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Sample records for receptors protein kinase

  1. G-protein coupled receptor kinases in inflammation and disease

    PubMed Central

    Packiriswamy, Nandakumar; Parameswaran, Narayanan

    2015-01-01

    G-protein coupled receptor kinases (GRKs) are serine/threonine protein kinases originally discovered for their role in G-protein coupled receptor (GPCR) phosphorylation. Recent studies have demonstrated a much broader function for this kinase family including phosphorylation of cytosolic substrates involved in cell signaling pathways stimulated by GPCRs as well as non-GPCRs. In addition, GRKs modulate signaling via phosphorylation-independent functions. Because of these various biochemical functions, GRKs have been shown to affect critical physiological and pathophysiological processes and thus are considered as drug targets in diseases such as heart failure. Role of GRKs in inflammation and inflammatory diseases is an evolving area of research and several studies including work from our lab in the recent years have demonstrated critical role of GRKs in the immune system. In this review we discuss the classical and the newly emerging functions of GRKs in the immune system and their role in inflammation and disease processes. PMID:26226012

  2. Antigen receptor signaling: integration of protein tyrosine kinase functions.

    PubMed

    Tamir, I; Cambier, J C

    1998-09-17

    Antigen receptors on T and B cells function to transduce signals leading to a variety of biologic responses minimally including antigen receptor editing, apoptotic death, developmental progression, cell activation, proliferation and survival. The response to antigen depends upon antigen affinity and valence, involvement of coreceptors in signaling and differentiative stage of the responding cell. The requirement that these receptors integrate signals that drive an array of responses may explain their evolved structural complexity. Antigen receptors are composed of multiple subunits compartmentalized to provide antigen recognition and signal transduction function. In lieu of on-board enzymatic activity these receptors rely on associated Protein Tyrosine Kinases (PTKs) for their signaling function. By aggregating the receptors, and hence their appended PTKs, antigens induce PTK transphosphorylation, activating them to phosphorylate the receptor within conserved motifs termed Immunoreceptor Tyrosine-based Activation Motifs (ITAMs) found in transducer subunits. The tyrosyl phosphorylated ITAMs then interact with Src Homology 2 (SH2) domains within the PTKs leading to their further activation. As receptor phosphorylation is amplified, other effectors, such as Shc, dock by virtue of SH2 binding, and serve, in-turn, as substrates for these PTKs. This sequence of events not only provides a signal amplification mechanism by combining multiple consecutive steps with positive feedback, but also allows for signal diversification by differential recruitment of effectors that provide access to distinct parallel downstream signaling pathways. The subject of antigen receptor signaling has been recently reviewed in depth (DeFranco, 1997; Kurosaki, 1997). Here we discuss the biochemical basis of antigen receptor signal transduction, using the B cell receptor (BCR) as a paradigm, with specific emphasis on the involved PTKs. We review several specific mechanisms by which responses

  3. The role of non-receptor protein tyrosine kinases in the excitotoxicity induced by the overactivation of NMDA receptors.

    PubMed

    Sun, Yongjun; Chen, You; Zhan, Liying; Zhang, Linan; Hu, Jie; Gao, Zibin

    2016-04-01

    Protein tyrosine phosphorylation is one of the primary modes of regulation of N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptors. The non-receptor tyrosine kinases are one of the two types of protein tyrosine kinases that are involved in this process. The overactivation of NMDA receptors is a primary reason for neuron death following cerebral ischemia. Many studies have illustrated the important role of non-receptor tyrosine kinases in ischemia insults. This review introduces the roles of Src, Fyn, focal adhesion kinase, and proline-rich tyrosine kinase 2 in the excitotoxicity induced by the overactivation of NMDA receptors following cerebral ischemia. PMID:26540220

  4. DIRECT MODULATION OF THE PROTEIN KINASE A CATALYTIC SUBUNIT α BY GROWTH FACTOR RECEPTOR TYROSINE KINASES

    PubMed Central

    Caldwell, George B.; Howe, Alan K.; Nickl, Christian K.; Dostmann, Wolfgang R.; Ballif, Bryan A.; Deming, Paula B.

    2011-01-01

    The cyclic-AMP-dependent protein kinase A (PKA) regulates processes such as cell proliferation and migration following activation of growth factor receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs), yet the signaling mechanisms that link PKA with growth factor receptors remain largely undefined. Here we report that RTKs can directly modulate the function of the catalytic subunit of PKA (PKA-C) through post-translational modification. In vitro kinase assays revealed that both the epidermal growth factor and platelet derived growth factor receptors (EGFR and PDGFR, respectively) tyrosine phosphorylate PKA-C. Mass spectrometry identified tyrosine 330 (Y330) as a receptor-mediated phosphorylation site and mutation of Y330 to phenylalanine (Y330F) all but abolished the RTK-mediated phosphorylation of PKA-C in vitro. Y330 resides within a conserved region at the C-terminal tail of PKA-C that allosterically regulates enzymatic activity. Therefore, the effect of phosphorylation at Y330 on the activity of PKA-C was investigated. The Km for a peptide substrate was markedly decreased when PKA-C subunits were tyrosine phosphorylated by the receptors as compared to un-phosphorylated controls. Importantly, tyrosine-phosphorylated PKA-C subunits were detected in cells stimulated with EGF, PDGF and FGF2 and in fibroblasts undergoing PDGF-mediated chemotaxis. These results demonstrate a direct, functional interaction between RTKs and PKA-C and identify tyrosine phosphorylation as a novel mechansim for regulating PKA activity. PMID:21866565

  5. Transduction proteins of olfactory receptor cells: identification of guanine nucleotide binding proteins and protein kinase C

    SciTech Connect

    Anholt, R.R.H.; Mumby, S.M.; Stoffers, D.A.; Girard, P.R.; Kuo, J.F.; Snyder, S.H.

    1987-02-10

    The authors have analyzed guanine nucleotide binding proteins (G-proteins) in the olfactory epithelium of Rana catesbeiana using subunit-specific antisera. The olfactory epithelium contained the ..cap alpha.. subunits of three G-proteins, migrating on polyacrylamide gels in SDS with apparent molecular weights of 45,000, 42,000, and 40,000, corresponding to G/sub s/, G/sub i/, and G/sub o/, respectively. A single ..beta.. subunit with an apparent molecular weight of 36,000 was detected. An antiserum against the ..cap alpha.. subunit of retinal transducin failed to detect immunoreactive proteins in olfactory cilia detached from the epithelium. The olfactory cilia appeared to be enriched in immunoreactive G/sub s..cap alpha../ relative to G/sub ichemically bond/ and G/sub ochemically bond/ when compared to membranes prepared from the olfactory epithelium after detachment of the cilia. Bound antibody was detected by autoradiography after incubation with (/sup 125/I)protein. Immunohistochemical studies using an antiserum against the ..beta.. subunit of G-proteins revealed intense staining of the ciliary surface of the olfactory epithelium and of the axon bundles in the lamina propria. In contrast, an antiserum against a common sequence of the ..cap alpha.. subunits preferentially stained the cell membranes of the olfactory receptor cells and the acinar cells of Bowman's glands and the deep submucosal glands. In addition to G-proteins, they have identified protein kinase C in olfactory cilia via a protein kinase C specific antiserum and via phorbol ester binding. However, in contrast to the G-proteins, protein kinase C occurred also in cilia isolated from respiratory epithelium.

  6. Monocyte chemoattractant protein-1-induced CCR2B receptor desensitization mediated by the G protein-coupled receptor kinase 2

    PubMed Central

    Aragay, A. M.; Mellado, M.; Frade, J. M. R.; Martin, A. M.; Jimenez-Sainz, M. C.; Martinez-A, C.; Mayor, F.

    1998-01-01

    Monocyte chemoattractant protein 1 (MCP-1) is a member of the chemokine cytokine family, whose physiological function is mediated by binding to the CCR2 and CCR4 receptors, which are members of the G protein-coupled receptor family. MCP-1 plays a critical role in both activation and migration of leukocytes. Rapid chemokine receptor desensitization is very likely essential for accurate chemotaxis. In this report, we show that MCP-1 binding to the CCR2 receptor in Mono Mac 1 cells promotes the rapid desensitization of MCP-1-induced calcium flux responses. This desensitization correlates with the Ser/Thr phosphorylation of the receptor and with the transient translocation of the G protein-coupled receptor kinase 2 (GRK2, also called β-adrenergic kinase 1 or βARK1) to the membrane. We also demonstrate that GRK2 and the uncoupling protein β-arrestin associate with the receptor, forming a macromolecular complex shortly after MCP-1 binding. Calcium flux responses to MCP-1 in HEK293 cells expressing the CCR2B receptor were also markedly reduced upon cotransfection with GRK2 or the homologous kinase GRK3. Nevertheless, expression of the GRK2 dominant-negative mutant βARK-K220R did not affect the initial calcium response, but favored receptor response to a subsequent challenge by agonists. The modulation of the CCR2B receptor by GRK2 suggests an important role for this kinase in the regulation of monocyte and lymphocyte response to chemokines. PMID:9501202

  7. Second messenger-dependent protein kinases and protein synthesis regulate endogenous secretin receptor responsiveness

    PubMed Central

    Ghadessy, Roxana S; Kelly, Eamonn

    2002-01-01

    The present study investigated the role of second messenger-dependent protein kinase A (PKA) and C (PKC) in the regulation of endogenous secretin receptor responsiveness in NG108-15 mouse neuroblastoma×rat glioma hybrid cells. In whole cell cyclic AMP accumulation studies, activation of PKC either by phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA) or by purinoceptor stimulation using uridine 5′-triphosphate (UTP) decreased secretin receptor responsiveness. PKC activation also inhibited forskolin-stimulated cyclic AMP accumulation but did not affect cyclic AMP responses mediated by the prostanoid-IP receptor agonist iloprost, or the A2 adenosine receptor agonist 5′-(N-ethylcarboxamido) adenosine (NECA). In additivity experiments, saturating concentrations of secretin and iloprost were found to be additive in terms of cyclic AMP accumulation, whereas saturating concentrations of NECA and iloprost together were not. This suggests compartmentalization of Gs-coupling components in NG108-15 cells and possible heterologous regulation of secretin receptor responsiveness at the level of adenylyl cyclase activation. Cells exposed to the PKA inhibitor H-89, exhibited a time-dependent increase in secretin receptor responsiveness compared to control cells. This effect was selective since cyclic AMP responses to forskolin, iloprost and NECA were not affected by H-89 treatment. Furthermore, treatment with the protein synthesis inhibitor cycloheximide produced a time-dependent increase in secretin receptor responsiveness. Together these results indicate that endogenous secretin receptor responsiveness is regulated by PKC, PKA and protein neosynthesis in NG108-15 cells. PMID:11959806

  8. Competing G protein-coupled receptor kinases balance G protein and β-arrestin signaling

    PubMed Central

    Heitzler, Domitille; Durand, Guillaume; Gallay, Nathalie; Rizk, Aurélien; Ahn, Seungkirl; Kim, Jihee; Violin, Jonathan D; Dupuy, Laurence; Gauthier, Christophe; Piketty, Vincent; Crépieux, Pascale; Poupon, Anne; Clément, Frédérique; Fages, François; Lefkowitz, Robert J; Reiter, Eric

    2012-01-01

    Seven-transmembrane receptors (7TMRs) are involved in nearly all aspects of chemical communications and represent major drug targets. 7TMRs transmit their signals not only via heterotrimeric G proteins but also through β-arrestins, whose recruitment to the activated receptor is regulated by G protein-coupled receptor kinases (GRKs). In this paper, we combined experimental approaches with computational modeling to decipher the molecular mechanisms as well as the hidden dynamics governing extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) activation by the angiotensin II type 1A receptor (AT1AR) in human embryonic kidney (HEK)293 cells. We built an abstracted ordinary differential equations (ODE)-based model that captured the available knowledge and experimental data. We inferred the unknown parameters by simultaneously fitting experimental data generated in both control and perturbed conditions. We demonstrate that, in addition to its well-established function in the desensitization of G-protein activation, GRK2 exerts a strong negative effect on β-arrestin-dependent signaling through its competition with GRK5 and 6 for receptor phosphorylation. Importantly, we experimentally confirmed the validity of this novel GRK2-dependent mechanism in both primary vascular smooth muscle cells naturally expressing the AT1AR, and HEK293 cells expressing other 7TMRs. PMID:22735336

  9. The protein kinase LKB1 negatively regulates bone morphogenetic protein receptor signaling

    PubMed Central

    Raja, Erna; Edlund, Karolina; Kahata, Kaoru; Zieba, Agata; Morén, Anita; Watanabe, Yukihide; Voytyuk, Iryna; Botling, Johan; Söderberg, Ola; Micke, Patrick; Pyrowolakis, George; Heldin, Carl-Henrik; Moustakas, Aristidis

    2016-01-01

    The protein kinase LKB1 regulates cell metabolism and growth and is implicated in intestinal and lung cancer. Bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) signaling regulates cell differentiation during development and tissue homeostasis. We demonstrate that LKB1 physically interacts with BMP type I receptors and requires Smad7 to promote downregulation of the receptor. Accordingly, LKB1 suppresses BMP-induced osteoblast differentiation and affects BMP signaling in Drosophila wing longitudinal vein morphogenesis. LKB1 protein expression and Smad1 phosphorylation analysis in a cohort of non-small cell lung cancer patients demonstrated a negative correlation predominantly in a subset enriched in adenocarcinomas. Lung cancer patient data analysis indicated strong correlation between LKB1 loss-of-function mutations and high BMP2 expression, and these two events further correlated with expression of a gene subset functionally linked to apoptosis and migration. This new mechanism of BMP receptor regulation by LKB1 has ramifications in physiological organogenesis and disease. PMID:26701726

  10. Expression of a gibberellin-induced leucine-rich repeat receptor-like protein kinase in deepwater rice and its interaction with kinase-associated protein phosphatase

    SciTech Connect

    Knaap, E. van der; Sauter, M.; Kende, H. . DOE Plant Research Lab.); Song, W.Y.; Ruan, D.L.; Ronald, P.C. . Dept. of Plant Pathology)

    1999-06-01

    The authors identified in deepwater rice (Oryza sativa L.) a gene encoding a leucine-rich repeat receptor-like transmembrane protein kinase, OsTMK (O. sativa transmembrane kinase). The transcript levels of OsTMK increased in the rice internode in response to gibberellin. Expression of OsTMK was especially high in regions undergoing cell division and elongation. The kinase domain of OsTMK was enzymatically active autophosphorylating on serine and threonine residues. A cDNA encoding a rice ortholog of a kinase-associated type 2C protein phosphatase (OsKAPP) was cloned. KAPPs are putative downstream components in kinase-mediated signal transduction pathways. The kinase interaction domain of OsKAPP was phosphorylated in vitro by the kinase domain of OsTMK. RNA gel-blot analysis indicated that the expression of OsTMK and OsKAPP was similar in different tissues of the rice plant. In protein-binding assays, OsKAPP interacted with a receptor-like protein kinase, RLK5 of Arabidopsis, but not with the protein kinase domains of the rice and maize receptor-like protein kinases Xa21 and ZmPK1, respectively.

  11. Structure of Human G Protein-Coupled Receptor Kinase 2 in Complex with the Kinase Inhibitor Balanol

    SciTech Connect

    Tesmer, John J.G.; Tesmer, Valerie M.; Lodowski, David T.; Steinhagen, Henning; Huber, Jochen

    2010-07-19

    G protein-coupled receptor kinase 2 (GRK2) is a pharmaceutical target for the treatment of cardiovascular diseases such as congestive heart failure, myocardial infarction, and hypertension. To better understand how nanomolar inhibition and selectivity for GRK2 might be achieved, we have determined crystal structures of human GRK2 in complex with G{beta}{gamma} in the presence and absence of the AGC kinase inhibitor balanol. The selectivity of balanol among human GRKs is assessed.

  12. Receptor-specific in vivo desensitization by the G protein-coupled receptor kinase-5 in transgenic mice.

    PubMed Central

    Rockman, H A; Choi, D J; Rahman, N U; Akhter, S A; Lefkowitz, R J; Koch, W J

    1996-01-01

    Transgenic mice were generated with cardiac-specific overexpression of the G protein-coupled receptor kinase-5 (GRK5), a serine/threonine kinase most abundantly expressed in the heart compared with other tissues. Animals overexpressing GRK5 showed marked beta-adrenergic receptor desensitization in both the anesthetized and conscious state compared with nontransgenic control mice, while the contractile response to angiotensin II receptor stimulation was unchanged. In contrast, the angiotensin II-induced rise in contractility was significantly attenuated in transgenic mice overexpressing the beta-adrenergic receptor kinase-1, another member of the GRK family. These data suggest that myocardial overexpression of GRK5 results in selective uncoupling of G protein-coupled receptors and demonstrate that receptor specificity of the GRKs may be important in determining the physiological phenotype. Images Fig. 1 PMID:8790438

  13. INSIGHTS INTO THE REGULATION OF 5-HT2A RECEPTORS BY SCAFFOLDING PROTEINS AND KINASES

    PubMed Central

    Allen, John A.; Yadav, Prem N.

    2008-01-01

    SUMMARY 5-HT2A serotonin receptors are essential molecular targets for the actions of LSD-like hallucinogens and atypical antipsychotic drugs. 5-HT2A serotonin receptors also mediate a variety of physiological processes in peripheral and central nervous systems including platelet aggregation, smooth muscle contraction, and the modulation of mood and perception. Scaffolding proteins have emerged as important regulators of 5-HT2A receptors and our recent studies suggest multiple scaffolds exist for 5-HT2A receptors including PSD95, arrestin, and caveolin. In addition, a novel interaction has emerged between p90 ribosomal S6 kinase and 5-HT2A receptors which attenuates receptor signaling. This article reviews our recent studies and emphasizes the role of scaffolding proteins and kinases in the regulation of 5-HT2A trafficking, targeting and signaling. PMID:18640136

  14. Role of Protein Kinase C, PI3-kinase and Tyrosine Kinase in Activation of MAP Kinase by Glucose and Agonists of G-protein Coupled Receptors in INS-1 Cells

    PubMed Central

    Böcker, Dietmar

    2001-01-01

    MAP (mitogen-activated protein) kinase (also called Erk 1/2) plays a crucial role in cell proliferation and differentiation. Its impact on secretory events is less well established. The interplay of protein kinase C (PKC), PI3-kinase nd cellular tyrosine kinase with MAP kinase activity using inhibitors and compounds such as glucose, phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA) and agonists of G-protein coupled receptors like gastrin releasing peptide (GRP), oxytocin (OT) and glucose-dependent insulinotropic peptide (GIP) was investigated in INS-1 cells, an insulin secreting cell line. MAP kinase activity was determined by using a peptide derived from the EGF receptor as a MAP kinase substrate and [ P 32 ]ATP. Glucose as well as GRP, OT and GIP exhibited a time-dependent increase in MAP kinase activity with a maximum at time point 2.5 min. All further experiments were performed using 2.5 min incubations. The flavone PD 098059 is known to bind to the inactive forms of MEK1 (MAPK/ERK-Kinase) thus preventing activation by upstream activators. 20 μM PD 098059 ( IC 50 =51 μM) inhibited MAP kinase stimulated by either glucose, GRP, OT, GIP or PMA. Inhibiton (“downregulation”) of PKC by a long term (22h) pretreatment with 1 μM PMA did not influence MAP kinase activity when augmented by either of the above mentioned compound. To investigate whether PI3-kinase and cellular tyrosine kinase are involved in G-protein mediated effects on MAP kinase, inhibitors were used: 100 nM wortmannin (PI3-kinase inhibitor) reduced the effects of GRP, OT and GIP but not that of PMA; 100 μM genistein (tyrosine kinase inhibitor) inhibited the stimulatory effect of either above mentioned compound on MAP kinase activation. Inhibition of MAP kinase by 20 μM PD 098059 did not influence insulin secretion modulated by either compound (glucose, GRP, OT or GIP). [ H 3 ]Thymidine incorporation, however, was severely inhibited by PD 098059. Thus MAP kinase is important for INS-1 cell proliferation but

  15. Isolation and Characterization of Kinase Interacting Protein 1, a Pollen Protein That Interacts with the Kinase Domain of PRK1, a Receptor-Like Kinase of Petunia1

    PubMed Central

    Skirpan, Andrea L.; McCubbin, Andrew G.; Ishimizu, Takeshi; Wang, Xi; Hu, Yi; Dowd, Peter E.; Ma, Hong; Kao, Teh-hui

    2001-01-01

    Many receptor-like kinases have been identified in plants and have been shown by genetic or transgenic knockouts to play diverse physiological roles; however, to date, the cytosolic interacting proteins of relatively few of these kinases have been identified. We have previously identified a predominantly pollen-expressed receptor-like kinase of petunia (Petunia inflata), named PRK1, and we have shown by the antisense RNA approach that it is required for microspores to progress from the unicellular to bicellular stage. To investigate the PRK1-mediated signal transduction pathway, PRK1-K cDNA, encoding most of the cytoplasmic domain of PRK1, was used as bait in yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) two-hybrid screens of pollen/pollen tube cDNA libraries of petunia. A protein named kinase interacting protein 1 (KIP1) was found to interact very strongly with PRK1-K. This interaction was greatly reduced when lysine-462 of PRK1-K, believed to be essential for kinase activity, was replaced with arginine (the resulting protein is named PRK1-K462R). The amino acid sequence of KIP1 deduced from full-length cDNA contains an EF-hand Ca2+-binding motif and nine predicted coiled-coil regions. The yeast two-hybrid assay and affinity chromatography showed that KIP1 interacts with itself to form a dimer or higher multimer. KIP1 is present in a single copy in the genome, and is expressed predominantly in pollen with a similar temporal pattern to PRK1. In situ hybridization showed that PRK1 and KIP1 transcripts were localized in the cytoplasm of pollen. PRK1-K phosphorylated KIP1-NT (amino acids 1–716), whereas PRK1-K462R only weakly phosphorylated KIP1-NT in vitro. PMID:11500547

  16. Immunoprecipitation of Plasma Membrane Receptor-Like Kinases for Identification of Phosphorylation Sites and Associated Proteins.

    PubMed

    Kadota, Yasuhiro; Macho, Alberto P; Zipfel, Cyril

    2016-01-01

    Membrane proteins are difficult to study for numerous reasons. The surface of membrane proteins is relatively hydrophobic and sometimes very unstable, additionally requiring detergents for their extraction from the membrane. This leads to challenges at all levels, including expression, solubilization, purification, identification of associated proteins, and the identification of post-translational modifications. However, recent advances in immunoprecipitation technology allow to isolate membrane proteins efficiently, facilitating the study of protein-protein interactions, the identification of novel associated proteins, and to identify post-translational modifications, such as phosphorylation. Here, we describe an optimized immunoprecipitation protocol for plant plasma membrane receptor-like kinases. PMID:26577786

  17. Human type II receptor for bone morphogenic proteins (BMPs): extension of the two-kinase receptor model to the BMPs.

    PubMed Central

    Liu, F; Ventura, F; Doody, J; Massagué, J

    1995-01-01

    Bone morphogenic proteins (BMPs) are universal regulators of animal development. We report the identification and cloning of the BMP type II receptor (BMPR-II), a missing component of this receptor system in vertebrates. BMPR-II is a transmembrane serine/threonine kinase that binds BMP-2 and BMP-7 in association with multiple type I receptors, including BMPR-IA/Brk1, BMPR-IB, and ActR-I, which is also an activin type I receptor. Cloning of BMPR-II resulted from a strong interaction of its cytoplasmic domain with diverse transforming growth factor beta family type I receptor cytoplasmic domains in a yeast two-hybrid system. In mammalian cells, however, the interaction of BMPR-II is restricted to BMP type I receptors and is ligand dependent. BMPR-II binds BMP-2 and -7 on its own, but binding is enhanced by coexpression of type I BMP receptors. BMP-2 and BMP-7 can induce a transcriptional response when added to cells coexpressing ActR-I and BMPR-II but not to cells expressing either receptor alone. The kinase activity of both receptors is essential for signaling. Thus, despite their ability to bind to type I and II receptors receptors separately, BMPs appear to require the cooperation of these two receptors for optimal binding and for signal transduction. The combinatorial nature of these receptors and their capacity to crosstalk with the activin receptor system may underlie the multifunctional nature of their ligands. PMID:7791754

  18. Modulation of neurosteroid potentiation by protein kinases at synaptic- and extrasynaptic-type GABAA receptors

    PubMed Central

    Adams, Joanna M.; Thomas, Philip; Smart, Trevor G.

    2015-01-01

    GABAA receptors are important for inhibition in the CNS where neurosteroids and protein kinases are potent endogenous modulators. Acting individually, these can either enhance or depress receptor function, dependent upon the type of neurosteroid or kinase and the receptor subunit combination. However, in vivo, these modulators probably act in concert to fine-tune GABAA receptor activity and thus inhibition, although how this is achieved remains unclear. Therefore, we investigated the relationship between these modulators at synaptic-type α1β3γ2L and extrasynaptic-type α4β3δ GABAA receptors using electrophysiology. For α1β3γ2L, potentiation of GABA responses by tetrahydro-deoxycorticosterone was reduced after inhibiting protein kinase C, and enhanced following its activation, suggesting this kinase regulates neurosteroid modulation. In comparison, neurosteroid potentiation was reduced at α1β3S408A,S409Aγ2L receptors, and unaltered by PKC inhibitors or activators, indicating that phosphorylation of β3 subunits is important for regulating neurosteroid activity. To determine whether extrasynaptic-type GABAA receptors were similarly modulated, α4β3δ and α4β3S408A,S409Aδ receptors were investigated. Neurosteroid potentiation was reduced at both receptors by the kinase inhibitor staurosporine. By contrast, neurosteroid-mediated potentiation at α4S443Aβ3S408A,S409Aδ receptors was unaffected by protein kinase inhibition, strongly suggesting that phosphorylation of α4 and β3 subunits is required for regulating neurosteroid activity at extrasynaptic receptors. Western blot analyses revealed that neurosteroids increased phosphorylation of β3S408,S409 implying that a reciprocal pathway exists for neurosteroids to modulate phosphorylation of GABAA receptors. Overall, these findings provide important insight into the regulation of GABAA receptors in vivo, and into the mechanisms by which GABAergic inhibitory transmission may be simultaneously tuned by

  19. The HPV16 E6 Oncoprotein Causes Prolonged Receptor Protein Tyrosine Kinase Signaling and Enhances Internalization of Phosphorylated Receptor Species

    PubMed Central

    Spangle, Jennifer M.; Munger, Karl

    2013-01-01

    The high-risk human papillomavirus (HPV) E6 proteins are consistently expressed in HPV-associated lesions and cancers. HPV16 E6 sustains the activity of the mTORC1 and mTORC2 signaling cascades under conditions of growth factor deprivation. Here we report that HPV16 E6 activated mTORC1 by enhanced signaling through receptor protein tyrosine kinases, including epidermal growth factor receptor and insulin receptor and insulin-like growth factor receptors. This is evidenced by sustained signaling through these receptors for several hours after growth factor withdrawal. HPV16 E6 increased the internalization of activated receptor species, and the signaling adaptor protein GRB2 was shown to be critical for HPV16 E6 mediated enhanced EGFR internalization and mTORC1 activation. As a consequence of receptor protein kinase mediated mTORC1 activation, HPV16 E6 expression increased cellular migration of primary human epithelial cells. This study identifies a previously unappreciated mechanism by which HPV E6 proteins perturb host-signaling pathways presumably to sustain protein synthesis during the viral life cycle that may also contribute to cellular transforming activities of high-risk HPV E6 proteins. PMID:23516367

  20. Direct Modulation of Heterotrimeric G Protein-coupled Signaling by a Receptor Kinase Complex.

    PubMed

    Tunc-Ozdemir, Meral; Urano, Daisuke; Jaiswal, Dinesh Kumar; Clouse, Steven D; Jones, Alan M

    2016-07-01

    Plants and some protists have heterotrimeric G protein complexes that activate spontaneously without canonical G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs). In Arabidopsis, the sole 7-transmembrane regulator of G protein signaling 1 (AtRGS1) modulates the G protein complex by keeping it in the resting state (GDP-bound). However, it remains unknown how a myriad of biological responses is achieved with a single G protein modulator. We propose that in complete contrast to G protein activation in animals, plant leucine-rich repeat receptor-like kinases (LRR RLKs), not GPCRs, provide this discrimination through phosphorylation of AtRGS1 in a ligand-dependent manner. G protein signaling is directly activated by the pathogen-associated molecular pattern flagellin peptide 22 through its LRR RLK, FLS2, and co-receptor BAK1. PMID:27235398

  1. Distinct roles for protein kinase C isoforms in regulating platelet purinergic receptor function.

    PubMed

    Mundell, Stuart J; Jones, Matthew L; Hardy, Adam R; Barton, Johanna F; Beaucourt, Stephanie M; Conley, Pamela B; Poole, Alastair W

    2006-09-01

    ADP is a critical regulator of platelet activation, mediating its actions through two G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs), P2Y1 and P2Y12. We have shown previously that the receptors are functionally desensitized, in a homologous manner, by distinct kinase-dependent mechanisms in which P2Y1 is regulated by protein kinase C (PKC) and P2Y12 by G protein-coupled receptor kinases. In this study, we addressed whether different PKC isoforms play different roles in regulating the trafficking and activity of these two GPCRs. Expression of PKCalpha and PKCdelta dominant-negative mutants in 1321N1 cells revealed that both isoforms regulated P2Y1 receptor signaling and trafficking, although only PKCdelta was capable of regulating P2Y12, in experiments in which PKC was directly activated by the phorbol ester phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA). These results were paralleled in human platelets, in which PMA reduced subsequent ADP-induced P2Y1 and P2Y12 receptor signaling. PKC isoform-selective inhibitors revealed that novel, but not conventional, isoforms of PKC regulate P2Y12 function, whereas both novel and classic isoforms regulate P2Y1 activity. It is also noteworthy that we studied receptor internalization in platelets by a radioligand binding approach showing that both receptors internalize rapidly in these cells. ADP-induced P2Y1 receptor internalization is attenuated by PKC inhibitors, whereas that of the P2Y12 receptor is unaffected. Both P2Y1 and P2Y12 receptors can also undergo PMA-stimulated internalization, and here again, novel but not classic PKCs regulate P2Y12, whereas both novel and classic isoforms regulate P2Y1 internalization. This study therefore is the first to reveal distinct roles for PKC isoforms in the regulation of platelet P2Y receptor function and trafficking. PMID:16804093

  2. Role of non-receptor protein kinases in spermatid transport during spermatogenesis*

    PubMed Central

    Wan, H. T.; Mruk, Dolores D.; Tang, Elizabeth I.; Xiao, Xiang; Cheng, Yan-ho; Wong, Elissa W.P.; Wong, Chris K. C.; Cheng, C. Yan

    2014-01-01

    Non-receptor protein tyrosine kinases are cytoplasmic kinases that activate proteins by phosphorylating target protein tyrosine residues, in turn affecting multiple functions in eukaryotic cells. Herein, we focus on the role of non-receptor protein tyrosine kinases, most notably, FAK, c-Yes and c-Src, in the transport of spermatids across the seminiferous epithelium during spermatogenesis. Since spermatids, which are formed from spermatocytes via meiosis, are immotile haploid cells, they must be transported by Sertoli cells across the seminiferous epithelium during the epithelial cycle of spermatogenesis. Without the timely transport of spermatids across the epithelium, the release of sperms at spermiation fails to occur, leading to infertility. Thus, the molecular event pertinent to spermatid transport is crucial to spermatogenesis. Herein, we provide a critical discussion based on recent findings in the field. We also provide a hypothetical model on spermatid transport, and the role of non-receptor protein tyrosine kinases in this event. We also highlight areas of research that deserve attention by investigators in the field. PMID:24727349

  3. Insulin receptor binding and protein kinase activity in muscles of trained rats

    SciTech Connect

    Dohm, G.L.; Sinha, M.K.; Caro, J.F.

    1987-02-01

    Exercise has been shown to increase insulin sensitivity, and muscle is quantitatively the most important tissue of insulin action. Since the first step in insulin action is the binding to a membrane receptor, the authors postulated that exercise training would change insulin receptors in muscle and in this study they have investigated this hypothesis. Female rats initially weighing approx. 100 g were trained by treadmill running for 2 h/day, 6 days/wk for 4 wk at 25 m/min (0 grade). Insulin receptors from vastus intermedius muscles were solubilized by homogenizing in a buffer containing 1% Triton X-100 and then partially purified by passing the soluble extract over a wheat germ agglutinin column. The 4 wk training regimen resulted in a 65% increase in citrate synthase activity in red vastus lateralis muscle, indicating an adaptation to exercise ( SVI). Insulin binding by the partially purified receptor preparations was approximately doubled in muscle of trained rats at all insulin concentrations, suggesting an increase in the number of receptors. Training did not alter insulin receptor structure as evidenced by electrophoretic mobility under reducing and nonreducing conditions. Basal insulin receptor protein kinase activity was higher in trained than untrained animals and this was likely due to the greater number of receptors. However, insulin stimulation of the protein kinase activity was depressed by training. These results demonstrate that endurance training does alter receptor number and function in muscle and these changes may be important in increasing insulin sensitivity after exercise training.

  4. Cellular progesterone receptor phosphorylation in response to ligands activating protein kinases

    SciTech Connect

    Rao, K.V.; Peralta, W.D.; Greene, G.L.; Fox, C.F.

    1987-08-14

    Progesterone receptors were immunoprecipitated with monoclonal antibodies KD68 from lysates of human breast carcinoma T47D cells labelled to steady state specific activity with /sup 32/Pi. The 120 kDa /sup 32/P-labelled progesterone receptor band was resolved by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and identified by autoradiography. Phosphoamino acid analysis revealed serine phosphorylation, but no threonine or tyrosine phosphorylation. Treatment of the /sup 32/Pi-labelled cells with EGF, TPA or dibutyryl cAMP had no significant quantitative effect on progesterone receptor phosphorylation, though the EGF receptor and the cAMP-dependent protein kinases have been reported to catalyze phosphorylation of purified avian progesterone receptor preparations in cell free systems. Progesterone receptor phosphorylation on serine residues was increased by 2-fold in cells treated with 10 nM progesterone; EGF had no effect on progesterone-mediated progesterone receptor phosphorylation.

  5. Protein kinase D1 (PKD1) influences androgen receptor (AR) function in prostate cancer cells

    SciTech Connect

    Mak, Paul; Jaggi, Meena; Chauhan, Subhash C.; Balaji, K.C.

    2008-09-05

    Protein kinase D1 (PKD1), founding member of PKD protein family, is down-regulated in advanced prostate cancer (PCa). We demonstrate that PKD1 and androgen receptor (AR) are present as a protein complex in PCa cells. PKD1 is associated with a transcriptional complex which contains AR and promoter sequence of the Prostate Specific Antigen (PSA) gene. Ectopic expression of wild type PKD1 and the kinase dead mutant PKD1 (K628W) attenuated the ligand-dependent transcriptional activation of AR in prostate cancer cells and yeast cells indicating that PKD1 can affect AR transcription activity, whereas knocking down PKD1 enhanced the ligand-dependent transcriptional activation of AR. Co-expression of kinase dead mutant with AR significantly inhibited androgen-mediated cell proliferation in both LNCaP and DU145 PC cells. Our data demonstrate for the first time that PKD1 can influence AR function in PCa cells.

  6. A receptor-like kinase from Arabidopsis thaliana is a calmodulin-binding protein.

    PubMed Central

    Charpenteau, Martine; Jaworski, Krzysztof; Ramirez, Bertha C; Tretyn, Andrzej; Ranjeva, Raoul; Ranty, Benoît

    2004-01-01

    Screening a cDNA expression library with a radiolabelled calmodulin (CaM) probe led to the isolation of AtCaMRLK, a receptor-like kinase (RLK) of Arabidopsis thaliana. AtCaMRLK polypeptide sequence shows a modular organization consisting of the four distinctive domains characteristic of receptor kinases: an amino terminal signal sequence, a domain containing seven leucine-rich repeats, a single putative membrane-spanning segment and a protein kinase domain. Using truncated versions of the protein and a synthetic peptide, we demonstrated that a region of 23 amino acids, located near the kinase domain of AtCaMRLK, binds CaM in a calcium-dependent manner. Real-time binding experiments showed that AtCaMRLK interacted in vitro with AtCaM1, a canonical CaM, but not with AtCaM8, a divergent isoform of the Ca2+ sensor. The bacterially expressed kinase domain of the protein was able to autophosphorylate and to phosphorylate the myelin basic protein, using Mn2+ preferentially to Mg2+ as an ion activator. Site-directed mutagenesis of the conserved lysine residue (Lys423) to alanine, in the kinase subdomain II, resulted in a complete loss of kinase activity. CaM had no influence on the autophosphorylation activity of AtCaMRLK. AtCaMRLK was expressed in reproductive and vegetative tissues of A. thaliana, except in leaves. Disruption in the AtCaMRLK coding sequence by insertion of a DsG transposable element in an Arabidopsis mutant did not generate a discernible phenotype. The CaM-binding motif of AtCaMRLK was found to be conserved in several other members of the plant RLK family, suggesting a role for Ca2+/CaM in the regulation of RLK-mediated pathways. PMID:14720124

  7. Increased G Protein-Coupled Receptor Kinase (GRK) Expression in the Anterior Cingulate Cortex in Schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    Funk, Adam J.; Haroutunian, Vahram; Meador-Woodruff, James H.; McCullumsmith, Robert E.

    2014-01-01

    Background Current pharmacological treatments for schizophrenia target G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs), including dopamine receptors. Ligand bound GPCRs are regulated by a family of G protein-coupled receptor kinases (GRKs), members of which uncouple the receptor from heterotrimeric G proteins, desensitize the receptor, and induce receptor internalization via the arrestin family of scaffolding and signaling molecules. GRKs initiate the activation of downstream signaling pathways, can regulate receptors and signaling molecules independent of GPCR phosphorylation, and modulate epigenetic regulators like histone deacetylases (HDACs). We hypothesize that expression of GRK proteins are altered in schizophrenia, consistent with previous findings of alterations up and downstream from this family of molecules that facilitate intracellular signaling processes. Methods In this study we measured protein expression via Western blot analysis for GRKs 2, 3, 5, and 6 in the anterior cingulate cortex of patients with schizophrenia (N = 36) and a comparison group (N = 33). To control for antipsychotic treatment we measured these same targets in haloperidol treated vs. untreated rats (N = 10 for both). Results We found increased levels of GRK5 in schizophrenia. No changes were detected in GRK protein expression in rats treated with haloperidol decanoate for 9 months. Conclusion These data suggest that increased GRK5 expression may contribute the the pathophysiology of schizophrenia via abnormal regulation of the cytoskeleton, endocytosis, signaling, GPCRs, and histone modification. PMID:25153362

  8. G-protein-coupled receptor kinase 2 terminates G-protein-coupled receptor function in steroid hormone 20-hydroxyecdysone signaling

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Wen-Li; Wang, Di; Liu, Chun-Yan; Zhao, Xiao-Fan

    2016-01-01

    G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) transmit extracellular signals across the cell membrane. GPCR kinases (GRKs) desensitize GPCR signals in the cell membrane. However, the role and mechanism of GRKs in the desensitization of steroid hormone signaling are unclear. In this study, we propose that GRK2 is phosphorylated by protein kinase C (PKC) in response to induction by the steroid hormone 20-hydroxyecdysone (20E), which determines its translocation to the cell membrane of the lepidopteran Helicoverpa armigera. GRK2 protein expression is increased during the metamorphic stage because of induction by 20E. Knockdown of GRK2 in larvae causes accelerated pupation, an increase in 20E-response gene expression, and advanced apoptosis and metamorphosis. 20E induces translocation of GRK2 from the cytoplasm to the cell membrane via steroid hormone ecdysone-responsive GPCR (ErGPCR-2). GRK2 is phosphorylated by PKC on serine 680 after induction by 20E, which leads to the translocation of GRK2 to the cell membrane. GRK2 interacts with ErGPCR-2. These data indicate that GRK2 terminates the ErGPCR-2 function in 20E signaling in the cell membrane by a negative feedback mechanism. PMID:27412951

  9. G-protein-coupled receptor kinase 2 terminates G-protein-coupled receptor function in steroid hormone 20-hydroxyecdysone signaling.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Wen-Li; Wang, Di; Liu, Chun-Yan; Zhao, Xiao-Fan

    2016-01-01

    G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) transmit extracellular signals across the cell membrane. GPCR kinases (GRKs) desensitize GPCR signals in the cell membrane. However, the role and mechanism of GRKs in the desensitization of steroid hormone signaling are unclear. In this study, we propose that GRK2 is phosphorylated by protein kinase C (PKC) in response to induction by the steroid hormone 20-hydroxyecdysone (20E), which determines its translocation to the cell membrane of the lepidopteran Helicoverpa armigera. GRK2 protein expression is increased during the metamorphic stage because of induction by 20E. Knockdown of GRK2 in larvae causes accelerated pupation, an increase in 20E-response gene expression, and advanced apoptosis and metamorphosis. 20E induces translocation of GRK2 from the cytoplasm to the cell membrane via steroid hormone ecdysone-responsive GPCR (ErGPCR-2). GRK2 is phosphorylated by PKC on serine 680 after induction by 20E, which leads to the translocation of GRK2 to the cell membrane. GRK2 interacts with ErGPCR-2. These data indicate that GRK2 terminates the ErGPCR-2 function in 20E signaling in the cell membrane by a negative feedback mechanism. PMID:27412951

  10. Chapter Three - Ubiquitination and Protein Turnover of G-Protein-Coupled Receptor Kinases in GPCR Signaling and Cellular Regulation.

    PubMed

    Penela, P

    2016-01-01

    G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) are responsible for regulating a wide variety of physiological processes, and distinct mechanisms for GPCR inactivation exist to guarantee correct receptor functionality. One of the widely used mechanisms is receptor phosphorylation by specific G-protein-coupled receptor kinases (GRKs), leading to uncoupling from G proteins (desensitization) and receptor internalization. GRKs and β-arrestins also participate in the assembly of receptor-associated multimolecular complexes, thus initiating alternative G-protein-independent signaling events. In addition, the abundant GRK2 kinase has diverse "effector" functions in cellular migration, proliferation, and metabolism homeostasis by means of the phosphorylation or interaction with non-GPCR partners. Altered expression of GRKs (particularly of GRK2 and GRK5) occurs during pathological conditions characterized by impaired GPCR signaling including inflammatory syndromes, cardiovascular disease, and tumor contexts. It is increasingly appreciated that different pathways governing GRK protein stability play a role in the modulation of kinase levels in normal and pathological conditions. Thus, enhanced GRK2 degradation by the proteasome pathway occurs upon GPCR stimulation, what allows cellular adaptation to chronic stimulation in a physiological setting. β-arrestins participate in this process by facilitating GRK2 phosphorylation by different kinases and by recruiting diverse E3 ubiquitin ligase to the receptor complex. Different proteolytic systems (ubiquitin-proteasome, calpains), chaperone activities and signaling pathways influence the stability of GRKs in different ways, thus endowing specificity to GPCR regulation as protein turnover of GRKs can be differentially affected. Therefore, modulation of protein stability of GRKs emerges as a versatile mechanism for feedback regulation of GPCR signaling and basic cellular processes. PMID:27378756

  11. G Protein-coupled Receptor Kinase 5 Phosphorylates Nucleophosmin and Regulates Cell Sensitivity to Polo-like Kinase 1 Inhibition*

    PubMed Central

    So, Christopher H.; Michal, Allison M.; Mashayekhi, Rouzbeh; Benovic, Jeffrey L.

    2012-01-01

    G protein-coupled receptor kinases (GRKs) phosphorylate activated G protein-coupled receptors, leading to their desensitization and endocytosis. GRKs have also been implicated in phosphorylating other classes of proteins and can localize in a variety of cellular compartments, including the nucleus. Here, we attempted to identify potential nuclear substrates for GRK5. Our studies reveal that GRK5 is able to interact with and phosphorylate nucleophosmin (NPM1) both in vitro and in intact cells. NPM1 is a nuclear protein that regulates a variety of cell functions including centrosomal duplication, cell cycle control, and apoptosis. GRK5 interaction with NPM1 is mediated by the N-terminal domain of each protein, and GRK5 primarily phosphorylates NPM1 at Ser-4, a site shared with polo-like kinase 1 (PLK1). NPM1 phosphorylation by GRK5 and PLK1 correlates with the sensitivity of cells to undergo apoptosis with cells having higher GRK5 levels being less sensitive and cells with lower GRK5 being more sensitive to PLK1 inhibitor-induced apoptosis. Taken together, our results demonstrate that GRK5 phosphorylates Ser-4 in nucleophosmin and regulates the sensitivity of cells to PLK1 inhibition. PMID:22467873

  12. Leishmania Infection Engages Non-Receptor Protein Kinases Differentially to Persist in Infected Hosts

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Naixin; Kima, Peter E.

    2016-01-01

    Protein kinases play important roles in the regulation of cellular activities. In cells infected by pathogens, there is an increasing appreciation that dysregulated expression of protein kinases promotes the success of intracellular infections. In Leishmania-infected cells, expression and activation of protein kinases, such as the mitogen-activated protein kinases, kinases in the PI3-kinase signaling pathway, and kinases in the NF-κB-signaling pathway, are modulated in some manner. Several recent reviews have discussed our current understanding of the roles of these kinases in Leishmania infections. Apart from the kinases in the pathways enumerated above, there are other host cell protein kinases that are activated during the Leishmania infection of mammalian cells whose roles also appear to be significant. This review discusses recent observations on the Abl family of protein kinases and the protein kinase regulated by RNA in Leishmania infections. PMID:27148265

  13. Constitutive Phosphorylation by Protein Kinase C Regulates D1 Dopamine Receptor Signaling

    PubMed Central

    Rankin, Michele L.; Sibley, David R.

    2010-01-01

    The D1 dopamine receptor (D1DAR) is robustly phosphorylated by multiple protein kinases, yet the phosphorylation sites and functional consequences of these modifications are not fully understood. Here, we report that the D1DAR is phosphorylated by protein kinase C (PKC) in the absence of agonist stimulation. Phosphorylation of the D1DAR by PKC is constitutive in nature, can be induced by phorbol ester treatment or through activation of Gq-mediated signal transduction pathways, and is abolished by PKC inhibitors. We demonstrate that most, but not all, isoforms of PKC are capable of phosphorylating the receptor. To directly assess the functional role of PKC phosphorylation of the D1DAR, a site-directed mutagenesis approach was used to identify the PKC sites within the receptor. Five serine residues were found to mediate the PKC phosphorylation. Replacement of these residues had no effect on D1DAR expression or agonist-induced desensitization; however, G protein coupling and cAMP accumulation were significantly enhanced in PKC-null D1DAR. Thus, constitutive or heterologous PKC phosphorylation of the D1DAR dampens dopamine activation of the receptor, most likely occurring in a context-specific manner, mediated by the repertoire of PKC isozymes within the cell. PMID:20969574

  14. Activation of G Protein-Coupled Receptor Kinase 1 Involves Interactions between Its N-Terminal Region and Its Kinase Domain

    SciTech Connect

    Huang, Chih-chin; Orban, Tivadar; Jastrzebska, Beata; Palczewski, Krzysztof; Tesmer, John J.G.

    2012-03-16

    G protein-coupled receptor kinases (GRKs) phosphorylate activated G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) to initiate receptor desensitization. In addition to the canonical phosphoacceptor site of the kinase domain, activated receptors bind to a distinct docking site that confers higher affinity and activates GRKs allosterically. Recent mutagenesis and structural studies support a model in which receptor docking activates a GRK by stabilizing the interaction of its 20-amino acid N-terminal region with the kinase domain. This interaction in turn stabilizes a closed, more active conformation of the enzyme. To investigate the importance of this interaction for the process of GRK activation, we first validated the functionality of the N-terminal region in rhodopsin kinase (GRK1) by site-directed mutagenesis and then introduced a disulfide bond to cross-link the N-terminal region of GRK1 with its specific binding site on the kinase domain. Characterization of the kinetic and biophysical properties of the cross-linked protein showed that disulfide bond formation greatly enhances the catalytic efficiency of the peptide phosphorylation, but receptor-dependent phosphorylation, Meta II stabilization, and inhibition of transducin activation were unaffected. These data indicate that the interaction of the N-terminal region with the kinase domain is important for GRK activation but does not dictate the affinity of GRKs for activated receptors.

  15. Signaling of cell fate determination by the TPD1 small protein and EMS1 receptor kinase

    PubMed Central

    Jia, Gengxiang; Liu, Xiaodong; Owen, Heather A.; Zhao, Dazhong

    2008-01-01

    Sexual reproduction requires the specification of cells with distinct fates in plants and animals. The EMS1 (also known as EXS) leucine-rich repeat receptor-like kinase (LRR-RLK) and TPD1 small protein play key roles in regulating somatic and reproductive cell fate determination in Arabidopsis anthers. Here, we show that ectopic expression of TPD1 causes abnormal differentiation of somatic and reproductive cells in anthers. In addition, ectopic TPD1 activity requires functional EMS1. Yeast two-hybrid, pull-down, and coimmunoprecipitation analyses further demonstrate that TPD1 interacts with EMS1 in vitro and in vivo. Moreover, TPD1 induces EMS1 phosphorylation in planta. Thus, our results suggest that TPD1 serves as a ligand for the EMS1 receptor kinase to signal cell fate determination during plant sexual reproduction. PMID:18250314

  16. The Pim-1 Protein Kinase Is an Important Regulator of MET Receptor Tyrosine Kinase Levels and Signaling

    PubMed Central

    Xiong, Ying; Song, Jin H.; Mahajan, Sandeep; DuPont, Rachel; McEachern, Kristen; DeAngelo, Daniel J.; Cortes, Jorge E.; Minden, Mark D.; Ebens, Allen; Mims, Alice; LaRue, Amanda C.

    2014-01-01

    MET, the receptor for hepatocyte growth factor (HGF), plays an important role in signaling normal and tumor cell migration and invasion. Here, we describe a previously unrecognized mechanism that promotes MET expression in multiple tumor cell types. The levels of the Pim-1 protein kinase show a positive correlation with the levels of MET protein in human tumor cell lines and patient-derived tumor materials. Using small interfering RNA (siRNA), Pim knockout mice, small-molecule inhibitors, and overexpression of Pim-1, we confirmed this correlation and found that Pim-1 kinase activity regulates HGF-induced tumor cell migration, invasion, and cell scattering. The novel biochemical mechanism for these effects involves the ability of Pim-1 to control the translation of MET by regulating the phosphorylation of eukaryotic initiation factor 4B (eIF4B) on S406. This targeted phosphorylation is required for the binding of eIF4B to the eIF3 translation initiation complex. Importantly, Pim-1 action was validated by the evaluation of patient blood and bone marrow from a phase I clinical trial of a Pim kinase inhibitor, AZD1208. These results suggest that Pim inhibitors may have an important role in the treatment of patients where MET is driving tumor biology. PMID:24777602

  17. Walleye dermal sarcoma virus Orf B functions through receptor for activated C kinase (RACK1) and protein kinase C

    SciTech Connect

    Daniels, Candelaria C.; Rovnak, Joel; Quackenbush, Sandra L.

    2008-06-05

    Walleye dermal sarcoma virus is a complex retrovirus that is associated with walleye dermal sarcomas that are seasonal in nature. Fall developing tumors contain low levels of spliced accessory gene transcripts A and B, suggesting a role for the encoded proteins, Orf A and Orf B, in oncogenesis. In explanted tumor cells the 35 kDa Orf B accessory protein is localized to the cell periphery in structures similar to focal adhesions and along actin stress fibers. Similar localization was observed in mammalian cells. The cellular protein, receptor for activated C kinase 1 (RACK1), bound Orf B in yeast two-hybrid assays and in cell culture. Sequence analysis of walleye RACK1 demonstrated high conservation to other known RACK1 sequences. RACK1 binds to activated protein kinase C (PKC). Orf B associates with PKC{alpha}, which is constitutively activated and localized at the membrane. Activated PKC promoted cell survival, proliferation, and increased cell viability in Orf B-expressing cells.

  18. Ethanol Regulation of Synaptic GABAA α4 Receptors Is Prevented by Protein Kinase A Activation.

    PubMed

    Carlson, Stephen L; Bohnsack, John Peyton; Morrow, A Leslie

    2016-04-01

    Ethanol alters GABAA receptor trafficking and function through activation of protein kinases, and these changes may underlie ethanol dependence and withdrawal. In this study, we used subsynaptic fraction techniques and patch-clamp electrophysiology to investigate the biochemical and functional effects of protein kinase A (PKA) and protein kinase C (PKC) activation by ethanol on synaptic GABAA α4 receptors, a key target of ethanol-induced changes. Rat cerebral cortical neurons were grown for 18 days in vitro and exposed to ethanol and/or kinase modulators for 4 hours, a paradigm that recapitulates GABAergic changes found after chronic ethanol exposure in vivo. PKA activation by forskolin or rolipram during ethanol exposure prevented increases in P2 fraction α4 subunit abundance, whereas inhibiting PKA had no effect. Similarly, in the synaptic fraction, activation of PKA by rolipram in the presence of ethanol prevented the increase in synaptic α4 subunit abundance, whereas inhibiting PKA in the presence of ethanol was ineffective. Conversely, PKC inhibition in the presence of ethanol prevented the ethanol-induced increases in synaptic α4 subunit abundance. Finally, we found that either activating PKA or inhibiting PKC in the presence of ethanol prevented the ethanol-induced decrease in GABA miniature inhibitory postsynaptic current decay τ1, whereas inhibiting PKA had no effect. We conclude that PKA and PKC have opposing effects in the regulation of synaptic α4 receptors, with PKA activation negatively modulating, and PKC activation positively modulating, synaptic α4 subunit abundance and function. These results suggest potential targets for restoring normal GABAergic functioning in the treatment of alcohol use disorders. PMID:26857960

  19. The TMK1 gene from Arabidopsis codes for a protein with structural and biochemical characteristics of a receptor protein kinase.

    PubMed Central

    Chang, C; Schaller, G E; Patterson, S E; Kwok, S F; Meyerowitz, E M; Bleecker, A B

    1992-01-01

    Genomic and cDNA clones that code for a protein with structural and biochemical properties similar to the receptor protein kinases from animals were obtained from Arabidopsis. Structural features of the predicted polypeptide include an amino-terminal membrane targeting signal sequence, a region containing blocks of leucine-rich repeat elements, a single putative membrane spanning domain, and a characteristic serine/threonine-specific protein kinase domain. The gene coding for this receptor-like transmembrane kinase was designated TMK1. Portions of the TMK1 gene were expressed in Escherichia coli, and antibodies were raised against the recombinant polypeptides. These antibodies immunodecorated a 120-kD polypeptide present in crude extracts and membrane preparations. The immunodetectable band was present in extracts from leaf, stem, root, and floral tissues. The kinase domain of TMK1 was expressed as a fusion protein in E. coli, and the purified fusion protein was found capable of autophosphorylation on serine and threonine residues. The possible role of the TMK1 gene product in transmembrane signaling is discussed. PMID:1332795

  20. Presynaptic kainate receptor facilitation of glutamate release involves protein kinase A in the rat hippocampus

    PubMed Central

    Rodríguez-Moreno, Antonio; Sihra, Talvinder S

    2004-01-01

    We have explored the mechanisms involved in the facilitation of glutamate release mediated by the activation of kainate receptors in the rat hippocampus using isolated nerve terminal (synaptosome) and slice preparations. In hippocampal nerve terminals, kainate (KA) produced an increase of glutamate release at concentrations of agonist ranging from 10 to 1000 μm. In hippocampal slices, KA at low nanomolar concentrations (20–50 nm) also produced an increase of evoked excitatory postsynaptic currents (eEPSCs) at mossy fibre–CA3 synapses. In both, synaptosomes and slices, the effect of KA was antagonized by CNQX, and persisted after pretreatment with a cocktail of antagonists for other receptors whose activation could potentially have produced facilitation of release. These data indicate that the facilitation of glutamate release observed is mediated by the activation of presynaptic glutamate receptors of the kainate type. Mechanistically, the observed effects of KA appear to be the same in synaptosomal and slice preparations. Thus, the effect of KA on glutamate release and mossy fibre–CA3 synaptic transmission was occluded by the stimulation of adenylyl cyclase by forskolin and suppressed by the inhibition of protein kinase A by H-89 or Rp-Br-cAMP. We conclude that kainate receptors present at presynaptic terminals in the rat hippocampus mediate the facilitation of glutamate release through a mechanism involving the activation of an adenylyl cyclase–second messenger cAMP–protein kinase A signalling cascade. PMID:15107475

  1. Hematopoietic G-protein-coupled receptor kinase 2 deficiency decreases atherosclerotic lesion formation in LDL receptor-knockout mice

    PubMed Central

    Otten, Jeroen J. T.; de Jager, Saskia C. A.; Kavelaars, Annemieke; Seijkens, Tom; Bot, Ilze; Wijnands, Erwin; Beckers, Linda; Westra, Marijke M.; Bot, Martine; Busch, Matthias; Bermudez, Beatriz; van Berkel, Theo J. C.; Heijnen, Cobi J.; Biessen, Erik A. L.

    2013-01-01

    Leukocyte chemotaxis is deemed instrumental in initiation and progression of atherosclerosis. It is mediated by G-protein-coupled receptors (e.g., CCR2 and CCR5), the activity of which is controlled by G-protein-coupled receptor kinases (GRKs). In this study, we analyzed the effect of hematopoietic deficiency of a potent regulator kinase of chemotaxis (GRK2) on atherogenesis. LDL receptor-deficient (LDLr−/−) mice with heterozygous hematopoietic GRK2 deficiency, generated by bone marrow transplantation (n=15), displayed a dramatic attenuation of plaque development, with 79% reduction in necrotic core and increased macrophage content. Circulating monocytes decreased and granulocytes increased in GRK2+/− chimeras, which could be attributed to diminished granulocyte colony-forming units in bone marrow. Collectively, these data pointed to myeloid cells as major mediators of the impaired atherogenic response in GRK2+/− chimeras. LDLr−/− mice with macrophage/granulocyte-specific GRK2 deficiency (LysM-Cre GRK2flox/flox; n=8) failed to mimic the aforementioned phenotype, acquitting these cells as major responsible subsets for GRK2 deficiency-associated atheroprotection. To conclude, even partial hematopoietic GRK2 deficiency prevents atherosclerotic lesion progression beyond the fatty streak stage, identifying hematopoietic GRK2 as a potential target for intervention in atherosclerosis.—Otten, J. J. T., de Jager, S. C. A., Kavelaars, A., Seijkens, T., Bot, I., Wijnands, E., Beckers, L., Westra, M. M., Bot, M., Busch, M., Bermudez, B., van Berkel, T. J. C., Heijnen, C. J., Biessen, E. A. L. Hematopoietic G-protein-coupled receptor kinase 2 deficiency decreases atherosclerotic lesion formation in LDL receptor-knockout mice. PMID:23047899

  2. Molecular Mechanism of Selectivity among G Protein-Coupled Receptor Kinase 2 Inhibitors

    SciTech Connect

    Thal, David M.; Yeow, Raymond Y.; Schoenau, Christian; Huber, Jochen; Tesmer, John J.G.

    2012-07-11

    G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) are key regulators of cell physiology and control processes ranging from glucose homeostasis to contractility of the heart. A major mechanism for the desensitization of activated GPCRs is their phosphorylation by GPCR kinases (GRKs). Overexpression of GRK2 is strongly linked to heart failure, and GRK2 has long been considered a pharmaceutical target for the treatment of cardiovascular disease. Several lead compounds developed by Takeda Pharmaceuticals show high selectivity for GRK2 and therapeutic potential for the treatment of heart failure. To understand how these drugs achieve their selectivity, we determined crystal structures of the bovine GRK2-G{beta}{gamma} complex in the presence of two of these inhibitors. Comparison with the apoGRK2-G{beta}{gamma} structure demonstrates that the compounds bind in the kinase active site in a manner similar to that of the AGC kinase inhibitor balanol. Both balanol and the Takeda compounds induce a slight closure of the kinase domain, the degree of which correlates with the potencies of the inhibitors. Based on our crystal structures and homology modeling, we identified five amino acids surrounding the inhibitor binding site that we hypothesized could contribute to inhibitor selectivity. However, our results indicate that these residues are not major determinants of selectivity among GRK subfamilies. Rather, selectivity is achieved by the stabilization of a unique inactive conformation of the GRK2 kinase domain.

  3. Phenotypic Regulation of the Sphingosine 1-Phosphate Receptor Miles Apart by G Protein-Coupled Receptor Kinase 2

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    The evolutionarily conserved DRY motif at the end of the third helix of rhodopsin-like, class-A G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) is a major regulator of receptor stability, signaling activity, and β-arrestin-mediated internalization. Substitution of the DRY arginine with histidine in the human vasopressin receptor results in a loss-of-function phenotype associated with diabetes insipidus. The analogous R150H substitution of the DRY motif in zebrafish sphingosine-1 phosphate receptor 2 (S1p2) produces a mutation, miles apart m93 (milm93), that not only disrupts signaling but also impairs heart field migration. We hypothesized that constitutive S1p2 desensitization is the underlying cause of this strong zebrafish developmental defect. We observed in cell assays that the wild-type S1p2 receptor is at the cell surface whereas in distinct contrast the S1p2 R150H receptor is found in intracellular vesicles, blocking G protein but not arrestin signaling activity. Surface S1p2 R150H expression could be restored by inhibition of G protein-coupled receptor kinase 2 (GRK2). Moreover, we observed that β-arrestin 2 and GRK2 colocalize with S1p2 in developing zebrafish embryos and depletion of GRK2 in the S1p2 R150H miles apart zebrafish partially rescued cardia bifida. The ability of reduced GRK2 activity to reverse a developmental phenotype associated with constitutive desensitization supports efforts to genetically or pharmacologically target this kinase in diseases involving biased GPCR signaling. PMID:25555130

  4. Crosstalk between G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) and tyrosine kinase receptor (TXR) in the heart after morphine withdrawal

    PubMed Central

    Almela, Pilar; García-Carmona, Juan-Antonio; Martínez-Laorden, Elena; Milanés, María-Victoria; Laorden, María-Luisa

    2013-01-01

    G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) comprise a large family of membrane receptors involved in signal transduction. These receptors are linked to a variety of physiological and biological processes such as regulation of neurotransmission, growth, and cell differentiation among others. Some of the effects of GPCRs are known to be mediated by the activation of mitogen-activated extracellular kinase (MAPK) pathways. Cross-talk among various signal pathways plays an important role in activation of intracellular and intranuclear signal transduction cascades. Naloxone-induced morphine withdrawal leads to an up-regulation of adenyl cyclase-mediated signaling, resulting in high expression of protein kinase (PK) A. In addition, there is also an increased expression of extracellular signal regulated kinase (ERK), one member of MAPK. For this reason, the crosstalk between these GPCRs and receptors with tyrosine kinase activity (TKR) can be considered a possible mechanism for adaptive changes that occurs after morphine withdrawal. Morphine withdrawal activates ERK1/2 and phosphorylated tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) at Ser31 in the right and left ventricle. When N-(2-guanidinoethyl)-5-isoquinolinesulfonamide (HA-1004), a PKA inhibitor was infused, the ability of morphine withdrawal to activate ERK, which phosphorylates TH at Ser31, was reduced. The present finding demonstrated that the enhancement of ERK1/2 expression and the phosphorylation state of TH at Ser31 during morphine withdrawal are dependent on PKA and suggest cross-talk between PKA and ERK1/2 transduction pathway mediating morphine withdrawal-induced activation of TH. Increasing understanding of the mechanisms that interconnect the two pathway regulated by GPCRs and TKRs may facilitate the design of new therapeutic strategies. PMID:24409147

  5. Analysis of Phosphorylation of the Receptor-Like Protein Kinase HAESA during Arabidopsis Floral Abscission

    PubMed Central

    Taylor, Isaiah; Wang, Ying; Seitz, Kati; Baer, John; Bennewitz, Stefan; Mooney, Brian P.; Walker, John C.

    2016-01-01

    Receptor-like protein kinases (RLKs) are the largest family of plant transmembrane signaling proteins. Here we present functional analysis of HAESA, an RLK that regulates floral organ abscission in Arabidopsis. Through in vitro and in vivo analysis of HAE phosphorylation, we provide evidence that a conserved phosphorylation site on a region of the HAE protein kinase domain known as the activation segment positively regulates HAE activity. Additional analysis has identified another putative activation segment phosphorylation site common to multiple RLKs that potentially modulates HAE activity. Comparative analysis suggests that phosphorylation of this second activation segment residue is an RLK specific adaptation that may regulate protein kinase activity and substrate specificity. A growing number of RLKs have been shown to exhibit biologically relevant dual specificity toward serine/threonine and tyrosine residues, but the mechanisms underlying dual specificity of RLKs are not well understood. We show that a phospho-mimetic mutant of both HAE activation segment residues exhibits enhanced tyrosine auto-phosphorylation in vitro, indicating phosphorylation of this residue may contribute to dual specificity of HAE. These results add to an emerging framework for understanding the mechanisms and evolution of regulation of RLK activity and substrate specificity. PMID:26784444

  6. Insulin receptor substrate 1 is a substrate of the Pim protein kinases

    PubMed Central

    Song, Jin H.; Padi, Sathish K. R.; Luevano, Libia A.; Minden, Mark D.; DeAngelo, Daniel J.; Hardiman, Gary; Ball, Lauren E.; Warfel, Noel A.; Kraft, Andrew S.

    2016-01-01

    The Pim family of serine/threonine protein kinases (Pim 1, 2, and 3) contribute to cellular transformation by regulating glucose metabolism, protein synthesis, and mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation. Drugs targeting the Pim protein kinases are being tested in phase I/II clinical trials for the treatment of hematopoietic malignancies. The goal of these studies was to identify Pim substrate(s) that could help define the pathway regulated by these enzymes and potentially serve as a biomarker of Pim activity. To identify novel substrates, bioinformatics analysis was carried out to identify proteins containing a consensus Pim phosphorylation site. This analysis identified the insulin receptor substrate 1 and 2 (IRS1/2) as potential Pim substrates. Experiments were carried out in tissue culture, animals, and human samples from phase I trials to validate this observation and define the biologic readout of this phosphorylation. Our study demonstrates in both malignant and normal cells using either genetic or pharmacological inhibition of the Pim kinases or overexpression of this family of enzymes that human IRS1S1101 and IRS2S1149 are Pim substrates. In xenograft tumor experiments and in a human phase I clinical trial, a pan-Pim inhibitor administered in vivo to animals or humans decreased IRS1S1101 phosphorylation in tumor tissues. This phosphorylation was shown to have effects on the half-life of the IRS family of proteins, suggesting a role in insulin or IGF signaling. These results demonstrate that IRS1S1101 is a novel substrate for the Pim kinases and provide a novel marker for evaluation of Pim inhibitor therapy. PMID:26956053

  7. Role of G protein-coupled receptor kinase 2 in tumoral angiogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Rivas, Verónica; Nogués, Laura; Reglero, Clara; Mayor, Federico; Penela, Petronila

    2014-01-01

    Downregulation of G protein-coupled receptor kinase 2 (GRK2) in endothelial cells has recently been identified as a relevant event in the tumoral angiogenic switch. Based on the effects of altering GRK2 dosage in cell and animal models, this kinase appears to act as a hub in key signaling pathways involved in vascular stabilization and remodeling. Accordingly, decreased GRK2 expression in endothelial cells accelerates tumor growth in mice by impairing the pericytes ensheathing the vessels, thereby promoting hypoxia and macrophage infiltration. These results raise new questions regarding the mechanisms by which transformed cells trigger the decrease in GRK2 observed in human breast cancer vessels and how GRK2 modulates the interactions between different cell types that occur in the tumor microenvironment. PMID:27308373

  8. Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor Transactivation Is Required for Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase Activation by Muscarinic Acetylcholine Receptors in HaCaT Keratinocytes

    PubMed Central

    Ockenga, Wymke; Kühne, Sina; Bocksberger, Simone; Banning, Antje; Tikkanen, Ritva

    2014-01-01

    Non-neuronal acetylcholine plays a substantial role in the human skin by influencing adhesion, migration, proliferation and differentiation of keratinocytes. These processes are regulated by the Mitogen-Activated Protein (MAP) kinase cascade. Here we show that in HaCaT keratinocytes all five muscarinic receptor subtypes are expressed, but M1 and M3 are the subtypes involved in mitogenic signaling. Stimulation with the cholinergic agonist carbachol leads to activation of the MAP kinase extracellular signal regulated kinase, together with the protein kinase Akt. The activation is fully dependent on the transactivation of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), which even appears to be the sole pathway for the muscarinic receptors to facilitate MAP kinase activation in HaCaT cells. The transactivation pathway involves a triple-membrane-passing process, based on activation of matrix metalloproteases, and extracellular ligand release; whereas phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase, Src family kinases or protein kinase C do not appear to be involved in MAP kinase activation. Furthermore, phosphorylation, ubiquitination and endocytosis of the EGF receptor after cholinergic transactivation are different from that induced by a direct stimulation with EGF, suggesting that ligands other than EGF itself mediate the cholinergic transactivation. PMID:25421240

  9. Identification and Structure-Function Analysis of Subfamily Selective G Protein-Coupled Receptor Kinase Inhibitors

    SciTech Connect

    Homan, Kristoff T.; Larimore, Kelly M.; Elkins, Jonathan M.; Szklarz, Marta; Knapp, Stefan; Tesmer, John J.G.

    2015-02-13

    Selective inhibitors of individual subfamilies of G protein-coupled receptor kinases (GRKs) would serve as useful chemical probes as well as leads for therapeutic applications ranging from heart failure to Parkinson’s disease. To identify such inhibitors, differential scanning fluorimetry was used to screen a collection of known protein kinase inhibitors that could increase the melting points of the two most ubiquitously expressed GRKs: GRK2 and GRK5. Enzymatic assays on 14 of the most stabilizing hits revealed that three exhibit nanomolar potency of inhibition for individual GRKs, some of which exhibiting orders of magnitude selectivity. Most of the identified compounds can be clustered into two chemical classes: indazole/dihydropyrimidine-containing compounds that are selective for GRK2 and pyrrolopyrimidine-containing compounds that potently inhibit GRK1 and GRK5 but with more modest selectivity. The two most potent inhibitors representing each class, GSK180736A and GSK2163632A, were cocrystallized with GRK2 and GRK1, and their atomic structures were determined to 2.6 and 1.85 Å spacings, respectively. GSK180736A, developed as a Rho-associated, coiled-coil-containing protein kinase inhibitor, binds to GRK2 in a manner analogous to that of paroxetine, whereas GSK2163632A, developed as an insulin-like growth factor 1 receptor inhibitor, occupies a novel region of the GRK active site cleft that could likely be exploited to achieve more selectivity. However, neither compound inhibits GRKs more potently than their initial targets. This data provides the foundation for future efforts to rationally design even more potent and selective GRK inhibitors.

  10. Identification and structure-function analysis of subfamily selective G protein-coupled receptor kinase inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Homan, Kristoff T; Larimore, Kelly M; Elkins, Jonathan M; Szklarz, Marta; Knapp, Stefan; Tesmer, John J G

    2015-01-16

    Selective inhibitors of individual subfamilies of G protein-coupled receptor kinases (GRKs) would serve as useful chemical probes as well as leads for therapeutic applications ranging from heart failure to Parkinson's disease. To identify such inhibitors, differential scanning fluorimetry was used to screen a collection of known protein kinase inhibitors that could increase the melting points of the two most ubiquitously expressed GRKs: GRK2 and GRK5. Enzymatic assays on 14 of the most stabilizing hits revealed that three exhibit nanomolar potency of inhibition for individual GRKs, some of which exhibiting orders of magnitude selectivity. Most of the identified compounds can be clustered into two chemical classes: indazole/dihydropyrimidine-containing compounds that are selective for GRK2 and pyrrolopyrimidine-containing compounds that potently inhibit GRK1 and GRK5 but with more modest selectivity. The two most potent inhibitors representing each class, GSK180736A and GSK2163632A, were cocrystallized with GRK2 and GRK1, and their atomic structures were determined to 2.6 and 1.85 Å spacings, respectively. GSK180736A, developed as a Rho-associated, coiled-coil-containing protein kinase inhibitor, binds to GRK2 in a manner analogous to that of paroxetine, whereas GSK2163632A, developed as an insulin-like growth factor 1 receptor inhibitor, occupies a novel region of the GRK active site cleft that could likely be exploited to achieve more selectivity. However, neither compound inhibits GRKs more potently than their initial targets. This data provides the foundation for future efforts to rationally design even more potent and selective GRK inhibitors. PMID:25238254

  11. D1 dopamine receptor-induced cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase phosphorylation and potentiation of striatal glutamate receptors.

    PubMed

    Price, C J; Kim, P; Raymond, L A

    1999-12-01

    Dopamine receptor activation regulates cyclic AMP levels and is critically involved in modulating neurotransmission in the striatum. Others have shown that alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazole propionate (AMPA)-type glutamate receptor-mediated current is potentiated by cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA) activation. We made whole-cell patch clamp recordings from cultured striatal neurons and tested whether D1-type dopamine receptor activation affected AMPA receptor-mediated currents. After a 5-min exposure to the D1 agonist SKF 81297 (1 microM), kainate-evoked current amplitude was enhanced in approximately 75% of cells to 121+/-2.5% of that recorded prior to addition of drug. This response was inhibited by the D1 antagonist SCH 23390 and mimicked by activators of PKA. Moreover, by western blot analysis using an antibody specific for the phosphorylated PKA site Ser845 of GluR1, we observed a marked increase in phosphorylated GluR1 following a 10-min exposure of striatal neurons to 1 microM SKF 81297. Our data demonstrate that activation of D1-type dopamine receptors on striatal neurons promotes phosphorylation of AMPA receptors by PKA as well as potentiation of current amplitude. These results elucidate one mechanism by which dopamine can modulate neurotransmission in the striatum. PMID:10582604

  12. Delta Opioid activation of the Mitogen-activated protein kinase cascade does not require transphosphorylation of Receptor Tyrosine Kinases

    PubMed Central

    Kramer, H Kenneth; Onoprishvili, Irma; Andria, Matthew L; Hanna, Kayane; Sheinkman, Karina; Haddad, Lisa B; Simon, Eric J

    2002-01-01

    Background In this study, we investigated the mechanism(s) by which delta opioids induce their potent activation of extracellular signal-regulated protein kinases (ERKs) in different cell lines expressing the cloned δ-opioid receptor (δ-OR). While it has been known for some time that OR stimulation leads to the phosphorylation of both ERK isoforms, the exact progression of events has remained elusive. Results Our results indicate that the transphosphorylation of an endogenous epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) in the human embryonic kidney (HEK-293) cell line does not occur when co-expressed δ-ORs are stimulated by the δ-opioid agonist, D-Ser-Leu-enkephalin-Thr (DSLET). Moreover, neither pre-incubation of cultures with the selective EGFR antagonist, AG1478, nor down-regulation of the EGFR to a point where EGF could no longer activate ERKs had an inhibitory effect on ERK activation by DSLET. These results appear to rule out any structural or catalytic role for the EGFR in the δ-opioid-mediated MAPK cascade. To confirm these results, we used C6 glioma cells, a cell line devoid of the EGFR. In δ-OR-expressing C6 glioma cells, opioids produce a robust phosphorylation of ERK 1 and 2, whereas EGF has no stimulatory effect. Furthermore, antagonists to the RTKs that are endogenously expressed in C6 glioma cells (insulin receptor (IR) and platelet-derived growth factor receptor (PDGFR)) were unable to reduce opioid-mediated ERK activation. Conclusion Taken together, these data suggest that the transactivation of resident RTKs does not appear to be required for OR-mediated ERK phosphorylation and that the tyrosine-phosphorylated δ-OR, itself, is likely to act as its own signalling scaffold. PMID:11897012

  13. Targeting of a distinctive protein-serine phosphatase to the protein kinase-like domain of the atrial natriuretic peptide receptor.

    PubMed Central

    Chinkers, M

    1994-01-01

    Protein kinase-related domains of unknown function are present in the JAK family of protein tyrosine kinases and in receptor/guanylyl cyclases. I used the yeast two-hybrid system to screen for proteins interacting with the kinase-like domain of the atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) receptor/guanylyl cyclase. A yeast strain was constructed expressing a fusion of this kinase-like domain to the lexA DNA-binding domain and containing a HIS3 gene under the control of lexA upstream activating sequences. These yeast cells were transformed with a plasmid library of mouse embryo cDNA fragments fused to the VP16 transcriptional activation domain. Cells containing VP16-fusion proteins interacting with the lexA-kinase-like domain fusion protein were selected by growth in the absence of histidine. A partial-length cDNA clone isolated by using this approach encoded a protein that interacted specifically with the ANP-receptor protein kinase-like domain both in yeast cells and in vitro. Tissue-specific expression of a 2.2-kb mRNA hybridizing to this cDNA paralleled the known pattern of ANP-receptor mRNA expression. A full-length cDNA clone isolated from a rat lung library was predicted to encode a 55-kDa protein containing at its amino terminus a targeting domain that binds to the ANP-receptor kinase-like domain and containing at its carboxyl terminus a putative protein-serine phosphatase domain. This protein is a possible candidate for the phosphatase involved in desensitizing the ANP receptor. Targeting of regulatory proteins may be an important function of protein kinase-like domains. Images PMID:7972012

  14. [Characterization of a putative S locus encoded receptor protein kinase and its role in self-incompatibility

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-01-01

    The serine/threonine protein kinase (SRK) protein was predicted to be similar to the growth factor receptor tyrosine kinases in animals but its amino acid sequence of the catalytic domain is more similar to that of the catalytic domains of protein serine/threonine kinases than to protein tyrosine kinases. We have shown that the SRK protein has intrinsic scrine/threonine kinase activity. We subcloned the protein kinase-homologous domain of the SRK[sub 6] cDNA into the bacterial expression vector pGEX-3X and we have constructed a second plasmid identical to the first except that it carried a conservative mutation that substituted Arg for the Lys[sup 524] codon of SRK6 This lysine corresponds to the ATP-binding site, is essential in protein kinases, and is a common target for site-directed mutagenesis as a means to obtain kinase-defective proteins. Cultures bearing the wild-type and mutant SRK catalytic domains each produced an approximately 64 kD protein that reacted with anti-SRK6 antibodies. Following pulse-labeling with [sup 32]P we found that the wild-type SRK6 protein but not the mutant form was detectably phosphorylated. Phosphoamino acid analysis of the affinity purified [sup 32]p-labeled GST-SRK6 fusion protein demonstrated that SRK was phosphorylated predominantly on semine and to a lesser extent on threonine, but not on tyrosine. Thus, SRK6 is a functional serine/threonine protein kinase.

  15. Protein kinase C modulates transcriptional activation by the juvenile hormone receptor methoprene-tolerant.

    PubMed

    Ojani, Reyhaneh; Liu, Pengcheng; Fu, Xiaonan; Zhu, Jinsong

    2016-03-01

    Juvenile hormone (JH) controls many biological events in insects by triggering dramatic changes in gene expression in target cells. The Methoprene-tolerant (MET) protein, an intracellular JH receptor, acts as a transcriptional regulator and binds to the promoters of tissue- and stage-specific JH target genes when JH is present. Our recent study has demonstrated that the transcriptional activation by MET is modulated by a membrane-initiated JH signaling pathway, involving phospholipase C (PLC) and calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII). Here we report that protein kinase C (PKC) is another essential intermediate of this pathway. PKC was activated by JH and this action was PLC-dependent. Inhibition of the PKC activity substantially weakened the JH-induced gene expression in mosquito cells. RNAi experiments indicated that several PKC isoforms were involved in the JH action during the post-emergence development of adult female mosquitoes. JH treatment considerably increased the binding of MET to the promoters of JH response genes in cultured mosquito abdomens that were collected from newly emerged female adults. The JH-induced DNA binding of MET was hindered when the abdomens were treated with a PKC inhibitor and JH. Therefore, the results suggest that PKC modulates the transactivation activity of MET by enhancing the binding of MET to JH response elements in the JH target genes. This mechanism may allow for variable and stage- and tissue-specific genomic responses to JH. PMID:26689644

  16. The Novel Smad Protein Expansion Regulates Receptor Tyrosine Kinase Pathway to Control Drosophila Tracheal Tube Size

    PubMed Central

    Iordanou, Ekaterini; Chandran, Rachana R.; Yang, Yonghua; Essak, Mina; Blackstone, Nicholas; Jiang, Lan

    2014-01-01

    Tubes with distinct shapes and sizes are critical for the proper function of many tubular organs. Here we describe a unique phenotype caused by the loss of a novel, evolutionarily-conserved, Drosophila Smad-like protein, Expansion. In expansion mutants, unicellular and intracellular tracheal branches develop bubble-like cysts with enlarged apical membranes. Cysts in unicellular tubes are enlargements of the apical lumen, whereas cysts in intracellular tubes are cytoplasmic vacuole-like compartments. The cyst phenotype in expansion mutants is similar to, but weaker than, that observed in double mutants of Drosophila type III receptor tyrosine phosphatases (RPTPs), Ptp4E and Ptp10D. Ptp4E and Ptp10D negatively regulate the receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK) pathways, especially epithelial growth factor receptor (EGFR) and fibroblast growth factor receptor/breathless (FGFR, Btl) signaling to maintain the proper size of unicellular and intracellular tubes. We show Exp genetically interacts with RTK signaling, the downstream targets of RPTPs. Cyst size and number in expansion mutants is enhanced by increased RTK signaling and suppressed by reduced RTK signaling. Genetic interaction studies strongly suggest that Exp negatively regulates RTK (EGFR, Btl) signaling to ensure proper tube sizes. Smad proteins generally function as intermediate components of the transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β, DPP) signaling pathway. However, no obvious genetic interaction between expansion and TGF-β (DPP) signaling was observed. Therefore, Expansion does not function as a typical Smad protein. The expansion phenotype demonstrates a novel role for Smad-like proteins in epithelial tube formation. PMID:24973580

  17. Oestrogen receptors interact with the α-catalytic subunit of AMP-activated protein kinase

    PubMed Central

    Lipovka, Yulia; Chen, Hao; Vagner, Josef; Price, Theodore J.; Tsao, Tsu-Shuen; Konhilas, John P.

    2015-01-01

    Normal and pathological stressors engage the AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) signalling axis to protect the cell from energetic pressures. Sex steroid hormones also play a critical role in energy metabolism and significantly modify pathological progression of cardiac disease, diabetes/obesity and cancer. AMPK is targeted by 17β-oestradiol (E2), the main circulating oestrogen, but the mechanism by which E2 activates AMPK is currently unknown. Using an oestrogen receptor α/β (ERα/β) positive (T47D) breast cancer cell line, we validated E2-dependent activation of AMPK that was mediated through ERα (not ERβ) by using three experimental strategies. A series of co-immunoprecipitation experiments showed that both ERs associated with AMPK in cancer and striated (skeletal and cardiac) muscle cells. We further demonstrated direct binding of ERs to the α-catalytic subunit of AMPK within the βγ-subunit-binding domain. Finally, both ERs interacted with the upstream liver kinase B 1 (LKB1) kinase complex, which is required for E2-dependent activation of AMPK. We conclude that E2 activates AMPK through ERα by direct interaction with the βγ-binding domain of AMPKα. PMID:26374855

  18. A novel protein isoform of the RON tyrosine kinase receptor transforms human pancreatic duct epithelial cells

    PubMed Central

    Chakedis, Jeffery; French, Randall; Babicky, Michele; Jaquish, Dawn; Howard, Haleigh; Mose, Evangeline; Lam, Raymond; Holman, Patrick; Miyamoto, Jaclyn; Walterscheid, Zakk; Lowy, Andrew M.

    2015-01-01

    The MST1R gene is overexpressed in pancreatic cancer producing elevated levels of the RON tyrosine kinase receptor protein. While mutations in MST1R are rare, alternative splice variants have been previously reported in epithelial cancers. We report the discovery of a novel RON isoform discovered in human pancreatic cancer. Partial splicing of exons 5 and 6 (P5P6) produces a RON isoform that lacks the first extracellular immunoglobulin-plexin-transcription (IPT) domain. The splice variant is detected in 73% of pancreatic adenocarcinoma patient derived xenografts and 71% of pancreatic cancer cell lines. Peptides specific to RON P5P6 detected in human pancreatic cancer specimens by mass spectrometry confirms translation of the protein isoform. The P5P6 isoform is found to be constitutively phosphorylated, present in the cytoplasm, and it traffics to the plasma membrane. Expression of P5P6 in immortalized human pancreatic duct epithelial (HPDE) cells activates downstream AKT, and in human pancreatic epithelial nestin-expressing (HPNE) cells activates both the AKT and MAPK pathways. Inhibiting RON P5P6 in HPDE cells using a small molecule inhibitor BMS-777607 blocked constitutive activation and decreased AKT signaling. P5P6 transforms NIH3T3 cells and induces tumorigenicity in HPDE cells. Resultant HPDE-P5P6 tumors develop a dense stromal compartment similar to that seen in pancreatic cancer. In summary, we have identified a novel and constitutively active isoform of the RON tyrosine kinase receptor that has transforming activity and is expressed in human pancreatic cancer. These findings provide additional insight into the biology of the RON receptor in pancreatic cancer and are clinically relevant to the study of RON as a potential therapeutic target. PMID:26477314

  19. A novel protein isoform of the RON tyrosine kinase receptor transforms human pancreatic duct epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Chakedis, J; French, R; Babicky, M; Jaquish, D; Howard, H; Mose, E; Lam, R; Holman, P; Miyamoto, J; Walterscheid, Z; Lowy, A M

    2016-06-23

    The MST1R gene is overexpressed in pancreatic cancer producing elevated levels of the RON tyrosine kinase receptor protein. While mutations in MST1R are rare, alternative splice variants have been previously reported in epithelial cancers. We report the discovery of a novel RON isoform discovered in human pancreatic cancer. Partial splicing of exons 5 and 6 (P5P6) produces a RON isoform that lacks the first extracellular immunoglobulin-plexin-transcription domain. The splice variant is detected in 73% of xenografts derived from pancreatic adenocarcinoma patients and 71% of pancreatic cancer cell lines. Peptides specific to RON P5P6 detected in human pancreatic cancer specimens by mass spectrometry confirm translation of the protein isoform. The P5P6 isoform is found to be constitutively phosphorylated, present in the cytoplasm, and it traffics to the plasma membrane. Expression of P5P6 in immortalized human pancreatic duct epithelial (HPDE) cells activates downstream AKT, and in human pancreatic epithelial nestin-expressing cells, activates both the AKT and MAPK pathways. Inhibiting RON P5P6 in HPDE cells using a small molecule inhibitor BMS-777607 blocked constitutive activation and decreased AKT signaling. P5P6 transforms NIH3T3 cells and induces tumorigenicity in HPDE cells. Resultant HPDE-P5P6 tumors develop a dense stromal compartment similar to that seen in pancreatic cancer. In summary, we have identified a novel and constitutively active isoform of the RON tyrosine kinase receptor that has transforming activity and is expressed in human pancreatic cancer. These findings provide additional insight into the biology of the RON receptor in pancreatic cancer and are clinically relevant to the study of RON as a potential therapeutic target. PMID:26477314

  20. Molecular Mechanism for Inhibition of G Protein-Coupled Receptor Kinase 2 by a Selective RNA Aptamer

    SciTech Connect

    Tesmer, Valerie M.; Lennarz, Sabine; Mayer, Günter; Tesmer, John J.G.

    2012-08-31

    Cardiovascular homeostasis is maintained in part by the rapid desensitization of activated heptahelical receptors that have been phosphorylated by G protein-coupled receptor kinase 2 (GRK2). However, during chronic heart failure GRK2 is upregulated and believed to contribute to disease progression. We have determined crystallographic structures of GRK2 bound to an RNA aptamer that potently and selectively inhibits kinase activity. Key to the mechanism of inhibition is the positioning of an adenine nucleotide into the ATP-binding pocket and interactions with the basic {alpha}F-{alpha}G loop region of the GRK2 kinase domain. Constraints imposed on the RNA by the terminal stem of the aptamer also play a role. These results highlight how a high-affinity aptamer can be used to selectively trap a novel conformational state of a protein kinase.

  1. Molecular mechanism for inhibition of G protein-coupled receptor kinase 2 by a selective RNA aptamer

    PubMed Central

    Tesmer, Valerie M.; Lennarz, Sabine; Mayer, Günter; Tesmer, John J. G.

    2012-01-01

    SUMMARY Cardiovascular homeostasis is maintained in part by the rapid desensitization of activated heptahelical receptors that have been phosphorylated by G protein-coupled receptor kinase 2 (GRK2). However, during chronic heart failure GRK2 is upregulated and believed to contribute to disease progression. We have determined crystallographic structures of GRK2 bound to an RNA aptamer that potently and selectively inhibits kinase activity. Key to the mechanism of inhibition is the positioning of an adenine nucleotide into the ATP-binding pocket and interactions with the basic αF-αG loop region of the GRK2 kinase domain. Constraints imposed on the RNA by the terminal stem of the aptamer also play a role. These results highlight how a high affinity aptamer can be used to selectively trap a novel conformational state of a protein kinase. PMID:22727813

  2. Receptor protein kinase gene encoded at the self-incompatibility locus

    DOEpatents

    Nasrallah, June B.; Nasrallah, Mikhail E.; Stein, Joshua

    1996-01-01

    Described herein is a S receptor kinase gene (SRK), derived from the S locus in Brassica oleracea, having a extracellular domain highly similar to the secreted product of the S-locus glycoprotein gene.

  3. Roles of mitogen activated protein kinases and EGF receptor in arsenite-stimulated matrix metalloproteinase-9 production

    SciTech Connect

    Cooper, Karen L.; Myers, Terrance Alix; Rosenberg, Martina; Chavez, Miquella; Hudson, Laurie G. . E-mail: lghudson@unm.edu

    2004-11-01

    The dermatotoxicity of arsenic is well established and epidemiological studies identify an increased incidence of keratinocytic tumors (basal cell and squamous cell carcinoma) associated with arsenic exposure. Little is known about the underlying mechanisms of arsenic-mediated skin carcinogenesis, but activation of mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinases and subsequent regulation of downstream target genes may contribute to tumor promotion and progression. In this study, we investigated activation of the extracellular signal regulated kinase (ERK) and the stress-associated kinase p38 by arsenite in HaCat cells, a spontaneously immortalized human keratinocyte cell line. Arsenite concentrations {>=}100 {mu}M stimulate rapid activation of p38 and ERK MAP kinases. However, upon extended exposure (24 h), persistent stimulation of p38 and ERK MAP kinases was detected at low micromolar concentrations of arsenite. Although ERK and p38 were activated with similar time and concentration dependence, the mechanism of activation differed for these two MAP kinases. ERK activation by arsenite was fully dependent on the catalytic activity of the epidermal growth factor (EGF) receptor and partially dependent on Src-family kinase activity. In contrast, p38 activation was independent of EGF receptor or Src-family kinase activity. Arsenite-stimulated MAP kinase signal transduction resulted in increased production of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-9, an AP-1 regulated gene product. MMP-9 induction by arsenite was prevented when EGF receptor or MAP kinase signaling was inhibited. These studies indicate that EGF receptor activation is a component of arsenite-mediated signal transduction and gene expression in keratinocytes and that low micromolar concentrations of arsenite stimulate key signaling pathways upon extended exposure. Stimulation of MAP kinase cascades by arsenic and subsequent regulation of genes including c-fos, c-jun, and the matrix degrading proteases may play an important

  4. Avr4 promotes Cf-4 receptor-like protein association with the BAK1/SERK3 receptor-like kinase to initiate receptor endocytosis and plant immunity.

    PubMed

    Postma, Jelle; Liebrand, Thomas W H; Bi, Guozhi; Evrard, Alexandre; Bye, Ruby R; Mbengue, Malick; Kuhn, Hannah; Joosten, Matthieu H A J; Robatzek, Silke

    2016-04-01

    The first layer of plant immunity is activated by cell surface receptor-like kinases (RLKs) and proteins (RLPs) that detect infectious pathogens. Constitutive interaction with the SUPPRESSOR OF BIR1 (SOBIR1) RLK contributes to RLP stability and kinase activity. As RLK activation requires transphosphorylation with a second associated RLK, it remains elusive how RLPs initiate downstream signaling. We employed live-cell imaging, gene silencing and coimmunoprecipitation to investigate the requirement of associated kinases for functioning and ligand-induced subcellular trafficking of Cf RLPs that mediate immunity of tomato against Cladosporium fulvum. Our research shows that after elicitation with matching effector ligands Avr4 and Avr9, BRI1-ASSOCIATED KINASE 1/SOMATIC EMBRYOGENESIS RECEPTOR KINASE 3 (BAK1/SERK3) associates with Cf-4 and Cf-9. BAK1/SERK3 is required for the effector-triggered hypersensitive response and resistance of tomato against C. fulvum. Furthermore, Cf-4 interacts with SOBIR1 at the plasma membrane and is recruited to late endosomes upon Avr4 trigger, also depending on BAK1/SERK3. These observations indicate that RLP-mediated resistance and endocytosis require ligand-induced recruitment of BAK1/SERK3, reminiscent of BAK1/SERK3 interaction and subcellular fate of the FLAGELLIN SENSING 2 (FLS2) RLK. This reveals that diverse classes of cell surface immune receptors share common requirements for initiation of resistance and endocytosis. PMID:26765243

  5. Lectin Receptor Kinases Participate in Protein-Protein Interactions to Mediate Plasma Membrane-Cell Wall Adhesions in Arabidopsis1

    PubMed Central

    Gouget, Anne; Senchou, Virginie; Govers, Francine; Sanson, Arnaud; Barre, Annick; Rougé, Pierre; Pont-Lezica, Rafael; Canut, Hervé

    2006-01-01

    Interactions between plant cell walls and plasma membranes are essential for cells to function properly, but the molecules that mediate the structural continuity between wall and membrane are unknown. Some of these interactions, which are visualized upon tissue plasmolysis in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana), are disrupted by the RGD (arginine-glycine-aspartic acid) tripeptide sequence, a characteristic cell adhesion motif in mammals. In planta induced-O (IPI-O) is an RGD-containing protein from the plant pathogen Phytophthora infestans that can disrupt cell wall-plasma membrane adhesions through its RGD motif. To identify peptide sequences that specifically bind the RGD motif of the IPI-O protein and potentially play a role in receptor recognition, we screened a heptamer peptide library displayed in a filamentous phage and selected two peptides acting as inhibitors of the plasma membrane RGD-binding activity of Arabidopsis. Moreover, the two peptides also disrupted cell wall-plasma membrane adhesions. Sequence comparison of the RGD-binding peptides with the Arabidopsis proteome revealed 12 proteins containing amino acid sequences in their extracellular domains common with the two RGD-binding peptides. Eight belong to the receptor-like kinase family, four of which have a lectin-like extracellular domain. The lectin domain of one of these, At5g60300, recognized the RGD motif both in peptides and proteins. These results imply that lectin receptor kinases are involved in protein-protein interactions with RGD-containing proteins as potential ligands, and play a structural and signaling role at the plant cell surfaces. PMID:16361528

  6. Decreased expression of receptor tyrosine kinase of EphB1 protein in renal cell carcinomas

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Shuigen; Wang, Longxin; Li, Guimei; Zhang, Zhengyu; Wang, Jiandong

    2014-01-01

    Receptors tyrosine kinase of Eph superfamily plays an important role in human cancers. We previously found that EphB1 subtype is down-regulated in gastric cancer, colorectal cancer and ovary serous carcinoma. Fore the more, the decreased expression of EphB1 is related to invasion and metastasis in cancers. Although EphB1 has been revealed as an important receptor in cancers, our understanding of its roles in renal cell carcinoma (RCC) is limited. In the present study, using specific anit-EphB1 polyclonal antibody and immunohistochemistry, we evaluated EphB1 protein expression levels in RCC specimens surgically resected from 82 patients (including 62 conventional clear-cell RCC, 10 papillary, and 10 chromophobic RCC cases). We found EphB1 protein is positively expressed in the epithelium of renal tubules. Decreased expression of EphB1 was found in all RCC carcinomas compared with expression in the normal epithelium of renal tubules. EphB1 protein moderately expressed in chromophobic RCC, weakly expressed in clear-cell RCC and negatively expressed in papillary RCC. Our results indicate that EphB1 may be involved in carcinogenesis of RCC, the molecular mechanisms of down-regulation of EphB1 including genetic and epigenetic alterations and the dedicated roles of EphB1 in occurrence and progress of RCC need to be explicated in next step. PMID:25120806

  7. Pleckstrin homology domain leucine-rich repeat protein phosphatases set the amplitude of receptor tyrosine kinase output

    PubMed Central

    Reyes, Gloria; Niederst, Matt; Cohen-Katsenelson, Ksenya; Stender, Joshua D.; Kunkel, Maya T.; Chen, Muhan; Brognard, John; Sierecki, Emma; Gao, Tianyan; Nowak, Dawid G.; Trotman, Lloyd C.; Glass, Christopher K.; Newton, Alexandra C.

    2014-01-01

    Growth factor receptor levels are aberrantly high in diverse cancers, driving the proliferation and survival of tumor cells. Understanding the molecular basis for this aberrant elevation has profound clinical implications. Here we show that the pleckstrin homology domain leucine-rich repeat protein phosphatase (PHLPP) suppresses receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK) signaling output by a previously unidentified epigenetic mechanism unrelated to its previously described function as the hydrophobic motif phosphatase for the protein kinase AKT, protein kinase C, and S6 kinase. Specifically, we show that nuclear-localized PHLPP suppresses histone phosphorylation and acetylation, in turn suppressing the transcription of diverse growth factor receptors, including the EGF receptor. These data uncover a much broader role for PHLPP in regulation of growth factor signaling beyond its direct inactivation of AKT: By suppressing RTK levels, PHLPP dampens the downstream signaling output of two major oncogenic pathways, the PI3 kinase/AKT and the Rat sarcoma (RAS)/ERK pathways. Our data are consistent with a model in which PHLPP modifies the histone code to control the transcription of RTKs. PMID:25201979

  8. Plasmodesmal receptor-like kinases identified through analysis of rice cell wall extracted proteins.

    PubMed

    Jo, Yeonhwa; Cho, Won Kyong; Rim, Yeonggil; Moon, Juyeon; Chen, Xiong-Yan; Chu, Hyosub; Kim, Cha Young; Park, Zee-Yong; Lucas, William J; Kim, Jae-Yean

    2011-01-01

    In plants, plasmodesmata (PD) are intercellular channels that function in both metabolite exchange and the transport of proteins and RNAs. Currently, many of the PD structural and regulatory components remain to be elucidated. Receptor-like kinases (RLKs) belonging to a notably expanded protein family in plants compared to the animal kingdom have been shown to play important roles in plant growth, development, pathogen resistance, and cell death. In this study, cell biological approaches were used to identify potential PD-associated RLK proteins among proteins contained within cell walls isolated from rice callus cultured cells. A total of 15 rice RLKs were investigated to determine their subcellular localization, using an Agrobacterium-mediated transient expression system. Of these six PD-associated RLKs were identified based on their co-localization with a viral movement protein that served as a PD marker, plasmolysis experiments, and subcellular localization at points of wall contact between spongy mesophyll cells. These findings suggest potential PD functions in apoplasmic signaling in response to environmental stimuli and developmental inputs. PMID:21161304

  9. Regulation of canonical transient receptor potential (TRPC) channel function by diacylglycerol and protein kinase C.

    PubMed

    Venkatachalam, Kartik; Zheng, Fei; Gill, Donald L

    2003-08-01

    The mechanism of receptor-induced activation of the ubiquitously expressed family of mammalian canonical transient receptor potential (TRPC) channels has been the focus of intense study. Primarily responding to phospholipase C (PLC)-coupled receptors, the channels are reported to receive modulatory input from diacylglycerol, endoplasmic reticulum inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptors and Ca2+ stores. Analysis of TRPC5 channels transfected within DT40 B cells and deletion mutants thereof revealed efficient activation in response to PLC-beta or PLC-gamma activation, which was independent of inositol 1,4,5-trisphoshate receptors or the content of stores. In both HEK293 cells and DT40 cells, TRPC5 and TRPC3 channel responses to PLC activation were highly analogous, but only TRPC3 and not TRPC5 channels responded to the addition of the permeant diacylglycerol (DAG) analogue, 1-oleoyl-2-acetyl-sn-glycerol (OAG). However, OAG application or elevated endogenous DAG, resulting from either DAG lipase or DAG kinase inhibition, completely prevented TRPC5 or TRPC4 activation. This inhibitory action of DAG on TRPC5 and TRPC4 channels was clearly mediated by protein kinase C (PKC), in distinction to the stimulatory action of DAG on TRPC3, which is established to be PKC-independent. PKC activation totally blocked TRPC3 channel activation in response to OAG, and the activation was restored by PKC-blockade. PKC inhibition resulted in decreased TRPC3 channel deactivation. Store-operated Ca2+ entry in response to PLC-coupled receptor activation was substantially reduced by OAG or DAG-lipase inhibition in a PKC-dependent manner. However, store-operated Ca2+ entry in response to the pump blocker, thapsigargin, was unaffected by PKC. The results reveal that each TRPC subtype is strongly inhibited by DAG-induced PKC activation, reflecting a likely universal feedback control on TRPCs, and that DAG-mediated PKC-independent activation of TRPC channels is highly subtype-specific. The

  10. G Protein Coupled Receptor Kinase 3 Regulates Breast Cancer Migration, Invasion, and Metastasis

    PubMed Central

    Billard, Matthew J.; Fitzhugh, David J.; Parker, Joel S.; Brozowski, Jaime M.; McGinnis, Marcus W.; Timoshchenko, Roman G.; Serafin, D. Stephen; Lininger, Ruth; Klauber-Demore, Nancy; Sahagian, Gary; Truong, Young K.; Sassano, Maria F.; Serody, Jonathan S.; Tarrant, Teresa K.

    2016-01-01

    Triple negative breast cancer (TNBC) is a heterogeneous disease that has a poor prognosis and limited treatment options. Chemokine receptor interactions are important modulators of breast cancer metastasis; however, it is now recognized that quantitative surface expression of one important chemokine receptor, CXCR4, may not directly correlate with metastasis and that its functional activity in breast cancer may better inform tumor pathogenicity. G protein coupled receptor kinase 3 (GRK3) is a negative regulator of CXCR4 activity, and we show that GRK expression correlates with tumorigenicity, molecular subtype, and metastatic potential in human tumor microarray analysis. Using established human breast cancer cell lines and an immunocompetent in vivo mouse model, we further demonstrate that alterations in GRK3 expression levels in tumor cells directly affect migration and invasion in vitro and the establishment of distant metastasis in vivo. The effects of GRK3 modulation appear to be specific to chemokine-mediated migration behaviors without influencing tumor cell proliferation or survival. These data demonstrate that GRK3 dysregulation may play an important part in TNBC metastasis. PMID:27049755

  11. Antifibrotic Effects of Noscapine through Activation of Prostaglandin E2 Receptors and Protein Kinase A*

    PubMed Central

    Kach, Jacob; Sandbo, Nathan; La, Jennifer; Denner, Darcy; Reed, Eleanor B.; Akimova, Olga; Koltsova, Svetlana; Orlov, Sergei N.; Dulin, Nickolai O.

    2014-01-01

    Myofibroblast differentiation is a key process in the pathogenesis of fibrotic disease. We have shown previously that differentiation of myofibroblasts is regulated by microtubule polymerization state. In this work, we examined the potential antifibrotic effects of the antitussive drug, noscapine, recently found to bind microtubules and affect microtubule dynamics. Noscapine inhibited TGF-β-induced differentiation of cultured human lung fibroblasts (HLFs). Therapeutic noscapine treatment resulted in a significant attenuation of pulmonary fibrosis in the bleomycin model of the disease. Noscapine did not affect gross microtubule content in HLFs, but inhibited TGF-β-induced stress fiber formation and activation of serum response factor without affecting Smad signaling. Furthermore, noscapine stimulated a rapid and profound activation of protein kinase A (PKA), which mediated the antifibrotic effect of noscapine in HLFs, as assessed with the PKA inhibitor, PKI. In contrast, noscapine did not activate PKA in human bronchial or alveolar epithelial cells. Finally, activation of PKA and the antifibrotic effect of noscapine in HLFs were blocked by the EP2 prostaglandin E2 receptor antagonist, PF-04418948, but not by the antagonists of EP4, prostaglandin D2, or prostacyclin receptors. Together, we demonstrate for the first time the antifibrotic effect of noscapine in vitro and in vivo, and we describe a novel mechanism of noscapine action through EP2 prostaglandin E2 receptor-mediated activation of PKA in pulmonary fibroblasts. PMID:24492608

  12. Antifibrotic effects of noscapine through activation of prostaglandin E2 receptors and protein kinase A.

    PubMed

    Kach, Jacob; Sandbo, Nathan; La, Jennifer; Denner, Darcy; Reed, Eleanor B; Akimova, Olga; Koltsova, Svetlana; Orlov, Sergei N; Dulin, Nickolai O

    2014-03-14

    Myofibroblast differentiation is a key process in the pathogenesis of fibrotic disease. We have shown previously that differentiation of myofibroblasts is regulated by microtubule polymerization state. In this work, we examined the potential antifibrotic effects of the antitussive drug, noscapine, recently found to bind microtubules and affect microtubule dynamics. Noscapine inhibited TGF-β-induced differentiation of cultured human lung fibroblasts (HLFs). Therapeutic noscapine treatment resulted in a significant attenuation of pulmonary fibrosis in the bleomycin model of the disease. Noscapine did not affect gross microtubule content in HLFs, but inhibited TGF-β-induced stress fiber formation and activation of serum response factor without affecting Smad signaling. Furthermore, noscapine stimulated a rapid and profound activation of protein kinase A (PKA), which mediated the antifibrotic effect of noscapine in HLFs, as assessed with the PKA inhibitor, PKI. In contrast, noscapine did not activate PKA in human bronchial or alveolar epithelial cells. Finally, activation of PKA and the antifibrotic effect of noscapine in HLFs were blocked by the EP2 prostaglandin E2 receptor antagonist, PF-04418948, but not by the antagonists of EP4, prostaglandin D2, or prostacyclin receptors. Together, we demonstrate for the first time the antifibrotic effect of noscapine in vitro and in vivo, and we describe a novel mechanism of noscapine action through EP2 prostaglandin E2 receptor-mediated activation of PKA in pulmonary fibroblasts. PMID:24492608

  13. G-protein coupled Receptor Kinase 2 is required for rhythmic olfactory responses in Drosophila

    PubMed Central

    Tanoue, Shintaro; Krishnan, Parthasarathy; Chatterjee, Abhishek; Hardin, Paul E.

    2008-01-01

    Summary Background The Drosophila circadian clock controls rhythms in the amplitude of odor-induced electrophysiological responses that peak during the middle of night. These rhythms are dependent on clocks in olfactory sensory neurons (OSNs), which suggests that odorant receptors(ORs) or OR-dependent processes are under clock control. Since responses to odors are initiated by heteromeric OR complexes that form odor-gated and cyclic-nucleotide-activated cation channels, we tested whether regulators of ORs were under circadian clock control. Results The levels of G-protein coupled receptor kinase 2 (Gprk2) mRNA and protein cycle in a circadian clock-dependent manner with a peak around mid-night in antennae. Gprk2 overexpression in OSNs from wild-type or cyc01 flies elicits constant high amplitude electroantennogram (EAG) responses to ethyl acetate, whereas Gprk mutants produce constant low amplitude EAG responses. Odorant receptors (ORs) accumulate to high levels in the dendrites of OSNs around mid-night, and this dendritic localization of ORs is enhanced by Gprk2 at times when ORs are primarily localized in the cell body. Conclusion These results support a model in which circadian clock-dependent rhythms in Gprk2 abundance control the rhythmic accumulation of ORs in OSN dendrites, which in turn control rhythms in olfactory responses. The enhancement of OR function by GPRK2 contrasts with the traditional role of Gprks in desensitizing activated receptors, and suggests that GPRK2 functions through a fundamentally different mechanism to modulate OR activity. PMID:18499458

  14. THE GRK4 SUBFAMILY OF G PROTEIN-COUPLED RECEPTOR KINASES: ALTERNATIVE SPLICING, GENE ORGANIZATION, AND SEQUENCE CONSERVATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    The GRK4 subfamily of G protein-coupled receptor kinases. Alternative splicing, gene organization, and sequence conservation.

    Premont RT, Macrae AD, Aparicio SA, Kendall HE, Welch JE, Lefkowitz RJ.

    Department of Medicine, Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Duke Univer...

  15. SNAP-25 Is a Target of Protein Kinase C Phosphorylation Critical to NMDA Receptor Trafficking

    PubMed Central

    Lau, C. Geoffrey; Takayasu, Yukihiro; Rodenas-Ruano, Alma; Paternain, Ana V.; Lerma, Juan; Bennett, Michael V. L.

    2010-01-01

    Protein kinase C (PKC) enhances NMDA receptor (NMDAR)-mediated currents and promotes NMDAR delivery to the cell surface via SNARE-dependent exocytosis. Although the mechanisms of PKC potentiation are established, the molecular target of PKC is unclear. Here we show that synaptosomal-associated protein of 25 kDa (SNAP-25), a SNARE protein, is functionally relevant to PKC-dependent NMDAR insertion, and identify serine residue-187 as the molecular target of PKC phosphorylation. Constitutively active PKC delivered via the patch pipette potentiated NMDA (but not AMPA) whole-cell currents in hippocampal neurons. Expression of RNAi targeting SNAP-25 or mutant SNAP-25(S187A) and/or acute disruption of the SNARE complex by treatment with BoNT A, BoNT B or SNAP-25 C-terminal blocking peptide abolished NMDAR potentiation. A SNAP-25 peptide and function-blocking antibody suppressed PKC potentiation of NMDA EPSCs at mossy fiber-CA3 synapses. These findings identify SNAP-25 as the target of PKC phosphorylation critical to PKC-dependent incorporation of synaptic NMDARs and document a postsynaptic action of this major SNARE protein relevant to synaptic plasticity. PMID:20053906

  16. δ-Opioid receptors stimulate the metabolic sensor AMP-activated protein kinase through coincident signaling with G(q/11)-coupled receptors.

    PubMed

    Olianas, Maria C; Dedoni, Simona; Olianas, Alessandra; Onali, Pierluigi

    2012-02-01

    AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) and δ-opioid receptors (DORs) are both involved in controlling cell survival, energy metabolism, and food intake, but little is known on the interaction between these two signaling molecules. Here we show that activation of human DORs stably expressed in Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells increased AMPK activity and AMPK phosphorylation on Thr172. DOR-induced AMPK phosphorylation was prevented by pertussis toxin, reduced by protein kinase A (PKA) activators, and unaffected by PKA, transforming growth factor-β-activated kinase 1, mitogen-activated protein kinase, and protein kinase C inhibitors. Conversely, the DOR effect was reduced by Ca(2+)/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase kinase (CaMKK) inhibition, apyrase treatment, G(q/11) antagonism, and blockade of P2 purinergic receptors. Apyrase treatment also depressed DOR stimulation of intracellular Ca(2+) concentration, whereas P2 receptor antagonism blocked DOR stimulation of inositol phosphate accumulation. In SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cells and primary olfactory bulb neurons, DOR activation failed to affect AMPK phosphorylation per se but potentiated the stimulation by either muscarinic agonists or 2-methyl-thio-ADP. Sequestration of G protein βγ subunits (Gβγ) blocked the DOR potentiation of AMPK phosphorylation induced by oxotremorine-M. In CHO cells, the AMPK activator 5-aminoimidazole-4-carboxamide1-β-D-ribonucleoside stimulated AMPK phosphorylation and glucose uptake, whereas pharmacological inhibition of AMPK, expression of a dominant-negative mutant of AMPKα1, and P2Y receptor blockade reduced DOR-stimulated glucose uptake. The data indicate that in different cell systems, DOR activation up-regulates AMPK through a Gβγ-dependent synergistic interaction with G(q/11)-coupled receptors, potentiating Ca(2+) release and CaMKKβ-dependent AMPK phosphorylation. In CHO cells, this coincident signaling mechanism is involved in DOR-induced glucose uptake. PMID:22031472

  17. Mechanisms of Ephrin Receptor Protein Kinase-Independent Signaling in Amphid Axon Guidance in Caenorhabditis elegans

    PubMed Central

    Grossman, Emily N.; Giurumescu, Claudiu A.; Chisholm, Andrew D.

    2013-01-01

    Eph receptors and their ephrin ligands are key conserved regulators of axon guidance and can function in a variety of signaling modes. Here we analyze the genetic and cellular requirements for Eph signaling in a Caenorhabditis elegans axon guidance choice point, the ventral guidance of axons in the amphid commissure. The C. elegans Eph receptor EFN-1 has both kinase-dependent and kinase-independent roles in amphid ventral guidance. Of the four C. elegans ephrins, we find that only EFN-1 has a major role in amphid axon ventral guidance, and signals in both a receptor kinase-dependent and kinase-independent manner. Analysis of EFN-1 and EFN-1 expression and tissue-specific requirements is consistent with a model in which VAB-1 acts in amphid neurons, interacting with EFN-1 expressed on surrounding cells. Unexpectedly, left-hand neurons are more strongly affected than right-hand neurons by loss of Eph signaling, indicating a previously undetected left–right asymmetry in the requirement for Eph signaling. By screening candidate genes involved in Eph signaling, we find that the Eph kinase-independent pathway involves the ABL-1 nonreceptor tyrosine kinase and possibly the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase pathway. Overexpression of ABL-1 is sufficient to rescue EFN-1 ventral guidance defects cell autonomously. Our results reveal new aspects of Eph signaling in a single axon guidance decision in vivo. PMID:23979582

  18. Downregulation of the Ras–Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase Pathway by the EphB2 Receptor Tyrosine Kinase Is Required for Ephrin-Induced Neurite Retraction

    PubMed Central

    Elowe, Sabine; Holland, Sacha J.; Kulkarni, Sarang; Pawson, Tony

    2001-01-01

    Activation of the EphB2 receptor tyrosine kinase by clustered ephrin-B1 induces growth cone collapse and neurite retraction in differentiated NG108 neuronal cells. We have investigated the cytoplasmic signaling events associated with EphB2-induced cytoskeletal reorganization in these neuronal cells. We find that unlike other receptor tyrosine kinases, EphB2 induces a pronounced downregulation of GTP-bound Ras and consequently of the extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway. A similar inhibition of the Ras-MAPK pathway was observed on stimulation of endogenous EphB2 in COS-1 cells. Inactivation of Ras, induced by ephrin B1 stimulation of NG108 neuronal cells, requires EphB2 tyrosine kinase activity and is blocked by a truncated form of p120-Ras GTPase-activating protein (p120-RasGAP), suggesting that EphB2 signals through the SH2 domain protein p120-RasGAP to inhibit the Ras-MAPK pathway. Suppression of Ras activity appears functionally important, since expression of a constitutively active variant of Ras impaired the ability of EphB2 to induce neurite retraction. In addition, EphB2 attenuated the elevation in ERK activation induced by attachment of NG108 cells to fibronectin, indicating that the EphB2 receptor can modulate integrin signaling to the Ras GTPase. These results suggest that a primary function of EphB2, a member of the most populous family of receptor tyrosine kinases, is to inactivate the Ras-MAPK pathway in a fashion that contributes to cytoskeletal reorganization and adhesion responses in neuronal growth cones. PMID:11585923

  19. Mitogen-activated protein kinase kinases promote mitochondrial biogenesis in part through inducing peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ coactivator-1β expression.

    PubMed

    Gao, Minghui; Wang, Junjian; Lu, Na; Fang, Fang; Liu, Jinsong; Wong, Chi-Wai

    2011-06-01

    Growth factor activates mitogen-activated protein kinase kinases to promote cell growth. Mitochondrial biogenesis is an integral part of cell growth. How growth factor regulates mitochondrial biogenesis is not fully understood. In this study, we found that mitochondrial mass was specifically reduced upon serum starvation and induced upon re-feeding with serum. Using mitogen-activated protein kinase kinases inhibitor U0126, we found that the mRNA expression levels of ATP synthase, cytochrome-C, mitochondrial transcription factor A, and mitofusin 2 were reduced. Since the transcriptional levels of these genes are under the control of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ coactivator-1α and -1β (PGC-1α and PGC-1β), we examined and found that only the mRNA and protein levels of PGC-1β were suppressed. Importantly, over-expression of PGC-1β partially reversed the reduction of mitochondrial mass upon U0126 treatment. Thus, we conclude that mitogen-activated protein kinase kinases direct mitochondrial biogenesis through selectively inducing PGC-1β expression. PMID:21458501

  20. A systematic investigation of the protein kinases involved in NMDA receptor-dependent LTD: evidence for a role of GSK-3 but not other serine/threonine kinases

    PubMed Central

    Peineau, Stéphane; Nicolas, Céline S; Bortolotto, Zuner A; Bhat, Ratan V; Ryves, W Jonathan; Harwood, Adrian J; Dournaud, Pascal; Fitzjohn, Stephen M; Collingridge, Graham L

    2009-01-01

    Background The signalling mechanisms involved in the induction of N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor-dependent long-term depression (LTD) in the hippocampus are poorly understood. Numerous studies have presented evidence both for and against a variety of second messengers systems being involved in LTD induction. Here we provide the first systematic investigation of the involvement of serine/threonine (ser/thr) protein kinases in NMDAR-LTD, using whole-cell recordings from CA1 pyramidal neurons. Results Using a panel of 23 inhibitors individually loaded into the recorded neurons, we can discount the involvement of at least 57 kinases, including PKA, PKC, CaMKII, p38 MAPK and DYRK1A. However, we have been able to confirm a role for the ser/thr protein kinase, glycogen synthase kinase 3 (GSK-3). Conclusion The present study is the first to investigate the role of 58 ser/thr protein kinases in LTD in the same study. Of these 58 protein kinases, we have found evidence for the involvement of only one, GSK-3, in LTD. PMID:19583853

  1. The G protein-coupled receptor kinase-2 is a TGFbeta-inducible antagonist of TGFbeta signal transduction.

    PubMed

    Ho, Joanne; Cocolakis, Eftihia; Dumas, Victor M; Posner, Barry I; Laporte, Stéphane A; Lebrun, Jean-Jacques

    2005-09-21

    Signaling from the activin/transforming growth factor beta (TGFbeta) family of cytokines is a tightly regulated process. Disregulation of TGFbeta signaling is often the underlying basis for various cancers, tumor metastasis, inflammatory and autoimmune diseases. In this study, we identify the protein G-coupled receptor kinase 2 (GRK2), a kinase involved in the desensitization of G protein-coupled receptors (GPCR), as a downstream target and regulator of the TGFbeta-signaling cascade. TGFbeta-induced expression of GRK2 acts in a negative feedback loop to control TGFbeta biological responses. Upon TGFbeta stimulation, GRK2 associates with the receptor-regulated Smads (R-Smads) through their MH1 and MH2 domains and phosphorylates their linker region. GRK2 phosphorylation of the R-Smads inhibits their carboxyl-terminal, activating phosphorylation by the type I receptor kinase, thus preventing nuclear translocation of the Smad complex, leading to the inhibition of TGFbeta-mediated target gene expression, cell growth inhibition and apoptosis. Furthermore, we demonstrate that GRK2 antagonizes TGFbeta-induced target gene expression and apoptosis ex vivo in primary hepatocytes, establishing a new role for GRK2 in modulating single-transmembrane serine/threonine kinase receptor-mediated signal transduction. PMID:16121194

  2. Glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchored proteins as chaperones and co-receptors for FERONIA receptor kinase signaling in Arabidopsis

    PubMed Central

    Li, Chao; Yeh, Fang-Ling; Cheung, Alice Y; Duan, Qiaohong; Kita, Daniel; Liu, Ming-Che; Maman, Jacob; Luu, Emily J; Wu, Brendan W; Gates, Laura; Jalal, Methun; Kwong, Amy; Carpenter, Hunter; Wu, Hen-Ming

    2015-01-01

    The Arabidopsis receptor kinase FERONIA (FER) is a multifunctional regulator for plant growth and reproduction. Here we report that the female gametophyte-expressed glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchored protein (GPI-AP) LORELEI and the seedling-expressed LRE-like GPI-AP1 (LLG1) bind to the extracellular juxtamembrane region of FER and show that this interaction is pivotal for FER function. LLG1 interacts with FER in the endoplasmic reticulum and on the cell surface, and loss of LLG1 function induces cytoplasmic retention of FER, consistent with transport of FER from the endoplasmic reticulum to the plasma membrane in a complex with LLG1. We further demonstrate that LLG1 is a component of the FER-regulated RHO GTPase signaling complex and that fer and llg1 mutants display indistinguishable growth, developmental and signaling phenotypes, analogous to how lre and fer share similar reproductive defects. Together our results support LLG1/LRE acting as a chaperone and co-receptor for FER and elucidate a mechanism by which GPI-APs enable the signaling capacity of a cell surface receptor. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.06587.001 PMID:26052747

  3. Glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchored proteins as chaperones and co-receptors for FERONIA receptor kinase signaling in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Li, Chao; Yeh, Fang-Ling; Cheung, Alice Y; Duan, Qiaohong; Kita, Daniel; Liu, Ming-Che; Maman, Jacob; Luu, Emily J; Wu, Brendan W; Gates, Laura; Jalal, Methun; Kwong, Amy; Carpenter, Hunter; Wu, Hen-Ming

    2015-01-01

    The Arabidopsis receptor kinase FERONIA (FER) is a multifunctional regulator for plant growth and reproduction. Here we report that the female gametophyte-expressed glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchored protein (GPI-AP) LORELEI and the seedling-expressed LRE-like GPI-AP1 (LLG1) bind to the extracellular juxtamembrane region of FER and show that this interaction is pivotal for FER function. LLG1 interacts with FER in the endoplasmic reticulum and on the cell surface, and loss of LLG1 function induces cytoplasmic retention of FER, consistent with transport of FER from the endoplasmic reticulum to the plasma membrane in a complex with LLG1. We further demonstrate that LLG1 is a component of the FER-regulated RHO GTPase signaling complex and that fer and llg1 mutants display indistinguishable growth, developmental and signaling phenotypes, analogous to how lre and fer share similar reproductive defects. Together our results support LLG1/LRE acting as a chaperone and co-receptor for FER and elucidate a mechanism by which GPI-APs enable the signaling capacity of a cell surface receptor. PMID:26052747

  4. Redox Regulation of Protein Kinases

    PubMed Central

    Truong, Thu H.; Carroll, Kate S.

    2015-01-01

    Protein kinases represent one of the largest families of genes found in eukaryotes. Kinases mediate distinct cellular processes ranging from proliferation, differentiation, survival, and apoptosis. Ligand-mediated activation of receptor kinases can lead to the production of endogenous H2O2 by membrane-bound NADPH oxidases. In turn, H2O2 can be utilized as a secondary messenger in signal transduction pathways. This review presents an overview of the molecular mechanisms involved in redox regulation of protein kinases and its effects on signaling cascades. In the first half, we will focus primarily on receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs), whereas the latter will concentrate on downstream non-receptor kinases involved in relaying stimulant response. Select examples from the literature are used to highlight the functional role of H2O2 regarding kinase activity, as well as the components involved in H2O2 production and regulation during cellular signaling. In addition, studies demonstrating direct modulation of protein kinases by H2O2 through cysteine oxidation will be emphasized. Identification of these redox-sensitive residues may help uncover signaling mechanisms conserved within kinase subfamilies. In some cases, these residues can even be exploited as targets for the development of new therapeutics. Continued efforts in this field will further basic understanding of kinase redox regulation, and delineate the mechanisms involved in physiologic and pathological H2O2 responses. PMID:23639002

  5. The Evolving Impact of G Protein-Coupled Receptor Kinases in Cardiac Health and Disease

    PubMed Central

    Sato, Priscila Y.; Chuprun, J. Kurt; Schwartz, Mathew; Koch, Walter J.

    2015-01-01

    G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) are important regulators of various cellular functions via activation of intracellular signaling events. Active GPCR signaling is shut down by GPCR kinases (GRKs) and subsequent β-arrestin-mediated mechanisms including phosphorylation, internalization, and either receptor degradation or resensitization. The seven-member GRK family varies in their structural composition, cellular localization, function, and mechanism of action (see sect. II). Here, we focus our attention on GRKs in particular canonical and novel roles of the GRKs found in the cardiovascular system (see sects. III and IV). Paramount to overall cardiac function is GPCR-mediated signaling provided by the adrenergic system. Overstimulation of the adrenergic system has been highly implicated in various etiologies of cardiovascular disease including hypertension and heart failure. GRKs acting downstream of heightened adrenergic signaling appear to be key players in cardiac homeostasis and disease progression, and herein we review the current data on GRKs related to cardiac disease and discuss their potential in the development of novel therapeutic strategies in cardiac diseases including heart failure. PMID:25834229

  6. Alpha-latrotoxin modulates the secretory machinery via receptor-mediated activation of protein kinase C.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jie; Wan, Qunfang; Lin, Xianguang; Zhu, Hongliang; Volynski, Kirill; Ushkaryov, Yuri; Xu, Tao

    2005-09-01

    The hypothesis whether alpha-latrotoxin (LTX) could directly regulate the secretory machinery was tested in pancreatic beta cells using combined techniques of membrane capacitance (Cm) measurement and Ca2+ uncaging. Employing ramp increase in [Ca2+]i to stimulate exocytosis, we found that LTX lowers the Ca2+ threshold required for exocytosis without affecting the size of the readily releasable pool (RRP). The burst component of exocytosis in response to step-like [Ca2+]i increase generated by flash photolysis of caged Ca2+ was also speeded up by LTX treatment. LTX increased the maximum rate of exocytosis compared with control responses with similar postflash [Ca2+]i and shifted the Ca2+ dependence of the exocytotic machinery toward lower Ca2+ concentrations. LTXN4C, a LTX mutant which cannot form membrane pores or penetrate through the plasma membrane but has similar affinity for the receptors as the wild-type LTX, mimicked the effect of LTX. Moreover, the effects of both LTX and LTXN4C) were independent of intracellular or extracellular Ca2+ but required extracellular Mg2+. Our data propose that LTX, by binding to the membrane receptors, sensitizes the fusion machinery to Ca2+ and, hence, may permit release at low [Ca2+]i level. This sensitization is mediated by activation of protein kinase C. PMID:16101679

  7. Activated protein kinase C binds to intracellular receptors in rat hepatocytes.

    PubMed Central

    Robles-Flores, M; García-Sáinz, J A

    1993-01-01

    The aim of this study was to identify in rat hepatocytes cellular polypeptides that bind protein kinase C (PKC) and may influence its activity and its compartmentation. At least seven proteins, with apparent M(r) values between 12,000 and 36,000, that behave like Receptors for Activated C-Kinase (RACKs) were found in the Triton-X-100-insoluble fraction of these cells; i.e. PKC bound to these polypeptides when it was in its active form. RACKS seem to be PKC substrates. Studies using isotype-specific PKC antibodies suggested some selectivity of RACKs, i.e. RACKs in the M(r) approximately 28,000-36,000 region bound PKC-alpha and PKC-beta in the presence of phosphatidylserine, diolein and Ca2+, whereas those of M(r) approximately 12,000-14,000 bound all isoforms studied, and, in contrast with the other RACKs, they did this even in the absence of Ca2+. Peptide I (KGDYEKILVALCGGN), which has a sequence suggested to be involved in the PKC-RACKs interaction [Mochly-Rosen, Khaner, Lopez and Smith (1991) J. Biol. Chem. 266, 14866-14868], inhibited PKC activity. Preincubation of RACKs with antisera directed against peptide I prevented PKC binding to them. The data suggest that peptide I blocks PKC binding to RACKs by two mechanisms: inhibition of PKC activity and competition with a putative binding site. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 PMID:8257439

  8. Protein kinase C regulates tonic GABAA receptor-mediated inhibition in the hippocampus and thalamus

    PubMed Central

    Bright, Damian P; Smart, Trevor G

    2013-01-01

    Tonic inhibition mediated by extrasynaptic GABAA receptors (GABAARs) is an important regulator of neuronal excitability. Phosphorylation by protein kinase C (PKC) provides a key mode of regulation for synaptic GABAARs underlying phasic inhibition; however, less attention has been focused on the plasticity of tonic inhibition and whether this can also be modulated by receptor phosphorylation. To address this issue, we used whole-cell patch clamp recording in acute murine brain slices at both room and physiological temperatures to examine the effects of PKC-mediated phosphorylation on tonic inhibition. Recordings from dentate gyrus granule cells in the hippocampus and dorsal lateral geniculate relay neurons in the thalamus demonstrated that PKC activation caused downregulation of tonic GABAAR-mediated inhibition. Conversely, inhibition of PKC resulted in an increase in tonic GABAAR activity. These findings were corroborated by experiments on human embryonic kidney 293 cells expressing recombinant α4β2δ GABAARs, which represent a key extrasynaptic GABAAR isoform in the hippocampus and thalamus. Using bath application of low GABA concentrations to mimic activation by ambient neurotransmitter, we demonstrated a similar inhibition of receptor function following PKC activation at physiological temperature. Live cell imaging revealed that this was correlated with a loss of cell surface GABAARs. The inhibitory effects of PKC activation on α4β2δ GABAAR activity appeared to be mediated by direct phosphorylation at a previously identified site on the β2 subunit, serine 410. These results indicate that PKC-mediated phosphorylation can be an important physiological regulator of tonic GABAAR-mediated inhibition. PMID:24102973

  9. Receptor-Interacting Protein Kinase-2 Inhibition by CYLD Impairs Antibacterial Immune Responses in Macrophages

    PubMed Central

    Wex, Katharina; Schmid, Ursula; Just, Sissy; Wang, Xu; Wurm, Rebecca; Naumann, Michael; Schlüter, Dirk; Nishanth, Gopala

    2016-01-01

    Upon infection with intracellular bacteria, nucleotide oligomerization domain protein 2 recognizes bacterial muramyl dipeptide and binds, subsequently, to receptor-interacting serine/threonine kinase 2 (RIPK2), which activates immune responses via the nuclear factor kappa-light-chain enhancer of activated B cells (NF-κB) and extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) pathways. Activation of RIPK2 depends on its K63 ubiquitination by E3 ligases, whereas the deubiquitinating enzyme A20 counter regulates RIPK2 activity by cleaving K63-polyubiquitin chains from RIPK2. Here, we newly identify the deubiquitinating enzyme CYLD as a new inhibitor of RIPK2. We show that CYLD binds to and removes K63-polyubiquitin chains from RIPK2 in Listeria monocytogenes (Lm) infected murine bone marrow-derived macrophages. CYLD-mediated K63 deubiquitination of RIPK2 resulted in an impaired activation of both NF-κB and ERK1/2 pathways, reduced production of proinflammatory cytokines interleukin-6 (IL-6), IL-12, anti-listerial reactive oxygen species (ROS) and nitric oxide (NO), and, finally, impaired pathogen control. In turn, RIPK2 inhibition by siRNA prevented activation of NF-κB and ERK1/2 and completely abolished the protective effect of CYLD deficiency with respect to the production of IL-6, NO, ROS, and pathogen control. Noteworthy, CYLD also inhibited autophagy of Listeria in a RIPK2-ERK1/2-dependent manner. The protective function of CYLD deficiency was dependent on interferon gamma (IFN-γ) prestimulation of infected macrophages. Interestingly, the reduced NF-κB activation in CYLD-expressing macrophages limited the protective effect of IFN-γ by reducing NF-κB-dependent signal transducers and activators of transcription-1 (STAT1) activation. Taken together, our study identifies CYLD as an important inhibitor of RIPK2-dependent antibacterial immune responses in macrophages. PMID:26834734

  10. Role of receptor desensitization, phosphatase induction and intracellular cyclic AMP in the termination of mitogen-activated protein kinase activity in UTP-stimulated EAhy 926 endothelial cells.

    PubMed Central

    Graham, A; McLees, A; Malarkey, K; Gould, G W; Plevin, R

    1996-01-01

    We have investigated the mechanisms that bring about the termination of mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAP kinase) activation in response to UTP in EAhy 926 endothelial cells. UTP-stimulated MAP kinase activity was transient, returning to basal values by 60 min. At this time MAP kinase activation was desensitized; re-application of UTP did not further activate MAP kinase, full re-activation of MAP kinase being only apparent after a 1-2 h wash period. However, activation of MAP kinase by UTP could be sustained beyond 60 min by preincubation of the cells with the protein synthesis inhibitor cycloheximide. UTP also stimulated expression of MAP kinase phosphatase-1 and this was abolished after pretreatment with cycloheximide. Pretreatment of cells with forskolin abolished the initial activation of MAP kinase kinase or c-Raf-1 by UTP, but only affected MAP kinase activity during prolonged stimulation. The effect of forskolin on prolonged MAP kinase activation was also prevented by cycloheximide. These results suggest that the termination of MAP kinase activity in response to UTP involves a number of interacting mechanisms including receptor desensitization and the induction of a phosphatase. However, several pieces of evidence do not support a major role for MAP kinase phosphatase-1 in termination of the MAP kinase signal. Raising intracellular cyclic AMP may also be involved but only after an initial protein-synthesis step and by a mechanism that does not involve the inactivation of c-Raf-1 or MAP kinase kinase. PMID:8615830

  11. Role of receptor desensitization, phosphatase induction and intracellular cyclic AMP in the termination of mitogen-activated protein kinase activity in UTP-stimulated EAhy 926 endothelial cells.

    PubMed

    Graham, A; McLees, A; Malarkey, K; Gould, G W; Plevin, R

    1996-04-15

    We have investigated the mechanisms that bring about the termination of mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAP kinase) activation in response to UTP in EAhy 926 endothelial cells. UTP-stimulated MAP kinase activity was transient, returning to basal values by 60 min. At this time MAP kinase activation was desensitized; re-application of UTP did not further activate MAP kinase, full re-activation of MAP kinase being only apparent after a 1-2 h wash period. However, activation of MAP kinase by UTP could be sustained beyond 60 min by preincubation of the cells with the protein synthesis inhibitor cycloheximide. UTP also stimulated expression of MAP kinase phosphatase-1 and this was abolished after pretreatment with cycloheximide. Pretreatment of cells with forskolin abolished the initial activation of MAP kinase kinase or c-Raf-1 by UTP, but only affected MAP kinase activity during prolonged stimulation. The effect of forskolin on prolonged MAP kinase activation was also prevented by cycloheximide. These results suggest that the termination of MAP kinase activity in response to UTP involves a number of interacting mechanisms including receptor desensitization and the induction of a phosphatase. However, several pieces of evidence do not support a major role for MAP kinase phosphatase-1 in termination of the MAP kinase signal. Raising intracellular cyclic AMP may also be involved but only after an initial protein-synthesis step and by a mechanism that does not involve the inactivation of c-Raf-1 or MAP kinase kinase. PMID:8615830

  12. The activated glucocorticoid receptor modulates presumptive autoregulation of ribosomal protein S6 protein kinase, p70 S6K.

    PubMed

    Shah, O Jameel; Iniguez-Lluhi, Jorge A; Romanelli, Angela; Kimball, Scot R; Jefferson, Leonard S

    2002-01-25

    Protein metabolism in eukaryotic organisms is defined by a synthesis-degradation equilibrium that is subject to regulation by hormonal and nutritional signals. In mammalian tissues such as skeletal muscle, glucocorticoid hormones specify a catabolic response that influences both protein synthetic and protein degradative pathways. With regard to the former, glucocorticoids attenuate mRNA translation at two levels: translational efficiency, i.e. translation initiation, and translational capacity, i.e. ribosome biogenesis. Glucocorticoids may impair translational capacity through the ribosomal S6 protein kinase (p70 S6K), a recognized glucocorticoid target and an effector of ribosomal protein synthesis. We demonstrate here that the reduction in growth factor-activated p70 S6K activity by glucocorticoids depends upon a functional glucocorticoid receptor (GR) and that the GR is both necessary and sufficient to render p70 S6K subject to glucocorticoid regulation. Furthermore, the DNA binding and transcriptional activation but not repression properties of the GR are indispensable for p70 S6K regulation. Finally, a mutational analysis of the p70 S6K carboxyl terminus indicates that this region confers glucocorticoid sensitivity, and thus glucocorticoids may facilitate autoinhibition of the enzyme ultimately reducing the efficiency with which T389 is phosphorylated. PMID:11705993

  13. A Broadly Conserved G-Protein-Coupled Receptor Kinase Phosphorylation Mechanism Controls Drosophila Smoothened Activity

    PubMed Central

    Maier, Dominic; Cheng, Shuofei; Faubert, Denis; Hipfner, David R.

    2014-01-01

    Hedgehog (Hh) signaling is essential for normal growth, patterning, and homeostasis of many tissues in diverse organisms, and is misregulated in a variety of diseases including cancer. Cytoplasmic Hedgehog signaling is activated by multisite phosphorylation of the seven-pass transmembrane protein Smoothened (Smo) in its cytoplasmic C-terminus. Aside from a short membrane-proximal stretch, the sequence of the C-terminus is highly divergent in different phyla, and the evidence suggests that the precise mechanism of Smo activation and transduction of the signal to downstream effectors also differs. To clarify the conserved role of G-protein-coupled receptor kinases (GRKs) in Smo regulation, we mapped four clusters of phosphorylation sites in the membrane-proximal C-terminus of Drosophila Smo that are phosphorylated by Gprk2, one of the two fly GRKs. Phosphorylation at these sites enhances Smo dimerization and increases but is not essential for Smo activity. Three of these clusters overlap with regulatory phosphorylation sites in mouse Smo and are highly conserved throughout the bilaterian lineages, suggesting that they serve a common function. Consistent with this, we find that a C-terminally truncated form of Drosophila Smo consisting of just the highly conserved core, including Gprk2 regulatory sites, can recruit the downstream effector Costal-2 and activate target gene expression, in a Gprk2-dependent manner. These results indicate that GRK phosphorylation in the membrane proximal C-terminus is an evolutionarily ancient mechanism of Smo regulation, and point to a higher degree of similarity in the regulation and signaling mechanisms of bilaterian Smo proteins than has previously been recognized. PMID:25009998

  14. A MAPK cascade downstream of ERECTA receptor-like protein kinase regulates Arabidopsis inflorescence architecture by promoting localized cell proliferation.

    PubMed

    Meng, Xiangzong; Wang, Huachun; He, Yunxia; Liu, Yidong; Walker, John C; Torii, Keiko U; Zhang, Shuqun

    2012-12-01

    Spatiotemporal-specific cell proliferation and cell differentiation are critical to the formation of normal tissues, organs, and organisms. The highly coordinated cell differentiation and proliferation events illustrate the importance of cell-cell communication during growth and development. In Arabidopsis thaliana, ERECTA (ER), a receptor-like protein kinase, plays important roles in promoting localized cell proliferation, which determines inflorescence architecture, organ shape, and size. However, the downstream signaling components remain unidentified. Here, we report a mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK; or MPK) cascade that functions downstream of ER in regulating localized cell proliferation. Similar to an er mutant, loss of function of MPK3/MPK6 or their upstream MAPK kinases (MAPKKs; or MKKs), MKK4/MKK5, resulted in shortened pedicels and clustered inflorescences. Epistasis analysis demonstrated that the gain of function of MKK4 and MKK5 transgenes could rescue the loss-of-function er mutant phenotype at both morphological and cellular levels, suggesting that the MPK3/MPK6 cascade functions downstream of the ER receptor. Furthermore, YODA (YDA), a MAPKK kinase, was shown to be upstream of MKK4/MKK5 and downstream of ER in regulating inflorescence architecture based on both gain- and loss-of-function data. Taken together, these results suggest that the YDA-MKK4/MKK5-MPK3/MPK6 cascade functions downstream of the ER receptor in regulating localized cell proliferation, which further shapes the morphology of plant organs. PMID:23263767

  15. Trypsin stimulates proteinase-activated receptor-2-dependent and -independent activation of mitogen-activated protein kinases.

    PubMed Central

    Belham, C M; Tate, R J; Scott, P H; Pemberton, A D; Miller, H R; Wadsworth, R M; Gould, G W; Plevin, R

    1996-01-01

    We have examined protease-mediated activation of the mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase cascade in rat aortic smooth-muscle cells and bovine pulmonary arterial fibroblasts. Exposure of smooth-muscle cells to trypsin evoked rapid and transient activation of c-Raf-1, MAP kinase kinase 1 and 2 and MAP kinase that was sensitive to inhibition by soybean trypsin inhibitor. The actions of trypsin were closely mimicked by the proteinase-activated receptor 2 (PAR-2)-activating peptide sequence SLIGRL but not LSIGRL. Peak MAP kinase activation in response to both trypsin and SLIGRL was also dependent on concentration, with EC50 values of 12.1 +/- 3.4 nM and 62.5 +/- 4.5 microM respectively. Under conditions where MAP kinase activation by SLIGRL was completely desensitized by prior exposure of smooth-muscle cells to the peptide, trypsin-stimulated MAP kinase activity was markedly attenuated (78.9 +/- 15.1% desensitization), whereas the response to thrombin was only marginally affected (16.6 +/- 12.1% desensitization). Trypsin and SLIGRL also weakly stimulated the activation of the MAP kinase homologue p38 in smooth-muscle cells without any detectable activation of c-Jun N-terminal kinase. Strong activation of the MAP kinase cascade and modest activation of p38 by trypsin were also observed in fibroblasts, although in this cell type these effects were not mimicked by SLIGRL nor by the thrombin receptor-activating peptide SFLLRNPNDKYEPF. Reverse transcriptase-PCR analysis confirmed the presence of PAR-2 mRNA in smooth-muscle cells but not fibroblasts. Our results suggest that in vascular smooth-muscle cells, trypsin stimulates the activation of the MAP kinase cascade relatively selectively, in a manner consistent with an interaction with the recently described PAR-2. Activation of MAP kinase by trypsin in vascular fibroblasts, however, seems to be independent of PAR-2 and occurs by an undefined mechanism possibly involving novel receptor species. PMID:9003384

  16. Inhibition of Receptor Interacting Protein Kinases Attenuates Cardiomyocyte Hypertrophy Induced by Palmitic Acid

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Mingyue; Lu, Lihui; Lei, Song; Chai, Hua; Wu, Siyuan; Tang, Xiaoju; Bao, Qinxue; Chen, Li; Wu, Wenchao; Liu, Xiaojing

    2016-01-01

    Palmitic acid (PA) is known to cause cardiomyocyte dysfunction. Cardiac hypertrophy is one of the important pathological features of PA-induced lipotoxicity, but the mechanism by which PA induces cardiomyocyte hypertrophy is still unclear. Therefore, our study was to test whether necroptosis, a receptor interacting protein kinase 1 and 3 (RIPK1 and RIPK3-) dependent programmed necrosis, was involved in the PA-induced cardiomyocyte hypertrophy. We used the PA-treated primary neonatal rat cardiac myocytes (NCMs) or H9c2 cells to study lipotoxicity. Our results demonstrated that cardiomyocyte hypertrophy was induced by PA treatment, determined by upregulation of hypertrophic marker genes and cell surface area enlargement. Upon PA treatment, the expression of RIPK1 and RIPK3 was increased. Pretreatment with the RIPK1 inhibitor necrostatin-1 (Nec-1), the PA-induced cardiomyocyte hypertrophy, was attenuated. Knockdown of RIPK1 or RIPK3 by siRNA suppressed the PA-induced myocardial hypertrophy. Moreover, a crosstalk between necroptosis and endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress was observed in PA-treated cardiomyocytes. Inhibition of RIPK1 with Nec-1, phosphorylation level of AKT (Ser473), and mTOR (Ser2481) was significantly reduced in PA-treated cardiomyocytes. In conclusion, RIPKs-dependent necroptosis might be crucial in PA-induced myocardial hypertrophy. Activation of mTOR may mediate the effect of necroptosis in cardiomyocyte hypertrophy induced by PA. PMID:27057269

  17. Contributions of protein kinases and β-arrestin to termination of protease-activated receptor 2 signaling

    PubMed Central

    Jung, Seung-Ryoung; Seo, Jong Bae; Deng, Yi; Asbury, Charles L.; Hille, Bertil

    2016-01-01

    Activated Gq protein–coupled receptors (GqPCRs) can be desensitized by phosphorylation and β-arrestin binding. The kinetics and individual contributions of these two mechanisms to receptor desensitization have not been fully distinguished. Here, we describe the shut off of protease-activated receptor 2 (PAR2). PAR2 activates Gq and phospholipase C (PLC) to hydrolyze phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate (PIP2) into diacylglycerol and inositol trisphosphate (IP3). We used fluorescent protein–tagged optical probes to monitor several consequences of PAR2 signaling, including PIP2 depletion and β-arrestin translocation in real time. During continuous activation of PAR2, PIP2 was depleted transiently and then restored within a few minutes, indicating fast receptor activation followed by desensitization. Knockdown of β-arrestin 1 and 2 using siRNA diminished the desensitization, slowing PIP2 restoration significantly and even adding a delayed secondary phase of further PIP2 depletion. These effects of β-arrestin knockdown on PIP2 recovery were prevented when serine/threonine phosphatases that dephosphorylate GPCRs were inhibited. Thus, PAR2 may continuously regain its activity via dephosphorylation when there is insufficient β-arrestin to trap phosphorylated receptors. Similarly, blockers of protein kinase C (PKC) and G protein–coupled receptor kinase potentiated the PIP2 depletion. In contrast, an activator of PKC inhibited receptor activation, presumably by augmenting phosphorylation of PAR2. Our interpretations were strengthened by modeling. Simulations supported the conclusions that phosphorylation of PAR2 by protein kinases initiates receptor desensitization and that recruited β-arrestin traps the phosphorylated state of the receptor, protecting it from phosphatases. Speculative thinking suggested a sequestration of phosphatidylinositol 4-phosphate 5 kinase (PIP5K) to the plasma membrane by β-arrestin to explain why knockdown of β-arrestin led to

  18. Involvement of protein kinase D in Fc gamma-receptor activation of the NADPH oxidase in neutrophils.

    PubMed Central

    Davidson-Moncada, Jan K; Lopez-Lluch, Guillermo; Segal, Anthony W; Dekker, Lodewijk V

    2002-01-01

    Protein kinases involved in the activation of the NADPH oxidase by Fc gamma receptors in neutrophils were studied. Of three different protein kinase C (PKC) inhibitors, Gö 6976 inhibited the NADPH oxidase completely, whereas bisindolylmaleimide I and Ro 31-8220 caused a 70-80% inhibition. Thus a Gö 6976-sensitive, bisindolylmaleimide I/Ro 31-8220-insensitive component contributes to NADPH oxidase activation induced by Fc gamma receptors. Down-regulation of PKC isotypes resulted in inhibition of Fc gamma-receptor-activated NADPH oxidase, but a down-regulation-insensitive component was still present. This component was sensitive to Gö 6976, but insensitive to Ro 31-8220. It has been shown previously that protein kinase D/PKC-mu (PKD) shows this same pharmacology in vitro. We show that PKD is present in neutrophils and that, in contrast with PKC isotypes, PKD is not down-regulated. Therefore PKD may participate in NADPH oxidase activation. To obtain direct evidence for this we adopted an antisense approach. Antisense PKD inhibited NADPH oxidase induced by Fc gamma-receptor stimulation by 50% and the Ro 31-8220-insensitive component in the activation was inhibited by antisense PKD. In vitro kinase assays showed that PKD is activated by presenting IgG-opsonized particles to neutrophils. Furthermore, PKD localizes to the area of particle intake in the cell and phosphorylates two of the three cytosolic components of the NADPH oxidase, p40(phox) and p47(phox). Taken together, these data indicate that Fc gamma receptors engage PKD in the regulation of the NADPH oxidase. PMID:11903052

  19. Molecular cloning of a putative receptor protein kinase gene encoded at the self-incompatibility locus of Brassica oleracea

    SciTech Connect

    Stein, J.C.; Howlett, B.; Boyes, D.C.; Nasrallah, M.E.; Nasrallah, J.B. )

    1991-10-01

    Self-recognition between pollen and stigma during pollination in Brassica oleracea is genetically controlled by the multiallelic self-incompatibility locus (S). The authors describe the S receptor kinase (SRK) gene, a previously uncharacterized gene that residues at the S locus. The nucleotide sequences of genomic DNA and of cDNAs corresponding to SRK predict a putative transmembrane receptor having serine/threonine-specific protein kinase activity. Its extracellular domain exhibits striking homology to the secreted product of the S-locus genotypes are highly polymorphic and have apparently evolved in unison with genetically linked alleles of SLG. SRK directs the synthesis of several alternative transcripts, which potentially encode different protein products, and these transcripts were detected exclusively in reproductive organs. The identification of SRK may provide new perspectives into the signal transduction mechanism underlying pollen recognition.

  20. Treponema denticola Activates Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase Signal Pathways through Toll-Like Receptor 2▿

    PubMed Central

    Ruby, John; Rehani, Kunal; Martin, Michael

    2007-01-01

    Treponema denticola, a spirochete indigenous to the oral cavity, is associated with host inflammatory responses to anaerobic polymicrobial infections of the root canal, periodontium, and alveolar bone. However, the cellular mechanisms responsible for the recognition of T. denticola by the innate immune system and the underlying cell signaling pathways that regulate the inflammatory response to T. denticola are currently unresolved. In this study, we demonstrate that T. denticola induces innate immune responses via the utilization of Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2) but not TLR4. Assessment of TLR2/1 and TLR2/6 heterodimers revealed that T. denticola predominantly utilizes TLR2/6 for the induction of cellular responses. Analysis of the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling pathway in T. denticola-stimulated monocytes identified a prolonged up-regulation of the MAPK extracellular signal-related kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2) and p38, while no discernible increase in phospho-c-Jun N-terminal kinase 1/2 (JNK1/2) levels was observed. With the aid of pharmacological inhibitors selectively targeting ERK1/2 via the mitogen-activated protein kinase/extracellular signal-related kinase 1/2 kinase and p38, we further demonstrate that ERK1/2 and p38 play a major role in T. denticola-mediated pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokine production. PMID:17923521

  1. Regulation of type II transforming-growth-factor-beta receptors by protein kinase C iota.

    PubMed Central

    Chuang, Lea-Yea; Guh, Jinn-Yuh; Liu, Shu-Fen; Hung, Min-Yuan; Liao, Tung-Nan; Chiang, Tai-An; Huang, Jau-Shyang; Huang, Yu-Lun; Lin, Chi-Fong; Yang, Yu-Lin

    2003-01-01

    TGF-beta (transforming growth factor-beta) is implicated in the pathogenesis of diabetic nephropathy. We previously demonstrated that up-regulation of type II TGF-beta receptor (TbetaRII) induced by high glucose might contribute to distal tubular hypertrophy [Yang, Guh, Yang, Lai, Tsai, Hung, Chang and Chuang (1998) J. Am. Soc. Nephrol. 9, 182-193]. We have elucidated the mechanism by using cultured Madin-Darby canine kidney cells. Enhancer assay and electrophoretic-mobility-shift assay were used to estimate the involvement of transcription factors. Western blotting and an in vitro kinase assay were used to evaluate the level and activity of protein kinase. We showed that glucose (100-900 mg/dl) induced an increase in mRNA level and promoter activity of TbetaRII (note: 'mg/dl' are the units commonly used in diabetes studies). The promoter region -209 to -177 appeared to contribute to positive transactivation of TbetaRII promoter by comparing five TbetaRII-promoter-CAT (chloramphenicol acetyl-transferase) plasmids. Moreover, the transcription factor AP-1 (activator protein 1) was significantly activated and specifically binds to TbetaRII promoter (-209 to -177). More importantly, we found that atypical PKC iota might be pivotal for high glucose-induced increase in both AP-1 binding and TbetaRII promoter activity. First, high glucose induced cytosolic translocation, activation and autophosphorylation of PKC iota. Secondly, antisense PKC iota expression plasmids attenuated high-glucose-induced increase in AP-1 binding and TbetaRII promoter activity; moreover, sense PKC iota expression plasmids enhanced these instead. Finally, we showed that antisense PKC iota expression plasmids might partly attenuate a high-glucose/TGF-beta1-induced increase in fibronectin. We conclude that PKC iota might mediate high-glucose-induced increase in TbetaRII promoter activity. In addition, antisense PKC iota expression plasmid effectively suppressed up-regulation of TbetaRII and

  2. NMR structure of the forkhead-associated domain from the Arabidopsis receptor kinase-associated protein phosphatase

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Gui-in; Ding, Zhaofeng; Walker, John C.; Van Doren, Steven R.

    2003-01-01

    Forkhead-associated (FHA) domains are phosphoprotein-binding modules found in diverse signaling proteins that bind partners phosphorylated on threonine or serine. Kinase-associated protein phosphatase from Arabidopsis employs its FHA domain for negative regulation of receptor-like kinase signaling pathways, which are important in plant development. The solution structure of the free state of kinase-interacting FHA domain (KI-FHA) of kinase-associated protein phosphatase has been determined with high precision and accuracy using residual dipolar couplings. KI-FHA is a sandwich of a five-stranded mixed β-sheet with a six-stranded antiparallel β-sheet. Despite homology only in the recognition loops, this fold is shared with FHA domains from checkpoint proteins from yeast and humans, as well as with nonhomologous MH2 domains of Smad tumor suppressors. A shared pattern of hydrophobicity throughout FHA domains and Smad MH2 domains may stabilize the core of the β-sandwich. Evolutionary trace analysis of FHA domains suggests class-specific residues in the recognition loops that could tune their phosphoprotein-binding specificity. This surface agrees with that of KI-FHA in contact with a phosphothreonine peptide ligand. Evolutionary trace analysis also predicts an unexpected swath of class-specific residues on another face of FHA domains. Protein interactions with these faces may affect assembly of transmembrane signaling complexes in plants, and in other FHA domain-containing assemblies. PMID:14500786

  3. Effects of inhibitors of vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 2 and downstream pathways of receptor tyrosine kinases involving phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/Akt/mammalian target of rapamycin or mitogen-activated protein kinase in canine hemangiosarcoma cell lines.

    PubMed

    Adachi, Mami; Hoshino, Yuki; Izumi, Yusuke; Sakai, Hiroki; Takagi, Satoshi

    2016-07-01

    Canine hemangiosarcoma (HSA) is a progressive malignant neoplasm with no current effective treatment. Previous studies showed that receptor tyrosine kinases and molecules within their downstream pathways involving phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)/Akt/mammalian target of rapamycin (m-TOR) or mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) were overexpressed in canine, human, and murine tumors, including HSA. The present study investigated the effects of inhibitors of these pathways in canine splenic and hepatic HSA cell lines using assays of cell viability and apoptosis. Inhibitors of the MAPK pathway did not affect canine HSA cell viability. However, cell viability was significantly reduced by exposure to inhibitors of vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 2 and the PI3K/Akt/m-TOR pathway; these inhibitors also induced apoptosis in these cell lines. These results suggest that these inhibitors reduce the proliferation of canine HSA cells by inducing apoptosis. Further study of these inhibitors, using xenograft mouse models of canine HSA, are warranted to explore their potential for clinical application. PMID:27408334

  4. Induction of G protein-coupled receptor kinases 2 and 3 contributes to the cross-talk between mu and ORL1 receptors following prolonged agonist exposure.

    PubMed

    Thakker, D R; Standifer, K M

    2002-11-01

    The molecular mechanism(s) underlying cross-tolerance between mu and opioid receptor-like 1 (ORL1) receptor agonists were investigated using two human neuroblastoma cell lines endogenously expressing these receptors and G protein-coupled receptor kinases (GRKs). Prolonged (24 h) activation of the mu receptor desensitized both mu and ORL1 receptor-mediated inhibition of forskolin-stimulated cAMP accumulation and upregulated GRK2 levels in SH-SY5Y and BE(2)-C cells. Prolonged ORL1 activation increased GRK2 levels and desensitized both receptors in SH-SY5Y cells. Upregulation of GRK2 correlated with increases in levels of transcription factors Sp1 or AP-2. PD98059, an upstream inhibitor of extracellular signal-regulated kinases 1 and 2 (ERK1/2), reversed all these events. Pretreatment with orphanin FQ/nociceptin (OFQ/N) also upregulated GRK3 levels in both cell lines, and desensitized both receptors in BE(2)-C cells. Protein kinase C (PKC), but not ERK1/2, inhibition blocked OFQ/N-mediated GRK3 induction and mu and ORL1 receptor desensitization in BE(2)-C cells. Antisense DNA treatment confirmed the involvement of GRK2/3 in mu and ORL1 desensitization. Here, we demonstrate for the first time a role for ERK1/2-mediated GRK2 induction in the development of tolerance to mu agonists, as well as cross-tolerance to OFQ/N. We also demonstrate that chronic OFQ/N-mediated desensitization of ORL1 and mu receptors occurs via cell-specific pathways, involving ERK1/2-dependent GRK2, or PKC-dependent and ERK1/2-independent GRK3 induction. PMID:12423667

  5. Palmitoylation of G protein-coupled receptor kinase, GRK6. Lipid modification diversity in the GRK family.

    PubMed

    Stoffel, R H; Randall, R R; Premont, R T; Lefkowitz, R J; Inglese, J

    1994-11-11

    GRK6, a 66-kDa serine/threonine protein kinase, is a recently identified member of the G protein-coupled receptor kinase (GRK) family. GRKs are involved in the phosphorylation of seven-transmembrane receptors, a process mediating desensitization of signal transduction. An important feature of these enzymes is their membrane-associated nature, which for some members is stimulus-dependent. The structural basis for this membrane association previously has been shown in different members of the GRK family to include isoprenylation, G protein beta gamma-binding domains, and basic regions to provide electrostatic interactions with phospholipids. We provide evidence that another mechanism includes fatty acid acylation. GRK6, but not other GRKs tested, incorporated tritium after incubation with [3H]palmitate in Sf9 and in COS-7 cells overexpressing the kinase. The incorporated radioactivity was released from the protein by neutral hydroxylamine, indicating the presence of a thioester bond, and was confirmed as palmitic acid by high performance liquid chromatography analysis. Site-directed mutagenesis defined the region of palmitate attachment as a cluster of 3 cysteines (Cys561, Cys562, and Cys565) in the carboxyl-terminal domain of the kinase, consistent with the location of the membrane targeting domains of GRKs 1, 2, 3, and 5. Palmitoylation of GRK6 appears essential for membrane association, since palmitoylated kinase was found only in the membrane fraction. This lipid modification provides a structural basis for potential regulation of the subcellular distribution of GRK6 through acylation/deacylation cycles. PMID:7961702

  6. Protein Kinases and Addiction

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Anna M.; Messing, Robert O.

    2011-01-01

    Although drugs of abuse have different chemical structures and interact with different protein targets, all appear to usurp common neuronal systems that regulate reward and motivation. Addiction is a complex disease that is thought to involve drug-induced changes in synaptic plasticity due to alterations in cell signaling, gene transcription, and protein synthesis. Recent evidence suggests that drugs of abuse interact with and change a common network of signaling pathways that include a subset of specific protein kinases. The best studied of these kinases are reviewed here and include extracellular signal-regulated kinase, cAMP-dependent protein kinase, cyclin-dependent protein kinase 5, protein kinase C, calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II, and Fyn tyrosine kinase. These kinases have been implicated in various aspects of drug addiction including acute drug effects, drug self-administration, withdrawal, reinforcement, sensitization, and tolerance. Identifying protein kinase substrates and signaling pathways that contribute to the addicted state may provide novel approaches for new pharma-cotherapies to treat drug addiction. PMID:18991950

  7. G Protein-coupled Receptor Kinase 2–mediated Phosphorylation of Ezrin Is Required for G Protein-coupled Receptor–dependent Reorganization of the Actin Cytoskeleton

    PubMed Central

    Cant, Sarah H.; Pitcher, Julie A.

    2005-01-01

    G protein-coupled receptor kinase 2 (GRK2) phosphorylates and desensitizes activated G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs). Here, we identify ezrin as a novel non-GPCR substrate of GRK2. GRK2 phosphorylates glutathione S-transferase (GST)-ezrin, but not an ezrin fusion protein lacking threonine 567 (T567), in vitro. These results suggest that T567, the regulatory phosphorylation site responsible for maintaining ezrin in its active conformation, represents the principle site of GRK2-mediated phosphorylation. Two lines of evidence indicate that GRK2-mediated ezrin-radixinmoesin (ERM) phosphorylation serves to link GPCR activation to cytoskeletal reorganization. First, in Hep2 cells muscarinic M1 receptor (M1MR) activation causes membrane ruffling. This ruffling response is ERM dependent and is accompanied by ERM phosphorylation. Inhibition of GRK2, but not rho kinase or protein kinase C, prevents ERM phosphorylation and membrane ruffling. Second, agonist-induced internalization of the β2-adrenergic receptor (β2AR) and M1MR is accompanied by ERM phosphorylation and localization of phosphorylated ERM to receptor-containing endocytic vesicles. The colocalization of internalized β2AR and phosphorylated ERM is not dependent on Na+/H+ exchanger regulatory factor binding to the β2AR. Inhibition of ezrin function impedes β2AR internalization, further linking GPCR activation, GRK activity, and ezrin function. Overall, our results suggest that GRK2 serves not only to attenuate but also to transduce GPCR-mediated signals. PMID:15843435

  8. Simultaneous Protein Expression and Modification: An Efficient Approach for Production of Unphosphorylated and Biotinylated Receptor Tyrosine Kinases by Triple Infection in the Baculovirus Expression System

    PubMed Central

    Erdmann, Dirk; Zimmermann, Catherine; Fontana, Patrizia; Hau, Jean-Christophe; De Pover, Alain; Chène, Patrick

    2010-01-01

    Protein kinases can adopt multiple protein conformations depending on their activation status. Recently, in drug discovery, a paradigm shift has been initiated, moving from inhibition of fully activated, phosphorylated kinases to targeting the inactive, unphosphorylated forms. For identification and characterization of putative inhibitors, also interacting with the latent kinase conformation outside of the kinase domain, highly purified and homogeneous protein preparations of unphosphorylated kinases are essential. The kinetic parameters of nonphosphorylated kinases cannot be assessed easily by standard kinase enzyme assays as a result of their intrinsic autophosphorylation activity. Kinetic binding rate constants of inhibitor-protein interactions can be measured by biophysical means upon protein immobilization on chips. Protein immobilization can be achieved under mild conditions by binding biotinylated proteins to streptavidin-coated chips, exploiting the strong and highly specific streptavidin–biotin interaction. In the work reported here, the cytoplasmic domains of insulin receptor and insulin-like growth factor-1 receptor fused to a biotin ligase recognition sequence were coexpressed individually with the phosphatase YopH and the biotin-protein ligase BirA upon triple infection in insect cells. Tandem affinity purification yielded pure cytoplasmic kinase domains as judged by gel electrophoresis and HPLC. Liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis showed the absence of any protein phosphorylation. Coexpression of BirA led to quantitative and site-specific biotinylation of the kinases, which had no influence on the catalytic activity of the kinases, as demonstrated by the identical phosphorylation pattern upon autoactivation and by enzymatic assay. This coexpression approach should be applicable to other protein kinases as well and should greatly facilitate the production of protein kinases in their phosphorylated and unphosphorylated state suitable for

  9. G Protein-coupled Receptor Kinase-mediated Phosphorylation Regulates Post-endocytic Trafficking of the D2 Dopamine Receptor*S⃞

    PubMed Central

    Namkung, Yoon; Dipace, Concetta; Javitch, Jonathan A.; Sibley, David R.

    2009-01-01

    We investigated the role of G protein-coupled receptor kinase (GRK)-mediated phosphorylation in agonist-induced desensitization, arrestin association, endocytosis, and intracellular trafficking of the D2 dopamine receptor (DAR). Agonist activation of D2 DARs results in rapid and sustained receptor phosphorylation that is solely mediated by GRKs. A survey of GRKs revealed that only GRK2 or GRK3 promotes D2 DAR phosphorylation. Mutational analyses resulted in the identification of eight serine/threonine residues within the third cytoplasmic loop of the receptor that are phosphorylated by GRK2/3. Simultaneous mutation of these eight residues results in a receptor construct, GRK(-), that is completely devoid of agonist-promoted GRK-mediated receptor phosphorylation. We found that both wild-type (WT) and GRK(-) receptors underwent a similar degree of agonist-induced desensitization as assessed using [35S]GTPγS binding assays. Similarly, both receptor constructs internalized to the same extent in response to agonist treatment. Furthermore, using bioluminescence resonance energy transfer assays to directly assess receptor association with arrestin3, we found no differences between the WT and GRK(-) receptors. Thus, phosphorylation is not required for arrestin-receptor association or agonist-induced desensitization or internalization. In contrast, when we examined recycling of the D2 DARs to the cell surface, subsequent to agonist-induced endocytosis, the GRK(-) construct exhibited less recycling in comparison with the WT receptor. This impairment appears to be due to a greater propensity of the GRK(-) receptors to down-regulate once internalized. In contrast, if the receptor is highly phosphorylated, then receptor recycling is promoted. These results reveal a novel role for GRK-mediated phosphorylation in regulating the post-endocytic trafficking of a G protein-coupled receptor. PMID:19332542

  10. Glucose-induced regulation of protein import receptor Tom22 by cytosolic and mitochondria-bound kinases.

    PubMed

    Gerbeth, Carolin; Schmidt, Oliver; Rao, Sanjana; Harbauer, Angelika B; Mikropoulou, Despina; Opalińska, Magdalena; Guiard, Bernard; Pfanner, Nikolaus; Meisinger, Chris

    2013-10-01

    Most mitochondrial proteins are imported by the translocase of the outer mitochondrial membrane (TOM). Tom22 functions as central receptor and transfers preproteins to the import pore. Casein kinase 2 (CK2) constitutively phosphorylates the cytosolic precursor of Tom22 at Ser44 and Ser46 and, thus, promotes its import. It is unknown whether Tom22 is regulated under different metabolic conditions. We report that CK1, which is involved in glucose-induced signal transduction, is bound to mitochondria. CK1 phosphorylates Tom22 at Thr57 and stimulates the assembly of Tom22 and Tom20. In contrast, protein kinase A (PKA), which is also activated by the addition of glucose, phosphorylates the precursor of Tom22 at Thr76 and impairs its import. Thus, PKA functions in an opposite manner to CK1 and CK2. Our results reveal that three kinases regulate the import and assembly of Tom22, demonstrating that the central receptor is a major target for the posttranslational regulation of mitochondrial protein import. PMID:24093680

  11. Phosphorylation of the Drosophila Transient Receptor Potential Ion Channel Is Regulated by the Phototransduction Cascade and Involves Several Protein Kinases and Phosphatases

    PubMed Central

    Voolstra, Olaf; Bartels, Jonas-Peter; Oberegelsbacher, Claudia; Pfannstiel, Jens; Huber, Armin

    2013-01-01

    Protein phosphorylation plays a cardinal role in regulating cellular processes in eukaryotes. Phosphorylation of proteins is controlled by protein kinases and phosphatases. We previously reported the light-dependent phosphorylation of the Drosophila transient receptor potential (TRP) ion channel at multiple sites. TRP generates the receptor potential upon stimulation of the photoreceptor cell by light. An eye-enriched protein kinase C (eye-PKC) has been implicated in the phosphorylation of TRP by in vitro studies. Other kinases and phosphatases of TRP are elusive. Using phosphospecific antibodies and mass spectrometry, we here show that phosphorylation of most TRP sites depends on the phototransduction cascade and the activity of the TRP ion channel. A candidate screen to identify kinases and phosphatases provided in vivo evidence for an involvement of eye-PKC as well as other kinases and phosphatases in TRP phosphorylation. PMID:24040070

  12. Ly-6A is required for T cell receptor expression and protein tyrosine kinase fyn activity.

    PubMed Central

    Lee, S K; Su, B; Maher, S E; Bothwell, A L

    1994-01-01

    To characterize the function of the Ly-6A antigen in T cell activation, antisense Ly-6 RNA was expressed in a stably transfected antigen-specific T cell clone. Reduced Ly-6A expression results in inhibition of responses to antigen, anti-TCR (anti-T cell receptor) crosslinking and concanavalin A plus recombinant interleukin 1 and causes impairment of in vitro fyn tyrosine kinase activity. More substantial reduction of Ly-6A results in reduction of TCR expression. Analysis of mRNA species indicates that the reduction is specific for the TCR beta chain. These data demonstrate that Ly-6A may regulate TCR expression and may be involved in early events of T cell activation via regulation of fyn tyrosine kinase activity. Images PMID:8187770

  13. Proteomic characterization of HIV-modulated membrane receptors, kinases and signaling proteins involved in novel angiogenic pathways

    PubMed Central

    Rasheed, Suraiya; Yan, Jasper S; Hussain, Adil; Lai, Bruce

    2009-01-01

    Background Kaposi's sarcoma (KS), hemangioma, and other angioproliferative diseases are highly prevalent in HIV-infected individuals. While KS is etiologically linked to the human herpesvirus-8 (HHV8) infection, HIV-patients without HHV-8 and those infected with unrelated viruses also develop angiopathies. Further, HIV-Tat can activate protein-tyrosine-kinase (PTK-activity) of the vascular endothelial growth factor receptor involved in stimulating angiogenic processes. However, Tat by itself or HHV8-genes alone cannot induce angiogenesis in vivo unless specific proteins/enzymes are produced synchronously by different cell-types. We therefore tested a hypothesis that chronic HIV-replication in non-endothelial cells may produce novel factors that provoke angiogenic pathways. Methods Genome-wide proteins from HIV-infected and uninfected T-lymphocytes were tested by subtractive proteomics analyses at various stages of virus and cell growth in vitro over a period of two years. Several thousand differentially regulated proteins were identified by mass spectrometry (MS) and >200 proteins were confirmed in multiple gels. Each protein was scrutinized extensively by protein-interaction-pathways, bioinformatics, and statistical analyses. Results By functional categorization, 31 proteins were identified to be associated with various signaling events involved in angiogenesis. 88% proteins were located in the plasma membrane or extracellular matrix and >90% were found to be essential for regeneration, neovascularization and angiogenic processes during embryonic development. Conclusion Chronic HIV-infection of T-cells produces membrane receptor-PTKs, serine-threonine kinases, growth factors, adhesion molecules and many diffusible signaling proteins that have not been previously reported in HIV-infected cells. Each protein has been associated with endothelial cell-growth, morphogenesis, sprouting, microvessel-formation and other biological processes involved in angiogenesis (p

  14. Receptor-Interacting Protein Kinase 3 Deficiency Delays Cutaneous Wound Healing

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Weng-Lang; Wang, Zhimin; Nicastro, Jeffrey; Coppa, Gene F.; Wang, Ping

    2015-01-01

    Wound healing consists of a complex, dynamic and overlapping process involving inflammation, proliferation and tissue remodeling. A better understanding of wound healing process at the molecular level is needed for the development of novel therapeutic strategies. Receptor-interacting protein kinase 3 (RIPK3) controls programmed necrosis in response to TNF-α during inflammation and has been shown to be highly induced during cutaneous wound repair. However, its role in wound healing remains to be demonstrated. To study this, we created dorsal cutaneous wounds on male wild-type (WT) and RIPK3-deficient (Ripk3-/-) mice. Wound area was measured daily until day 14 post-wound and skin tissues were collected from wound sites at various days for analysis. The wound healing rate in Ripk3-/- mice was slower than the WT mice over the 14-day course; especially, at day 7, the wound size in Ripk3-/- mice was 53% larger than that of WT mice. H&E and Masson-Trichrome staining analysis showed impaired quality of wound closure in Ripk3-/- wounds with delayed re-epithelialization and angiogenesis and defected granulation tissue formation and collagen deposition compared to WT. The neutrophil infiltration pattern was altered in Ripk3-/- wounds with less neutrophils at day 1 and more neutrophils at day 3. This altered pattern was also reflected in the differential expression of IL-6, KC, IL-1β and TNF-α between WT and Ripk3-/- wounds. MMP-9 protein expression was decreased with increased Timp-1 mRNA in the Ripk3-/- wounds compared to WT. The microvascular density along with the intensity and timing of induction of proangiogenic growth factors VEGF and TGF-β1 were also decreased or delayed in the Ripk3-/- wounds. Furthermore, mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs) from Ripk3-/- mice migrated less towards chemoattractants TGF-β1 and PDGF than MEFs from WT mice. These results clearly demonstrate that RIPK3 is an essential molecule to maintain the temporal manner of the normal progression

  15. Receptor-Interacting Protein Kinase 3 Deficiency Delays Cutaneous Wound Healing.

    PubMed

    Godwin, Andrew; Sharma, Archna; Yang, Weng-Lang; Wang, Zhimin; Nicastro, Jeffrey; Coppa, Gene F; Wang, Ping

    2015-01-01

    Wound healing consists of a complex, dynamic and overlapping process involving inflammation, proliferation and tissue remodeling. A better understanding of wound healing process at the molecular level is needed for the development of novel therapeutic strategies. Receptor-interacting protein kinase 3 (RIPK3) controls programmed necrosis in response to TNF-α during inflammation and has been shown to be highly induced during cutaneous wound repair. However, its role in wound healing remains to be demonstrated. To study this, we created dorsal cutaneous wounds on male wild-type (WT) and RIPK3-deficient (Ripk3-/-) mice. Wound area was measured daily until day 14 post-wound and skin tissues were collected from wound sites at various days for analysis. The wound healing rate in Ripk3-/- mice was slower than the WT mice over the 14-day course; especially, at day 7, the wound size in Ripk3-/- mice was 53% larger than that of WT mice. H&E and Masson-Trichrome staining analysis showed impaired quality of wound closure in Ripk3-/- wounds with delayed re-epithelialization and angiogenesis and defected granulation tissue formation and collagen deposition compared to WT. The neutrophil infiltration pattern was altered in Ripk3-/- wounds with less neutrophils at day 1 and more neutrophils at day 3. This altered pattern was also reflected in the differential expression of IL-6, KC, IL-1β and TNF-α between WT and Ripk3-/- wounds. MMP-9 protein expression was decreased with increased Timp-1 mRNA in the Ripk3-/- wounds compared to WT. The microvascular density along with the intensity and timing of induction of proangiogenic growth factors VEGF and TGF-β1 were also decreased or delayed in the Ripk3-/- wounds. Furthermore, mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs) from Ripk3-/- mice migrated less towards chemoattractants TGF-β1 and PDGF than MEFs from WT mice. These results clearly demonstrate that RIPK3 is an essential molecule to maintain the temporal manner of the normal progression

  16. Activation of the protein-tyrosine kinase associated with the bombesin receptor complex in small cell lung carcinomas

    SciTech Connect

    Gaudino, G.; Cirillo, D.; Naldini, L.; Rossino, P.; Comoglio, P.M. )

    1988-04-01

    It has been hypothesized that bombesin-like peptides produced by small cell lung carcinomas may sustain deregulated proliferation through an autocrine mechanism. The authors have shown that the neuropeptide bombesin leads to the activation of a protein-tyrosine kinase that phosphorylates a 115-kDa protein (p115) associated with the bombesin receptor complex in mouse Swiss 3T3 fibroblasts. They now report that phosphotyrosine antibodies recognize a 115-kDa protein, phosphorylated on tyrosine, in four human small cell lung carcinoma cell lines producing bombesin but not in a nonproducer variant line. p115 from detergent-treated small cell lung carcinoma cells binds to bombesin-Sepharose and can be phosphorylated on tyrosine in the presence of radiolabeled ATP and Mn{sup 2+}. As for the p115 immunoprecipitated from mouse fibroblast, the small cell lung carcinoma p115 can be phosphorylated in an immunocomplex kinase assay. However, the latter does not require the presence of exogenous bombesin for activity. Binding data, obtained by using radiolabeled ligand, suggest receptor occupancy in the cell lines producing bombesin. These observations are consistent with the hypothesis that proliferation in some human small cell lung carcinoma lines is under autocrine control, regulated through activation of bombesin receptors.

  17. Characterization of a putative S-locus encoded receptor protein kinase and its role in self-incompatibility. Progress report

    SciTech Connect

    Nasrallah, J.B.

    1994-05-01

    The major results of our research effort include the determination of the S-Receptor Kinase (SRK) gene structure, the demonstration of S-haplotype-associated SRK polymorphisms and possible co-evolution of SRK and SLG, the characterization of the temporal and spatial expression patterns of SRK, and the demonstration that SRK has intrinsic serine/threonine kinase activity. Our results have indicated that SLG originated from an SRK-like gene by a gene duplication event and suggested a possible molecular basis for leaky S haplotypes. The data have allowed us to develop a model of self-incompatibility based on the interaction of SRK and SLG and the activation of SRK in response to self-pollination. More generally, the information that we have obtained is potentially relevant to understanding mechanisms of signalling inplants. Thus, the interaction of membrane-based receptor protein kinases with secreted forms of their extracellular domains may represent a generalized mechanism by which receptors signal across the plant cell wall.

  18. Protein kinase C modulates aryl hydrocarbon receptor nuclear translocator protein-mediated transactivation potential in a dimer context.

    PubMed

    Long, W P; Chen, X; Perdew, G H

    1999-04-30

    Protein kinase C (PKC)- and protein kinase A (PKA)-mediated modulation of the transactivation potential of human aryl hydrocarbon receptor nuclear translocator (hARNT), a basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH)-PAS transcription factor, and the bHLH-ZIP transcription factors USF-1 (for upstream regulatory factor 1) and c-Myc were examined. An 81 nM dose of the PKC activator phorbol-12-myristate-13-acetate (PMA), shown here to specifically activate PKC in COS-1 cells, or a 1 nM dose of the PKA activator 8-bromoadenosine-3',5'-cyclic monophosphate (8-Br-cAMP) results in 2. 6- and 1.9-fold enhancements, respectively, in hARNT-mediated transactivation of the class B, E-box-driven reporter pMyc3E1bLuc relative to identically transfected, carrier solvent-treated COS-1 cells. In contrast, 81 nM PMA and 1 nM 8-Br-cAMP did not enhance transactivation of pMyc3E1bLuc-driven by USF-1 and c-Myc expression relative to identically transfected, carrier-treated COS-1 cells. Co-transfection of pcDNA3/ARNT-474-Flag, expressing a hARNT carboxyl-terminal transactivation domain deletion, and pMyc3E1bLuc does not result in induction of reporter activity, suggesting PMA's effects do not involve formation of unknown hARNT-protein heterodimers. Additionally, PMA had no effect on hARNT expression relative to Me2SO-treated cells. Metabolic 32P labeling of hARNT in cells treated with carrier solvent or 81 nM PMA demonstrates that PMA does not increase the overall phosphorylation level of hARNT. These results demonstrate, for the first time, that the transactivation potential of ARNT in a dimer context can be specifically modulated by PKC or PKA stimulation and that the bHLH-PAS and bHLH-ZIP transcription factors are differentially regulated by these pathways in COS-1 cells. PMID:10212212

  19. Inhibitory effects of two G protein-coupled receptor kinases on the cell surface expression and signaling of the human adrenomedullin receptor.

    PubMed

    Kuwasako, Kenji; Sekiguchi, Toshio; Nagata, Sayaka; Jiang, Danfeng; Hayashi, Hidetaka; Murakami, Manabu; Hattori, Yuichi; Kitamura, Kazuo; Kato, Johji

    2016-02-19

    Receptor activity-modifying protein 2 (RAMP2) enables the calcitonin receptor-like receptor (CLR, a family B GPCR) to form the type 1 adrenomedullin receptor (AM1 receptor). Here, we investigated the effects of the five non-visual GPCR kinases (GRKs 2 through 6) on the cell surface expression of the human (h)AM1 receptor by cotransfecting each of these GRKs into HEK-293 cells that stably expressed hRAMP2. Flow cytometric analysis revealed that when coexpressed with GRK4 or GRK5, the cell surface expression of the AM1 receptor was markedly decreased prior to stimulation with AM, thereby attenuating both the specific [(125)I]AM binding and AM-induced cAMP production. These inhibitory effects of both GRKs were abolished by the replacement of the cytoplasmic C-terminal tail (C-tail) of CLR with that of the calcitonin receptor (a family B GPCR) or β2-adrenergic receptor (a family A GPCR). Among the sequentially truncated CLR C-tail mutants, those lacking the five residues 449-453 (Ser-Phe-Ser-Asn-Ser) abolished the inhibition of the cell surface expression of CLR via the overexpression of GRK4 or GRK5. Thus, we provided new insight into the function of GRKs in agonist-unstimulated GPCR trafficking using a recombinant AM1 receptor and further determined the region of the CLR C-tail responsible for this GRK function. PMID:26820533

  20. A calcium and free fatty acid-modulated protein kinase as putative effector of the fusicoccin 14-3-3 receptor.

    PubMed Central

    van der Hoeven, P C; Siderius, M; Korthout, H A; Drabkin, A V; de Boer, A H

    1996-01-01

    A protein kinase that is activated by calcium and cis-unsaturated fatty acids has been characterized from oat (Avena sativa L.) root plasma membranes. The kinase phosphorylates a synthetic peptide with a motif (-R-T-L-S-) that can be phosphorylated by both protein kinase C (PKC) and calcium-dependent protein kinase (CDPK)-type kinases. Calphostin C and chelerythrine, two PKC inhibitors, completely inhibited the kinase activity with values of inhibitor concentration for 50% inhibition of 0.7 and 30 microns, respectively. At low Ca2+ concentrations cis-unsaturated fatty acids (linolenic acid, linoleic acid, arachidonic acid, and oleic acid) stimulated the kinase activity almost 10-fold. The two inhibitors of the kinase, calphostin C and chelerythrin, strongly reduced the fusicoccin (FC)-induced H+ extrusion, and the activators of the kinase, the cis-unsaturated fatty acids, prevented [3H]FC binding to the FC 14-3-3 receptor. CDPK antibodies cross-reacted with a 43-kD band in the plasma membrane and in a purified FC receptor fraction. A polypeptide with the same apparent molecular mass was recognized by a synthetic peptide that has a sequence homologous to the annexin-like domain from barely 14-3-3. The possibility of the involvement of a kinase, with properties from both CDPK and PKC, and a phospholipase A2 in the FC Signal transduction pathway is discussed. PMID:8754686

  1. The Octopamine Receptor OAMB Mediates Ovulation via Ca2+/Calmodulin-Dependent Protein Kinase II in the Drosophila Oviduct Epithelium

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Hyun-Gwan; Rohila, Suman; Han, Kyung-An

    2009-01-01

    Ovulation is an essential physiological process in sexual reproduction; however, the underlying cellular mechanisms are poorly understood. We have previously shown that OAMB, a Drosophila G-protein-coupled receptor for octopamine (the insect counterpart of mammalian norepinephrine), is required for ovulation induced upon mating. OAMB is expressed in the nervous and reproductive systems and has two isoforms (OAMB-AS and OAMB-K3) with distinct capacities to increase intracellular Ca2+ or intracellular Ca2+ and cAMP in vitro. Here, we investigated tissue specificity and intracellular signals required for OAMB's function in ovulation. Restricted OAMB expression in the adult oviduct epithelium, but not the nervous system, reinstated ovulation in oamb mutant females, in which either OAMB isoform was sufficient for the rescue. Consistently, strong immunoreactivities for both isoforms were observed in the wild-type oviduct epithelium. To delineate the cellular mechanism by which OAMB regulates ovulation, we explored protein kinases functionally interacting with OAMB by employing a new GAL4 driver with restricted expression in the oviduct epithelium. Conditional inhibition of Ca2+/Calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII), but not protein kinase A or C, in the oviduct epithelium inhibited ovulation. Moreover, constitutively active CaMKII, but not protein kinase A, expressed only in the adult oviduct epithelium fully rescued the oamb female's phenotype, demonstrating CaMKII as a major downstream molecule conveying the OAMB's ovulation signal. This is consistent with the ability of both OAMB isoforms, whose common intracellular signal in vitro is Ca2+, to reinstate ovulation in oamb females. These observations reveal the critical roles of the oviduct epithelium and its cellular components OAMB and CaMKII in ovulation. It is conceivable that the OAMB-mediated cellular activities stimulated upon mating are crucial for secretory activities suitable for egg transfer from

  2. Specificity of g protein-coupled receptor kinase 6-mediated phosphorylation and regulation of single-cell m3 muscarinic acetylcholine receptor signaling.

    PubMed

    Willets, Jonathon M; Mistry, Rajendra; Nahorski, Stefan R; Challiss, R A John

    2003-11-01

    Previously we have shown that G protein-coupled receptor kinase (GRK) 6 plays a major role in the regulation of the human M3 muscarinic acetylcholine receptor (M3 mAChR) in the human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y. However, 30-fold overexpression of the catalytically inactive, dominant-negative K215RGRK6 produced only a 50% suppression of M3 mAChR phosphorylation and desensitization. Here, we have attempted to determine whether other endogenous kinases play a role in the regulation of M3 mAChR signaling. In contrast to the clear attenuating effect of K215RGRK6 expression on M3 mAChR regulation, dominant-negative forms of GRKs (K220RGRK2, K220RGRK3, K215RGRK5) and casein kinase 1alpha (K46RCK1alpha) were without effect. In addition, inhibition of a variety of second-messenger-regulated kinases and the tyrosine kinase Src also had no effect upon agonist-stimulated M3 mAChR regulation. To investigate further the desensitization process we have followed changes in inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate in single SHSY5Y cells using the pleckstrin homology domain of PLCdelta1 tagged with green fluorescent protein (eGFP-PHPLCdelta1). Stimulation of cells with approximate EC50 concentrations of agonist before and after a desensitizing period of agonist exposure resulted in a marked attenuation of the latter response. Altered GRK6 activity, through overexpression of wild-type GRK6 or K215RGRK6, enhanced or reduced the degree of M3 mAChR desensitization, respectively. Taken together, our data indicate that M3 mAChR desensitization is mediated by GRK6 in human SH-SY5Y cells, and we show that receptor desensitization of phospholipase C signaling can be monitored in 'real-time' in single, living cells. PMID:14573754

  3. Puerarin activates endothelial nitric oxide synthase through estrogen receptor-dependent PI3-kinase and calcium-dependent AMP-activated protein kinase

    SciTech Connect

    Hwang, Yong Pil; Kim, Hyung Gyun; Hien, Tran Thi; Jeong, Myung Ho; Jeong, Tae Cheon; Jeong, Hye Gwang

    2011-11-15

    The cardioprotective properties of puerarin, a natural product, have been attributed to the endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS)-mediated production of nitric oxide (NO) in EA.hy926 endothelial cells. However, the mechanism by which puerarin activates eNOS remains unclear. In this study, we sought to identify the intracellular pathways underlying eNOS activation by puerarin. Puerarin induced the activating phosphorylation of eNOS on Ser1177 and the production of NO in EA.hy926 cells. Puerarin-induced eNOS phosphorylation required estrogen receptor (ER)-mediated phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)/Akt signaling and was reversed by AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) and calcium/calmodulin-dependent kinase II (CaMKII) inhibition. Importantly, puerarin inhibited the adhesion of tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-{alpha}-stimulated monocytes to endothelial cells and suppressed the TNF-{alpha} induced expression of intercellular cell adhesion molecule-1. Puerarin also inhibited the TNF-{alpha}-induced nuclear factor-{kappa}B activation, which was attenuated by pretreatment with N{sup G}-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester, a NOS inhibitor. These results indicate that puerarin stimulates eNOS phosphorylation and NO production via activation of an estrogen receptor-mediated PI3K/Akt- and CaMKII/AMPK-dependent pathway. Puerarin may be useful for the treatment or prevention of endothelial dysfunction associated with diabetes and cardiovascular disease. -- Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Puerarin induced the phosphorylation of eNOS and the production of NO. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Puerarin activated eNOS through ER-dependent PI3-kinase and Ca{sup 2+}-dependent AMPK. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Puerarin-induced NO was involved in the inhibition of NF-kB activation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Puerarin may help for prevention of vascular dysfunction and diabetes.

  4. Equol inhibits prostate cancer growth through degradation of androgen receptor by S-phase kinase-associated protein 2.

    PubMed

    Itsumi, Momoe; Shiota, Masaki; Takeuchi, Ario; Kashiwagi, Eiji; Inokuchi, Junichi; Tatsugami, Katsunori; Kajioka, Shunichi; Uchiumi, Takeshi; Naito, Seiji; Eto, Masatoshi; Yokomizo, Akira

    2016-07-01

    Chemopreventive and potential therapeutic effects of soy isoflavones have been shown to be effective in numerous preclinical studies as well as clinical studies in prostate cancer. Although the inhibition of androgen receptor signaling has been supposed as one mechanism underlying their effects, the precise mechanism of androgen receptor inhibition remains unclear. Thus, this study aimed to clarify their mechanism. Among soy isoflavones, equol suppressed androgen receptor as well as prostate-specific antigen expression most potently in androgen-dependent LNCaP cells. However, the inhibitory effect on androgen receptor expression and activity was less prominent in castration-resistant CxR and 22Rv1 cells. Consistently, cell proliferation was suppressed and cellular apoptosis was induced by equol in LNCaP cells, but less so in CxR and 22Rv1 cells. We revealed that the proteasome pathway through S-phase kinase-associated protein 2 (Skp2) was responsible for androgen receptor suppression. Taken together, soy isoflavones, especially equol, appear to be promising as chemopreventive and therapeutic agents for prostate cancer based on the fact that equol augments Skp2-mediated androgen receptor degradation. Moreover, because Skp2 expression was indicated to be crucial for the effect of soy isoflavones, soy isoflavones may be applicable for precancerous and cancerous prostates. PMID:27088761

  5. The ER structural protein Rtn4A stabilizes and enhances signaling through the receptor tyrosine kinase ErbB3.

    PubMed

    Hatakeyama, Jason; Wald, Jessica H; Rafidi, Hanine; Cuevas, Antonio; Sweeney, Colleen; Carraway, Kermit L

    2016-01-01

    ErbB3 and ErbB4 are receptor tyrosine kinases that are activated by the neuregulin (NRG) family of growth factors. These receptors govern various developmental processes, and their dysregulation contributes to several human disease states. The abundance of ErbB3 and ErbB4, and thus signaling through these receptors, is limited by the E3 ubiquitin ligase Nrdp1, which targets ErbB3 and ErbB4 for degradation. Reticulons are proteins that influence the morphology of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) by promoting the formation of tubules, a response of cells to some stressors. We found that the ER structural protein reticulon 4A (Rtn4A, also known as Nogo-A) increased ErbB3 abundance and proliferative signaling by suppressing Nrdp1 function. Rtn4A interacted with Nrdp1 and stabilized ErbB3 in an Nrdp1-dependent manner. Rtn4A overexpression induced the redistribution of Nrdp1 from a cytosolic or perinuclear localization to ER tubules. Rtn4A knockdown in human breast tumor cells decreased ErbB3 abundance, NRG-stimulated signaling, and cellular proliferation and migration. Because proteins destined for the plasma membrane are primarily synthesized in the sheet portions of the ER, our observations suggest that Rtn4A counteracts the Nrdp1-mediated degradation of ErbB3 by sequestering the ubiquitin ligase into ER tubules. The involvement of a reticulon suggests a molecular link between ER structure and the sensitivity of cells to receptor tyrosine kinase-mediated survival signals at the cell surface. PMID:27353365

  6. Receptor Tyrosine Kinases with Intracellular Pseudokinase Domains

    PubMed Central

    Mendrola, Jeannine M.; Shi, Fumin; Park, Jin H.; Lemmon, Mark A.

    2013-01-01

    As with other groups of protein kinases, approximately 10% of the receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs) in the human proteome contain intracellular pseudokinases that lack one or more conserved catalytically important residues. These include ErbB3, a member of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) family, and a series of unconventional Wnt receptors. We recently showed that, despite its reputation as a pseudokinase, the ErbB3 tyrosine kinase domain (TKD) does retain significant – albeit weak – kinase activity. This led us to suggest that a subgroup of RTKs may be able to signal even with very inefficient kinases. Recent work suggests that this is not the case, however. Other pseudokinase RTKs have not revealed significant kinase activity, and mutations that impair ErbB3’s weak kinase activity have not so far been found to exhibit signaling defects. These findings therefore point to models in which the TKDs of pseudokinase RTKs participate in receptor signaling by allosterically regulating associated kinases (such as ErbB3 regulation of ErbB2) and/or function as regulated ‘scaffolds’ for other intermolecular interactions central to signal propagation. Further structural and functional studies – particularly of the pseudokinase RTKs involved in Wnt signaling – are required to shed new light on these intriguing signaling mechanisms. PMID:23863174

  7. Receptor Tyrosine Kinase and Tyrosine Kinase Inhibitors

    PubMed Central

    Mirshafiey, Abbas; Ghalamfarsa, Ghasem; Asghari, Babak

    2014-01-01

    Receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs) are essential components of signal transduction pathways that mediate cell-to-cell communication and their function as relay points for signaling pathways. They have a key role in numerous processes that control cellular proliferation and differentiation, regulate cell growth and cellular metabolism, and promote cell survival and apoptosis. Recently, the role of RTKs including TCR, FLT-3, c-Kit, c-Fms, PDGFR, ephrin, neurotrophin receptor, and TAM receptor in autoimmune disorder, especially rheumatoid arthritis and multiple sclerosis has been suggested. In multiple sclerosis pathogenesis, RTKs and their tyrosine kinase enzymes are selective important targets for tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI) agents. TKIs, compete with the ATP binding site of the catalytic domain of several tyrosine kinases, and act as small molecules that have a favorable safety profile in disease treatment. Up to now, the efficacy of TKIs in numerous animal models of MS has been demonstrated, but application of these drugs in human diseases should be tested in future clinical trials. PMID:25337443

  8. A-Kinase Anchoring Protein 79/150 Coordinates Metabotropic Glutamate Receptor Sensitization of Peripheral Sensory Neurons

    PubMed Central

    Szteyn, Kalina; Rowan, Matthew P.; Gomez, Ruben; Du, Junhui; Carlton, Susan M.; Jeske, Nathaniel A.

    2016-01-01

    Glutamate serves as the primary excitatory neurotransmitter in the nervous system. Previous studies have identified a role for glutamate and group I metabotropic receptors as targets for study in peripheral inflammatory pain. However, the coordination of signaling events that transpire from receptor activation to afferent neuronal sensitization has not been explored. Herein, we identify that scaffolding protein A-Kinase Anchoring Protein 79/150 (AKAP150) coordinates increased peripheral thermal sensitivity following group I metabotropic receptor (mGluR5) activation. In both acute and persistent models of thermal somatosensory behavior, we report that mGluR5 sensitization requires AKAP150 expression. Furthermore, electrophysiological approaches designed to record afferent neuronal activity reveal that mGluR5 sensitization also requires functional AKAP150 expression. In dissociated primary afferent neurons, mGluR5 activation increases TRPV1 responses in an AKAP dependent manner through a mechanism that induces AKAP association with TRPV1. Experimental results presented herein identify a mechanism of receptor-driven scaffolding association with ion channel targets. Importantly, this mechanism could prove significant in the search for therapeutic targets that repress episodes of acute pain from becoming chronic in nature. PMID:26172554

  9. Ethanol activation of protein kinase A regulates GABAA α1 receptor function and trafficking in cultured cerebral cortical neurons.

    PubMed

    Carlson, Stephen L; Kumar, Sandeep; Werner, David F; Comerford, Christopher E; Morrow, A Leslie

    2013-05-01

    Ethanol exposure produces alterations in GABAergic signaling that are associated with dependence and withdrawal. Previously, we demonstrated that ethanol-induced protein kinase C (PKC) γ signaling selectively contributes to changes in GABAA α1 synaptic receptor activity and surface expression. Here, we demonstrate that protein kinase A (PKA) exerts opposing effects on GABAA receptor adaptations during brief ethanol exposure. Cerebral cortical neurons from day 0-1 rat pups were tested after 18 days in culture. Receptor trafficking was assessed by Western blot analysis, and functional changes were measured using whole-cell patch-clamp recordings of evoked and miniature inhibitory postsynaptic current (mIPSC) responses. One-hour ethanol exposure increased membrane-associated PKC and PKA, but steady-state GABAA α1 subunit levels were maintained. Activation of PKA by Sp-adenosine 3',5'-cyclic monophosphothioate triethylamine alone increased GABAA α1 subunit surface expression and zolpidem potentiation of GABA responses, whereas coexposure of ethanol with the PKA inhibitor Rp-adenosine 3',5'-cyclic monophosphothioate triethylamine decreased α1 subunit expression and zolpidem responses. Exposure to the PKC inhibitor calphostin-C with ethanol mimicked the effect of direct PKA activation. The effects of PKA modulation on mIPSC decay τ were consistent with its effects on GABA currents evoked in the presence of zolpidem. Overall, the results suggest that PKA acts in opposition to PKC on α1-containing GABAA receptors, mediating the GABAergic effects of ethanol exposure, and may provide an important target for the treatment of alcohol dependence/withdrawal. PMID:23408117

  10. Activation of kappa-opioid receptor as a method for prevention of ischemic and reperfusion arrhythmias: role of protein kinase C and K(ATP) channels.

    PubMed

    Lishmanov, A Yu; Maslov, L N; Lasukova, T V; Crawford, D; Wong, T M

    2007-02-01

    Intravenous pretreatment with kappa-opioid receptor antagonist (-)-U-50,488 (1 mg/kg) improved heart resistance to the arrhythmogenic effect of coronary occlusion and reperfusion. Selective kappa1-opioid receptor antagonist norbinaltorphimine and nonselective blocker of peripheral opioid receptors methylnaloxone abolished this antiarrhythmic effect. Preliminary blockade of protein kinase C with chelerythrine or inhibition of ATP-dependent K+ channels (K(ATP) channels) with glybenclamide abolished the antiarrhythmic effect of kappa-opioid receptor activation. Selective inhibitor of sarcolemmal K(ATP) channels did not modulate the kappa-opioid receptor-mediated increase in cardiac electrical stability. Our results suggest that protein kinase C and mitochondrial K(ATP) channels play an important role in the antiarrhythmic effect associated with activation of peripheral kappa-opioid receptors. PMID:17970197

  11. The antiarrhythmic effect of centrally administered rilmenidine involves muscarinic receptors, protein kinase C and mitochondrial signalling pathways

    PubMed Central

    Iwasaki, M; Hayashi, Y; Kamibayashi, T; Yamatodani, A; Mashimo, T

    2008-01-01

    Background and purpose: We have previously demonstrated that stimulation of imidazoline receptors in the CNS prevented halothane–adrenaline arrhythmias during halothane anaesthesia and that stimulation of the vagus nerve may be critical to this effect. However, details of the mechanism(s) involved are not yet available. The present study was designed to examine the role of muscarinic receptors, protein kinase C (PKC), ATP-sensitive potassium channels (KATP) and the mitochondrial permeability transition pore (MPTP) in the antiarrhythmic effect of rilmenidine, an imidazoline receptor agonist. Experimental approach: Rats were anaesthetized with halothane and monitored continuously for arterial blood pressure and premature ventricular contractions. The arrhythmogenic dose of adrenaline was defined as the lowest dose producing three or more premature ventricular contractions within a 15-s period. We confirmed that centrally administered rilmenidine prevented halothane–adrenaline arrhythmias and then examined the antiarrhythmic effect of rilmenidine in the presence of atropine methylnitrate, a muscarinic receptor antagonist, calphostin C, a PKC inhibitor, HMR-1098, a sarcolemmal KATP inhibitor, 5-hydroxydecanoic acid, a mitochondrial KATP inhibitor or atractyloside, an MPTP opener. Key results: The antiarrhythmic effect of rilmenidine was significantly inhibited by atropine methylnitrate, calphostin C, 5-hydroxydecanoic acid and atractyloside, but the effects of HMR-1098 in our model were not clear. Conclusions and implications: The present results suggest that muscarinic receptors, PKC, mitochondrial KATP channels and MPTP may be crucial components of the mechanism involved in the antiarrhythmic effect of rilmenidine given into the CNS. PMID:18297108

  12. Identification of four novel phosphorylation sites in estrogen receptor α: impact on receptor-dependent gene expression and phosphorylation by protein kinase CK2

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background Estrogen receptor α (ERα) phosphorylation is important for estrogen-dependent transcription of ER-dependent genes, ligand-independent receptor activation and endocrine therapy response in breast cancer. However ERα phosphorylation at the previously identified sites does not fully account for these receptor functions. To determine if additional ERα phosphorylation sites exist, COS-1 cells expressing human ERα were labeled with [32P]H3PO4 in vivo and ERα tryptic phosphopeptides were isolated to identify phosphorylation sites. Results Previously uncharacterized phosphorylation sites at serines 46/47, 282, 294, and 559 were identified by manual Edman degradation and phosphoamino acid analysis and confirmed by mutagenesis and phospho-specific antibodies. Antibodies detected phosphorylation of endogenous ERα in MCF-7, MCF-7-LCC2, and Ishikawa cancer cell lines by immunoblot. Mutation of Ser-282 and Ser-559 to alanine (S282A, S559A) resulted in ligand independent activation of ERα as determined by both ERE-driven reporter gene assays and endogenous pS2 gene expression in transiently transfected HeLa cells. Mutation of Ser-46/47 or Ser-294 to alanine markedly reduced estradiol dependent reporter activation. Additionally protein kinase CK2 was identified as a kinase that phosphorylated ERα at S282 and S559 using motif analysis, in vitro kinase assays, and incubation of cells with CK2 kinase inhibitor. Conclusion These novel ERα phosphorylation sites represent new means for modulation of ERα activity. S559 represents the first phosphorylation site identified in the extreme C-terminus (F domain) of a steroid receptor. PMID:20043841

  13. Protein kinase activity in the rat mammary gland during pregnancy, lactation, and weaning: a correlation with growth but not with progesterone receptor levels.

    PubMed

    Sharoni, Y; Feldman, B; Teuerstein, I; Levy, J

    1984-11-01

    A protein kinase activity fraction was defined in cytosols and membranes of mammary tissue isolated from rats during pregnancy lactation, and weaning. By partial purification on DEAE-cellulose columns, it was shown that this protein kinase activity is cAMP independent and that its preferential substrate is casein and not histone. This protein kinase activity is inhibited by the bioflavonoid quercetin at doses that do not inhibit cAMP-dependent protein kinase activity. The enzyme requires Mg2+ and is inactive in the presence of 10 mM Ca+2; these properties distinguish this activity from casein kinase activity found in the Golgi fraction and involved in milk protein processing. By following the physiological cycle of mammary gland development during pregnancy, lactation, and weaning, we found a close correlation between proliferation, expressed as the DNA content per gland, and quercetin-inhibited cytosolic protein kinase activity. Moreover, changes in this phosphorylating activity preceded the glandular growth changes. There was a less significant correlation between the growth process and protein kinase activity in the membrane fraction. The cytosolic cAMP-dependent protein kinase activity showed (only partial) correlation with growth only during pregnancy. Cytosolic progesterone receptor levels in mammary tissue were used as an estrogenic marker. Tissue growth correlated with progesterone receptor levels during pregnancy, where estrogens are the predominant hormones affecting tissue proliferation. However, no such correlation was found during lactation and weaning, when PRL is the major hormone affecting mammary gland growth. These results suggest that quercetin-inhibitable protein kinase activity is not merely another estrogenic marker, but represents more general regulatory activity which might be connected to growth processes of breast tissue. PMID:6092041

  14. Human adenosine A1 receptor and P2Y2-purinoceptor-mediated activation of the mitogen-activated protein kinase cascade in transfected CHO cells

    PubMed Central

    Dickenson, John M; Blank, Jonathan L; Hill, Stephen J

    1998-01-01

    The mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase signalling pathway can be activated by a variety of heterotrimeric Gi/Go protein-coupled and Gq/G11 protein-coupled receptors. The aims of the current study were: (i) to investigate whether the Gi/Go protein-coupled adenosine A1 receptor activates the MAP kinase pathway in transfected Chinese hamster ovary cells (CHO-A1) and (ii) to determine whether adenosine A1 receptor activation would modulate the MAP kinase response elicited by the endogenous P2Y2 purinoceptor.The selective adenosine A1 receptor agonist N6-cyclopentyladenosine (CPA) stimulated time and concentration-dependent increases in MAP kinase activity in CHO-A1 cells (EC50 7.1±0.4 nM). CPA-mediated increases in MAP kinase activity were blocked by PD 98059 (50 μM; 89±4% inhibition), an inhibitor of MAP kinase kinase 1 (MEKI) activation, and by pre-treating cells with pertussis toxin (to block Gi/Go-dependent pathways).Adenosine A1 receptor-mediated activation of MAP kinase was abolished by pre-treatment with the protein tyrosine inhibitor, genistein (100 μM; 6±10% of control). In contrast, daidzein (100 μM), the inactive analogue of genistein had no significant effect (96±12 of control). MAP kinase responses to CPA (1 μM) were also sensitive to the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase inhibitors wortmannin (100 nM; 55±8% inhibition) and LY 294002 (30 μM; 40±5% inhibition) but not to the protein kinase C (PKC) inhibitor Ro 31-8220 (10 μM).Activation of the endogenous P2Y2 purinoceptor with UTP also stimulated time and concentration-dependent increases in MAP kinase activity in CHO-A1 cells (EC50=1.6±0.3 μM). The MAP kinase response to UTP was partially blocked by pertussis toxin (67±3% inhibition) and by the PKC inhibitor Ro 31-8220 (10 μM; 45±5% inhibition), indicating the possible involvement of both Gi/Go protein and Gq protein-dependent pathways in the overall response to UTP.CPA and UTP stimulated concentration

  15. [Characterization of a putative S locus encoded receptor protein kinase and its role in self-incompatibility]. Progress report, January 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-06-01

    The serine/threonine protein kinase (SRK) protein was predicted to be similar to the growth factor receptor tyrosine kinases in animals but its amino acid sequence of the catalytic domain is more similar to that of the catalytic domains of protein serine/threonine kinases than to protein tyrosine kinases. We have shown that the SRK protein has intrinsic scrine/threonine kinase activity. We subcloned the protein kinase-homologous domain of the SRK{sub 6} cDNA into the bacterial expression vector pGEX-3X and we have constructed a second plasmid identical to the first except that it carried a conservative mutation that substituted Arg for the Lys{sup 524} codon of SRK6 This lysine corresponds to the ATP-binding site, is essential in protein kinases, and is a common target for site-directed mutagenesis as a means to obtain kinase-defective proteins. Cultures bearing the wild-type and mutant SRK catalytic domains each produced an approximately 64 kD protein that reacted with anti-SRK6 antibodies. Following pulse-labeling with {sup 32}P we found that the wild-type SRK6 protein but not the mutant form was detectably phosphorylated. Phosphoamino acid analysis of the affinity purified {sup 32}p-labeled GST-SRK6 fusion protein demonstrated that SRK was phosphorylated predominantly on semine and to a lesser extent on threonine, but not on tyrosine. Thus, SRK6 is a functional serine/threonine protein kinase.

  16. Regulation of endothelial protein C receptor shedding by cytokines is mediated through differential activation of MAP kinase signaling pathways

    SciTech Connect

    Menschikowski, Mario; Hagelgans, Albert; Eisenhofer, Graeme; Siegert, Gabriele

    2009-09-10

    The endothelial protein C receptor (EPCR) plays a pivotal role in coagulation, inflammation, cell proliferation, and cancer, but its activity is markedly changed by ectodomain cleavage and release as the soluble protein (sEPCR). In this study we examined the mechanisms involved in the regulation of EPCR shedding in human umbilical endothelial cells (HUVEC). Interleukin-1{beta} (IL-1{beta}) and tumor necrosis factor-{alpha} (TNF-{alpha}), but not interferon-{gamma} and interleukin-6, suppressed EPCR mRNA transcription and cell-associated EPCR expression in HUVEC. The release of sEPCR induced by IL-1{beta} and TNF-{alpha} correlated with activation of p38 MAPK and c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK). EPCR shedding was also induced by phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate, ionomycin, anisomycin, thiol oxidants or alkylators, thrombin, and disruptors of lipid rafts. Both basal and induced shedding of EPCR was blocked by the metalloproteinase inhibitors, TAPI-0 and GM6001, and by the reduced non-protein thiols, glutathione, dihydrolipoic acid, dithiothreitol, and N-acetyl-L-cysteine. Because other antioxidants and scavengers of reactive oxygen species failed to block the cleavage of EPCR, a direct suppression of metalloproteinase activity seems responsible for the observed effects of reduced thiols. In summary, the shedding of EPCR in HUVEC is effectively regulated by IL-1{beta} and TNF-{alpha}, and downstream by MAP kinase signaling pathways and metalloproteinases.

  17. Protein kinases A and C regulate receptor-mediated increases in cAMP in rabbit erythrocytes

    PubMed Central

    Sridharan, Meera; Bowles, Elizabeth A.; Stephenson, Alan H.; Ellsworth, Mary L.; Sprague, Randy S.

    2010-01-01

    Activation of the β-adrenergic receptor (β-AR) or the prostacyclin receptor (IPR) results in increases in cAMP and ATP release from erythrocytes. cAMP levels depend on a balance between synthesis via adenylyl cyclase and hydrolysis by phosphodiesterases (PDEs). Previously, we reported that cAMP increases associated with activation of the β-AR and IPR in rabbit and human erythrocytes are tightly regulated by distinct PDEs (1). Importantly, inhibitors of these PDEs potentiated both increases in cAMP and ATP release. It has been shown that increases in protein kinase (PK) activity can activate PDE3 and PDE4. Both PKA and PKC are present in the erythrocyte and can phosphorylate and activate these PDEs. Here we investigate the hypothesis that PKA regulates PDE activity associated with the β-AR and both PKA and PKC regulate the PDE activity associated with the IPR in rabbit erythrocytes. Pretreatment of erythrocytes with the PKA inhibitor, H89 (10 μM), in the presence of the PDE4 inhibitor, rolipram (10 μM), augmented isoproterenol (1 μM)-induced cAMP increases. In contrast, in the presence of the PDE3 inhibitor, cilostazol (10 μM), pretreatment of erythrocytes with either H89 (1 μM) or two chemically dissimilar inhibitors of PKC, calphostin C (1 μM) or GFX109203X (1 μM), potentiated iloprost (1 μM)-induced cAMP increases. Furthermore, pretreatment of erythrocytes with both H89 and GFX109203X in the presence of cilostazol augmented the iloprost-induced increases in cAMP to a greater extent than either PK inhibitor individually. These results support the hypothesis that PDEs associated with receptor-mediated increases in cAMP in rabbit erythrocytes are regulated by kinases specific to the receptor's signaling pathway. PMID:20008267

  18. Molecular Characterization and Comparative Sequence Analysis of Defense-Related Gene, Oryza rufipogon Receptor-Like Protein Kinase 1

    PubMed Central

    Law, Yee-Song; Gudimella, Ranganath; Song, Beng-Kah; Ratnam, Wickneswari; Harikrishna, Jennifer Ann

    2012-01-01

    Many of the plant leucine rich repeat receptor-like kinases (LRR-RLKs) have been found to regulate signaling during plant defense processes. In this study, we selected and sequenced an LRR-RLK gene, designated as Oryza rufipogon receptor-like protein kinase 1 (OrufRPK1), located within yield QTL yld1.1 from the wild rice Oryza rufipogon (accession IRGC105491). A 2055 bp coding region and two exons were identified. Southern blotting determined OrufRPK1 to be a single copy gene. Sequence comparison with cultivated rice orthologs (OsI219RPK1, OsI9311RPK1 and OsJNipponRPK1, respectively derived from O. sativa ssp. indica cv. MR219, O. sativa ssp. indica cv. 9311 and O. sativa ssp. japonica cv. Nipponbare) revealed the presence of 12 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) with five non-synonymous substitutions, and 23 insertion/deletion sites. The biological role of the OrufRPK1 as a defense related LRR-RLK is proposed on the basis of cDNA sequence characterization, domain subfamily classification, structural prediction of extra cellular domains, cluster analysis and comparative gene expression. PMID:22942769

  19. The trkB Tyrosine Protein Kinase Is a Receptor for Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor and Neurotrophin-3

    PubMed Central

    Klein, Rüdiger; Nanduri, Venkata; Jing, Shuqian; Lamballe, Fabienne; Tapley, Peter; Bryant, Sherri; Cordon-Cardo, Carlos; Jones, Kevin R.; Reichardt, Louis F.; Barbacid, Mariano

    2009-01-01

    Summary trkB is a tyrosine protein kinase gene highly related to trk, a proto-oncogene that encodes a receptor for nerve growth factor (NGF) and neurotrophin-3 (NT-3). trkB expression is confined to structures of the central and peripheral nervous systems, suggesting it also encodes a receptor for neurotrophic factors. Here we show that brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and NT-3, but not NGF, can induce rapid phosphorylation on tyrosine of gp145trkB, one of the receptors encoded by trkB. BDNF and NT-3 can induce DNA synthesis in quiescent NIH 3T3 cells that express gp145trkB. Cotransfection of plasmids encoding gp145trkB and BDNF or NT-3 leads to transformation of recipient NIH 3T3 cells. In these assays, BDNF elicits a response at least two orders of magnitude higher than NT-3. Finally, 125I-NT-3 binds to NIH 3T3 cells expressing gp145trkB; binding can be competed by NT-3 and BDNF but not by NGF. These findings indicate that gp145trkB may function as a neurotrophic receptor for BDNF and NT-3. PMID:1649702

  20. Coarse-grained molecular simulation of epidermal growth factor receptor protein tyrosine kinase multi-site self-phosphorylation.

    PubMed

    Koland, John G

    2014-01-01

    Upon the ligand-dependent dimerization of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), the intrinsic protein tyrosine kinase (PTK) activity of one receptor monomer is activated, and the dimeric receptor undergoes self-phosphorylation at any of eight candidate phosphorylation sites (P-sites) in either of the two C-terminal (CT) domains. While the structures of the extracellular ligand binding and intracellular PTK domains are known, that of the ∼225-amino acid CT domain is not, presumably because it is disordered. Receptor phosphorylation on CT domain P-sites is critical in signaling because of the binding of specific signaling effector molecules to individual phosphorylated P-sites. To investigate how the combination of conventional substrate recognition and the unique topological factors involved in the CT domain self-phosphorylation reaction lead to selectivity in P-site phosphorylation, we performed coarse-grained molecular simulations of the P-site/catalytic site binding reactions that precede EGFR self-phosphorylation events. Our results indicate that self-phosphorylation of the dimeric EGFR, although generally believed to occur in trans, may well occur with a similar efficiency in cis, with the P-sites of both receptor monomers being phosphorylated to a similar extent. An exception was the case of the most kinase-proximal P-site-992, the catalytic site binding of which occurred exclusively in cis via an intramolecular reaction. We discovered that the in cis interaction of P-site-992 with the catalytic site was facilitated by a cleft between the N-terminal and C-terminal lobes of the PTK domain that allows the short CT domain sequence tethering P-site-992 to the PTK core to reach the catalytic site. Our work provides several new mechanistic insights into the EGFR self-phosphorylation reaction, and demonstrates the potential of coarse-grained molecular simulation approaches for investigating the complexities of self-phosphorylation in molecules such as EGFR

  1. Neuropeptide Y1 receptor inhibits cell growth through inactivating mitogen-activated protein kinase signal pathway in human hepatocellular carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Lv, Xiufang; Zhao, Fengbo; Huo, Xisong; Tang, Weidong; Hu, Baoying; Gong, Xiu; Yang, Juan; Shen, Qiujin; Qin, Wenxin

    2016-07-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is one of the most common cancers, and its incidence is increasing worldwide. Neuropeptide Y (NPY) broadly expressed in the central and peripheral nervous system. It participates in multiple physiological and pathological processes through specific receptors. Evidences are accumulating that NPY is involved in development and progression in neuro- or endocrine-related cancers. However, little is known about the potential roles and underlying mechanisms of NPY receptors in HCC. In this study, we analyzed the expression of NPY receptors by real-time polymerase chain reaction, Western blot, and immunohistochemical staining. Correlation between NPY1R levels and clinicopathological characteristics, and survival of HCC patients were explored, respectively. Cell proliferation was researched by CCK-8 in vitro, and tumor growth was studied by nude mice xenografts in vivo. We found that mRNA and protein level of NPY receptor Y1 subtype (NPY1R) significantly decreased in HCC tissues. Low expression of NPY1R closely correlated with poor prognosis in HCC patients. Proliferation of HCC cells was significantly inhibited by recombinant NPY protein in vitro. This inhibitory effect could be blocked by selected NPY1R antagonist BIBP3226. Furthermore, overexpression of NPY1R could significantly inhibit HCC cell proliferation. Knockdown of NPY1R promoted cell multiplication in vitro and increased tumorigenicity and tumor growth in vivo. NPY1R was found to participate in the inhibition of cell proliferation via inactivating mitogen-activated protein kinase signal pathway in HCC cells. Collectively, NPY1R plays an inhibitory role in tumor growth and may be a promising therapeutic target for HCC. PMID:27262566

  2. Receptor-interacting protein kinase 3-mediated programmed cell necrosis in rats subjected to focal cerebral ischemia-reperfusion injury

    PubMed Central

    DONG, YANRU; BAO, CUIFEN; YU, JINGWEI; LIU, XIA

    2016-01-01

    In the current study, the activation of tumor necrosis factor-α receptor 1 (TNFR1) and receptor-interacting protein kinase 3 (RIP3) were investigated following cerebral ischemia-reperfusion injury (CIRI). Healthy SD rats were randomly divided into 3 groups: Sham operation group, model group and inhibitor group. The model group and inhibitor group were further divided into 4 subgroups of 6, 12, 24 and 72 h following CIRI. Using right middle cerebral artery embolization, the CIRI model was generated. To confirm that the CIRI model was established, neurological scores, TTC staining and brain water content measurements were conducted. Immunohistochemistry and western blotting were conducted to investigate the expression of TNFR1 and RIP3 in the cerebral cortex. It was observed that nerve cell necrosis occurred following 6 h of CIRI. The appearance of necrotic cells was gradually increased with increasing CIRI duration. TNFR1 and RIP3 were positively expressed following 6 h of CIRI. With increasing durations of CIRI, the protein expression levels of TNFR1 and RIP3 were significantly increased. Pre-administration with Z-VAD-FMK (zVAD) significantly increased the protein level of RIP3, however, had no effect on the levels of TNFR1, and was accompanied by a reduction in necrosis. In conclusion, RIP3-mediated cell necrosis was enhanced by caspase blockade zVAD and the function of zVAD was independent of TNFR1 signaling following IR. PMID:27220678

  3. Protein kinase C α is involved in the regulation of AXL receptor tyrosine kinase expression in triple-negative breast cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Yue, Chia-Herng; Liu, Liang-Chih; Kao, Erl-Shyh; Lin, Ho; Hsu, Li-Sung; Hsu, Chih-Wei; Lin, Yu-Yu; Lin, Yi-Syuan; Liu, Jer-Yuh; Lee, Chia-Jen

    2016-08-01

    AXL receptor tyrosine kinase is overexpressed in triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC), and has a function in cancer progression and metastases. However, the mechanism underlying AXL gene regulation in TNBC remains unknown. In this study, the involvement of protein kinase C α (PKCα) in the expression of AXL was investigated in human TNBC cells. The microarray data from other studies showed that PKCα is significantly correlated with AXL expression in TNBC cell lines. Tissue array analysis also confirmed their correlation in TNBC. The PKCα inhibitor Go6976 was used to treat MDA‑MB‑231 and Hs578T TNBC cells, which resulted in decreased expression of AXL and epithelia-mesenchymal transition-related gene vimentin, and decreased cell proliferation. An MZF‑1 acidic domain fragment (MZF-1 peptide), which was designed to downregulate PKCα expression, was transfected into the cells and resulted in inhibition of AXL expression. This effect was reversed by co‑treatment with the constitutive form of PKCα. Moreover, the downregulation of PKCα was also confirmed by treatment with TAT‑fused MZF‑1 peptide. Thus, the current study proposes that AXL may be correlated with PKCα‑dependent TNBC cells, and could be modulated by MZF‑1 peptides. PMID:27357025

  4. A Regulatory Feedback Loop Between Ca2+/Calmodulin-dependent Protein Kinase Kinase 2 (CaMKK2) and the Androgen Receptor in Prostate Cancer Progression*

    PubMed Central

    Karacosta, Loukia G.; Foster, Barbara A.; Azabdaftari, Gissou; Feliciano, David M.; Edelman, Arthur M.

    2012-01-01

    The androgen receptor (AR) plays a critical role in prostate cancer (PCa) progression, however, the molecular mechanisms by which the AR regulates cell proliferation in androgen-dependent and castration-resistant PCa are incompletely understood. We report that Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent kinase kinase 2 (CaMKK2) expression increases and becomes nuclear or perinuclear in advanced PCa. In the TRAMP (transgenic adenocarcinoma of mouse prostate) model of PCa, CaMKK2 expression increases with PCa progression with many cells exhibiting nuclear staining. CaMKK2 expression is higher in human castration-resistant tumor xenografts compared with androgen-responsive xenografts and is markedly higher in the AR-expressing, tumorigenic cell line LNCaP compared with cell lines that are AR-nonexpressing and/or nontumorigenic. In LNCaP cells, dihydrotestosterone induced CaMKK2 mRNA and protein expression and translocation of CaMKK2 to the nucleus. Conversely, androgen withdrawal suppressed CaMKK2 expression. Knockdown of CaMKK2 expression by RNAi reduced LNCaP cell proliferation and increased percentages of cells in G1 phase, whereas correspondingly reducing percentages in S phase, of the cell cycle. CaMKK2 knockdown reduced expression of the AR target gene prostate-specific antigen at both mRNA and protein levels, AR transcriptional activity driven by androgen responsive elements from the prostate-specific probasin gene promoter and levels of the AR-regulated cell cycle proteins, cyclin D1 and hyperphosphorylated Rb. Our results suggest that in PCa progression, CaMKK2 and the AR are in a feedback loop in which CaMKK2 is induced by the AR to maintain AR activity, AR-dependent cell cycle control, and continued cell proliferation. PMID:22654108

  5. A regulatory feedback loop between Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase kinase 2 (CaMKK2) and the androgen receptor in prostate cancer progression.

    PubMed

    Karacosta, Loukia G; Foster, Barbara A; Azabdaftari, Gissou; Feliciano, David M; Edelman, Arthur M

    2012-07-13

    The androgen receptor (AR) plays a critical role in prostate cancer (PCa) progression, however, the molecular mechanisms by which the AR regulates cell proliferation in androgen-dependent and castration-resistant PCa are incompletely understood. We report that Ca(2+)/calmodulin-dependent kinase kinase 2 (CaMKK2) expression increases and becomes nuclear or perinuclear in advanced PCa. In the TRAMP (transgenic adenocarcinoma of mouse prostate) model of PCa, CaMKK2 expression increases with PCa progression with many cells exhibiting nuclear staining. CaMKK2 expression is higher in human castration-resistant tumor xenografts compared with androgen-responsive xenografts and is markedly higher in the AR-expressing, tumorigenic cell line LNCaP compared with cell lines that are AR-nonexpressing and/or nontumorigenic. In LNCaP cells, dihydrotestosterone induced CaMKK2 mRNA and protein expression and translocation of CaMKK2 to the nucleus. Conversely, androgen withdrawal suppressed CaMKK2 expression. Knockdown of CaMKK2 expression by RNAi reduced LNCaP cell proliferation and increased percentages of cells in G(1) phase, whereas correspondingly reducing percentages in S phase, of the cell cycle. CaMKK2 knockdown reduced expression of the AR target gene prostate-specific antigen at both mRNA and protein levels, AR transcriptional activity driven by androgen responsive elements from the prostate-specific probasin gene promoter and levels of the AR-regulated cell cycle proteins, cyclin D1 and hyperphosphorylated Rb. Our results suggest that in PCa progression, CaMKK2 and the AR are in a feedback loop in which CaMKK2 is induced by the AR to maintain AR activity, AR-dependent cell cycle control, and continued cell proliferation. PMID:22654108

  6. Regulation of Lysophosphatidic Acid-induced Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor Transactivation and Interleukin-8 Secretion in Human Bronchial Epithelial Cells by Protein Kinase Cδ, Lyn Kinase, and Matrix Metalloproteinases*

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Yutong; He, Donghong; Saatian, Bahman; Watkins, Tonya; Spannhake, Ernst Wm.; Pyne, Nigel J.; Natarajan, Viswanathan

    2009-01-01

    We have demonstrated earlier that lysophosphatidic acid (LPA)-induced interleukin-8 (IL-8) secretion is regulated by protein kinase Cδ (PKCδ)-dependent NF-κB activation in human bronchial epithelial cells (HBEpCs). Here we provide evidence for signaling pathways that regulate LPA-mediated transactivation of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and the role of cross-talk between G-protein-coupled receptors and receptor-tyrosine kinases in IL-8 secretion in HBEpCs. Treatment of HBEpCs with LPA stimulated tyrosine phosphorylation of EGFR, which was attenuated by matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) inhibitor (GM6001), heparin binding (HB)-EGF inhibitor (CRM 197), and HB-EGF neutralizing antibody. Overexpression of dominant negative PKCδ or pretreatment with a PKCδ inhibitor (rottlerin) or Src kinase family inhibitor (PP2) partially blocked LPA-induced MMP activation, proHB-EGF shedding, and EGFR tyrosine phosphorylation. Down-regulation of Lyn kinase, but not Src kinase, by specific small interfering RNA mitigated LPA-induced MMP activation, proHB-EGF shedding, and EGFR phosphorylation. In addition, overexpression of dominant negative PKCδ blocked LPA-induced phosphorylation and translocation of Lyn kinase to the plasma membrane. Furthermore, down-regulation of EGFR by EGFR small interfering RNA or pretreatment of cells with EGFR inhibitors AG1478 and PD158780 almost completely blocked LPA-dependent EGFR phosphorylation and partially attenuated IL-8 secretion, respectively. These results demonstrate that LPA-induced IL-8 secretion is partly dependent on EGFR transactivation regulated by PKCδ-dependent activation of Lyn kinase and MMPs and proHB-EGF shedding, suggesting a novel mechanism of cross-talk and interaction between G-protein-coupled receptors and receptor-tyrosine kinases in HBEpCs. PMID:16687414

  7. Targeting Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor Receptor 2 and Protein Kinase D1 Related Pathways by a Multiple Kinase Inhibitor in Angiogenesis and Inflammation Related Processes In Vitro

    PubMed Central

    Varga, Attila; Gyulavári, Pál; Greff, Zoltán; Futosi, Krisztina; Németh, Tamás; Simon-Szabó, Laura; Kerekes, Krisztina; Szántai-Kis, Csaba; Brauswetter, Diána; Kokas, Márton; Borbély, Gábor; Erdei, Anna; Mócsai, Attila; Kéri, György; Vántus, Tibor

    2015-01-01

    Emerging evidence suggests that the vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 2 (VEGFR2) and protein kinase D1 (PKD1) signaling axis plays a critical role in normal and pathological angiogenesis and inflammation related processes. Despite all efforts, the currently available therapeutic interventions are limited. Prior studies have also proved that a multiple target inhibitor can be more efficient compared to a single target one. Therefore, development of novel inflammatory pathway-specific inhibitors would be of great value. To test this possibility, we screened our molecular library using recombinant kinase assays and identified the previously described compound VCC251801 with strong inhibitory effect on both VEGFR2 and PKD1. We further analyzed the effect of VCC251801 in the endothelium-derived EA.hy926 cell line and in different inflammatory cell types. In EA.hy926 cells, VCC251801 potently inhibited the intracellular activation and signaling of VEGFR2 and PKD1 which inhibition eventually resulted in diminished cell proliferation. In this model, our compound was also an efficient inhibitor of in vitro angiogenesis by interfering with endothelial cell migration and tube formation processes. Our results from functional assays in inflammatory cellular models such as neutrophils and mast cells suggested an anti-inflammatory effect of VCC251801. The neutrophil study showed that VCC251801 specifically blocked the immobilized immune-complex and the adhesion dependent TNF-α -fibrinogen stimulated neutrophil activation. Furthermore, similar results were found in mast cell degranulation assay where VCC251801 caused significant reduction of mast cell response. In summary, we described a novel function of a multiple kinase inhibitor which strongly inhibits the VEGFR2-PKD1 signaling and might be a novel inhibitor of pathological inflammatory pathways. PMID:25874616

  8. The effect of G protein-coupled receptor kinase 2 (GRK2) on lactation and on proliferation of mammary epithelial cells from dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Hou, Xiaoming; Hu, Hongliu; Lin, Ye; Qu, Bo; Gao, Xuejun; Li, Qingzhang

    2016-07-01

    Milk protein is an important component of milk and a nutritional source for human consumption. To better understand the molecular events underlying synthesis of milk proteins, the global gene expression patterns in mammary glands of dairy cow with high-quality milk (>3% milk protein; >3.5% milk fat) and low-quality milk (<3% milk protein; <3.5% milk fat) were examined via digital gene expression study. A total of 139 upregulated and 66 downregulated genes were detected in the mammary tissues of lactating cows with high-quality milk compared with the tissues of cows with low-quality milk. A pathway enrichment study of these genes revealed that the top 5 pathways that were differentially affected in the tissues of cows with high- versus low-quality milk involved metabolic pathways, cancer, cytokine-cytokine receptor interactions, regulation of the actin cytoskeleton, and insulin signaling. We also found that the G protein-coupled receptor kinase 2 (GRK2) was one of the most highly upregulated genes in lactating mammary tissue with low-quality milk compared with tissue with high-quality milk. The knockdown of GRK2 in cultured bovine mammary epithelial cells enhanced CSN2 expression and activated signaling molecules related to translation, including protein kinase B, mammalian target of rapamycin, and p70 ribosomal protein S6 kinase 1 (S6K1), whereas overexpression of GRK2 had the opposite effects. However, expression of genes involved in the mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway was positively regulated by GRK2. Therefore, GRK2 seems to act as a negative mediator of milk-protein synthesis via the protein kinase B-mammalian target of rapamycin signaling axis. Furthermore, GRK2 may negatively control milk-protein synthesis by activating the mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway in dairy cow mammary epithelial cells. PMID:27132107

  9. G Protein-Coupled Receptor Kinase 2 (GRK2) and 5 (GRK5) Exhibit Selective Phosphorylation of the Neurotensin Receptor in Vitro

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    G protein-coupled receptor kinases (GRKs) play an important role in the desensitization of G protein-mediated signaling of G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs). The level of interest in mapping their phosphorylation sites has increased because recent studies suggest that the differential pattern of receptor phosphorylation has distinct biological consequences. In vitro phosphorylation experiments using well-controlled systems are useful for deciphering the complexity of these physiological reactions and understanding the targeted event. Here, we report on the phosphorylation of the class A GPCR neurotensin receptor 1 (NTSR1) by GRKs under defined experimental conditions afforded by nanodisc technology. Phosphorylation of NTSR1 by GRK2 was agonist-dependent, whereas phosphorylation by GRK5 occurred in an activation-independent manner. In addition, the negatively charged lipids in the immediate vicinity of NTSR1 directly affect phosphorylation by GRKs. Identification of phosphorylation sites in agonist-activated NTSR1 revealed that GRK2 and GRK5 target different residues located on the intracellular receptor elements. GRK2 phosphorylates only the C-terminal Ser residues, whereas GRK5 phosphorylates Ser and Thr residues located in intracellular loop 3 and the C-terminus. Interestingly, phosphorylation assays using a series of NTSR1 mutants show that GRK2 does not require acidic residues upstream of the phospho-acceptors for site-specific phosphorylation, in contrast to the β2-adrenergic and μ-opioid receptors. Differential phosphorylation of GPCRs by GRKs is thought to encode a particular signaling outcome, and our in vitro study revealed NTSR1 differential phosphorylation by GRK2 and GRK5. PMID:26120872

  10. G protein-coupled receptor kinase 2 moderates recruitment of THP-1 cells to the endothelium by limiting histamine-invoked Weibel-Palade body exocytosis

    PubMed Central

    Stevenson, N L; Martin-Martin, B; Freeman, J; Kriston-Vizi, J; Ketteler, R; Cutler, D F

    2014-01-01

    Background G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) are a major family of signaling molecules, central to the regulation of inflammatory responses. Their activation upon agonist binding is attenuated by GPCR kinases (GRKs), which desensitize the receptors through phosphorylation. G protein-coupled receptor kinase 2(GRK2) down-regulation in leukocytes has been closely linked to the progression of chronic inflammatory disorders such as rheumatoid arthritis and multiple sclerosis. Because leukocytes must interact with the endothelium to infiltrate inflamed tissues, we hypothesized that GRK2 down-regulation in endothelial cells would also be pro-inflammatory. Objectives To determine whether GRK2 down-regulation in endothelial cells is pro-inflammatory. Methods siRNA-mediated ablation of GRK2 in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) was used in analyses of the role of this kinase. Microscopic and biochemical analyses of Weibel-Palade body (WPB) formation and functioning, live cell imaging of calcium concentrations and video analyses of adhesion of monocyte-like THP-1 cells provide clear evidence of GRK2 function in histamine activation of endothelial cells. Results G protein-coupled receptor kinase 2 depletion in HUVECs increases WPB exocytosis and P-selectin-dependent adhesion of THP-1 cells to the endothelial surface upon histamine stimulation, relative to controls. Further, live imaging of intracellular calcium concentrations reveals amplified histamine receptor signaling in GRK2-depleted cells, suggesting GRK2 moderates WPB exocytosis through receptor desensitization. Conclusions G protein-coupled receptor kinase 2 deficiency in endothelial cells results in increased pro-inflammatory signaling and enhanced leukocyte recruitment to activated endothelial cells. The ability of GRK2 to modulate initiation of inflammatory responses in endothelial cells as well as leukocytes now places GRK2 at the apex of control of this finely balanced process. PMID:24735118

  11. Myocardial pathology induced by aldosterone is dependent on non-canonical activities of G protein-coupled receptor kinases

    PubMed Central

    Cannavo, Alessandro; Liccardo, Daniela; Eguchi, Akito; Elliott, Katherine J.; Traynham, Christopher J.; Ibetti, Jessica; Eguchi, Satoru; Leosco, Dario; Ferrara, Nicola; Rengo, Giuseppe; Koch, Walter J.

    2016-01-01

    Hyper-aldosteronism is associated with myocardial dysfunction including induction of cardiac fibrosis and maladaptive hypertrophy. Mechanisms of these cardiotoxicities are not fully understood. Here we show that mineralocorticoid receptor (MR) activation by aldosterone leads to pathological myocardial signalling mediated by mitochondrial G protein-coupled receptor kinase 2 (GRK2) pro-death activity and GRK5 pro-hypertrophic action. Moreover, these MR-dependent GRK2 and GRK5 non-canonical activities appear to involve cross-talk with the angiotensin II type-1 receptor (AT1R). Most importantly, we show that ventricular dysfunction caused by chronic hyper-aldosteronism in vivo is completely prevented in cardiac Grk2 knockout mice (KO) and to a lesser extent in Grk5 KO mice. However, aldosterone-induced cardiac hypertrophy is totally prevented in Grk5 KO mice. We also show human data consistent with MR activation status in heart failure influencing GRK2 levels. Therefore, our study uncovers GRKs as targets for ameliorating pathological cardiac effects associated with high-aldosterone levels. PMID:26932512

  12. Enhanced Uterine Contractility and Stillbirth in Mice Lacking G Protein-Coupled Receptor Kinase 6 (GRK6): Implications for Oxytocin Receptor Desensitization.

    PubMed

    Grotegut, Chad A; Mao, Lan; Pierce, Stephanie L; Swamy, Geeta K; Heine, R Phillips; Murtha, Amy P

    2016-04-01

    Oxytocin is a potent uterotonic agent and is used clinically for induction and augmentation of labor, as well as for prevention and treatment of postpartum hemorrhage. Oxytocin increases uterine contractility by activating the oxytocin receptor (OXTR), a member of the G protein-coupled receptor family, which is prone to molecular desensitization. After oxytocin binding, the OXTR is phosphorylated by a member of the G protein-coupled receptor kinase (GRK) family, which allows for recruitment of β-arrestin, receptor internalization, and desensitization. According to previous in vitro analyses, desensitization of calcium signaling by the OXTR is mediated by GRK6. The objective of this study was to determine the role of GRK6 in mediating uterine contractility. Here, we demonstrate that uterine GRK6 levels increase in pregnancy and using a telemetry device to measure changes in uterine contractility in live mice during labor, show that mice lacking GRK6 produce a phenotype of enhanced uterine contractility during both spontaneous and oxytocin-induced labor compared with wild-type or GRK5 knockout mice. In addition, the observed enhanced contractility was associated with high rates of term stillbirth. Lastly, using a heterologous in vitro model, we show that β-arrestin recruitment to the OXTR, which is necessary for homologous OXTR desensitization, is dependent on GRK6. Our findings suggest that GRK6-mediated OXTR desensitization in labor is necessary for normal uterine contractile patterns and optimal fetal outcome. PMID:26886170

  13. Evaluation of the Role of G Protein-Coupled Receptor Kinase 3 in Desensitization of Mouse Odorant Receptors in a Mammalian Cell Line and in Olfactory Sensory Neurons

    PubMed Central

    Kato, Aya; Reisert, Johannes; Ihara, Sayoko; Yoshikawa, Keiichi

    2014-01-01

    Thousands of odors are sensed and discriminated by G protein-coupled odorant receptors (ORs) expressed in olfactory sensory neurons (OSNs). G protein-coupled receptor kinases (GRKs) may have a role in desensitization of ORs. However, whether ORs are susceptible to agonist-dependent desensitization and whether GRKs affect odorant responsiveness of OSNs are currently unknown. Here we show that GRK3 attenuated the agonist responsiveness of a specific mouse odorant receptor for eugenol (mOR-EG) upon agonist pretreatment in HEK293 cells, but GRK3 did not affect the response amplitude or the recovery kinetics upon repeated agonist stimulation. We performed electrophysiological recordings of single OSNs which expressed mOR-EG and green fluorescent protein (GFP) in the presence or absence of GRK3. The kinetics and amplitude of agonist responsiveness of individual GFP-labeled mOR-EG neurons were not significantly affected by the absence of GRK3. These results indicate that the role of GRK3 in attenuating ORs responsiveness in OSNs may have been overestimated. PMID:25313015

  14. Paroxetine Is a Direct Inhibitor of G Protein-Coupled Receptor Kinase 2 and Increases Myocardial Contractility

    SciTech Connect

    Thal, David M.; Homan, Kristoff T.; Chen, Jun; Wu, Emily K.; Hinkle, Patricia M.; Huang, Z. Maggie; Chuprun, J. Kurt; Song, Jianliang; Gao, Erhe; Cheung, Joseph Y.; Sklar, Larry A.; Koch, Walter J.; Tesmer, John J.G.

    2012-08-10

    G protein-coupled receptor kinase 2 (GRK2) is a well-established therapeutic target for the treatment of heart failure. In this paper we identify the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) paroxetine as a selective inhibitor of GRK2 activity both in vitro and in living cells. In the crystal structure of the GRK2·paroxetine–Gβγ complex, paroxetine binds in the active site of GRK2 and stabilizes the kinase domain in a novel conformation in which a unique regulatory loop forms part of the ligand binding site. Isolated cardiomyocytes show increased isoproterenol-induced shortening and contraction amplitude in the presence of paroxetine, and pretreatment of mice with paroxetine before isoproterenol significantly increases left ventricular inotropic reserve in vivo with no significant effect on heart rate. Neither is observed in the presence of the SSRI fluoxetine. Our structural and functional results validate a widely available drug as a selective chemical probe for GRK2 and represent a starting point for the rational design of more potent and specific GRK2 inhibitors.

  15. Gamma-hydroxybutyrate reduces mitogen-activated protein kinase phosphorylation via GABA B receptor activation in mouse frontal cortex and hippocampus.

    PubMed

    Ren, Xiuhai; Mody, Istvan

    2003-10-24

    gamma-Hydroxybutyrate (GHB) naturally occurs in the brain, but its exogenous administration induces profound effects on the central nervous system in animals and humans. The intracellular signaling mechanisms underlying its actions remain unclear. In the present study, the effects of GHB on the activation (phosphorylation) of mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAP kinases), extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1 and 2 (ERK1/2), were investigated. Acute administration of GHB (500 mg/kg, intraperitoneal) induced a fast and long lasting inhibition of MAP kinase phosphorylation in both frontal cortex and hippocampus. The reduced MAP kinase phosphorylation was observed in the CA1 and CA3 areas but not in the dentate gyrus. Pretreatment with the specific gamma-aminobutyric acid, type B (GABAB), receptor antagonist CGP56999A (20 mg/kg, intraperitoneal) prevented the action of GHB, and the effect of GHB was mimicked by baclofen, a selective GABAB receptor agonist, whereas the high affinity GHB receptor antagonist NCS-382 (200 mg/kg, intraperitoneal) had no effect on GHB-inhibited MAP kinase phosphorylation. Moreover, the GHB dehydrogenase inhibitor valproate (500 mg/kg, intraperitoneal), which inhibits the conversion of GHB into GABA, failed to block the effect of GHB on MAP kinase phosphorylation. Altogether, these data suggest that GHB, administered in vivo, reduces MAP kinase phosphorylation via a direct activation of GABAB receptors by GHB. In contrast, GHB (10 mm for 15 min) was found ineffective on MAP kinase phosphorylation in brain slices, indicating important differences in the conditions required for the second messenger activating action of GHB. PMID:12923192

  16. Signaling of the human calcium-sensing receptor expressed in HEK293-cells is modulated by protein kinases A and C.

    PubMed

    Bösel, J; John, M; Freichel, M; Blind, E

    2003-02-01

    In this study, the human calcium-sensing receptor (CaR) stably expressed in HEK293 cells was investigated with regard to the phosphorylation-induced desensitization of its signaling pathway. The receptor is known to activate the phospholipase C/inositol-1,4,5-trisphosphate (IP 3 ) signaling cascade, thus stimulating protein kinase C (PKC). In contrast, the adenylylcyclase/cAMP signaling pathway that activates protein kinase A (PKA) is believed to be coupled to the receptor via an inhibitory G-protein. We elucidated the roles of PKC and PKA by measuring Ca 2+o -stimulated accumulation of total inositol phosphates and by individually and simultaneously inhibiting the two kinases pharmacologically in HEK293 cells, which stably expressed the human CaR. Pharmacological inhibition of PKC resulted in a 5-fold enhancement of IP 3 signaling, whereas blocking PKA had almost no effect. IP 3 signaling activity increased even more (10-fold) however, when the two kinases were inhibited simultaneously. Apart from validating the role of PKC as a potent down-regulator of signaling of the human CaR in this cell system, this study suggests that both kinases synergize in inhibiting Ca 2+o -stimulated IP 3 signaling in CaR-transfected HEK293 cells. PMID:12605346

  17. The heterotrimeric G q protein-coupled angiotensin II receptor activates p21 ras via the tyrosine kinase-Shc-Grb2-Sos pathway in cardiac myocytes.

    PubMed Central

    Sadoshima, J; Izumo, S

    1996-01-01

    p21 ras plays as important role in cell proliferation, transformation and differentiation. Recently, the requirement of p21 ras has been suggested for cellular responses induced by stimulation of heterotrimeric G protein-coupled receptors. However, it remains to be determined how agonists for G protein-coupled receptors activate p21 ras in metazoans. We show here that stimulation of the G q protein-coupled angiotensin II (Ang II) receptor causes activation of p21 ras in cardiac myocytes. The p21 ras activation by Ang II is mediated by an increase in the guanine nucleotide exchange activity, but not by an inhibition of the GTPase-activating protein. Ang II causes rapid tyrosine phosphorylation of Shc and its association with Grb2 and mSos-1, a guanine nucleotide exchange factor of p21 ras. This leads to translocation of mSos-1 to the membrane fraction. Shc associates with the SH3 domain of Fyn whose tyrosine kinase activity is activated by Ang II with a similar time course as that of tyrosine phosphorylation of Shc. Ang II-induced increase in the guanine nucleotide exchange activity was inhibited by a peptide ligand specific to the SH3 domain of the Src family tyrosine kinases. These results suggest that an agonist for a pertussis toxin-insensitive G protein-coupled receptor may initiate the cross-talk with non-receptor-type tyrosine kinases, thereby activating p21 ras using a similar mechanism as receptor tyrosine kinase-induced p21 ras activation. Images PMID:8631299

  18. Suppression of Mitochondrial Biogenesis through Toll-Like Receptor 4–Dependent Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase Kinase/Extracellular Signal-Regulated Kinase Signaling in Endotoxin-Induced Acute Kidney Injury

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Joshua A.; Stallons, L. Jay; Collier, Justin B.; Chavin, Kenneth D.

    2015-01-01

    Although disruption of mitochondrial homeostasis and biogenesis (MB) is a widely accepted pathophysiologic feature of sepsis-induced acute kidney injury (AKI), the molecular mechanisms responsible for this phenomenon are unknown. In this study, we examined the signaling pathways responsible for the suppression of MB in a mouse model of lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced AKI. Downregulation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ coactivator-1α (PGC-1α), a master regulator of MB, was noted at the mRNA level at 3 hours and protein level at 18 hours in the renal cortex, and was associated with loss of renal function after LPS treatment. LPS-mediated suppression of PGC-1α led to reduced expression of downstream regulators of MB and electron transport chain proteins along with a reduction in renal cortical mitochondrial DNA content. Mechanistically, Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) knockout mice were protected from renal injury and disruption of MB after LPS exposure. Immunoblot analysis revealed activation of tumor progression locus 2/mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase/extracellular signal-regulated kinase (TPL-2/MEK/ERK) signaling in the renal cortex by LPS. Pharmacologic inhibition of MEK/ERK signaling attenuated renal dysfunction and loss of PGC-1α, and was associated with a reduction in proinflammatory cytokine (e.g., tumor necrosis factor-α [TNF-α], interleukin-1β) expression at 3 hours after LPS exposure. Neutralization of TNF-α also blocked PGC-1α suppression, but not renal dysfunction, after LPS-induced AKI. Finally, systemic administration of recombinant tumor necrosis factor-α alone was sufficient to produce AKI and disrupt mitochondrial homeostasis. These findings indicate an important role for the TLR4/MEK/ERK pathway in both LPS-induced renal dysfunction and suppression of MB. TLR4/MEK/ERK/TNF-α signaling may represent a novel therapeutic target to prevent mitochondrial dysfunction and AKI produced by sepsis. PMID:25503387

  19. G protein-coupled receptor kinase 6/β-arrestin 2 system in a rat model of dopamine supersensitivity psychosis.

    PubMed

    Oda, Yasunori; Tadokoro, Shigenori; Takase, Masayuki; Kanahara, Nobuhisa; Watanabe, Hiroyuki; Shirayama, Yukihiko; Hashimoto, Kenji; Iyo, Masaomi

    2015-12-01

    In humans, long-term antipsychotic treatment is known to induce movement disorders and a psychosis, called dopamine supersensitivity psychosis (DSP). The mechanism by which chronic administration of antipsychotic(s) causes DSP may be the treatment-induced up-regulation of dopamine D2 receptors (DRD2). G protein-coupled receptor kinase 6 (GRK6) and beta-arrestin 2 (ARRB2) play important roles in the trafficking of DRD2 by phosphorylation and internalization. We investigated the effects of chronic continuous treatment with mini-pump-administered haloperidol (HAL) on the sensitivity of Wistar rats to dopamine, as measured by the locomotor response to methamphetamine (MAP) and the density of striatal DRD2. Chronic continuous treatment with HAL resulted in significantly higher locomotor response to MAP and significantly higher striatal DRD2 density compared with those in rats administered vehicle (VEH). Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays revealed that striatal ARRB2 in DSP model rats tended to decrease in comparison with that in the VEH group. In addition, the ratio of GRK6/ARRB2 in DSP model rats was significantly higher than that in controls. Our results suggest that alterations of the GRK6 and ARRB2 system could induce both DRD2 up-regulation and impairment of the dopamine signaling pathway, resulting potentially in the development of DSP. PMID:26174132

  20. Protein kinase activity associated with Fc. gamma. /sub 2a/ receptor of a murine macrophage like cell line, P388D/sub 1/

    SciTech Connect

    Hirata, Y.; Suzuki, T.

    1987-12-15

    The properties of protein kinase activity associated with Fc receptor specific for IgG/sub 2a/(Fc..gamma../sub 2a/R) of a murine macrophage like cell line, P388D/sub 1/, were investigated. IgG/sub 2a/-binding protein isolated from the detergent lysate of P388D/sub 1/ cells by affinity chromatography of IgG-Sepharose was found to contain four distinct proteins of M/sub r/ 50,000, 43,000, 37,000, and 17,000, which could be autophosphorylated upon incubation with (..gamma..-/sup 32/P)ATP. The autophosphorylation of Fc..gamma../sub 2a/ receptor complex ceased when exogenous phosphate acceptors (casein or histone) were added in the reaction mixture. Phosphorylation of casein catalyzed by Fc..gamma../sub 2a/ receptor complex was dependent on casein concentration, increased with time or temperature, was dependent on the concentration of ATP and Mg/sup 2 +/, and was maximum at pH near 8. Casein phosphorylation was significantly inhibited by a high concentration of Mn/sup 2 +/ or KCl or by a small amount of heparin and was enhanced about 2-fold by protamine. Casein kinase activity associated with Fc..gamma../sub 2a/ receptor used ATP as substrate with an apparent K/sub m/ of 2 ..mu..M as well as GTP with an apparent K/sub m/ of 10 ..mu..M. Prior heating (60/sup 0/C for 15 min) or treatment with protease (trypsin or Pronase) of Fc..gamma../sub 2a/ receptor complex almost totally abolished casein kinase activity. Thin-layer chromatography of a partial acid hydrolysate of the phosphorylated casein showed that the site of phosphorylation is at a seryl residue. These results suggest that Fc..gamma../sub 2//sub a/ receptor forms a molecule complex with protein kinase, whose characteristics resemble those of type II casein kinase but are different from those of cyclic nucleotide dependent protein kinase or from those of C protein kinase.

  1. Evidence that M1 muscarinic receptors enhance noradrenaline release in mouse atria by activating protein kinase C.

    PubMed Central

    Costa, M.; Barrington, M.; Majewski, H.

    1993-01-01

    1. The M1 selective muscarinic agonist, McNeil A 343, enhanced the electrically evoked release of noradrenaline from postganglionic sympathetic nerves in mouse atria. This has been found previously to be due to activation of muscarinic receptors of the M1 subtype, probably located on sympathetic nerve terminals. The present study investigated the signal transduction mechanisms involved in the release-enhancing effects of McNeil A 343. The release of noradrenaline from mouse atria was assessed by measuring the electrically-induced (3 Hz, 60 s) outflow of radioactivity from atria which had been pre-incubated with [3H]-noradrenaline. 2. 8-Bromo cyclic AMP in the presence of IBMX was used to enhance maximally S-I noradrenaline release through cyclic AMP-dependent mechanisms. However, the facilitatory effect of McNeil A 343 (10 microM) was not different from the effect in the absence of these drugs, suggesting that McNeil A 343 enhances noradrenaline release independently of the cyclic AMP system. Furthermore, the release-enhancing effect of McNeil A 343 (10 microM) on noradrenaline release was also not altered by the 5-lipoxygenase inhibitor, BW A4C. 3. The facilitatory effect of McNeil A 343 was not altered in the presence of drugs (trifluoperazine, W7, and calmidazolium) which inhibit calmodulin-dependent processes, suggesting that the mechanisms of action of McNeil A 343 does not depend on calmodulin. 4. It was considered likely that the facilitatory effect of McNeil A 343 on noradrenaline release may be due to activation of protein kinase C, since activators of protein kinase C enhance noradrenaline release.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:7694761

  2. Human protein S inhibits the uptake of AcLDL and expression of SR-A through Mer receptor tyrosine kinase in human macrophages

    PubMed Central

    Liao, Dan; Wang, Xinwen; Li, Min; Lin, Peter H.; Yao, Qizhi

    2009-01-01

    Human protein S is an anticoagulation protein. However, it is unknown whether protein S could regulate the expression and function of macrophage scavenger receptor A (SR-A) in macrophages. Human THP-1 monocytes and peripheral blood monocytes were differentiated into macrophages and then treated with physiological concentrations of human protein S. We found that protein S significantly reduced acetylated low-density lipoprotein (AcLDL) uptake and binding by macrophages and decreased the intracellular cholesteryl ester content. Protein S suppressed the expression of the SR-A at both mRNA and protein levels. Protein S reduced the SR-A promoter activity primarily through inhibition in the binding of transcription factors to the AP-1 promoter element in macrophages. Furthermore, human protein S could bind and induce phosphorylation of Mer receptor tyrosine kinase (Mer RTK). Soluble Mer protein or tyrosine kinase inhibitor herbimycin A effectively blocked the effects of protein S on AcLDL uptake. Immunohistochemical analysis revealed that the level of protein S was substantially increased in human atherosclerotic arteries. Thus, human protein S can inhibit the expression and activity of SR-A through Mer RTK in macrophages, suggesting that human protein S is a modulator for macrophage functions in uptaking of modified lipoproteins. PMID:18922854

  3. Protein tyrosine kinase regulates α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid (AMPA) receptor trafficking induced by acute hypoxia in cultured brainstem neurons.

    PubMed

    Wang, H; Yu, L C; Li, Y C

    2016-01-01

    This study was performed to investigate the modulation effect of protein tyrosine kinase on postsynaptic a-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid (AMPA) receptor trafficking induced by acute hypoxia in cultured brainstem neurons. The cultured neurons were exposed to 1% O2 and the expression of AMPA receptor subunit GluR2 on the cell surface was significantly increased, while total GluR2 was not markedly changed. Furthermore, the hypoxia-induced increase in GluR2 expression on the cell surface was partially blocked by the protein tyrosine kinase membrane-permeable inhibitor genistein. In contrast, both the protein tyrosine kinase agonist nerve growth factor and protein tyrosine phosphatase inhibitor vanadate promoted the hypoxia-induced increase of GluR2 expression on cell surface. Moreover, GluR2 could be phosphorylated by tyrosine under normoxia and hypoxia conditions in vitro on brainstem neurons, and tyrosine phosphorylation of GluR2 was significantly stronger under hypoxia conditions. Our results indicate that acute hypoxia induces the AMPA receptor subunit GluR2 to rapidly migrate to the cell membrane to modify the strength of the synapse. This study indicates that tyrosine phosphorylation of the receptor is an important pathway regulating the rapid migration of GluR2 in the postsynaptic domain induced by hypoxia. PMID:27525851

  4. CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein β: its role in breast cancer and associations with receptor tyrosine kinases

    PubMed Central

    Zahnow, Cynthia A.

    2011-01-01

    The CCAAT/enhancer-binding proteins (C/EBPs) are a family of leucine-zipper transcription factors that regulate gene expression to control cellular proliferation, differentiation, inflammation and metabolism. Encoded by an intronless gene, C/EBPβ is expressed as several distinct protein isoforms (LAP1, LAP2, LIP) whose expression is regulated by the differential use of several in-frame translation start sites. LAP1 and LAP2 are transcriptional activators and are associated with differentiation, whereas LIP is frequently elevated in proliferative tissue and acts as a dominant-negative inhibitor of transcription. However, emerging evidence suggests that LIP can serve as a transcriptional activator in some cellular contexts, and that LAP1 and LAP2 might also have unique actions. The LIP:LAP ratio is crucial for the maintenance of normal growth and development, and increases in this ratio lead to aggressive forms of breast cancer. This review discusses the regulation of C/EBPβ activity by post-translational modification, the individual actions of LAP1, LAP2 and LIP, and the functions and downstream targets that are unique to each isoform. The role of the C/EBPβ isoforms in breast cancer is discussed and emphasis is placed on their interactions with receptor tyrosine kinases. PMID:19351437

  5. Leptin Receptor Signaling in the Hypothalamus Regulates Hepatic Autonomic Nerve Activity via Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinase and AMP-Activated Protein Kinase

    PubMed Central

    Yamamoto, Naoki; Morgan, Donald A.; Kurata, Yasutaka; Shibamoto, Toshishige

    2015-01-01

    Leptin action in the brain has emerged as an important regulator of liver function independently from its effects on food intake and body weight. The autonomic nervous system plays a key role in the regulation of physiological processes by leptin. Here, we used direct recording of nerve activity from sympathetic or vagal nerves subserving the liver to investigate how brain action of leptin controls hepatic autonomic nerve activity. Intracerebroventricular (ICV) administration of leptin activated hepatic sympathetic traffic in rats and mice in dose- and receptor-dependent manners. The hepatic sympatho-excitatory effects of leptin were also observed when leptin was microinjected directly into the arcuate nucleus (ARC), but not into the ventromedial hypothalamus (VMH). Moreover, using pharmacological and genetic approaches, we show that leptin-induced increase in hepatic sympathetic outflow depends on PI3K but not AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), STAT3, or ERK1/2. Interestingly, ICV leptin also increased hepatic vagal nerve activity in rats. We show that this response is reproduced by intra-ARC, but not intra-VMH, leptin administration and requires PI3K and AMPK. We conclude that central leptin signaling conveys the information to the liver through the sympathetic and parasympathetic branches of the autonomic nervous system. Our data also provide important insight into the molecular events underlying leptin's control of hepatic autonomic nerve activity by implicating PI3K and AMPK pathways. PMID:25589743

  6. Genetic association between G protein-coupled receptor kinase 6/β-arrestin 2 and dopamine supersensitivity psychosis in schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    Oda, Yasunori; Kanahara, Nobuhisa; Kimura, Hiroshi; Watanabe, Hiroyuki; Hashimoto, Kenji; Iyo, Masaomi

    2015-01-01

    Background/aim Dopamine supersensitivity psychosis (DSP), clinically characterized by unstable and severe psychosis or tardive dyskinesia and often categorized as treatment-resistant schizophrenia, is promoted by long-term antipsychotic treatment. An upregulation of the dopamine D2 receptor caused by antipsychotic(s) is involved in the development of DSP. The present study explored the potential roles of G protein-coupled receptor kinase 6 (GRK6) and β-arrestin 2 (ARRB2) that are involved in the trafficking of DRD2 in patients with DSP. Methods We conducted a genetic association study of GRK6/ARRB2 between the patients with DSP episodes [DSP(+) group: N=108] and the patients without DSP(−) episodes [DSP(−) group: N=169] from the total group of patients (N=333). Based on the patients’ treatment history, a DSP episode was defined as withdrawal psychosis, developed tolerance to antipsychotic effect, and tardive dyskinesia (the remaining 56 patients were excluded due to insufficient information). Results The results revealed that none of the allelic or genotyping distributions of five single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of GRK6 and three SNPs of ARRB2 showed any significant difference between the DSP(+) and DSP(−) groups. Conclusion The results suggest that the SNP analyses of these two molecules fail to classify patients into the potential clinical subtype of DSP(+) or DSP(−) group. However, since GRK6 and ARRB2 are surely involved in dopamine D2 receptor metabolism, further studies based on prospective observations of the onset of DSP under specific antipsychotic treatments are needed. PMID:26251601

  7. Acute physical exercise reverses S-nitrosation of the insulin receptor, insulin receptor substrate 1 and protein kinase B/Akt in diet-induced obese Wistar rats

    PubMed Central

    Pauli, José R; Ropelle, Eduardo R; Cintra, Dennys E; Carvalho-Filho, Marco A; Moraes, Juliana C; De Souza, Cláudio T; Velloso, Lício A; Carvalheira, José B C; Saad, Mario J A

    2008-01-01

    Early evidence demonstrates that exogenous nitric oxide (NO) and the NO produced by inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) can induce insulin resistance. Here, we investigated whether this insulin resistance, mediated by S-nitrosation of proteins involved in early steps of the insulin signal transduction pathway, could be reversed by acute physical exercise. Rats on a high-fat diet were subjected to swimming for two 3 h-long bouts, separated by a 45 min rest period. Two or 16 h after the exercise protocol the rats were killed and proteins from the insulin signalling pathway were analysed by immunoprecipitation and immunoblotting. We demonstrated that a high-fat diet led to an increase in the iNOS protein level and S-nitrosation of insulin receptor β (IRβ), insulin receptor substrate 1 (IRS1) and Akt. Interestingly, an acute bout of exercise reduced iNOS expression and S-nitrosation of proteins involved in the early steps of insulin action, and improved insulin sensitivity in diet-induced obesity rats. Furthermore, administration of GSNO (NO donor) prevents this improvement in insulin action and the use of an inhibitor of iNOS (l-N6-(1-iminoethyl)lysine; l-NIL) simulates the effects of exercise on insulin action, insulin signalling and S-nitrosation of IRβ, IRS1 and Akt. In summary, a single bout of exercise reverses insulin sensitivity in diet-induced obese rats by improving the insulin signalling pathway, in parallel with a decrease in iNOS expression and in the S-nitrosation of IR/IRS1/Akt. The decrease in iNOS protein expression in the muscle of diet-induced obese rats after an acute bout of exercise was accompanied by an increase in AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) activity. These results provide new insights into the mechanism by which exercise restores insulin sensitivity. PMID:17974582

  8. A CYSTEINE-RICH EXTRACELLULAR PROTEIN, LAT52, INTERACTS WITH THE EXTRACVELLULAR DOMAIN OF THE POLLEN RECEPTOR KINASE LEPRK2

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Pollen germination and pollen tube growth are thought to require extracellular cues, but how these cues are perceived and transduced remains largely unknown. Pollen receptor kinases are plausible candidates for this role; they might bind extracellular ligands and thereby mediate cytoplasmic events r...

  9. Ginsenoside Rg3 increases nitric oxide production via increases in phosphorylation and expression of endothelial nitric oxide synthase: Essential roles of estrogen receptor-dependent PI3-kinase and AMP-activated protein kinase

    SciTech Connect

    Hien, Tran Thi; Kim, Nak Doo; Pokharel, Yuba Raj; Oh, Seok Jeong; Lee, Moo Yeol; Kang, Keon Wook

    2010-08-01

    We previously showed that ginsenosides increase nitric oxide (NO) production in vascular endothelium and that ginsenoside Rg3 (Rg3) is the most active one among ginseng saponins. However, the mechanism for Rg3-mediated nitric oxide production is still uncertain. In this study, we determined whether Rg3 affects phosphorylation and expression of endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) in ECV 304 human endothelial cells. Rg3 increased both the phosphorylation and the expression of eNOS in a concentration-dependent manner and a maximal effect was found at 10 {mu}g/ml of Rg3. The enzyme activities of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3-kinase), c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK), and p38 kinase were enhanced as were estrogen receptor (ER)- and glucocorticoid receptor (GR)-dependent reporter gene transcriptions in Rg3-treated endothelial cells. Rg3-induced eNOS phosphorylation required the ER-mediated PI3-kinase/Akt pathway. Moreover, Rg3 activates AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) through up-regulation of CaM kinase II and Rg3-stimulated eNOS phosphorylation was reversed by AMPK inhibition. The present results provide a mechanism for Rg3-stimulated endothelial NO production.

  10. Luteinizing Hormone Receptor-Stimulated Progesterone Production by Preovulatory Granulosa Cells Requires Protein Kinase A-Dependent Activation/Dephosphorylation of the Actin Dynamizing Protein Cofilin

    PubMed Central

    Karlsson, Amelia B.; Maizels, Evelyn T.; Flynn, Maxfield P.; Jones, Jonathan C.; Shelden, Eric A.; Bamburg, James R.; Hunzicker-Dunn, Mary

    2010-01-01

    Activation of the LH receptor (LHR) on preovulatory granulosa cells stimulates the cAMP/protein kinase A (PKA) pathway to regulate expression of genes required for ovulation and luteinization. LHR signaling also initiates rearrangement of the actin cytoskeleton. Because disruption of the actin cytoskeleton has been causally linked to steroidogenesis in various cell models, we sought to identify the cellular mechanisms that may modulate reorganization of the actin cytoskeleton and to determine whether cytoskeletal reorganization is required for steroidogenesis. Herein we report that LHR signaling in preovulatory granulosa cells promotes rapid dephosphorylation of the actin-depolymerizing factor cofilin at Ser3 that is dependent on PKA. The LHR-stimulated dephosphorylation of cofilin(Ser3) switches on cofilin activity to bind actin filaments and enhance their dynamics. Basal phosphorylation of cofilin(Ser3) is mediated by active/GTP-bound Rho and downstream protein kinases; LHR signaling promotes a decrease in active/GTP-bound Rho by a PKA-dependent mechanism. LHR-dependent Rho inactivation and subsequent activation of cofilin does not involve ERK, epidermal growth factor receptor, or phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase pathways downstream of PKA. To understand the biological significance of cofilin activation, preovulatory granulosa cells were transduced with a mutant cofilin adenoviral vector in which Ser3 was mutated to Glu (S-E cofilin). Inactive S-E cofilin abolished LHR-mediated reorganization of the actin cytoskeleton and caused a 70% decrease in LHR-stimulated progesterone that is obligatory for ovulation. Taken together, these results show that LHR signaling via PKA activates a cofilin-regulated rearrangement of the actin cytoskeleton and that active cofilin is required to initiate progesterone secretion by preovulatory granulosa cells. PMID:20610540

  11. Ameliorating Endothelial Mitochondrial Dysfunction Restores Coronary Function via Transient Receptor Potential Vanilloid 1-Mediated Protein Kinase A/Uncoupling Protein 2 Pathway.

    PubMed

    Xiong, Shiqiang; Wang, Peijian; Ma, Liqun; Gao, Peng; Gong, Liuping; Li, Li; Li, Qiang; Sun, Fang; Zhou, Xunmei; He, Hongbo; Chen, Jing; Yan, Zhencheng; Liu, Daoyan; Zhu, Zhiming

    2016-02-01

    Coronary heart disease arising from atherosclerosis is a leading cause of cardiogenic death worldwide. Mitochondria are the principal source of reactive oxygen species (ROS), and defective oxidative phosphorylation by the mitochondrial respiratory chain contributes to ROS generation. Uncoupling protein 2 (UCP2), an adaptive antioxidant defense factor, protects against mitochondrial ROS-induced endothelial dysfunction in atherosclerosis. The activation of transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 (TRPV1) attenuates vascular dysfunction. Therefore, whether TRPV1 activation antagonizes coronary lesions by alleviating endothelial mitochondrial dysfunction and enhancing the activity of the protein kinase A/UCP2 pathway warrants examination. ApoE(-/-), ApoE(-/-)/TRPV1(-/-), and ApoE(-/-)/UCP2(-/-) mice were fed standard chow, a high-fat diet (HFD), or the HFD plus 0.01% capsaicin. HFD intake profoundly impaired coronary vasodilatation and myocardial perfusion and shortened the survival duration of ApoE(-/-) mice. TRPV1 or UCP2 deficiency exacerbated HFD-induced coronary dysfunction and was associated with increased ROS generation and reduced nitric oxide production in the endothelium. The activation of TRPV1 by capsaicin upregulated UCP2 expression via protein kinase A phosphorylation, thereby alleviating endothelial mitochondrial dysfunction and inhibiting mitochondrial ROS generation. In vivo, dietary capsaicin supplementation enhanced coronary relaxation and prolonged the survival duration of HFD-fed ApoE(-/-) mice. These effects were not observed in ApoE(-/-) mice lacking the TRPV1 or UCP2 gene. The upregulation of protein kinase A /UCP2 via TRPV1 activation ameliorates coronary dysfunction and prolongs the lifespan of atherosclerotic mice by ameliorating endothelial mitochondrial dysfunction. Dietary capsaicin supplementation may represent a promising intervention for the primary prevention of coronary heart disease. PMID:26667415

  12. Aluminum-induced gene expression and protein localization of a cell wall-associated receptor kinase in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Sivaguru, Mayandi; Ezaki, Bunichi; He, Zheng-Hui; Tong, Hongyun; Osawa, Hiroki; Baluska, Frantisek; Volkmann, Dieter; Matsumoto, Hideaki

    2003-08-01

    Here, we report the aluminum (Al)-induced organ-specific expression of a WAK1 (cell wall-associated receptor kinase 1) gene and cell type-specific localization of WAK proteins in Arabidopsis. WAK1-specific reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction analysis revealed an Al-induced WAK1 gene expression in roots. Short- and long-term analysis of gene expression in root fractions showed a typical "on" and "off" pattern with a first peak at 3 h of Al exposure followed by a sharp decline at 6 h and a complete disappearance after 9 h of Al exposure, suggesting the WAK1 is a further representative of Al-induced early genes. In shoots, upon root Al exposure, an increased but stable WAK1 expression was observed. Using confocal microscopy, we visualized Al-induced closure of leaf stomata, consistent with previous suggestions that the Al stress primarily experienced in roots associated with the transfer of root-shoot signals. Elevated levels of WAK protein in root cells were observed through western blots after 6 h of Al exposure, indicating a lag time between the Al-induced WAK transcription and translation. WAK proteins are localized abundantly to peripheries of cortex cells within the elongation zone of the root apex. In these root cells, disintegration of cortical microtubules was observed after Al treatment but not after the Al analog lanthanum treatments. Tip-growing control root hairs, stem stomata, and leaf stomatal pores are characterized with high amounts of WAKs, suggesting WAKs are accumulating at plasma membrane domains, which suffer from mechanical stress and lack dense arrays of supporting cortical microtubules. Further, transgenic plants overexpressing WAK1 showed an enhanced Al tolerance in terms of root growth when compared with the wild-type plants, making the WAK1 one of the important candidates for plant defense against Al toxicity. PMID:12913180

  13. The viral G protein-coupled receptor ORF74 unmasks phospholipase C signaling of the receptor tyrosine kinase IGF-1R.

    PubMed

    de Munnik, Sabrina M; van der Lee, Rosan; Velders, Daniëlle M; van Offenbeek, Jody; Smits-de Vries, Laura; Leurs, Rob; Smit, Martine J; Vischer, Henry F

    2016-06-01

    Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) encodes the constitutively active G protein-coupled receptor ORF74, which is expressed on the surface of infected host cells and has been linked to the development of the angioproliferative tumor Kaposi's sarcoma. Furthermore, the insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-1 receptor, a receptor tyrosine kinase, also plays an essential role in Kaposi's sarcoma growth and survival. In this study we examined the effect of the constitutively active viral receptor ORF74 on human IGF-1R signaling. Constitutive and CXCL1-induced ORF74 signaling did not transactivate IGF-1R. In contrast, IGF-1 stimulated phospholipase C (PLC) activation in an ORF74-dependent manner without affecting chemokine binding to ORF74. Inhibition of constitutive ORF74 activity by mutagenesis or the inverse agonist CXCL10, or neutralizing IGF-1R with an antibody or silencing IGF-1R expression using siRNA inhibited PLC activation by IGF-1. Transactivation of ORF74 in response to IGF-1 occurred independently of Src, PI3K, and secreted ORF74 ligands. Furthermore, tyrosine residues in the carboxyl-terminus and intracellular loop 2 of ORF74 are not essential for IGF-1-induced PLC activation. Interestingly, PLC activation in response to IGF-1 is specific for ORF74 as IGF-1 was unable to activate PLC in cells expressing the constitutively active human cytomegalovirus (HCMV)-encoded GPCR US28. Interestingly, IGF-1 does not induce β-arrestin recruitment to ORF74. The proximity ligation assay revealed close proximity between ORF74 and IGF-1R on the cell surface, but a physical interaction was not confirmed by co-immunoprecipitation. Unmasking IGF-1R signaling to PLC in response to IGF-1 is a previously unrecognized action of ORF74. PMID:26931381

  14. PDGF-induced receptor phosphorylation and phosphoinositide hydrolysis are unaffected by protein kinase C activation in mouse swiss 3T3 and human skin fibroblasts

    SciTech Connect

    Sturani, E.; Vicentini, L.M.; Zippel, R.; Toschi, L.; Pandiella-Alonso, A.; Comoglio, P.M.; Meldolesi, J.

    1986-05-29

    Short (1-10 min) pretreatment of intact cells with activators of protein kinase C (e.g. phorbol-12 myristate, 13-acetate, PMA) affects the activity of a variety of surface receptors (for growth factors, hormones and neurotransmitters), with inhibition of transmembrane signal generation. In two types of fibroblasts it is demonstrated that the PDGF receptor is unaffected by PMA. Exposure to PMA at concentrations up to 100 nM for 10 min failed to inhibit either one of the agonist-induced, receptor-coupled responses of PDGF: the autophosphorylation of receptor molecules at tyrosine residues, and the hydrolysis of membrane polyphosphoinositides. In contrast, the EGF receptor autophosphorylation (in A 431 cells) and the bombesin-induced phosphoinositide hydrolysis were readily inhibited by PMA.

  15. Identification of a receptor-like protein kinase gene rapidly induced by abscisic acid, dehydration, high salt, and cold treatments in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    PubMed Central

    Hong, S W; Jon, J H; Kwak, J M; Nam, H G

    1997-01-01

    A cDNA clone for a receptor-like protein kinase gene (RPK1) was isolated from Arabidopsis thaliana. The clone is 1952 bp long with 1623 bp of an open reading frame encoding a peptide of 540 amino acids. The deduced peptide (RPK1) contains four distinctive domains characteristic of receptor kinases: (a) a putative amino-terminal signal sequence domain; (b) a domain with five extracellular leucine-rich repeat sequences; (c) a membrane-spanning domain; and (d) a cytoplasmic protein kinase domain that contains all of the 11 subdomains conserved among protein kinases. The RPK1 gene is expressed in flowers, stems, leaves, and roots. Expression of the RPK1 gene is induced within 1 h after treatment with abscisic acid (ABA). The gene is also rapidly induced by several environmental stresses such as dehydration, high salt, and low temperature, suggesting that the gene is involved in a general stress response. The dehydration-induced expression is not impaired in aba-1, abi1-1, abi2-1, and abi3-1 mutants, suggesting that the dehydration-induced expression of the RPK1 gene is ABA-independent. A possible role of this gene in the signal transduction pathway of ABA and the environmental stresses is discussed. PMID:9112773

  16. Molecular Basis of the Interaction of the Human Protein Tyrosine Phosphatase Non-receptor Type 4 (PTPN4) with the Mitogen-activated Protein Kinase p38γ.

    PubMed

    Maisonneuve, Pierre; Caillet-Saguy, Célia; Vaney, Marie-Christine; Bibi-Zainab, Edoo; Sawyer, Kristi; Raynal, Bertrand; Haouz, Ahmed; Delepierre, Muriel; Lafon, Monique; Cordier, Florence; Wolff, Nicolas

    2016-08-01

    The human protein tyrosine phosphatase non-receptor type 4 (PTPN4) prevents cell death induction in neuroblastoma and glioblastoma cell lines in a PDZ·PDZ binding motifs-dependent manner, but the cellular partners of PTPN4 involved in cell protection are unknown. Here, we described the mitogen-activated protein kinase p38γ as a cellular partner of PTPN4. The main contribution to the p38γ·PTPN4 complex formation is the tight interaction between the C terminus of p38γ and the PDZ domain of PTPN4. We solved the crystal structure of the PDZ domain of PTPN4 bound to the p38γ C terminus. We identified the molecular basis of recognition of the C-terminal sequence of p38γ that displays the highest affinity among all endogenous partners of PTPN4. We showed that the p38γ C terminus is also an efficient inducer of cell death after its intracellular delivery. In addition to recruiting the kinase, the binding of the C-terminal sequence of p38γ to PTPN4 abolishes the catalytic autoinhibition of PTPN4 and thus activates the phosphatase, which can efficiently dephosphorylate the activation loop of p38γ. We presume that the p38γ·PTPN4 interaction promotes cellular signaling, preventing cell death induction. PMID:27246854

  17. Protein tyrosine kinase activity is essential for Fc gamma receptor-mediated intracellular killing of Staphylococcus aureus by human monocytes.

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, L; Nibbering, P H; Zomerdijk, T P; van Furth, R

    1994-01-01

    Our previous study revealed that the intracellular killing of Staphylococcus aureus by human monocytes after cross-linking Fc gamma receptor I (Fc gamma RI) or Fc gamma RII is a phospholipase C (PLC)-dependent process. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether protein tyrosine kinase (PTK) activity plays a role in the Fc gamma R-mediated intracellular killing of bacteria and activation of PLC in these cells. The results showed that phagocytosis of bacteria by monocytes was not affected by the PTK inhibitors genistein and tyrphostin-47. The intracellular killing of S. aureus by monocytes after cross-linking Fc gamma RII or Fc gamma RII with anti-Fc gamma R monoclonal antibody and a bridging antibody or with human immunoglobulin G (IgG) was inhibited by these compounds in a dose-dependent fashion. The production of O2- by monocytes after stimulation with IgG or IgG-opsonized S. aureus was almost completely blocked by the PTK inhibitor. These results indicate that inhibition of PTK impairs the oxygen-dependent bactericidal mechanisms of monocytes. Genistein and tyrphostin-47, which do not affect the enzymatic activity of purified PLC, prevented activation of PLC after cross-linking Fc gamma RI or Fc gamma RII, measured as an increase in the intracellular inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate concentration. Cross-linking Fc gamma RI or Fc gamma RII induced rapid tyrosine phosphorylation of several proteins in monocytes, one of which was identified as PLC-gamma 1, and the phosphorylation could be completely blocked by PTK inhibitors, leading to the conclusion that activation of PLC after cross-linking Fc gamma R in monocytes is regulated by PTK activity. Together, these results demonstrate that PTK activity is essential for the activation of PLC which is involved in the Fc gamma R-mediated intracellular killing of S. aureus by human monocytes. Images PMID:7927687

  18. Neuronal Calcium Sensor-1 Binds the D2 Dopamine Receptor and G-protein-coupled Receptor Kinase 1 (GRK1) Peptides Using Different Modes of Interactions*

    PubMed Central

    Pandalaneni, Sravan; Karuppiah, Vijaykumar; Saleem, Muhammad; Haynes, Lee P.; Burgoyne, Robert D.; Mayans, Olga; Derrick, Jeremy P.; Lian, Lu-Yun

    2015-01-01

    Neuronal calcium sensor-1 (NCS-1) is the primordial member of the neuronal calcium sensor family of EF-hand Ca2+-binding proteins. It interacts with both the G-protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) dopamine D2 receptor (D2R), regulating its internalization and surface expression, and the cognate kinases GRK1 and GRK2. Determination of the crystal structures of Ca2+/NCS-1 alone and in complex with peptides derived from D2R and GRK1 reveals that the differential recognition is facilitated by the conformational flexibility of the C-lobe-binding site. We find that two copies of the D2R peptide bind within the hydrophobic crevice on Ca2+/NCS-1, but only one copy of the GRK1 peptide binds. The different binding modes are made possible by the C-lobe-binding site of NCS-1, which adopts alternative conformations in each complex. C-terminal residues Ser-178–Val-190 act in concert with the flexible EF3/EF4 loop region to effectively form different peptide-binding sites. In the Ca2+/NCS-1·D2R peptide complex, the C-terminal region adopts a 310 helix-turn-310 helix, whereas in the GRK1 peptide complex it forms an α-helix. Removal of Ser-178–Val-190 generated a C-terminal truncation mutant that formed a dimer, indicating that the NCS-1 C-terminal region prevents NCS-1 oligomerization. We propose that the flexible nature of the C-terminal region is essential to allow it to modulate its protein-binding sites and adapt its conformation to accommodate both ligands. This appears to be driven by the variability of the conformation of the C-lobe-binding site, which has ramifications for the target specificity and diversity of NCS-1. PMID:25979333

  19. G protein-coupled receptor (GPR)40-dependent potentiation of insulin secretion in mouse islets is mediated by protein kinase D1

    PubMed Central

    Ferdaoussi, M.; Bergeron, V.; Zarrouki, B.; Kolic, J.; Cantley, J.; Fielitz, J.; Olson, E. N.; Prentki, M.; Biden, T.; MacDonald, P. E.

    2013-01-01

    Aims/hypothesis Activation of the G protein-coupled receptor (GPR)40 by long-chain fatty acids potentiates glucose-stimulated insulin secretion (GSIS) from pancreatic beta cells, and GPR40 agonists are in clinical development for type 2 diabetes therapy. GPR40 couples to the G protein subunit Gαq/11 but the signalling cascade activated down-stream is unknown. This study aimed to determine the mechanisms of GPR40-dependent potentiation of GSIS by fatty acids. Methods Insulin secretion in response to glucose, oleate or diacylglycerol (DAG) was assessed in dynamic perifusions and static incubations in islets from wild-type (WT) and Gpr40−/− mice. Depolymerisation of filamentous actin (F-actin) was visualised by phalloidin staining and epifluorescence. Pharmacological and molecular approaches were used to ascertain the roles of protein kinase D (PKD) and protein kinase C delta in GPR40-mediated potentiation of GSIS. Results Oleate potentiates the second phase of GSIS, and this effect is largely dependent upon GPR40. Accordingly, oleate induces rapid F-actin remodelling in WT but not in Gpr40−/− islets. Exogenous DAG potentiates GSIS in both WT and Gpr40−/− islets. Oleate induces PKD phosphorylation at residues Ser-744/748 and Ser-916 in WT but not Gpr40−/− islets. Importantly, oleate-induced F-actin depolymerisation and potentiation of GSIS are lost upon pharmacological inhibition of PKD1 or deletion of Prkd1. Conclusions/interpretation We conclude that the signalling cascade downstream of GPR40 activation by fatty acids involves activation of PKD1, F-actin depolymerisation and potentiation of second-phase insulin secretion. These results provide important information on the mechanisms of action of GPR40, a novel drug target for type 2 diabetes. PMID:22820510

  20. Characterization of the Rac-GAP (Rac-GTPase-activating protein) activity of beta2-chimaerin, a 'non-protein kinase C' phorbol ester receptor.

    PubMed Central

    Caloca, Maria Jose; Wang, HongBin; Kazanietz, Marcelo G

    2003-01-01

    The regulation and function of beta2-chimaerin, a novel receptor for the phorbol ester tumour promoters and the second messenger DAG (diacylglycerol), is largely unknown. As with PKC (protein kinase C) isoenzymes, phorbol esters bind to beta2-chimaerin with high affinity and promote its subcellular distribution. beta2-Chimaerin has GAP (GTPase-activating protein) activity for the small GTP-binding protein Rac1, but for not Cdc42 or RhoA. We show that acidic phospholipids enhanced its catalytic activity markedly in vitro, but the phorbol ester PMA had no effect. beta2-Chimaerin and other chimaerin isoforms decreased cellular levels of Rac-GTP markedly in COS-1 cells and impaired GTP loading on to Rac upon EGF (epidermal growth factor) receptor stimulation. Deletional and mutagenesis analysis determined that the beta2-chimaerin GAP domain is essential for this effect. Interestingly, PMA has a dual effect on Rac-GTP levels in COS-1 cells. PMA increased Rac-GTP levels in the absence of a PKC inhibitor, whereas under conditions in which PKC activity is inhibited, PMA markedly decreased Rac-GTP levels and potentiated the effect of beta2-chimaerin. Chimaerin isoforms co-localize at the plasma membrane with active Rac, and these results were substantiated by co-immunoprecipitation assays. In summary, the novel phorbol ester receptor beta2-chimaerin regulates the activity of the Rac GTPase through its GAP domain, leading to Rac inactivation. These results strongly emphasize the high complexity of DAG signalling due to the activation of PKC-independent pathways, and cast doubts regarding the selectivity of phorbol esters and DAG analogues as selective PKC activators. PMID:12877655

  1. Endothelin potentiates TRPV1 via ETA receptor-mediated activation of protein kinase C

    PubMed Central

    Plant, Tim D; Zöllner, Christian; Kepura, Frauke; Mousa, Shaaban S; Eichhorst, Jenny; Schaefer, Michael; Furkert, Jens; Stein, Christoph; Oksche, Alexander

    2007-01-01

    Background Endothelin-1 (ET-1) both stimulates nociceptors and sensitizes them to noxious stimuli, an effect probably mediated by the ETA receptor (ETAR) expressed in sensory neurons. The cellular mechanisms of this ET-1-mediated effect are only poorly understood. TRPV1, the heat-, pH- and capsaicin-sensitive cation channel already known to be modulated by a number of cellular mediators released in response to noxious stimuli and during inflammation, is a potential target for the action of ET-1. Results We studied the effects of ET-1 on TRPV1 in sensory neurons from the dorsal root ganglion (DRG) and in HEK293 cells coexpressing TRPV1 and the ETAR. Specific 125I-ET-1 binding sites (817 ± 92 fmol/mg) were detected in membrane preparations of DRG with an ETAR/ETBR ratio of 60:40. In an immunofluorescence analysis, coexpression of TRPV1 and the ETAR was found in a subpopulation of primary sensory neurons. ET-1 strongly potentiated capsaicin-induced TRPV1 currents in some neurons, and in HEK293 cells co-expressing TRPV1 and the ETAR. Weaker potentiation was observed in HEK293 cells coexpressing TRPV1 and the ETBR. ETAR activation also increased responses to low pH and heat. In HEK293 cells, strong potentiation of TRPV1 like that induced by ET-1 via the ETAR could be induced by PKC activation, but not with activators of the adenylyl cyclase or the PKA pathway. Furthermore, inhibition of PKC with bisindolylmaleimide X (BIM X) or mutation of the PKC phosphorylation site S800 completely prevented ETAR-mediated potentiation. Conclusion We conclude that ET-1 potentiates TRPV1 by a PKC-dependent mechanism and that this could play a major role in the algogenic and hyperalgesic effects of ET-1 described in previous studies. PMID:18001466

  2. Receptor Tyrosine Kinases in Drosophila Development

    PubMed Central

    Sopko, Richelle; Perrimon, Norbert

    2013-01-01

    Tyrosine phosphorylation plays a significant role in a wide range of cellular processes. The Drosophila genome encodes more than 20 receptor tyrosine kinases and extensive studies in the past 20 years have illustrated their diverse roles and complex signaling mechanisms. Although some receptor tyrosine kinases have highly specific functions, others strikingly are used in rather ubiquitous manners. Receptor tyrosine kinases regulate a broad expanse of processes, ranging from cell survival and proliferation to differentiation and patterning. Remarkably, different receptor tyrosine kinases share many of the same effectors and their hierarchical organization is retained in disparate biological contexts. In this comprehensive review, we summarize what is known regarding each receptor tyrosine kinase during Drosophila development. Astonishingly, very little is known for approximately half of all Drosophila receptor tyrosine kinases. PMID:23732470

  3. High glucose induces inflammatory cytokine through protein kinase C-induced toll-like receptor 2 pathway in gingival fibroblasts

    SciTech Connect

    Jiang, Shao-Yun; Wei, Cong-Cong; Shang, Ting-Ting; Lian, Qi; Wu, Chen-Xuan; Deng, Jia-Yin

    2012-10-26

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer High glucose significantly induced TLR2 expression in gingival fibroblasts. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer High glucose increased NF-{kappa}B p65 nuclear activity, IL-1{beta} and TNF-{alpha} levels. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer PKC-{alpha}/{delta}-TLR2 pathway is involved in periodontal inflammation under high glucose. -- Abstract: Toll-like receptors (TLRs) play a key role in innate immune response and inflammation, especially in periodontitis. Meanwhile, hyperglycemia can induce inflammation in diabetes complications. However, the activity of TLRs in periodontitis complicated with hyperglycemia is still unclear. In the present study, high glucose (25 mmol/l) significantly induced TLR2 expression in gingival fibroblasts (p < 0.05). Also, high glucose increased nuclear factor kappa B (NF-{kappa}B) p65 nuclear activity, tumor necrosis factor-{alpha} (TNF-{alpha}) and interleukin-l{beta} (IL-1{beta}) levels. Protein kinase C (PKC)-{alpha} and {delta} knockdown with siRNA significantly decreased TLR2 and NF-{kappa}B p65 expression (p < 0.05), whereas inhibition of PKC-{beta} had no effect on TLR2 and NF-{kappa}B p65 under high glucose (p < 0.05). Additional studies revealed that TLR2 knockdown significantly abrogated high-glucose-induced NF-{kappa}B expression and inflammatory cytokine secretion. Collectively, these data suggest that high glucose stimulates TNF-{alpha} and IL-1{beta} secretion via inducing TLR2 through PKC-{alpha} and PKC-{delta} in human gingival fibroblasts.

  4. Inhibition of protein kinase C decreases sensitivity of GABA receptor subtype to fipronil insecticide in insect neurosecretory cells.

    PubMed

    Murillo, Laurence; Hamon, Alain; Es-Salah-Lamoureux, Zeineb; Itier, Valérie; Quinchard, Sophie; Lapied, Bruno

    2011-12-01

    Phosphorylation by serine/threonine kinases has been described as a new mechanism for regulating the effects of insecticides on insect neuronal receptors and channels. Although insect GABA receptors are commercially important targets for insecticides (e.g. fipronil), their modulation by kinases is poorly understood and the influence of phosphorylation on insecticide sensitivity is unknown. Using the whole-cell patch-clamp technique, we investigated the modulatory effect of PKC and CaMKinase II on GABA receptor subtypes (GABAR1 and GABAR2) in DUM neurons isolated from the terminal abdominal ganglion (TAG) of Periplaneta americana. Chloride currents through GABAR2 were selectively abolished by PMA and PDBu (the PKC activators) and potentiated by Gö6983, an inhibitor of PKC. Furthermore, using KN-62, a specific CaMKinase II inhibitor, we demonstrated that CaMKinase II activation was also involved in the regulation of GABAR2 function. In addition, using CdCl(2) (the calcium channel blocker) and LOE-908, a blocker of TRPγ, we revealed that calcium influx through TRPγ played an important role in kinase activations. Comparative studies performed with CACA, a selective agonist of GABAR1 in DUM neurons confirmed the involvement of these kinases in the specific regulation of GABAR2. Furthermore, our study reported that GABAR1 was less sensitive than GABAR2 to fipronil. This was demonstrated by the biphasic concentration-response curve and the current-voltage relationship established with both GABA and CACA. Finally, we demonstrated that GABAR2 was 10-fold less sensitive to fipronil following inhibition of PKC, whereas inhibition of CaMKinase II did not alter the effect of fipronil. PMID:21684305

  5. Protein Kinase Mitogen-activated Protein Kinase Kinase Kinase Kinase 4 (MAP4K4) Promotes Obesity-induced Hyperinsulinemia.

    PubMed

    Roth Flach, Rachel J; Danai, Laura V; DiStefano, Marina T; Kelly, Mark; Menendez, Lorena Garcia; Jurczyk, Agata; Sharma, Rohit B; Jung, Dae Young; Kim, Jong Hun; Kim, Jason K; Bortell, Rita; Alonso, Laura C; Czech, Michael P

    2016-07-29

    Previous studies revealed a paradox whereby mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase kinase kinase 4 (Map4k4) acted as a negative regulator of insulin sensitivity in chronically obese mice, yet systemic deletion of Map4k4 did not improve glucose tolerance. Here, we report markedly reduced glucose-responsive plasma insulin and C-peptide levels in whole body Map4k4-depleted mice (M4K4 iKO) as well as an impaired first phase of insulin secretion from islets derived from M4K4 iKO mice ex vivo After long-term high fat diet (HFD), M4K4 iKO mice pancreata also displayed reduced β cell mass, fewer proliferating β cells and reduced islet-specific gene mRNA expression compared with controls, although insulin content was normal. Interestingly, the reduced plasma insulin in M4K4 iKO mice exposed to chronic (16 weeks) HFD was not observed in response to acute HFD challenge or short term treatment with the insulin receptor antagonist S961. Furthermore, the improved insulin sensitivity in obese M4K4 iKO mice was abrogated by high exogenous insulin over the course of a euglycemic clamp study, indicating that hypoinsulinemia promotes insulin sensitivity in chronically obese M4K4 iKO mice. These results demonstrate that protein kinase Map4k4 drives obesity-induced hyperinsulinemia and insulin resistance in part by promoting insulin secretion from β cells in mice. PMID:27226575

  6. SCF/c-kit transactivates CXCR4-serine 339 phosphorylation through G protein-coupled receptor kinase 6 and regulates cardiac stem cell migration.

    PubMed

    Zuo, Ke; Kuang, Dong; Wang, Ying; Xia, Yanli; Tong, Weilin; Wang, Xiaoyan; Chen, Yaobin; Duan, Yaqi; Wang, Guoping

    2016-01-01

    C-kit positive cardiac stem cells (CSCs) have been shown to contribute to myocardial regeneration after infarction. Previously, we have shown that the c-kit ligand stem cell factor (SCF) can induce CSC migration into the infarcted area during myocardial infarction (MI). However, the precise mechanism involved is not fully understood. In this study, we found that CSCs also express C-X-C chemokine receptor type 4 (CXCR4), which is a typical member of the seven transmembrane-spanning G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR). In vitro, activation of c-kit signalling by SCF promotes migration of CSCs with increased phosphorylation of CXCR4-serine 339, p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (p38 MAPK) and extracellular regulated protein kinases 1/2 (ERK1/2). Knockdown of CXCR4 expression by siRNA reduces SCF/c-kit-induced migration and downstream signalling. As previously reported, CXCR4-serine 339 phosphorylation is mainly regulated by GPCR kinase 6 (GRK6); thus, silencing of GRK6 expression by siRNA impairs CXCR4-serine 339 phosphorylation and migration of CSCs caused by SCF. In vivo, knockdown of GRK6 impairs the ability of CSCs to migrate into peri-infarcted areas. These results demonstrate that SCF-induced CSC migration is regulated by the transactivation of CXCR4-serine 339 phosphorylation, which is mediated by GRK6. PMID:27245949

  7. SCF/c-kit transactivates CXCR4-serine 339 phosphorylation through G protein-coupled receptor kinase 6 and regulates cardiac stem cell migration

    PubMed Central

    Zuo, Ke; Kuang, Dong; Wang, Ying; Xia, Yanli; Tong, Weilin; Wang, Xiaoyan; Chen, Yaobin; Duan, Yaqi; Wang, Guoping

    2016-01-01

    C-kit positive cardiac stem cells (CSCs) have been shown to contribute to myocardial regeneration after infarction. Previously, we have shown that the c-kit ligand stem cell factor (SCF) can induce CSC migration into the infarcted area during myocardial infarction (MI). However, the precise mechanism involved is not fully understood. In this study, we found that CSCs also express C-X-C chemokine receptor type 4 (CXCR4), which is a typical member of the seven transmembrane-spanning G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR). In vitro, activation of c-kit signalling by SCF promotes migration of CSCs with increased phosphorylation of CXCR4-serine 339, p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (p38 MAPK) and extracellular regulated protein kinases 1/2 (ERK1/2). Knockdown of CXCR4 expression by siRNA reduces SCF/c-kit-induced migration and downstream signalling. As previously reported, CXCR4-serine 339 phosphorylation is mainly regulated by GPCR kinase 6 (GRK6); thus, silencing of GRK6 expression by siRNA impairs CXCR4-serine 339 phosphorylation and migration of CSCs caused by SCF. In vivo, knockdown of GRK6 impairs the ability of CSCs to migrate into peri-infarcted areas. These results demonstrate that SCF-induced CSC migration is regulated by the transactivation of CXCR4-serine 339 phosphorylation, which is mediated by GRK6. PMID:27245949

  8. Regulation of epidermal-growth-factor-receptor signal transduction by cis-unsaturated fatty acids. Evidence for a protein kinase C-independent mechanism.

    PubMed Central

    Casabiell, X; Pandiella, A; Casanueva, F F

    1991-01-01

    The effect of acute treatment with non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA) on transmembrane signalling has been investigated in three different cell lines. In EGFR T17 cells, pretreatment with cis-unsaturated (oleic and palmitoleic acids) NEFA, but not with saturated or trans-unsaturated NEFA, inhibited the epidermal-growth-factor (EGF)-induced increases in cytosolic [Ca2+], membrane potential and Ins(1,4,5)P3 generation. The blocking effect was found to be time- and dose-dependent and rapidly reversible after washout. However, oleic acid treatment did not block either binding of 125I-EGF to its receptor or EGF-induced autophosphorylation of the EGF receptor. The mechanism of action of NEFA could not be attributed to protein kinase C activation, since (i) down-regulation of the enzyme by long-term treatment with phorbol esters did not prevent blockade by oleic acid, and (ii) the effects of acutely administered phorbol ester and oleic acid were additive. In this cell line, signalling at bradykinin and bombesin receptors was also impaired by oleic acid. In A431 cells, oleic acid also blocked signal transduction at the EGF and B2 bradykinin receptors. Finally, in PC12 cells, oleic acid blocked the Ca2+ influx mediated by the activation of B2 bradykinin receptors. In conclusion: (1) NEFA block signal transduction by interfering with receptor-phospholipase C or phospholipase C-substrate interaction without preventing ligand binding; (2) NEFA do not act by a protein kinase C-mediated mechanism; (3) the effect of NEFA is dependent on their configuration rather than hydrophobicity or chain length; (4) this effect is evident in several different cell lines and receptor systems. Images Fig. 4. PMID:1898356

  9. Cysteinyl-leukotrienes are released from astrocytes and increase astrocyte proliferation and glial fibrillary acidic protein via cys-LT1 receptors and mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway.

    PubMed

    Ciccarelli, Renata; D'Alimonte, Iolanda; Santavenere, Clara; D'Auro, Mariagrazia; Ballerini, Patrizia; Nargi, Eleonora; Buccella, Silvana; Nicosia, Simonetta; Folco, Giancarlo; Caciagli, Francesco; Di Iorio, Patrizia

    2004-09-01

    Cysteinyl-leukotrienes (cys-LTs), potent mediators in inflammatory diseases, are produced by nervous tissue, but their cellular source and role in the brain are not very well known. In this report we have demonstrated that rat cultured astrocytes express the enzymes (5'-lipoxygenase and LTC(4) synthase) required for cys-LT production, and release cys-LTs in resting condition and, to a greater extent, in response to calcium ionophore A23187, 1 h combined oxygen-glucose deprivation or 2-methyl-thioATP, a selective P2Y(1)/ATP receptor agonist. MK-886, a LT synthesis inhibitor, prevented basal and evoked cys-LT release. In addition, 2-methyl-thioATP-induced cys-LT release was abolished by suramin, a P2 receptor antagonist, or by inhibitors of ATP binding cassette proteins involved in cys-LT release. We also showed that astrocytes express cys-LT(1) and not cys-LT(2) receptors. The stimulation of these receptors by LTD(4) activated the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway. This effect was: (i) insensitive to inhibitors of receptor-coupled Gi protein (pertussis toxin) or tyrosine kinase receptors (genistein); (ii) abolished by MK-571, a cys-LT(1) selective receptor antagonist, or PD98059, a MAPK inhibitor; (iii) reduced by inhibitors of calcium/calmodulin-dependent kinase II (KN-93), Ca(2+)-dependent and -independent (GF102903X) or Ca(2+)-dependent (Gö6976) protein kinase C isoforms. LTD(4) also increased astrocyte proliferation and glial fibrillary acidic protein content, which are considered hallmarks of reactive astrogliosis. Both effects were counteracted by cell pretreatment with MK-571 or PD98059. Thus, cys-LTs released from astrocytes might play an autocrine role in the induction of reactive astrogliosis that, in brain injuries, contributes to the formation of a reparative glial scar. PMID:15355318

  10. Dynamic Regulation of Mammalian Numb by G Protein-coupled Receptors and Protein Kinase C Activation: Structural Determinants of Numb Association with the Cortical Membrane

    PubMed Central

    Dho, Sascha E.; Trejo, JoAnn; Siderovski, David P.

    2006-01-01

    The cell fate determinant Numb is a membrane-associated adaptor protein involved in both development and intracellular vesicular trafficking. It has a phosphotyrosine-binding (PTB) domain and COOH-terminal endocytic-binding motifs for α-adaptin and Eps15 homology domain-containing proteins. Four isoforms of Numb are expressed in vertebrates, two of which selectively associate with the cortical membrane. In this study, we have characterized a cortical pool of Numb that colocalizes with AP2 and Eps15 at substratum plasma membrane punctae and cortical membrane-associated vesicles. Green fluorescent protein (GFP)-tagged mutants of Numb were used to identify the structural determinants required for localization. In addition to the previously described association of the PTB domain with the plasma membrane, we show that the AP2-binding motifs facilitate the association of Numb with cortical membrane punctae and vesicles. We also show that agonist stimulation of G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) that are linked to phospholipase Cβ and protein kinase C (PKC) activation causes redistribution of Numb from the cortical membrane to the cytosol. This effect is correlated with Numb phosphorylation and an increase in its Triton X-100 solubility. Live-imaging analysis of mutants identified two regions within Numb that are independently responsive to GPCR-mediated lipid hydrolysis and PKC activation: the PTB domain and a region encompassing at least three putative PKC phosphorylation sites. Our data indicate that membrane localization of Numb is dynamically regulated by GPCR-activated phospholipid hydrolysis and PKC-dependent phosphorylation events. PMID:16837553

  11. A food restriction protocol that increases drug reward decreases tropomyosin receptor kinase B in the ventral tegmental area, with no effect on brain-derived neurotrophic factor or tropomyosin receptor kinase B protein levels in dopaminergic forebrain regions.

    PubMed

    Pan, Y; Chau, L; Liu, S; Avshalumov, M V; Rice, M E; Carr, K D

    2011-12-01

    Food restriction (FR) decreases brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) expression in hypothalamic and hindbrain regions that regulate feeding and metabolic efficiency, while increasing expression in hippocampal and neocortical regions. Drugs of abuse alter BDNF expression within the mesocorticolimbic dopamine (DA) pathway, and modifications of BDNF expression within this pathway alter drug-directed behavior. Although FR produces a variety of striatal neuroadaptations and potentiates the rewarding effects of abused drugs, the effects of FR on BDNF expression and function within the DA pathway are unknown. The primary purpose of the present study was to examine the effect of FR on protein levels of BDNF and its tropomyosin receptor kinase B (TrkB) receptor in component structures of the mesocorticolimbic pathway. Three to four weeks of FR, with stabilization of rats at 80% of initial body weight, did not alter BDNF or TrkB levels in nucleus accumbens, caudate-putamen, or medial prefrontal cortex. However, FR decreased TrkB levels in the ventral tegmental area (VTA), without change in levels of BDNF protein or mRNA. The finding that FR also decreased TrkB levels in substantia nigra, with elevation of BDNF protein, suggests that decreased TrkB in VTA could be a residual effect of increased BDNF during an earlier phase of FR. Voltage-clamp recordings in VTA DA neurons indicated decreased glutamate receptor transmission. These data might predict lower average firing rates in FR relative to ad libitum fed subjects, which would be consistent with previous evidence of decreased striatal DA transmission and upregulation of postsynaptic DA receptor signaling. However, FR subjects also displayed elevated VTA levels of phospho-ERK1/2, which is an established mediator of synaptic plasticity. Because VTA neurons are heterogeneous with regard to neurochemistry, function, and target projections, the relationship(s) between the three changes observed in VTA, and their involvement

  12. Targeting of TGF-β-activated protein kinase 1 inhibits chemokine (C-C motif) receptor 7 expression, tumor growth and metastasis in breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    Hung, Wen-Chun; Hou, Ming-Feng

    2015-01-01

    TGF-β-activated protein kinase 1 (TAK1) is a critical mediator in inflammation, immune response and cancer development. Our previous study demonstrated that activation of TAK1 increases the expression of chemokine (C-C motif) receptor 7 (CCR7) and promotes lymphatic invasion ability of breast cancer cells. However, the expression and association of activated TAK1 and CCR7 in breast tumor tissues is unknown and the therapeutic effect by targeting TAK1 is also unclear. We showed that activated TAK1 (as indicated by phospho-TAK1) and its binding protein TAB1 are strongly expressed in breast tumor tissues (77% and 74% respectively). In addition, increase of phospho-TAK1 or TAB1 is strongly associated with over-expression of CCR7. TAK1 inhibitor 5Z-7-Oxozeaenol (5Z-O) inhibited TAK1 activity, suppressed downstream signaling pathways including p38, IκB kinase (IKK) and c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) and reduced CCR7 expression in metastatic MDA-MB-231 cells. In addition, 5Z-O repressed NF-κB- and c-JUN-mediated transcription of CCR7 gene. Knockdown of TAB1 attenuated CCR7 expression and tumor growth in an orthotopic animal study. More importantly, lymphatic invasion and lung metastasis were suppressed. Collectively, our results demonstrate that constitutive activation of TAK1 is frequently found in human breast cancer and this kinase is a potential therapeutic target for this cancer. PMID:25557171

  13. p75 Neurotrophin Receptor Signaling Activates Sterol Regulatory Element-binding Protein-2 in Hepatocyte Cells via p38 Mitogen-activated Protein Kinase and Caspase-3.

    PubMed

    Pham, Dan Duc; Do, Hai Thi; Bruelle, Céline; Kukkonen, Jyrki P; Eriksson, Ove; Mogollón, Isabel; Korhonen, Laura T; Arumäe, Urmas; Lindholm, Dan

    2016-05-13

    Nerve growth factor (NGF) influences the survival and differentiation of a specific population of neurons during development, but its role in non-neuronal cells has been less studied. We observed here that NGF and its pro-form, pro-NGF, are elevated in fatty livers from leptin-deficient mice compared with controls, concomitant with an increase in low density lipoprotein receptors (LDLRs). Stimulation of mouse primary hepatocytes with NGF or pro-NGF increased LDLR expression through the p75 neurotrophin receptor (p75NTR). Studies using Huh7 human hepatocyte cells showed that the neurotrophins activate the sterol regulatory element-binding protein-2 (SREBP2) that regulates genes involved in lipid metabolism. The mechanisms for this were related to stimulation of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (p38 MAPK) and activation of caspase-3 and SREBP2 cleavage following NGF and pro-NGF stimulations. Cell fractionation experiments showed that caspase-3 activity was increased particularly in the membrane fraction that harbors SREBP2 and caspase-2. Experiments showed further that caspase-2 interacts with pro-caspase-3 and that p38 MAPK reduced this interaction and caused caspase-3 activation. Because of the increased caspase-3 activity, the cells did not undergo cell death following p75NTR stimulation, possibly due to concomitant activation of nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) pathway by the neurotrophins. These results identify a novel signaling pathway triggered by ligand-activated p75NTR that via p38 MAPK and caspase-3 mediate the activation of SREBP2. This pathway may regulate LDLRs and lipid uptake particularly after injury or during tissue inflammation accompanied by an increased production of growth factors, including NGF and pro-NGF. PMID:26984409

  14. Tobacco Translationally Controlled Tumor Protein Interacts with Ethylene Receptor Tobacco Histidine Kinase1 and Enhances Plant Growth through Promotion of Cell Proliferation1[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Tao, Jian-Jun; Cao, Yang-Rong; Chen, Hao-Wei; Wei, Wei; Li, Qing-Tian; Ma, Biao; Zhang, Wan-Ke; Chen, Shou-Yi; Zhang, Jin-Song

    2015-01-01

    Ethylene is an important phytohormone in the regulation of plant growth, development, and stress response throughout the lifecycle. Previously, we discovered that a subfamily II ethylene receptor tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) Histidine Kinase1 (NTHK1) promotes seedling growth. Here, we identified an NTHK1-interacting protein translationally controlled tumor protein (NtTCTP) by the yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) two-hybrid assay and further characterized its roles in plant growth. The interaction was further confirmed by in vitro glutathione S-transferase pull down and in vivo coimmunoprecipitation and bimolecular fluorescence complementation assays, and the kinase domain of NTHK1 mediates the interaction with NtTCTP. The NtTCTP protein is induced by ethylene treatment and colocalizes with NTHK1 at the endoplasmic reticulum. Overexpression of NtTCTP or NTHK1 reduces plant response to ethylene and promotes seedling growth, mainly through acceleration of cell proliferation. Genetic analysis suggests that NtTCTP is required for the function of NTHK1. Furthermore, association of NtTCTP prevents NTHK1 from proteasome-mediated protein degradation. Our data suggest that plant growth inhibition triggered by ethylene is regulated by a unique feedback mechanism, in which ethylene-induced NtTCTP associates with and stabilizes ethylene receptor NTHK1 to reduce plant response to ethylene and promote plant growth through acceleration of cell proliferation. PMID:25941315

  15. A Long Lasting β1 Adrenergic Receptor Stimulation of cAMP/Protein Kinase A (PKA) Signal in Cardiac Myocytes*

    PubMed Central

    Fu, Qin; Kim, Sungjin; Soto, Dagoberto; De Arcangelis, Vania; DiPilato, Lisa; Liu, Shubai; Xu, Bing; Shi, Qian; Zhang, Jin; Xiang, Yang K.

    2014-01-01

    Small-molecule, ligand-activated G protein-coupled receptors are generally thought to be rapidly desensitized within a period of minutes through receptor phosphorylation and internalization after repeated or prolonged stimulation. This transient G protein-coupled receptor activation remains at odds with many observed long-lasting cellular and physiological responses. Here, using live cell imaging of cAMP with a FRET-based biosensor and myocyte contraction assay, we show that the catecholamine-activated β1 adrenergic receptor (β1AR) continuously stimulates second messenger cAMP synthesis in primary cardiac myocytes and neurons, which lasts for more than 8 h (a decay t½ of 3.9 h) in cardiac myocytes. However, the β1AR-induced cAMP signal is counterbalanced and masked by the receptor-bound phosphodiesterase (PDE) 4D8-dependent cAMP hydrolysis. Inhibition of PDE4 activity recovers the receptor-induced cAMP signal and promotes contractile response in mouse hearts during extended periods of agonist stimulation. β1AR associates with PDE4D8 through the receptor C-terminal PDZ motif-dependent binding to synaptic-associated protein 97 (SAP97). Knockdown of SAP97 or mutation of the β1AR PDZ motif disrupts the complex and promotes sustained agonist-induced cAMP activity, PKA phosphorylation, and cardiac myocyte contraction response. Together, these findings unveil a long lasting adrenergic signal in neurons and myocytes under prolonged stimulation and an underappreciated role of PDE that is essential in classic receptor signaling desensitization and in maintaining a long lasting cAMP equilibrium for ligand-induced physiological response. PMID:24713698

  16. Microgravity and Signaling Molecules in Rat Osteoblasts: Downstream of Receptor Tyrosine Kinase, G-Protein-Coupled Receptor, and Small GTP-Binding Proteins

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kumel, Yasuhiro; Shimokawa, Hitoyata; Morita, Sadao; Katano, Hisako; Akiyama, Hideo; Hirano, Masahiko; Ohya, Keiichi; Sams, Clarence F.; Whitson, Peggy A.

    2005-01-01

    Rat osteoblasts were cultured for 4 and 5 days aboard Space Shuttle and solubilized on board. The mRNA levels of the post-receptor signaling molecules were analyzed by quantitative RT-PCR. The G-protein alpha subunit G(alpha)q mRNA levels were elevated 3-fold by microgravity. G(alpha)q stimulates PLC(beta), and then PKC. PKC(delta) and PKC(theta) mRNA levels were increased 2- to 5-fold by microgravity The mRNA levels of SOS and Ras GRF were increased 4 to 5-fold by microgravity, while Ras GAP was not altered. Spaceflight-induced bone loss might be attributed to microgravity modulation of the signaling pathway in osteoblasts.

  17. BAM 1 and RECEPTOR-LIKE PROTEIN KINASE 2 constitute a signaling pathway and modulate CLE peptide-triggered growth inhibition in Arabidopsis root.

    PubMed

    Shimizu, Noriko; Ishida, Takashi; Yamada, Masashi; Shigenobu, Shuji; Tabata, Ryo; Kinoshita, Atsuko; Yamaguchi, Katsushi; Hasebe, Mitsuyasu; Mitsumasu, Kanako; Sawa, Shinichiro

    2015-12-01

    Ligand receptor-based signaling is a means of cell-to-cell communication for coordinating developmental and physiological processes in multicellular organisms. In plants, cell-producing meristems utilize this signaling to regulate their activities and ensure for proper development. Shoot and root systems share common requirements for carrying out this process; however, its molecular basis is largely unclear. It has been suggested that synthetic CLV3/EMBRYO SURROUNDING REGION (CLE) peptide shrinks the root meristem through the actions of CLAVATA2 (CLV2) and the RECEPTOR-LIKE PROTEIN KINASE 2 (RPK2) pathway in Arabidopsis thaliana. Our genetic screening for mutations that resist CLE peptide signaling in roots determined that BAM1, which is a member of the leucine-rich repeat receptor-like kinase (LRR-RLK) family, is also involved in this pathway. BAM1 is preferentially expressed in the root tip, including the quiescent center and its surrounding stem cells. Our genetic analysis revealed that BAM1 functions together with RPK2. Using coimmunoprecipitation assay, we showed that BAM1 is capable of forming heteromeric complexes with RPK2. These findings suggest that the BAM1 and RPK2 receptors constitute a signaling pathway that modulates cell proliferation in the root meristem and that related molecules are employed in root and shoot meristems. PMID:26083273

  18. Cannabinoid CB2 Receptor Mediates Nicotine-Induced Anti-Inflammation in N9 Microglial Cells Exposed to β Amyloid via Protein Kinase C

    PubMed Central

    Jia, Ji; Peng, Jie; Li, Zhaoju; Wu, Youping; Wu, Qunlin; Tu, Weifeng; Wu, Mingchun

    2016-01-01

    Background. Reducing β amyloid- (Aβ-) induced microglial activation is considered to be effective in treating Alzheimer's disease (AD). Nicotine attenuates Aβ-induced microglial activation; the mechanism, however, is still elusive. Microglia could be activated into classic activated state (M1 state) or alternative activated state (M2 state); the former is cytotoxic and the latter is neurotrophic. In this investigation, we hypothesized that nicotine attenuates Aβ-induced microglial activation by shifting microglial M1 to M2 state, and cannabinoid CB2 receptor and protein kinase C mediate the process. Methods. We used Aβ1–42 to activate N9 microglial cells and observed nicotine-induced effects on microglial M1 and M2 biomarkers by using western blot, immunocytochemistry, and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Results. We found that nicotine reduced the levels of M1 state markers, including inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) expression and tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α) and interleukin- (IL-) 6 releases; meanwhile, it increased the levels of M2 state markers, including arginase-1 (Arg-1) expression and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) release, in the Aβ-stimulated microglia. Coadministration of cannabinoid CB2 receptor antagonist or protein kinase C (PKC) inhibitor partially abolished the nicotine-induced effects. Conclusion. These findings indicated that cannabinoid CB2 receptor mediates nicotine-induced anti-inflammation in microglia exposed to Aβ via PKC. PMID:26884647

  19. POLLEN TUBE LOCALIZATION IMPLIES A ROLE IN POLLEN-PISTIL INTERACTIONS FOR THE TOMATO RECEPTOR-LIKE PROTEIN KINASES LEPRK1 AND LEPRK2

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We screened for pollen-specific kinase genes, which are potential signal transduction components of pollen-pistil interactions, and isolated two structurally related receptor-like kinases RLKs from tomato, LePRK1 and LePRK2. These kinases are similar to a pollen-expressed RLK from petunia, but they ...

  20. Neuronal migration and protein kinases

    PubMed Central

    Ohshima, Toshio

    2015-01-01

    The formation of the six-layered structure of the mammalian cortex via the inside-out pattern of neuronal migration is fundamental to neocortical functions. Extracellular cues such as Reelin induce intracellular signaling cascades through the protein phosphorylation. Migrating neurons also have intrinsic machineries to regulate cytoskeletal proteins and adhesion properties. Protein phosphorylation regulates these processes. Moreover, the balance between phosphorylation and dephosphorylation is modified by extracellular cues. Multipolar-bipolar transition, radial glia-guided locomotion and terminal translocation are critical steps of radial migration of cortical pyramidal neurons. Protein kinases such as Cyclin-dependent kinase 5 (Cdk5) and c-Jun N-terminal kinases (JNKs) involve these steps. In this review, I shall give an overview the roles of protein kinases in neuronal migration. PMID:25628530

  1. Structural characterization and immunomodulatory activity of Grifola frondosa polysaccharide via toll-like receptor 4-mitogen-activated protein kinases-nuclear factor κB pathways.

    PubMed

    Ma, Xiaolei; Meng, Meng; Han, Lirong; Cheng, Dai; Cao, Xiaohong; Wang, Chunling

    2016-06-15

    We isolated a neutral polysaccharide from the fruiting body of a mushroom Grifola frondosa (GFP-A). The aim of this study was to characterize a neutral α-d-polysaccharide derived from G. frondosa and evaluate its immunomodulatory effect on toll-like receptor 4, mitogen-activated protein kinases and nuclear factor κB pathways of protein expression in macrophages. The structural features of GFP-A were characterized by physicochemical and instrumental analyses. Its molecular weight was found to be 8.48 × 10(2) kDa. The main chain of GFP-A consisted of (1 → 4)-linked and (1 → 6)-linked α-d-glucopyranosyl, and (1 → 3,6)-linked α-d-mannopyranosyl residues, which branched at C-3. The branches consisted of (1 → 6)-linked α-d-galactopyranosyl and t-l-rhamnopyranosyl residues. An in vitro immunomodulatory assay for pro-inflammatory cytokines (interleukin-1β, interleukin-2, tumor necrosis factor alpha, etc.) using the macrophage cell line, RAW 264.7, revealed that GFP-A exhibited significant immunomodulatory activity by stimulating the toll-like receptor 4, mitogen-activated protein kinases to nuclear factor κB/pathway. PMID:27220562

  2. Quantitative measurement of epidermal growth factor receptor-mitogen-activated protein kinase signal transduction using a nine-plex, peptide-based immunoassay.

    PubMed

    Rauh-Adelmann, Christine; Moskow, John M; Graham, James R; Yen, Lucy G; Boucher, Jeffrey I; Murphy, Cheryl E; Nadler, Timothy K; Gordon, Neal F; Radding, Jeffrey A

    2008-04-15

    Aberrant epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR, ErbB1) signaling is implicated in cell transformation, motility, and invasion in a variety of cell types, and EGFR is the target of several anticancer drugs. However, the kinetics of EGFR signaling and the individual contributions of site-specific phosphorylation events remain largely unknown. A peptide-based, multiplex immunoassay approach was developed to simultaneously measure both total and phosphorylated protein in a single sample. The approach involves the proteolytic digestion of proteins prior to the isolation and quantitation of site-specific phosphorylation events within an individual protein. Quantitation of phosphorylated and total proteins, in picomolar to nanomolar concentrations, were interpolated from standard curves generated with synthetic peptides that correspond to the peptide targets used in the immunoassays. In this study, a bead-based, nine-plex immunoassay measuring total and phosphorylated protein was constructed to measure temporal, site-specific phosphorylation of key members of the EGFR pathway (ErbB1 receptor, MEK1, MEK2, ERK1, and ERK2) in A431 cells stimulated with epidermal growth factor. The effect of MEK inhibition on this pathway was determined using a known MEK kinase inhibitor, SL327. The results reported herein are the first quantitative measurements of site-specific phosphorylation events and total proteins in a single sample, at the same time representing a new paradigm for standardized protein and phosphorylation analysis using multiplexed, peptide-based, sandwich immunoassays. PMID:18275835

  3. Co-active receptor tyrosine kinases mitigate the effect of FGFR inhibitors in FGFR1-amplified lung cancers with low FGFR1 protein expression.

    PubMed

    Kotani, H; Ebi, H; Kitai, H; Nanjo, S; Kita, K; Huynh, T G; Ooi, A; Faber, A C; Mino-Kenudson, M; Yano, S

    2016-07-01

    Targeted therapies are effective in subsets of lung cancers with EGFR mutations and anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) translocations. Large-scale genomics have recently expanded the lung cancer landscape with FGFR1 amplification found in 10-20% of squamous cell carcinomas (SCCs). However, the response rates have been low for biomarker-directed fibroblast growth factor receptor (FGFR) inhibitor therapy in SCC, which contrasts to the relatively high rates of response seen in EGFR mutant and ALK-translocated lung cancers treated with epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) inhibitors and ALK inhibitors, respectively. In order to better understand the low response rates of FGFR1-amplified lung cancers to FGFR inhibitors, relationships between gene copy number, mRNA expression and protein expression of FGFR1 were assessed in cell lines, tumor specimens and data from The Cancer Genome Atlas. The importance of these factors for the sensitivity to FGFR inhibitors was determined by analyzing drug screen data and conducting in vitro and in vivo experiments. We report that there was a discrepancy between FGFR1 amplification level and FGFR1 protein expression in a number of these cell lines, and the cancers with unexpectedly low FGFR1 expression were uniformly resistant to the different FGFR inhibitors. Further interrogation of the receptor tyrosine kinase activity in these discordant cell lines revealed co-activation of HER2 and platelet-derived growth factor receptor-α (PDGFRα) caused by gene amplification or ligand overexpression maintained phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) and MEK/ERK signaling even in the presence of FGFR inhibitor. Accordingly, co-inhibition of FGFR1 and HER2 or PDGFRα led to enhanced drug responses. In contrast, FGFR1-amplified high FGFR1 protein-expressing lung cancers are sensitive to FGFR inhibitor monotherapy by downregulating ERK signaling. Addition of a PI3K inhibitor to these high FGFR1 protein-expressing cancers further sensitized them to FGFR

  4. Structure-Based Design, Synthesis, and Biological Evaluation of Highly Selective and Potent G Protein-Coupled Receptor Kinase 2 Inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Waldschmidt, Helen V; Homan, Kristoff T; Cruz-Rodríguez, Osvaldo; Cato, Marilyn C; Waninger-Saroni, Jessica; Larimore, Kelly M; Cannavo, Alessandro; Song, Jianliang; Cheung, Joseph Y; Kirchhoff, Paul D; Koch, Walter J; Tesmer, John J G; Larsen, Scott D

    2016-04-28

    G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) are central to many physiological processes. Regulation of this superfamily of receptors is controlled by GPCR kinases (GRKs), some of which have been implicated in heart failure. GSK180736A, developed as a Rho-associated coiled-coil kinase 1 (ROCK1) inhibitor, was identified as an inhibitor of GRK2 and co-crystallized in the active site. Guided by its binding pose overlaid with the binding pose of a known potent GRK2 inhibitor, Takeda103A, a library of hybrid inhibitors was developed. This campaign produced several compounds possessing high potency and selectivity for GRK2 over other GRK subfamilies, PKA, and ROCK1. The most selective compound, 12n (CCG-224406), had an IC50 for GRK2 of 130 nM, >700-fold selectivity over other GRK subfamilies, and no detectable inhibition of ROCK1. Four of the new inhibitors were crystallized with GRK2 to give molecular insights into the binding and kinase selectivity of this class of inhibitors. PMID:27050625

  5. Overexpression of an Arabidopsis cysteine-rich receptor-like protein kinase, CRK5, enhances abscisic acid sensitivity and confers drought tolerance

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Kai; Liang, Shan; Wu, Zhen; Bi, Chao; Yu, Yong-Tao; Wang, Xiao-Fang; Zhang, Da-Peng

    2016-01-01

    Receptor-like kinases (RLKs) have been reported to regulate many developmental and defense process, but only a few members have been functionally characterized. In the present study, our observations suggest that one of the RLKs, a membrane-localized cysteine-rich receptor-like protein kinase, CRK5, is involved in abscisic acid (ABA) signaling in Arabidopsis thaliana. Overexpression of CRK5 increases ABA sensitivity in ABA-induced early seedling growth arrest and promotion of stomatal closure and inhibition of stomatal opening. Interestingly, and importantly, overexpression of CRK5 enhances plant drought tolerance without affecting plant growth at the mature stages and plant productivity. Transgenic lines overexpressing a mutated form of CRK5, CRK5 K372E with the change of the 372nd conserved amino acid residue from lysine to glutamic acid in its kinase domain, result in wild-type ABA and drought responses, supporting the role of CRK5 in ABA signaling. The loss-of-function mutation of the CRK5 gene does not affect the ABA response, while overexpression of two homologs of CRK5, CRK4 and CRK19, confers ABA responses, suggesting that these CRK members function redundantly. We further showed that WRKY18, WRKY40 and WRKY60 transcription factors repress the expression of CRK5, and that CRK5 likely functions upstream of ABI2 in ABA signaling. These findings help in understanding the complex ABA signaling network. PMID:27406784

  6. Role of protein kinase C in caerulein induced expression of substance P and neurokinin-1-receptors in murine pancreatic acinar cells

    PubMed Central

    Koh, Yung-Hua; Tamizhselvi, Ramasamy; Moochhala, Shabbir; Bian, Jin-Song; Bhatia, Madhav

    2011-01-01

    Substance P (SP) is involved in the pathophysiology of acute pancreatitis (AP) via binding to its high-affinity receptor, neurokinin-1-receptor (NK1R). An up-regulation of SP and NK1R expression was observed in experimental AP and in caerulein-stimulated pancreatic acinar cells. However, the mechanisms that lead to this up-regulation are not fully understood. In this study, we showed the role of protein kinase C (PKC) in caerulein-induced SP and NK1R production in isolated mouse pancreatic acinar cells. Caerulein (10−7 M) stimulation rapidly activated the conventional PKC-α and novel PKC-δ as observed by the phosphorylation of these molecules. Pre-treatment of pancreatic acinar cells with Gö6976 (1–10 nM) and rottlerin (1–10 μM) inhibited PKC-α and PKC-δ phosphorylation, respectively, but not the other way round. At these concentrations used, PKC-α and PKC-δ inhibition reversed the caerulein-induced up-regulation of SP and NK1R, indicating an important role of PKCs in the modulation of SP and NK1R expression. Further experiments looking into signalling mechanisms showed that treatment of pancreatic acinar cells with both Gö6976 and rottlerin inhibited the activation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2) and c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK). Inhibition of PKC-α or PKC-δ also affected caerulein-induced transcription factor activation, as represented by nuclear factor-κB and AP-1 DNA-binding activity. The findings in this study suggested that PKC is upstream of the mitogen-activated protein kinases and transcription factors, which then lead to the up-regulation of SP/NK1R expression in caerulein-treated mouse pancreatic acinar cells. PMID:20973912

  7. Diosgenin induces hypoxia-inducible factor-1 activation and angiogenesis through estrogen receptor-related phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/Akt and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase pathways in osteoblasts.

    PubMed

    Yen, Men Luh; Su, Jen Liang; Chien, Chung Liang; Tseng, Kuang Wen; Yang, Ching Yao; Chen, Wei Fang; Chang, Chiao Chia; Kuo, Min Liang

    2005-10-01

    Diosgenin, extracted from the root of wild yam (Dioscorea villosa), has been reported to demonstrate an opportunity for medical application. Vascular endothelial growth factor-A (VEGF-A) plays an important role in bone-related angiogenesis, a critical process occurring during bone formation and fracture healing. In this study, we examine whether diosgenin is able to induce VEGF-A expression and to promote angiogenesis in osteoblasts. For murine MC3T3-E1 preosteoblast-like cells, VEGF-A mRNA and protein expression seemed to be significantly elevated in response to diosgenin in a concentration-dependent fashion. Conditioned media prepared from cells treated with diosgenin induced strong angiogenic activity in either in vitro or ex vivo angiogenesis assay. Furthermore, diosgenin treatment increased the stability and activity of HIF-1alpha protein. Inhibition of HIF-1alpha activity by transfection with DN-HIF-1alpha significantly diminished diosgenin-mediated VEGF-A up-regulation. The use of pharmacological inhibitors or genetic inhibition revealed that both the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)/Akt and p38 signaling pathways were potentially required for diosgenin-induced HIF-1 activation and subsequent VEGF-A up-regulation. It is noteworthy that an estrogen receptor binding assay revealed that diosgenin has the strong ability to replace [(3)H]estradiol bound to estrogen receptor (IC(50), 10 nM). In addition, the specific estrogen receptor antagonists ICI 182,780 (faslodex) and tamoxifen were noted to be able to strongly inhibit diosgenin-induced, src kinase-dependent Akt and p38 MAPK activation. Taken together, such results provide evidence that diosgenin up-regulates VEGF-A and promotes angiogenesis in preosteoblast-like cells by a hypoxia-inducible factor-1alpha-dependent mechanism involving the activation of src kinase, p38 MAPK, and Akt signaling pathways via estrogen receptor. PMID:15998873

  8. Dopamine D4 receptors linked to protein kinase G are required for changes in dopamine release followed by locomotor activity after repeated cocaine administration.

    PubMed

    Oh, Jeong Hwan; Lee, Dong Kun; Shim, Yoon-Bo; Ryu, In Soo; Seo, Su Yeon; Kim, Jieun; Yang, Ju Hwan; Cho, Hyun-Wook; Choe, Eun Sang

    2015-05-01

    We previously found that the dopamine D2-type receptors (D2 and D3 receptors), coupled to protein kinase G (PKG), upregulate locomotor activity after repeated cocaine administration. In this study, D4 receptors, another type of D2 receptor also coupled to PKG, were examined to determine their requirement in the regulation of locomotor activity after repeated cocaine administration. The results demonstrated that repeated injections of cocaine (20 mg/kg), given once a day for seven consecutive days, significantly increased extracellular dopamine concentrations. Intra-caudate infusion of the D4 receptor agonist, PD168077 (10 nmol), and the PKG inhibitor, KT5823 (2 nmol), significantly decreased the repeated cocaine-induced increase in dopamine levels and locomotor activity. However, intra-caudate infusion of KT5823, but not PD168077, decreased ∆FosB immunoreactivity elevated by repeated cocaine administration. These findings suggest that D4 receptors linked to PKG could be a key modulator for dopamine release required for changes in locomotor activity caused by repeated cocaine exposure. PMID:25702161

  9. Calcium-Permeable AMPA Receptors Mediate the Induction of the Protein Kinase A-Dependent Component of Long-Term Potentiation in the Hippocampus

    PubMed Central

    Park, Pojeong; Sanderson, Thomas M.; Amici, Mascia; Choi, Sun-Lim; Bortolotto, Zuner A.; Zhuo, Min

    2016-01-01

    Two forms of NMDA receptor (NMDAR)-dependent long-term potentiation (LTP) at hippocampal CA1 synapses can be distinguished based on their sensitivity to inhibitors of protein kinase A (PKA). The PKA-dependent form requires multiple episodes of high-frequency stimulation (HFS) or theta burst stimuli (TBS) with a spacing between episodes in the order of minutes. To investigate the mechanism by which spaced episodes induce the PKA-dependent form of LTP, we have compared, in interleaved experiments, spaced (s) and compressed (c) TBS protocols in the rat CA1 synapses. We find that LTP induced by sTBS, but not that induced by cTBS, involves the insertion of calcium-permeable (CP) AMPARs, as assessed using pharmacological and electrophysiological criteria. Furthermore, a single TBS when paired with rolipram [4-(3-(cyclopentyloxy)-4-methoxyphenyl)pyrrolidin-2-one], to activate PKA, generates an LTP that also involves the insertion of CP-AMPARs. These data demonstrate that the involvement of CP-AMPARs in LTP is critically determined by the timing of the induction trigger and is associated specifically with the PKA-dependent form of LTP. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Long-term potentiation is a family of synaptic mechanisms that are believed to be important for learning and memory. Two of the most extensively studied forms are triggered by the synaptic activation of NMDA receptors and expressed by changes in AMPA receptor function. They can be distinguished on the basis of their requirement for activation of a protein kinase, PKA. We show that the PKA-dependent form also involves the transient insertion of calcium-permeable AMPA receptors. These results have implications for relating synaptic plasticity to learning and memory and suggest a specific linkage between PKA activation and the rapid synaptic insertion of calcium-permeable AMPA receptors during long-term potentiation. PMID:26758849

  10. Protein Crystals of Raf Kinase

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1995-01-01

    This image shows crystals of the protein raf kinase grown on Earth (photo a) and on USML-2 (photo b). The space-grown crystals are an order of magnitude larger. Principal Investigator: Dan Carter of New Century Pharmaceuticals

  11. Bacillus bombysepticus α-Toxin Binding to G Protein-Coupled Receptor Kinase 2 Regulates cAMP/PKA Signaling Pathway to Induce Host Death

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Ping; Cheng, Tingcai; Ma, Sanyuan; Gao, Junping; Jin, Shengkai; Jiang, Liang; Xia, Qingyou

    2016-01-01

    Bacterial pathogens and their toxins target host receptors, leading to aberrant behavior or host death by changing signaling events through subversion of host intracellular cAMP level. This is an efficient and widespread mechanism of microbial pathogenesis. Previous studies describe toxins that increase cAMP in host cells, resulting in death through G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) signaling pathways by influencing adenylyl cyclase or G protein activity. G protein-coupled receptor kinase 2 (GRK2) has a central role in regulation of GPCR desensitization. However, little information is available about the pathogenic mechanisms of toxins associated with GRK2. Here, we reported a new bacterial toxin-Bacillus bombysepticus (Bb) α-toxin that was lethal to host. We showed that Bb α-toxin interacted with BmGRK2. The data demonstrated that Bb α-toxin directly bound to BmGRK2 to promote death by affecting GPCR signaling pathways. This mechanism involved stimulation of Gαs, increase level of cAMP and activation of protein kinase A (PKA). Activated cAMP/PKA signal transduction altered downstream effectors that affected homeostasis and fundamental biological processes, disturbing the structural and functional integrity of cells, resulting in death. Preventing cAMP/PKA signaling transduction by inhibitions (NF449 or H-89) substantially reduced the pathogenicity of Bb α-toxin. The discovery of a toxin-induced host death specifically linked to GRK2 mediated signaling pathway suggested a new model for bacterial toxin action. Characterization of host genes whose expression and function are regulated by Bb α-toxin and GRK2 will offer a deeper understanding of the pathogenesis of infectious diseases caused by pathogens that elevate cAMP. PMID:27022742

  12. Type III Transforming Growth Factor-β Receptor Drives Cardiac Hypertrophy Through β-Arrestin2-Dependent Activation of Calmodulin-Dependent Protein Kinase II.

    PubMed

    Lou, Jie; Zhao, Dan; Zhang, Ling-Ling; Song, Shu-Ying; Li, Yan-Chao; Sun, Fei; Ding, Xiao-Qing; Yu, Chang-Jiang; Li, Yuan-Yuan; Liu, Mei-Tong; Dong, Chang-Jiang; Ji, Yong; Li, Hongliang; Chu, Wenfeng; Zhang, Zhi-Ren

    2016-09-01

    The role of type III transforming growth factor-β receptor (TβRIII) in the pathogenesis of heart diseases remains largely unclear. Here, we investigated the functional role and molecular mechanisms of TβRIII in the development of myocardial hypertrophy. Western blot and quantitative real time-polymerase chain reaction analyses revealed that the expression of TβRIII was significantly elevated in human cardiac hypertrophic samples. Consistently, TβRIII expression was substantially increased in transverse aortic constriction (TAC)- and isoproterenol-induced mouse cardiac hypertrophy in vivo and in isoproterenol-induced cardiomyocyte hypertrophy in vitro. Overexpression of TβRIII resulted in cardiomyocyte hypertrophy, whereas isoproterenol-induced cardiomyocyte hypertrophy was greatly attenuated by knockdown of TβRIII in vitro. Cardiac-specific transgenic expression of TβRIII independently led to cardiac hypertrophy in mice, which was further aggravated by isoproterenol and TAC treatment. Cardiac contractile function of the mice was not altered in TβRIII transgenic mice; however, TAC led to significantly decreased cardiac contractile function in TβRIII transgenic mice compared with control mice. Conversely, isoproterenol- and TAC-induced cardiac hypertrophy and TAC-induced cardiac contractile function impairment were partially reversed by suppression of TβRIII in vivo. Our data suggest that TβRIII mediates stress-induced cardiac hypertrophy through activation of Ca(2+)/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II, which requires a physical interaction of β-arrestin2 with both TβRIII and calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II. Our findings indicate that stress-induced increase in TβRIII expression results in cardiac hypertrophy through β-arrestin2-dependent activation of calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II and that transforming growth factor-β and β-adrenergic receptor signaling are not involved in spontaneous cardiac hypertrophy in cardiac

  13. Inhibition of G-protein-coupled Receptor Kinase 2 Prevents the Dysfunctional Cardiac Substrate Metabolism in Fatty Acid Synthase Transgenic Mice.

    PubMed

    Abd Alla, Joshua; Graemer, Muriel; Fu, Xuebin; Quitterer, Ursula

    2016-02-01

    Impairment of myocardial fatty acid substrate metabolism is characteristic of late-stage heart failure and has limited treatment options. Here, we investigated whether inhibition of G-protein-coupled receptor kinase 2 (GRK2) could counteract the disturbed substrate metabolism of late-stage heart failure. The heart failure-like substrate metabolism was reproduced in a novel transgenic model of myocardium-specific expression of fatty acid synthase (FASN), the major palmitate-synthesizing enzyme. The increased fatty acid utilization of FASN transgenic neonatal cardiomyocytes rapidly switched to a heart failure phenotype in an adult-like lipogenic milieu. Similarly, adult FASN transgenic mice developed signs of heart failure. The development of disturbed substrate utilization of FASN transgenic cardiomyocytes and signs of heart failure were retarded by the transgenic expression of GRKInh, a peptide inhibitor of GRK2. Cardioprotective GRK2 inhibition required an intact ERK axis, which blunted the induction of cardiotoxic transcripts, in part by enhanced serine 273 phosphorylation of Pparg (peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ). Conversely, the dual-specific GRK2 and ERK cascade inhibitor, RKIP (Raf kinase inhibitor protein), triggered dysfunctional cardiomyocyte energetics and the expression of heart failure-promoting Pparg-regulated genes. Thus, GRK2 inhibition is a novel approach that targets the dysfunctional substrate metabolism of the failing heart. PMID:26670611

  14. Transient Receptor Potential Channel 1 Deficiency Impairs Host Defense and Proinflammatory Responses to Bacterial Infection by Regulating Protein Kinase Cα Signaling.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Xikun; Ye, Yan; Sun, Yuyang; Li, Xuefeng; Wang, Wenxue; Privratsky, Breanna; Tan, Shirui; Zhou, Zongguang; Huang, Canhua; Wei, Yu-Quan; Birnbaumer, Lutz; Singh, Brij B; Wu, Min

    2015-08-01

    Transient receptor potential channel 1 (TRPC1) is a nonselective cation channel that is required for Ca(2+) homeostasis necessary for cellular functions. However, whether TRPC1 is involved in infectious disease remains unknown. Here, we report a novel function for TRPC1 in host defense against Gram-negative bacteria. TRPC1(-/-) mice exhibited decreased survival, severe lung injury, and systemic bacterial dissemination upon infection. Furthermore, silencing of TRPC1 showed decreased Ca(2+) entry, reduced proinflammatory cytokines, and lowered bacterial clearance. Importantly, TRPC1 functioned as an endogenous Ca(2+) entry channel critical for proinflammatory cytokine production in both alveolar macrophages and epithelial cells. We further identified that bacterium-mediated activation of TRPC1 was dependent on Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4), which induced endoplasmic reticulum (ER) store depletion. After activation of phospholipase Cγ (PLC-γ), TRPC1 mediated Ca(2+) entry and triggered protein kinase Cα (PKCα) activity to facilitate nuclear translocation of NF-κB/Jun N-terminal protein kinase (JNK) and augment the proinflammatory response, leading to tissue damage and eventually mortality. These findings reveal that TRPC1 is required for host defense against bacterial infections through the TLR4-TRPC1-PKCα signaling circuit. PMID:26031335

  15. Transient Receptor Potential Channel 1 Deficiency Impairs Host Defense and Proinflammatory Responses to Bacterial Infection by Regulating Protein Kinase Cα Signaling

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Xikun; Ye, Yan; Sun, Yuyang; Li, Xuefeng; Wang, Wenxue; Privratsky, Breanna; Tan, Shirui; Zhou, Zongguang; Huang, Canhua; Wei, Yu-Quan; Birnbaumer, Lutz

    2015-01-01

    Transient receptor potential channel 1 (TRPC1) is a nonselective cation channel that is required for Ca2+ homeostasis necessary for cellular functions. However, whether TRPC1 is involved in infectious disease remains unknown. Here, we report a novel function for TRPC1 in host defense against Gram-negative bacteria. TRPC1−/− mice exhibited decreased survival, severe lung injury, and systemic bacterial dissemination upon infection. Furthermore, silencing of TRPC1 showed decreased Ca2+ entry, reduced proinflammatory cytokines, and lowered bacterial clearance. Importantly, TRPC1 functioned as an endogenous Ca2+ entry channel critical for proinflammatory cytokine production in both alveolar macrophages and epithelial cells. We further identified that bacterium-mediated activation of TRPC1 was dependent on Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4), which induced endoplasmic reticulum (ER) store depletion. After activation of phospholipase Cγ (PLC-γ), TRPC1 mediated Ca2+ entry and triggered protein kinase Cα (PKCα) activity to facilitate nuclear translocation of NF-κB/Jun N-terminal protein kinase (JNK) and augment the proinflammatory response, leading to tissue damage and eventually mortality. These findings reveal that TRPC1 is required for host defense against bacterial infections through the TLR4-TRPC1-PKCα signaling circuit. PMID:26031335

  16. PTP1B-dependent regulation of receptor tyrosine kinase signaling by the actin-binding protein Mena.

    PubMed

    Hughes, Shannon K; Oudin, Madeleine J; Tadros, Jenny; Neil, Jason; Del Rosario, Amanda; Joughin, Brian A; Ritsma, Laila; Wyckoff, Jeff; Vasile, Eliza; Eddy, Robert; Philippar, Ulrike; Lussiez, Alisha; Condeelis, John S; van Rheenen, Jacco; White, Forest; Lauffenburger, Douglas A; Gertler, Frank B

    2015-11-01

    During breast cancer progression, alternative mRNA splicing produces functionally distinct isoforms of Mena, an actin regulator with roles in cell migration and metastasis. Aggressive tumor cell subpopulations express Mena(INV), which promotes tumor cell invasion by potentiating EGF responses. However, the mechanism by which this occurs is unknown. Here we report that Mena associates constitutively with the tyrosine phosphatase PTP1B and mediates a novel negative feedback mechanism that attenuates receptor tyrosine kinase signaling. On EGF stimulation, complexes containing Mena and PTP1B are recruited to the EGFR, causing receptor dephosphorylation and leading to decreased motility responses. Mena also interacts with the 5' inositol phosphatase SHIP2, which is important for the recruitment of the Mena-PTP1B complex to the EGFR. When Mena(INV) is expressed, PTP1B recruitment to the EGFR is impaired, providing a mechanism for growth factor sensitization to EGF, as well as HGF and IGF, and increased resistance to EGFR and Met inhibitors in signaling and motility assays. In sum, we demonstrate that Mena plays an important role in regulating growth factor-induced signaling. Disruption of this attenuation by Mena(INV) sensitizes tumor cells to low-growth factor concentrations, thereby increasing the migration and invasion responses that contribute to aggressive, malignant cell phenotypes. PMID:26337385

  17. Protein kinase C-mediated changes in synaptic efficacy at the neuromuscular junction in vitro: the role of postsynaptic acetylcholine receptors.

    PubMed

    Lanuza, M A; Li, M X; Jia, M; Kim, S; Davenport, R; Dunlap, V; Nelson, P G

    2000-09-15

    Activation of a mouse in vitro neuromuscular synapse produces a reduction in synaptic efficacy which is greater for nonactivated than for activated inputs to the myotubes. This has been shown to require thrombin and thrombin receptor activation and to involve a protein kinase C (PKC)-mediated step. We show in the present work that phorbol ester activation of PKC produces physiological loss of synapses in a time- and dose-related manner. We observe, using quantitative imaging methods, a parallel loss of acetylcholine receptors (AChR) from synaptically functional neurite-associated receptor aggregates in nerve-muscle cocultures. Biochemical measurements of total AChR show that PKC activation reduces both AChR stability (increases receptor loss) and receptor insertion into the surface membrane. Taken together, the data suggest that PKC activation decreases the stability of AChR aggregates in the muscle surface membrane. We conclude that PKC plays a crucial role in activity-dependent synapse reduction and does so, at least in part, by altering AChR stability. PMID:10972958

  18. Ethanol reduces GABAA alpha1 subunit receptor surface expression by a protein kinase Cgamma-dependent mechanism in cultured cerebral cortical neurons.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Sandeep; Suryanarayanan, Asha; Boyd, Kevin N; Comerford, Chris E; Lai, Marvin A; Ren, Qinglu; Morrow, A Leslie

    2010-05-01

    Prolonged ethanol exposure causes central nervous system hyperexcitability that involves a loss of GABAergic inhibition. We previously demonstrated that long-term ethanol exposure enhances the internalization of synaptic GABA(A) receptors composed of alpha1beta2/3gamma2 subunits. However, the mechanisms of ethanol-mediated internalization are unknown. This study explored the effect of ethanol on surface expression of GABA(A) alpha1 subunit-containing receptors in cultured cerebral cortical neurons and the role of protein kinase C (PKC) beta, gamma, and epsilon isoforms in their trafficking. Cultured neurons were prepared from rat pups on postnatal day 1 and maintained for 18 days. Cells were exposed to ethanol, and surface receptors were isolated by biotinylation and P2 fractionation, whereas functional analysis was conducted by whole-cell patch-clamp recording of GABA- and zolpidem-evoked responses. Ethanol exposure for 4 h decreased biotinylated surface expression of GABA(A) receptor alpha1 subunits and reduced zolpidem (100 nM) enhancement of GABA-evoked currents. The PKC activator phorbol-12,13-dibutyrate mimicked the effect of ethanol, and the selective PKC inhibitor calphostin C prevented ethanol-induced internalization of these receptors. Ethanol exposure for 4 h also increased the colocalization and coimmunoprecipitation of PKCgamma with alpha1 subunits, whereas PKCbeta/alpha1 association and PKCepsilon/alpha1 colocalization were not altered by ethanol exposure. Selective PKCgamma inhibition by transfection of selective PKCgamma small interfering RNAs blocked ethanol-induced internalization of GABA(A) receptor alpha1 subunits, whereas PKCbeta inhibition using pseudo-PKCbeta had no effect. These findings suggest that ethanol exposure selectively alters PKCgamma translocation to GABA(A) receptors and PKCgamma regulates GABA(A) alpha1 receptor trafficking after ethanol exposure. PMID:20159950

  19. Endogenous 5-HT2C Receptors Phosphorylate the cAMP Response Element Binding Protein via Protein Kinase C-Promoted Activation of Extracellular-Regulated Kinases-1/2 in Hypothalamic mHypoA-2/10 Cells.

    PubMed

    Lauffer, Lisa; Glas, Evi; Gudermann, Thomas; Breit, Andreas

    2016-07-01

    Serotonin 5-HT2C receptors (5-HT2CR) activate Gq proteins and are expressed in the central nervous system (CNS). 5-HT2CR regulate emotion, feeding, reward, or cognition and may serve as promising drug targets to treat psychiatric disorders or obesity. Owing to technical difficulties in isolating cells from the CNS and the lack of suitable cell lines endogenously expressing 5-HT2CR, our knowledge about this receptor subtype in native environments is rather limited. The hypothalamic mHypoA-2/10 cell line was recently established and resembles appetite-regulating hypothalamic neurons of the paraventricular nucleus (PVN), where 5-HT2CR have been detected in vivo. Therefore, we tested mHypoA-2/10 cells for endogenous 5-HT2CR expression. Serotonin or the 5-HT2CR preferential agonist WAY-161,503 initiated cAMP response element (CRE)-dependent gene transcription with EC50 values of 15.5 ± 9.8 and 1.1 ± 0.9 nM, respectively. Both responses were blocked by two unrelated 5-HT2CR-selective antagonists (SB-242,084, RS-102,221) but not by a 5-HT2AR (EMD-281,014) or 5-HT2BR (RS-127,455) antagonists. By single-cell calcium imaging, we found that serotonin and WAY-161,503 induced robust calcium transients, which were also blunted by both 5-HT2CR antagonists. Additionally we revealed, first, that 5-HT2CR induced CRE activation via protein kinase C (PKC)-mediated engagement of extracellular-regulated kinases-1/2 and, second, that intrinsic activity of WAY-161,503 was in the range of 0.3-0.5 compared with serotonin, defining the frequently used 5-HT2CR agonist as a partial agonist of endogenous 5-HT2CR. In conclusion, we have shown that hypothalamic mHypoA-2/10 cells endogenously express 5-HT2CR and thus are the first cell line in which to analyze 5-HT2CR pharmacology, signaling, and regulation in its natural environment. PMID:27189964

  20. Isoquercitrin inhibits the progression of pancreatic cancer in vivo and in vitro by regulating opioid receptors and the mitogen-activated protein kinase signalling pathway.

    PubMed

    Chen, Quan; Li, Ping; Li, Ping; Xu, Yong; Li, Yang; Tang, Bo

    2015-02-01

    Pancreatic cancer is a common malignant tumour that affects individuals worldwide. In recent years, the incidence and mortality rates of pancreatic cancer have continuously increased. Currently, the primary clinical treatment methods for pancreatic cancer include surgical resection, chemotherapy and radiotherapy. However, these treatment methods rarely produce satisfactory therapeutic outcomes. Extensive research has also proven that the effective components of several traditional Chinese medicines, particularly flavonoids extracted from plants, have significant antitumour effects. Isoquercitrin, which is one of the flavonoids found in Bidens pilosa extracts, has a significant antitumour effect. However, the antitumour effect of isoquercitrin and its mechanism of action remain unclear. The objective of the present study was to investigate the effect of isoquercitrin on the progression of pancreatic cancer and to further understand the biological characteristics of the participation of isoquercitrin in the progression of pancreatic cancer. In vitro, we found that a therapeutic dose of isoquercitrin significantly inhibited proliferation, promoted apoptosis and induced cell cycle arrest within the G1 phase in pancreatic cancer cells. Isoquercitrin activated caspase-3, -8 and -9 and reduced the mitochondrial membrane potential. In addition, isoquercitrin inhibited the expression level of the δ opioid receptor; however, isoquercitrin had no effect on the κ and µ opioid receptors. Furthermore, isoquercitrin inhibited extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) phosphorylation and promoted c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) phosphorylation. In vivo, we found that a therapeutic dose of isoquercitrin significantly inhibited xenograft growth in nude mice. In summary, the present study demonstrated that isoquercitrin inhibits human pancreatic cancer progression in vivo and in vitro and that its molecular mechanism may be closely related to opioid receptors and to the activation

  1. Cell-free expression of functional receptor tyrosine kinases

    PubMed Central

    He, Wei; Scharadin, Tiffany M.; Saldana, Matthew; Gellner, Candice; Hoang-Phou, Steven; Takanishi, Christina; Hura, Gregory L.; Tainer, John A; Carraway III, Kermit L.; Henderson, Paul T.; Coleman, Matthew A.

    2015-01-01

    Receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs) play critical roles in physiological and pathological processes, and are important anticancer drug targets. In vitro mechanistic and drug discovery studies of full-length RTKs require protein that is both fully functional and free from contaminating proteins. Here we describe a rapid cell-free and detergent-free co-translation method for producing full-length and functional ERBB2 and EGFR receptor tyrosine kinases supported by water-soluble apolipoprotein A-I based nanolipoprotein particles. PMID:26274523

  2. All-trans retinoic acid modulates mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway activation in human scleral fibroblasts through retinoic acid receptor beta

    PubMed Central

    Huo, Lijun; Cui, Dongmei; Yang, Xiao; Gao, Zhenya; Trier, Klaus

    2013-01-01

    Purpose All-trans retinoic acid (ATRA) is known to inhibit the proliferation of human scleral fibroblasts (HSFs) and to modulate the scleral intercellular matrix composition, and may therefore serve as a mediator for controlling eye growth. Cell proliferation is regulated by the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway. The aim of the current study was to investigate whether changed activation of the MAPK pathway could be involved in the response of HSFs exposed to ATRA. Methods HSFs were cultured in Dulbecco Modified Eagle's Medium/F12 (DMEM/F12) and exposed to 1 μmol/l ATRA for 10 min, 30 min, 1 h, 8 h, or 24 h. The activation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK 1/2), p38, and c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) in HSFs was assessed with western blot analysis and immunocytofluorescence. Results After exposure to ATRA for 24 h, the HSFs appeared shrunken and thinner than the control cells. The intercellular spaces were wider, and the HSFs appeared less numerous than in the control culture. Western blot showed decreased activation of ERK 1/2 in the HSFs from 30 min (p=0.01) to 24 h (p<0.01) after the start of exposure to ATRA, and increased activation of the JNK protein from 10 to 30 min (p<0.01) after the start of exposure to ATRA. Indirect immunofluorescence confirmed changes in activation of ERK 1/2 and JNK in HSFs exposed to ATRA. No change in activation of p38 in HSFs was observed after exposure to ATRA. Pretreatment of the HSFs with LE135, an antagonist of retinoic acid receptor beta (RARβ), abolished the ATRA-induced changes inactivation of ERK 1/2 and JNK. Conclusions ATRA inhibits HSF proliferation by a mechanism associated with modulation of ERK 1/2 and JNK activation and depends on stimulation of retinoic acid receptor beta. PMID:23946634

  3. Oncoprotein protein kinase

    DOEpatents

    Karin, Michael; Hibi, Masahiko; Linn, Anning

    1996-01-01

    An isolated polypeptide (JNK) characterized by having a molecular weight of 46kD as determined by reducing SDS-PAGE, having serine and threonine kinase activity, phosphorylating the c-Jun N-terminal activation domain and polynucleotide sequences and method of detection of JNK.

  4. Protein Kinase C Is Involved in the Induction of ATP-Binding Cassette Transporter A1 Expression by Liver X Receptor/Retinoid X Receptor Agonist in Human Macrophages.

    PubMed

    Huwait, Etimad A; Singh, Nishi N; Michael, Daryn R; Davies, Thomas S; Moss, Joe W E; Ramji, Dipak P

    2015-09-01

    The transcription of the ATP-binding cassette transporter A1 (ABCA1) gene, which plays a key anti-atherogenic role, is known to be induced by agonists of liver X receptors (LXRs). LXRs form obligate heterodimers with retinoid X receptors (RXRs) and interact with their recognition sequences in the regulatory regions of key genes implicated in the control of cholesterol, fatty acid and glucose homeostasis. We have previously shown a novel role for c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) and phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) in the LXRs-mediated induction of macrophage gene expression. Protein kinase C (PKC) is often found to regulate the action of nuclear receptors and cross talk between this kinase family and JNK and/or PI3K has been shown in several settings. We have, therefore, investigated a potential role for PKC in the action of LXR/RXR agonist 22-(R)-hydroxycholesterol (22-(R)-HC)/9-cis-retinoic acid (9cRA) in THP-1 macrophages, including the induction of ABCA1 expression. The pan PKC inhibitor bisindoylmaleimide was found to attenuate the induction of ABCA1 protein expression, the activation of the JNK signaling pathway and the stimulation of activator protein-1 (AP-1) DNA binding activity in macrophages treated with 22-(R)-HC and 9cRA. The role of PKC in the action of these ligands was confirmed further by the use of more isotype-specific inhibitors. These studies, therefore, reveal a potentially important role for PKC in the action of 22-(R)-HC and 9cRA in human macrophages. PMID:25752819

  5. SRPK1 and Akt Protein Kinases Phosphorylate the RS Domain of Lamin B Receptor with Distinct Specificity: A Combined Biochemical and In Silico Approach

    PubMed Central

    Nikolakaki, Eleni; Vlassi, Metaxia; Giannakouros, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    Activated Akt has been previously implicated in acting on RS domain-containing proteins. However, it has been questioned whether its action is direct or it is mediated by co-existing SR kinase activity. To address this issue we studied in detail the phosphorylation of Lamin B Receptor (LBR) by Akt. Using synthetic peptides and a set of recombinant proteins expressing mutants of the LBR RS domain we now demonstrate that while all serines of the RS domain represent more or less equal phosphoacceptor sites for SRPK1, Ser80 and Ser82 are mainly targeted by Akt. 3D-modeling combined with molecular dynamics (MD) simulations show that amongst short, overlapping LBR RS-containing peptides complying with the minimum Akt recognition consensus sequence, only those bearing phosphosites either at Ser80 or Ser82 are able to fit into the active site of Akt, at least as effectively as its known substrate, GSK3-β. Combined our results provide evidence that Akt kinases directly phosphorylate an RS domain-containing protein and that both the residues N-terminal the phosphosite and at position +1 are essential for Akt specificity, with the latter substrate position being compatible with the arginine residue of RS-repeats. PMID:27105349

  6. Pseudorabies Virus US3 Protein Kinase Protects Infected Cells from NK Cell-Mediated Lysis via Increased Binding of the Inhibitory NK Cell Receptor CD300a

    PubMed Central

    Grauwet, K.; Vitale, M.; De Pelsmaeker, S.; Jacob, T.; Laval, K.; Moretta, L.; Parodi, M.; Parolini, S.; Cantoni, C.

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Several reports have indicated that natural killer (NK) cells are of particular importance in the innate response against herpesvirus infections. As a consequence, herpesviruses have developed diverse mechanisms for evading NK cells, although few such mechanisms have been identified for the largest herpesvirus subfamily, the alphaherpesviruses. The antiviral activity of NK cells is regulated by a complex array of interactions between activating/inhibitory receptors on the NK cell surface and the corresponding ligands on the surfaces of virus-infected cells. Here we report that the US3 protein kinase of the alphaherpesvirus pseudorabies virus (PRV) displays previously uncharacterized immune evasion properties: it triggers the binding of the inhibitory NK cell receptor CD300a to the surface of the infected cell, thereby providing increased CD300a-mediated protection of infected cells against NK cell-mediated lysis. US3-mediated CD300a binding was found to depend on aminophospholipid ligands of CD300a and on group I p21-activated kinases. These data identify a novel alphaherpesvirus strategy for evading NK cells and demonstrate, for the first time, a role for CD300a in regulating NK cell activity upon contact with virus-infected target cells. IMPORTANCE Herpesviruses have developed fascinating mechanisms to evade elimination by key elements of the host immune system, contributing to their ability to cause lifelong infections with recurrent reactivation events. Natural killer (NK) cells are central in the innate antiviral response. Here we report that the US3 protein kinase of the alphaherpesvirus pseudorabies virus displays a previously uncharacterized capacity for evasion of NK cells. Expression of US3 protects infected cells from NK cell-mediated lysis via increased binding of the inhibitory NK cell receptor CD300a. We show that this US3-mediated increase in CD300a binding depends on aminophospholipids and on cellular p21-activated kinases (PAKs). The

  7. Protein Kinase D and Gβγ Subunits Mediate Agonist-evoked Translocation of Protease-activated Receptor-2 from the Golgi Apparatus to the Plasma Membrane.

    PubMed

    Jensen, Dane D; Zhao, Peishen; Jimenez-Vargas, Nestor N; Lieu, TinaMarie; Gerges, Marina; Yeatman, Holly R; Canals, Meritxell; Vanner, Stephen J; Poole, Daniel P; Bunnett, Nigel W

    2016-05-20

    Agonist-evoked endocytosis of G protein-coupled receptors has been extensively studied. The mechanisms by which agonists stimulate mobilization and plasma membrane translocation of G protein-coupled receptors from intracellular stores are unexplored. Protease-activated receptor-2 (PAR2) traffics to lysosomes, and sustained protease signaling requires mobilization and plasma membrane trafficking of PAR2 from Golgi stores. We evaluated the contribution of protein kinase D (PKD) and Gβγ to this process. In HEK293 and KNRK cells, the PAR2 agonists trypsin and 2-furoyl-LIGRLO-NH2 activated PKD in the Golgi apparatus, where PKD regulates protein trafficking. PAR2 activation induced translocation of Gβγ, a PKD activator, to the Golgi apparatus, determined by bioluminescence resonance energy transfer between Gγ-Venus and giantin-Rluc8. Inhibitors of PKD (CRT0066101) and Gβγ (gallein) prevented PAR2-stimulated activation of PKD. CRT0066101, PKD1 siRNA, and gallein all inhibited recovery of PAR2-evoked Ca(2+) signaling. PAR2 with a photoconvertible Kaede tag was expressed in KNRK cells to examine receptor translocation from the Golgi apparatus to the plasma membrane. Irradiation of the Golgi region (405 nm) induced green-red photo-conversion of PAR2-Kaede. Trypsin depleted PAR2-Kaede from the Golgi apparatus and repleted PAR2-Kaede at the plasma membrane. CRT0066101 inhibited PAR2-Kaede translocation to the plasma membrane. CRT0066101 also inhibited sustained protease signaling to colonocytes and nociceptive neurons that naturally express PAR2 and mediate protease-evoked inflammation and nociception. Our results reveal a major role for PKD and Gβγ in agonist-evoked mobilization of intracellular PAR2 stores that is required for sustained signaling by extracellular proteases. PMID:27030010

  8. Filarial Lymphatic Pathology Reflects Augmented Toll-Like Receptor-Mediated, Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase-Mediated Proinflammatory Cytokine Production ▿ †

    PubMed Central

    Babu, Subash; Anuradha, R.; Kumar, N. Pavan; George, P. Jovvian; Kumaraswami, V.; Nutman, Thomas B.

    2011-01-01

    Lymphatic filariasis can be associated with the development of serious pathology in the form of lymphedema, hydrocele, and elephantiasis in a subset of infected patients. Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are thought to play a major role in the development of filarial pathology. To elucidate the role of TLRs in the development of lymphatic pathology, we examined cytokine responses to different Toll ligands in patients with chronic lymphatic pathology (CP), infected patients with subclinical pathology (INF), and uninfected, endemic-normal (EN) individuals. TLR2, -7, and -9 ligands induced significantly elevated production of Th1 and other proinflammatory cytokines in CP patients in comparison to both INF and EN patients. TLR adaptor expression was not significantly different among the groups; however, both TLR2 and TLR9 ligands induced significantly higher levels of phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2) and p38 mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinases (MAPK) as well as increased activation of NF-κB in CP individuals. Pharmacologic inhibition of both ERK1/2 and p38 MAP kinase pathways resulted in significantly diminished production of proinflammatory cytokines in CP individuals. Our data, therefore, strongly suggest an important role for TLR2- and TLR9-mediated proinflammatory cytokine induction and activation of both the MAPK and NF-κB pathways in the development of pathology in human lymphatic filariasis. PMID:21875961

  9. DNA-Encoded Library Screening Identifies Benzo[b][1,4]oxazepin-4-ones as Highly Potent and Monoselective Receptor Interacting Protein 1 Kinase Inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Harris, Philip A; King, Bryan W; Bandyopadhyay, Deepak; Berger, Scott B; Campobasso, Nino; Capriotti, Carol A; Cox, Julie A; Dare, Lauren; Dong, Xiaoyang; Finger, Joshua N; Grady, LaShadric C; Hoffman, Sandra J; Jeong, Jae U; Kang, James; Kasparcova, Viera; Lakdawala, Ami S; Lehr, Ruth; McNulty, Dean E; Nagilla, Rakesh; Ouellette, Michael T; Pao, Christina S; Rendina, Alan R; Schaeffer, Michelle C; Summerfield, Jennifer D; Swift, Barbara A; Totoritis, Rachel D; Ward, Paris; Zhang, Aming; Zhang, Daohua; Marquis, Robert W; Bertin, John; Gough, Peter J

    2016-03-10

    The recent discovery of the role of receptor interacting protein 1 (RIP1) kinase in tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-mediated inflammation has led to its emergence as a highly promising target for the treatment of multiple inflammatory diseases. We screened RIP1 against GSK's DNA-encoded small-molecule libraries and identified a novel highly potent benzoxazepinone inhibitor series. We demonstrate that this template possesses complete monokinase selectivity for RIP1 plus unique species selectivity for primate versus nonprimate RIP1. We elucidate the conformation of RIP1 bound to this benzoxazepinone inhibitor driving its high kinase selectivity and design specific mutations in murine RIP1 to restore potency to levels similar to primate RIP1. This series differentiates itself from known RIP1 inhibitors in combining high potency and kinase selectivity with good pharmacokinetic profiles in rodents. The favorable developability profile of this benzoxazepinone template, as exemplified by compound 14 (GSK'481), makes it an excellent starting point for further optimization into a RIP1 clinical candidate. PMID:26854747

  10. Methamphetamine-induced short-term increase and long-term decrease in spatial working memory affects protein Kinase M zeta (PKMζ), dopamine, and glutamate receptors.

    PubMed

    Braren, Stephen H; Drapala, Damian; Tulloch, Ingrid K; Serrano, Peter A

    2014-01-01

    Methamphetamine (MA) is a toxic, addictive drug shown to modulate learning and memory, yet the neural mechanisms are not fully understood. We investigated the effects of 2 weekly injections of MA (30 mg/kg) on working memory using the radial 8-arm maze (RAM) across 5 weeks in adolescent-age mice. MA-treated mice show a significant improvement in working memory performance 1 week following the first MA injection compared to saline-injected controls. Following 5 weeks of MA abstinence mice were re-trained on a reference and working memory version of the RAM to assess cognitive flexibility. MA-treated mice show significantly more working memory errors without effects on reference memory performance. The hippocampus and dorsal striatum were assessed for expression of glutamate receptors subunits, GluA2 and GluN2B; dopamine markers, dopamine 1 receptor (D1), dopamine transporter (DAT) and tyrosine hydroxylase (TH); and memory markers, protein kinase M zeta (PKMζ) and protein kinase C zeta (PKCζ). Within the hippocampus, PKMζ and GluA2 are both significantly reduced after MA supporting the poor memory performance. Additionally, a significant increase in GluN2B and decrease in D1 identifies dysregulated synaptic function. In the striatum, MA treatment increased cytosolic DAT and TH levels associated with dopamine hyperfunction. MA treatment significantly reduced GluN2B while increasing both PKMζ and PKCζ within the striatum. We discuss the potential role of PKMζ/PKCζ in modulating dopamine and glutamate receptors after MA treatment. These results identify potential underlying mechanisms for working memory deficits induced by MA. PMID:25566006

  11. Methamphetamine-induced short-term increase and long-term decrease in spatial working memory affects protein Kinase M zeta (PKMζ), dopamine, and glutamate receptors

    PubMed Central

    Braren, Stephen H.; Drapala, Damian; Tulloch, Ingrid K.; Serrano, Peter A.

    2014-01-01

    Methamphetamine (MA) is a toxic, addictive drug shown to modulate learning and memory, yet the neural mechanisms are not fully understood. We investigated the effects of 2 weekly injections of MA (30 mg/kg) on working memory using the radial 8-arm maze (RAM) across 5 weeks in adolescent-age mice. MA-treated mice show a significant improvement in working memory performance 1 week following the first MA injection compared to saline-injected controls. Following 5 weeks of MA abstinence mice were re-trained on a reference and working memory version of the RAM to assess cognitive flexibility. MA-treated mice show significantly more working memory errors without effects on reference memory performance. The hippocampus and dorsal striatum were assessed for expression of glutamate receptors subunits, GluA2 and GluN2B; dopamine markers, dopamine 1 receptor (D1), dopamine transporter (DAT) and tyrosine hydroxylase (TH); and memory markers, protein kinase M zeta (PKMζ) and protein kinase C zeta (PKCζ). Within the hippocampus, PKMζ and GluA2 are both significantly reduced after MA supporting the poor memory performance. Additionally, a significant increase in GluN2B and decrease in D1 identifies dysregulated synaptic function. In the striatum, MA treatment increased cytosolic DAT and TH levels associated with dopamine hyperfunction. MA treatment significantly reduced GluN2B while increasing both PKMζ and PKCζ within the striatum. We discuss the potential role of PKMζ/PKCζ in modulating dopamine and glutamate receptors after MA treatment. These results identify potential underlying mechanisms for working memory deficits induced by MA. PMID:25566006

  12. Oncoprotein protein kinase

    DOEpatents

    Karin, Michael; Hibi, Masahiko; Lin, Anning; Davis, Roger; Derijard, Benoit

    2005-03-08

    An isolated polypeptide (JNK) characterized by having a molecular weight of 46 kD as determined by reducing SDS-PAGE, having serine and threonine kinase activity, phosphorylating the c-Jun N-terminal activation domain and polynucleotide sequences and method of detection of JNK are provided herein. JNK phosphorylates c-Jun N-terminal activation domain which affects gene expression from AP-1 sites.

  13. Oncoprotein protein kinase

    DOEpatents

    Davis, Roger; Derijard, Benoit; Karin, Michael; Hibi, Masahiko; Lin, Anning

    2005-01-25

    An isolated polypeptide (JNK) characterized by having a molecular weight of 46 kD as determined by reducing SDS-PAGE, having serine and threonine kinase activity, phosphorylating the c-Jun N-terminal activation domain and polynucleotide sequences and method of detection of JNK are provided herein. JNK phosphorylates c-Jun N-terminal activation domain which affects gene expression from AP-1 sites.

  14. Oncoprotein protein kinase

    DOEpatents

    Karin, Michael; Hibi, Masahiko; Lin, Anning

    1999-01-01

    An isolated polypeptide (JNK) characterized by having a molecular weight of 46 kD or 55 kD as determined by reducing SDS-PAGE, having serine and theonine kinase activity, phosphorylating the c-Jun N-terminal activation domain and polynucleotide sequences and method of detection of JNK are provided herein. JNK phosphorylates c-Jun N-terminal activation domain which affects gene expression from AP-1 sites.

  15. Oncoprotein protein kinase

    DOEpatents

    Karin, Michael; Hibi, Masahiko; Lin, Anning

    1997-01-01

    An isolated polypeptide (JNK) characterized by having a molecular weight of 46kD as determined by reducing SDS-PAGE, having serine and threonine kinase activity, phosphorylating the c-Jun N-terminal activation domain and polynucleotide sequences and method of detection of JNK are provided herein. JNK phosphorylates c-Jun N-terminal activation domain which affects gene expression from AP-1 sites.

  16. Oncoprotein protein kinase

    DOEpatents

    Karin, Michael; Hibi, Masahiko; Lin, Anning

    1998-01-01

    An isolated polypeptide (JNK) characterized by having a molecular weight of 46 kD as determined by reducing SDS-PAGE, having serine and threonine kinase activity, phosphorylating the c-Jun N-terminal activation domain and polynucleotide sequences and method of detection of JNK are provided herein. JNK phosphorylates c-Jun N-terminal activation domain which affects gene expression from AP-1 sites.

  17. Oncoprotein protein kinase

    DOEpatents

    Karin, Michael; Hibi, Masahiko; Lin, Anning; Davis, Roger; Derijard, Benoit

    2003-02-04

    An isolated polypeptide (JNK) characterized by having a molecular weight of 46kD as determined by reducing SDS-PAGE, having serine and threonine kinase activity, phosphorylating the c-Jun N-terminal activation domain and polynucleotide sequences and method of detection of JNK are provided herein. JNK phosphorylates c-Jun N-terminal activation domain which affects gene expression from AP-1 sites.

  18. Oncoprotein protein kinase

    DOEpatents

    Karin, M.; Hibi, M.; Lin, A.

    1997-02-25

    An isolated polypeptide (JNK) characterized by having a molecular weight of 46 kD as determined by reducing SDS-PAGE is disclosed. The polypeptide has serine and threonine kinase activity, phosphorylating the c-Jun N-terminal activation domain and polynucleotide sequences. The method of detection of JNK is also provided. JNK phosphorylates c-Jun N-terminal activation domain which affects gene expression from AP-1 sites. 44 figs.

  19. Oncoprotein protein kinase

    DOEpatents

    Karin, Michael; Hibi, Masahiko; Lin, Anning

    1997-01-01

    An isolated polypeptide (JNK) characterized by having a molecular weight of 46 kD as determined by reducing SDS-PAGE, having serine and threonine kinase activity, phosphorylating the c-Jun N-terminal activation domain and polynucleotide sequences and method of detection of JNK are provided herein. JNK phosphorylates c-Jun N-terminal activation domain which affects gene expression from AP-1 sites.

  20. Oncoprotein protein kinase

    DOEpatents

    Karin, Michael; Lin, Anning

    1999-11-30

    An isolated polypeptide (JNK) characterized by having a molecular weight of 46 kD or 55 kD as determined by reducing SDS-PAGE, having serine and theonine kinase activity, phosphorylating the c-Jun N-terminal activation domain and polynucleotide sequences and method of detection of JNK are provided herein. JNK phosphorylates c-Jun N-terminal activation domain which affects gene expression from AP-1 sites.

  1. Oncoprotein protein kinase

    DOEpatents

    Karin, Michael; Hibi, Masahiko; Lin, Anning

    2004-03-16

    An isolated polypeptide (JNK) characterized by having a molecular weight of 46 kD as determined by reducing SDS-PAGE, having serine and threonine kinase activity, phosphorylating the c-Jun N-terminal activation domain and polynucleotide sequences and method of detection of JNK are provided herein. JNK phosphorylates c-Jun N-terminal activation domain which affects gene expression from AP-1 sites.

  2. Regulation of mitochondrial protein import by cytosolic kinases.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, Oliver; Harbauer, Angelika B; Rao, Sanjana; Eyrich, Beate; Zahedi, René P; Stojanovski, Diana; Schönfisch, Birgit; Guiard, Bernard; Sickmann, Albert; Pfanner, Nikolaus; Meisinger, Chris

    2011-01-21

    Mitochondria import a large number of nuclear-encoded proteins via membrane-bound transport machineries; however, little is known about regulation of the preprotein translocases. We report that the main protein entry gate of mitochondria, the translocase of the outer membrane (TOM complex), is phosphorylated by cytosolic kinases-in particular, casein kinase 2 (CK2) and protein kinase A (PKA). CK2 promotes biogenesis of the TOM complex by phosphorylation of two key components, the receptor Tom22 and the import protein Mim1, which in turn are required for import of further Tom proteins. Inactivation of CK2 decreases the levels of the TOM complex and thus mitochondrial protein import. PKA phosphorylates Tom70 under nonrespiring conditions, thereby inhibiting its receptor activity and the import of mitochondrial metabolite carriers. We conclude that cytosolic kinases exert stimulatory and inhibitory effects on biogenesis and function of the TOM complex and thus regulate protein import into mitochondria. PMID:21215441

  3. Transcriptional activation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-{gamma} requires activation of both protein kinase A and Akt during adipocyte differentiation

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Sang-pil; Ha, Jung Min; Yun, Sung Ji; Kim, Eun Kyoung; Chung, Sung Woon; Hong, Ki Whan; Kim, Chi Dae; Bae, Sun Sik

    2010-08-13

    Research highlights: {yields} Elevated cAMP activates both PKA and Epac. {yields} PKA activates CREB transcriptional factor and Epac activates PI3K/Akt pathway via Rap1. {yields} Akt modulates PPAR-{gamma} transcriptional activity in concert with CREB. -- Abstract: Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-{gamma} (PPAR-{gamma}) is required for the conversion of pre-adipocytes. However, the mechanism underlying activation of PPAR-{gamma} is unclear. Here we showed that cAMP-induced activation of protein kinase A (PKA) and Akt is essential for the transcriptional activation of PPAR-{gamma}. Hormonal induction of adipogenesis was blocked by a phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) inhibitor (LY294002), by a protein kinase A (PKA) inhibitor (H89), and by a Rap1 inhibitor (GGTI-298). Transcriptional activity of PPAR-{gamma} was markedly enhanced by 3-isobutyl-1-methylxanthine (IBMX), but not insulin and dexamethasone. In addition, IBMX-induced PPAR-{gamma} transcriptional activity was blocked by PI3K/Akt, PKA, or Rap1 inhibitors. 8-(4-Chlorophenylthio)-2'-O-methyl-cAMP (8-pCPT-2'-O-Me-cAMP) which is a specific agonist for exchanger protein directly activated by cAMP (Epac) significantly induced the activation of Akt. Furthermore, knock-down of Akt1 markedly attenuated PPAR-{gamma} transcriptional activity. These results indicate that both PKA and Akt signaling pathways are required for transcriptional activation of PPAR-{gamma}, suggesting post-translational activation of PPAR-{gamma} might be critical step for adipogenic gene expression.

  4. Proteasome inhibitors induce peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor transactivation through RXR accumulation and a protein kinase C-dependent pathway

    SciTech Connect

    Tsao, W.-C.; Wu, H.-M.; Chi, K.-H.; Chang, Y.-H.; Lin, W.-W. . E-mail: wwl@ha.mc.ntu.edu.tw

    2005-03-10

    Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor {gamma} (PPAR{gamma}), a member of nuclear hormone receptors, forms a heterodimeric DNA binding complex with retinoid X receptor (RXR) and serves as a transcriptional regulator of gene expression. In this study, using luciferase assay of a reporter gene containing PPAR response element (PPRE), we found PPRE transactivity was additively induced by PPAR{gamma} activator (15dPGJ{sub 2}) and RXR activator (9-cis retinoic acid, 9-cis RA). Proteasome inhibitors MG132 and MG262 also stimulate PPRE transactivity in a concentration-dependent manner, and this effect is synergistic to 15dPGJ{sub 2} and 9-cis RA. PKC activation by 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA) and ingenol 3,20-dibenzoate (IDB) also led to an increased PPRE activation, and this action was additive to PPAR{gamma} activators and 9-cis RA, but not to proteasome inhibitors. Results indicate that the PPAR{gamma} enhancing effect of proteasome inhibitors was attributed to redox-sensitive PKC activation. Western blot analysis showed that the protein level of RXR{alpha}, but not PPAR{gamma}, RXR{beta}, or PKC isoforms, was accumulated in the presence of proteasome inhibitors. Taken together, we conclude that proteasome inhibitors can upregulate PPRE activity through RXR{alpha} accumulation and a PKC-dependent pathway. The former is due to inhibition of RXR{alpha} degradation through ubiquitin-dependent proteasome system, while the latter is mediated by reactive oxygen species (ROS) production.

  5. Receptor tyrosine kinase targeting in multicellular spheroids.

    PubMed

    Breslin, Susan; O'Driscoll, Lorraine

    2015-01-01

    While growing cells as a monolayer is the traditional method for cell culture, the incorporation of multicellular spheroids into experimental design is becoming increasingly popular. This is due to the understanding that cells grown as spheroids tend to replicate the in vivo situation more reliably than monolayer cells. Thus, the use of multicellular spheroids may be more clinically relevant than monolayer cell cultures. Here, we describe methods for multicellular 3D spheroid generation that may be used to provide samples for receptor tyrosine kinase (and other protein) detection. Methods described include the forced-floating poly-HEMA method, the hanging-drop method, and the use of ECM to form multicellular 3D spheroids. PMID:25319898

  6. Attenuation of pattern recognition receptor signaling is mediated by a MAP kinase kinase kinase.

    PubMed

    Mithoe, Sharon C; Ludwig, Christina; Pel, Michiel J C; Cucinotta, Mara; Casartelli, Alberto; Mbengue, Malick; Sklenar, Jan; Derbyshire, Paul; Robatzek, Silke; Pieterse, Corné M J; Aebersold, Ruedi; Menke, Frank L H

    2016-03-01

    Pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) play a key role in plant and animal innate immunity. PRR binding of their cognate ligand triggers a signaling network and activates an immune response. Activation of PRR signaling must be controlled prior to ligand binding to prevent spurious signaling and immune activation. Flagellin perception in Arabidopsis through FLAGELLIN-SENSITIVE 2 (FLS2) induces the activation of mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) and immunity. However, the precise molecular mechanism that connects activated FLS2 to downstream MAPK cascades remains unknown. Here, we report the identification of a differentially phosphorylated MAP kinase kinase kinase that also interacts with FLS2. Using targeted proteomics and functional analysis, we show that MKKK7 negatively regulates flagellin-triggered signaling and basal immunity and this requires phosphorylation of MKKK7 on specific serine residues. MKKK7 attenuates MPK6 activity and defense gene expression. Moreover, MKKK7 suppresses the reactive oxygen species burst downstream of FLS2, suggesting that MKKK7-mediated attenuation of FLS2 signaling occurs through direct modulation of the FLS2 complex. PMID:26769563

  7. Cardiac-specific ablation of G-protein receptor kinase 2 redefines its roles in heart development and beta-adrenergic signaling.

    PubMed

    Matkovich, Scot J; Diwan, Abhinav; Klanke, Justin L; Hammer, Daniel J; Marreez, Yehia; Odley, Amy M; Brunskill, Eric W; Koch, Walter J; Schwartz, Robert J; Dorn, Gerald W

    2006-10-27

    G-protein receptor kinase 2 (GRK2) is 1 of 7 mammalian GRKs that phosphorylate ligand-bound 7-transmembrane receptors, causing receptor uncoupling from G proteins and potentially activating non-G-protein signaling pathways. GRK2 is unique among members of the GRK family in that its genetic ablation causes embryonic lethality. Cardiac abnormalities in GRK2 null embryos implicated GRK2 in cardiac development but prevented studies of the knockout phenotype in adult hearts. Here, we created GRK2-loxP-targeted mice and used Cre recombination to generate germline and cardiac-specific GRK2 knockouts. GRK2 deletion in the preimplantation embryo with EIIa-Cre (germline null) resulted in developmental retardation and embryonic lethality between embryonic day 10.5 (E10.5) and E11.5. At E9.5, cardiac myocyte specification and cardiac looping were normal, but ventricular development was delayed. Cardiomyocyte-specific ablation of GRK2 in the embryo with Nkx2.5-driven Cre (cardiac-specific GRK2 knockout) produced viable mice with normal heart structure, function, and cardiac gene expression. Cardiac-specific GRK2 knockout mice exhibited enhanced inotropic sensitivity to the beta-adrenergic receptor agonist isoproterenol, with impairment of normal inotropic and lusitropic tachyphylaxis, and exhibited accelerated development of catecholamine toxicity with chronic isoproterenol treatment. These findings show that cardiomyocyte autonomous GRK2 is not essential for myocardial development after cardiac specification, suggesting that embryonic developmental abnormalities may be attributable to extracardiac effects of GRK2 ablation. In the adult heart, cardiac GRK2 is a major factor regulating inotropic and lusitropic tachyphylaxis to beta-adrenergic agonist, which likely contributes to its protective effects in catecholamine cardiomyopathy. PMID:17008600

  8. Urotensin-II Receptor Stimulation of Cardiac L-type Ca2+ Channels Requires the βγ Subunits of Gi/o-protein and Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinase-dependent Protein Kinase C β1 Isoform*

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yuan; Ying, Jiaoqian; Jiang, Dongsheng; Chang, Zhigang; Li, Hua; Zhang, Guoqiang; Gong, Shan; Jiang, Xinghong; Tao, Jin

    2015-01-01

    Recent studies have demonstrated that urotensin-II (U-II) plays important roles in cardiovascular actions including cardiac positive inotropic effects and increasing cardiac output. However, the mechanisms underlying these effects of U-II in cardiomyocytes still remain unknown. We show by electrophysiological studies that U-II dose-dependently potentiates L-type Ca2+ currents (ICa,L) in adult rat ventricular myocytes. This effect was U-II receptor (U-IIR)-dependent and was associated with a depolarizing shift in the voltage dependence of inactivation. Intracellular application of guanosine-5′-O-(2-thiodiphosphate) and pertussis toxin pretreatment both abolished the stimulatory effects of U-II. Dialysis of cells with the QEHA peptide, but not scrambled peptide SKEE, blocked the U-II-induced response. The phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) inhibitor wortmannin as well as the class I PI3K antagonist CH132799 blocked the U-II-induced ICa,L response. Protein kinase C antagonists calphostin C and chelerythrine chloride as well as dialysis of cells with 1,2bis(2aminophenoxy)ethaneN,N,N′,N′-tetraacetic acid abolished the U-II-induced responses, whereas PKCα inhibition or PKA blockade had no effect. Exposure of ventricular myocytes to U-II markedly increased membrane PKCβ1 expression, whereas inhibition of PKCβ1 pharmacologically or by shRNA targeting abolished the U-II-induced ICa,L response. Functionally, we observed a significant increase in the amplitude of sarcomere shortening induced by U-II; blockade of U-IIR as well as PKCβ inhibition abolished this effect, whereas Bay K8644 mimicked the U-II response. Taken together, our results indicate that U-II potentiates ICa,L through the βγ subunits of Gi/o-protein and downstream activation of the class I PI3K-dependent PKCβ1 isoform. This occurred via the activation of U-IIR and contributes to the positive inotropic effect on cardiomyocytes. PMID:25678708

  9. Activity and protein kinase C regulate synaptic accumulation of N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptors independently of GluN1 splice variant.

    PubMed

    Ferreira, Joana S; Rooyakkers, Amanda; She, Kevin; Ribeiro, Luis; Carvalho, Ana Luísa; Craig, Ann Marie

    2011-08-12

    NMDA receptors are calcium-permeable ionotropic receptors that detect coincident glutamate binding and membrane depolarization and are essential for many forms of synaptic plasticity in the mammalian brain. The obligatory GluN1 subunit of NMDA receptors is alternatively spliced at multiple sites, generating forms that vary in N-terminal N1 and C-terminal C1, C2, and C2' cassettes. Based on expression of GluN1 constructs in heterologous cells and in wild type neurons, the prevalent view is that the C-terminal cassettes regulate synaptic accumulation and its modulation by homeostatic activity blockade and by protein kinase C (PKC). Here, we tested the role of GluN1 splicing in regulated synaptic accumulation of NMDA receptors by lentiviral expression of individual GluN1 splice variants in hippocampal neurons cultured from GluN1 (-/-) mice. High efficiency transduction of GluN1 at levels similar to endogenous was achieved. Under control conditions, the C2' cassette mediated enhanced synaptic accumulation relative to the alternate C2 cassette, whereas the presence or absence of N1 or C1 had no effect. Surprisingly all GluN1 splice variants showed >2-fold increased synaptic accumulation with chronic blockade of NMDA receptor activity. Furthermore, in this neuronal rescue system, all GluN1 splice variants were equally rapidly dispersed upon activation of PKC. These results indicate that the major mechanisms mediating homeostatic synaptic accumulation and PKC dispersal of NMDA receptors occur independently of GluN1 splice isoform. PMID:21676872

  10. Phosphorylation of the Deubiquitinase USP20 by Protein Kinase A Regulates Post-endocytic Trafficking of β2 Adrenergic Receptors to Autophagosomes during Physiological Stress*

    PubMed Central

    Kommaddi, Reddy Peera; Jean-Charles, Pierre-Yves; Shenoy, Sudha K.

    2015-01-01

    Ubiquitination by the E3 ligase Nedd4 and deubiquitination by the deubiquitinases USP20 and USP33 have been shown to regulate the lysosomal trafficking and recycling of agonist-activated β2 adrenergic receptors (β2ARs). In this work, we demonstrate that, in cells subjected to physiological stress by nutrient starvation, agonist-activated ubiquitinated β2ARs traffic to autophagosomes to colocalize with the autophagy marker protein LC3-II. Furthermore, this trafficking is synchronized by dynamic posttranslational modifications of USP20 that, in turn, are induced in a β2AR-dependent manner. Upon β2AR activation, a specific isoform of the second messenger cAMP-dependent protein kinase A (PKAα) rapidly phosphorylates USP20 on serine 333 located in its unique insertion domain. This phosphorylation of USP20 correlates with a characteristic SDS-PAGE mobility shift of the protein, blocks its deubiquitinase activity, promotes its dissociation from the activated β2AR complex, and facilitates trafficking of the ubiquitinated β2AR to autophagosomes, which fuse with lysosomes to form autolysosomes where receptors are degraded. Dephosphorylation of USP20 has reciprocal effects and blocks trafficking of the β2AR to autophagosomes while promoting plasma membrane recycling of internalized β2ARs. Our findings reveal a dynamic regulation of USP20 by site-specific phosphorylation as well as the interdependence of signal transduction and trafficking pathways in balancing adrenergic stimulation and maintaining cellular homeostasis. PMID:25666616

  11. Sex differences in the activity of signalling pathways and expression of G-protein-coupled receptor kinases in the neonatal ventral hippocampal lesion model of schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    Bychkov, Evgeny; Ahmed, M. Rafiuddin; Gurevich, Eugenia V.

    2010-01-01

    Animals with the neonatal ventral hippocampal lesion (NVHL) demonstrate altered responsiveness to stress and various drugs reminiscent of that in schizophrenia. Post-pubertal onset of abnormalities suggests the possibility of sex differences in NVHL effects that may model sex differences in schizophrenia. Here we demonstrate that novelty- and MK-801-induced hyperactivity is evident in both male and female NVHL rats, whereas only NVHL males were hyperactive in response to apomorphine. Next, we examined the sex- and NVHL-dependent differences in the activity of the ERK and Akt pathways. The basal activity of both pathways was higher in females than in males. NVHL reduces the level of phosphorylation of ERK1/2, Akt, and GSK-3 in both sexes, although males show more consistent downregulation. Females had higher levels of G-protein-coupled kinases [G-protein-coupled receptor kinase (GRK)] 3 and 5, whereas the concentrations of other GRKs and arrestins were the same. In the nucleus accumbens, the concentration of GRK5 in females was elevated by NVHL to the male level. The data demonstrate profound sex differences in the expression and activity of signalling molecules that may underlie differential susceptibility to schizophrenia. PMID:20158934

  12. Thromboxane A2 Receptor Inhibition Suppresses Multiple Myeloma Cell Proliferation by Inducing p38/c-Jun N-terminal Kinase (JNK) Mitogen-activated Protein Kinase (MAPK)-mediated G2/M Progression Delay and Cell Apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Liu, Qian; Tao, Bo; Liu, Guizhu; Chen, Guilin; Zhu, Qian; Yu, Ying; Yu, Yu; Xiong, Hong

    2016-02-26

    Multiple myeloma (MM) is a plasma cell malignancy without effective therapeutics. Thromboxane A2 (TxA2)/TxA2 receptor (T prostanoid receptor (TP)) modulates the progression of some carcinomas; however, its effects on MM cell proliferation remain unclear. In this study, we evaluated cyclooxygenase (COX) enzymes and downstream prostaglandin profiles in human myeloma cell lines RPMI-8226 and U-266 and analyzed the effects of COX-1/-2 inhibitors SC-560 and NS-398 on MM cell proliferation. Our observations implicate COX-2 as being involved in modulating cell proliferation. We further incubated MM cells with prostaglandin receptor antagonists or agonists and found that only the TP antagonist, SQ29548, suppressed MM cell proliferation. TP silencing and the TP agonist, U46619, further confirmed this finding. Moreover, SQ29548 and TP silencing promoted MM cell G2/M phase delay accompanied by reducing cyclin B1/cyclin-dependent kinase-1 (CDK1) mRNA and protein expression. Notably, cyclin B1 overexpression rescued MM cells from G2/M arrest. We also found that the TP agonist activated JNK and p38 MAPK phosphorylation, and inhibitors of JNK and p38 MAPK depressed U46619-induced proliferation and cyclin B1/CDK1 protein expression. In addition, SQ29548 and TP silencing led to the MM cell apoptotic rate increasing with improving caspase 3 activity. The knockdown of caspase 3 reversed the apoptotic rate. Taken together, our results suggest that TxA2/TP promotes MM cell proliferation by reducing cell delay at G2/M phase via elevating p38 MAPK/JNK-mediated cyclin B1/CDK1 expression and hindering cell apoptosis. The TP inhibitor has potential as a novel agent to target kinase cascades for MM therapy. PMID:26724804

  13. Regulation of GluA1 α-Amino-3-Hydroxy-5-Methyl-4-Isoxazolepropionic Acid Receptor Function by Protein Kinase C at Serine-818 and Threonine-840

    PubMed Central

    Jenkins, Meagan A.; Wells, Gordon; Bachman, Julia; Snyder, James P.; Jenkins, Andrew; Huganir, Richard L.; Oswald, Robert E.

    2014-01-01

    Three residues within the AMPA (α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid) receptor subunit GluA1 C terminus (Ser818, Ser831, Thr840) can be phosphorylated by Ca2+/phospholipid-dependent protein kinase (PKC). Here, we show that PKC phosphorylation of GluA1 Ser818 or Thr840 enhances the weighted mean channel conductance without altering the response time course or agonist potency. These data support the idea that these residues constitute a hyper-regulatory domain for the AMPA receptor. Introduction of phosphomimetic mutations increases conductance only at these three sites within the proximal C terminus, consistent with a structural model with a flexible linker connecting the distal C-terminal domain to the more proximal domain containing a helix bracketed by Ser831 and Thr840. NMR spectra support this model and raise the possibility that phosphorylation can alter the configuration of this domain. Our findings provide insight into the structure and function of the C-terminal domain of GluA1, which controls AMPA receptor function and trafficking during synaptic plasticity in the central nervous system. PMID:24452473

  14. A role for the CaM Kinase II related anchoring protein (αkap) in maintaining the stability of nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptors

    PubMed Central

    Mouslim, Chakib; Aittaleb, Mohamed; Hume, Richard I.; Akaaboune, Mohammed

    2012-01-01

    αkap, a muscle specific anchoring protein encoded within the Camk2a gene is thought to play a role in targeting multiple calcium/calmodulin kinase II isoforms to specific subcellular locations. Here we demonstrate a novel function of αkap in stabilizing nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (AChR). Knockdown of αkap expression with shRNA significantly enhanced the degradation of AChR α-subunits (AChRα), leading to fewer and smaller AChR clusters on the surface of differentiated C2C12 myotubes. Mutagenesis and biochemical studies in HEK293T cells revealed that αkap promoted AChRα stability by a ubiquitin-dependent mechanism. In the absence of αkap, AChRα was heavily ubiquitinated and the number of AChRα was increased by proteasome inhibitors. However, in the presence of αkap, AChRα was less ubiquitinated and proteasome inhibitors had almost no effect on AChRα accumulation. The major sites of AChRα ubiquitination reside within the large intracellular loop and mutations of critical lysine residues in this loop to arginine increased AChRα stability in the absence of αkap. These results provide an unexpected mechanism by which αkap controls receptor trafficking onto the surface of muscle cells, and thus the maintenance of postsynaptic receptor density and synaptic function. PMID:22496563

  15. Regulation of ERK1/2 mitogen-activated protein kinase by NMDA-receptor-induced seizure activity in cortical slices.

    PubMed

    Yamagata, Yoko; Kaneko, Koichi; Kase, Daisuke; Ishihara, Hiromi; Nairn, Angus C; Obata, Kunihiko; Imoto, Keiji

    2013-04-24

    Extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2) that belongs to a subfamily of mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) plays diverse roles in the central nervous system. Activation of ERK1/2 has been observed in various types of neuronal excitation, including seizure activity in vivo and in vitro, as well as in NMDA-receptor (NMDA-R)-dependent long-term potentiation in the hippocampus. On the other hand, recent studies in cultured neurons have shown that NMDA-R stimulation could result in either ERK1/2 activation or non-activation, depending on the pharmacological manipulations. To assess NMDA-R-dependent regulation of ERK1/2 activity in vivo, here we examined the effect of NMDA-R-induced seizure activity on ERK1/2 activation by using rat cortical slice preparations. NMDA-R-dependent seizure activity introduced by Mg2+ -free condition did not cause ERK1/2 activation. On the other hand, when picrotoxin was added to concurrently suppress GABAA-receptor-mediated inhibition, profound ERK1/2 activation occurred, which was accompanied by strong phospho-ERK1/2-staining in the superficial and deep cortical layer neurons. In this case, prolonged membrane depolarization and enhanced burst action potential firings, both of which were much greater than those in Mg2+ -free condition alone, were observed. Differential ERK1/2 activation was supported by the concurrent selective increase in phosphorylation of a substrate protein, phospho-site 4/5 of synapsin I. These results indicate that NMDA-R activation through a release from Mg2+ -blockade, which accompanies enhancement of both excitatory and inhibitory synaptic transmission, was not enough, but concurrent suppression of GABAergic inhibition, which leads to a selective increase in excitatory synaptic transmission, was necessary for robust ERK1/2 activation to occur within the cortical network. PMID:23419897

  16. Regulation of ERK1/2 mitogen-activated protein kinase by NMDA-receptor-induced seizure activity in cortical slices

    PubMed Central

    Yamagata, Yoko; Kaneko, Koichi; Kase, Daisuke; Ishihara, Hiromi; Nairn, Angus C.; Obata, Kunihiko; Imoto, Keiji

    2013-01-01

    Extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2) that belongs to a subfamily of mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) plays diverse roles in the central nervous system. Activation of ERK1/2 has been observed in various types of neuronal excitation, including seizure activity in vivo and in vitro, as well as in NMDA-receptor (NMDA-R)-dependent long-term potentiation in the hippocampus. On the other hand, recent studies in cultured neurons have shown that NMDA-R stimulation could result in either ERK1/2 activation or non-activation, depending on the pharmacological manipulations. To assess NMDA-R-dependent regulation of ERK1/2 activity in vivo, here we examined the effect of NMDA-R-induced seizure activity on ERK1/2 activation by using rat cortical slice preparations. NMDA-R-dependent seizure activity introduced by Mg2+-free condition did not cause ERK1/2 activation. On the other hand, when picrotoxin was added to concurrently suppress GABAA-receptor-mediated inhibition, profound ERK1/2 activation occurred, which was accompanied by strong phospho-ERK1/2-staining in the superficial and deep cortical layer neurons. In this case, prolonged membrane depolarization and enhanced burst action potential firings, both of which were much greater than those in Mg2+-free condition alone, were observed. Differential ERK1/2 activation was supported by the concurrent selective increase in phosphorylation of a substrate protein, phospho-site 4/5 of synapsin I. These results indicate that NMDA-R activation through a release from Mg2+-blockade, which accompanies enhancement of both excitatory and inhibitory synaptic transmission, was not enough, but concurrent suppression of GABAergic inhibition, which leads to a selective increase in excitatory synaptic transmission, was necessary for robust ERK1/2 activation to occur within the cortical network. PMID:23419897

  17. Mycobacterium tuberculosis Serine/Threonine Protein Kinases

    PubMed Central

    PRISIC, SLADJANA; HUSSON, ROBERT N.

    2014-01-01

    The Mycobacterium tuberculosis genome encodes 11 serine/threonine protein kinases (STPKs). A similar number of two-component systems are also present, indicating that these two signal transduction mechanisms are both important in the adaptation of this bacterial pathogen to its environment. The M. tuberculosis phosphoproteome includes hundreds of Ser- and Thr-phosphorylated proteins that participate in all aspects of M. tuberculosis biology, supporting a critical role for the STPKs in regulating M. tuberculosis physiology. Nine of the STPKs are receptor type kinases, with an extracytoplasmic sensor domain and an intracellular kinase domain, indicating that these kinases transduce external signals. Two other STPKs are cytoplasmic and have regulatory domains that sense changes within the cell. Structural analysis of some of the STPKs has led to advances in our understanding of the mechanisms by which these STPKs are activated and regulated. Functional analysis has provided insights into the effects of phosphorylation on the activity of several proteins, but for most phosphoproteins the role of phosphorylation in regulating function is unknown. Major future challenges include characterizing the functional effects of phosphorylation for this large number of phosphoproteins, identifying the cognate STPKs for these phosphoproteins, and determining the signals that the STPKs sense. Ultimately, combining these STPK-regulated processes into larger, integrated regulatory networks will provide deeper insight into M. tuberculosis adaptive mechanisms that contribute to tuberculosis pathogenesis. Finally, the STPKs offer attractive targets for inhibitor development that may lead to new therapies for drug-susceptible and drug-resistant tuberculosis. PMID:25429354

  18. Increased hepatic receptor interacting protein kinase 3 expression due to impaired proteasomal functions contributes to alcohol-induced steatosis and liver injury

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Shaogui; Ni, Hong-Min; Dorko, Kenneth; Kumer, Sean C.; Schmitt, Timothy M.; Nawabi, Atta; Komatsu, Masaaki; Huang, Heqing; Ding, Wen-Xing

    2016-01-01

    Chronic alcohol exposure increased hepatic receptor-interacting protein kinase (RIP) 3 expression and necroptosis in the liver but its mechanisms are unclear. In the present study, we demonstrated that chronic alcohol feeding plus binge (Gao-binge) increased RIP3 but not RIP1 protein levels in mouse livers. RIP3 knockout mice had decreased serum alanine amino transferase activity and hepatic steatosis but had no effect on hepatic neutrophil infiltration compared with wild type mice after Gao-binge alcohol treatment. The hepatic mRNA levels of RIP3 did not change between Gao-binge and control mice, suggesting that alcohol-induced hepatic RIP3 proteins are regulated at the posttranslational level. We found that Gao-binge treatment decreased the levels of proteasome subunit alpha type-2 (PSMA2) and proteasome 26S subunit, ATPase 1 (PSMC1) and impaired hepatic proteasome function. Pharmacological or genetic inhibition of proteasome resulted in the accumulation of RIP3 in mouse livers. More importantly, human alcoholics had decreased expression of PSMA2 and PSMC1 but increased protein levels of RIP3 compared with healthy human livers. Moreover, pharmacological inhibition of RIP1 decreased Gao-binge-induced hepatic inflammation, neutrophil infiltration and NF-κB subunit (p65) nuclear translocation but failed to protect against steatosis and liver injury induced by Gao-binge alcohol. In conclusion, results from this study suggest that impaired hepatic proteasome function by alcohol exposure may contribute to hepatic accumulation of RIP3 resulting in necroptosis and steatosis while RIP1 kinase activity is important for alcohol-induced inflammation. PMID:26769846

  19. The Ror receptor tyrosine kinase family.

    PubMed

    Forrester, W C

    2002-01-01

    Receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs) participate in numerous developmental decisions. Ror RTKs are a family of orphan receptors that are related to muscle specific kinase (MuSK) and Trk neurotrophin receptors. MuSK assembles acetylcholine receptors at the neuromuscular junction, and Trk receptors function in the developing nervous system (reviewed in [3-5]). Rors have been identified in nematodes, insects and mammals. Recent studies have begun to shed light on Ror function during development. In most species, Rors are expressed in many tissue types during development. Analyses of mutants that are defective in the single nematode Ror demonstrate a role in cell migration and in orienting cell polarity. Mice lacking one of the two Ror gene products display defects in bone and heart formation. Similarly, two different human bone development disorders, dominant brachydactyly B and recessive Robinow syndrome, result from mutations in one of the human Ror genes. PMID:11846036

  20. Protein Kinases: Emerging Therapeutic Targets in Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia

    PubMed Central

    Balakrishnan, Kumudha; Gandhi, Varsha

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Although protein kinases are primary targets for inhibition in hematological malignancies, until recently their contribution to chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) was poorly understood. Insights into B cell receptor (BCR) signaling and its role in regulating key cellular functions have shed light on candidate protein kinases that are aberrantly activated in CLL. In this regard, protein kinases are now considered as potential drug targets in CLL. Area covered This review has covered signaling pathways and associated protein kinases in CLL and the kinase inhibitors currently available in preclinical and clinical investigations. Individual protein kinases that are abnormally active in CLL and the functional consequences of their inhibition are discussed. Expert opinion A growing body of evidence suggests that protein kinases are druggable targets for patients with CLL. The emergence of novel and bio-available kinase inhibitors and their promising clinical activity in CLL underscore the oncogenic role of kinases in leukemogenesis. Further investigations directed towards their role as single agents or in combinations may provide insight into understanding the substantial role of kinase mediated signal transduction pathways and their inhibition in B- CLL. PMID:22409342

  1. Activation of cAMP-protein kinase A abrogates STAT5-mediated inhibition of glucocorticoid receptor signaling by interferon-alpha.

    PubMed

    Pace, Thaddeus W W; Hu, Fang; Miller, Andrew H

    2011-11-01

    IFN-alpha has been found to inhibit glucocorticoid receptor (GR) function by activating janus kinase-signal transducer and activator of transcription (JAK-STAT) inflammatory signaling pathways. In contrast, through stimulation of protein kinase A (PKA), cAMP has been shown to enhance GR function and can inhibit inflammatory signaling. We therefore examined whether increased cAMP-PKA pathway activation could reverse IFN-alpha-induced inhibition of GR function and whether decreased cAMP-PKA activity might exacerbate IFN-alpha effects on the GR. Activation of cAMP by forskolin (10 μM) reversed the inhibitory effects of mIFN-alpha (1000 U/ml) on dexamethasone (DEX)-induced MMTV-luciferase activity in hippocampal HT22 cells. Forskolin treatment also blocked both IFN-alpha-induced activation of phosphorylated STAT5 (pSTAT5) and inhibitory protein-protein interactions between pSTAT5 and GR in the nucleus of HT22 cells treated with IFN-alpha and DEX. These effects of forskolin were reversed by co-administration of the PKA inhibitor, H89. Conversely, the combination of IFN-alpha and treatment with either H89 or siRNA directed against the alpha and beta catalytic subunit isoforms of PKA led to an additive inhibitory effect on DEX-induced GR activity in HT22 cells. Taken together, these findings suggest that inhibition of GR signaling by mIFN-alpha and STAT5 can be reversed by activation of cAMP-PKA pathways, whereas decreased PKA activity increases the inhibitory effect of IFN-alpha on GR function. Given decreased PKA activity found in patients with major depression, these data suggest that depressed patients may be vulnerable to cytokine effects on GR, and cAMP-PKA agonists may serve to reverse glucocorticoid resistance in patients with depression and increased inflammation. PMID:21798341

  2. Presynaptic N-Methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) Receptor Activity Is Increased Through Protein Kinase C in Paclitaxel-induced Neuropathic Pain.

    PubMed

    Xie, Jing-Dun; Chen, Shao-Rui; Chen, Hong; Zeng, Wei-An; Pan, Hui-Lin

    2016-09-01

    Painful peripheral neuropathy is a severe adverse effect of chemotherapeutic drugs such as paclitaxel (Taxol). The glutamate N-methyl-d-aspartate receptors (NMDARs) are critically involved in the synaptic plasticity associated with neuropathic pain. However, paclitaxel treatment does not alter the postsynaptic NMDAR activity of spinal dorsal horn neurons. In this study, we determined whether paclitaxel affects presynaptic NMDAR activity by recording excitatory postsynaptic currents (EPSCs) of dorsal horn neurons in spinal cord slices. In paclitaxel-treated rats, the baseline frequency of miniature EPSCs (mEPSCs) was significantly increased; the NMDAR antagonist 2-amino-5-phosphonopentanoic acid (AP5) completely normalized this frequency. Also, AP5 significantly reduced the amplitude of monosynaptic EPSCs evoked by dorsal root stimulation and reversed the reduction in the paired-pulse ratio of evoked EPSCs in paclitaxel-treated rats. Blocking GluN2A-containing, but not GluN2B-containing, NMDARs largely decreased the frequency of mEPSCs and the amplitude of evoked EPSCs of dorsal horn neurons in paclitaxel-treated rats. Furthermore, inhibition of protein kinase C fully reversed the increased frequency of mEPSCs and the amplitude of evoked EPSCs in paclitaxel-treated rats. Paclitaxel treatment significantly increased the protein level of GluN2A and phosphorylated GluN1 in the dorsal root ganglion. In addition, intrathecal injection of AP5 or systemic administration of memantine profoundly attenuated pain hypersensitivity induced by paclitaxel. Our findings indicate that paclitaxel treatment induces tonic activation of presynaptic NMDARs in the spinal cord through protein kinase C to potentiate nociceptive input from primary afferent nerves. Targeting presynaptic NMDARs at the spinal cord level may be an effective strategy for treating chemotherapy-induced neuropathic pain. PMID:27458019

  3. A plant receptor-like gene, the S-locus receptor kinase of Brassica oleracea L. , encodes a functional serine/threonine kinase

    SciTech Connect

    Stein, J.C.; Nasrallah, J.B. )

    1993-03-01

    To investigate the catalytic properties of the Brassica oleracea S-locus receptor kinase (SRK), the authors have expressed the domain that is homologous to protein kinases as a fusion protein in Escherichia coli. Following in vivo labeling of cultures with [sup 32]P-labeled inorganic phosphate, they observed phosphorylation of the fusion protein on serine and threonine, but not on tyrosine. In contrast, labeling was not observed when lysine-524, a residue conserved among all protein kinases, was mutated to arginine, thus confirmed that SRK phosphorylation was the result of intrinsic serine/threonine kinase activity. 26 refs., 3 figs.

  4. Involvement of OST1 Protein Kinase and PYR/PYL/RCAR Receptors in Methyl Jasmonate-Induced Stomatal Closure in Arabidopsis Guard Cells.

    PubMed

    Yin, Ye; Adachi, Yuji; Nakamura, Yoshimasa; Munemasa, Shintaro; Mori, Izumi C; Murata, Yoshiyuki

    2016-08-01

    Methyl jasmonate (MeJA) induces stomatal closure. It has been shown that stomata of many ABA-insensitive mutants are also insensitive to MeJA, and a low amount of ABA is a prerequisite for the MeJA response. However, the molecular mechanisms of the interaction between ABA and MeJA signaling remain to be elucidated. Here we studied the interplay of signaling of the two hormones in guard cells using the quadruple ABA receptor mutant pyr1 pyl1 pyl2 pyl4 and ABA-activated protein kinase mutants ost1-2 and srk2e. In the quadruple mutant, MeJA-induced stomatal closure, H2O2 production, nitric oxide (NO) production, cytosolic alkalization and plasma membrane Ca(2+)-permeable current (ICa) activation were not impaired. At the same time, the inactivation of the inward-rectifying K(+) current was impaired. In contrast to the quadruple mutant, MeJA-induced stomatal closure, H2O2 production, NO production and cytosolic alkalization were impaired in ost1-2 and srk2e as well as in aba2-2, the ABA-deficient mutant. The activation of ICa was also impaired in srk2e. Collectively, these results indicated that OST1 was essential for MeJA-induced stomatal closure, while PYR1, PYL1, PYL2 and PYL4 ABA receptors were not sufficient factors. MeJA did not appear to activate OST1 kinase activity. This implies that OST1 mediates MeJA signaling through an undetectable level of activity or a non-enzymatic action. MeJA induced the expression of an ABA synthesis gene, NCED3, and increased ABA contents only modestly. Taken together with previous reports, this study suggests that MeJA signaling in guard cells is primed by ABA and is not brought about through the pathway mediated by PYR1, PYL1 PYL2 and PYL4. PMID:27354421

  5. Phosphatidylinositol4-phosphate 5-kinase prevents the decrease in the HERG potassium current induced by Gq protein-coupled receptor stimulation.

    PubMed

    Kubo, Taeko; Ding, Wei-Guang; Toyoda, Futoshi; Fujii, Yusuke; Omatsu-Kanbe, Mariko; Matsuura, Hiroshi

    2015-01-01

    The human ether-a-go-go-related gene (HERG) potassium current (IHERG) has been shown to decrease in amplitude following stimulation with Gq protein-coupled receptors (GqRs), such as α1-adrenergic and M1-muscarinic receptors (α1R and M1R, respectively), at least partly via the reduction of membrane phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate (PI(4,5)P2). The present study was designed to investigate the modulation of HERG channels by PI(4,5)P2 and phosphatidylinositol4-phosphate 5-kinase (PI(4)P5-K), a synthetic enzyme of PI(4,5)P2. Whole-cell patch-clamp recordings were used to examine the activity of HERG channels expressed heterologously in Chinese Hamster Ovary cells. The stimulation of α1R with phenylephrine or M1R with acetylcholine decreased the amplitude of IHERG accompanied by a significant acceleration of deactivation kinetics and the effects on IHERG were significantly attenuated in cells expressing PI(4)P5-K. The density of IHERG in cells expressing GqRs alone was significantly increased by the coexpression of PI(4)P5-K without significant differences in the voltage dependence of activation and deactivation kinetics. The kinase-deficient substitution mutant, PI(4)P5-K-K138A did not have these counteracting effects on the change in IHERG by M1R stimulation. These results suggest that the current density of IHERG is closely dependent on the membrane PI(4,5)P2 level, which is regulated by PI(4)P5-K and GqRs and that replenishing PI(4,5)P2 by PI(4)P5-K recovers IHERG. PMID:25704028

  6. AKAP79 Selectively Enhances Protein Kinase C Regulation of GluR1 at a Ca2+-Calmodulin-dependent Protein Kinase II/Protein Kinase C Site*

    PubMed Central

    Tavalin, Steven J.

    2008-01-01

    Enhancement of AMPA receptor activity in response to synaptic plasticity inducing stimuli may arise, in part, through phosphorylation of the GluR1 AMPA receptor subunit at Ser-831. This site is a substrate for both Ca2+-calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII) and protein kinase C (PKC). However, neuronal protein levels of CaMKII may exceed those of PKC by an order of magnitude. Thus, it is unclear how PKC could effectively regulate this common target site. The multivalent neuronal scaffold A-kinase-anchoring protein 79 (AKAP79) is known to bind PKC and is linked to GluR1 by synapse-associated protein 97 (SAP97). Here, biochemical studies demonstrate that AKAP79 localizes PKC activity near the receptor, thus accelerating Ser-831 phosphorylation. Complementary electrophysiological studies indicate that AKAP79 selectively shifts the dose-dependence for PKC modulation of GluR1 receptor currents ∼20-fold, such that low concentrations of PKC are as effective as much higher CaMKII concentrations. By boosting PKC activity near a target substrate, AKAP79 provides a mechanism to overcome limitations in kinase abundance thereby ensuring faithful signal propagation and efficient modification of AMPA receptor-mediated responses. PMID:18305116

  7. The extracellular signal-regulated kinase mitogen-activated protein kinase/ribosomal S6 protein kinase 1 cascade phosphorylates cAMP response element-binding protein to induce MUC5B gene expression via D-prostanoid receptor signaling.

    PubMed

    Choi, Yeon Ho; Lee, Sang-Nam; Aoyagi, Hiroki; Yamasaki, Yasundo; Yoo, Jung-Yoon; Park, Boryung; Shin, Dong Min; Yoon, Ho-Geun; Yoon, Joo-Heon

    2011-09-30

    Mucus hypersecretion is a prominent feature of respiratory diseases, and MUC5B is a major airway mucin. Mucin gene expression can be affected by inflammatory mediators, including prostaglandin (PG) D(2,) an inflammatory mediator synthesized by hematopoietic PGD synthase (H-PGDS). PGD(2) binds to either D-prostanoid receptor (DP1) or chemoattractant receptor homologous molecule expressed on T-helper type 2 cells (CRTH2). We investigated the mechanisms by which PGD(2) induces MUC5B gene expression in airway epithelial cells. Western blot analysis showed that H-PGDS was highly expressed in nasal polyps. Similar results were obtained for PGD(2) expression. In addition, we could clearly detect the expressions of both H-PGDS and DP1 in nasal epithelial cells but not CRTH2. We demonstrated that PGD(2) increased MUC5B gene expression in normal human nasal epithelial cells as well as in NCI-H292 cells in vitro. S5751, a DP1 antagonist, inhibited PGD(2)-induced MUC5B expression, whereas a CRTH2 antagonist (OC0459) did not. These data suggest that PGD(2) induced MUC5B expression via DP1. Pretreatment with extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) inhibitor (PD98059) blocked both PGD(2)-induced ERK mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) activation and MUC5B expression. Proximity ligation assays showed direct interaction between RSK1 and cAMP response element-binding protein (CREB). Stimulation with PGD(2) caused an increase in intracellular cAMP levels, whereas intracellular Ca(2+) did not have such an effect. PGD(2)-induced MUC5B mRNA levels were regulated by CREB via direct interaction with two cAMP-response element sites (-921/-914 and -900/-893). Finally, we demonstrated that PGD(2) can induce MUC5B overproduction via ERK MAPK/RSK1/CREB signaling and that DP1 receptor may have suppressive effects in controlling MUC5B overproduction in the airway. PMID:21832046

  8. Diversity, classification and function of the plant protein kinase superfamily

    PubMed Central

    Lehti-Shiu, Melissa D.; Shiu, Shin-Han

    2012-01-01

    Eukaryotic protein kinases belong to a large superfamily with hundreds to thousands of copies and are components of essentially all cellular functions. The goals of this study are to classify protein kinases from 25 plant species and to assess their evolutionary history in conjunction with consideration of their molecular functions. The protein kinase superfamily has expanded in the flowering plant lineage, in part through recent duplications. As a result, the flowering plant protein kinase repertoire, or kinome, is in general significantly larger than other eukaryotes, ranging in size from 600 to 2500 members. This large variation in kinome size is mainly due to the expansion and contraction of a few families, particularly the receptor-like kinase/Pelle family. A number of protein kinases reside in highly conserved, low copy number families and often play broadly conserved regulatory roles in metabolism and cell division, although functions of plant homologues have often diverged from their metazoan counterparts. Members of expanded plant kinase families often have roles in plant-specific processes and some may have contributed to adaptive evolution. Nonetheless, non-adaptive explanations, such as kinase duplicate subfunctionalization and insufficient time for pseudogenization, may also contribute to the large number of seemingly functional protein kinases in plants. PMID:22889912

  9. Chronic hypoxia reduces adenosine A2A receptor-mediated inhibition of calcium current in rat PC12 cells via downregulation of protein kinase A

    PubMed Central

    Kobayashi, Shuichi; Beitner-Johnson, Dana; Conforti, Laura; Millhorn, David E

    1998-01-01

    Adenosine has been shown to decrease Ca2+ current (ICa) and attenuate the hypoxia-induced enhancement of intracellular free Ca2+ ([Ca2+]i) in oxygen-sensitive rat phaeochromocytoma (PC12) cells. These effects are mediated via the adenosine A2A receptor and protein kinase A (PKA). The current study was undertaken to determine the effects of adenosine on Ca2+ current and hypoxia-induced change in [Ca2+]i during chronic hypoxia.Whole cell patch-clamp studies revealed that the effect of adenosine on ICa was significantly reduced when PC12 cells were exposed to hypoxia (10 % O2) for 24 and 48 h.Ca2+ imaging studies using fura-2 revealed that the anoxia-induced increase in [Ca2+]i was significantly enhanced when PC12 cells were exposed to 10 % O2 for up to 48 h. In contrast, the inhibitory effects of adenosine on anoxia-induced elevation of [Ca2+]i was significantly blunted in PC12 cells exposed to hypoxia for 48 h.Northern blot analysis revealed that mRNA for the A2A receptor, which is the only adenosine receptor subtype expressed in PC12 cells, was significantly upregulated by hypoxia. Radioligand binding analysis with [3H]CGS21680, a selective A2A receptor ligand, showed that the number of adenosine A2A receptor binding sites was similarly increased during exposure to 10 % O2 for 48 h.PKA enzyme activity was significantly inhibited when PC12 cells were exposed to 10 % O2 for 24 and 48 h. However, we found that hypoxia failed to induce change in adenosine- and forskolin-stimulated adenylate cyclase enzyme activity. Chronic hypoxia also did not alter the immunoreactivity level of the G protein Gsα, an effector of the A2 signalling pathway.Whole cell patch-clamp analysis showed that the effect of 8-bromo-cAMP, an activator of PKA, on ICa was significantly attenuated during 48 h exposure to 10 % O2.We conclude therefore that the reduced effect of adenosine on ICa and [Ca2+]i in PC12 cells exposed to chronic hypoxia is due to hypoxia-induced downregulation of PKA. This

  10. Chronic hypoxia reduces adenosine A2A receptor-mediated inhibition of calcium current in rat PC12 cells via downregulation of protein kinase A.

    PubMed

    Kobayashi, S; Beitner-Johnson, D; Conforti, L; Millhorn, D E

    1998-10-15

    1. Adenosine has been shown to decrease Ca2+ current (ICa) and attenuate the hypoxia-induced enhancement of intracellular free Ca2+ ([Ca2+]i) in oxygen-sensitive rat phaeochromocytoma (PC12) cells. These effects are mediated via the adenosine A2A receptor and protein kinase A (PKA). The current study was undertaken to determine the effects of adenosine on Ca2+ current and hypoxia-induced change in [Ca2+]i during chronic hypoxia. 2. Whole cell patch-clamp studies revealed that the effect of adenosine on ICa was significantly reduced when PC12 cells were exposed to hypoxia (10 % O2) for 24 and 48 h. 3. Ca2+ imaging studies using fura-2 revealed that the anoxia-induced increase in [Ca2+]i was significantly enhanced when PC12 cells were exposed to 10 % O2 for up to 48 h. In contrast, the inhibitory effects of adenosine on anoxia-induced elevation of [Ca2+]i was significantly blunted in PC12 cells exposed to hypoxia for 48 h. 4. Northern blot analysis revealed that mRNA for the A2A receptor, which is the only adenosine receptor subtype expressed in PC12 cells, was significantly upregulated by hypoxia. Radioligand binding analysis with [3H]CGS21680, a selective A2A receptor ligand, showed that the number of adenosine A2A receptor binding sites was similarly increased during exposure to 10% O2 for 48 h. 5. PKA enzyme activity was significantly inhibited when PC12 cells were exposed to 10% O2 for 24 and 48 h. However, we found that hypoxia failed to induce change in adenosine- and forskolin-stimulated adenylate cyclase enzyme activity. Chronic hypoxia also did not alter the immunoreactivity level of the G protein Gsalpha, an effector of the A2 signalling pathway. 6. Whole cell patch-clamp analysis showed that the effect of 8-bromo-cAMP, an activator of PKA, on ICa was significantly attenuated during 48 h exposure to 10% O2.7. We conclude therefore that the reduced effect of adenosine on ICa and [Ca2+]i in PC12 cells exposed to chronic hypoxia is due to hypoxia

  11. Confinement of β1- and β2-adrenergic receptors in the plasma membrane of cardiomyocyte-like H9c2 cells is mediated by selective interactions with PDZ domain and A-kinase anchoring proteins but not caveolae

    PubMed Central

    Valentine, Cathleen D.; Haggie, Peter M.

    2011-01-01

    The sympathetic nervous system regulates cardiac output by activating adrenergic receptors (ARs) in cardiac myocytes. The predominant cardiac ARs, β1- and β2AR, are structurally similar but mediate distinct signaling responses. Scaffold protein–mediated compartmentalization of ARs into discrete, multiprotein complexes has been proposed to dictate differential signaling responses. To test the hypothesis that βARs integrate into complexes in live cells, we measured receptor diffusion and interactions by single-particle tracking. Unstimulated β1- and β2AR were highly confined in the membrane of H9c2 cardiomyocyte-like cells, indicating that receptors are tethered and presumably integrated into protein complexes. Selective disruption of interactions with postsynaptic density protein 95/disks large/zonula occludens-1 (PDZ)–domain proteins and A-kinase anchoring proteins (AKAPs) increased receptor diffusion, indicating that these scaffold proteins participate in receptor confinement. In contrast, modulation of interactions between the putative scaffold caveolae and β2AR did not alter receptor dynamics, suggesting that these membrane domains are not involved in β2AR confinement. For both β1- and β2AR, the receptor carboxy-terminus was uniquely responsible for scaffold interactions. Our data formally demonstrate that distinct and stable protein complexes containing β1- or β2AR are formed in the plasma membrane of cardiomyocyte-like cells and that selective PDZ and AKAP interactions are responsible for the integration of receptors into complexes. PMID:21680711

  12. Reconstruction of the Chemotaxis Receptor-Kinase Assembly

    SciTech Connect

    Park,S.; Borbat, P.; Gonzalez-Bonet, G.; Bhatnagar, J.; Pollard, A.; Freed, J.; Bilwes, A.; Crane, B.

    2006-01-01

    In bacterial chemotaxis, an assembly of transmembrane receptors, the CheA histidine kinase and the adaptor protein CheW processes environmental stimuli to regulate motility. The structure of a Thermotoga maritima receptor cytoplasmic domain defines CheA interaction regions and metal ion-coordinating charge centers that undergo chemical modification to tune receptor response. Dimeric CheA-CheW, defined by crystallography and pulsed ESR, positions two CheWs to form a cleft that is lined with residues important for receptor interactions and sized to clamp one receptor dimer. CheW residues involved in kinase activation map to interfaces that orient the CheW clamps. CheA regulatory domains associate in crystals through conserved hydrophobic surfaces. Such CheA self-contacts align the CheW receptor clamps for binding receptor tips. Linking layers of ternary complexes with close-packed receptors generates a lattice with reasonable component ratios, cooperative interactions among receptors and accessible sites for modification enzymes.

  13. β-Amyloid Impairs AMPA Receptor Trafficking and Function by Reducing Ca2+/Calmodulin-dependent Protein Kinase II Synaptic Distribution*

    PubMed Central

    Gu, Zhenglin; Liu, Wenhua; Yan, Zhen

    2009-01-01

    A fundamental feature of Alzheimer disease (AD) is the accumulation of β-amyloid (Aβ), a peptide generated from the amyloid precursor protein (APP). Emerging evidence suggests that soluble Aβ oligomers adversely affect synaptic function, which leads to cognitive failure associated with AD. The Aβ-induced synaptic dysfunction has been attributed to the synaptic removal of α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methylisoxazole-4-propionic acid (AMPA) receptors (AMPARs); however, it is unclear how Aβ induces the loss of AMPARs at the synapses. In this study we have examined the potential involvement of Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII), a signaling molecule critical for AMPAR trafficking and function. We found that the synaptic pool of CaMKII was significantly decreased in cortical neurons from APP transgenic mice, and the density of CaMKII clusters at synapses was significantly reduced by Aβ oligomer treatment. In parallel, the surface expression of GluR1 subunit as well as AMPAR-mediated synaptic response and ionic current was selectively decreased in APP transgenic mice and Aβ-treated cultures. Moreover, the reducing effect of Aβ on AMPAR current density was mimicked and occluded by knockdown of CaMKII and blocked by overexpression of CaMKII. These results suggest that the Aβ-induced change in CaMKII subcellular distribution may underlie the removal of AMPARs from synaptic membrane by Aβ. PMID:19240035

  14. Modulation of nicotinic ACh-, GABAA- and 5-HT3-receptor functions by external H-7, a protein kinase inhibitor, in rat sensory neurones

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Hong-Zhen; Li, Zhi-Wang

    1997-01-01

    The effects of external H-7, a potent protein kinase inhibitor, on the responses mediated by γ-aminobutyric acid A type (GABAA)-, nicotinic acetylcholine (nicotinic ACh)-, ionotropic 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT3)-, adenosine 5′-triphosphate (ATP)-, N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA)- and kainate (KA)-receptors were studied in freshly dissociated rat dorsal root ganglion neurone by use of whole cell patch-clamp technique. External H-7 (1–1000 μM) produced a reversible, dose-dependent inhibition of whole cell currents activated by GABA, ACh and 5-HT. Whole-cell currents evoked by ATP, 2-methylthio-ATP, NMDA and KA were insensitive to external H-7. External H-7 shifted the dose-response curve of GABA-activated currents downward without changing the EC50 significantly (from 15.0±4.0 μM to 18.0±5.0 μM). The maximum response to GABA was depressed by 34.0±5.3%. This inhibitory action of H-7 was voltage-independent. Intracellular application of H-7 (20 μM), cyclic AMP (1 mM) and BAPTA (10 mM) could not reverse the H-7 inhibition of GABA-activated currents. The results suggest that external H-7 selectively and allosterically modulates the functions of GABAA-, nicotine ACh- and 5-HT3 receptors via a common conserved site in the external domain of these receptors. PMID:9401786

  15. Tyrosine 763 of the murine granulocyte colony-stimulating factor receptor mediates Ras-dependent activation of the JNK/SAPK mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway.

    PubMed Central

    Rausch, O; Marshall, C J

    1997-01-01

    The receptor for granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) can mediate differentiation and proliferation of hemopoietic cells. A proliferative signal is associated with activation of the ERK mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway. To determine whether other MAPK pathways are activated by G-CSF signalling, we have investigated activation of JNK/SAPK in cells proliferating in response to G-CSF. Here we show that G-CSF and interleukin-3 activate JNK/SAPK in two hemopoietic cell lines. The region of the G-CSF receptor required for G-CSF-induced JNK/SAPK activation is located within the C-terminal 68 amino acids of the cytoplasmic domain, which contains Tyr 763. Mutation of Tyr 763 to Phe completely blocks JNK/SAPK activation. However, the C-terminal 68 amino acids are not required for ERK2 activation. We show that activation of JNK/SAPK, like that of ERK2, is dependent on Ras but that higher levels of Ras-GTP are associated with activation of JNK/SAPK than with activation of ERK2. Two separate functional regions of the G-CSF receptor contribute to activation of Ras. The Y763F mutation reduces G-CSF-induced Ras activation from 30 to 35% Ras-GTP to 10 to 13% Ras-GTP. Low levels of Ras activation (10 to 13% Ras-GTP), which are sufficient for ERK2 activation, require only the 100 membrane-proximal amino acids. High levels of Ras-GTP provided by expression of oncogenic Ras are not sufficient to activate JNK/SAPK. An additional signal, also mediated by Tyr 763, is required for activation of JNK/SAPK. PMID:9032244

  16. Nicotine stimulates urokinase-type plasminogen activator receptor expression and cell invasiveness through mitogen-activated protein kinase and reactive oxygen species signaling in ECV304 endothelial cells

    SciTech Connect

    Khoi, Pham Ngoc; Park, Jung Sun; Kim, Nam Ho; Jung, Young Do

    2012-03-01

    Urokinase-type plasminogen activator receptor (uPAR) expression is elevated during inflammation, tissue remodeling and in many human cancers. This study investigated the effect of nicotine, a major alkaloid in tobacco, on uPAR expression and cell invasiveness in ECV304 endothelial cells. Nicotine stimulated uPAR expression in a dose-dependent manner and activated extracellular signal-regulated kinases-1/2 (Erk-1/2), c-Jun amino-terminal kinase (JNK) and p38 mitogen activated protein kinase (MAPK). Specific inhibitors of MEK-1 (PD98059) and JNK (SP600125) inhibited the nicotine-induced uPAR expression, while the p38 MAPK inhibitor SB203580 did not. Expression vectors encoding dominant negative MEK-1 (pMCL-K97M) and JNK (TAM67) also prevented nicotine-induced uPAR promoter activity. The intracellular hydrogen peroxide (H{sub 2}O{sub 2}) content was increased by nicotine treatment. The antioxidant N-acetylcysteine prevented nicotine-activated production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and uPAR expression. Furthermore, exogenous H{sub 2}O{sub 2} increased uPAR mRNA expression. Deleted and site-directed mutagenesis demonstrated the involvement of the binding sites of transcription factor nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-κB) and activator protein (AP)-1 in the nicotine-induced uPAR expression. Studies with expression vectors encoding mutated NF-κB signaling molecules and AP-1 decoy confirmed that NF-κB and AP-1 were essential for the nicotine-stimulated uPAR expression. MAPK (Erk-1/2 and JNK) and ROS functioned as upstream signaling molecules in the activation of AP-1 and NF-κB, respectively. In addition, ECV304 endothelial cells treated with nicotine displayed markedly enhanced invasiveness, which was partially abrogated by uPAR neutralizing antibodies. The data indicate that nicotine induces uPAR expression via the MAPK/AP-1 and ROS/NF-κB signaling pathways and, in turn, stimulates invasiveness in human ECV304 endothelial cells. -- Highlights: ► Endothelial cells

  17. Venus Kinase Receptors: Prospects in Signaling and Biological Functions of These Invertebrate Kinases

    PubMed Central

    Dissous, Colette; Morel, Marion; Vanderstraete, Mathieu

    2014-01-01

    Venus kinase receptors (VKRs) form a family of invertebrate receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs) initially discovered in the parasitic platyhelminth Schistosoma mansoni. VKRs are single transmembrane receptors that contain an extracellular venus fly trap structure similar to the ligand-binding domain of G protein-coupled receptors of class C, and an intracellular tyrosine kinase domain close to that of insulin receptors. VKRs are found in a large variety of invertebrates from cnidarians to echinoderms and are highly expressed in larval stages and in gonads, suggesting a role of these proteins in embryonic and larval development as well as in reproduction. VKR gene silencing could demonstrate the function of these receptors in oogenesis as well as in spermatogenesis in S. mansoni. VKRs are activated by amino acids and are highly responsive to arginine. As many other RTKs, they form dimers when activated by ligands and induce intracellular pathways involved in protein synthesis and cellular growth, such as MAPK and PI3K/Akt/S6K pathways. VKRs are not present in vertebrates or in some invertebrate species. Questions remain open about the origin of this little-known RTK family in evolution and its role in emergence and specialization of Metazoa. What is the meaning of maintenance or loss of VKR in some phyla or species in terms of development and physiological functions? The presence of VKRs in invertebrates of economical and medical importance, such as pests, vectors of pathogens, and platyhelminth parasites, and the implication of these RTKs in gametogenesis and reproduction processes are valuable reasons to consider VKRs as interesting targets in new programs for eradication/control of pests and infectious diseases, with the main advantage in the case of parasite targeting that VKR counterparts are absent from the vertebrate host kinase panel. PMID:24860549

  18. Venus kinase receptors: prospects in signaling and biological functions of these invertebrate kinases.

    PubMed

    Dissous, Colette; Morel, Marion; Vanderstraete, Mathieu

    2014-01-01

    Venus kinase receptors (VKRs) form a family of invertebrate receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs) initially discovered in the parasitic platyhelminth Schistosoma mansoni. VKRs are single transmembrane receptors that contain an extracellular venus fly trap structure similar to the ligand-binding domain of G protein-coupled receptors of class C, and an intracellular tyrosine kinase domain close to that of insulin receptors. VKRs are found in a large variety of invertebrates from cnidarians to echinoderms and are highly expressed in larval stages and in gonads, suggesting a role of these proteins in embryonic and larval development as well as in reproduction. VKR gene silencing could demonstrate the function of these receptors in oogenesis as well as in spermatogenesis in S. mansoni. VKRs are activated by amino acids and are highly responsive to arginine. As many other RTKs, they form dimers when activated by ligands and induce intracellular pathways involved in protein synthesis and cellular growth, such as MAPK and PI3K/Akt/S6K pathways. VKRs are not present in vertebrates or in some invertebrate species. Questions remain open about the origin of this little-known RTK family in evolution and its role in emergence and specialization of Metazoa. What is the meaning of maintenance or loss of VKR in some phyla or species in terms of development and physiological functions? The presence of VKRs in invertebrates of economical and medical importance, such as pests, vectors of pathogens, and platyhelminth parasites, and the implication of these RTKs in gametogenesis and reproduction processes are valuable reasons to consider VKRs as interesting targets in new programs for eradication/control of pests and infectious diseases, with the main advantage in the case of parasite targeting that VKR counterparts are absent from the vertebrate host kinase panel. PMID:24860549

  19. A Residue Quartet in the Extracellular Domain of the Prolactin Receptor Selectively Controls Mitogen-activated Protein Kinase Signaling*

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Chi; Nygaard, Mads; Haxholm, Gitte W.; Boutillon, Florence; Bernadet, Marie; Hoos, Sylviane; England, Patrick; Broutin, Isabelle; Kragelund, Birthe B.; Goffin, Vincent

    2015-01-01

    Cytokine receptors elicit several signaling pathways, but it is poorly understood how they select and discriminate between them. We have scrutinized the prolactin receptor as an archetype model of homodimeric cytokine receptors to address the role of the extracellular membrane proximal domain in signal transfer and pathway selection. Structure-guided manipulation of residues involved in the receptor dimerization interface identified one residue (position 170) that in cell-based assays profoundly altered pathway selectivity and species-specific bio-characteristics. Subsequent in vitro spectroscopic and nuclear magnetic resonance analyses revealed that this residue was part of a residue quartet responsible for specific local structural changes underlying these effects. This included alteration of a novel aromatic T-stack within the membrane proximal domain, which promoted selective signaling affecting primarily the MAPK (ERK1/2) pathway. Importantly, activation of the MAPK pathway correlated with in vitro stabilities of ternary ligand·receptor complexes, suggesting a threshold mean lifetime of the complex necessary to achieve maximal activation. No such dependence was observed for STAT5 signaling. Thus, this study establishes a residue quartet in the extracellular membrane proximal domain of homodimeric cytokine receptors as a key regulator of intracellular signaling discrimination. PMID:25784554

  20. The insulin and IGF1 receptor kinase domains are functional dimers in the activated state

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cabail, M. Zulema; Li, Shiqing; Lemmon, Eric; Bowen, Mark E.; Hubbard, Stevan R.; Miller, W. Todd

    2015-03-01

    The insulin receptor (IR) and insulin-like growth factor-1 receptor (IGF1R) are highly related receptor tyrosine kinases with a disulfide-linked homodimeric architecture. Ligand binding to the receptor ectodomain triggers tyrosine autophosphorylation of the cytoplasmic domains, which stimulates catalytic activity and creates recruitment sites for downstream signalling proteins. Whether the two phosphorylated tyrosine kinase domains within the receptor dimer function independently or cooperatively to phosphorylate protein substrates is not known. Here we provide crystallographic, biophysical and biochemical evidence demonstrating that the phosphorylated kinase domains of IR and IGF1R form a specific dimeric arrangement involving an exchange of the juxtamembrane region proximal to the kinase domain. In this dimer, the active position of α-helix C in the kinase N lobe is stabilized, which promotes downstream substrate phosphorylation. These studies afford a novel strategy for the design of small-molecule IR agonists as potential therapeutic agents for type 2 diabetes.

  1. Serotonin type-1D receptor stimulation of A-type K(+) channel decreases membrane excitability through the protein kinase A- and B-Raf-dependent p38 MAPK pathways in mouse trigeminal ganglion neurons.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Xianyang; Zhang, Yuan; Qin, Wenjuan; Cao, Junping; Zhang, Yi; Ni, Jianqiang; Sun, Yangang; Jiang, Xinghong; Tao, Jin

    2016-08-01

    Although recent studies have implicated serotonin 5-HT1B/D receptors in the nociceptive sensitivity of primary afferent neurons, the underlying molecular and cellular mechanisms remain unclear. In this study, we identified a novel functional role of the 5-HT1D receptor subtype in regulating A-type potassium (K(+)) currents (IA) as well as membrane excitability in small trigeminal ganglion (TG) neurons. We found that the selective activation of 5-HT1D, rather than 5-HT1B, receptors reversibly increased IA, while the sustained delayed rectifier K(+) current was unaffected. The 5-HT1D-mediated IA increase was associated with a depolarizing shift in the voltage dependence of inactivation. Blocking G-protein signaling with pertussis toxin or by intracellular application of a selective antibody raised against Gαo or Gβ abolished the 5-HT1D effect on IA. Inhibition of protein kinase A (PKA), but not of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase or protein kinase C, abolished the 5-HT1D-mediated IA increase. Analysis of phospho-p38 (p-p38) revealed that activation of 5-HT1D, but not 5-HT1B, receptors significantly activated p38, while p-ERK and p-JNK were unaffected. The p38 MAPK inhibitor SB203580, but not its inactive analogue SB202474, and inhibition of B-Raf blocked the 5-HT1D-mediated IA response. Functionally, we observed a significantly decreased action potential firing rate induced by the 5-HT1D receptors; pretreatment with 4-aminopyridine abolished this effect. Taken together, these results suggest that the activation of 5-HT1D receptors selectively enhanced IA via the Gβγ of the Go-protein, PKA, and the sequential B-Raf-dependent p38 MAPK signaling cascade. This 5-HT1D receptor effect may contribute to neuronal hypoexcitability in small TG neurons. PMID:27156838

  2. Cell signaling by receptor-tyrosine kinases

    PubMed Central

    Lemmon, Mark A.; Schlessinger, Joseph

    2010-01-01

    Recent structural studies of receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs) have revealed unexpected diversity in the mechanisms of their activation by growth factor ligands. Strategies for inducing dimerization by ligand binding are surprisingly diverse, as are mechanisms that couple this event to activation of the intracellular tyrosine kinase domains. As our understanding of these details becomes increasingly sophisticated, it provides an important context for therapeutically countering the effects of pathogenic RTK mutations in cancer and other diseases. Much remains to be learned, however, about the complex signaling networks downstream from RTKs and how alterations in these networks are translated into cellular responses. PMID:20602996

  3. Deguelin-induced blockade of PI3K/protein kinase B/MAP kinase signaling in zebrafish and breast cancer cell lines is mediated by down-regulation of fibroblast growth factor receptor 4 activity.

    PubMed

    Wu, Wei; Hai, Yang; Chen, Lu; Liu, Rui-Jin; Han, Yu-Xiang; Li, Wen-Hao; Li, Song; Lin, Shuo; Wu, Xin-Rong

    2016-04-01

    Deguelin, a natural component derived from leguminous plants, has been used as pesticide in some regions. Accumulating evidence show that deguelin has promising chemopreventive and therapeutic activities against cancer cells. This study shows that low concentrations of deguelin can lead to significant delay in zebrafish embryonic development through growth inhibition and induction of apoptosis. Furthermore, we identified fibroblast growth factor receptor 4 (FGFR4) as the putative target of deguelin. The candidate was initially identified by a microarray approach and then validated through in vitro experiments using hormone-responsive (MCF-7) and nonresponsive (MDA-MB-231) human breast cancer cell lines. The results show that deguelin suppressed cell proliferation and induced apoptosis in both cancer cell lines, but not in Hs 578Bst cells, by blocking PI3K/AKT and mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPK) signaling. The FGFR4 mRNA and protein level also diminished in a dose-dependent manner. Interestingly, we found that forced FGFR4 overexpression attenuated deguelin-induced proliferative suppression and apoptotic cell death in both zebrafish and MCF-7 cell lines, p-AKT and p-ERK levels were restored upon FGFR4 overexpression. Taken together, our results strongly suggest that deguelin inhibition of PI3K/AKT and MAPK signaling in zebrafish and breast cancer cell lines is partially mediated through down-regulation of FGFR4 activity. PMID:27069628

  4. The p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling pathway is involved in regulating low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein 1-mediated β-amyloid protein internalization in mouse brain.

    PubMed

    Ma, Kai-Ge; Lv, Jia; Hu, Xiao-Dan; Shi, Li-Li; Chang, Ke-Wei; Chen, Xin-Lin; Qian, Yi-Hua; Yang, Wei-Na; Qu, Qiu-Min

    2016-07-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is one of the most common neurodegenerative diseases. Recently, increasing evidence suggests that intracellular β-amyloid protein (Aβ) alone plays a pivotal role in the progression of AD. Therefore, understanding the signaling pathway and proteins that control Aβ internalization may provide new insight for regulating Aβ levels. In the present study, the regulation of Aβ internalization by p38 mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPK) through low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein 1 (LRP1) was analyzed in vivo. The data derived from this investigation revealed that Aβ1-42 were internalized by neurons and astrocytes in mouse brain, and were largely deposited in mitochondria and lysosomes, with some also being found in the endoplasmic reticulum. Aβ1-42-LRP1 complex was formed during Aβ1-42 internalization, and the p38 MAPK signaling pathway was activated by Aβ1-42 via LRP1. Aβ1-42 and LRP1 were co- localized in the cells of parietal cortex and hippocampus. Furthermore, the level of LRP1-mRNA and LRP1 protein involved in Aβ1-42 internalization in mouse brain. The results of this investigation demonstrated that Aβ1-42 induced an LRP1-dependent pathway that related to the activation of p38 MAPK resulting in internalization of Aβ1-42. These results provide evidence supporting a key role for the p38 MAPK signaling pathway which is involved in the regulation of Aβ1-42 internalization in the parietal cortex and hippocampus of mouse through LRP1 in vivo. PMID:27163530

  5. Angiotensin II-Induced Migration of Vascular Smooth Muscle Cells Is Mediated by p38 Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase-Activated c-Src Through Spleen Tyrosine Kinase and Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor Transactivation

    PubMed Central

    Mugabe, Benon E.; Yaghini, Fariborz A.; Song, Chi Young; Buharalioglu, Cuneyt K.; Waters, Christopher M.

    2010-01-01

    Angiotensin II (Ang II) stimulates protein synthesis by activating spleen tyrosine kinase (Syk) and DNA synthesis through epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) transactivation in vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs). This study was conducted to determine whether Syk mediates Ang II-induced migration of aortic VSMCs using a scratch wound approach. Treatment with Ang II (200 nM) for 24 h increased VSMC migration by 1.56 ± 0.14-fold. Ang II-induced VSMC migration and Syk phosphorylation as determined by Western blot analysis were minimized by the Syk inhibitor piceatannol (10 μM) and by transfecting VSMCs with dominant-negative but not wild-type Syk plasmid. Ang II-induced VSMC migration and Syk phosphorylation were attenuated by inhibitors of c-Src [4-amino-5-(4-chlorophenyl)-7-(t-butyl)pyrazolo[3,4-d]pyrimidine (PP2)], p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) [4-(4-fluorophenyl)-2-(4-hydroxyphenyl)-5-(4-pyridyl)1H-imidazole (SB202190)], and extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) 1/2 [1,4-diamino-2,3-dicyano-1,4-bis(2-aminophenylthio) butadiene (U0126)]. SB202190 attenuated p38 MAPK and c-Src but not ERK1/2 phosphorylation, indicating that p38 MAPK acts upstream of c-Src and Syk. The c-Src inhibitor PP2 attenuated Syk and ERK1/2 phosphorylation, suggesting that c-Src acts upstream of Syk and ERK1/2. Ang II- and epidermal growth factor (EGF)-induced VSMC migration and EGFR phosphorylation were inhibited by the EGFR blocker 4-(3-chloroanilino)-6,7-dimethoxyquinazoline (AG1478) (2 μM). Neither the Syk inhibitor piceatannol nor the dominant-negative Syk mutant altered EGF-induced cell migration or Ang II- and EGF-induced EGFR phosphorylation. The c-Src inhibitor PP2 diminished EGF-induced VSMC migration and EGFR, ERK1/2, and p38 MAPK phosphorylation. The ERK1/2 inhibitor U0126 (10 μM) attenuated EGF-induced cell migration and ERK1/2 but not EGFR phosphorylation. These data suggest that Ang II stimulates VSMC migration via p38 MAPK-activated c-Src through

  6. Angiotensin II-induced migration of vascular smooth muscle cells is mediated by p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase-activated c-Src through spleen tyrosine kinase and epidermal growth factor receptor transactivation.

    PubMed

    Mugabe, Benon E; Yaghini, Fariborz A; Song, Chi Young; Buharalioglu, Cuneyt K; Waters, Christopher M; Malik, Kafait U

    2010-01-01

    Angiotensin II (Ang II) stimulates protein synthesis by activating spleen tyrosine kinase (Syk) and DNA synthesis through epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) transactivation in vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs). This study was conducted to determine whether Syk mediates Ang II-induced migration of aortic VSMCs using a scratch wound approach. Treatment with Ang II (200 nM) for 24 h increased VSMC migration by 1.56 +/- 0.14-fold. Ang II-induced VSMC migration and Syk phosphorylation as determined by Western blot analysis were minimized by the Syk inhibitor piceatannol (10 microM) and by transfecting VSMCs with dominant-negative but not wild-type Syk plasmid. Ang II-induced VSMC migration and Syk phosphorylation were attenuated by inhibitors of c-Src [4-amino-5-(4-chlorophenyl)-7-(t-butyl)pyrazolo[3,4-d]pyrimidine (PP2)], p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) [4-(4-fluorophenyl)-2-(4-hydroxyphenyl)-5-(4-pyridyl)1H-imidazole (SB202190)], and extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) 1/2 [1,4-diamino-2,3-dicyano-1,4-bis(2-aminophenylthio) butadiene (U0126)]. SB202190 attenuated p38 MAPK and c-Src but not ERK1/2 phosphorylation, indicating that p38 MAPK acts upstream of c-Src and Syk. The c-Src inhibitor PP2 attenuated Syk and ERK1/2 phosphorylation, suggesting that c-Src acts upstream of Syk and ERK1/2. Ang II- and epidermal growth factor (EGF)-induced VSMC migration and EGFR phosphorylation were inhibited by the EGFR blocker 4-(3-chloroanilino)-6,7-dimethoxyquinazoline (AG1478) (2 microM). Neither the Syk inhibitor piceatannol nor the dominant-negative Syk mutant altered EGF-induced cell migration or Ang II- and EGF-induced EGFR phosphorylation. The c-Src inhibitor PP2 diminished EGF-induced VSMC migration and EGFR, ERK1/2, and p38 MAPK phosphorylation. The ERK1/2 inhibitor U0126 (10 microM) attenuated EGF-induced cell migration and ERK1/2 but not EGFR phosphorylation. These data suggest that Ang II stimulates VSMC migration via p38 MAPK-activated c

  7. In planta assessment of the role of thioredoxin h proteins in the regulation of S-locus receptor kinase signaling in transgenic Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, Masaya; Nasrallah, June B

    2013-11-01

    The self-incompatibility (SI) response of the Brassicaceae is mediated by allele-specific interaction between the stigma-localized S-locus receptor kinase (SRK) and its ligand, the pollen coat-localized S-locus cysteine-rich protein (SCR). Based on work in Brassica spp., the thioredoxin h-like proteins THL1 and THL2, which interact with SRK, have been proposed to function as oxidoreductases that negatively regulate SRK catalytic activity. By preventing the spontaneous activation of SRK in the absence of SCR ligand, these thioredoxins are thought to be essential for the success of cross pollinations in self-incompatible plants. However, the in planta role of thioredoxins in the regulation of SI signaling has not been conclusively demonstrated. Here, we addressed this issue using Arabidopsis thaliana plants transformed with the SRKb-SCRb gene pair isolated from self-incompatible Arabidopsis lyrata. These plants express an intense SI response, allowing us to exploit the extensive tools and resources available in A. thaliana for analysis of SI signaling. To test the hypothesis that SRK is redox regulated by thioredoxin h, we expressed a mutant form of SRKb lacking a transmembrane-localized cysteine residue thought to be essential for the SRK-thioredoxin h interaction. We also analyzed transfer DNA insertion mutants in the A. thaliana orthologs of THL1 and THL2. In neither case did we observe an effect on the pollination responses of SRKb-expressing stigmas toward incompatible or compatible pollen. Our results are consistent with the conclusion that, contrary to their proposed role, thioredoxin h proteins are not required to prevent the spontaneous activation of SRK in the A. thaliana stigma. PMID:24077073

  8. Effect of Lipid Composition on the Membrane Orientation of the G Protein-Coupled Receptor Kinase 2-Gβ1γ2 Complex.

    PubMed

    Yang, Pei; Homan, Kristoff T; Li, Yaoxin; Cruz-Rodríguez, Osvaldo; Tesmer, John J G; Chen, Zhan

    2016-05-24

    Interactions between proteins and cell membranes are critical for biological processes such as transmembrane signaling, and specific components of the membrane may play roles in helping to organize or mandate particular conformations of both integral and peripheral membrane proteins. One example of a signaling enzyme whose function is dependent on membrane binding and whose activity is affected by specific lipid components is G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) kinase 2 (GRK2). Efficient GRK2-mediated phosphorylation of activated GPCRs is dependent not only on its recruitment to the membrane by heterotrimeric Gβγ subunits but also on the presence of highly negatively charged lipids, in particular phosphatidylinositol 4',5'-bisphosphate (PIP2). We hypothesized that PIP2 may favor a distinct orientation of the GRK2-Gβγ complex on the membrane that is more optimal for function. In this study, we compared the possible orientations of the GRK2-Gβγ complex and Gβγ alone on model cell membranes prepared with various anionic phospholipids as deduced from sum frequency generation vibrational and attenuated total reflectance Fourier transform infrared spectroscopic methods. Our results indicate that PIP2 affects the membrane orientation of the GRK2-Gβ1γ2 complex but not that of complexes formed with anionic phospholipid binding deficient mutations in the GRK2 pleckstrin homology (PH) domain. Gβ1γ2 exhibits a similar orientation on the lipid bilayer regardless of its lipid composition. The PIP2-induced orientation of the GRK2-Gβ1γ2 complex is therefore most likely caused by specific interactions between PIP2 and the GRK2 PH domain. Thus, PIP2 not only helps recruit GRK2 to the membrane but also "fine tunes" the orientation of the GRK2-Gβγ complex so that it is better positioned to phosphorylate activated GPCRs. PMID:27088923

  9. Kindlin-3 Mediates Integrin αLβ2 Outside-in Signaling, and It Interacts with Scaffold Protein Receptor for Activated-C Kinase 1 (RACK1)*

    PubMed Central

    Feng, Chen; Li, Yan-Feng; Yau, Yin-Hoe; Lee, Hui-Shan; Tang, Xiao-Yan; Xue, Zhi-Hong; Zhou, Yi-Chao; Lim, Wei-Min; Cornvik, Tobias C.; Ruedl, Christiane; Shochat, Susana G.; Tan, Suet-Mien

    2012-01-01

    Integrins are heterodimeric type I membrane cell adhesion molecules that are involved in many biological processes. Integrins are bidirectional signal transducers because their cytoplasmic tails are docking sites for cytoskeletal and signaling molecules. Kindlins are cytoplasmic molecules that mediate inside-out signaling and activation of the integrins. The three kindlin paralogs in humans are kindlin-1, -2, and -3. Each of these contains a 4.1-ezrin-radixin-moesin (FERM) domain and a pleckstrin homology domain. Kindlin-3 is expressed in platelets, hematopoietic cells, and endothelial cells. Here we show that kindlin-3 is involved in integrin αLβ2 outside-in signaling. It also promotes micro-clustering of integrin αLβ2. We provide evidence that kindlin-3 interacts with the receptor for activated-C kinase 1 (RACK1), a scaffold protein that folds into a seven-blade propeller. This interaction involves the pleckstrin homology domain of kindlin-3 and blades 5–7 of RACK1. Using the SKW3 human T lymphoma cells, we show that integrin αLβ2 engagement by its ligand ICAM-1 promotes the association of kindlin-3 with RACK1. We also show that kindlin-3 co-localizes with RACK1 in polarized SKW3 cells and human T lymphoblasts. Our findings suggest that kindlin-3 plays an important role in integrin αLβ2 outside-in signaling. PMID:22334666

  10. AMP-Activated Protein Kinase Interacts with the Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor Delta to Induce Genes Affecting Fatty Acid Oxidation in Human Macrophages.

    PubMed

    Kemmerer, Marina; Finkernagel, Florian; Cavalcante, Marcela Frota; Abdalla, Dulcineia Saes Parra; Müller, Rolf; Brüne, Bernhard; Namgaladze, Dmitry

    2015-01-01

    AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) maintains energy homeostasis by suppressing cellular ATP-consuming processes and activating catabolic, ATP-producing pathways such as fatty acid oxidation (FAO). The transcription factor peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor δ (PPARδ) also affects fatty acid metabolism, stimulating the expression of genes involved in FAO. To question the interplay of AMPK and PPARδ in human macrophages we transduced primary human macrophages with lentiviral particles encoding for the constitutively active AMPKα1 catalytic subunit, followed by microarray expression analysis after treatment with the PPARδ agonist GW501516. Microarray analysis showed that co-activation of AMPK and PPARδ increased expression of FAO genes, which were validated by quantitative PCR. Induction of these FAO-associated genes was also observed upon infecting macrophages with an adenovirus coding for AMPKγ1 regulatory subunit carrying an activating R70Q mutation. The pharmacological AMPK activator A-769662 increased expression of several FAO genes in a PPARδ- and AMPK-dependent manner. Although GW501516 significantly increased FAO and reduced the triglyceride amount in very low density lipoproteins (VLDL)-loaded foam cells, AMPK activation failed to potentiate this effect, suggesting that increased expression of fatty acid catabolic genes alone may be not sufficient to prevent macrophage lipid overload. PMID:26098914

  11. AMP-Activated Protein Kinase Interacts with the Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor Delta to Induce Genes Affecting Fatty Acid Oxidation in Human Macrophages

    PubMed Central

    Kemmerer, Marina; Finkernagel, Florian; Cavalcante, Marcela Frota; Abdalla, Dulcineia Saes Parra; Müller, Rolf; Brüne, Bernhard; Namgaladze, Dmitry

    2015-01-01

    AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) maintains energy homeostasis by suppressing cellular ATP-consuming processes and activating catabolic, ATP-producing pathways such as fatty acid oxidation (FAO). The transcription factor peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor δ (PPARδ) also affects fatty acid metabolism, stimulating the expression of genes involved in FAO. To question the interplay of AMPK and PPARδ in human macrophages we transduced primary human macrophages with lentiviral particles encoding for the constitutively active AMPKα1 catalytic subunit, followed by microarray expression analysis after treatment with the PPARδ agonist GW501516. Microarray analysis showed that co-activation of AMPK and PPARδ increased expression of FAO genes, which were validated by quantitative PCR. Induction of these FAO-associated genes was also observed upon infecting macrophages with an adenovirus coding for AMPKγ1 regulatory subunit carrying an activating R70Q mutation. The pharmacological AMPK activator A-769662 increased expression of several FAO genes in a PPARδ- and AMPK-dependent manner. Although GW501516 significantly increased FAO and reduced the triglyceride amount in very low density lipoproteins (VLDL)-loaded foam cells, AMPK activation failed to potentiate this effect, suggesting that increased expression of fatty acid catabolic genes alone may be not sufficient to prevent macrophage lipid overload. PMID:26098914

  12. The C2-domain protein QUIRKY and the receptor-like kinase STRUBBELIG localize to plasmodesmata and mediate tissue morphogenesis in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    PubMed

    Vaddepalli, Prasad; Herrmann, Anja; Fulton, Lynette; Oelschner, Maxi; Hillmer, Stefan; Stratil, Thomas F; Fastner, Astrid; Hammes, Ulrich Z; Ott, Thomas; Robinson, David G; Schneitz, Kay

    2014-11-01

    Tissue morphogenesis in plants requires communication between cells, a process involving the trafficking of molecules through plasmodesmata (PD). PD conductivity is regulated by endogenous and exogenous signals. However, the underlying signaling mechanisms remain enigmatic. In Arabidopsis, signal transduction mediated by the receptor-like kinase STRUBBELIG (SUB) contributes to inter-cell layer signaling during tissue morphogenesis. Previous analysis has revealed that SUB acts non-cell-autonomously suggesting that SUB controls tissue morphogenesis by participating in the formation or propagation of a downstream mobile signal. A genetic screen identified QUIRKY (QKY), encoding a predicted membrane-anchored C2-domain protein, as a component of SUB signaling. Here, we provide further insight into the role of QKY in this process. We show that like SUB, QKY exhibits non-cell-autonomy when expressed in a tissue-specific manner and that non-autonomy of QKY extends across several cells. In addition, we report on localization studies indicating that QKY and SUB localize to PD but independently of each other. FRET-FLIM analysis suggests that SUB and QKY are in close contact at PD in vivo. We propose a model where SUB and QKY interact at PD to promote tissue morphogenesis, thereby linking RLK-dependent signal transduction and intercellular communication mediated by PD. PMID:25256344

  13. Distinct Involvement of the Gab1 and Grb2 Adaptor Proteins in Signal Transduction by the Related Receptor Tyrosine Kinases RON and MET

    PubMed Central

    Chaudhuri, Amitabha; Xie, Ming-Hong; Yang, Becky; Mahapatra, Kaushiki; Liu, Jinfeng; Marsters, Scot; Bodepudi, Sweta; Ashkenazi, Avi

    2011-01-01

    Although the signal transduction mechanisms of the receptor tyrosine kinase MET are well defined, less is known about its close relative RON. MET initiates intracellular signaling by autophosphorylation on specific cytoplasmic tyrosines that form docking sites for the adaptor proteins Grb2 and Gab1. Grb2 binds directly and is essential for all of the biological activities of MET. Gab1 docks either directly or indirectly via Grb2 and controls only a subset of MET functions. Because MET and RON possess similar adaptor binding sites, it was anticipated that their adaptor interactions would be conserved. Here we show that in contrast to MET, RON relies primarily on Gab1 for signal transmission. Surprisingly, disruption of the Grb2 docking site of RON or Grb2 depletion augments activity, whereas enhancement of Grb2 binding attenuates Gab1 recruitment and signaling. Hence, RON and MET differ in their adaptor interactions; furthermore, Grb2 performs a novel antagonistic role in the context of RON signaling. PMID:21784853

  14. beta2 Adrenergic receptor activation induces microglial NADPH oxidase activation and dopaminergic neurotoxicity through an ERK-dependent/protein kinase A-independent pathway.

    PubMed

    Qian, Li; Hu, Xiaoming; Zhang, Dan; Snyder, Amanda; Wu, Hung-Ming; Li, Yachen; Wilson, Belinda; Lu, Ru-Band; Hong, Jau-Shyong; Flood, Patrick M

    2009-11-15

    Activation of the beta2 adrenergic receptor (beta2AR) on immune cells has been reported to possess anti-inflammatory properties, however, the pro-inflammatory properties of beta2AR activation remain unclear. In this study, using rat primary mesencephalic neuron-glia cultures, we report that salmeterol, a long-acting beta2AR agonist, selectively induces dopaminergic (DA) neurotoxicity through its ability to activate microglia. Salmeterol selectively increased the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) by NADPH oxidase (PHOX), the major superoxide-producing enzyme in microglia. A key role of PHOX in mediating salmeterol-induced neurotoxicity was demonstrated by the inhibition of DA neurotoxicity in cultures pretreated with diphenylene-iodonium (DPI), an inhibitor of PHOX activity. Mechanistic studies revealed the activation of microglia by salmeterol results in the selective phosphorylation of ERK, a signaling pathway required for the translocation of the PHOX cytosolic subunit p47(phox) to the cell membrane. Furthermore, we found ERK inhibition, but not protein kinase A (PKA) inhibition, significantly abolished salmeterol-induced superoxide production, p47(phox) translocation, and its ability to mediate neurotoxicity. Together, these findings indicate that beta2AR activation induces microglial PHOX activation and DA neurotoxicity through an ERK-dependent/PKA-independent pathway. PMID:19330844

  15. Activation of cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase inhibits the desensitization and internalization of metabotropic glutamate receptors 1a and 1b.

    PubMed

    Mundell, Stuart J; Pula, Giordano; More, Julia C A; Jane, David E; Roberts, Peter J; Kelly, Eamonn

    2004-06-01

    In this study, we characterized the effects of activation of cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA) on the internalization and functional coupling of the metabotropic glutamate receptor (mGluR1) splice variants mGluR1a and mGluR1b. Using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay technique to assess receptor internalization, we found that the glutamate-induced internalization of mGluR1a or mGluR1b transiently expressed in human embryonic kidney (HEK) 293 cells was inhibited by coactivation of endogenous beta2-adrenoceptors with isoprenaline or by direct activation of adenylyl cyclase with forskolin. The PKA inhibitor N-(2-[p-bromocinnamylamino]ethyl)-5-isoquinolinesulfonamide hydrochloride (H89) blocked the effects of both isoprenaline and forskolin. The heterologous internalization of the mGluR1 splice variants triggered by carbachol was also inhibited by isoprenaline and forskolin in a PKA-sensitive fashion, whereas the constitutive (agonist-independent) internalization of mGluR1a was inhibited only modestly by PKA activation. Using inositol phosphate (IP) accumulation in cells prelabeled with [3H]inositol to assess receptor coupling, PKA activation increased basal IP accumulation in mGluR1a receptor-expressing cells and also increased glutamate-stimulated IP accumulation in both mGluR1a- and mGluR1b-expressing cells, but only at short times of glutamate addition. Furthermore, PKA activation completely blocked the carbachol-induced heterologous desensitization of glutamate-stimulated IP accumulation in both mGluR1a- and mGluR1b-expressing cells. In coimmunoprecipitation experiments, the ability of glutamate to increase association of GRK2 and arrestin-2 with mGluR1a and mGluR1b was inhibited by PKA activation with forskolin. Together, these results indicate that PKA activation inhibits the agonist-induced internalization and desensitization of mGluR1a and mGluR1b, probably by reducing their interaction with GRK2 and nonvisual arrestins. PMID:15155843

  16. Environmental Enrichment Increases Glucocorticoid Receptors and Decreases GluA2 and Protein Kinase M Zeta (PKMζ) Trafficking During Chronic Stress: A Protective Mechanism?

    PubMed Central

    Zanca, Roseanna M.; Braren, Stephen H.; Maloney, Brigid; Schrott, Lisa M.; Luine, Victoria N.; Serrano, Peter A.

    2015-01-01

    Environmental enrichment (EE) housing paradigms have long been shown beneficial for brain function involving neural growth and activity, learning and memory capacity, and for developing stress resiliency. The expression of the α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid (AMPA) receptor subunit GluA2, which is important for synaptic plasticity and memory, is increased with corticosterone (CORT), undermining synaptic plasticity and memory. Thus, we determined the effect of EE and stress on modulating GluA2 expression in Sprague-Dawley male rats. Several markers were evaluated which include: plasma CORT, the glucocorticoid receptor (GR), GluA2, and the atypical protein kinase M zeta (PKMζ). For 1 week standard-(ST) or EE-housed animals were treated with one of the following four conditions: (1) no stress; (2) acute stress (forced swim test, FST; on day 7); (3) chronic restraint stress (6 h/day for 7 days); and (4) chronic + acute stress (restraint stress 6 h/day for 7 days + FST on day 7). Hippocampi were collected on day 7. Our results show that EE animals had reduced time immobile on the FST across all conditions. After chronic + acute stress EE animals showed increased GR levels with no change in synaptic GluA2/PKMζ. ST-housed animals showed the reverse pattern with decreased GR levels and a significant increase in synaptic GluA2/PKMζ. These results suggest that EE produces an adaptive response to chronic stress allowing for increased GR levels, which lowers neuronal excitability reducing GluA2/PKMζ trafficking. We discuss this EE adaptive response to stress as a potential underlying mechanism that is protective for retaining synaptic plasticity and memory function. PMID:26617502

  17. Tyrosine kinase BMX phosphorylates phosphotyrosine-primed motif mediating the activation of multiple receptor tyrosine kinases.

    PubMed

    Chen, Sen; Jiang, Xinnong; Gewinner, Christina A; Asara, John M; Simon, Nicholas I; Cai, Changmeng; Cantley, Lewis C; Balk, Steven P

    2013-05-28

    The nonreceptor tyrosine kinase BMX (bone marrow tyrosine kinase gene on chromosome X) is abundant in various cell types and activated downstream of phosphatidylinositol-3 kinase (PI3K) and the kinase Src, but its substrates are unknown. Positional scanning peptide library screening revealed a marked preference for a priming phosphorylated tyrosine (pY) in the -1 position, indicating that BMX substrates may include multiple tyrosine kinases that are fully activated by pYpY sites in the kinase domain. BMX phosphorylated focal adhesion kinase (FAK) at Tyr⁵⁷⁷ subsequent to its Src-mediated phosphorylation at Tyr⁵⁷⁶. Loss of BMX by RNA interference or by genetic deletion in mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs) markedly impaired FAK activity. Phosphorylation of the insulin receptor in the kinase domain at Tyr¹¹⁸⁹ and Tyr¹¹⁹⁰, as well as Tyr¹¹⁸⁵, and downstream phosphorylation of the kinase AKT at Thr³⁰⁸ were similarly impaired by BMX deficiency. However, insulin-induced phosphorylation of AKT at Ser⁴⁷³ was not impaired in Bmx knockout MEFs or liver tissue from Bmx knockout mice, which also showed increased insulin-stimulated glucose uptake, possibly because of decreased abundance of the phosphatase PHLPP (PH domain leucine-rich repeat protein phosphatase). Thus, by identifying the pYpY motif as a substrate for BMX, our findings suggest that BMX functions as a central regulator among multiple signaling pathways mediated by tyrosine kinases. PMID:23716717

  18. 14-3-3 Proteins Bind to the Brassinosteroid Receptor Kinase, BRI1 and are Positive Regulators of Brassinosteroid Signaling

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Multiple members of the 14-3-3 protein family have been found in all eukaryotes, the biological functions of which are to interact physically with specific client proteins and thereby effect a change in the client. Thus, 14-3-3s are involved in many processes. The plant brassinosteroid (BR) recepto...

  19. Synergistic interaction of CLAVATA1, CLAVATA2, and RECEPTOR-LIKE PROTEIN KINASE 2 in cyst nematode parasitism of Arabidopsis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Plant-parasitic cyst nematodes secrete CLAVATA3 (CLV3)/ENDOSPERM SURROUNDING REGION (ESR) (CLE)-like effector proteins. These proteins act as ligand mimics of plant CLE peptides and are required for successful nematode infection. Previously, we showed that CLV2 and CORYNE (CRN), a heterodimer recept...

  20. Long Wavelength Monitoring of Protein Kinase Activity

    PubMed Central

    Oien, Nathan P.; Nguyen, Luong T.; Jernigan, Finith E.; Priestman, Melanie A.

    2014-01-01

    A family of long wavelength protein kinase fluorescent reporters is described in which the probing wavelength is pre-programmed using readily available fluorophores. These agents can assess protein kinase activity within the optical window of tissue, as exemplified by monitoring endogenous cAMP-dependent protein kinase activity (1) in erythrocyte lysates and (2) in intact erythrocytes using a light-activatable reporter. PMID:24604833

  1. Inhibitory effects of omega-3 fatty acids on early brain injury after subarachnoid hemorrhage in rats: Possible involvement of G protein-coupled receptor 120/β-arrestin2/TGF-β activated kinase-1 binding protein-1 signaling pathway.

    PubMed

    Yin, Jia; Li, Haiying; Meng, Chengjie; Chen, Dongdong; Chen, Zhouqing; Wang, Yibin; Wang, Zhong; Chen, Gang

    2016-06-01

    Omega-3 fatty acids have been reported to improve neuron functions during aging and in patients affected by mild cognitive impairment, and mediate potent anti-inflammatory via G protein-coupled receptor 120 (GPR120) signal pathway. Neuron dysfunction and inflammatory response also contributed to the progression of subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH)-induced early brain injury (EBI). This study was to examine the effects of omega-3 fatty acids on SAH-induced EBI. Two weeks before SAH, 30% Omega-3 fatty acids was administered by oral gavage at 1g/kg body weight once every 24h. Specific siRNA for GPR120 was exploited. Terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labeling, fluoro-Jade B staining, and neurobehavioral scores and brain water content test showed that omega-3 fatty acids effectively suppressed SAH-induced brain cell apoptosis and neuronal degradation, behavioral impairment, and brain edema. Western blot, immunoprecipitation, and electrophoretic mobility shift assays results showed that omega-3 fatty acids effectively suppressed SAH-induced elevation of inflammatory factors, including cyclooxygenase-2, monocyte chemoattractant protein-1, and inducible nitric oxide synthase. In addition, omega-3 fatty acids could inhibit phosphorylation of transforming growth factor β activated kinase-1 (TAK1), MEK4, c-Jun N-terminal kinase, and IkappaB kinase as well as activation of nuclear factor kappa B through regulating GPR120/β-arrestin2/TAK1 binding protein-1 pathway. Furthermore, siRNA-induced GPR120 silencing blocked the protective effects of omega-3 fatty acids. Here, we show that stimulation of GPR120 with omega-3 fatty acids pretreatment causes anti-apoptosis and anti-inflammatory effects via β-arrestin2/TAK1 binding protein-1/TAK1 pathway in the brains of SAH rats. Fish omega-3 fatty acids as part of a daily diet may reduce EBI in an experimental rat model of SAH. PMID:27000704

  2. Nectandrin B, a lignan isolated from nutmeg, inhibits liver X receptor-α-induced hepatic lipogenesis through AMP-activated protein kinase activation.

    PubMed

    Choi, Du Gon; Kim, Eun Kyung; Yang, Jin Won; Song, Jae Sook; Kim, Young-Mi

    2015-11-01

    Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease is recognized as the most commonly occurring chronic liver disease. Liver X receptor α (LXRα) and sterol regulatory element-binding protein (SREBP)-1c play a central role in de novo fatty acid synthesis. This study investigated pharmacological effects of nectandrin B, a lignan isolated from nutmeg extract, on hepatic lipogenesis stimulated by LXRα-SREBP-1c-mediated pathway and the possible molecular basis. The reporter gene assay revealed that nectandrin B completely represses LXRα activity enhanced by a synthetic LXRα ligand (T0901317) in HepG2 cells. The inhibitory effect was further supported by the suppression of mRNA expression of LXRα target genes, SREBP-1c and LXRα itself. Nectandrin B also inhibited the increase in SREBP-1c expression promoted by insulin plus high glucose, major contributors to hepatic lipid accumulation. LXRα-SREBP-1c-mediated induction of acetyl-CoA carboxylase 1 and fatty acid synthase, major genes for de novo lipogenesis, was suppressed by nectandrin B. Moreover, Oil Red O staining showed that nectandrin B notably attenuates LXRα-induced lipid accumulation. AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) inhibits the activities of LXRα and SREBP-1c. Nectandrin B strongly activated AMPK signaling in HepG2 cells. Taken together, the suppressive effects of nectandrin B on lipogenic gene expression and lipid accumulation in hepatocytes may be due to its inhibitory effect on the LXRα-SREBP-1c pathway presumably via AMPK activation. These results suggest the potential of nectandrin B as a therapeutic candidate for fatty liver disease. PMID:26790190

  3. Dimerization mediated through a leucine zipper activates the oncogenic potential of the met receptor tyrosine kinase.

    PubMed Central

    Rodrigues, G A; Park, M

    1993-01-01

    Oncogenic activation of the met (hepatocyte growth factor/scatter factor) receptor tyrosine kinase involves a genomic rearrangement that generates a hybrid protein containing tpr-encoded sequences at its amino terminus fused directly to the met-encoded receptor kinase domain. Deletion of Tpr sequences abolishes the transforming ability of this protein, implicating this region in oncogenic activation. We demonstrate, by site-directed mutagenesis and coimmunoprecipitation experiments, that a leucine zipper motif within Tpr mediates dimerization of the tpr-met product and is essential for the transforming activity of the met oncogene. By analogy with ligand-stimulated activation of receptor tyrosine kinases, we propose that constitutive dimerization mediated by a leucine zipper motif within Tpr is responsible for oncogenic activation of the Met kinase. The possibility that this mechanism of activation represents a paradigm for a class of receptor tyrosine kinase oncogenes activated by DNA rearrangement is discussed. Images PMID:8413267

  4. Some implications of receptor kinase signaling pathway for development of multitargeted kinase inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Mitrasinovic, Petar M

    2013-03-01

    Epidermal growth factor receptors (EGFRs) belong to the ErbB family of receptor tyrosine kinases (TKs). Based on the role of EGFR signaling pathway in malignant progression of various types of tumors, a growing interest in the use of EGFR-TK inhibitors as probes for molecular imaging of EGFR-overexpressing tumors via positron emission tomography (PET) and single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) is being notable. On one side, such noninvasive and repetitive monitoring of the activity of EGFR at the kinase level is intended to provide a direct measure of EGFR occupancy and inhibition by EGFR-targeting drugs. On the other side, all oncologic imaging tracers are molecularly targeted radiopharmaceuticals, which are strongly dependent on the tumor biochemistry including increased metabolism, hyperproliferation, angiogenesis, hypoxia, apoptosis, and specific tumor biomarkers (tumor specific antigens and tumor-specific receptors). The present article is an attempt to reconcile these two vital standpoints influencing the choice of appropriate radiolabeled agents for PET and SPECT imaging aimed to support the development of a new generation of multi-targeted kinase inhibitors in the time ahead, because the routine accomplishment of drug selectivity for particular protein kinases is a substantial challenge. PMID:23278847

  5. Biphasic Regulation of Yes-associated Protein (YAP) Cellular Localization, Phosphorylation, and Activity by G Protein-coupled Receptor Agonists in Intestinal Epithelial Cells: A NOVEL ROLE FOR PROTEIN KINASE D (PKD).

    PubMed

    Wang, Jia; Sinnett-Smith, James; Stevens, Jan V; Young, Steven H; Rozengurt, Enrique

    2016-08-19

    We examined the regulation of Yes-associated protein (YAP) localization, phosphorylation, and transcriptional activity in intestinal epithelial cells. Our results show that stimulation of intestinal epithelial IEC-18 cells with the G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) agonist angiotensin II, a potent mitogen for these cells, induced rapid translocation of YAP from the nucleus to the cytoplasm (within 15 min) and a concomitant increase in YAP phosphorylation at Ser(127) and Ser(397) Angiotensin II elicited YAP phosphorylation and cytoplasmic accumulation in a dose-dependent manner (ED50 = 0.3 nm). Similar YAP responses were provoked by stimulation with vasopressin or serum. Treatment of the cells with the protein kinase D (PKD) family inhibitors CRT0066101 and kb NB 142-70 prevented the increase in YAP phosphorylation on Ser(127) and Ser(397) via Lats2, YAP cytoplasmic accumulation, and increase in the mRNA levels of YAP/TEAD-regulated genes (Ctgf and Areg). Furthermore, siRNA-mediated knockdown of PKD1, PKD2, and PKD3 markedly attenuated YAP nuclear-cytoplasmic shuttling, phosphorylation at Ser(127), and induction of Ctgf and Areg expression in response to GPCR activation. These results identify a novel role for the PKD family in the control of biphasic localization, phosphorylation, and transcriptional activity of YAP in intestinal epithelial cells. In turn, YAP and TAZ are necessary for the stimulation of the proliferative response of intestinal epithelial cells to GPCR agonists that act via PKD. The discovery of interaction between YAP and PKD pathways identifies a novel cross-talk in signal transduction and demonstrates, for the first time, that the PKDs feed into the YAP pathway. PMID:27369082

  6. Plant protein kinase substrates identification using protein microarrays.

    PubMed

    Ma, Shisong; Dinesh-Kumar, Savithramma P

    2015-01-01

    Protein kinases regulate signaling pathways by phosphorylating their targets. They play critical roles in plant signaling networks. Although many important protein kinases have been identified in plants, their substrates are largely unknown. We have developed and produced plant protein microarrays with more than 15,000 purified plant proteins. Here, we describe a detailed protocol to use these microarrays to identify plant protein kinase substrates via in vitro phosphorylation assays on these arrays. PMID:25930701

  7. Fatty acid represses insulin receptor gene expression by impairing HMGA1 through protein kinase C{epsilon}

    SciTech Connect

    Dey, Debleena; Bhattacharya, Anirban; Roy, SibSankar; Bhattacharya, Samir . E-mail: smrbhattacharya@gmail.com

    2007-06-01

    It is known that free fatty acid (FFA) contributes to the development of insulin resistance and type2 diabetes. However, the underlying mechanism in FFA-induced insulin resistance is still unclear. In the present investigation we have demonstrated that palmitate significantly (p < 0.001) inhibited insulin-stimulated phosphorylation of PDK1, the key insulin signaling molecule. Consequently, PDK1 phosphorylation of plasma membrane bound PKC{epsilon} was also inhibited. Surprisingly, phosphorylation of cytosolic PKC{epsilon} was greatly stimulated by palmitate; this was then translocated to the nuclear region and associated with the inhibition of insulin receptor (IR) gene transcription. A PKC{epsilon} translocation inhibitor peptide, {epsilon}V1, suppressed this inhibitory effect of palmitate, suggesting requirement of phospho-PKC{epsilon} migration to implement palmitate effect. Experimental evidences indicate that phospho-PKC{epsilon} adversely affected HMGA1. Since HMGA1 regulates IR promoter activity, expression of IR gene was impaired causing reduction of IR on cell surface and that compromises with insulin sensitivity.

  8. The venus kinase receptor (VKR) family: structure and evolution

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Receptor tyrosine kinases (RTK) form a family of transmembrane proteins widely conserved in Metazoa, with key functions in cell-to-cell communication and control of multiple cellular processes. A new family of RTK named Venus Kinase Receptor (VKR) has been described in invertebrates. The VKR receptor possesses a Venus Fly Trap (VFT) extracellular module, a bilobate structure that binds small ligands to induce receptor kinase activity. VKR was shown to be highly expressed in the larval stages and gonads of several invertebrates, suggesting that it could have functions in development and/or reproduction. Results Analysis of recent genomic data has allowed us to extend the presence of VKR to five bilaterian phyla (Platyhelminthes, Arthropoda, Annelida, Mollusca, Echinodermata) as well as to the Cnidaria phylum. The presence of NveVKR in the early-branching metazoan Nematostella vectensis suggested that VKR arose before the bilaterian radiation. Phylogenetic and gene structure analyses showed that the 40 receptors identified in 36 animal species grouped monophyletically, and likely evolved from a common ancestor. Multiple alignments of tyrosine kinase (TK) and VFT domains indicated their important level of conservation in all VKRs identified up to date. We showed that VKRs had inducible activity upon binding of extracellular amino-acids and molecular modeling of the VFT domain confirmed the structure of the conserved amino-acid binding site. Conclusions This study highlights the presence of VKR in a large number of invertebrates, including primitive metazoans like cnidarians, but also its absence from nematodes and chordates. This little-known RTK family deserves to be further explored in order to determine its evolutionary origin, its possible interest for the emergence and specialization of Metazoa, and to understand its function in invertebrate development and/or reproductive biology. PMID:23721482

  9. Mapping of the receptor protein-tyrosine kinase 10 to human chromosome 1q21-q23 and mouse chromosome 1H1-5 by fluorescence in situ hybridization

    SciTech Connect

    Edelhoff, S.; Disteche, C.M.; Lai, C.

    1995-01-01

    Receptor protein-tyrosine kinases (PTKs) play a critical role in the transduction of signals important to cell growth, differentiation, and survival. Mutations affecting the expression of receptor PTK genes have been associated with a number of vertebrate and invertebrate developmental abnormalities, and the aberrant regulation of tyrosine phosphorylation is implicated in a variety of neoplasias. One estimate suggests that approximately 100 receptor PTK genes exist in the mammalian genome, about half of which have been identified. The tyro-10 receptor protein-tyrosine kinase, first identified in a PCR-based survey for novel tyrosine kinases in the rat nervous system, defines a new subfamily of PTKs. It exhibits a catalytic domain most closely related to those found in the trk PTK receptor subfamily, which transduces signals for nerve growth factor and the related molecules brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), neurotrophin-3, and neurotrophin-4 (NT-3 and NT-4). Trk and the related PTK receptors trkB and trkC play a critical role in the neurotrophin-dependent survival of subsets of sensory and motor neurons. The predicted tyro-10 extracellular region is, however, distinct from that of the trk subfamily and is unique except for a domain shared with the blood coagulation factors V and VIII, thought to be involved in phospholipid binding. Although tyro-10 RNA is most abundant in heart and skeletal muscle in the adult rat, it is expressed in a wide variety of tissues, including the developing and mature brain. Tyro-10 appears identical to the murine TKT sequence reported by Karn et al. and exhibits a high degree of similarity with the CaK, DDR, and Nep PTKs. A ligand for tyro-10 has not yet been identified. 10 refs., 1 fig.

  10. Activation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor beta/delta (PPARbeta/delta) increases the expression of prostaglandin E2 receptor subtype EP4. The roles of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase and CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein beta.

    PubMed

    Han, ShouWei; Ritzenthaler, Jeffrey D; Wingerd, Byron; Roman, Jesse

    2005-09-30

    The prostaglandin E2 receptor subtype EP4 has been implicated in the growth and progression of human non-small cell lung carcinoma (NSCLC). However, the factors that control its expression have not been entirely elucidated. Our studies show that NSCLC cells express peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor beta/delta (PPARbeta/delta) protein and that treatment with a selective PPARbeta/delta agonist (GW501516) increases EP4 mRNA and protein levels. GW501516 induced NSCLC cell proliferation, and this effect was prevented by PPARbeta/delta antisense or EP4 short interfering RNA (siRNA). GW501516 increased the phosphorylation of Akt and decreased PTEN expression. The selective inhibitor of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3-K), wortmannin, and PPARbeta/delta antisense, abrogated the effect of GW501516 on EP4 expression, whereas that of the inhibitor of Erk did not. GW501516 also increased EP4 promoter activity through effects on the region between -1555 and -992 bp in the EP4 promoter, and mutation of the CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein (C/EBP) site in this region abrogated the effect of GW501516. GW501516 increased not only the binding activity of C/EBP to the NF-IL6 site in the EP4 promoter, which was prevented by the inhibitor of PI3-K, but also increased C/EBPbeta protein in a dose- and PPARbeta/delta-dependent manner. The effect of GW501516 on EP4 protein was eliminated in the presence of C/EBPbeta siRNA. Finally, we showed that pretreatment of NSCLC with GW501516 further increased NSCLC cell proliferation in response to exogenous dimethyl-prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) that was diminished in the presence of PPARbeta/delta antisense and EP4 siRNA. Taken together, these findings suggest that activation of PPARbeta/delta induces PGE2 receptor subtype EP4 expression through PI3-K signals and increases human lung carcinoma cell proliferation in response to PGE2. The increase in transcription of the EP4 gene by PPARbeta/delta agonist was associated with increased C

  11. Glucocorticoid Receptor, C/EBP, HNF3, and Protein Kinase A Coordinately Activate the Glucocorticoid Response Unit of the Carbamoylphosphate Synthetase I Gene

    PubMed Central

    Christoffels, Vincent M.; Grange, Thierry; Kaestner, Klaus H.; Cole, Timothy J.; Darlington, Gretchen J.; Croniger, Colleen M.; Lamers, Wouter H.

    1998-01-01

    A single far-upstream enhancer is sufficient to confer hepatocyte-specific, glucocorticoid- and cyclic AMP-inducible periportal expression to the carbamoylphosphate synthetase I (CPS) gene. To identify the mechanism of hormone-dependent activation, the composition and function of the enhancer have been analyzed. DNase I protection and gel mobility shift assays revealed the presence of a cyclic AMP response element, a glucocorticoid response element (GRE), and several sites for the liver-enriched transcription factor families HNF3 and C/EBP. The in vivo relevance of the transcription factors interacting with the enhancer in the regulation of CPS expression in the liver was assessed by the analysis of knockout mice. A strong reduction of CPS mRNA levels was observed in glucocorticoid receptor- and C/EBPα-deficient mice, whereas the CPS mRNA was normally expressed in C/EBPβ knockout mice and in HNF3α and -γ double-knockout mice. (The role of HNFβ could not be assessed, because the corresponding knockout mice die at embryonic day 10). In hepatoma cells, most of the activity of the enhancer is contained within a 103-bp fragment, which depends for its activity on the simultaneous occupation of the GRE, HNF3, and C/EBP sites, thus meeting the requirement of a glucocorticoid response unit. In fibroblast-like CHO cells, on the other hand, the GRE in the CPS enhancer does not cooperate with the C/EBP and HNF3 elements in transactivation of the CPS promoter. In both hepatoma and CHO cells, stimulation of expression by cyclic AMP depends mainly on the integrity of the glucocorticoid pathway, demonstrating cross talk between this pathway and the cyclic AMP (protein kinase A) pathway. PMID:9774647

  12. G-Protein-Coupled Receptor Kinase 4 Polymorphisms and Blood Pressure Response to Metoprolol Among African Americans: Sex-Specificity and Interactions

    PubMed Central

    Bhatnagar, Vibha; O’Connor, Daniel T.; Brophy, Victoria H.; Schork, Nicholas J.; Richard, Erin; Salem, Rany M.; Nievergelt, Caroline M.; Bakris, George L.; Middleton, John P.; Norris, Keith C.; Wright, Jackson; Hiremath, Leena; Contreras, Gabriel; Appel, Lawrence J.; Lipkowitz, Michael S.

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND African Americans have a disproportionate burden of hypertension and comorbid disease. Pharmacogenetic markers of blood pressure response have yet to be defined clearly. This study explores the association between G-protein-coupled receptor kinase type 4 (GRK4) variants and blood pressure response to metoprolol among African Americans with early hypertensive nephrosclerosis. METHODS Participants from the African American Study of Kidney Disease and Hypertension (AASK) trial were genotyped at three GRK4 polymorphisms: R65L, A142V, and A486V. A Cox proportional hazards model, stratified by gender, was used to determine the relationship between GRK4 variants and time to reach a mean arterial pressure (MAP) of 107 mm Hg, adjusted for other predictors of blood pressure response. Potential interactions between the three polymorphisms were explored by analyzing the effects of gene haplotypes and by stratifying the analysis by neighboring sites. RESULTS The hazard ratio with 95% confidence interval by A142V among men randomized to a usual MAP (102–107 mm Hg) was 1.54 (1.11–2.44; P = 0.0009). The hazard ratio by A142V with R65/L65 or L65/L65 was 2.14 (1.35–3.39; P = 0.001). Haplotype analyses were consistent but inconclusive. There was no association between A142V and blood pressure response among women. CONCLUSIONS Results suggest a sex-specific relationship between GRK4 A142V and blood pressure response among African-American men with early hypertensive nephrosclerosis. Men with a GRK4 A142 were less responsive to metoprolol if they had a GRK4 L65 variant. The effect of GRK4 variants and blood pressure response to metoprolol should be studied in larger clinical trials. PMID:19119263

  13. Protein kinase Cε-calcineurin cosignaling downstream of toll-like receptor 4 downregulates fibrosis and induces wound healing gene expression in cardiac myofibroblasts.

    PubMed

    Mesquita, Rui F D S; Paul, Margaret A; Valmaseda, Aida; Francois, Asvi; Jabr, Rita; Anjum, Shahzia; Marber, Michael S; Budhram-Mahadeo, Vishwanie; Heads, Richard J

    2014-02-01

    The pathways which regulate resolution of inflammation and contribute to positive remodeling of the myocardium following injury are poorly understood. Here we show that protein kinase C epsilon (PKCε) cooperates with the phosphatase calcineurin (CN) to potentiate induction of cardioprotective gene expression while suppressing expression of fibrosis markers. This was achieved by detailed analysis of the regulation of cyclooxygenase 2 (COX-2) expression as a marker gene and by using gene expression profiling to identify genes regulated by coexpression of CN-Aα/PKCε in adult rat cardiac myofibroblasts (ARVFs) on a larger scale. GeneChip analysis of CN-Aα/PKCε-coexpressing ARVFs showed that COX-2 provides a signature for wound healing and is associated with downregulation of fibrosis markers, including connective tissue growth factor (CTGF), fibronectin, and collagens Col1a1, Col3a1, Col6a3, Col11a1, Col12a1, and Col14a1, with concomitant upregulation of cardioprotection markers, including COX-2 itself, lipocalin 2 (LCN2), tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase 1 (TIMP-1), interleukin-6 (IL-6), and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS). In primary rat cardiomyocyte cultures Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) agonist- or PKCε/CN-dependent COX-2 induction occurred in coresident fibroblasts and was blocked by selective inhibition of CN or PKC α/ε or elimination of fibroblasts. Furthermore, ectopic expression of PKCε and CN in ARVFs showed that the effects on COX-2 expression are mediated by specific NFAT sites within the COX-2 promoter as confirmed by site-directed mutagenesis and chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP). Therefore, PKCε may negatively regulate adverse myocardial remodeling by cooperating with CN to downregulate fibrosis and induce transcription of cardioprotective wound healing genes, including COX-2. PMID:24298017

  14. Central Rho kinase inhibition restores baroreflex sensitivity and angiotensin II type 1 receptor protein imbalance in conscious rabbits with chronic heart failure.

    PubMed

    Haack, Karla K V; Gao, Lie; Schiller, Alicia M; Curry, Pamela L; Pellegrino, Peter R; Zucker, Irving H

    2013-03-01

    The small GTPase RhoA and its associated kinase ROCKII are involved in vascular smooth muscle cell contraction and endothelial NO synthase mRNA destabilization. Overactivation of the RhoA/ROCKII pathway is implicated in several pathologies, including chronic heart failure (CHF), and may contribute to the enhanced sympathetic outflow seen in CHF as a result of decreased NO availability. Thus, we hypothesized that central ROCKII blockade would improve the sympathovagal imbalance in a pacing rabbit model of CHF in an NO-dependent manner. CHF was induced by rapid ventricular pacing and characterized by an ejection fraction of ≤45%. Animals were implanted with an intracerbroventricular cannula and osmotic minipump (rate, 1 μL/h) containing sterile saline, 1.5 µg/kg per day fasudil (Fas, a ROCKII inhibitor) for 4 days or Fas+100 µg/kg per day Nω-Nitro-l-arginine methyl ester hydrochloride, a NO synthase inhibitor. Arterial baroreflex control was assessed by intravenous infusion of sodium nitroprusside and phenylephrine. Fas infusion significantly lowered resting heart rate by decreasing sympathetic and increasing vagal tone. Furthermore, Fas improved baroreflex gain in CHF in an NO-dependent manner. In CHF Fas animals, the decrease in heart rate in response to intravenous metoprolol was similar to Sham and was reversed by Nω-Nitro-l-arginine methyl ester hydrochloride. Fas decreased angiotensin II type 1 receptor and phospho-ERM protein expression and increased endothelial NO synthase expression in the brain stem of CHF animals. These data strongly suggest that central ROCKII activation contributes to cardiac sympathoexcitation in the setting of CHF and that central Fas restores vagal and sympathetic tone in an NO-dependent manner. ROCKII may be a new central therapeutic target in the setting of CHF. PMID:23283363

  15. Human gonadotropin-releasing hormone receptor gene transcription: up-regulation by 3',5'-cyclic adenosine monophosphate/protein kinase A pathway.

    PubMed

    Cheng, K W; Leung, P C

    2001-07-01

    Transient transfection of mouse gonadotrope-derived (alphaT3-1) cells with a 2297 bp human GnRHR promoter-luciferase construct (p2300-LucF) showed a dose- and time-dependent increase in the human gonodotropin-releasing hormone receptor (GnRHR) promoter activity after forskolin treatment. An average of 4.8-fold increase in promoter activity was observed after 12 h of 10 microM forskolin treatment. This effect was mimicked by administration of cholera toxin, cAMP analog or pituitary adenylate cyclase activating polypeptide 38 (PACAP). A specific adenylate cyclase (AC) inhibitor (ACI) or protein kinase A (PKA) inhibitor (PKAI) pretreatment reversed the forskolin- and PACAP-induced increase in the human GnRHR promoter activity. These results not only confirm the stimulatory effect of Cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) in human GnRHR promoter activation, but also suggest that hormones or neurotransmitters that activate adenylate cyclase in pituitary gonadotropes may increase the expression of human GnRHR gene in transcriptional level. Progressive 5' deletion assays identified a 412 bp fragment (-577 to 167) in the human GnRHR 5'-flanking region that is essential in maintaining the basal responsiveness to cAMP. Mutagenesis coupled with functional studies have identified two putative AP-1/CREB binding sites, namely hGR-AP/CRE-1 and hGR-AP/CRE-2 that participated in mediating the cAMP-stimulatory effect. Mutation of the putative hGR-AP/CRE-1 and hGR-CRE-2 resulted in a 38 and 32% decrease in the forskolin-induced stimulation. However, mutation of both binding sites did not completely abolish the cAMP-stimulatory effect, suggesting that multiple transcription factor binding sites were involved in full response in cAMP stimulation. The binding of CREB to these motifs was confirmed by gel mobility shift assay and antibody supershift assay. PMID:11476937

  16. From pure compounds to complex exposure: Effects of dietary cadmium and lignans on estrogen, epidermal growth factor receptor, and mitogen activated protein kinase signaling in vivo.

    PubMed

    Ali, Imran; Hurmerinta, Teija; Nurmi, Tarja; Berglund, Marika; Rüegg, Joelle; Poutanen, Matti; Halldin, Krister; Mäkelä, Sari; Damdimopoulou, Pauliina

    2016-06-24

    Exposure to environmental endocrine active compounds correlates with altered susceptibility to disease in human populations. Chemical risk assessment is single compound based, although exposure often takes place as heterogeneous mixtures of man-made and natural substances within complex matrices like diet. Here we studied whether the effects of cadmium and enterolactone on endocrine endpoints in dietary exposure can be predicted based on pure compound effects. Ovariectomized estrogen reporter ERE-luciferase (ERE-luc) mice were maintained on diets that intrinsically contain increasing concentrations of cadmium and enterolactone precursors for three and 21 days. The activation of the ERE-luc, epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), mitogen activated protein kinase (MAPK)-ERK1/2, and classical estrogen responses were measured. Interactions between the diets and endogenous hormone were evaluated by challenging the animals with 17β-estradiol. Compared to animals on basal purified diet, mice consuming experimental diets were exposed to significantly higher levels of cadmium and enterolactone, yet the exposure remained comparable to typical human dietary intake. Surprisingly, we could not detect effects on endpoints regulated by pure enterolactone, such as ERE-luc activation. However, cadmium accumulation in the liver was accompanied with activation of EGFR and MAPK-ERK1/2 in line with our earlier CdCl2 studies. Further, attenuation of 17β-estradiol-induced ERE-luc response in liver by experimental diets was observed. Our findings indicate that the exposure context can have substantial effects on the activity of endocrine active compounds in vivo. Thus, whenever possible, a context that mimics human exposure should be tested along with pure compounds. PMID:27108949

  17. Histamine H4-receptors inhibit mast cell renin release in ischemia/reperfusion via protein kinase C ε-dependent aldehyde dehydrogenase type-2 activation.

    PubMed

    Aldi, Silvia; Takano, Ken-ichi; Tomita, Kengo; Koda, Kenichiro; Chan, Noel Y-K; Marino, Alice; Salazar-Rodriguez, Mariselis; Thurmond, Robin L; Levi, Roberto

    2014-06-01

    Renin released by ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) from cardiac mast cells (MCs) activates a local renin-angiotensin system (RAS) causing arrhythmic dysfunction. Ischemic preconditioning (IPC) inhibits MC renin release and consequent activation of this local RAS. We postulated that MC histamine H4-receptors (H4Rs), being Gαi/o-coupled, might activate a protein kinase C isotype-ε (PKCε)-aldehyde dehydrogenase type-2 (ALDH2) cascade, ultimately eliminating MC-degranulating and renin-releasing effects of aldehydes formed in I/R and associated arrhythmias. We tested this hypothesis in ex vivo hearts, human mastocytoma cells, and bone marrow-derived MCs from wild-type and H4R knockout mice. We found that activation of MC H4Rs mimics the cardioprotective anti-RAS effects of IPC and that protection depends on the sequential activation of PKCε and ALDH2 in MCs, reducing aldehyde-induced MC degranulation and renin release and alleviating reperfusion arrhythmias. These cardioprotective effects are mimicked by selective H4R agonists and disappear when H4Rs are pharmacologically blocked or genetically deleted. Our results uncover a novel cardioprotective pathway in I/R, whereby activation of H4Rs on the MC membrane, possibly by MC-derived histamine, leads sequentially to PKCε and ALDH2 activation, reduction of toxic aldehyde-induced MC renin release, prevention of RAS activation, reduction of norepinephrine release, and ultimately to alleviation of reperfusion arrhythmias. This newly discovered protective pathway suggests that MC H4Rs may represent a new pharmacologic and therapeutic target for the direct alleviation of RAS-induced cardiac dysfunctions, including ischemic heart disease and congestive heart failure. PMID:24696042

  18. The coreceptor CD4 is expressed in distinct nanoclusters and does not colocalize with T-cell receptor and active protein tyrosine kinase p56lck

    PubMed Central

    Roh, Kyung-Ho; Lillemeier, Björn F.; Wang, Feng; Davis, Mark M.

    2015-01-01

    CD4 molecules on the surface of T lymphocytes greatly augment the sensitivity and activation process of these cells, but how it functions is not fully understood. Here we studied the spatial organization of CD4, and its relationship to T-cell antigen receptor (TCR) and the active form of Src kinase p56lck (Lck) using single and dual-color photoactivated localization microscopy (PALM) and direct stochastic optical reconstruction microscopy (dSTORM). In nonactivated T cells, CD4 molecules are clustered in small protein islands, as are TCR and Lck. By dual-color imaging, we find that CD4, TCR, and Lck are localized in their separate clusters with limited interactions in the interfaces between them. Upon T-cell activation, the TCR and CD4 begin clustering together, developing into microclusters, and undergo a larger scale redistribution to form supramolecluar activation clusters (SMACs). CD4 and Lck localize in the inner TCR region of the SMAC, but this redistribution of disparate cluster structures results in enhanced segregation from each other. In nonactivated cells these preclustered structures and the limited interactions between them may serve to limit spontaneous and random activation events. However, the small sizes of these island structures also ensure large interfacial surfaces for potential interactions and signal amplification when activation is initiated. In the later activation stages, the increasingly larger clusters and their segregation from each other reduce the interfacial surfaces and could have a dampening effect. These highly differentiated spatial distributions of TCR, CD4, and Lck and their changes during activation suggest that there is a more complex hierarchy than previously thought. PMID:25829544

  19. Phosphorylation of the mRNA cap binding protein and eIF-4A by different protein kinases

    SciTech Connect

    Hagedorn, C.H.

    1987-05-01

    These studies were done to determine the identity of a protein kinase that phosphorylates the mRNA cap binding protein (CBP). Two chromatographic steps (dye and ligand and ion exchange HPLC) produced a 500x purification of an enzyme activity in rabbit reticulocytes that phosphorylated CBP at serine residues. Isoelectric focusing analysis of kinase treated CBP demonstrated 5 isoelectric species of which the 2 most anodic species were phosphorylated (contained /sup 32/P). This kinase activity phosphorylated CBP when it was isolated or in the eIF-4F complex. Purified protein kinase C, cAMP or cGMP dependent protein kinase, casein kinase I or II, myosin light chain kinase or insulin receptor kinase did not significantly phosphorylate isolated CBP or CBP in the eIF-4F complex. However, cAMP and cGMP dependent protein kinases and casein kinase II phosphorylated eIF-4A but did not phosphorylate the 46 kDa component of eIF-4F. cAMP dependent protein kinase phosphorylated a approx. 220 kDa protein doublet in eIF-4F preparations. These studies indicate that CBP kinase activity probably represents a previously unidentified protein kinase. In addition, eIF-4A appears to be phosphorylated by several protein kinases whereas the 46 kDa component of the eIF-4F complex was not.

  20. Protein kinase C, an elusive therapeutic target?

    PubMed Central

    Mochly-Rosen, Daria; Das, Kanad; Grimes, Kevin V

    2013-01-01

    Preface Protein kinase C (PKC) has been a tantalizing target for drug discovery ever since it was first identified as the receptor for the tumor promoter phorbol ester in 19821. Although initial therapeutic efforts focused on cancer, additional diseases, including diabetic complications, heart failure, myocardial infarction, pain and bipolar disease were targeted as researchers developed a better understanding of the roles that PKC’s eight conventional and novel isozymes play in health and disease. Unfortunately, both academic and pharmaceutical efforts have yet to result in the approval of a single new drug that specifically targets PKC. Why does PKC remain an elusive drug target? This review will provide a short account of some of the efforts, challenges and opportunities in developing PKC modulators to address unmet clinical needs. PMID:23197040

  1. Interaction of the C-terminal acidic domain of the insulin receptor with histone modulates the receptor kinase activity.

    PubMed

    Baron, V; Kaliman, P; Alengrin, F; Van Obberghen, E

    1995-04-01

    In this study, we investigated the role of the insulin receptor domain 1270-1280, an acid-rich sequence located in the receptor C-terminus. Antipeptide IgG raised against this sequence were obtained and used to analyze their effect on receptor function. Antipeptide IgG inhibited receptor autophosphorylation at Tyr1146, Tyr1150 and Tyr1151. These sites are known to be key modulators of the receptor activity. Autophosphorylation at other sites may also have been inhibited. The antipeptide antibody decreased the receptor kinase activity measured with poly(Glu80Tyr20) and a synthetic peptide corresponding to the proreceptor sequence 1142-1158. We provide evidence that the effect of the antibody on substrate phosphorylation may result from the control of the phosphorylation level of the receptor. Concerning the action of the antipeptide IgG on the receptor kinase activity, histone did not behave similarly to poly(Glu80Tyr20). The antibody recognizing sequence 1270-1280 competed with histone for an overlapping binding site. Histone also modulated insulin receptor autophosphorylation, supporting the idea that interference with domain 1270-1280 alters the receptor kinase. Our data suggest that the acidic region including residues 1270-1280 of the insulin receptor C-terminus is involved in the following events: (a) receptor binding with histone, an exogenous substrate of the receptor kinase, and (b) the regulation of receptor autophosphorylation and kinase activity. Based on these observations, we would like to propose that this insulin receptor domain could interact with cellular proteins modulating the receptor kinase. PMID:7744039

  2. The Association of Receptor of Activated Protein Kinase C 1(RACK1) with Infectious Bursal Disease Virus Viral Protein VP5 and Voltage-dependent Anion Channel 2 (VDAC2) Inhibits Apoptosis and Enhances Viral Replication*

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Wencheng; Zhang, Zhiqiang; Xu, Zhichao; Wang, Bin; Li, Xiaoqi; Cao, Hong; Wang, Yongqiang; Zheng, Shijun J.

    2015-01-01

    Infectious bursal disease (IBD) is an acute, highly contagious, and immunosuppressive avian disease caused by IBD virus (IBDV). Our previous report indicates that IBDV VP5 induces apoptosis via interaction with voltage-dependent anion channel 2 (VDAC2). However, the underlying molecular mechanism is still unclear. We report here that receptor of activated protein kinase C 1 (RACK1) interacts with both VDAC2 and VP5 and that they could form a complex. We found that overexpression of RACK1 inhibited IBDV-induced apoptosis in DF-1 cells and that knockdown of RACK1 by small interfering RNA induced apoptosis associated with activation of caspases 9 and 3 and suppressed IBDV growth. These results indicate that RACK1 plays an antiapoptotic role during IBDV infection via interaction with VDAC2 and VP5, suggesting that VP5 sequesters RACK1 and VDAC2 in the apoptosis-inducing process. PMID:25583988

  3. Fibronectin phosphorylation by ecto-protein kinase

    SciTech Connect

    Imada, Sumi; Sugiyama, Yayoi; Imada, Masaru )

    1988-12-01

    The presence of membrane-associated, extracellular protein kinase (ecto-protein kinase) and its substrate proteins was examined with serum-free cultures of Swiss 3T3 fibroblast. When cells were incubated with ({gamma}-{sup 32})ATP for 10 min at 37{degree}C, four proteins with apparent molecular weights between 150 and 220 kDa were prominently phosphorylated. These proteins were also radiolabeled by lactoperoxidase catalyzed iodination and were sensitive to mild tryptic digestion, suggesting that they localized on the cell surface or in the extracellular matrix. Phosphorylation of extracellular proteins with ({gamma}-{sup 32}P)ATP in intact cell culture is consistent with the existence of ecto-protein kinase. Anti-fibronectin antibody immunoprecipitated one of the phosphoproteins which comigrated with a monomer and a dimer form of fibronectin under reducing and nonreducing conditions of electrophoresis, respectively. The protein had affinity for gelatin as demonstrated by retention with gelatin-conjugated agarose. This protein substrate of ecto-protein kinase was thus concluded to be fibronectin. The sites of phosphorylation by ecto-protein kinase were compared with those of intracellularly phosphorylated fibronectin by the analysis of radiolabeled amino acids and peptides. Ecto-protein kinase phosphorylated fibronectin at serine and threonine residues which were distinct from the sites of intracellular fibronectin phosphorylation.

  4. Purine inhibitors of protein kinases, G proteins and polymerases

    DOEpatents

    Gray, Nathanael S.; Schultz, Peter; Kim, Sung-Hou; Meijer, Laurent

    2001-07-03

    The present invention relates to purine analogs that inhibit, inter alia, protein kinases, G-proteins and polymerases. In addition, the present invention relates to methods of using such purine analogs to inhibit protein kinases, G-proteins, polymerases and other cellular processes and to treat cellular proliferative diseases.

  5. The Role of Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase-Activated Protein Kinases (MAPKAPKs) in Inflammation

    PubMed Central

    Moens, Ugo; Kostenko, Sergiy; Sveinbjørnsson, Baldur

    2013-01-01

    Mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathways are implicated in several cellular processes including proliferation, differentiation, apoptosis, cell survival, cell motility, metabolism, stress response and inflammation. MAPK pathways transmit and convert a plethora of extracellular signals by three consecutive phosphorylation events involving a MAPK kinase kinase, a MAPK kinase, and a MAPK. In turn MAPKs phosphorylate substrates, including other protein kinases referred to as MAPK-activated protein kinases (MAPKAPKs). Eleven mammalian MAPKAPKs have been identified: ribosomal-S6-kinases (RSK1-4), mitogen- and stress-activated kinases (MSK1-2), MAPK-interacting kinases (MNK1-2), MAPKAPK-2 (MK2), MAPKAPK-3 (MK3), and MAPKAPK-5 (MK5). The role of these MAPKAPKs in inflammation will be reviewed. PMID:24705157

  6. Dynamic architecture of a protein kinase

    PubMed Central

    McClendon, Christopher L.; Kornev, Alexandr P.; Gilson, Michael K.; Taylor, Susan S.

    2014-01-01

    Protein kinases are dynamically regulated signaling proteins that act as switches in the cell by phosphorylating target proteins. To establish a framework for analyzing linkages between structure, function, dynamics, and allostery in protein kinases, we carried out multiple microsecond-scale molecular-dynamics simulations of protein kinase A (PKA), an exemplar active kinase. We identified residue–residue correlated motions based on the concept of mutual information and used the Girvan–Newman method to partition PKA into structurally contiguous “communities.” Most of these communities included 40–60 residues and were associated with a particular protein kinase function or a regulatory mechanism, and well-known motifs based on sequence and secondary structure were often split into different communities. The observed community maps were sensitive to the presence of different ligands and provide a new framework for interpreting long-distance allosteric coupling. Communication between different communities was also in agreement with the previously defined architecture of the protein kinase core based on the “hydrophobic spine” network. This finding gives us confidence in suggesting that community analyses can be used for other protein kinases and will provide an efficient tool for structural biologists. The communities also allow us to think about allosteric consequences of mutations that are linked to disease. PMID:25319261

  7. Antibodies directed against receptor tyrosine kinases

    PubMed Central

    FAUVEL, Bénédicte; Yasri, Aziz

    2014-01-01

    Approximately 30 therapeutic monoclonal antibodies have already been approved for cancers and inflammatory diseases, and monoclonal antibodies continue to be one of the fastest growing classes of therapeutic molecules. Because aberrant signaling by receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs) is a commonly observed factor in cancer, most of the subclasses of RTKs are being extensively studied as potential targets for treating malignancies. The first two RTKs that have been targeted by antibody therapy, with five currently marketed antibodies, are the growth factor receptors EGFR and HER2. However, due to systemic side effects, refractory patients and the development of drug resistance, these treatments are being challenged by emerging therapeutics. This review examines current monoclonal antibody therapies against RTKs. After an analysis of agents that have already been approved, we present an analysis of antibodies in clinical development that target RTKs. Finally, we highlight promising RTKs that are emerging as new oncological targets for antibody-based therapy. PMID:24859229

  8. Sesquiterpene dimmer (DSF-27) inhibits the release of neuroinflammatory mediators from microglia by targeting spleen tyrosine kinase (Syk) and Janus kinase 2 (Jak2): Two major non-receptor tyrosine signaling proteins involved in inflammatory events

    SciTech Connect

    Zeng, Ke-Wu; Wang, Shu; Dong, Xin; Jiang, Yong; Jin, Hong-Wei; Tu, Peng-Fei

    2014-03-15

    Non-receptor protein tyrosine kinases (NRPTKs)-dependent inflammatory signal transduction cascades play key roles in immunoregulation. However, drug intervention through NRPTKs-involved immunoregulation mechanism in microglia (the major immune cells of the central nervous system) has not been widely investigated. A main aim of the present study is to elucidate the contribution of two major NRPTKs (Syk and Jak2) in neuroinflammation suppression by a bioactive sesquiterpene dimmer (DSF-27). We found that LPS-stimulated BV-2 cells activated Syk and further initiated Akt/NF-κB inflammatory pathway. This Syk-dependent Akt/NF-κB inflammatory pathway can be effectively ameliorated by DSF-27. Moreover, Jak2 was activated by LPS, which was followed by transcriptional factor Stat3 activation. The Jak2/Stat3 signal was suppressed by DSF-27 through inhibition of Jak2 and Stat3 phosphorylation, promotion of Jak/Stat3 inhibitory factors PIAS3 expression, and down-regulation of ERK and p38 MAPK phosphorylation. Furthermore, DSF-27 protected cortical and mesencephalic dopaminergic neurons against neuroinflammatory injury. Taken together, our findings indicate NRPTK signaling pathways including Syk/NF-κB and Jak2/Stat3 cascades are potential anti-neuroinflammatory targets in microglia, and may also set the basis for the use of sesquiterpene dimmer as a therapeutic approach for neuroinflammation via interruption of these pathways. - Highlights: • Sesquiterpene dimmer DSF-27 inhibits inflammatory mediators' production in microglia. • Syk-dependent Akt/NF-κB pathway is important for DSF-27's anti-inflammation activity. • Jak2/Stat3 pathway is important for DSF-27's anti-inflammation activity. • Jak2/Stat3 signaling pathway is partly regulated by ERK and p38 MAPKs and PIAS3. • DSF-27 protects neurons against microglia-mediated neuroinflammatory injury.

  9. A new Vitreoscilla filiformis extract grown on spa water-enriched medium activates endogenous cutaneous antioxidant and antimicrobial defenses through a potential Toll-like receptor 2/protein kinase C, zeta transduction pathway.

    PubMed

    Mahe, Yann F; Perez, Marie-Jesus; Tacheau, Charlotte; Fanchon, Chantal; Martin, Richard; Rousset, Françoise; Seite, Sophie

    2013-01-01

    Vitreoscilla filiformis (VF) biomass (VFB) has been widely used in cosmetic preparations and shown to modulate the major inducible free-radical scavenger mitochondrial superoxide dismutase in skin cells. By adding La Roche-Posay (LRP) thermal spring water to the VF culture medium, we obtained a biomass (LRP-VFB) with a similar mitochondrial superoxide dismutase activation capacity to VF. Also, the new biomass more powerfully stimulated mRNA expression and antimicrobial peptides in reconstructed epidermis. Interestingly, a predictive computer model that analyzed transducing events within skin epidermal cells suggested that this protective activity may involve the Toll-like receptor 2/protein kinase C, zeta transduction pathway. Protein kinase C, zeta inhibition was effectively shown to abolish VFB-induced gene stimulation and confirmed this hypothesis. This thus opens new avenues for investigation into the improvement of skin homeostatic defense in relation to the control of its physiological microbiota and innate immunity. PMID:24039440

  10. Signals fly when kinases meet Rho-of-plants (ROP) small G-proteins.

    PubMed

    Fehér, Attila; Lajkó, Dézi Bianka

    2015-08-01

    Rho-type small GTP-binding plant proteins function as two-state molecular switches in cellular signalling. There is accumulating evidence that Rho-of-plants (ROP) signalling is positively controlled by plant receptor kinases, through the ROP guanine nucleotide exchange factor proteins. These signalling modules regulate cell polarity, cell shape, hormone responses, and pathogen defence, among other things. Other ROP-regulatory proteins might also be subjected to protein phosphorylation by cellular kinases (e.g., mitogen-activated protein kinases or calcium-dependent protein kinases), in order to integrate various cellular signalling pathways with ROP GTPase-dependent processes. In contrast to the role of kinases in upstream ROP regulation, much less is known about the potential link between ROP GTPases and downstream kinase signalling. In other eukaryotes, Rho-type G-protein-activated kinases are widespread and have a key role in many cellular processes. Recent data indicate the existence of structurally different ROP-activated kinases in plants, but their ROP-dependent biological functions still need to be validated. In addition to these direct interactions, ROPs may also indirectly control the activity of mitogen-activated protein kinases or calcium-dependent protein kinases. These kinases may therefore function as upstream as well as downstream kinases in ROP-mediated signalling pathways, such as the phosphatidylinositol monophosphate kinases involved in cell polarity establishment. PMID:26089155

  11. Genome-wide analysis of lectin receptor-like kinases in Populus

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Yang, Yongil; Labbé, Jessy; Muchero, Wellington; Yang, Xiaohan; Jawdy, Sara S.; Kennedy, Megan; Johnson, Jenifer; Sreedasyam, Avinash; Schmutz, Jeremy; Tuskan, Gerald A.; et al

    2016-09-01

    Receptor-like kinases (RLKs) belong to a large protein family with over 600 members in Arabidopsis and over 1000 in rice. Among RLKs, the lectin receptor-like kinases (LecRLKs) possess a characteristic extracellular carbohydrate-binding lectin domain and play important roles in plant development and innate immunity. In addition, there are 75 and 173 LecRLKs in Arabidopsis and rice, respectively. However, little is known about LecRLKs in perennial woody plants.

  12. Molecular and biochemical analysis of symbiotic plant receptor kinase complexes

    SciTech Connect

    Cook, Douglas R; Riely, Brendan K

    2010-09-01

    DE-FG02-01ER15200 was a 36-month project, initiated on Sept 1, 2005 and extended with a one-year no cost extension to August 31, 2009. During the project period we published seven manuscripts (2 in review). Including the prior project period (2002-2005) we published 12 manuscripts in journals that include Science, PNAS, The Plant Cell, Plant Journal, Plant Physiology, and MPMI. The primary focus of this work was to further elucidate the function of the Nod factor signaling pathway that is involved in initiation of the legume-rhizobium symbiosis and in particular to explore the relationship between receptor kinase-like proteins and downstream effectors of symbiotic development. During the project period we have map-base cloned two additional players in symbiotic development, including an ERF transcription factor and an ethylene pathway gene (EIN2) that negatively regulates symbiotic signaling; we have also further characterized the subcellular distribution and function of a nuclear-localized symbiosis-specific ion channel, DMI1. The major outcome of the work has been the development of systems for exploring and validating protein-protein interactions that connect symbiotic receptor-like proteins to downstream responses. In this regard, we have developed both homologous (i.e., in planta) and heterologous (i.e., in yeast) systems to test protein interactions. Using yeast 2-hybrid screens we isolated the only known interactor of the nuclear-localized calcium-responsive kinase DMI3. We have also used yeast 2-hybrid methodology to identify interactions between symbiotic signaling proteins and certain RopGTPase/RopGEF proteins that regulate root hair polar growth. More important to the long-term goals of our work, we have established a TAP tagging system that identifies in planta interactions based on co-immuno precipitation and mass spectrometry. The validity of this approach has been shown using known interactors that either co-iummnoprecipate (i.e., remorin) or co

  13. A Novel Mode of Protein Kinase Inhibition Exploiting Hydrophobic Motifs of Autoinhibited Kinases

    SciTech Connect

    S Eathiraj; R Palma; M Hirschi; E Volckova; E Nakuci; J Castro; C Chen; T Chan; D France; M Ashwell

    2011-12-31

    Protein kinase inhibitors with enhanced selectivity can be designed by optimizing binding interactions with less conserved inactive conformations because such inhibitors will be less likely to compete with ATP for binding and therefore may be less impacted by high intracellular concentrations of ATP. Analysis of the ATP-binding cleft in a number of inactive protein kinases, particularly in the autoinhibited conformation, led to the identification of a previously undisclosed non-polar region in this cleft. This ATP-incompatible hydrophobic region is distinct from the previously characterized hydrophobic allosteric back pocket, as well as the main pocket. Generalized hypothetical models of inactive kinases were constructed and, for the work described here, we selected the fibroblast growth factor receptor (FGFR) tyrosine kinase family as a case study. Initial optimization of a FGFR2 inhibitor identified from a library of commercial compounds was guided using structural information from the model. We describe the inhibitory characteristics of this compound in biophysical, biochemical, and cell-based assays, and have characterized the binding mode using x-ray crystallographic studies. The results demonstrate, as expected, that these inhibitors prevent activation of the autoinhibited conformation, retain full inhibitory potency in the presence of physiological concentrations of ATP, and have favorable inhibitory activity in cancer cells. Given the widespread regulation of kinases by autoinhibitory mechanisms, the approach described herein provides a new paradigm for the discovery of inhibitors by targeting inactive conformations of protein kinases.

  14. Receptor for advanced glycation end-products regulates lung fluid balance via protein kinase C-gp91(phox) signaling to epithelial sodium channels.

    PubMed

    Downs, Charles A; Kreiner, Lisa H; Johnson, Nicholle M; Brown, Lou Ann; Helms, My N

    2015-01-01

    The receptor for advanced glycation end-products (RAGE), a multiligand member of the Ig family, may play a crucial role in the regulation of lung fluid balance. We quantified soluble RAGE (sRAGE), a decoy isoform, and advanced glycation end-products (AGEs) from the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid of smokers and nonsmokers, and tested the hypothesis that AGEs regulate lung fluid balance through protein kinase C (PKC)-gp91(phox) signaling to the epithelial sodium channel (ENaC). Human bronchoalveolar lavage samples from smokers showed increased AGEs (9.02 ± 3.03 μg versus 2.48 ± 0.53 μg), lower sRAGE (1,205 ± 292 pg/ml versus 1,910 ± 263 pg/ml), and lower volume(s) of epithelial lining fluid (97 ± 14 ml versus 133 ± 17 ml). sRAGE levels did not predict ELF volumes in nonsmokers; however, in smokers, higher volumes of ELF were predicted with higher levels of sRAGE. Single-channel patch clamp analysis of rat alveolar epithelial type 1 cells showed that AGEs increased ENaC activity measured as the product of the number of channels (N) and the open probability (Po) (NPo) from 0.19 ± 0.08 to 0.83 ± 0.22 (P = 0.017) and the subsequent addition of 4-hydroxy-2, 2, 6, 6-tetramethylpiperidine-N-oxyl decreased ENaC NPo to 0.15 ± 0.07 (P = 0.01). In type 2 cells, human AGEs increased ENaC NPo from 0.12 ± 0.05 to 0.53 ± 0.16 (P = 0.025) and the addition of 4-hydroxy-2, 2, 6, 6-tetramethylpiperidine-N-oxyl decreased ENaC NPo to 0.10 ± 0.03 (P = 0.013). Using molecular and biochemical techniques, we observed that inhibition of RAGE and PKC activity attenuated AGE-induced activation of ENaC. AGEs induced phosphorylation of p47(phox) and increased gp91(phox)-dependent reactive oxygen species production, a response that was abrogated with RAGE or PKC inhibition. Finally, tracheal instillation of AGEs promoted clearance of lung fluid, whereas concomitant inhibition of RAGE, PKC, and gp91(phox) abrogated the response. PMID:24978055

  15. Dancing with the dead: Eph receptors and their kinase-null partners.

    PubMed

    Truitt, Luke; Freywald, Andrew

    2011-04-01

    Eph receptor tyrosine kinases and their ligands, ephrins, are membrane proteins coordinating a wide range of biological functions both in developing embryos and in adult multicellular organisms. Numerous studies have implicated Eph receptors in the induction of opposing responses, including cell adhesion or repulsion, support or inhibition of cell proliferation and cell migration, and progression or suppression of multiple malignancies. Similar to other receptor tyrosine kinases, Eph receptors rely on their ability to catalyze tyrosine phosphorylation for signal transduction. Interestingly, however, Eph receptors also actively utilize three kinase-deficient receptor tyrosine kinases, EphB6, EphA10, and Ryk, in their signaling network. The accumulating evidence suggests that the unusual flexibility of the Eph family, allowing it to initiate antagonistic responses, might be partially explained by the influence of the kinase-dead participants and that the exact outcome of an Eph-mediated action is likely to be defined by the balance between the signaling of catalytically potent and catalytically null receptors. We discuss in this minireview the emerging functions of the kinase-dead EphB6, EphA10, and Ryk receptors both in normal biological responses and in malignancy, and analyze currently available information related to the molecular mechanisms of their action in the context of the Eph family. PMID:21455264

  16. Overexpression of the tomato pollen receptor kinase LePRK1 rewires pollen tube growth to a blebbling mode

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The tubular growth of a pollen tube cell is crucial for the sexual reproduction of flowering plants. LePRK1 is a pollen-specific and plasma membrane–localized receptor-like kinase from tomato (Solanum lycopersicum). LePRK1 interacts with another receptor, LePRK2, and with KINASE PARTNER PROTEIN (KPP...

  17. A threading approach to protein structure prediction: Studies on TNF-like molecules, Rev proteins, and protein kinases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ihm, Yungok

    The main focus of this dissertation is the application of the threading approach to specific biological problems. The threading scheme developed in our group targets incorporating important structural features necessary for detecting structural similarity between the target sequence and the template structure. This enables us to use our threading method to solve problems for which sequence-based methods are not very much useful. We applied our threading method to predict the three-dimensional structures of lentivirus (EIAV, HIV-1, FIV, SIV) Rev proteins. Predicted structures of Rev proteins suggest that they share a structural similarity among themselves (four-helix bundle). Also, the threading approach has been utilized for screening for potential TNF-like molecules in Arabidopsis. The threading approach identified 35 potential TNF-like proteins in Arabidopsis, six of which are particularly interesting to be tested for the receptor kinase ligand activity. Threading method has also been used to identify potentially new protein kinases, which are not included in the protein kinase data base of C. elegans and Arabidopis. We identified eleven potentially new protein kinases and an additional protein worth investigating for protein kinase activity in C. elegans. Further, we identified ten potentially new protein kinases and additional four proteins worth investigating for the protein kinase activity in Arabidopsis.

  18. Complexity of Receptor Tyrosine Kinase Signal Processing

    PubMed Central

    Volinsky, Natalia; Kholodenko, Boris N.

    2013-01-01

    Our knowledge of molecular mechanisms of receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK) signaling advances with ever-increasing pace. Yet our understanding of how the spatiotemporal dynamics of RTK signaling control specific cellular outcomes has lagged behind. Systems-centered experimental and computational approaches can help reveal how overlapping networks of signal transducers downstream of RTKs orchestrate specific cell-fate decisions. We discuss how RTK network regulatory structures, which involve the immediate posttranslational and delayed transcriptional controls by multiple feed forward and feedback loops together with pathway cross talk, adapt cells to the combinatorial variety of external cues and conditions. This intricate network circuitry endows cells with emerging capabilities for RTK signal processing and decoding. We illustrate how mathematical modeling facilitates our understanding of RTK network behaviors by unraveling specific systems properties, including bistability, oscillations, excitable responses, and generation of intricate landscapes of signaling activities. PMID:23906711

  19. Mechanism of regulation of receptor histidine kinases.

    PubMed

    Ferris, Hedda U; Dunin-Horkawicz, Stanislaw; Hornig, Nora; Hulko, Michael; Martin, Jörg; Schultz, Joachim E; Zeth, Kornelius; Lupas, Andrei N; Coles, Murray

    2012-01-11

    Bacterial transmembrane receptors regulate an intracellular catalytic output in response to extracellular sensory input. To investigate the conformational changes that relay the regulatory signal, we have studied the HAMP domain, a ubiquitous intracellular module connecting input to output domains. HAMP forms a parallel, dimeric, four-helical coiled coil, and rational substitutions in our model domain (Af1503 HAMP) induce a transition in its interhelical packing, characterized by axial rotation of all four helices (the gearbox signaling model). We now illustrate how these conformational changes are propagated to a downstream domain by fusing Af1503 HAMP variants to the DHp domain of EnvZ, a bacterial histidine kinase. Structures of wild-type and mutant constructs are correlated with ligand response in vivo, clearly associating them with distinct signaling states. We propose that altered recognition of the catalytic domain by DHp, rather than a shift in position of the phospho-accepting histidine, forms the basis for regulation of kinase activity. PMID:22244755

  20. Protein Kinase C Pharmacology: Refining the Toolbox

    PubMed Central

    Wu-Zhang, Alyssa X.; Newton, Alexandra C.

    2014-01-01

    SYNOPSIS Protein kinase C (PKC) has been in the limelight since the discovery three decades ago that it acts as a major receptor for the tumor-promoting phorbol esters. Phorbol esters, with their potent ability to activate two of the three classes of PKC isozymes, have remained the best pharmacological tool for directly modulating PKC activity. However, with the discovery of other phorbol ester-responsive proteins, the advent of various small-molecule and peptide modulators, and the need to distinguish isozyme-specific activity, the pharmacology of PKC has become increasingly complex. Not surprisingly, many of the compounds originally touted as direct modulators of PKC have subsequently been shown to hit many other cellular targets and, in some cases, not even directly modulate PKC. The complexities and reversals in PKC pharmacology have led to widespread confusion about the current status of the pharmacological tools available to control PKC activity. Here, we aim to clarify the cacophony in the literature regarding the current state of bona fide and discredited cellular PKC modulators, including activators, small-molecule inhibitors, and peptides, and also address the use of genetically-encoded reporters and of PKC mutants to measure the effects of these drugs on the spatiotemporal dynamics of signaling by specific isozymes. PMID:23662807

  1. Mitogen-activated protein kinases regulate expression of neuronal nitric oxide synthase and neurite outgrowth via non-classical retinoic acid receptor signaling in human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells.

    PubMed

    Fujibayashi, Tatsuya; Kurauchi, Yuki; Hisatsune, Akinori; Seki, Takahiro; Shudo, Koichi; Katsuki, Hiroshi

    2015-10-01

    We have previously shown that retinoic acid receptor (RAR) stimulation by an agonist Am80 recruits nitric oxide-dependent signaling via increased expression of neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS) in rat midbrain slice cultures. Using neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells, here we investigated the mechanisms of RAR-induced nNOS expression, together with relationship between nNOS expression and neurite outgrowth. Am80 promoted neurite outgrowth, which was attenuated by inhibitors of phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K; LY294002), c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK; SP600125) and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (p38 MAPK; SB203580). A selective nNOS inhibitor 3-bromo-nitroindazole also suppressed Am80-induced neurite outgrowth. Am80-induced increase in nNOS protein expression was attenuated by LY294002, SP600125 and SB203580, whereas increase in nNOS mRNA expression was attenuated only by LY294002. Am80-induced activation of JNK and p38 MAPK was blocked by LY294002, suggesting that these kinases acted downstream of PI3K. We also confirmed that DAX1, a nuclear receptor reported to regulate nNOS expression, was up-regulated in response to Am80. siRNA-mediated knockdown of DAX1 abrogated Am80-induced nNOS expression and neurite outgrowth. These results reveal for the first time that nNOS expression is crucial for RAR-mediated neurite outgrowth, and that non-genomic signaling such as JNK and p38 MAPK is involved in RAR-mediated nNOS expression. PMID:26422672

  2. The bovine papillomavirus type 1 E5 transforming protein specifically binds and activates the beta-type receptor for the platelet-derived growth factor but not other related tyrosine kinase-containing receptors to induce cellular transformation.

    PubMed Central

    Goldstein, D J; Li, W; Wang, L M; Heidaran, M A; Aaronson, S; Shinn, R; Schlegel, R; Pierce, J H

    1994-01-01

    The 44-amino-acid E5 protein of bovine papillomavirus type 1 is a highly hydrophobic protein which appears to transform cells through the activation of growth factor receptors. To investigate the specificity of E5-growth factor receptor interactions required for mitogenic signaling, we utilized a nontumorigenic, murine myeloid cell line (32D) which is strictly dependent on interleukin-3 (IL-3) for sustained proliferation in culture. This IL-3 dependence can be functionally substituted by the expression of a variety of surrogate growth factor receptors and the addition of the corresponding ligand. Several receptor cDNAs for the alpha- and beta-type platelet-derived growth factor receptors [alpha PDGFR and beta PDGFR], the epidermal growth factor receptor, and the colony-stimulating factor 1 receptor) were transfected into 32D cells constitutively expressing the E5 protein to test for IL-3-independent growth. Only beta PDGFR was capable of abrogating the IL-3 dependence of 32D cells. The proliferative signal induced by the coexpression of beta PDGFR and E5 was accompanied by stable complex formation between these proteins, constitutive tyrosine phosphorylation of the receptor, and tumorigenicity in nude mice. The lack of cooperative interaction between E5 and the epidermal growth factor receptor, the colony-stimulating factor 1 receptor, and the highly related alpha PDGFR was paralleled by the inability of E5 to bind to these receptors and failure to increase receptor tyrosine phosphorylation. Thus, these data indicate that the ability of E5 to induce sustained proliferation and transformation of 32D cells is a direct consequence of specific interaction between the E5 protein and the beta PDGFR signaling complex and the subsequent stimulation of receptor tyrosine phosphorylation. Images PMID:8207816

  3. The effect of RGS12 on PDGFbeta receptor signalling to p42/p44 mitogen activated protein kinase in mammalian cells.

    PubMed

    Sambi, Balwinder S; Hains, Melinda D; Waters, Catherine M; Connell, Michelle C; Willard, Francis S; Kimple, Adam J; Pyne, Susan; Siderovski, David P; Pyne, Nigel J

    2006-07-01

    We have previously shown that the PDGFbeta receptor uses a classical GPCR-mediated pathway in order to induce efficient activation of p42/p44 MAPK in response to PDGF. We therefore, considered the possibility that GTPase accelerating proteins (RGS proteins), which regulate GPCR signalling, modulate PDGFbeta receptor-mediated signal transmission. Several lines of evidence were obtained to support functional interaction between the PDGFbeta receptor and RGS12 in HEK 293 and airway smooth muscle cells. Firstly, the over-expression of the RGS12 PDZ/PTB domain N-terminus or RGS12 PTB domain reduced the PDGF-induced activation of p42/p44 MAPK. Secondly, the RGS12 PDZ/PTB domain N-terminus and RGS12 PDZ domain can form a complex with the PDGFbeta receptor. Therefore, the results presented here provide the first evidence to support the concept that the PDZ/PTB domain N-terminus and/or the PTB domain of RGS12 may modulate PDGFbeta receptor signalling. In airway smooth muscle cells, over-expressed recombinant RGS12 and the isolated PDZ/PTB domain N-terminus co-localised with PDGFbeta receptor in cytoplasmic vesicles. To provide additional evidence for a role of the PDZ/PTB domain N-terminus, we used RGS14. RGS14 has the same C-terminal domain architecture of an RGS box, tandem Ras-binding domains (RBDs) and GoLoco motif as RGS12, but lacks the PDZ/PTB domain N-terminus. In this regard, RGS14 exhibited a different sub-cellular distribution compared with RGS12, being diffusely distributed in ASM cells. These findings suggest that RGS12 via its PDZ/PTB domain N-terminus may regulate trafficking of the PDGFbeta receptor in ASM cells. PMID:16214305

  4. Regulation of Axonal Transport by Protein Kinases.

    PubMed

    Gibbs, Katherine L; Greensmith, Linda; Schiavo, Giampietro

    2015-10-01

    The intracellular transport of organelles, proteins, lipids, and RNA along the axon is essential for neuronal function and survival. This process, called axonal transport, is mediated by two classes of ATP-dependent motors, kinesins, and cytoplasmic dynein, which carry their cargoes along microtubule tracks. Protein kinases regulate axonal transport through direct phosphorylation of motors, adapter proteins, and cargoes, and indirectly through modification of the microtubule network. The misregulation of axonal transport by protein kinases has been implicated in the pathogenesis of several nervous system disorders. Here, we review the role of protein kinases acting directly on axonal transport and discuss how their deregulation affects neuronal function, paving the way for the exploitation of these enzymes as novel drug targets. PMID:26410600

  5. Purine inhibitors of protein kinases, G proteins and polymerases

    DOEpatents

    Gray, Nathanael S.; Schultz, Peter; Kim, Sung-Hou; Meijer, Laurent

    2004-10-12

    The present invention relates to 2-N-substituted 6-(4-methoxybenzylamino)-9-isopropylpurines that inhibit, inter alia, protein kinases, G-proteins and polymerases. In addition, the present invention relates to methods of using such 2-N-substituted 6-(4-methoxybenzylamino)-9-isopropylpurines to inhibit protein kinases, G-proteins, polymerases and other cellular processes and to treat cellular proliferative diseases.

  6. Protein kinase domain of twitchin has protein kinase activity and an autoinhibitory region.

    PubMed

    Lei, J; Tang, X; Chambers, T C; Pohl, J; Benian, G M

    1994-08-19

    Twitchin is a 753-kDa polypeptide located in the muscle A-bands of the nematode, Caenorhabditis elegans. It consists of multiple copies of both fibronectin III and immunoglobulin C2 domains and, near the C terminus, a protein kinase domain with greatest homology to the catalytic domains of myosin light chain kinases. We have expressed and purified from Escherichia coli twitchin's protein kinase catalytic core and flanking sequences that do not include fibronectin III and immunoglobulin C2 domains. The protein was shown to phosphorylate a model substrate and to undergo autophosphorylation. The autophosphorylation occurs at a slow rate, attaining a maximum at 3 h with a stoichiometry of about 1.0 mol of phosphate/mol of protein, probably through an intramolecular mechanism. Sequence analysis of proteolytically derived phosphopeptides revealed that autophosphorylation occurred N-terminal to the catalytic core, predominantly at Thr-5910, with possible minor sites at Ser5912 and/or Ser-5913. This portion of twitchin (residues 5890-6268) was also phosphorylated in vitro by protein kinase C in the absence of calcium and phosphotidylserine, but not by cAMP-dependent protein kinase. By comparing the activities of three twitchin segments, the enzyme appears to be inhibited by the 60-amino acid residues lying just C-terminal to the kinase catalytic core. Thus, like a number of other protein kinases including myosin light chain kinases, the twitchin kinase appears to be autoregulated. PMID:8063727

  7. Hemoglobin Receptor Protein from Porphyromonas gingivalis Induces Interleukin-8 Production in Human Gingival Epithelial Cells through Stimulation of the Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase and NF-κB Signal Transduction Pathways

    PubMed Central

    Fujita, Yuki; Nakayama, Masaaki; Naito, Mariko; Yamachika, Eiki; Inoue, Tetsuyoshi; Nakayama, Koji; Iida, Seiji

    2014-01-01

    Periodontitis is an inflammatory disease of polymicrobial origin affecting the tissues supporting the tooth. The oral anaerobic bacterium Porphyromonas gingivalis, which is implicated as an important pathogen for chronic periodontitis, triggers a series of host inflammatory responses that promote the destruction of periodontal tissues. Among the virulence factors of P. gingivalis, hemoglobin receptor protein (HbR) is a major protein found in culture supernatants. In this study, we investigated the roles of HbR in the production of inflammatory mediators. We found that HbR induced interleukin-8 (IL-8) production in the human gingival epithelial cell line Ca9-22. p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) and extracellular signal-related kinase 1/2 (Erk1/2) were activated in HbR-stimulated Ca9-22 cells. Inhibitors of p38 MAPK (SB203580) and Erk1/2 (PD98059) blocked HbR-induced IL-8 production. Additionally, HbR stimulated the translocation of NF-κB-p65 to the nucleus, consistent with enhancement of IL-8 expression by activation of the NF-κB pathway. In addition, small interfering RNA (siRNA) targeting activating transcription factor 2 (ATF-2) or cyclic AMP-response element-binding protein (CREB) inhibited HbR-induced IL-8 production. Moreover, pretreatment with SB203580 and PD98059 reduced HbR-induced phosphorylation of CREB and ATF-2, respectively. Combined pretreatment with an inhibitor of NF-κB (BAY11-7082) and SB203580 was more efficient in inhibiting the ability of HbR to induce IL-8 production than pretreatment with either BAY11-7082 or SB203580 alone. Thus, in Ca9-22 cells, the direct activation of p38 MAPK and Erk1/2 by HbR caused the activation of the transcription factors ATF-2, CREB, and NF-κB, thus resulting in the induction of IL-8 production. PMID:24126532

  8. Mechanisms of Activation of Receptor Tyrosine Kinases: Monomers or Dimers

    PubMed Central

    Maruyama, Ichiro N.

    2014-01-01

    Receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs) play essential roles in cellular processes, including metabolism, cell-cycle control, survival, proliferation, motility and differentiation. RTKs are all synthesized as single-pass transmembrane proteins and bind polypeptide ligands, mainly growth factors. It has long been thought that all RTKs, except for the insulin receptor (IR) family, are activated by ligand-induced dimerization of the receptors. An increasing number of diverse studies, however, indicate that RTKs, previously thought to exist as monomers, are present as pre-formed, yet inactive, dimers prior to ligand binding. The non-covalently associated dimeric structures are reminiscent of those of the IR family, which has a disulfide-linked dimeric structure. Furthermore, recent progress in structural studies has provided insight into the underpinnings of conformational changes during the activation of RTKs. In this review, I discuss two mutually exclusive models for the mechanisms of activation of the epidermal growth factor receptor, the neurotrophin receptor and IR families, based on these new insights. PMID:24758840

  9. Crystallization and preliminary X-ray analysis of ginkbilobin-2 from Ginkgo biloba seeds: a novel antifungal protein with homology to the extracellular domain of plant cysteine-rich receptor-like kinases

    PubMed Central

    Miyakawa, Takuya; Sawano, Yoriko; Miyazono, Ken-ichi; Hatano, Ken-ichi; Tanokura, Masaru

    2007-01-01

    The antifungal protein ginkbilobin-2 (Gnk2) from Ginkgo biloba seeds does not show homology to other pathogenesis-related proteins, but does show homology to the extracellular domain of plant cysteine-rich receptor-like kinases. Native Gnk2 purified from ginkgo nuts and the selenomethionine derivative of recombinant Gnk2 (SeMet-rGnk2) were crystallized by the sitting-drop vapour-diffusion method using different precipitants. X-ray diffraction data were collected from Gnk2 at 2.38 Å resolution and from SeMet-rGnk2 at 2.79 Å resolution using a synchrotron-radiation source. The crystals of both proteins belonged to the primitive cubic space group P213, with unit-cell parameters a = b = c = 143.2 Å. PMID:17768341

  10. Protein kinase activators alter glial cholesterol esterification

    SciTech Connect

    Jeng, I.; Dills, C.; Klemm, N.; Wu, C.

    1986-05-01

    Similar to nonneural tissues, the activity of glial acyl-CoA cholesterol acyltransferase is controlled by a phosphorylation and dephosphorylation mechanism. Manipulation of cyclic AMP content did not alter the cellular cholesterol esterification, suggesting that cyclic AMP is not a bioregulator in this case. Therefore, the authors tested the effect of phorbol-12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA) on cellular cholesterol esterification to determine the involvement of protein kinase C. PMA has a potent effect on cellular cholesterol esterification. PMA depresses cholesterol esterification initially, but cells recover from inhibition and the result was higher cholesterol esterification, suggesting dual effects of protein kinase C. Studies of other phorbol analogues and other protein kinase C activators such as merezein indicate the involvement of protein kinase C. Oleoyl-acetyl glycerol duplicates the effect of PMA. This observation is consistent with a diacyl-glycerol-protein kinase-dependent reaction. Calcium ionophore A23187 was ineffective in promoting the effect of PMA. They concluded that a calcium-independent and protein C-dependent pathway regulated glial cholesterol esterification.

  11. Arabidopsis Receptor of Activated C Kinase1 Phosphorylation by WITH NO LYSINE8 KINASE

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Urano, Daisuke; Czarnecki, Olaf; Wang, Xiaoping; Jones, Alan M.; Chen, Jin-Gui

    2014-12-08

    Receptor of activated C kinase1 (RACK1) is a versatile scaffold protein that binds to numerous proteins to regulate diverse cellular pathways in mammals. In Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana), RACK1 has been shown to regulate plant hormone signaling, stress responses, and multiple processes of growth and development. However, little is known about the molecular mechanism underlying these regulations. In this paper, we show that an atypical serine (Ser)/threonine (Thr) protein kinase, WITH NO LYSINE8 (WNK8), phosphorylates RACK1. WNK8 physically interacted with and phosphorylated RACK1 proteins at two residues: Ser-122 and Thr-162. Genetic epistasis analysis of rack1 wnk8 double mutants indicated that RACK1more » acts downstream of WNK8 in the glucose responsiveness and flowering pathways. The phosphorylation-dead form, RACK1AS122A/T162A, but not the phosphomimetic form, RACK1AS122D/T162E, rescued the rack1a null mutant, implying that phosphorylation at Ser-122 and Thr-162 negatively regulates RACK1A function. The transcript of RACK1AS122D/T162E accumulated at similar levels as those of RACK1S122A/T162A. However, although the steady-state level of the RACK1AS122A/T162A protein was similar to wild-type RACK1A protein, the RACK1AS122D/T162E protein was nearly undetectable, suggesting that phosphorylation affects the stability of RACK1A proteins. In conclusion, these results suggest that RACK1 is phosphorylated by WNK8 and that phosphorylation negatively regulates RACK1 function by influencing its protein stability.« less

  12. Arabidopsis Receptor of Activated C Kinase1 Phosphorylation by WITH NO LYSINE8 KINASE

    SciTech Connect

    Urano, Daisuke; Czarnecki, Olaf; Wang, Xiaoping; Jones, Alan M.; Chen, Jin-Gui

    2014-12-08

    Receptor of activated C kinase1 (RACK1) is a versatile scaffold protein that binds to numerous proteins to regulate diverse cellular pathways in mammals. In Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana), RACK1 has been shown to regulate plant hormone signaling, stress responses, and multiple processes of growth and development. However, little is known about the molecular mechanism underlying these regulations. In this paper, we show that an atypical serine (Ser)/threonine (Thr) protein kinase, WITH NO LYSINE8 (WNK8), phosphorylates RACK1. WNK8 physically interacted with and phosphorylated RACK1 proteins at two residues: Ser-122 and Thr-162. Genetic epistasis analysis of rack1 wnk8 double mutants indicated that RACK1 acts downstream of WNK8 in the glucose responsiveness and flowering pathways. The phosphorylation-dead form, RACK1AS122A/T162A, but not the phosphomimetic form, RACK1AS122D/T162E, rescued the rack1a null mutant, implying that phosphorylation at Ser-122 and Thr-162 negatively regulates RACK1A function. The transcript of RACK1AS122D/T162E accumulated at similar levels as those of RACK1S122A/T162A. However, although the steady-state level of the RACK1AS122A/T162A protein was similar to wild-type RACK1A protein, the RACK1AS122D/T162E protein was nearly undetectable, suggesting that phosphorylation affects the stability of RACK1A proteins. In conclusion, these results suggest that RACK1 is phosphorylated by WNK8 and that phosphorylation negatively regulates RACK1 function by influencing its protein stability.

  13. [Mitogen-activated protein kinases in atherosclerosis].

    PubMed

    Bryk, Dorota; Olejarz, Wioletta; Zapolska-Downar, Danuta

    2014-01-01

    Intracellular signalling cascades, in which MAPK (mitogen-activated protein kinases) intermediate, are responsible for a biological response of a cell to an external stimulus. MAP kinases, which include ERK1/2 (extracellular signalling-regulated kinase), JNK (c-Jun N-terminal kinase) and p 38 MAPK, regulate the activity of many proteins, enzymes and transcription factors and thus have a wide spectrum of biological effects. Many basic scientific studies have defined numerous details of their pathway organization and activation. There are also more and more studies suggesting that individual MAP kinases probably play an important role in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis. They may mediate inflammatory processes, endothelial cell activation, monocyte/macrophage recruitment and activation, smooth muscle cell proliferation and T-lymphocyte differentiation, all of which represent crucial mechanisms involved in pathogenesis of atherosclerosis. The specific inhibition of an activity of the respective MAP kinases may prove a new therapeutic approach to attenuate atherosclerotic plaque formation in the future. In this paper, we review the current state of knowledge concerning MAP kinase-dependent cellular and molecular mechanisms underlying atherosclerosis. PMID:24491891

  14. Anti-inflammatory effects of cordycepin in lipopolysaccharide-stimulated RAW 264.7 macrophages through Toll-like receptor 4-mediated suppression of mitogen-activated protein kinases and NF-κB signaling pathways

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Yung Hyun; Kim, Gi-Young; Lee, Hye Hyeon

    2014-01-01

    Cordycepin is the main functional component of the Cordyceps species, which has been widely used in traditional Oriental medicine. This compound possesses many pharmacological properties, such as an ability to enhance immune function, as well as antioxidant, antiaging, and anticancer effects. In the present study, we investigated the anti-inflammatory effects of cordycepin using a murine macrophage RAW 264.7 cell model. Our data demonstrated that cordycepin suppressed production of proinflammatory mediators such as nitric oxide (NO) and prostaglandin E2 by inhibiting inducible NO synthase and cyclooxygenase-2 gene expression. Cordycepin also inhibited the release of proinflammatory cytokines, including tumor necrosis factor-alpha and interleukin-1-beta, through downregulation of respective mRNA expression. In addition, pretreatment with cordycepin significantly inhibited lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced phosphorylation of mitogen-activating protein kinases and attenuated nuclear translocation of NF-κB by LPS, which was associated with abrogation of inhibitor kappa B-alpha degradation. Furthermore, cordycepin potently inhibited the binding of LPS to macrophages and LPS-induced Toll-like receptor 4 and myeloid differentiation factor 88 expression. Taken together, the results suggest that the inhibitory effects of cordycepin on LPS-stimulated inflammatory responses in RAW 264.7 macrophages are associated with suppression of mitogen-activating protein kinases and activation of NF-κB by inhibition of the Toll-like receptor 4 signaling pathway. PMID:25342887

  15. Protein Connectivity in Chemotaxis Receptor Complexes.

    PubMed

    Eismann, Stephan; Endres, Robert G

    2015-12-01

    The chemotaxis sensory system allows bacteria such as Escherichia coli to swim towards nutrients and away from repellents. The underlying pathway is remarkably sensitive in detecting chemical gradients over a wide range of ambient concentrations. Interactions among receptors, which are predominantly clustered at the cell poles, are crucial to this sensitivity. Although it has been suggested that the kinase CheA and the adapter protein CheW are integral for receptor connectivity, the exact coupling mechanism remains unclear. Here, we present a statistical-mechanics approach to model the receptor linkage mechanism itself, building on nanodisc and electron cryotomography experiments. Specifically, we investigate how the sensing behavior of mixed receptor clusters is affected by variations in the expression levels of CheA and CheW at a constant receptor density in the membrane. Our model compares favorably with dose-response curves from in vivo Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET) measurements, demonstrating that the receptor-methylation level has only minor effects on receptor cooperativity. Importantly, our model provides an explanation for the non-intuitive conclusion that the receptor cooperativity decreases with increasing levels of CheA, a core signaling protein associated with the receptors, whereas the receptor cooperativity increases with increasing levels of CheW, a key adapter protein. Finally, we propose an evolutionary advantage as explanation for the recently suggested CheW-only linker structures. PMID:26646441

  16. Protein Connectivity in Chemotaxis Receptor Complexes

    PubMed Central

    Eismann, Stephan; Endres, Robert G.

    2015-01-01

    The chemotaxis sensory system allows bacteria such as Escherichia coli to swim towards nutrients and away from repellents. The underlying pathway is remarkably sensitive in detecting chemical gradients over a wide range of ambient concentrations. Interactions among receptors, which are predominantly clustered at the cell poles, are crucial to this sensitivity. Although it has been suggested that the kinase CheA and the adapter protein CheW are integral for receptor connectivity, the exact coupling mechanism remains unclear. Here, we present a statistical-mechanics approach to model the receptor linkage mechanism itself, building on nanodisc and electron cryotomography experiments. Specifically, we investigate how the sensing behavior of mixed receptor clusters is affected by variations in the expression levels of CheA and CheW at a constant receptor density in the membrane. Our model compares favorably with dose-response curves from in vivo Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET) measurements, demonstrating that the receptor-methylation level has only minor effects on receptor cooperativity. Importantly, our model provides an explanation for the non-intuitive conclusion that the receptor cooperativity decreases with increasing levels of CheA, a core signaling protein associated with the receptors, whereas the receptor cooperativity increases with increasing levels of CheW, a key adapter protein. Finally, we propose an evolutionary advantage as explanation for the recently suggested CheW-only linker structures. PMID:26646441

  17. Protein-tyrosine phosphorylation interaction network in Bacillus subtilis reveals new substrates, kinase activators and kinase cross-talk

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Lei; Pigeonneau, Nathalie; Ventroux, Magali; Derouiche, Abderahmane; Bidnenko, Vladimir; Mijakovic, Ivan; Noirot-Gros, Marie-Françoise

    2014-01-01

    Signal transduction in eukaryotes is generally transmitted through phosphorylation cascades that involve a complex interplay of transmembrane receptors, protein kinases, phosphatases and their targets. Our previous work indicated that bacterial protein-tyrosine kinases and phosphatases may exhibit similar properties, since they act on many different substrates. To capture the complexity of this phosphorylation-based network, we performed a comprehensive interactome study focused on the protein-tyrosine kinases and phosphatases in the model bacterium Bacillus subtilis. The resulting network identified many potential new substrates of kinases and phosphatases, some of which were experimentally validated. Our study highlighted the role of tyrosine and serine/threonine kinases and phosphatases in DNA metabolism, transcriptional control and cell division. This interaction network reveals significant crosstalk among different classes of kinases. We found that tyrosine kinases can bind to several modulators, transmembrane or cytosolic, consistent with a branching of signaling pathways. Most particularly, we found that the division site regulator MinD can form a complex with the tyrosine kinase PtkA and modulate its activity in vitro. In vivo, it acts as a scaffold protein which anchors the kinase at the cell pole. This network highlighted a role of tyrosine phosphorylation in the spatial regulation of the Z-ring during cytokinesis. PMID:25374563

  18. Bryostatins activate protein kinase C in intact human platelets

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, J.B.; Tallant, E.A.; Pettit, G.R.; Wallace, R.W.

    1986-05-01

    Bryostatins, macrocyclic lactones isolated from a marine bryozoan, have antineoplastic activity in the P388 lymphocytic leukemia system. These compounds also stimulate growth in Swiss 3T3 cells, induce secretion in leukocytes, inhibit phorbol dibutyrate binding to a high affinity receptor, and activate the C-kinase in vitro. In human platelets, phorbol esters induce aggregation and activate protein kinase C, resulting in phosphorylation of a 47K protein and the 20K myosin light chain. The authors now show that bryostatin 7 (B-7) triggers platelet aggregation to the same rate and extent as phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA). B-7 also causes the in vivo activation of the C-kinase, resulting in phosphorylation of both the 47K and the 20K proteins; the time courses and dose-responses of these B-7-induced phosphorylations were similar to those found with PMA. In addition, B-7 increases the level of /sup 32/P-incorporation into the platelet polyphosphoinositides, which also occurs in response to PMA. Bryostatin 3 (B-3), which has been shown to be much less potent than B-7 in mimicking other PMA effects, was much less effective than PMA or B-7 in inducing platelet aggregation and in stimulating /sup 32/P-incorporation into both proteins and the phosphoinositides. These results demonstrate that, intact human platelets, bryostatins mimic the phorbol esters tumor promoters and directly activate protein kinase C.

  19. Physical and functional association of the cbl protooncogen product with an src-family protein tyrosine kinase, p53/56lyn, in the B cell antigen receptor-mediated signaling.

    PubMed

    Tezuka, T; Umemori, H; Fusaki, N; Yagi, T; Takata, M; Kurosaki, T; Yamamoto, T

    1996-02-01

    To identify novel signal transducers involved in signaling mediated by the Src-family protein tyrosine kinases (PTKs), we used a yeast two-hybrid system with a probe corresponding to the regulatory region of p56lyn, a member of Src-family PTKs. One of the isolated clones contained the COOH-terminal 470 amino acid residues of p120c-cbl, the product of the cellular homologue of the v-cbl retroviral oncogene. p120c-cbl is a cytoplasmic protein with nuclear protein-like motifs. Here we show in vivo association of p120c-cbl with p53/56lyn. After stimulation of the B cell antigen receptor (BCR), p120c-cbl was rapidly tyrosine phosphorylated. Studies with lyn- or syk-negative chicken B cells demonstrated that p53/56lyn, but not p72syk, was crucial for tyrosine phosphorylation of p120c-cbl upon stimulation of the BCR. We also show the importance of p59fyn in tyrosine phosphorylation of p120c-cbl in the T-cell receptor-mediated signaling using fyn-overexpressing T cell hybridomas and splenic T cells from fyn-deficient mice. These results suggest that p120c-cbl is an important substrate of Src-family PTKs in the intracellular signaling mediated by the antigen receptors PMID:8627181

  20. Physical and functional association of the cbl protooncogen product with an src-family protein tyrosine kinase, p53/56lyn, in the B cell antigen receptor-mediated signaling

    PubMed Central

    1996-01-01

    To identify novel signal transducers involved in signaling mediated by the Src-family protein tyrosine kinases (PTKs), we used a yeast two- hybrid system with a probe corresponding to the regulatory region of p56lyn, a member of Src-family PTKs. One of the isolated clones contained the COOH-terminal 470 amino acid residues of p120c-cbl, the product of the cellular homologue of the v-cbl retroviral oncogene. p120c-cbl is a cytoplasmic protein with nuclear protein-like motifs. Here we show in vivo association of p120c-cbl with p53/56lyn. After stimulation of the B cell antigen receptor (BCR), p120c-cbl was rapidly tyrosine phosphorylated. Studies with lyn- or syk-negative chicken B cells demonstrated that p53/56lyn, but not p72syk, was crucial for tyrosine phosphorylation of p120c-cbl upon stimulation of the BCR. We also show the importance of p59fyn in tyrosine phosphorylation of p120c- cbl in the T-cell receptor-mediated signaling using fyn-overexpressing T cell hybridomas and splenic T cells from fyn-deficient mice. These results suggest that p120c-cbl is an important substrate of Src-family PTKs in the intracellular signaling mediated by the antigen receptors PMID:8627181

  1. Oncoprotein protein kinase antibody kit

    DOEpatents

    Karin, Michael; Hibi, Masahiko; Lin, Anning

    2008-12-23

    An isolated polypeptide (JNK) characterized by having a molecular weight of 46 kD as determined by reducing SDS-PAGE, having serine and threonine kinase activity, phosphorylating the c-Jun N-terminal activation domain and polynucleotide sequences and method of detection of JNK are provided herein. JNK phosphorylates c-Jun N-terminal activation domain which affects gene expression from AP-1 sites.

  2. Non-degradative Ubiquitination of Protein Kinases

    PubMed Central

    Ball, K. Aurelia; Johnson, Jeffrey R.; Lewinski, Mary K.; Guatelli, John; Verschueren, Erik; Krogan, Nevan J.; Jacobson, Matthew P.

    2016-01-01

    Growing evidence supports other regulatory roles for protein ubiquitination in addition to serving as a tag for proteasomal degradation. In contrast to other common post-translational modifications, such as phosphorylation, little is known about how non-degradative ubiquitination modulates protein structure, dynamics, and function. Due to the wealth of knowledge concerning protein kinase structure and regulation, we examined kinase ubiquitination using ubiquitin remnant immunoaffinity enrichment and quantitative mass spectrometry to identify ubiquitinated kinases and the sites of ubiquitination in Jurkat and HEK293 cells. We find that, unlike phosphorylation, ubiquitination most commonly occurs in structured domains, and on the kinase domain, ubiquitination is concentrated in regions known to be important for regulating activity. We hypothesized that ubiquitination, like other post-translational modifications, may alter the conformational equilibrium of the modified protein. We chose one human kinase, ZAP-70, to simulate using molecular dynamics with and without a monoubiquitin modification. In Jurkat cells, ZAP-70 is ubiquitinated at several sites that are not sensitive to proteasome inhibition and thus may have other regulatory roles. Our simulations show that ubiquitination influences the conformational ensemble of ZAP-70 in a site-dependent manner. When monoubiquitinated at K377, near the C-helix, the active conformation of the ZAP-70 C-helix is disrupted. In contrast, when monoubiquitinated at K476, near the kinase hinge region, an active-like ZAP-70 C-helix conformation is stabilized. These results lead to testable hypotheses that ubiquitination directly modulates kinase activity, and that ubiquitination is likely to alter structure, dynamics, and function in other protein classes as well. PMID:27253329

  3. Differential protein expression and oncogenic gene network link tyrosine kinase ephrin B4 receptor to aggressive gastric and gastroesophageal junction cancers.

    PubMed

    Liersch-Löhn, Britta; Slavova, Nadia; Buhr, Heinz J; Bennani-Baiti, Idriss M

    2016-03-01

    Transmembrane tyrosine-kinase Ephrin receptors promote tumor progression and/or metastasis of several malignancies including leukemia, follicular lymphoma, glioma, malignant pleural mesothelioma, papillary thyroid carcinoma, sarcomas and ovarian, breast, bladder and non-small cell lung cancers. They also drive intestinal stem cell proliferation and positioning, control intestinal tissue boundaries and are involved in liver, pancreatic and colorectal cancers, indicating involvement in additional digestive system malignancies. We investigated the role of Ephrin-B4 receptor (EPHB4), and its ligand EFNB2, in gastric and gastroesophageal junction cancers in patient cohorts through computational, mathematical, molecular and immunohistochemical analyses. We show that EPHB4 is upregulated in preneoplastic gastroesophageal lesions and its expression further increased in gastroesophageal cancers in several independent cohorts. The closely related EPHB6 receptor, which also binds EFNB2, was downregulated in all tested cohorts, consistent with its tumor-suppressive properties in other cancers. EFNB2 expression is induced in esophageal cells by acidity, suggesting that gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) may constitute an early triggering event in activating EFNB2-EPHB4 signaling. Association of EPHB4 to both Barrett's esophagus and to advanced tumor stages, and its overexpression at the tumor invasion front and vascular endothelial cells intimate the notion that EPHB4 may be associated with multiple steps of gastroesophageal tumorigenesis. Analysis of oncogenomic signatures uncovered the first EPHB4-associated gene network (false discovery rate: 7 × 10(-90) ) composed of a five-transcription factor interconnected gene network that drives proliferation, angiogenesis and invasiveness. The EPHB4 oncogenomic network provides a molecular basis for its role in tumor progression and points to EPHB4 as a potential tumor aggressiveness biomarker and drug target in gastroesophageal

  4. MERTK receptor tyrosine kinase is a therapeutic target in melanoma

    PubMed Central

    Schlegel, Jennifer; Sambade, Maria J.; Sather, Susan; Moschos, Stergios J.; Tan, Aik-Choon; Winges, Amanda; DeRyckere, Deborah; Carson, Craig C.; Trembath, Dimitri G.; Tentler, John J.; Eckhardt, S. Gail; Kuan, Pei-Fen; Hamilton, Ronald L.; Duncan, Lyn M.; Miller, C. Ryan; Nikolaishvili-Feinberg, Nana; Midkiff, Bentley R.; Liu, Jing; Zhang, Weihe; Yang, Chao; Wang, Xiaodong; Frye, Stephen V.; Earp, H. Shelton; Shields, Janiel M.; Graham, Douglas K.

    2013-01-01

    Metastatic melanoma is one of the most aggressive forms of cutaneous cancers. Although recent therapeutic advances have prolonged patient survival, the prognosis remains dismal. C-MER proto-oncogene tyrosine kinase (MERTK) is a receptor tyrosine kinase with oncogenic properties that is often overexpressed or activated in various malignancies. Using both protein immunohistochemistry and microarray analyses, we demonstrate that MERTK expression correlates with disease progression. MERTK expression was highest in metastatic melanomas, followed by primary melanomas, while the lowest expression was observed in nevi. Additionally, over half of melanoma cell lines overexpressed MERTK compared with normal human melanocytes; however, overexpression did not correlate with mutations in BRAF or RAS. Stimulation of melanoma cells with the MERTK ligand GAS6 resulted in the activation of several downstream signaling pathways including MAPK/ERK, PI3K/AKT, and JAK/STAT. MERTK inhibition via shRNA reduced MERTK-mediated downstream signaling, reduced colony formation by up to 59%, and diminished tumor volume by 60% in a human melanoma murine xenograft model. Treatment of melanoma cells with UNC1062, a novel MERTK-selective small-molecule tyrosine kinase inhibitor, reduced activation of MERTK-mediated downstream signaling, induced apoptosis in culture, reduced colony formation in soft agar, and inhibited invasion of melanoma cells. This work establishes MERTK as a therapeutic target in melanoma and provides a rationale for the continued development of MERTK-targeted therapies. PMID:23585477

  5. Protein Kinase A: A Master Kinase of Granulosa Cell Differentiation

    PubMed Central

    Puri, Pawan; Little-Ihrig, Lynda; Chandran, Uma; Law, Nathan C.; Hunzicker-Dunn, Mary; Zeleznik, Anthony J.

    2016-01-01

    Activation of protein kinase A (PKA) by follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) transduces the signal that drives differentiation of ovarian granulosa cells (GCs). An unresolved question is whether PKA is sufficient to initiate the complex program of GC responses to FSH. We compared signaling pathways and gene expression profiles of GCs stimulated with FSH or expressing PKA-CQR, a constitutively active mutant of PKA. Both FSH and PKA-CQR stimulated the phosphorylation of proteins known to be involved in GC differentiation including CREB, ß-catenin, AKT, p42/44 MAPK, GAB2, GSK-3ß, FOXO1, and YAP. In contrast, FSH stimulated the phosphorylation of p38 MAP kinase but PKA-CQR did not. Microarray analysis revealed that 85% of transcripts that were up-regulated by FSH were increased to a comparable extent by PKA-CQR and of the transcripts that were down-regulated by FSH, 76% were also down-regulated by PKA-CQR. Transcripts regulated similarly by FSH and PKA-CQR are involved in steroidogenesis and differentiation, while transcripts more robustly up-regulated by PKA-CQR are involved in ovulation. Thus, PKA, under the conditions of our experimental approach appears to function as a master upstream kinase that is sufficient to initiate the complex pattern of intracellular signaling pathway and gene expression profiles that accompany GC differentiation. PMID:27324437

  6. GK4, a G-protein-coupled receptor with a phosphatidylinositol phosphate kinase domain in Phytophthora infestans, is involved in sporangia development and virulence.

    PubMed

    Hua, Chenlei; Meijer, Harold J G; de Keijzer, Jeroen; Zhao, Wei; Wang, Yuanchao; Govers, Francine

    2013-04-01

    For dispersal and host infection plant pathogens largely depend on asexual spores. Pathogenesis and sporulation are complex processes that are governed by cellular signalling networks including G-protein and phospholipid signalling. Oomycetes possess a family of novel proteins called GPCR-PIPKs (GKs) that are composed of a seven-transmembrane spanning (7-TM) domain fused to a phosphatidylinositol phosphate kinase (PIPK) domain. Based on this domain structure GKs are anticipated to link G-protein and phospholipid signal pathways; however, their functions are currently unknown. Expression analyses of the 12 GK genes in Phytophthora infestans and their orthologues in Phytophthora sojae, revealed differential expression during asexual development. PiGK1 and PiGK4 were fused to monomeric red fluorescent protein (mRFP) and ectopically expressed in P. infestans. In growing hyphae different subcellular distribution patterns were observed indicating that these two GKs act independently during development. We focused on the functional analyses of PiGK4. Its localization suggested involvement in cell differentiation and elongation and its 7-TM domain showed a canonical GPCR membrane topology. Silencing of GK4 and overexpression of full-length and truncated constructs in P. infestans revealed that PiGK4 is not only involved in spore germination and hyphal elongation but also in sporangia cleavage and infection. PMID:23448716

  7. Targeted covalent inactivation of protein kinases by resorcylic acid lactone polyketides

    PubMed Central

    Schirmer, Andreas; Kennedy, Jonathan; Murli, Sumati; Reid, Ralph; Santi, Daniel V.

    2006-01-01

    Resorcylic acid lactones containing a cis-enone are susceptible to Michael addition reactions and are potent inhibitors of several protein kinases. A structural-bioinformatics analysis identified a conserved Cys residue in the ATP-binding site of the kinases reported to be inhibited by cis-enone resorcylic acid lactones but absent in those that are not. Mining of the kinome database revealed that a subset of some 46 kinases contained this Cys residue. Screening a panel of 124 kinases with the resorcylic acid lactone hypothemycin showed that 18 of 19 targets containing the conserved Cys were inhibited. Kinetic analyses showed time-dependent inhibition, a hallmark of covalent inactivation, and biochemical studies of the interaction of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK)2 with hypothemycin confirmed covalent adduct formation. Resorcylic acid lactones are unique among kinase inhibitors in that they target mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase pathways at four levels: mitogen receptors, MAP kinase kinase (MEK)1/2 and ERK1/2, and certain downstream ERK substrates. Cell lines dependent on the activation of Tyr kinase mitogen receptor targets of the resorcylic acid lactones were unusually sensitive toward hypothemycin and showed the expected inhibition of kinase phosphorylation due to inhibition of the mitogen receptors and/or MEK1/2 and ERK1/2. Among cells without mitogen receptor targets, those harboring an ERK pathway-activating B-RAF V600E mutation were selectively and potently inhibited by hypothemycin. Hypothemycin also prevented stimulated activation of the p38 cascade through inhibition of the Cys-containing targets MEK3/6 and TGF-β-activated kinase 1 and of the JNK/SAPK (c-Jun N-terminal kinase/stress-activated protein kinase) cascade through inhibition of MEK4/7. PMID:16537514

  8. Proteolytic cleavage, trafficking, and functions of nuclear receptor tyrosine kinases.

    PubMed

    Chen, Mei-Kuang; Hung, Mien-Chie

    2015-10-01

    Intracellular localization has been reported for over three-quarters of receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK) families in response to environmental stimuli. Internalized RTK may bind to non-canonical substrates and affect various cellular processes. Many of the intracellular RTKs exist as fragmented forms that are generated by γ-secretase cleavage of the full-length receptor, shedding, alternative splicing, or alternative translation initiation. Soluble RTK fragments are stabilized and intracellularly transported into subcellular compartments, such as the nucleus, by binding to chaperone or transcription factors, while membrane-bound RTKs (full-length or truncated) are transported from the plasma membrane to the ER through the well-established Rab- or clathrin adaptor protein-coated vesicle retrograde trafficking pathways. Subsequent nuclear transport of membrane-bound RTK may occur via two pathways, INFS or INTERNET, with the former characterized by release of receptors from the ER into the cytosol and the latter characterized by release of membrane-bound receptor from the ER into the nucleoplasm through the inner nuclear membrane. Although most non-canonical intracellular RTK signaling is related to transcriptional regulation, there may be other functions that have yet to be discovered. In this review, we summarize the proteolytic processing, intracellular trafficking and nuclear functions of RTKs, and discuss how they promote cancer progression, and their clinical implications. PMID:26096795

  9. Regulation of polar auxin transport by protein and lipid kinases.

    PubMed

    Armengot, Laia; Marquès-Bueno, Maria Mar; Jaillais, Yvon

    2016-07-01

    The directional transport of auxin, known as polar auxin transport (PAT), allows asymmetric distribution of this hormone in different cells and tissues. This system creates local auxin maxima, minima, and gradients that are instrumental in both organ initiation and shape determination. As such, PAT is crucial for all aspects of plant development but also for environmental interaction, notably in shaping plant architecture to its environment. Cell to cell auxin transport is mediated by a network of auxin carriers that are regulated at the transcriptional and post-translational levels. Here we review our current knowledge on some aspects of the 'non-genomic' regulation of auxin transport, placing an emphasis on how phosphorylation by protein and lipid kinases controls the polarity, intracellular trafficking, stability, and activity of auxin carriers. We describe the role of several AGC kinases, including PINOID, D6PK, and the blue light photoreceptor phot1, in phosphorylating auxin carriers from the PIN and ABCB families. We also highlight the function of some receptor-like kinases (RLKs) and two-component histidine kinase receptors in PAT, noting that there are probably RLKs involved in co-ordinating auxin distribution yet to be discovered. In addition, we describe the emerging role of phospholipid phosphorylation in polarity establishment and intracellular trafficking of PIN proteins. We outline these various phosphorylation mechanisms in the context of primary and lateral root development, leaf cell shape acquisition, as well as root gravitropism and shoot phototropism. PMID:27242371

  10. Regulation of polar auxin transport by protein and lipid kinases

    PubMed Central

    Jaillais, Yvon

    2016-01-01

    The directional transport of auxin, known as polar auxin transport, allows asymmetric distribution of this hormone in different cells and tissues. This system creates local auxin maxima, minima and gradients that are instrumental in both organ initiation and shape determination. As such, polar auxin transport is crucial for all aspects of plant development but also for environmental interaction, notably in shaping plant architecture to its environment. Cell-to-cell auxin transport is mediated by a network of auxin carriers that are regulated at the transcriptional and post-translational levels. Here we review our current knowledge on some aspects of the ‘non-genomic’ regulation of auxin transport, putting an emphasis on how phosphorylation by protein and lipid kinases controls the polarity, intracellular trafficking, stability and activity of auxin carriers. We describe the role of several AGC kinases, including PINOID, D6PK and the blue light photoreceptor phot1, in phosphorylating auxin carriers from the PIN and ABCB families. We also highlight the function of some Receptor-Like Kinases (RLK) and two-component histidine kinase receptors in polar auxin transport, noticing that there are likely RLKs involved in coordinating auxin distribution yet to be discovered. In addition, we describe the emerging role of phospholipid phosphorylation in polarity establishment and intracellular trafficking of PIN proteins. We outline these various phosphorylation mechanisms in the context of primary and lateral root development, leaf cell shape acquisition as well as root gravitropism and shoot phototropism. PMID:27242371

  11. A- Kinase Anchoring Protein 150 Controls Protein Kinase C-mediated Phosphorylation and Sensitization of TRPV1

    PubMed Central

    Jeske, Nathaniel A.; Patwardhan, Amol M.; Ruparel, Nikita B.; Akopian, Armen N; Shapiro, Mark S.; Henry, Michael A.

    2009-01-01

    Post-translational modifications on various receptor proteins have significant effects on receptor activation. For the Transient Receptor Potential family V type 1 (TRPV1) receptor, phosphorylation of certain serine/threonine amino acid residues sensitizes the receptor to activation by capsaicin and heat. Although Protein Kinase C (PKC) phosphorylates TRPV1 on certain serine/threonine residues, it is not completely understood how PKC functionally associates with TRPV1. Recent studies have reported that the A-kinase Anchoring Protein 150 (AKAP150) mediates PKA phosphorylation of TRPV1 in several nociceptive models. Here, we demonstrate that AKAP150 also mediates PKC-directed phosphorylation and sensitization of TRPV1. In cultured rat trigeminal ganglia, immunocytochemical analyses demonstrate co-localization of AKAP150 and PKC isoforms α, δ, ε, and γ in TRPV1-positive neurons. Additional biochemical evidence supports immunocytochemical results, indicating that AKAP150 preferentially associates with certain PKC isoforms in rat trigeminal ganglia neurons. Employing siRNA-mediated knock-down of AKAP150 expression, we demonstrate that PKC-mediated phosphorylation of TRPV1 and sensitization to a capsaicin response is dependent upon functional expression of the AKAP150 scaffolding protein. Furthermore, PKC-induced sensitization to a thermal stimulus is abrogated in AKAP150 knock-out animals relative to wild-type. Collectively, results from these studies indicate that the AKAP150 scaffolding protein functionally modulates PKC-mediated phosphorylation and sensitization of the TRPV1 receptor in rat sensory neurons, suggesting the scaffolding protein to be an integral regulator of peripheral inflammatory hyperalgesia. PMID:19767149

  12. Regulation of cholesterol esterification by protein kinase C

    SciTech Connect

    Jeng, I.; Dills, C.; Klemm, N.; Wu, C.

    1986-03-05

    They have recently identified acyl-CoA cholesterol acyltransferase as the key enzyme for cholesterol esterification in the central nervous system. They found that the activity of glial acyl-CoA cholesterol acyltransferase could be controlled by a phosphorylation-dephosphorylation mechanism. However, repeated attempts to identify cyclic AMP as the bioregulator for this reaction failed. Recently, they have studied the possible involvement of protein kinase C in the regulation of glial cholesterol esterification. Phorbol-12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA) can activate cellular cholesterol esterification in a complex, time-dependent manner. Phorbol analogues inactive toward protein kinase C are also ineffective in this assay. Furthermore, oleoyl-acetyl-glycerol mimics the effect of PMA, confirming the proposal that protein kinase C mediates the effect of these compounds and that the natural bioregulator is probably diacylglycerol. Receptor-mediated polyphosphatidyl-inositol cleavage often produces diacylglycerol and inositol triphosphate. The synergic effects of these two compounds are known to be necessary to elicit other biological responses. Their preliminary studies using calcium ionophore A23187 indicates that Ca/sup + +/ is not required for cellular cholesterol esterification. In sum, glial cholesterol esterification is probably regulated by a calcium-independent and protein kinase C-dependent reaction.

  13. Presynaptic c-Jun N-terminal Kinase 2 regulates NMDA receptor-dependent glutamate release

    PubMed Central

    Nisticò, Robert; Florenzano, Fulvio; Mango, Dalila; Ferraina, Caterina; Grilli, Massimo; Di Prisco, Silvia; Nobili, Annalisa; Saccucci, Stefania; D'Amelio, Marcello; Morbin, Michela; Marchi, Mario; Mercuri, Nicola B.; Davis, Roger J.; Pittaluga, Anna; Feligioni, Marco

    2015-01-01

    Activation of c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) signaling pathway is a critical step for neuronal death occurring in several neurological conditions. JNKs can be activated via receptor tyrosine kinases, cytokine receptors, G-protein coupled receptors and ligand-gated ion channels, including the NMDA glutamate receptors. While JNK has been generally associated with postsynaptic NMDA receptors, its presynaptic role remains largely unexplored. Here, by means of biochemical, morphological and functional approaches, we demonstrate that JNK and its scaffold protein JIP1 are also expressed at the presynaptic level and that the NMDA-evoked glutamate release is controlled by presynaptic JNK-JIP1 interaction. Moreover, using knockout mice for single JNK isoforms, we proved that JNK2 is the essential isoform in mediating this presynaptic event. Overall the present findings unveil a novel JNK2 localization and function, which is likely to play a role in different physiological and pathological conditions. PMID:25762148

  14. cGMP/Protein Kinase G Signaling Suppresses Inositol 1,4,5-Trisphosphate Receptor Phosphorylation and Promotes Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress in Photoreceptors of Cyclic Nucleotide-gated Channel-deficient Mice*

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Hongwei; Butler, Michael R.; Thapa, Arjun; Belcher, Josh; Yang, Fan; Baehr, Wolfgang; Biel, Martin; Michalakis, Stylianos; Ding, Xi-Qin

    2015-01-01

    Photoreceptor cyclic nucleotide-gated (CNG) channels play a pivotal role in phototransduction. Mutations in the cone CNG channel subunits CNGA3 and CNGB3 are associated with achromatopsia and cone dystrophies. We have shown endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress-associated apoptotic cone death and increased phosphorylation of the ER Ca2+ channel inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptor 1 (IP3R1) in CNG channel-deficient mice. We also presented a remarkable elevation of cGMP and an increased activity of the cGMP-dependent protein kinase (protein kinase G, PKG) in CNG channel deficiency. This work investigated whether cGMP/PKG signaling regulates ER stress and IP3R1 phosphorylation in CNG channel-deficient cones. Treatment with PKG inhibitor and deletion of guanylate cyclase-1 (GC1), the enzyme producing cGMP in cones, were used to suppress cGMP/PKG signaling in cone-dominant Cnga3−/−/Nrl−/− mice. We found that treatment with PKG inhibitor or deletion of GC1 effectively reduced apoptotic cone death, increased expression levels of cone proteins, and decreased activation of Müller glial cells. Furthermore, we observed significantly increased phosphorylation of IP3R1 and reduced ER stress. Our findings demonstrate a role of cGMP/PKG signaling in ER stress and ER Ca2+ channel regulation and provide insights into the mechanism of cone degeneration in CNG channel deficiency. PMID:26124274

  15. cGMP/Protein Kinase G Signaling Suppresses Inositol 1,4,5-Trisphosphate Receptor Phosphorylation and Promotes Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress in Photoreceptors of Cyclic Nucleotide-gated Channel-deficient Mice.

    PubMed

    Ma, Hongwei; Butler, Michael R; Thapa, Arjun; Belcher, Josh; Yang, Fan; Baehr, Wolfgang; Biel, Martin; Michalakis, Stylianos; Ding, Xi-Qin

    2015-08-21

    Photoreceptor cyclic nucleotide-gated (CNG) channels play a pivotal role in phototransduction. Mutations in the cone CNG channel subunits CNGA3 and CNGB3 are associated with achromatopsia and cone dystrophies. We have shown endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress-associated apoptotic cone death and increased phosphorylation of the ER Ca(2+) channel inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptor 1 (IP3R1) in CNG channel-deficient mice. We also presented a remarkable elevation of cGMP and an increased activity of the cGMP-dependent protein kinase (protein kinase G, PKG) in CNG channel deficiency. This work investigated whether cGMP/PKG signaling regulates ER stress and IP3R1 phosphorylation in CNG channel-deficient cones. Treatment with PKG inhibitor and deletion of guanylate cyclase-1 (GC1), the enzyme producing cGMP in cones, were used to suppress cGMP/PKG signaling in cone-dominant Cnga3(-/-)/Nrl(-/-) mice. We found that treatment with PKG inhibitor or deletion of GC1 effectively reduced apoptotic cone death, increased expression levels of cone proteins, and decreased activation of Müller glial cells. Furthermore, we observed significantly increased phosphorylation of IP3R1 and reduced ER stress. Our findings demonstrate a role of cGMP/PKG signaling in ER stress and ER Ca(2+) channel regulation and provide insights into the mechanism of cone degeneration in CNG channel deficiency. PMID:26124274

  16. Similar effects of cocaine and immobilization stress on the levels of heat-shock proteins and stress-activated protein kinases in the rat hippocampus, and on swimming behaviors: the contribution of dopamine and benzodiazepine receptors.

    PubMed

    Hayase, T; Yamamoto, Y; Yamamoto, K; Muso, E; Shiota, K; Hayashi, T

    2003-11-01

    Cocaine (COC) has been reported to cause effects similar to physiological stressors in the brain neuroendocrinal system, including heat-shock protein (HSP) expression, although these effects have not been elucidated in detail. In the present study, we examined the effects of repeated (4 days) treatments with cocaine hydrochloride (35 mg/kg, i.p.) and 10 min immobilization stress (IM) on the distribution of HSP (HSP27, HSP60, HSP70, HSC70) and stress-activated protein kinase (SAPK) (SAPKalpha, SAPKbeta, SAPKgamma) immunoreactive nerve cells (positive cells) in the rat hippocampus. The swimming behaviors of the rats in the forced swimming test were also examined. In both COC and IM groups, an early enhancement (5 h time point) of hippocampal HSP (HSP27, HSP60, HSP70, HSC70) and SAPK (SAPKbeta, SAPKgamma) positive cells was observed, whereas a recovery (SAPKs) or attenuation (HSP60 and HSC70) was observed at the 24 h time point. In both groups, a depression of the swimming behaviors (attenuation in the activity counts and time until immobility) below the control level was observed at the 5 h point, but a recovery was observed at the 24 h time point. At the 48 h time point, all parameters returned to the control level. These alterations in the levels of HSPs and SAPKs, and the swimming behaviors were similar to those observed in the stress (IM) group, and were characteristic in that all of these alterations were attenuated by the benzodiazepine inverse agonist, Ro 15-4513 (5 mg/kg, i.p.), and the dopamine D1 receptor antagonist, SCH23390 (0.5 mg/kg, i.p.), which was not observed in the groups treated with another stressor-like drug (bicuculline). PMID:14557723

  17. Acute ethanol intake induces superoxide anion generation and mitogen-activated protein kinase phosphorylation in rat aorta: A role for angiotensin type 1 receptor

    SciTech Connect

    Yogi, Alvaro; Callera, Glaucia E.; Mecawi, André S.; Batalhão, Marcelo E.; Carnio, Evelin C.; Antunes-Rodrigues, José; Queiroz, Regina H.; Touyz, Rhian M.; Tirapelli, Carlos R.

    2012-11-01

    Ethanol intake is associated with increase in blood pressure, through unknown mechanisms. We hypothesized that acute ethanol intake enhances vascular oxidative stress and induces vascular dysfunction through renin–angiotensin system (RAS) activation. Ethanol (1 g/kg; p.o. gavage) effects were assessed within 30 min in male Wistar rats. The transient decrease in blood pressure induced by ethanol was not affected by the previous administration of losartan (10 mg/kg; p.o. gavage), a selective AT{sub 1} receptor antagonist. Acute ethanol intake increased plasma renin activity (PRA), angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) activity, plasma angiotensin I (ANG I) and angiotensin II (ANG II) levels. Ethanol induced systemic and vascular oxidative stress, evidenced by increased plasma thiobarbituric acid-reacting substances (TBARS) levels, NAD(P)H oxidase‐mediated vascular generation of superoxide anion and p47phox translocation (cytosol to membrane). These effects were prevented by losartan. Isolated aortas from ethanol-treated rats displayed increased p38MAPK and SAPK/JNK phosphorylation. Losartan inhibited ethanol-induced increase in the phosphorylation of these kinases. Ethanol intake decreased acetylcholine-induced relaxation and increased phenylephrine-induced contraction in endothelium-intact aortas. Ethanol significantly decreased plasma and aortic nitrate levels. These changes in vascular reactivity and in the end product of endogenous nitric oxide metabolism were not affected by losartan. Our study provides novel evidence that acute ethanol intake stimulates RAS activity and induces vascular oxidative stress and redox-signaling activation through AT{sub 1}-dependent mechanisms. These findings highlight the importance of RAS in acute ethanol-induced oxidative damage. -- Highlights: ► Acute ethanol intake stimulates RAS activity and vascular oxidative stress. ► RAS plays a role in acute ethanol-induced oxidative damage via AT{sub 1} receptor activation.

  18. Cyclophilin represents a novel class of protein kinases

    SciTech Connect

    Harding, M.W.; Gorelick, F.S.; Handschumacher, R.E.

    1987-05-01

    Cyclophilin (CyP, Mr 17,737, pI 9.6), a highly specific cytosolic receptor for cyclosporin A (CsA) has ser/thr protein kinase activity. Incorporation of /sup 32/P into bovine histone H/sub 3/ (BH/sub 3/) was catalyzed by major and minor CyP isozymes at the same rate. Salt effects were biphasic with optimal kinase activity between 50-100 mM Na/sup +/ or K/sup +/. Kinase activity was maximal at 37/sup 0/C, stable for 5 min at 45/sup 0/, labile at 56/sup 0/, optimal between pH 6.8 and 8.0 and had an apparent Km of 20 uM ATP with both isozymes. The specific activity of CyP was 1.0 nmole P/mg protein/min with chicken histone H/sub 1/ (CH/sub 1/), 0.2 nmoles P/mg prot/min with BH/sub 3/ and less than 0.01 nmoles P/mg prot/min with synapsin, casein, phosvitin, and ribosomal protein S6. Cofactors including Mn/sup + +/, Zn/sup + +/, Ca/sup + +/, phosphatidyl serine, diolein and phorbol ester, cAMP, cGMP and Ca/sup + +/ did not affect basal CyP kinase activity. CsA (<200 ng/ml) inhibited phosphorylation of CH/sub 3/ by 50% but did not inhibit phosphorylation of other histones; 2ug CsA/ml was required to cause 50% inhibition of cAMP and Ca/sup + +//CaM dependent kinases. A non-immunosuppressive analog (Me-leu-11-CsA) that does not bind to CyP did not inhibit CH/sub 3/ phosphorylation. Thus, CyP is a novel protein kinase that mediates immunosuppression by CsA.

  19. Protein Kinase Cδ mediates the activation of Protein Kinase D2 in Platelets

    PubMed Central

    Bhavanasi, Dheeraj; Kim, Soochong; Goldfinger, Lawrence E.; Kunapuli, Satya P.

    2011-01-01

    Protein Kinase D (PKD) is a subfamily of serine/threonine specific family of kinases, comprised of PKD1, PKD2 and PKD3 (PKCμ, PKD2 and PKCν in humans). It is known that PKCs activate PKD, but the relative expression of isoforms of PKD or the specific PKC isoform/s responsible for its activation in platelets is not known. This study is aimed at investigating the pathway involved in activation of PKD in platelets. We show that PKD2 is the major isoform of PKD that is expressed in human as well as murine platelets but not PKD1 or PKD3. PKD2 activation induced by AYPGKF was abolished with a Gq inhibitor YM-254890, but was not affected by Y-27632, a RhoA/p160ROCK inhibitor, indicating that PKD2 activation is Gq-, but not G12/13-mediated Rho-kinase dependent. Calcium-mediated signals are also required for activation of PKD2 as dimethyl BAPTA inhibited its phosphorylation. GF109203X, a pan PKC inhibitor abolished PKD2 phosphorylation but Go6976, a classical PKC inhibitor had no effect suggesting that novel PKC isoforms are involved in PKD2 activation. Importantly, Rottlerin, a non-selective PKCδ inhibitor, inhibited AYPGKF-induced PKD2 activation in human platelets. Similarly, AYPGKF- and Convulxin-induced PKD2 phosphorylation was dramatically inhibited in PKCδ-deficient platelets, but not in PKCθ– or PKCε–deficient murine platelets compared to that of wild type platelets. Hence, we conclude that PKD2 is a common signaling target downstream of various agonist receptors in platelets and Gq-mediated signals along with calcium and novel PKC isoforms, in particular, PKCδ activate PKD2 in platelets. PMID:21736870

  20. CLAVATA1 Dominant-Negative Alleles Reveal Functional Overlap between Multiple Receptor Kinases That Regulate Meristem and Organ Development

    PubMed Central

    Diévart, Anne; Dalal, Monica; Tax, Frans E.; Lacey, Alexzandria D.; Huttly, Alison; Li, Jianming; Clark, Steven E.

    2003-01-01

    The CLAVATA1 (CLV1) receptor kinase controls stem cell number and differentiation at the Arabidopsis shoot and flower meristems. Other components of the CLV1 signaling pathway include the secreted putative ligand CLV3 and the receptor-like protein CLV2. We report evidence indicating that all intermediate and strong clv1 alleles are dominant negative and likely interfere with the activity of unknown receptor kinase(s) that have functional overlap with CLV1. clv1 dominant-negative alleles show major differences from dominant-negative alleles characterized to date in animal receptor kinase signaling systems, including the lack of a dominant-negative effect of kinase domain truncation and the ability of missense mutations in the extracellular domain to act in a dominant-negative manner. We analyzed chimeric receptor kinases by fusing CLV1 and BRASSINOSTEROID INSENSITIVE1 (BRI1) coding sequences and expressing these in clv1 null backgrounds. Constructs containing the CLV1 extracellular domain and the BRI1 kinase domain were strongly dominant negative in the regulation of meristem development. Furthermore, we show that CLV1 expressed within the pedicel can partially replace the function of the ERECTA receptor kinase. We propose the presence of multiple receptors that regulate meristem development in a functionally related manner whose interactions are driven by the extracellular domains and whose activation requires the kinase domain. PMID:12724544

  1. Problem-Solving Test: "In Vitro" Protein Kinase A Reaction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Szeberenyi, Jozsef

    2009-01-01

    Phosphorylation of proteins by protein kinases is an important mechanism in the regulation of protein activity. Among hundreds of protein kinases present in human cells, PKA, the first kinase discovered, belongs to the most important and best characterized group of these enzymes. The author presents an experiment that analyzes the "in vitro"…

  2. Membrane Topology and Structural Insights into the Peptide Pheromone Receptor ComD, A Quorum-Sensing Histidine Protein Kinase of Streptococcus mutans.

    PubMed

    Dong, Gaofeng; Tian, Xiao-Lin; Cyr, Kayla; Liu, Tianlei; Lin, William; Tziolas, Geoffrey; Li, Yung-Hua

    2016-01-01

    Quorum sensing activation by signal pheromone (CSP) in Streptococcus mutans depends on the membrane-associated receptor ComD, which senses the signal and triggers the signaling cascade for bacteriocin production and other cell density-dependent activities. However, the mechanism of the signal recognition via the ComD receptor in this species is nearly unexplored. Here, we show that the membrane domain of the ComD protein forms six transmembrane segments with three extracellular loops, loopA, loopB and loopC. By structural and functional analyses of these extracellular loops, we demonstrate that both loopC and loopB are required for CSP recognition, while loopA plays little role in CSP detection. A deletion or substitution mutation of four residues NVIP in loopC abolishes CSP recognition for quorum sensing activities. We conclude that both loopC and loopB are required for forming the receptor and residues NVIP of loopC are essential for CSP recognition and quorum sensing activation in S. mutans. PMID:27199267

  3. Membrane Topology and Structural Insights into the Peptide Pheromone Receptor ComD, A Quorum-Sensing Histidine Protein Kinase of Streptococcus mutans

    PubMed Central

    Dong, Gaofeng; Tian, Xiao-Lin; Cyr, Kayla; Liu, Tianlei; Lin, William; Tziolas, Geoffrey; Li, Yung-Hua

    2016-01-01

    Quorum sensing activation by signal pheromone (CSP) in Streptococcus mutans depends on the membrane-associated receptor ComD, which senses the signal and triggers the signaling cascade for bacteriocin production and other cell density-dependent activities. However, the mechanism of the signal recognition via the ComD receptor in this species is nearly unexplored. Here, we show that the membrane domain of the ComD protein forms six transmembrane segments with three extracellular loops, loopA, loopB and loopC. By structural and functional analyses of these extracellular loops, we demonstrate that both loopC and loopB are required for CSP recognition, while loopA plays little role in CSP detection. A deletion or substitution mutation of four residues NVIP in loopC abolishes CSP recognition for quorum sensing activities. We conclude that both loopC and loopB are required for forming the receptor and residues NVIP of loopC are essential for CSP recognition and quorum sensing activation in S. mutans. PMID:27199267

  4. Sucrose-induced Receptor Kinase SIRK1 Regulates a Plasma Membrane Aquaporin in Arabidopsis*

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Xu Na; Sanchez Rodriguez, Clara; Pertl-Obermeyer, Heidi; Obermeyer, Gerhard; Schulze, Waltraud X.

    2013-01-01

    The transmembrane receptor kinase family is the largest protein kinase family in Arabidopsis, and it contains the highest fraction of proteins with yet uncharacterized functions. Here, we present functions of SIRK1, a receptor kinase that was previously identified with rapid transient phosphorylation after sucrose resupply to sucrose-starved seedlings. SIRK1 was found to be an active kinase with increasing activity in the presence of an external sucrose supply. In sirk1 T-DNA insertional mutants, the sucrose-induced phosphorylation patterns of several membrane proteins were strongly reduced; in particular, pore-gating phosphorylation sites in aquaporins were affected. SIRK1-GFP fusions were found to directly interact with aquaporins in affinity pull-down experiments on microsomal membrane vesicles. Furthermore, protoplast swelling assays of sirk1 mutants and SIRK1-GFP expressing lines confirmed a direct functional interaction of receptor kinase SIRK1 and aquaporins as substrates for phosphorylation. A lack of SIRK1 expression resulted in the failure of mutant protoplasts to control water channel activity upon changes in external sucrose concentrations. We propose that SIRK1 is involved in the regulation of sucrose-specific osmotic responses through direct interaction with and activation of an aquaporin via phosphorylation and that the duration of this response is controlled by phosphorylation-dependent receptor internalization. PMID:23820729

  5. The protein interaction landscape of the human CMGC kinase group.

    PubMed

    Varjosalo, Markku; Keskitalo, Salla; Van Drogen, Audrey; Nurkkala, Helka; Vichalkovski, Anton; Aebersold, Ruedi; Gstaiger, Matthias

    2013-04-25

    Cellular information processing via reversible protein phosphorylation requires tight control of the localization, activity, and substrate specificity of protein kinases, which to a large extent is accomplished by complex formation with other proteins. Despite their critical role in cellular regulation and pathogenesis, protein interaction information is available for only a subset of the 518 human protein kinases. Here we present a global proteomic analysis of complexes of the human CMGC kinase group. In addition to subgroup-specific functional enrichment and modularity, the identified 652 high-confidence kinase-protein interactions provide a specific biochemical context for many poorly studied CMGC kinases. Furthermore, the analysis revealed a kinase-kinase subnetwork and candidate substrates for CMGC kinases. Finally, the presented interaction proteome uncovered a large set of interactions with proteins genetically linked to a range of human diseases, including cancer, suggesting additional routes for analyzing the role of CMGC kinases in controlling human disease pathways. PMID:23602568

  6. Platelet-derived growth factor stimulates protein kinase D through the activation of phospholipase Cgamma and protein kinase C.

    PubMed

    Van Lint, J; Ni, Y; Valius, M; Merlevede, W; Vandenheede, J R

    1998-03-20

    Platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) stimulates protein kinase D (PKD) in a time- and dose-dependent manner. We have used a series of PDGF receptor mutants that display a selective impairment of the binding of SH2-containing proteins (GTPase-activating protein, SHP-2, phospholipase Cgamma (PLCgamma), or phosphatidylinositol 3'-kinase (PI3K)) to show that Tyr-1021, the PLCgamma-binding site, is essential for PKD stimulation by PDGF in A431 cells. We next investigated whether any one of these four binding sites could mediate PKD activation in the absence of the other three sites. F5, a receptor mutant that lacks all four binding sites for GTPase-activating protein, PLCgamma, PI3K, and SHP-2, fails to activate PKD. A panel of single add-back mutants was used to investigate if any one of these four sites could restore signaling to PKD. Of the four sites, only the PLCgamma+ single add-back receptor restored PDGF-mediated activation of PKD, and only this add-back receptor produced diacylglycerol (DAG) in a PDGF-dependent manner. 1,2-Dioctanoyl-sn-glycerol, a membrane-permeant DAG analog, was found to be sufficient for activation of PKD. Taken together, these data indicate that PLCgamma activation is not only necessary, but also sufficient to mediate PDGF-induced PKD activation. Although the presence of a pleckstrin homology domain makes PKD a potential PI3K target, PKD was not stimulated by selective PI3K activation, and wortmannin, an inhibitor of PI3K, did not inhibit PDGF signaling to PKD. The activation of PKD by DAG or by the wild-type and PLCgamma+ add-back PDGF receptors was inhibited by GF109203X, suggesting a role for protein kinase C in the stimulation of PKD by PDGF. PDGF induced a time-dependent phosphorylation of PKD that closely correlated with activation. The PDGF-induced activation and phosphorylation of PKD were reversed by in vitro incubation of PKD with protein phosphatase 1 or 2A, indicating that PDGF signaling to PKD involves the Ser

  7. Studying N-linked glycosylation of receptor tyrosine kinases.

    PubMed

    Itkonen, Harri M; Mills, Ian G

    2015-01-01

    Metabolic alterations have been identified as a frequent event in cancer. This is often associated with increased flux through glycolysis, and also a secondary pathway to glycolysis, hexosamine biosynthetic pathway (HBP). HBP provides substrate for N-linked glycosylation, which occurs in the endoplasmic reticulum and the Golgi apparatus. N-linked glycosylation supports protein folding and correct sorting of proteins to plasma membrane and secretion. This process generates complex glycoforms, which can be recognized by other proteins and glycosylation of receptor tyrosine kinases (RTK) can also regulate their plasma-membrane retention time. Of special interest for experimental biologists, plants produce proteins, termed lectins, which bind with high specificity to glyco-conjugates. For the purposes of molecular biology, plant lectins can be conjugated to different moieties, such as agarose beads, which enable precipitation of specifically glycosylated proteins. In this chapter, we describe in detail how to perform pull-down experiments with commercially available lectins to identify changes in the glycosylation of RTKs. PMID:25319893

  8. Structure and Activation of MuSK, a Receptor Tyrosine Kinase Central to Neuromuscular Junction Formation

    PubMed Central

    Hubbard, Stevan R.; Gnanasambandan, Kavitha

    2014-01-01

    MuSK (muscle-specific kinase) is a receptor tyrosine kinase that plays a central signaling role in formation of neuromuscular junctions (NMJs). MuSK is activated in a complex spatio-temporal manner to cluster acetylcholine receptors on the postsynaptic (muscle) side of the synapse and to induce differentiation of the nerve terminal on the presynaptic side. The ligand for MuSK is LRP4 (low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein-4), a transmembrane protein in muscle, whose binding affinity for MuSK is potentiated by agrin, a neuronally derived heparan-sulfate proteoglycan. In addition, Dok7, a cytoplasmic adaptor protein, is also required for MuSK activation in vivo. This review focuses on the physical interplay between these proteins and MuSK for activation and downstream signaling, which culminates in NMJ formation. PMID:23467009

  9. 4,4'-Di-isothiocyanatostilbene-2,2'-disulphonic acid ('DIDS') activates protein kinase C and Na+/H+ exchange in human platelets via alpha 2A-adrenergic receptors.

    PubMed Central

    Nieuwland, R; Van Willigen, G; Akkerman, J W

    1993-01-01

    Most agonists stimulate platelets by inducing Ca2+ mobilization, Ca2+ influx and protein kinase C (PKC) activation leading to Na+/H+ exchange, exposure of fibrinogen-binding sites and aggregation. In contrast, previous studies showed that adrenaline induces exposure of fibrinogen-binding sites and aggregation without appreciable changes in cystolic Ca2+ content or PKC activity. In the present study we investigated platelet responses mediated via alpha 2A-adrenergic receptors, using 4,4'-di-isothiocyanatostilbene-2,2'-disulphonic acid (DIDS), which is known to bind to this type of receptor. Addition of DIDS (2-20 microM) induced (i) a rise in cytosolic pH of 0.23 +/- 0.05 pH unit (n = 5) as detected by BCECF fluorescence, due to activation of the Na+/H+ exchanger, (ii) a 3.5-4-fold increase in the phosphorylation of the 47 kDa protein, a major substrate of PKC, (iii) exposure of 81,072 +/- 7293 (n = 3) binding sites for 125I-fibrinogen per platelet, and (iv) irreversible aggregation. These responses occurred without changes in cytosolic [Ca2+], secretion of dense-granule contents and enhanced phosphoinositide metabolism, and were not affected by inhibition of thromboxane A2 generation (30 microM indomethacin). The alpha 2A-adrenergic-receptor antagonists oxymetazoline (500 microM) and yohimbine (1 mM) completely abolished DIDS-induced responses. Inhibition of PKC (1 microM staurosporine) prevented phosphorylation of the 47 kDa protein, the increase in Na+/H+ exchange and exposure of fibrinogen-binding sites. Thus our present data suggest that activation of PKC is an early event in DIDS-induced platelet activation via the alpha 2A-adrenergic receptor, which precedes any of the other known signal-transducing sequences. PMID:8393664

  10. Influence of local delivery of the protein tyrosine kinase receptor inhibitor tyrphostin-47 on smooth-muscle cell proliferation in a rat carotid balloon-injury model.

    PubMed

    Gottsauner-Wolf, M; Jang, Y; Lincoff, A M; Cohen, J L; Labhasetwar, V; Poptic, E J; Forudi, F; Guzman, L A; DiCorleto, P E; Levy, R J; Topol, E J; Ellis, S G

    1997-03-01

    Smooth-muscle cell proliferation in response to arterial injury represents an important etiologic factor in restenosis after angioplasty. Tyrphostin-47, a protein tyrosine kinase inhibitor, inhibits smooth-muscle cell proliferation in vitro. In this study tyrphostin-47 was incorporated into matrixes to determine whether prolonged local delivery would result in a reduction of neointimal proliferation after arterial injury in a rat carotid balloon-injury model. A polymer matrix (polylactic polyglycolic acid copolymer and pluronic gel F-127, mean matrix weight 7.83 +/- 0.39 mg) was loaded with tyrphostin-47 (25% w/w). Release studies demonstrated delivery of 11% of the incorporated drug over a 21-day release period. In cell culture, tyrphostin-47 released from the polymer matrix produced a reduction in smooth-muscle cell proliferation (p < 0.0007). Balloon denudation injury of the left common carotid artery of 34 animals was performed. In 12 animals, polymer matrixes containing tyrphostin-47 were wrapped around the injured arteries to provide prolonged drug delivery (estimated dosage 28 micrograms/kg/24 hr); in 10 animals a polymer matrix without tyrphostin-47 was implanted; and in 12 animals only balloon injury was performed. The mean neointimal cross-sectional areas, luminal areas, and intima/media ratios were not significantly different among animals receiving local treatment with tyrphostin-47, sham polymer after injury, or balloon injury without polymer implantation. We conclude that despite inhibition of smooth-muscle cell proliferation by tyrphostin-47 in vitro, sustained local delivery of this tyrosine kinase inhibitor does not result in a reduction of neointimal proliferation in the rat carotid injury model. PMID:9060802

  11. Biochemical and molecular analysis of a transmembrane protein kinase from Arabidopsis thaliana. Progress report, January 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Bleecker, A.B.

    1993-06-01

    We have isolated genomic and cDNA clones encoding a novel receptor-like protein kinase from the higher plant Arabidopsis thaliana. This kinase is being studied by combining biochemical, molecular, and genetic approaches. Domain-specific antibodies immunodecorate a polypeptide with a molecular mass of 120,000 daltons in extracts of Arabidopsis, where it has been found in all portions of the plant examined including root, stem, leaf, flower, and silique. Cytochemical analysis and initial studies using the kinase promoter with the GUS reporter gene system also indicate that the kinase is present throughout the plant. The kinase is glycosylated, like animal receptor kinases, and has been partially purified from Arabidopsis by using lectin columns. The kinase has been expressed in E coli, purified, and found to autophosphorylate on serine and threonine residues, but not on tyrosine residues. As such, it belongs to the small family of receptor-like kinases with serine/threonine specificity. Transgenic plants are now being produced that either overexpress or carry altered forms of the protein kinase gene. These experiments will help determine the natural role the kinase plays in a pathway of signal transduction.

  12. Biochemical and molecular analysis of a transmembrane protein kinase from Arabidopsis thaliana

    SciTech Connect

    Bleecker, A.B.

    1993-01-01

    We have isolated genomic and cDNA clones encoding a novel receptor-like protein kinase from the higher plant Arabidopsis thaliana. This kinase is being studied by combining biochemical, molecular, and genetic approaches. Domain-specific antibodies immunodecorate a polypeptide with a molecular mass of 120,000 daltons in extracts of Arabidopsis, where it has been found in all portions of the plant examined including root, stem, leaf, flower, and silique. Cytochemical analysis and initial studies using the kinase promoter with the GUS reporter gene system also indicate that the kinase is present throughout the plant. The kinase is glycosylated, like animal receptor kinases, and has been partially purified from Arabidopsis by using lectin columns. The kinase has been expressed in E coli, purified, and found to autophosphorylate on serine and threonine residues, but not on tyrosine residues. As such, it belongs to the small family of receptor-like kinases with serine/threonine specificity. Transgenic plants are now being produced that either overexpress or carry altered forms of the protein kinase gene. These experiments will help determine the natural role the kinase plays in a pathway of signal transduction.

  13. A Molecular Brake in the Kinase Hinge Region Regulates the Activity of Receptor Tyrosine Kinases

    SciTech Connect

    Chen,H.; Ma, J.; Li, W.; Eliseenkova, A.; Xu, C.; Neubert, T.; Miller, W.; Mohammadi, M.

    2007-01-01

    Activating mutations in the tyrosine kinase domain of receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs) cause cancer and skeletal disorders. Comparison of the crystal structures of unphosphorylated and phosphorylated wild-type FGFR2 kinase domains with those of seven unphosphorylated pathogenic mutants reveals an autoinhibitory 'molecular brake' mediated by a triad of residues in the kinase hinge region of all FGFRs. Structural analysis shows that many other RTKs, including PDGFRs, VEGFRs, KIT, CSF1R, FLT3, TEK, and TIE, are also subject to regulation by this brake. Pathogenic mutations activate FGFRs and other RTKs by disengaging the brake either directly or indirectly.

  14. Protein kinase C sensitizes olfactory adenylate cyclase.

    PubMed

    Frings, S

    1993-02-01

    Effects of neurotransmitters on cAMP-mediated signal transduction in frog olfactory receptor cells (ORCs) were studied using in situ spike recordings and radioimmunoassays. Carbachol, applied to the mucosal side of olfactory epithelium, amplified the electrical response of ORCs to cAMP-generating odorants, but did not affect unstimulated cells. A similar augmentation of odorant response was observed in the presence of phorbol dibutyrate (PDBu), an activator of protein kinase C (PKC). The electrical response to forskolin, an activator of adenylate cyclase (AC), was also enhanced by PDBu, and it was attenuated by the PKC inhibitor Goe 6983. Forskolin-induced accumulation of cAMP in olfactory tissue was potentiated by carbachol, serotonin, and PDBu to a similar extent. Potentiation was completely suppressed by the PKC inhibitors Goe 6983, staurosporine, and polymyxin B, suggesting that the sensitivity of olfactory AC to stimulation by odorants and forskolin was increased by PKC. Experiments with deciliated olfactory tissue indicated that sensitization of AC was restricted to sensory cilia of ORCs. To study the effects of cell Ca2+ on these mechanisms, the intracellular Ca2+ concentration of olfactory tissue was either increased by ionomycin or decreased by BAPTA/AM. Increasing cell Ca2+ had two effects on cAMP production: (a) the basal cAMP production was enhanced by a mechanism sensitive to inhibitors of calmodulin; and (b) similar to phorbol ester, cell Ca2+ caused sensitization of AC to stimulation by forskolin, an effect sensitive to Goe 6983. Decreasing cell Ca2+ below basal levels rendered AC unresponsive to stimulation by forskolin. These data suggest that a crosstalk mechanism is functional in frog ORCs, linking the sensitivity of AC to the activity of PKC. At increased activity of PKC, olfactory AC becomes more responsive to stimulation by odorants, forskolin, and cell Ca2+. Neurotransmitters appear to use this crosstalk mechanism to regulate olfactory

  15. Poxviral Protein A52 Stimulates p38 Mitogen-activated Protein Kinase (MAPK) Activation by Causing Tumor Necrosis Factor Receptor-associated Factor 6 (TRAF6) Self-association Leading to Transforming Growth Factor β-activated Kinase 1 (TAK1) Recruitment*

    PubMed Central

    Stack, Julianne; Hurst, Tara P.; Flannery, Sinead M.; Brennan, Kiva; Rupp, Sebastian; Oda, Shun-ichiro; Khan, Amir R.; Bowie, Andrew G.

    2013-01-01

    Vaccinia virus encodes a number of proteins that inhibit and manipulate innate immune signaling pathways that also have a role in virulence. These include A52, a protein shown to inhibit IL-1- and Toll-like receptor-stimulated NFκB activation, via interaction with interleukin-1 receptor-associated kinase 2 (IRAK2). Interestingly, A52 was also found to activate p38 MAPK and thus enhance Toll-like receptor-dependent IL-10 induction, which was TRAF6-dependent, but the manner in which A52 manipulates TRAF6 to stimulate p38 activation was unclear. Here, we show that A52 has a non-canonical TRAF6-binding motif that is essential for TRAF6 binding and p38 activation but dispensable for NFκB inhibition and IRAK2 interaction. Wild-type A52, but not a mutant defective in p38 activation and TRAF6 binding (F154A), caused TRAF6 oligomerization and subsequent TRAF6-TAK1 association. The crystal structure of A52 shows that it adopts a Bcl2-like fold and exists as a dimer in solution. Residue Met-65 was identified as being located in the A52 dimer interface, and consistent with that, A52-M65E was impaired in its ability to dimerize. A52-M65E although capable of interacting with TRAF6, was unable to cause either TRAF6 self-association, induce the TRAF6-TAK1 association, or activate p38 MAPK. The results suggest that an A52 dimer causes TRAF6 self-association, leading to TAK1 recruitment and p38 activation. This reveals a molecular mechanism whereby poxviruses manipulate TRAF6 to activate MAPKs (which can be proviral) without stimulating antiviral NFκB activation. PMID:24114841

  16. Phosphorylation of Src by phosphoinositide 3-kinase regulates beta-adrenergic receptor-mediated EGFR transactivation.

    PubMed

    Watson, Lewis J; Alexander, Kevin M; Mohan, Maradumane L; Bowman, Amber L; Mangmool, Supachoke; Xiao, Kunhong; Naga Prasad, Sathyamangla V; Rockman, Howard A

    2016-10-01

    β2-Adrenergic receptors (β2AR) transactivate epidermal growth factor receptors (EGFR) through formation of a β2AR-EGFR complex that requires activation of Src to mediate signaling. Here, we show that both lipid and protein kinase activities of the bifunctional phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) enzyme are required for β2AR-stimulated EGFR transactivation. Mechanistically, the generation of phosphatidylinositol (3,4,5)-tris-phosphate (PIP3) by the lipid kinase function stabilizes β2AR-EGFR complexes while the protein kinase activity of PI3K regulates Src activation by direct phosphorylation. The protein kinase activity of PI3K phosphorylates serine residue 70 on Src to enhance its activity and induce EGFR transactivation following βAR stimulation. This newly identified function for PI3K, whereby Src is a substrate for the protein kinase activity of PI3K, is of importance since Src plays a key role in pathological and physiological signaling. PMID:27169346

  17. cGMP/cGMP-dependent protein kinase pathway modulates nicotine-induced currents through the activation of α-bungarotoxin-insensitive nicotinic acetylcholine receptors from insect neurosecretory cells.

    PubMed

    Mannai, Safa; Bitri, Lofti; Thany, Steeve H

    2016-06-01

    Insect neurosecretory cells, called dorsal unpaired median neurons, are known to express two α-bungarotoxin-insensitive nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) subtypes, nAChR1 and nAChR2. It was demonstrated that nAChR1 was sensitive to cAMP/cAMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA) regulation, resulting in a modulation of nicotine currents. In this study, we show that cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP)/cGMP-dependent protein kinase (PKG) pathway modulates nicotine-induced currents, as increased cGMP affects the second compound of the biphasic current-voltage curve, corresponding to the nAChR2 receptors. Indeed, maintaining the guanosine triphosphate level with 100 μM guanosine triphosphate-γ-S increased nicotine currents through nAChR2. We also demonstrated that inhibition of PKG activity with 0.2 μM (8R,9S,11S)-(-)-9-methoxy-carbamyl-8-methyl-2,3,9,10-tetrahydro-8,11-epoxy-1H,8H,11H-2,7b,11a-trizadibenzo-(a,g)-cycloocta-(c,d,e)-trinden-1-one (KT5823), a PKG specific inhibitor, reduced nicotine-induced current amplitudes. KT5823 effect on nicotine currents is associated with calcium (Ca(2+) ) activity because inhibition of Ca(2+) concentration with cadmium chloride (CdCl2 ) abolished KT5823-induced inhibition mediated by nAChR2. However, specific inhibition of nitric oxide-guanylyl cyclase (GC) complex by 10 μM 1H-[1,2,4]oxadiazolo[4,3-a]quinoxalin-1-one (ODQ) significantly increased nicotine-induced current amplitudes on both nAChR1 and nAChR2. These results suggest that nicotine-induced currents mediated by both α-bungarotoxin-insensitive nAChR1 and nAChR2 are coupled to the cGMP/PKG pathway. We propose that nicotinic acetylcholine receptor activation induces an increase in intracellular calcium (Ca(2+) ) concentration. Elevation of intracellular Ca(2+) results in the formation of Ca(2+) -calmodulin (CaM) complex, which activates guanylyl cyclase (GC) and/or adenylyl cyclase (AC). Ca(2+) -CaM complex could activate Ca(2+) calmodulin kinase II which

  18. The orphan histidine protein kinase SgmT is a c-di-GMP receptor and regulates composition of the extracellular matrix together with the orphan DNA binding response regulator DigR in Myxococcus xanthus

    PubMed Central

    Petters, Tobias; Zhang, Xin; Nesper, Jutta; Treuner-Lange, Anke; Gomez-Santos, Nuria; Hoppert, Michael; Jenal, Urs; Søgaard-Andersen, Lotte

    2012-01-01

    In Myxococcus xanthus the extracellular matrix is essential for type IV pili-dependent motility and starvation-induced fruiting body formation. Proteins of two-component systems including the orphan DNA binding response regulator DigR are essential in regulating the composition of the extracellular matrix. We identify the orphan hybrid histidine kinase SgmT as the partner kinase of DigR. In addition to kinase and receiver domains, SgmT consists of an N-terminal GAF domain and a C-terminal GGDEF domain. The GAF domain is the primary sensor domain. The GGDEF domain binds the second messenger bis-(3′-5′)-cyclic-dimeric-GMP (c-di-GMP) and functions as a c-di-GMP receptor to spatially sequester SgmT. We identify the DigR binding site in the promoter of the fibA gene, which encodes an abundant extracellular matrix metalloprotease. Whole-genome expression profiling experiments in combination with the identified DigR binding site allowed the identification of the DigR regulon and suggests that SgmT/DigR regulates the expression of genes for secreted proteins and enzymes involved in secondary metabolite synthesis. We suggest that SgmT/DigR regulates extracellular matrix composition and that SgmT activity is regulated by two sensor domains with ligand binding to the GAF domain resulting in SgmT activation and c-di-GMP binding to the GGDEF domain resulting in spatial sequestration of SgmT. PMID:22394314

  19. SUMOylation regulates the SNF1 protein kinase

    PubMed Central

    Simpson-Lavy, Kobi J.; Johnston, Mark

    2013-01-01

    The AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) is a major stress sensor of mammalian cells. AMPK’s homolog in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, the SNF1 protein kinase, is a central regulator of carbon metabolism that inhibits the Snf3/Rgt2-Rgt1 glucose sensing pathway and activates genes involved in respiration. We present evidence that glucose induces modification of the Snf1 catalytic subunt of SNF1 with the small ubiquitin-like modifier protein SUMO, catalyzed by the SUMO (E3) ligase Mms21. Our results suggest that SUMOylation of Snf1 inhibits its function in two ways: by interaction of SUMO attached to lysine 549 with a SUMO-interacting sequence motif located near the active site of Snf1, and by targeting Snf1 for destruction via the Slx5-Slx8 (SUMO-directed) ubiquitin ligase. These findings reveal another way SNF1 function is regulated in response to carbon source. PMID:24108357

  20. Functional Analysis and Phosphorylation Site Mapping of Leucine-Rich Repeat Receptor-Like Kinases

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The completed genome sequences of Arabidopsis thaliana and rice have revealed very large multi-gene families encoding predicted proteins with an organization of functional domains similar to that of animal receptor kinases, including a putative extracellular ligand-binding domain, a single-pass tran...

  1. Protein kinases as drug targets in cancer.

    PubMed

    Arslan, Mehmet Alper; Kutuk, Ozgur; Basaga, Huveyda

    2006-11-01

    Identification of the key roles of protein kinases in signaling pathways leading to development of cancer has caused pharmacological interest to concentrate extensively on targeted therapies as a more specific and effective way for blockade of cancer progression. This review will mainly focus on inhibitors targeting these key components of cellular signaling by employing a technology-based point of view with respect to ATP- and non-ATP-competitive small molecule inhibitors and monoclonal antibodies of selected protein kinases, particularly, mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR), BCR-ABL, MEK, p38 MAPK, EGFR PDGFR, VEGFR, HER2 and Raf. Inhibitors of the heat shock protein Hsp90 are also included in a separate section, as this protein plays an essential role for the maturation/proper activation of cancer-related protein kinases. In the following review, the molecular details of the mode of action of these inhibitors as well as the emergence of drug resistance encountered in several cases are discussed in light of the structural, molecular and clinical studies conducted so far. PMID:17100568

  2. Estrogen receptor alpha transcriptionally activates casein kinase 2 alpha: A pivotal regulator of promyelocytic leukaemia protein (PML) and AKT in oncogenesis.

    PubMed

    Das, Nilanjana; Datta, Neerajana; Chatterjee, Uttara; Ghosh, Mrinal Kanti

    2016-06-01

    Protein kinase CK2α is frequently upregulated in different cancers. Alteration of CK2α expression and its activity is sufficient to induce dramatic changes in cell fate. It has been established that CK2α induces oncogenesis through modulation of both AKT and PML. CK2α has been found to be overexpressed in breast cancer. In contrary, statistical reports have shown low level of PML. However, the regulation of CK2α gene expression is not fully understood. In the current study, we found that CK2α and activated AKT positively correlate with ERα, whereas PML follows an inverse correlation in human breast cancer tissues. Modulation of ERα signalling leads to recruitment of activated ERα on the ERE sites of CK2α promoter, resulting in CK2α transactivation. Furthermore, the DMBA induced tumours in rat showed elevated level of active CK2α. Consequently it mediates enhancement of AKT activity and PML degradation, resulting in increased cellular proliferation, migration and metastasis. Syngeneic ERα overexpressing stable mouse 4T1 cells produce larger primary tumours and metastatic lung nodules in mice, corroborating our in vitro findings. Hence, our study provides a novel route of ERα dependent CK2α mediated oncogenesis that causes upregulation and consequent AKT activation along with degradation of tumour suppressor PML. PMID:27012497

  3. Regulation of mitogen-stimulated human T-cell proliferation, interleukin-2 production, and interleukin-2 receptor expression by protein kinase C inhibitor, H-7

    SciTech Connect

    Atluru, D.; Polam, S.; Atluru, S. ); Woloschak, G.E. )

    1990-01-01

    Recently published reports suggest that the activation of protein kinase C (PKC) plays an important role in the activation pathway of many cell types. In this study, the authors examined the role of PKC in human T-cell proliferation, IL-2 production, and IL-2R expression, when cultured with the mitogen PHA, the PKC inhibitor H-7, and H-7 control HA1004. H-7 inhibited the PHA-simulated ({sup 3}H)thymidine uptake, IL-2production, and IL-2R expression in a dose-related manner. Further, they found H-7 inhibited T-cell proliferation, IL-2 production, and IL-2mRNA from PHA plus PMA-stimulated cultures. They also found that H-7 inhibited the early-stage activation of PHA-stimulated cells. The presence of exogenous purified human IL-2 or rIL-4 partly reversed the immunosuppression caused by H-7. In contrast, HA1004 had no effect on cell proliferation, IL-2 production, or IL-2R expression. The results demonstrate that PKC activation is one major pathway through which T-cells become activated.

  4. A p60v-src-related tyrosine kinase in the acetylcholine receptor-rich membranes of Narke japonica: association and dissociation of phosphatidylinositol kinase activity.

    PubMed

    Fukami, Y; Owada, M K; Sumi, M; Hayashi, F

    1986-09-14

    We have isolated a tyrosine-specific protein kinase from the acetylcholine receptor (AChR)-rich membranes of the electric ray Narke japonica. The enzyme is immunologically related to p60v-src, the product of the transforming gene of Rous sarcoma virus. A substantial phosphatidylinositol (PI) kinase activity was associated with this enzyme when it was purified through tyrosine-agarose affinity chromatography used previously for the purification of p60v-src. However, by subsequent chromatography on casein-agarose, most of the associated PI kinase activity was separated from the tyrosine kinase activity. The results suggest that the tyrosine-specific protein kinase in the AChR-rich membranes of N. japonica has no intrinsic PI kinase activity. PMID:3094516

  5. Crosstalk between desmoglein-2/desmocollin-2/Src kinase and coxsackie and adenovirus receptor/ZO-1 protein complexes regulates blood-testis barrier dynamics

    PubMed Central

    Lie, Pearl P.Y.; Cheng, C. Yan; Mruk, Dolores D.

    2010-01-01

    Morphological studies in the testis reported the presence of ‘desmosome-like’ junctions between Sertoli cells at the blood-testis barrier, whose function is also constituted by tight junctions and basal ectoplasmic specializations. Unfortunately, little is known about the role of desmosomes in blood-testis barrier dynamics. This study aims to fill this gap with the functional investigation of two desmosomal cadherins, desmoglein-2 and desmocollin-2, by their specific knockdown in Sertoli cells cultured in vitro. Reminiscent of the blood-testis barrier in vivo, desmosome-like structures were visible by electron microscopy when Sertoli cells were cultured at high density, thereby forming a polarized epithelium with functional cell junctions. At this point, we opted to focus our efforts on desmoglein-2 and desmocollin-2 based on results which illustrated desmosomal mRNAs to be expressed by Sertoli and germ cells, as well as on results which illustrated desmoglein-2 to co-immunoprecipitate with plakoglobin, c-Src and desmocollin-2. Simultaneous knockdown of desmoglein-2 and desmocollin-2 not only led to a reduction and mislocalization of zonula occludens-1, but also perturbed the localization of c-Src and coxsackie and adenovirus receptor at the cell-cell interface, resulting in disruption of tight junction permeability barrier. We hereby propose a novel regulatory protein complex composed of desmoglein-2, desmocollin-2, c-Src, coxsackie and adenovirus receptor and ZO-1 at the blood-testis barrier. PMID:20188849

  6. HER kinase axis receptor dimer partner switching occurs in response to EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibition despite failure to block cellular proliferation.

    PubMed

    Jain, Anjali; Penuel, Elicia; Mink, Sheldon; Schmidt, Joanna; Hodge, Amanda; Favero, Kristin; Tindell, Charles; Agus, David B

    2010-03-01

    The human epidermal receptor (HER) axis consists of a dynamic, interconnected family of receptors that make critical contributions to a number of malignancies. Therapeutics targeting epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) are unable to effectively inhibit tumor growth in a majority of cases. These tumors are assumed to possess primary resistance to anti-EGFR therapies, but the consequence of inhibiting EGFR in these tumors is unclear. We established isogenic cell lines by prolonged gefitinib treatment at concentrations that are in excess of that which is required for complete EGFR kinase inhibition but only minimally affected growth. Subsequently, we monitored the ligand-dependent HER profiles based on receptor expression, phosphorylation, and dimerization in conjunction with measurements of cellular susceptibility to gefitinib. Chronic EGFR kinase inhibition rapidly switched the HER network from dependence on EGFR to HER2. However, both receptors activated the critical signaling proteins AKT and mitogen-activated protein kinase, and in both cases, HER3 was the common association partner. Remarkably, the switch in receptor dimers caused diminished susceptibility to EGFR-targeted inhibitors gefitinib and cetuximab but acquired susceptibility to the HER2-targeted inhibitor pertuzumab. Overall, our study indicates that the EGFR pathway is responsive to EGFR inhibiting therapies that are not dependent on EGFR for their growth and survival, thus challenging the current definition of primary therapeutic resistance. Furthermore, EGFR kinase inhibition induces HER kinase receptors to engage in alternative dimerization that can ultimately influence therapeutic selection and responsiveness. PMID:20160029

  7. Crystal Structure of the Protein Kinase Domain of Yeast AMP-Activated Protein Kinase Snf1

    SciTech Connect

    Rudolph,M.; Amodeo, G.; Bai, Y.; Tong, L.

    2005-01-01

    AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) is a master metabolic regulator, and is an important target for drug development against diabetes, obesity, and other diseases. AMPK is a hetero-trimeric enzyme, with a catalytic ({alpha}) subunit, and two regulatory ({beta} and {gamma}) subunits. Here we report the crystal structure at 2.2 Angstrom resolution of the protein kinase domain (KD) of the catalytic subunit of yeast AMPK (commonly known as SNF1). The Snf1-KD structure shares strong similarity to other protein kinases, with a small N-terminal lobe and a large C-terminal lobe. Two negative surface patches in the structure may be important for the recognition of the substrates of this kinase.

  8. Identification of four plastid-localized protein kinases.

    PubMed

    Richter, Andreas S; Gartmann, Hans; Fechler, Mona; Rödiger, Anja; Baginsky, Sacha; Grimm, Bernhard

    2016-06-01

    In chloroplasts, protein phosphorylation regulates important processes, including metabolism, photosynthesis, gene expression, and signaling. Because the hitherto known plastid protein kinases represent only a fraction of existing kinases, we aimed at the identification of novel plastid-localized protein kinases that potentially phosphorylate enzymes of the tetrapyrrole biosynthesis (TBS) pathway. We screened publicly available databases for proteins annotated as putative protein kinase family proteins with predicted chloroplast localization. Additionally, we analyzed chloroplast fractions which were separated by sucrose density gradient centrifugation by mass spectrometry. We identified four new candidates for protein kinases, which were confirmed to be plastid localized by expression of GFP-fusion proteins in tobacco leaves. A phosphorylation assay with the purified kinases confirmed the protein kinase activity for two of them. PMID:27214872

  9. Tyrosine kinase receptors as molecular targets In pheochromocytomas and paragangliomas

    PubMed Central

    Cassol, Clarissa A.; Winer, Daniel; Liu, Wei; Guo, Miao; Ezzat, Shereen; Asa, Sylvia L.

    2016-01-01

    Pheochromocytomas and paragangliomas are neuroendocrine tumors shown to be responsive to multi-targeted tyrosine kinase inhibitor treatment. Despite growing knowledge regarding their genetic basis, the ability to predict behavior in these tumors remains challenging. There is also limited knowledge of their tyrosine kinase receptor expression and whether the clinical response observed to the tyrosine kinase inhibitor Sunitinib relates only to its anti-angiogenic properties or also due to a direct effect on tumor cells. To answer these questions, an in vitro model of sunitinib treatment of a pheochromocytoma cell line was created. Sunitinib targets (VEGFRs, PDGFRs, C-KIT), FGFRs and cell cycle regulatory proteins were investigated in human tissue microarrays. SDHB immunohistochemistry was used as a surrogate marker for the presence of succinate dehydrogenase mutations. The FGFR4 G388R SNP was also investigated. Sunitinib treatment in vitro decreases cell proliferation mainly by targeting cell cycle, DNA metabolism, and cell organization genes. FGFR1, -2 and -4, VEGFR2, PDGFRα and p16 were overexpressed in primary human pheochromocytomas and paragangliomas. Discordant results were observed for VEGFR1, p27 and p21 (overexpressed in paragangliomas but underexpressed in pheochromoctyomas); PDGFRβ, Rb and Cyclin D1 (overexpressed in paragangliomas only) and FGFR3 (overexpressed in pheochromocytomas and underexpressed in paragangliomas). Low expression of C-KIT, p53, Aurora Kinase A and B was observed. Nuclear FGFR2 expression was associated with increased risk of metastasis (odds ratio [OR]=7.61; p=0.008), as was membranous PDGFRα (OR= 13.71, p=0.015), membranous VEGFR1 (OR=8.01; p=0.037), nuclear MIB1 (OR=1.26, p=0.008) and cytoplasmic p27 (OR=1.037, p=0.030). FGFR3, VEGFR2 and C-KIT levels were associated with decreased risk of metastasis. We provide new insights into the mechanistic actions of sunitinib in pheochromoctyomas and paragangliomas and support current

  10. Recent developments in receptor tyrosine kinases targeted anticancer therapy

    PubMed Central

    Raval, Samir H.; Singh, Ratn D.; Joshi, Dilip V.; Patel, Hitesh B.; Mody, Shailesh K.

    2016-01-01

    Novel concepts and understanding of receptors lead to discoveries and optimization of many small molecules and antibodies as anti-cancerous drugs. Receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs) are such a promising class of receptors under the investigation in past three decades. RTKs are one of the essential mediators of cell signaling mechanism for various cellular processes. Transformations such as overexpression, dysregulation, or mutations of RTKs may result into malignancy, and thus are an important target for anticancer therapy. Numerous subfamilies of RTKs, such as epidermal growth factor receptor, vascular endothelial growth factor receptor, fibroblast growth factor receptors, insulin-like growth factor receptor, and hepatocyte growth factor receptor, have been being investigated in recent years as target for anticancer therapy. The present review focuses several small molecules drugs as well as monoclonal antibodies targeting aforesaid subfamilies either approved or under investigation to treat the various cancers. PMID:27051190

  11. Toll-Like Receptor- and Filarial Antigen-Mediated, Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase- and NF-κB-Dependent Regulation of Angiogenic Growth Factors in Filarial Lymphatic Pathology

    PubMed Central

    Anuradha, R.; Kumar, N. Pavan; George, P. Jovvian; Kumaraswami, V.; Nutman, Thomas B.

    2012-01-01

    Filarial lymphatic pathology is of multifactorial origin, with inflammation, lymphangiogenesis, and innate immune responses all playing important roles. The role of Toll-like receptors (TLRs) in the development of filarial pathology is well characterized. Similarly, the association of pathology with elevated levels of plasma angiogenic factors has also been documented. To examine the association between TLR function and the development of lymphangiogenesis in filarial infections, we examined TLR- and filarial antigen-induced expression and production of various angiogenic growth factors. We demonstrate that TLR ligands (specifically TLR2, -3, and -5 ligands) induce significantly increased expression/production of vascular endothelial growth factor A (VEGF-A) and angiopoietin-1 (Ang-1) in the peripheral blood mononuclear cells of individuals with lymphatic pathology (CP individuals) compared to that in cells of asymptomatic infected (INF) individuals. Similarly, filarial antigens induce significantly enhanced production of VEGF-C in CP compared with INF individuals. TLR2-mediated enhancement of angiogenic growth factor production in CP individuals was shown to be dependent on mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) and NF-κB signaling, as pharmacologic inhibition of either extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2), p38 MAPK, or NF-κB signaling resulted in significantly diminished production of VEGF-A and Ang-1. Our data therefore strongly suggest an important association between TLR signaling and lymphangiogenesis in the development of pathology in human lymphatic filariasis. PMID:22508858

  12. Selection for genes encoding secreted proteins and receptors.

    PubMed Central

    Klein, R D; Gu, Q; Goddard, A; Rosenthal, A

    1996-01-01

    Extracellular proteins play an essential role in the formation, differentiation, and maintenance of multicellular organisms. Despite that, the systematic identification of genes encoding these proteins has not been possible. We describe here a highly efficient method to isolate genes encoding secreted and membrane-bound proteins by using a single-step selection in yeast. Application of this method, termed signal peptide selection, to various tissues yielded 559 clones that appear to encode known or novel extracellular proteins. These include members of the transforming growth factor and epidermal growth factor protein families, endocrine hormones, tyrosine kinase receptors, serine/threonine kinase receptors, seven transmembrane receptors, cell adhesion molecules, extracellular matrix proteins, plasma proteins, and ion channels. The eventual identification of most, or all, extracellular signaling molecules will advance our understanding of fundamental biological processes and our ability to intervene in disease states. Images Fig. 1 PMID:8692953

  13. Tyrosine kinase/p21ras/MAP-kinase pathway activation by estradiol-receptor complex in MCF-7 cells.

    PubMed Central

    Migliaccio, A; Di Domenico, M; Castoria, G; de Falco, A; Bontempo, P; Nola, E; Auricchio, F

    1996-01-01

    The mechanism by which estradiol acts on cell multiplication is still unclear. Under conditions of estradiol-dependent growth, estradiol treatment of human mammary cancer MCF-7 cells triggers rapid and transient activation of the mitogen-activated (MAP) kinases, erk-1 and erk-2, increases the active form of p21ras, tyrosine phosphorylation of Shc and p190 protein and induces association of p190 to p21ras-GAP. Both Shc and p190 are substrates of activated src and once phosphorylated, they interact with other proteins and upregulate p21ras. Estradiol activates the tyrosine kinase/p21ras/MAP-kinase pathway in MCF-7 cells with kinetics which are similar to those of peptide mitogens. It is only after introduction of the human wild-type 67 kDa estradiol receptor cDNA that Cos cells become estradiol-responsive in terms of erk-2 activity. This finding, together with the inhibition by the pure anti-estrogen ICI 182 780 of the stimulatory effect of estradiol on each step of the pathway in MCF-7 cells proves that the classic estradiol receptor is responsible for the transduction pathway activation. Transfection experiments of Cos cells with the estradiol receptor cDNA and in vitro experiments with c-src show that the estradiol receptor activates c-src and this activation requires occupancy of the receptor by hormone. Our experiments suggest that c-src is an initial and integral part of the signaling events mediated by the estradiol receptor. Images PMID:8635462

  14. Dual bradykinin B2 receptor signalling in A431 human epidermoid carcinoma cells: activation of protein kinase C is counteracted by a GS-mediated stimulation of the cyclic AMP pathway.

    PubMed Central

    Liebmann, C; Graness, A; Ludwig, B; Adomeit, A; Boehmer, A; Boehmer, F D; Nürnberg, B; Wetzker, R

    1996-01-01

    Cell membranes of the human epidermoid cell line A431 express classical bradykinin (BK) B2 receptors, as assessed by [3H]BK binding studies. Furthermore, stimulation by BK induced a time-dependent modulation of protein kinase C (PKC) activity in A431 cells: a rapid activation (t1/2 approximately 1 min) is followed by a slow inhibition (t1/2 approximately 20 min) of PKC translocation measured by [3H]phorbol 12,13-dibutyrate binding. In addition, BK stimulated both adenylate cyclase activity in A431 membranes and accumulation of intracellular cyclic AMP (cAMP) in intact cells in a retarded manner. A possible BK-induced activation of the cAMP pathway mediated via PKC, phospholipase D, prostaglandins or Ca2+/calmodulin was excluded. A 35 kDa protein was found in A431 membranes to be specifically phosphorylated in the presence of both BK and protein kinase A (PKA). An anti-alpha s-antibody, AS 348, abolished stimulation of adenylate cyclase activity in response to BK, cholera toxin and isoprenaline, strongly suggesting the involvement of Gs proteins in the BK action. The BK-activated cAMP signalling system might be important for the observed inactivation of PKC slowly evoked by BK: the BK-induced rapid activation of PKC is decreased by dibutyryl cAMP, and the slow inhibition of PKC is prevented by an inhibitor of PKA, adenosine 3':5'-monophosphothioate (cyclic, Rp isomer). The inhibition of PKC translocation might be exerted directly at the level of PKC activation, since stimulation of phosphoinositide hydrolysis by BK was affected by neither dibutyryl cAMP nor forskolin. Thus our results provide the first evidence that A431 cells BK is able to activate two independent signal-transduction pathways via a single class of B2 receptors but two different G proteins. The lagging stimulation of the cAMP signalling pathway via Gs might serve to switch off PKC, which is rapidly activated via Gq-mediated stimulation of phosphoinositide hydrolysis. PMID:8546671

  15. Slik and the receptor tyrosine kinase Breathless mediate localized activation of Moesin in terminal tracheal cells.

    PubMed

    Ukken, Fiona Paul; Aprill, Imola; JayaNandanan, N; Leptin, Maria

    2014-01-01

    A key element in the regulation of subcellular branching and tube morphogenesis of the Drosophila tracheal system is the organization of the actin cytoskeleton by the ERM protein Moesin. Activation of Moesin within specific subdomains of cells, critical for its interaction with actin, is a tightly controlled process and involves regulatory inputs from membrane proteins, kinases and phosphatases. The kinases that activate Moesin in tracheal cells are not known. Here we show that the Sterile-20 like kinase Slik, enriched at the luminal membrane, is necessary for the activation of Moesin at the luminal membrane and regulates branching and subcellular tube morphogenesis of terminal cells. Our results reveal the FGF-receptor Breathless as an additional necessary cue for the activation of Moesin in terminal cells. Breathless-mediated activation of Moesin is independent of the canonical MAP kinase pathway. PMID:25061859

  16. Differential AMP-activated Protein Kinase (AMPK) Recognition Mechanism of Ca2+/Calmodulin-dependent Protein Kinase Kinase Isoforms.

    PubMed

    Fujiwara, Yuya; Kawaguchi, Yoshinori; Fujimoto, Tomohito; Kanayama, Naoki; Magari, Masaki; Tokumitsu, Hiroshi

    2016-06-24

    Ca(2+)/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase kinase β (CaMKKβ) is a known activating kinase for AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK). In vitro, CaMKKβ phosphorylates Thr(172) in the AMPKα subunit more efficiently than CaMKKα, with a lower Km (∼2 μm) for AMPK, whereas the CaMKIα phosphorylation efficiencies by both CaMKKs are indistinguishable. Here we found that subdomain VIII of CaMKK is involved in the discrimination of AMPK as a native substrate by measuring the activities of various CaMKKα/CaMKKβ chimera mutants. Site-directed mutagenesis analysis revealed that Leu(358) in CaMKKβ/Ile(322) in CaMKKα confer, at least in part, a distinct recognition of AMPK but not of CaMKIα. PMID:27151216

  17. Dopamine D1 receptor inhibition of NMDA receptor currents mediated by tyrosine kinase-dependent receptor trafficking in neonatal rat striatum

    PubMed Central

    Tong, Huaxia; Gibb, Alasdair J

    2008-01-01

    NMDA receptors are of particular importance in the control of synaptic strength and integration of synaptic activity. Dopamine receptor modulation of NMDA receptors in neonatal striatum may influence the efficacy of synaptic transmission in the cortico-striatal pathway and if so, this modulation will affect the behaviour of the basal ganglia network. Here, we show that in acute brain slices of neonatal (P7) rat striatum the dopamine D1 receptor agonist SKF-82958 significantly decreases NMDA receptor currents in patch-clamp whole-cell recordings. This inhibition is not abolished by application of a G protein inhibitor (GDP-β-S) or irreversible G protein activator (GTP-γ-S) suggesting a G protein-independent mechanism. In addition, intracellular application of protein tyrosine kinase inhibitors (lavendustin A or PP2) abolished D1 inhibition of NMDA currents. In contrast, in older animals (P28) D1 receptor activation produces a potentiation of the NMDA response which suggests there is a developmental switch in D1 modulation of striatal NMDA receptors. Single-channel recordings show that direct D1 receptor inhibition of NMDA receptors cannot be observed in isolated membrane patches. We hypothesize that D1 inhibition in whole-cell recordings from neonatal rats may be mediated by a change in NMDA receptor trafficking. Consistent with this hypothesis, intracellular application of a dynamin inhibitory peptide (QVPSRPNRAP) abolished D1 inhibition of NMDA receptor currents. We therefore conclude that a tyrosine kinase-dependent alteration of NMDA receptor trafficking underlies D1 dopamine receptor-mediated down-regulation of NMDA receptor currents in medium spiny neurons of neonatal rat striatum. PMID:18703578

  18. AMP-activated protein kinase is required for exercise-induced peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ co-activator 1α translocation to subsarcolemmal mitochondria in skeletal muscle

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Brennan K; Mukai, Kazutaka; Lally, James S; Maher, Amy C; Gurd, Brendon J; Heigenhauser, George J F; Spriet, Lawrence L; Holloway, Graham P

    2013-01-01

    In skeletal muscle, mitochondria exist as two subcellular populations known as subsarcolemmal (SS) and intermyofibrillar (IMF) mitochondria. SS mitochondria preferentially respond to exercise training, suggesting divergent transcriptional control of the mitochondrial genomes. The transcriptional co-activator peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ co-activator 1α (PGC-1α) and mitochondrial transcription factor A (Tfam) have been implicated in the direct regulation of the mitochondrial genome in mice, although SS and IMF differences may exist, and the potential signalling events regulating the mitochondrial content of these proteins have not been elucidated. Therefore, we examined the potential for PGC-1α and Tfam to translocate to SS and IMF mitochondria in human subjects, and performed experiments in rodents to identify signalling mechanisms regulating these translocation events. Acute exercise in humans and rats increased PGC-1α content in SS but not IMF mitochondria. Acute exposure to 5-aminoimidazole-4-carboxamide-1-β-ribofuranoside in rats recapitulated the exercise effect of increased PGC-1α protein within SS mitochondria only, suggesting that AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) signalling is involved. In addition, rendering AMPK inactive (AMPK kinase dead mice) prevented exercise-induced PGC-1α translocation to SS mitochondria, further suggesting that AMPK plays an integral role in these translocation events. In contrast to the conserved PGC-1α translocation to SS mitochondria across species (humans, rats and mice), acute exercise only increased mitochondrial Tfam in rats. Nevertheless, in rat resting muscle PGC-1α and Tfam co-immunoprecipate with α-tubulin, suggesting a common cytosolic localization. These data suggest that exercise causes translocation of PGC-1α preferentially to SS mitochondria in an AMPK-dependent manner. PMID:23297307

  19. Ketamine inhibits tumor necrosis factor-{alpha} and interleukin-6 gene expressions in lipopolysaccharide-stimulated macrophages through suppression of toll-like receptor 4-mediated c-Jun N-terminal kinase phosphorylation and activator protein-1 activation

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, G.-J.; Chen, T.-L.; Ueng, Y.-F.; Chen, R.-M.

    2008-04-01

    Our previous study showed that ketamine, an intravenous anesthetic agent, has anti-inflammatory effects. In this study, we further evaluated the effects of ketamine on the regulation of tumor necrosis factor-{alpha} (TNF-{alpha}) and interlukin-6 (IL-6) gene expressions and its possible signal-transducing mechanisms in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-activated macrophages. Exposure of macrophages to 1, 10, and 100 {mu}M ketamine, 100 ng/ml LPS, or a combination of ketamine and LPS for 1, 6, and 24 h was not cytotoxic to macrophages. A concentration of 1000 {mu}M of ketamine alone or in combined treatment with LPS caused significant cell death. Administration of LPS increased cellular TNF-{alpha} and IL-6 protein levels in concentration- and time-dependent manners. Meanwhile, treatment with ketamine concentration- and time-dependently alleviated the enhanced effects. LPS induced TNF-{alpha} and IL-6 mRNA syntheses. Administration of ketamine at a therapeutic concentration (100 {mu}M) significantly inhibited LPS-induced TNF-{alpha} and IL-6 mRNA expressions. Application of toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) small interfering (si)RNA into macrophages decreased cellular TLR4 levels. Co-treatment of macrophages with ketamine and TLR4 siRNA decreased the LPS-induced TNF-{alpha} and IL-6 productions more than alone administration of TLR4 siRNA. LPS stimulated phosphorylation of c-Jun N-terminal kinase and translocation of c-Jun and c-Fos from the cytoplasm to nuclei. However, administration of ketamine significantly decreased LPS-induced activation of c-Jun N-terminal kinase and translocation of c-Jun and c-Fos. LPS increased the binding of nuclear extracts to activator protein-1 consensus DNA oligonucleotides. Administration of ketamine significantly ameliorated LPS-induced DNA binding activity of activator protein-1. Therefore, a clinically relevant concentration of ketamine can inhibit TNF-{alpha} and IL-6 gene expressions in LPS-activated macrophages. The suppressive mechanisms

  20. Chronic brain inflammation causes a reduction in GluN2A and GluN2B subunits of NMDA receptors and an increase in the phosphorylation of mitogen-activated protein kinases in the hippocampus

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Neuroinflammation plays a key role in the initiation and progression of neurodegeneration in Alzheimer’s disease (AD). Chronic neuroinflammation results in diminished synaptic plasticity and loss of GluN1 N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptors in the hippocampus, leading to the cognitive deficits that are the most common symptoms of AD. Therefore, it is suggested that chronic inflammation may alter expression levels of GluN2A and GluN2B subunits of NMDA receptors and associated intracellular signalling. Chronic neuroinflammation was induced by chronic infusion of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) into the fourth ventricle in Fischer-344 rats. The status of hippocampus-dependent memory was evaluated in control rats and rats chronically infused with LPS. Microglial activation in the hippocampus was examined using immunohistochemical staining. Western blot analysis was used to measure membrane levels of GluN2A and GluN2B subunits of NMDA receptors and mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) in the hippocampi of these rats, and immunofluorescent double labeling was used to assess the cellular location of MAPK. Microglial activation was observed in the hippocampi of rats that showed memory impairments with chronic LPS infusion. Chronic LPS infusion reduced the levels of GluN2A and GluN2B and increased the levels of phosphorylated MAPKs in the hippocampus. MAPK-positive immunoreactivity was observed mostly in the neurons and also in non-neuronal cells. Reductions in GluN2A and GluN2B subunits of NMDA receptors coupled with altered MAPK signaling, in response to inflammatory stimuli may be related to the cognitive deficits observed in AD. PMID:24761931

  1. Quantitative proteomic profiling identifies protein correlates to EGFR kinase inhibition.

    PubMed

    Kani, Kian; Faca, Vitor M; Hughes, Lindsey D; Zhang, Wenxuan; Fang, Qiaojun; Shahbaba, Babak; Luethy, Roland; Erde, Jonathan; Schmidt, Joanna; Pitteri, Sharon J; Zhang, Qing; Katz, Jonathan E; Gross, Mitchell E; Plevritis, Sylvia K; McIntosh, Martin W; Jain, Anjali; Hanash, Samir; Agus, David B; Mallick, Parag

    2012-05-01

    Clinical oncology is hampered by lack of tools to accurately assess a patient's response to pathway-targeted therapies. Serum and tumor cell surface proteins whose abundance, or change in abundance in response to therapy, differentiates patients responding to a therapy from patients not responding to a therapy could be usefully incorporated into tools for monitoring response. Here, we posit and then verify that proteomic discovery in in vitro tissue culture models can identify proteins with concordant in vivo behavior and further, can be a valuable approach for identifying tumor-derived serum proteins. In this study, we use stable isotope labeling of amino acids in culture (SILAC) with proteomic technologies to quantitatively analyze the gefitinib-related protein changes in a model system for sensitivity to EGF receptor (EGFR)-targeted tyrosine kinase inhibitors. We identified 3,707 intracellular proteins, 1,276 cell surface proteins, and 879 shed proteins. More than 75% of the proteins identified had quantitative information, and a subset consisting of 400 proteins showed a statistically significant change in abundance following gefitinib treatment. We validated the change in expression profile in vitro and screened our panel of response markers in an in vivo isogenic resistant model and showed that these were markers of gefitinib response and not simply markers of phospho-EGFR downregulation. In doing so, we also were able to identify which proteins might be useful as markers for monitoring response and which proteins might be useful as markers for a priori prediction of response. PMID:22411897

  2. Asymmetric Tyrosine Kinase Arrangements in Activation or Autophosphorylation of Receptor Tyrosine Kinases

    SciTech Connect

    J Bae; J Schlessinger

    2011-12-31

    Receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs) play important roles in the control of many cellular processes including cell proliferation, cell adhesion, angiogenesis, and apoptosis. Ligand-induced dimerization of RTKs leads to autophosphorylation and activation of RTKs. Structural studies have shown that while isolated ectodomains of several RTKs form symmetric dimers the isolated cytoplasmic kinase domains of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and fibroblast growth factor receptor (FGFR) form asymmetric dimers during their activation. Binding of one kinase molecule of EGFR to a second kinase molecule asymmetrically leads to stimulation of kinase activity and enhanced autophosphorylation. Furthermore, the structures of the kinase domain of FGFR1 and FGFR2 reveal the formation of asymmetric interfaces in the processes of autophosphorylation at their specific phosphotyrosine (pY) sites. Disruption of asymmetric dimer interface of EGFR leads to reduction in enzymatic activity and drastic reduction of autophosphorylation of FGFRs in ligandstimulated live cells. These studies demonstrate that asymmetric dimer formation is as a common phenomenon critical for activation and autophosphorylation of RTKs.

  3. Crystallization and preliminary X-ray analysis of ginkbilobin-2 from Ginkgo biloba seeds: a novel antifungal protein with homology to the extracellular domain of plant cysteine-rich receptor-like kinases

    SciTech Connect

    Miyakawa, Takuya; Sawano, Yoriko; Miyazono, Ken-ichi; Hatano, Ken-ichi; Tanokura, Masaru

    2007-09-01

    Purification and crystallization of ginkbilobin-2 and its selenomethionine derivative allowed the collection of complete data to 2.38 Å resolution and multiwavelength anomalous diffraction data sets, respectively. The antifungal protein ginkbilobin-2 (Gnk2) from Ginkgo biloba seeds does not show homology to other pathogenesis-related proteins, but does show homology to the extracellular domain of plant cysteine-rich receptor-like kinases. Native Gnk2 purified from ginkgo nuts and the selenomethionine derivative of recombinant Gnk2 (SeMet-rGnk2) were crystallized by the sitting-drop vapour-diffusion method using different precipitants. X-ray diffraction data were collected from Gnk2 at 2.38 Å resolution and from SeMet-rGnk2 at 2.79 Å resolution using a synchrotron-radiation source. The crystals of both proteins belonged to the primitive cubic space group P2{sub 1}3, with unit-cell parameters a = b = c = 143.2 Å.

  4. Protein kinase CK2 and protein kinase D are associated with the COP9 signalosome

    PubMed Central

    Uhle, Stefan; Medalia, Ohad; Waldron, Richard; Dumdey, Renate; Henklein, Peter; Bech-Otschir, Dawadschargal; Huang, Xiaohua; Berse, Matthias; Sperling, Joseph; Schade, Rüdiger; Dubiel, Wolfgang

    2003-01-01

    The COP9 signalosome (CSN) purified from human erythrocytes possesses kinase activity that phosphoryl ates proteins such as c-Jun and p53 with consequence for their ubiquitin (Ub)-dependent degradation. Here we show that protein kinase CK2 (CK2) and protein kinase D (PKD) co-purify with CSN. Immunoprecipi tation and far-western blots reveal that CK2 and PKD are in fact associated with CSN. As indicated by electron microscopy with gold-labeled ATP, at least 10% of CSN particles are associated with kinases. Kinase activity, most likely due to CK2 and PKD, co-immuno precipitates with CSN from HeLa cells. CK2 binds to ΔCSN3(111–403) and CSN7, whereas PKD interacts with full-length CSN3. CK2 phosphorylates CSN2 and CSN7, and PKD modifies CSN7. Both CK2 and PKD phosphorylate c-Jun as well as p53. CK2 phosphoryl ates Thr155, which targets p53 to degradation by the Ub system. Curcumin, emodin, DRB and resveratrol block CSN-associated kinases and induce degradation of c-Jun in HeLa cells. Curcumin treatment results in elevated amounts of c-Jun–Ub conjugates. We conclude that CK2 and PKD are recruited by CSN in order to regulate Ub conjugate formation. PMID:12628923

  5. Pharmacological modulation of protein kinases as a new approach to treat addiction to cocaine and opiates.

    PubMed

    García-Pardo, María Pilar; Roger-Sanchez, Concepción; Rodríguez-Arias, Marta; Miñarro, Jose; Aguilar, María Asunción

    2016-06-15

    Drug addiction shares brain mechanisms and molecular substrates with learning and memory processes, such as the stimulation of glutamate receptors and their downstream signalling pathways. In the present work we provide an up-to-date review of studies that have demonstrated the implication of the main memory-related calcium-dependent protein kinases in opiate and cocaine addiction. The effects of these drugs of abuse in different animal models of drug reward, dependence and addiction are altered by manipulation of the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) family, particularly extracellular signal regulated kinase (ERK), calcium/calmodulin-dependent kinase II (CaMKII), the protein kinase C (PKC) family (including PKMζ), cAMP-dependent protein kinase A (PKA), cGMP-dependent protein kinase G (PKG), the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) pathway and its downstream target mammalian target of Rapamycin (mTOR), cyclin-dependent kinase 5 (Cdk5), heat-shock proteins (Hsp) and other enzymes and proteins. Research suggests that drugs of abuse induce dependence and addiction by modifying the signalling pathways that involve these memory-related protein kinases, and supports the idea that drug addiction is an excessive aberrant learning disorder in which the maladaptive memory of drug-associated cues maintains compulsive drug use and contributes to relapse. Moreover, the studies we review offer new pharmacological strategies to treat opiate and cocaine dependence based on the manipulation of these protein kinases. In particular, disruption of reconsolidation of drug-related memories may have a high therapeutic value in the treatment of drug addiction. PMID:27056740

  6. A protein tyrosine kinase receptor, c-RET signaling pathway contributes to the enteric neurogenesis induced by a 5-HT4 receptor agonist at an anastomosis after transection of the gut in rodents.

    PubMed

    Goto, Kei; Kawahara, Isao; Kuniyasu, Hiroki; Takaki, Miyako

    2015-07-01

    We previously reported that a serotonin 4 (5-HT4) receptor agonist, mosapride citrate (MOS), increased the number of c-RET-positive cells and levels of c-RET mRNA in gel sponge implanted in the necks of rats. The 5-HT4 receptor is a G protein coupled receptor (GPCR) coupled to G protein Gs-cAMP cascades. We investigated the possibility that 5-HT4 receptor activation induced c-RET activation and/or PKA activation by elevating cAMP levels. Rodents were orally administered MOS by adding it to drinking water for 2 weeks after enteric nerve circuit insult via gut transection and anastomosis, together with the RET inhibitors withaferin A (WA) and RPI-1 or the PKA inhibitor H89. We then examined PGP9.5-positive cells in the newly formed granulation tissue at the anastomotic site. MOS significantly increased the number of new neurons, but not when co-administered with WA or RPI-1. Co-administration of H89 failed to alter MOS-induced increases in neurogenesis. In conclusion, the c-RET signaling pathway contributes to enteric neurogenesis facilitated by MOS, though the contribution of PKA activation seems unlikely. PMID:25850922

  7. A high-content EMT screen identifies multiple receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitors with activity on TGFβ receptor.

    PubMed

    Lotz-Jenne, Carina; Lüthi, Urs; Ackerknecht, Sabine; Lehembre, François; Fink, Tobias; Stritt, Manuel; Wirth, Matthias; Pavan, Simona; Bill, Ruben; Regenass, Urs; Christofori, Gerhard; Meyer-Schaller, Nathalie

    2016-05-01

    An epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT) enables epithelial tumor cells to break out of the primary tumor mass and to metastasize. Understanding the molecular mechanisms driving EMT in more detail will provide important tools to interfere with the metastatic process. To identify pharmacological modulators and druggable targets of EMT, we have established a novel multi-parameter, high-content, microscopy-based assay and screened chemical compounds with activities against known targets. Out of 3423 compounds, we have identified 19 drugs that block transforming growth factor beta (TGFβ)-induced EMT in normal murine mammary gland epithelial cells (NMuMG). The active compounds include inhibitors against TGFβ receptors (TGFBR), Rho-associated protein kinases (ROCK), myosin II, SRC kinase and uridine analogues. Among the EMT-repressing compounds, we identified a group of inhibitors targeting multiple receptor tyrosine kinases, and biochemical profiling of these multi-kinase inhibitors reveals TGFBR as a thus far unknown target of their inhibitory spectrum. These findings demonstrate the feasibility of a multi-parameter, high-content microscopy screen to identify modulators and druggable targets of EMT. Moreover, the newly discovered "off-target" effects of several receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitors have important consequences for in vitro and in vivo studies and might beneficially contribute to the therapeutic effects observed in vivo. PMID:27036020

  8. Effect of various protein kinase inhibitors on the induction of milk protein gene expression by prolactin.

    PubMed

    Bayat-Sarmadi, M; Houdebine, L M

    1993-03-01

    Prolactin has many known functions and one of them is to induce the expression of milk protein gene expression in the mammary gland. Specific membrane receptors have been recently characterized but the transduction mechanism involved in the tran