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Sample records for recession curve analysis

  1. Recession curve analysis for groundwater levels: case study in Latvia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gailuma, A.; VÄ«tola, I.; Abramenko, K.; Lauva, D.; Vircavs, V.; Veinbergs, A.; Dimanta, Z.

    2012-04-01

    Recession curve analysis is powerful and effective analysis technique in many research areas related with hydrogeology where observations have to be made, such as water filtration and absorption of moisture, irrigation and drainage, planning of hydroelectric power production and chemical leaching (elution of chemical substances) as well as in other areas. The analysis of the surface runoff hydrograph`s recession curves, which is performed to conceive the after-effects of interaction of precipitation and surface runoff, has approved in practice. The same method for analysis of hydrograph`s recession curves can be applied for the observations of the groundwater levels. There are manually prepared hydrograph for analysis of recession curves for observation wells (MG2, BG2 and AG1) in agricultural monitoring sites in Latvia. Within this study from the available monitoring data of groundwater levels were extracted data of declining periods, splitted by month. The drop-down curves were manually (by changing the date) moved together, until to find the best match, thereby obtaining monthly drop-down curves, representing each month separately. Monthly curves were combined and manually joined, for obtaining characterizing drop-down curves of the year for each well. Within the process of decreased recession curve analysis, from the initial curve was cut out upward areas, leaving only the drops of the curve, consequently, the curve is transformed more closely to the groundwater flow, trying to take out the impact of rain or drought periods from the curve. Respectively, the drop-down curve is part of the data, collected with hydrograph, where data with the discharge dominates, without considering impact of precipitation. Using the recession curve analysis theory, ready tool "A Visual Basic Spreadsheet Macro for Recession Curve Analysis" was used for selection of data and logarithmic functions matching (K. Posavec et.al., GROUND WATER 44, no. 5: 764-767, 2006), as well as functions were developed by manual processing of data. For displaying data the mathematical model of data equalization was used, finding the corresponding or closest logarithmic function of the recession for the graph. Obtained recession curves were similar but not identical. With full knowledge of the fluctuations of ground water level, it is possible to indirectly (without taking soil samples) determine the filtration coefficient: more rapid decline in the recession curve correspond for the better filtration conditions. This research could be very useful in construction planning, road constructions, agriculture etc. Acknowledgments The authors gratefully acknowledge the funding from ESF Project "Establishment of interdisciplinary scientist group and modeling system for groundwater research" (Agreement No. 2009/0212/1DP/1.1.1.2.0/09/APIA/VIAA/060EF7)

  2. Regionalization of subsurface stormflow parameters of hydrologic models: Derivation from regional analysis of streamflow recession curves

    SciTech Connect

    Ye, Sheng; Li, Hongyi; Huang, Maoyi; Ali, Melkamu; Leng, Guoyong; Leung, Lai-Yung R.; Wang, Shaowen; Sivapalan, Murugesu

    2014-07-21

    Subsurface stormflow is an important component of the rainfall–runoff response, especially in steep terrain. Its contribution to total runoff is, however, poorly represented in the current generation of land surface models. The lack of physical basis of these common parameterizations precludes a priori estimation of the stormflow (i.e. without calibration), which is a major drawback for prediction in ungauged basins, or for use in global land surface models. This paper is aimed at deriving regionalized parameterizations of the storage–discharge relationship relating to subsurface stormflow from a top–down empirical data analysis of streamflow recession curves extracted from 50 eastern United States catchments. Detailed regression analyses were performed between parameters of the empirical storage–discharge relationships and the controlling climate, soil and topographic characteristics. The regression analyses performed on empirical recession curves at catchment scale indicated that the coefficient of the power-law form storage–discharge relationship is closely related to the catchment hydrologic characteristics, which is consistent with the hydraulic theory derived mainly at the hillslope scale. As for the exponent, besides the role of field scale soil hydraulic properties as suggested by hydraulic theory, it is found to be more strongly affected by climate (aridity) at the catchment scale. At a fundamental level these results point to the need for more detailed exploration of the co-dependence of soil, vegetation and topography with climate.

  3. Geomorphological origin of recession curves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Biswal, Basudev; Marani, Marco

    2010-12-01

    We identify a previously undetected link between the river network morphology and key recession curves properties through a conceptual-physical model of the drainage process of the riparian unconfined aquifer. We show that the power-law exponent, ?, of -dQ/dt vs. Q curves is related to the power-law exponent of N(l) vs. G(l) curves (which we show to be connected to Hack's law), where l is the downstream distance from the channel heads, N(l) is the number of channel reaches exactly located at a distance l from their channel head, and G(l) is the total length of the network located at a distance greater or equal to l from channel heads. Using Digital Terrain Models and daily discharge observations from 67 US basins we find that geomorphologic ? estimates match well the values obtained from recession curves analyses. Finally, we argue that the link between recession flows and network morphology points to an important role of low-flow discharges in shaping the channel network.

  4. "Universal" Recession Curves and their Geomorphological Roots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marani, M.; Biswal, B.

    2011-12-01

    The basic structural organization of channel networks, and of the connected hillslopes, have been shown to be intimately linked to basin responses to rainfall events, leading to geomorphological theories of the hydrologic response. Here, We identify a previously undetected link between the river network morphology and key recession curves properties. We show that the power-law exponent of -dQ/dt vs. Q curves is related to the power-law exponent of N(l) vs. G(l) curves (which we show to be connected to Hack's law), where l is the downstream distance from the channel heads, N(l) is the number of channel reaches exactly located at a distance l from their channel head, and G(l) is the total length of the network located at a distance greater or equal to l from channel heads. We then generalize the power-law expressions of recession curves, to identify "universal" curves, independent of the initial moisture conditions and of basin area, by making the -dQ/dt vs. Q curve non-dimensional using an index discharge representative of initial moisture conditions. We subsequently rescale the geomorphic recession curve, N(l) vs. G(l), producing a collapse of the geomorphic recession curves constructed from the DTM's of 67 US study basins. Finally, by use of the specific discharge u = Q/A, we link the two previous results and define the specific recession curves, whose collapse across basins within homogeneous geographical areas lends further, decisive, support to the notion that the statistical properties of observational recession curves bear the signature of the geomorphological structure of the networks producing them.

  5. Recession curve estimation for storm event separations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hammond, M.; Han, D.

    2006-11-01

    SummaryAn accurate recession curve model is important for separating individual flow events, which is especially difficult over catchments in regions with a maritime climate where frequent rainfall events cause the flows to rise before they reach the baseflow level. The traditional recession curve equations are based on static linear and nonlinear reservoir models. These models work quite well for ground water dominated recession curves, but not so well when the direct runoff is significant in the recession part. In this study, a new modelling methodology is explored based on self-adaptive parameters in the linear and nonlinear reservoir models. It has been found that the adaptive forms performed better than the static ones, especially when a window for the adaptive parameter estimation is properly selected. While the nonlinear adaptive model had better accuracy over the linear one, it could become unstable if its window is too narrow, indicating that more research work is needed to find an useful pattern for the window size. A comparison between the recession curve models and PDM model (a rainfall-runoff model) has shown that they agreed quite well in most winter events, but less so in the summer.

  6. The geomorphological origin of recession curves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Biswal, B.; Marani, M.

    2010-12-01

    We identify a previously undetected link between the river network morphology and key recession curves properties through a conceptual-physical model of the drainage process of the riparian unconfined aquifer. We show that the power-law exponent, ? of -dQ/dt vs Q curves is related to the power-law exponent of N(l) vs G(l) curves (which we show to be connected to Hack's law), where l is the downstream distance from the channel heads, N(l) is the number of channel reaches exactly located at a distance l from their channel head, and G(l) is the total length of the network located at a distance greater or equal to l from channel heads. Using Digital Terrain Models and daily discharge observations from 67 US basins we find that geomorphologic ? estimates match well the values obtained from recession curves analyses. Finally, we argue that the link between recession flows and network morphology points to an important role of low-flow discharges in shaping the channel network.

  7. Objective hydrograph baseflow recession analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomas, Brian F.; Vogel, Richard M.; Famiglietti, James S.

    2015-06-01

    A streamflow hydrograph recession curve expresses the theoretical relationship between aquifer structure and groundwater outflow to a stream channel. That theoretical relationship is often portrayed empirically using a recession plot defined as a plot of ln(-dQ/dt) versus ln(Q), where Q is streamflow discharge. Such hydrograph recession plots are commonly used to estimate recession parameters, aquifer properties and for evaluating alternative hydrologic hypotheses. We introduce a comprehensive and objective approach to analyze baseflow recessions with innovations including the use of quantile regression, efficient and objective numerical estimation of dQ/dt, inclusion of groundwater withdrawals, and incorporation of seasonal effects. We document that these innovations when all combined, lead to significant improvements, over previous studies, in our ability to discern the theoretical behavior of stream aquifer systems. A case study reveals that our methodology enables us to reject the simple linear reservoir hypothesis of stream aquifer interactions for watersheds in New Jersey and results in improved correlations between low flow statistics and aquifer properties for those same watersheds.

  8. Interpretation of karst spring recession curves by the series reservoir model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    chang, Y.; Wu, J.

    2013-12-01

    The analysis of karst spring recession is a commonly used approach for understanding the aquifer structure or acquiring hydrodynamic parameters. An approach frequently applied for recession analysis is based on the several parallel, typically two or three, linear reservoirs each of which represents different part with different hydraulic conductivities, such as the conduit system and the fissure system. However, this parallel reservoir structure cannot accord with the relationship between the conduit system and fissure system, which is actually in series rather than parallel. We, therefore, examine the recession curve of two linear reservoirs in series (the conduit reservoir and fissure reservoir), representing the conduit and fissure system respectively, and make comparisons with two corresponding parallel linear reservoirs. Some interesting results are presented. If the storages of two series systems are close and the recession coefficient of the conduit reservoir is larger than the fissure reservoir, two overlapping exponential recession processes still exist. And yet, the recession coefficient of each exponential process is different from that of each single reservoir. One of recession coefficient is larger than the conduit reservoir owing to extra water participation from the fissure reservoir except the drainage of conduit reservoir, while the other recession coefficient is smaller than the fissure reservoir because the water flowing out from the fissure reservoir is regulated by the conduit reservoir again. When the recession coefficient of conduit reservoir is close or smaller than the fissure system, the recession curve is expressed only by an exponential function and the recession coefficient is between the conduit and fissure system. Commonly, the storage of the conduit system is much smaller than the fissure system and the conduit flow is turbulent. When ignoring the storage of the conduit system, the conduit reservoir can be substituted by a pipe, in which the turbulent pipe flow obeys Darcy-Weisbach formula, in two series reservoir model. In this new conceptual model, the initial recession process deviates from the exponential behavior. This non-exponential recession curve might disappear unless the pipe diameter is large or initial discharge is small. In late recession stage, the recession process is exponential which mainly controlled by the fissure reservoir. Acknowledgments This research was supported by National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 41030746, 41172207 and 41102147).

  9. Estimation of recession curve of karst spring hydrograph: example of the spring Gradole

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deni?-Juki?, V.; Kuštera, K.; Juki?, D.

    2009-04-01

    The spring Gradole represents a typical karst spring of the rising type, which is situated in central part of Istria (Croatia). The drainage area is composed mostly of carbonate rocks (limestone) and partly of flysch components (marls and sandstones). The average altitude of the catchment area is approximately 330 m a.s.l. Strong tectonic deformations have made carbonate deposits very permeable, enabling the infiltration of water. The average rainfall is between 1046 and 1120 mm. The catchment area of the spring is estimated to approximately 114 km2. Several studies have shown that the recession curves of karst spring hydrographs characterize the storage properties of karst aquifers. The change in slope can be explained with the drainage of different types of media typical for karst, such as conduits, fractures, pores and fissures. The main factors that affect the recession curve are aquifer lithology and geometry of conduits. Consequently, the recession curve analyzes can provide information about the aquifer and the main features of karst rock massif. Usually, the recession curves can be fitted well by the function that consists of two or more exponential terms with exponential coefficients ?1,?2,…, where the lower coefficient ?1 represents the slow flow through porous medium or base flow. The recession curve that represents base flow is usually named as the master recession curve and its exponential coefficient ?1 is named as the master recession coefficient. In this study, classical methods for estimation of recession curve are applied to the hydrograph of the spring Gradole. The results are compared with those obtained by applying Composite Transfer Functions (CTF). Differently from classical parametric and nonparametric transfer functions that represent the quick flow and base flow component of spring response by a single function, CTF represents the spring response by two functions adapted for the quick flow and the slow flow component. The quick flow component is represented by a nonparametric transfer function, whereas the slow flow component is represented by a parametric transfer function which is an Instantaneous Unit Hydrograph (IUH) formulated and defined mathematically from a conceptual model. By using CTF for Rainfall-Runoff (RR) modeling, the simulations of long recession periods as well as the simulations of complete hydrograph become more successful. If IUH defined from the conceptual model of linear reservoir is applied, the parametric transfer function representing slow flow component has exponential form. It means that the recession coefficient of IUH represents the master recession coefficient of the spring hydrograph, i.e. the recession coefficient of IUH can be determined by using classical methods for the estimation of master recession coefficient, and vice versa, the problem of determination of master recession coefficient can be transformed to the problem of determination of the recession coefficient of IUH. The recession coefficient of IUH is determined simultaneously with the values of nonparametric transfer function in the optimization procedure for estimation of parameters of RR model based on CTF. The recession coefficients of IUH are obtained separately in the optimization procedures for each hydrological year during the period 1987-2002. The results show that the recession curve of the spring Gradole has not a unique form. Depending on hydrological year, the obtained nonparametric transfer functions representing quick flow component can be fitted by one or two exponential terms. The values of master recession coefficient vary between 100 and 260 days. The average value for the entire period of 15 years is 140 days. These results are similar to the results obtained by applying classical methods for estimation of master recession curve. It confirms practically that the recession coefficient of IUH can be estimated from the spring hydrograph, which can be useful for RR modeling based on CTF because the number of unknown parameters is reduced.

  10. Streamflow Recession Analysis Incorporating Human Water Use

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomas, B. F.; Vogel, R. M.

    2011-12-01

    Hydrologic studies of streamflow recessions are common in hydrology, yet nearly all previous studies have ignored the impact of human water withdrawals on the recession behavior of streamflow. The baseflow recession constant (Kb), commonly used in hydrologic models, can be estimated from a hydrologic recession. Resulting estimates of Kb are used widely in rainfall runoff models, low flow forecasting, and estimation of low flow characteristics. The accurate estimation of the baseflow recession constant is critical due to its common use in low flow characterization for water management strategies and Clean Water Act permitting requirements. This study documents the impact of water withdrawals on estimates of streamflow recession constants. We combine existing information on both groundwater and surface water resources and readily available information on human water use. We document that estimates of the baseflow recession constant depend critically upon the ratio of groundwater withdrawals to the average magnitude of baseflows. We document that without careful attention to the impact of groundwater withdrawals, estimates of streamflow recession constants will exhibit significant bias. Observed streamflow response is best approximated by a streamflow recession constant that incorporates human water use.

  11. Recession Curve Generation for the Space Shuttle Solid Rocket Booster Thermal Protection System Coatings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kanner, Howard S.; Stuckey, C. Irvin; Davis, Darrell W.; Davis, Darrell (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Ablatable Thermal Protection System (TPS) coatings are used on the Space Shuttle Vehicle Solid Rocket Boosters in order to protect the aluminum structure from experiencing excessive temperatures. The methodology used to characterize the recession of such materials is outlined. Details of the tests, including the facility, test articles and test article processing are also presented. The recession rates are collapsed into an empirical power-law relation. A design curve is defined using a 95-percentile student-t distribution. based on the nominal results. Actual test results are presented for the current acreage TPS material used.

  12. Fully automated objective-based method for master recession curve separation.

    PubMed

    Posavec, Kristijan; Parlov, Jelena; Naki?, Zoran

    2010-01-01

    The fully automated objective-based method for master recession curve (MRC) separation was developed by using Microsoft Excel spreadsheet and Visual Basic for Applications (VBA) code. The core of the program code is used to construct an MRC by using the adapted matching strip method (Posavec et al. 2006). Criteria for separating the MRC into two or three segments are determined from the flow-duration curve and are represented as the probable range of percent of flow rate duration. Successive separations are performed automatically on two and three MRCs using sets of percent of flow rate duration from selected ranges and an optimal separation model scenario, having the highest average coefficient of determination R(2), is selected as the most appropriate one. The resulting separated master recession curves are presented graphically, whereas the statistics are presented numerically, all in separate sheets. Examples of field data obtained from two springs in Istria, Croatia, are used to illustrate its application. The freely available Excel spreadsheet and VBA program ensures the ease of use and applicability for larger data sets. PMID:20100291

  13. A computer program for predicting recharge with a master recession curve

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Heppner, Christopher S.; Nimmo, John R.

    2005-01-01

    Water-table fluctuations occur in unconfined aquifers owing to ground-water recharge following precipitation and infiltration, and ground-water discharge to streams between storm events. Ground-water recharge can be estimated from well hydrograph data using the water-table fluctuation (WTF) principle, which states that recharge is equal to the product of the water-table rise and the specific yield of the subsurface porous medium. The water-table rise, however, must be expressed relative to the water level that would have occurred in the absence of recharge. This requires a means for estimating the recession pattern of the water-table at the site. For a given site there is often a characteristic relation between the water-table elevation and the water-table decline rate following a recharge event. A computer program was written which extracts the relation between decline rate and water-table elevation from well hydrograph data and uses it to construct a master recession curve (MRC). The MRC is a characteristic water-table recession hydrograph, representing the average behavior for a declining water-table at that site. The program then calculates recharge using the WTF method by comparing the measured well hydrograph with the hydrograph predicted by the MRC and multiplying the difference at each time step by the specific yield. This approach can be used to estimate recharge in a continuous fashion from long-term well records. Presented here is a description of the code including the WTF theory and instructions for running it to estimate recharge with continuous well hydrograph data.

  14. Recession analysis across scales: The impact of both random and nonrandom spatial variability on aggregated hydrologic response

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Bo; Krajewski, Witold F.

    2015-04-01

    Recession analysis across scales can provide insight into the spatial aggregation of hydrologic processes. Accordingly, we analyzed individual late-time recession curves from 25 nested USGS stream gauges over a period of ?150 days with negligible precipitation during the 2012-2013 North American drought. These gauges are located in the Iowa and Cedar River basins and drain areas ranging from ?70 to 17,000 km2. Our data analyses show that these late-time recession processes can be represented by a linear reservoir model with a constant recession time scale of about 34 days, indicating linear and homogeneous recession behaviors at the large scales investigated. However, others have shown that the early-time recession process becomes more nonlinear as spatial scale and, thus, spatial variability increases. We developed a distributed drainage model as a diagnostic tool to understand these seemingly contradictory recession characteristics at multiple spatial scales and different stages. With a hierarchical description of the recession variability at the hillslope scale, our model can simultaneously produce the increasing nonlinear early-time and the linear and homogenous late-time recession behaviors at larger scales. The hierarchical representation classifies hillslopes according to the Strahler orders of the stream links into which they drain. We postulate that a larger difference in recession behaviors will occur between hillslopes from different orders than between those from the same order. Overall, this study shows how the spatial randomness and nonrandomness of small-scale process variability control the hydrologic responses at larger scales and suggests a combined (nonrandom-random) representation of watersheds for aggregating hydrologic processes.

  15. Aerodynamic Analysis of Simulated Heat Shield Recession for the Orion Command Module

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bibb, Karen L.; Alter, Stephen J.; Mcdaniel, Ryan D.

    2008-01-01

    The aerodynamic effects of the recession of the ablative thermal protection system for the Orion Command Module of the Crew Exploration Vehicle are important for the vehicle guidance. At the present time, the aerodynamic effects of recession being handled within the Orion aerodynamic database indirectly with an additional safety factor placed on the uncertainty bounds. This study is an initial attempt to quantify the effects for a particular set of recessed geometry shapes, in order to provide more rigorous analysis for managing recession effects within the aerodynamic database. The aerodynamic forces and moments for the baseline and recessed geometries were computed at several trajectory points using multiple CFD codes, both viscous and inviscid. The resulting aerodynamics for the baseline and recessed geometries were compared. The forces (lift, drag) show negligible differences between baseline and recessed geometries. Generally, the moments show a difference between baseline and recessed geometries that correlates with the maximum amount of recession of the geometry. The difference between the pitching moments for the baseline and recessed geometries increases as Mach number decreases (and the recession is greater), and reach a value of -0.0026 for the lowest Mach number. The change in trim angle of attack increases from approx. 0.5deg at M = 28.7 to approx. 1.3deg at M = 6, and is consistent with a previous analysis with a lower fidelity engineering tool. This correlation of the present results with the engineering tool results supports the continued use of the engineering tool for future work. The present analysis suggests there does not need to be an uncertainty due to recession in the Orion aerodynamic database for the force quantities. The magnitude of the change in pitching moment due to recession is large enough to warrant inclusion in the aerodynamic database. An increment in the uncertainty for pitching moment could be calculated from these results and included in the development of the aerodynamic database uncertainty for pitching moment.

  16. Estimating parental relationship in linkage analysis of recessive traits

    SciTech Connect

    Merette, C.; Ott, J.

    1996-05-17

    In linkage analysis of recessive traits, parental relationship is important. For the case that it is unknown, the question is investigated as to whether estimating parental relationship and using the estimated relationship in linkage analysis is beneficial. Results show that estimating parental relationship can reliably be carried out on the basis of 50-100 genetic marker loci (analysis based on theory by Thompson). Misspecification of parental relationship leads to a loss of linkage informativeness, but not to false-positive evidence for linkage. An asymptotic bias in the recombination fraction estimate occurs when parents are unrelated and falsely taken to be related, but no such bias is seen when related parents are taken to be unrelated. Results from this investigation suggest that an estimated parental relationship may be used in linkage analysis as if it were the correct relationship, when evidence for the estimated relationship is supported by a likelihood ratio of at least 10:1 against the parents being unrelated. 9 refs., 2 figs., 5 tabs.

  17. Promising new baseflow separation and recession analysis methods applied to streamflow at Glendhu Catchment, New Zealand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stewart, M. K.

    2015-06-01

    Understanding and modelling the relationship between rainfall and runoff has been a driving force in hydrology for many years. Baseflow separation and recession analysis have been two of the main tools for understanding runoff generation in catchments, but there are many different methods for each. The new baseflow separation method presented here (the bump and rise method or BRM) aims to accurately simulate the shape of tracer-determined baseflow or pre-event water. Application of the method by calibrating its parameters, using (a) tracer data or (b) an optimising method, is demonstrated for the Glendhu Catchment, New Zealand. The calibrated BRM algorithm is then applied to the Glendhu streamflow record. The new recession approach advances the thesis that recession analysis of streamflow alone gives misleading information on catchment storage reservoirs because streamflow is a varying mixture of components of very different origins and characteristics (at the simplest level, quickflow and baseflow as identified by the BRM method). Recession analyses of quickflow, baseflow and streamflow show that the steep power-law slopes often observed for streamflow at intermediate flows are artefacts due to mixing and are not representative of catchment reservoirs. Applying baseflow separation before recession analysis could therefore shed new light on water storage reservoirs in catchments and possibly resolve some current problems with recession analysis. Among other things it shows that both quickflow and baseflow reservoirs in the studied catchment have (non-linear) quadratic characteristics.

  18. Analysis of Exoplanet Light Curves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Erdem, A.; Budding, E.; Rhodes, M. D.; Püsküllü, Ç.; Soydugan, F.; Soydugan, E.; Tüysüz, M.; Demircan, O.

    2015-07-01

    We have applied the close binary system analysis package WINFITTER to a variety of exoplanet transiting light curves taken both from the NASA Exoplanet Archive and our own ground-based observations. WINFitter has parameter options for a realistic physical model, including gravity brightening and structural parameters derived from Kopal's applications of the relevant Radau equation, and it includes appropriate tests for determinacy and adequacy of its best fitting parameter sets. We discuss a number of issues related to empirical checking of models for stellar limb darkening, surface maculation, Doppler beaming, microvariability, and transit time variation (TTV) effects. The Radau coefficients used in the light curve modeling, in principle, allow structural models of the component stars to be tested.

  19. What Is a Recessive Allele?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Biology Teacher, 1991

    1991-01-01

    Presents four misconceptions students have concerning the concepts of recessive and dominant alleles. Discusses the spectrum of dominant-recessive relationships, different levels of analysis between phenotype and genotype, possible causes of dominance, and an example involving wrinkled peas. (MDH)

  20. Estimation of baseflow and water transfer in karst catchments in Mediterranean Turkey by nonlinear recession analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eris, Ebru; Wittenberg, Hartmut

    2015-11-01

    Because of water transfers through fissures, cavities, caves and phreatic channels of various sizes and unknown directions, the topographic watersheds of karst catchments have little significance for their aquifers. Most of the flow in the Manavgat River in South Anatolia has its origin outside of the surface watershed and is transferred through karst pathways. Previous investigations found evidence for this by groundwater tracing techniques. In this study, flow recession analysis and baseflow separation are applied to the time series of daily flows 1992-2008 from three gauging stations. Flow recessions were found corresponding to the nonlinear storage-baseflow relationship S = a·Qb, with b values around 0.5 as typical for unconfined groundwater, while the coefficient a showed marked seasonal variations with higher values in the rainy winter time and decreasing values towards the dry summer. For catchments which receive water transfers from other areas, the decrease of a is retarded. Flow recession is slower since more water is available. Baseflow separation by using the same nonlinear model revealed that direct flow, which is mainly surface flow, corresponds roughly to the surface catchments while baseflow, which accounts for most of the total flow, is highly influenced by transfers from karst sink areas outside the surface watersheds. The subsurface transfer was simulated by a nonlinear reservoir routing algorithm. Time series of monthly baseflow from catchments which receive transfer water were compared with those of sinkhole (loss) areas. The procedure allows inferring the origin area of the inflows and estimating the retention or lag time of the transfer.

  1. Rapid multipoint linkage analysis of recessive traits in nuclear families, including homozygosity mapping.

    PubMed Central

    Kruglyak, L; Daly, M J; Lander, E S

    1995-01-01

    Homozygosity mapping is a powerful strategy for mapping rare recessive traits in children of consanguineous marriages. Practical applications of this strategy are currently limited by the inability of conventional linkage analysis software to compute, in reasonable time, multipoint LOD scores for pedigrees with inbreeding loops. We have developed a new algorithm for rapid multipoint likelihood calculations in small pedigrees, including those with inbreeding loops. The running time of the algorithm grows, at most, linearly with the number of loci considered simultaneously. The running time is not sensitive to the presence of inbreeding loops, missing genotype information, and highly polymorphic loci. We have incorporated this algorithm into a software package, MAPMAKER/HOMOZ, that allows very rapid multipoint mapping of disease genes in nuclear families, including homozygosity mapping. Multipoint analysis with dozens of markers can be carried out in minutes on a personal workstation. PMID:7847388

  2. Numerical Analysis of Galactic Rotation Curves

    E-print Network

    G. Scelza; A. Stabile

    2015-02-01

    In this paper we present the discussion on the salient points of the computational analysis that are at the basis of the paper \\emph{Rotation Curves of Galaxies by Fourth Order Gravity} \\citep{StSc}. In fact in this paper any galactic component (bulge, disk and Dark matter component) required an onerous numerical computation since the Gauss theorem is not applicable in the Fourth Order Gravity. The computational and data analysis have been made with the software Mathematica$^\\circledR$.

  3. Autosomal recessive

    MedlinePLUS

    ... and the other gene comes from the father. Recessive inheritance means both genes in a pair must be abnormal to cause ... born to parents who carry the same autosomal recessive change ... abnormal gene from both parents and developing the disease. You ...

  4. Incorporating Experience Curves in Appliance Standards Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Garbesi, Karina; Chan, Peter; Greenblatt, Jeffery; Kantner, Colleen; Lekov, Alex; Meyers, Stephen; Rosenquist, Gregory; Buskirk, Robert Van; Yang, Hung-Chia; Desroches, Louis-Benoit

    2011-10-31

    The technical analyses in support of U.S. energy conservation standards for residential appliances and commercial equipment have typically assumed that manufacturing costs and retail prices remain constant during the projected 30-year analysis period. There is, however, considerable evidence that this assumption does not reflect real market prices. Costs and prices generally fall in relation to cumulative production, a phenomenon known as experience and modeled by a fairly robust empirical experience curve. Using price data from the Bureau of Labor Statistics, and shipment data obtained as part of the standards analysis process, we present U.S. experience curves for room air conditioners, clothes dryers, central air conditioners, furnaces, and refrigerators and freezers. These allow us to develop more representative appliance price projections than the assumption-based approach of constant prices. These experience curves were incorporated into recent energy conservation standards for these products. The impact on the national modeling can be significant, often increasing the net present value of potential standard levels in the analysis. In some cases a previously cost-negative potential standard level demonstrates a benefit when incorporating experience. These results imply that past energy conservation standards analyses may have undervalued the economic benefits of potential standard levels.

  5. Genetic analysis of TMPRSS3 gene in the Korean population with autosomal recessive nonsyndromic hearing loss.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jinwook; Baek, Jeong-In; Choi, Jae Young; Kim, Un-Kyung; Lee, Sang-Heun; Lee, Kyu-Yup

    2013-12-15

    The TMPRSS3 gene (DFNB8/10), which encodes a transmembrane serine protease, is a common hearing loss gene in several populations. Accurate functions of TMPRSS3 in the hearing pathway are still unknown, but TMPRSS3 has been reported to play a crucial role in inner ear development or maintenance. To date, 16 pathogenic mutations have been identified in many countries, but no mutational studies of the TMPRSS3 gene have been conducted in the Korean hearing loss population. In this study, we performed genetic analysis of TMPRSS3 in 40 unrelated Korean patients with autosomal recessive hearing loss to identify the aspect and frequency of TMPRSS3 gene mutations in the Korean population. A total of 22 variations were detected, including a novel variant (p.V291L) and a previously reported pathogenic mutation (p.A306T). The p.A306T mutation which has been detected in only compound heterozygous state in previous studies was identified in homozygous state for the first time in this study. Moreover, the clinical evaluation identified bilateral dilated vestibules in the patient with p.A306T mutation, and it suggested that p.A306T mutation of the TMPRSS3 gene might be associated with vestibular anomalies. In conclusion, this study investigated that only 2.5% of patients with autosomal recessive hearing loss were related to TMPRSS3 mutations suggesting low prevalence of TMPRSS3 gene in Korean hearing loss population. Also, it will provide the information of genotype-phenotype correlation to understand definite role of TMPRSS3 in the auditory system. PMID:23958653

  6. Molecular and phenotypic analysis of 25 recessive, homozygous-viable alleles at the mouse agouti locus.

    PubMed Central

    Miltenberger, Rosalynn J; Wakamatsu, Kazumasa; Ito, Shosuke; Woychik, Richard P; Russell, Liane B; Michaud, Edward J

    2002-01-01

    Agouti is a paracrine-acting, transient antagonist of melanocortin 1 receptors that specifies the subapical band of yellow on otherwise black hairs of the wild-type coat. To better understand both agouti structure/function and the germline damage caused by chemicals and radiation, an allelic series of 25 recessive, homozygous-viable agouti mutations generated in specific-locus tests were characterized. Visual inspection of fur, augmented by quantifiable chemical analysis of hair melanins, suggested four phenotypic categories (mild, moderate, umbrous-like, severe) for the 18 hypomorphs and a single category for the 7 amorphs (null). Molecular analysis indicated protein-coding alterations in 8 hypomorphs and 6 amorphs, with mild-moderate phenotypes correlating with signal peptide or basic domain mutations, and more devastating phenotypes resulting from C-terminal lesions. Ten hypomorphs and one null demonstrated wild-type coding potential, suggesting that they contain mutations elsewhere in the > or = 125-kb agouti locus that either reduce the level or alter the temporal/spatial distribution of agouti transcripts. Beyond the notable contributions to the field of mouse germ cell mutagenesis, analysis of this allelic series illustrates that complete abrogation of agouti function in vivo occurs most often through protein-coding lesions, whereas partial loss of function occurs slightly more frequently at the level of gene expression control. PMID:11861569

  7. Genetic analysis of loci that contribute to recessive polycystic kidney disease in the mouse

    SciTech Connect

    Beier, D.R.; Dushkin, H.; Tobin, D.

    1994-09-01

    Identification of genes that play a role in the development of autosomal recessive polycystic kidney disease (ARPKD) is a key to the better understanding of this disorder. We have discovered a new mutation in the mouse we call juvenile cystic kidney (jck) which predisposes to the development of ARPKD and is not allelic with any previously described mutations. In an effort to map and positionally clone the jck gene, an intraspecific intercross between B6/DBA jck/+F1 mice was established and over 100 affected progeny were identified. Genotype analysis using microsatellite markers was employed and the jck mutation has been mapped to a 1 cM interval on mouse chromosome 11. Positional cloning of this mutant locus by employing a YAC contig is in progress. Narrowing the region of interest has been facilitated by the utilization of SSCP analysis to develop informative markers from YAC sequence. In addition, it was noted that severity of disease in the intercross progeny (as measured by the degree of kidney enlargement) was more variable than that observed in the parental B6 strain. This suggested that a modifier locus introduced form the DBA background affects the expression of the jck phenotype. We have determined that two additional regions - one from DBA on distal chromosome 10 and a second from B6 on chromosome 1 - are strongly associated with inheritance of a more severe polycystic kidney disease phenotype. The finding of a highly significant association of a B6-related locus with kidney enlargement was completely unexpected, since the PKD phenotype in the original B6 background is not severe. This finding is unambiguous, with a maximal quantitative trait locus (QTL) analysis LOD score of 15 for association with disease severity. We propose that it is the inheritance of both a homozygous B6 locus on chromosome 1 and a DBA gene that results in the severe phenotype, presumably as a consequence of an interaction between their protein products.

  8. Light Curve Analysis of Neon Novae

    E-print Network

    Hachisu, Izumi

    2015-01-01

    We analyzed light curves of five neon novae, QU Vul, V351 Pup, V382 Vel, V693 CrA, and V1974 Cyg, and determined their white dwarf (WD) masses and distance moduli on the basis of theoretical light curves composed of free-free and photospheric emission. For QU Vul, we obtained a distance of d~2.4 kpc, reddening of E(B-V)~0.55, and WD mass of M_WD=0.82-0.96 M_sun. This suggests that an oxygen-neon WD lost a mass of more than ~0.1 M_sun since its birth. For V351 Pup, we obtained d~5.5 kpc, E(B-V)~0.45, and M_WD=0.98-1.1 M_sun. For V382 Vel, we obtained d~1.6 kpc, E(B-V)~0.15, and M_WD=1.13-1.28 M_sun. For V693 CrA, we obtained d~7.1 kpc, E(B-V)~0.05, and M_WD=1.15-1.25 M_sun. For V1974 Cyg, we obtained d~1.8 kpc, E(B-V)~0.30, and M_WD=0.95-1.1 M_sun. For comparison, we added the carbon-oxygen nova V1668 Cyg to our analysis and obtained d~5.4 kpc, E(B-V)~0.30, and M_WD=0.98-1.1 M_sun. In QU Vul, photospheric emission contributes 0.4-0.8 mag at most to the optical light curve compared with free-free emission only....

  9. ROC curves and video analysis optimization in intestinal capsule endoscopy

    E-print Network

    Kuncheva, Ludmila I.

    ROC curves and video analysis optimization in intestinal capsule endoscopy Fernando Vilarin~o a by a highly qualified professional. Time episodes corre- sponding to intestinal contractions, which reserved. Keywords: ROC curves; Classification; Classifiers ensemble; Detection of intestinal contractions

  10. Light-curve Analysis of Neon Novae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hachisu, Izumi; Kato, Mariko

    2016-01-01

    We analyzed light curves of five neon novae, QU Vul, V351 Pup, V382 Vel, V693 CrA, and V1974 Cyg, and determined their white dwarf (WD) masses and distance moduli on the basis of theoretical light curves composed of free-free and photospheric emission. For QU Vul, we obtained a distance of d ˜ 2.4 kpc, reddening of E(B - V) ˜ 0.55, and WD mass of MWD = 0.82-0.96 {M}? . This suggests that an oxygen-neon WD lost a mass of more than ˜ 0.1 {M}? since its birth. For V351 Pup, we obtained d˜ 5.5 {{kpc}}, E(B-V)˜ 0.45, and {M}{{WD}}=0.98-1.1 {M}? . For V382 Vel, we obtained d˜ 1.6 {{kpc}}, E(B-V)˜ 0.15, and {M}{{WD}}=1.13-1.28 {M}? . For V693 CrA, we obtained d˜ 7.1 {{kpc}}, E(B-V)˜ 0.05, and {M}{{WD}}=1.15-1.25 {M}? . For V1974 Cyg, we obtained d˜ 1.8 {{kpc}}, E(B-V)˜ 0.30, and {M}{{WD}}=0.95-1.1 {M}? . For comparison, we added the carbon-oxygen nova V1668 Cyg to our analysis and obtained d˜ 5.4 {{kpc}}, E(B-V)˜ 0.30, and {M}{{WD}}=0.98-1.1 {M}? . In QU Vul, photospheric emission contributes 0.4-0.8 mag at most to the optical light curve compared with free-free emission only. In V351 Pup and V1974 Cyg, photospheric emission contributes very little (0.2-0.4 mag at most) to the optical light curve. In V382 Vel and V693 CrA, free-free emission dominates the continuum spectra, and photospheric emission does not contribute to the optical magnitudes. We also discuss the maximum magnitude versus rate of decline relation for these novae based on the universal decline law.

  11. Decline curve analysis for horizontal wells 

    E-print Network

    Shih, Min-Yu

    1994-01-01

    curves represent the dimensionless rate response and other auxiliary rate functions which are the solutions for production at constant bottomhole pressure and for closed rectangular outer boundary conditions. For the type curves, the well is assumed...

  12. Comparative Transcriptome Analysis of Recessive Male Sterility (RGMS) in Sterile and Fertile Brassica napus Lines

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Huiyan; Liu, Chuan; Li, Jiana; Tang, Zhanglin; Xu, Xinfu; Qiu, Xiao; Wang, Rui; Lu, Kun

    2015-01-01

    The recessive genetic male sterility (RGMS) system plays a key role in the production of hybrid varieties in self-pollinating B. napus plants, and prevents negative cytoplasmic effects. However, the complete molecular mechanism of the male sterility during male-gametogenesis in RGMS remains to be determined. To identify transcriptomic changes that occur during the transition to male sterility in RGMS, we examined the male sterile line WSLA and male fertile line WSLB, which are near-isogenic lines (NILs) differing only in the fertility trait. We evaluated the phenotypic features and sterility stage using anatomical analysis. Comparative RNA sequencing analysis revealed that 3,199 genes were differentially expressed between WSLA and WSLB. Many of these genes are mainly involved in biological processes related to flowering, including pollen tube development and growth, pollen wall assembly and modification, and pollen exine formation and pollination. The transcript profiles of 93 genes associated with pollen wall and anther development were determined by quantitative RT-PCR in different flower parts, and classified into the following three major clades: 1) up-regulated in WSLA plants; 2) down-regulated in WSLA plants; and 3) down-regulated in buds, but have a higher expression in stigmas of WSLA than in WSLB. A subset of genes associated with sporopollenin accumulation were all up-regulated in WSLA. An excess of sporopollenin results in defective pollen wall formation, which leads to male sterility in WSLA. Some of the genes identified in this study are candidates for future research, as they could provide important insight into the molecular mechanisms underlying RGMS in WSLA. PMID:26656530

  13. Comparative Transcriptome Analysis of Recessive Male Sterility (RGMS) in Sterile and Fertile Brassica napus Lines.

    PubMed

    Qu, Cunmin; Fu, Fuyou; Liu, Miao; Zhao, Huiyan; Liu, Chuan; Li, Jiana; Tang, Zhanglin; Xu, Xinfu; Qiu, Xiao; Wang, Rui; Lu, Kun

    2015-01-01

    The recessive genetic male sterility (RGMS) system plays a key role in the production of hybrid varieties in self-pollinating B. napus plants, and prevents negative cytoplasmic effects. However, the complete molecular mechanism of the male sterility during male-gametogenesis in RGMS remains to be determined. To identify transcriptomic changes that occur during the transition to male sterility in RGMS, we examined the male sterile line WSLA and male fertile line WSLB, which are near-isogenic lines (NILs) differing only in the fertility trait. We evaluated the phenotypic features and sterility stage using anatomical analysis. Comparative RNA sequencing analysis revealed that 3,199 genes were differentially expressed between WSLA and WSLB. Many of these genes are mainly involved in biological processes related to flowering, including pollen tube development and growth, pollen wall assembly and modification, and pollen exine formation and pollination. The transcript profiles of 93 genes associated with pollen wall and anther development were determined by quantitative RT-PCR in different flower parts, and classified into the following three major clades: 1) up-regulated in WSLA plants; 2) down-regulated in WSLA plants; and 3) down-regulated in buds, but have a higher expression in stigmas of WSLA than in WSLB. A subset of genes associated with sporopollenin accumulation were all up-regulated in WSLA. An excess of sporopollenin results in defective pollen wall formation, which leads to male sterility in WSLA. Some of the genes identified in this study are candidates for future research, as they could provide important insight into the molecular mechanisms underlying RGMS in WSLA. PMID:26656530

  14. Yeast model analysis of novel polymerase gamma variants found in patients with autosomal recessive mitochondrial disease.

    PubMed

    Kaliszewska, Magdalena; Kruszewski, Jakub; Kierdaszuk, Biruta; Kostera-Pruszczyk, Anna; Nojszewska, Monika; ?usakowska, Anna; Vizueta, Joel; Sabat, Dorota; Lutyk, Dorota; Lower, Micha?; Piekutowska-Abramczuk, Dorota; Kaniak-Golik, Aneta; Pronicka, Ewa; Kami?ska, Anna; Bartnik, Ewa; Golik, Pawe?; To?ska, Katarzyna

    2015-09-01

    Replication of the mitochondrial genome depends on the single DNA polymerase (pol gamma). Mutations in the POLG gene, encoding the catalytic subunit of the human polymerase gamma, have been linked to a wide variety of mitochondrial disorders that show remarkable heterogeneity, with more than 200 sequence variants, often very rare, found in patients. The pathogenicity and dominance status of many such mutations remain, however, unclear. Remarkable structural and functional conservation of human POLG and its S. cerevisiae ortholog (Mip1p) led to the development of many successful yeast models, enabling to study the phenotype of putative pathogenic mutations. In a group of patients with suspicion of mitochondrial pathology, we identified five novel POLG sequence variants, four of which (p.Arg869Ter, p.Gln968Glu, p.Thr1053Argfs*6, and p.Val1106Ala), together with one previously known but uncharacterised variant (p.Arg309Cys), were amenable to modelling in yeast. Familial analysis indicated causal relationship of these variants with disease, consistent with autosomal recessive inheritance. To investigate the effect of these sequence changes on mtDNA replication, we obtained the corresponding yeast mip1 alleles (Arg265Cys, Arg672Ter, Arg770Glu, Thr809Ter, and Val863Ala, respectively) and tested their effect on mitochondrial genome stability and replication fidelity. For three of them (Arg265Cys, Arg672Ter, and Thr809Ter), we observed a strong, partially dominant phenotype of a complete loss of functional mtDNA, whereas the remaining two led to partial mtDNA depletion and significant increase in point mutation frequencies. These results show good correlation with the severity of symptoms observed in patients and allow to establish these variants as pathogenic mutations. PMID:26077851

  15. Recession Rebound

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weinstein, Margery

    2011-01-01

    A return to normal after a crisis is a good thing. Who doesn't want back what once seemed lost? The problem is it usually isn't a simple task figuring out how to patch together a scaled-back training program. When the recession hit in fall 2008, trainers were asked to scale down programming and make do with fewer resources. With a recovery in full…

  16. A Quantitative Analysis of Recessions and Financial Changes in Higher Education Institution Alumni Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dos Santos, Alves

    2013-01-01

    The study examined the relationship between recession and alumni contributions to institutions of higher education for operational expenses and capital expenditures that include property, buildings, and equipment. Identifying variables that may decrease alumni contributions is important because decreased state funding for higher education…

  17. Computational analysis of TRAPPC9: candidate gene for autosomal recessive non-syndromic mental retardation.

    PubMed

    Khattak, Naureen Aslam; Mir, Asif

    2014-01-01

    Mental retardation (MR)/ intellectual disability (ID) is a neuro-developmental disorder characterized by a low intellectual quotient (IQ) and deficits in adaptive behavior related to everyday life tasks such as delayed language acquisition, social skills or self-help skills with onset before age 18. To date, a few genes (PRSS12, CRBN, CC2D1A, GRIK2, TUSC3, TRAPPC9, TECR, ST3GAL3, MED23, MAN1B1, NSUN1) for autosomal-recessive forms of non syndromic MR (NS-ARMR) have been identified and established in various families with ID. The recently reported candidate gene TRAPPC9 was selected for computational analysis to explore its potentially important role in pathology as it is the only gene for ID reported in more than five different familial cases worldwide. YASARA (12.4.1) was utilized to generate three dimensional structures of the candidate gene TRAPPC9. Hybrid structure prediction was employed. Crystal Structure of a Conserved Metalloprotein From Bacillus Cereus (3D19-C) was selected as best suitable template using position-specific iteration-BLAST. Template (3D19-C) parameters were based on E-value, Z-score and resolution and quality score of 0.32, -1.152, 2.30°A and 0.684 respectively. Model reliability showed 93.1% residues placed in the most favored region with 96.684 quality factor, and overall 0.20 G-factor (dihedrals 0.06 and covalent 0.39 respectively). Protein-Protein docking analysis demonstrated that TRAPPC9 showed strong interactions of the amino acid residues S(253), S(251), Y(256), G(243), D(131) with R(105), Q(425), W(226), N(255), S(233), its functional partner 1KBKB. Protein-protein interacting residues could facilitate the exploration of structural and functional outcomes of wild type and mutated TRAPCC9 protein. Actively involved residues can be used to elucidate the binding properties of the protein, and to develop drug therapy for NS-ARMR patients. PMID:24040793

  18. Gastrocnemius recession.

    PubMed

    Anderson, John G; Bohay, Donald R; Eller, Erik B; Witt, Bryan L

    2014-12-01

    The Grand Rapids Arch Collapse classifications create a novel system for categorizing and correlating numerous common foot and ankle conditions related to a falling arch. The algorithm for treating these conditions is exceptionally replicable and has excellent outcomes. Gastrocnemius equinus diagnosis plays a crucial role in the pathology of arch collapse. A contracture of the gastrocnemius muscle is increasingly recognized as the cause of several foot and ankle conditions. The authors have expanded their indications for gastrocnemius recession to include arch pain without radiographic abnormality, calcaneus apophysitis, plantar fasciitis/fibromas, Achilles tendonosis, early-onset diabetic Charcot arthropathy, and neuropathic forefoot ulcers. PMID:25456721

  19. Replication and Analysis of Ebbinghaus’ Forgetting Curve

    PubMed Central

    Murre, Jaap M. J.; Dros, Joeri

    2015-01-01

    We present a successful replication of Ebbinghaus’ classic forgetting curve from 1880 based on the method of savings. One subject spent 70 hours learning lists and relearning them after 20 min, 1 hour, 9 hours, 1 day, 2 days, or 31 days. The results are similar to Ebbinghaus' original data. We analyze the effects of serial position on forgetting and investigate what mathematical equations present a good fit to the Ebbinghaus forgetting curve and its replications. We conclude that the Ebbinghaus forgetting curve has indeed been replicated and that it is not completely smooth but most probably shows a jump upwards starting at the 24 hour data point. PMID:26148023

  20. Estimating catchment scale groundwater dynamics from recession analysis - enhanced constraining of hydrological models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skaugen, T.; Mengistu, Z.

    2015-10-01

    In this study we propose a new formulation of subsurface water storage dynamics for use in rainfall-runoff models. Under the assumption of a strong relationship between storage and runoff, the temporal distribution of storage is considered to have the same shape as the distribution of observed recessions (measured as the difference between the log of runoff values). The mean subsurface storage is estimated as the storage at steady-state, where moisture input equals the mean annual runoff. An important contribution of the new formulation is that its parameters are derived directly from observed recession data and the mean annual runoff and hence estimated prior to calibration. Key principles guiding the evaluation of the new subsurface storage routine have been (a) to minimize the number of parameters to be estimated through the, often arbitrary fitting to optimize runoff predictions (calibration) and (b) maximize the range of testing conditions (i.e. large-sample hydrology). The new storage routine has been implemented in the already parameter parsimonious Distance Distribution Dynamics (DDD) model and tested for 73 catchments in Norway of varying size, mean elevations and landscape types. Runoff simulations for the 73 catchments from two model structures; DDD with calibrated subsurface storage and DDD with the new estimated subsurface storage were compared. No loss in precision of runoff simulations was found using the new estimated storage routine. For the 73 catchments, an average of the Nash-Sutcliffe Efficiency criterion of 0.68 was found using the new estimated storage routine compared with 0.66 using calibrated storage routine. The average Kling-Gupta Efficiency criterion was 0.69 and 0.70 for the new and old storage routine, respectively. Runoff recessions are more realistically modelled using the new approach since the root mean square error between the mean of observed and simulated recessions was reduced by almost 50 % using the new storage routine.

  1. Analysis of exome sequence in 604 trios for recessive genotypes in schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Rees, E; Kirov, G; Walters, J T; Richards, A L; Howrigan, D; Kavanagh, D H; Pocklington, A J; Fromer, M; Ruderfer, D M; Georgieva, L; Carrera, N; Gormley, P; Palta, P; Williams, H; Dwyer, S; Johnson, J S; Roussos, P; Barker, D D; Banks, E; Milanova, V; Rose, S A; Chambert, K; Mahajan, M; Scolnick, E M; Moran, J L; Tsuang, M T; Glatt, S J; Chen, W J; Hwu, H-G; Neale, B M; Palotie, A; Sklar, P; Purcell, S M; McCarroll, S A; Holmans, P; Owen, M J; O'Donovan, M C

    2015-01-01

    Genetic associations involving both rare and common alleles have been reported for schizophrenia but there have been no systematic scans for rare recessive genotypes using fully phased trio data. Here, we use exome sequencing in 604 schizophrenia proband-parent trios to investigate the role of recessive (homozygous or compound heterozygous) nonsynonymous genotypes in the disorder. The burden of recessive genotypes was not significantly increased in probands at either a genome-wide level or in any individual gene after adjustment for multiple testing. At a system level, probands had an excess of nonsynonymous compound heterozygous genotypes (minor allele frequency, MAF ? 1%) in voltage-gated sodium channels (VGSCs; eight in probands and none in parents, P = 1.5 × 10(-)(4)). Previous findings of multiple de novo loss-of-function mutations in this gene family, particularly SCN2A, in autism and intellectual disability provide biological and genetic plausibility for this finding. Pointing further to the involvement of VGSCs in schizophrenia, we found that these genes were enriched for nonsynonymous mutations (MAF ? 0.1%) in cases genotyped using an exome array, (5585 schizophrenia cases and 8103 controls), and that in the trios data, synaptic proteins interacting with VGSCs were also enriched for both compound heterozygosity (P = 0.018) and de novo mutations (P = 0.04). However, we were unable to replicate the specific association with compound heterozygosity at VGSCs in an independent sample of Taiwanese schizophrenia trios (N = 614). We conclude that recessive genotypes do not appear to make a substantial contribution to schizophrenia at a genome-wide level. Although multiple lines of evidence, including several from this study, suggest that rare mutations in VGSCs contribute to the disorder, in the absence of replication of the original findings regarding compound heterozygosity, this conclusion requires evaluation in a larger sample of trios. PMID:26196440

  2. Analysis of exoplanetary transit light curves

    E-print Network

    Carter, Joshua Adam

    2009-01-01

    This Thesis considers the scenario in which an extra-solar planet (exoplanet) passes in front of its star relative to our observing perspective. In this event, the light curve measured for the host star features a systematic ...

  3. Stochastic Analysis of Wind Turbine Power Curves Edgar Anahua

    E-print Network

    Peinke, Joachim

    Stochastic Analysis of Wind Turbine Power Curves Edgar Anahua Oldenburg 2007 Zur Homepage der Dissertation #12;#12;Stochastic Analysis of Wind Turbine Power Curves Edgar Anahua Von der Fakult¨at f the wind turbine's power per- formance directly from high frequency fluctuating measurements. In particular

  4. Baseflow recession analysis in the inland Pacific Northwest of the United States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sánchez-Murillo, R.; Brooks, E. S.; Elliot, W. J.; Gazel, E.; Boll, J.

    2015-03-01

    The storage-discharge relationships of 26 watersheds in the inland Pacific Northwest of the United States were analyzed. Four fitting methods were used to obtain the baseflow coefficients: lower envelope, organic correlation, and ordinary and inverse least squares. Several climatic and terrain attributes were evaluated as predictors of baseflow coefficients. Watersheds dominated by basalt and flatter landscapes exhibited the smallest recession time scales ( K) (12.5-20.0 days). Greater K values (33.3-66.7 days) were obtained over catchments dominated by metamorphic and sedimentary rocks. Mean basin slope and the aridity index were found to be the best estimators of baseflow coefficients. Baseflow in flat basalt landscapes, located in dry warm climates, decrease rapidly during summer months and are most sensitive to future droughts and warming climates. Groundwater systems feeding streams during the driest months can drop to less than 1 mm of effective storage in these sensitive systems. In contrast, the minimum annual storage in mountainous systems can have greater than 10 mm effective storage. By understanding the main factors controlling baseflow recession characteristics, environmental agencies could prioritize efforts in areas where future droughts and land use changes may affect ecological assemblages and socio-economic activities.

  5. Comprehensive Analysis of Deafness Genes in Families with Autosomal Recessive Nonsyndromic Hearing Loss

    PubMed Central

    Atik, Tahir; Onay, Huseyin; Aykut, Ayca; Bademci, Guney; Kirazli, Tayfun; Tekin, Mustafa; Ozkinay, Ferda

    2015-01-01

    Comprehensive genetic testing has the potential to become the standard of care for individuals with hearing loss. In this study, we investigated the genetic etiology of autosomal recessive nonsyndromic hearing loss (ARNSHL) in a Turkish cohort including individuals with cochlear implant, who had a pedigree suggestive of an autosomal recessive inheritance. A workflow including prescreening of GJB2 and a targeted next generation sequencing panel (Illum?na TruSightTM Exome) covering 2761 genes that we briefly called as mendelian exome sequencing was used. This panel includes 102 deafness genes and a number of genes causing Mendelian disorders. Using this approach, we identified causative variants in 21 of 29 families. Three different GJB2 variants were present in seven families. Remaining 14 families had 15 different variants in other known NSHL genes (MYO7A, MYO15A, MARVELD2, TMIE, DFNB31, LOXHD1, GPSM2, TMC1, USH1G, CDH23). Of these variants, eight are novel. Mutation detection rate of our workflow is 72.4%, confirming the usefulness of targeted sequencing approach in NSHL. PMID:26561413

  6. Comprehensive Analysis of Deafness Genes in Families with Autosomal Recessive Nonsyndromic Hearing Loss.

    PubMed

    Atik, Tahir; Onay, Huseyin; Aykut, Ayca; Bademci, Guney; Kirazli, Tayfun; Tekin, Mustafa; Ozkinay, Ferda

    2015-01-01

    Comprehensive genetic testing has the potential to become the standard of care for individuals with hearing loss. In this study, we investigated the genetic etiology of autosomal recessive nonsyndromic hearing loss (ARNSHL) in a Turkish cohort including individuals with cochlear implant, who had a pedigree suggestive of an autosomal recessive inheritance. A workflow including prescreening of GJB2 and a targeted next generation sequencing panel (Illum?na TruSightTM Exome) covering 2761 genes that we briefly called as mendelian exome sequencing was used. This panel includes 102 deafness genes and a number of genes causing Mendelian disorders. Using this approach, we identified causative variants in 21 of 29 families. Three different GJB2 variants were present in seven families. Remaining 14 families had 15 different variants in other known NSHL genes (MYO7A, MYO15A, MARVELD2, TMIE, DFNB31, LOXHD1, GPSM2, TMC1, USH1G, CDH23). Of these variants, eight are novel. Mutation detection rate of our workflow is 72.4%, confirming the usefulness of targeted sequencing approach in NSHL. PMID:26561413

  7. Economic recession and health inequalities in Japan: analysis with a national sample, 1986–2001

    PubMed Central

    Kondo, N; Subramanian, S V; Kawachi, I; Takeda, Y; Yamagata, Z

    2009-01-01

    Objective Little is known about whether economic crises widen health inequalities. Japan experienced more than 10 years of economic recession beginning in the 1990s. The question of whether socioeconomic-based inequality in self-rated health widened after the economic crisis was examined. Design, setting and participants Repeated cross-sectional survey design. Two pooled datasets from 1986 and 1989 and from 1998 and 2001 were analysed separately, and temporal change was examined. The study took place in Japan among the working-age population (20–60 years old). The two surveys consisted of 168 801 and 150 016 people, respectively, with about an 80% response rate. Results The absolute percentages of people reporting poor health declined across all socioeconomic statuses following the crisis. However, after controlling for confounding factors, the odds ratio (OR) for poor self-rated health (95% confidence intervals) among middle-class non-manual workers (clerical/sales/service workers) compared with the highest class workers (managers/administrators) was 1.02 (0.92 to 1.14) before the crisis but increased to 1.14 (1.02 to 1.29) after the crisis (p for temporal change = 0.02). The association was stronger among males. The adjusted ORs among professional workers and young female homemakers also marginally increased over time. Unemployed people were twice as likely to report poor health compared with the highest class workers throughout the period. Self-rated health of people with middle to higher incomes deteriorated in relative terms following the crisis compared with that of lower income people. Conclusions Self-rated health improved in absolute terms for all occupational groups even after the economic recession. However, the relative disparity increased between the top and middle occupational groups in men. PMID:18791043

  8. Theoretical foundations for environmental Kuznets curve analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lantz, Van

    This thesis provides a dynamic theory for analyzing the paths of aggregate output and pollution in a country over time. An infinite horizon, competitive growth-pollution model is explored in order to determine the role that economic scale, production techniques, and pollution regulations play in explaining the inverted U-shaped relationship between output and some forms of pollution (otherwise known as the Environmental Kuznets Curve, or EKC). Results indicate that the output-pollution relationship may follow a strictly increasing, strictly decreasing (but bounded), inverted U-shaped, or some combination of curves. While the 'scale' effect may cause output and pollution to exhibit a monotonic relationship, 'technique' and 'regulation' effects may ultimately cause a de-linking of these two variables. Pollution-minimizing energy regulation policies are also investigated within this framework. It is found that the EKC may be 'flattened' or even eliminated moving from a poorly-regulated economy to one that minimizes pollution. The model is calibrated to the US economy for output (gross national product, GNP) and two pollutants (sulfur dioxide, SO2, and carbon dioxide, CO2) over the period 1900 to 1990. Results indicate that the model replicates the observations quite well. The predominance of 'scale' effects cause aggregate SO2 and CO2 levels to increase with GNP in the early stages of development. Then, in the case of SO 2, 'technique' and 'regulation' effects may be the cause of falling SO2 levels with continued economic growth (establishing the EKC). CO2 continues to monotonically increase as output levels increase over time. The positive relationship may be due to the lack of regulations on this pollutant. If stricter regulation policies were instituted in the two case studies, an improved allocation of resources may result. While GNP may be 2.596 to 20% lower than what has been realized in the US economy (depending on the pollution variable analyzed), individual welfare may increase from lower pollution levels.

  9. Light curve demography via Bayesian functional data analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loredo, Thomas; Budavari, Tamas; Hendry, Martin A.; Kowal, Daniel; Ruppert, David

    2015-08-01

    Synoptic time-domain surveys provide astronomers, not simply more data, but a different kind of data: large ensembles of multivariate, irregularly and asynchronously sampled light curves. We describe a statistical framework for light curve demography—optimal accumulation and extraction of information, not only along individual light curves as conventional methods do, but also across large ensembles of related light curves. We build the framework using tools from functional data analysis (FDA), a rapidly growing area of statistics that addresses inference from datasets that sample ensembles of related functions. Our Bayesian FDA framework builds hierarchical models that describe light curve ensembles using multiple levels of randomness: upper levels describe the source population, and lower levels describe the observation process, including measurement errors and selection effects. Schematically, a particular object's light curve is modeled as the sum of a parameterized template component (modeling population-averaged behavior) and a peculiar component (modeling variability across the population), subsequently subjected to an observation model. A functional shrinkage adjustment to individual light curves emerges—an adaptive, functional generalization of the kind of adjustments made for Eddington or Malmquist bias in single-epoch photometric surveys. We are applying the framework to a variety of problems in synoptic time-domain survey astronomy, including optimal detection of weak sources in multi-epoch data, and improved estimation of Cepheid variable star luminosities from detailed demographic modeling of ensembles of Cepheid light curves.

  10. Comparative proteomic analysis suggests that mitochondria are involved in autosomal recessive polycystic kidney disease.

    PubMed

    Li, Qing-Wei; Lu, Xiao-Yan; You, Yong; Sun, Huan; Liu, Xin-Yu; Ai, Jian-Zhong; Tan, Rui-Zhi; Chen, Tie-Lin; Chen, Mian-Zhi; Wang, Hong-Lian; Wei, Yu-Quan; Zhou, Qin

    2012-08-01

    Autosomal recessive polycystic kidney disease (ARPKD), characterized by ectatic collecting duct, is an infantile form of PKD occurring in 1 in 20 000 births. Despite having been studied for many years, little is known about the underlying mechanisms. In the current study, we employed, for the first time, a MS-based comparative proteomics approach to investigate the differently expressed proteins between kidney tissue samples of four ARPKD and five control individuals. Thirty two differently expressed proteins were identified and six of the identified protein encoding genes performed on an independent group (three ARPKD subjects, four control subjects) were verified by semi-quantitative RT-PCR, and part of them were further validated by Western blot and immunohistochemistry. Moreover, similar alteration tendency was detected after downregulation of PKHD1 by small interfering RNA in HEK293T cell. Interestingly, most of the identified proteins are associated with mitochondria. This implies that mitochondria may be implicated in ARPKD. Furthermore, the String software was utilized to investigate the biological association network, which is based on known and predicted protein interactions. In conclusion, our findings depicted a global understanding of ARPKD progression and provided a promising resource of targeting protein, and shed some light further investigation of ARPKD. PMID:22718539

  11. Exclusion of the locus for autosomal recessive pseudohypoaldosteronism type 1 from the mineralocorticoid receptor gene region on human chromosome 4q by linkage analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Chung, E.; Hanukoglu, A.; Rees, M.; Thompson, R.; Gardiner, R.M.

    1995-10-01

    Pseudohypoaldosteronism type 1 (PHA1) is an uncommon inherited disorder characterized by salt-wasting in infancy arising from target organ unresponsiveness to mineralocorticoids. Clinical expression of the disease varies from severely affected infants who may die to apparently asymptomatic individuals. Inheritance is Mendelian and may be either autosomal dominant or autosomal recessive. A defect in the mineralocortiocoid receptor has been implicated as a likely cause of PHA1. The gene for human mineralocorticoid receptor (MLR) has been cloned and physically mapped to human chromosome 4q31.1-31.2. The etiological role of MLR in autosomal recessive PHA1 was investigated by performing linkage analysis between PHA1 and three simple sequence length polymorphisms (D4S192, D4S1548, and D4S413) on chromosome 4q in 10 consanguineous families. Linkage analysis was carried out assuming autosomal recessive inheritance with full penetrance and zero phenocopy rate using the MLINK program for two-point analysis and the HOMOZ program for multipoint analysis. Lod scores of less than -2 were obtained over the whole region from D4S192 to D4S413 encompassing MLR. This provides evidence against MLR as the site of mutations causing PHA1 in the majority of autosomal recessive families. 34 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs.

  12. Cepheid light curve demography via Bayesian functional data analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loredo, Thomas J.; Hendry, Martin; Kowal, Daniel; Ruppert, David

    2016-01-01

    Synoptic time-domain surveys provide astronomers, not simply more data, but a different kind of data: large ensembles of multivariate, irregularly and asynchronously sampled light curves. We describe a statistical framework for light curve demography—optimal accumulation and extraction of information, not only along individual light curves as conventional methods do, but also across large ensembles of related light curves. We build the framework using tools from functional data analysis (FDA), a rapidly growing area of statistics that addresses inference from datasets that sample ensembles of related functions. Our Bayesian FDA framework builds hierarchical models that describe light curve ensembles using multiple levels of randomness: upper levels describe the source population, and lower levels describe the observation process, including measurement errors and selection effects. Roughly speaking, a particular object's light curve is modeled as the sum of a parameterized template component (modeling population-averaged behavior) and a peculiar component (modeling variability across the population), subsequently subjected to an observation model. A functional shrinkage adjustment to individual light curves emerges—an adaptive, functional generalization of the kind of adjustments made for Eddington or Malmquist bias in single-epoch photometric surveys. We describe ongoing work applying the framework to improved estimation of Cepheid variable star luminosities via FDA-based refinement and generalization of the Cepheid period-luminosity relation.

  13. Analysis of colloid and tracer breakthrough curves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grindrod, Peter; Edwards, Mark S.; Higgo, Jenny J. W.; Williams, Geoffrey M.

    1996-02-01

    We consider the dispersion and elution of colloids and dissolved nonsorbing tracers within saturated heterogeneous porous media. Since flow path geometry in natural systems is often ill-characterized macroscopic (mean) flow rates and dispersion tensors are utilized in order to account for the sub-model scale microscopic fluctuations in media structure (and the consequent hydrodynamic profile). Even for tracer migration and dispersal this issue is far from settled. Here we consider how colloid and tracer migration phenomena can be treated consistently. Theoretical calculations for model flow geometries yield two quantitative predictions for the transport of free (not yet captured) colloids with reference to a non-sorbing dissolved tracer within the same medium: the average migration velocity of the free colloids is higher than that of the tracer; and that the ratio of the equivalent hydrodynamic dispersion rates of colloids and tracer is dependent only upon properties of the colloids and the porous medium, it is independent of pathlengths and fluid flux, once length scales are large enough. The first of these is well known, since even in simple flow paths free colloids must stay more centre stream. The second, if validated suggests how solute and colloid dispersion may be dealt with consistently in macroscopic migration models. This is crucial since dispersion is usually ill-characterized and unaddressed by the experimental literature. In this paper we present evidence based upon an existing Drigg field injection test for the validity of these predictions. We show that starting from experimental data the fitted dispersion rates of both colloids and non-sorbing tracers increase with the measured elution rates (obeying slightly different rules for tracers and colloids); and that the ratio of colloid and nonsorbing tracer elution rates, and the ratio of colloid and nonsorbing tracer dispersion rates may be dependent upon properties of the colloids and the medium (not the flow regime). It is important to realize that even for unretarded species, an earlier peak in the breakthrough curve does not necessarily correspond to a faster mean elution rate, or vice versa. But rather that a colloid may elute faster but disperse less than an equivalent tracer. Hence its peak may be retarded compared to that of the tracer, even assuming no retardation. Hence one must consider a combination of mean elution rate and mean dispersion rate, and not rely on "peak times" to corroborate chromatographic effects. The importance of this lies in the fact that these processes are not independent and yet upscale differently. Thus realistic estimates of effective colloid dispersion rates should be upscaled in a way consistent with that adopted for tracers within the same system.

  14. Photometric Observations and Light Curve Analysis of BL Eridani

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Wonyong; Yim, Hong-Suh; Lee, Chung-Uk; Youn, Jae-Hyuck; Yoon, Joh-Na; Kim, Ho-Il; Moon, Hong-Kyu; Byun, Yong-Ik; Park, Sunyoup

    2006-12-01

    We present light curves of a short period binary system BL Eridani. The light curves were observed with {it VRI} filters by a 50cm wide field robotic telescope at Siding Spring Observatory (SSO), equipped with a 2K CCD camera, which was developed by Korea Astronomy and Space Science Institute (KASI), and Yonsei University Observatory (YUO). The photometric observations were made on 6 nights by automatic operation mode and remote observation mode at SSO and KASI in Korea, respectively. We obtained new {it VRI} CCD light curves and new 5 times of minima, and analyzed the light curves with the Wilson & Deviney (1971) binary 2005 version and derived the new photometric solutions. The mass ratio q = 0.48 in this study shows different value with earlier investigators. According to the model analysis, it is considered that the BL Eri system is currently undergoing contact stage of the two binary components, rather than near-contact stage.

  15. Tree Induction vs. Logistic Regression: A Learning{Curve Analysis

    E-print Network

    Provost, Foster

    Tree Induction vs. Logistic Regression: A Learning{Curve Analysis #3; Claudia Perlich, Foster Street New York, NY 10012 This draft: December 2001 Abstract Tree induction and logistic regression{scale experimental comparison of logistic regression and tree induction, assessing classi#12;cation ac- curacy

  16. Testing Main Effects and Interactions in Latent Curve Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Curran, Patrick J.; Bauer, Daniel J.; Willoughby, Michael T.

    2004-01-01

    A key strength of latent curve analysis (LCA) is the ability to model individual variability in rates of change as a function of 1 or more explanatory variables. The measurement of time plays a critical role because the explanatory variables multiplicatively interact with time in the prediction of the repeated measures. However, this interaction…

  17. Autosomal recessive cerebellar ataxias

    PubMed Central

    Palau, Francesc; Espinós, Carmen

    2006-01-01

    Autosomal recessive cerebellar ataxias (ARCA) are a heterogeneous group of rare neurological disorders involving both central and peripheral nervous system, and in some case other systems and organs, and characterized by degeneration or abnormal development of cerebellum and spinal cord, autosomal recessive inheritance and, in most cases, early onset occurring before the age of 20 years. This group encompasses a large number of rare diseases, the most frequent in Caucasian population being Friedreich ataxia (estimated prevalence 2–4/100,000), ataxia-telangiectasia (1–2.5/100,000) and early onset cerebellar ataxia with retained tendon reflexes (1/100,000). Other forms ARCA are much less common. Based on clinicogenetic criteria, five main types ARCA can be distinguished: congenital ataxias (developmental disorder), ataxias associated with metabolic disorders, ataxias with a DNA repair defect, degenerative ataxias, and ataxia associated with other features. These diseases are due to mutations in specific genes, some of which have been identified, such as frataxin in Friedreich ataxia, ?-tocopherol transfer protein in ataxia with vitamin E deficiency (AVED), aprataxin in ataxia with oculomotor apraxia (AOA1), and senataxin in ataxia with oculomotor apraxia (AOA2). Clinical diagnosis is confirmed by ancillary tests such as neuroimaging (magnetic resonance imaging, scanning), electrophysiological examination, and mutation analysis when the causative gene is identified. Correct clinical and genetic diagnosis is important for appropriate genetic counseling and prognosis and, in some instances, pharmacological treatment. Due to autosomal recessive inheritance, previous familial history of affected individuals is unlikely. For most ARCA there is no specific drug treatment except for coenzyme Q10 deficiency and abetalipoproteinemia. PMID:17112370

  18. Light Curve and Analysis of the Eclipsing Binary BF Centauri

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morris, M. A.; Wolf, G. W.

    2003-12-01

    The eclipsing binary star BF Centauri was observed photometrically by GWW in the uvby filter system from Mt. John Observatory in New Zealand during 1982, 1989 and 1998. It was also observed spectroscopically at 10 A/mm by W. A. Lawson in 1993 at Mt. Stromlo in Australia to obtain a radial velocity solution. The combined light curves and spectroscopic results have been analyzed using the 1998 version of Robert Wilson's WD light-curve programs. A consistent model for the system will be presented. This analysis was done as a part of a senior research project by MAM, who would like to acknowledge financial support from the Missouri Space Grant Consortium.

  19. SurvCurv database and online survival analysis platform update

    PubMed Central

    Ziehm, Matthias; Ivanov, Dobril K.; Bhat, Aditi; Partridge, Linda; Thornton, Janet M.

    2015-01-01

    Summary: Understanding the biology of ageing is an important and complex challenge. Survival experiments are one of the primary approaches for measuring changes in ageing. Here, we present a major update to SurvCurv, a database and online resource for survival data in animals. As well as a substantial increase in data and additions to existing graphical and statistical survival analysis features, SurvCurv now includes extended mathematical mortality modelling functions and survival density plots for more advanced representation of groups of survival cohorts. Availability and implementation: The database is freely available at https://www.ebi.ac.uk/thornton-srv/databases/SurvCurv/. All data are published under the Creative Commons Attribution License. Contact: matthias.ziehm@ebi.ac.uk Supplementary information: Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online. PMID:26249811

  20. Fuzzy Modeling for Analysis of Load Curve in Power System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Pei-Hwa; Tseng, Ta-Hsiu; Liu, Chien-Heng; Fan, Guang-Zhong

    The main purpose of this paper is to study the use of fuzzy modeling for the analysis of customer load characteristics in power system. A fuzzy model is a collection of fuzzy IF-THEN rules for describing the features or behaviors of the data set or system under study. In view of the nonlinear characteristics of customer load demand with respect to time, the method of fuzzy modeling is adopted for analyzing the studied daily load curves. Based on the Sugeno-type fuzzy model, various models with different numbers of modeling rules have been constructed for describing the investigated power curve. Sample results are demonstrated for illustrating the effectiveness of the fuzzy model in the study of power system load curves.

  1. Comparison of Emperical Decline Curve Analysis for Shale Wells 

    E-print Network

    Kanfar, Mohammed Sami

    2013-07-13

    -1 COMPARISON OF EMPIRICAL DECLINE CURVE ANALYSIS FOR SHALE WELLS A Thesis by MOHAMMED SAMI A KANFAR Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of MASTER... OF SCIENCE Chair of Committee, Robert A. Wattenbarger Committee Members, David S. Schechter Yuefeng Sun Head of Department, A. Daniel Hill August 2013 Major Subject: Petroleum Engineering Copyright 2013 Mohammed Sami A Kanfar ii...

  2. Non-isothermal elastoviscoplastic analysis of planar curved beams

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simitses, G. J.; Carlson, R. L.; Riff, R.

    1988-01-01

    The development of a general mathematical model and solution methodologies, to examine the behavior of thin structural elements such as beams, rings, and arches, subjected to large nonisothermal elastoviscoplastic deformations is presented. Thus, geometric as well as material type nonlinearities of higher order are present in the analysis. For this purpose a complete true abinito rate theory of kinematics and kinetics for thin bodies, without any restriction on the magnitude of the transformation is presented. A previously formulated elasto-thermo-viscoplastic material constitutive law is employed in the analysis. The methodology is demonstrated through three different straight and curved beams problems.

  3. Estimating basin-wide hydraulic parameters of a semi-arid mountainous watershed by recession-flow analysis

    E-print Network

    ; Mexico; Arid watersheds; Fractured-flow 1. Introduction Hydraulic conductivity, specific yield, and effecEstimating basin-wide hydraulic parameters of a semi-arid mountainous watershed by recession 2002; accepted 23 April 2003 Abstract Insufficient sub-surface hydraulic data from watersheds often

  4. Multi-wavelength analysis of Ellerman Bomb Light Curves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herlender, M.; Berlicki, A.

    We present the results of a multi-wavelength photometric analysis of Ellerman Bomb (EB) observations obtained from the Dutch Open Telescope. In our data we have found 6 EBs located in the super-penumbra of the main spot in the active region NOAA 10781. We present light curves of EB observed in the H? line centre and wing +0.7 Å, in the Ca II H line centre and wing~+2.35 Å, in the G-band and in the TRACE 1600 Å filter. We have shown that EBs were visible in the G-band and moreover, there was a good correlation between the light curves in the G-band and in the H? line wings. We also found quasi-periodic oscillations of EBs brightness in the G-band, CaII H line and TRACE 1600 Å filter.

  5. Starving for Recess

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Patt, Mary Johnson

    2011-01-01

    Every weekday, millions of American schoolchildren throw away their half-eaten cafeteria lunches so that they can run outside to play. The traditional placement of lunch before recess, coupled with the recent decline in overall recess time to meet academic time constraints, forces children to choose between two essential needs: (1) food; and (2)…

  6. Recess--It's Indispensable!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jarrett, Olga; Waite-Stupiansky, Sandra

    2009-01-01

    The demise of recess in many elementary schools--and of outdoor play in general--is an issue of great concern to many members of the Play, Policy, and Practice Interest Forum. Most people remember recess as an important part of the school day. It was a time to be outdoors; to organize games; to play on the swings, slides, and other playground…

  7. More Recess Time, Please!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chang, Rong; Coward, Fanni Liu

    2015-01-01

    Students in Shanghai, China, get much more recess time than their U.S. counterparts throughout their education. As U.S. education reform efforts seek ways of raising achievement, they have begun replacing recess with academic time. The lesson from Shanghai is that this may not be the best strategy. But whether the Shanghai system of more and…

  8. Recess Makes Kids Smarter

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adams, Caralee

    2011-01-01

    Recess has been scaled back or cut altogether in a number of schools around the country. The trend can be traced back to the late eighties and was accelerated under No Child Left Behind. Districts under pressure to show academic progress began to squeeze as much instruction into the day as possible. Others eliminated recess because of concerns…

  9. Understanding Recession and Self-Rated Health with the Partial Proportional Odds Model: An Analysis of 26 Countries

    PubMed Central

    Mayer, Adam; Foster, Michelle

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Self-rated health is demonstrated to vary substantially by both personal socio-economic status and national economic conditions. However, studies investigating the combined influence of individual and country level economic indicators across several countries in the context of recent global recession are limited. This paper furthers our knowledge of the effect of recession on health at both the individual and national level. Methods Using the Life in Transition II study, which provides data from 19,759 individuals across 26 European nations, we examine the relationship between self-rated health, personal economic experiences, and macro-economic change. Data analyses include, but are not limited to, the partial proportional odds model which permits the effect of predictors to vary across different levels of our dependent variable. Results Household experiences with recession, especially a loss of staple good consumption, are associated with lower self-rated health. Most individual-level experiences with recession, such as a job loss, have relatively small negative effects on perceived health; the effect of individual or household economic hardship is strongest in high income nations. Our findings also suggest that macroeconomic growth improves self-rated health in low-income nations but has no effect in high-income nations. Individuals with the greatest probability of “good” self-rated health reside in wealthy countries ($23,910 to $50, 870 GNI per capita). Conclusion Both individual and national economic variables are predictive of self-rated health. Personal and household experiences are most consequential for self-rated health in high income nations, while macroeconomic growth is most consequential in low-income nations. PMID:26513660

  10. Nonlinear thermoelastic stress analysis of spherically curved solar panels

    SciTech Connect

    Vallabhan, C.V.G.; Vungutur, K.; Selvam, R.P.

    1984-10-01

    Spherically curved glass panels are used to concentrate solar energy onto a line focus in fixed mirror distributed focus type solar collectors. These solar panels consists of thin flat glass plates bent to form a spherical surface, glued onto a paper honeycomb backing, and covered with steel plate at the back and with plastic strips on the sides. Stresses are produced in the glass plates as they are formed into spherical surfaces. In addition, when the solar receiver is not in focus relative to the bowl and the sun, a mirror hot spot condition is developed, resulting in large thermally induced stresses within glass plates. The curved glass panel is modeled as a plate on elastic foundation in order to represent the behavior of the plate in relation to other panel components. Since lateral deflections of these plates are large compared to their thickness, nonlinear von Karman plate equations are used in the analysis. A computer model has been prepared to assist in the nonlinear analysis of stresses using finite difference method. The model has flexibility to analyze a variety of rectangular plate geometries subjected to thermal and other applied loads.

  11. Aperture Photometry and Transit Light Curve Analysis D. Cohen and E. Jensen

    E-print Network

    Cohen, David

    Aperture Photometry and Transit Light Curve Analysis D. Cohen and E to analyze, dataset and also includes a section on fitting a transit model for and characterizing a transit-like event in the light curve of a candidate transiting

  12. WASP-14 b: transit timing analysis of 19 light curves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raetz, St.; Maciejewski, G.; Seeliger, M.; Marka, C.; Fernández, M.; Güver, T.; Gö?ü?, E.; Nowak, G.; Va?ko, M.; Berndt, A.; Eisenbeiss, T.; Mugrauer, M.; Trepl, L.; Gelszinnis, J.

    2015-08-01

    Although WASP-14 b is one of the most massive and densest exoplanets on a tight and eccentric orbit, it has never been a target of photometric follow-up monitoring or dedicated observing campaigns. We report on new photometric transit observations of WASP-14 b obtained within the framework of Transit Timing Variations @ Young Exoplanet Transit Initiative (TTV@YETI). We collected 19 light curves of 13 individual transit events using six telescopes located in five observatories distributed in Europe and Asia. From light-curve modelling, we determined the planetary, stellar, and geometrical properties of the system and found them in agreement with the values from the discovery paper. A test of the robustness of the transit times revealed that in case of a non-reproducible transit shape the uncertainties may be underestimated even with a wavelet-based error estimation methods. For the timing analysis, we included two publicly available transit times from 2007 and 2009. The long observation period of seven years (2007-2013) allowed us to refine the transit ephemeris. We derived an orbital period 1.2 s longer and 10 times more precise than the one given in the discovery paper. We found no significant periodic signal in the timing-residuals and, hence, no evidence for TTV in the system.

  13. WASP-14 b: Transit Timing analysis of 19 light curves

    E-print Network

    Raetz, St; Seeliger, M; Marka, C; Fernandez, M; Güver, T; Gögüs, E; Nowak, G; Vanko, M; Berndt, A; Eisenbeiss, T; Mugrauer, M; Trepl, L; Gelszinnis, J

    2015-01-01

    Although WASP-14 b is one of the most massive and densest exoplanets on a tight and eccentric orbit, it has never been a target of photometric follow-up monitoring or dedicated observing campaigns. We report on new photometric transit observations of WASP-14 b obtained within the framework of "Transit Timing Variations @ Young Exoplanet Transit Initiative" (TTV@YETI). We collected 19 light-curves of 13 individual transit events using six telescopes located in five observatories distributed in Europe and Asia. From light curve modelling, we determined the planetary, stellar, and geometrical properties of the system and found them in agreement with the values from the discovery paper. A test of the robustness of the transit times revealed that in case of a non-reproducible transit shape the uncertainties may be underestimated even with a wavelet-based error estimation methods. For the timing analysis we included two publicly available transit times from 2007 and 2009. The long observation period of seven years ...

  14. Geometric Analysis of Constrained Curves for Image Understanding Anuj Srivastava Washington Mio Eric Klassen Xiuwen Liu

    E-print Network

    Srivastava, Anuj

    Geometric Analysis of Constrained Curves for Image Understanding Anuj Srivastava Washington Mio in images. The main idea is to specify a space of curves with constraints suited to the application is a space of con- strained curves, called SCC henceforth, with constraints ap- propriate to the application

  15. Analysis of selected Kepler Mission planetary light curves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rhodes, M. D.; Budding, E.

    2014-06-01

    We have modified the graphical user interfaced close binary system analysis program CurveFit to the form WinKepler and applied it to 16 representative planetary candidate light curves found in the NASA Exoplanet Archive (NEA) at the Caltech website http://exoplanetarchive.ipac.caltech.edu, with an aim to compare different analytical approaches. WinKepler has parameter options for a realistic physical model, including gravity-brightening and structural parameters derived from the relevant Radau equation. We tested our best-fitting parameter-sets for formal determinacy and adequacy. A primary aim is to compare our parameters with those listed in the NEA. Although there are trends of agreement, small differences in the main parameter values are found in some cases, and there may be some relative bias towards a 90? value for the NEA inclinations. These are assessed against realistic error estimates. Photometric variability from causes other than planetary transits affects at least 6 of the data-sets studied; with small pulsational behaviour found in 3 of those. For the false positive KOI 4.01, we found that the eclipses could be modelled by a faint background classical Algol as effectively as by a transiting exoplanet. Our empirical checks of limb-darkening, in the cases of KOI 1.01 and 12.01, revealed that the assigned stellar temperatures are probably incorrect. For KOI 13.01, our empirical mass-ratio differs by about 7 % from that of Mislis and Hodgkin (Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 422:1512, 2012), who neglected structural effects and higher order terms in the tidal distortion. Such detailed parameter evaluation, additional to the usual main geometric ones, provides an additional objective for this work.

  16. Genetics Home Reference: Autosomal recessive congenital methemoglobinemia

    MedlinePLUS

    ... autosomal recessive congenital methemoglobinemia? The incidence of autosomal recessive congenital methemoglobinemia is unknown. What genes are related to autosomal recessive congenital methemoglobinemia? Autosomal ...

  17. Uniformly valid asymptotic flow analysis in curved channels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zagzoule, M.; Cathalifaud, P.; Cousteix, J.; Mauss, J.

    2012-01-01

    The laminar incompressible flow in a two-dimensional curved channel having at its upstream and downstream extremities two tangent straight channels is considered. A global interactive boundary layer (GIBL) model is developed using the approach of the successive complementary expansions method (SCEM) which is based on generalized asymptotic expansions leading to a uniformly valid approximation. The GIBL model is valid when the non dimensional number ? =?Re1/3 is O(1) and gives predictions in agreement with numerical Navier-Stokes solutions for Reynolds numbers Re ranging from 1 to 104 and for constant curvatures ? =H/Rc ranging from 0.1 to 1, where H is the channel width and Rc the curvature radius. The asymptotic analysis shows that ?, which is the ratio between the curvature and the thickness of the boundary layer of any perturbation to the Poiseuille flow, is a key parameter upon which depends the accuracy of the GIBL model. The upstream influence length is found asymptotically and numerically to be O(Re1/7).

  18. Three-Dimensional Postbuckling Analysis of Curved Beams

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pai, P. Frank; Lee, Seung-Yoon

    2002-01-01

    Presented here is a method of solving highly flexible curved beam undergoing huge static or quasi-static deformations. A geometrically exact beam theory based on the use of Jaumann stresses and strains and exact coordinate transformation is presented in terms of 17 first-order ordinary differential equations, and a multiple shooting method is used to solve the corresponding nonlinear two-point boundary value problems. The geometrically exact beam theory accounts far large rotations, large displacements, initial curvatures, extensionality, and transverse shear strains. Four examples are used to demonstrate this method, including a rotating clamped-free beam under the influence of gravity and centrifugal forces, an L-frame subjected to an in-plane tip load, a circular arch subjected to a concentrated load, and a clamped-hinged helical spring subjected to an axial displacement. Results show that the combination of the multiple shooting method and the geometrically exact beam theory works very well. Moreover, the obtained numerically exact solutions can be used to verify the accuracy of nonlinear finite element codes for nonlinear analysis of complex structures.

  19. The Recess Renaissance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keeler, Rusty

    2015-01-01

    The author tells of his work around the country and world on transforming how schools do recess, free play, and outside time by transforming their outdoor spaces to match. Instead of a playground of fixed structures like traditional school grounds, newer spaces are filled with loose materials that children can use to build forts, dens, and tree…

  20. Drainage-system development in consecutive melt seasons at a polythermal, Arctic glacier, evaluated by flow-recession analysis and linear-reservoir simulation

    PubMed Central

    Hodgkins, Richard; Cooper, Richard; Tranter, Martyn; Wadham, Jemma

    2013-01-01

    [1] The drainage systems of polythermal glaciers play an important role in high-latitude hydrology, and are determinants of ice flow rate. Flow-recession analysis and linear-reservoir simulation of runoff time series are here used to evaluate seasonal and inter-annual variability in the drainage system of the polythermal Finsterwalderbreen, Svalbard, in 1999 and 2000. Linear-flow recessions are pervasive, with mean coefficients of a fast reservoir varying from 16 (1999) to 41 h (2000), and mean coefficients of an intermittent, slow reservoir varying from 54 (1999) to 114 h (2000). Drainage-system efficiency is greater overall in the first of the two seasons, the simplest explanation of which is more rapid depletion of the snow cover. Reservoir coefficients generally decline during each season (at 0.22 h d?1 in 1999 and 0.52 h d?1 in 2000), denoting an increase in drainage efficiency. However, coefficients do not exhibit a consistent relationship with discharge. Finsterwalderbreen therefore appears to behave as an intermediate case between temperate glaciers and other polythermal glaciers with smaller proportions of temperate ice. Linear-reservoir runoff simulations exhibit limited sensitivity to a relatively wide range of reservoir coefficients, although the use of fixed coefficients in a spatially lumped model can generate significant subseasonal error. At Finsterwalderbreen, an ice-marginal channel with the characteristics of a fast reservoir, and a subglacial upwelling with the characteristics of a slow reservoir, both route meltwater to the terminus. This suggests that drainage-system components of significantly contrasting efficiencies can coexist spatially and temporally at polythermal glaciers. PMID:25598557

  1. Automatic generation and analysis of solar cell IV curves

    SciTech Connect

    Kraft, Steven M.; Jones, Jason C.

    2014-06-03

    A photovoltaic system includes multiple strings of solar panels and a device presenting a DC load to the strings of solar panels. Output currents of the strings of solar panels may be sensed and provided to a computer that generates current-voltage (IV) curves of the strings of solar panels. Output voltages of the string of solar panels may be sensed at the string or at the device presenting the DC load. The DC load may be varied. Output currents of the strings of solar panels responsive to the variation of the DC load are sensed to generate IV curves of the strings of solar panels. IV curves may be compared and analyzed to evaluate performance of and detect problems with a string of solar panels.

  2. Who Suffers during Recessions? NBER Working Paper No. 17951

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoynes, Hilary W.; Miller, Douglas L.; Schaller, Jessamyn

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we examine how business cycles affect labor market outcomes in the United States. We conduct a detailed analysis of how cycles affect outcomes differentially across persons of differing age, education, race, and gender, and we compare the cyclical sensitivity during the Great Recession to that in the early 1980s recession. We present…

  3. Developmental Trajectories of Adolescent Popularity: A Growth Curve Modelling Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cillessen, Antonius H. N.; Borch, Casey

    2006-01-01

    Growth curve modelling was used to examine developmental trajectories of sociometric and perceived popularity across eight years in adolescence, and the effects of gender, overt aggression, and relational aggression on these trajectories. Participants were 303 initially popular students (167 girls, 136 boys) for whom sociometric data were…

  4. Detecting linear barriers by type curve analysis: Supri TR 61

    SciTech Connect

    Riley, M.

    1988-11-01

    The effect of a linear barrier (the semi-infinite system) on the pressure behavior of a single well test has been recognized for many years. The characteristic doubling of slope on a semilog graph has been used to determine the existence of a fault and to determine its distance from the well tested. The equations governing this behavior are quite straightforward and understandable; hence the presence of a sealing fault is often used as an explanation for anomalous pressure behavior even when it is not justified. Alternatively, when a change in slope is not observed, the absence of a second straight line is used to calculate a minimum fault distance. Although, this is reasonable in theory, the radius of investigation method normally used for this calculation will overestimate this distance. This study uses the pressure derivative and equivalent drawndown time, to present type curves for a semi-infinite system on a single log-log graph. This presentation allows the determination of permeability, skin and fault distance from a single match. The type curves can be used to analyze data from either drawdown or buildup tests, and there is no restriction on production time in the case of buildup testing. Prior to this study, there was no method available to analyze buildup data from a semi-infinite system following a short flow period. The value of the log-log presentation is that it allows for verification that the correct model is being used. Since the pressure derivative is merely the slope of the semilog graph, a minimum distance to a barrier can be calculated from the type curve when only infinite acting data are available. Type curves are also presented for the case of a well with wellbore storage and skin producing in the presence of a boundary. These type curves show that reasonable values of wellbore storage and skin can completely mask the effects of a boundary. 27 refs., 21 figs.

  5. A Security Analysis of the NIST SP 800-90 Elliptic Curve Random Number Generator

    E-print Network

    International Association for Cryptologic Research (IACR)

    A Security Analysis of the NIST SP 800-90 Elliptic Curve Random Number Generator Daniel R. L. Brown and Kristian Gjøsteen February 15, 2007 Abstract An elliptic curve random number generator (ECRNG) has been for applications such as stream ciphers. Nevertheless, it is argued that for nonce and key generation

  6. Meta-analysis of Diagnostic Accuracy and ROC Curves with Covariate Adjusted Semiparametric Mixtures.

    PubMed

    Doebler, Philipp; Holling, Heinz

    2015-12-01

    Many screening tests dichotomize a measurement to classify subjects. Typically a cut-off value is chosen in a way that allows identification of an acceptable number of cases relative to a reference procedure, but does not produce too many false positives at the same time. Thus for the same sample many pairs of sensitivities and false positive rates result as the cut-off is varied. The curve of these points is called the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve. One goal of diagnostic meta-analysis is to integrate ROC curves and arrive at a summary ROC (SROC) curve. Holling, Böhning, and Böhning (Psychometrika 77:106-126, 2012a) demonstrated that finite semiparametric mixtures can describe the heterogeneity in a sample of Lehmann ROC curves well; this approach leads to clusters of SROC curves of a particular shape. We extend this work with the help of the [Formula: see text] transformation, a flexible family of transformations for proportions. A collection of SROC curves is constructed that approximately contains the Lehmann family but in addition allows the modeling of shapes beyond the Lehmann ROC curves. We introduce two rationales for determining the shape from the data. Using the fact that each curve corresponds to a natural univariate measure of diagnostic accuracy, we show how covariate adjusted mixtures lead to a meta-regression on SROC curves. Three worked examples illustrate the method. PMID:25361619

  7. GLOBAL ANALYSIS OF KOI-977: SPECTROSCOPY, ASTEROSEISMOLOGY, AND PHASE-CURVE ANALYSIS

    SciTech Connect

    Hirano, Teruyuki; Sato, Bun'ei; Kobayashi, Atsushi; Masuda, Kento; Benomar, Othman; Takeda, Yoichi; Omiya, Masashi; Harakawa, Hiroki

    2015-01-20

    We present a global analysis of KOI-977, one of the planet host candidates detected by Kepler. The Kepler Input Catalog (KIC) reports that KOI-977 is a red giant, for which few close-in planets have been discovered. Our global analysis involves spectroscopic and asteroseismic determinations of stellar parameters (e.g., mass and radius) and radial velocity (RV) measurements. Our analyses reveal that KOI-977 is indeed a red giant, possibly in the red clump, but its estimated radius (? 20 R {sub ?} = 0.093 AU) is much larger than KOI-977.01's orbital distance (?0.027 AU) estimated from its period (P {sub orb} ? 1.35 days) and host star's mass. RV measurements show a small variation, which also contradicts the amplitude of ellipsoidal variations seen in the light curve folded with KOI-977.01's period. Therefore, we conclude that KOI-977.01 is a false positive, meaning that the red giant, for which we measured the radius and RVs, is different from the object that produces the transit-like signal (i.e., an eclipsing binary). On the basis of this assumption, we also perform a light curve analysis including the modeling of transits/eclipses and phase-curve variations, adopting various values for the dilution factor D, which is defined as the flux ratio between the red giant and eclipsing binary. Fitting the whole folded light curve as well as individual transits in the short cadence data simultaneously, we find that the estimated mass and radius ratios of the eclipsing binary are consistent with those of a solar-type star and a late-type star (e.g., an M dwarf) for D ? 20.

  8. CT of the pericardial recesses

    SciTech Connect

    Levy-Ravetch, M.; Auh, Y.H.; Rubenstein, W.A.; Whalen, J.P.; Kazam, E.

    1985-04-01

    Within the pericardial cavity there are several recesses where fluid can collect in close contiguity to the major bronchi and lymph nodes. These include the transverse sinus, behind the ascending aorta and pulmonary trunk; the oblique sinus, behind the left atrium; and the left pulmonic recess, between the left pulmonary artery and the left superior pulmonary vein. There are also smaller pericardial recesses between the superior and inferior pulmonary veins, posterolateral to the superior vena cava, and between the inferior vena cava and coronary sinus. An understanding of sectional anatomy is valuable for differentiation of fluid within these recesses from mediastinal masses or enlarged lymph nodes on computed tomographic scans.

  9. Transit light curves with finite integration time: Fisher information analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Price, Ellen M.; Rogers, Leslie A.

    2014-10-10

    Kepler has revolutionized the study of transiting planets with its unprecedented photometric precision on more than 150,000 target stars. Most of the transiting planet candidates detected by Kepler have been observed as long-cadence targets with 30 minute integration times, and the upcoming Transiting Exoplanet Survey Satellite will record full frame images with a similar integration time. Integrations of 30 minutes affect the transit shape, particularly for small planets and in cases of low signal to noise. Using the Fisher information matrix technique, we derive analytic approximations for the variances and covariances on the transit parameters obtained from fitting light curve photometry collected with a finite integration time. We find that binning the light curve can significantly increase the uncertainties and covariances on the inferred parameters when comparing scenarios with constant total signal to noise (constant total integration time in the absence of read noise). Uncertainties on the transit ingress/egress time increase by a factor of 34 for Earth-size planets and 3.4 for Jupiter-size planets around Sun-like stars for integration times of 30 minutes compared to instantaneously sampled light curves. Similarly, uncertainties on the mid-transit time for Earth and Jupiter-size planets increase by factors of 3.9 and 1.4. Uncertainties on the transit depth are largely unaffected by finite integration times. While correlations among the transit depth, ingress duration, and transit duration all increase in magnitude with longer integration times, the mid-transit time remains uncorrelated with the other parameters. We provide code in Python and Mathematica for predicting the variances and covariances at www.its.caltech.edu/?eprice.

  10. A Brief Review: The Z-curve Theory and its Application in Genome Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Ren; Zhang, Chun-Ting

    2014-01-01

    In theoretical physics, there exist two basic mathematical approaches, algebraic and geometrical methods, which, in most cases, are complementary. In the area of genome sequence analysis, however, algebraic approaches have been widely used, while geometrical approaches have been less explored for a long time. The Z-curve theory is a geometrical approach to genome analysis. The Z-curve is a three-dimensional curve that represents a given DNA sequence in the sense that each can be uniquely reconstructed given the other. The Z-curve, therefore, contains all the information that the corresponding DNA sequence carries. The analysis of a DNA sequence can then be performed through studying the corresponding Z-curve. The Z-curve method has found applications in a wide range of areas in the past two decades, including the identifications of protein-coding genes, replication origins, horizontally-transferred genomic islands, promoters, translational start sides and isochores, as well as studies on phylogenetics, genome visualization and comparative genomics. Here, we review the progress of Z-curve studies from aspects of both theory and applications in genome analysis. PMID:24822026

  11. Spectral Curve Fitting for Automatic Hyperspectral Data Analysis

    E-print Network

    Brown, Adrian J

    2014-01-01

    Automatic discovery and curve fitting of absorption bands in hyperspectral data can enable the analyst to identify materials present in a scene by comparison with library spectra. This procedure is common in laboratory spectra, but is challenging for sparse hyperspectral data. A procedure for robust discovery of overlapping bands in hyperspectral data is described in this paper. The method is capable of automatically discovering and fitting symmetric absorption bands, can separate overlapping absorption bands in a stable manner, and has relatively low sensitivity to noise. A comparison with techniques already available in the literature is presented using simulated spectra. An application is demonstrated utilizing the shortwave infrared (2.0-2.5 micron or 5000-4000 cm-1) region. A small hyperspectral scene is processed to demonstrate the ability of the method to detect small shifts in absorption wavelength caused by varying white mica chemistry in a natural setting.

  12. A light-curve distortion-wave analysis of eight RS Canum Venaticorum systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caton, D. B.

    1986-01-01

    A program of differential U,B,V photometry of 14 RS CVn systems carried out at Rosemary Hill Observatory in 1978 - 1981 is described, and an analysis of the light curves for the characteristic distortion wave for eight of the systems is presented. The V light curves of the systems are shown. Significant waves were observed in RS CVn, RZ Eri, and RW UMa. No significant waves were found in UX Com, GK Hya, AR Lac, LX Per, or TY Pyx. Unusual light curve distortions were observed in UX Com and AR Lac.

  13. Parent involvement and science achievement: A latent growth curve analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, Ursula Yvette

    This study examined science achievement growth across elementary and middle school and parent school involvement using the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study - Kindergarten Class of 1998--1999 (ECLS-K). The ECLS-K is a nationally representative kindergarten cohort of students from public and private schools who attended full-day or half-day kindergarten class in 1998--1999. The present study's sample (N = 8,070) was based on students that had a sampling weight available from the public-use data file. Students were assessed in science achievement at third, fifth, and eighth grades and parents of the students were surveyed at the same time points. Analyses using latent growth curve modeling with time invariant and varying covariates in an SEM framework revealed a positive relationship between science achievement and parent involvement at eighth grade. Furthermore, there were gender and racial/ethnic differences in parents' school involvement as a predictor of science achievement. Findings indicated that students with lower initial science achievement scores had a faster rate of growth across time. The achievement gap between low and high achievers in earth, space and life sciences lessened from elementary to middle school. Parents' involvement with school usually tapers off after elementary school, but due to parent school involvement being a significant predictor of eighth grade science achievement, later school involvement may need to be supported and better implemented in secondary schooling.

  14. TYPE Ia SUPERNOVA LIGHT-CURVE INFERENCE: HIERARCHICAL BAYESIAN ANALYSIS IN THE NEAR-INFRARED

    SciTech Connect

    Mandel, Kaisey S.; Friedman, Andrew S.; Kirshner, Robert P.; Wood-Vasey, W. Michael

    2009-10-10

    We present a comprehensive statistical analysis of the properties of Type Ia supernova (SN Ia) light curves in the near-infrared using recent data from Peters Automated InfraRed Imaging TELescope and the literature. We construct a hierarchical Bayesian framework, incorporating several uncertainties including photometric error, peculiar velocities, dust extinction, and intrinsic variations, for principled and coherent statistical inference. SN Ia light-curve inferences are drawn from the global posterior probability of parameters describing both individual supernovae and the population conditioned on the entire SN Ia NIR data set. The logical structure of the hierarchical model is represented by a directed acyclic graph. Fully Bayesian analysis of the model and data is enabled by an efficient Markov Chain Monte Carlo algorithm exploiting the conditional probabilistic structure using Gibbs sampling. We apply this framework to the JHK{sub s} SN Ia light-curve data. A new light-curve model captures the observed J-band light-curve shape variations. The marginal intrinsic variances in peak absolute magnitudes are sigma(M{sub J}) = 0.17 +- 0.03, sigma(M{sub H}) = 0.11 +- 0.03, and sigma(M{sub Ks}) = 0.19 +- 0.04. We describe the first quantitative evidence for correlations between the NIR absolute magnitudes and J-band light-curve shapes, and demonstrate their utility for distance estimation. The average residual in the Hubble diagram for the training set SNe at cz > 2000kms{sup -1} is 0.10 mag. The new application of bootstrap cross-validation to SN Ia light-curve inference tests the sensitivity of the statistical model fit to the finite sample and estimates the prediction error at 0.15 mag. These results demonstrate that SN Ia NIR light curves are as effective as corrected optical light curves, and, because they are less vulnerable to dust absorption, they have great potential as precise and accurate cosmological distance indicators.

  15. Global heat transfer analysis in Czochralski silicon furnace with radiation on curved specular surfaces

    E-print Network

    Guo, Zhixiong "James"

    Global heat transfer analysis in Czochralski silicon furnace with radiation on curved specular surfaces Z. Guo, S.-H. Hahn, S. Maruyama, T. Tsukada Abstract Numerical analysis of global heat transfer method are adopted to solve the global heat transfer and the radiative heat exchange, respectively

  16. A new methodology for free wake analysis using curved vortex elements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bliss, Donald B.; Teske, Milton E.; Quackenbush, Todd R.

    1987-01-01

    A method using curved vortex elements was developed for helicopter rotor free wake calculations. The Basic Curve Vortex Element (BCVE) is derived from the approximate Biot-Savart integration for a parabolic arc filament. When used in conjunction with a scheme to fit the elements along a vortex filament contour, this method has a significant advantage in overall accuracy and efficiency when compared to the traditional straight-line element approach. A theoretical and numerical analysis shows that free wake flows involving close interactions between filaments should utilize curved vortex elements in order to guarantee a consistent level of accuracy. The curved element method was implemented into a forward flight free wake analysis, featuring an adaptive far wake model that utilizes free wake information to extend the vortex filaments beyond the free wake regions. The curved vortex element free wake, coupled with this far wake model, exhibited rapid convergence, even in regions where the free wake and far wake turns are interlaced. Sample calculations are presented for tip vortex motion at various advance ratios for single and multiple blade rotors. Cross-flow plots reveal that the overall downstream wake flow resembles a trailing vortex pair. A preliminary assessment shows that the rotor downwash field is insensitive to element size, even for relatively large curved elements.

  17. Numerical analysis of curved frequency selective surface by finite-difference time-domain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Xin-yi; Wang, Jian-bo; Chen, Gui-bo; Sun, Guan-cheng; Lu, Jun

    2011-08-01

    Frequency selective surface is a monolayer or multilayer 2D periodic structure which is composed of multiple resonance units scattering by a two-dimensional periodic array on dielectric layer. FSS can't absorb radio frequency energy, but can filter the frequency which is therefore applied in microwave technique or stealth technology. The relative research on curved FSS is relatively scarce since the curved FSS structure can be obtained only when FSS is attached on the materials surfaces of curved structures in engineering application. However, curved FSS is widely applied in practical engineering; therefore, the research on curved FSS structure has important significance. In this paper, a curved FSS structure model of Y-pore unit is established and numerical simulated by means of FDTD. The influence of curvature on FSS transmission characteristics is studied according to the analysis on the changing of radar cross section (RCS). The results show: the center frequency point of the plane band pass FSS structure drifts after the curve surface deformation of the structure; the center frequency point of the curved band pass FSS structure drifts with the changing of the curvature radius, i. e. with the decreasing of curvature radius, the frequency point drifts towards high points and the transmittance decreases. The design of FSS radome demands of accurate and stable center resonance frequency; therefore, the actual situation of curved surface should be considered in practical engineering application when band pass FSS is made into frequency selection filtering radome. The curvature radius should be long enough to avoid center frequency drifting and transmittance deceasing.

  18. AtomicJ: An open source software for analysis of force curves

    SciTech Connect

    Hermanowicz, Pawe? Gabry?, Halina; Sarna, Micha?; Burda, Kvetoslava

    2014-06-15

    We present an open source Java application for analysis of force curves and images recorded with the Atomic Force Microscope. AtomicJ supports a wide range of contact mechanics models and implements procedures that reduce the influence of deviations from the contact model. It generates maps of mechanical properties, including maps of Young's modulus, adhesion force, and sample height. It can also calculate stacks, which reveal how sample's response to deformation changes with indentation depth. AtomicJ analyzes force curves concurrently on multiple threads, which allows for high speed of analysis. It runs on all popular operating systems, including Windows, Linux, and Macintosh.

  19. Specific yield as determined by type-curve analysis of aquifer-test data

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Moench, Allen F.

    1994-01-01

    The commonly used analytical solution developed by Neuman for a homogeneous, water-table aquifer assumes that the drainage of pores in the zone above the water table due to lowering of the water table occurs instantaneously. Noninstantaneous drainage of pores in the unsaturated zone accounts for the finding that both type-curve analysis and volume-balance calculations yield values of specific yield that are slightly less than those obtained from laboratory column-drainage experiments. It may also account for a slight underestimation of vertical hydraulic conductivity as obtained by type-curve analysis.

  20. WTF- and A- Stars: Spectroscopic Analysis of Kepler Light Curves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grae Short, Miona; Soderblom, David R.

    2016-01-01

    Analysis of Kepler data in 2012 found that in a sample of about 2000 A- and F- stars, 1% of them seemed to exhibit white light flares. However, such stars are not thought to have the convective envelopes needed to produce the magnetic dynamos that yield flares. We use the same Kepler data but examine the flaring stars more comprehensively by analyzing the pixel data in order to predict whether this flare-like behavior may be caused by smaller, less luminous M dwarfs exhibiting genuine flares in the line of sight of the A- and F-stars. The implications of finding verifiable flare activity in a subset of these stars would be enough to incite further investigation of the physical processes that allow this to take place. Yet, if that were not the case, this project would further be able to demonstrate the steps necessary to correct for false-positives in finding flares in A- and F- stars.

  1. Testing and analysis of flat and curved panels with multiple cracks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Broek, David; Jeong, David Y.; Thomson, Douglas

    1994-01-01

    An experimental and analytical investigation of multiple cracking in various types of test specimens is described in this paper. The testing phase is comprised of a flat unstiffened panel series and curved stiffened and unstiffened panel series. The test specimens contained various configurations for initial damage. Static loading was applied to these specimens until ultimate failure, while loads and crack propagation were recorded. This data provides the basis for developing and validating methodologies for predicting linkup of multiple cracks, progression to failure, and overall residual strength. The results from twelve flat coupon and ten full scale curved panel tests are presented. In addition, an engineering analysis procedure was developed to predict multiple crack linkup. Reasonable agreement was found between predictions and actual test results for linkup and residual strength for both flat and curved panels. The results indicate that an engineering analysis approach has the potential to quantitatively assess the effect of multiple cracks in the arrest capability of an aircraft fuselage structure.

  2. TTF HOM Data Analysis with Curve Fitting Method

    SciTech Connect

    Pei, S.; Adolphsen, C.; Li, Z.; Bane, K.; Smith, J.; /SLAC

    2009-07-14

    To investigate the possibility of using HOM signals induced in SC cavities as beam and cavity diagnostics, narrow band (20 MHz) data was recorded around the strong TE111-6(6{pi}/9-like) dipole modes (1.7 GHz) in the 40 L-band (1.3 GHz) cavities at the DESY TTF facility. The analyses of these data have so far focused on using a Singular Value Decomposition (SVD) technique to correlate the signals with each other and data from conventional BPMs to show the dipole signals provide an alternate means of measuring the beam trajectory. However, these analyses do not extract the modal information (i.e., frequencies and Q's of the nearly degenerate horizontal and vertical modes). In this paper, we described a method to fit the signal frequency spectrum to obtain this information, and then use the resulting mode amplitudes and phases together with conventional BPM data to determine the mode polarizations and relative centers and tilts. Compared with the SVD analysis, this method is more physical, and can also be used to obtain the beam position and trajectory angle.

  3. Development of synthetic flood damage curve by explicit costs analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martina, Mario; Molinari, Daniela; Dottori, Francesco; Scorzini, Annarita

    2015-04-01

    Damage modelling is a key component in flood risk assessments. A conventional approach for estimating direct flood damages is the use of depth-damage functions. However, at present, there are few studies that describe in detail the parameters involved in the models and the hypotheses used for the development of these functions based on synthetic approaches and/or actual flood damage data. In this work a synthetic approach was adopted for the development of a damage model for residential buildings. The approach follows the loss assessment procedure usually applied by the insurance loss adjusters. Required information consisted of all those variables that are necessary to define hazard characteristics at building location, compute the exposure value of the building and the replacement costs of its components. In detail, the model requires four input tables. The hazard module includes the variables describing the features of the flood event at building location (e.g. water depth outside the building, water depth inside the basement, maximum velocity of the flood, duration of the event, contaminant and sediment load). The exposure module includes both extensive variables (e.g. foot print area, number of floors) and "vulnerability" variables, where the latter affect damage estimation in two different ways: by changing the replacement value/unit prices of the building and its components (e.g. the finishing level, building type) or by modifying the function(s) describing damage mechanisms (e.g. building structure, plant distribution). The replacement values table and the unit-price table include respectively the replacement value of the building and the unitary replacement costs of the different building components (e.g. doors and pavement replacement per square meter). The final output of the model is represented by different sets of damage functions describing all the building components (e.g. plasters, plants), depending on hazard, exposure and vulnerability characteristics. Such functions were developed using a what-if analysis using data collected after the 2012 flood in the Umbria Region in Central Italy, as well as authors' experience, as reference to understand damage mechanisms. Observed damage data were also used to calibrate the functions.

  4. Growth Curve Analysis of Ability Means and Variances in Measures of Fluid Intelligence of Older Adults.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raykov, Tenko

    1997-01-01

    Growth curve analysis is applied to modeling test performance changes demonstrated by older adults following cognitive training or based on repeatedly presented fluid intelligence measures. Findings using data from a study by P. Bates and others (1986) provide evidence of plasticity in the fluid intelligence of older adults. (SLD)

  5. Aptitude-Treatment Interaction Effects on Explicit Rule Learning: A Latent Growth Curve Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hwu, Fenfang; Pan, Wei; Sun, Shuyan

    2014-01-01

    Finding the match between individuals and educational treatments is the aim of both educators and the aptitude-treatment interaction research paradigm. Using the latent growth curve analysis, the present study investigates the interaction between the type of explicit instructional approaches (deductive vs. explicit-inductive) and the level of…

  6. Policy Effectiveness and the Slopes of IS and LM Curves: A Graphical Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Revier, Charles F.

    2000-01-01

    Focuses on the IS-LM model providing a graphical analysis designed to clarify the confusion induced by misleading statements in several major macroeconomics textbooks concerning the connection between policy effectiveness and the slopes of the IS and LM curves. Includes references. (CMK)

  7. Taxometrics, Polytomous Constructs, and the Comparison Curve Fit Index: A Monte Carlo Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walters, Glenn D.; McGrath, Robert E.; Knight, Raymond A.

    2010-01-01

    The taxometric method effectively distinguishes between dimensional (1-class) and taxonic (2-class) latent structure, but there is virtually no information on how it responds to polytomous (3-class) latent structure. A Monte Carlo analysis showed that the mean comparison curve fit index (CCFI; Ruscio, Haslam, & Ruscio, 2006) obtained with 3…

  8. A Latent Growth Curve Analysis of Reading Achievement for an At-Risk Population

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beecher, Constance C.

    2011-01-01

    The development of reading skills from age seven until age 19 was investigated for children who were referred for special education preschool intervention using latent growth curve analysis (n=206). Approximately one-third of the study sample did not require special education services after preschool, providing a natural comparison group. Reading…

  9. Computational Tools for Probing Interactions in Multiple Linear Regression, Multilevel Modeling, and Latent Curve Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Preacher, Kristopher J.; Curran, Patrick J.; Bauer, Daniel J.

    2006-01-01

    Simple slopes, regions of significance, and confidence bands are commonly used to evaluate interactions in multiple linear regression (MLR) models, and the use of these techniques has recently been extended to multilevel or hierarchical linear modeling (HLM) and latent curve analysis (LCA). However, conducting these tests and plotting the…

  10. A computational model-based validation of Guyton's analysis of cardiac output and venous return curves

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mukkamala, R.; Cohen, R. J.; Mark, R. G.

    2002-01-01

    Guyton developed a popular approach for understanding the factors responsible for cardiac output (CO) regulation in which 1) the heart-lung unit and systemic circulation are independently characterized via CO and venous return (VR) curves, and 2) average CO and right atrial pressure (RAP) of the intact circulation are predicted by graphically intersecting the curves. However, this approach is virtually impossible to verify experimentally. We theoretically evaluated the approach with respect to a nonlinear, computational model of the pulsatile heart and circulation. We developed two sets of open circulation models to generate CO and VR curves, differing by the manner in which average RAP was varied. One set applied constant RAPs, while the other set applied pulsatile RAPs. Accurate prediction of intact, average CO and RAP was achieved only by intersecting the CO and VR curves generated with pulsatile RAPs because of the pulsatility and nonlinearity (e.g., systemic venous collapse) of the intact model. The CO and VR curves generated with pulsatile RAPs were also practically independent. This theoretical study therefore supports the validity of Guyton's graphical analysis.

  11. Human Skin Collagenase in Recessive Dystrophic Epidermolysis Bullosa

    PubMed Central

    Stricklin, George P.; Welgus, Howard G.; Bauer, Eugene A.

    1982-01-01

    Recessive dystrophic epidermolysis bullosa, a genodermatosis characterized by dermolytic blister formation in response to minor trauma, is characterized by an incresaed collagenase synthesis by skin fibroblasts in culture. Since preliminary studies of partially purified recessive dystrophic epidermolysis bullosa collagenase suggested that the protein itself was aberrant, efforts were made to purify this enzyme to homogeneity, so that detailed biochemical and immunologic comparisons could be made with normal human skin fibroblast collagenase. Recessive dystrophic epidermolysis bullosa skin fibroblasts obtained from a patient documented to have increased synthesis of the enzyme were grown in large scale tissue culture and both serum-free and serum-containing medium collected as a source of collagenase. The recessive dystrophic epidermolysis bullosa collagenase was purified to electrophoretic homogeneity using a combination of salt precipitation, ion-exchange, and gel-filtration chromatography. In contrast to the normal enzyme, the recessive dystrophic epidermolysis bullosa collagenase bound to carboxymethyl-cellulose at Ca2+ concentrations at least 10 times higher than those used with the normal enzyme. Additionally, this enzyme was significantly more labile to chromatographic manipulations, particularly when serum-free medium was used. However, rapid purification from serum-containing medium yielded a preparation enzymatically equivalent to normal human skin collagenase. Like the normal enzyme, the recessive dystrophic epidermolysis bullosa collagenase was secreted as a set of two closely related zymogens of ?60,000 and ?55,000 daltons that could be activated by trypsin to form enzymically active species of ?50,000 and ?45,000 daltons, respectively. Amino acid analysis suggested slight variations between the normal and recessive dystrophic epidermolysis bullosa collagenases. Cyanogen bromide digests demonstrated peptides unique to the enzyme from each source. The recessive dystrophic epidermolysis bullosa proenzyme was significantly more thermolabile at 60°C than the normal, a finding that correlated with an approximate fourfold decrease in the affinity of the mutant enzyme for Ca2+, a known activator and stabilizer of human skin collagenase. Aside from the altered affinity for this metal cofactor, kinetic analysis of the structurally altered recessive dystrophic epidermolysis bullosa collagenase revealed that its reaction rates and substrate specificity for human collagen types I-V were identical to those for the normal enzyme. Likewise, enzymes from both sources displayed identical energies of activation and deuterium isotope effects. Antisera were raised to the normal and putatively mutant procollagenases respectively, and, although they displayed a reaction of identity in double diffusion analysis, immunologic differences were present in enzyme inhibition and quantitative precipitation studies. These studies indicate that recessive dystrophic epidermolysis bullosa is characterized by the increased synthesis of an enzymically normal, but structurally aberrant, collagenase. Images PMID:6282934

  12. Firms Still Training Despite Recession

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Felstead, Alan; Green, Francis; Jewson, Nick

    2011-01-01

    It is commonly assumed that company training is one of the first casualties in times of recession. Falling recruitment, pressures to cut costs and a focus on short-term survival force businesses to put training on the backburner. Expecting the worst, the UK Commission for Employment and Skills (UKCES), the Confederation of British Industry (CBI)…

  13. Algebra, Home Mortgages, and Recessions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mariner, Jean A. Miller; Miller, Richard A.

    2009-01-01

    The current financial crisis and recession in the United States present an opportunity to discuss relevant applications of some topics in typical first-and second-year algebra and precalculus courses. Real-world applications of percent change, exponential functions, and sums of finite geometric sequences can help students understand the problems…

  14. Better P-curves: Making P-curve analysis more robust to errors, fraud, and ambitious P-hacking, a Reply to Ulrich and Miller (2015).

    PubMed

    Simonsohn, Uri; Simmons, Joseph P; Nelson, Leif D

    2015-12-01

    When studies examine true effects, they generate right-skewed p-curves, distributions of statistically significant results with more low (.01 s) than high (.04 s) p values. What else can cause a right-skewed p-curve? First, we consider the possibility that researchers report only the smallest significant p value (as conjectured by Ulrich & Miller, 2015), concluding that it is a very uncommon problem. We then consider more common problems, including (a) p-curvers selecting the wrong p values, (b) fake data, (c) honest errors, and (d) ambitiously p-hacked (beyond p < .05) results. We evaluate the impact of these common problems on the validity of p-curve analysis, and provide practical solutions that substantially increase its robustness. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:26595842

  15. Microarray analysis shows that recessive resistance to Watermelon mosaic virus in melon is associated with the induction of defense response genes.

    PubMed

    Gonzalez-Ibeas, Daniel; Cañizares, Joaquin; Aranda, Miguel A

    2012-01-01

    Resistance to Watermelon mosaic virus (WMV) in melon (Cucumis melo L.) accession TGR-1551 is characterized by a significant reduction in virus titer, and is inherited as a recessive, loss-of-susceptibility allele. We measured virus RNA accumulation in TGR-1551 plants and a susceptible control ('Tendral') by real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction, and also profiled the expression of 17,443 unigenes represented on a melon microarray over a 15-day time course. The virus accumulated to higher levels in cotyledons of the resistant variety up to 9 days postinoculation (dpi) but, thereafter, levels increased in the susceptible variety while those in the resistant variety declined. Microarray experiments looking at the early response to infection (1 and 3 dpi), as well as responses after 7 and 15 dpi, revealed more profound transcriptomic changes in resistant plants than susceptible ones. The gene expression profiles revealed deep and extensive transcriptome remodeling in TGR-1551 plants, often involving genes with pathogen response functions. Overall, our data suggested that resistance to WMV in TGR-1551 melon plants is associated with a defense response, which contrasts with the recessive nature of the resistance trait. PMID:21970693

  16. Numerical analysis of interaction between non-gray radiation and forced convection flow over a recess using the full-spectrum k-distribution method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Atashafrooz, M.; Gandjalikhan Nassab, S. A.; Lari, K.

    2015-04-01

    In the present work, the interaction between non-gray radiation and forced convection in a laminar radiating gas flow over a recess including two backward and forward facing steps in a duct is investigated numerically. Distributions of absorption coefficients across the spectrum (50 cm-1 < ? < 20,000 cm-1) are obtained from the HITRAN2008 database. The full-spectrum k-distribution method is used to account for non-gray radiation properties, while the gray radiation calculations are carried out using the Planck mean absorption coefficient. To find the divergence of radiative heat flux distribution, the radiative transfer equation is solved by the discrete ordinates method. The effects of radiation-conduction parameter, wall emissivity, scattering coefficient and recess length on heat transfer behaviors of the convection-radiation system are investigated for both gray and non-gray mediums. In addition, the results of gray medium are compared with non-gray results in order to judge if the differences between these two approaches are significant enough to justify the usage of non-gray models. Results show that for air mixture with 10 % CO2 and 20 % H2O, use of gray model for the radiative properties may cause significant errors and should be avoided.

  17. Transcriptome analysis of genetic mechanism of growth curve inflection point using a pig model

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Linyuan; Zhang, Shunhua; Zhu, Li

    2015-01-01

    Animal growth curves play an important role for animal breeders to optimize feeding and management strategies (De Lange et al., 2001 [1]; Brossard et al., 2009 [2]; Strathe et al., 2010 [3]). However, the genetic mechanism of the phenotypic difference between the inflection point and noninflection points of the growth curve remains unclear. Here, we report the differentially expressed gene pattern in pig longissimus dorsi among three typical time points of the growth curve, inflection point (IP), before inflection point (BIP) and after inflection point (AIP). The whole genome RNA-seq data was deposited at GenBank under the accession number PRJNA2284587. The RNA-seq libraries generated 117 million reads of 5.89 gigabases in length. Totals of 21,331, 20,996 and 20,139 expressed transcripts were identified in IP, UIP and AIP, respectively. Furthermore, we identified 757 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) between IP and UIP, and 271 DEGs between AIP and IP. Function enrichment analysis of DEGs found that the highly expressed genes in IP were mainly enriched in energy metabolism, global transcriptional activity and bone development intensity. This study contributes to reveal the genetic mechanism of growth curve inflection point. PMID:26697358

  18. Up-to-date survival curves of children with cancer by period analysis.

    PubMed

    Brenner, H

    2003-06-01

    Survival rates of children with cancer have strongly improved during the past decades, but much of this improvement has been disclosed with substantial delay by traditional methods of survival analysis, which reflect survival experience of patients diagnosed many years ago. In this paper, the use of a new method of survival analysis, denoted period analysis, for providing more up-to-date estimates of 10-year survival curves of children with cancer is empirically evaluated using data of the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results Program of the United States National Cancer Institute. It is shown that period analysis provides much more up-to-date estimates of survival curves than traditional cohort-based survival analysis indeed, at least as long as there is ongoing improvement in survival rates over time, as it seems to be the case for many forms of childhood cancer. The most recent 10-year period survival estimates indicate that survival rates of children with cancer achieved by the end of the 20th century are substantially higher than previously available survival statistics have suggested. Application of period analysis may be particularly useful in the field of childhood cancer as it may help to prevent patients, their families and clinicians from being burdened by outdated, often too pessimistic survival expectations. PMID:12771982

  19. Differences in Physical Activity during School Recess

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ridgers, Nicola D.; Saint-Maurice, Pedro F.; Welk, Gregory J.; Siahpush, Mohammad; Huberty, Jennifer

    2011-01-01

    Background: School recess provides a daily opportunity for physical activity engagement. The purpose of this study was to examine physical activity levels during recess by gender, ethnicity, and grade, and establish the contribution of recess to daily school physical activity levels. Methods: Two hundred and ten children (45% boys) from grades 3…

  20. A Cognitive Approach to Elementary School Recess

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Rose B.

    2005-01-01

    This article talks about the Cognitive Recess Curriculum as a cognitive approach to elementary school recess. The concept of a cognitive recess curriculum is based on three research studies conducted by the author. The largest study involved over 1,564 educators (superintendents, principals, teachers K 12). It sought to determine the subjects'…

  1. A deformation analysis of flat flexible gear and its equation of original curved surfaces

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yunwen, S.

    1985-01-01

    The equation of the original curved surface of end harmonic gearing is determined by displacement analysis of flat flexible gear. The displacement analysis is also used to calculate the strength and rigidity of the gear. The latter is regarded as a circular plate with two concentrated loads, since its torsional rigidity is much larger than its bending rigidity. Small-deflection theory of thin plates is used to solve for the displacement of any point in the middle plane of the gear. New expressions are given for radial and tangential displacements of the middle plane under asymmetrical loading. A digital computer is used to obtain numerical values for the displacements.

  2. Prediction of Cooling Curves for Squeeze Cast Al/SiCp Composites Using Finite Element Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gurusamy, P.; Balasivanandha Prabu, S.; Paskaramoorthy, R.

    2015-04-01

    This paper reports the experimental and finite element analyses of the solidification behavior of Al/SiCp composites, fabricated by the squeeze casting technique. Experiments were carried out by varying the melt temperatures for cylindrical-shaped composite castings. The composite samples were produced at the following constant temperatures: melt—1023 K, 1073 K, 1123 K, and 1173 K (750 °C, 800 °C, 850 °C, and 900 °C); and die—673 K (400 °C). The pressure applied throughout the experiment is 100 MPa. The melt temperature shows significant influence on the solidification behavior of the metal matrix composite. It was observed that the solidification time was 40 seconds when the melt temperature was 1023 K (750 °C) but it increased to 51 seconds when the melt temperature was at 1173 K (900 °C). The results also showed that the cooling rate decreased on increasing the melt temperature. Cooling curves for our system, squeeze cast composites, were predicted using the finite element software ANSYS. K-type thermocouples were interfaced to the die and the microcomputer from which the experimental cooling curves were constructed. The experimental and predicted cooling curves were then compared. While both show similar trends, the finite element analysis consistently under-predicts the temperature. In addition, finite element stress analysis reveals that both radial and tangential thermal stresses increase with the melt temperature.

  3. Determination of Stress-Strain Curve for Microelectronic Solder Joint by ESPI Measurement and FE Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Baik Woo; Jeong, Jeung Hyun; Jang, Woosoon; Kim, Ju Young; Kim, Dong Won; Kwon, Dongil; Nah, Jae Woong; Paik, Kyung Wook

    Many thermomechanical reliability studies on microelectronics and microsystems have relied upon computational analysis, since experimental work is rather difficult and very time-consuming. For computational analysis, it is essential to use as input accurate material properties; if not, the results of a reliability analysis may be very inaccurate. However, it is still quite difficult to arrive at unified material properties for modeling microelectronic assemblies because of the absence of standards for micro-material characterization, the difference between bulk and in-situ material properties, and so forth. The goal of this study was to determine the uniaxial stress-strain curve of a solder in a flip-chip assembly, using experimental measurements and finite-element analysis (FEA) of the solder's thermal deformation characteristics with increasing temperature. The thermal deformation of flip-chip solder joints was measured by electronic speckle pattern interferometry (ESPI). For the scale of evaluation required, the measurement magnification was modified to allow its application to micromaterials by using a long-working-distance microscope, iris and zoom lens. Local deformation of solder balls could be measured at submicrometer scale, and stress-strain curves could be determined using the measured thermal deformation as input data for finite-element analysis. The procedure was applied to an Sn-36Pb-2Ag flip-chip solder joint.

  4. The SuperNovae Analysis Application (SNAP): A new tool for rapid analysis of SNe light curves and model verification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bayless, Amanda J.; SNAP Development Team

    2016-01-01

    The SuperNovae Analysis Application (SNAP) is a new tool for the analysis of SNe observations and validation of SNe models. SNAP consists of two data bases, an observational light curve data base and a theoretical light curve model data base, statistical comparison software, and a web interface available to the community. The observational light curves are primarily Swift UVOT core-collapse SNe and include all available observations from these observed SNe. The currently available theoretical models were developed at LANL. The web interface allows approved users to upload new SNe models or new SNe observations. The comparison software will validate new models against available SNe observations or rapidly give constraints on parameters for newly discovered SNe. With the advent of large computing abilities, more sophisticated SNe models are being developed. SNAP will be a tool to determine the accuracy of these new models. SNAP will also be a useful tool in the era of large surveys where thousands of SNe are discovered annually. Frequently, the parameter space of a new SNe event is unbounded. SNAP will be a resource to constrain parameters and determine if an event needs follow up without spending resources to create new light curve models from scratch.

  5. Updated UBV Light-Curve and Period Analysis of Eclipsing Binary HS Herculis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bozkurt, Zeynep; De?irmenci, Ömer Lütfi

    2006-08-01

    UBV light-curves of the eclipsing binary HS Herculis, which obtained in 2002--2003 observational seasons, were analysed with Wilson-Devinney computer code. New absolute dimensions of the system were calculated using the results of the light-curve analysis. Period variation of the system also investigated. Several new times of minima have been secured for this problematic system. An apsidal motion with the period of 80.7 years was confirmed and a third body in an pretty eccentric orbit (e 3 = 0.90 ± 0.08) with a period of 85.4 years was found. The corresponding internal structure constants of the binary system, log k 2, and mass of third body were derived.

  6. Updated UBV Light-Curve and Period Analysis of Eclipsing Binary HS Herculis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bozkurt, Zeynep; De?irmenci, Ömer Lütfi

    2006-08-01

    UBV light-curves of the eclipsing binary HS Herculis, obtained in 2002 2003 observational seasons, were analysed with Wilson-Devinney computer code. New absolute dimensions of the system were calculated using the results of the light-curve analysis. Period variation of the system was also investigated. Several new times of minima have been secured for this problematic system. An apsidal motion with a period of 80.7 years was confirmed and a third body in a pretty eccentric orbit (e 3 = 0.90 ± 0.08) with a period of 85.4 years was found. The corresponding internal structure constants of the binary system, log k 2, and the mass of the third body were derived.

  7. An analysis of the massless planet approximation in transit light curve models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Millholland, Sarah; Ruch, Gerry

    2015-08-01

    Many extrasolar planet transit light curve models use the approximation of a massless planet. They approximate the planet as orbiting elliptically with the host star at the orbit’s focus instead of depicting the planet and star as both orbiting around a common center of mass. This approximation should generally be very good because the transit is a small fraction of the full-phase curve and the planet to stellar mass ratio is typically very small. However, to fully examine the legitimacy of this approximation, it is useful to perform a robust, all-parameter space-encompassing statistical comparison between the massless planet model and the more accurate model.Towards this goal, we establish two questions: (1) In what parameter domain is the approximation invalid? (2) If characterizing an exoplanetary system in this domain, what is the error of the parameter estimates when using the simplified model? We first address question (1). Given each parameter vector in a finite space, we can generate the simplified and more complete model curves. Associated with these model curves is a measure of the deviation between them, such as the root mean square (RMS). We use Gibbs sampling to generate a sample that is distributed according to the RMS surface. The high-density regions in the sample correspond to a large deviation between the models. To determine the domains of these high-density areas, we first employ the Ordering Points to Identify the Clustering Structure (OPTICS) algorithm. We then characterize the subclusters by performing the Patient Rule Induction Method (PRIM) on the transformed Principal Component spaces of each cluster. This process yields descriptors of the parameter domains with large discrepancies between the models.To consider question (2), we start by generating synthetic transit curve observations in the domains specified by the above analysis. We then derive the best-fit parameters of these synthetic light curves according to each model and examine the quality of agreement between the estimated parameters. Taken as a whole, these steps allow for a thorough analysis of the validity of the massless planet approximation.

  8. Anthropometry, CT, and DXA as predictors of GH deficiency in premenopausal women: ROC curve analysis

    PubMed Central

    Bredella, Miriam A.; Utz, Andrea L.; Torriani, Martin; Thomas, Bijoy; Schoenfeld, David A.; Miller, Karen K.

    2009-01-01

    Visceral adiposity is a strong determinant of growth hormone (GH) secretion, and states of GH deficiency are associated with increased visceral adiposity and decreased lean body mass. The purpose of our study was to determine the sensitivity and specificity of different methods of assessing body composition [anthropometry, dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA), and computed tomography (CT)] to predict GH deficiency in premenopausal women and threshold values for each technique to predict GH deficiency, using receiver operator characteristic (ROC) curve analysis. We studied a group of 45 healthy lean, overweight, and obese premenopausal women who underwent anthropometric measurements (body mass index, waist and hip circumferences, skin fold thickness), DXA, CT, and a GH-releasing hormone-arginine stimulation test. ROC curve analysis was used to determine cutoff values for each method to identify GH deficiency. Visceral adiposity measured by CT showed the highest sensitivity and specificity for identifying subjects with GH deficiency with a cutoff of >9,962 mm2 [area under the curve (AUC), 0.95; sensitivity, 100%; specificity, 77.8%; P = 0.0001]. Largest waist circumference showed high sensitivity and specificity with a cutoff of >101.7 cm (AUC, 0.89; sensitivity, 88.9%; specificity, 75%; P = 0.0001). When the ROC curves of visceral fat measured by CT and largest waist circumference were compared, the difference between the two methods was not statistically significant (P = 0.36). Our study showed that the largest waist circumference predicts the presence of GH deficiency in healthy premenopausal women with high sensitivity and specificity and nearly as well as CT measurement of visceral adiposity. It can be used to identify women in whom GH deficiency is likely and therefore in whom formal GH stimulation testing might be indicated. PMID:19095751

  9. Comparison of the clinical applicability of Miller's classification system to Kumar and Masamatti's classification system of gingival recession

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Ashish; Gupta, Geeti; Puri, Komal; Bansal, Mansi; Jain, Deept; Khatri, Manish; Masamatti, Sujata Surendra

    2015-01-01

    Background: The aims of the present study were to (i) Find the percentage of recession cases that could be classified by application of Miller's and/or Kumar and Masamatti's classification of gingival recession, and (ii) compare the percentage of clinical applicability of Miller's criteria and Kumar and Masamatti's criteria to the total recessions present. Materials and Methods: A total of 104 patients (1089 recession cases) were included in the study wherein they were classified using both Miller's and Kumar and Masamatti's classification systems of gingival recession. Percentage comparison of the application of both classification systems was done. Results: Data analysis showed that though all the cases of the recession were classified by Kumar and Masamatti's classification, only 34.61% cases were classified by Miller's classification. 19.10% cases were completely (having only labial/buccal recession) classified. In 15.51% (out of 34.61%) cases, only buccal recession was classified according to Miller's criteria and included in this category, although these cases had both buccal and lingual/palatal recessions. Furthermore, 29.75% cases of recession with interdental loss and marginal tissue loss coronal to mucogingival junction (MGJ) remained uncategorized by Miller's classification; categorization of palatal/lingual recession was possible with Kumar and Masamatti's classification. Conclusion: The elaborative evaluation of both buccal and palatal/lingual recession by the Kumar and Masamatti's classification system can be used to overcome the limitations of Miller's classification system, especially the cases with interdental loss and having marginal tissue loss coronal to MGJ.

  10. Improved protocol for rapid identification of certain spa types using high resolution melting curve analysis.

    PubMed

    Mayerhofer, Benjamin; Stöger, Anna; Pietzka, Ariane T; Fernandez, Haizpea Lasa; Prewein, Bernhard; Sorschag, Sieglinde; Kunert, Renate; Allerberger, Franz; Ruppitsch, Werner

    2015-01-01

    Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus is one of the most significant pathogens associated with health care. For efficient surveillance, control and outbreak investigation, S. aureus typing is essential. A high resolution melting curve analysis was developed and evaluated for rapid identification of the most frequent spa types found in an Austrian hospital consortium covering 2,435 beds. Among 557 methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus isolates 38 different spa types were identified by sequence analysis of the hypervariable region X of the protein A gene (spa). Identification of spa types through their characteristic high resolution melting curve profiles was considerably improved by double spiking with genomic DNA from spa type t030 and spa type t003 and allowed unambiguous and fast identification of the ten most frequent spa types t001 (58%), t003 (12%), t190 (9%), t041 (5%), t022 (2%), t032 (2%), t008 (2%), t002 (1%), t5712 (1%) and t2203 (1%), representing 93% of all isolates within this hospital consortium. The performance of the assay was evaluated by testing samples with unknown spa types from the daily routine and by testing three different high resolution melting curve analysis real-time PCR instruments. The ten most frequent spa types were identified from all samples and on all instruments with 100% specificity and 100% sensitivity. Compared to classical spa typing by sequence analysis, this gene scanning assay is faster, cheaper and can be performed in a single closed tube assay format. Therefore it is an optimal screening tool to detect the most frequent endemic spa types and to exclude non-endemic spa types within a hospital. PMID:25768007

  11. Management of the Spring Snowmelt Recession in Regulated Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yarnell, S. M.; Lind, A.; Epke, G.; Viers, J. H.

    2013-12-01

    In unregulated rivers in the Sierra Nevada mountains of California, the spring snowmelt recession links high winter flows to low summer baseflow and is a consistent and predictable portion of the annual hydrograph. Consequently, it is an important resource to both riverine ecosystems and California's water supply. In regulated river systems where the spring snowmelt recession is often captured behind dams or diverted for hydropower, restoration of a more natural spring flow regime can provide distinct ecological benefits, such as breeding and migration cues for native species, increased habitat availability, and greater hydraulic habitat diversity. However, knowledge of how to create and manage an ecologically beneficial spring snowmelt recession in a regulated river system has been lacking. This study defined a methodology by which spring flow regimes can be modeled in regulated systems from the quantifiable characteristics of spring snowmelt recessions in unregulated rivers. Using fundamental flow components such as magnitude, timing, and rate of change, the spring snowmelt recession in eight unregulated rivers across the Sierra Nevada range was quantified to gain a better understanding of the predictability and variability across watersheds. The analysis found that unregulated Sierran systems behaved similarly with respect to seasonal patterns and flow recession shape (i.e., recession limb curvature), and thus flows could be modeled in a manner that mimics those predictable characteristics. Using this methodology that quantifies spring recession flows in terms of a daily percent decrease in flow, a series of flow recession scenarios were then created for application on a regulated Sierran river. Four scenarios, ranging from a slow natural recession to a short fast recession typically observed in regulated rivers following cessation of high flow spills, were evaluated within a 2D hydrodynamic model. The effects of the flows on suitable habitat for Foothill yellow-legged frogs, a California species of special concern, were evaluated, and the distribution and diversity of hydraulic habitat through time was assessed. Using a spatial niche approach, the hydraulic habitat conditions were considered with regard to native aquatic species guilds, and the effects of each flow scenario on aquatic biodiversity were determined. The modeling results show that flow recessions with slow ramping rates similar to those observed in unregulated systems (less than 10% per day) were protective of frog egg masses, while flows that receded at rates greater than 10% per day resulted in desiccation of egg masses and potential stranding of newly hatched tadpoles. Furthermore, recession rates of less than 10% per day provided the most diverse hydraulic habitat for an appropriate duration in spring to support all native species guilds and maximize aquatic biodiversity. The predictive flow model described in this study has recently been applied within the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission hydropower relicensing process on the Yuba River to create flow recessions that more naturally transition from high spill flows to minimum instream flows, and is readily adaptable to other snowmelt regions with knowledge of regional unregulated flow characteristics.

  12. Multivariate Analysis of the Ocular Response Analyzer's Corneal Deformation Response Curve for Early Keratoconus Detection

    PubMed Central

    Galletti, Jonatán D.; Ruiseñor Vázquez, Pablo R.; Fuentes Bonthoux, Fernando; Pförtner, Tomás; Galletti, Jeremías G.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose. To thoroughly analyze corneal deformation responses curves obtained by Ocular Response Analyzer (ORA) testing in order to improve subclinical keratoconus detection. Methods. Observational case series of 87 control and 73 subclinical keratoconus eyes. Examination included corneal topography, tomography, and biomechanical testing with ORA. Factor analysis, logistic regression, and receiver operating characteristic curves were used to extract combinations of 45 corneal waveform descriptors. Main outcome measures were corneal-thickness-corrected corneal resistance factor (ccCRF), combinations of corneal descriptors, and their diagnostic performance. Results. Thirty-seven descriptors differed significantly in means between groups, and among them ccCRF afforded the highest individual diagnostic performance. Factor analysis identified first- and second-peak related descriptors as the most variable one. However, conventional biomechanical descriptors corneal resistance factor and hysteresis differed the most between control and keratoconic eyes. A combination of three factors including several corneal descriptors did not show better diagnostic performance than a combination of conventional indices. Conclusion. Multivariate analysis of ORA signals did not surpass simpler models in subclinical keratoconus detection, and there is considerable overlap between normal and ectatic eyes irrespective of the analysis model. Conventional biomechanical indices seem to already provide the best performance when appropriately considered. PMID:26075085

  13. Enhanced secondary analysis of survival data: reconstructing the data from published Kaplan-Meier survival curves

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The results of Randomized Controlled Trials (RCTs) on time-to-event outcomes that are usually reported are median time to events and Cox Hazard Ratio. These do not constitute the sufficient statistics required for meta-analysis or cost-effectiveness analysis, and their use in secondary analyses requires strong assumptions that may not have been adequately tested. In order to enhance the quality of secondary data analyses, we propose a method which derives from the published Kaplan Meier survival curves a close approximation to the original individual patient time-to-event data from which they were generated. Methods We develop an algorithm that maps from digitised curves back to KM data by finding numerical solutions to the inverted KM equations, using where available information on number of events and numbers at risk. The reproducibility and accuracy of survival probabilities, median survival times and hazard ratios based on reconstructed KM data was assessed by comparing published statistics (survival probabilities, medians and hazard ratios) with statistics based on repeated reconstructions by multiple observers. Results The validation exercise established there was no material systematic error and that there was a high degree of reproducibility for all statistics. Accuracy was excellent for survival probabilities and medians, for hazard ratios reasonable accuracy can only be obtained if at least numbers at risk or total number of events are reported. Conclusion The algorithm is a reliable tool for meta-analysis and cost-effectiveness analyses of RCTs reporting time-to-event data. It is recommended that all RCTs should report information on numbers at risk and total number of events alongside KM curves. PMID:22297116

  14. Improved factor analysis of dynamic PET images to estimate arterial input function and tissue curves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boutchko, Rostyslav; Mitra, Debasis; Pan, Hui; Jagust, William; Gullberg, Grant T.

    2015-03-01

    Factor analysis of dynamic structures (FADS) is a methodology of extracting time-activity curves (TACs) for corresponding different tissue types from noisy dynamic images. The challenges of FADS include long computation time and sensitivity to the initial guess, resulting in convergence to local minima far from the true solution. We propose a method of accelerating and stabilizing FADS application to sequences of dynamic PET images by adding preliminary cluster analysis of the time activity curves for individual voxels. We treat the temporal variation of individual voxel concentrations as a set of time-series and use a partial clustering analysis to identify the types of voxel TACs that are most functionally distinct from each other. These TACs provide a good initial guess for the temporal factors for subsequent FADS processing. Applying this approach to a set of single slices of dynamic 11C-PIB images of the brain allows identification of the arterial input function and two different tissue TACs that are likely to correspond to the specific and non-specific tracer binding-tissue types. These results enable us to perform direct classification of tissues based on their pharmacokinetic properties in dynamic PET without relying on a compartment-based kinetic model, without identification of the reference region, or without using any external methods of estimating the arterial input function, as needed in some techniques.

  15. Light Curve and Orbital Period Analysis of the Eclipsing Binary AT Peg

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liakos, Alexios; Niarchos, Panagiotis; Budding, Edwin

    2012-04-01

    CCD photometric observations of the Algol-type eclipsing binary AT Peg have been obtained. The light curves are analyzed with modern techniques and new geometric and photometric elements are derived. A new orbital period analysis of the system, based on the most reliable timings of minima found in the literature, is presented and apparent period modulations are discussed with respect to the Light-Time effect (LITE) and secular changes in the system. The results of these analyses are compared and interpreted in order to obtain a coherent view of the system's behaviour.

  16. On the Analysis and Construction of the Butterfly Curve Using "Mathematica"[R

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Geum, Y. H.; Kim, Y. I.

    2008-01-01

    The butterfly curve was introduced by Temple H. Fay in 1989 and defined by the polar curve r = e[superscript cos theta] minus 2 cos 4 theta plus sin[superscript 5] (theta divided by 12). In this article, we develop the mathematical model of the butterfly curve and analyse its geometric properties. In addition, we draw the butterfly curve and…

  17. SIPA1L3 identified by linkage analysis and whole-exome sequencing as a novel gene for autosomal recessive congenital cataract.

    PubMed

    Evers, Christina; Paramasivam, Nagarajan; Hinderhofer, Katrin; Fischer, Christine; Granzow, Martin; Schmidt-Bacher, Annette; Eils, Roland; Steinbeisser, Herbert; Schlesner, Matthias; Moog, Ute

    2015-12-01

    Congenital cataract (CC) is one of the most important causes for blindness or visual impairment in infancy. A substantial proportion of isolated CCs has monogenic causes. The disease is genetically heterogeneous, and all Mendelian modes of inheritance have been reported. We mapped a locus for isolated CC on 19p13.1-q13.2 in a distantly consanguineous German family with two sisters affected by dense white cataracts. Whole-exome sequencing identified a homozygous nonsense variant c.4489C>T (p.(R1497*)) in SIPA1L3 (signal-induced proliferation-associated 1 like 3) in both affected children. SIPA1L3 encodes a GTPase-activating protein (GAP), which interacts with small GTPases of the Rap family via its Rap-GAP-domain. The suggested role of Rap GTPases in cell growth, differentiation and organization of the cytoskeleton in the human lens, and lens-enriched expression of the murine ortholog gene Sipa1l3 in embryonic mice indicates that this gene is crucial for early lens development. Our results provide evidence that sequence variants in human SIPA1L3 cause autosomal recessive isolated CC and give new insight into the molecular pathogenesis underlying human cataracts. PMID:25804400

  18. Nonlinear Analysis and Post-Test Correlation for a Curved PRSEUS Panel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gould, Kevin; Lovejoy, Andrew E.; Jegley, Dawn; Neal, Albert L.; Linton, Kim, A.; Bergan, Andrew C.; Bakuckas, John G., Jr.

    2013-01-01

    The Pultruded Rod Stitched Efficient Unitized Structure (PRSEUS) concept, developed by The Boeing Company, has been extensively studied as part of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA s) Environmentally Responsible Aviation (ERA) Program. The PRSEUS concept provides a light-weight alternative to aluminum or traditional composite design concepts and is applicable to traditional-shaped fuselage barrels and wings, as well as advanced configurations such as a hybrid wing body or truss braced wings. Therefore, NASA, the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) and The Boeing Company partnered in an effort to assess the performance and damage arrestments capabilities of a PRSEUS concept panel using a full-scale curved panel in the FAA Full-Scale Aircraft Structural Test Evaluation and Research (FASTER) facility. Testing was conducted in the FASTER facility by subjecting the panel to axial tension loads applied to the ends of the panel, internal pressure, and combined axial tension and internal pressure loadings. Additionally, reactive hoop loads were applied to the skin and frames of the panel along its edges. The panel successfully supported the required design loads in the pristine condition and with a severed stiffener. The panel also demonstrated that the PRSEUS concept could arrest the progression of damage including crack arrestment and crack turning. This paper presents the nonlinear post-test analysis and correlation with test results for the curved PRSEUS panel. It is shown that nonlinear analysis can accurately calculate the behavior of a PRSEUS panel under tension, pressure and combined loading conditions.

  19. A Scientific Analysis of Galaxy Tangential Speed of Revolution Curves III

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taff, Laurence

    2015-04-01

    I last reported on my preliminary analysis of 350 + spiral, lenticular, irregular, polar ring, ring, and dwarf elliptical galaxies' tangential speed of revolution curves [TSRCs; and not rotation (sic) curves]. I now know that the consensus opinion in the literature--for which I can find no geometrical, numerical, statistical, nor scientific testing in 2,500 + publications--that the TSRC, vB(r), in the central bulges of these galaxies, is a linear function of the radial distance from the minor axis of symmetry r--is false. For the majority (>98%) vB(r) is rarely well represented by vB(r) = ?B r (for which the unique material model is an homogeneous, oblate, spheroid). Discovered via a scientific analysis of the gravitational potential energy computed directly from the observational data, vB(r) is almost exactly given by vB2(r) = (?B r)2(1 + ? r2) with | ? | < 10-2 and frequently orders of magnitude less. The corresponding mass model is the simplest generalization: a two component homoeoid. The set of possible periodic orbits, based on circular trigonometric functions, becomes a set of periodic orbits based on the Jacobian elliptic functions. Once again it is possible to prove that the mass-to-light ratio can neither be a constant nor follow the de Vaucouleurs R1/4 rule.

  20. Cooling Curve Analysis as an Alternative to Dilatometry in Continuous Cooling Transformations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gibbs, John W.; Schlacher, Christian; Kamyabi-Gol, Ata; Mayr, Peter; Mendez, Patricio F.

    2015-01-01

    Dilatometry and cooling curve analysis (CCA) are two methods of determining the evolution of a phase transformation with temperature. The two methods are similar conceptual in that they take an indirect measure of the transformation and extract phase fraction information from it; however, the differences between the two methods typically makes one method better suited to analyzing a given transformation. However, without a quantitative comparison between the two methods, it is difficult to use them interchangeably. We address this by presenting a quantitative comparison of CCA and dilatometry for a martensitic transformation in a 9Cr3W3CoVNb steel. The resulting phase fraction data matches very well, within 5 K (5 °C) for any given phase fraction. This paper also extends to the quantitative methodology of calorimetry to the analysis of dilatometric data, with results comparable to ASTM A1033-10, but with expected higher accuracy by accounting by variable thermal expansion coefficients.

  1. Buckling analysis of curved composite sandwich panels subjected to inplane loadings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cruz, Juan R.

    1993-01-01

    Composite sandwich structures are being considered for primary structure in aircraft such as subsonic and high speed civil transports. The response of sandwich structures must be understood and predictable to use such structures effectively. Buckling is one of the most important response mechanisms of sandwich structures. A simple buckling analysis is derived for sandwich structures. This analysis is limited to flat, rectangular sandwich panels loaded by uniaxial compression (N(sub x)) and having simply supported edges. In most aerospace applications, however, the structure's geometry, boundary conditions, and loading are usually very complex. Thus, a general capability for analyzing the buckling behavior of sandwich structures is needed. The present paper describes and evaluates an improved buckling analysis for cylindrically curved composite sandwich panels. This analysis includes orthotropic facesheets and first-order transverse shearing effects. Both simple support and clamped boundary conditions are also included in the analysis. The panels can be subjected to linearly varying normal loads N(sub x) and N(sub y) in addition to a constant shear load N(sub xy). The analysis is based on the modified Donnell's equations for shallow shells. The governing equations are solved by direct application of Galerkin's method. The accuracy of the present analysis is verified by comparing results with those obtained from finite element analysis for a variety of geometries, loads, and boundary conditions. The limitations of the present analysis are investigated, in particular those related to the shallow shell assumptions in the governing equations. Finally, the computational efficiency of the present analysis is considered.

  2. The composition-explicit distillation curve technique: Relating chemical analysis and physical properties of complex fluids.

    PubMed

    Bruno, Thomas J; Ott, Lisa S; Lovestead, Tara M; Huber, Marcia L

    2010-04-16

    The analysis of complex fluids such as crude oils, fuels, vegetable oils and mixed waste streams poses significant challenges arising primarily from the multiplicity of components, the different properties of the components (polarity, polarizability, etc.) and matrix properties. We have recently introduced an analytical strategy that simplifies many of these analyses, and provides the added potential of linking compositional information with physical property information. This aspect can be used to facilitate equation of state development for the complex fluids. In addition to chemical characterization, the approach provides the ability to calculate thermodynamic properties for such complex heterogeneous streams. The technique is based on the advanced distillation curve (ADC) metrology, which separates a complex fluid by distillation into fractions that are sampled, and for which thermodynamically consistent temperatures are measured at atmospheric pressure. The collected sample fractions can be analyzed by any method that is appropriate. The analytical methods we have applied include gas chromatography (with flame ionization, mass spectrometric and sulfur chemiluminescence detection), thin layer chromatography, FTIR, corrosivity analysis, neutron activation analysis and cold neutron prompt gamma activation analysis. By far, the most widely used analytical technique we have used with the ADC is gas chromatography. This has enabled us to study finished fuels (gasoline, diesel fuels, aviation fuels, rocket propellants), crude oils (including a crude oil made from swine manure) and waste oils streams (used automotive and transformer oils). In this special issue of the Journal of Chromatography, specifically dedicated to extraction technologies, we describe the essential features of the advanced distillation curve metrology as an analytical strategy for complex fluids. PMID:20004402

  3. Learning curve analysis of laparoscopic radical hysterectomy for gynecologic oncologists without open counterpart experience

    PubMed Central

    Kong, Tae-Wook; Paek, Jiheum; Park, Hyogyeong; Kang, Seong Woo; Ryu, Hee-Sug

    2015-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the learning curve of laparoscopic radical hysterectomy (LRH) for gynecologic oncologists who underwent residency- and fellowship-training on laparoscopic surgery without previous experience in performing abdominal radical hysterectomy (ARH). Methods We retrospectively reviewed 84 patients with FIGO (International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics) stage IB cervical cancer who underwent LRH (Piver type III) between April 2006 and March 2014. The patients were divided into two groups (surgeon A group, 42 patients; surgeon B group, 42 patients) according to the surgeon with or without ARH experience. Clinico-pathologic data were analyzed between the 2 groups. Operating times were analyzed using the cumulative sum technique. Results The operating time in surgeon A started at 5 to 10 standard deviations of mean operating time and afterward steeply decreased with operative experience (Pearson correlation coefficient=-0.508, P=0.001). Surgeon B, however, showed a gentle slope of learning curve within 2 standard deviations of mean operating time (Pearson correlation coefficient=-0.225, P=0.152). Approximately 18 cases for both surgeons were required to achieve surgical proficiency for LRH. Multivariate analysis showed that tumor size (>4 cm) was significantly associated with increased operating time (P=0.027; odds ratio, 4.667; 95% confidence interval, 1.187 to 18.352). Conclusion After completing the residency- and fellowship-training course on gynecologic laparoscopy, gynecologic oncologists, even without ARH experience, might reach an acceptable level of surgical proficiency in LRH after approximately 20 cases and showed a gentle slope of learning curve, taking less effort to initially perform LRH. PMID:26430662

  4. Measuring recession severity and its impact on healthcare expenditure.

    PubMed

    Keegan, Conor; Thomas, Steve; Normand, Charles; Portela, Conceição

    2013-06-01

    The financial crisis that manifested itself in late 2007 resulted in a Europe-wide economic crisis by 2009. As the economic climate worsened, Governments and households were put under increased strain and more focus was placed on prioritising expenditures. Across European countries and their heterogeneous health care systems, this paper examines the initial responsiveness of health expenditures to the crisis and whether recession severity can be considered a predictor of health expenditure growth. In measuring severity we move away from solely gross domestic product (GDP) as a metric and construct a recession severity index predicated on a number of key macroeconomic indicators. We then regress this index on measures of total, public and private health expenditure to identify potential relationships. Analysis suggests that for 2009, the Baltic States, along with Ireland, Italy and Greece, experienced comparatively severe recessions. We find, overall, an initial counter-cyclical response in health spending (both public and private) across countries. However, our analysis finds evidence of a negative relationship between recession severity and changes in certain health expenditures. As a predictor of health expenditure growth in 2009, the derived index is an improvement over GDP change alone. PMID:23417124

  5. Verbal learning across the lifespan: an analysis of the components of the learning curve.

    PubMed

    Blachstein, Haya; Vakil, Eli

    2016-03-01

    Previous studies on the acquisition process of verbal material, conducted separately on child and adult populations, reveal that the lifespan is characterized by an inverted-U performance curve with similar achievements at its two poles. To clarify the acquisition mechanism across the entire lifespan, the learning curve for the Rey Auditory Verbal Learning Test was reproduced for participants aged 8-91. The study utilized typical trial summary scores and a more refined analysis of trial-by-trial single-word recalls, including omissions (missed words that were previously recalled), additions (recalled words previously missed), and touched words (a count for the first recall time only, for each word during the five learning trial). A clear age effect was shown for the number of words recalled - symmetrically increases during childhood and decreases in adulthood. Similarly, increased turnover of words omitted and added characterized both incremental and decremental age differences. Measurement patterns differed for the age segments on the two sides of the lifespan, despite the similar total number of words recalled by the two sides. Acquisition pattern in children was characterized by a higher number of touched words and higher turnover than for adult groups. In contrast, older adults achieved fewer touched words and lower turnover than the child groups. This study shows that it is possible to reach the same quantitative results via different cognitive processes. The results are interpreted in terms of specific mechanisms of maturational characteristics. PMID:26186666

  6. Determination of secondary flow morphologies by wavelet analysis in a curved artery model with physiological inflow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bulusu, Kartik V.; Hussain, Shadman; Plesniak, Michael W.

    2014-11-01

    Secondary flow vortical patterns in arterial curvatures have the potential to affect several cardiovascular phenomena, e.g., progression of atherosclerosis by altering wall shear stresses, carotid atheromatous disease, thoracic aortic aneurysms and Marfan's syndrome. Temporal characteristics of secondary flow structures vis-à-vis physiological (pulsatile) inflow waveform were explored by continuous wavelet transform (CWT) analysis of phase-locked, two-component, two-dimensional particle image velocimeter data. Measurements were made in a 180° curved artery test section upstream of the curvature and at the 90° cross-sectional plane. Streamwise, upstream flow rate measurements were analyzed using a one-dimensional antisymmetric wavelet. Cross-stream measurements at the 90° location of the curved artery revealed interesting multi-scale, multi-strength coherent secondary flow structures. An automated process for coherent structure detection and vortical feature quantification was applied to large ensembles of PIV data. Metrics such as the number of secondary flow structures, their sizes and strengths were generated at every discrete time instance of the physiological inflow waveform. An autonomous data post-processing method incorporating two-dimensional CWT for coherent structure detection was implemented. Loss of coherence in secondary flow structures during the systolic deceleration phase is observed in accordance with previous research. The algorithmic approach presented herein further elucidated the sensitivity and dependence of morphological changes in secondary flow structures on quasiperiodicity and magnitude of temporal gradients in physiological inflow conditions.

  7. Seasonal recession of Mars' south polar cap in 1986

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    James, Philip B.; Martin, Leonard J.; Henson, Jean R.; Birch, Peter V.

    1990-01-01

    Photographs of Mars obtained during the 1986 opposition of the planet have been used to derive the regression curve for the south polar cap between Ls = 190 deg and Ls = 255 deg. The 1986 regression appears to have been unexceptional until after Ls = 230 deg, when it becomes retarded relative to the normal established by the 1971 and 1977 regressions. A study of the data as a function of the filter used suggests that circumpolar clouds were present in early spring, unlike the case in the 1977 recession.

  8. [Application of calibration curve method and partial least squares regression analysis to quantitative analysis of nephrite samples using XRF].

    PubMed

    Liu, Song; Su, Bo-min; Li, Qing-hui; Gan, Fu-xi

    2015-01-01

    The authors tried to find a method for quantitative analysis using pXRF without solid bulk stone/jade reference samples. 24 nephrite samples were selected, 17 samples were calibration samples and the other 7 are test samples. All the nephrite samples were analyzed by Proton induced X-ray emission spectroscopy (PIXE) quantitatively. Based on the PIXE results of calibration samples, calibration curves were created for the interested components/elements and used to analyze the test samples quantitatively; then, the qualitative spectrum of all nephrite samples were obtained by pXRF. According to the PIXE results and qualitative spectrum of calibration samples, partial least square method (PLS) was used for quantitative analysis of test samples. Finally, the results of test samples obtained by calibration method, PLS method and PIXE were compared to each other. The accuracy of calibration curve method and PLS method was estimated. The result indicates that the PLS method is the alternate method for quantitative analysis of stone/jade samples. PMID:25993858

  9. Differentiation of Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli Using Multiplex-PCR and High Resolution Melt Curve Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Banowary, Banya; Dang, Van Tuan; Sarker, Subir; Connolly, Joanne H.; Chenu, Jeremy; Groves, Peter; Ayton, Michelle; Raidal, Shane; Devi, Aruna; Vanniasinkam, Thiru; Ghorashi, Seyed A.

    2015-01-01

    Campylobacter spp. are important causes of bacterial gastroenteritis in humans in developed countries. Among Campylobacter spp. Campylobacter jejuni (C. jejuni) and C. coli are the most common causes of human infection. In this study, a multiplex PCR (mPCR) and high resolution melt (HRM) curve analysis were optimized for simultaneous detection and differentiation of C. jejuni and C. coli isolates. A segment of the hippuricase gene (hipO) of C. jejuni and putative aspartokinase (asp) gene of C. coli were amplified from 26 Campylobacter isolates and amplicons were subjected to HRM curve analysis. The mPCR-HRM was able to differentiate between C. jejuni and C. coli species. All DNA amplicons generated by mPCR were sequenced. Analysis of the nucleotide sequences from each isolate revealed that the HRM curves were correlated with the nucleotide sequences of the amplicons. Minor variation in melting point temperatures of C. coli or C. jejuni isolates was also observed and enabled some intraspecies differentiation between C. coli and/or C. jejuni isolates. The potential of PCR-HRM curve analysis for the detection and speciation of Campylobacter in additional human clinical specimens and chicken swab samples was also confirmed. The sensitivity and specificity of the test were found to be 100% and 92%, respectively. The results indicated that mPCR followed by HRM curve analysis provides a rapid (8 hours) technique for differentiation between C. jejuni and C. coli isolates. PMID:26394042

  10. Multivariate curve resolution for hyperspectral image analysis :applications to microarray technology.

    SciTech Connect

    Van Benthem, Mark Hilary; Sinclair, Michael B.; Haaland, David Michael; Martinez, M. Juanita (University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM); Timlin, Jerilyn Ann; Werner-Washburne, Margaret C. (University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM); Aragon, Anthony D. (University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM)

    2003-01-01

    Multivariate curve resolution (MCR) using constrained alternating least squares algorithms represents a powerful analysis capability for a quantitative analysis of hyperspectral image data. We will demonstrate the application of MCR using data from a new hyperspectral fluorescence imaging microarray scanner for monitoring gene expression in cells from thousands of genes on the array. The new scanner collects the entire fluorescence spectrum from each pixel of the scanned microarray. Application of MCR with nonnegativity and equality constraints reveals several sources of undesired fluorescence that emit in the same wavelength range as the reporter fluorphores. MCR analysis of the hyperspectral images confirms that one of the sources of fluorescence is due to contaminant fluorescence under the printed DNA spots that is spot localized. Thus, traditional background subtraction methods used with data collected from the current commercial microarray scanners will lead to errors in determining the relative expression of low-expressed genes. With the new scanner and MCR analysis, we generate relative concentration maps of the background, impurity, and fluorescent labels over the entire image. Since the concentration maps of the fluorescent labels are relatively unaffected by the presence of background and impurity emissions, the accuracy and useful dynamic range of the gene expression data are both greatly improved over those obtained by commercial microarray scanners.

  11. Recurrence plot analysis of nonstationary data: The understanding of curved patterns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Facchini, A.; Kantz, H.; Tiezzi, E.

    2005-08-01

    Recurrence plots of the calls of the Nomascus concolor (Western black crested gibbon) and Hylobates lar (White-handed gibbon) show characteristic circular, curved, and hyperbolic patterns superimposed to the main temporal scale of the signal. It is shown that these patterns are related to particular nonstationarities in the signal. Some of them can be reproduced by artificial signals like frequency modulated sinusoids and sinusoids with time divergent frequency. These modulations are too faint to be resolved by conventional time-frequency analysis with similar precision. Therefore, recurrence plots act as a magnifying glass for the detection of multiple temporal scales in slightly modulated signals. The detected phenomena in these acoustic signals can be explained in the biomechanical context by taking in account the role of the muscles controlling the vocal folds.

  12. Free vibration analysis of doubly curved shallow shells using the Superposition-Galerkin method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mochida, Y.; Ilanko, S.; Duke, M.; Narita, Y.

    2012-03-01

    This paper demonstrates the applicability of the Superposition Method for free vibration analysis of doubly curved thin shallow shells of rectangular planform with any possible combination of simply supported and clamped edges. The same building block yields the natural frequencies for 55 combinations of edge conditions. The natural frequency parameters of the shells were obtained using the Superposition-Galerkin Method (SGM) for seven sets of boundary conditions, several different curvature ratios and two aspect ratios. The SGM uses approximate steady state solutions as building blocks but the method proves to be accurate and efficient. It has also been shown that even with approximate building blocks, the monotonic nature of convergence of the natural frequencies with respect to the number of driving coefficients holds, as long as the number of admissible functions in the steady state solution is kept constant. The results for natural frequencies of the seven boundary conditions may be considered as benchmarks.

  13. Correlation Analysis of Optical and Radio Light Curves for a Large Sample of Active Galactic Nuclei

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clements, S. D.; Smith, A. G.; Aller, H. D.; Aller, M. F.

    1995-08-01

    The Rosemary Hill Observatory has accumulated internally consistent light curves extending over as much as 26 years for a large sample of active galactic nuclei. Forty-six of these optical records have been compared with similar radio records from the University of Michigan Radio Astronomy Observatory and the Algonquin Radio Observatory. For 18 objects, pairs of records were sufficiently long and unconfused to allow reliable application of the Discrete Correlation Function analysis; this group included 8 BL Lacertids, 8 quasars, and 2 Seyfert galaxies. Nine of the 18 sources showed positive radio-optical correlations, with the radio events lagging the optical by intervals ranging from 0 to 14 months. Consistent with the relativistic beaming model of the BL Lacertids, the group displaying correlations was dominated by this type of object.

  14. Magnetostatic interaction in soft magnetic bilayer ribbons unambiguously identified by first-order reversal curve analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rivas, M.; Martínez-García, J. C.; Škorvánek, I.; Marcin, J.; Švec, P.; Gorria, P.

    2015-09-01

    Monolithic amorphous Fe73.5Nb3Si13.5B9Cu1/Fe74.5Nb3Si13.5B9 bilayer ribbons were obtained by double-nozzle melt-spinning and subsequently annealed to produce a composite with a tailored nano/micro-crystalline structure. The overall magnetic behavior is characterized by butterfly-shaped high field hysteresis loops and positively biased low field ones. The main questions we wish to address here are whether the global magnetic behavior of the bilayer can be separated into the individual contributions of each layer and the magneto-coupling between them can be well understood. For that purpose, we performed first-order reversal curve analysis, which enabled us to distinctly identify two phases, of ultra-soft and semi-soft magnetic natures, whose mutual predominant interaction is the magnetostatic coupling.

  15. Recess Physical Activity and Perceived School Environment among Elementary School Children

    PubMed Central

    Ishii, Kaori; Shibata, Ai; Sato, Mai; Oka, Koichiro

    2014-01-01

    Differences in recess physical activity (PA) according to perceived school environment among elementary school children were examined. Participants were 103 children from two schools in Japan. PA was measured using accelerometry for seven consecutive days. Time spent in sedentary or PA (light, moderate, or vigorous) during their morning recess (25 min) and lunch recess (15 min) was determined. The School Physical Activity Environment Scale (three factors: equipment, facility, and safety) was used to investigate perceived school environment. Environmental factor scores were assigned to low or high groups for each factor by median. An analysis of covariance, with grade as the covariate, was conducted separately by gender to examine differences in PA between two groups. During lunch recess, boys in the high-equipment group spent significantly more time in moderate PA (high: 1.5; low: 0.8 min) whereas girls in this group spent less time in light PA (9.3, 11.0). Boys in the high-facility group spent significantly less time in sedentary (2.3, 3.9) and more time in vigorous PA (2.4, 1.4) during lunch recess, and girls spent more time in moderate (2.1, 1.2) and vigorous PA (1.9, 1.3) during morning recess. Differences were observed in recess PA according to school environment perceptions. The present study may be useful for further intervention studies for the promotion of PA during recess. PMID:25029495

  16. The Crucial Role of Recess in Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ramstetter, Catherine L.; Murray, Robert; Garner, Andrew S.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Recess is at the heart of a vigorous debate over the role of schools in promoting optimal child development and well-being. Reallocating time to accentuate academic concerns is a growing trend and has put recess at risk. Conversely, pressure to increase activity in school has come from efforts to combat childhood obesity. The purpose…

  17. Evaluation of drug-polymer solubility curves through formal statistical analysis: comparison of preparation techniques.

    PubMed

    Knopp, Matthias Manne; Olesen, Niels Erik; Holm, Per; Löbmann, Korbinian; Holm, René; Langguth, Peter; Rades, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    In this study, the influence of the preparation technique (ball milling, spray drying, and film casting) of a supersaturated amorphous dispersion on the quality of solubility determinations of indomethacin in polyvinylpyrrolidone was investigated by means of statistical analysis. After annealing of the amorphous dispersions above the crystallization temperature for 2 h, the solubility curve was derived from the glass transition temperature of the demixed material using the Gordon-Taylor relationship and fitting with the Flory-Huggins model. The study showed that the predicted solubility from the ball-milled mixtures was not consistent with those from spray drying and film casting, indicating fundamental differences between the preparation techniques. Through formal statistical analysis, the best combination of fit to the Flory-Huggins model and reproducibility of the measurements was analyzed. Ball milling provided the best reproducibility of the three preparation techniques; however, an analysis of residuals revealed a systematic error. In contrast, film casting demonstrated a good fit to the model but poor reproducibility of the measurements. Therefore, this study recommends that techniques such as spray drying or potentially film casting (if experimental reproducibility can be improved) should be used to prepare the amorphous dispersions when performing solubility measurements of this kind. PMID:25363890

  18. Kepler light curve analysis of the blazar W2R 1926+42

    E-print Network

    Mohan, P; Bachev, R; Strigachev, A

    2015-01-01

    We study the long term Kepler light curve of the blazar W2R 1926+42 ($\\sim$ 1.6 years) which indicates a variety of variability properties during different intervals of observation. The normalized excess variance, $F_{\\rm var}$ ranges from 1.8 % in the quiescent phase and 43.3 % in the outburst phase. We find no significant deviation from linearity in the $F_{\\rm var}$-flux relation. Time series analysis is conducted using the Fourier power spectrum and the wavelet analysis methods to study the power spectral density (PSD) shape, infer characteristic timescales and statistically significant quasi-periodic oscillations (QPOs). A bending power law with an associated timescale of $T_B = 6.2^{+6.4}_{-3.1}$ hours is inferred in the PSD analysis. We obtain a black hole mass of $M_\\bullet = (1.5 - 5.9) \\times 10^7 M_\\odot$ for the first time using $F_{\\rm var}$ and the bend timescale for this source. From a mean outburst lifetime of days, we infer a distance from the jet base $r \\leq 1.75$ pc indicating that the out...

  19. Genotype-phenotype correlations in recessive RYR1-related myopathies

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background RYR1 mutations are typically associated with core myopathies and are the most common overall cause of congenital myopathy. Dominant mutations are most often associated with central core disease and malignant hyperthermia, and genotype-phenotype patterns have emerged from the study of these mutations that have contributed to the understanding of disease pathogenesis. The recent availability of genetic testing for the entire RYR1 coding sequence has led to a dramatic expansion in the identification of recessive mutations in core myopathies and other congenital myopathies. To date, no clear patterns have been identified in these recessive mutations, though no systematic examination has yet been performed. Methods In this study, we investigated genotype-phenotype correlations in a large combined cohort of unpublished (n?=?14) and previously reported (n?=?92) recessive RYR1 cases. Results Overall examination of this cohort revealed nearly 50% of cases to be non-core myopathy related. Our most significant finding was that hypomorphic mutations (mutations expected to diminish RyR1 expression) were enriched in patients with severe clinical phenotypes. We also determined that hypomorphic mutations were more likely to be encountered in non-central core myopathies. With analysis of the location of non-hypomorphic mutations, we found that missense mutations were generally enriched in the MH/CCD hotspots and specifically enriched in the selectivity filter of the channel pore. Conclusions These results support a hypothesis that loss of protein function is a key predictive disease parameter. In addition, they suggest that decreased RyR1 expression may dictate non-core related pathology though, data on protein expression was limited and should be confirmed in a larger cohort. Lastly, the results implicate abnormal ion conductance through the channel pore in the pathogenesis in recessive core myopathies. Overall, our findings represent a comprehensive analysis of genotype-phenotype associations in recessive RYR1-myopathies. PMID:23919265

  20. Precession and Recession of the Rock'n'roller

    E-print Network

    Peter Lynch; Miguel D. Bustamante

    2009-07-09

    We study the dynamics of a spherical rigid body that rocks and rolls on a plane under the effect of gravity. The distribution of mass is non-uniform and the centre of mass does not coincide with the geometric centre. The symmetric case, with moments of inertia I_1=I_2, is integrable and the motion is completely regular. Three known conservation laws are the total energy E, Jellett's quantity Q_J and Routh's quantity Q_R. When the inertial symmetry I_1=I_2 is broken, even slightly, the character of the solutions is profoundly changed and new types of motion become possible. We derive the equations governing the general motion and present analytical and numerical evidence of the recession, or reversal of precession, that has been observed in physical experiments. We present an analysis of recession in terms of critical lines dividing the (Q_R,Q_J) plane into four dynamically disjoint zones. We prove that recession implies the lack of conservation of Jellett's and Routh's quantities, by identifying individual reversals as crossings of the orbit (Q_R(t),Q_J(t)) through the critical lines. Consequently, a method is found to produce a large number of initial conditions so that the system will exhibit recession.

  1. Dropped-head in recessive oculopharyngeal muscular dystrophy.

    PubMed

    Garibaldi, Matteo; Pennisi, Elena Maria; Bruttini, Mirella; Bizzarri, Veronica; Bucci, Elisabetta; Morino, Stefania; Talerico, Caterina; Stoppacciaro, Antonella; Renieri, Alessandra; Antonini, Giovanni

    2015-11-01

    A 69-year-old woman presented a dropped head, caused by severe neck extensor weakness that had started two years before. She had also developed a mild degree of dysphagia, rhinolalia, eyelid ptosis and proximal limb weakness during the last months. EMG revealed myopathic changes. Muscle MRI detected fatty infiltration in the posterior neck muscles and tongue. Muscle biopsy revealed fiber size variations, sporadic rimmed vacuoles, small scattered angulated fibers and a patchy myofibrillar network. Genetic analysis revealed homozygous (GCN)11 expansions in the PABPN1 gene that were consistent with recessive oculopharyngeal muscular dystrophy (OPMD). There are a few reports of the recessive form, which has a later disease onset with milder symptoms and higher clinical variability than the typical dominantly inherited form. This patient, who is the first Italian and the eighth worldwide reported case of recessive OPMD, is also the first case of OPMD with dropped-head syndrome, which thus expands the clinical phenotype of recessive OPMD. PMID:26494409

  2. Genetics Home Reference: Autosomal recessive axonal neuropathy with neuromyotonia

    MedlinePLUS

    ... OMIM Genetic disorder catalog Conditions > Autosomal recessive axonal neuropathy with neuromyotonia On this page: Description Genetic changes ... Reviewed September 2014 What is autosomal recessive axonal neuropathy with neuromyotonia? Autosomal recessive axonal neuropathy with neuromyotonia ...

  3. Analysis of Surface Plasmon Resonance Curves with a Novel Sigmoid-Asymmetric Fitting Algorithm

    PubMed Central

    Jang, Daeho; Chae, Geunhyoung; Shin, Sehyun

    2015-01-01

    The present study introduces a novel curve-fitting algorithm for surface plasmon resonance (SPR) curves using a self-constructed, wedge-shaped beam type angular interrogation SPR spectroscopy technique. Previous fitting approaches such as asymmetric and polynomial equations are still unsatisfactory for analyzing full SPR curves and their use is limited to determining the resonance angle. In the present study, we developed a sigmoid-asymmetric equation that provides excellent curve-fitting for the whole SPR curve over a range of incident angles, including regions of the critical angle and resonance angle. Regardless of the bulk fluid type (i.e., water and air), the present sigmoid-asymmetric fitting exhibited nearly perfect matching with a full SPR curve, whereas the asymmetric and polynomial curve fitting methods did not. Because the present curve-fitting sigmoid-asymmetric equation can determine the critical angle as well as the resonance angle, the undesired effect caused by the bulk fluid refractive index was excluded by subtracting the critical angle from the resonance angle in real time. In conclusion, the proposed sigmoid-asymmetric curve-fitting algorithm for SPR curves is widely applicable to various SPR measurements, while excluding the effect of bulk fluids on the sensing layer. PMID:26437414

  4. VizieR Online Data Catalog: GRB Swift X-ray light curves analysis (Margutti+, 2013)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Margutti, R.; Zaninoni, E.; Bernardini, M. G.; Chincarini, G.; Pasotti, F.; Guidorzi, C.; Angelini, L.; Burrows, D. N.; Capalbi, M.; Evans, P. A.; Gehrels, N.; Kennea, J.; Mangano, V.; Moretti, A.; Nousek, J.; Osborne, J. P.; Page, K. L.; Perri, M.; Racusin, J.; Romano, P.; Sbarufatti, B.; Stafford, S.; Stamatikos, M.

    2013-11-01

    We present a comprehensive statistical analysis of Swift X-ray light curves of gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) collecting data from more than 650 GRBs discovered by Swift and other facilities. The unprecedented sample size allows us to constrain the rest-frame X-ray properties of GRBs from a statistical perspective, with particular reference to intrinsic time-scales and the energetics of the different light-curve phases in a common rest-frame 0.3-30keV energy band. Temporal variability episodes are also studied and their properties constrained. Two fundamental questions drive this effort: (i) Does the X-ray emission retain any kind of 'memory' of the prompt ?-ray phase? (ii) Where is the dividing line between long and short GRB X-ray properties? We show that short GRBs decay faster, are less luminous and less energetic than long GRBs in the X-rays, but are interestingly characterized by similar intrinsic absorption. We furthermore reveal the existence of a number of statistically significant relations that link the X-ray to prompt ?-ray parameters in long GRBs; short GRBs are outliers of the majority of these two-parameter relations. However and more importantly, we report on the existence of a universal three-parameter scaling that links the X-ray and the ?-ray energy to the prompt spectral peak energy of both long and short GRBs: EX,iso{prop.to}E1.00+/-0.06?,iso/E0.60+/-0.10pk. (3 data files).

  5. Biological analysis of Jeffrey nanofluid in a curved channel with heat dissipation.

    PubMed

    Maraj, E N; Akbar, Noreen Sher; Nadeem, S

    2014-12-01

    This study examines the peristaltic flow of Jeffrey nanofluid in a curved channel. The governing equations of Jeffrey nanofluid model for curved channel are derived including the effects of curvature. The highly nonlinear partial differential equations are simplified by using the long wave length and low Reynolds number assumptions. The reduced nonlinear partial differential equations are solved analytically with the help of homotopy perturbation method. The expression for pressure rise is computed through numerical integration. The physical features of pertinent parameters have been discussed by plotting the graphs of pressure rise, velocity, temperature, nanoparticle volume fraction and stream functions. It is observed that the curve-ness of the channel decreases the pressure rise in the peristaltic pumping region. Moreover, curve-ness of the channel effects the fluid flow by decreasing the fluid velocity near inner wall and increasing the velocity near the outer wall of the channel. PMID:25122841

  6. THE XMM-NEWTON/EPIC X-RAY LIGHT CURVE ANALYSIS OF WR 6

    SciTech Connect

    Ignace, R.; Gayley, K. G.; Hamann, W.-R.; Oskinova, L. M.; Huenemoerder, D. P.; Pollock, A. M. T.; McFall, M.

    2013-09-20

    We obtained four pointings of over 100 ks each of the well-studied Wolf-Rayet star WR 6 with the XMM-Newton satellite. With a first paper emphasizing the results of spectral analysis, this follow-up highlights the X-ray variability clearly detected in all four pointings. However, phased light curves fail to confirm obvious cyclic behavior on the well-established 3.766 day period widely found at longer wavelengths. The data are of such quality that we were able to conduct a search for event clustering in the arrival times of X-ray photons. However, we fail to detect any such clustering. One possibility is that X-rays are generated in a stationary shock structure. In this context we favor a corotating interaction region (CIR) and present a phenomenological model for X-rays from a CIR structure. We show that a CIR has the potential to account simultaneously for the X-ray variability and constraints provided by the spectral analysis. Ultimately, the viability of the CIR model will require both intermittent long-term X-ray monitoring of WR 6 and better physical models of CIR X-ray production at large radii in stellar winds.

  7. Imaging the shallow subsurface with surface waves: dispersion curve analysis versus full waveform inversion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andrés Pérez Solano, Carlos; Donno, Daniela; Strobbia, Claudio; Chauris, Hervé

    2014-05-01

    Seismic surface wave analysis is a standard tool in geotechnical engineering for imaging the shallow subsurface. Most current surface wave analysis methods assume a horizontally layered medium, and estimate the near-surface shear velocity profile from dispersion curves, which are picked on frequency-wavenumber (f-k) gathers and then inverted using 1D modelling approaches. Media containing high velocity contrasts and irregular lateral variations might be difficult to be handled with the local 1D approximation. For 2D model estimation, full waveform inversion (FWI) is an alternative and can estimate high resolution models. The classical FWI objective function consists of the least-squares misfit between observed and modelled shot gathers (Tarantola, 1986). Classical FWI needs an accurate initial model for achieving convergence. Data sets containing surface waves could be inverted, without falling into secondary minima, if the data contains sufficiently low frequencies and large offsets such that multi-scale and time windowing approaches can be applied. We propose to invert surface waves with an alternative FWI-based approach that uses a modified objective function. It is based on the least-squares misfit between the absolute value of the f-k transform of windowed shot gathers. We refer to this approach as the windowed-Amplitude Waveform Inversion (w-AWI). Some secondary minima problems are mitigated: the choice of an initial model is easier in w-AWI than in FWI. The alternative objective function is intermediary between the one used in the 1D inversion approach (dispersion curves) and classical FWI. As most of the phase information is neglected in w-AWI, we use it as a first step before classical FWI. This sequential inversion approach using w-AWI followed by classical FWI aims at estimating a high-resolution near-surface velocity model, by explaining the complete elastic wavefield, even when the initial velocity model is far from the exact one. The proposed approach is tested on a synthetic model with high velocity contrasts. Comparison with classical 1D inversion methods is also provided. In the observed data, late arrivals are associated to back-scattered waves, which have been shown to be useful information for near-surface imaging (Campman and Riyanti, 2007). We define an inversion strategy tailored to better exploit the information of scattered surface waves. We invert first the more energetic direct arrivals, and then the complete dataset. By using this approach, we can assess the contribution of scattered waves to the estimation of a highly contrasted velocity model.

  8. Enhancing the Psychological Well-Being of Elderly Individuals through Tai Chi Exercise: A Latent Growth Curve Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Li, Fuzhong; Duncan, Terry E.; Duncan, Susan C.; McAuley, Edward; Chaumeton, Nigel R.; Harmer, Peter

    2001-01-01

    Examined whether a Tai Chi exercise program enhanced the psychological well-being of 98 elderly individuals. Analyzed repeated measures data about participants using latent growth curve analysis. Results indicate the beneficial effects of participation in the Tai Chi program. Discusses implications related to the exercise-psychological health…

  9. Prediction Accuracy of the Washington and Illinois Risk Assessment Instruments: An Application of Receiver Operating Characteristic Curve Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Camasso, Michael J.; Jagannathan, Radha

    1995-01-01

    Compares the predictive performances of the Illinois CANTS 17B and the Washington State Risk Matrix on a sample of New Jersey child protective services cases using logistic regression and receiver operating characteristic curve analysis. Both instruments predict case recidivism, closings, and substantiation with probabilities greater than chance.…

  10. Development of synthetic velocity - depth damage curves using a Weighted Monte Carlo method and Logistic Regression analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vozinaki, Anthi Eirini K.; Karatzas, George P.; Sibetheros, Ioannis A.; Varouchakis, Emmanouil A.

    2014-05-01

    Damage curves are the most significant component of the flood loss estimation models. Their development is quite complex. Two types of damage curves exist, historical and synthetic curves. Historical curves are developed from historical loss data from actual flood events. However, due to the scarcity of historical data, synthetic damage curves can be alternatively developed. Synthetic curves rely on the analysis of expected damage under certain hypothetical flooding conditions. A synthetic approach was developed and presented in this work for the development of damage curves, which are subsequently used as the basic input to a flood loss estimation model. A questionnaire-based survey took place among practicing and research agronomists, in order to generate rural loss data based on the responders' loss estimates, for several flood condition scenarios. In addition, a similar questionnaire-based survey took place among building experts, i.e. civil engineers and architects, in order to generate loss data for the urban sector. By answering the questionnaire, the experts were in essence expressing their opinion on how damage to various crop types or building types is related to a range of values of flood inundation parameters, such as floodwater depth and velocity. However, the loss data compiled from the completed questionnaires were not sufficient for the construction of workable damage curves; to overcome this problem, a Weighted Monte Carlo method was implemented, in order to generate extra synthetic datasets with statistical properties identical to those of the questionnaire-based data. The data generated by the Weighted Monte Carlo method were processed via Logistic Regression techniques in order to develop accurate logistic damage curves for the rural and the urban sectors. A Python-based code was developed, which combines the Weighted Monte Carlo method and the Logistic Regression analysis into a single code (WMCLR Python code). Each WMCLR code execution provided a flow velocity-depth damage curve for a specific land use. More specifically, each WMCLR code execution for the agricultural sector generated a damage curve for a specific crop and for every month of the year, thus relating the damage to any crop with floodwater depth, flow velocity and the growth phase of the crop at the time of flooding. Respectively, each WMCLR code execution for the urban sector developed a damage curve for a specific building type, relating structural damage with floodwater depth and velocity. Furthermore, two techno-economic models were developed in Python programming language, in order to estimate monetary values of flood damages to the rural and the urban sector, respectively. A new Monte Carlo simulation was performed, consisting of multiple executions of the techno-economic code, which generated multiple damage cost estimates. Each execution used the proper WMCLR simulated damage curve. The uncertainty analysis of the damage estimates established the accuracy and reliability of the proposed methodology for the synthetic damage curves' development.

  11. Experimental and simulation analysis of concave-down resistance curve during electromigration in solder joints

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, C. K.; Chang, Yuan Wei; Chen, Chih

    2014-02-01

    Resistance curves play a crucial role in detecting damage of solder joints during electromigration. In general, resistance increases slowly in the beginning, and then rises abruptly in the very late stage; i.e., the resistance curve behaves concave-up. However, several recent studies have reported concave-down resistance curves in solder joints with no satisfactory explanation for the discrepancy. In this study, electromigration failure mode in Sn2.5Ag solder joints was experimentally investigated. The bump resistance curve exhibited concave-down behavior due to formation of intermetallic compounds (IMCs). In contrast, the curve was concave-up when void formation dominated the failure mechanism. Finite element simulation was carried out to simulate resistance curves due to formation of IMCs and voids, respectively. The simulation results indicate that the main reason causing the concave-down curve is rapid formation of resistive Cu6Sn5 IMCs in the current-crowding region, which are 9 times larger than Cu IMCs. Therefore, when Cu reacted with Sn to form Cu6Sn5 IMCs, resistance increased abruptly, resulting in the concave-down resistance curve.

  12. Modeling and regression analysis of semiochemical dose-response curves of insect antennal reception and behavior

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Dose-response curves with semiochemicals are reported in many articles in insect chemical ecology regarding neurophysiology and behavioral bioassays. Most such curves are shown in figures where the x-axis has order of magnitude increases in dosages versus responses on the y-axis represented by point...

  13. Multicolor Melting Curve Analysis-Based Multilocus Melt Typing of Vibrio parahaemolyticus.

    PubMed

    Liu, Ran; Liu, Zanzan; Xu, Ye; Liao, Yiqun; Hu, Qinghua; Huang, Jianwei; Shi, Xiaolu; Li, Yinghui; Niu, Jianjun; Li, Qingge

    2015-01-01

    Vibrio parahaemolyticus is the leading cause of seafood-borne gastroenteritis outbreaks. To track the source of these diseases in a timely manner, a high throughput typing method is critical. We hereby describe a novel genotyping method for V. parahaemolyticus, termed multilocus melt typing (MLMT), based on multilocus sequence typing (MLST). MLMT utilizes melting curve analysis to interrogate the allelic types of a set of informative single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) derived from the housekeeping genes used in MLST. For each SNP, one allelic type generates distinct Tm values, which are converted into a binary code. Multiple SNPs thus generate a series of binary codes, forming a melt type (MT) corresponding with a sequence type (ST) of MLST. Using a set of 12 SNPs, the MLMT scheme could resolve 218 V.parahaemolyticus isolates into 50 MTs corresponding with 56 STs. The discriminatory power of MLMT and MLST was similar with Simpson's index of diversity of 0.638 and 0.646, respectively. The global (adjusted Rand index = 0.982) and directional congruence (adjusted Wallace coefficient, MT?ST = 0.965; ST?MT = 1.000) between the two typing approaches was high. The entire procedure of MLMT could be finished within 3 h with negligible hands on time in a real-time PCR machine. We conclude that MLMT provides a reliable and efficient approach for V. parahaemolyticus genotyping and might also find use in other pathogens. PMID:26368129

  14. Multicolor Melting Curve Analysis-Based Multilocus Melt Typing of Vibrio parahaemolyticus

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Ye; Liao, Yiqun; Hu, Qinghua; Huang, Jianwei; Shi, Xiaolu; Li, Yinghui; Niu, Jianjun; Li, Qingge

    2015-01-01

    Vibrio parahaemolyticus is the leading cause of seafood-borne gastroenteritis outbreaks. To track the source of these diseases in a timely manner, a high throughput typing method is critical. We hereby describe a novel genotyping method for V. parahaemolyticus, termed multilocus melt typing (MLMT), based on multilocus sequence typing (MLST). MLMT utilizes melting curve analysis to interrogate the allelic types of a set of informative single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) derived from the housekeeping genes used in MLST. For each SNP, one allelic type generates distinct Tm values, which are converted into a binary code. Multiple SNPs thus generate a series of binary codes, forming a melt type (MT) corresponding with a sequence type (ST) of MLST. Using a set of 12 SNPs, the MLMT scheme could resolve 218 V.parahaemolyticus isolates into 50 MTs corresponding with 56 STs. The discriminatory power of MLMT and MLST was similar with Simpson’s index of diversity of 0.638 and 0.646, respectively. The global (adjusted Rand index = 0.982) and directional congruence (adjusted Wallace coefficient, MT?ST = 0.965; ST?MT = 1.000) between the two typing approaches was high. The entire procedure of MLMT could be finished within 3 h with negligible hands on time in a real-time PCR machine. We conclude that MLMT provides a reliable and efficient approach for V. parahaemolyticus genotyping and might also find use in other pathogens. PMID:26368129

  15. Multiplex Fluorescence Melting Curve Analysis for Mutation Detection with Dual-Labeled, Self-Quenched Probes

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Qiuying; Liu, Zanzan; Liao, Yiqun; Chen, Xiaoyun; Zhang, Yi; Li, Qingge

    2011-01-01

    Probe-based fluorescence melting curve analysis (FMCA) is a powerful tool for mutation detection based on melting temperature generated by thermal denaturation of the probe-target hybrid. Nevertheless, the color multiplexing, probe design, and cross-platform compatibility remain to be limited by using existing probe chemistries. We hereby explored two dual-labeled, self-quenched probes, TaqMan and shared-stem molecular beacons, in their ability to conduct FMCA. Both probes could be directly used for FMCA and readily integrated with closed-tube amplicon hybridization under asymmetric PCR conditions. Improved flexibility of FMCA by using these probes was illustrated in three representative applications of FMCA: mutation scanning, mutation identification and mutation genotyping, all of which achieved improved color-multiplexing with easy probe design and versatile probe combination and all were validated with a large number of real clinical samples. The universal cross-platform compatibility of these probes-based FMCA was also demonstrated by a 4-color mutation genotyping assay performed on five different real-time PCR instruments. The dual-labeled, self-quenched probes offered unprecedented combined advantage of enhanced multiplexing, improved flexibility in probe design, and expanded cross-platform compatibility, which would substantially improve FMCA in mutation detection of various applications. PMID:21552536

  16. High-Resolution Melting Curve Analysis for Identification of Pasteurellaceae Species in Experimental Animal Facilities

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Manuel; Zorn, Julia; Brielmeier, Markus

    2015-01-01

    Pasteurellaceae are among the most prevalent bacterial pathogens isolated from mice housed in experimental animal facilities. Reliable detection and differentiation of Pasteurellaceae are essential for high-quality health monitoring. In this study, we combined a real-time PCR assay amplifying a variable region in the 16S rRNA sequence with high-resolution melting curve analysis (HRM) to identify and differentiate among the commonly isolated species Pasteurella pneumotropica biotypes “Jawetz” and “Heyl”, Actinobacillus muris, and Haemophilus influenzaemurium. We used a set of six reference strains for assay development, with the melting profiles of these strains clearly distinguishable due to DNA sequence variations in the amplicon. For evaluation, we used real-time PCR/HRM to test 25 unknown Pasteurellaceae isolates obtained from an external diagnostic laboratory and found the results to be consistent with those of partial 16S rRNA sequencing. The real-time PCR/HRM method provides a sensitive, rapid, and closed-tube approach for Pasteurellaceae species identification for health monitoring of laboratory mice. PMID:26556281

  17. Systematic review of suicide in economic recession

    PubMed Central

    Oyesanya, Mayowa; Lopez-Morinigo, Javier; Dutta, Rina

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To provide a systematic update of the evidence concerning the relationship between economic recession and suicide. METHODS: A keyword search of Ovid Medline, Embase, Embase Classic, PsycINFO and PsycARTICLES was performed to identify studies that had investigated the association between economic recession and suicide. RESULTS: Thirty-eight studies met predetermined selection criteria and 31 of them found a positive association between economic recession and increased suicide rates. Two studies reported a negative association, two articles failed to find such an association, and three studies were inconclusive. CONCLUSION: Economic recession periods appear to increase overall suicide rates, although further research is warranted in this area, particularly in low income countries. PMID:26110126

  18. Unsteady incompressible flow analysis using C-type grid with a curved branch cut

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fang, Kuan-Chieh

    2000-08-01

    For an unsteady viscous flow simulation on a two-dimensional body at high angle of attack, the calculation of unsteady aerodynamic forces acting on the body is influenced not only by the unsteady separated flow near the body but also by the unsteady wake behind the body. To resolve the wake flow behind the trailing edge, an orthogonal C-grid topology with a curved branch cut aligned with the inviscid stagnation streamline is generated using a conformal mapping technique. This permits the desired grid clustering in the wake region and leads to better flow results in that region. The conformal mapping technique also provides analytical Jacobian metrics for the coordinate transformation and an inviscid solution which is useful in initiating the viscous flow of the impulsively started motion. The use of analytical metric coefficients facilitates the direct determination of part of the coefficients in the governing equations without introducing numerical errors. The unsteady two-dimensional incompressible Navier-Stokes equations in generalized orthogonal coordinates are solved using a vorticity-stream function formulation. The analysis also requires coupling of flow circulation in the far field. As a result, the vorticity-stream function formulation introduced in the present study contains the spatially elliptic equation for the disturbance stream function coupled with the temporally parabolic vorticity transport equation. An efficient direct Block-Gaussian Elimination (BGE) technique is used to solve the stream function Poisson problem subject to Neumann and Dirichlet boundary conditions. The vorticity transport equation is solved using the Alternating Direct Implicit (ADI) method. In addition, the Jacobian at the grid points along the curved branch cut is multi-valued and the metric coefficients are found to be discontinuous across the branch cut. Hence, a special finite element interpolation is implemented in the governing equations at those points in order to overcome this discontinuity. To achieve the objective stated above, the unsteady flow over a stationary NACA 0015 airfoil at various angles of attack is selected in the present study.

  19. Re-Analysis of the Solar Phase Curves of the Icy Galilean Satellites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Domingue, Deborah; Verbiscer, Anne

    1997-01-01

    Re-analysis of the solar phase curves of the icy Galilean satellites demonstrates that the quantitative results are dependent on the single particle scattering function incorporated into the photometric model; however, the qualitative properties are independent. The results presented here show that the general physical characteristics predicted by a Hapke model (B. Hapke, 1986, Icarus 67, 264-280) incorporating a two parameter double Henyey-Greenstein scattering function are similar to the predictions given by the same model incorporating a three parameter double Henyey-Greenstein scattering function as long as the data set being modeled has adequate coverage in phase angle. Conflicting results occur when the large phase angle coverage is inadequate. Analysis of the role of isotropic versus anisotropic multiple scattering shows that for surfaces as bright as Europa the two models predict very similar results over phase angles covered by the data. Differences arise only at those phase angles for which there are no data. The single particle scattering behavior between the leading and trailing hemispheres of Europa and Ganymede is commensurate with magnetospheric alterations of their surfaces. Ion bombardment will produce more forward scattering single scattering functions due to annealing of potential scattering centers within regolith particles (N. J. Sack et al., 1992, Icarus 100, 534-540). Both leading and trailing hemispheres of Europa are consistent with a high porosity model and commensurate with a frost surface. There are no strong differences in predicted porosity between the two hemispheres of Callisto, both are consistent with model porosities midway between that deduced for Europa and the Moon. Surface roughness model estimates predict that surface roughness increases with satellite distance from Jupiter, with lunar surface roughness values falling midway between those measured for Ganymede and Callisto. There is no obvious variation in predicted surface roughness with hemisphere for any of the Galilean satellites.

  20. BEER ANALYSIS OF KEPLER AND CoRoT LIGHT CURVES. II. EVIDENCE FOR SUPERROTATION IN THE PHASE CURVES OF THREE KEPLER HOT JUPITERS

    SciTech Connect

    Faigler, S.; Mazeh, T.

    2015-02-10

    We analyzed the Kepler light curves of four transiting hot Jupiter systems—KOI-13, HAT-P-7, TrES-2, and Kepler-76, which show BEaming, Ellipsoidal, and Reflection (BEER) phase modulations. The mass of the four planets can be estimated from either the beaming or the ellipsoidal amplitude, given the mass and radius of their parent stars. For KOI-13, HAT-P-7, and Kepler-76 we find that the beaming-based planetary mass estimate is larger than the mass estimated from the ellipsoidal amplitude, consistent with previous studies. This apparent discrepancy may be explained by equatorial superrotation of the planet atmosphere, which induces an angle shift of the planet reflection/emission phase modulation, as was suggested for Kepler-76 in the first paper of this series. We propose a modified BEER model that supports superrotation, assuming either a Lambertian or geometric reflection/emission phase function, and provides a photometry-consistent estimate of the planetary mass. Our analysis shows that for Kepler-76 and HAT-P-7, the Lambertian superrotation BEER model is highly preferable over an unshifted null model, while for KOI-13 it is preferable only at a 1.4? level. For TrES-2 we do not find such preference. For all four systems the Lambertian superrotation model mass estimates are in excellent agreement with the planetary masses derived from, or constrained by, radial velocity measurements. This makes the Lambertian superrotation BEER model a viable tool for estimating the masses of hot Jupiters from photometry alone. We conclude that hot Jupiter superrotation may be a common phenomenon that can be detected in the visual light curves of Kepler.

  1. Surface recession characteristics of a cryogenic insulation subjected to arc-tunnel heating

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pittman, C. M.; Brown, R. D.

    1975-01-01

    Specimens of a cryogenic insulation, proposed for use on the space shuttle external tank, were tested in an arc tunnel over a range of heating rates, pressures, and enthalpies corresponding to the shuttle ascent environment. A regression analysis was used to correlate the test data. Correlation equations involving surface recession rate as a function of heating rate, pressure, and enthalpy were developed. These equations can be used to make total surface recession predictions for shuttle ascent flight environments.

  2. Type curve analysis for naturally fractured reservoirs (infinite-acting reservoir case): a new approach 

    E-print Network

    Angel Restrepo, Juan Alejandro

    2000-01-01

    ). A further improvement is presented in this work. This improvement was achieved by the introduction of a new dimensionless parameter, ?=[]C[], where the use of ? as a family parameter for the dimensionless pressure function type curves provides a...

  3. Analysis of post-Kyoto CO? emissions trading using marginal abatement curves

    E-print Network

    Ellerman, A. Denny.; Decaux, Annelène.

    Marginal abatement curves (MACs) are often used heuristically to demonstrate the advantages of emissions trading. In this paper, the authors derive MACs from EPPA, the MIT Joint Program's computable general equilibrium ...

  4. BEER analysis of Kepler and CoRoT light curves. III. Spectroscopic confirmation of seventy new beaming binaries discovered in CoRoT light curves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tal-Or, L.; Faigler, S.; Mazeh, T.

    2015-08-01

    Context. The BEER algorithm searches stellar light curves for the BEaming, Ellipsoidal, and Reflection photometric modulations that are caused by a short-period companion. These three effects are typically of very low amplitude and can mainly be detected in light curves from space-based photometers. Unlike eclipsing binaries, these effects are not limited to edge-on inclinations. Aims: Applying the algorithm to wide-field photometric surveys such as CoRoT and Kepler offers an opportunity to better understand the statistical properties of short-period binaries. It also widens the window for detecting intrinsically rare systems, such as short-period brown-dwarf and massive-planetary companions to main-sequence stars. Methods: Applying the search to the first five long-run center CoRoT fields, we identified 481 non-eclipsing candidates with periodic flux amplitudes of 0.5-87 mmag. Optimizing the Anglo-Australian-Telescope pointing coordinates and the AAOmega fiber-allocations with dedicated softwares, we acquired six spectra for 231 candidates and seven spectra for another 50 candidates in a seven-night campaign. Analysis of the red-arm AAOmega spectra, which covered the range of 8342-8842 Å, yielded a radial-velocity precision of ~1 km s-1. Spectra containing lines of more than one star were analyzed with the two-dimensional correlation algorithm TODCOR. Results: The measured radial velocities confirmed the binarity of seventy of the BEER candidates - 45 single-line binaries, 18 double-line binaries, and 7 diluted binaries. We show that red giants introduce a major source of false candidates and demonstrate a way to improve BEER's performance in extracting higher fidelity samples from future searches of CoRoT light curves. The periods of the confirmed binaries span a range of 0.3-10 days and show a rise in the number of binaries per ?logP toward longer periods. The estimated mass ratios of the double-line binaries and the mass ratios assigned to the single-line binaries, assuming an isotropic inclination distribution, span a range of 0.03-1. On the low-mass end, we have detected two brown-dwarf candidates on a ~1 day period orbit. Conclusions: This is the first time non-eclipsing beaming binaries are detected in CoRoT data, and we estimate that ~300 such binaries can be detected in the CoRoT long-run light curves. Full Tables 2, 4, and 5 are only available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (ftp://130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/viz-bin/qcat?J/A+A/580/A21

  5. Characterization of the mutation causative for autosomal recessive hereditary nephropathy in the english cocker spaniel and analysis of gene expression in multiple models of hereditary nephropathy 

    E-print Network

    Davidson, Ashley Greene

    2009-05-15

    .03) in XLAS-affected NAV dogs. No changes in gene expression levels were detected for COL4?3, COL4?4, and COL4?6 (p=0.65, 0.88, and 0.54, respectively). -4 -3 -2 -1 0 1 2 col4a1 col4a2 col4a3 col4a4 col4a5 col4a6 Gene Fol d C h a n ge Affected NAV... Carrier NAV Affected ECS Fol d C h a n ge Figure 2. Results of quantitative real time RT-PCR analysis displayed by groups of dogs. Bars represent transcript levels of selected type IV collagen genes in the renal cortex of respective groups of dogs...

  6. Analysis of respiratory pressure-volume curves in intensive care medicine using inductive machine learning.

    PubMed

    Ganzert, Steven; Guttmann, Josef; Kersting, Kristian; Kuhlen, Ralf; Putensen, Christian; Sydow, Michael; Kramer, Stefan

    2002-01-01

    We present a case study of machine learning and data mining in intensive care medicine. In the study, we compared different methods of measuring pressure-volume curves in artificially ventilated patients suffering from the adult respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). Our aim was to show that inductive machine learning can be used to gain insights into differences and similarities among these methods. We defined two tasks: the first one was to recognize the measurement method producing a given pressure-volume curve. This was defined as the task of classifying pressure-volume curves (the classes being the measurement methods). The second was to model the curves themselves, that is, to predict the volume given the pressure, the measurement method and the patient data. Clearly, this can be defined as a regression task. For these two tasks, we applied C5.0 and CUBIST, two inductive machine learning tools, respectively. Apart from medical findings regarding the characteristics of the measurement methods, we found some evidence showing the value of an abstract representation for classifying curves: normalization and high-level descriptors from curve fitting played a crucial role in obtaining reasonably accurate models. Another useful feature of algorithms for inductive machine learning is the possibility of incorporating background knowledge. In our study, the incorporation of patient data helped to improve regression results dramatically, which might open the door for the individual respiratory treatment of patients in the future. PMID:12234718

  7. Magnetic unmixing of first-order reversal curve diagrams using principal component analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lascu, Ioan; Harrison, Richard J.; Li, Yuting; Muraszko, Joy R.; Channell, James E. T.; Piotrowski, Alexander M.; Hodell, David A.

    2015-09-01

    We describe a quantitative magnetic unmixing method based on principal component analysis (PCA) of first-order reversal curve (FORC) diagrams. For PCA, we resample FORC distributions on grids that capture diagnostic signatures of single-domain (SD), pseudosingle-domain (PSD), and multidomain (MD) magnetite, as well as of minerals such as hematite. Individual FORC diagrams are recast as linear combinations of end-member (EM) FORC diagrams, located at user-defined positions in PCA space. The EM selection is guided by constraints derived from physical modeling and imposed by data scatter. We investigate temporal variations of two EMs in bulk North Atlantic sediment cores collected from the Rockall Trough and the Iberian Continental Margin. Sediments from each site contain a mixture of magnetosomes and granulometrically distinct detrital magnetite. We also quantify the spatial variation of three EM components (a coarse silt-sized MD component, a fine silt-sized PSD component, and a mixed clay-sized component containing both SD magnetite and hematite) in surficial sediments along the flow path of the North Atlantic Deep Water (NADW). These samples were separated into granulometric fractions, which helped constrain EM definition. PCA-based unmixing reveals systematic variations in EM relative abundance as a function of distance along NADW flow. Finally, we apply PCA to the combined data set of Rockall Trough and NADW sediments, which can be recast as a four-EM mixture, providing enhanced discrimination between components. Our method forms the foundation of a general solution to the problem of unmixing multicomponent magnetic mixtures, a fundamental task of rock magnetic studies.

  8. The impact of the great recession on community-based mental health organizations: an analysis of top managers' perceptions of the economic downturn's effects and adaptive strategies used to manage the consequences in Ohio.

    PubMed

    Sweeney, Helen Anne; Knudsen, Kraig

    2014-04-01

    The Great Recession of 2007-2009 adversely affected the financial stability of the community-based mental health infrastructure in Ohio. This paper presents survey results of the type of adaptive strategies used by Ohio community-based mental health organizations to manage the consequences of the economic downturn. Results were aggregated into geographical classifications of rural, mid-sized urban, and urban. Across all groups, respondents perceived, to varying degrees, that the Great Recession posed a threat to their organization's survival. Urban organizations were more likely to implement adaptive strategies to expand operations while rural and midsized urban organizations implemented strategies to enhance internal efficiencies. PMID:23408296

  9. Analysis of late-time light curves of Type IIb, Ib and Ic supernovae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wheeler, J. Craig; Johnson, V.; Clocchiatti, A.

    2015-06-01

    The shape of the light-curve peak of radioactive-powered core-collapse `stripped-envelope' supernovae constrains the ejecta mass, nickel mass and kinetic energy by the brightness and diffusion time for a given opacity and observed expansion velocity. Late-time light curves give constraints on the ejecta mass and energy, given the gamma-ray opacity. Previous work has shown that the principal light-curve peaks for SN IIb with small amounts of hydrogen and for hydrogen/helium-deficient SN Ib/c are often rather similar near maximum light, suggesting similar ejecta masses and kinetic energies, but that late-time light curves show a wide dispersion, suggesting a dispersion in ejecta masses and kinetic energies. It was also shown that SN IIb and SN Ib/c can have very similar late-time light curves, but different ejecta velocities demanding significantly different ejecta masses and kinetic energies. We revisit these topics by collecting and analysing well-sampled single-band and quasi-bolometric light curves from the literature. We find that the late-time light curves of stripped-envelope core-collapse supernovae are heterogeneous. We also show that the observed properties, the photospheric velocity at peak, the rise time and the late decay time, can be used to determine the mean opacity appropriate to the peak. The opacity determined in this way is considerably smaller than common estimates. We discuss how the small effective opacity may result from recombination and asymmetries in the ejecta.

  10. A historical perspective of the effect of the great recession on hospitals.

    PubMed

    Shortt, Janet

    2014-08-01

    At 18 months, the Great Recession of December 2007 to June 2009 is the longest recession since World War II. The recession led to soaring unemployment, resulting in loss of employment-based health insurance for millions of people. In addition to seeing increases in uninsured patients, hospitals experienced losses in their investment portfolios, which in turn increased bad debt, charity care, and uncompensated care nationwide. Hospital executives began to devise cost-cutting strategies to balance the rising debt, such as standardizing medical equipment, cutting staff positions, and delaying construction projects and capital expenditures as well as implementing value analysis strategies. The recession is officially over, and, although economic recovery has been slow and unemployment continues to be an issue, hospitals' net revenue started improving as of 2009 and hospital construction started increasing in 2010. Still, caution is warranted in the postrecession climate, because it is unknown what effects will be seen when the Baby Boomer generation begins using Medicare. PMID:25080418

  11. Fourier Analysis of Gamma-Ray Burst Light Curves: Searching for Direct Signature of Cosmological Time Dilation

    E-print Network

    Heon-Young Chang

    2001-07-17

    We study the power density spectrum (PDS) of light curves of the observed gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) to search for a direct signature for cosmological time dilation in the PDS statistics with the GRBs whose redshifts $z$'s are known. The anticorrelation of a timescale measure and a brightness measure is indirect evidence of its effect. On the other hand, we directly demonstrate that a time dilation effect can be seen in GRB light curves. We find that timescales tend to be shorter in bursts with small redshift, as expected from cosmological time-dilation effects, and we also find that there may be non-cosmological effects constituting to this correlation. We discuss its implication on interpretations of the PDS analysis results. We put forward another caution to this kind of analysis when we statistically exercise with GRBs whose $z$ is unknown.

  12. Generalized semi-analytical finite difference method for dispersion curves calculation and numerical dispersion analysis for Lamb waves.

    PubMed

    Packo, Pawel; Uhl, Tadeusz; Staszewski, Wieslaw J

    2014-09-01

    The paper presents an efficient and accurate method for dispersion curve calculation and analysis of numerical models for guided waves. The method can be used for any arbitrarily selected anisotropic material. The proposed approach utilizes the wave equation and through-thickness-only discretization of anisotropic, layered plates to obtain the Lamb wave characteristics. Thus, layered structures, such as composites, can be analyzed in a straightforward manner. A general framework for the proposed analysis is given, along with application examples. Although these examples are based on the local interaction simulation approach for elastic waves propagation, the proposed methodology can be easily adopted for other methods (e.g., finite elements). The method can be also used to study the influence of discretization parameters on dispersion curves estimates. PMID:25190375

  13. Recession and Divorce in the United States, 2008-2011

    PubMed Central

    Cohen, Philip N.

    2015-01-01

    Recession may increase divorce through a stress mechanism, or reduce divorce by exacerbating cost barriers or strengthening family bonds. After establishing an individual-level model predicting U.S. women's divorce, the paper tests period effects, and whether unemployment and foreclosures are associated with the odds of divorce using the 2008-2011 American Community Survey. Results show a downward spike in the divorce rate after 2008, almost recovering to the expected level by 2011, which suggests a negative recession effect. On the other hand, state foreclosure rates are positively associated with the odds of divorce with individual controls, although this effect is not significant when state fixed effects are introduced. State unemployment rates show no effect on odds of divorce. Future research will have to determine why national divorce odds fell during the recession while state-level economic indicators were not strongly associated with divorce. Exploratory analysis which shows unemployment decreasing divorce odds for those with college degrees, while foreclosures have the opposite effect, provides one possible avenue for such research. PMID:26023246

  14. Frequency curves

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Riggs, H.C.

    1968-01-01

    This manual describes graphical and mathematical procedures for preparing frequency curves from samples of hydrologic data. It also discusses the theory of frequency curves, compares advantages of graphical and mathematical fitting, suggests methods of describing graphically defined frequency curves analytically, and emphasizes the correct interpretations of a frequency curve.

  15. NEW REACTOR DESIGN AND ANALYSIS OF NON LINEAR VIBRATIONS OF DOUBLY CURVED SHALLOW SHELL UNDER A THERMAL GRADIENT

    SciTech Connect

    Chanda, S.

    2004-10-06

    The present study concerns with the effects of material orthotropy,curvature, shear ratio and circumferential modulus under the influence of a temperature distribution throughout the shell structure. Here analysis is restricted to the study of nonlinear vibration of a doubly curved shell structure considering the periodic response of a simple bending mode due to curtailment of pages. Solutions of the problems with suitable illustrations are also presented.

  16. The data mining: An analysis of 20 eclipsing binary light-curves observed by the INTEGRAL/OMC

    E-print Network

    P. Zasche

    2008-11-11

    Twenty eclipsing binaries were selected for an analysis from a huge database of observations made by the INTEGRAL/OMC camera. The photometric data were processed and analyzed, resulting in a first light-curve study of these neglected eclipsing binaries. Most of the selected systems are the detached ones. The system ET Vel was discovered to be an eccentric one. Due to missing spectroscopic study of these stars, further detailed analyses are still needed.

  17. Making the Most of Kepler Photometry: Characterizing Exoplanets through Phase Curve Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Esteves, Lisa J.; Jayawardhana, Ray; de Mooij, Ernst

    2015-09-01

    The Kepler mission's long-term monitoring of stars through high-precision photometry has not only revealed a plethora of exoplanet transits but also provided valuable data for characterizing a subset of these planets. Using over four years of Kepler observations, we have derived phase curves for over a dozen planets, and use these measurements to constrain their mass, brightness/temperature and energy redistribution between the day and the night sides. In our new study, we also investigate possible offsets of the peak brightness of the phase curve, which could be indicative of inhomogeneous clouds and/or substantial winds in the planet's atmosphere. We find significant offsets for over a half-dozen planets. With this growing sample of measured phase curves, we are able to better examine the trends of hot Jupiter energy budgets and albedos, and for the first time relate these properties to the presence of clouds or winds on a planet.

  18. Open-Mode Debonding Analysis of Curved Sandwich Panels Subjected to Heating and Cryogenic Cooling on Opposite Faces

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ko, William L.

    1999-01-01

    Increasing use of curved sandwich panels as aerospace structure components makes it vital to fully understand their thermostructural behavior and identify key factors affecting the open-mode debonding failure. Open-mode debonding analysis is performed on a family of curved honeycomb-core sandwich panels with different radii of curvature. The curved sandwich panels are either simply supported or clamped, and are subjected to uniform heating on the convex side and uniform cryogenic cooling on the concave side. The finite-element method was used to study the effects of panel curvature and boundary condition on the open-mode stress (radial tensile stress) and displacement fields in the curved sandwich panels. The critical stress point, where potential debonding failure could initiate, was found to be at the midspan (or outer span) of the inner bonding interface between the sandwich core and face sheet on the concave side, depending on the boundary condition and panel curvature. Open-mode stress increases with increasing panel curvature, reaching a maximum value at certain high curvature, and then decreases slightly as the panel curvature continues to increase and approach that of quarter circle. Changing the boundary condition from simply supported to clamped reduces the magnitudes of open-mode stresses and the associated sandwich core depth stretching.

  19. The Second Order Approximation to Sample Influence Curve in Canonical Correlation Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fung, Wing K.; Gu, Hong

    1998-01-01

    A second order approximation to the sample influence curve (SIC) has been derived in the literature. This paper presents a more accurate second order approximation, which is exact for the SIC of the squared multiple correction coefficient. An example is presented. (SLD)

  20. Parent Involvement and Science Achievement: A Cross-Classified Multilevel Latent Growth Curve Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Ursula Y.; Hull, Darrell M.

    2014-01-01

    The authors examined science achievement growth at Grades 3, 5, and 8 and parent school involvement at the same time points using the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study-Kindergarten Class of 1998-1999. Data were analyzed using cross-classified multilevel latent growth curve modeling with time invariant and varying covariates. School-based…

  1. The Latent Curve ARMA (P, Q) Panel Model: Longitudinal Data Analysis in Educational Research and Evaluation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sivo, Stephen; Fan, Xitao

    2008-01-01

    Autocorrelated residuals in longitudinal data are widely reported as common to longitudinal data. Yet few, if any, researchers modeling growth processes evaluate a priori whether their data have this feature. Sivo, Fan, and Witta (2005) found that not modeling autocorrelated residuals present in longitudinal data severely biases latent curve

  2. A LIGHT CURVE ANALYSIS OF CLASSICAL NOVAE: FREE-FREE EMISSION VERSUS PHOTOSPHERIC EMISSION

    SciTech Connect

    Hachisu, Izumi; Kato, Mariko E-mail: mariko@educ.cc.keio.ac.jp

    2015-01-10

    We analyzed light curves of seven relatively slower novae, PW Vul, V705 Cas, GQ Mus, RR Pic, V5558 Sgr, HR Del, and V723 Cas, based on an optically thick wind theory of nova outbursts. For fast novae, free-free emission dominates the spectrum in optical bands rather than photospheric emission, and nova optical light curves follow the universal decline law. Faster novae blow stronger winds with larger mass-loss rates. Because the brightness of free-free emission depends directly on the wind mass-loss rate, faster novae show brighter optical maxima. In slower novae, however, we must take into account photospheric emission because of their lower wind mass-loss rates. We calculated three model light curves of free-free emission, photospheric emission, and their sum for various white dwarf (WD) masses with various chemical compositions of their envelopes and fitted reasonably with observational data of optical, near-IR (NIR), and UV bands. From light curve fittings of the seven novae, we estimated their absolute magnitudes, distances, and WD masses. In PW Vul and V705 Cas, free-free emission still dominates the spectrum in the optical and NIR bands. In the very slow novae, RR Pic, V5558 Sgr, HR Del, and V723 Cas, photospheric emission dominates the spectrum rather than free-free emission, which makes a deviation from the universal decline law. We have confirmed that the absolute brightnesses of our model light curves are consistent with the distance moduli of four classical novae with known distances (GK Per, V603 Aql, RR Pic, and DQ Her). We also discussed the reason why the very slow novae are about ?1 mag brighter than the proposed maximum magnitude versus rate of decline relation.

  3. Glacier recession in Iceland and Austria

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hall, Dorothy K.; Williams, Richard S., Jr.; Bayr, Klaus J.

    1992-01-01

    It has been possible to measure glacier recession on the basis of Landsat data, in conjunction with comparisons of the magnitude of recession of a glacier margin with in situ measurements at fixed points along the same margin. Attention is presently given to the cases of Vatnajokull ice cap, in Iceland, and the Pasterze Glacier, in Austria, on the basis of satellite data from 1973-1987 and 1984-1990, respectively. Indications of a trend toward negative mass balance are noted. Nevertheless, while most of the world's small glaciers have been receding, some are advancing either due to local climate or the tidewater glacier cycle.

  4. Glacier recession in Iceland and Austria

    SciTech Connect

    Hall, D.K.; Williams, R.S. Jr.; Bayr, K.J. USGS, Reston, VA Keene State College, NH )

    1992-03-01

    It has been possible to measure glacier recession on the basis of Landsat data, in conjunction with comparisons of the magnitude of recession of a glacier margin with in situ measurements at fixed points along the same margin. Attention is presently given to the cases of Vatnajokull ice cap, in Iceland, and the Pasterze Glacier, in Austria, on the basis of satellite data from 1973-1987 and 1984-1990, respectively. Indications of a trend toward negative mass balance are noted. Nevertheless, while most of the world's small glaciers have been receding, some are advancing either due to local climate or the tidewater glacier cycle. 21 refs.

  5. Recession of Martian north polar cap - 1977-1978 Viking observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    James, P. B.

    1979-01-01

    The regression curve for the 1977-1978 sublimation of the north polar cap of Mars is extracted from Viking orbiter imaging data. The recession observed during the spring season is quite consistent with previous observations and is in excellent agreement with telescopic data obtained concurrently. A receding late winter boundary is identified, but owing to hood obscuration this boundary cannot be definitely attributed to a surface cap.

  6. Barcoding Melting Curve Analysis for Rapid, Sensitive, and Discriminating Authentication of Saffron (Crocus sativus L.) from Its Adulterants

    PubMed Central

    Cao, Liang; Yuan, Yuan; Chen, Min; Jin, Yan; Huang, Luqi

    2014-01-01

    Saffron (Crocus sativus L.) is one of the most important and expensive medicinal spice products in the world. Because of its high market value and premium price, saffron is often adulterated through the incorporation of other materials, such as Carthamus tinctorius L. and Calendula officinalis L. flowers, Hemerocallis L. petals, Daucus carota L. fleshy root, Curcuma longa L. rhizomes, Zea may L., and Nelumbo nucifera Gaertn. stigmas. To develop a straightforward, nonsequencing method for rapid, sensitive, and discriminating detection of these adulterants in traded saffron, we report here the application of a barcoding melting curve analysis method (Bar-MCA) that uses the universal chloroplast plant DNA barcoding region trnH-psbA to identify adulterants. When amplified at DNA concentrations and annealing temperatures optimized for the curve analysis, peaks were formed at specific locations for saffron (81.92°C) and the adulterants: D. carota (81.60°C), C. tinctorius (80.10°C), C. officinalis (79.92°C), Dendranthema morifolium (Ramat.) Tzvel. (79.62°C), N. nucifera (80.58°C), Hemerocallis fulva (L.) L. (84.78°C), and Z. mays (84.33°C). The constructed melting curves for saffron and its adulterants have significantly different peak locations or shapes. In conclusion, Bar-MCA could be a faster and more cost-effective method to authenticate saffron and detect its adulterants. PMID:25548775

  7. Estimate of soil hydraulic properties from disc infiltrometer three-dimensional infiltration curve. Numerical analysis and field application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Latorre, B.; Peña, C.; Lassabatere, L.; Angulo-Jaramillo, R.; Moret-Fernández, D.

    2015-08-01

    Based on the analysis of Haverkamp et al. (1994), this paper presents a new technique to estimate the soil hydraulic properties (sorptivity, S, and hydraulic conductivity, K) from the full-time cumulative infiltration curves. The proposed method, which will be named as the Numerical Solution of the Haverkamp equation (NSH), was validated on 12 synthetic soils simulated with HYDRUS-3D. The K values used to simulate the synthetic curves were compared to those estimated with the NSH method. A procedure to detect and remove the effect of the contact sand layer on the cumulative infiltration curve was also developed. A sensitivity analysis was performed using the water level measurement as uncertainty source and the procedure was evaluated considering different infiltration times and data noise (e.g. air-bubbling in the infiltrometer). The good correlation between the K used in HYDRUS-3D to model the infiltration curves and those obtained by the NSH method (R2 = 0.98) indicates this technique is robust enough to estimate the soil hydraulic conductivity from complete infiltration curves. The numerical procedure to detect and remove the influence of the contact sand layer on the K and S estimates resulted to be robust and efficient. A negative effect of the curve infiltration noise on the K estimate was observed. The results showed that infiltration time was an important factor to estimate K. Smaller values of K or lower uncertainty required longer infiltration times. In a second step, the technique was tested in field conditions on 266 different soils at saturation conditions, using a 10 cm diameter disc infiltrometer. The NSH method was compared to the standard differentiated linearization procedure (DL), which estimates the hydraulic parameters using the simplified Haverkamp et al. (1994) equation, valid only for short to medium times. Compared to DL, NSH was considerably less affected by the infiltration bubbling and the contact sand layer, and allowed more robust estimates of K and S. Although comparable S values were obtained with both methods, the NSH technique, which is not limited to short times, resulted in more accurate and robust estimates for K. This paper demonstrates the NSH method is a significant advance to estimate of the soil hydraulic properties from the transient water flow.

  8. CONFIRMATION OF HOT JUPITER KEPLER-41b VIA PHASE CURVE ANALYSIS

    SciTech Connect

    Quintana, Elisa V.; Rowe, Jason F.; Caldwell, Douglas A.; Christiansen, Jessie L.; Jenkins, Jon M.; Morris, Robert L.; Smith, Jeffrey C.; Thompson, Susan E.; Barclay, Thomas; Ciardi, David R.; Klaus, Todd C.

    2013-04-20

    We present high precision photometry of Kepler-41, a giant planet in a 1.86 day orbit around a G6V star that was recently confirmed through radial velocity measurements. We have developed a new method to confirm giant planets solely from the photometric light curve, and we apply this method herein to Kepler-41 to establish the validity of this technique. We generate a full phase photometric model by including the primary and secondary transits, ellipsoidal variations, Doppler beaming, and reflected/emitted light from the planet. Third light contamination scenarios that can mimic a planetary transit signal are simulated by injecting a full range of dilution values into the model, and we re-fit each diluted light curve model to the light curve. The resulting constraints on the maximum occultation depth and stellar density combined with stellar evolution models rules out stellar blends and provides a measurement of the planet's mass, size, and temperature. We expect about two dozen Kepler giant planets can be confirmed via this method.

  9. Statistically generated weighted curve fit of residual functions for modal analysis of structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bookout, P. S.

    1995-01-01

    A statistically generated weighting function for a second-order polynomial curve fit of residual functions has been developed. The residual flexibility test method, from which a residual function is generated, is a procedure for modal testing large structures in an external constraint-free environment to measure the effects of higher order modes and interface stiffness. This test method is applicable to structures with distinct degree-of-freedom interfaces to other system components. A theoretical residual function in the displacement/force domain has the characteristics of a relatively flat line in the lower frequencies and a slight upward curvature in the higher frequency range. In the test residual function, the above-mentioned characteristics can be seen in the data, but due to the present limitations in the modal parameter evaluation (natural frequencies and mode shapes) of test data, the residual function has regions of ragged data. A second order polynomial curve fit is required to obtain the residual flexibility term. A weighting function of the data is generated by examining the variances between neighboring data points. From a weighted second-order polynomial curve fit, an accurate residual flexibility value can be obtained. The residual flexibility value and free-free modes from testing are used to improve a mathematical model of the structure. The residual flexibility modal test method is applied to a straight beam with a trunnion appendage and a space shuttle payload pallet simulator.

  10. Langevin power curve analysis for numerical WEC models with new insights on high frequency power performance

    E-print Network

    Mücke, Tanja A; Milan, Patrick; Peinke, Joachim

    2015-01-01

    Based on the Langevin equation it has been proposed to obtain power curves for wind turbines from high frequency data of wind speed measurements u(t) and power output P (t). The two parts of the Langevin approach, power curve and drift field, give a comprehensive description of the conversion dynamic over the whole operating range of the wind turbine. The method deals with high frequent data instead of 10 min means. It is therefore possible to gain a reliable power curve already from a small amount of data per wind speed. Furthermore, the method is able to visualize multiple fixed points, which is e.g. characteristic for the transition from partial to full load or in case the conversion process deviates from the standard procedures. In order to gain a deeper knowledge it is essential that the method works not only for measured data but also for numerical wind turbine models and synthetic wind fields. Here, we characterize the dynamics of a detailed numerical wind turbine model and calculate the Langevin power...

  11. Analysis of the early spectra and light curve of SN 1987A

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hauschildt, Peter H.; Ensman, Lisa M.

    1994-01-01

    Numerical modeling of supernova spectra, light curves, and hydrodynamics requires physical inputs, numerical techniques, approximations, and assumptions which must be thoroughly understood in order to study the details of supernova explosions. Here, we discuss some of these in the context of the early evolution of supernova 1987A. Gray radiation-hydrodynamics is used to calculate the bolometric light curve and the hydrodynamic evolution of the supernova. Synthetic spectra are then obtained for the resulting density and velocity structure. The spectrum calculations are performed using a special-relativistic treatment of the radiative transfer equation in the comoving frame, line blanketing by about 10(exp 5) spectral lines, and departures from local thermodynamic equilibrium (LTE) for H I, He I, Mg II, and Ca II. We find that we are able to simultaneously fit the early light curve and spectra reasonably well, using a progenitor model from Arnett (1991a), without fine-tuning the free parameters. Temperature structures and radiative equilibrium, non-LTE effects, homologous expansion, and mean opacities are discussed.

  12. The first multi-color light curve analysis of FI Lyn and new V and Rc light curve analysis for GN Boo, two W-subtype W Ursae Majoris systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barani, C.; Martignoni, M.; Acerbi, F.

    2015-08-01

    Here we present the first analysis of the B, V and Ic CCD light curves of the W UMa type eclipsing binary star FI Lyn obtained in the year 2009 (8 nights) and in the year 2010 (2 nights), and new CCD V and Rc light curves of the known contact eclipsing binary GN Boo obtained in 4 nights in May 2012. Our data permits us the determination of ten and six new times of minimum light respectively for FI Lyn and GN Boo and refine both the orbital periods of the systems to P = 0.3732612 days and P = 0.3016022 days. The periods of both the systems are variable. FI Lyn shows an increasing period at the rate of dP / dt 1.05 × 10-6 days yr-1 while GN Boo shows cyclic oscillations. The observed light curves are analyzed simultaneously with the Wilson-Devinney program analysis; the geometrical and photometric elements are derived. Our solutions show that FI Lyn and GN Boo belong to the W-subtype W Ursae Majoris contact binary class, consisting of a hotter, less massive primary star eclipsed at primary minimum with a primary spectral type of G1 and G8 and a companion of spectral type G3 and G4 respectively. We found, for FI Lyn a mass ratio of q = 2.58 , the degree of contact of f = 38.9 % , an orbital inclination of i = 71 ° .5 and a small temperature difference between the components of about ? T = 150 K indicating a good thermal contact, while for GN Boo we found a mass ratio of q = 3.33 , the degree of contact of f = 24.3 % , an orbital inclination of i = 83 ° .6 and a difference between the components temperature of about ? T = 620 K. The elements obtained from the W-D analysis are used to compute the physical parameters of the systems in order to study their evolutionary status.

  13. Recession curbs gas pipeline construction costs

    SciTech Connect

    Morgan, J.M.

    1983-01-24

    This paper shows how after 5 yrs. of inflation, gas pipeline construction costs have finally felt the effects of a severe building recession. First quarter (1982) construction activity, compressor equipment and drive units, and high-pressure gas-station piping are discussed. Graphs of OGJ-Morgan composite gas pipeline cost, and gas pipeline cost component indexes are presented.

  14. The Global Picture. Recession to Recovery

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Universities UK, 2010

    2010-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to: (1) document government and HE (higher education) sector responses to the recession within a select number of key countries which compete with the UK; and (2) compare these responses and analyse them by theme to draw out any common patterns. The focus of the work was to find, where possible, an evidence base…

  15. Nevada, the Great Recession, and Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Verstegen, Deborah A.

    2013-01-01

    The impact of the Great Recession and its aftermath has been devastating in Nevada, especially for public education. This article discusses the budget shortfalls and the impact of the economic crisis in Nevada using case study methodology. It provides a review of documents, including Governor Gibbon's proposals for the public K-12 education system…

  16. Weathering the Recession in College Health

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Christmas, William A.

    2010-01-01

    The current global recession has increased personal stress levels throughout our society. With dwindling resources, institutions of higher learning are especially prone to budgetary cutbacks during such periods. Based on 22 years of experience as a health service director, the author offers some personal insights in the hope that they will help…

  17. The Recession and Education: Seize New Opportunities!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haskvitz, Alan

    2011-01-01

    The teaching profession has long been thought of as recession proof. Indeed, that may have been one of the reasons why teachers took far lower starting salaries right out of college. Perhaps the greatest common feature of teachers, besides their desire to serve society in a humanitarian way, may be the lack of risk-taking the occupation previously…

  18. AN ANALYSIS OF THE SHAPES OF INTERSTELLAR EXTINCTION CURVES. VI. THE NEAR-IR EXTINCTION LAW

    SciTech Connect

    Fitzpatrick, E. L.; Massa, D. E-mail: massa@derckmassa.net

    2009-07-10

    We combine new observations from the Hubble Space Telescope's Advanced Camera of Survey with existing data to investigate the wavelength dependence of near-IR (NIR) extinction. Previous studies suggest a power law form for NIR extinction, with a 'universal' value of the exponent, although some recent observations indicate that significant sight line-to-sight line variability may exist. We show that a power-law model for the NIR extinction provides an excellent fit to most extinction curves, but that the value of the power, {beta}, varies significantly from sight line to sight line. Therefore, it seems that a 'universal NIR extinction law' is not possible. Instead, we find that as {beta} decreases, R(V) {identical_to} A(V)/E(B - V) tends to increase, suggesting that NIR extinction curves which have been considered 'peculiar' may, in fact, be typical for different R(V) values. We show that the power-law parameters can depend on the wavelength interval used to derive them, with the {beta} increasing as longer wavelengths are included. This result implies that extrapolating power-law fits to determine R(V) is unreliable. To avoid this problem, we adopt a different functional form for NIR extinction. This new form mimics a power law whose exponent increases with wavelength, has only two free parameters, can fit all of our curves over a longer wavelength baseline and to higher precision, and produces R(V) values which are consistent with independent estimates and commonly used methods for estimating R(V). Furthermore, unlike the power-law model, it gives R(V)s that are independent of the wavelength interval used to derive them. It also suggests that the relation R(V) = -1.36 E(K-V)/(E(B-V)) - 0.79 can estimate R(V) to {+-}0.12. Finally, we use model extinction curves to show that our extinction curves are in accord with theoretical expectations, and demonstrate how large samples of observational quantities can provide useful constraints on the grain properties.

  19. Understanding High Recession Rates of Carbon Ablators Seen in Shear Tests in an Arc Jet

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Driver, David M.; Olson, Michael W.; Barnhardt, Michael D.; MacLean, Matthew

    2010-01-01

    High rates of recession in arc jet shear tests of Phenolic Impregnated Carbon Ablator (PICA) inspired a series of tests and analysis on FiberForm (a carbon preform used in the fabrication of PICA). Arc jet tests were performed on FiberForm in both air and pure nitrogen for stagnation and shear configurations. The nitrogen tests showed little or no recession, while the air tests of FiberForm showed recession rates similar to that of PICA (when adjusted for the difference in density). While mechanical erosion can not be ruled out, this is the first step in doing so. Analysis using a carbon oxidation boundary condition within DPLR was used to predict the recession rate of FiberForm. The analysis indicates that much of the anomalous recession behavior seen in shear tests may simply be an artifact of the non-flight like test configuration (copper upstream of the test article) a result of dissimilar enthalpy and oxygen concentration profiles on the copper. Shape change effects were also investigated and shown to be relatively small.

  20. [Analysis of recessive sex-linked lethal mutations in genotypically different strains of Drosophila melanogaster MS and w, exposed in the 5-kilometer zone of the accident at the Chernobyl nuclear reactor].

    PubMed

    Aslanian, M M; Kim, A I; Magomedova, M A; Fatkulbaianova, N L

    1994-09-01

    The frequency of induced and spontaneous recessive sex-linked lethal mutations (RSLLM) in Drosophila melanogaster strains w and ms was estimated after their chronic irradiation in the five-kilometer zone of the Chernobyl' meltdown. The mutagenic effect of relatively low radiation doses was analyzed. In an experiment conducted in 1990, a significant increase in the RSLLM frequency was recorded, while, in 1991, no significant difference between the experiment and control was found. PMID:8001804

  1. Genetics Home Reference: Autosomal recessive cerebellar ataxia type 1

    MedlinePLUS

    ... OMIM Genetic disorder catalog Conditions > Autosomal recessive cerebellar ataxia type 1 (often shortened to ARCA1 ) On this ... January 2015 What is ARCA1? Autosomal recessive cerebellar ataxia type 1 (ARCA1) is a condition characterized by ...

  2. Light curve analysis and orbital period change of the extreme mass-ratio overcontact binary AW CrB

    E-print Network

    Broens, Eric

    2013-01-01

    Extreme mass-ratio contact binaries with a high degree of overcontact may be in the late evolutionary stages of the contact phase. Detailed photometric analyses and orbital period studies of those systems can provide invaluable information for the coalescence scenario of close binary systems, as recently observed in V1309 Sco. In this paper the first light curve analysis and period study for the totally eclipsing contact binary AW CrB is presented. The VRcIc CCD photometric light curves are analysed by means of the WD code. The asymmetry of the light curves is modelled by a cool star spot on the primary component. It is shown that AW CrB has a high degree of overcontact f=75% and an extreme mass-ratio of q=0.10, placing it among the few contact binaries with the lowest known mass-ratios. The mean density of the primary component suggest that it has evolved away from the ZAMS. Eighty-four times of minimum light are reported, derived from observations available in public archives, the literature, and the observ...

  3. Self-modeling curve resolution techniques applied to comparative analysis of volatile components of Iranian saffron from different regions.

    PubMed

    Jalali-Heravi, Mehdi; Parastar, Hadi; Ebrahimi-Najafabadi, Heshmatollah

    2010-03-10

    Volatile components of saffron from different regions of Iran were extracted by ultrasonic-assisted solvent extraction (USE) and were analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Self-modeling curve resolution (SMCR) was proposed for resolving the co-eluted GC-MS peak clusters into pure chromatograms and mass spectra. Multivariate curve resolution-objective function minimization (MCR-FMIN) and multivariate curve resolution-alternating least square (MCR-ALS) were successfully used for this purpose. The accuracy of the qualitative and quantitative results was improved considerably using SMCR techniques. Comparison of the results of saffron from different regions of Iran showed that their volatile components are different from chemical components and relative percentages points of view. Safranal is the main component of all samples. In addition, 4-hydroxy-2,6,6-trimethyl-1-cyclohexene-1-carboxaldehyde (HTCC), 2(5H)-furanone, 2,4,4-trimethyl-3-carboxaldehyde-5-hydroxy-2,5-cyclohexadien-1-one and 2(3H)-furanone, dihydro-4-hydroxy were common in all samples with high percentages. The results proved that combining of SMCR techniques with USE-GC-MS produces a powerful tool for the analysis of the complex samples. PMID:20171313

  4. A unified approach for nonlinear vibration analysis of curved structures using non-uniform rational B-spline representation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Askari, H.; Esmailzadeh, E.; Barari, A.

    2015-09-01

    A novel procedure for the nonlinear vibration analysis of curved beam is presented. The Non-Uniform Rational B-Spline (NURBS) is combined with the Euler-Bernoulli beam theory to define the curvature of the structure. The governing equation of motion and the general frequency formula, using the NURBS variables, is applicable for any type of curvatures, is developed. The Galerkin procedure is implemented to obtain the nonlinear ordinary differential equation of curved system and the multiple time scales method is utilized to find the corresponding frequency responses. As a case study, the nonlinear vibration of carbon nanotubes with different shapes of curvature is investigated. The effect of oscillation amplitude and the waviness on the natural frequency of the curved nanotube is evaluated and the primary resonance case of system with respect to the variations of different parameters is discussed. For the sake of comparison of the results obtained with those from the molecular dynamic simulation, the natural frequencies evaluated from the proposed approach are compared with those reported in literature for few types of carbon nanotube simulation.

  5. Highly curved bowl-shaped fragments of fullerenes: synthesis, structural analysis, and physical properties.

    PubMed

    Chen, Min-Kuan; Hsin, Hsin-Ju; Wu, Tsun-Cheng; Kang, Bo-Yan; Lee, Yen-Wei; Kuo, Ming-Yu; Wu, Yao-Ting

    2014-01-01

    Highly curved buckybowls 3, 4, and 5 were synthesized from planar precursors, fluoranthenes 8, benzo[k]fluoranthenes 10 and naphtho[1,2-k]-cyclopenta[cd]fluoranthenes 12, respectively, using straightforward palladium-catalyzed cyclization reactions. These fluoranthene-based starting materials were easily prepared from 1,8-bis(arylethynyl)naphthalenes 6. Both buckybowls 3 and 4 are fragments of C60 , whereas 5 is a unique subunit of C70 . The curved structures were identified by X-ray crystallography, and they are deep bowls. The maximum ?-orbital axis vector (POAV) pyramidalization angle in both 3 and 4 is 12.8°. Such a high curvature is very rarely obtained. Buckybowls 5 are less curved than the others because they have a lower density of five-membered rings, analogous to the tube portion of C70 . Cyclopentaannulation increases the bowl depths of 3 and 4, but not the maximum POAV pyramidalization angle. Among the eight buckybowls studied herein, five form polar crystals. The bowl-to-bowl inversion dynamics of these buckybowls can be classified into two types; one has a planar transition structure, whereas the other has an S-shaped transition structure. A larger longitudinal length of these buckybowls corresponds to a stronger preference for the latter. The photophysical properties of these buckybowls were examined and compared with those of C60 and C70 . Buckybowls 5 have absorption bands at wavelengths greater than 450?nm, which are similar to those of C70 . The chiral resolution of the mono-substituted buckybowl 4?ac was also studied by using HPLC with a chiral column. PMID:24311153

  6. Non-regularized inversion method from light scattering applied to ferrofluid magnetization curves for magnetic size distribution analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Rijssel, Jos; Kuipers, Bonny W. M.; Erné, Ben H.

    2014-03-01

    A numerical inversion method known from the analysis of light scattering by colloidal dispersions is now applied to magnetization curves of ferrofluids. The distribution of magnetic particle sizes or dipole moments is determined without assuming that the distribution is unimodal or of a particular shape. The inversion method enforces positive number densities via a non-negative least squares procedure. It is tested successfully on experimental and simulated data for ferrofluid samples with known multimodal size distributions. The created computer program MINORIM is made available on the web.

  7. DSA Analysis of IRM Curves for Hydrocarbon Microseepage Characterization in Oil Fields From Eastern and Western Venezuela

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aldana, M.; Costanzo-Alvarez, V.; Gonzalez, C.; Gomez, L.

    2009-05-01

    During the last few years we have performed surface reservoir characterization at some Venezuelan oil fields using rock magnetic properties. We have tried to identify, at shallow levels, the "oil magnetic signature" of subjacent reservoirs. Recent data obtained from eastern Venezuela (San Juan field) emphasizes the differences between rock magnetic data from eastern and western oil fields. These results support the hypothesis of different authigenic processes. To better characterize hydrocarbon microseepage in both cases, we apply a new method to analyze IRM curves in order to find out the main magnetic phases responsible for the observed magnetic susceptibility (MS) anomalies. This alternative method is based on a Direct Signal Analysis (DSA) of the IRM in order to identify the number and type of magnetic components. According to this method, the IRM curve is decomposed as the sum of N elementary curves (modeled using the expression proposed by Robertson and France, 1994) whose mean coercivities vary in the interval of the measured magnetic field. The result is an adjusted spectral histogram from which the number of main contributions, their widths and mean coercivities, associated with the number and type of magnetic minerals, can be obtained. This analysis indicates that in western fields the main magnetic mineralogy is magnetite. Conversely in eastern fields, the MS anomalies are mainly caused by the presence of Fe sulphides (i.e. greigite). These results support the hypothesis of two different processes. In western fields a net electron transfer from the organic matter, degraded by hydrocarbon gas leakage, should occur precipitating Fe(II) magnetic minerals (e.g. magnetite). On the other hand, high concentrations of H2S at shallow depth levels, might allow the formation of secondary Fe-sulphides in eastern fields.

  8. A TRANSIT TIMING ANALYSIS OF NINE RISE LIGHT CURVES OF THE EXOPLANET SYSTEM TrES-3

    SciTech Connect

    Gibson, N. P.; Pollacco, D.; Simpson, E. K.; Barros, S.; Joshi, Y. C.; Todd, I.; Keenan, F. P.; Skillen, I.; Benn, C.; Christian, D.; Hrudkova, M.; Steele, I. A.

    2009-08-01

    We present nine newly observed transits of TrES-3, taken as part of a transit timing program using the RISE instrument on the Liverpool Telescope. A Markov-Chain Monte Carlo analysis was used to determine the planet-star radius ratio and inclination of the system, which were found to be R{sub p} /R {sub *} = 0.1664{sup +0.0011} {sub -0.0018} and i = 81.73{sup +0.13} {sub -0.04}, respectively, consistent with previous results. The central transit times and uncertainties were also calculated, using a residual-permutation algorithm as an independent check on the errors. A re-analysis of eight previously published TrES-3 light curves was conducted to determine the transit times and uncertainties using consistent techniques. Whilst the transit times were not found to be in agreement with a linear ephemeris, giving {chi}{sup 2} = 35.07 for 15 degrees of freedom, we interpret this to be the result of systematics in the light curves rather than a real transit timing variation. This is because the light curves that show the largest deviation from a constant period either have relatively little out-of-transit coverage or have clear systematics. A new ephemeris was calculated using the transit times and was found to be T{sub c} (0) = 2454632.62610 {+-} 0.00006 HJD and P = 1.3061864 {+-} 0.0000005 days. The transit times were then used to place upper mass limits as a function of the period ratio of a potential perturbing planet, showing that our data are sufficiently sensitive to have probed sub-Earth mass planets in both interior and exterior 2:1 resonances, assuming that the additional planet is in an initially circular orbit.

  9. Predictive Factors Affecting Long-Term Outcome of Unilateral Lateral Rectus Recession

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Hee Kyung; Kim, Mi-Jin; Hwang, Jeong-Min

    2015-01-01

    Background There are few long-term outcome reports of unilateral lateral rectus (LR) recession for exotropia including a large number of subjects. Previous reports on unilateral LR recession commonly show extremely low rates of initial overcorrection and large exodrifts after surgery suggesting that the surgical dose may be increased. However, little is known of the long-term outcome of a large unilateral LR recession for exotropia. Objectives To determine long-term outcomes and predictive factors of recurrence after a large unilateral LR recession in patients with exotropia. Data Extraction Retrospective analysis was performed on 92 patients aged 3 to 17 years who underwent 10 mm unilateral LR recession for exotropia of ? 25 prism diopters (?) with prism and alternate cover testing and were followed up for more than 2 years after surgery. Final success rates within 10? of exophoria/tropia and 5? of esophoria/tropia at distance in the primary position, improvement in stereopsis and the predictive factors for recurrence were evaluated. Results At 24 months after surgery, 54% of patients had ocular alignment meeting the defined criteria of success, 45% had recurrence and 1% had overcorrection. After a mean follow-up of 39 months, 36% showed success, 63% showed recurrence and 1% resulted in overcorrection. The average time of recurrence was 23.4±14.7 months (range, 1–60 months) and the rate of recurrence per person-year was 23% after unilateral LR recession. Predictive factors of recurrence were a larger preoperative near angle of deviation (>16?) and larger initial postoperative exodeviation (>5?) at distance. Conclusions Long-term outcome of unilateral LR recession for exotropia showed low success rates with high recurrence, thus should be reserved for patients with a small preoperative near angle of exodeviation. PMID:26418819

  10. Quantum Curves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schwarz, Albert

    2015-08-01

    One says that a pair ( P, Q) of ordinary differential operators specify a quantum curve if . If a pair of difference operators ( K, L) obey the relation KL = q LK, where , we say that they specify a discrete quantum curve. This terminology is prompted by well known results about commuting differential and difference operators, relating pairs of such operators with pairs of meromorphic functions on algebraic curves obeying some conditions. The goal of this paper is to study the moduli spaces of quantum curves. We will relate the moduli spaces for different . We will show how to quantize a pair of commuting differential or difference operators (i.e., to construct the corresponding quantum curve or discrete quantum curve).

  11. On-chip magnetic bead-based DNA melting curve analysis using a magnetoresistive sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rizzi, Giovanni; Østerberg, Frederik W.; Henriksen, Anders D.; Dufva, Martin; Hansen, Mikkel F.

    2015-04-01

    We present real-time measurements of DNA melting curves in a chip-based system that detects the amount of surface-bound magnetic beads using magnetoresistive magnetic field sensors. The sensors detect the difference between the amount of beads bound to the top and bottom sensor branches of the differential sensor geometry. The sensor surfaces are functionalized with wild type (WT) and mutant type (MT) capture probes, differing by a single base insertion (a single nucleotide polymorphism, SNP). Complementary biotinylated targets in suspension couple streptavidin magnetic beads to the sensor surface. The beads are magnetized by the field arising from the bias current passed through the sensors. We demonstrate the first on-chip measurements of the melting of DNA hybrids upon a ramping of the temperature. This overcomes the limitation of using a single washing condition at constant temperature. Moreover, we demonstrate that a single sensor bridge can be used to genotype a SNP.

  12. Modal analysis using a Fourier analyzer, curve-fitting, and modal tuning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Craig, R. R., Jr.; Chung, Y. T.

    1981-01-01

    The proposed modal test program differs from single-input methods in that preliminary data may be acquired using multiple inputs, and modal tuning procedures may be employed to define closely spaced frquency modes more accurately or to make use of frequency response functions (FRF's) which are based on several input locations. In some respects the proposed modal test proram resembles earlier sine-sweep and sine-dwell testing in that broadband FRF's are acquired using several input locations, and tuning is employed to refine the modal parameter estimates. The major tasks performed in the proposed modal test program are outlined. Data acquisition and FFT processing, curve fitting, and modal tuning phases are described and examples are given to illustrate and evaluate them.

  13. Type curve analysis of inertial effects in the response of a well to a slug test.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kipp, K.L., Jr.

    1985-01-01

    The water level response to a slug or bailer test in a well completed in a confined aquifer, has been evaluated taking into account well-bore storage and inertial effects of the water column in the well. The response range, from overdamped with negligible inertial effects to damped oscillations, was covered employing numerical inversions of the Laplace-transform solution. By scaling the time with respect to the undamped natural period of the well-aquifer system and by using the damping parameter for a second-order damped, inertial-elastic system, a set of type curves was constructed that enables water level response data from a slug or bailer test to be analyzed under conditions where the inertial parameter is large.-from Author

  14. Development of Curved-Plate Elements for the Exact Buckling Analysis of Composite Plate Assemblies Including Transverse Shear Effects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McGowan, David M.; Anderson, Melvin S.

    1998-01-01

    The analytical formulation of curved-plate non-linear equilibrium equations that include transverse-shear-deformation effects is presented. A unified set of non-linear strains that contains terms from both physical and tensorial strain measures is used. Using several simplifying assumptions, linearized, stability equations are derived that describe the response of the plate just after bifurcation buckling occurs. These equations are then modified to allow the plate reference surface to be located a distance z(c), from the centroid surface which is convenient for modeling stiffened-plate assemblies. The implementation of the new theory into the VICONOPT buckling and vibration analysis and optimum design program code is described. Either classical plate theory (CPT) or first-order shear-deformation plate theory (SDPT) may be selected in VICONOPT. Comparisons of numerical results for several example problems with different loading states are made. Results from the new curved-plate analysis compare well with closed-form solution results and with results from known example problems in the literature. Finally, a design-optimization study of two different cylindrical shells subject to uniform axial compression is presented.

  15. Recession trims third-quarter building costs

    SciTech Connect

    Morgan, J.M.

    1983-05-09

    The composite cost index for building oil pipelines during the third quarter of 1982 showed a decrease of 0.96%. This decrease was due to a steady drop in the rate of inflation for most pipeline construction materials during the first 9 months of the year. The major thrust behind the pipeline materials decline was a sharp 5.3% drop in the average price of steel line pipe. However, the pipeline construction recession has failed to deter escalating pipeline labor rates.

  16. Cutting Symmetrical Recesses In Soft Ceramic Tiles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nesotas, Tony C.; Tyler, Brent

    1989-01-01

    Simple tool cuts hemispherical recesses in soft ceramic tiles. Designed to expose wires of thermocouples embedded in tiles without damaging leads. Creates neat, precise holes around wires. End mill includes axial hole to accommodate thermocouple wires embedded in material to be cut. Wires pass into hole without being bent or broken. Dimensions in inches. Used in place of such tools as dental picks, tweezers, spatulas, and putty knives.

  17. Photogrammetric recession measurements of an ablating surface

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schairer, Edward T. (Inventor); Heineck, James T. (Inventor)

    2012-01-01

    An instrument and method for measuring the time history of recession of an ablating surface of a test article during testing in a high enthalpy thermal test facility, such as an arcjet. The method advances prior art by providing time-history data over the full ablating surface without targets and without any modifications to the test article. The method is non-intrusive, simple to implement, requires no external light source, and does not interfere with normal operations of the arcjet facility.

  18. Semiconductor devices having a recessed electrode structure

    DOEpatents

    Palacios, Tomas Apostol; Lu, Bin; Matioli, Elison de Nazareth

    2015-05-26

    An electrode structure is described in which conductive regions are recessed into a semiconductor region. Trenches may be formed in a semiconductor region, such that conductive regions can be formed in the trenches. The electrode structure may be used in semiconductor devices such as field effect transistors or diodes. Nitride-based power semiconductor devices are described including such an electrode structure, which can reduce leakage current and otherwise improve performance.

  19. The Great Recession, unemployment and suicide

    PubMed Central

    Norström, Thor; Grönqvist, Hans

    2015-01-01

    Background How have suicide rates responded to the marked increase in unemployment spurred by the Great Recession? Our paper puts this issue into a wider perspective by assessing (1) whether the unemployment-suicide link is modified by the degree of unemployment protection, and (2) whether the effect on suicide of the present crisis differs from the effects of previous economic downturns. Methods We analysed the unemployment-suicide link using time-series data for 30 countries spanning the period 1960–2012. Separate fixed-effects models were estimated for each of five welfare state regimes with different levels of unemployment protection (Eastern, Southern, Anglo-Saxon, Bismarckian and Scandinavian). We included an interaction term to capture the possible excess effect of unemployment during the Great Recession. Results The largest unemployment increases occurred in the welfare state regimes with the least generous unemployment protection. The unemployment effect on male suicides was statistically significant in all welfare regimes, except the Scandinavian one. The effect on female suicides was significant only in the eastern European country group. There was a significant gradient in the effects, being stronger the less generous the unemployment protection. The interaction term capturing the possible excess effect of unemployment during the financial crisis was not significant. Conclusions Our findings suggest that the more generous the unemployment protection the weaker the detrimental impact on suicide of the increasing unemployment during the Great Recession. PMID:25339416

  20. Mutations of the tyrosinase gene produce autosomal recessive ocular albinism

    SciTech Connect

    King, R.A.; Summers, C.G.; Oetting, W.S.

    1994-09-01

    Albinism has historically been divided into ocular (OA) and oculocutaneous (OCA) types based on the presence or absence of clinically apparent skin and hair involvement in an individual with the ocular features of albinism. The major genes for OCA include the tyrosinase gene in OCA1 and the P gene in OCA2. X-linked and autosomal recessive OA have been described and the responsible genes have not been identified. We now present six Caucasian individuals who have the phenotype of autosomal recessive OA but who have OCA1 as shown by the presence of mutations of the tyrosinase. They had white or very light hair and white skin at birth, and cutaneous pigment developed in the first decade of life. At ages ranging from 1.5-23 years, hair color was dark blond to light brown. The skin had generalized pigment and well developed tan was present on the exposed arm and face skin of four. Iris pigment was present and iris translucency varied. Molecular analysis of the tyrosinase gene, using PCR amplification and direct di-deoxy sequencing showed the following mutations: E398Z/E398Q, P406S/g346a, R402E/T373K, ?/D383N, and H211N/T373K. The homozygous individual was not from a known consanguineous mating. T373K is the most common tyrosinase gene mutation in our laboratory. Three of these mutations are associated with a total loss of tyrosinase activity (g346a splice-site, T373K, and D383N), while four are associated with residual enzyme activity (H211N, R402E, E398Q, and P406S). These studies show that mutations of the tyrosinase gene can produce the phenotype of autosomal recessive OA in an individual who has normal amounts of cutaneous pigment and the ability to tan after birth. This extends the phenotypic range of OCA1 to normal cutaneous pigment after early childhood, and suggest that mutations of the tyrosinase gene account for a significant number of individuals with autosomal recessive OA.

  1. Comparative study of two surgical techniques for root coverage of large recessions in heavy smokers.

    PubMed

    Reino, Danilo M; Maia, Luciana P; Novaes, Arthur B; Souza, Sérgio L S

    2015-01-01

    Reduced root coverage due to diminished periodontal vascularity can be expected in heavy smokers. The aim of this study was to evaluate the root coverage obtained for large gingival recessions in heavy smokers using two different surgical techniques. Twenty heavy smokers were selected. Each patient had large, bilateral Miller class I or II gingival recessions (Control Group (CG): 3.30 ± 1.29; Test Group (TG): 3.45 ± 0.80) on nonmolar teeth. Clinical measurements of probing pocket depth (PPD), clinical attachment level (CAL), recession height (RH), keratinized mucosa height (KMH), and keratinized mucosa thickness (KMT) were determined at baseline and after 12 months. One side received a coronally positioned flap (CPF), while the contralateral side received the extended flap technique (EFT), both procedures carried out in conjunction with a subepithelial connective tissue graft (SCTG). Saliva samples to measure cotinine levels were taken at baseline and after 12 months as an indicator of the level of exposure to nicotine. Intergroup and intragroup analysis showed no statistical differences for the evaluated clinical parameters. Patients maintained the same exposure to smoke during the evaluation period. Both techniques resulted in low root coverage (CPF: 48.60%; EFT: 54.28%), but both techniques were effective in decreasing the gingival recessions (P ? 0.01). The variables smoke exposure, root coverage, and the thickness and height of keratinized tissue were subjected to linear regression. Regardless of the surgical technique used, heavy smoking strongly limits root coverage, especially for large recessions. PMID:26171447

  2. Multivariate curve resolution for the analysis of remotely sensed thermal infrared hyperspectral images.

    SciTech Connect

    Haaland, David Michael; Stork, Christopher Lyle; Keenan, Michael Robert

    2004-07-01

    While hyperspectral imaging systems are increasingly used in remote sensing and offer enhanced scene characterization relative to univariate and multispectral technologies, it has proven difficult in practice to extract all of the useful information from these systems due to overwhelming data volume, confounding atmospheric effects, and the limited a priori knowledge regarding the scene. The need exists for the ability to perform rapid and comprehensive data exploitation of remotely sensed hyperspectral imagery. To address this need, this paper describes the application of a fast and rigorous multivariate curve resolution (MCR) algorithm to remotely sensed thermal infrared hyperspectral images. Employing minimal a priori knowledge, notably non-negativity constraints on the extracted endmember profiles and a constant abundance constraint for the atmospheric upwelling component, it is demonstrated that MCR can successfully compensate thermal infrared hyperspectral images for atmospheric upwelling and, thereby, transmittance effects. We take a semi-synthetic approach to obtaining image data containing gas plumes by adding emission gas signals onto real hyperspectral images. MCR can accurately estimate the relative spectral absorption coefficients and thermal contrast distribution of an ammonia gas plume component added near the minimum detectable quantity.

  3. Evaluation of alternative model selection criteria in the analysis of unimodal response curves using CART

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ribic, C.A.; Miller, T.W.

    1998-01-01

    We investigated CART performance with a unimodal response curve for one continuous response and four continuous explanatory variables, where two variables were important (ie directly related to the response) and the other two were not. We explored performance under three relationship strengths and two explanatory variable conditions: equal importance and one variable four times as important as the other. We compared CART variable selection performance using three tree-selection rules ('minimum risk', 'minimum risk complexity', 'one standard error') to stepwise polynomial ordinary least squares (OLS) under four sample size conditions. The one-standard-error and minimum-risk-complexity methods performed about as well as stepwise OLS with large sample sizes when the relationship was strong. With weaker relationships, equally important explanatory variables and larger sample sizes, the one-standard-error and minimum-risk-complexity rules performed better than stepwise OLS. With weaker relationships and explanatory variables of unequal importance, tree-structured methods did not perform as well as stepwise OLS. Comparing performance within tree-structured methods, with a strong relationship and equally important explanatory variables, the one-standard-error-rule was more likely to choose the correct model than were the other tree-selection rules 1) with weaker relationships and equally important explanatory variables; and 2) under all relationship strengths when explanatory variables were of unequal importance and sample sizes were lower.

  4. Stability and dynamic analysis of a slender column with curved longitudinal stiffeners

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lake, Mark S.

    1989-01-01

    The results of a stability design study are presented for a slender column with curved longitudinal stiffeners for large space structure applications. Linear stability analyses are performed using a link-plate representation of the stiffeners to determine stiffener local buckling stresses. Results from a set of parametric analyses are used to determine an approximate explicit expression for stiffener local buckling in terms of its geometric parameters. This expression along with other equations governing column stability and mass are assembled into a determinate system describing minimum mass stiffened column design. An iterative solution is determined to solve this system and a computer program incorporating this routine is presented. Example design problems are presented which verify the solution accuracy and illustrate the implementation of the solution routine. Also, observations are made which lead to a greatly simplified first iteration design equation relating the percent increase in column mass to the percent increase in column buckling load. From this, generalizations are drawn as to the mass savings offered by the stiffened column concept. Finally, the percent increase in fundamental column vibration frequency due to the addition of deployable stiffeners is studied.

  5. Vertically stratified two-phase flow in a curved channel: Insights from a domain perturbation analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Garg, P.; Picardo, J. R.; Pushpavanam, S.

    2014-07-15

    In this work, we investigate the fully developed flow field of two vertically stratified fluids (one phase flowing above the other) in a curved channel of rectangular cross section. The domain perturbation technique is applied to obtain an analytical solution in the asymptotic limit of low Reynolds numbers and small curvature ratios (the ratio of the width of the channel to its radius of curvature). The accuracy of this solution is verified by comparison with numerical simulations of the nonlinear equations. The flow is characterized by helical vortices within each fluid, which are driven by centrifugal forces. The number of vortices and their direction of circulation varies with the parameters of the system (the volume fraction, viscosity ratio, and Reynolds numbers). We identify nine distinct flow patterns and organize the parameter space into corresponding flow regimes. We show that the fully developed interface between the fluids is not horizontal, in general, but is deformed by normal stresses associated with the circulatory flow. The results are especially significant for flows in microchannels, where the Reynolds numbers are small. The mathematical results in this paper include an analytical solution to two coupled biharmonic partial differential equations; these equations arise in two-phase, two-dimensional Stokes flows.

  6. Standardization, Evaluation, and Area-Under-Curve Analysis of Human and Murine Treg Suppressive Function.

    PubMed

    Akimova, Tatiana; Levine, Matthew H; Beier, Ulf H; Hancock, Wayne W

    2016-01-01

    FOXP3+ T-regulatory (Treg) cells have important roles in immune homeostasis, and alterations in their number and function can predispose to diseases ranging from autoimmunity to allograft rejection and tumor growth. Reliable identification of human Tregs remains a persistent problem due to a lack of specific markers. The most definitive Treg characterization currently involves combined assessment of phenotypic, epigenetic and functional parameters, with the latter typically involving in vitro Treg suppression assays. Unfortunately, suppression assays are frequently performed using differing methods and readouts, limiting comparisons between studies. We provide a perspective on our experience with human and murine Treg suppression assay conditions, including Treg data obtained in clinical transplant studies, Tregs isolated from healthy donors and treated with epigenetically active compounds, and Tregs from standard murine strains (C57BL/6 and BALB/c). We provide detailed descriptions and illustrations of typical problems, shortcomings and troubleshooting; describe new modifications and approaches; and present a new method for calculation of suppressive assay data using a modified area-under-curve (AUC) method. This method allows us to directly compare Treg suppressive function between multiple patients (such as in clinical transplant studies), to reliably track changes in Treg function from the same person over time, or compare effects of Treg-modulating compounds tested with different healthy donors Tregs in separate or combined experimental settings. PMID:26530794

  7. Analysis of stellar occultation data - Effects of photon noise and initial conditions. [planetary atmosphere temperature, pressure and density profiles from occultation light curve

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    French, R. G.; Elliot, J. L.; Gierasch, P. J.

    1978-01-01

    An occultation light curve can be analyzed to provide information about a planetary atmosphere. Temperature, pressure, and number density profiles for the atmosphere of Mars are derived from a series of boundary layer equations, which invert equal increments of altitude (as opposed to time) in order to predict the noise quality of the occultation. Numerical results are given for a noisy isothermal light curve, with special attention to error analysis.

  8. Analysis of progress curves for enzyme-catalysed reactions. Automatic construction of computer programs for fitting integrated rate equations.

    PubMed Central

    Duggleby, R G; Wood, C

    1989-01-01

    The computer analysis of progress curves for enzyme-catalysed reactions involves a series of mathematical and computational tasks. The three most daunting of these are the derivation of an integrated rate equation, solving this equation so that the amount of product formed by the reaction at any time can be calculated, and incorporating this solution into a non-linear-regression computer program. This paper describes the basis of a computer program that greatly simplifies the problem. The proposed mechanism is specified in the familiar kinetic constant form, which is automatically translated into a program capable of fitting this mechanism to a series of experimental progress curves. The approach is illustrated for a reversible reaction with one substrate and one product, and tested with some data obtained for the fumarase reaction. A copy of the program has been deposited as Supplementary Publication SUP 50148 (13 pages) at the British Library Document Supply Centre, Boston Spa, Wetherby, West Yorkshire LS23 7BQ, U.K., from whom copies can be obtained on the terms indicated in Biochem. J. (1989) 257, 5. PMID:2705990

  9. Leptin receptor (LEPR) SNP polymorphisms in HELLP syndrome patients determined by quantitative real-time PCR and melting curve analysis

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Several studies have shown overexpression of leptin in microarray experiments in pre-eclampsia (PE) and in hemolysis, elevated liver enzymes, low platelets (HELLP) syndrome. We decided to study four leptin receptor (LEPR) SNP polymorphisms in HELLP syndrome patients by using quantitative real-time PCR and melting curve analysis. Methods DNA was isolated from blood samples from 83 normotensive pregnant women and 75 HELLP syndrome patients. Four SNPs, LEPR c.326A>G (K109), LEPR c.668A>G (Q223R), LEPR c.1968G>C (K656N) and LEPR c.3024A>G (S1008) were determined by quantitative real-time PCR and melting curve analysis. Investigators were blinded to clinical outcomes. Results LEPR c.326A>G, LEPR c.668A>G, LEPR c.1968G>C and LEPR c.3024A>G allele, genotype and haplotype polymorphisms were not different in HELLP syndrome patients and normotensive healthy pregnants. There were strong linkage disequilibrium (LD) between loci c.326A>G and c.6687A>G (D' = 0.974), and c.668A>G and c.1968G>C (D' = 0.934), and c.326A>G and c.1968G>C (D' = 0.885), and c.1968G>C and c.3024A>G (D' = 1.0). However, linkages of c.3024A>G with c.668A>G (D' = 0.111) and c.326A>G (D' = 0.398) were weak. The Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium was observed for all polymorphisms. However the LEPR c.326A>G AG genotype was twice more frequent and the (AG AG GG AG) haplotype was three times more frequent in HELLP syndrome patients. The introduced quantitative real-time PCR combined with melting curve analysis is a fast and reliable method for the determination of LEPR SNPs. Conclusion Although certain LEPR haplotypes are more frequent in HELLP syndrome, we conclude that there is no compelling evidence that the four studied LEPR SNP polymorphisms associated with the development of HELLP syndrome. PMID:20149225

  10. Selective versus nonselective thoracic fusion in Lenke 1C curves: a meta-analysis of baseline characteristics and postoperative outcomes.

    PubMed

    Boniello, Anthony J; Hasan, Saqib; Yang, Sun; Jalai, Cyrus M; Worley, Nancy; Passias, Peter G

    2015-12-01

    OBJECT Lenke 1C curves are challenging to manage surgically due to the structural thoracic deformity and nonstructural lumbar curve. Selective thoracic fusion (STF) is considered the standard of care because it preserves motion of the lumbar segment, yet nonselective STF (NSTF) remains prevalent. This study aims to identify baseline patient characteristics that drive treatment and to compare postoperative outcomes for both procedures. METHODS Studies that compared baseline and postoperative demographic data, health-related quality of life (HRQL) questionnaires, and radiographic parameters of patients with Lenke 1C curves undergoing STF or NSTF were identified for meta-analysis. The effect measure is expressed as a mean difference (MD) with 95% CI. A positive MD signifies a greater STF value, or a mean increase within the group. RESULTS One prospective and 6 retrospective case-control studies with sample size of 488 patients (344 STF and 144 NSTF) were identified. Baseline age, sex, and HRQLs were equivalent, except for better scores in the STF group for the Scoliosis Appearance Questionnaire (SAQ): Unrelated to Deformity item (3.47 vs 3.88, p = 0.01) and the Spine Research Society questionnaire, Item 22: Pain (4.13 vs 3.92, p = 0.04). Radiographic findings were significantly worse in NSTF, as measured by the thoracolumbar/lumbar (TL/L) Cobb angle (MD: -4.29°, p < 0.01) and TL/L apical vertebral translation (AVT) (MD: -6.08, p < 0.01). Radiographic findings significantly improved in STF, as measured in the main thoracic (MT) Cobb angle (MD: -27.78°, p < 0.01), TL/L Cobb angle (MD: -16.24°, p < 0.01), MT:TL/L Cobb ratio (MD: -0.21, p < 0.01), coronal balance (MD: 0.47, p = 0.02), and thoracic kyphosis (MD: 7.87°, p < 0.01); and in NSTF in proximal thoracic (PT) Cobb angle (24° vs 14.1°, p < 0.01), MT Cobb angle (53.5° vs 20.5°, p < 0.01), and TL/L Cobb angle (41.6° vs 16.6°, p < 0.01). Postoperative TL/L Cobb angle (23.1° vs 16.6°, p < 0.01) was significantly higher in STF; but PT Cobb angle, MT Cobb angle, and MT:TL/L Cobb ratio are equivalent. CONCLUSIONS Patients with larger lumbar compensatory curves displaying a larger degree of coronal translation, as measured by the TL/L AVT, are more likely to undergo an NSTF. Contrary to established guidelines, larger MT curve magnitudes and MT:TL/L Cobb angle ratios have not been found to influence the decision to pursue a selective thoracic fusion. Although overall both STF and NSTF groups are found to have effective postoperative coronal balance, the STF group has only modest improvements in the lumbar curve position as determined by a relatively unchanged TL/L AVT. Furthermore, surgeons may prefer NSTF in patients who may have a worse overall perception of their spinal deformity as measured by HRQL measures of pain and desire for appearance change. PMID:26315956

  11. Citizen Support for Northern Ohio Community College Funding Initiatives during an Economic Recession Recovery

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flores, Patricia

    2013-01-01

    The current research, "Citizen Support for Northern Ohio Community College Funding Initiatives during an Economic Recession Recovery", asks the question: Do the citizens of Northern Ohio support community college funding during difficult economic times? Based on the theory of Stakeholder Analysis, the purpose of this concurrent,…

  12. The Process of Integration of Newcomers at School: Students and Gender Networking during School Recess

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rodriguez-Navarro, Henar; García-Monge, Alfonso; Rubio-Campos, Maria del Carmen

    2014-01-01

    This article examines the data obtained through a year-long ethnographic study of students from a Spanish primary school, and sheds light on their use of gender code networks during school recess. The results of this analysis confirm the conclusions on student interaction drawn by other studies (group segregation regarding age and gender and,…

  13. Is the Elimination of Recess in School a Violation of a Child's Basic Human Rights?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dubroc, Alicia M.

    2007-01-01

    The elimination of recess in schools across the country is becoming a normal occurrence in many communities, large and small. In each study presented in this content analysis, we find that free time and unstructured play is indeed essential to a child's healthy cognitive development. Article 31 of the United Nations Convention on the Rights of…

  14. Studies on Quantitative Phosphopeptide Analysis by MALDI Mass Spectrometry Without Label, Chromatography or Calibration Curves

    PubMed Central

    Ho, Hsin-Pin; Rathod, Pratikkumar; Louis, Marissa; Tada, Christine K.; Rahaman, Sherida; Mark, Kevin J.; Leng, Jin; Dana, Dibyendu; Kumar, Sanjai; Lichterfeld, Mathias; Chang, Emmanuel J.

    2014-01-01

    Rationale Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization (MALDI) mass spectrometry combined with isotope labeling methods are effective for protein and peptide quantification, but limited in their multiplexing capacity, cost-effectiveness and dynamic range. This study investigates MALDI MS-based quantification of peptide phosphorylation without labeling, and aims to overcome the shot-to-shot variability of MALDI using a mathematical transformation and extended data acquisition times. Methods A linear relationship between the reciprocal of phosphopeptide mole fraction and the reciprocal of phosphorylated-to-unphosphorylated signal ratio is derived, and evaluated experimentally using three separate phosphopeptide systems containing phosphorylated serine, threonine and tyrosine residues: mixtures of phosphopeptide and its des-phospho-analog with known stoichiometry measured by vacuum MALDI-linear ion trap mass spectrometry and fit to the linear model. The model is validated for quantifying in vitro phosphorylation assays with inhibition studies on Cdk2/cyclinA. Results Dynamic range of picomoles to femtomoles, good accuracy (deviations of 1.5–3.0% from expected values) and reproducibility (RSD = 4.3–6.3%) are achieved. Inhibition of Cyclin-dependent Kinase phosphorylation by the classical inhibitors olomoucine and r-roscovitine was evaluated and IC50 values found to be in agreement with reported literature values. These results, achieved with single-point calibration, without isotope or chromatography, compare favorably to those arrived at using isotope dilution (p > 0.5 for accuracy). Conclusion The mathematical relationship derived here can be applied to a method that we term Double Reciprocal Isotope-free Phosphopeptide Quantification (DRIP-Q), as a strategy for quantification of in vitro phosphorylation assays, the first MALDI-based, isotope- and calibration curve-free method of its type. These results also pave the way for further systematic studies investigating the effect of peptide composition and experimental conditions on quantitative, label-free MALDI. PMID:25380489

  15. Statistical signal analysis of the Phanerozoic ð13C curve: implications for Earth system evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bachan, A.; Kump, L. R.; Payne, J.; Saltzman, M.; Thomas, E.

    2014-12-01

    In recent years, vast amounts of carbon isotopic data have been collected allowing the construction of the Phanerozoic ?13C curve in unprecedented detail. Our dataset comprises 8143 points spanning the last 541 m.y., with a mean spacing of 66 k.y. The average ?13C of Phanerozoic carbonate is 1 ‰ ± 2 ‰, in accordance with the canonical values measured in the past. However, the record also shows numerous, highly resolved, large (± 6 ‰) excursions whose magnitude declines through time, especially going into the late Mesozoic and Cenozoic. When the magnitude - distribution of the excursions is tabulated we find that it follows a power law: plotting the min-max differences vs. number of bins in which a particular value occurs reveals that the data fall on a semilogarithmic line with a slope of -0.23 and R2 = 0.99. The result is insensitive to outliers: smoothing the data with lowess, spline, Savitzky-Golay, and Butterworth filters yields similar results. The continuity from small variation to large perturbations, both positive and negative, suggests that, despite the numerous proposed causes for individual carbon isotopic evens, there is likely an underlying mechanism which governs the magnitude of ?13C response to perturbations. We suggest that a mechanism acting to amplify carbon cycle perturbations is the key to explaining the power-law distribution, and identify the anoxia-productivity feedback as the most likely candidate. Establishment of sulfidic conditions is accompanied by increased release of phosphate to the water column, which allows for further productivity, and thus acts as a destabilizing, positive, feedback. This feedback would act to increase carbon cycle swings irrespective of their proximal trigger. The decline in frequency of anoxic-sulfidic bottom waters in the world's oceans, and potential disappearance in the Late Mesozoic-Cenozoic, may account for a reduction in the Earth system's gain and increase in its resilience.

  16. The Impact of Tides on Transiting Planet Structure and Evolution and Light Curve Analysis.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chabrier, Gilles

    2011-09-01

    We examine two key consequences of tidal forces on the transiting planet observed and theoretical properties. First, based on consistent calculations coupling gravothermal evolution with complete tidal equations, we revisit the viability of the tidal heating hypothesis to explain the anomalously large radius of some transiting planets. We demonstrate, both analytically and numerically, that calculations based on tidal models truncated at second order in eccentricity, as done in all previous studies, lead to severely erroneous tidal evolutions. Such truncated calculations yield characteristic timescales for dynamical evolution that can be wrong by orders of magnitude, leading accordingly to completely erroneous tidal energy dissipation rates during the planet's evolution. We demontrate that these results do not stem from uncertainties in the tidal quality factor, as often (erroneously) suggested, but from the exact calculations of the tidal equations. We show that, although tidal heating provides a substantial contribution to the planet's heat budget, this mechanism can not explain alone all the anomalously inflated planets. We examine alternative mechanisms to explain these puzzling properties. Furthermore, due to strong tidal forces, transiting planets exhibit a non-spherical shape. Such a departure from sphericity has a measurable impact on the observed transit depth and leads to a bias in the derivation of the transit radius from the light curve. As the tidally deformed planet projects its smallest cross section area during the transit, the measured effective radius is smaller than the one of the unperturbed genuine spherical planet. To correct this bias, we present analytical expressions that can easily be used to calculate the shape of observed planets (and Love number) and its impact on the transit lightcurve. These expressions enable us to convert the planet’s measured cross section into its real equilibrium radius, the one to be used when comparing measurements with theoretical models.

  17. Vibrational spectroscopic image analysis of biological material using multivariate curve resolution-alternating least squares (MCR-ALS).

    PubMed

    Felten, Judith; Hall, Hardy; Jaumot, Joaquim; Tauler, Romà; de Juan, Anna; Gorzsás, András

    2015-02-01

    Raman and Fourier transform IR (FTIR) microspectroscopic images of biological material (tissue sections) contain detailed information about their chemical composition. The challenge lies in identifying changes in chemical composition, as well as locating and assigning these changes to different conditions (pathology, anatomy, environmental or genetic factors). Multivariate data analysis techniques are ideal for decrypting such information from the data. This protocol provides a user-friendly pipeline and graphical user interface (GUI) for data pre-processing and unmixing of pixel spectra into their contributing pure components by multivariate curve resolution-alternating least squares (MCR-ALS) analysis. The analysis considers the full spectral profile in order to identify the chemical compounds and to visualize their distribution across the sample to categorize chemically distinct areas. Results are rapidly achieved (usually <30-60 min per image), and they are easy to interpret and evaluate both in terms of chemistry and biology, making the method generally more powerful than principal component analysis (PCA) or heat maps of single-band intensities. In addition, chemical and biological evaluation of the results by means of reference matching and segmentation maps (based on k-means clustering) is possible. PMID:25569330

  18. Monte carlo uncertainty analysis for photothermal radiometry measurements using a curve fit process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horne, Kyle; Fleming, Austin; Timmins, Ben; Ban, Heng

    2015-12-01

    Photothermal radiometry (PTR) has become a popular method to measure thermal properties of layered materials. Much research has been done to determine the capabilities of PTR, but with little uncertainty analysis. This study reports a Monte Carlo uncertainty analysis to quantify uncertainty of film diffusivity and effusivity measurements, presents a sensitivity study for each input parameter, compares linear and logarithmic spacing of data points on frequency scans, and investigates the validity of a one-dimensional heat transfer assumption. Logarithmic spacing of frequencies when taking data is found to be unequivocally superior to linear spacing, while the use of a higher-dimensional heat transfer model is only needed for certain measurement configurations. The sensitivity analysis supports the frequency spacing conclusion, as well as explains trends seen in the uncertainty data.

  19. DOUBLE-STEP MULTIPLEX REAL TIME PCR WITH MELTING CURVE ANALYSIS FOR DETECTION AND DIFFERENTIATION OF MYCOBACTERIA IN SPUTUM.

    PubMed

    Kasa, Sawinee; Faksri, Kiatichai; Kaewkes, Wanlop; Lulitanond, Viraphong; Namwat, Wises

    2015-01-01

    Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M. tb) is a causative agent of tuberculosis, a worldwide public health problem. In recent years, the incidence of human mycobacterial infection due to species other than M. tb has increased. However, the lack of specific, rapid, and inexpensive methods for identification of mycobacterial species remains a pressing problem. A diagnostic test was developed for mycobacterial strain differentiation utilizing a double-step multiplex real time PCR together with melting curve analysis for identifying and distinguishing among M. tb, M. bovis BCG, other members of M. tb. complex, M. avium, and non-tuberculosis mycobacteria. The assay was tested using 167 clinical sputum samples in comparison with acid-fast staining and culturing. Using only the first step (step A) the assay achieved sensitivity and specificity of 81% and 95%, respectively. The detection limit was equivalent to 50 genome copies. PMID:26513906

  20. Statistical methods for pavement performance curve building, historical analysis, data sampling and storage. Final report, May 1997--July 1998

    SciTech Connect

    Zimmerman, K.A.; Bahulkar, A.M.

    1998-08-01

    The use of a pavement management system provides a state highway agency with the tools necessary to conduct a multi-year analysis of the maintenance and rehabilitation needs within the state based on both current needs and expected future conditions. In order to adequately predict future conditions, pavement performance models must be developed to reflect the deterioration trends of the agency`s pavements. At the time the SDDOT pavement management system was implemented in 1994, the Department developed a new condition rating system to evaluate the existing conditions of the state maintained pavements. At the same time, expert-based pavement performance models were developed to approximate the deterioration patterns of the highways based on pavement families (groupings of pavements with similar characteristics). A recommendation from that study (SD93-14) was to update the curves based on historical performance once sufficient data had been collected.

  1. DNA-based identification of Peucedanum ostruthium specimens and detection of common adulterants by high-resolution melting curve analysis.

    PubMed

    Schmiderer, Corinna; Ruzicka, Joana; Novak, Johannes

    2015-12-01

    Masterwort (Peucedanum ostruthium, syn. Imperatoria ostruthium, Apiaceae) is an old economic plant in Alpine countries cultivated as ornamental plant and used for spirits and in folk medicine. P. ostruthium is a species that has often been confused with related Apiaceae species or morphologically similar roots or tubers resulting in products of minor quality. Masterwort can be distinguished from other Apiaceae species by nrDNA (ITS1 and ITS2). The analysed chloroplast markers (trnK 5' intron, trnT-trnL, and psbA-trnH), however, showed no species-specific mutations. With the application of two primer pairs amplifying parts of ITS and developed for high-resolution melting curve analysis (HRM) the target species was distinguishable from the other Peucedanum and Apiaceae species of our reference set. A multiplex PCR/HRM was developed to detect adulterations with Gentiana spp., Aconitum napellus and Veratrum album. PMID:26493217

  2. ANALYSIS OF THE NON LINEAR DYNAMICS OF A 2AXLE FREIGHT WAGON IN CURVES

    E-print Network

    and of an assembly of wagons exchanging the forces exchanged through the buffers and the draw gear. The innovative and the nonlinear/non­smooth aspects of wheel­rail contact; · modelling of a group of 2­axle freight wagons using gear; in this work, a group of three wagons has been considered; · nonlinear analysis of the running

  3. Applying Decline Curve Analysis in the Liquid-rich Shales: Eagle Ford Shale Study 

    E-print Network

    Indras, Purvi

    2014-01-09

    , it is essential to identify or to estimate the time to reach BDF and to discontinue use of transient flow models after BDF appears or is expected. We validated our methodology using “hindcast analysis”; that is, matching the first half of production history...

  4. A rare case of respiratory disorders associated with two autosomal recessive diseases and male infertility

    PubMed Central

    Costa, Sergio López; Scigliano, Sergio; Menga, Guillermo; Demiceu, Sergio; Palaoro, Luis Alberto

    2013-01-01

    The study of nasal ciliary beat frequency (CBF) and ultrastructure may contribute to the understanding of pathognomonic cases of male infertility associated with defects in sperm motility. This study was designed to report a particular case of male infertility, characterized by the association of two respiratory autosomal recessive genetic diseases (alpha-1-antitrypsin deficiency [AAT-D] and primary ciliary dyskinesia [PCD]). A 39-year-old patient with complete sperm immotility, AAT-D, and bronchiectasis was studied in the Laboratory of Male Fertility, the Department of Urology, the Respiratory Center of a Pediatric Hospital, and in the Department of Clinical Medicine of a Rehabilitation Respiratory Hospital. Family history, physical examination, hormonal analysis, microbial assays, semen analysis, nasal ciliary function, and structure study by digital high-speed video photography and transmission electron microscopy are described. A noninvasive nasal biopsy to retrieve ciliated epithelium lining the inferior surface of the inferior nasal turbinates was performed and CBF was determined. Beat pattern was slightly curved and rigid, not wide, and metacronic in all the observed fields analyzed. CBF was 8.2 Hz in average (reference value, 10–15 Hz) Ultrastructural assay revealed absence of the inner dynein arms in 97% of the cilia observed. The final infertility accurate diagnosis was achieved by the study of nasal CBF and ultrastructure contributing to the patient health management and genetic counseling while deciding fatherhood. Beyond this particular case, the present report may open a new field of studies in male infertility, mainly in cases of asthenozoospermia. PMID:23772318

  5. Development of Curved-Plate Elements for the Exact Buckling Analysis of Composite Plate Assemblies Including Transverse-Shear Effects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McGowan, David M.

    1999-01-01

    The analytical formulation of curved-plate non-linear equilibrium equations including transverse-shear-deformation effects is presented. A unified set of non-linear strains that contains terms from both physical and tensorial strain measures is used. Linearized, perturbed equilibrium equations (stability equations) that describe the response of the plate just after buckling occurs are derived. These equations are then modified to allow the plate reference surface to be located a distance z(sub c) from the centroidal surface. The implementation of the new theory into the VICONOPT exact buckling and vibration analysis and optimum design computer program is described. The terms of the plate stiffness matrix using both classical plate theory (CPT) and first-order shear-deformation plate theory (SDPT) are presented. The effects of in-plane transverse and in-plane shear loads are included in the in-plane stability equations. Numerical results for several example problems with different loading states are presented. Comparisons of analyses using both physical and tensorial strain measures as well as CPT and SDPT are made. The computational effort required by the new analysis is compared to that of the analysis currently in the VICONOPT program. The effects of including terms related to in-plane transverse and in-plane shear loadings in the in-plane stability equations are also examined. Finally, results of a design-optimization study of two different cylindrical shells subject to uniform axial compression are presented.

  6. Mathematical Analysis for Peristaltic Flow of Two Phase Nanofluid in a Curved Channel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nadeem, S.; Iqra, Shahzadi

    2015-11-01

    This paper describes the theoretical analysis for peristaltic motion of water base nanofluid containing distinct types of the nanoparticles like Cu, TiO2, and Al2O3. Equations of nano fluid are modelled and simplified by constructing the suppositions of low Reynolds number as well as long wave length. The reduced equations are solved exactly. Solutions are represented through graphs. Outcomes for the velocity, temperature, pressure rise and stream lines are analyzed graphically. The work presented here is based on the fictitious values, however some other values can be tested experimentally.

  7. The last recession was good for life expectancy.

    PubMed

    Kristjuhan, Ulo; Taidre, Erika

    2012-04-01

    Most people think that economic growth and a good economy are prerequisites for good health and high life expectancy. As such, a recession should decrease life expectancy or stop it from rising. In fact, recessions can boost life expectancy. This was the case during the Great Depression in the United States from 1929 to 1932 and during the recession in the European Union in 2009. In 2009, life expectancy increased most rapidly in European countries where the decrease in gross domestic product was greatest-Estonia, Latvia, and Lithuania. Studies of life expectancy increasing during recessions can yield valuable information regarding extending average life expectancy without essential costs. PMID:22533416

  8. Autosomal Recessive Inheritance of Classic Bethlem Myopathy

    PubMed Central

    Foley, A. Reghan; Hu, Ying; Zou, Yaqun; Columbus, Alexandra; Shoffner, John; Dunn, Diane M.; Weiss, Robert B.; Bönnemann, Carsten G.

    2009-01-01

    Mutations in the collagen VI genes (COL6A1, COL6A2, and COL6A3) result in Ullrich congenital muscular dystrophy (UCMD), Bethlem myopathy (BM) or phenotypes intermediate between UCMD and BM. While UCMD can be caused by either recessively or dominantly acting mutations, BM has thus far been described as an exclusively autosomal dominant condition. We report two adult siblings with classic Bethlem myopathy who are compound heterozygous for a single nucleotide deletion (exon 23; c.1770delG), leading to in-frame skipping of exon 23 on the maternal allele, and a missense mutation p.R830W in exon 28 on the paternal allele. The parents are carriers of the respective mutations and are clinically unaffected. The exon skipping mutation in exon 23 results in a chain incapable of heterotrimeric assembly, while p.R830W likely ameliorates the phenotype into the Bethlem range. Thus, autosomal recessive inheritance can also underlie Bethlem myopathy, supporting the notion that UCMD and BM are part of a common clinical and genetic spectrum. PMID:19884007

  9. Autosomal recessive nonsyndromic deafness genes: a review.

    PubMed

    Duman, Duygu; Tekin, Mustafa

    2012-01-01

    More than 50 Percent of prelingual hearing loss is genetic in origin, and of these up to 93 Percent are monogenic autosomal recessive traits. Some forms of genetic deafness can be recognized by their associated syndromic features, but in most cases, hearing loss is the only finding and is referred to as nonsyndromic deafness. To date, more than 700 different mutations have been identified in one of 42 genes in individuals with autosomal recessive nonsyndromic hearing loss (ARNSHL). Reported mutations in GJB2, encoding connexin 26, makes this gene the most common cause of hearing loss in many populations. Other relatively common deafness genes include SLC26A4, MYO15A, OTOF, TMC1, CDH23, and TMPRSS3. In this report we summarize genes and mutations reported in families with ARNSHL. Founder effects were demonstrated for some recurrent mutations but the most significant findings are the extreme locus and allelic heterogeneity and different spectrum of genes and mutations in each population. PMID:22652773

  10. The 2003 Nov 14 occultation by Titan of TYC 1343-1865-1. II. Analysis of light curves

    E-print Network

    A. Zalucha; A. Fitzsimmons; J. L. Elliot; J. Thomas-Osip; H. B. Hammel; V. S. Dhillon; T. R. Marsh; F. W. Taylor; P. G. J. Irwin

    2007-12-05

    We observed a stellar occultation by Titan on 2003 November 14 from La Palma Observatory using ULTRACAM with three Sloan filters: u', g', and i' (358, 487, and 758 nm, respectively). The occultation probed latitudes 2 degrees S and 1 degrees N during immersion and emersion, respectively. A prominent central flash was present in only the i' filter, indicating wavelength-dependent atmospheric extinction. We inverted the light curves to obtain six lower-limit temperature profiles between 335 and 485 km (0.04 and 0.003 mb) altitude. The i' profiles agreed with the temperature measured by the Huygens Atmospheric Structure Instrument [Fulchignoni, M. et al., 2005. Nature 438, 785-791] above 415 km (0.01 mb). The profiles obtained from different wavelength filters systematically diverge as altitude decreases, which implies significant extinction in the light curves. Applying an extinction model [Elliot, J.L., Young, L.A., 1992. Astron. J. 103, 991-1015] gave the altitudes of line of sight optical depth equal to unity: 396 +/- 7 km and 401 +/- 20 km (u' immersion and emersion); 354 +/- 7 km and 387 +/- 7 km (g' immersion and emersion); and 336 +/- 5 km and 318 +/- 4 km (i' immersion and emersion). Further analysis showed that the optical depth follows a power law in wavelength with index 1.3 +/- 0.2. We present a new method for determining temperature from scintillation spikes in the occulting body's atmosphere. Temperatures derived with this method are equal to or warmer than those measured by the Huygens Atmospheric Structure Instrument. Using the highly structured, three-peaked central flash, we confirmed the shape of Titan's middle atmosphere using a model originally derived for a previous Titan occultation [Hubbard, W.B. et al., 1993. Astron. Astrophys. 269, 541-563].

  11. Rapid detection of homozygous mutations in congenital recessive ichthyosis.

    PubMed

    Lugassy, Jennie; Hennies, Hans Christian; Indelman, Margarita; Khamaysi, Ziad; Bergman, Reuven; Sprecher, Eli

    2008-02-01

    Congenital recessive ichthyoses (CRI) form a remarkably heterogeneous group of diseases, resulting from mutations in at least eight distinct genes, six of which have been identified so far. In the present study we ascertained two CRI families of Iranian and Druze origins. Exploiting the high degree of consanguinity characterizing these populations, we typed all family members for microsatellite markers spanning the major CRI chromosomal loci and used homozygosity mapping to identify candidate genes for subsequent mutational analysis. This strategy led to the rapid identification of two novel homozygous CRI-causing mutations in TGM1 (c.2058delC) and FLJ39501 (p.W521X). The present data demonstrate that the molecular analyses of CRI in consanguineous families can be readily completed in less than 96 h at relatively low costs. PMID:18034255

  12. A Parallel Procedure for the Analysis of Long-term Sequences of Light Curves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lanza, A. F.; Rodono, M.; Becciani, U.; Antonuccio Delogu, V.

    We present a parallel procedure which allows us to speed up the modelling of photometric and spectroscopic observations of active binary stars with brightness inhomogeneities on their surfaces. The procedure has been implemented using PVM and is suitable to run on a cluster of non-homogeneous, non-dedicated computers. It is optimized to recognize and assign the data sets requiring the largest computational effort to the most powerful CPUs of the cluster, taking into account the evolution of their performances during the calculation in a fully dynamical way. We report on several tests made with the workstation cluster of Catania Astrophysical Observatory and discuss the advantages of this kind of procedure for data analysis in Astrophysics.

  13. What can we learn from the Fourier analysis of blazar light curves?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Finke, Justin

    2015-01-01

    Blazars display strong variability on multiple timescales and in multiple radiation bands. Their variability can be characterized by power spectral densities (PSDs) and time lags as a function of Fourier frequency. We develop a new theoretical model based on analysis of the electron continuity equation carried out in the Fourier domain. This model predicts features in the synchrotron, synchrotron self-Compton (SSC), and external Compton (EC) PSDs and time lags associated with electron cooling, escape, and light travel time effects across the electromagnetic spectrum, from sub-mm to gamma-rays. We also find that FSRQs should have steeper PSD power-law indices than BL Lac objects at low Fourier frequencies if FSRQs produce gamma-rays by EC and BL Lac objects by SSC emission, in qualitative agreement with reported observations by the Fermi Large Area Telescope.

  14. Missense Mutations in CRYAB Are Liable for Recessive Congenital Cataracts

    PubMed Central

    Irum, Bushra; Khan, Arif O.; Wang, Qiwei; Kabir, Firoz; Khan, Asma A.; Husnain, Tayyab; Akram, Javed; Riazuddin, Sheikh

    2015-01-01

    Purpose This study was initiated to identify causal mutations responsible for autosomal recessive congenital cataracts in consanguineous familial cases. Methods Affected individuals underwent a detailed ophthalmological and clinical examination, and slit-lamp photographs were ascertained for affected individuals who have not yet been operated for the removal of the cataractous lens. Blood samples were obtained, and genomic DNA was extracted from white blood cells. A genome-wide scan was completed with short tandem repeat (STR) markers, and the logarithm of odds (LOD) scores were calculated. Protein coding exons of CRYAB were sequenced, bi-directionally. Evolutionary conservation was investigated by aligning CRYAB orthologues, and the expression of Cryab in embryonic and postnatal mice lens was investigated with TaqMan probe. Results The clinical and ophthalmological examinations suggested that all affected individuals had nuclear cataracts. Genome-wide linkage analysis suggested a potential region on chromosome 11q23 harboring CRYAB. DNA sequencing identified a missense variation: c.34C>T (p.R12C) in CRYAB that segregated with the disease phenotype in the family. Subsequent interrogation of our entire cohort of familial cases identified a second familial case localized to chromosome 11q23 harboring a c.31C>T (p.R11C) mutation. In silico analyses suggested that the mutations identified in familial cases, p.R11C and p.R12C will not be tolerated by the three-dimensional structure of CRYAB. Real-time PCR analysis identified the expression of Cryab in mouse lens as early as embryonic day 15 (E15) that increased significantly until postnatal day 6 (P6) with steady level of expression thereafter. Conclusion Here, we report two novel missense mutations, p.R11C and p.R12C, in CRYAB associated with autosomal recessive congenital nuclear cataracts. PMID:26402864

  15. Lessons Learned from a Comparative Analysis of Surgical Outcomes of and Learning Curves for Laparoscopy-Assisted Distal Gastrectomy

    PubMed Central

    Moon, Jun-Seok; Park, Man Sik; Kim, Jong-Han; Jang, You-Jin; Park, Sung-Soo; Mok, Young-Jae; Kim, Seung-Joo; Kim, Chong-Suk

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Before expanding our indications for laparoscopic gastrectomy to advanced gastric cancer and adopting reduced port laparoscopic gastrectomy, we analyzed and audited the outcomes of laparoscopy-assisted distal gastrectomy (LADG) for adenocarcinoma; this was done during the adoptive period at our institution through the comparative analysis of short-term surgical outcomes and learning curves (LCs) of two surgeons with different careers. Materials and Methods A detailed comparative analysis of the LCs and surgical outcomes was done for the respective first 95 and 111 LADGs performed by two surgeons between July, 2006 and June, 2011. The LCs were fitted by using the non-linear ordinary least squares estimation method. Results The postoperative morbidity and mortality rates were 14.6% and 0.0%, respectively, and there was no significant difference in the morbidity rates (12.6% vs. 16.2%, P=0.467). More than 25 lymph nodes were retrieved by each surgeon during LADG procedures. The LCs of both surgeons were distinct. In this study, a stable plateau of the LC was not achieved by both surgeons even after performing 90 LADGs. Conclusions Regardless of the experience with gastrectomy or laparoscopic surgery for other organs, or the age of surgeon, the outcome was quite acceptable; the learning process differ according to the surgeon's experience and individual characteristics. PMID:25861520

  16. Statistical analysis of the parameters of gamma-ray bursts with known redshifts and peaked optical light curves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beskin, G. M.; Oganesyan, G.; Greco, G.; Karpov, S.

    2015-10-01

    We present the statistical analysis of the properties of gamma-ray bursts with measured host galaxy redshifts and peaked optical light curves in proper frames of reference. The optical transients are classified by comparing the time lag of the optical peak relative to the GRB trigger with the duration of the gamma-ray emission itself. The results of the correlation analysis of all possible pairs of energy, spectral, and temporal characteristics of both gamma-ray and optical emissions are given. We specify the pairs of the parameters with correlation coefficients greater than 50% at significance levels better than 1%. The following empirical relations, obtained for the first time, are specifically discussed: a correlation between the peak optical afterglow R band luminosity and redshift L R ? (z +1)5.39±0.74 and a correlation between the peak luminosity of the prompt optical emissions and the time of the peak L R ? T peak -3.85±1.22 . We also analyze the similarity of the relationships between the peak optical luminosity and the isotropic equivalent of the total energy of gamma-ray bursts for afterglows ( L R ? E iso 1.06±0.22 ) and for prompt optical emissions ( L R ? E iso 1.59±0.21 ).

  17. Mixed models and reduced/selective integration displacement models for nonlinear analysis of curved beams

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Noor, A. K.; Peters, J. M.

    1981-01-01

    Simple mixed models are developed for use in the geometrically nonlinear analysis of deep arches. A total Lagrangian description of the arch deformation is used, the analytical formulation being based on a form of the nonlinear deep arch theory with the effects of transverse shear deformation included. The fundamental unknowns comprise the six internal forces and generalized displacements of the arch, and the element characteristic arrays are obtained by using Hellinger-Reissner mixed variational principle. The polynomial interpolation functions employed in approximating the forces are one degree lower than those used in approximating the displacements, and the forces are discontinuous at the interelement boundaries. Attention is given to the equivalence between the mixed models developed herein and displacement models based on reduced integration of both the transverse shear and extensional energy terms. The advantages of mixed models over equivalent displacement models are summarized. Numerical results are presented to demonstrate the high accuracy and effectiveness of the mixed models developed and to permit a comparison of their performance with that of other mixed models reported in the literature.

  18. Analytical solutions for recession analyses of sloping aquifers in alpine catchments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pauritsch, Marcus; Hergarten, Stefan; Winkler, Gerfried; Birk, Steffen

    2015-04-01

    Analytical solutions for the discharge recession of sloping aquifers are commonly used to simulate the runoff of shallow aquifers with slope angles of a few degrees and in particular hillslopes. However, in alpine catchments, potentially deeper aquifers represented by debris accumulations such as relict rock glaciers can be found in areas with much steeper slope angles. These aquifers might be important for flood reduction and drought prevention and the discharged water can be used for drinking water supply and small hydroelectric power plants. Here it is attempted to reproduce the recession behavior of such highly inclined aquifers by applying existing analytical solutions for sloping aquifers. More specifically, an analytical solution for the discharge recession of a sloping aquifer is compared to a numerical model (MODFLOW) for a variety of slope angles. In addition a sensitivity analysis is made to reveal the effects of the various approximations introduced in the analytical solution, such as homogeneity, parallel side boundaries and a straight profile. The results show that the deviation between the analytical solution and the numerical model depends on the hydraulic properties and is in general acceptable for all tested slope angles. However, the sensitivity analysis shows that the simplifying assumptions and especially the initial condition have great impact on the discharge recession. Therefore, only the long-term behavior of the analytical solution should be considered if the model is employed for aquifer characterization. In summary, the combined use of analytical solutions and simple numerical models helps to better understand the opportunities and limitations of the recession analysis of sloping aquifers.

  19. Bluff formation and long-term recession rates, southwestern Lake Michigan

    SciTech Connect

    Rovey, C.W. II )

    1992-01-01

    Where eroding cohesive sediments are present, Lake Michigan bluffs range up to 140 ft. in height and expose multiple stratigraphic units. According to the model presented here, bluffs form as a wave cut terrace erodes inland from a point near the original shoreline. The erosion plane is nearly horizontal, in contrast with the eastward dip of the glacial units inherited from underlying bedrock. Therefore, terraces eroding inland (west) produce progressively higher bluffs and expose successively older units at the toe and beneath the lake. This process repeated several times as lake levels sequentially dropped to their modern stage. The initial modern shoreline, and hence the width of the wave cut terrace, was determined from 4 offshore seismic profiles. It is picked as an inflection point in the slope of the lake bed, occurring offshore of dipping reflectors intersecting the lake bottom. The calculated average recession rate over the 2,500 year duration of the modern stage is 5 ft/yr in contrast to average rates of 2 ft/yr measured over the last century. Thus rates decrease through time as the terrace widens and wave energy is damped. By correlating bluff height to amount of recession of modern bluffs, a third rate of 12 ft/yr of the first 800 years of a recession is calculated for relict bluffs formed at the Nipissing II level. The 3 rates define a steeply decaying exponential curve in early stages of bluff retreat, flattening into a nearly linear function after 1,000 years.

  20. [The decline in population growth, income distribution, and economic recession].

    PubMed

    Banguero, H

    1983-05-01

    This work uses Keynesian principles and an analysis of the Colombian population in the 1970s to argue that the Colombian policy of slowing population growth, which was adopted with the aim of improving the general welfare of the population, has had shortterm negative effects on effective demand and thus on the level of employment and welfare. These negative effects were caused by the inflexibility of income distribution, which prevented expansion of the internal market, complicated by the stagnant condition of the external sector and the budget deficit. The results of the Colombian case study demonstrate how the deceleration of population growth beginning in the 1960s had a significant impact on the levels of consumption and savings and on the patterns of consumption, leading to low levels of investment and little dynamism. Although the current Colombian economic recession is aggravated by contextual factors such as the world economic recession, the high cost of capital, the industrial recession, and declining food production among others, at the core of the crisis are longer term structural determinants such as the decline in the rate of population growth and the highly unequal distribution of income and wealth, which have contributed to a shrinking of the internal market for some types of goods. Given the unlikelihood of renewed rapid population growth, the Keynesian model suggests that the only alternative for increasing aggregate demand is state intervention through public spending and investment and reorientation of the financial system to achieve a dynamic redistribution of income. Based on these findings and on proposals of other analysts, a stragegy for revitalization is proposed which would imply a gradual income redistribution to allow increased consumption of mass produced goods by the low income groups. Direct consumption subsidies would be avoided because of their inflationary and import-expanding tendencies; rather, incentives and support would be provided to 3 productive sectors: traditional agriculture, small factories producing mass consumption goods, and construction of low income housing. The strategy would promote economic growth and expansion without further deterioration of income distribution, employment, and price stability. A simulation study demonstrated the advantages of such a strategy in relation to alternative strategies. PMID:12266019

  1. Development of Curved-Plate Elements for the Exact Buckling Analysis of Composite Plate Assemblies Including Transverse-Shear Effects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McGowan, David Michael

    1997-01-01

    The analytical formulation of curved-plate non-linear equilibrium equations including transverse-shear-deformation effects is presented. The formulation uses the principle of virtual work. A unified set of non-linear strains that contains terms from both physical and tensorial strain measures is used. Linearized, perturbed equilibrium equations (stability equations) that describe the response of the plate just after buckling occurs are then derived after the application of several simplifying assumptions. These equations are then modified to allow the reference surface of the plate to be located at a distance z(sub c) from the centroidal surface. The implementation of the new theory into the VICONOPT exact buckling and vibration analysis and optimum design computer program is described as well. The terms of the plate stiffness matrix using both Classical Plate Theory (CPT) and first-order Shear-Deformation Plate Theory (SDPT) are presented. The necessary steps to include the effects of in-plane transverse and in-plane shear loads in the in-plane stability equations are also outlined. Numerical results are presented using the newly implemented capability. Comparisons of results for several example problems with different loading states are made. Comparisons of analyses using both physical and tensorial strain measures as well as CPT and SDPF are also made. Results comparing the computational effort required by the new analysis to that of the analysis currently in the VICONOPT program are presented. The effects of including terms related to in-plane transverse and in-plane shear loadings in the in-plane stability equations are also examined. Finally, results of a design-optimization study of two different cylindrical shells subject to uniform axial compression are presented.

  2. Children's Recess Physical Activity: Movement Patterns and Preferences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woods, Amelia Mays; Graber, Kim C.; Daum, David Newman

    2012-01-01

    The benefits of recess can be reaped by all students regardless of socioeconomic status, race, or gender and at relatively little cost. The purpose of this study was to examine physical activity (PA) variables related to the recess PA patterns of third and fourth grade children and the social preferences and individuals influencing their PA…

  3. Parents' Victory in Reclaiming Recess for Their Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zygmunt-Fillwalk, Eva; Bilello, Teresa Evanko

    2005-01-01

    This article discusses the issue of schools limiting the opportunities for children's physical, cognitive, social-emotional, and creative development that recess affords. Red Rover, hopscotch, jump rope, chase, telling secrets, hanging out, making friends, losing friends--these familiar pursuits of childhood recess are vividly memorable. While…

  4. Women and Jobs in Recessions: 1969-92.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goodman, William; And Others

    1993-01-01

    The probability of losing one's job because of a recession is very different for women and men, but, in the last two recessions, gender differences were reduced. The major cause is the relative performance of industries that heavily employ women (such as services) versus those that heavily employ men (such as goods-producing). (JOW)

  5. Withholding Recess from Elementary School Students: Policies Matter

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turner, Lindsey; Chriqui, Jamie F.; Chaloupka, Frank J.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Recess is a key aspect of a healthy elementary school environment and helps to keep students physically active during the school day. Although national organizations recommend that students not be withheld from recess, this practice occurs in schools. This study examined whether district policies were associated with school practices…

  6. The Impact of the Recession on College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berg-Cross, Linda; Green, Rodney

    2010-01-01

    This article had three goals: (a) to provide a brief economic review of the relationship between recessionary times, institutional reactions, and the life trajectory of recession-era college students; (b) to discuss the recession-related psychosocial stressors facing today's college students; and (c) to discuss how counseling centers can help…

  7. Bradford Curves.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rousseau, Ronald

    1994-01-01

    Discussion of informetric distributions shows that generalized Leimkuhler functions give proper fits to a large variety of Bradford curves, including those exhibiting a Groos droop or a rising tail. The Kolmogorov-Smirnov test is used to test goodness of fit, and least-square fits are compared with Egghe's method. (Contains 53 references.) (LRW)

  8. Football curves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dupeux, Guillaume; Cohen, Caroline; Le Goff, Anne; Quéré, David; Clanet, Christophe

    2011-07-01

    Straight lines, zigzag, parabolas (possibly truncated), circles and spirals are the main curves which can be observed in football (in the European sense, soccer elsewhere). They are, respectively, associated to heavy kick, knuckleball, lob and banana kicks. We discuss their physical origin and determine their respective domain of existence.

  9. Spatial variation of storage capacity and winter recession in the alpine Poschiavino catchment / Switzerland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Floriancic, Marius; Smoorenburg, Maarten; Margreth, Michael; Naef, Felix

    2015-04-01

    Better understanding of the spatial variability of recession and storage dynamics in alpine catchments may improve low flow estimation. Especially in areas with little gauging information, mapping water storing sediments and rocks may help identifying areas responsible for sustaining baseflow during low flow periods. In alpine catchments, low flow occurs during winter, because groundwater recharge from precipitation or snowmelt is limited. This provides good opportunities for research on storage behavior. We present a dataset of winter discharge measurements and water chemistry analyses in the alpine Poschiavino River, a 14km² watershed in southeast Switzerland with strongly contrasting subcatchments. To explore how low flow recession relates to the spatial organization of storage potential, geomorphology and sediment type were mapped. From 7 measurement campaigns throughout winter season 2013/14 we derived recession curves for various nested subcatchments. To identify different contributing sources, the discharge measurements were complemented with ion composition analyses of stream water and continuous hourly electric conductivity measurements. This dataset allowed identifying areas contributing during low flow periods and estimating the storage potential of different subcatchments. We found substantial variation in the contribution of different subcatchments from 54mm to 200mm in four months. The spatial variation of discharge and different drainage time scales in the various subcatchments could be attributed to storage properties like thickness of the sediment deposits. Contribution from areas with thick sediment cover is significantly higher than from parts with less deep deposits. However the spatial resolution of research was limited because of complicated subsurface flow paths. Topographic catchment borders did not always correspond to the hydrological ones. This first study on the relation of low flow recession and storage potential represents an essential basis for developing and adopting storage-based low flow prediction models.

  10. Factors influencing the recession rate of Niagara Falls since the 19th century

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hayakawa, Yuichi S.; Matsukura, Yukinori

    2009-09-01

    The rate of recession of Niagara Falls (Horseshoe and American Falls) in northeastern North America has been documented since the 19th century; it shows a decreasing trend from ca. 1 m y - 1 a century ago to ca. 0.1 m y - 1 at present. Reduction of the flow volume in the Niagara River due to diversion into bypassing hydroelectric schemes has often been taken to be the factor responsible, but other factors such as changes in the waterfall shape could play a role and call for a quantitative study. Here, we examine the effect of physical factors on the historically varying recession rates of Niagara Falls, using an empirical equation which has previously been proposed based on a non-dimensional multiparametric model which incorporates flow volume, waterfall shape and bedrock strength. The changes in recession rates of Niagara Falls in the last century are successfully modeled by this empirical equation; these changes are caused by variations in flow volume and lip length. This result supports the validity of the empirical equation for waterfalls in rivers carrying little transported sediment. Our analysis also suggests that the decrease in the recession rate of Horseshoe Falls is related to both artificial reduction in river discharge and natural increase in waterfall lip length, whereas that of American Falls is solely due to the reduction in flow volume.

  11. Validation of Kepler's multiple planet candidates. III. Light curve analysis and announcement of hundreds of new multi-planet systems

    SciTech Connect

    Rowe, Jason F.; Bryson, Stephen T.; Lissauer, Jack J.; Jontof-Hutter, Daniel; Mullally, Fergal; Howell, Steve B.; Borucki, William J.; Haas, Michael; Huber, Daniel; Thompson, Susan E.; Quintana, Elisa; Barclay, Thomas; Still, Martin; Marcy, Geoffrey W.; Issacson, Howard; Gilliland, Ronald L.; Ford, Eric; Steffen, Jason H.; Gautier, T. N. III; and others

    2014-03-20

    The Kepler mission has discovered more than 2500 exoplanet candidates in the first two years of spacecraft data, with approximately 40% of those in candidate multi-planet systems. The high rate of multiplicity combined with the low rate of identified false positives indicates that the multiplanet systems contain very few false positive signals due to other systems not gravitationally bound to the target star. False positives in the multi-planet systems are identified and removed, leaving behind a residual population of candidate multi-planet transiting systems expected to have a false positive rate less than 1%. We present a sample of 340 planetary systems that contain 851 planets that are validated to substantially better than the 99% confidence level; the vast majority of these have not been previously verified as planets. We expect ?two unidentified false positives making our sample of planet very reliable. We present fundamental planetary properties of our sample based on a comprehensive analysis of Kepler light curves, ground-based spectroscopy, and high-resolution imaging. Since we do not require spectroscopy or high-resolution imaging for validation, some of our derived parameters for a planetary system may be systematically incorrect due to dilution from light due to additional stars in the photometric aperture. Nonetheless, our result nearly doubles the number verified exoplanets.

  12. Pulse wave analysis in a 180-degree curved artery model: Implications under physiological and non-physiological inflows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bulusu, Kartik V.; Plesniak, Michael W.

    2013-11-01

    Systolic and diastolic blood pressures, pulse pressures, and left ventricular hypertrophy contribute to cardiovascular risks. Increase of arterial stiffness due to aging and hypertension is an important factor in cardiovascular, chronic kidney and end-stage-renal-diseases. Pulse wave analysis (PWA) based on arterial pressure wave characteristics, is well established in clinical practice for evaluation of arterial distensibility and hypertension. The objective of our exploratory study in a rigid 180-degree curved artery model was to evaluate arterial pressure waveforms. Bend upstream conditions were measured using a two-component, two-dimensional, particle image velocimeter (2C-2D PIV). An ultrasonic transit-time flow meter and a catheter with a MEMS-based solid state pressure sensor, capable of measuring up to 20 harmonics of the observed pressure waveform, monitored flow conditions downstream of the bend. Our novel continuous wavelet transform algorithm (PIVlet 1.2), in addition to detecting coherent secondary flow structures is used to evaluate arterial pulse wave characteristics subjected to physiological and non-physiological inflows. Results of this study will elucidate the utility of wavelet transforms in arterial function evaluation and pulse wave speed. Supported by NSF Grant No. CBET- 0828903 and GW Center for Biomimetics and Bioinspired Engineering.

  13. Latent Growth Curve Analysis of Fear during a Speech Task before and after Treatment for Social Phobia

    PubMed Central

    Price, Matthew; Anderson, Page L.

    2011-01-01

    Models of social phobia highlight the importance of anticipatory anxiety in the experience of fear during a social situation. Anticipatory anxiety has been shown to be highly correlated with performance anxiety for a variety of social situations. A few studies show that average ratings of anxiety during the anticipation and performance phases of a social situation decline following treatment. Evidence also suggests that the point of confrontation with the feared stimulus is the peak level of fear. No study to date has evaluated the pattern of anxious responding across the anticipation, confrontation, and performance phases before and after treatment, which is the focus of the current study. Socially phobic individuals (N=51) completed a behavioral avoidance task before and after two types of manualized cognitive behavioral therapy, and gave ratings of fear during the anticipation and performance phases. Results from latent growth curve analysis were the same for the two treatments and suggest that before treatment, anxiety sharply increased during the anticipation phase, was highly elevated at the confrontation, and, to a gradually increased during the performance phase. After treatment, anxiety increased during the anticipation phase, although at a much slower rate than at pretreatment, peaking at confrontation, and declined at the performance phase. The findings suggest that anticipatory experiences are critical to the experience of fear for public speaking and should be incorporated into exposures. PMID:21907972

  14. Estimation of catchment-scale evapotranspiration from baseflow recession data: Numerical model and

    E-print Network

    Szilagyi, Jozsef

    Estimation of catchment-scale evapotranspiration from baseflow recession data: Numerical model Evapotranspiration; Baseflow recession Summary By applying a nonlinear reservoir approach for groundwater drainage, catch- ment-scale evapotranspiration (ET) during flow recessions can be expressed with the help

  15. Clarifications regarding the use of model-fitting methods of kinetic analysis for determining the activation energy from a single non-isothermal curve

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background This paper provides some clarifications regarding the use of model-fitting methods of kinetic analysis for estimating the activation energy of a process, in response to some results recently published in Chemistry Central journal. Findings The model fitting methods of Arrhenius and Savata are used to determine the activation energy of a single simulated curve. It is shown that most kinetic models correctly fit the data, each providing a different value for the activation energy. Therefore it is not really possible to determine the correct activation energy from a single non-isothermal curve. On the other hand, when a set of curves are recorded under different heating schedules are used, the correct kinetic parameters can be clearly discerned. Conclusions Here, it is shown that the activation energy and the kinetic model cannot be unambiguously determined from a single experimental curve recorded under non isothermal conditions. Thus, the use of a set of curves recorded under different heating schedules is mandatory if model-fitting methods are employed. PMID:23383684

  16. Recessions, Job Loss, and Mortality Among Older US Adults

    PubMed Central

    Beckfield, Jason

    2014-01-01

    Objectives. We analyzed how recessions and job loss jointly shape mortality risks among older US adults. Methods. We used data for 50 states from the Health and Retirement Study and selected individuals who were employed at ages 45 to 66 years during 1992 to 2011. We assessed whether job loss affects mortality risks, whether recessions moderate the effect of job loss on mortality, and whether individuals who do and do not experience job loss are differentially affected by recessions. Results. Compared with individuals not experiencing job loss, mortality risks among individuals losing their job in a recession were strongly elevated (hazard ratio?=?1.6; 95% confidence interval?=?1.1, 2.3). Job loss during normal times or booms is not associated with mortality. For employed workers, we found a reduction in mortality risks if local labor market conditions were depressed, but this result was not consistent across different model specifications. Conclusions. Recessions increase mortality risks among older US adults who experience job loss. Health professionals and policymakers should target resources to this group during recessions. Future research should clarify which health conditions are affected by job loss during recessions and whether access to health care following job loss moderates this relation. PMID:25211731

  17. Obstruction of adaptation in diploids by recessive, strongly deleterious alleles

    PubMed Central

    Assaf, Zoe June; Petrov, Dmitri A.; Blundell, Jamie R.

    2015-01-01

    Recessive deleterious mutations are common, causing many genetic disorders in humans and producing inbreeding depression in the majority of sexually reproducing diploids. The abundance of recessive deleterious mutations in natural populations suggests they are likely to be present on a chromosome when a new adaptive mutation occurs, yet the dynamics of recessive deleterious hitchhikers and their impact on adaptation remains poorly understood. Here we model how a recessive deleterious mutation impacts the fate of a genetically linked dominant beneficial mutation. The frequency trajectory of the adaptive mutation in this case is dramatically altered and results in what we have termed a “staggered sweep.” It is named for its three-phased trajectory: (i) Initially, the two linked mutations have a selective advantage while rare and will increase in frequency together, then (ii), at higher frequencies, the recessive hitchhiker is exposed to selection and can cause a balanced state via heterozygote advantage (the staggered phase), and (iii) finally, if recombination unlinks the two mutations, then the beneficial mutation can complete the sweep to fixation. Using both analytics and simulations, we show that strongly deleterious recessive mutations can substantially decrease the probability of fixation for nearby beneficial mutations, thus creating zones in the genome where adaptation is suppressed. These mutations can also significantly prolong the number of generations a beneficial mutation takes to sweep to fixation, and cause the genomic signature of selection to resemble that of soft or partial sweeps. We show that recessive deleterious variation could impact adaptation in humans and Drosophila. PMID:25941393

  18. High-throughput avian molecular sexing by SYBR green-based real-time PCR combined with melting curve analysis

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Hsueh-Wei; Cheng, Chun-An; Gu, De-Leung; Chang, Chia-Che; Su, San-Hua; Wen, Cheng-Hao; Chou, Yii-Cheng; Chou, Ta-Ching; Yao, Cheng-Te; Tsai, Chi-Li; Cheng, Chien-Chung

    2008-01-01

    Background Combination of CHD (chromo-helicase-DNA binding protein)-specific polymerase chain reaction (PCR) with electrophoresis (PCR/electrophoresis) is the most common avian molecular sexing technique but it is lab-intensive and gel-required. Gender determination often fails when the difference in length between the PCR products of CHD-Z and CHD-W genes is too short to be resolved. Results Here, we are the first to introduce a PCR-melting curve analysis (PCR/MCA) to identify the gender of birds by genomic DNA, which is gel-free, quick, and inexpensive. Spilornis cheela hoya (S. c. hoya) and Pycnonotus sinensis (P. sinensis) were used to illustrate this novel molecular sexing technique. The difference in the length of CHD genes in S. c. hoya and P. sinensis is 13-, and 52-bp, respectively. Using Griffiths' P2/P8 primers, molecular sexing failed both in PCR/electrophoresis of S. c. hoya and in PCR/MCA of S. c. hoya and P. sinensis. In contrast, we redesigned sex-specific primers to yield 185- and 112-bp PCR products for the CHD-Z and CHD-W genes of S. c. hoya, respectively, using PCR/MCA. Using this specific primer set, at least 13 samples of S. c. hoya were examined simultaneously and the Tm peaks of CHD-Z and CHD-W PCR products were distinguished. Conclusion In this study, we introduced a high-throughput avian molecular sexing technique and successfully applied it to two species. This new method holds a great potential for use in high throughput sexing of other avian species, as well. PMID:18269737

  19. Surgical management of gingival recession: A clinical update

    PubMed Central

    Alghamdi, Hamdan; Babay, Nadir; Sukumaran, Anil

    2009-01-01

    Gingival recession is defined as the apical migration of the junctional epithelium with exposure of root surfaces. It is a common condition seen in both dentally aware populations and those with limited access to dental care. The etiology of the condition is multifactorial but is commonly associated with underlying alveolar morphology, tooth brushing, mechanical trauma and periodontal disease. Given the high rate of gingival recession defects among the general population, it is imperative that dental practitioners have an understanding of the etiology, complications and the management of the condition. The following review describes the surgical techniques to treat gingival recession. PMID:23960465

  20. Autosomal Recessive Anhidrotic Ectodermal Dysplasia: A Rare Entity

    PubMed Central

    Ghosh, Sangita; Ghosh, Epsita; Dayal, Surabhi

    2014-01-01

    We describe a case of anhidrotic ectodermal dysplasia (AED) with an autosomal recessive mode of inheritance, a very rare entity, in a 2-year-old female child of two asymptomatic, consanguineous parents. Their previous child also had a similar condition. Autosomal recessive AED (AR-AED) can have its full expression both in males and females and it is clinically indistinguishable from the x-linked recessive AED (XL-AED), which is the most common type of ectodermal dysplasia. Unlike the partially symptomatic carriers of XL-AED, the heterozygotes of AR-AED are phenotypically asymptomatic. PMID:25071285

  1. Detection and Discrimination between Deletional and Non-Deletional Prader-Willi and Angelman Syndromes by Methylation-Specific PCR and Quantitative Melting Curve Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Wen; Law, Hai-Yang; Chong, Samuel S.

    2009-01-01

    Prader-Willi syndrome (PWS) and Angelman syndrome (AS) are clinically distinct neurological disorders caused by a lack of expression of oppositely imprinted genes in chromosomal region 15q11-13. The loss of expression can be due to parent-specific segmental deletions or can arise from non-deletional mechanisms, such as uniparental disomy of chromosome 15 or defects in imprinting. Most current diagnostic methods to distinguish PWS from AS require separate amplification and detection steps, and some methods cannot differentiate between deletional and non-deletional forms of these syndromes. We have developed a single-step, methylation-specific PCR, and quantitative melting curve analysis assay to identify methylation differences and copy number changes in PWS and AS. In this strategy, duplex amplification followed by melting curve analysis was performed to detect the maternally and paternally imprinted SNRPN alleles and LIS1 reference gene. To discriminate between deletional and non-deletional PWS and AS, relative peak height ratios of maternal or paternal SNRPN:LIS1 were determined, respectively. To validate the diagnostic accuracy of the analysis, methylation-specific multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification was performed on all PWS and AS samples. Complete concordance between the melting curve analysis and methylation-specific multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification results was observed for all PWS and AS samples. Methylation-specific PCR and quantitative melting curve analysis represents a simple, rapid, and robust alternative to methylation-specific multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification for the detection of and discrimination between deletional and non-deletional forms of PWS and AS. PMID:19661385

  2. Large deformation analysis and synthesis of elastic closed-loop mechanism made of a certain spring wire described by free curves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iwatsuki, Nobuyuki; Kosaki, Takashi

    2015-07-01

    Recently novel mechanisms with compact size and without many mechanical elements such as bearing are strongly required for medical devices such as surgical operation devices. This paper describes analysis and synthesis of elastic link mechanisms of a single spring beam which can be manufactured by NC coiling machines. These mechanisms are expected as disposable micro forceps. Smooth Curvature Model(SCM) with 3rd order Legendre polynomial curvature functions is applied to calculate large deformation of a curved cantilever beam by taking account of the balance between external and internal elastic forces and moments. SCM is then extended to analyze large deformation of a closed-loop curved elastic beam which is composed of multiple free curved beams. A closed-loop elastic link is divided into two free curved cantilever beams each of which is assumed as serially connected free curved cantilever beams described with SCM. The sets of coefficients of Legendre polynomials of SCM in all free curved cantilever beams are determined by taking account of the force and moment balance at connecting point where external input force is applied. The sets of coefficients of Legendre polynomials of a nonleaded closed-loop elastic link are optimized to design a link mechanism which can generate specified output motion due to input force applied at the assumed dividing point. For example, two planar micro grippers with a single pulling input force are analyzed and designed. The elastic deformation analyzed with proposed method agrees very well with that calculated with FEM. The designed micro gripper can generate the desired pinching motion. The proposed method can contribute to design compact and simple elastic mechanisms without high calculation costs.

  3. Large linkage analysis in 100 families with autosomal recessive spinal muscular atrophy (SMA) and 11 EPH families using 15 polymorphic loci in the region 5q11. 2-q13. 3

    SciTech Connect

    Wirth, B.; Pick, E.; Leutner, A.; Dadze, A.; Voosen, B.; Piechaczek-Wappenschmidt, B.; Rudnik-Schoeneborn, S.; Schoenling, J.; Zerres, K. ); Knapp, M. )

    1994-03-01

    The autosomal recessive proximal spinal muscular atrophy (SMA) gene was mapped to the region 5q11.2-q.13.3 in 1990. Here, the authors present a large genetic linkage study of 100 SMA families and 11 CEPH families using 14 polymorphic simple sequence repeats (SSRs) and one RFLP in the region 5q11.2-q.13.3. The genetic interval between the closest SMA flanking loci D5S435 and D5S557 comprises 1 cM at z[sub max] = 27.94. Two recombinants were identified between the SMA gene and the closest telomeric marker D5S557. The first places the SMA gene centromeric to this marker; the second suggests a double recombinant at D5S557, which is very unlikely. More likely explanations are discussed in the paper. No recombinant was found between D5S435 and the SMA gene. They localized a recently described polymorphic marker, D5S351, close to the SMA. Due to its high PIC value of 0.70, it represents a very useful marker for prenatal diagnosis. In addition, they developed a new reverse primer for the nearest centromeric locus D5S435, a useful marker for prenatal diagnosis, which has been very difficult to amplify in the past. Three of the markers presented here are newly developed polymorphic SSRs (one tetranucleotide repeat, D5s507/W15CATT, and two dinucleotide repeats, D5S544/C88.2GT and D5S682/C88.3GT). These markers are too far from the SMA gene to be relevant for cloning; nevertheless, as part of the human genome project, they are contributing to the fine genetic mapping of the region 5q11.2-q.13.3. The most likely order of the loci based on two-point and multipoint linkage analyses as well as on specific recombination events and physical mapping studies is D5S76-D5S507-D5S6-D5S125-D5S680-D5S435-SMA-D5S557-D5S35 -15[prime]MAP1B-3[prime]MAP1B-JK53CA1/2-(D5S127-D5S39)-(D5S544-D5S682). In general, the genetic distances obtained from the SMA and CEPH families are comparable. 25 refs., 4 figs., 5 tabs.

  4. Colorado's Economic Recovery since the Great Recession Professor Martin Shields

    E-print Network

    1 Colorado's Economic Recovery since the Great Recession Professor Martin Shields Regional Economics Institute Colorado State University csurei, economic performance has been mixed. The northern Front Range has fared best

  5. Chemical-mechanical polishing of recessed microelectromechanical devices

    DOEpatents

    Barron, C.C.; Hetherington, D.L.; Montague, S.

    1999-07-06

    A method is disclosed for micromachining recessed layers (e.g. sacrificial layers) of a microelectromechanical system (MEMS) device formed in a cavity etched into a semiconductor substrate. The method uses chemical-mechanical polishing (CMP) with a resilient polishing pad to locally planarize one or more of the recessed layers within the substrate cavity. Such local planarization using the method of the present invention is advantageous for improving the patterning of subsequently deposited layers, for eliminating mechanical interferences between functional elements (e.g. linkages) of the MEMS device, and for eliminating the formation of stringers. After the local planarization of one or more of the recessed layers, another CMP step can be provided for globally planarizing the semiconductor substrate to form a recessed MEMS device which can be integrated with electronic circuitry (e.g., CMOS, BiCMOS or bipolar circuitry) formed on the surface of the substrate. 23 figs.

  6. Chemical-mechanical polishing of recessed microelectromechanical devices

    DOEpatents

    Barron, Carole C. (Albuquerque, NM); Hetherington, Dale L. (Albuquerque, NM); Montague, Stephen (Albuquerque, NM)

    1999-01-01

    A method is disclosed for micromachining recessed layers (e.g. sacrificial layers) of a microelectromechanical system (MEMS) device formed in a cavity etched into a semiconductor substrate. The method uses chemical-mechanical polishing (CMP) with a resilient polishing pad to locally planarize one or more of the recessed layers within the substrate cavity. Such local planarization using the method of the present invention is advantageous for improving the patterning of subsequently deposited layers, for eliminating mechanical interferences between functional elements (e.g. linkages) of the MEMS device, and for eliminating the formation of stringers. After the local planarization of one or more of the recessed layers, another CMP step can be provided for globally planarizing the semiconductor substrate to form a recessed MEMS device which can be integrated with electronic circuitry (e.g. CMOS, BiCMOS or bipolar circuitry) formed on the surface of the substrate.

  7. Genetics Home Reference: Autosomal recessive hyper-IgE syndrome

    MedlinePLUS

    ... syndrome? AR-HIES is a rare disorder whose prevalence is unknown. What genes are related to autosomal ... immunodeficiency ; immunoglobulin ; infection ; inherited ; neurological ; NK cells ; pneumonia ; prevalence ; protein ; recessive ; respiratory ; syndrome ; white blood cells You ...

  8. 8. April 1963 MULTIPLE EXPOSURE OF WINDOW DETAIL, SHOWING RECESSED ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. April 1963 MULTIPLE EXPOSURE OF WINDOW DETAIL, SHOWING RECESSED VERTICAL SLIDING SHUTTER IN VARIOUS POSITIONS FROM OPEN TO CLOSED - Shaker Ministry's Shop, Shaker Road, Harvard, Worcester County, MA

  9. X-ray photoemission analysis of clean and carbon monoxide-chemisorbed platinum(111) stepped surfaces using a curved crystal.

    PubMed

    Walter, Andrew L; Schiller, Frederik; Corso, Martina; Merte, Lindsay R; Bertram, Florian; Lobo-Checa, Jorge; Shipilin, Mikhail; Gustafson, Johan; Lundgren, Edvin; Brión-Ríos, Anto N X; Cabrera-Sanfelix, Pepa; Sánchez-Portal, Daniel; Ortega, J Enrique

    2015-01-01

    Surface chemistry and catalysis studies could significantly gain from the systematic variation of surface active sites, tested under the very same conditions. Curved crystals are excellent platforms to perform such systematics, which may in turn allow to better resolve fundamental properties and reveal new phenomena. This is demonstrated here for the carbon monoxide/platinum system. We curve a platinum crystal around the high-symmetry (111) direction and carry out photoemission scans on top. This renders the spatial core-level imaging of carbon monoxide adsorbed on a 'tunable' vicinal surface, allowing a straightforward visualization of the rich chemisorption phenomenology at steps and terraces. Through such photoemission images we probe a characteristic elastic strain variation at stepped surfaces, and unveil subtle stress-release effects on clean and covered vicinal surfaces. These results offer the prospect of applying the curved surface approach to rationally investigate the chemical activity of surfaces under real pressure conditions. PMID:26561388

  10. X-ray photoemission analysis of clean and carbon monoxide-chemisorbed platinum(111) stepped surfaces using a curved crystal

    PubMed Central

    Walter, Andrew L.; Schiller, Frederik; Corso, Martina; Merte, Lindsay R.; Bertram, Florian; Lobo-Checa, Jorge; Shipilin, Mikhail; Gustafson, Johan; Lundgren, Edvin; Brión-Ríos, Anto´n X.; Cabrera-Sanfelix, Pepa; Sánchez-Portal, Daniel; Ortega, J. Enrique

    2015-01-01

    Surface chemistry and catalysis studies could significantly gain from the systematic variation of surface active sites, tested under the very same conditions. Curved crystals are excellent platforms to perform such systematics, which may in turn allow to better resolve fundamental properties and reveal new phenomena. This is demonstrated here for the carbon monoxide/platinum system. We curve a platinum crystal around the high-symmetry (111) direction and carry out photoemission scans on top. This renders the spatial core-level imaging of carbon monoxide adsorbed on a ‘tunable' vicinal surface, allowing a straightforward visualization of the rich chemisorption phenomenology at steps and terraces. Through such photoemission images we probe a characteristic elastic strain variation at stepped surfaces, and unveil subtle stress-release effects on clean and covered vicinal surfaces. These results offer the prospect of applying the curved surface approach to rationally investigate the chemical activity of surfaces under real pressure conditions. PMID:26561388

  11. Analysis of physical quality of soil using the water retention curve: Validity of the S-index

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guimarães Santos, Glenio; Medrado da Silva, Euzebio; Leandro Marchão, Robélio; Marques da Silveira, Pedro; Bruand, Ary; James, Francois; Becquer, Thierry

    2011-04-01

    Among the various soil indicators established in order to discuss physical properties of soils is the S-index, derived from the slope of the soil water retention curve at its inflection point, used by a number of authors. In this publication we discuss the value of the slope at the inflection point of the soil water retention curve according to the independent variable used to plot it. We show that a representation of the water content according to the arithmetic rather than logarithmic expression of the suction for the S-index yields a different result for the soil selected. More generally, our results show that examining the physical properties of soil using a water retention curve plotted with an arithmetic expression of suction offers greater potential than when plotted with its natural or decimal logarithm as is often found in the literature.

  12. BVRcIc Light Curve Analysis of the Shallow Contact Extreme Mass Ratio W UMa Binary, HR Boo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Faulkner, Danny R.; Samec, Ronald G.; Shebs, Travis; Benkendorf, Barry

    2014-06-01

    HR Boo [? (2000) = 14h 48m 33.015s, ? (2000) = +21° 44 ?01.09"] is an NSVS variable first observed in 1999 and listed in the 79th name list (Kazarovets, 2008). It was identified as a W UMa variable and first characterized by the period 0.27289 d. This was later corrected to 0.31587 d. Various observers have reported ~20 timings of minimum light over the past ~4000 orbital epochs. Our 2012 curve is of high precision, with probable errors averaging 5 mmag. The curves have shallow amplitudes, averaging 0.4 magnitudes, yet apparently exhibit total eclipses. J-K observations yield a G6V type for the system. A linear period determination of 0.31596785(7) d was computed with the available timings of minimum light. When the NSVS light curve is considered in the period study, it indicates that the period has been clearly decreasing over the past 15,000 orbits. The quadratic term from this period study is statistically significant at 5 ?. This indicates that the binary is evidently undergoing magnetic breaking due to enhanced magnetic solar activity.The light curve solution reveals that HR Boo is a shallow contact system with a Roche-lobe fill-out of ~4% and a mass ratio of q= 0.25. This is exceedingly rare, since extreme mass ratio binaries usually have high fill-outs. In addition, an unusually dark 13 degree radius cool spot with a T-factor of ~50% was computed near the L1 Point of the primary component. A 32 minute duration of constant light is seen in the secondary eclipse indicating the occurrence of a total eclipse. This was confirmed in the light curve solution. Although the secondary component has a slightly higher temperature than the primary component, some 30 K, the light curves have the appearance of an A-type W UMa system. The system may have come into contact recently.

  13. Children's Physical Activity during Recess and Outside of School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beighle, Aaron; Morgan, Charles F.; Le Masurier, Guy; Pangrazi, Robert P.

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine children's physical activity during recess and outside of school. Third-, fourth-, and fifth-grade students (N = 270; 121 boys, age = 9.5 plus or minus 0.9 years; 150 girls, age = 9.6 plus or minus 0.9 years) wore sealed pedometers during a 15-minute recess period and outside of school for 4 consecutive…

  14. Remote Recession Sensing of Ablative Heat Shield Materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Winter, Michael W.; Stackpoole, Margaret; Nawaz, Anuscheh; Gonzales, Gregory Lewis; Ho, Thanh

    2014-01-01

    Material recession and charring are two major processes determining the performance of ablative heat shield materials. Even in ground testing, the characterization of these two mechanisms relies on measurements of material thickness before and after testing, thus providing only information integrated over the test time. For recession measurements, optical methods such as imaging the sample surface during testing are under investigation but require high alignment and instrument effort, therefore being not established as a standard measurement method. For char depth measurements, the most common method so far consists in investigation of sectioned samples after testing or in the case of Stardust where core extractions were performed to determine char information. In flight, no reliable recession measurements are available, except total recession after recovering the heat shield on ground. Developments of mechanical recession sensors have been started but require substantial on board instrumentation adding mass and complexity. In this work, preliminary experiments to evaluate the feasibility of remote sensing of material recession and possibly char depth through optically observing the emission signatures of seeding materials in the post shock plasma is investigated. It is shown that this method can provide time resolved recession measurements without the necessity of accurate alignment procedures of the optical set-up and without any instrumentation on board of a spacecraft. Furthermore, recession data can be obtained without recovering flight hardware which would be a huge benefit for inexpensive heat shield material testing on board of small re-entry probes, e.g. on new micro-satellite re-entry probes as a possible future application of Cubesats or RBR

  15. 'Animal spirits' and expectations in U.S. recession forecasting

    E-print Network

    Elliott Middleton

    2001-08-23

    A two-variable model is developed to forecast the probability of recession in the U.S. economy. Like many others, the model uses data a year or more old to explain movements of a dichotomous dependent variable for recession. The innovation of the present effort is the introduction of a confidence variable, which appears to increase the qualitative accuracy and structural stability of the model in validation testing compared to others.

  16. Stream flow recession patterns can help unravel the role of climate and humans in landscape co-evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bogaart, P. W.; van der Velde, Y.; Lyon, S. W.; Dekker, S. C.

    2015-09-01

    Traditionally, long term predictions of river discharges and their extremes include constant relationships between landscape properties and model parameters. However, due to co-evolution of many of landscape properties more sophisticated methods to quantify future landscape-hydrological model relationships are likely necessary. As a first step towards such an approach we use the Brutsaert and Nieber (1977) analysis method to characterize streamflow recession behaviour of ? 200 Swedish catchments within the context of global change and landscape co-evolution. Results suggest that the Brutsaert-Nieber parameters are strongly linked to the climate, soil, land-use and their interdependencies. Many catchments show a trend towards more non-linear behaviour, meaning faster initial recession, but also slower recession towards baseflow. This trend has been found to be independent from climate change. Instead, we suggest that land cover change, both natural (restoration of natural soil profiles in forested areas) and anthropogenic (reforestation and optimized water management), is probably responsible. Both change types are characterised by system adaptation and change, towards more optimal ecohydrological conditions, suggesting landscape co-evolution is at play. Given the observed magnitudes of recession changes during the past 50 years, predictions of future river discharge critically need to include effects of landscape co-evolution. The interconnections between the controls of land cover and climate on river recession behaviour, as we have quantified in this paper, provide first-order handles to do so.

  17. On the use of spring baseflow recession for a more accurate parameterization of aquifer transit time distribution functions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farlin, J.; Maloszewski, P.

    2013-05-01

    Baseflow recession analysis and groundwater dating have up to now developed as two distinct branches of hydrogeology and have been used to solve entirely different problems. We show that by combining two classical models, namely the Boussinesq equation describing spring baseflow recession, and the exponential piston-flow model used in groundwater dating studies, the parameters describing the transit time distribution of an aquifer can be in some cases estimated to a far more accurate degree than with the latter alone. Under the assumption that the aquifer basis is sub-horizontal, the mean transit time of water in the saturated zone can be estimated from spring baseflow recession. This provides an independent estimate of groundwater transit time that can refine those obtained from tritium measurements. The approach is illustrated in a case study predicting atrazine concentration trend in a series of springs draining the fractured-rock aquifer known as the Luxembourg Sandstone. A transport model calibrated on tritium measurements alone predicted different times to trend reversal following the nationwide ban on atrazine in 2005 with different rates of decrease. For some of the springs, the actual time of trend reversal and the rate of change agreed extremely well with the model calibrated using both tritium measurements and the recession of spring discharge during the dry season. The agreement between predicted and observed values was however poorer for the springs displaying the most gentle recessions, possibly indicating a stronger influence of continuous groundwater recharge during the summer months.

  18. On the use of spring baseflow recession for a more accurate parameterization of aquifer transit time distribution functions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farlin, J.; Maloszewski, P.

    2012-12-01

    Baseflow recession analysis and groundwater dating have up to now developed as two distinct branches of hydrogeology and were used to solve entirely different problems. We show that by combining two classical models, namely Boussinesq's Equation describing spring baseflow recession and the exponential piston-flow model used in groundwater dating studies, the parameters describing the transit time distribution of an aquifer can be in some cases estimated to a far more accurate degree than with the latter alone. Under the assumption that the aquifer basis is sub-horizontal, the mean residence time of water in the saturated zone can be estimated from spring baseflow recession. This provides an independent estimate of groundwater residence time that can refine those obtained from tritium measurements. This approach is demonstrated in a case study predicting atrazine concentration trend in a series of springs draining the fractured-rock aquifer known as the Luxembourg Sandstone. A transport model calibrated on tritium measurements alone predicted different times to trend reversal following the nationwide ban on atrazine in 2005 with different rates of decrease. For some of the springs, the best agreement between observed and predicted time of trend reversal was reached for the model calibrated using both tritium measurements and the recession of spring discharge during the dry season. The agreement between predicted and observed values was however poorer for the springs displaying the most gentle recessions, possibly indicating the stronger influence of continuous groundwater recharge during the dry period.

  19. Quantitative Fundus Autofluorescence in Recessive Stargardt Disease

    PubMed Central

    Burke, Tomas R.; Duncker, Tobias; Woods, Russell L.; Greenberg, Jonathan P.; Zernant, Jana; Tsang, Stephen H.; Smith, R. Theodore; Allikmets, Rando; Sparrow, Janet R.; Delori, François C.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose. To quantify fundus autofluorescence (qAF) in patients with recessive Stargardt disease (STGD1). Methods. A total of 42 STGD1 patients (ages: 7–52 years) with at least one confirmed disease-associated ABCA4 mutation were studied. Fundus AF images (488-nm excitation) were acquired with a confocal scanning laser ophthalmoscope equipped with an internal fluorescent reference to account for variable laser power and detector sensitivity. The gray levels (GLs) of each image were calibrated to the reference, zero GL, magnification, and normative optical media density to yield qAF. Texture factor (TF) was calculated to characterize inhomogeneities in the AF image and patients were assigned to the phenotypes of Fishman I through III. Results. Quantified fundus autofluorescence in 36 of 42 patients and TF in 27 of 42 patients were above normal limits for age. Young patients exhibited the relatively highest qAF, with levels up to 8-fold higher than healthy eyes. Quantified fundus autofluorescence and TF were higher in Fishman II and III than Fishman I, who had higher qAF and TF than healthy eyes. Patients carrying the G1916E mutation had lower qAF and TF than most other patients, even in the presence of a second allele associated with severe disease. Conclusions. Quantified fundus autofluorescence is an indirect approach to measuring RPE lipofuscin in vivo. We report that ABCA4 mutations cause significantly elevated qAF, consistent with previous reports indicating that increased RPE lipofuscin is a hallmark of STGD1. Even when qualitative differences in fundus AF images are not evident, qAF can elucidate phenotypic variation. Quantified fundus autofluorescence will serve to establish genotype-phenotype correlations and as an outcome measure in clinical trials. PMID:24677105

  20. Oxidative Recession, Sulfur Release, and Al203 Spallation for Y-Doped Alloys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smialek, James L.

    2001-01-01

    Second-order spallation phenomena have been noted for Y-doped Rene'N5 after long term oxidation at 1150 degrees C. The reason for this behavior has not been conclusively identified. A mass equivalence analysis has shown that the surface recession resulting from oxidation has the potential of releasing about 0.15 monolayer of sulfur for every 1 mg/sq cm of oxygen reacted for an alloy containing 5 ppmw of sulfur. This amount is significant in comparison to levels that have been shown to result in first-order spallation behavior for undoped alloys. Oxidative recession is therefore speculated to be a contributing source of sulfur and second-order spallation for Y-doped alloys.

  1. Precarious Slopes? The Great Recession, Federal Stimulus, and New Jersey Schools. Working Paper #02-12

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chakrabarti, Rajashri; Sutherland, Sarah

    2012-01-01

    While sparse literature exists investigating the impact of the Great Recession on various sectors of the economy, there is virtually no research that studies the effect of the Great Recession, or past recessions, on schools. This paper starts to fill the void. Studying school funding during the recession is of paramount importance because schools…

  2. Mutation in MEOX1 gene causes a recessive Klippel-Feil syndrome subtype

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Klippel-Feil syndrome (KFS) is characterized by the developmental failure of the cervical spine and has two dominantly inherited subtypes. Affected individuals who are the children of a consanguineous marriage are extremely rare in the medical literature, but the gene responsible for this recessive trait subtype of KFS has recently been reported. Results We identified a family with the KFS phenotype in which their parents have a consanguineous marriage. Radiological examinations revealed that they carry fusion defects and numerical abnormalities in the cervical spine, scoliosis, malformations of the cranial base, and Sprengel’s deformity. We applied whole genome linkage and whole-exome sequencing analysis to identify the chromosomal locus and gene mutated in this family. Whole genome linkage analysis revealed a significant linkage to chromosome 17q12-q33 with a LOD score of 4.2. Exome sequencing identified the G?>?A p.Q84X mutation in the MEOX1 gene, which is segregated based on pedigree status. Homozygous MEOX1 mutations have reportedly caused a similar phenotype in knockout mice. Conclusions Here, we report a truncating mutation in the MEOX1 gene in a KFS family with an autosomal recessive trait. Together with another recently reported study and the knockout mouse model, our results suggest that mutations in MEOX1 cause a recessive KFS phenotype in humans. PMID:24073994

  3. Langevin power curve analysis for numerical wind energy converter models with new insights on high frequency power performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mücke, Tanja A.; Wächter, Matthias; Milan, Patrick; Peinke, Joachim

    2015-11-01

    Based on the Langevin equation it has been proposed to obtain power curves for wind turbines from high frequency data of wind speed measurements u(t) and power output P (t). The two parts of the Langevin approach, power curve and drift field, give a comprehensive description of the conversion dynamic over the whole operating range of the wind turbine. The method deals with high frequent data instead of 10 min means. It is therefore possible to gain a reliable power curve already from a small amount of data per wind speed. Furthermore, the method is able to visualize multiple fixed points, which is e.g. characteristic for the transition from partial to full load or in case the conversion process deviates from the standard procedures. In order to gain a deeper knowledge it is essential that the method works not only for measured data but also for numerical wind turbine models and synthetic wind fields. Here, we characterize the dynamics of a detailed numerical wind turbine model and calculate the Langevin power curve for different data samplings. We show, how to get reliable results from synthetic data and verify the applicability of the method for field measurements with ultra-sonic, cup and Lidar measurements. The independence of the fixed points on site specific turbulence effects is also confirmed with the numerical model. Furthermore, we demonstrate the potential of the Langevin approach to detect failures in the conversion process and thus show the potential of the Langevin approach for a condition monitoring system.

  4. Ridge Curves and Shape Analysis J.T. Kent, K.V. Mardia and J.M. West

    E-print Network

    Kent, John T.

    (1994) to the problem of nding ridge curves in machine vision. This work provides a simpler approach and related kriging predictors. #12;British Machine Vision Conference Koenderink (1990, p.290), points out- face with the plane spanned by the normal (given by u v) to the #12;British Machine Vision Conference

  5. A Statistical Comparison of the Blossom Blight Forecasts of MARYBLYT and Cougarblight with Receiver Operating Characteristic Curve Analysis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Blossom blight forecasting is an important aspect of fire blight, caused by Erwinia amylovora, management for both apple and pear. A comparison of the forecast accuracy of two common fire blight forecasters, MARYBLYT and Cougarblight, was performed with receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve ...

  6. Statistical methods for pavement performance curve building, historical analysis, data sampling and storage: Appendix D. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    1998-08-01

    The technical memorandum is intended to discuss the detailed procedure required for carrying out the statistical analyses of historical pavement condition data for building pavement performance curves. This chapter assumes the availability of the historical data in a spreadsheet format (Microsoft{trademark} Excel) that has been retrieved from the master (pavement management system) database.

  7. First Precision Light Curve Analysis of the Neglected Extreme Mass Ratio Solar-type Binary HR Bootis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Samec, Ronald G.; Benkendorf, Barry; Dignan, James B.; Robb, Russell; Kring, James; Faulkner, Danny R.

    2015-04-01

    HR Bootis is a neglected binary that is found to be a solar-type (G2V) extreme mass ratio binary (EMRB). It was discovered by Hanley & Shapley in 1940. Surprisingly, little has been published in the intervening years. In 1999 it was characterized by a 0.31587 day orbital period. Since that time it has been observed by various observers who have determined ˜20 timings of minimum light over the past ˜15,000 orbits. Our observations in 2012 represent the first precision curves in the BVRcIc Johnson-Cousins wavelength bands. The light curves have rather low amplitudes, averaging some 0.5 magnitudes, yet they exhibit total eclipses, which is typical of the rare group of solar-type EMRBs. An improved linear ephemeris was computed along with a quadratic ephemeris showing a decaying orbit, which indicates magnetic breaking may be occurring. The light curve solution reveals that HR Boo is a contact system with a somewhat low 21% Roche-lobe fill-out but a mass ratio of q = 4.09 (0.2444), which defines it as an EMRB. Two spots, both hot, were allowed to iterate to fit the light curve asymmetries. Their radii are 32° and 16°. Both are high-latitude polar spots indicative of strong magnetic activity. The shallow contact yet nearly equal component temperatures makes it an unusual addition to this group.

  8. A Unified Latent Curve, Latent State-Trait Analysis of the Developmental Trajectories and Correlates of Positive Orientation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alessandri, Guido; Caprara, Gian Vittorio; Tisak, John

    2012-01-01

    Literature documents that the judgments people hold about themselves, their life, and their future are important ingredients of their psychological functioning and well-being and are commonly related to each other. In this article, results from a longitudinal study (N = 298, 45% males) are presented. Using an integrative Latent Curve, Latent…

  9. Growth curve analysis of placental and fetal growth influenced by adjacent fetal sex status under crowded uterine conditions in pigs

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Intrauterine position and sex of adjacent fetuses in litter bearing species have been implicated in physiological and behavioral differences in males and females. Our objective was to establish growth curves for fetal and placental weight gain as influenced by sex status of flanking fetuses under cr...

  10. Application of a tangent curve mathematical model for analysis of the mechanical behaviour of sunflower bulk seeds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sigalingging, Riswanti; Herák, David; Kabutey, Abraham; Dajbych, Old?ich; Hrab?, Petr; Mizera, ?estmír

    2015-10-01

    This paper evaluate the use of a tangent curve mathematical model for representation of the mechanical behaviour of sunflower bulk seeds. Compression machine (Tempos Model 50, Czech Republic) and pressing vessel diameter 60 mm were used for the loading experiment. Varying forces between 50 and 130 kN and speeds ranging from 10, 50, and 100 mm min-1 were applied respectively on the bulk seeds with moisture content 12.37±0.38% w.b. The relationship between force and deformation curves of bulk seeds of pressing height 80 mm was described. The oil point strain was also determined from the different deformation values namely 30, 35, 40, and 45 mm at speed 10 mm min-1. Based on the results obtained, model coefficients were determined for fitting the experimental load and deformation curves. The validity of these coefficients were dependent on the bulk seeds of pressing height, vessel diameter, maximum force 110 kN, and speed 10 mm min-1, where optimal oil yield was observed. The oil point was detected at 45 mm deformation giving the strain value of 0.56 with the corresponding force 16.65±3.51 kN and energy 1.06±0.18 MJ m-3. At the force of 130 kN, a serration effect on the curves was indicated; hence, the compression process was ceased.

  11. Barriers for recess physical activity: a gender specific qualitative focus group exploration

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Many children, in particular girls, do not reach the recommended amount of daily physical activity. School recess provides an opportunity for both boys and girls to be physically active, but barriers to recess physical activity are not well understood. This study explores gender differences in children’s perceptions of barriers to recess physical activity. Based on the socio-ecological model four types of environmental barriers were distinguished: natural, social, physical and organizational environment. Methods Data were collected through 17 focus groups (at 17 different schools) with in total 111 children (53 boys) from fourth grade, with a mean age of 10.4 years. The focus groups included an open group discussion, go-along group interviews, and a gender segregated post-it note activity. A content analysis of the post-it notes was used to rank the children’s perceived barriers. This was verified by a thematic analysis of transcripts from the open discussions and go-along interviews. Results The most frequently identified barriers for both boys and girls were weather, conflicts, lack of space, lack of play facilities and a newly-found barrier, use of electronic devices. While boys and girls identified the same barriers, there were both inter- and intra-gender differences in the perception of these barriers. Weather was a barrier for all children, apart from the most active boys. Conflicts were perceived as a barrier particularly by those boys who played ballgames. Girls said they would like to have more secluded areas added to the school playground, even in large schoolyards where lack of space was not a barrier. This aligned with girls’ requests for more “hanging-out” facilities, whereas boys primarily wanted activity promoting facilities. Conclusion Based on the results from this study, we recommend promoting recess physical activity through a combination of actions, addressing barriers within the natural, social, physical and organizational environment. PMID:24958158

  12. Application of ROC curve analysis to FAMACHA© evaluation of haemonchosis on two sheep farms in South Africa.

    PubMed

    Reynecke, D P; Van Wyk, J A; Gummow, B; Dorny, P; Boomker, J

    2011-05-11

    Test sensitivity and specificity for the FAMACHA(©) clinical test for anaemia due to haemonchosis have previously been shown to be adequate in differentiating between heavily/less heavily infected sheep, but these properties give no objective guidance for setting the optimum threshold at which anthelmintic treatment should occur. The aim of this work was to use Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC) curves to evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of FAMACHA(©) testing by estimating the area under the ROC curve, and to use two-graph ROC curves to decrease subjectivity in selecting treatment thresholds on two farms with contrasting management. Test diagnostic accuracy, and thus discriminating power as determined by the area under the ROC curves, ranged from "moderate to good" on the first farm, and from "moderate to high" on the second farm for haematocrit (the Gold Standard for the test) cut-offs of ? 22% and ? 19% on both farms respectively. Accuracy of classification between haematocrit cut-offs was not significantly different within farms, but did differ significantly between farms, with test accuracy being highest on the second farm at both haematocrit cut-offs (p<0.05). The results also showed the suitability of the two-graph ROC curve approach for discriminating not only between different levels of accuracy of evaluators, but also to give an indication of the so-called ROC cut point (i.e. the desired threshold level) at which animals should be treated for a given level of risk of loss. The approach appears to have the potential not only to validate the diagnostic accuracy of the test across the complete testing range (i.e. all FAMACHA(©) categories from 1 to 5), but also to compensate for such inaccuracy by allowing objective adjustment of the threshold treatment level according to the output of the two-graph ROC method. PMID:21334814

  13. Superroot, a recessive mutation in Arabidopsis, confers auxin overproduction.

    PubMed Central

    Boerjan, W; Cervera, M T; Delarue, M; Beeckman, T; Dewitte, W; Bellini, C; Caboche, M; Van Onckelen, H; Van Montagu, M; Inzé, D

    1995-01-01

    We have isolated seven allelic recessive Arabidopsis mutants, designated superroot (sur1-1 to sur1-7), displaying several abnormalities reminiscent of auxin effects. These characteristics include small and epinastic cotyledons, an elongated hypocotyl in which the connection between the stele and cortical and epidermal cells disintegrates, the development of excess adventitious and lateral roots, a reduced number of leaves, and the absence of an inflorescence. When germinated in the dark, sur1 mutants did not develop the apical hook characteristic of etiolated seedlings. We were able to phenocopy the Sur1- phenotype by supplying auxin to wild-type seedlings, to propagate sur1 explants on phytohormone-deficient medium, and to regenerate shoots from these explants by the addition of cytokinins alone to the culture medium. Analysis by gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry indicated increased levels of both free and conjugated indole-3-acetic acid. sur1 was crossed to the mutant axr2 and the altered-auxin response mutant ctr1. The phenotype of both double mutants was additive. The sur1 gene was mapped on chromosome 2 at 0.5 centimorgans from the gene encoding phytochrome B. PMID:8589625

  14. Linkage of autosomal recessive lamellar ichthyosis to chromosome 14q

    SciTech Connect

    Russell, L.J.; Compton, J.G.; Bale, S.J.; DiGiovanna, J.J.; Hashem, N.

    1994-12-01

    The authors have mapped the locus for lamellar ichthyosis (LI), an autosomal recessive skin disease characterized by abnormal cornification of the epidermis. Analysis using both inbred and outbred families manifesting severe LI showed complete linkage to several markers within a 9.3-cM region on chromosome 14q11. Affected individuals in inbred families were also found to have striking homozygosity for markers in this region. Linkage-based genetic counseling and prenatal diagnosis is now available for informative at-risk families. Several transcribed genes have been mapped to the chromosome 14 region containing the LI gene. The transglutaminase 1 gene (TGM1), which encodes one of the enzymes responsible for cross-linking epidermal proteins during formation of the stratum corneum, maps to this interval. The TGM1 locus was completely linked to LI (Z = 9.11), suggesting that TGM1 is a good candidate for further investigation of this disorder. The genes for four serine proteases also map to this region but are expressed only in hematopoietic or mast cells, making them less likely candidates.

  15. Recessive truncating titin gene, TTN, mutations presenting as centronuclear myopathy

    PubMed Central

    Ceyhan-Birsoy, Ozge; Agrawal, Pankaj B.; Hidalgo, Carlos; Schmitz-Abe, Klaus; DeChene, Elizabeth T.; Swanson, Lindsay C.; Soemedi, Rachel; Vasli, Nasim; Iannaccone, Susan T.; Shieh, Perry B.; Shur, Natasha; Dennison, Jane M.; Lawlor, Michael W.; Laporte, Jocelyn; Markianos, Kyriacos; Fairbrother, William G.; Granzier, Henk

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To identify causative genes for centronuclear myopathies (CNM), a heterogeneous group of rare inherited muscle disorders that often present in infancy or early life with weakness and hypotonia, using next-generation sequencing of whole exomes and genomes. Methods: Whole-exome or -genome sequencing was performed in a cohort of 29 unrelated patients with clinicopathologic diagnoses of CNM or related myopathy depleted for cases with mutations of MTM1, DNM2, and BIN1. Immunofluorescence analyses on muscle biopsies, splicing assays, and gel electrophoresis of patient muscle proteins were performed to determine the molecular consequences of mutations of interest. Results: Autosomal recessive compound heterozygous truncating mutations of the titin gene, TTN, were identified in 5 individuals. Biochemical analyses demonstrated increased titin degradation and truncated titin proteins in patient muscles, establishing the impact of the mutations. Conclusions: Our study identifies truncating TTN mutations as a cause of congenital myopathy that is reported as CNM. Unlike the classic CNM genes that are all involved in excitation-contraction coupling at the triad, TTN encodes the giant sarcomeric protein titin, which forms a myofibrillar backbone for the components of the contractile machinery. This study expands the phenotypic spectrum associated with TTN mutations and indicates that TTN mutation analysis should be considered in cases of possible CNM without mutations in the classic CNM genes. PMID:23975875

  16. Analysis of MOST light curves of five young stars in Taurus-Auriga and Lupus~3 Star Forming Regions

    E-print Network

    Siwak, Michal; Matthews, Jaymie M; Kuschnig, Rainer; Guenther, David B; Moffat, Anthony F J; Sasselov, Dimitar; Weiss, Werner W

    2011-01-01

    Continuous photometric observations of five young stars obtained by the MOST satellite in 2009 and 2010 in the Taurus and Lupus star formation regions are presented. Using light curve modelling under the assumption of internal invariability of spots, we obtained small values of the solar-type differential-rotation parameter (k=0.0005-0.009) for three spotted weak-line T Tau stars, V410 Tau, V987 Tau and Lupus 3-14; for another spotted WTTS, Lupus 3-48, the data are consistent with a rigidly rotating surface (k=0). Three flares of similar rise (4 min 30 sec) and decay (1 h 45 min) times were detected in the light curve of Lupus 3-14. The brightness of the classical T Tau star RY Tau continuously decreased over 3 weeks of its observations with a variable modulation not showing any obvious periodic signal.

  17. Impacts of household income and economic recession on participation in colorectal cancer screening in Korea.

    PubMed

    Myong, Jun-Pyo; Kim, Hyoung-Ryoul

    2012-01-01

    To assess the impact of household income and economic recession on participation in CRC screening, we estimated annual participating proportions from 2007 to 2009 for different CRC screening modalities according to household income levels. A total of 8,042 subjects were derived from the fourth Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES IV). Multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to estimate odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals for CRC screening with household income quartiles by gender in each year. People were less likely to attend a high-cost CRC screening such as a sigmoidoscopy or colonoscopy independent of the income quartile during the economic recession. Income disparities for participating in opportunistic cancer screening appear to have existed among both males and females during the three years (2007-2009), but were most distinctive in 2009. An increase in mortality of CRC can therefore be expected due to late detection in periods of economic crisis. Accordingly, the government should expand the coverage of CRC screening to prevent excess deaths by reducing related direct and indirect costs during the economic recession. PMID:22901136

  18. A Homozygous Missense Mutation in the IRBP Gene (RBP3) Associated with Autosomal Recessive Retinitis Pigmentosa

    PubMed Central

    den Hollander, Anneke I.; McGee, Terri L.; Ziviello, Carmela; Banfi, Sandro; Dryja, Thaddeus P.; Gonzalez-Fernandez, Federico; Ghosh, Debashis; Berson, Eliot L.

    2009-01-01

    PURPOSE Interphotoreceptor retinoid-binding protein (IRBP) has been considered essential for normal rod and cone function, as it mediates the transport of retinoids between the photoreceptors and the retinal pigment epithelium. This study was performed to determine whether mutations in the IRBP gene (RBP3) are associated with photoreceptor degeneration. METHODS A consanguineous family was ascertained in which four children had autosomal recessive retinitis pigmentosa (RP). Homozygosity mapping performed with SNP microarrays revealed only one homozygous region shared by all four affected siblings. Sequencing of RBP3, contained in this region, was performed in this family and others with recessive RP. Screening was also performed on patients with various other forms of retinal degeneration or malfunction. RESULTS Sequence analysis of RBP3 revealed a homozygous missense mutation (p.Asp1080Asn) in the four affected siblings. The mutation affects a residue that is completely conserved in all four homologous modules of the IRBP protein of vertebrate species and in C-terminal-processing proteases, photosynthesis enzymes found in bacteria, algae, and plants. Based on the previously reported crystal structure of Xenopus IRBP, the authors predict that the Asp1080-mediated conserved salt bridge that appears to participate in scaffolding of the retinol-binding domain is abolished by the mutation. No RBP3 mutations were detected in 395 unrelated patients with recessive or isolate RP or in 680 patients with other forms of hereditary retinal degeneration. CONCLUSIONS Mutations in RBP3 are an infrequent cause of autosomal recessive RP. The mutation Asp1080Asn may alter the conformation of the IRBP protein by disrupting a conserved salt bridge. PMID:19074801

  19. Phenotypes of Recessive Pediatric Cataract in a Cohort of Children with Identified Homozygous Gene Mutations (An American Ophthalmological Society Thesis)

    PubMed Central

    Khan, Arif O.; Aldahmesh, Mohammed A.; Alkuraya, Fowzan S.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: To assess for phenotype-genotype correlations in families with recessive pediatric cataract and identified gene mutations. Methods: Retrospective review (2004 through 2013) of 26 Saudi Arabian apparently nonsyndromic pediatric cataract families referred to one of the authors (A.O.K.) and for which recessive gene mutations were identified. Results: Fifteen different homozygous recessive gene mutations were identified in the 26 consanguineous families; two genes and five families are novel to this study. Ten families had a founder CRYBB1 deletion (all with bilateral central pulverulent cataract), two had the same missense mutation in CRYAB (both with bilateral juvenile cataract with marked variable expressivity), and two had different mutations in FYCO1 (both with bilateral posterior capsular abnormality). The remaining 12 families each had mutations in 12 different genes (CRYAA, CRYBA1, AKR1E2, AGK, BFSP2, CYP27A1, CYP51A1, EPHA2, GCNT2, LONP1, RNLS, WDR87) with unique phenotypes noted for CYP27A1 (bilateral juvenile fleck with anterior and/or posterior capsular cataract and later cerebrotendinous xanthomatosis), EPHA2 (bilateral anterior persistent fetal vasculature), and BFSP2 (bilateral flecklike with cloudy cortex). Potential carrier signs were documented for several families. Conclusions: In this recessive pediatric cataract case series most identified genes are noncrystallin. Recessive pediatric cataract phenotypes are generally nonspecific, but some notable phenotypes are distinct and associated with specific gene mutations. Marked variable expressivity can occur from a recessive missense CRYAB mutation. Genetic analysis of apparently isolated pediatric cataract can sometimes uncover mutations in a syndromic gene. Some gene mutations seem to be associated with apparent heterozygous carrier signs.

  20. Complete association between a retroviral insertion in the tyrosinase gene and the recessive white mutation in chickens

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Chung-Ming; Coville, Jean-Luc; Coquerelle, Gérard; Gourichon, David; Oulmouden, Ahmad; Tixier-Boichard, Michèle

    2006-01-01

    Background In chickens, three mutant alleles have been reported at the C locus, including the albino mutation, and the recessive white mutation, which is characterized by white plumage and pigmented eyes. The albino mutation was found to be a 6 bp deletion in the tyrosinase (TYR) gene. The present work describes an approach to identify the structural rearrangement in the TYR gene associated with the recessive white mutation. Results Molecular analysis of the chicken TYR gene has revealed a major structural difference (Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism, RFLP) in the genomic DNA of the recessive white chicken. A major size difference of 7.7 kb was found in intron 4 of the TYR gene by long-range PCR. Molecular cloning and sequencing results showed the insertion of a complete avian retroviral sequence of the Avian Leukosis Virus (ALV) family. Several aberrant transcripts of the tyrosinase gene were found in 10 week old recessive white chickens but not in the homozygous wild type colored chicken. We established a rapid genotyping diagnostic test based on the discovery of this retroviral insertion. It shows that all homozygous carriers of this insertion had a white plumage in various chicken strains. Furthermore, it was possible to distinguish heterozygous carriers from homozygous normal chickens in a segregating line. Conclusion In this study, we conclude that the insertion of a complete avian retroviral sequence in intron 4 of the tyrosinase gene is diagnostic of the recessive white mutation in chickens. This insertion causes aberrant transcripts lacking exon 5, and we propose that this insertion is the causal mutation for the recessive white allele in the chicken. PMID:16457736

  1. Refined hierarchical kinematics quasi-3D Ritz models for free vibration analysis of doubly curved FGM shells and sandwich shells with FGM core

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fazzolari, Fiorenzo A.; Carrera, Erasmo

    2014-02-01

    In this paper, the Ritz minimum energy method, based on the use of the Principle of Virtual Displacements (PVD), is combined with refined Equivalent Single Layer (ESL) and Zig Zag (ZZ) shell models hierarchically generated by exploiting the use of Carrera's Unified Formulation (CUF), in order to engender the Hierarchical Trigonometric Ritz Formulation (HTRF). The HTRF is then employed to carry out the free vibration analysis of doubly curved shallow and deep functionally graded material (FGM) shells. The PVD is further used in conjunction with the Gauss theorem to derive the governing differential equations and related natural boundary conditions. Donnell-Mushtari's shallow shell-type equations are given as a particular case. Doubly curved FGM shells and doubly curved sandwich shells made up of isotropic face sheets and FGM core are investigated. The proposed shell models are widely assessed by comparison with the literature results. Two benchmarks are provided and the effects of significant parameters such as stacking sequence, boundary conditions, length-to-thickness ratio, radius-to-length ratio and volume fraction index on the circular frequency parameters and modal displacements are discussed.

  2. The Great Recession and the risk for child maltreatment.

    PubMed

    Brooks-Gunn, Jeanne; Schneider, William; Waldfogel, Jane

    2013-10-01

    This study draws on the Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing Study (N=2,032), a birth cohort study of families with children from 20 U.S. cities. Interviews occurred between August 2007, and February 2010, when the children were approximately 9 years old. Macro-economic indicators of the Great Recession such as the Consumer Sentiment Index and unemployment and home foreclosure rates were matched to the data to estimate the links between different measures of the Great Recession and high frequency maternal spanking. We find that the large decline in consumer confidence during the Great Recession, as measured by the Consumer Sentiment Index, was associated with worse parenting behavior. In particular, lower levels of consumer confidence were associated with increased levels of high frequency spanking, a parenting behavior that is associated with greater likelihood of being contacted by child protective services. PMID:24045057

  3. The Great Recession, somatic symptomatology and alcohol use and abuse.

    PubMed

    Vijayasiri, Ganga; Richman, Judith A; Rospenda, Kathleen M

    2012-09-01

    While most research has examined the long-term effects of alcohol consumption on health, the current study examines how health status impacts on drinking behavior. Using data from a national study conducted between 2010 and 2011 to assess the impact of the recession on drinking behavior, this study examines how economic hardships linked to the recent economic recession affect physical health, and how physical health may in turn affect alcohol use. Structural equation models were used to test the predicted associations. The data demonstrate that many of the economic stressors linked to the recession are associated with increased somatic symptoms. Somatic symptoms are also associated with increased drinking for men, but not for women. These findings suggest that men may use alcohol to self medicate somatic symptomatology. The current findings are consistent with gender role-based explanations that account for gender disparities in the utilization of medical care. PMID:22632797

  4. The Great Recession and the Risk for Child Maltreatment

    PubMed Central

    Brooks-Gunn, Jeanne; Schneider, William; Waldfogel, Jane

    2013-01-01

    This study draws on the Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing Study (N = 2,032), a birth cohort study of families with children from 20 U.S. cities. Interviews occurred between August 2007, and February 2010, when the children were approximately 9 years old. Macro-economic indicators of the Great Recession such as the Consumer Sentiment Index and unemployment and home foreclosure rates were matched to the data to estimate the links between different measures of the Great Recession and high frequency maternal spanking. We find that the large decline in consumer confidence during the Great Recession, as measured by the Consumer Sentiment Index, was associated with worse parenting behavior. In particular, lower levels of consumer confidence were associated with increased levels of high frequency spanking, a parenting behavior that is associated with greater likelihood of being contacted by child protective services. PMID:24045057

  5. Discovery of four recessive developmental disorders using probabilistic genotype and phenotype matching among 4,125 families.

    PubMed

    Akawi, Nadia; McRae, Jeremy; Ansari, Morad; Balasubramanian, Meena; Blyth, Moira; Brady, Angela F; Clayton, Stephen; Cole, Trevor; Deshpande, Charu; Fitzgerald, Tomas W; Foulds, Nicola; Francis, Richard; Gabriel, George; Gerety, Sebastian S; Goodship, Judith; Hobson, Emma; Jones, Wendy D; Joss, Shelagh; King, Daniel; Klena, Nikolai; Kumar, Ajith; Lees, Melissa; Lelliott, Chris; Lord, Jenny; McMullan, Dominic; O'Regan, Mary; Osio, Deborah; Piombo, Virginia; Prigmore, Elena; Rajan, Diana; Rosser, Elisabeth; Sifrim, Alejandro; Smith, Audrey; Swaminathan, Ganesh J; Turnpenny, Peter; Whitworth, James; Wright, Caroline F; Firth, Helen V; Barrett, Jeffrey C; Lo, Cecilia W; FitzPatrick, David R; Hurles, Matthew E

    2015-11-01

    Discovery of most autosomal recessive disease-associated genes has involved analysis of large, often consanguineous multiplex families or small cohorts of unrelated individuals with a well-defined clinical condition. Discovery of new dominant causes of rare, genetically heterogeneous developmental disorders has been revolutionized by exome analysis of large cohorts of phenotypically diverse parent-offspring trios. Here we analyzed 4,125 families with diverse, rare and genetically heterogeneous developmental disorders and identified four new autosomal recessive disorders. These four disorders were identified by integrating Mendelian filtering (selecting probands with rare, biallelic and putatively damaging variants in the same gene) with statistical assessments of (i) the likelihood of sampling the observed genotypes from the general population and (ii) the phenotypic similarity of patients with recessive variants in the same candidate gene. This new paradigm promises to catalyze the discovery of novel recessive disorders, especially those with less consistent or nonspecific clinical presentations and those caused predominantly by compound heterozygous genotypes. PMID:26437029

  6. Direct Analysis of JV-Curves Applied to an Outdoor-Degrading CdTe Module (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect

    Jordan, D; Kurtz, S.; Ulbrich, C.; Gerber, A.; Rau, U.

    2014-03-01

    We present the application of a phenomenological four parameter equation to fit and analyze regularly measured current density-voltage JV curves of a CdTe module during 2.5 years of outdoor operation. The parameters are physically meaningful, i.e. the short circuit current density Jsc, open circuit voltage Voc and differential resistances Rsc, and Roc. For the chosen module, the fill factor FF degradation overweighs the degradation of Jsc and Voc. Interestingly, with outdoor exposure, not only the conductance at short circuit, Gsc, increases but also the Gsc(Jsc)-dependence. This is well explained with an increase in voltage dependent charge carrier collection in CdTe.

  7. Arbitrarily Curved and Twisted Space Beams. Ph.D. Thesis - Va. Polytech. Inst. and State Univ.; [Elastic Deformation, Stress Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hunter, W. F.

    1974-01-01

    A derivation of the equations which govern the deformation of an arbitrarily curved and twisted space beam is presented. These equations differ from those of the classical theory in that (1) extensional effects are included; (2) the strain-displacement relations are derived; and (3) the expressions for the stress resultants are developed from the strain displacement relations. It is shown that the torsional stress resultant obtained by the classical approach is basically incorrect except when the cross-section is circular. The governing equations are given in the form of first-order differential equations. A numerical algorithm is given for obtaining the natural vibration characteristics and example problems are presented.

  8. High-resolution melt curve analysis to confirm the presence of co-circulating isolates of avian nephritis virus in commercial chicken flocks.

    PubMed

    Chamings, A; Hewson, K A; O'Rourke, D; Ignjatovic, J; Noormohammadi, A H

    2015-12-01

    Avian Nephritis Virus (ANV) has been implicated in poor growth and renal disease of young chickens. This paper describes the development of a reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction for the detection of ANV in commercial meat chickens and the use of high-resolution melt curves to detect the presence of genetically different ANVs. Pooled cloacal swabs from both healthy and ill commercial chicken broiler flocks were tested for the presence of ANV using a combination of polymerase chain reaction, molecular cloning, high-resolution melt curve analysis and sequencing. Except for one, all specimens were found to contain two genetically different ANVs. Phylogenetic analysis of the capsid amino acid sequences revealed the presence of four of six groups of ANV identified previously in other countries as well as in two novel groups of ANV. Phylogenetic analysis of nucleotide sequences of partial polymerase, capsid and 3' untranslated regions reveal that the genes of individual ANV virus isolates have different ancestors. This was shown to be due to a template-switching event in the capsid gene that resulted in the 3' end of the capsid gene and the 3' untranslated region of one ANV isolate being transferred to another ANV. These results reveal that infection of chicken flocks with multiple ANV isolates is common and this needs to be taken into consideration in diagnosis of ANV using molecular techniques and in future epidemiological investigations. PMID:26365395

  9. Drinking In the Age of the Great Recession

    PubMed Central

    Richman, Judith A.; Rospenda, Kathleen M.; Johnson, Timothy P.; Cho, Young Ilk; Vijayasira, Ganga; Cloninger, Lea; Wolff, Jennifer M.

    2012-01-01

    The United States has experienced the most severe economic crisis since the Great Depression. This paper presents an instrument (Life Change Consequences of the Great Recession; LCCGR) depicting work and personal life-related stressors reflecting the enduring effects of the Great Recession. A national sample of 663 respondents completed a mail survey including this instrument and measures of drinking outcomes. Multiple regression analyses addressed the links between the LCCGR and drinking. Economy-related stressors manifested significant effects on both male and female consumptions patterns, but most LCCGR subscales were more clearly related to problematic drinking patterns in males compared to females. PMID:22540437

  10. The effectiveness of enamel matrix protein (Emdogain®) in combination with coronally advanced flap in the treatment of multiple marginal tissue recession: A clinical study

    PubMed Central

    Jaiswal, Gagan R.; Kumar, Rajesh; Khatri, Parag M.; Jaiswal, Shradha G.; Bhongade, M. L.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Gingival recession resulting in root exposure is a common problem faced by clinicians. This clinical study compared the results obtained by treating gingival recession using enamel matrix derivative (Emdogain gel®) along with coronally positioned flap and coronally positioned flap alone. Materials and Methods: Twenty patients with a total of 46 gingival recession defects, each patient with a minimum of two recession defects, were included in the study. The test group, which consisted of 10 patients with 22 recession defects, was treated by enamel matrix derivatives (Emdogain gel) in combination with a coronally positioned flap, while the control group, which consisted of 10 patients with 24 gingival recession defects, was treated with 24% ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA; Prefgel®) in combination with coronally positioned flap. Results: Student's paired and unpaired t-test was used for statistical analysis. If the probability value (P) was less than 0.05, it was considered significant. Data from this study demonstrated that application of (EMD) Emdogain gel resulted in a statistically significant increase in root coverage, gain in the clinical attachment level (CAL), and probing pocket depth (PPD) reduction when compared with coronally advanced flap (CAF) alone, but there was no statistically significant difference in the width of keratinized gingiva (WKG) between the two groups. PMID:23055589

  11. CONSTRUCTION OF AN EARTH MODEL: ANALYSIS OF EXOPLANET LIGHT CURVES AND MAPPING THE NEXT EARTH WITH THE NEW WORLDS OBSERVER

    SciTech Connect

    Oakley, P. H. H.; Cash, W.

    2009-08-01

    The orbital light curve of a terrestrial exoplanet will likely contain valuable information about the surface and atmospheric features of the planet, both in its overall shape and hourly variations. We have constructed an empirically based code capable of simulating observations of the Earth from any orientation, at any time of year with continuously updated cloud and snow coverage with a New Worlds Observatory. By simulating these observations over a full orbital revolution at a distance of 10 pc we determine that the detection of an obliquity or seasonal terrain change is possible at low inclinations. In agreement with other studies, a 4 m New Worlds Observer can accurately determine the rotation rate of the planet at a success rate from {approx}30% to 80% with only 5 days of observations depending on the signal to noise of the observations. We also attempt simple inversions of these diurnal light curves to sketch a map of the reflecting planet's surface features. This mapping technique is only successful with highly favorable systems and in particular requires that the cloud coverage must be lower than the Earth's average. Our test case of a 2 M {sub +} planet at 7 pc distance with low exo-zodiacal light and 25% cloud coverage produced crude, but successful results. Additionally, with these highly favorable systems NWO may be able to discern the presence of liquid surface water (or other smooth surfaces) though it requires a complex detection available only at crescent phases in high inclination systems.

  12. Analysis of MOST light curves of five young stars in Taurus-Auriga and Lupus 3 star-forming regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Siwak, Michal; Rucinski, Slavek M.; Matthews, Jaymie M.; Kuschnig, Rainer; Guenther, David B.; Moffat, Anthony F. J.; Sasselov, Dimitar; Weiss, Werner W.

    2011-08-01

    Continuous photometric observations of five young stars obtained by the MOST satellite in 2009 and 2010 in the Taurus and Lupus star formation regions are presented. Using light-curve modelling under the assumption of internal invariability of spots, we obtained small values of the solar-type differential-rotation parameter (k = 0.0005-0.009) for three spotted weak-line T Tauri stars, V410 Tau, V987 Tau and Lupus 3-14; for another spotted weak-line T Tauri star (WTTS), Lupus 3-48, the data are consistent with a rigidly rotating surface (k = 0). Three flares of similar rise (4 min and 30 s) and decay (1 h and 45 min) times were detected in the light curve of Lupus 3-14. The brightness of the classical T Tauri star RY Tau continuously decreased over 3 weeks of its observations with a variable modulation not showing any obvious periodic signal. Based on data from the MOST satellite, a Canadian Space Agency mission, jointly operated by Dynacon Inc., the University of Toronto Institute of Aerospace Studies and the University of British Columbia, with the assistance of the University of Vienna.

  13. An Exploratory Analysis of Personality, Attitudes, and Study Skills on the Learning Curve within a Team-based Learning Environment

    PubMed Central

    Henry, Teague; Campbell, Ashley

    2015-01-01

    Objective. To examine factors that determine the interindividual variability of learning within a team-based learning environment. Methods. Students in a pharmacokinetics course were given 4 interim, low-stakes cumulative assessments throughout the semester and a cumulative final examination. Students’ Myers-Briggs personality type was assessed, as well as their study skills, motivations, and attitudes towards team-learning. A latent curve model (LCM) was applied and various covariates were assessed to improve the regression model. Results. A quadratic LCM was applied for the first 4 assessments to predict final examination performance. None of the covariates examined significantly impacted the regression model fit except metacognitive self-regulation, which explained some of the variability in the rate of learning. There were some correlations between personality type and attitudes towards team learning, with introverts having a lower opinion of team-learning than extroverts. Conclusion. The LCM could readily describe the learning curve. Extroverted and introverted personality types had the same learning performance even though preference for team-learning was lower in introverts. Other personality traits, study skills, or practice did not significantly contribute to the learning variability in this course. PMID:25861101

  14. Parameter Estimation and Confidence Regions in the Method of Light Curve Simulations for the Analysis of Power Density Spectra

    SciTech Connect

    Mueller, M.; Madejski, G.

    2009-05-20

    The Method of Light Curve Simulations is a tool that has been applied to X-ray monitoring observations of Active Galactic Nuclei (AGN) for the characterization of the Power Density Spectrum (PDS) of temporal variability and measurement of associated break frequencies (which appear to be an important diagnostic for the mass of the black hole in these systems as well as their accretion state). It relies on a model for the PDS that is fit to the observed data. The determination of confidence regions on the fitted model parameters is of particular importance, and we show how the Neyman construction based on distributions of estimates may be implemented in the context of light curve simulations. We believe that this procedure offers advantages over the method used in earlier reports on PDS model fits, not least with respect to the correspondence between the size of the confidence region and the precision with which the data constrain the values of the model parameters. We plan to apply the new procedure to existing RXTE and XMM observations of Seyfert I galaxies as well as RXTE observations of the Seyfert II galaxy NGC 4945.

  15. Sensitivity equation for quantitative analysis with multivariate curve resolution-alternating least-squares: theoretical and experimental approach.

    PubMed

    Bauza, María C; Ibañez, Gabriela A; Tauler, Romà; Olivieri, Alejandro C

    2012-10-16

    A new equation is derived for estimating the sensitivity when the multivariate curve resolution-alternating least-squares (MCR-ALS) method is applied to second-order multivariate calibration data. The validity of the expression is substantiated by extensive Monte Carlo noise addition simulations. The multivariate selectivity can be derived from the new sensitivity expression. Other important figures of merit, such as limit of detection, limit of quantitation, and concentration uncertainty of MCR-ALS quantitative estimations can be easily estimated from the proposed sensitivity expression and the instrumental noise. An experimental example involving the determination of an analyte in the presence of uncalibrated interfering agents is described in detail, involving second-order time-decaying sensitized lanthanide luminescence excitation spectra. The estimated figures of merit are reasonably correlated with the analytical features of the analyzed experimental system. PMID:22962964

  16. Mutations induced in Tradescantia by small doses of X-rays and neutrons - Analysis of dose-response curves.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sparrow, A. H.; Underbrink, A. G.; Rossi, H. H.

    1972-01-01

    Dose-response curves for pink somatic mutations in Tradescantia stamen hairs were analyzed after neutron and X-ray irradiation with doses ranging from a fraction of a rad to the region of saturation. The dose-effect relation for neutrons indicates a linear dependence from 0.01 to 8 rads; between 0.25 and 5 rads, a linear dependence is indicated for X-rays also. As a consequence the relative biological effectiveness reaches a constant value (about 50) at low doses. The observations are in good agreement with the predictions of the theory of dual radiation action and support its interpretation of the effects of radiation on higher organisms. The doubling dose of X-rays was found to be nearly 1 rad.

  17. Analysis of First Order Reversal Curves in the Thermal Hysteresis of Spin-crossover Nanoparticles within the Mechanoelastic Model

    E-print Network

    Stoleriu, Laurentiu; Chakraborty, Pradip; Hauser, Andreas; Enachescu, Cristian

    2015-01-01

    The recently obtained spin-crossover nanoparticles are possible candidates for applications in the recording media industry as materials for data storage, or as pressure and temperature sensors. For these applications the intermolecular interactions and interactions between spin-crossover nanoparticles are extremely important, as they may be essential factors in triggering the transition between the two stable phases: the high-spin and low-spin ones. In order to find correlations between the distributions in size and interactions and the transition temperatures distribution, we apply the FORC (First Order Reversal Curves) method, using simulations based on a mechanoelastic model applied to 2D triangular lattices composed of molecules linked by springs and embedded in a surfactant. We consider two Gaussian distributions: one of the size of the nanoparticles and one of the elastic interactions between edge spin-crossover molecules and the surfactant molecules. In order to disentangle the kinetic and non-kinetic...

  18. Locating the ?-ray emission site in Fermi/LAT blazars from correlation analysis between 37 GHz radio and ?-ray light curves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramakrishnan, V.; Hovatta, T.; Nieppola, E.; Tornikoski, M.; Lähteenmäki, A.; Valtaoja, E.

    2015-09-01

    We address the highly debated issue of constraining the ?-ray emission region in blazars from cross-correlation analysis using discrete correlation function between radio and ?-ray light curves. The significance of the correlations is evaluated using two different approaches: simulating light curves and mixed source correlations. The cross-correlation analysis yielded 26 sources with significant correlations. In most of the sources, the ?-ray peaks lead the radio with time lags in the range +20 and +690 d, whereas in sources 1633+382 and 3C 345 we find the radio emission to lead the ?-rays by -15 and -40 d, respectively. Apart from the individual source study, we stacked the correlations of all sources and also those based on subsamples. The time lag from the stacked correlation is +80 d for the whole sample and the distance travelled by the emission region corresponds to 7 pc. We also compared the start times of activity in radio and ?-rays of the correlated flares using Bayesian block representation. This shows that most of the flares at both wavebands start at almost the same time, implying a co-spatial origin of the activity. The correlated sources show more flares and are brighter in both bands than the uncorrelated ones.

  19. Discrete wavelet-aided delineation of PCG signal events via analysis of an area curve length-based decision statistic.

    PubMed

    Homaeinezhad, M R; Atyabi, S A; Daneshvar, E; Ghaffari, A; Tahmasebi, M

    2010-12-01

    The aim of this study is to describe a robust unified framework for segmentation of the phonocardiogram (PCG) signal sounds based on the false-alarm probability (FAP) bounded segmentation of a properly calculated detection measure. To this end, first the original PCG signal is appropriately pre-processed and then, a fixed sample size sliding window is moved on the pre-processed signal. In each slid, the area under the excerpted segment is multiplied by its curve-length to generate the Area Curve Length (ACL) metric to be used as the segmentation decision statistic (DS). Afterwards, histogram parameters of the nonlinearly enhanced DS metric are used for regulation of the ?-level Neyman-Pearson classifier for FAP-bounded delineation of the PCG events. The proposed method was applied to all 85 records of Nursing Student Heart Sounds database (NSHSDB) including stenosis, insufficiency, regurgitation, gallop, septal defect, split sound, rumble, murmur, clicks, friction rub and snap disorders with different sampling frequencies. Also, the method was applied to the records obtained from an electronic stethoscope board designed for fulfillment of this study in the presence of high-level power-line noise and external disturbing sounds and as the results, no false positive (FP) or false negative (FN) errors were detected. High noise robustness, acceptable detection-segmentation accuracy of PCG events in various cardiac system conditions, and having no parameters dependency to the acquisition sampling frequency can be mentioned as the principal virtues and abilities of the proposed ACL-based PCG events detection-segmentation algorithm. PMID:21181267

  20. Variability in Proto-planetary Nebulae. IV. Light Curve Analysis of Four Oxygen-rich, F Spectral Type Objects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hrivnak, Bruce J.; Lu, Wenxian; Nault, Kristie A.

    2015-06-01

    We present new light curves covering 14-19 years of observations of four bright proto-planetary nebulae (PPNs), all oxygen-rich and of F spectral type. They each display cyclical light curves with significant variations in amplitude. All four were previously known to vary in light. Our data were combined with published data and searched for periodicity. The results are as follows: IRAS 19475+3119 (HD 331319; 41.0 days), 17436+5003 (HD 161796; 45.2 days), 19386+0155 (101.8 days), and 18095+2704 (113.3 days). The two longer periods are in agreement with previous studies while the two shorter periods each reveal for the first time a dominant period over these long observing intervals. Multiple periods were also found for each object. The secondary periods were all close to the dominant periods, with P2/P1 ranging from 0.86 to 1.06. The variations in color reveal maximum variations in Teff of 400-770 K. These variations are due to pulsations in these post-asymptotic giant branch objects. Maximum seasonal light variations are all less than 0.23 mag (V), consistent for their temperatures and periods with the results of Hrivnak et al. for 12 C-rich PPNs. For all of these PPNs, there is an inverse relationship between period and temperature; however, there is a suggestion that the period-temperature relationship may be somewhat steeper for the O-rich than for the C-rich PPNs.

  1. Isolated Curves for Hyperelliptic Curve Cryptography

    E-print Network

    Wang, Wenhan

    2012-01-01

    We introduce the notion of isolated genus two curves. As there is no known efficient algorithm to explicitly construct isogenies between two genus two curves with large conductor gap, the discrete log problem (DLP) cannot be efficiently carried over from an isolated curve to a large set of isogenous curves. Thus isolated genus two curves might be more secure for DLP based hyperelliptic curve cryptography. We establish results on explicit expressions for the index of an endomorphism ring in the maximal CM order, and give conditions under which the index is a prime number or an almost prime number for three different categories of quartic CM fields. We also derived heuristic asymptotic results on the densities and distributions of isolated genus two curves with CM by any fixed quartic CM field. Computational results, which are also shown for three explicit examples, agree with heuristic prediction with errors within a tolerable range.

  2. A Quarter-Century of Glacier Recession in the Tropical Andes from Landsat: c1987 - c2013

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Slayback, D. A.; Tucker, C. J.

    2014-12-01

    The glaciers of the tropical Andes constitute 99% of the world's tropical glaciers. They primarily occur in Peru and Bolivia (90%) with smaller glaciers scattered across the peaks in Ecuador, Colombia, and Venezuela. Specific glaciers in the range have been studied in great detail, such as Bolivia's Zongo glacier and Peru's Quelccaya Ice Cap, but few studies of glacier recession across the full range have been published. We previously assessed glacier recession between c1987 and c2006 using manual classification techniques on Landsat imagery. We have now updated that study to the present (2013/2014), and and have incorporated automated techniques using support vector machines. The update to present allows us to examine both the variability in recession rates, and the current state of overall recession. The primary issues in completing this analysis are accounting for snow cover (which can otherwise be easily misidentified as glacier), and developing a robust and semi-automated methodology to process the large number of individual images required. To avoid confusion with transient snow, we analysed 2-3 clear images at each epoch, with minimal visually apparent snow or glacier, and only labelled as glacier those pixels that were classified as glacier in the clear portions of each image. To automate the processing, we used support vector machines, trained with the extensive data we have available from our previous manual classification work.Our previous work indicated an overall recession of approximately 30% (or 700 km2 of glacier area loss) between c1987 and c2006. We will present updated figures from our new analysis, extending to 2013/2014.

  3. College Costs, Prices and the Great Recession. Lumina Issue Papers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Nate

    2014-01-01

    As states and families begin to recover from the effects of the Great Recession, some of the urgency about college affordability may start to ease. The most recent "Trends in College Pricing" report shows tuition rising more slowly than in recent years (Baum and Ma 2013). Growth in Pell grant applications is also expected to slow as…

  4. Recession Amnesia and the Prospects for New England's Institutions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Halfond, Jay A.

    2010-01-01

    Among the little truly predictable, the author suggests three truths. First is the inevitability of recessions. Second is the belief that, in prosperity, these good times will just keep on rolling. Third is the fall. Bubbles will burst, myths shatter, plans unravel and pain sadly borne unjustly by those who didn't have a hand in the decisions that…

  5. Detail of the recessed vent above the bathroom sink in ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Detail of the recessed vent above the bathroom sink in Building 405 showing the large screen vent to the attic, view facing southeast - U.S. Marine Corps Base Hawaii, Kaneohe Bay, C.P.O. Club & Married Enlisted Men's Quarters, O'Neal Street between Moffat & Lawrence Roads, Kaneohe, Honolulu County, HI

  6. The Post-Recession Employment Situation: A Comparative Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Couch, Kenneth A.

    2012-01-01

    Slow economic growth since the end of the U.S. recession in June of 2009 has not yet translated into increases in employment large enough to meaningfully reduce the rate of unemployment. Because expansionary macroeconomic policy has been pursued on both the fiscal and monetary fronts, it appears at first glance that the hands of government at this…

  7. Adjustable recessions in horizontal comitant strabismus: A pilot study

    PubMed Central

    Agrawal, Siddharth; Singh, Vinita; Singh, Priyanka

    2015-01-01

    Aim: To compare the surgical outcome of adjustable with the conventional recession in patients with horizontal comitant strabismus. Patients and Methods: A prospective comparative nonrandomized interventional pilot study was performed on patients with horizontal comitant strabismus. Fifty-four patients (27 in each group) were allocated into 2 groups to undergo either adjustable suture (AS) recession or non-AS (NAS) recession along with conventional resection. The patients were followed up for 6 months. A successful outcome was defined as deviation ±10 prism diopters at 6 months. The results were statistically analyzed by Chi-square test, Fisher's exact test, and Student's t-test. Results: A successful outcome was found in 24 (88.8%) patients in AS and 17 (62.9%) in NAS group (P = 0.02). The postoperative adjustment was done in 13 (48.1%) patients in AS group. There was one complication (tenon's cyst) in AS group. Conclusion: AS recession may be considered in all cooperative patients undergoing strabismus surgery for comitant deviations. PMID:26458480

  8. 13. DETAIL VIEW, OF TAINTER GATE PIER, SHOWING RECESSES FOR ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    13. DETAIL VIEW, OF TAINTER GATE PIER, SHOWING RECESSES FOR EMERGENCY BULKHEADS AND DOGGING DEVICES, LOOKING SOUTHEAST (DOWN FACE). UPSTREAM FACE OF TAINTER GATE IS VISIBLE IN UPPER RIGHT CORNER - Upper Mississippi River 9-Foot Channel Project, Lock & Dam 26R, Alton, Madison County, IL

  9. Exterior building details of Building A; east façade: recessed panel ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Exterior building details of Building A; east façade: recessed panel inscribed "1859", historic window opening with concrete sill above door, cement plaster dentil course and cornice, truncated wood beam ends, plaster finished brick wall, granite base; westerly view - San Quentin State Prison, Building 22, Point San Quentin, San Quentin, Marin County, CA

  10. Family Impacts of the 1975 Recession: Duration of Unemployment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moen, Phyllis

    1979-01-01

    Examines the likelihood of extended joblessness for breadwinners unemployed during the recession of 1975. Women who head families are more likely to be unemployed for an extended period than are male breadwinners. Family heads with young children are more likely to be unemployed than those with older families. (Author/BEF)

  11. Problems on the Playground: A Different Approach to Recess

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levine, James E.

    2012-01-01

    Today's school administrators and counselors recognize the continuing problem of aggression at recess, but struggle with how to respond to it. Given the wide range of possibilities, what can schools do to improve the playground environment? This article addresses that question and also offers a specific disciplinary model that can be applied to…

  12. Increasing Physical Activity of Children during School Recess

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hayes, Lynda B.; Van Camp, Carole M.

    2015-01-01

    Physical activity is crucial for children's health. Fitbit accelerometers were used to measure steps of 6 elementary students during recess. The intervention included reinforcement, self-monitoring, goal setting, and feedback. Steps taken during the intervention phase (M?=?1,956 steps) were 47% higher than in baseline (M?=?1,326 steps), and the…

  13. 3. EXTERIOR OF FRONT ENTRY SHOWING GABLE OVER RECESSED PORCH ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. EXTERIOR OF FRONT ENTRY SHOWING GABLE OVER RECESSED PORCH WITH RUSTIC STYLE DECORATIVE TREATMENT. WELDED STEEL PORCH RAILING ADDED IN 1972 IS VISIBLE AT PHOTO CENTER. VIEW TO SOUTHWEST. - Rush Creek Hydroelectric System, Worker Cottage, Rush Creek, June Lake, Mono County, CA

  14. 11. VIEW WEST, RECESS AREA WITH PORTION OF MITER SILL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    11. VIEW WEST, RECESS AREA WITH PORTION OF MITER SILL (Numbers painted on stones for reconstruction purposes) - Bald Eagle Cross-Cut Canal Lock, North of Water Street along West Branch of Susquehanna River South bank, 500 feet East of Jay Street Bridge, Lock Haven, Clinton County, PA

  15. 12. VIEW WEST, AREA SOUTH OF RECESS AREA, SHOWING CUT ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    12. VIEW WEST, AREA SOUTH OF RECESS AREA, SHOWING CUT STONE AND RUBBLESTONE CONSTRUCTION - Bald Eagle Cross-Cut Canal Lock, North of Water Street along West Branch of Susquehanna River South bank, 500 feet East of Jay Street Bridge, Lock Haven, Clinton County, PA

  16. 10. VIEW EAST, RECESS AREA WITH BOTTOM HORIZONTAL BEAM FOR ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    10. VIEW EAST, RECESS AREA WITH BOTTOM HORIZONTAL BEAM FOR EAST GATE - Bald Eagle Cross-Cut Canal Lock, North of Water Street along West Branch of Susquehanna River South bank, 500 feet East of Jay Street Bridge, Lock Haven, Clinton County, PA

  17. Tag, Catch, and Other Unnatural Acts at Recess (Circa 2014)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sydnor, Synthia

    2014-01-01

    This commentary details a news event in which Carrie Weber Middle School in Port Washington, NY, supposedly banned students from using balls, playing tag, and doing cartwheels during recess. Public reaction in the form of news items, tweets, blogs, and commentary is sampled, and news releases from the Weber Middle School that were barely covered…

  18. Following the Cuts: How Is the Recession Affecting Faculty Work?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lounder, Andrew; Waugaman, Chelsea; Kenyon, Mark; Levine, Amy; Meekins, Matthew; O'Meara, KerryAnn

    2011-01-01

    The recession of 2008-2009 and the continuing decline in local, state, and federal funds available to support higher education have resulted in serious budget cuts and belt-tightening. Given that faculty constitute an institution's most costly resource, it was not surprising, though it is nonetheless disheartening, to learn of the University of…

  19. Anatomical curve identification

    PubMed Central

    Bowman, Adrian W.; Katina, Stanislav; Smith, Joanna; Brown, Denise

    2015-01-01

    Methods for capturing images in three dimensions are now widely available, with stereo-photogrammetry and laser scanning being two common approaches. In anatomical studies, a number of landmarks are usually identified manually from each of these images and these form the basis of subsequent statistical analysis. However, landmarks express only a very small proportion of the information available from the images. Anatomically defined curves have the advantage of providing a much richer expression of shape. This is explored in the context of identifying the boundary of breasts from an image of the female torso and the boundary of the lips from a facial image. The curves of interest are characterised by ridges or valleys. Key issues in estimation are the ability to navigate across the anatomical surface in three-dimensions, the ability to recognise the relevant boundary and the need to assess the evidence for the presence of the surface feature of interest. The first issue is addressed by the use of principal curves, as an extension of principal components, the second by suitable assessment of curvature and the third by change-point detection. P-spline smoothing is used as an integral part of the methods but adaptations are made to the specific anatomical features of interest. After estimation of the boundary curves, the intermediate surfaces of the anatomical feature of interest can be characterised by surface interpolation. This allows shape variation to be explored using standard methods such as principal components. These tools are applied to a collection of images of women where one breast has been reconstructed after mastectomy and where interest lies in shape differences between the reconstructed and unreconstructed breasts. They are also applied to a collection of lip images where possible differences in shape between males and females are of interest. PMID:26041943

  20. Novel Surveillance of Psychological Distress during the Great Recession

    PubMed Central

    Ayers, John W.; Althouse, Benjamin M.; Allem, Jon-Patrick; Childers, Matthew A.; Zafar, Waleed; Latkin, Carl; Ribisl, Kurt M.; Brownstein, John S.

    2015-01-01

    Background Economic stressors have been retrospectively associated with net population increases in nonspecific psychological distress (PD). However, no sentinels exist to evaluate contemporaneous associations. Aggregate Internet search query surveillance was used to monitor population changes in PD around the United States’ Great Recession. Methods Monthly PD query trends were compared with unemployment, underemployment, homes in delinquency and foreclosure, median home value or sale prices, and S&P 500 trends for 2004–2010. Time series analyses, where economic indicators predicted PD one to seven months into the future, were performed in 2011. Results PD queries surpassed 1,000,000 per month, of which 300,000 may be attributable to the Great Recession. A one percentage point increase in mortgage delinquencies and foreclosures was associated with a 16% (95%CI, 9–24) increase in PD queries one-month, and 11% (95%CI, 3–18) four months later, in reference to a pre-Great Recession mean. Unemployment and underemployment had similar associations half and one-quarter the intensity. “Anxiety disorder,” “what is depression,” “signs of depression,” “depression symptoms,” and “symptoms of depression” were the queries exhibiting the strongest associations with mortgage delinquencies and foreclosures, unemployment or underemployment. Housing prices and S&P 500 trends were not associated with PD queries. Limitations A non-traditional measure of PD was used. It is unclear if actual clinically significant depression or anxiety increased during the Great Recession. Alternative explanations for strong associations between the Great Recession and PD queries, such as media, were explored and rejected. Conclusions Because the economy is constantly changing, this work not only provides a snapshot of recent associations between the economy and PD queries but also a framework and toolkit for real-time surveillance going forward. Health resources, clinician screening patterns, and policy debate may potentially be informed by changes in PD query trends. PMID:22835843

  1. Genetics Home Reference: Autosomal recessive spastic ataxia of Charlevoix-Saguenay

    MedlinePLUS

    ... testing PubMed Recent literature Conditions > Autosomal recessive spastic ataxia of Charlevoix-Saguenay (often shortened to ARSACS ) On ... June 2013 What is ARSACS? Autosomal recessive spastic ataxia of Charlevoix-Saguenay, more commonly known as ARSACS, ...

  2. Recess Activity and General Health Status among Iranian Elementary Schools’ Pupils

    PubMed Central

    Shaghaghi, Abdolreza; Piri, Massumeh; Allahverdipour, Hamid; Asghari- Jafarabadi, Mohammad

    2013-01-01

    Background: Regular and daily physical activity during childhood and at school is one of the important part of requirements of normal growth, development and well-being. To achieve physical activity promotion among school child aged population recess as outside of class time efforts is scheduled and allows students to engage in physical and social activities. The purpose of the present study was to assess recess activities as well as status of physical activities among a sample of Iranian students at the primary schools. Methods: This cross-sectional study was performed in four randomly selected schools from a list of 26 elementary schools in March, 2012 in the city of Shahindej, located in North-west of Iran. Participants were 439 (10–12 years) elementary schools’. Physical activity level by self-reporting, mental health using the parent-completed Child Health Questionnaire, and happiness was assessed using a Persian translated version of the Subjective Happiness Scale. Hierarchical logistic regression analysis was applied in two steps using the enter method to analyze data in the SPSS version 17. Results: Backward logistic regression analysis showed that gender of the parent who answered the study questions, father’s education, educational grade of children, BMI, physical function, physical health, health status of the children and family function were significantly related to the children’s physical activity level. Conclusion: Promoting parents’ awareness and schools’ staff about importance of physical activities especially in recess times must be an important part of school and community mental health promotion programs. PMID:24688952

  3. Noise reduction methods in the analysis of near infrared lunar occultation light curves for high angular resolution measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baug, Tapas; Chandrasekhar, Thyagarajan

    2013-11-01

    A lunar occultation (LO) technique in the near-infrared (NIR) provides angular resolution down to milliarcseconds for an occulted source, even with ground-based 1 m class telescopes. LO observations are limited to brighter objects because they require a high signal-to-noise ratio (S/N ~40) for proper extraction of angular diameter values. Hence, methods to improve the S/N ratio by reducing noise using Fourier and wavelet transforms have been explored in this study. A sample of 54 NIR LO light curves observed with the IR camera at Mt Abu Observatory has been used. It is seen that both Fourier and wavelet methods have shown an improvement in S/N compared to the original data. However, the application of wavelet transforms causes a slight smoothing of the fringes and results in a higher value for angular diameter. Fourier transforms which reduce discrete noise frequencies do not distort the fringe. The Fourier transform method seems to be effective in improving the S/N, as well as improving the model fit, particularly in the fainter regime of our sample. These methods also provide a better model fit for brighter sources in some cases, though there may not be a significant improvement in S/N.

  4. Growth Curve Models for the Analysis of Phenotype Arrays for a Systems Biology Overview of Yersinia pestis

    SciTech Connect

    Fodor, I K; Holtz-Morris, A E; McCutchen-Maloney, S L

    2005-09-08

    The Phenotype MicroArray technology of Biolog, Inc. (Hayward, CA) measures the respiration of cells as a function of time in thousands of microwells simultaneously, and thus provides a high-throughput means of studying cellular phenotypes. The microwells contain compounds involved in a number of biochemical pathways, as well as chemicals that test the sensitivity of cells against antibiotics and stress. While the PM experimental workflow is completely automated, statistical methods to analyze and interpret the data are lagging behind. To take full advantage of the technology, it is essential to develop efficient analytical methods to quantify the information in the complex datasets resulting from PM experiments. We propose the use of statistical growth-curve models to rigorously quantify observed differences in PM experiments, in the context of the growth and metabolism of Yersinia pestis cells grown under different physiological conditions. The information from PM experiments complement genomic and proteomic results and can be used to identify gene function and in drug development. Successful coupling of phenomics results with genomics and proteomics will lead to an unprecedented ability to characterize bacterial function at a systems biology level.

  5. Do children orphaned by AIDS experience distress over time? A latent growth curve analysis of depressive symptoms.

    PubMed

    Chi, Peilian; Li, Xiaoming; Barnett, Douglas; Zhao, Junfeng; Zhao, Guoxiang

    2014-01-01

    This longitudinal study aimed to examine the enduring effects of parental HIV/AIDS on children's psychological well-being in Asia. A sample of 1625 children aged from 6 to 18 years old were assessed annually for their depressive symptoms over three years. Latent growth curve modeling (LGCM) was used to examine the trajectories of depressive symptoms among AIDS orphans and vulnerable children in comparison with children from HIV-free families. AIDS orphans demonstrated the highest initial level of depressive symptoms among the three groups. On average, children's depressive symptoms' scores can be expected to realize an approximate 25% decrease for AIDS orphans, 19% decrease for vulnerable children, and 15% decrease for comparison children over a three-year period. Individual differences within the groups showed that children with higher initial level of depressive symptoms can be expected to decrease slower over time. Multiple group LGCM showed that the three groups of children demonstrated significantly different trajectories of depressive symptoms. Among the key demographic factors, only age exerted an effect on the trajectory of depressive symptoms of vulnerable children, indicating that the younger children showed higher level of initial depressive symptoms and lower rate of decrease than the older children. The current study enriched our knowledge on the longitudinal effect of parental HIV/AIDS on children's emotional distress. Future psychological support might take the children's developmental stages and cultural appropriateness into consideration and deliver service for the most vulnerable group of children affected by HIV/AIDS. PMID:24090100

  6. S-shaped learning curves.

    PubMed

    Murre, Jaap M J

    2014-04-01

    In this article, learning curves for foreign vocabulary words are investigated, distinguishing between a subject-specific learning rate and a material-specific parameter that is related to the complexity of the items, such as the number of syllables. Two experiments are described, one with Turkish words and one with Italian words. In both, S-shaped learning curves were observed, which were most obvious if the subjects were not very familiar with the materials and if they were slow learners. With prolonged learning, the S shapes disappeared. Three different mathematical functions are proposed to explain these S-shaped curves. A further analysis clarifies why S-shaped learning curves may go unnoticed in many experiments. PMID:24065285

  7. Melting Curve Analysis after T Allele Enrichment (MelcaTle) as a Highly Sensitive and Reliable Method for Detecting the JAK2V617F Mutation

    PubMed Central

    Morishita, Soji; Takahashi, Kochi; Araki, Marito; Hironaka, Yumi; Sunami, Yoshitaka; Edahiro, Yoko; Tsutsui, Miyuki; Ohsaka, Akimichi; Tsuneda, Satoshi; Komatsu, Norio

    2015-01-01

    Detection of the JAK2V617F mutation is essential for diagnosing patients with classical myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPNs). However, detection of the low-frequency JAK2V617F mutation is a challenging task due to the necessity of discriminating between true-positive and false-positive results. Here, we have developed a highly sensitive and accurate assay for the detection of JAK2V617F and named it melting curve analysis after T allele enrichment (MelcaTle). MelcaTle comprises three steps: 1) two cycles of JAK2V617F allele enrichment by PCR amplification followed by BsaXI digestion, 2) selective amplification of the JAK2V617F allele in the presence of a bridged nucleic acid (BNA) probe, and 3) a melting curve assay using a BODIPY-FL-labeled oligonucleotide. Using this assay, we successfully detected nearly a single copy of the JAK2V617F allele, without false-positive signals, using 10 ng of genomic DNA standard. Furthermore, MelcaTle showed no positive signals in 90 assays screening healthy individuals for JAK2V617F. When applying MelcaTle to 27 patients who were initially classified as JAK2V617F-positive on the basis of allele-specific PCR analysis and were thus suspected as having MPNs, we found that two of the patients were actually JAK2V617F-negative. A more careful clinical data analysis revealed that these two patients had developed transient erythrocytosis of unknown etiology but not polycythemia vera, a subtype of MPNs. These findings indicate that the newly developed MelcaTle assay should markedly improve the diagnosis of JAK2V617F-positive MPNs. PMID:25794279

  8. Non-Overweight and Overweight Children's Physical Activity during School Recess

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ridgers, Nicola D.; Saint-Maurice, Pedro F.; Welk, Gregory J.; Siahpush, Mohammad; Huberty, Jennifer L.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Little research has investigated children's physical activity levels during school recess and the contribution of recess to school day physical activity levels by weight status. The aims of this study were to examine non-overweight and overweight children's physical activity levels during school recess, and examine the…

  9. Effect of recess pressure ratio on the characteristics of a hybrid bearing 

    E-print Network

    Ingram, Michael William

    1994-01-01

    for an orificecompensated, annulus-fed hybrid water journal bearing for variation in recess pressure ratio. Recess pressure ratio Pr is defined as [ ] where Pr is the recess pressure, P, is the supply pressure, and Pa is the discharge pressure. Rowe (1983) showed...

  10. Did Cuts in State Aid during the Great Recession Lead to Changes in Local Property Taxes?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chakrabarti, Rajashri; Livingston, Max; Roy, Joydeep

    2014-01-01

    The Great Recession led to marked declines in state revenue. In this paper we investigate whether (and how) local school districts modified their funding and taxing decisions in response to state aid declines in the post-recession period. Our results reveal school districts responded to state aid cuts in the post-recession period by countering…

  11. Elementary School Recess: Selected Readings, Games, and Activities for Teachers and Parents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clements, Rhonda L., Ed.

    Based upon the principle that all children have a right to play and to experience the benefits of recess, this book assists elementary school teachers and parents in offering children in preschool through Grade 6 appropriate recess games and activities and provides a variety of readings that support the need for recess activities. The book is…

  12. rpoB gene high-resolution melt curve analysis: a rapid approach for diagnosis and screening of drug resistance in tuberculous meningitis.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Kusum; Modi, Manish; Kaur, Harsimran; Sharma, Aman; Ray, Pallab; Varma, Subhash

    2015-10-01

    Timely and rapid diagnosis of multidrug resistance in tuberculous meningitis (TBM) is a challenge both for a microbiologist and neurologist. The present study was conducted to evaluate role of real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) using rpoB, IS6110, and MPB64 as targets in diagnosis of TBM in 110 patients and subsequent high-resolution melt (HRM) curve analysis of rpoB gene amplicons for screening of drug resistance. The sensitivity of smear, culture, and real-time PCR was 1.8%, 10.9%, and 83.63%, respectively. All 120 control patients showed negative results. With HRM rpoB analysis, rifampicin resistance was detected in 3 out of 110 cases of TBM (3.33%). Subsequently, results of HRM analysis were confirmed by rpoB gene sequencing, and mutations were observed at 516 (2 patients) and 531 (1 patient) codons, respectively. rpoB HRM analysis can be a promising tool for rapid diagnosis and screening of drug resistance in TBM patients in 90minutes. PMID:26254140

  13. Exploring metabolic pathways in vivo by a combined approach of mixed stable isotope-labeled Raman microspectroscopy and multivariate curve resolution analysis.

    PubMed

    Noothalapati, Hemanth; Shigeto, Shinsuke

    2014-08-01

    Understanding cellular metabolism is a major challenge in current systems biology and has triggered extensive metabolomics research, which in most cases involves destructive analysis. However, the information obtainable only in a nondestructive manner will be required for accurately mapping the global structure of the organism's metabolic network at a given instant. Here we report that metabolic pathways can be explored in vivo by mixed stable isotope-labeled Raman microspectroscopy in conjunction with multivariate curve resolution analysis. As a model system, we studied ergosterol biosynthesis in single living fission yeast cells grown in mixtures of normal and (13)C-labeled glucose as the sole carbon source. The multivariate spectral data analysis of space-resolved Raman spectra revealed the intrinsic spectra and relative abundances of all isotopomers of ergosterol whose carbon atoms in the 5,7-diene moiety of the sterol skeleton are either partly or fully substituted with (13)C. Our approach is applicable to other metabolites and will earn a place in the toolbox of metabolomic analysis. PMID:24975289

  14. Analysis of pure tar substances (polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons) in the gas stream using ultraviolet visible (UV-Vis) spectroscopy and multivariate curve resolution (MCR).

    PubMed

    Weide, Tobias; Guschin, Viktor; Becker, Wolfgang; Koelle, Sabine; Maier, Simon; Seidelt, Stephan

    2015-01-01

    The analysis of tar, mostly characterized as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), describes a topic that has been researched for years. An online analysis of tar in the gas stream in particular is needed to characterize the tar conversion or formation in the biomass gasification process. The online analysis in the gas is carried out with ultraviolet-visible (UV-Vis) spectroscopy (190-720 nm). This online analysis is performed with a measuring cell developed by the Fraunhofer Institute for Chemical Technology (ICT). To this day, online tar measurements using UV-Vis spectroscopy have not been carried out in detail. Therefore, PAHs are analyzed as follows. The measurements are split into different steps. The first step to prove the online method is to vaporize single tar substances. These experiments show that a qualitative analysis of PAHs in the gas stream with the used measurement setup is possible. Furthermore, it is shown that the method provides very exact results, so that a differentiation of various PAHs is possible. The next step is to vaporize a PAH mixture. This step consists of vaporizing five pure substances almost simultaneously. The interpretation of the resulting data is made using a chemometric interpretation method, the multivariate curve resolution (MCR). The verification of the calculated results is the main aim of this experiment. It has been shown that the tar mixture can be analyzed qualitatively and quantitatively (in arbitrary units) in detail using the MCR. Finally it is the main goal of this paper to show the first steps in the applicability of the UV-Vis spectroscopy and the measurement setup on online tar analysis in view of characterizing the biomass gasification process. Due to that, the gasification plant (at the laboratory scale), developed and constructed by the Fraunhofer ICT, has been used to vaporize these substances. Using this gasification plant for the experiments enables the usage of the measurement setup also for the spectroscopic analysis of the tar formation during the biomass gasification. PMID:25588231

  15. Transcriptome Analysis of Liangshan Pig Muscle Development at the Growth Curve Inflection Point and Asymptotic Stages Using Digital Gene Expression Profiling.

    PubMed

    Shen, Linyuan; Luo, Jia; Du, Jingjing; Liu, Chendong; Wu, Xiaoqian; Pu, Qiang; Fu, Yuhua; Tang, Qianzi; Liu, Yuanrui; Li, Qiang; Yang, Runlin; Li, Xuewei; Tang, Guoqing; Jiang, Yanzhi; Li, Mingzhou; Zhang, Shunhua; Zhu, Li

    2015-01-01

    Animal growth curves can provide essential information for animal breeders to optimize feeding and management strategies. However, the genetic mechanism underlying the phenotypic differentiation between the inflection point and asymptotic stages of the growth curve is not well characterized. Here, we employed Liangshan pigs in stages of growth at the inflection point (under inflection point: UIP) and the two asymptotic stages (before the inflection point: BIP, after the inflection point: AIP) as models to survey global gene expression in the longissimus dorsi muscle using digital gene expression (DGE) tag profiling. We found Liangshan pigs reached maximum growth rate (UIP) at 163.6 days of age and a weight of 134.6 kg. The DGE libraries generated 117 million reads of 5.89 gigabases in length. 21,331, 20,996 and 20,139 expressed transcripts were identified BIP, UIP and AIP, respectively. Among them, we identified 757 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) between BIP and UIP, and 271 DEGs between AIP and UIP. An enrichment analysis of DEGs proved the immune system was strengthened in the AIP stage. Energy metabolism rate, global transcriptional activity and bone development intensity were highest UIP. Meat from Liangshan pigs had the highest intramuscular fat content and most favorable fatty acid composition in the AIP. Three hundred eighty (27.70%) specific expression genes were highly enriched in QTL regions for growth and meat quality traits. This study completed a comprehensive analysis of diverse genetic mechanisms underlying the inflection point and asymptotic stages of growth. Our findings will serve as an important resource in the understanding of animal growth and development in indigenous pig breeds. PMID:26292092

  16. Transcriptome Analysis of Liangshan Pig Muscle Development at the Growth Curve Inflection Point and Asymptotic Stages Using Digital Gene Expression Profiling

    PubMed Central

    Du, Jingjing; Liu, Chendong; Wu, Xiaoqian; Pu, Qiang; Fu, Yuhua; Tang, Qianzi; Liu, Yuanrui; Li, Qiang; Yang, Runlin; Li, Xuewei; Tang, Guoqing; Jiang, Yanzhi; Li, Mingzhou; Zhang, Shunhua; Zhu, Li

    2015-01-01

    Animal growth curves can provide essential information for animal breeders to optimize feeding and management strategies. However, the genetic mechanism underlying the phenotypic differentiation between the inflection point and asymptotic stages of the growth curve is not well characterized. Here, we employed Liangshan pigs in stages of growth at the inflection point (under inflection point: UIP) and the two asymptotic stages (before the inflection point: BIP, after the inflection point: AIP) as models to survey global gene expression in the longissimus dorsi muscle using digital gene expression (DGE) tag profiling. We found Liangshan pigs reached maximum growth rate (UIP) at 163.6 days of age and a weight of 134.6 kg. The DGE libraries generated 117 million reads of 5.89 gigabases in length. 21,331, 20,996 and 20,139 expressed transcripts were identified BIP, UIP and AIP, respectively. Among them, we identified 757 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) between BIP and UIP, and 271 DEGs between AIP and UIP. An enrichment analysis of DEGs proved the immune system was strengthened in the AIP stage. Energy metabolism rate, global transcriptional activity and bone development intensity were highest UIP. Meat from Liangshan pigs had the highest intramuscular fat content and most favorable fatty acid composition in the AIP. Three hundred eighty (27.70%) specific expression genes were highly enriched in QTL regions for growth and meat quality traits. This study completed a comprehensive analysis of diverse genetic mechanisms underlying the inflection point and asymptotic stages of growth. Our findings will serve as an important resource in the understanding of animal growth and development in indigenous pig breeds. PMID:26292092

  17. Buckling of a Longitudinally Jointed Curved Composite Panel Arc Segment for Next Generation of Composite Heavy Lift Launch Vehicles: Verification Testing Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Farrokh, Babak; Segal, Kenneth N.; Akkerman, Michael; Glenn, Ronald L.; Rodini, Benjamin T.; Fan, Wei-Ming; Kellas, Sortiris; Pineda, Evan J.

    2014-01-01

    In this work, an all-bonded out-of-autoclave (OoA) curved longitudinal composite joint concept, intended for use in the next generation of composite heavy lift launch vehicles, was evaluated and verified through finite element (FE) analysis, fabrication, testing, and post-test inspection. The joint was used to connect two curved, segmented, honeycomb sandwich panels representative of a Space Launch System (SLS) fairing design. The overall size of the resultant panel was 1.37 m by 0.74 m (54 in by 29 in), of which the joint comprised a 10.2 cm (4 in) wide longitudinal strip at the center. NASTRAN and ABAQUS were used to perform linear and non-linear analyses of the buckling and strength performance of the jointed panel. Geometric non-uniformities (i.e., surface contour imperfections) were measured and incorporated into the FE model and analysis. In addition, a sensitivity study of the specimens end condition showed that bonding face-sheet doublers to the panel's end, coupled with some stress relief features at corner-edges, can significantly reduce the stress concentrations near the load application points. Ultimately, the jointed panel was subjected to a compressive load. Load application was interrupted at the onset of buckling (at 356 kN 80 kips). A post-test non-destructive evaluation (NDE) showed that, as designed, buckling occurred without introducing any damage into the panel or the joint. The jointed panel was further capable of tolerating an impact damage to the same buckling load with no evidence of damage propagation. The OoA cured all-composite joint shows promise as a low mass factory joint for segmented barrels.

  18. Mutations in CERS3 Cause Autosomal Recessive Congenital Ichthyosis in Humans

    PubMed Central

    Marrakchi, Slaheddine; Ribierre, Florence; Kamoun, Bourane; Abid, Leila; Leipoldt, Michael; Turki, Hamida; Schempp, Werner; Heilig, Roland; Lathrop, Mark; Fischer, Judith

    2013-01-01

    Autosomal recessive congenital ichthyosis (ARCI) is a rare genetic disorder of the skin characterized by abnormal desquamation over the whole body. In this study we report four patients from three consanguineous Tunisian families with skin, eye, heart, and skeletal anomalies, who harbor a homozygous contiguous gene deletion syndrome on chromosome 15q26.3. Genome-wide SNP-genotyping revealed a homozygous region in all affected individuals, including the same microdeletion that partially affects two coding genes (ADAMTS17, CERS3) and abolishes a sequence for a long non-coding RNA (FLJ42289). Whereas mutations in ADAMTS17 have recently been identified in autosomal recessive Weill-Marchesani-like syndrome in humans and dogs presenting with ophthalmologic, cardiac, and skeletal abnormalities, no disease associations have been described for CERS3 (ceramide synthase 3) and FLJ42289 so far. However, analysis of additional patients with non-syndromic ARCI revealed a splice site mutation in CERS3 indicating that a defect in ceramide synthesis is causative for the present skin phenotype of our patients. Functional analysis of patient skin and in vitro differentiated keratinocytes demonstrated that mutations in CERS3 lead to a disturbed sphingolipid profile with reduced levels of epidermis-specific very long-chain ceramides that interferes with epidermal differentiation. Taken together, these data present a novel pathway involved in ARCI development and, moreover, provide the first evidence that CERS3 plays an essential role in human sphingolipid metabolism for the maintenance of epidermal lipid homeostasis. PMID:23754960

  19. Autosomal recessive congenital cataract, intellectual disability phenotype linked to STX3 in a consanguineous Tunisian family.

    PubMed

    Chograni, M; Alkuraya, F S; Ourteni, I; Maazoul, F; Lariani, I; Chaabouni, H B

    2015-09-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate the genetic basis of autosomal recessive congenital cataract and intellectual disability phenotype in a consanguineous Tunisian family. The whole genome scan of the studied family was performed with single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). The resulted runs of homozygosity (ROH) were analyzed through the integrated Systems Tool for Eye gene discovery (iSyTE) in order to prioritize candidate genes associated with congenital cataract. Selected genes were amplified and sequenced. Bioinformatic analysis was conducted to predict the function of the mutant gene. We identified a new specific lens gene named syntaxin 3 linked to the studied phenotype. The direct sequencing of this gene revealed a novel missense mutation c.122A>G which results in p.E41G. Bioinformatic analysis suggested a deleterious effect of this mutation on protein structure and function. Here, we report for the first time a missense mutation of a novel lens specific gene STX3 in a phenotype associating autosomal recessive congenital cataract and intellectual disability. PMID:25358429

  20. Health in financial crises: economic recession and tuberculosis in Central and Eastern Europe.

    PubMed

    Arinaminpathy, Nimalan; Dye, Christopher

    2010-11-01

    The ongoing global financial crisis, which began in 2007, has drawn attention to the effect of declining economic conditions on public health. A quantitative analysis of previous events can offer insights into the potential health effects of economic decline. In the early 1990s, widespread recession across Central and Eastern Europe accompanied the collapse of the Soviet Union. At the same time, despite previously falling tuberculosis (TB) incidence in most countries, there was an upsurge of TB cases and deaths throughout the region. Here, we study the quantitative relationship between the lost economic productivity and excess TB cases and mortality. We use the data of the World Health Organization for TB notifications and deaths from 1980 to 2006, and World Bank data for gross domestic product. Comparing 15 countries for which sufficient data exist, we find strong linear associations between the lost economic productivity over the period of recession for each country and excess numbers of TB cases (r(2) = 0.94, p < 0.001) and deaths (r(2) = 0.94, p < 0.001) over the same period. If TB epidemiology and control are linked to economies in 2009 as they were in 1991 then the Baltic states, particularly Latvia, are now vulnerable to another upturn in TB cases and deaths. These projections are in accordance with emerging data on drug consumption, which indicate that these countries have undergone the greatest reductions since the beginning of 2008. We recommend close surveillance and monitoring during the current recession, especially in the Baltic states. PMID:20427332

  1. Comparison of Coronally Advanced and Semilunar Coronally Repositioned Flap for the Treatment of Gingival Recession

    PubMed Central

    Moka, Leela Rani; M, Srinivas; D, Narasimha swamy; Swarna, Chakrapani; Putcha, Madhusudhan

    2014-01-01

    Background: Gingival Recession (GR) occurs in population with low oral hygiene levels. Root coverage may be achieved by a number of surgical techniques, including pedicle gingival grafts, free grafts, connective tissue grafts, gtr may also be used. The objective of the present study is to compare the clinical outcomes of the Semilunar Coronally Repositioned Flap (SCRF) and Coronally Advanced Flap (CAF) procedure in the treatment of miller’s class I gingival recession defects in maxillary teeth. Materials and Methods: Twenty systemically healthy patients, with isolated miller’s class 1 gingival recessions, were selected and allocated randomly into two groups, Group I and Group II with 10 patients in each. In Group I, the patients were treated with coronally advanced flap procedure with sling sutures, whereas in Group II, patients were treated with semilunar coronally repositioned flap without sutures. Results: Descriptive statistical analysis has been carried out in the present study. Results on continuous measurements are presented on Mean ± SD. Significance is assessed at 5 % level of significance. Student t-test (two tailed, dependent) has been used to find the significance of study parameters between baseline - 3 months and baseline - 6 months, 90% Confidence interval for mean has been computed. Conclusion: CAF provides consistently better results than SCRF With all other parameters, such as clinical attachment levels, percentage of root coverage and complete root coverage and esthetics were taken into account, caf was found to be superior. In contrary to this, there is significant increase in width of keratinized tissue in scrf group. PMID:25121054

  2. Atmospheric Stability Impacts on Power Curves of Tall Wind Turbines - An Analysis of a West Coast North American Wind Farm

    SciTech Connect

    Wharton, S; Lundquist, J K

    2010-02-22

    Tall wind turbines, with hub heights at 80 m or above, can extract large amounts of energy from the atmosphere because they are likely to encounter higher wind speeds, but they face challenges given the complex nature of wind flow and turbulence at these heights in the boundary layer. Depending on whether the boundary layer is stable, neutral, or convective, the mean wind speed, direction, and turbulence properties may vary greatly across the tall turbine swept area (40 to 120 m AGL). This variability can cause tall turbines to produce difference amounts of power during time periods with identical hub height wind speeds. Using meteorological and power generation data from a West Coast North American wind farm over a one-year period, our study synthesizes standard wind park observations, such as wind speed from turbine nacelles and sparse meteorological tower observations, with high-resolution profiles of wind speed and turbulence from a remote sensing platform, to quantify the impact of atmospheric stability on power output. We first compare approaches to defining atmospheric stability. The standard, limited, wind farm operations enable the calculation only of a wind shear exponent ({alpha}) or turbulence intensity (I{sub U}) from cup anemometers, while the presence at this wind farm of a SODAR enables the direct observation of turbulent kinetic energy (TKE) throughout the turbine rotor disk. Additionally, a nearby research meteorological station provided observations of the Obukhov length, L, a direct measure of atmospheric stability. In general, the stability parameters {alpha}, I{sub U}, and TKE are in high agreement with the more physically-robust L, with TKE exhibiting the best agreement with L. Using these metrics, data periods are segregated by stability class to investigate power performance dependencies. Power output at this wind farm is highly correlated with atmospheric stability during the spring and summer months, while atmospheric stability exerts little impact on power output during the winter and autumn periods. During the spring and summer seasons, power output for a given wind speed was significantly higher during stable conditions and significantly lower during strongly convective conditions: power output differences approached 20% between stable and convective regimes. The dependency of stability on power output was apparent only when both turbulence and the shape of the wind speed profile were considered. Turbulence is one of the mechanisms by which atmospheric stability affects a turbine's power curve at this particular site, and measurements of turbulence can yield actionable insights into wind turbine behavior.

  3. Severity of Prenatal Cocaine Exposure and Child Language Functioning Through Age Seven Years: A Longitudinal Latent Growth Curve Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Bandstra, Emmalee S.; Vogel, April L.; Morrow, Connie E.; Xue, Lihua; Anthony, James C.

    2009-01-01

    The current study estimates the longitudinal effects of severity of prenatal cocaine exposure on language functioning in an urban sample of full-term African-American children (200 cocaine-exposed, 176 noncocaine-exposed) through age 7 years. The Miami Prenatal Cocaine Study sample was enrolled prospectively at birth, with documentation of prenatal drug exposure status through maternal interview and toxicology assays of maternal and infant urine and infant meconium. Language functioning was measured at ages 3 and 5 years using the Clinical Evaluation of Language Fundamentals–Preschool (CELF-P) and at age 7 years using the Core Language Domain of the NEPSY: A Developmental Neuropsychological Assessment. Longitudinal latent growth curve analyses were used to examine two components of language functioning, a more stable aptitude for language performance and a time-varying trajectory of language development, across the three time points and their relationship to varying levels of prenatal cocaine exposure. Severity of prenatal cocaine exposure was characterized using a latent construct combining maternal self-report of cocaine use during pregnancy by trimesters and maternal and infant bioassays, allowing all available information to be taken into account. The association between severity of exposure and language functioning was examined within a model including factors for fetal growth, gestational age, and IQ as intercorrelated response variables and child’s age, gender, and prenatal alcohol, tobacco, and marijuana exposure as covariates. Results indicated that greater severity of prenatal cocaine exposure was associated with greater deficits within the more stable aptitude for language performance (D = ?0.071, 95% CI = ?0.133, ?0.009; p = 0.026). There was no relationship between severity of prenatal cocaine exposure and the time-varying trajectory of language development. The observed cocaine-associated deficit was independent of multiple alternative suspected sources of variation in language performance, including other potential responses to prenatal cocaine exposure, such as child’s intellectual functioning, and other birth and postnatal influences, including language stimulation in the home environment. PMID:15002943

  4. IEEEJOURNAL OF QUANTUMELECTRONICS,VOL. QE-11, NO. 2, FEBRUARY 1975 75 Analysis of Curved Optical Waveguides by

    E-print Network

    Heiblum, Mordehai "Moty"

    determination is central to the design of integrated optical systems because switches and ar- rays of switches of complex orderand matching to fields in the guide that are assumed unperturbed from astraight guide. Thetransformations result in an analysis that differs fromthis previous work inthat guides witha continuously varying

  5. A COMPREHENSIVE ANALYSIS OF SWIFT XRT DATA. III. JET BREAK CANDIDATES IN X-RAY AND OPTICAL AFTERGLOW LIGHT CURVES

    E-print Network

    Zhang, Bing

    A COMPREHENSIVE ANALYSIS OF SWIFT XRT DATA. III. JET BREAK CANDIDATES IN X-RAY AND OPTICAL. Burrows3 Received 2007 August 21; accepted 2007 October 15 ABSTRACT The Swift XRT data for 179 GRBs (050124 to 070129) and the optical afterglow data for 57 pre- and post-Swift GRBs are analyzed to explore

  6. Early retiree and near-elderly health insurance in recession.

    PubMed

    Gould, Elise; Hertel-Fernandez, Alexander

    2010-04-01

    This paper examines recent trends in health insurance cost and coverage for the near-elderly population (aged 55 to 64), with particular attention directed toward the implications of the 2007 recession. We examine coverage by demographic and socioeconomic characteristics from the Current Population Survey and the Medical Expenditure Panel Survey. We also estimate the effects of projected increases in the unemployment rate for employer-sponsored insurance coverage of the near elderly in 2009 and 2010. Erosion in coverage is likely to be exacerbated in the short run by the 2007 recession, given rapidly rising unemployment among this age cohort, and in the long-run, given the inability of the labor market to support increased labor market participation of older Americans in jobs that would have traditionally provided health insurance coverage. PMID:20390720

  7. Gingival veneer: a novel technique of masking gingival recession.

    PubMed

    Choudhari, Praful; Pillai, Arpita; Zade, R; Amirishetty, Ramesh; Shetty, Sunaina

    2015-01-01

    One of the most distressing aspects of periodontitis is the unesthetic appearance of maxillary and mandibular anteriors. The elongation of the crowns due to root exposure and increased interdental spacing results in unesthetic appearance. Surgical procedures for gingival recession coverage do not have acceptable results in cases of severe gingival recession. So nonsurgical methods like gingival veneers should be considered as a treatment modality in such cases. This article aims to revisit the gingival veneer: its uses, advantages, disadvantages, and its fabrication. The case discussed here highlight clinical situation where the gingival veneer prosthesis helped in achieving optimum esthetics and patient satisfaction thus proving to be a feasible and simple treatment modality in certain clinical cases. This may offer a good interim solution for patients who may wish to have time to consider their options of more advanced and complex treatment. PMID:25738090

  8. Gingival Veneer: A Novel Technique of Masking Gingival Recession

    PubMed Central

    Pillai, Arpita; Zade, R.; Amirishetty, Ramesh; Shetty, Sunaina

    2015-01-01

    One of the most distressing aspects of periodontitis is the unesthetic appearance of maxillary and mandibular anteriors. The elongation of the crowns due to root exposure and increased interdental spacing results in unesthetic appearance. Surgical procedures for gingival recession coverage do not have acceptable results in cases of severe gingival recession. So nonsurgical methods like gingival veneers should be considered as a treatment modality in such cases. This article aims to revisit the gingival veneer: its uses, advantages, disadvantages, and its fabrication. The case discussed here highlight clinical situation where the gingival veneer prosthesis helped in achieving optimum esthetics and patient satisfaction thus proving to be a feasible and simple treatment modality in certain clinical cases. This may offer a good interim solution for patients who may wish to have time to consider their options of more advanced and complex treatment. PMID:25738090

  9. Total dose effects in recessed oxide digital bipolar microcircuits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pease, R. L.; Turfler, R. M.; Platteter, D.; Emily, D.; Blice, R.

    1983-12-01

    Total dose failure levels in digital bipolar microcircuits utilizing recessed oxides were measured at levels as low as 5 Krad(Si). Typical failure levels are in the 10-100 Krad(Si) range. Failure was found to be a strong function of irradiation bias and annealing time after irradiation. In addition, total dose 'windows' below 100 Krad(Si) were observed. The radiation failure mechanism is predominantly inversion of p type silicon either at the bottom of the recessed field oxide, causing buried layer to buried layer channeling, or on the oxide sidewall causing collector to emitter leakage. In addition, a failure mode due to increased sidewall current was observed in a nonisolated form of integrated injection logic. Hardening approaches have been identified and investigated at several manufacturers. Device failure levels were found to vary by several orders of magnitude depending on process lot and layout revision.

  10. Bone Marrow Transplantation for Recessive Dystrophic Epidermolysis Bullosa

    PubMed Central

    Wagner, John E.; Ishida-Yamamoto, Akemi; McGrath, John A.; Hordinsky, Maria; Keene, Douglas R.; Riddle, Megan J.; Osborn, Mark J.; Lund, Troy; Dolan, Michelle; Blazar, Bruce R.; Tolar, Jakub

    2010-01-01

    Background Recessive dystrophic epidermolysis bullosa is an incurable, often fatal mucocutaneous blistering disease caused by mutations in COL7A1, the gene encoding type VII collagen (C7). On the basis of preclinical data showing biochemical correction and prolonged survival in col7?/? mice, we hypothesized that allogeneic marrow contains stem cells capable of ameliorating the manifestations of recessive dystrophic epidermolysis bullosa in humans. Methods Between October 2007 and August 2009, we treated seven children who had recessive dystrophic epidermolysis bullosa with immunomyeloablative chemotherapy and allogeneic stem-cell transplantation. We assessed C7 expression by means of immunofluorescence staining and used transmission electron microscopy to visualize anchoring fibrils. We measured chimerism by means of competitive polymerase-chain-reaction assay, and documented blister formation and wound healing with the use of digital photography. Results One patient died of cardiomyopathy before transplantation. Of the remaining six patients, one had severe regimen-related cutaneous toxicity, with all having improved wound healing and a reduction in blister formation between 30 and 130 days after transplantation. We observed increased C7 deposition at the dermal–epidermal junction in five of the six recipients, albeit without normalization of anchoring fibrils. Five recipients were alive 130 to 799 days after transplantation; one died at 183 days as a consequence of graft rejection and infection. The six recipients had substantial proportions of donor cells in the skin, and none had detectable anti-C7 antibodies. Conclusions Increased C7 deposition and a sustained presence of donor cells were found in the skin of children with recessive dystrophic epidermolysis bullosa after allogeneic bone marrow transplantation. Further studies are needed to assess the long-term risks and benefits of such therapy in patients with this disorder. (Funded by the National Institutes of Health; ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT00478244.) PMID:20818854

  11. Vanishing of electron pair recession at central impact

    E-print Network

    Nataliia O. Cherkashyna; Constantin V. Usenko

    2006-07-01

    Identity of electrons leads to description of their states by symmetrical or anti-symmetrical combination of free coherent states. Due to the coordinate uncertainty potential energy of the Coulomb repulsing is limited from above and so when energy of electrons is large enough, electrons go through each other, without noticing one another. We show existence of set of coherent states for which wave packages recession vanish - electrons remain close regardless of Coulomb repulsion.

  12. The prompt-afterglow connection in gamma-ray bursts: a comprehensive statistical analysis of Swift X-ray light curves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Margutti, R.; Zaninoni, E.; Bernardini, M. G.; Chincarini, G.; Pasotti, F.; Guidorzi, C.; Angelini, L.; Burrows, D. N.; Capalbi, M.; Evans, P. A.; Gehrels, N.; Kennea, J.; Mangano, V.; Moretti, A.; Nousek, J.; Osborne, J. P.; Page, K. L.; Perri, M.; Racusin, J.; Romano, P.; Sbarufatti, B.; Stafford, S.; Stamatikos, M.

    2013-01-01

    We present a comprehensive statistical analysis of Swift X-ray light curves of gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) collecting data from more than 650 GRBs discovered by Swift and other facilities. The unprecedented sample size allows us to constrain the rest-frame X-ray properties of GRBs from a statistical perspective, with particular reference to intrinsic time-scales and the energetics of the different light-curve phases in a common rest-frame 0.3-30 keV energy band. Temporal variability episodes are also studied and their properties constrained. Two fundamental questions drive this effort: (i) Does the X-ray emission retain any kind of `memory' of the prompt ?-ray phase? (ii) Where is the dividing line between long and short GRB X-ray properties? We show that short GRBs decay faster, are less luminous and less energetic than long GRBs in the X-rays, but are interestingly characterized by similar intrinsic absorption. We furthermore reveal the existence of a number of statistically significant relations that link the X-ray to prompt ?-ray parameters in long GRBs; short GRBs are outliers of the majority of these two-parameter relations. However and more importantly, we report on the existence of a universal three-parameter scaling that links the X-ray and the ?-ray energy to the prompt spectral peak energy of both long and short GRBs: EX, iso?E1.00 ± 0.06?, iso/E0.60 ± 0.10pk.

  13. The Prompt-afterglow Connection in Gamma-ray Bursts: a Comprehensive Statistical Analysis of Swift X-ray Light-curves

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Margutti, R.; Zaninoni, E.; Bernardini, M. G.; Chincarini, G.; Pasotti, F.; Guidorzi, C.; Angelini, Lorella; Burrows, D. N.; Capalbi, M.; Evans, P. A.; Gehrels, Neil; Kennea, J.; Mangano, V.; Moretti, A.; Nousek, J.; Osborne, J. P.; Page, K. L.; Perri, M.; Racusin, Judith Lea; Romano, P.; Sbarufatti, B.; Stafford, M.; Stamatikos, Michael

    2012-01-01

    We present a comprehensive statistical analysis of Swift X-ray light-curves of Gamma- Ray Bursts (GRBs) collecting data from more than 650 GRBs discovered by Swift and other facilities. The unprecedented sample size allows us to constrain the rest-frame X-ray properties of GRBs from a statistical perspective, with particular reference to intrinsic time scales and the energetics of the different light-curve phases in a common rest-frame 0.3-30 keV energy band. Temporal variability episodes are also studied and their properties constrained. Two fundamental questions drive this effort: i) Does the X-ray emission retain any kind of "memory" of the prompt ?-ray phase? ii) Where is the dividing line between long and short GRB X-ray properties? We show that short GRBs decay faster, are less luminous and less energetic than long GRBs in the X-rays, but are interestingly characterized by similar intrinsic absorption. We furthermore reveal the existence of a number of statistically significant relations that link the X-ray to prompt ?-ray parameters in long GRBs; short GRBs are outliers of the majority of these 2-parameter relations. However and more importantly, we report on the existence of a universal 3-parameter scaling that links the X-ray and the ?-ray energy to the prompt spectral peak energy of both long and short GRBs: E(sub X,iso)? E(sup 1.00+/-0.06)(sub ?,iso) /E(sup 0.60+/-0.10)(sub pk).

  14. Recessive Mutations in RTN4IP1 Cause Isolated and Syndromic Optic Neuropathies.

    PubMed

    Angebault, Claire; Guichet, Pierre-Olivier; Talmat-Amar, Yasmina; Charif, Majida; Gerber, Sylvie; Fares-Taie, Lucas; Gueguen, Naig; Halloy, François; Moore, David; Amati-Bonneau, Patrizia; Manes, Gael; Hebrard, Maxime; Bocquet, Béatrice; Quiles, Mélanie; Piro-Mégy, Camille; Teigell, Marisa; Delettre, Cécile; Rossel, Mireille; Meunier, Isabelle; Preising, Markus; Lorenz, Birgit; Carelli, Valerio; Chinnery, Patrick F; Yu-Wai-Man, Patrick; Kaplan, Josseline; Roubertie, Agathe; Barakat, Abdelhamid; Bonneau, Dominique; Reynier, Pascal; Rozet, Jean-Michel; Bomont, Pascale; Hamel, Christian P; Lenaers, Guy

    2015-11-01

    Autosomal-recessive optic neuropathies are rare blinding conditions related to retinal ganglion cell (RGC) and optic-nerve degeneration, for which only mutations in TMEM126A and ACO2 are known. In four families with early-onset recessive optic neuropathy, we identified mutations in RTN4IP1, which encodes a mitochondrial ubiquinol oxydo-reductase. RTN4IP1 is a partner of RTN4 (also known as NOGO), and its ortholog Rad8 in C. elegans is involved in UV light response. Analysis of fibroblasts from affected individuals with a RTN4IP1 mutation showed loss of the altered protein, a deficit of mitochondrial respiratory complex I and IV activities, and increased susceptibility to UV light. Silencing of RTN4IP1 altered the number and morphogenesis of mouse RGC dendrites in vitro and the eye size, neuro-retinal development, and swimming behavior in zebrafish in vivo. Altogether, these data point to a pathophysiological mechanism responsible for RGC early degeneration and optic neuropathy and linking RTN4IP1 functions to mitochondrial physiology, response to UV light, and dendrite growth during eye maturation. PMID:26593267

  15. Endovascular image-guided treatment of in-vivo model aneurysms with asymmetric vascular stents (AVS): evaluation with time-density curve angiographic analysis and histology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dohatcu, A.; Ionita, C. N.; Paciorek, A.; Bednarek, D. R.; Hoffmann, K. R.; Rudin, S.

    2008-03-01

    In this study, we compare the results obtained from Time-Density Curve (TDC) analysis of angiographic imaging sequences with histological evaluation for a rabbit aneurysm model treated with standard stents and new asymmetric vascular stents (AVS) placed by image-guided endovascular deployment. AVSs are stents having a low-porosity patch region designed to cover the aneurysm neck and occlude blood flow inside. To evaluate the AVSs, rabbits with elastase-induced aneurysm models (n=20) were divided into three groups: the first (n=10) was treated with an AVS, the second (n=5) with a non-patch standard coronary stent, and third was untreated as a control (n=5). We used TDC analysis to measure how much contrast media entered the aneurysm before and after treatment. TDCs track contrast-media-density changes as a function of time over the region of interest in x-ray DSA cine-sequences. After 28 days, the animals were sacrificed and the explanted specimens were histologically evaluated. The first group showed an average reduction of contrast flow into the aneurysm of 95% after treatment with an AVS with fully developed thrombus at 28 days follow-up. The rabbits treated with standard stents showed an increase in TDC residency time after treatment and partial-thrombogenesis. The untreated control aneurysms displayed no reduction in flow and were still patent at follow-up. The quantitative TDC analysis findings were confirmed by histological evaluation suggesting that the new AVS has great potential as a definitive treatment for cerebro-vascular aneurysms and that angiographic TDC analysis can provide in-vivo verification.

  16. Social dynamics of health inequalities: a growth curve analysis of aging and self assessed health in the British household panel survey 1991–2001

    PubMed Central

    Sacker, A.; Clarke, P.; Wiggins, R.; Bartley, M.

    2005-01-01

    Objectives: To study how social inequalities change as people age, this paper presents a growth curve model of self assessed health, which accommodates changes in occupational class and individual health with age. Design: Nationally representative interview based longitudinal survey of adults in Great Britain. Setting: Representative members of private households of Great Britain in 1991. Participants: Survey respondents (n = 6705), aged 21–59 years in 1991 and followed up annually until 2001. Main outcome measure: Self assessed health. Results: On average, self assessed health declines slowly from early adulthood to retirement age. No significant class differences in health were observed at age 21. Health inequalities emerged later in life with the gap between mean levels of self assessed health of those in managerial and professional occupations and routine occupations widening approaching retirement. Individual variability in health trajectories increased between ages 40 and 59 years so that this widening of mean differences between occupational classes was not significant. When the analysis is confined to people whose occupational class remained constant over time, a far greater difference in health trajectories between occupational classes was seen. Conclusions: The understanding of social inequalities in health at the population level is enriched by an analysis of individual variation in age related declines by social position. PMID:15911646

  17. Genotyping of single nucleotide polymorphisms by melting curve analysis using thin film semi-transparent heaters integrated in a lab-on-foil system.

    PubMed

    Ohlander, Anna; Zilio, Caterina; Hammerle, Tobias; Zelenin, Sergey; Klink, Gerhard; Chiari, Marcella; Bock, Karlheinz; Russom, Aman

    2013-06-01

    The recent technological advances in micro/nanotechnology present new opportunities to combine microfluidics with microarray technology for the development of small, sensitive, single-use, point-of-care molecular diagnostic devices. As such, the integration of microarray and plastic microfluidic systems is an attractive low-cost alternative to glass based microarray systems. This paper presents the integration of a DNA microarray and an all-polymer microfluidic foil system with integrated thin film heaters, which demonstrate DNA analysis based on melting curve analysis (MCA). A novel micro-heater concept using semi-transparent copper heaters manufactured by roll-to-roll and lift-off on polyethylene naphthalate (PEN) foil has been developed. Using a mesh structure, heater surfaces have been realized in only one single metallization step, providing more efficient and homogenous heating characteristics than conventional meander heaters. A robust DNA microarray spotting protocol was adapted on Parylene C coated heater-foils, using co-polymer poly(DMA-NAS-MAPS) to enable covalent immobilization of DNA. The heaters were integrated in a microfluidic channel using lamination foils and MCA of the spotted DNA duplexes showed single based discrimination of mismatched over matched target DNA-probes. Finally, as a proof of principle, we perform MCA on PCR products to detect the Leu7Pro polymorphism of the neutropeptide Y related to increased risk of Type II diabetes, BMI and depression. PMID:23592049

  18. Sound propagation in curved ducts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Myers, M. K.; Mungur, P.

    1975-01-01

    An analysis of the sound field in a circularly curved duct of rectangular cross-section is carried out for both rigid and locally-reacting absorbing walls. The field is excited by a piston source at one end of the duct section, and comparisons of the acoustic field and the net power flow along the duct axis are made with corresponding results for a straight duct section for various frequencies. It is found that in general the curved duct yields a significant increase in sound attenuation along the duct axis as compared to the straight duct.

  19. Age differences in verbal and visuo-spatial working memory updating: evidence from analysis of serial position curves.

    PubMed

    Fiore, Felicia; Borella, Erika; Mammarella, Irene C; De Beni, Rossana

    2012-01-01

    Memory updating is the ability to select and update relevant information and suppress no-longer-relevant data. The few studies in this area, targeting mainly the verbal domain, have investigated and confirmed an age-related decline in working memory updating ability (De Beni & Palladino, 2004; Van der Linden, Bredart, & Beerten, 1994). The present research examines the ability of younger and older adults to update information in verbal and visuo-spatial running memory tasks. Results showed that the participants' performance was higher in the verbal than in the visuo-spatial task. Nonetheless, independently of the task domain, an age-related decline in updating performance was found. Moreover, analysis of serial positions suggested that, in the updating procedure, the participants were not attempting to actively maintain items, preferring to adopt a low-effort, "recency-based" strategy. The use of this type of strategy is more evident in older participants, as shown in both the accuracy performance and the proportion of intrusion errors. PMID:22133192

  20. Relative Locality in Curved Spacetime

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kowalski-Glikman, Jerzy; Rosati, Giacomo

    2013-07-01

    In this paper we construct the action describing dynamics of the particle moving in curved spacetime, with a nontrivial momentum space geometry. Curved momentum space is the core feature of theories where relative locality effects are present. So far aspects of nonlinearities in momentum space have been studied only for flat or constantly expanding (de Sitter) spacetimes, relying on their maximally symmetric nature. The extension of curved momentum space frameworks to arbitrary spacetime geometries could be relevant for the opportunities to test Planck-scale curvature/deformation of particles momentum space. As a first example of this construction we describe the particle with ?-Poincaré momentum space on a circular orbit in Schwarzschild spacetime, where the contributes of momentum space curvature turn out to be negligible. The analysis of this problem relies crucially on the solution of the soccer ball problem.

  1. Parallel Curves: Getting There and Getting Back

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Agnew, A. F.; Mathews, J. H.

    2006-01-01

    This note takes up the issue of parallel curves while illustrating the utility of "Mathematica" in computations. This work complements results presented earlier. The presented treatment, considering the more general case of parametric curves, provides an analysis of the appearance of cusp singularities, and emphasizes the utility of symbolic…

  2. Comparing large scale CCS deployment potential in the USA and China: a detailed analysis based on country-specific CO2 transport & storage cost curves

    SciTech Connect

    Dahowski, Robert T.; Davidson, Casie L.; Dooley, James J.

    2011-04-18

    The United States and China are the two largest emitters of greenhouse gases in the world and their projected continued growth and reliance on fossil fuels, especially coal, make them strong candidates for CCS. Previous work has revealed that both nations have over 1600 large electric utility and other industrial point CO2 sources as well as very large CO2 storage resources on the order of 2,000 billion metric tons (Gt) of onshore storage capacity. In each case, the vast majority of this capacity is found in deep saline formations. In both the USA and China, candidate storage reservoirs are likely to be accessible by most sources with over 80% of these large industrial CO2 sources having a CO2 storage option within just 80 km. This suggests a strong potential for CCS deployment as a meaningful option to efforts to reduce CO2 emissions from these large, vibrant economies. However, while the USA and China possess many similarities with regards to the potential value that CCS might provide, including the range of costs at which CCS may be available to most large CO2 sources in each nation, there are a number of more subtle differences that may help us to understand the ways in which CCS deployment may differ between these two countries in order for the USA and China to work together - and in step with the rest of the world - to most efficiently reduce greenhouse gas emissions. This paper details the first ever analysis of CCS deployment costs in these two countries based on methodologically comparable CO2 source and sink inventories, economic analysis, geospatial source-sink matching and cost curve modeling. This type of analysis provides a valuable insight into the degree to which early and sustained opportunities for climate change mitigation via commercial-scale CCS are available to the two countries, and could facilitate greater collaboration in areas where those opportunities overlap.

  3. Melting curve analysis of a groEL PCR fragment for the rapid genotyping of strains belonging to the Lactobacillus casei group of species.

    PubMed

    Koirala, Ranjan; Taverniti, Valentina; Balzaretti, Silvia; Ricci, Giovanni; Fortina, Maria Grazia; Guglielmetti, Simone

    2015-04-01

    Lactobacillus casei group (Lcs) consists of three phylogenetically closely related species (L. casei, L. paracasei, and L. rhamnosus), which are widely used in the dairy and probiotic industrial sectors. Strategies to easily and rapidly characterize Lcs are therefore of interest. To this aim, we developed a method according to a technique known as high resolution melting analysis (HRMa), which was applied to a 150 bp groEL gene fragment. The analysis was performed on 53 Lcs strains and 29 strains representatives of species that are commonly present in dairy and probiotic products and can be most probably co-isolated with Lcs strains. DNA amplification was obtained only from Lcs strains, demonstrating the specificity of the groEL primers designed in this study. The HRMa clustered Lcs strains in three groups that exactly corresponded to the species of the L. casei group. A following HRMa separated the 39 L. paracasei strains in two well distinct intraspecific groups, indicating the possible existence of at least two distinct genotypes inside the species. Nonetheless, the phenotypic characterization demonstrated that the genotypes do not correspond to the two L. paracasei subspecies, namely paracasei and tolerans. In conclusion, the melting curve analysis developed in this study is demonstrably a simple, labor-saving, and rapid strategy obtain the genotyping of a bacterial isolate and simultaneously potentially confirm its affiliation to the L. casei group of species. The application of this method to a larger collection of strains may validate the possibility to use the proposed HRMa protocol for the taxonomic discrimination of L. casei group of species. In general, this study suggests that HRMa can be a suitable technique for the genetic typization of Lactobacillus strains. PMID:25801971

  4. Automated Forensic Animal Family Identification by Nested PCR and Melt Curve Analysis on an Off-the-Shelf Thermocycler Augmented with a Centrifugal Microfluidic Disk Segment.

    PubMed

    Keller, Mark; Naue, Jana; Zengerle, Roland; von Stetten, Felix; Schmidt, Ulrike

    2015-01-01

    Nested PCR remains a labor-intensive and error-prone biomolecular analysis. Laboratory workflow automation by precise control of minute liquid volumes in centrifugal microfluidic Lab-on-a-Chip systems holds great potential for such applications. However, the majority of these systems require costly custom-made processing devices. Our idea is to augment a standard laboratory device, here a centrifugal real-time PCR thermocycler, with inbuilt liquid handling capabilities for automation. We have developed a microfluidic disk segment enabling an automated nested real-time PCR assay for identification of common European animal groups adapted to forensic standards. For the first time we utilize a novel combination of fluidic elements, including pre-storage of reagents, to automate the assay at constant rotational frequency of an off-the-shelf thermocycler. It provides a universal duplex pre-amplification of short fragments of the mitochondrial 12S rRNA and cytochrome b genes, animal-group-specific main-amplifications, and melting curve analysis for differentiation. The system was characterized with respect to assay sensitivity, specificity, risk of cross-contamination, and detection of minor components in mixtures. 92.2% of the performed tests were recognized as fluidically failure-free sample handling and used for evaluation. Altogether, augmentation of the standard real-time thermocycler with a self-contained centrifugal microfluidic disk segment resulted in an accelerated and automated analysis reducing hands-on time, and circumventing the risk of contamination associated with regular nested PCR protocols. PMID:26147196

  5. Automated Forensic Animal Family Identification by Nested PCR and Melt Curve Analysis on an Off-the-Shelf Thermocycler Augmented with a Centrifugal Microfluidic Disk Segment

    PubMed Central

    Zengerle, Roland; von Stetten, Felix; Schmidt, Ulrike

    2015-01-01

    Nested PCR remains a labor-intensive and error-prone biomolecular analysis. Laboratory workflow automation by precise control of minute liquid volumes in centrifugal microfluidic Lab-on-a-Chip systems holds great potential for such applications. However, the majority of these systems require costly custom-made processing devices. Our idea is to augment a standard laboratory device, here a centrifugal real-time PCR thermocycler, with inbuilt liquid handling capabilities for automation. We have developed a microfluidic disk segment enabling an automated nested real-time PCR assay for identification of common European animal groups adapted to forensic standards. For the first time we utilize a novel combination of fluidic elements, including pre-storage of reagents, to automate the assay at constant rotational frequency of an off-the-shelf thermocycler. It provides a universal duplex pre-amplification of short fragments of the mitochondrial 12S rRNA and cytochrome b genes, animal-group-specific main-amplifications, and melting curve analysis for differentiation. The system was characterized with respect to assay sensitivity, specificity, risk of cross-contamination, and detection of minor components in mixtures. 92.2% of the performed tests were recognized as fluidically failure-free sample handling and used for evaluation. Altogether, augmentation of the standard real-time thermocycler with a self-contained centrifugal microfluidic disk segment resulted in an accelerated and automated analysis reducing hands-on time, and circumventing the risk of contamination associated with regular nested PCR protocols. PMID:26147196

  6. A kill curve for Phanerozoic marine species

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Raup, D. M.

    1991-01-01

    A kill curve for Phanerozoic species is developed from an analysis of the stratigraphic ranges of 17,621 genera, as compiled by Sepkoski. The kill curve shows that a typical species' risk of extinction varies greatly, with most time intervals being characterized by very low risk. The mean extinction rate of 0.25/m.y. is thus a mixture of long periods of negligible extinction and occasional pulses of much higher rate. Because the kill curve is merely a description of the fossil record, it does not speak directly to the causes of extinction. The kill curve may be useful, however, to li inverted question markmit choices of extinction mechanisms.

  7. Loose bodies in a sublabral recess: diagnosis and treatment.

    PubMed

    Kaplan, Kevin; Sahajpal, Deenesh T; Jazrawi, Laith

    2006-01-01

    A case of a 26-year-old male with symptoms resulting from loose bodies residing in a sublabral recess is presented. Operative intervention using the standard arthroscopic portals in addition to an accessory posterior portal was successful in removing the loose bodies and approximating the edges of the sublabral foramen. The shoulder is a complex region made up of numerous anatomic structures, which if damaged may be responsible for a patient's pathology. Normal anatomic variations also exist, which in certain situations, may contribute to a patient's presentation. One example of a normal anatomic variation is the sublabral foramen, which represents an unattached anterosuperior labrum. PMID:16878840

  8. Cosmetic surgery in times of recession: macroeconomics for plastic surgeons.

    PubMed

    Krieger, Lloyd M

    2002-10-01

    Periods of economic downturn place special demands on the plastic surgeon whose practice involves a large amount of cosmetic surgery. When determining strategy during difficult economic times, it is useful to understand the macroeconomic background of these downturns and to draw lessons from businesses in other service industries. Business cycles and monetary policy determine the overall environment in which plastic surgery is practiced. Plastic surgeons can take both defensive and proactive steps to maintain their profits during recessions and to prepare for the inevitable upturn. Care should also be taken when selecting pricing strategy during economic slowdowns. PMID:12360083

  9. Early bilateral nephrectomy in infantile autosomal recessive polycystic kidney disease.

    PubMed

    Mallett, Tamara Mary; O'Hagan, Emma; McKeever, Karl Gerard

    2015-01-01

    The management of neonatal autosomal recessive polycystic kidney disease (ARPKD) complicated by severe pulmonary insufficiency presents complex clinical challenges. Where massive nephromegaly exists, early bilateral nephrectomy, supportive peritoneal dialysis and early aggressive nutrition can minimise infant mortality. Consensus, however, is lacking on the role and optimal timing of nephrectomy, with decision-making driven by the patient's clinical condition and the expertise of the centre. We report on our experience of an infant with ARPKD requiring neonatal renal replacement therapy and survival at 14?months following early bilateral nephrectomy. PMID:26670891

  10. The Great Recession, genetic sensitivity, and maternal harsh parenting.

    PubMed

    Lee, Dohoon; Brooks-Gunn, Jeanne; McLanahan, Sara S; Notterman, Daniel; Garfinkel, Irwin

    2013-08-20

    Using data from the Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing Study, this study examined the effects of the Great Recession on maternal harsh parenting. We found that changes in macroeconomic conditions, rather than current conditions, affected harsh parenting, that declines in macroeconomic conditions had a stronger impact on harsh parenting than improvements in conditions, and that mothers' responses to adverse economic conditions were moderated by the DRD2 Taq1A genotype. We found no evidence of a moderating effect for two other, less well-studied SNPs from the DRD4 and DAT1 genes. PMID:23918380

  11. The Great Recession, genetic sensitivity, and maternal harsh parenting

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Dohoon; Brooks-Gunn, Jeanne; McLanahan, Sara S.; Notterman, Daniel; Garfinkel, Irwin

    2013-01-01

    Using data from the Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing Study, this study examined the effects of the Great Recession on maternal harsh parenting. We found that changes in macroeconomic conditions, rather than current conditions, affected harsh parenting, that declines in macroeconomic conditions had a stronger impact on harsh parenting than improvements in conditions, and that mothers’ responses to adverse economic conditions were moderated by the DRD2 Taq1A genotype. We found no evidence of a moderating effect for two other, less well-studied SNPs from the DRD4 and DAT1 genes. PMID:23918380

  12. The cpk model of recessive PKD shows glutamine dependence associated with the production of the oncometabolite 2-hydroxyglutarate.

    PubMed

    Hwang, Vicki J; Kim, Jeffrey; Rand, Amy; Yang, Chaozhe; Sturdivant, Steve; Hammock, Bruce; Bell, P Darwin; Guay-Woodford, Lisa M; Weiss, Robert H

    2015-09-15

    Since polycystic kidney disease (PKD) was first noted over 30 years ago to have neoplastic parallels, there has been a resurgent interest in elucidating neoplasia-relevant pathways in PKD. Taking a nontargeted metabolomics approach in the B6(Cg)-Cys1(cpk/)J (cpk) mouse model of recessive PKD, we have now characterized metabolic reprogramming in these tissues, leading to a glutamine-dependent TCA cycle shunt toward total 2-hydroxyglutarate (2-HG) production in cpk compared with B6 wild-type kidney tissue. After confirmation of increased 2-HG expression in immortalized collecting duct cpk cells as well as in human autosomal recessive PKD tissue using targeted analysis, we show that the increase in 2-HG is likely due to glutamine-sourced ?-ketoglutarate. In addition, cpk cells require exogenous glutamine for growth such that inhibition of glutaminase-1 decreases cell viability as well as proliferation. This study is a demonstration of the striking parallels between recessive PKD and cancer metabolism. Our data, once confirmed in other PKD models, suggest that future therapeutic approaches targeting this pathway, such as using glutaminase inhibitors, have the potential to open novel treatment options for renal cystic disease. PMID:26155843

  13. Mapping the gene causing X-linked recessive nephrolithiasis to Xp11.22 by linkage studies.

    PubMed Central

    Scheinman, S J; Pook, M A; Wooding, C; Pang, J T; Frymoyer, P A; Thakker, R V

    1993-01-01

    X-linked recessive nephrolithiasis is associated with kidney stones and renal tubular dysfunction in childhood progressing to renal failure in adulthood. The primary defect causing this renal tubular disorder is unknown and determining the chromosomal location of the mutant gene would represent an important step toward defining the biochemical basis. We have performed linkage studies in 102 members (10 affected males, 47 unaffected males, 15 obligate heterozygote females, and 30 unaffected females) from five generations of one family. As genetic markers we used 10 cloned human X chromosome fragments identifying restriction fragment length polymorphisms and seven pairs of oligonucleotide primers identifying microsatellite polymorphisms. Linkage with the locus DXS255 was established with a peak LOD score = 5.91 at 3.6% recombination, thereby localizing the X-linked recessive nephrolithiasis gene to the pericentromeric region of the short arm of the X chromosome (Xp11.22). Multilocus analysis indicated that the mutant gene was distal to DXS255 but proximal to the Duchenne muscular dystrophy locus on Xp. Thus, the gene that causes X-linked recessive nephrolithiasis maps to the pericentromeric region of the short arm of the X chromosome (Xp11.22), and further characterization of this gene will help to elucidate the factors controlling renal tubular function and mineral homeostasis. Images PMID:8099916

  14. The efficacy of microarray screening for autosomal recessive retinitis pigmentosa in routine clinical practice

    PubMed Central

    van Huet, Ramon A. C.; Pierrache, Laurence H.M.; Meester-Smoor, Magda A.; Klaver, Caroline C.W.; van den Born, L. Ingeborgh; Hoyng, Carel B.; de Wijs, Ilse J.; Collin, Rob W. J.; Hoefsloot, Lies H.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To determine the efficacy of multiple versions of a commercially available arrayed primer extension (APEX) microarray chip for autosomal recessive retinitis pigmentosa (arRP). Methods We included 250 probands suspected of arRP who were genetically analyzed with the APEX microarray between January 2008 and November 2013. The mode of inheritance had to be autosomal recessive according to the pedigree (including isolated cases). If the microarray identified a heterozygous mutation, we performed Sanger sequencing of exons and exon–intron boundaries of that specific gene. The efficacy of this microarray chip with the additional Sanger sequencing approach was determined by the percentage of patients that received a molecular diagnosis. We also collected data from genetic tests other than the APEX analysis for arRP to provide a detailed description of the molecular diagnoses in our study cohort. Results The APEX microarray chip for arRP identified the molecular diagnosis in 21 (8.5%) of the patients in our cohort. Additional Sanger sequencing yielded a second mutation in 17 patients (6.8%), thereby establishing the molecular diagnosis. In total, 38 patients (15.2%) received a molecular diagnosis after analysis using the microarray and additional Sanger sequencing approach. Further genetic analyses after a negative result of the arRP microarray (n = 107) resulted in a molecular diagnosis of arRP (n = 23), autosomal dominant RP (n = 5), X-linked RP (n = 2), and choroideremia (n = 1). Conclusions The efficacy of the commercially available APEX microarray chips for arRP appears to be low, most likely caused by the limitations of this technique and the genetic and allelic heterogeneity of RP. Diagnostic yields up to 40% have been reported for next-generation sequencing (NGS) techniques that, as expected, thereby outperform targeted APEX analysis. PMID:25999674

  15. Hierarchical Bayesian analysis to incorporate age uncertainty in growth curve analysis and estimates of age from length: Florida manatee (Trichechus manatus) carcasses

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schwarz, L.K.; Runge, M.C.

    2009-01-01

    Age estimation of individuals is often an integral part of species management research, and a number of ageestimation techniques are commonly employed. Often, the error in these techniques is not quantified or accounted for in other analyses, particularly in growth curve models used to describe physiological responses to environment and human impacts. Also, noninvasive, quick, and inexpensive methods to estimate age are needed. This research aims to provide two Bayesian methods to (i) incorporate age uncertainty into an age-length Schnute growth model and (ii) produce a method from the growth model to estimate age from length. The methods are then employed for Florida manatee (Trichechus manatus) carcasses. After quantifying the uncertainty in the aging technique (counts of ear bone growth layers), we fit age-length data to the Schnute growth model separately by sex and season. Independent prior information about population age structure and the results of the Schnute model are then combined to estimate age from length. Results describing the age-length relationship agree with our understanding of manatee biology. The new methods allow us to estimate age, with quantified uncertainty, for 98% of collected carcasses: 36% from ear bones, 62% from length.

  16. Development of a SYBR Green real-time PCR assay with melting curve analysis for simultaneous detection and differentiation of canine adenovirus type 1 and type 2.

    PubMed

    Balboni, Andrea; Dondi, Francesco; Prosperi, Santino; Battilani, Mara

    2015-09-15

    Canine adenovirus type 1 (CAdV-1) and canine adenovirus type 2 (CAdV-2) cause infectious canine hepatitis (ICH) and infectious tracheobronchitis (ITB) in dogs, respectively. Cases of ICH have been documented in recent years and recent surveys have demonstrated a wide percentage of asymptomatic CAdV-1 infection in the canine population. Since both CAdV types are detectable in the same biological matrices, and viral coinfection with CAdV-1 and CAdV-2 are reported with high frequency, it is urgent to have available a rapid, highly sensitive and specific assay for the diagnosis of CAdV infection and distinction between CAdV-1 and CAdV-2. In order to detect canine adenovirus in biological samples and to rapidly distinguish the two viral types, a SYBR Green real-time PCR assay was optimized to discriminate CAdV-1 and CAdV-2 via a melting curve analysis. The developed assay showed high sensitivity and reproducibility and was highly efficient and specific in discriminating the two CAdV types. This reliable and rapid technique may represent a simple, useful and economic option for simultaneous CAdV types detection, which would be feasible and attractive for all diagnostic laboratories, both for clinical purposes and for epidemiological investigations. PMID:26028428

  17. First far-ultraviolet disk-integrated phase curve analysis of Mimas, Tethys and Dione from the Cassini-UVIS data sets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Royer, Emilie M.; Hendrix, Amanda R.

    2014-11-01

    We perform an analysis of the photometric properties of the icy saturnian satellites at 180 nm, based on the first far-UV disk-integrated phase curves of Mimas, Tethys and Dione. Their interactions with the environment (the E-ring and the magnetosphere) are investigated, leading to a better understanding of the effects of exogenic processes on the system of Saturn. We find that Tethys and Dione have a leading hemisphere brighter than their trailing hemisphere at far-UV wavelengths, while Mimas exhibits a quite uniform reflectance on its surface. No asymmetry is observed between the saturnian and anti-saturnian hemispheres of those satellites, indicating that exogenic processes are important primarily on the leading and trailing hemispheres. Tethys shows a narrower opposition effect, suggesting a more porous regolith on its surface than on Dione and Mimas. This could be the consequence of more significant bombardment by the E-ring grains at the orbit of Tethys. Dione's photometric properties reveal a more absorbing surface, which could be explained by a lower amount of E-ring grain bombardment and/or by the deposit of a darkening agent mainly on its trailing side.

  18. Genetic Resistance Determinants, In Vitro Time-Kill Curve Analysis and Pharmacodynamic Functions for the Novel Topoisomerase II Inhibitor ETX0914 (AZD0914) in Neisseria gonorrhoeae

    PubMed Central

    Foerster, Sunniva; Golparian, Daniel; Jacobsson, Susanne; Hathaway, Lucy J.; Low, Nicola; Shafer, William M.; Althaus, Christian L.; Unemo, Magnus

    2015-01-01

    Resistance in Neisseria gonorrhoeae to all available therapeutic antimicrobials has emerged and new efficacious drugs for treatment of gonorrhea are essential. The topoisomerase II inhibitor ETX0914 (also known as AZD0914) is a new spiropyrimidinetrione antimicrobial that has different mechanisms of action from all previous and current gonorrhea treatment options. In this study, the N. gonorrhoeae resistance determinants for ETX0914 were further described and the effects of ETX0914 on the growth of N. gonorrhoeae (ETX0914 wild type, single step selected resistant mutants, and e?ux pump mutants) were examined in a novel in vitro time-kill curve analysis to estimate pharmacodynamic parameters of the new antimicrobial. For comparison, ciprofloxacin, azithromycin, ceftriaxone, and tetracycline were also examined (separately and in combination with ETX0914). ETX0914 was rapidly bactericidal for all wild type strains and had similar pharmacodynamic properties to ciprofloxacin. All selected resistant mutants contained mutations in amino acid codons D429 or K450 of GyrB and inactivation of the MtrCDE e?ux pump fully restored the susceptibility to ETX0914. ETX0914 alone and in combination with azithromycin and ceftriaxone was highly effective against N. gonorrhoeae and synergistic interaction with ciprofloxacin, particularly for ETX0914-resistant mutants, was found. ETX0914, monotherapy or in combination with azithromycin (to cover additional sexually transmitted infections), should be considered for phase III clinical trials and future gonorrhea treatment. PMID:26696986

  19. A novel HSF4 gene mutation (p.R405X) causing autosomal recessive congenital cataracts in a large consanguineous family from Pakistan

    PubMed Central

    Sajjad, Naheed; Goebel, Ingrid; Kakar, Naseebullah; Cheema, Abdul Majeed; Kubisch, Christian; Ahmad, Jamil

    2008-01-01

    Background Hereditary cataracts are most frequently inherited as autosomal dominant traits, but can also be inherited in an autosomal recessive or X-linked fashion. To date, 12 loci for autosomal recessive cataracts have been mapped including a locus on chromosome 16q22 containing the disease-causing gene HSF4 (Genbank accession number NM_001040667). Here, we describe a family from Pakistan with the first nonsense mutation in HSF4 thus expanding the mutational spectrum of this heat shock transcription factor gene. Methods A large consanguineous Pakistani family with autosomal recessive cataracts was collected from Quetta. Genetic linkage analysis was performed for the common known autosomal recessive cataracts loci and linkage to a locus containing HSF4 (OMIM 602438) was found. All exons and adjacent splice sites of the heat shock transcription factor 4 gene (HSF4) were sequenced. A mutation-specific restriction enzyme digest (HphI) was performed for all family members and unrelated controls. Results The disease phenotype perfectly co-segregated with markers flanking the known cataract gene HSF4, whereas other autosomal recessive loci were excluded. A maximum two-point LOD score with a Zmax = 5.6 at ? = 0 was obtained for D16S421. Direct sequencing of HSF4 revealed the nucleotide exchange c.1213C > T in this family predicting an arginine to stop codon exchange (p.R405X). Conclusion We identified the first nonsense mutation (p.R405X) in exon 11 of HSF4 in a large consanguineous Pakistani family with autosomal recessive cataract. PMID:19014451

  20. Gender Differences in Mental Health Outcomes before, during, and after the Great Recession

    PubMed Central

    Dagher, Rada K.; Chen, Jie; Thomas, Stephen B.

    2015-01-01

    We examined gender differences in mental health outcomes during and post-recession versus pre-recession. We utilized 2005-2006, 2008-2009, and 2010-2011 data from the Medical Expenditure Panel Survey. Females had lower odds of depression diagnoses during and post-recession and better mental health during the recession, but higher odds of anxiety diagnoses post-recession. Males had lower odds of depression diagnoses and better mental health during and post-recession and lower Kessler 6 scores post-recession. We conducted stratified analyses, which confirmed that the aforementioned findings were consistent across the four different regions of the U.S., by employment status, income and health care utilization. Importantly, we found that the higher odds of anxiety diagnoses among females after the recession were mainly prominent among specific subgroups of females: those who lived in the Northeast or the Midwest, the unemployed, and those with low household income. Gender differences in mental health in association with the economic recession highlight the importance of policymakers taking these differences into consideration when designing economic and social policies to address economic downturns. Future research should examine the reasons behind the decreased depression diagnoses among both genders, and whether they signify decreased mental healthcare utilization or increased social support and more time for exercise and leisure activities. PMID:25970634

  1. Cyclic Voltammetry at Shallow Recessed Microdisc Electrode: Theoretical and Experimental Study

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Jidong; Lindner, Ern?

    2009-01-01

    This study focuses on the cyclic voltammetry behavior at shallow recessed microdisc electrode, particularly on the transition from cottrellian behavior to steady state behavior. Diffusion to the inlaid and recessed microdisc electrode is simulated. From the shape of the CVs, for a given radius and potential scan rate, the transition time from planar diffusion to hemispherical diffusion presents a minimum as the recess increases. Theoretical prediction was confirmed by fitting the simulated CVs with experimental results. Dimensionless transition scan rate has been defined and determined by simulation for inlaid and recessed microdisc electrodes. PMID:20160948

  2. Tag, catch, and other unnatural acts at recess (Circa 2014).

    PubMed

    Sydnor, Synthia

    2014-03-01

    This commentary details a news event in which Carrie Weber Middle School in Port Washington, NY, supposedly banned students from using balls, playing tag, and doing cartwheels during recess. Public reaction in the form of news items, tweets, blogs, and commentary is sampled, and news releases from the Weber Middle School that were barely covered by the media and explain their decision to ban hardballs from 20-min recess are brought to light. The commentary then goes on to argue that such trending news events can be interpreted in terms of complex cultural histories, including in the case of Weber Middle School, much intellectual thought pioneered by human movement scholarship. Ideas about social nostalgia and memory, play, hegemony, invention of tradition, and cultural context are overviewed in light of their use in human movement studies and in interpreting the Weber Middle School issue. It is argued that current issues and initiatives surrounding obesity and sport for peace and development are, like the trending Weber Middle School news, sometimes not mapped or critiqued (terms coined by Markula-Denison and Silk in 2011) in the profound ways that cultural studies urge. The commentary ends in a call to scholars and practitioners of human movement studies for self-reflexivity and purposeful awareness of changing social definitions of the "unnatural." PMID:24749229

  3. Reductions in nitrogen oxides over Europe driven by environmental policy and economic recession.

    PubMed

    Castellanos, Patricia; Boersma, K Folkert

    2012-01-01

    Fuel combustion is a significant source of numerous air pollutants, which reduce local air quality, and affect global tropospheric chemistry. Satellite observations of nitrogen dioxide, emitted by combustion processes, allow for robust monitoring of atmospheric concentrations at high spatial resolution on continental scales. Here we evaluate changes in tropospheric NO(2) concentrations over Europe between 2004 and 2010. We isolate long-term (timescales greater than one year) variability in the daily NO(2) observations from the Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) using a spectral analysis. In 2010, we find substantial reductions in NO(2) concentrations of at least 20% throughout Europe. These reductions are as much the result of temporary reductions prompted by the 2008-2009 global economic recession, as of European NO(x) emission controls. Our results demonstrate that realistic concentration pathways of NO(2) do not follow simple linear trends, but reflect a compilation of environmental policy and economic activity. PMID:22355777

  4. BEER Analysis of Kepler and CoRoT Light Curves III. Sixty New Non-Eclipsing BEER Binaries Discovered in CoRoT Light Curves Confirmed by RVs from AAOmega

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tal-Or, L.; Faigler, S.; Mazeh, T.

    2015-07-01

    We have applied the BEER algorithm (Faigler& Mazeh 2011) to the CoRoT white-light curves from the first five LRc fields. We have found 491 non-eclipsing BEER candidates with periodic photometric modulations and amplitudes of 0.5-80 mmag. Medium-resolution spectra of 281 candidates were obtained in a seven-night AAOmega radial-velocity (RV) campaign, with a precision of ˜1 km s-1. The RVs confirmed the binarity of at least 60 of the BEER candidates, with RV semi-amplitudes ranging from 6 to 115 km s-1, and periods from 0.3 to 10 days. We detected an F-type star that may possibly have a brown dwarf companion in a 0.7-day period orbit.

  5. ATOH7 mutations cause autosomal recessive persistent hyperplasia of the primary vitreous

    PubMed Central

    Prasov, Lev; Masud, Tehmina; Khaliq, Shagufta; Mehdi, S. Qasim; Abid, Aiysha; Oliver, Edward R.; Silva, Eduardo D.; Lewanda, Amy; Brodsky, Michael C.; Borchert, Mark; Kelberman, Daniel; Sowden, Jane C.; Dattani, Mehul T.; Glaser, Tom

    2012-01-01

    The vertebrate basic helix–loop–helix (bHLH) transcription factor ATOH7 (Math5) is specifically expressed in the embryonic neural retina and is required for the genesis of retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) and optic nerves. In Atoh7 mutant mice, the absence of trophic factors secreted by RGCs prevents the development of the intrinsic retinal vasculature and the regression of fetal blood vessels, causing persistent hyperplasia of the primary vitreous (PHPV). We therefore screened patients with hereditary PHPV, as well as bilateral optic nerve aplasia (ONA) or hypoplasia (ONH), for mutations in ATOH7. We identified a homozygous ATOH7 mutation (N46H) in a large family with an autosomal recessive PHPV disease trait linked to 10q21, and a heterozygous variant (R65G, p.Arg65Gly) in one of five sporadic ONA patients. High-density single-nucleotide polymorphism analysis also revealed a CNTN4 duplication and an OTX2 deletion in the ONA cohort. Functional analysis of ATOH7 bHLH domain substitutions, by electrophoretic mobility shift and luciferase cotransfection assays, revealed that the N46H variant cannot bind DNA or activate transcription, consistent with structural modeling. The N46H variant also failed to rescue RGC development in mouse Atoh7?/? retinal explants. The R65G variant retains all of these activities, similar to wild-type human ATOH7. Our results strongly suggest that autosomal recessive persistent hyperplastic primary vitreous is caused by N46H and is etiologically related to nonsyndromic congenital retinal nonattachment. The R65G allele, however, cannot explain the ONA phenotype. Our study firmly establishes ATOH7 as a retinal disease gene and provides a functional basis to analyze new coding variants. PMID:22645276

  6. Recessive mutations in SPTBN2 implicate ?-III spectrin in both cognitive and motor development.

    PubMed

    Lise, Stefano; Clarkson, Yvonne; Perkins, Emma; Kwasniewska, Alexandra; Sadighi Akha, Elham; Schnekenberg, Ricardo Parolin; Suminaite, Daumante; Hope, Jilly; Baker, Ian; Gregory, Lorna; Green, Angie; Allan, Chris; Lamble, Sarah; Jayawant, Sandeep; Quaghebeur, Gerardine; Cader, M Zameel; Hughes, Sarah; Armstrong, Richard J E; Kanapin, Alexander; Rimmer, Andrew; Lunter, Gerton; Mathieson, Iain; Cazier, Jean-Baptiste; Buck, David; Taylor, Jenny C; Bentley, David; McVean, Gilean; Donnelly, Peter; Knight, Samantha J L; Jackson, Mandy; Ragoussis, Jiannis; Németh, Andrea H

    2012-01-01

    ?-III spectrin is present in the brain and is known to be important in the function of the cerebellum. Heterozygous mutations in SPTBN2, the gene encoding ?-III spectrin, cause Spinocerebellar Ataxia Type 5 (SCA5), an adult-onset, slowly progressive, autosomal-dominant pure cerebellar ataxia. SCA5 is sometimes known as "Lincoln ataxia," because the largest known family is descended from relatives of the United States President Abraham Lincoln. Using targeted capture and next-generation sequencing, we identified a homozygous stop codon in SPTBN2 in a consanguineous family in which childhood developmental ataxia co-segregates with cognitive impairment. The cognitive impairment could result from mutations in a second gene, but further analysis using whole-genome sequencing combined with SNP array analysis did not reveal any evidence of other mutations. We also examined a mouse knockout of ?-III spectrin in which ataxia and progressive degeneration of cerebellar Purkinje cells has been previously reported and found morphological abnormalities in neurons from prefrontal cortex and deficits in object recognition tasks, consistent with the human cognitive phenotype. These data provide the first evidence that ?-III spectrin plays an important role in cortical brain development and cognition, in addition to its function in the cerebellum; and we conclude that cognitive impairment is an integral part of this novel recessive ataxic syndrome, Spectrin-associated Autosomal Recessive Cerebellar Ataxia type 1 (SPARCA1). In addition, the identification of SPARCA1 and normal heterozygous carriers of the stop codon in SPTBN2 provides insights into the mechanism of molecular dominance in SCA5 and demonstrates that the cell-specific repertoire of spectrin subunits underlies a novel group of disorders, the neuronal spectrinopathies, which includes SCA5, SPARCA1, and a form of West syndrome. PMID:23236289

  7. Recessive Mutations in SPTBN2 Implicate ?-III Spectrin in Both Cognitive and Motor Development

    PubMed Central

    Kwasniewska, Alexandra; Sadighi Akha, Elham; Parolin Schnekenberg, Ricardo; Suminaite, Daumante; Hope, Jilly; Baker, Ian; Gregory, Lorna; Green, Angie; Allan, Chris; Lamble, Sarah; Jayawant, Sandeep; Quaghebeur, Gerardine; Cader, M. Zameel; Hughes, Sarah; Armstrong, Richard J. E.; Kanapin, Alexander; Rimmer, Andrew; Lunter, Gerton; Mathieson, Iain; Cazier, Jean-Baptiste; Buck, David; Taylor, Jenny C.; Bentley, David; McVean, Gilean; Donnelly, Peter; Knight, Samantha J. L.; Jackson, Mandy; Ragoussis, Jiannis; Németh, Andrea H.

    2012-01-01

    ?-III spectrin is present in the brain and is known to be important in the function of the cerebellum. Heterozygous mutations in SPTBN2, the gene encoding ?-III spectrin, cause Spinocerebellar Ataxia Type 5 (SCA5), an adult-onset, slowly progressive, autosomal-dominant pure cerebellar ataxia. SCA5 is sometimes known as “Lincoln ataxia,” because the largest known family is descended from relatives of the United States President Abraham Lincoln. Using targeted capture and next-generation sequencing, we identified a homozygous stop codon in SPTBN2 in a consanguineous family in which childhood developmental ataxia co-segregates with cognitive impairment. The cognitive impairment could result from mutations in a second gene, but further analysis using whole-genome sequencing combined with SNP array analysis did not reveal any evidence of other mutations. We also examined a mouse knockout of ?-III spectrin in which ataxia and progressive degeneration of cerebellar Purkinje cells has been previously reported and found morphological abnormalities in neurons from prefrontal cortex and deficits in object recognition tasks, consistent with the human cognitive phenotype. These data provide the first evidence that ?-III spectrin plays an important role in cortical brain development and cognition, in addition to its function in the cerebellum; and we conclude that cognitive impairment is an integral part of this novel recessive ataxic syndrome, Spectrin-associated Autosomal Recessive Cerebellar Ataxia type 1 (SPARCA1). In addition, the identification of SPARCA1 and normal heterozygous carriers of the stop codon in SPTBN2 provides insights into the mechanism of molecular dominance in SCA5 and demonstrates that the cell-specific repertoire of spectrin subunits underlies a novel group of disorders, the neuronal spectrinopathies, which includes SCA5, SPARCA1, and a form of West syndrome. PMID:23236289

  8. Dispersion curve recovery with orthogonal matching pursuit.

    PubMed

    Harley, Joel B; Moura, José M F

    2015-01-01

    Dispersion curves characterize many propagation mediums. When known, many methods use these curves to analyze waves. Yet, in many scenarios, their exact values are unknown due to material and environmental uncertainty. This paper presents a fast implementation of sparse wavenumber analysis, a method for recovering dispersion curves from data. This approach, based on orthogonal matching pursuit, is compared with a prior implementation, based on basis pursuit denoising. In the results, orthogonal matching pursuit provides two to three orders of magnitude improvement in speed and a small average reduction in prediction capability. The analysis is demonstrated across multiple scenarios and parameters. PMID:25618088

  9. WASP-36b: A new transiting planet around a metal-poor G-dwarf, and an analysis of correlated noise in transit light curves

    E-print Network

    Smith, A M S; Cameron, A Collier; Gillon, M; Hellier, C; Lendl, M; Maxted, P F L; Queloz, D; Smalley, B; Triaud, A H M J; West, R G; Barros, S C C; Jehin, E; Pepe, F; Pollacco, D; Segransan, D; Southworth, J; Street, R A; Udry, S

    2011-01-01

    We report the discovery, from WASP and CORALIE, of a transiting exoplanet in a 1.54-d orbit. The host star, WASP-36, is a magnitude 12.7, metal-poor G2 dwarf (Teff = 5881 +/- 137 K), with [Fe/H] = -0.31 +/- 0.12. We determine the planet to have mass and radius respectively 2.27 +/- 0.07 and 1.27 +/- 0.03 times that of Jupiter. We have eight partial or complete transit light curves, from four different observatories, which allows us to investigate the extent to which red noise in follow-up light curves affects the fitted system parameters. We find that the solutions obtained by analysing each of these light curves independently are consistent with our global fit to all the data, despite the apparent presence of correlated noise in at least two of the light curves.

  10. Anodic Polarization Curves Revisited

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liu, Yue; Drew, Michael G. B.; Liu, Ying; Liu, Lin

    2013-01-01

    An experiment published in this "Journal" has been revisited and it is found that the curve pattern of the anodic polarization curve for iron repeats itself successively when the potential scan is repeated. It is surprising that this observation has not been reported previously in the literature because it immediately brings into…

  11. Monopoles, Curves and Ramanujan

    E-print Network

    H. W. Braden; V. Z. Enolski

    2007-04-30

    We develop the Ercolani-Sinha construction of SU(2) monopoles and make this effective for (a five parameter family of centred) charge 3 monopoles. In particular we show how to solve the transcendental constraints arising on the spectral curve. For a class of symmetric curves the transcendental constraints become a number theoretic problem and a recently proven identity of Ramanujan provides a solution.

  12. The Skipping Rope Curve

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nordmark, Arne; Essen, Hanno

    2007-01-01

    The equilibrium of a flexible inextensible string, or chain, in the centrifugal force field of a rotating reference frame is investigated. It is assumed that the end points are fixed on the rotation axis. The shape of the curve, the skipping rope curve or "troposkien", is given by the Jacobi elliptic function sn. (Contains 3 figures.)

  13. Rapid genotyping of human rotavirus using SYBR green real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction with melting curve analysis

    PubMed Central

    Tong, Yupin; Lee, Bonita E; Pang, Xiaoli L

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To develop a real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) assay to genotype rotavirus (G and P) in Alberta from January 2012 to June 2013. METHODS: We developed and validated a different approach to perform rotavirus G and P genotyping using a two-step SYBR green RT-PCR (rt-gPCR) by selecting genotype-specific primers of published conventional RT nested PCR (cnRT-PCR) assay and optimizing the amplification conditions. cDNA was first synthesized from total RNA with SuperScript™ II reverse transcriptase kit followed by amplication step using monoplex SYBR green real-time PCR. After the PCR reaction, melting curve analysis was used to determine specific genotype. Sixteen samples previously genotyped using cnRT-PCR were tested using the new assay and the genotyping results were compared as sensitivity analysis. Assay specificity was evaluated by testing other gastroenteritis viruses with the new assay. The amplicon size of each available genotype was determined by gel-electrophoresis and DNA sequences were obtained using Sanger-sequencing method. After validation and optimization, the new assay was used to genotype 122 pediatric clinical stool samples previously tested positive for rotavirus using electron microscopy between January 2012 and June 2013. RESULTS: The new rt-gPCR assay was validated and optimized. The assay detected G1 to G4, G9, G12 and P[4] and P[8] that were available as positive controls in our laboratory. A single and clear peak of melting curve was generated for each of specific G and P genotypes with a Tm ranging from 80?°C to 82?°C. The sensitivity of rt-gPCR was comparable to cnRT-PCR with 100% correlation of the 16 samples with known G and P genotypes. No cross reaction was found with other gastroenteritis viruses. Using the new rt-gPCR assay, genotypes were obtained for 121 of the 122 pediatric clinical samples tested positive for rotavirus: G1P[8] (42.6%), G2P[4] (4.9%), G3P[8] (10.7%), G9P[8] (10.7%), G9P[4] (6.6%), G12P[8] (23.0%), and unknown GP[8] (0.8%). For the first time, G12 rotavirus strains were found in Alberta and G12 was the second most common genotype during the study period. Gel electrophoresis of all the genotypes showed expected amplicon size for each genotype. The sequence data of the two G12 samples along with other genotypes were blasted in NCBI BLAST or analyzed with Rota C Genotyping tool (http://rotac.regatools.be/). All genotyping results were confirmed to be correct. CONCLUSION: rt-gPCR is a useful tool for the genotyping and characterization of rotavirus. Monitoring of rotavirus genotypes is important for the identification of emerging strains and ongoing evaluation of rotavirus vaccination programs. PMID:26568918

  14. Operating temperatures for a convectively cooled recessed incandescent light fixture

    SciTech Connect

    Yarbrough, D.W.; Toor, I.

    1980-12-01

    Test results are given for the operation of a recessed incandescent light fixture intended for residential use. The fixture is labeled for use in direct contact with attic thermal insulation. Temperature control of the powered fixture is provided by convective heat transfer from the ceiling side of the fixture. The fixture was operated at power levels up to two times the rated power of 75 watts and under thermal insulations up to R-40. In all operating configurations tested the fixture surface in contact with attic insulation was found to be less than 175/sup 0/C. The observed surface temperatures are judged to be safe for operation in contact with loose-fill or batt-type insulations. It was observed that the power leads inside one fixture configuration are exposed to temperatures as high as 168/sup 0/C. The electrical insulation could, therefore, have a limited life. The properties of the internal fixture wiring were not, however, studied in detail.

  15. Health spending projections through 2019: the recession's impact continues.

    PubMed

    Truffer, Christopher J; Keehan, Sean; Smith, Sheila; Cylus, Jonathan; Sisko, Andrea; Poisal, John A; Lizonitz, Joseph; Clemens, M Kent

    2010-01-01

    The economic recession and rising unemployment-plus changing demographics and baby boomers aging into Medicare-are among the factors expected to influence health spending during 2009-2019. In 2009 the health share of gross domestic product (GDP) is expected to have increased 1.1 percentage points to 17.3 percent-the largest single-year increase since 1960. Average public spending growth rates for hospital, physician and clinical services, and prescription drugs are expected to exceed private spending growth in the first four years of the projections. As a result, public spending is projected to account for more than half of all U.S. health care spending by 2012. PMID:20133357

  16. Molecular and Cellular Basis of Autosomal Recessive Primary Microcephaly

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Autosomal recessive primary microcephaly (MCPH) is a rare hereditary neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by a marked reduction in brain size and intellectual disability. MCPH is genetically heterogeneous and can exhibit additional clinical features that overlap with related disorders including Seckel syndrome, Meier-Gorlin syndrome, and microcephalic osteodysplastic dwarfism. In this review, we discuss the key proteins mutated in MCPH. To date, MCPH-causing mutations have been identified in twelve different genes, many of which encode proteins that are involved in cell cycle regulation or are present at the centrosome, an organelle crucial for mitotic spindle assembly and cell division. We highlight recent findings on MCPH proteins with regard to their role in cell cycle progression, centrosome function, and early brain development. PMID:25548773

  17. Cord blood platelet gel treatment of dystrophic recessive epidermolysis bullosa.

    PubMed

    Tadini, Gianluca; Pezzani, Lidia; Ghirardello, Stefano; Rebulla, Paolo; Esposito, Susanna; Mosca, Fabio

    2015-01-01

    Epidermolysis bullosa (EB) is comprised of a group of hereditary mechanobullous disorders that are characterised by extremely fragile skin and mucous membranes. This results in blister formation and non-healing wounds. This case report describes the results of an innovative treatment of two large skin lesions in a newborn with dystrophic recessive EB (DEB) who experienced bacterial superinfections and progressive anaemisation. The lesions were treated with platelet gels derived from allogeneic cord blood (cord blood platelet gel, CBPGs). The skin lesions were clinically evaluated and treated with CBPG weekly until they completely healed. The first and second lesion required CBPG applications for 2 and 4 weeks, respectively. Both lesions were monitored weekly for 6 weeks after the last CBPG application, and no significant relapses were observed during the follow-up period. This case indicates that CBPG is an effective and safe therapeutic option for managing newborns with DEB, particularly as treatment and prevention of fluid loss and superinfection. PMID:25572600

  18. A Case Study of Teachers' Recess Practices Related to Students with Exceptional Learning Needs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Campbell, Andrea E.

    2012-01-01

    Appropriate recess time for young students is an agent for healthy growth, development, and academic performance. Recess time for young students is dissipating due to increased pressure for higher test scores, problematic behaviors on the playground, and its inclusion within classroom discipline policies. Researchers have reported the majority…

  19. National Postsecondary Enrollment Trends: Before, during, and after the Great Recession. Signature[TM] Report 1

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dunbar, Afet; Hossler, Don; Shapiro, Doug; Chen, Jin; Martin, Sarah; Torres, Vasti; Zerquera, Desiree; Ziskin, Mary

    2011-01-01

    This report, "National Postsecondary Enrollment Trends: Before, During, and After the Great Recession," brings to light emerging national and regional patterns among traditional-age, first-time students enrolling in colleges and universities during the fall term each year from 2006 through 2010--before, during, and after the recession. Drawn from…

  20. The Impact of the Recession on Public Library Use in Colorado: A Closer Look

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lance, Keith Curry; Hofschire, Linda; Daisey, Jamie

    2011-01-01

    This report shares the statistical trends for public library use in Colorado before and since the onset of the latest recession. It also includes the voices of librarians from around the state, offering their observations and stories of how public libraries are helping in these difficult times. To determine the impact of the Great Recession on use…

  1. Children's Physical Activity Levels during Indoor Recess Dance Videos

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Erwin, Heather; Koufoudakis, Ryann; Beighle, Aaron

    2013-01-01

    Background: Children's physical activity (PA) levels remain low, and schools are being asked to assume a leadership role in PA promotion. Research suggests outdoor recess contributes to children's overall PA levels. However, similar research is not available for indoor recess, which occurs frequently due to a variety of factors. The…

  2. Is School Community Readiness Related to Physical Activity before and after the Ready for Recess Intervention?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ehlers, Diane K.; Huberty, Jennifer L.; Beseler, Cheryl L.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine: (i) the effect of schools' baseline community readiness (CR) on youth physical activity (PA) at recess prior to the Ready for Recess intervention; (ii) if changes in PA due to the intervention were explained by baseline CR and (iii) if specific components of the intervention altered an association…

  3. Observations of Accelerated Silicon Carbide Recession by Oxidation at High Water-Vapor Pressures

    E-print Network

    Pennycook, Steve

    Observations of Accelerated Silicon Carbide Recession by Oxidation at High Water-Vapor PressuresC at 1200°C and high water-vapor pressures (1.5 atm) has shown SiC recession rates that exceed what is predicted based on parabolic oxidation at water-vapor pressures of less than or equal to 1 atm. After

  4. Electrostatic Compensation Restores Trafficking of the Autosomal Recessive Retinitis Pigmentosa E150K Opsin

    E-print Network

    Palczewski, Krzysztof

    linking recessive RP to a mutation in the opsin gene involved a nonsense mutation at codon 249 within exonElectrostatic Compensation Restores Trafficking of the Autosomal Recessive Retinitis Pigmentosa E-coupled recep- tor responsible for capturing light. Mutations in the gene encod- ing this protein can lead

  5. Autosomal Recessive Retinitis Pigmentosa and E150K Mutation in the Opsin Gene*S

    E-print Network

    Palczewski, Krzysztof

    Autosomal Recessive Retinitis Pigmentosa and E150K Mutation in the Opsin Gene*S Received group of hered- itary disorders of the retina caused by mutation in genes of the photoreceptor proteins with an autosomal dominant (adRP), autosomal recessive (arRP), or X-linked pattern of inheritance. Although

  6. Is Recess an Achievement Context? An Application of Expectancy-Value Theory to Playground Choices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spencer-Cavaliere, Nancy; Dunn, Janice Causgrove; Watkinson, E. Jane

    2009-01-01

    This study investigated the application of an expectancy-value model to children's activity choices on the playground at recess. The purpose was to test the prediction that expectancies for success and subjective task values are related to decisions to engage in specific recess activities such as climbing, playing soccer, or skipping rope.…

  7. The Impact of Playworks on Boys' and Girls' Physical Activity during Recess

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bleeker, Martha; Beyler, Nicholas; James-Burdumy, Susanne; Fortson, Jane

    2015-01-01

    Background: School-based programs, such as Playworks, that guide students in organized activities during recess and make improvements to the recess play yard may lead to significant increases in physical activity--especially for girls. This study builds on past research by investigating the impact of Playworks separately for girls and boys.…

  8. Playground Designs to Increase Physical Activity Levels during School Recess: A Systematic Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Escalante, Yolanda; García-Hermoso, Antonio; Backx, Karianne; Saavedra, Jose M.

    2014-01-01

    School recess provides a major opportunity to increase children's physical activity levels. Various studies have described strategies to increase levels of physical activity. The purpose of this systematic review is therefore to examine the interventions proposed as forms of increasing children's physical activity levels during recess. A…

  9. Weathering the Storm: Generating Revenues for Higher Education during a Recession.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Toutkoushian, Robert K.

    2003-01-01

    Reviews some recent financial trends in higher education and provides a brief overview of the current recession in the United States. Offers some views on how this recession might affect the major revenue sources that institutions of higher education rely on to fund their operations. (SLD)

  10. PROPOSED STRATEGY FOR SELECTION AGAINST RECESSIVE GENETIC DEFECTS THROUGH A COMBINATION OF INBREEDING AND DNA MARKERS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A strategy of mating influential sires to their daughters is proposed to select against recessive defects. Sixteen to 24 inbred progeny should produce two to three progeny homozygous for any recessive defect carried by their sire. Recent developments in DNA markers should often make it possible to m...

  11. Museums and Other Nonprofits in the Current Recession: A Story of Resilience, Innovation, and Survival

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Geller, Stephanie Lessans; Salamon, Lester M.

    2010-01-01

    This article presents the results of a nationwide survey conducted in the spring of 2009 that examined the impacts of the current recession on nonprofit organizations, including museums. The survey identified a host of negative effects that nonprofits have been experiencing as a result of the recession, including reduced organizational revenues,…

  12. The Recess Period: A Key Moment of Prepubescent Children's Daily Physical Activity?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guinhouya, Comlavi B.; Hubert, Herve; Dupont, Gregory; Durocher, Alain

    2005-01-01

    This study was designed to analyze the significance of the recess period and "the effect of its duration" on children's daily physical activity. Thirteen pupils attending school in a rural area were monitored with accelerometers during the study weeks. The intervention consisted of modifying regularly scheduled recess period for a month. Data from…

  13. 40 CFR 798.5275 - Sex-linked recessive lethal test in drosophila melanogaster.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... recommendations as specified under 40 CFR part 792, subpart J the following specific information shall be reported... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Sex-linked recessive lethal test in....5275 Sex-linked recessive lethal test in drosophila melanogaster. (a) Purpose. The sex-linked...

  14. 40 CFR 798.5275 - Sex-linked recessive lethal test in drosophila melanogaster.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... recommendations as specified under 40 CFR part 792, subpart J the following specific information shall be reported... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Sex-linked recessive lethal test in....5275 Sex-linked recessive lethal test in drosophila melanogaster. (a) Purpose. The sex-linked...

  15. 40 CFR 798.5275 - Sex-linked recessive lethal test in drosophila melanogaster.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... recommendations as specified under 40 CFR part 792, subpart J the following specific information shall be reported... 40 Protection of Environment 33 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Sex-linked recessive lethal test in....5275 Sex-linked recessive lethal test in drosophila melanogaster. (a) Purpose. The sex-linked...

  16. 40 CFR 798.5275 - Sex-linked recessive lethal test in drosophila melanogaster.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... recommendations as specified under 40 CFR part 792, subpart J the following specific information shall be reported... 40 Protection of Environment 33 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Sex-linked recessive lethal test in....5275 Sex-linked recessive lethal test in drosophila melanogaster. (a) Purpose. The sex-linked...

  17. 40 CFR 798.5275 - Sex-linked recessive lethal test in drosophila melanogaster.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... recommendations as specified under 40 CFR part 792, subpart J the following specific information shall be reported... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Sex-linked recessive lethal test in....5275 Sex-linked recessive lethal test in drosophila melanogaster. (a) Purpose. The sex-linked...

  18. Scheduling Recess before Lunch: Exploring the Benefits and Challenges in Montana Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bark, Katie; Stenberg, Molly; Sutherland, Shelly; Hayes, Dayle

    2010-01-01

    Purpose/Objectives: The purpose of the "Montana Recess Before Lunch Survey" was to explore benefits, challenges, and factors associated with successful implementation of Recess Before Lunch (RBL), from the perspective of school principals. Methods: An online written questionnaire was distributed to all (N = 661) Montana elementary and middle…

  19. Parental Employment Status and Symptoms of Children Abused during a Recession

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tobey, Trina; McAuliff, Kathleen; Rocha, Celina

    2013-01-01

    Incidences and severity of child abuse have increased since the start of the recession. This study examined the relationship between employment status and severity of symptoms in children abused during a recession year. Participants included 154 females and 65 males between 2 and 17 years old referred to Dallas Children's Advocacy Center…

  20. The Recession's Ongoing Impact on America's Children: Indicators of Children's Economic Well-Being through 2011

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Isaacs, Julia B.

    2011-01-01

    Children throughout the United States continue to be negatively impacted by the lingering effects of the Great Recession, with children in some states more hard hit than others. The impact of the recession on children can be hard to see. Some economic statistics ignore children, while others come out with a long time delay. This updated issue…

  1. Genetic linkage studies in autosomal recessive retinitis pigmentosa

    SciTech Connect

    Mansfield, D.C.; Teague, P.W.; Barber, A.

    1994-09-01

    Autosomal recessive retinitis pigmentosa (arRP) is a severe retinal dystrophy characterized by night blindness, progressive constriction of the visual fields and loss of central vision in the fourth or fifth decades. The frequency of this form of retinitis pigmentosa (RP) varies in different populations. Mutations within the rhodopsin, cyclic GMP phosphodiesterase-{beta} subunit and cGMP-gated channel genes have been reported in some arRP families. The genetic loci responsible for the majority of cases have yet to be identified. Genetic heterogeneity is likely to be extensive. In order to minimize the amount of genetic heterogenity, a set of arRP families was ascertained within the South-Central Sardinian population, in which 81% of families with a known mode of inheritance show an autosomal recessive form of RP. The Sardinian population is an ethnic {open_quotes}outlier{close_quotes}, having remained relatively isolated from mainland and other cultures. Genetic linkage data has been obtained in a set of 11 Sardinian arRP kindreds containing 26 affected members. Under the assumption of genetic homogeneity, no evidence of linkage was found in the arRP kindreds using 195 markers, which excluded 62% of the genome (Z<-2). Positive lod scores were obtained with D14S80 which showed no recombination in a subset of 5 families. Heterogeneity testing using D14S80 and arRP showed no significant evidence of heterogeneity (p=0.18) but evidence of linkage ({chi}{sup 2}=3.64, p=0.028). We are currently screening the neural retina-specific leucine zipper gene (NRL) in 14q11 for mutations as a candidate locus.

  2. Clinical, Molecular, and Functional Characterization of CLCN1 Mutations in Three Families with Recessive Myotonia Congenita.

    PubMed

    Portaro, Simona; Altamura, Concetta; Licata, Norma; Camerino, Giulia M; Imbrici, Paola; Musumeci, Olimpia; Rodolico, Carmelo; Conte Camerino, Diana; Toscano, Antonio; Desaphy, Jean-François

    2015-09-01

    Myotonia congenita (MC) is an inherited muscle disease characterized by impaired muscle relaxation after contraction, resulting in muscle stiffness. Both recessive (Becker's disease) or dominant (Thomsen's disease) MC are caused by mutations in the CLCN1 gene encoding the voltage-dependent chloride ClC-1 channel, which is quite exclusively expressed in skeletal muscle. More than 200 CLCN1 mutations have been associated with MC. We provide herein a detailed clinical, molecular, and functional evaluation of four patients with recessive MC belonging to three different families. Four CLCN1 variants were identified, three of which have never been characterized. The c.244A>G (p.T82A) and c.1357C>T (p.R453W) variants were each associated in compound heterozygosity with c.568GG>TC (p.G190S), for which pathogenicity is already known. The new c.809G>T (p.G270V) variant was found in the homozygous state. Patch-clamp studies of ClC-1 mutants expressed in tsA201 cells confirmed the pathogenicity of p.G270V, which greatly shifts the voltage dependence of channel activation toward positive potentials. Conversely, the mechanisms by which p.T82A and p.R453W cause the disease remained elusive, as the mutated channels behave similarly to WT. The results also suggest that p.G190S does not exert dominant-negative effects on other mutated ClC-1 subunits. Moreover, we performed a RT-PCR quantification of selected ion channels transcripts in muscle biopsies of two patients. The results suggest gene expression alteration of sodium and potassium channel subunits in myotonic muscles; if confirmed, such analysis may pave the way toward a better understanding of disease phenotype and a possible identification of new therapeutic options. PMID:26007199

  3. Missense mutation (E150K) of rhodopsin in autosomal recessive retinitis pigmentosa

    SciTech Connect

    Orth, U.; Oehlmann, R.; Gal, A.

    1994-09-01

    Missense or nonsense mutations of the rhodopsin gene have been implied in the pathogenesis of at least 3 different traits; autosomal dominant retinitis pigmentosa (adRP), congenital stationary night blindness (CSNB), and autosomal recessive retinitis pigmentosa (arRP). For the latter, a single patient has been reported with a nonsense mutation at codon 249 on both alleles. Heterozygous carriers of missense mutations of rhodopsin develop either adRP or CSNB depending on the particular amino acid substitution. Four of the 9 siblings from a consanguineous marriage in southern India were reported the have arRP. Mutational screening and sequencing of the rhodopsin gene revealed a G-to-A transition of the first nucleotide at codon 150 in exon II, which alters glutamate to lysine. The E150K mutation was present in the 4 patients in homozygous form, whereas the parents and 2 of the siblings were heterozygotes. Two-point analysis produced a Zmax=3.46 at theta=0.00. Two unaffected siblings who are heterozygotes for the E150K mutation underwent a thorough ophthalmological and psychophysical examination. No clinical abnormalities were found although these individuals were over forty, whereas the onset of RP in their affected siblings was in the second decade. Collectively, both the genetic and clinical findings strongly suggest that the E150K mutation of rhodopsin is recessive in this family. Glu150 forms part of the CD cytoplasmic loop of rhodopsin, which has been implicated in the binding and activation of transducin. We speculate that E150K leads to RP because the mutant protein may be incapable of activating transducin. It is tempting to speculate that, in addition to mutations in the genes for rhodopsin and the {beta}-subunit of PDE, mutations in the genes for transducin may also result in arRP.

  4. Transglutaminase 1 mutations in autosomal recessive congenital ichthyosis: private and recurrent mutations in an isolated population.

    PubMed Central

    Laiho, E; Ignatius, J; Mikkola, H; Yee, V C; Teller, D C; Niemi, K M; Saarialho-Kere, U; Kere, J; Palotie, A

    1997-01-01

    Autosomal recessive congenital ichthyosis (ARCI) is a rare, heterogenous keratinization disorder of the skin, classically divided into two clinical subtypes, lamellar ichthyosis (LI) and nonbullous congenital ichthyosiformis erythroderma (CIE). Recently, strong evidence for the involvement of the transglutaminase 1 gene (TGM1) in LI has evolved. We have studied ARCI in the isolated Finnish population, in which recessive disorders are often caused by single mutations enriched by a founder effect. Surprisingly, five different mutations of TGM1 (Arg141His, Arg142Cys, Gly217Ser, Val378Leu, and Arg395Leu) were found in Finnish ARCI patients. In addition to affected LI patients, we also identified TGM1 mutations in CIE patients. Moreover, haplotype analysis of the chromosomes carrying the most common mutation, a C-->T transition changing Arg142 to Cys, revealed that the same mutation has been introduced twice in the Finnish population. In addition to this Arg142Cys mutation, three other mutations, in Arg141 and Arg142, have been described elsewhere, in other populations. These findings suggest that this region of TGM1 is more susceptible to mutation. The corresponding amino acid sequence is conserved in other transglutaminases, but, for example, coagulation factor XIII (FXIII) mutations do not cluster in this region. Protein modeling of the Arg142Cys mutation suggested disruption or destabilization of the protein. In transfection studies, the closely related transglutaminase FXIII protein with the corresponding mutation was shown to be susceptible to degradation in COS cells, further supporting evidence of the destabilizing effect of the Arg142Cys mutation in TGM1. Images Figure 3 Figure 4 PMID:9326318

  5. Comprehensive carrier screening and molecular diagnostic testing for recessive childhood diseases.

    PubMed

    Kingsmore, Stephen

    2012-01-01

    Of 7,028 disorders with suspected Mendelian inheritance, 1,139 are recessive and have an established molecular basis. Although individually uncommon, Mendelian diseases collectively account for ~20% of infant mortality and ~18% of pediatric hospitalizations. Molecular diagnostic testing is currently available for only ~300 recessive disorders. Preconception screening, together with genetic counseling of carriers, has resulted in remarkable declines in the incidence of several severe recessive diseases including Tay-Sachs disease and cystic fibrosis. However, extension of preconception screening and molecular diagnostic testing to most recessive disease genes has hitherto been impractical. Recently, we reported a preconception carrier screen / molecular diagnostic test for 448 recessive childhood diseases. The current status of this test is reviewed here. Currently, this reports analytical validity of the comprehensive carrier test. As the clinical validity and clinical utility in the contexts described is ascertained, this article will be updated. PMID:22872815

  6. Comprehensive Carrier Screening and Molecular Diagnostic Testing for Recessive Childhood Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Kingsmore, Stephen

    2012-01-01

    Of 7,028 disorders with suspected Mendelian inheritance, 1,139 are recessive and have an established molecular basis. Although individually uncommon, Mendelian diseases collectively account for ~20% of infant mortality and ~18% of pediatric hospitalizations. Molecular diagnostic testing is currently available for only ~300 recessive disorders. Preconception screening, together with genetic counseling of carriers, has resulted in remarkable declines in the incidence of several severe recessive diseases including Tay-Sachs disease and cystic fibrosis. However, extension of preconception screening and molecular diagnostic testing to most recessive disease genes has hitherto been impractical. Recently, we reported a preconception carrier screen / molecular diagnostic test for 448 recessive childhood diseases. The current status of this test is reviewed here. Currently, this reports analytical validity of the comprehensive carrier test. As the clinical validity and clinical utility in the contexts described is ascertained, this article will be updated. PMID:22872815

  7. DEBiL: Detached Eclipsing Binary Light curve fitter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Devor, Jonathon

    2015-10-01

    DEBiL rapidly fits a large number of light curves to a simple model. It is the central component of a pipeline for systematically identifying and analyzing eclipsing binaries within a large dataset of light curves; the results of DEBiL can be used to flag light curves of interest for follow-up analysis.

  8. Spastic paraplegia, optic atrophy, microcephaly with normal intelligence, and XY sex reversal: a new autosomal recessive syndrome?

    PubMed Central

    Teebi, A S; Miller, S; Ostrer, H; Eydoux, P; Colomb-Brockmann, C; Oudjhane, K; Watters, G

    1998-01-01

    Two female sibs of first cousin Iranian parents were found to have the syndrome of spastic paraplegia, optic atrophy with poor vision, microcephaly, and normal cognitive development. Karyotype analysis showed a normal female constitution in one and a male constitution (46,XY) in the other. The XY female showed normal female external genitalia, normal uterus and tubes, and streak gonads. SRY gene sequencing was normal. We conclude that the present family probably represents a new autosomal recessive trait of pleiotropic effects including XY sex reversal and adds further evidence for the heterogeneity of spastic paraplegia syndromes as well as sex reversal syndromes. Images PMID:9733035

  9. Crude oil supply curves

    E-print Network

    Adelman, Morris Albert

    1998-01-01

    Short-run cost curves shift over time as depletion counters increasing knowledge. Under competition, a rightward (leftward) shift indicates lower (higher) cost and greater (lesser) productivity. A simple coefficient captures ...

  10. Curved planar reformation of CT spine data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vrtovec, Tomaz; Likar, Bostjan; Pernus, Franjo

    2005-04-01

    Traditional techniques for visualizing anatomical structures are based on planar sections from volume images, like images obtained by computed tomography (CT) or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). However, planar slices taken in the coordinate system of the 3D image often do not provide sufficient or qualitative enough diagnostic information. The reason is that because planar slices do not follow curved anatomical structures (e.g. arteries, colon, spine, etc.), not all important details can be shown simultaneously. For better visualization of curved structures, reformatted images in the coordinate system of a structure must be created (an operation called curved planar reformation). In this paper we focus on automated curved planar reformation (CPR). The obtained spine-based 3D coordinate system is determined by the natural curvature of the spine, described by a curve that is parameterized by a polynomial model. The model is optimized to fit the curvature of the spine basing on the values of a pre-calculated distance map. The first coordinate is defined by the resulting spine curve, while the other two coordinates are defined by the natural rotations of the vertebrae around the spine curve. The proposed approach benefits from reduced structural complexity in favor of improved feature perception of the spine, and is not only important for extracting diagnostically important images, but also for easier navigation, manipulation and orientation in 3D space, which is helpful for morphometric analysis, automated image analysis (e.g. segmentation), and normalization of spine images.

  11. Terrestrial Exoplanet Light Curves

    E-print Network

    Eric Gaidos; Nicholas Moskovitz; Darren M. Williams

    2005-11-23

    The phase or orbital light curves of extrasolar terrestrial planets in reflected or emitted light will contain information about their atmospheres and surfaces complementary to data obtained by other techniques such as spectrosopy. We show calculated light curves at optical and thermal infrared wavelengths for a variety of Earth-like and Earth-unlike planets. We also show that large satellites of Earth-sized planets are detectable, but may cause aliasing effects if the lightcurve is insufficiently sampled.

  12. Cosmic string lensing and closed timelike curves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shlaer, Benjamin; Tye, S.-H. Henry

    2005-08-01

    In an analysis of the gravitational lensing by two relativistic cosmic strings, we argue that the formation of closed timelike curves proposed by Gott is unstable in the presence of particles (e.g. the cosmic microwave background radiation). Because of the attractorlike behavior of the closed timelike curve, we argue that this instability is very generic. A single graviton or photon in the vicinity, no matter how soft, is sufficient to bend the strings and prevent the formation of closed timelike curves. We also show that the gravitational lensing due to a moving cosmic string is enhanced by its motion, not suppressed.

  13. The Impact of the Great Recession on School District Finances: Evidence from New York. Working Paper #03-12

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chakrabarti, Rajashri; Setren, Elizabeth

    2012-01-01

    There is a slowly emerging literature that seeks to understand how the Great Recession affected other parts of the economy; however, there is no research that examines the effect of Great Recession (or any other recession) on schools. Given the fundamental role of education in human capital formation and growth, it is essential to understand the…

  14. Bayesian Inference and Application of Robust Growth Curve Models Using Student's "t" Distribution

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhang, Zhiyong; Lai, Keke; Lu, Zhenqiu; Tong, Xin

    2013-01-01

    Despite the widespread popularity of growth curve analysis, few studies have investigated robust growth curve models. In this article, the "t" distribution is applied to model heavy-tailed data and contaminated normal data with outliers for growth curve analysis. The derived robust growth curve models are estimated through Bayesian…

  15. A Growth Curve Analysis of the Joint Influences of Parenting Affect, Child Characteristics and Deviant Peers on Adolescent Illicit Drug Use

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pires, Paulo; Jenkins, Jennifer M.

    2007-01-01

    This study purports that parental rejection and warmth are critical to the development of adolescent drug use, and investigates a model that also considers children's vulnerability and deviant peer affiliations. It tests mediation through the proximal risk factor of deviant peers. Poisson growth curve modeling was used to examine participants from…

  16. A statistical comparison of the reliability of the blossom blight forecasts of MARYBLYT and cougarblight with receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Blossom blight forecasting is an important aspect of fire blight, caused by Erwinia amylovora, management for both apple and pear. A comparison of the forecast accuracy of two common fire blight forecasters, MARYBLYT and Cougarblight, was performed with receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve...

  17. Disruption of the methyltransferase-like 23 gene METTL23 causes mild autosomal recessive intellectual disability

    PubMed Central

    Bernkopf, Marie; Webersinke, Gerald; Tongsook, Chanakan; Koyani, Chintan N.; Rafiq, Muhammad A.; Ayaz, Muhammad; Müller, Doris; Enzinger, Christian; Aslam, Muhammad; Naeem, Farooq; Schmidt, Kurt; Gruber, Karl; Speicher, Michael R.; Malle, Ernst; Macheroux, Peter; Ayub, Muhammad; Vincent, John B.; Windpassinger, Christian; Duba, Hans-Christoph

    2014-01-01

    We describe the characterization of a gene for mild nonsyndromic autosomal recessive intellectual disability (ID) in two unrelated families, one from Austria, the other from Pakistan. Genome-wide single nucleotide polymorphism microarray analysis enabled us to define a region of homozygosity by descent on chromosome 17q25. Whole-exome sequencing and analysis of this region in an affected individual from the Austrian family identified a 5 bp frameshifting deletion in the METTL23 gene. By means of Sanger sequencing of METTL23, a nonsense mutation was detected in a consanguineous ID family from Pakistan for which homozygosity-by-descent mapping had identified a region on 17q25. Both changes lead to truncation of the putative METTL23 protein, which disrupts the predicted catalytic domain and alters the cellular localization. 3D-modelling of the protein indicates that METTL23 is strongly predicted to function as an S-adenosyl-methionine (SAM)-dependent methyltransferase. Expression analysis of METTL23 indicated a strong association with heat shock proteins, which suggests that these may act as a putative substrate for methylation by METTL23. A number of methyltransferases have been described recently in association with ID. Disruption of METTL23 presented here supports the importance of methylation processes for intact neuronal function and brain development. PMID:24626631

  18. Disruption of the methyltransferase-like 23 gene METTL23 causes mild autosomal recessive intellectual disability.

    PubMed

    Bernkopf, Marie; Webersinke, Gerald; Tongsook, Chanakan; Koyani, Chintan N; Rafiq, Muhammad A; Ayaz, Muhammad; Müller, Doris; Enzinger, Christian; Aslam, Muhammad; Naeem, Farooq; Schmidt, Kurt; Gruber, Karl; Speicher, Michael R; Malle, Ernst; Macheroux, Peter; Ayub, Muhammad; Vincent, John B; Windpassinger, Christian; Duba, Hans-Christoph

    2014-08-01

    We describe the characterization of a gene for mild nonsyndromic autosomal recessive intellectual disability (ID) in two unrelated families, one from Austria, the other from Pakistan. Genome-wide single nucleotide polymorphism microarray analysis enabled us to define a region of homozygosity by descent on chromosome 17q25. Whole-exome sequencing and analysis of this region in an affected individual from the Austrian family identified a 5 bp frameshifting deletion in the METTL23 gene. By means of Sanger sequencing of METTL23, a nonsense mutation was detected in a consanguineous ID family from Pakistan for which homozygosity-by-descent mapping had identified a region on 17q25. Both changes lead to truncation of the putative METTL23 protein, which disrupts the predicted catalytic domain and alters the cellular localization. 3D-modelling of the protein indicates that METTL23 is strongly predicted to function as an S-adenosyl-methionine (SAM)-dependent methyltransferase. Expression analysis of METTL23 indicated a strong association with heat shock proteins, which suggests that these may act as a putative substrate for methylation by METTL23. A number of methyltransferases have been described recently in association with ID. Disruption of METTL23 presented here supports the importance of methylation processes for intact neuronal function and brain development. PMID:24626631

  19. Comparative evaluation of surgical modalities for coverage of gingival recession: An Armed Forces Medical College perspective

    PubMed Central

    Gilbert, Luiram R.; Lohra, Parul; Mandlik, V.B.; Rath, S.K.; Jha, A.K.

    2012-01-01

    Background Esthetics represents an inseparable part of today's oral therapy, and several procedures have been proposed to preserve or enhance it. Gingival recessions may cause hypersensitivity, impaired esthetics and root caries. Keeping in mind patient's desire for improved esthetics and other related problems, every effort should be made to achieve complete root coverage. Methods Different types of modalities have been introduced to treat gingival recession including displaced flaps, free gingival graft, connective tissue graft, different type of barrier membranes and combination of different techniques. The aim of this study was to compare the commonly used techniques for gingival recession coverage and evaluate the results obtained. 73 subjects were selected for the present study who were randomly divided into four groups and were followed at baseline and 180 days where following parameters were recorded: (a) Assessment of gingival recession depth (RD); (b) Assessment of pocket depth (PD); (c) Assessment of clinical attachment level (CAL) and (d) Assessment of width of attached gingiva (WAG). Results Results of this study showed statistically significant reduction of gingival recession, with concomitant attachment gain, following treatment with all tested surgical techniques. However, SCTG with CAF technique showed the highest percentage gain in coverage of recession depth as well as gain in keratinized gingiva. Similar results were obtained with CAF alone. The use of GTR and other techniques showed less predictable coverage and gain in keratinized gingiva. Conclusion Connective tissue grafts were statistically significantly superior to guided tissue regeneration for improvement in gingival recession reduction. PMID:25609865

  20. A new locus for non-syndromal, autosomal recessive, sensorineural hearing loss (DFNB16) maps to human chromosome 15q21-q22.

    PubMed Central

    Campbell, D A; McHale, D P; Brown, K A; Moynihan, L M; Houseman, M; Karbani, G; Parry, G; Janjua, A H; Newton, V; al-Gazali, L; Markham, A F; Lench, N J; Mueller, R F

    1997-01-01

    Non-syndromal, recessive deafness (NSRD) is the most common form of inherited deafness or hearing impairment in humans. NSRD is genetically heterogeneous and it has been estimated that as many as 35 different loci may be involved. We report the mapping of a novel locus for autosomal recessive, non-syndromal deafness (DFNB16) in three consanguineous families originating from Pakistan and the Middle East. Using multipoint analysis (HOMOZ/MAPMAKER) a maximum combined lod score of 6.5 was obtained for the interval D15S1039-D15S123. Recombination events and haplotype analysis define a 12-14 cM critical region between the markers D15S1039 and D15S155 on chromosome 15q15-q21. PMID:9429146