-01

    There is ample evidence linking octopamine (OA) and tyramine (TA) to several neurophysiological functions in arthropods. In our laboratory we use the freshwater prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii to study the neural basis of aggressive behavior. As a first step towards understanding the possible role of these amines and their receptors in the modulation of interactive behaviors, we have cloned a putative octopamine/tyramine receptor. The predicted sequence of the cloned OA/TAMac receptor consists of 1,579 base pairs (bp), with an open reading frame of 1,350 bp that encodes a 450 amino acid protein. This putative protein displays sequence identities of 70% to an Aedes aegypti mosquito TA receptor, followed by 60% to a Stegomyia aegypti mosquito OA receptor, 59% and 58% to the migratory locust TA-1 and -2 receptors respectively, and 57% with the silkworm OA receptor. We also mapped the OA/TAMac receptor distribution by in-situ hybridization to the receptor’s mRNA, and by immunohistochemistry to its protein. We observed stained cell bodies for the receptor’s mRNA, mainly in the midline region of the thoracic and in the abdominal ganglia, as well as diffuse staining in the brain ganglia. For the receptor’s protein, we observed extensive punctate staining within the neuropil and on the membrane of specific groups of neurons in all ganglia throughout the CNS, including the brain, the midline region and neuropiles of the thoracic ganglia, and ventral part and neuropiles of the abdominal ganglia. The same pattern of stained cells was observed on the thoracic and abdominal ganglia in both in-situ hybridization and immunohistochemistry experiments. Diffuse staining observed with in-situ hybridization also coincides with punctate staining observed in brain, SEG, thoracic, and abdominal ganglia in immunohistochemical preparations. This work provides the first step towards characterizing the neural networks that mediate octopaminergic signaling in prawn. PMID:20558147

  19. Cloning, molecular modeling, and docking analysis of alkali-thermostable β-mannanase from Bacillus nealsonii PN-11.

    PubMed

    Chauhan, Prakram Singh; Tripathi, Satya Prakash; Sangamwar, Abhays T; Puri, Neena; Sharma, Prince; Gupta, Naveen

    2015-11-01

    An alkali-thermostable β-mannanase gene from Bacillus nealsonii PN-11 was cloned by functional screening of E. coli cells transformed with pSMART/HaeIII genomic library. The ORF encoding mannanase consisted of 1100 bp, corresponding to protein of 369 amino acids and has a catalytic domain belonging to glycoside hydrolase family 5. Cloned mannanase was smaller in size than the native mannanase by 10 kDa. This change in molecular mass could be because of difference in the glycosylation. The tertiary structure of the β-mannanase (MANPN11) was designed and it showed a classical (α/β) TIM-like barrel motif. Active site of MANPN11 was represented by 8 amino acid residues viz., Glu152, Trp189, His217, Tyr219, Glu247, Trp276, Trp285, and Tyr287. Model surface charge of MANPN11 predicted that surface near active site was mostly negative, and the opposite side was positive which might be responsible for the stability of the enzymes at high pH. Stability of MANPN11 at alkaline pH was further supported by the formation of a hydrophobic pocket near active site of the enzyme. To understand the ability of MANPN11 to bind with different substrates, docking studies were performed and found that mannopentose fitted properly into active site and form stable enzyme substrate complex. PMID:25967652

  20. Molecular cloning, sequence analysis, and characterization of a new cell wall hydrolase, CwlL, of Bacillus licheniformis.

    PubMed

    Oda, Y; Nakayama, R; Kuroda, A; Sekiguchi, J

    1993-11-01

    We have cloned a DNA fragment containing the gene for a cell wall hydrolase from Bacillus licheniformis FD0120 into Escherichia coli. Sequencing of the fragment showed the presence of an open reading frame (ORF; designated as cwlL), which is different from the B. licheniformis cell wall hydrolase gene cwlM, and encodes a polypeptide of 360 amino acids with a molecular mass of 38,994. The enzyme purified from the E. coli clone is an N-acetylmuramoyl-L-alanine amidase, which has a M(r) value of 41 kDa as determined by SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, and is able to digest B. licheniformis, B. subtilis and Micrococcus luteus cell walls. The nucleotide and deduced amino acid sequences of cwlL are very similar to those of ORF3 in the putative operon xpaL1-xpaL2-ORF3 in B. licheniformis MC14. Moreover, the amino acid sequence homology of CwlL with the B. subtilis amidase CwlA indicates two evolutionarily distinguishable regions in CwlL. The sequence homology of CwlL with other cell wall hydrolases and the regulation of cwlL are discussed. PMID:7902527

  1. Molecular cloning and characterization of an Rcd1-like protein in excretory-secretory products of Trichinella pseudospiralis.

    PubMed

    Nagano, I; Wu, Z; Takahashi, Y

    2006-12-01

    A cDNA library was constructed from muscle larvae of Trichinella pseudospiralis. A cDNA clone, designated as Tp8 contained a cDNA transcript of 1326 bp length with a single open reading frame, which encoded 303 amino acid residues (34,187 Da, estimated molecular mass). The predicted amino acid sequence of the clone had an identity of approximately 60% to the Rcd1 (Required cell differentiation 1) -like proteins among a wide range of organisms. Real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction results showed that the transcription level of Tp8 gene reached the highest value in adult worms, and that the transcription level in muscle larvae before stichosome formation was higher than in muscle larvae after stichosome formation. The recombinant Tp8 protein migrated at 37 kDa and reacted to antibody against T. pseudospiralis excretory-secretory (E-S) products and sera from mice infected with T. pseudospiralis. An antibody against the Tp8 recombinant protein could stain proteins migrating at approximately 34 kDa (which is the expected size from the sequence) on Western blotting of E-S products from muscle larvae. An immunocytochemical study showed that the Tp8 protein was present within the stichocyte of muscle larvae and adults worms. PMID:16899141

  2. Molecular cloning and expression analysis of a F-type lectin gene from Japanese sea perch (Lateolabrax japonicus).

    PubMed

    Qiu, Lihua; Lin, Liansheng; Yang, Keng; Zhang, Hanhua; Li, Jianzhu; Zou, Falin; Jiang, Shigui

    2011-08-01

    The techniques of homology cloning and anchored PCR were used to clone the fucose-binding lectin (F-type lectin) gene from Japanese sea perch (Lateolabrax Japonicus). The full-length cDNA of sea perch F-lectin (JspFL) contained a 5' untranslated region (UTR) of 39 bp, an ORF of 933 bp encoding a polypeptide of 310 amino acids with an estimated molecular mass of 10.82 kDa and a 3' UTR of 332 bp. The searches for nucleotides and protein sequence similarities with BLAST analysis indicated that the deduced amino acid sequence of JspFL was homological to the Fucose-binding lectin in other fish species. In the JspFL deduced amino acid sequence, two tandem domains that exhibit the eel carbohydrate-recognition sequence motif were found. The temporal expressions of gene in the different tissues were measured by real-time PCR. And the mRNA expressions of the gene were constitutively expressed in tissues including spleen, head-kidney, liver, gill, and heart. The JspFL expression in spleen was different during the stimulated time point, 2 h later the expression level became up-regulated, and 6 h later the expression level became down-regulated. The result indicated that JspFL was constitutive and inducible expressed and could play a critical role in the host-pathogen interaction. PMID:21104013

  3. Cloning and characterization of microsomal triglyceride transfer protein gene and its potential connection with peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) in blunt snout bream (Megalobrama amblycephala).

    PubMed

    Li, Jun-Yi; Zhang, Ding-Dong; Jiang, Guang-Zhen; Li, Xiang-Fei; Zhang, Chun-Nuan; Zhou, Man; Liu, Wen-Bin; Xu, Wei-Na

    2015-11-01

    Microsomal triglyceride transfer protein (MTTP), a major intracellular protein capable of transferring neutral lipids, plays a pivotal role in the assembly and secretion of apolipoprotein B-containing lipoproteins. In this study, MTTP cDNA was firstly cloned from the liver of blunt snout bream (Megalobrama amblycephala), the full-length cDNA covered 3457-bp with an open reading frame of 2661-bp, which encodes 886 amino acids, including a putative signal peptide of 24 amino acids long. After the feeding trial, a graded tissue-specific expression pattern of MTTP was observed and high expression abundance in the liver and intestine indicated its major function in lipid transport in this fish species. In addition, expression of genes encoding MTTP as well as peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR), which are transcription factors and serve as key regulators in lipid homoeostasis, was all affected by dietary lipid and choline supplementations. Elevated dietary lipid levels significantly increased the liver, intestinal and muscle MTTP mRNA abundance. Additionally, the down-regulation of MTTP expression in the liver and muscle was observed when fish were fed with inadequate choline supplementation in high-fat diet, yet up-regulated as supplementing extra choline in diet. Expressions of PPARα and PPARβ in the liver and muscle showed similar trend of MTTP expression. The results suggested the potential connection of MTTP and PPAR in response to different dietary nutritional factors. Furthermore, extra choline supplementations could promote lipid transfer and enhance fatty acid oxidation, which indicated a molecular mechanism of choline on diminishing fat accumulation in blunt snout bream. PMID:26210738

  4. Molecular cloning and expression of a unique rabbit osteoclastic phosphotyrosyl phosphatase.

    PubMed Central

    Wu, L W; Baylink, D J; Lau, K H

    1996-01-01

    Tyrosyl phosphorylation plays an important regulatory role in osteoclast formation and activity. Phosphotyrosyl phosphatases (PTPs), in addition to tyrosyl kinases, are key determinants of intracellular tyrosyl phosphorylation levels. To identify the PTP that might play an important regulatory role in osteoclasts, we sought to clone an osteoclast-specific PTP. A putative full-length clone encoding a unique PTP (referred to as PTP-oc) was isolated from a 10-day-old rabbit osteoclastic cDNA library and sequenced. A single open reading frame predicts a protein with 405 amino acid residues containing a putative extracellular domain, a single transmembrane region, and an intracellular portion. PTP-oc is structurally unique in that, unlike most known transmembrane PTPs, it has a short extracellular region (eight residues), lacks a signal peptide proximal to the N-terminus, and contains only a single 'PTP catalytic domain'. The PTP catalytic domain shows 45-50% sequence identity with the catalytic domain of human HPTP beta and with the first catalytic domain of LCA. The PTP-oc gene exists as a single copy in the rabbit genome. The corresponding mRNA (3.8 kb) is expressed in osteoclasts but not in other bone-derived cells (e.g. osteoblasts and stromal cells). The 3.8 kb PTP-oc mRNA transcript was also expressed in the rabbit brain, kidney and spleen. However, the brain and kidney, but not osteoclasts or spleen, also expressed a larger transcript (6.5 kb). The PTP catalytic domain of PTP-oc was expressed as a GST-cPTP-oc fusion protein. In vitro phosphatase assays indicated that the purified fusion protein exhibited phosphatase activities at neutral pH values toward p-nitrophenyl phosphate, phosphotyrosyl Raytide, and phosphotyrosyl histone, whereas it had no appreciable activity toward phosphoseryl casein. In summary, we have: (a) cloned and sequenced the putative full-length cDNA of a unique PTP (PTP-oc) from rabbit osteoclasts; (b) shown that the mature 3.8 kb PTP-oc m

  5. Kinesin molecular motors: Transport pathways, receptors, and human disease

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goldstein, Lawrence S. B.

    2001-06-01

    Kinesin molecular motor proteins are responsible for many of the major microtubule-dependent transport pathways in neuronal and non-neuronal cells. Elucidating the transport pathways mediated by kinesins, the identity of the cargoes moved, and the nature of the proteins that link kinesin motors to cargoes are areas of intense investigation. Kinesin-II recently was found to be required for transport in motile and nonmotile cilia and flagella where it is essential for proper left-right determination in mammalian development, sensory function in ciliated neurons, and opsin transport and viability in photoreceptors. Thus, these pathways and proteins may be prominent contributors to several human diseases including ciliary dyskinesias, situs inversus, and retinitis pigmentosa. Kinesin-I is needed to move many different types of cargoes in neuronal axons. Two candidates for receptor proteins that attach kinesin-I to vesicular cargoes were recently found. One candidate, sunday driver, is proposed to both link kinesin-I to an unknown vesicular cargo and to bind and organize the mitogen-activated protein kinase components of a c-Jun N-terminal kinase signaling module. A second candidate, amyloid precursor protein, is proposed to link kinesin-I to a different, also unknown, class of axonal vesicles. The finding of a possible functional interaction between kinesin-I and amyloid precursor protein may implicate kinesin-I based transport in the development of Alzheimer's disease.

  6. Molecular Cooperativity Governs Diverse and Monoallelic Olfactory Receptor Expression

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xing, Jianhua; Tian, Xiaojun; Zhang, Hang; Sannerud, Jens

    Multiple-objective optimization is common in biological systems. In the mammalian olfactory system, each sensory neuron stochastically expresses only one out of up to thousands of olfactory receptor (OR) gene alleles; at organism level the types of expressed ORs need to be maximized. The molecular mechanism of this Nobel-Prize winning puzzle remains unresolved after decades of extensive studies. Existing models focus only on monoallele activation, and cannot explain recent observations in mutants, especially the reduced global diversity of expressed ORs in G9a/GLP knockouts. In this work we integrated existing information on OR expression, and proposed an evolutionarily optimized three-layer regulation mechanism, which includes zonal segregation, epigenetic and enhancer competition coupled to a negative feedback loop. This model not only recapitulates monoallelic OR expression, but also elucidates how the olfactory system maximizes and maintains the diversity of OR expression. The model is validated by several experimental results, and particularly underscores cooperativity and synergy as a general design principle of multi-objective optimization in biology. The work is supported by the NIGMS/DMS Mathematical Biology program.

  7. cDNA Cloning and Molecular Modeling of Procerain B, a Novel Cysteine Endopeptidase Isolated from Calotropis procera

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Abhay Narayan; Yadav, Prity; Dubey, Vikash Kumar

    2013-01-01

    Procerain B, a novel cysteine protease (endopeptidase) isolated from Calotropis procera belongs to Asclepiadaceae family. Purification of the enzyme, biochemical characterization and potential applications are already published by our group. Here, we report cDNA cloning, complete amino acid sequencing and molecular modeling of procerain B. The derived amino acid sequence showed high sequence homology with other papain like plant cysteine proteases of peptidase C1A superfamily. The three dimensional structure of active procerain B was modeled by homology modeling using X-ray crystal structure of actinidin (PDB ID: 3P5U), a cysteine protease from the fruits of Actinidia arguta. The structural aspect of the enzyme is also discussed. PMID:23527269

  8. Molecular cloning and expression of an isomalto-dextranase gene from Arthrobacter globiformis T6.

    PubMed Central

    Iwai, A; Ito, H; Mizuno, T; Mori, H; Matsui, H; Honma, M; Okada, G; Chiba, S

    1994-01-01

    The gene encoding an extracellular isomalto-dextranase, designated imd, was isolated from the chromosomal DNA of Arthrobacter globiformis T6 and cloned and expressed in Escherichia coli. A single open reading frame consisting of 1,926 base pairs that encoded a polypeptide composed of a signal peptide of 39 amino acids and a mature protein of 602 amino acids (M(r), 65,900) was found. The primary structure had no significant homology with the structures of any other reported carbohydrases, including two other dextranases. Transformed E. coli cells carrying the 2.3-kb fragment overproduced isomalto-dextranase into the periplasmic space under control of the promoter of the imd gene itself. Images PMID:8002600

  9. Molecular Characterization of the Multidrug Resistant Escherichia coli ST131 Clone

    PubMed Central

    Schembri, Mark A.; Ben Zakour, Nouri L.; Phan, Minh-Duy; Forde, Brian M.; Stanton-Cook, Mitchell; Beatson, Scott A.

    2015-01-01

    Escherichia coli ST131 is a recently emerged and globally disseminated multidrug resistant clone associated with urinary tract and bloodstream infections in both community and clinical settings. The most common group of ST131 strains are defined by resistance to fluoroquinolones and possession of the type 1 fimbriae fimH30 allele. Here we provide an update on our recent work describing the globally epidemiology of ST131. We review the phylogeny of ST131 based on whole genome sequence data and highlight the important role of recombination in the evolution of this clonal lineage. We also summarize our findings on the virulence of the ST131 reference strain EC958, and highlight the use of transposon directed insertion-site sequencing to define genes associated with serum resistance and essential features of its large antibiotic resistance plasmid pEC958. PMID:26131613

  10. Molecular cloning, expression, purification and crystallographic analysis of PRRSV 3CL protease

    SciTech Connect

    Tian, Xinsheng; Feng, Youjun; Zhao, Tiezhu; Peng, Hao; Yan, Jinghua; Qi, Jianxun; Jiang, Fan; Tian, Kegong; Gao, Feng

    2007-08-01

    Recombinant PRRSV 3CL protease was crystallized and the crystals diffracted to 2.1 Å resolution. 3CL protease, a viral chymotrypsin-like proteolytic enzyme, plays a pivotal role in the transcription and replication machinery of many RNA viruses, including porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV). In this study, the full-length 3CL protease from PRRSV was cloned and overexpressed in Escherichia coli. Crystallization experiments yielded crystals that diffracted to 2.1 Å resolution and belong to space group C2, with unit-cell parameters a = 112.31, b = 48.34, c = 42.88 Å, β = 109.83°. The Matthews coefficient and the solvent content were calculated to be 2.49 Å{sup 3} Da{sup −1} and 50.61%, respectively, for one molecule in the asymmetric unit.

  11. Molecular cloning and characterization of human papilloma virus DNA derived from a laryngeal papilloma.

    PubMed Central

    Gissmann, L; Diehl, V; Schultz-Coulon, H J; zur Hausen, H

    1982-01-01

    Papilloma virus DNA from a laryngeal papilloma was cloned in phage lambda L 47 and characterized after cleavage with different restriction enzymes. Hybridization with the DNAs of human papilloma virus types 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, and 8 showed no homology under stringent hybridization conditions. Human papilloma virus type 6 DNA, however, was partially identical to laryngeal papilloma virus DNA; different restriction enzyme fragments hybridizing with the other DNA were identified on each genome. The degree of homology was determined by reassociation kinetics to be 25%. According to the present nomenclature, laryngeal papilloma virus therefore represents a different type of human papilloma virus and is tentatively designated as human papilloma virus type 11. Sequences homologous to laryngeal papilloma virus DNA were also found in four of nine additional laryngeal papillomas. Attempt to detect homologous DNA in 12 carcinomas of the larynx were negative. Images PMID:6292500

  12. Molecular cloning and expression analysis of CmMlo1 in melon.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Hong; Kun, Weiping; Liu, Dongshun; Su, Yongquan; He, Qiwei

    2012-02-01

    Mlo gene encodes an important transmembrane protein that is involved in biotic/abiotic stresses. Using the method of homologous, we cloned a Mlo gene from melon, named CmMlo1. The gene is 1551 bp in length, encoding 516 amino acids; it has seven-transmembrane domain topology and is a typical transmembrane protein. Localization analysis in onion epidermal cells showed that CmMlo1-GFP is localized to the plasma membrane. RT-PCR results indicated that CmMlo1 is mainly expressed in melon cotyledon and flower, with a tissue-specific distribution manner. CmMlo1 expression is not obvious under powdery mildew stress, but under cadmium stress, its expression was significantly up-regulated, indicating that CmMlo1 is possibly involved in abiotic stress. PMID:21660472

  13. Molecular cloning, genomic organization, and chromosomal localization of the human pancreatitis-associated protein (PAP) gene

    SciTech Connect

    Dusetti, N.J.; Frigerio, J.M.; Dagorn, J.C.; Iovanna, J.L. ); Fox, M.F.; Swallow, D.M. )

    1994-01-01

    Pancreatitis-associated protein (PAP) is a secretory pancreatic protein present in small amounts in normal pancreas and overexpressed during the acute phase of pancreatitis. In this paper, the authors describe the cloning, characterization, and chromosomal mapping of the human PAP gene. The gene spans 2748 bp and contains six exons interrupted by five introns. The gene has a typical promoter containing the sequences TATAAA and CCAAT 28 and 52 bp upstream of the cap site, respectively. They found striking similarities in genomic organization as well as in the promoter sequences between the human and rat PAP genes. The human PAP gene was mapped to chromosome 2p12 using rodent-human hybrid cells and in situ chromosomal hybridization. This localization coincides with that of the reg/lithostathine gene, which encodes a pancreatic secretory protein structurally related to PAP, suggesting that both genes derived from the same ancestral gene by duplication. 35 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  14. Molecular cloning and sequence analysis of the Plasmodium falciparum dihydrofolate reductase-thymidylate synthase gene.

    PubMed Central

    Bzik, D J; Li, W B; Horii, T; Inselburg, J

    1987-01-01

    Genomic DNA clones that coded for the bifunctional dihydrofolate reductase (DHFR) and thymidylate synthase (TS) (DHFR-TS) activities from a pyrimethamine-sensitive strain of Plasmodium falciparum were isolated and sequenced. The deduced DHFR-TS protein contained 608 amino acids (71,682 Da). The coding region for DHFR-TS contained no intervening sequences and had a high A + T content (75%). The DHFR domain, in the amino-terminal portion of the protein, was joined by a 94-amino acid junction sequence to the TS domain in the carboxyl-terminal portion of the protein. The TS domain was more conserved than the DHFR domain and both P. falciparum domains were more homologous to eukaryotic than to prokaryotic forms of the enzymes. Predicted secondary structures of the DHFR and TS domains were nearly identical to the structures identified in other DHFR and TS enzymes. PMID:2825189

  15. Molecular cloning and sequence analysis of the Plasmodium falciparum dihydrofolate reductase-thymidylate synthase gene.

    PubMed

    Bzik, D J; Li, W B; Horii, T; Inselburg, J

    1987-12-01

    Genomic DNA clones that coded for the bifunctional dihydrofolate reductase (DHFR) and thymidylate synthase (TS) (DHFR-TS) activities from a pyrimethamine-sensitive strain of Plasmodium falciparum were isolated and sequenced. The deduced DHFR-TS protein contained 608 amino acids (71,682 Da). The coding region for DHFR-TS contained no intervening sequences and had a high A + T content (75%). The DHFR domain, in the amino-terminal portion of the protein, was joined by a 94-amino acid junction sequence to the TS domain in the carboxyl-terminal portion of the protein. The TS domain was more conserved than the DHFR domain and both P. falciparum domains were more homologous to eukaryotic than to prokaryotic forms of the enzymes. Predicted secondary structures of the DHFR and TS domains were nearly identical to the structures identified in other DHFR and TS enzymes. PMID:2825189

  16. Molecular cloning and characterization of a threonine/serine protein kinase lvakt from Litopenaeus vannamei

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruan, Lingwei; Liu, Rongdiao; Xu, Xun; Shi, Hong

    2014-07-01

    The phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)-AKT pathway is involved in various cellular functions, including anti-apoptosis, protein synthesis, glucose metabolism and cell cycling. However, the role of the PI3K-AKT pathway in crustaceans remains unclear. In the present study, we cloned and characterized the AKT gene lvakt from Litopenaeus vannamei. The 511-residue LVAKT was highly conserved; contained a PH domain, a catalytic domain and a hydrophobic domain; and was highly expressed in the heart and gills of L. vannamei. We found, using Real-Time Quantitative PCR (Q-PCR) analysis, that lvakt was up-regulated during early white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) infection. Moreover, the PI3K-specific inhibitor, LY294002, reduced viral gene transcription, implying that the PI3K-AKT pathway might be hijacked by WSSV. Our results therefore suggest that LVAKT may play an important role in the shrimp immune response against WSSV.

  17. Molecular cloning of a recA-like gene from the cyanobacterium Anabaena variabilis

    SciTech Connect

    Owttrim, G.W.; Coleman, J.R.

    1987-05-01

    A recA-like gene isolated from the cyanobacterium Anabaena variabilis was cloned and partially characterized. When introduced into Escherichia coli recA mutants, the 7.5-kilobase-pair plasmid-borne DNA insert restored resistance to methyl methanesulfonate and UV irradiation, as well as recombination proficiency when measured by Hfr-mediated conjugation. The cyanobacterial recA gene restored spontaneous but not mitomycin C-induced prophage production. Restriction analysis and subcloning yielded a 1.5-kilobase-pair Sau3A fragment which also restored methylmethane sulfonate resistance and coded for a 38- to 40-kilodalton polypeptide when expressed in an in vitro transcription-translation system.

  18. Linoleic acid isomerase from Propionibacterium acnes: purification, characterization, molecular cloning, and heterologous expression.

    PubMed

    Deng, Ming-De; Grund, Alan D; Schneider, Kenneth J; Langley, Kim M; Wassink, Sarah L; Peng, Susan S; Rosson, Reinhardt A

    2007-12-01

    Propionibacterium acnes strain ATCC 6919 catalyzes the isomerization of the double bond at the C9 position in linoleic acid (c9,c12, 18:2) to form t10,c12 conjugated linoleic acid (CLA, 18:2). CLA has significant health benefits in animal and human. The linoleic acid C9 isomerase was purified to an apparent homogeneity by successive chromatography on diethylaminoethyl (DEAE) anion exchange, hydrophobic interaction, and chromatofocusing columns. Two degenerated oligonucleotide primers were synthesized according to the N-terminal peptide sequence to clone, by polymerase chain reaction (PCR), a short nucleotide sequence (62 bp) of the isomerase gene. The linoleic acid isomerase gene (lai) was subsequently cloned by inverse PCR. The amino acid sequence deduced from the lai coding sequence predicts a protein of 424 amino acid residues (48 kDa), excluding the N-terminal methionine, which was absent in the polypeptide purified from the native host. The isomerase shares no significant sequence homology to other enzymes except a flavin-binding domain in the N-terminal region. The recombinant isomerase purified from Escherichia coli showed a typical ultraviolet spectrum for FAD-bound proteins. The recombinant enzyme produced a single isomer of t10,c12-CLA from linoleic acid, as demonstrated by gas chromatography and gas chromatography-mass spectrum analysis. The recombinant isomerase protein was expressed at high levels in E. coli, but it was almost totally sequestered in inclusion bodies. The level of active isomerase was increased 376-fold by medium and process optimization in bench-scale fermentors. PMID:18057448

  19. Molecular cloning and characterization of a 20q13.2 amplicon in breast carcinoma

    SciTech Connect

    Collins, C.; Froula, J.; Kowbel, D.

    1994-09-01

    Comparative genomic hybridization (CGH) has identified an amplification event involving chromosome band 20q13.2 in 15-20% of primary breast carcinomas. The application of FISH to the study of tumor interphase nuclei using 33 locus specific cosmid and P1 probes revealed amplification of band 20q13.2 in 35% of breast cancer cell lines and 8% of primary tumors. Moreover, this study localized the amplification event to the 1.5Mb interval defined by (Flpter 0.80-0.84.) and excluded all known genes in the region as candidates for the putative oncogene(s). To both identify the putative oncogene(s) and characterize the amplicon, a 12 member 4Mb YAC contig has been assembled by STS mapping that spans the core of the amplicon. The YAC contig is now being converted to a P1 contig to facilitate sequencing, exon trapping and direct selection of cDNAs. This is being accomplished by performing interAlu PCR reactions on individual YACs and sequencing the reaction products to create 5-10 new STSs per megaYAC. The DuPont P1 library is then screened for these STSs by the PCR. To date 21 P1 clones, forming 6 contigs, have been isolated by screening the DuPont P1 library for existing and/or newly created STSs. The ends of the 21 P1 clones are being sequenced to facilitate contig alignment and to enable chromosome walking. In collaboration with the Human Genome Center at the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory we have initiated the directed sequencing of two P1 contigs, localized within the amplicon core, and ultimately will sequence the entire 1-2Mb amplicon.

  20. Molecular cloning, expression and bioactivity of B cell activating factor (BAFF) in African ostrich.

    PubMed

    Yang, Keli; Xiao, Ke; Huang, Haibo; Lu, Shun; Zhong, Juming; Ansari, Abdur Rahman; Khaliq, Haseeb; Song, Hui; Liu, Huazhen; Peng, Kemei

    2015-09-01

    B cell activating factor (BAFF), which belongs to the tumor necrosis factor (TNF) family, is testified to play a critical role in B cell survival, proliferation, maturation and immunoglobulin secretion. In the present study, the cDNA of open reading frame (ORF) in African ostrich (Struthio camelus) BAFF (designated OsBAFF) was cloned by reverse transcription-PCR (RT-PCR). The OsBAFF gene encodes a 288-amino acid protein containing a predicted transmembrane domain and a putative furin protease cleavage site like BAFFs from chicken (cBAFF), quail (qBAFF), duck (dBAFF), goose (gBAFF) and dove (doBAFF). RT-PCR analysis showed that the OsBAFF gene is strongly expressed in the bursa of Fabricius, thymus, spleen, and bone marrow. The soluble OsBAFF had been cloned into pET28a. SDS-PAGE and Western blotting analysis confirmed that the soluble fusion protein His-OsBAFF was efficiently expressed in Escherichia coli Rosset (DE3). In vitro, purified OsBAFF was not only able to promote the survival of African ostrich bursal lymphocytes, but also able to co-stimulate proliferation of mouse splenic B cells. The expression of OsBAFF in lymphocyte cells was higher than the control after LPS stimulation. These findings indicated that OsBAFF plays an important role in survival and proliferation of African ostrich bursal lymphocytes, which may provide valuable information for research into the immune system of African ostrich and OsBAFF may serve as a potential immunologic factor for enhancing immunological efficacy in African ostrich and any other birds. PMID:26256697

  1. Cloning and molecular characterization of telomerase reverse transcriptase (TERT) and telomere length analysis of Peromyscus leucopus

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Xin; Ueda, Yasutaka; Kajigaya, Sachiko; Alaks, Glen; Desierto, Marie J; Townsley, Danielle M.; Dumitriu, Bogdan; Chen, Jichun; Lacy, Robert C.; Young, Neal S.

    2015-01-01

    Telomerase reverse transcriptase (TERT) is the catalytic subunit of telomerase complex that regulates telomerase activity to maintain telomere length for all animals with linear chromosomes. As the Mus musculus (MM) laboratory mouse has very long telomeres compared to humans, a potential alternative animal model for telomere research is the Peromyscus leucopus (PL) mouse that has telomere lengths close to the human range and has the wild counterparts for comparison. We report the full TERT coding sequence (pTERT) from PL mice to use in the telomere research. Comparative analysis with eight other mammalian TERTs revealed a pTERT protein considerably homologous to other TERTs and preserved all TERT specific-sequence signatures, yet with some distinctive features. pTERT displayed the highest nucleotide and amino acid sequence homology with hamster TERT. Unlike human but similar to MM mice, pTERT expression was detected in various adult somatic tissues of PL mice, with the highest expression in testes. Four different captive stocks of PL mice and wild-captured PL mice each displayed group-specific average telomere lengths, with the longest and shortest telomeres in inbred and outbred stock mice, respectively. pTERT showed considerable numbers of synonymous and nonsynonymous mutations. A pTERT proximal promoter region cloned was homologous among PL and MM mice and rat, but with species-specific features. From PL mice, we further cloned and characterized ribosomal protein, large, P0 (pRPLP0) to use as an internal control for various assays. Peromyscus mice have been extensively used for various studies, including human diseases, for which pTERT and pRPLP0 would be useful tools. PMID:25962353

  2. Cloning and molecular characterization of telomerase reverse transcriptase (TERT) and telomere length analysis of Peromyscus leucopus.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Xin; Ueda, Yasutaka; Kajigaya, Sachiko; Alaks, Glen; Desierto, Marie J; Townsley, Danielle M; Dumitriu, Bogdan; Chen, Jichun; Lacy, Robert C; Young, Neal S

    2015-08-15

    Telomerase reverse transcriptase (TERT) is the catalytic subunit of telomerase complex that regulates telomerase activity to maintain telomere length for all animals with linear chromosomes. As the Mus musculus (MM) laboratory mouse has very long telomeres compared to humans, a potential alternative animal model for telomere research is the Peromyscus leucopus (PL) mouse that has telomere lengths close to the human range and has the wild counterparts for comparison. We report the full TERT coding sequence (pTERT) from PL mice to use in the telomere research. Comparative analysis with eight other mammalian TERTs revealed a pTERT protein considerably homologous to other TERTs and preserved all TERT specific-sequence signatures, yet with some distinctive features. pTERT displayed the highest nucleotide and amino acid sequence homology with hamster TERT. Unlike human but similar to MM mice, pTERT expression was detected in various adult somatic tissues of PL mice, with the highest expression in testes. Four different captive stocks of PL mice and wild-captured PL mice each displayed group-specific average telomere lengths, with the longest and shortest telomeres in inbred and outbred stock mice, respectively. pTERT showed considerable numbers of synonymous and nonsynonymous mutations. A pTERT proximal promoter region cloned was homologous among PL and MM mice and rat, but with species-specific features. From PL mice, we further cloned and characterized ribosomal protein, large, P0 (pRPLP0) to use as an internal control for various assays. Peromyscus mice have been extensively used for various studies, including human diseases, for which pTERT and pRPLP0 would be useful tools. PMID:25962353

  3. Molecular Cloning and Expression of cor (Cold-Regulated) Genes in Arabidopsis thaliana1

    PubMed Central

    Hajela, Ravindra K.; Horvath, David P.; Gilmour, Sarah J.; Thomashow, Michael F.

    1990-01-01

    We have previously shown that changes in gene expression occur in Arabidopsis thaliana. L. (Heyn) during cold acclimation (SJ Gilmour, RK Hajela, MF Thomashow [1988] Plant Physiol 87: 745-750). Here we report the isolation of cDNA clones of four cold-regulated (cor) genes from Arabidopsis and examine their expression in response to low temperature, abscisic acid (ABA), water stress, and heat shock. The results of Northern analysis indicated that the transcript levels for the four cor genes, represented by clones pHH7.2, pHH28, pHH29, and pHH67, increased markedly between 1 and 4 hours of cold treatment, reached a maximum at about 8 to 12 hours, and remained at elevated levels for as long as the plants were kept in the cold (up to 2 weeks). Returning cold acclimated plants to control temperature resulted in the levels of the cor transcripts falling rapidly to those found in nonacclimated plants; this occurred within 4 hours for the transcripts represented by pHH7.2 and pHH28, and 8 hours for those represented by pHH29 and pHH67. Nuclear run-on transcription assays indicated that the temperature-regulated expression of the cor genes represented by pHH7.2, pHH28, and pHH29 was controlled primarily at the posttranscriptional level while the cor gene represented by pHH67 was regulated largely at the transcriptional level. Northern analysis also indicated that the levels of cor gene transcripts increased in response to both ABA application and water stress, but not to heat shock. The possible significance of cor genes being regulated by both low temperature and water stress is discussed. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 PMID:16667586

  4. Molecular cloning and analysis of the scon-2 negative regulatory gene of Neurospora crassa.

    PubMed Central

    Paietta, J V

    1990-01-01

    The sulfur regulatory system of Neurospora crassa is composed of a group of highly regulated structural genes (e.g., the gene encoding arylsulfatase) that are under coordinate control of scon+ (sulfur controller) negative and cys-3+ positive regulatory genes. In scon-1 (previously designated sconC) and scon-2 mutants, there is constitutive expression of sulfur structural genes regardless of the sulfur level available to the cells. The scon-2+ gene was cloned by sib selection screening of a cosmid-based gene library. The screening was based on the use of chromate, a toxic sulfate analog, which is transported into scon-2 cells grown on high sulfur but is not transported into cells that have regained normal sulfur regulation. Restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis was used to confirm that the cloned segment mapped to the proper chromosomal location. In wild-type cells, Northern (RNA) blot analysis showed that a 2.6-kilobase scon-2+ transcript was present at a substantial level only under sulfur-derepressing conditions. Kinetic analysis showed that scon-2+ mRNA content increased as the cells became sulfur starved. Further, scon-2+ RNA was detectable in a nuclear transcription assay only under derepressing conditions. In scon-1, the levels of scon-2+ mRNA were found to be constitutive. In the cys-3 regulatory mutant, there was a reduced level of scon-2+ transcript. cys-3+ and ars-1+ mRNAs were present under both derepressing and repressing conditions in the scon-2 mutant. Repeat-induced point mutation-generated scon-2 mutants were identical in phenotype to the known mutant. Images PMID:1975945

  5. Molecular cloning and characterization of novel cathelicidin-derived myeloid antimicrobial peptide from Phasianus colchicus.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yipeng; Lu, Zekuan; Feng, Feifei; Zhu, Wei; Guang, Huijuan; Liu, Jingze; He, Weiyu; Chi, Lianli; Li, Zheng; Yu, Haining

    2011-03-01

    Cathelicidins were initially characterized as a family of antimicrobial peptides. Now it is clear that they fulfill several immune functions in addition to their antimicrobial activity. In the current work, three cDNA sequences encoding pheasant cathelicidins were cloned from a constructed bone marrow cDNA library of Phasianus colchicus, using a nested-PCR-based cloning strategy. The three deduced mature antimicrobial peptides, Pc-CATH1, 2 and 3 are composed of 26, 32, and 29 amino acid residues, respectively. Unlike the mammalian cathelicidins that are highly divergent even within the same genus, Pc-CATHs are remarkably conserved with chicken fowlicidins with only a few of residues mutated according to the phylogenetic analysis result. Synthetic Pc-CATH1 exerted strong antimicrobial activity against most of bacteria and fungi tested, including the clinically isolated (IS) drug-resistant strains. Most MIC values against Gram-positive bacteria were in the range of 0.09-2.95 μM in the presence of 100mM NaCl. Pc-CATH1 displayed a negligible hemolytic activity against human erythrocytes, lysing 3.6% of erythrocytes at 3.15 μM (10 μg/ml), significantly higher than the corresponding MIC. Pc-CATH1 was stable in the human serum for up to 72 h, revealing its extraordinary serum stability. These specific features of Pc-CATH1 may make its applications much wider given the potency and breadth of the peptide's bacteriocidal capacity and its resistance towards serum and high-salt environments. PMID:20955730

  6. Molecular cloning, sequence analysis and expression in Escherichia coli of Camelus dromedarius glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase cDNA.

    PubMed

    Saeed, Hesham Mahmoud; Alanazi, Mohammad Saud; Abduljaleel, Zainularifeen; Al-Amri, Abdullah; Khan, Zahid

    2012-06-01

    This study determined the full length sequence of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase cDNA (G6PD) from the Arabian camel Camelus dromedarius using reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction. The C. dromedarius G6PD has an open reading frame of 1545 bp, and the cDNA encodes a protein of 515 amino acid residues with a molecular weight of 59.0 KDa. The amino acid sequence showed the highest identity with Equus caballus (92%) and Homo sapiens (92%). The G6PD cDNA was cloned and expressed into Escherichia coli as a fusion protein and was purified in a single chromatographic step using nickel affinity gel column. The purity and the molecular weight of the enzyme were checked on SDS-PAGE and the purified enzyme showed a single band on the gel with a molecular weight of 63.0 KDa. The specific activity of G6PD was determined to be 289.6 EU/mg protein with a fold purification of 95.45 and yield of 56.8%. PMID:22538316

  7. Molecular cloning of the perilipin gene and its association with carcass and fat traits in Chinese ducks.

    PubMed

    Zhang, H L; Fan, H J; Liu, X L; Wu, Y; Hou, S S

    2013-01-01

    The perilipin (PLIN) gene is a candidate gene of carcass and fat traits in ducks. In order to study the molecular character of the PLIN gene and its function in different breeds of Chinese ducks, samples were obtained from the Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences Research Center for Birds, including 95 Peking ducks of the Z2 series, 91 Peking ducks of the Z4 series, 82 hybrid systems (Z2 x Z4), and 93 Cherry Valley ducks. We used RT-PCR and 3'-RACE to clone the duck PLIN gene, detect SNPs and analyze their associations with carcass and fat traits. A 2212-bp sequence was cloned with the complete coding region and a 3'-untranslated region. We found a nucleotide mutation (C → T) in exon 2 of the PLIN gene. There were no significant correlations between the 3 genotypes (CC, CT, TT) in breast muscle weight (BMW), leg muscle weight (LMW), subcutaneous fat weight (SFW), and intramuscular fat (IMF) in the Cherry Valley duck. The CC and CT genotypes had significant differences in carcass weight (CW), carcass net weight (CNW), and percentage of abdominal fat weight (AFW); there were significant differences in AFW and percentage of SFW. In Z4, there were no significant correlations between the 3 genotypes (TT, CC, and CT) in CW, BMW, LMW, SFW, AFW, the percentage of SFW and AFW, and IMF. CNW was significantly different between TT, CC, and CT genotypes. In Z2 x Z4, there were no significant correlations between the 3 genotypes in CW, BMW, LMW, SFW, AFW, the percentage of SFW and AFW, and IMF, while the CC and CT genotypes had significant differences in CNW. In Z2, there were no significant differences between the 3 genotypes in all traits. We deduced that the PLIN gene is a potential major gene. It is linked to a major gene affecting meat quality traits. This SNP has potential as a molecular marker for marker-assisted selection. PMID:23765965

  8. Molecular characterization and expression profile of the estrogen receptor α gene during different reproductive phases in Monopterus albus

    PubMed Central

    Ding, Weidong; Cao, Liping; Cao, Zheming; Bing, Xuwen; Zhao, Fazhen

    2016-01-01

    To understand the molecular mechanism of estrogen and to evaluate the role of the estrogen receptor in mediating estrogen action, the full-length cDNA of estrogen receptor α (ERα) was cloned from Monopterus albus, and its expression pattern and distribution were investigated. The ERα cDNA of M. albus includes an open reading frame of 1863 bp, a 140-bp 5’-untranslated region and a 797-bp 3’-untranslated region. Amino acid sequence homology analysis showed that the Monopterus albus ERα has a moderate degree of similarity with Sebastes schlegelii, Zoarces viviparus and Haplochromis burtoni (81.1%, 80.7% and 80.4%, respectively). Quantitative PCR results showed that the highest level of ERα expression was in the liver; the next highest level of expression was observed in the gonads, where it was expressed at high levels particularly in the ovary in developmental stages IV and V and in the testis in developmental stage II/III. Immunohistochemistry analysis showed that ERα was present as slender particles distributed mainly in the membranes of spermatocytes and oocytes in the testis and ovary, whereas no positive signal was observed in the cytoplasm of sperm cells. This report describes the first molecular characterization of full-length ERα and its tissue-specific distribution in M. albus. PMID:27295422

  9. Molecular characterization and expression profile of the estrogen receptor α gene during different reproductive phases in Monopterus albus.

    PubMed

    Ding, Weidong; Cao, Liping; Cao, Zheming; Bing, Xuwen; Zhao, Fazhen

    2016-01-01

    To understand the molecular mechanism of estrogen and to evaluate the role of the estrogen receptor in mediating estrogen action, the full-length cDNA of estrogen receptor α (ERα) was cloned from Monopterus albus, and its expression pattern and distribution were investigated. The ERα cDNA of M. albus includes an open reading frame of 1863 bp, a 140-bp 5'-untranslated region and a 797-bp 3'-untranslated region. Amino acid sequence homology analysis showed that the Monopterus albus ERα has a moderate degree of similarity with Sebastes schlegelii, Zoarces viviparus and Haplochromis burtoni (81.1%, 80.7% and 80.4%, respectively). Quantitative PCR results showed that the highest level of ERα expression was in the liver; the next highest level of expression was observed in the gonads, where it was expressed at high levels particularly in the ovary in developmental stages IV and V and in the testis in developmental stage II/III. Immunohistochemistry analysis showed that ERα was present as slender particles distributed mainly in the membranes of spermatocytes and oocytes in the testis and ovary, whereas no positive signal was observed in the cytoplasm of sperm cells. This report describes the first molecular characterization of full-length ERα and its tissue-specific distribution in M. albus. PMID:27295422

  10. Molecular cloning and structural characterization of the R locus of maize: Annual progress report for period September 29, 1986-September 28, 1987

    SciTech Connect

    Dellaporta, S.L.

    1987-07-01

    Last year we reported on the isolation of a molecular clone of the R locus of maize using an Ac transposon tagging strategy. During the past year we have confirmed the identity of this clone and have begun a molecular analysis of several R alleles. Our main focus continues to be on the analysis of R-r, an allele containing both seed (S) and plant (P) components. Genomic blot analysis and gene cloning experiments suggest that the R-r allele may be organized as a triplication. In addition to (P) and (S), there appears to be a third cryptic component we refer to as (Q). We are attempting to clone the complete R-r allele by chromosome walking techniques to determine the molecular organization of R-r. The second objective of our research on R is to understand the mechanism of tissue-specific regulation of anthocyanin. We are characterizing several R alleles that condition different pigmentation patterns in plant and seed tissues. In order to determine the allelic differences among tissue-specific components we have obtained genomic clones and are performing DNA sequence analysis to regions of several tissue-specific components that may be responsible for these allelic differences. 1 ref.

  11. Molecular basis for amino acid sensing by family C G-protein-coupled receptors

    PubMed Central

    Wellendorph, P; Bräuner-Osborne, H

    2009-01-01

    Family C of human G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) is constituted by eight metabotropic glutamate receptors, two γ-aminobutyric acid type B (GABAB1–2) subunits forming the heterodimeric GABAB receptor, the calcium-sensing receptor, three taste1 receptors (T1R1–3), a promiscuous L-α-amino acid receptor G-protein-coupled receptor family C, group 6, subtype A (GPRC6A) and seven orphan receptors. Aside from the orphan receptors, the family C GPCRs are dimeric receptors characterized by a large extracellular Venus flytrap domain which bind the endogenous agonists. Except from the GABAB1–2 and T1R2–3 receptor, all receptors are either activated or positively modulated by amino acids. In this review, we outline mutational, biophysical and structural studies which have elucidated the interaction of the amino acids with the Venus flytrap domains, molecular mechanisms of receptor selectivity and the initial steps in receptor activation. PMID:19298394

  12. Cloning and epitope mapping of Cry11Aa-binding sites in the Cry11Aa-receptor alkaline phosphatase from Aedes aegypti.

    PubMed

    Fernandez, Luisa E; Martinez-Anaya, Claudia; Lira, Erandi; Chen, Jianwu; Evans, Amy; Hernández-Martínez, Salvador; Lanz-Mendoza, Humberto; Bravo, Alejandra; Gill, Sarjeet S; Soberón, Mario

    2009-09-22

    Cry11Aa is the most active Bacillus thuringiensis israelensis toxin against Aedes aegypti larvae. Ae. aegypti alkaline phosphatase (ALP) was previously identified as a Cry11Aa receptor mediating toxicity. Here we report the cloning and functional characterization of this Ae. aegypti Cry11Aa-ALP receptor. Of three ALP's cDNA clones, the recombinant produced ALP1 isoform was shown to bind Cry11Aa and P1.BBMV peptide phage that specifically binds the midgut ALP-Cry11Aa receptor. An anti-ALP1 antibody inhibited binding to brush border membrane vesicles and toxicity of Cry11Aa in isolated cultured guts. Two ALP1 Cry11Aa binding regions (R59-G102 and N257-I296) were mapped by characterizing binding of Cry11Aa to nine recombinant overlapping peptides covering the ALP1 sequence. Finally, by using a peptide spot array of Cry11Aa domain III and site-directed mutagenesis, we show that the ALP1 R59-G102 region binds Cry11Aa through domain II loop alpha-8 while ALP1 N257-I296 interacts with Cry11Aa through domain III 561RVQSQNSGNN570 located in beta18-beta19. Our results show that Cry11Aa domain II and domain III are involved in the binding with two distinct binding sites in the ALP1 receptor. PMID:19697959

  13. Cloning and Epitope Mapping of Cry11Aa-Binding Sites in the Cry11Aa-Receptor Alkaline Phosphatase from Aedes aegypti†

    PubMed Central

    Fernandez, Luisa E.; Martinez-Anaya, Claudia; Lira, Erandi; Chen, Jianwu; Evans, Amy; Hernández-Martínez, Salvador; Lanz-Mendoza, Humberto; Bravo, Alejandra; Gill, Sarjeet S.; Soberón, Mario

    2013-01-01

    Cry11Aa is the most active Bacillus thuringiensis israelensis toxin against Aedes aegypti larvae. Ae. aegypti alkaline phosphatase (ALP) was previously identified as a Cry11Aa receptor mediating toxicity. Here we report the cloning and functional characterization of this Ae. aegypti Cry11Aa-ALP receptor. Of three ALP’s cDNA clones, the recombinant produced ALP1 isoform was shown to bind Cry11Aa and P1.BBMV peptide phage that specifically binds the midgut ALP-Cry11Aa receptor. An anti-ALP1 antibody inhibited binding to brush border membrane vesicles and toxicity of Cry11Aa in isolated cultured guts. Two ALP1 Cry11Aa binding regions (R59–G102 and N257–I296) were mapped by characterizing binding of Cry11Aa to nine recombinant overlapping peptides covering the ALP1 sequence. Finally, by using a peptide spot array of Cry11Aa domain III and site-directed mutagenesis, we show that the ALP1 R59–G102 region binds Cry11Aa through domain II loop α-8 while ALP1 N257–I296 interacts with Cry11Aa through domain III 561RVQSQNSGNN570 located in β18-β19. Our results show that Cry11Aa domain II and domain III are involved in the binding with two distinct binding sites in the ALP1 receptor. PMID:19697959

  14. Molecular cloning of paired related homeobox 2 (prx2) as a novel pituitary transcription factor.

    PubMed

    Susa, Takao; Ishikawa, Akio; Kato, Takako; Nakayama, Michie; Kato, Yukio

    2009-10-01

    This study aimed to identify protein(s) that bind(s) to the highly AT-rich sequence of porcine Fshb promoter region -852/-746 (named Fd2) by the Yeast One-Hybrid Cloning System and finally a paired related homeodomain transcription factor, Prx2, known as a key factor for skeletogenesis was cloned. RT-PCR analysis of fetal and postnatal porcine pituitaries demonstrated that Prx2 starts to be expressed at around fetal days 40-50 just before the beginning of Lhb-expression and that the level of Prx2 increases after birth. Immunohistochemical analysis of the prepubertal porcine pituitary revealed that some Prx2-positive cells overlap some Lh beta-positive cells. Transient transfection assay using non-pituitary CHO cells and pituitary tumor-derived LbetaT2 cells revealed that Prx2 plays a cell-type dependent role in modulation of the Fshb promoter, showing stimulation in CHO cells and repression in LbetaT2 cells via the regions of Fd2 and -596/-239. The binding ability of Prx2 to the regions of Fd2 and -596/-239 was confirmed by electrophoretic mobility shift assay. DNase I footprinting revealed that broad regions of Fd2 were bound by Prx2 and that -596/-239 contained seven Prx2-binding sites. The SELEX method using a random N15-mer oligonucleotide pool demonstrated that Prx2 monomer binds to a TAATT motif, which is present in Fd2 and -596/-239. However, the binding of Prx2 to TAATT with a single molecule and its inverted repeat with two molecules could not induce transcriptional activation, indicating that the Prx2-dependent transcriptional modulation demonstrated in cultured cells is not introduced by Prx2 alone. Thus, this study demonstrated for the first time that Prx2 is expressed in the pituitary gland and at least in a part of gonadotropes in which Prx2 may play a role in repression of the Fshb gene. PMID:19550106

  15. Molecular cloning of a docking protein, BRDG1, that acts downstream of the Tec tyrosine kinase

    PubMed Central

    Ohya, Ken-ichi; Kajigaya, Sachiko; Kitanaka, Akira; Yoshida, Koji; Miyazato, Akira; Yamashita, Yoshihiro; Yamanaka, Takeo; Ikeda, Uichi; Shimada, Kazuyuki; Ozawa, Keiya; Mano, Hiroyuki

    1999-01-01

    Tec, Btk, Itk, Bmx, and Txk constitute the Tec family of protein tyrosine kinases (PTKs), a family with the distinct feature of containing a pleckstrin homology (PH) domain. Tec acts in signaling pathways triggered by the B cell antigen receptor (BCR), cytokine receptors, integrins, and receptor-type PTKs. Although upstream regulators of Tec family kinases are relatively well characterized, little is known of the downstream effectors of these enzymes. The yeast two-hybrid system has identified several proteins that interact with the kinase domain of Tec, one of which is now revealed to be a previously unknown docking protein termed BRDG1 (BCR downstream signaling 1). BRDG1 contains a proline-rich motif, a PH domain, and multiple tyrosine residues that are potential target sites for Src homology 2 domains. In 293 cells expressing recombinant BRDG1 and various PTKs, Tec and Pyk2, but not Btk, Bmx, Lyn, Syk, or c-Abl, induced marked phosphorylation of BRDG1 on tyrosine residues. BRDG1 was also phosphorylated by Tec directly in vitro. Efficient phosphorylation of BRDG1 by Tec required the PH and SH2 domains as well as the kinase domain of the latter. Furthermore, BRDG1 was shown to participate in a positive feedback loop by increasing the activity of Tec. BRDG1 transcripts are abundant in the human B cell line Ramos, and the endogenous protein underwent tyrosine phosphorylation in response to BCR stimulation. BRDG1 thus appears to function as a docking protein acting downstream of Tec in BCR signaling. PMID:10518561

  16. Molecular cloning of two paralytogenic, temperature-sensitive mutants, ts1 and ts7, and the parental wild-type Moloney murine leukemia virus.

    PubMed Central

    Yuen, P H; Malehorn, D; Nau, C; Soong, M M; Wong, P K

    1985-01-01

    ts1 and ts7, the paralytogenic, temperature-sensitive mutants of Moloney murine leukemia virus (MoMuLV), together with their wild-type parent, MoMuLV-TB, were molecularly cloned. ts1-19, ts7-22, and wt-25, the infectious viruses obtained on transfection to NIH/3T3 cells of the lambda Charon 21A recombinants of ts1, ts7, and wt, were found to have retained the characteristics of their non-molecularly cloned parents. In contrast to the wt virus, ts1-19 and ts7-22 are temperature-sensitive, inefficient in the intracellular processing of Pr80env at the restrictive temperature, and able to induce paralysis in CFW/D mice. Like the non-molecularly cloned ts7, the ts7-22 virion was also shown to be heat labile. The heat lability of the ts7 virion distinguishes it from ts1. Endonuclease restriction mapping with 11 endonucleases demonstrated that the base composition of MoMuLV-TB differs from that of the standard MoMuLV, but no difference was detected between the molecularly cloned ts1 and ts7 genomes. However, ts1 and ts7 differ from MoMuLV in the loss or acquisition of four different restriction sites, whereas they differ from MoMuLV-TB in the loss or acquisition of three different restriction sites. Images PMID:2983112

  17. Molecular cloning and characterization of lactate dehydrogenase gene from Eimeria tenella.

    PubMed

    Dong, Hui; Wang, Yange; Zhao, Qiping; Han, Hongyu; Zhu, Shunhai; Li, Liujia; Wu, Youling; Huang, Bing

    2014-08-01

    Lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) is a key enzyme in the glycolytic pathway and is crucial for parasite survival. In this study, we cloned and expressed the LDH of Eimeria tenella (EtLDH). Real-time polymerase chain reaction and Western blot analysis revealed that the expression of EtLDH was developmentally regulated at the messenger RNA (mRNA) and protein levels. EtLDH mRNA levels were higher in second-generation merozoites than in other developmental stages (unsporulated oocysts, sporulated oocysts, and sporozoites). EtLDH protein expression levels were most prominent in second-generation merozoites, moderately expressed in unsporulated oocysts and sporulated oocysts, and weakly detected in sporozoites. Immunostaining with anti-recombinant EtLDH (rEtLDH) antibody indicated that EtLDH was mainly located in the anterior region in free sporozoites and became concentrated in the anterior region of intracellular sporozoites except for the apex after invasion into DF-1 cells. Specific staining of EtLDH protein was more intense in trophozoites and immature first-generation schizonts, but decreased in mature first-generation schizonts. Inhibition of EtLDH function using specific antibodies cannot efficiently reduce the ability of E. tenella sporozoites to invade host cells. These results suggest that EtLDH may be involved in glycolysis during the first-generation merogony stage in E. tenella and has little role in host invasion. PMID:24906988

  18. Molecular cloning, tissue expression pattern, and copy number variation of porcine SCUBE3.

    PubMed

    Liu, X; Wang, L G; Zhang, L C; Yan, H; Zhao, K B; Liang, J; Li, N; Pu, L; Zhang, T; Wang, L X

    2016-01-01

    The signal peptide CUB EGF-like domain-containing protein 3 (SCUBE3) gene is a member of SCUBE gene family and plays important roles in bone cell biology and the determination of limb bone length. In this study, the full-length transcript of porcine SCUBE3 was cloned using reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction and rapid amplification of cDNA ends. The full-length sequence of porcine SCUBE3 cDNA was 4131 base pairs and included 21 exons. The SCUBE3 gene contained a 2895-base pair open reading frame that encoded a peptide of 965 amino acids. Comparison of the deduced amino acid sequences of porcine SCUBE3 with those of human, mouse, zebrafish, and rat showed 96, 95, 73, and 95% identities, respectively. Porcine SCUBE3 mRNA expression levels were highest in the backfat, bone marrow, and cartilage tissues. Copy number variation was detected in porcine SCUBE3 and validated by real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction. Different copy number variations were present in randomly selected individuals and may, therefore, be a good marker for identifying phenotypic traits. Our findings provide a basis for further investigation of the functions and regulatory mechanisms of SCUBE3 in pigs. PMID:26909946

  19. Molecular cloning, structural analysis, and expression in Escherichia coli of a chitinase gene from Enterobacter agglomerans.

    PubMed Central

    Chernin, L S; De la Fuente, L; Sobolev, V; Haran, S; Vorgias, C E; Oppenheim, A B; Chet, I

    1997-01-01

    The gene chiA, which codes for endochitinase, was cloned from a soilborne Enterobacter agglomerans. Its complete sequence was determined, and the deduced amino acid sequence of the enzyme designated Chia_Entag yielded an open reading frame coding for 562 amino acids of a 61-kDa precursor protein with a putative leader peptide at its N terminus. The nucleotide and polypeptide sequences of Chia_Entag showed 86.8 and 87.7% identity with the corresponding gene and enzyme, Chia_Serma, of Serratia marcescens, respectively. Homology modeling of Chia_Entag's three-dimensional structure demonstrated that most amino acid substitutions are at solvent-accessible sites. Escherichia coli JM109 carrying the E. agglomerans chiA gene produced and secreted Chia_Entag. The antifungal activity of the secreted endochitinase was demonstrated in vitro by inhibition of Fusarium oxysporum spore germination. The transformed strain inhibited Rhizoctonia solani growth on plates and the root rot disease caused by this fungus in cotton seedlings under greenhouse conditions. PMID:9055404

  20. Molecular cloning of the mouse CCK gene: expression in different brain regions and during cortical development.

    PubMed Central

    Vitale, M; Vashishtha, A; Linzer, E; Powell, D J; Friedman, J M

    1991-01-01

    In this paper we describe experiments that address specific issues concerning the regulation of the mouse cholecystokinin gene in brain and intestine. The mouse cholecystokinin gene was cloned and sequenced. Extensive homology among the mouse, man and rat genes was noted particularly in the three exons and the regions upstream of the RNA start site. RNAse protection assays for each of the three exons were used to demonstrate that CCK is expressed in only a subset of tissues and that the same cap site and splice choices are used in brain, intestine as well as in cerebellum, cortex, midbrain, hypothalamus and hippocampus. CCK RNA was also noted to be detectable in kidney. Thus the same gene using the same promoter is expressed in subsets of cells that differ in their biochemical, morphologic and functional characteristics. The level of expression of CCK was also monitored during mouse cortical development and the appearance of CCK RNA was compared to glutamate decarboxylase (GAD), enkephalin and somatostatin. It was noted that each of these cortical markers was first expressed at different times during cortical development. The appearance of CCK RNA during intestinal development was also measured and found to precede appearance in cortex by several days. Images PMID:2011497

  1. Molecular cloning and characterization of a Spirometra erinacei casein kinase I.

    PubMed

    Liu, Li Na; Wang, Han; Jiang, Peng; Wang, Man; Xu, Ming Guo; Wang, Li Fu; Qi, Xin; Zhang, Xi; Cui, Jing; Wang, Zhong Quan

    2015-12-01

    The Spirometra erinacei casein kinase I (SeCKI) gene was cloned and expressed in Escherichia coli, and its characteristics were investigated in this study. The recombinant SeCP protein (rSeCKI) was purified. The vaccination of mice with rSeCKI induced the Th1/Th2-mixed type of immune response with Th2 predominant (high levels of IgG1). Western blotting analysis showed that rSeCP was recognized by the sera of plerocercoid-infected mice, and anti-rSeCP serum recognized the native SeCP protein of plerocercoid crude antigens. Transcription and expression of SeCP was observed at the plerocercoid and adult stages of S. erinacei. Immunolocalization identified SeCKI in the tegument and parenchymal tissues of plerocercoids and in the teguments of adults. SeCKI appeared to be essential indispensable for the S. erinacei development and survival in host, but its biological functions need to be further investigated. PMID:26437645

  2. Molecular cloning and primary structure of human glial fibrillary acidic protein

    SciTech Connect

    Reeves, S.A.; Helman, L.J.; Allison, A.; Israel, M.A. )

    1989-07-01

    Glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) is an intermediate-filament (IF) protein that is highly specific for cells of astroglial lineage, although its tissue-specific role is speculative. Determination of the primary structure of this protein should be of importance for understanding the functional role it plays in astroglia. Therefore, the authors isolated a cDNA clone encoding this protein and determined its nucleotide sequence. The predicted amino acid sequence indicates that GFAP shares structural similarities-particularly in the central rod domain and to a lesser degree in the carboxyl-terminal domain-with other IF proteins found in nonepithelial cell types. Considerable sequence divergence in the amino-terminal region of GFAP suggests that the tissue-specific functions of this IF protein might be mediated through this region of the molecule. In contrast, conservation of structural characteristics and a moderate degree of sequence conservation in the carboxyl-terminal region suggest functional similarities. Blot hybridization analysis using the GFAP cDNA as a probe failed to detect GFAP mRNA in both normal and neoplastic human tissues in which IF proteins other than GFAP are known to be expressed.

  3. Molecular cloning and characterization analysis of immunoglobulin M