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1

Comportement piezometrique des nappes d'alterites en zone intertropicale humide d'altitude (hauts plateaux de Madagascar)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The behaviour of rice-cultivated peaty valley-bottoms on a weathered crystalline schist, located in a high altitude humid intertropical zone (Madagascar) is under study to define the water and mineral balance of these areas with an economic objective. Analysis of the groundwaters' piezometric level on a reference site allowed the differentiation of inflows and outflows and enabled us to specify the hydraulics of the media. (1) The clay alteration products form a free aquifer broken up by the morphology of the land (valleys, surrounding interfluves); this aquifer discharges by outlets located in the lowlands and thus contributes to the prolonged flooding (nine months a year) of rice-fields; recharge depends on the spatial variability of local precipitation. (2) The granite-gneiss basement constitutes a regional aquifer; the groundwater is semi-confined and outcrops in large valleys with free water-tables draining to the low coastal plains of the island; for the most part its recharge is ensured by discontinuous outcrops (residual ridges); it remains confined for several months after the rainy season. (3) In the lowlands, underlying sands are also water bearing, recharged from superficial flows. The groundwater is confined during the rainy season, which favours ascending flows towards the rice rooting zone.

Grillot, J. C.; Raunet, M.; Ferry, L.

1990-12-01

2

Estimation de la recharge de la nappe quaternaire dans le Nord-Ouest du bassin du lac Tchad (Niger oriental) à partir de mesures isotopiques  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recharge of the Quaternary water table in the northwestern Lake Chad basin (southeastern Niger) estimated from isotopes. The Quaternary water table is present over almost the whole Lake Chad basin. In its Niger part, where annual rainfall varies from O to 350 mm, radioactive isotopes (3H and '*C) are interpreted in terms of renewal rate; medians are 0.10 and 0.05

Christian Leduc; Stéphane Sabljakatb; Jean-Denis Taupin; Christelle Marlin; Guillaume Favreauatb

3

CONTRAINTE CLIMATIQUE DES NAPPES D'EAU SOUTERRAINES EN ZONE SOUDANO-SÉHÉLIENNE: CAS DE LA NAPPE PHRÉATIQUE DU BASSIN DE LA NÉMA DANS LA RÉGION DU SINE AU CENTRE OUEST DU SÉNÉGAL  

Microsoft Academic Search

Résumé : La zone de l'étude est un bassin versant expérimental et de recherche d'une superficie d'environ 50 km². Il constitue l'aire d'influence d'une petite rivière (la Néma), une des innombrables vallées qui incisent le plateau continental terminal du basin sédimentaire sénégalo- mauritanien. Situé au centre-ouest du Sénégal, ce bassin de trouve en pleine zone soudano-sahélien qui connaît depuis plus

Fatou DIOP NGOM; Raymond MALOU; Honoré DACOSTA; Anastasie MENDY

4

Analyse des contraintes résiduelles dans les dépôts réalisés par rechargement laser sur alliage d'aluminium  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Superficial characteristics of a substrate, particularly the hardness, the elastic modulus and the wear resistance can be considerably improved by laser cladding. This high energy process causes thermal stresses, leading to residual stresses and substrate distortions. In this study, laser cladding is carried out onto an aluminium alloy with a Nd:YAG laser and a coaxial injection of Al 50Si powders. Residual stresses are determined by X-ray diffraction and by sample strain measurement. The differences of results between these two ways highlight the influence of the heat-affected zone (HAZ) under the coating. These differences can be explained by a model of three blocks: the coating, the HAZ and the substrate. The experimentation shows an optimal treatment speed, leading to maximum compression stresses interesting for the hardness and the wear resistance. Moreover, at a certain fixed speed, the thermal stresses balance each other in the sample and lead to the no-distortion of the substrate. Par la formation d'un dépôt, le rechargement laser permet d'amé liorer les caractéristiques superficielles d'un substrat, en particulier la dureté, le module d'élasticité et la résistance à l'usure. Ce procédé utilisant un faisceau de haute énergie crée dans le matériau traité des contraintes résiduelles d'origine thermique et des déformations du substrat. Dans cet article, le rechargement laser a été réalisé sur un alliage d'aluminium grâce à un laser Nd YAG et une injection coaxiale de poudres Al 50Si. Les contraintes résiduelles ont été étudiées par diffraction des rayons X et par la méthode de la flèche. Les différences de résultats entre ces deux méthodes ont permis de mettre en évidence l'influence de la zone affectée thermique (ZAT) en dessous du dépôt et ont pu être expliquées à l'aide d'un modèle de blocs correspondant respectivement au dépôt, à la ZAT et au substrat. L'expérimentation a révélé, entre autres, une vitesse de traitement optimale qui crée des contraintes résiduelles maximales de compression, bénéfiques pour la dureté et la résistance à l'usure. Il est également apparu que pour une autre vitesse particulière de traitement, les contraintes thermiques s'équilibrent dans le substrat, entrainant une déformation nulle pour un échantillon d'épaisseur donnée.

Dubourg, L.; Hlawka, F.; Cornet, A.

2002-07-01

5

Crimean orogene: A nappe interpretation  

SciTech Connect

On the International Tectonic Map of Europe, the Crimean orogene presents a structure that has no analog in the Alpine orogenic belt. The Crimean mountain system lacks nappe structures of Alpine age. Its geosynclinal folding deformation is restricted to the Tavria flysch formation, previously dated as Triassic-Liassic. Therefore, the Crimean orogene was considered as the Kimmerian tectonotype. In our model, the Crimean orogene is characterized by nappe structures. The Yayla nappe is composed to Upper Jurassic and Neocomian sediments and is located below the Tavrian nappe, which consists of the Tavrian flysch formation. We dated the age of the Tavrian formation as Hauterivian-Aptian on the basis of published ammonite finds in the stratotype section. Nappe displacements are dated roughly as Austrian (albian) by the occurrence of upper-middle Albian sediments below the nappes and the Upper Cretaceous age of their neoautochthonous sedimentary cover. These north-vergent nappes have a horizontal displacement of about 20 km. In the eastern part of the orogene, these nappe structures were overprinted by Laramide-Savic (Paleocene and end Oligocene-early Miocene) deformations, as evident in the Kerch peninsula. The nature of these late deformation is not clear. The hydrocarbon potential of the prenapping autochthonous series has not yet been studied. Exploration for oil and gas in the Crimean sector of the Black Sea must take the suggested model and its implications into account.

Popadyuk, I.V.; Smirnov, S.E. (Ukrainian State Geological Research Institute, Lvov (Ukraine))

1993-09-01

6

Finite strain patterns in some Alpine nappes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The patterns of finite strain in some Alpine nappes and thrust sheets are reviewed, together with their tectonic evolution. Glarus Nappe. The finite strain pattern, approximately that of heterogeneous simple shear, was acquired during Upper Oligocene times when the Helvetic thrust block was deformed together with its infrastructure and basement. The Glarus Thrust was formed during Miocene times and modified by Pliocene to Recent differential uplift. Morcles Nappe. This large recumbent fold nappe overrode the Aiguilles Rouges Massif and its cover towards the northwest. The finite-strain pattern resulted from successive diagenetic compaction, multilayer buckling and heterogeneous simple shear. High strains occur along the inverted limb of the nappe and fold hinges are oriented subperpendicular to the NW stretching lineation. Final emplacement of the nappe, during the Miocene, was perhaps a later event. Chartreuse Massif. 33% E-W shortening was developed across this fold and thrust belt during post-Helvetian times by décollement along the Oxfordian shales, in response to thrusting and uplift in the Belledonne basement. The Oxfordian shales had earlier accommodated a pre-Helvetian (probably Oligocene) deformation in the basement and its Trias-Bajocian cover, when N030° trending, subhorizontal folds, cleavage and a stretching lineation (18% N030° stretching) were developed. Digne Nappe. Detached along the Keuper evaporites, the cover was displaced westwards in two stages: (1) late Oligocene, with folding, cleavage development, formation of the frontal slices and an overall E-W shortening of 20% and (2) late Miocene-Pliocene, after emplacement of the Embrunais Nappes in the east, producing the Digne Thrust. It is concluded that for these Alpine nappes geological criteria must be used to establish their evolution. If the internal deformation can then be assigned to part of this evolution, the pattern of finite strain can be used to quantify and elucidate that part. A maximum of information is gained if the incremental deformation history can also be obtained from study of syntectonic fibres.

Siddans, A. W. B.

7

Downstream of downtown: urban wastewater as groundwater recharge  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Wastewater infiltration is often a major component of overall recharge to aquifers around urban areas, especially in more arid climates. Despite this, such recharge still represents only an incidental (or even accidental) byproduct of various current practices of sewage effluent handling and wastewater reuse. This topic is reviewed through reference to certain areas of detailed field research, with pragmatic approaches being identified to reduce the groundwater pollution hazard of these practices whilst attempting to retain their groundwater resource benefit. Since urban sewage effluent is probably the only `natural resource' whose global availability is steadily increasing, the socioeconomic importance of this topic for rapidly developing urban centres in the more arid parts of Asia, Africa, Latin America and the Middle East will be apparent. L'infiltration des eaux usées est souvent la composante essentielle de toute la recharge des aquifères des zones urbaines, particulièrement sous les climats les plus arides. Malgré cela, une telle recharge ne constitue encore qu'un sous-produit incident, ou même accidentel, de pratiques courantes variées du traitement de rejets d'égouts et de réutilisation d'eaux usées. Ce sujet est passé en revue en se référant à certaines régions étudiées en détail, par des approches pragmatiques reconnues pour permettre de réduire les risques de pollution des nappes dues à ces pratiques tout en permettant d'en tirer profit pour leur ressource en eau souterraine. Puisque les effluents d'égouts urbains sont probablement la seule « ressource naturelle » dont la disponibilité globale va croissant constamment, l'importance socio-économique de ce sujet est évidente pour les centres urbains à développement rapide de l'Asie, de l'Afrique, de l'Amérique latine et du Moyen-Orient. La infiltración de aguas residuales es a menudo un componente principal de la recarga total en acuíferos ubicados en torno a zonas urbanas, especialmente en los climas más áridos. A pesar de ello, dicho componente todavía es una consecuencia secundaria (o incluso accidental) de diversas prácticas asociadas con la manipulación de las aguas residuales y con la reutilitzación de aguas depuradas. Este tema se revisa mediante referencias a ciertas áreas en las que existen investigación detallada de campo, identificando enfoques pragmáticos con el fin de reducir el riesgo de contaminación de las aguas subterráneas por tales prácticas, a la vez tratando de conservar los beneficios para los recursos del acuífero. Dado que los efluentes de aguas residuales urbanas son probablemente la única `fuente natural' cuya disponibilidad global se halla en del aumento, la importancia socioeconómica de este tema será evidente para los centros urbanos de rápido desarrollo en Asia, Latinoamérica y Oriente Medio.

Foster, S. S. D.; Chilton, P. J.

8

Nappe emplacement under lateral pressure gradient  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

New thin viscous approximation is under development specifically targeted to model spontaneous initiation and tens of kilometers horizontal displacement of tectonic nappes. Nappes are few kilometers thing and tens of kilometers long rock units trusted towards foreland often preserving internal lithological consistency and laying at near horizontal position at the end of the emplacement. Significant shear stresses and deviation of principal stresses from vertical is required to explain this very peculiar strain localization style from mechanical point of view. There is also a need for the explanation of their common appearances in most collisional settings. Both pure shear thin sheet and flexural models kinematically eliminate nappes formation. Spreading viscous sheet models, such as used to model glaciers, are also not applicable as the direction of motion is upward, against gravity. The reason for this discrepancy is the hydrostatic pressure approximation of the gravity-driven spreading models. Actually, the thin sheet approximation is not sensitive to the assumptions made on pressure profile. Lateral non-lithostatic pressure gradient-driven viscous sheet model is appropriate for modeling of nappes. In turn, significant non-lithostatic pressure must be supported by flexural rigidity of overlying and underlying units. Lateral gradients of this non-lithostatic pressure are responsible for the significant shear stress and, therefore, deviation of principal stress from vertical.

Podladchikov, Yury; Schmalholz, Stefan

2014-05-01

9

Groundwater capture processes under a seasonal variation in natural recharge and discharge  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

"Capture" is the increase in recharge and the decrease in discharge that occurs when pumping is imposed on an aquifer system that was in a previous state of approximate dynamic equilibrium. Regional groundwater models are usually used to calculate capture in a two-step procedure. A steady-state solution provides an initial-head configuration, a set of flows through the boundaries for the modeled region, and the initial basis for the capture calculation. The transient solutions provide the total change in flows through the boundaries. A difference between the transient and steady-state solutions renders the capture calculation. When seasonality is a modeling issue, the use of a single initial hydraulic head and a single set of boundary flows leads to miscalculations of capture. Instead, an initial condition for each season should be used. This approach may be accomplished by determining steady oscillatory solutions, which vary through the seasons but repeat from year to year. A regional groundwater model previously developed for a portion of the San Pedro River basin, Arizona, USA, is modified to illustrate the effect that different initial conditions have on transient solutions and on capture calculations. Résumé Les "prélèvements" sont constitués par l'augmentation de la recharge et par la diminution de l'écoulement qui se produit lorsqu'un pompage est imposéà un système aquifère qui était auparavant dans un état proche de l'équilibre dynamique. Les modèles régionaux de nappe sont en général utilisés pour calculer les prélèvements dans une procédure à deux étapes. Une solution en régime permanent donne la configuration piézométrique initiale, un jeu de conditions aux limites pour la région modélisée et les données de base pour le calcul des prélèvements. Les solutions transitoires donnent les modifications globales des conditions aux limites. Lorsque des variations saisonnières sont produites en sortie du modèle, le recours à une piézométrie initiale unique et à un seul jeu de données de conditions aux limites conduit à un mauvais calcul des prélèvements. Il faut alors utiliser une condition de recharge initiale pour chaque saison. Cette approche peut être réalisée en déterminant des solutions permanentes périodiques, variantes au cours des saisons, mais se répétant d'année en année. Un modèle de nappe régional, précédemment mis au point pour une partie du bassin de la rivière San Pedro (Arizona, États-Unis), a été modifié pour illustrer l'effet de conditions initiales différentes sur des solutions transitoires et sur le calcul des prélèvements. Resumen Se define como "captura" al aumento de recarga y descenso de descarga que tiene lugar cuando se impone un bombeo en un acuífero en estado de equilibrio dinámico. Se suelen utilizar modelos regionales de agua subterránea para calcular la captura en un procedimiento que consta de dos etapas. Una solución en régimen estacionario proporciona la distribución inicial de niveles piezométricos, los flujos a través de los contornos de la región modelada y el punto de partida para el cálculo de la captura. Las soluciones transitorias proporcionan los cambios en los flujos a través de los contornos. La diferencia entre las soluciones estacionaria y transitoria da el valor de la captura. Cuando los cambios estacionales son importantes, la utilización de un único estado inicial de niveles y de flujos en los contornos da lugar a errores en el cálculo de la captura. En este caso debe usarse una condición inicial para cada una de las estaciones. Esto se puede conseguir obteniendo soluciones periódicas estacionarias, que varíen a lo largo de las estaciones, pero que se repitan año a año. Un modelo regional desarrollado previamente para el estudio de una parte de la cuenca del Río San Pedro, en Arizona (EE.UU.) se modificó para ilustrar el efecto que las distintas condiciones iniciales tienen en el cálculo de la captura.

Maddock, Thomas, III.; Vionnet, Leticia Beatriz

10

The Jotun and related nappe complexes, southern Norway  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Caledonides in southern Norway have a substrate of autochthonous to parautochthonous metasedimentary rocks overlain by allochthonous crystalline nappe complexes. The Jotun Nappe Complex, the largest of these, is itself composed of several parts with somewhat different histories. The common element linking all the parts is an intense overprint during the Sveconorwegian orogeny, varying in intensity from deformation at relatively low to medium grade metamorphic conditions to high grade metamorphism and local anatexis (Schärer 1980; Lundmark et al. (2007). The Inner Sogn anorthosite complex was emplaced at about 970 Ma (Lundmark and Corfu 2008), but most of the nappe formed between 1700 and 1600 Ma, with local components of 1450 and 1250 Ma, and with locally important felsic dyke complexes intruded in the Mid Silurian (427 Ma) during thrusting. The association of Sveconorwegian gabbro-anorthosite intrusion, high grade metamorphism and Caledonian felsic magmas is also a characteristic of the Lindås Nappe in the Bergen Arc, except that the latter contains Caledonian eclogites which have yet to be observed in the Jotun Nappe Complex. In the northeastern parts of the region, the Jotun Nappe Complex is underlain by the Espedalen Nappe Complex, which also contains an anorthosite massif, but is distinct in terms of primary age, most parts having formed at about 1520 Ma before undergoing Sveconorwegian metamorphism. The western flank of the Jotun Nappe Complex in the Sognefjell region is instead underlain by a highly sheared and distinct suite of 960-950 Ma gabbroic to tonalitic rocks and ca. 1700 Ma orthogneiss. These rocks may link up to the Bergsdalen nappes to the southwest. Another important element of these allochthons is the Hardanger-Ryfylke Nappe Complex, whose major nappe sheet (Kvitenut) compares with the Jotun Nappe Complex in being composed of 1700-1600 Ma orthogneisses severely affected by Sveconorwegian deformation and local anatexis. There is, however, an important distinction in that the Sveconorwegian activity (including granitic magmatism) occurred at 1000 Ma in Kvitenut and Dyrskard (Roffeis et al., this meeting), but later at 950-900 Ma in Jotun and Lindås. The uppermost sheet of the Hardanger-Ryfylke Nappe Complex appears to have a special history which may link it to a higher tectonic level (Upper Allochthon) not present elsewhere in these nappes. In conclusion, most elements of these nappes in the Middle Allochthon in southern Norway are consistent with a pre-Caledonian position at the edge of Baltica, but there are many internal peculiarities which will eventually contribute to constrain more precisely their specific original locations. Lundmark et al. 2007. Precambrian Res 159: 133-154 Lundmark and Corfu 2008. Contrib Mineral Petrol 155: 147-163 Schärer 1980. Earth Planet Sci Lett 49: 205-218

Corfu, F.; Roffeis, C.

2012-04-01

11

Salinité des ressources en eau: intrusion marine et interaction eaux–roches (Maroc occidental)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Le flux migratoire de la population vers les grandes villes et la multiplication des activités industrielles et agricoles, lors des ces dernières années (1990–2006), ont provoqué un accroissement des besoins en eaux de la nappe du bassin du Rharb (ouest du Maroc). Cette forte sollicitation a produit une augmentation de la minéralisation et une dégradation de la qualité hydrochimique (salinité)

Lahcen Zouhri; El Arbi Toto; Erick Carlier; Taha-Hocine Debieche

2010-01-01

12

QUALITÉ DES EAUX SOUTERRAINES DANS UNE RÉGION ARIDE DU MAROC: IMPACT DES POLLUTIONS SUR LA BIODIVERSITÉ ET RELATIONS CRUSTACÉS – BACTÉRIES D'INTÉRÊT SANITAIRE  

Microsoft Academic Search

Au nord de la ville de Marrakech (Maroc), l'activité anthropique intense et la perméabilité des terrains géologiques rendent la nappe phréatique des Jbilet vulnérable. Les résultats des analyses physico?chimiques, réalisées sur l'eau des puits durant l'année 2006, ont permis aux auteurs de distinguer deux groupes de puits. D'une part ceux situés sur la rive droite de l'Oued Tensift, loin de

F. Hallam; K. Oufdou; M. Boulanouar

2008-01-01

13

Investigating groundwater properties in high annual recharge rate aquifers using 14c and 226ra : example of the fontainebleau sands aquifer (paris basin, france)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Aquifers with high annual recharge rates constitute prominent groundwater resource for freshwater supplies. However, they are very sensitive to pollutants. Moreover, in such cases, the establishment of recharge rates based on radiometric age measurements requires specific methodological approaches as in the example of the aquifer of the Fontainebleau Sands, in the Paris Basin, that we investigate here. It constitutes one of the major aquifers exploited for freshwater supply in the area. It is part of the Beauce aquifer that is underlain by the Romainville aquitard (green clays of Lower Sannoisian age) and overlain by millstone clays of Plio-Quaternary age. The Fontainebleau Sands aquifer outcrops principally in valleys, in the southern part of the Paris Basin (1). Groundwaters from the Fontainebleau Sands aquifer were sampled along a flow-path line in order to determine their geochemical evolution through time. Chemical and stables isotope compositions provide information on mineralisation processes during recharge. They indicate either carbonate dissolution up to saturation during the recharge or addition of recent water along the flow lines. These two possibilities will be discriminated using time tracers. 14C-derived age estimates (T1/2 = 5750 years) are not precise enough to assess residence times of recent waters. We will tentatively use 226 Ra measurements (T1/2 = 1620 years) to add constraints on age-estimates. 14C vs. 226Ra age models already tested in the Astian aquifer from southern France (2), are expected to provide further information on water-rock interactions occurring within the aquifer of the Fontainebleau Sands. (1) Bariteau. A., 1996, Modélisation géochimique d’un aquifère, la nappe de l’oligocène en Beauce et l’altération des Sables de Fontainebleau. Ecoles des Mines de Paris, pp. 179 (2) Barbecot, F., Dever, L., Hillaire-Marcel, C., Gibert, E., Travi, Y. And Marlin, C., 1999. Isotopic evidence for geochemical provinces in the Astian sandy aquifer (Mediterranean coast, Southern France), International Symposium on Isotope Techniques in Water Resources Development and Management, Vienna, Austria, 1999, IAEA-SM-361/33, Eds IAEA-CSP-2/C (ISSN 1562-4153), 87-95

Chabault, C.; Barbecot, F.; Ghaleb, B.; Dever, L.

2003-04-01

14

Structures along the contact zone between the Lycian nappes and the Menderes Massif, SW Turkey: Implications for tectonic transport directions of the Lycian nappes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Structural data recorded along the contact zone between the Menderes Massif and the overlying Lycian nappes provide information about tectonic transport directions of the Lycian nappes in southwestern Turkey. Key units were investigated in the Milas region. Flysch-type sedimentary rocks form the uppermost unit of the Menderes Massif. Metapelites and metapsammites form the basal unit of the Lycian nappes. The metasediments of the Lycian nappes overlie the Menderes Massif along a south-dipping, low-angle tectonic contact, along which thin slices of sheared serpentinite are found. The kinematic data suggest the presence of three deformation phases in the Milas region. The first deformation phase (D1) is characterised by a ductile deformation with top-to-the-NE sense of shear suggesting that the lowermost unit of the Lycian nappes was emplaced initially from southwest to northeast onto the Menderes Massif during the Early Eocene. The second deformation phase (D2) is also ductile in nature. It is characterised by an E-W-trending stretching lineation with a bivergent sense of shear, which is probably related to the load of the overlying nappes. A third deformation phase (D3) is characterised by south-dipping normal faults with top-to-the-S sense of movement and can be related to southward movement of the Lycian nappes along a low-angle décollement zone.

Arslan, Arzu; Güngör, Talip; Erdo?an, Burhan; Passchier, Cees W.

2010-05-01

15

Dynamics of tectonic nappes: Numerical models and implications for the mechanical behaviour of the lithosphere  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Nappes and shear zones are common structures in orogenic belts. In the western European Alps many nappes exhibit a considerable internal deformation expressed by structures such as folds or penetrative foliation. Such internal deformation is observed in basement nappes as well as in sedimentary nappes of the Helvetic nappe system. Overthrust nappes such as the Glarus or Diablerets nappe have been displaced on detachment layers (e.g. limestone or shales) and observed structures (e.g. foliation, S-C structure, crystallographic preferred orientation) suggest that a significant amount of the deformation in these layers was effectively ductile. Also, a number of field and modelling studies suggest that many Alpine basement nappes formed as a result of ductile shearing. However, the mechanical processes generating tectonic nappes are still incompletely understood. 2D numerical simulations are performed to investigate the formation of tectonic nappes. The applied numerical algorithm is based on the finite element method. The boundaries between model layers are defined by contour lines containing finite element nodes. A Lagrangian mesh with re-meshing is used. During re-meshing the nodes on the contour lines are not modified so that the boundaries between model units are accurately followed and resolved during the entire large strain deformation. A series of simple systematic simulations with a power-law viscous flow law is performed to investigate the transition between overthrusting and folding. The results are applied to the Helvetic nappe system and show that significant overthrusting is possible for viscous layers. To study the evolution of basement nappes and to quantify the pressure and temperature evolution a more elaborated algorithm with a viscoelasticplastic rheology is applied. The stress is limited by a Mohr-Coulomb failure criterion. Thermo-mechanical coupling by shear heating is considered. The governing partial differential equations are solved numerically in dimensionless form to reduce the number of model parameters. Simulations of 2D lithospheric shortening are performed with a weak circular inclusion in the lower crust to localize the deformation and slightly different temperatures at the left and right half of the lithospheric bottom are applied to generate a small initial asymmetry. During the simulations a shear zone develops around the inclusion and strain is localized on this shear zone due to shear heating. Deviatoric stresses in and around the shear zone can be significantly smaller than pressure deviations from lithostatic values. The results show that significant tectonic overpressures are not necessarily linked to high values of deviatoric stresses. The pressure gradient along the shear zone is a possible driving mechanism for the nappes. The numerical results and the observations in Alpine nappes suggest that the lithosphere behaved dominantly ductile during nappe formation.

Markus Schmalholz, Stefan

2013-04-01

16

Tectonic nappes and horizontal layering of the Earth's crust in the Mediterranean belt (Carpathians, Balkanides and Caucasus)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The morphological and kinematic features and mechanism of nappe formation of the pre-Alpine and Alpine tectonic nappes of the Carpathians, Balkanides and Caucasus are discussed. Detached basement nappes, cover nappes and ophiolite (obduction) nappes are distinguished. All detached nappes are shown to be genetically compressional, squeezed out as a result of tangential compression at depth accompanied by active underthrusting of the autochthone under the allochthone (Amstutz-type subduction). Ophiolite nappes are formed by squeezing out of oceanic crust and the occurrence of bilateral or unilateral obduction simultaneously with subduction. This formation of ophiolite nappes is a very transient process (occurring at lightning speed in the geological sense) compared to subduction. Data on large horizontal displacements at various levels in the crust entirely confirm the idea of a proposition that horizontal crustal and lithospheric layering, has recently been substantiated by geophysical data too.

Gamkrelidze, I. P.

1991-10-01

17

Nappe-Bounding Shear Zones Initiated On Syn-Tectonic, Pegmatite-Filled Extensional Shear Fractures During Deep-Crustal Nappe Flow In A Large Hot Orogen  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Central Gneiss Belt (CGB) of the Proterozoic western Grenville Province is an extensive exposure of the mid-crustal levels (upper amphibolite facies, lesser granulites) of a large hot orogen. Numerical models give a credible prediction of structure and metamorphism accompanying CGB deep-crustal nappe flow and define a temporal framework based on four developmental phases: thickening, heating, nappe-flow and post convergence extensional spreading. These phases are diachronous in direction of orogen propagation and imply a spatial framework: externides (close to orogen-craton boundary) containing moderately inclined thickening and/or extensional structures, and internides containing thickening structures overprinted by sub-horizontal nappe flow structures, which may be locally overprinted by those due to extensional spreading. Although on average of granitoid composition, CGB nappes differ in rheology, varying from fertile and weak (unmetamorphosed before Grenville, meltable) to infertile and strong (metamorphosed at high grade before Grenville, unmeltable) or mixed fertile-infertile protoliths. Deformation style varies from diffuse in fertile nappes, weakened by pervasive melting, to localised in shear zones on boundaries or interiors of infertile nappes. Specifically, in terms of deformation phase and location within the orogen, shear zones occur as: thickening structures of externides, early thickening- and later overprinting nappe-flow structures of infertile internide nappes, and extension-related shear zones in externides and internides. Many of the nappe-flow shear zones of the internides are associated with pegmatites. One example has been recognized of a preserved progression from small-scale fracture arrays to regional shear zone. The sequence is present on a km-scale and initiates in the interior of a nappe of layered granulite with arrays of pegmatite filled extensional-shear fractures (mm to cm width) displaying amphibolized margins. The fracture arrays develop into systems of pegmatite cored amphibolite facies shear zones (cm to dm width) lying within metre-scale corridors of variably retrogressed unsheared layered granulite. The sequence culminates with transposition of the layered protolith within the kilometre-scale amphibolite facies shear zone that forms the base of the granulite nappe. The pegmatitic hydrous magma clearly plays a role in initial crack formation, progressive retrogression and weakening of the granulite but its source remains obscure.

Culshaw, Nicholas; Gerbi, Christopher; Marsh, Jeffrey; Regan, Peter

2014-05-01

18

Orogen migration and tectonic setting of the Andrelândia Nappe system: An Ediacaran western Gondwana collage, south of São Francisco craton  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The southern Brasília Orogen is organized in a pile of nappes that records the Neoproterozoic history of the subduction and collision between passive and active margins, respectively belonging to the São Francisco and Paranapanema Plates. The whole pile of allochthons comprises the rootless Andrelândia Nappe System (the upper kyanite-bearing granulite of Três Pontas-Varginha Nappe, the intermediate high-pressure amphibolite-to eclogite facies of Liberdade Nappe and the lower Andrelândia Nappe) that is located below an Andean-type magmatic arc (Socorro-Guaxupé Nappe) and overrides the Lima Duarte Nappe and the Carrancas Nappe System. The tectonic units of the Andrelândia Nappe System seem to be exotic to the São Francisco Plate. The retroeclogite of the Liberdade Nappe yielded a 670 Ma SHRIMP U-Pb age in zircon, that is interpreted as the age of N-MORB-type basic magmatism. Detrital zircon grains of proximal flysh deposits of wackes in the Andrelândia Nappe present similar ages that reflect the crystallization in its source area. Both, rocks present Nd isotopic juvenile signatures with T DM in the range of 1.4 to 1.1 Ga. Rhyacian orthogneisses occur as slices in the Liberdade Nappe and have Nd isotope signature of juvenile source. The building of the collision pile of the whole system of nappes was diachronic and records a continuous outward migration of the orogen. The main structure is a middle crust-level duplex. The propagation of the structure and the metamorphism advanced progressively from the upper to the lower nappes, as is shown by U-Pb monazite ages in the range of 618-595 Ma for the Andrelândia Nappe System and 590-575 Ma for the Carrancas and Lima Duarte nappes.

Campos Neto, Mario da Costa; Basei, Miguel Angelo Stipp; Assis Janasi, Valdecir de; Moraes, Renato

2011-12-01

19

Strain accumulation during basal accretion in continental collision — A case study from the Suretta nappe (eastern Swiss Alps)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Stacked crystalline basement nappes are a typical feature in the core of many orogens. The Suretta nappe, exposed in Eastern Switzerland, consists of Briançon-derived crustal slices which were assembled in a south-dipping subduction zone during the Alpine orogenic cycle. The nappe contains post-Variscan rocks of the Rofna Porphyry Complex (RPC) and Permo-Mesozoic cover sequences, which are ideal to study the strain evolution during Alpine nappe formation. We present new structural cross-sections, finite strain analyses and a retrodeformation for the frontal part of the Suretta nappe. The overall geometry of the Suretta nappe is the result of two main deformation phases: (1) Eocene top-to-the-NNW directed thrusting and folding (Ferrera phase), which is overprinted by (2) backfolding and backshearing (Niemet-Beverin phase). We suspect that this backshearing was caused by the buoyant rise of light continental crust beneath the Suretta nappe and by frictional resistance at the top contact of the Suretta nappe, which had been accreted to the upper plate in the course of nappe stacking. In the lower and interior parts of the Suretta nappe, weakly to undeformed boudins are generally surrounded by L-tectonites indicating WSW-ENE stretching; foliated equivalents reveal a plane strain deformation state. The upper part of the Suretta nappe, which was strongly affected by backshearing, shows flattening strain. Strain data were used to reconstruct the palinspastic evolution of the Suretta nappe at two distinct time slots: Prior to Niemet-Beverin backfolding, the Suretta nappe is characterized by thrust faults and large-scale detachment folds. Before the onset of Ferrera phase nappe stacking, Jurassic normal faults and the RPC intrusion shape trigger the localization of subsequent deformation. Our structural study confirms a complex, polyphase evolution for the Suretta nappe, which might be characteristic for crystalline basement nappes in continental collision zones elsewhere.

Scheiber, Thomas; Pfiffner, O. Adrian; Schreurs, Guido

2012-12-01

20

Geological structure, recharge processes and underground drainage of a glacierised karst aquifer system, Tsanfleuron-Sanetsch, Swiss Alps  

Microsoft Academic Search

The relationships between stratigraphic and tectonic setting, recharge processes and underground drainage of the glacierised\\u000a karst aquifer system ‘Tsanfleuron-Sanetsch’ in the Swiss Alps have been studied by means of various methods, particularly\\u000a tracer tests (19 injections). The area belongs to the Helvetic nappes and consists of Jurassic to Palaeogene sedimentary rocks.\\u000a Strata are folded and form a regional anticlinorium. Cretaceous

Vivian Gremaud; Nico Goldscheider; Ludovic Savoy; Gérald Favre; Henri Masson

2009-01-01

21

Alternatives for the source of the exotic green clasts from Moldavian Nappes (East Carpathians, Romania)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Important segment of the Carpathian chain, the East Carpathians consists of several tectonic units build up during the Mesozoic and Cenozoic closure of the Tethyan Ocean. These tectonic units are composed by crystalline basements and sedimentary covers, or only by sedimentary piles and they represent a result of two compressional phases of Alpine orogenesis: one during Late Cretaceous that was responsible for thrusting of Central East Carpathian Nappes and Outher Dacian Nappes, and a second phase during Early and Middle Miocene interval that involved the Moldavian Nappes as the external nappes (Sandulescu, 1988). The Moldavian Nappes consist of cover nappes tectonically detached from the basement upon which it was deposited. From inside towards outside several units occur: Convolute Flysch Nappe, Macla Nappe, Audia Nappe, Tarcau Nappe, Marginal Folds Nappe and Subcarpathian Nappe (Sãndulescu et al., 1981). If the internal units (up to Audia Nappe) are represented by the Cretaceous sediment piles, in the external units, especially in the Tarcau Nappe and also in the Marginal Folds Nappe the lithology is dominated by the Paleogene deposits, especially by the Oligocene formations. The most particular for these units are the presence of heterogeneous composition induced by the wildflysch type sedimentation. Previous researchers have considered the piles of the both units as flyschoid deposits, and for a minor central part (Slon Facies) they accepted a wildflysch scenario. Based on our field studies between Prahova valley (Romania) and Tisa upper stream basin (Ukraine), the different sedimentary strata (the Oligocene Tarcau, Fusaru, Kliwa sandstones, dysodilic and menilitic rocks, polymictic conglomerates, marls and argillaceous deposits together with Upper Cretaceous polymictic conglomerates and green-reddish argillaceous deposits) are tectonically mixed during the late-Oligocene - Middle Miocene events. The mechanism of sedimentary mélange is supposed to be related to submarine landslide initiated by huge earthquake activity. In this way the velocity of landslide sedimentation was high and as result the spatial distribution of different rock types is inhomogeneous. On the other hand, high velocity of syn-sedimentary deformation generates synchronous shear zones. The stress field in this environment is influenced by the lithological amalgamation and local discontinuities. After sedimentary deposition and syn - deformation processes in all the area, suborizontal shear zones (SSZ) are formed along the borders of sandstone olistoliths embedded in fine-grained sand-argillaceous sediments; they are related to the Miocene tectogenesis. Taking into account that are not lithological differences in the Tarcau and the Marginal Folds units, the contact between them as all major SSZ represent the intra-formational thrusts (Sandulescu, 1984). An important characteristic of the Moldavian Nappes is the presence of the exotic rocks as clasts in conglomerates that are very different in nature (igneous, metamorphic and sedimentary), volume and size and generally green in colour. Many authors who studied this lithological aspect have suggested that a Cumanian ridge was their source. The ridge was active since Upper Creataceous till Miocene widespread from Central Dobrogea to Poland and mainly composed by "dobrogean green schist" rocks. This ridge was placed between Audia and Macla sedimentation areas, or between Audia and Tarcau sedimentation areas. According to our studies, the green clasts from various conglomerates with igneous (intrusive and extrusive aspects), metamorphic (medium to low grade) and sedimentary nature present a variable participation. The green clasts are apparently similar with the central dobrogean green schist rocks and are less than 10% in participation in all Moldavian units. For this reason we suggest that the Central Dobrogean domain wasn't the source area for the discussed clasts. After Oszczypko (2006), in the Polish Carpathians, between the Magura and Silesian basins during the Upper Cretaceous - Mioce

Tatu, M.

2009-04-01

22

Rechargeable lithium cell  

Microsoft Academic Search

The general object of this invention is to provide an improved rechargeable lithium cell. A more specific object of the invention is to provide a rechargeable lithium cell having an improved low temperature performance and rate capability. It has now been found that the aformentioned objects can be attained using lithium as the anode, a solution of a lithium salt

M. Salomon; E. J. Plichta

1984-01-01

23

The Helvetic nappes in the boundary area between Eastern and Western Alps  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the context of a deep geothermal potential study for Vorarlberg several balanced cross-sections on a crustal scale were constructed between the Rhine valley in the west and the Kleinwalser valley in the east. The construction of these cross-sections was based on surface geology, drillings as well as on reinterpreted seismic lines. The general geological architecture of the examined area can be described as a typical foreland fold-and-thrust belt, comprising the tectonic units of the Subalpine Molasse, (Ultra-)Helvetic, Penninic, and Austroalpine nappes. Along the south-dipping listric Alpine basal thrust these units overthrusted the autochthonous Molasse. The Subalpine Molasse is multiply stacked, forming a triangle-zone (MÜLLER et al. 1984). A well-defined seismic feature is the European basement together with its autochthonous cover, slightly dipping southward from about 3500m BSL to approx. 6500m BSL in the south. Furthermore a discontinuous double reflector, interpreted as the base of the Helvetic nappe complexes (approx. at 5000m BSL in the southernmost parts), could be identified. The internal structure of the Helvetic nappe stack could hardly be resolved. The assumed hinterland dipping duplex-structure of the Helvetic nappes results from surface and borehole-data. However, there are at least two Helvetic nappes needed to fill the available space. The deeper one, mostly labeled "Hohenemser nappe" (WYSSLING 1985), was probably overthrusted by the superficially exposed "Säntis nappe". In the western part the Cretaceous cover units of the "Hohenemser nappe" seem to be completely detached from the older strata. In the southern part of the Säntis nappe (below the "Bregenzer Wald") we suspect a Dogger basin (cut across by well VBG Au1) which is bordered by two steep lateral ramps, accompanied by tear faults in the hanging wall. Based on our sections, the shortening within the Helvetic nappes has been calculated using the Cretaceous "Kieselkalk" and the Jurassic "Quinten Limestone". It amounts to approx. 50%, which is consistent with the shortening in cross-sections from eastern Switzerland (e.g. SCHMID et al. 1997, TRÜMPY 1969).

Schulz, M.; Pomella, H.; Zerlauth, M.; Ortner, H.; Fügenschuh, B.

2012-04-01

24

Dynamics of tectonic nappes: Thrusting versus intrusion or dynamic pressure versus lithostatic pressure  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Despite extensive research, the dynamics of tectonic nappes exhibiting high and ultra-high pressure ((U)HP) rocks is still debated. We classify existing models for nappe formation into two types, and refer to them as thrust and intrusion model. Thrust models approximate the orogen as wedge with a rigid buttress behind and a subducting lithospheric slab beneath. The dominant process of nappe formation is thrusting (brittle and/or ductile) that generates a dominant top-to-the-foreland shear sense. Rocks remain within crustal depth (<~60 km). Uplift and exhumation of (U)HP rocks is explained by underplating accompanied by isostatic uplift, extension in higher levels of the wedge and erosion. Thrust models can explain the imbricate nappe stacking and first-order structural observations in the Western Alps. However, in the last decades (U)HP rocks were found in nappes, and it is usually assumed that metamorphic pressure is a good indicator of maximum burial. This assumption represents a fundamental problem for the thrust model, namely to account for the large burial depth of (U)HP rocks indicating depths >100 km. Nappe formation at such mantle depths cannot be explained by the thrust model. In intrusion models (U)HP rocks are subducted to mantle depths and return to crustal depths by buoyancy driven or tectonically forced flow. Nappes are formed during the return flow with an opposite shear sense at the bottom and top of the nappe. Intrusion models could reproduce the first-order patterns of P-T-time paths of the Western Alps. However, there are problems with intrusion models. First, the intrusion scenario requires a major extensional shear zone in the hanging wall of the exhuming (U)HP unit. However, for most (U)HP units of the Western Alps the earliest coherent structures recorded along the upper boundary are top-to-the-foreland shear zones (consistent with thrust models). Second, dynamic intrusion models are usually unable to generate an imbricate nappe stack. The major argument against thrust models is the assumption that metamorphic pressure indicates maximum burial, and the same assumption is the major argument for intrusion models. If, however, significant tectonic overpressure existed during nappe formation, then (U)HP rocks would have formed in significantly less depth, and thrust models could be applicable to the Western Alps. We apply theoretical and numerical models to quantify possible magnitudes of tectonic overpressure during nappe formation. We show with analytical derivations and numerical simulations that lateral variations in gravitational potential energy (GPE), such as observed around continental plateaus, are a proof for the existence of tectonic overpressure, which magnitude is independent from rock rheology (viscous or elastic). Variations of GPE allow estimating a lower bound for the magnitude of tectonic overpressure in the crust. We further present synthetic P-T paths resulting from 2-D thermo-mechanical numerical simulations of tectonic nappe formation (by thrusting) during lithospheric shortening. Applications to nappe formation in the Western Alps are discussed, as well as strategies to determine whether the thrust or intrusion model better explains the formation of tectonic nappes in the Western Alps.

Markus Schmalholz, Stefan; Podladchikov, Yuri; Medvedev, Sergei

2014-05-01

25

Artificial recharge of groundwater  

SciTech Connect

The vast underground reservoirs formed by aquifers constitute invaluable water supply sources as well as water storage facilities. Because natural replenishment of the supply occurs very slowly, continued excessive exploitation of it causes groundwater levels to decline with time. If not corrected this leads to an eventual depletion of a valuable natural resource. To prevent mining and groundwater pollution, the artificial recharge of groundwater basins is becoming increasingly important in groundwater management as a way to increase this natural supply of water. Artificial recharge can reduce, stop, and even reverse declining levels of groundwater. In addition, it can protect underground freshwater in coastal aquifers against salt-water intrusion from the ocean, and can be used to store surface and reclaimed water for future use. This book is a treatise of the artificial recharge of groundwater, with particular emphasis on recharge with reclaimed municipal wastewater.

Asano, T.

1985-01-01

26

Rechargeable lithium cell  

SciTech Connect

The general object of this invention is to provide an improved rechargeable lithium cell. A more specific object of the invention is to provide a rechargeable lithium cell having an improved low-temperature performance and rate capability. It has now been found that the aformentioned objects can be attained using lithium as the anode, a solution of a lithium salt such as LiF/sub 6/ or LiA1C/sup 14/ in a mixed organic solvent as the electrolyte and a lithium intercalating cathode.

Salomon, M.; Plichta, E.J.

1984-09-27

27

Provenance and tectonic setting of the external nappe of the Southern Brasília Orogen  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Brasília Orogen, located on the western and southern margins of the São Francisco Craton, corresponds to a horizontal nappe stack that was regionally transported eastward during the collision between the Paranapanema and Central Goiás blocks and the Sanfranciscana Plate in the Ediacaran Period.

Westin, Alice; Campos Neto, Mario da Costa

2013-12-01

28

Change of direction of overthrust shear in the Helvetic nappes of western Switzerland  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The lowest of the Helvetic nappes in western Switzerland, the Morcles and the Doldenhorn nappes, are large-scale recumbent folds in equivalent tectonic positions in the Alpine chain. A comparison of the orientations of stretching lineations in both nappes shows that the lineations in the two stratigraphically normal sequences trend N-S, whereas those in the two stratigraphically inverted sequences trend NW-SE. A similar geometrical relationship has been found from an analysis of the calcite c-axis directions of these limestones: the two normal sequences show NW-SE directed c-axes, whereas the two inverted sequences show W-E directed c-axes. These observations lead to the following conclusions: (1) Regionally consistent shear movements occurred over a strike distance of more than 60 km, and these gave rise to similar deformation patterns in both nappes. (2) A progressive rotation of these shear movements from a northerly direction in the earlier-formed limbs to northwesterly in the later-formed inverted limbs can be deduced. The finite-strain stretching lineations lag behind the crystallographic fabric axes formed in the later part of the deformation history.

Diftrich, Dorothee; Durney, David W.

29

Lithium rechargeable envelope cells  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Prototype lithium manganese oxide rechargeable cells have been made in an envelope format, which is particularly suitable for scaling up to large batteries. Materials have been tested in laboratory cells. The synthesis of lithium manganese oxide has been investigated and cathode components for cells have been fabricated. Cycling results are reported.

Gilmour, A.; Giwa, C. O.; Lee, J. C.; Ritchie, A. G.

30

Lithium rechargeable envelope cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

Prototype lithium manganese oxide rechargeable cells have been made in an envelope format, which is particularly suitable for scaling up to large batteries. Materials have been tested in laboratory cells. The synthesis of lithium manganese oxide has been investigated and cathode components for cells have been fabricated. Cycling results are reported.

A. Gilmour; C. O. Giwa; J. C. Lee; A. G. Ritchie

1997-01-01

31

Evidence for dilution of deep, confined ground water by vertical recharge of isotopically heavy Pleistocene water  

Microsoft Academic Search

New analyses of the isotopic composition of water, 14-dating of dissolved inorganic carbon, and order-of-magnitude Darcy calculations suggest that a dilute body of water, trending north-south in the Cambrian-Ordovician aquifer of Iowa, was emplaced as vertical recharge of Pleistocene-age water from the base of the Des Moines lobe of late Wisconsin time. The recharge occurred through more than 300 m

D. I. Siegel

1991-01-01

32

REMOTELY RECHARGEABLE EPD  

SciTech Connect

Radiation measurements inside the Contact Decon Maintenance Cell (CDMC) in the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) at the Savannah River Site (SRS) are required to determine stay times for personnel. A system to remotely recharge the transmitter of an Electronic Personnel Dosimeter (EPD) and bail assembly to transport the EPD within the CDMC was developed by the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) to address this need.

Vrettos, N; Athneal Marzolf, A; Scott Bowser, S

2007-11-13

33

Rechargeable Magnesium Power Cells  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Rechargeable power cells based on magnesium anodes developed as safer alternatives to high-energy-density cells like those based on lithium and sodium anodes. At cost of some reduction in energy density, magnesium-based cells safer because less susceptible to catastrophic meltdown followed by flames and venting of toxic fumes. Other advantages include ease of handling, machining, and disposal, and relatively low cost.

Koch, Victor R.; Nanjundiah, Chenniah; Orsini, Michael

1995-01-01

34

[F. C. NAPP andJ. G. MENDEL a contribution to the prehistory ofMENDEL's experiments].  

PubMed

On the centenary of the death ofF. C. NAPP (22. 7. 1867), abbot of the St. Thomas-monastery of Old-Brünn, who admittedJ. G. MENDEL in his convent, enabled him to study natural science and to carry out his experiments, and on the centenary of the election ofMENDEL to succeedNAPP as abbot (31. 3. 1868), we take note of the relationship between these two men as it concerns the discoveries ofMENDEL. Following a short biography ofNAPP we appreciate his service to agriculture and its basic sciences. We find a close connection between the scientific work ofMENDEL andNAPP in meteorology and bee keeping. PMID:24442214

Weiling, F

1968-04-01

35

Groundwater recharge in urban areas  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The two interlinked networks of hydrological pathways in urban areas are described with particular reference to the links with groundwater. As well as reducing direct recharge, urbanization creates new pathways and sources of water for recharge, including leaking water mains, sewers, septic tanks and soakaways. The net effect is often to increase recharge to pre-urbanization rates, or higher in dry climates and cities with high densities and large imported water supplies.

Lerner, David N.

36

Un schema regional des gravieres selon l'article 109.1 du code minier français  

Microsoft Academic Search

Résumé  L'exploitation des granulats alluvionnaires dans la plaine d'Alsace a connu un rapide développement depuis 1962. La production\\u000a de ces granulats destinés pour moitié à l'exportation a eu certes des effets positifs sur l'économie locale, mais l'implantation\\u000a désordonnée de cette activité a cependant entraîné des effets néfastes sur l'environnement régional (impact sur la nappe phréatique,\\u000a sur l'espace rural) et sur le

J. M. Dubois; J. B. Ulrich; M. A. Brice

1984-01-01

37

Late Cretaceous exhumation history of an extensional extruding wedge (Graz Paleozoic Nappe Complex, Austria)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Late Cretaceous structures within the eastern Graz Paleozoic Nappe Complex define an extruding wedge with north-eastward directed thrusting in eastern portions and strike-slip shear along the margins. Stacking structures are overprinted by south-westward directed extension with low-grade metamorphic rocks in the hangingwall and high-grade basement rocks in the footwall. Pressure-temperature and structural data are obtained from successively opening quartz veins that record various stages of progressive deformation and metamorphism. Fluid inclusion data and related structures show that during extension isothermal decompression from ca. 550°C and 8 kbar down to ca. 450°C and 2 kbar was related to exhumation of rocks from deep crustal levels. The data point to a high geothermal gradient and explain condensed paleo-isotherms due to ductile normal faulting in the eastern areas of the Graz Paleozoic Nappe Complex. The investigated Late Cretaceous structural elements suggest that the Graz Paleozoic Nappe Complex decoupled from the surrounding basement units and operated as a large-scale extension-extrusion corridor that evolved prior to Miocene extrusion tectonics in the Eastern Alps.

Kurt, Krenn; Harald, Fritz; Aberra, Mogessie; Johannes, Schaflechner

2008-11-01

38

Tectonic overpressure may reconcile the structural and petrological records of the Adula nappe (Central Alps)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Penninic Alps are the result of progressive underthrusting of oceanic and continental domains below the Adriatic microplate. Situated in the internal part of the Alpine orogen, they expose basement and thinned cover nappes which have been metamorphosed to variable degree, among them several units which were subjected to ultrahigh-pressure metamorphism. Due to the more or less strong nappe-internal deformation of these units, cross sections through the Penninic Alps cannot be restored kinematically by area or line balancing techniques. Instead, such restorations attempt to consistently reconcile geochronological and structural data and petrological pressure-temperature estimates. Pressure data are usually converted into depth assuming that they were lithostatic which puts the ultrahigh-pressure units to subcrustal depths. Tectonic exhumation of a unit from such a depth by whatever mechanism requires a large-scale normal fault with several tens of kilometres of displacement in the hanging wall of the unit. However, for all Penninic ultrahigh-pressure units (Dora Maira unit, Zermatt-Saas zone, Monviso unit, Adula-Cima Lunga nappe), the oldest mappable post-peak-pressure structures are related to top-to-the-foreland shearing, i.e. thrusting. There are two potential solutions to this dilemma. The first one is that either the exhumation was indeed accommodated by a large-scale normal fault which became completely overprinted during later deformational stages. The other one is that peak pressures were not lithostatic. To our knowledge, the first solution is applied to all kinematic models of the Alps so far. In order to explore the feasibility of the second solution, we performed a purely structural restoration of the NFP20-East cross section without lithostatic pressure-to-depth-conversions. This cross-section comprises the ultrahigh-pressure Adula nappe (up to ca. 30 kbar) and relies on quantitative strain data from the overlying units. The result shows that, in accordance with the structural record, the Adula nappe can be restored to maximum depths of up to ca. 60 km. For individual points of the Adula nappe in the restored cross section, corresponding to the sporadic occurences of (ultra)high-pressure rocks, lithostatic pressures are exceeded by petrological peak-pressure data by about 40% to 80%. Such amounts of tectonic overpressure are within the limits of theoretical considerations and numerical modelling results. For the other units comprised in the cross section, and for subsequent tectono-metamorphic stages of the Adula nappe, negligible amounts of overpressure (around 10%) are determined from the restoration. We conclude that (1) the NFP20-East cross section can be kinematically restored by using only structural data, (2) the dilemma mentioned above can be solved by admitting realisting amounts of tectonic overpressure, and (3) significant amounts of overpressure were established only locally and episodically.

Pleuger, Jan; Podladchikov, Yuri

2014-05-01

39

High Power Rechargeable Thermal Battery.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Report developed under STTR contract; a proof of concept for a portable, rechargeable thermal battery (RTB). Including a superinsulated case, a lightweight (10 lb) RTB can provide 250W for 2-6h at 140 Wh/kg with days of activation between recharging. It c...

T. D. Kaun

1997-01-01

40

Rechargeable batteries with aqueous electrolytes  

Microsoft Academic Search

In recent years, rechargeable batteries (RB’s) have found important new applications in rapidly expanding markets, such as portable computers (laptops), telecommunication equipment (handies), camcorders and tools. The interest in electric vehicles has continued to stimulate research on RB’s having improved specific energy. Attention has been focussed on nonaqueous battery systems, in particular on lithium batteries. Small rechargeable lithium batteries, available

Fritz Beck; Paul Rüetschi

2000-01-01

41

Structural styles and regional tectonic setting of the ``Gela Nappe'' and frontal part of the Maghrebian thrust belt in Sicily  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Gela Nappe of south central Sicily provides an example of a curved segment of an orogenic front that can be examined both onshore and offshore for deformational style and amount of shortening. Synorogenic sediments allow the deformation to be dated. Two distinct structural styles are observed in the Gela Nappe: The central salient part of the nappe (Caltanissetta basin) consists of a single thrust sheet containing a train of continuously tightening folds and the reentrant margins of the nappe (Sciacca and Monte Judica) consist of a stack of several thrust sheets. These different structural styles correspond to the pretectonic Mesozoic stratigraphy of the foreland plate. Carbonate platforms exist on the Adventure bank and Hyblean Plateau ahead of Sciacca and Monte Judica, respectively, while the Caltanissetta basin region appears to have accumulated basinal clay facies. Where the resistant carbonate stratigraphy provides a buttress to the propagation of the thrust front, deformation is taken up by imbrication on-steep ramps through the carbonates generating a relatively thick orogenic wedge. In the basinal setting, where no strong rheology exists, the low angle of friction on the clay detachment levels requires the growing thrust wedge to be much thinner with a very low foreland dip. Hence the thrust front propagates much farther forward into the basin than it does in the adjacent platformal areas, producing a nonlinear thrust front. In the basinal region, accretion of foreland material to the nappe by imbrication was only prominent during the Messinian when subaerial exposure prevented low-friction transport of the nappe across the highest levels of the stratigraphy. A steady thickening of the nappe by internal folding suggests an increase in friction along the basal detachment, possibly due to progressive compaction of the clays.

Lickorish, W. Henry; Grasso, Mario; Butler, Robert W. H.; Argnani, Andrea; Maniscalco, Rosanna

1999-08-01

42

Dual-porosity modeling of groundwater recharge: testing a quick calibration using in situ moisture measurements, Areuse River Delta, Switzerland  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A simple method for calibrating the dual-porosity MACRO model via in situ TDR measurements during a brief infiltration run (2.8 h) is proposed with the aim of estimating local groundwater recharge (GR). The recharge was modeled firstly by considering the entire 3 m of unsaturated soil, and secondly by considering only the topsoil to the zero-flux plane (0-0.70 m). The modeled recharge was compared against the GR obtained from field measurements. Measured GR was 313 mm during a 1-year period (15 October 1990-15 October 1991). The best simulation results were obtained when considering the entire unsaturated soil under equilibrium conditions excluding the macropore flow effect (330 mm), whereas under non-equilibrium conditions GR was overestimated (378 mm). Sensitivity analyses showed that the investigation of the topsoil is sufficient in estimating local GR in this case, since the water stored below this depth appears to be below the typical rooting depth of the vegetation and is not available for evapotranspiration. The modeled recharge under equilibrium conditions for the 0.7-m-topsoil layer was found to be 364 mm, which is in acceptable agreement with measurements. Une méthode simple pour la calibration du modèle à double porosité MACRO par des mesures TDR in situ durant un bref essai d'infiltration (2.8 h) a été proposée pour l'estimation locale de la recharge de la nappe (RN). La RN a été d'abord simulée en tenant compte de toute la zone non saturée (3 m) et ensuite, en considérant uniquement la couverture du sol entre zéro et le plan du flux nul (0.70 m). La RN simulée a été comparée à la RN observée. La RN mesurée durant une année (15 octobre 1990-15 octobre 1991) était de 313 mm. Les meilleures simulations ont été obtenues en tenant compte de toute la zone non saturée sous les conditions d'équilibre excluant le flux préférentiel (330 mm). Sous les conditions de non équilibre, la RN a été surestimée (378 mm). Les analyses de sensitivité ont montré que l'investigation de la couverture du sol est suffisante pour l'estimation locale de la RN du fait que l'eau traversant le plan du flux nul se trouverait sous la zone des racines et échapperait à l'évapotranspiration. La RN simulée sur les 0.70 m du sol sous les conditions d'équilibre était de 364 mm, ce qui est comparable aux mesures. Se propone un método sencillo para calibrar el modelo de doble porosidad "MACRO" mediante medidas in-situ obtenidas por TDR durante un breve ensayo de infiltración (2,8 horas), con el objetivo de estimar la recarga local al acuífero. Ésta ha sido modelada de dos formas: considerando los 3 m de suelo no saturado y empleando sólo desde la capa superior hasta el plano de flujo nulo (de 0 a 0,70 m). Se compara la recarga modelada con la recarga local medida en campo, la cual fue de 313 mm durante un ciclo anual (del 15 de octubre de 1990 al 15 de octubre de 1991). Las mejores simulaciones corresponden a la hipótesis de columna entera no saturada en condiciones de equilibrio, excluyendo el efecto de macroporos (valor de 330 mm), mientras que el resultado obtenido para condiciones de no equilibrio en la recarga local está sobreestimado (378 mm). Los análisis de sensibilidad muestran que la investigación del horizonte superior del suelo es suficiente para estimar la recarga local en este caso, ya que el agua almacenada por debajo de esta profundidad parece estar fuera del alcance típico de las raíces de la vegetación y no puede ser evapotranspirada. La recarga modelada en condiciones de equilibrio para la capa superior de 0,70 m de espesor es de 364 mm, valor aceptable respecto a las medidas.

Alaoui, Abdallah; Eugster, Werner

43

FLUIDIC: Metal Air Recharged  

ScienceCinema

Fluidic, with the help of ARPA-E funding, has developed and deployed the world's first proven high cycle life metal air battery. Metal air technology, often used in smaller scale devices like hearing aids, has the lowest cost per electron of any rechargeable battery storage in existence. Deploying these batteries for grid reliability is competitive with pumped hydro installations while having the advantages of a small footprint. Fluidic's battery technology allows utilities and other end users to store intermittent energy generated from solar and wind, as well as maintain reliable electrical delivery during power outages. The batteries are manufactured in the US and currently deployed to customers in emerging markets for cell tower reliability. As they continue to add customers, they've gained experience and real world data that will soon be leveraged for US grid reliability.

Friesen, Cody

2014-04-02

44

Eclogite nappe-stack in the Grivola-Urtier Ophiolites (Southern Aosta Valley, Western Alps)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the Western Alpine chain, ophiolites represent a section of the Mesozoic Tethys oceanic lithosphere, involved in subduction during the convergence between the paleo-Africa and paelo-Europe continents during the Cretaceous - Eocene. The Western Alpine ophiolites consist of several tectonic units, the most famous being the Zermatt-Saas and Combin nappes, and other major ophiolite bodies as the Voltri, Monviso, and Rocciavrè that show different rock assemblages and contrasting metamorphic imprints. The Grivola-Urtier (GU) unit is exposed in the southern Aosta Valley, covering an area of about 100 km2; it is tectonically sandwiched between the continentally-derived Pennidic Gran Paradiso Nappe below, and the Austroalpine Mount Emilius klippe above. This unit has been so far considered as part of the Zermatt-Saas nappe extending from the Saas-Fee area (Switzerland) to the Aosta Valley (Italy). The GU unit consists of serpentinized peridotites that include pods and boudinaged layers of eclogitic Fe-metagabbro and trondhjemite, rodingites and chloriteschists transposed in the main foliation together with calcschists and micaschists. All rocks preserve particularly fresh eclogitic mineral assemblages. The contact between the serpentinites and calcshists is marked by a tectonic mélange consisting of mylonitic marble and calcschist with stretched and boudinaged serpentinite blocks. Continentally-derived allochthonous blocks ranging in size from100 meters to meters are also included within the ophiolites. New field, petrographic and geochemical data reveal the complex nature of the fossil Tethyan oceanic lithosphere exposed in the southern Aosta Valley, as well as the extent and size of the continental-oceanic tectonic mélange. The geological setting of the GU unit is here inferred as a key tool for understanding the complex architecture of the ophiolites in the Western Alps.

Tartarotti, Paola

2013-04-01

45

Detrital zircon data support a Timanian origin for the Kalak Nappe Complex, North Norwegian Caledonides  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Detrital zircon data support a Timanian origin for the Kalak Nappe Complex, North Norwegian Caledonides. Arild Andresen, Nana Yaw Agyei-Dwarko & Mark G. Steltenpohl The origin of the Kalak Nappe Complex (KNC) in the Arctic Caledonides of Norway is historically enigmatic. Psammitic rocks of the KNC traditionally are thought to have been derived from the thinned, rifted margin of western Baltica. Recently, it has been proposed that U-Pb ages on detrital zircon and on magmatic zircon from the many intrusives present in KNC suggest derivation from Laurentian (Kirkland et al. 2007) and peri-Gondwanan (Corfu et al. 2011) realms. In this contribution we argue for a third alternative. Our LA-ICP-MS U-Pb ages on detrital zircon from the Ediacaran and Lower Paleozoic deposits (Dividal Group) in northern Scandinavia indicate that their source region was the Timanian Orogen, formed along Baltica`s northeastern margin in the Late Neoproterozoic. A large proportion of the detrital zircon grains from the Ediacaran-Cambrian deposits range in age between c. 1.7 and 1.0 Ga, but a distinct population of c. 0.57 Ga old-detrital zircon is also present in several samples. The source areas for these Late Paleoproterozoic and younger zircons are unknown from northeastern Fennoscandia, but are, however, known from basement rocks (Timanides) below the Pechora Basin in NW Russia and thus is a fingerprint for sediments derived from the Timanides. Psammitic units of the allochthonous Kalak Nappe Complex (KNC) have zircon-age populations similar to those from the Dividal Group with the exception of the 0.57 Ga zircons. If, however, the detrital zircon dates from the KNC are mixed with detrital zircons from the c. 0.57 Ga Sørøy Igneous Complex, then an almost identical zircon age population should be expected. Instead of arguing for a Laurentian or peri-Gondwana origin of KNC, as some authors do, we prefer to link the KNC to the Timanides, preferentially the northwestern part of the present exposed part of the Timanides. Incorporation of the KNC into the Scandinavian Caledonides can thus be explained by oblique rifting (transtension) between Baltica and the remaining Rodinia in the Cryogenian, followed by emplacement of KNC as a series of nappes during collision between Baltica and Laurentia in the Late Silurian-Early Silurian.

Andresen, Arild; Agyei-Dwarko, Nana; Steltenpohl, Mark

2014-05-01

46

A Sveconorwegian terrane boundary in the Caledonian Hardanger-Ryfylke Nappe Complex: the lost link between Telemarkia and the Western Gneiss Region?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Magmatic and metamorphic events in two of the nappes of the Hardanger-Ryfylke Nappe Complex in the Caledonides in SW-Norway, and in the intervening thrust zone, have been investigated by means of ID-TIMS U-Pb zircon and titanite data. Orthogneiss protoliths in the upper Kvitenut nappe are dated at 1615 ± 6 Ma, showing analogies to the Gothian terrane, including the Western Gneiss Region. By contrast, the Dyrskard nappe is composed of metasedimentary rocks and metarhyolites with a 1508 ± 4 Ma extrusive age and shows an affinity to rocks of the Telemarkia terranes. We argue that the time of thrusting and juxtaposition of the two nappes along the shear zone is constrained by the age of 999 ± 5 Ma of a syndeformational granite body and co-genetic pegmatitic leucosomes, with late Sveconorwegian movements and fluid activity being recorded by titanite at 924 ± 6 Ma. Both nappes behaved as one block during the Silurian emplacement in the Caledonian nappe stack, sharing a 434 ± 1 Ma metamorphic peak and later overprints, as young as 414 ± 2 Ma, related to retrogression. The distinct origin and Sveconorwegian age of coupling of the Dyrskard and the Kvitenut nappes suggest that, in their pre-Caledonian location to the west-northwest, they represent the now hidden boundary zone between the Western Gneiss Region and Telemarkia.

Roffeis, Cornelia; Corfu, Fernando; Gabrielsen, Roy

2013-04-01

47

Groundwater recharge: A hydrogeologic thought  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ensuing paper imparts vital information on an important component of the hydrologic cycle: recharge. Water flows through\\u000a the porous media and forms a definite flow pattern that can be depicted in an elaborate manner through the micro level studies\\u000a at the small watershed level. The estimation of recharge is indispensable for the groundwater budgeting studies. The advantages\\u000a and disadvantages

A. K. Taqveem

2009-01-01

48

High magnetic anisotropies in magnetite-bearing mylonitic garnet-micaschist of the Seve nappe, Swedish Caledonides  

Microsoft Academic Search

The first documentation of very high anisotropies (P' values up to 4.5) of the magnetic susceptibility (AMS) of mylonitic garnet micaschists of the Seve nappe near Lake Slipsiken (Swedish Caledonides) raises questions about its origin. We studied these shear zone rocks by using the anisotropy of bulk susceptibility at room and liquid nitrogen temperature and the anisotropy of high field

A. M. Kontny; J. Grimmer; R. Engelmann; R. O. Greiling

2010-01-01

49

Sedimentary patterns across the Lower–Middle Cambrian transition in the Esla nappe (Cantabrian Mountains, northern Spain)  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the carbonate platforms of the western Gondwana margin, the extinction recorded at the Lower–Middle Cambrian boundary is accompanied by a profound change in the style of carbonate deposition. The Láncara Formation of the Esla nappe (Cantabrian Mountains, northern Spain) contains a distinct sedimentary turnover due to a combination of tectonism, eustatic fluctuations, and immigration and colonization of new benthic

J. J Álvaro; E Vennin; E Moreno-Eiris; A Perejón; T Bechstädt

2000-01-01

50

Nappes, Tectonics of Oblique Plate Convergence, and Metamorphic Evolution Related to 140 Million Years of Continuous Subduction, Franciscan Complex, California  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a new synthesis of Franciscan Complex tectonics, with the emphasis on the pre-San Andreas fault history of these rocks. Field relations suggest that the Franciscan is characterized by nappe structures that formed during sequential accretion at the trench. The presence of these structures along with other field relations, including the lack of evidence for large offset of

John Wakabayashi

1992-01-01

51

Functional materials for rechargeable batteries.  

PubMed

There is an ever-growing demand for rechargeable batteries with reversible and efficient electrochemical energy storage and conversion. Rechargeable batteries cover applications in many fields, which include portable electronic consumer devices, electric vehicles, and large-scale electricity storage in smart or intelligent grids. The performance of rechargeable batteries depends essentially on the thermodynamics and kinetics of the electrochemical reactions involved in the components (i.e., the anode, cathode, electrolyte, and separator) of the cells. During the past decade, extensive efforts have been dedicated to developing advanced batteries with large capacity, high energy and power density, high safety, long cycle life, fast response, and low cost. Here, recent progress in functional materials applied in the currently prevailing rechargeable lithium-ion, nickel-metal hydride, lead acid, vanadium redox flow, and sodium-sulfur batteries is reviewed. The focus is on research activities toward the ionic, atomic, or molecular diffusion and transport; electron transfer; surface/interface structure optimization; the regulation of the electrochemical reactions; and the key materials and devices for rechargeable batteries. PMID:21394791

Cheng, Fangyi; Liang, Jing; Tao, Zhanliang; Chen, Jun

2011-04-19

52

A stratigraphic and geophysical approach to studying the deep-circulating groundwater and thermal springs, and their recharge areas, in Cimini Mountains-Viterbo area, central Italy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The stratigraphic and structural setting of the Cimini Mountains and Viterbo area of Italy has been reconstructed. The architecture of the tectonic edifice, below the Pleistocene Cimino and Vicano volcanic districts cover, is characterized by the Mesozoic-Cenozoic Tuscan Nappe and the similar Umbria-Marche Succession; both are capped by the overthrusted Ligurian Late Cretaceous-Eocene Tolfa Flysch. A shallow unconfined volcanic aquifer is separated, by a thick aquiclude, from the deep confined carbonate aquifer consisting of the Tuscan Nappe and the Umbria-Marche Succession. The volcanic aquifer hosts cold waters, whilst the carbonate aquifer hosts hot sulphate-alkaline earth waters that emerge in the thermal area of Viterbo with a temperature of 30-60°C. The recharge area of cold waters is located in the Cimini Mountains. Thermal waters of the Viterbo hot springs are derived from a circuit of waters that emerge along the River Nera near Narni (about 34 km ENE of Viterbo), with a high salinity, a temperature of 16-18°C, a sulphate-alkaline earth composition, and a discharge of 13 m3/sec, whose recharge area is located in the central pre-Apennines reliefs.

Chiocchini, Ugo; Castaldi, Fabio; Barbieri, Maurizio; Eulilli, Valeria

2010-09-01

53

Reworked nannofossils from the Lower Miocene deposits in the Magura Nappe (Outer Western Carpathians, Poland)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Studies, based on calcareous nannofossils, proved that the level of reworked microfossils had so far been underestimated. More recently detailed quantitative studies of calcareous nannoplankton of the Magura, Malcov, Zawada and Kremna formations from the Magura Nappe in Poland documented a degree of nannofossil recycling among those formations. In the Late Eocene-Early Oligocene pelagic Leluchów Marl Member of the Malcov Formation the level of redeposition is very low (0-3.80 %), however, in the flysch deposits of the Malcov Formation reworking increased to 31.4 %. Late Oligocene through Early Miocene “molasse” type deposits of the Zawada and Kremna formations contain 43.7-69.0 % of reworked nannofossils. Quantitative analyses of the reworked assemblages confirmed the domination of Paleogene nannofossil species over Cretaceous ones. The most abundant, reworked assemblages belong to the Early- Middle Eocene age.

Oszczypko-Clowes, Marta

2012-11-01

54

Artificial recharge of groundwater: hydrogeology and engineering  

Microsoft Academic Search

.   Artificial recharge of groundwater is achieved by putting surface water in basins, furrows, ditches, or other facilities\\u000a where it infiltrates into the soil and moves downward to recharge aquifers. Artificial recharge is increasingly used for short-\\u000a or long-term underground storage, where it has several advantages over surface storage, and in water reuse. Artificial recharge\\u000a requires permeable surface soils. Where

Herman Bouwer

2002-01-01

55

Rechargeable nickel-zinc batteries  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Device proves superiority in having two and one half to three times the energy content of popular lead-zinc or nickel-cadmium batteries. Application to electric utility vehicles improved acceleration rate and nearly doubled driving range between rechargings. Unit contributes substantially toward realization of practical urban electrical automobiles.

Soltis, D. G.

1977-01-01

56

High energy lithium rechargeable cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

Methyl formate solutions are noted to be attractive in rechargeable Li cell applications due to their high conductivities and outstanding electrochemical stability; their primary limitation has been their inability to efficiently cycle Li. By doping methyl formate solutions with CO2, however, Li cycling efficiencies of the order of 98 percent have been achieved. A combination of transition metal oxide insertion-type

Walter B. Ebner; John A. Simmons; David L. Chua

1988-01-01

57

Coupling of oceanic and continental crust during Eocene eclogite-facies metamorphism: evidence from the Monte Rosa nappe, western Alps  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

High precision U Pb geochronology of rutile from quartz carbonate white mica rutile veins that are hosted within eclogite and schist of the Monte Rosa nappe, western Alps, Italy, indicate that the Monte Rosa nappe was at eclogite-facies metamorphic conditions at 42.6 ± 0.6 Ma. The sample area [Indren glacier, Furgg zone; Dal Piaz (2001) Geology of the Monte Rosa massif: historical review and personal comments. SMPM] consists of eclogite boudins that are exposed inside a south-plunging overturned synform within micaceous schist. Associated with the eclogite and schist are quartz carbonate white mica rutile veins that formed in tension cracks in the eclogite and along the contact between eclogite and surrounding schist. Intrusion of the veins at about 42.6 Ma occurred at eclogite-facies metamorphic conditions (480 570°C, >1.3 1.4 GPa) based on textural relations, oxygen isotope thermometry, and geothermobarometry. The timing of eclogite-facies metamorphism in the Monte Rosa nappe determined in this study is identical to that of the Gran Paradiso nappe [Meffan-Main et al. (2004) J Metamorphic Geol 22:261 281], confirming that these two units have shared the same Alpine metamorphic history. Furthermore, the Gran Paradiso and Monte Rosa nappes underwent eclogite-facies metamorphism within the same time interval as the structurally overlying Zermatt-Saas ophiolite [˜50 40 Ma; e.g., Amato et al. (1999) Earth Planet Sci Lett 171:425 438; Mayer et al. (1999) Eur Union Geosci 10:809 (abstract); Lapen et al. (2003) Earth Planet Sci Lett 215:57 72]. The nearly identical P T t histories of the Gran Paradiso, Monte Rosa, and Zermatt-Saas units suggest that these units shared a common Alpine tectonic and metamorphic history. The close spatial and temporal associations between high pressure (HP) ophiolite and continental crust during Alpine orogeny indicates that the HP internal basement nappes in the western Alps may have played a key role in exhumation and preservation of the ophiolitic rocks through buoyancy-driven uplift. Coupling of oceanic and continental crust may therefore be critical in preventing permanent loss of oceanic crust to the mantle.

Lapen, Thomas J.; Johnson, Clark M.; Baumgartner, Lukas P.; Piaz, Giorgio V. Dal; Skora, Susanne; Beard, Brian L.

2007-02-01

58

High energy lithium rechargeable cells  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Methyl formate solutions are noted to be attractive in rechargeable Li cell applications due to their high conductivities and outstanding electrochemical stability; their primary limitation has been their inability to efficiently cycle Li. By doping methyl formate solutions with CO2, however, Li cycling efficiencies of the order of 98 percent have been achieved. A combination of transition metal oxide insertion-type cathode materials with the methyl formate electrolyte solutions and advanced cathode processing techniques, two promising rechargeable Li technologies have been defined: Li/V2O5, which has demonstrated 250 discharge cycles with little degradation in capacity, and Li/Li(x)CoO2, with excellent low temperature performance.

Ebner, Walter B.; Simmons, John A.; Chua, David L.

59

Survey of rechargeable battery technology  

SciTech Connect

We have reviewed rechargeable battery technology options for a specialized application in unmanned high altitude aircraft. Consideration was given to all rechargeable battery technologies that are available commercially or might be available in the foreseeable future. The LLNL application was found to impose very demanding performance requirements which cannot be met by existing commercially available battery technologies. The most demanding requirement is for high energy density. The technology that comes closest to providing the LLNL requirements is silver-zinc, although the technology exhibits significant shortfalls in energy density, charge rate capability and cyclability. There is no battery technology available ``off-the-shelf` today that can satisfy the LLNL performance requirements. All rechargeable battery technologies with the possibility of approaching/meeting the energy density requirements were reviewed. Vendor interviews were carried out for all relevant technologies. A large number of rechargeable battery systems have been developed over the years, though a much smaller number have achieved commercial success and general availability. The theoretical energy densities for these systems are summarized. It should be noted that a generally useful ``rule-of-thumb`` is that the ratio of packaged to theoretical energy density has proven to be less than 30%, and generally less than 25%. Data developed for this project confirm the usefulness of the general rule. However, data shown for the silver-zinc (AgZn) system show a greater conversion of theoretical to practical energy density than would be expected due to the very large cell sizes considered and the unusually high density of the active materials.

Not Available

1993-07-01

60

Intercalation dynamics in rechargeable batteries  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We consider the ion intercalation of rechargeable battery electrode particles during charging (or discharging). We have developed a general phase-field model which incorporates entropic, enthalpic and elastic effects within the particle as well as the nonlinear chemical reactions at the particle- electrolyte interface. It is shown through linear stability analysis and numerical simulations that particle size and elastic effects will decrease or even eliminate both the spinodal region and the miscibility gap in the phase diagram.

Stanton, Liam; Bazant, Martin

2009-03-01

61

Geothermobarometry in albite-garnet orthogneisses: A case study from the Gran Paradiso nappe (Western Alps)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The aim of this paper is to estimate syntectonic P- T conditions within albite- and garnet-bearing orthogneisses. These rocks are generally characterized by the assemblage quartz + albite + biotite + phengite + CaFe-garnet + epidote + titanite. Garnet contains up to 55 mole per cent of grossular. K-feldspar is a relict magmatic phase. P- T conditions are estimated using several independent methods. First, it is shown that exchange reactions based on the Fe?Mg partitioning between garnet and biotite or garnet and phengite cannot be used to estimate temperatures in these rocks, due to the high grossular content of garnet. Second, maximum and minimum pressures are constrained, respectively, by the occurrence of albite instead of jadeite + quartz and by the assemblage phengite + biotite + quartz. Third, phase equilibria in albite- and garnet-bearing metagranites are modelled in the system K 2O?CaO?FeO?Al 2O 3?SiO 2?H 2O. Equilibrium curves are calculated for the observed phase compositions. Uncertainties in P- T estimates mainly result from the choice of appropriate non-ideal solution models for the garnet. An application is developed for granites from the Gran Paradiso nappe (Western Alps). These granites show an heterogeneous deformation of Alpine age expressed by mylonitic shear zones cutting across weakly deformed domains. Estimated P- T conditions for the synkinematic assemblages are 10-16 kbar at 550±50°C.

Le Goff, Elisabeth; Ballèvre, Michel

1990-11-01

62

Rechargeable lithium battery technology - A survey  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The technology of the rechargeable lithium battery is discussed with special attention given to the types of rechargeable lithium cells and to their expected performance and advantages. Consideration is also given to the organic-electrolyte and polymeric-electrolyte cells and to molten salt lithium cells, as well as to technical issues, such as the cycle life, charge control, rate capability, cell size, and safety. The role of the rechargeable lithium cell in future NASA applications is discussed.

Halpert, Gerald; Surampudi, Subbarao

1990-01-01

63

Choosing appropriate techniques for quantifying groundwater recharge  

Microsoft Academic Search

.   Various techniques are available to quantify recharge; however, choosing appropriate techniques is often difficult. Important\\u000a considerations in choosing a technique include space\\/time scales, range, and reliability of recharge estimates based on different\\u000a techniques; other factors may limit the application of particular techniques. The goal of the recharge study is important\\u000a because it may dictate the required space\\/time scales of

Bridget R. Scanlon; Richard W. Healy; Peter G. Cook

2002-01-01

64

NORTH CAROLINA GROUNDWATER RECHARGE RATES 1994  

EPA Science Inventory

North Carolina Groundwater Recharge Rates, from Heath, R.C., 1994, Ground-water recharge in North Carolina: North Carolina State University, as prepared for the NC Department of Environment, Health and Natural Resources (NC DEHNR) Division of Enviromental Management Groundwater S...

65

Reflections on Dry-Zone Recharge  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Quantifying recharge in regions of low precipitation remains a challenging task. The design of permanent nuclear-waste isolation at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, the design of arid-site landfill covers and the pumping of groundwater in desert cities, like Las Vegas, are examples where accurate recharge estimates are needed because they affect billion-dollar decisions. Recharge cannot be measured directly and must rely on estimation methods of various kinds including chemical tracers, thermal profiling, lysimetry, and water-balance modeling. Chemical methods, like chloride-mass-balance can significantly underestimate actual recharge rates and water-balance models are generally limited by large uncertainties. Studies at the U. S. Department of Energy's Hanford Site in Washington State, USA illustrate how estimates of recharge rates have changed over time and how these estimates can affect waste management decisions. Lysimetry has provided reliable estimates of recharge for a wide range of surface condittions. Lysimetric observations of reduced recharge, resulting from advective drying of coarse rock piles, suggest a way to avoid costly recharge protection using titanium shields at Yucca Mountain. The Pacific Northwest National Laboratory is funded by the U. S. Department of Energy under contract DE-AC05-76-RL01830.

Gee, G. W.

2005-05-01

66

Transformer Recharging with Alpha Channeling in Tokamaks  

SciTech Connect

Transformer recharging with lower hybrid waves in tokamaks can give low average auxiliary power if the resistivity is kept high enough during the radio frequency (rf) recharging stage. At the same time, operation in the hot ion mode via alpha channeling increases the effective fusion reactivity. This paper will address the extent to which these two large cost saving steps are compatible. __________________________________________________

N.J. Fisch

2009-12-21

67

Improved Carbon Anodes For Rechargeable Lithium Cells  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Carbon anodes for rechargeable lithium cells improved by choosing binder contents and fabrication conditions to achieve maximum porosity, uniform loading, and maximum reversible lithium capacity. Stacking electrodes under pressure during assembly of cells increases cyclability of lithium. Rechargeable, high-energy-density lithium cells containing improved carbon anodes find use in spacecraft, military, communications, automotive, and other demanding applications.

Huang, Chen-Kuo; Surampudi, Subbarao; Attia, Alan; Halpert, Gerald

1994-01-01

68

Lithium Cells Accept Hundreds Of Recharges  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

New mixed-solvent electrolyte increases number of times room-temperature lithium cell discharged and recharged. Conductivity 70 percent higher. Useful in such other room-temperature rechargeable lithium cells as lithium/niobium triselenide and lithium molybdenum disulfide systems.

Shen, David H.; Surampudi, Subbarao; Deligiannis, Fotios; Halpert, Gerald

1991-01-01

69

Imprint of foreland structure on the deformation of a thrust sheet: The Plio-Pleistocene Gela Nappe (southern Sicily, Italy)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In Sicily, the progressive imbrication of the Apenninic thrust belt above the Pelagian-African Foreland is traced by the southward migration of marine basins that were progressively shortened during the late Miocene-Pleistocene. The outermost and youngest thrust sheet (Gela Nappe) displays a peculiar shortening, with Messinian to early Pliocene E-W folds refolded in the late Pliocene-early Pleistocene by approximately N-S folds (subparallel to the transport direction of the thrust sheets). This structural interference is documented in south Sicily within localized belts of refolding spaced ˜5-8 km apart. The significance of this fold interference pattern is highlighted by our analysis of the offshore seismic reflection line M23A (CROP Mare Project) that intersects the Gela Nappe along a trace suborthogonal to the thrust transport direction. Migration and depth conversion of the line reveal multiple imbrications and draping of the allochthonous units above structural highs of the foreland, delimited by inherited N-S faults. The largest faults bound mid-late Miocene extensional basins but were reactivated in compression during the late Pliocene-early Pleistocene, causing (1) superposed folding along discordant N-S structural trends, (2) compressional extrusion of the whole wedge of the Gela Nappe, and (3) offset of its sole thrust. The reactivation of faults subparallel to the transport direction accommodates differential flexure of the rigid foreland beneath the Apenninic wedge, and these late stage deformations in the foreland are responsible for the superposition of E-W finite shortening onto N-S shortening.

Ghisetti, Francesca C.; Gorman, Andrew R.; Grasso, Mario; Vezzani, Livio

2009-08-01

70

Middle Oligocene extension in the Mediterranean Calabro-Peloritan belt (southern Italy): Insights from the Aspromonte nappes pile  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Calabro-Peloritan belt constitutes the eastward termination of the southern segment of the Alpine Mediterranean belt. This orogenic system was built up during the convergence between the Eurasian and the African plates, roughly north-south directed since the Upper Cretaceous. It was subsequently fragmented during the opening of the western Mediterranean basins since Oligocene times. The curved shape of the Calabro-Peloritan belt was acquired during the opening of the Tyrrhenian basin since the Tortonian. The origin, kinematics, and significance of the Calabro-Peloritan tectonic pile are still debated. Our data in the Aspromonte Massif of southern Calabria reveal an Alpine history marked by two main superimposed kinematic regimes. A first phase corresponds to the piling up of basement nappes with a top-to-the-SE vergence, i.e., in a direction orthogonal to the belt trend and toward the Adriatic foreland. This external vergence is similar to what is observed in both northeastern Sicily and northern Calabria. In Sicily, the age of nappe piling is Alpine, as evidenced by pinched slices of Mesozoic sediments. In the Aspromonte Massif, thrusting age is less constrained. Our data suggest remnants of late Hercynian structuration before the Alpine stacking. A second phase corresponds to the thinning of the continental crust, dated at around 30 Ma by both geochronological and stratigraphical data. This extension is mainly localized on two low-angle detachment contacts, with top-to-the-NE displacement. The lower one corresponds to the reworking of the former main nappe contact. The upper one is a large detachment fault cutting across the pile from upper sedimentary levels down to metamorphic basement. Extension of similar Alpine age and similar internal vergence has been already recognized in other parts of the Calabro-Peloritan Arc, i.e., in the basement nappes of northeastern Sicily and in the ophiolitic units of northern Calabria. Coming back to the original geometry and position of the Calabro-Peloritan belt, before its bending and the opening of the Liguro-Provençal and Tyrrhenian basins, we evidence a homogeneous Oligocene NE-SW extension all along the Calabro-Peloritan segment of the Alpine Mediterranean belt. This tectonometamorphic history is best explained within the framework of the continuous Tertiary westward dipping subduction of the Tethyan oceanic domain below the European active margin and the progressive southeastward retreat of the Apennine trench since Oligocene times.

Heymes, T.; Bouillin, J.-P.; Pêcher, A.; Monié, P.; Compagnoni, R.

2008-04-01

71

Alpine orogenic P-T-t-deformation history of the Catena Costiera area and surrounding regions (Calabrian Arc, southern Italy): The nappe edifice of north Calabria revised with insights on the Tyrrhenian-Apennine system formation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The nappe-structured belt of Calabria constitutes the eastward termination of the southern branch of the Alpine Mediterranean belt that delimits the northern edge of the Africa plate. Contrasting hypotheses for the origin and tectonic significance of the north Calabrian nappe edifice have been proposed, and kinematic data from north Calabria have been used to support different interpretations of the Alps-Apennines

Federico Rossetti; Bruno Goffé; Patrick Monié; Claudio Faccenna; Gianluca Vignaroli

2004-01-01

72

Sedimentary patterns across the Lower Middle Cambrian transition in the Esla nappe (Cantabrian Mountains, northern Spain)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the carbonate platforms of the western Gondwana margin, the extinction recorded at the Lower-Middle Cambrian boundary is accompanied by a profound change in the style of carbonate deposition. The Láncara Formation of the Esla nappe (Cantabrian Mountains, northern Spain) contains a distinct sedimentary turnover due to a combination of tectonism, eustatic fluctuations, and immigration and colonization of new benthic communities, such as the youngest archaeocyathan assemblage of the entire Iberian Peninsula. During latest Early Cambrian times, a regressive trend is recorded in the Láncara Formation. This regression was recorded on a peritidal-dominant, homoclinal ramp that is topped by a tectonically induced discontinuity (D1). The latter surface marks the beginning of a last prograding, regressive tendency recorded on an intra-shelf ramp with ooidal/bioclastic shoals protecting archaeocyathan-microbial patch reefs. The overlying discontinuity (D2) corresponds to a major erosive unconformity, which coincides with the Lower-Middle Cambrian boundary in the Cantabrian Mountains. The subsequent, long-term, earliest Middle Cambrian rise in relative sea-level allowed deposition of low-relief, bioclastic shoals bearing a diverse and cosmopolitan assemblage of benthic fauna. Finally, the previous evolution is bounded by a third discontinuity (D3), which marks the beginning of a rhythmic sedimentation indicative of a major phase of tectonic breakdown and drowning of platforms recognised throughout southwestern Europe. Two associations of calcimicrobes occur in the latest Early Cambrian regressive trend of the Láncara Formation: (i) Proaulopora and Subtiflora are identified in peritidal, high-energy settings, lacking self-supported structures, whereas (ii) intergrowths of Epiphyton, Renalcis and Girvanella encrusted branching colonies and solitary archaeocyaths in protected (back-shoal) patch reefs. The latest Early Cambrian regression is correlated in southwestern Europe in both siliciclastic (Iberian Chains and Ossa-Morena) and carbonate-dominant platforms (Cantabrian Mountains, Montagne Noire and Sardinia). Its tops are recognised as diachronous unconformities ranging in age from early Bilbilian to the Bilbilian-Leonian or Lower-Middle Cambrian boundary.

Álvaro, J. J.; Vennin, E.; Moreno-Eiris, E.; Perejón, A.; Bechstädt, T.

2000-12-01

73

Rechargeable lithium-ion cell  

DOEpatents

The invention relates to a rechargeable lithium-ion cell, a method for its manufacture, and its application. The cell is distinguished by the fact that it has a metallic housing (21) which is electrically insulated internally by two half shells (15), which cover electrode plates (8) and main output tabs (7) and are composed of a non-conductive material, where the metallic housing is electrically insulated externally by means of an insulation coating. The cell also has a bursting membrane (4) which, in its normal position, is located above the electrolyte level of the cell (1). In addition, the cell has a twisting protection (6) which extends over the entire surface of the cover (2) and provides centering and assembly functions for the electrode package, which comprises the electrode plates (8).

Bechtold, Dieter (Bad Vilbel, DE); Bartke, Dietrich (Kelkheim, DE); Kramer, Peter (Konigstein, DE); Kretzschmar, Reiner (Kelkheim, DE); Vollbert, Jurgen (Hattersheim, DE)

1999-01-01

74

Lithium ion rechargeable systems studies  

SciTech Connect

Lithium ion systems, although relatively new, have attracted much interest worldwide. Their high energy density, long cycle life and relative safety, compared with metallic lithium rechargeable systems, make them prime candidates for powering portable electronic equipment. Although lithium ion cells are presently used in a few consumer devices, e.g., portable phones, camcorders, and laptop computers, there is room for considerable improvement in their performance. Specific areas that need to be addressed include: (1) carbon anode--increase reversible capacity, and minimize passivation; (2) cathode--extend cycle life, improve rate capability, and increase capacity. There are several programs ongoing at Sandia National Laboratories which are investigating means of achieving the stated objectives in these specific areas. This paper will review these programs.

Levy, S.C.; Lasasse, R.R.; Cygan, R.T.; Voigt, J.A.

1995-02-01

75

Âge Paléozoïque inférieur (U—Pb sur zircon) de métagranophyres de la nappe du Grand-Saint-Bernard ( zona interna, vallée d'Aoste, Italie)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Early Paleozoic U—Pb age of zircons from metagranophyres of the Grand-Saint-Bernard Nappe ( zona interna, Aosta Valley, Italy). The U—Pb age of a metagranophyre from the Val de Rhèmes (Briançonnais basement of the Aosta valley) of 511 ± 9 Ma suggests that the micaschists which dominate the pre-alpine basement of the Grand-Saint-Bernard Nappe are, in part, of Early Paleozoic age. The Briançonnais domain is characterized by a Cambrian to Ordovician alkaline to subalkaline (monzonitic) magmatism, similar in age to orthogneisses known in other parts of the Variscan belt and generally interpreted as related to an extensional event.

Bertrand, Jean-Michel; Guillot, François; Leterrier, Jacques

2000-04-01

76

Palaeozoic continental-type gabbros in the Gran Paradiso nappe (Western Alps, Italy): Early-Alpine eclogitization and geochemistry  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Palaeozoic gabbros intruded by late-Variscan granitoids occur in the southern part of the Gran Paradiso nappe (Western Alps). They are the first gabbroic rocks described in the Variscan basement of the internal Pennine nappes. Both gabbros and granitoids sustained the early-Alpine high-pressure metamorphism (at T around 500°C and P between 12 and 20 kbar) and {garnet- Ca}/{Na} amphiboles-omphacite-talc-paragonite assemblages developed in the gabbros. In little-deformed metagabbros, the complete eclogitic recrystallization and the relatively advanced compositional homogenization of some eclogitic minerals were probably favoured by fluid infiltration; however, the microstructural re-organization failed and the pre-alpine magmatic domains survived in response to the lack of pervasive deformation. The little-deformed metagabbros are bounded by glaucophane-bearing ductile shear zones formed during the early post-eclogitic path. Major- and trace-element abundances and REE patterns of the gabbros indicate derivation from a basaltic sub-alkaline melt with a continental affinity. Although a hiatus exists between the gabbros and the associated Gran Paradiso granitoids, the ratios between some hygromagmatophile elements and the normalized patterns for some elements suggest a few affinities between the two lithologies; these rocks probably formed during the same magmatic cycle and the granitoids originated either from anatexis of continental crust during gabbro intrusion or, more likely, by fractionation and interaction between the early basaltic melt and the sialic crust.

Biino, Giuseppe; Pognante, Ugo

1989-12-01

77

Structural evidence for the allochthonous nature of the Bulbul terrane in southern Ethiopia: A west-verging thrust nappe  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Neoproterozoic basement of southern Ethiopia links the low-grade Pan-African province of the Arabian-Nubian Shield to the high-grade Mozambique Belt to the south. In this intervening area, a northward terminating low-grade metavolcano-sedimentary and mafic-ultramafic sequence of the Bulbul terrane gently overlies moderately to steeply dipping granitic migmatites of the Alghe gneissic terrane. The contact between the two terranes is a right lateral thrust. In the Bulbul terrane, rocks are part of an overturned sequence with a gently east-dipping composite D1/D2 foliation containing downdip and NE-plunging stretching lineations and westerly verging intrafolial folds. These structures are interpreted to have been developed during westward thrusting. The Bulbul sequence was therefore detached and tectonically transported to the west as a thrust nappe of which the lower inverted limb is still preserved. Structural evidence suggest yet another smaller nappe sequence (terrane) is present in southern Ethiopia and further suggest that Neoproterozoic obducted crust of the Arabian-Nubian Shield in eastern Ethiopia may be located beneath Phanerozoic cover.

Yihunie, Tadesse; Tesfaye, Melaku

2002-02-01

78

A new restoration of the NFP20-East cross section and possible tectonic overpressure in the Penninic Adula Nappe (Central Alps)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Adula Nappe in the eastern Central Alps is one of the four units in the Alps from which ultrahigh-pressure rocks have been reported. Several very different models for its tectonic history have been published but none of these models is fully satisfactory. In the models of Schmid et al. (1996) and Engi et al. (2001), the main mechanism of exhumation is assumed to be extrusion. The extrusion models require top-to-the-hinterland, i.e. top-to-the-south faulting in the hanging wall of the exhuming nappe for which there is no evidence. Froitzheim et al. (2003) proposed a scenario with two different subduction zones, an internal one in which the South Penninic and Briançonnais domains were subducted, and an external one in which the North Penninc domain and the European margin, including the Adula nappe, were subducted. In this model, the exhumation of the Adula nappe results from the subduction of the overlying sub-Briançonnais and sub-South-Penninic mantle in the internal subduction zone. The Adula nappe would then have been exhumed from below into a top-to-the-north shear zone also affecting the overriding Briançonnais units. The main shortcoming of this model is that otherwise there is little evidence for two Alpine subduction zones. All the models cited above are based on the conversion of peak pressures obtained from geobarometry to depth by assuming lithostatic pressures. This results in a much greater burial depth of the Adula Nappe with respect to the surrounding units which poses major problems when trying to reconcile maximum burial depths of the Penninic nappes with their structural record. We performed a new restoration of the NFP20-East cross section (Schmid et al. 1996) without applying a lithostatic pressure-to-depth conversion but a purely geometrical restoration of deformation events in the Penninic nappe stack. The major constraints on these reconstructions are given by strain estimates for the major deformation phases in the units overlying the Adula Nappe (Mayerat Demarne 1994) and zircon fission track ages (Flisch 1986) indicating that the Austroalpine units have not been more than 10 km below surface after the Palaeocene. The maximum pressures of eclogites from the Adula nappe reported in the literature are about 1.8 times as high as the lithostatic pressures derived from our cross section restoration. Given that tectonic overpressure in an orogen may be as high as lithostatic pressure (Petrini and Podladchikov 2000), the results of our cross section restoration suggest that the exceptionally high pressures recorded by the Adula Nappe may not be due to exceptionally deep burial but, at least partly, to tectonic overpressure. Engi, M., Berger, A. & Roselle, G.T. 2001: Geology 29, 1143-1146. Flisch, M. 1986: Bull. Ver. Schweiz. Pet.-Geol.-Ing. 53, 23- 49. Froitzheim, N., Pleuger, J., Roller, S. & Nagel, T. 2003: Geology 31, 925-928. Mayerat Demarne, A.M. 1994: Beitr. Geol. Karte Schweiz, 165. Petrini, K. & Podladchikov, Yu. 2000: J. metamorphic Geol.18, 67-77. Schmid, S.M., Pfiffner, O.A., Froitzheim, N., Schönborn, G. & Kissling, E. 1996: Tectonics 15, 1036-1064.

Pleuger, J.; Podladchikov, Y.

2012-04-01

79

New Mechanically Rechargeable Zinc-Air Batteries.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report describes the design, development and testing of new mechanically rechargeable zinc-air batteries. Following research and development of a low cost silver-mercury cathode catalyst, prototype battery tests were conducted. Cycle life tests at 3....

J. Giltner

1975-01-01

80

REVISED NORTH CAROLINA GROUNDWATER RECHARGE RATES 1998  

EPA Science Inventory

Revised North Carolina Groundwater Recharge Rates, from Heath, R.C., 1994, unpublished map: North Carolina State University, as modified by the NC Department of Environment and Natural Resources (DENR) Division of Water Quality (DWQ) Groundwater Section, (polygons)...

81

Issues and challenges facing rechargeable lithium batteries  

Microsoft Academic Search

Technological improvements in rechargeable solid-state batteries are being driven by an ever-increasing demand for portable electronic devices. Lithium-ion batteries are the systems of choice, offering high energy density, flexible and lightweight design, and longer lifespan than comparable battery technologies. We present a brief historical review of the development of lithium-based rechargeable batteries, highlight ongoing research strategies, and discuss the challenges

J.-M. Tarascon; M. Armand

2001-01-01

82

Lithium rechargeable cell with a polymer cathode  

Microsoft Academic Search

Thin films of electropolymerized poly 3-methylthiophene (PMT) were used as a rechargeable cathode in Li(SO2)3AlCl4 electrolyte. Capacity was superior to porous carbon electrodes of like thickness. Pulse power levels of 2 W cm-2 were achieved, and high rate constant current pulses of four-second duration were reproducible over cycles. Cells could be recharged at potentials below 4.0 V, minimizing the formation

Charles W. Walker Jr.

1991-01-01

83

Late Jurassic ultramaphic lamprophyres with kimberlitic affinity in the allochthonous Batain nappes of Eastern Oman  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Carbonatite, alkaline volcanic rocks and ultramafic lamprophyres with kimberlitic affinities have been recently discovered in the allochthonous Batain nappes of Eastern Oman. The main bodies of the ultramafic lamprophyres occur in a diatreme at the coast of the Asseelah village, northeastern Oman. The second major outcrops of ultramafic lamprophyres occur as several 6 km long dykes at the Bomethra area. The diatreme consists of heterogeneous deposits dominated by 'diatreme facies' volcaniclastic rocks. These include accretionary and armoured carbonate lapilli, and carbonate-dominated tuffs, all of which intrude late Jurassic to early Cretaceous cherts and shales of the Wahra Formation. The Asseelah ultramafic rocks may be classified as either aillikite and/or carbonatite with kimberlitic affinity. Garnet (G0), chromite, phlogopite, ilmenite, zircon, apatite, rutile, corundum, and sillimanite have been recovered from heavy mineral concentrates. Zircon grains extracted from the diatreme rocks have a mean age of 137 + 1 Ma (95 % confidence, MSWD = 0.49). The trace element patterns of the zircon gains are typical of kimberlitic to carbonatitic rocks and their Hf isotope ratio (176Hf/177Hf = 0.28286 + 1, å Hf = 6.2) is typical of kimberlitic zircons of early Cretaceous. The lamprophyric dyke swarms of the Bomethra area comprise macrocrystic, spinel and phlogopite bearing hybabyssall facies calcite aillikites/damtjernites with pelletal lapilli and globular segregationary textures. The main dyke extends in length up to 6 km and ranges in width between 1 and 30 meters with two main blows 300-500 m in width. The petrography, mineralogy, trace element and isotopic composition of the dyke rocks are comparable to aillikites and damtjernites with kimberlitic affinity. Kimberlite indicator minerals include chromite, Cr-diopside, G4 garnet, and picroilmenite. The Asseelah and the Bomethra ultramafic rocks are enriched in light REE and have a high modal proportion of Ti-Al rich phlogopite, suggesting that they were derived from a source region which has experienced melt-depletion followed by metasomatic enrichment. This enrichment of the source region could be a consequence of the upward percolation of an alkaline melts that penetrated the base of the subcontinental lithosphere during the break-up of Gondwanaland. There is no obvious age difference (137 Ma; U-Pb zircon dating of Asseelah rocks and 150- 162 Ma; Ar-Ar age dating of Bomethra rocks) between these various rocks, so the initial magmas were formed around the same time. These ages correlate with large-scale tectonic events recorded in the early Indian Ocean at 140-160 Ma. The magmatism is probably a distal effect of the breakup of Gondwana, during and/or after the rift-to-drift transition that led to the opening of the Indian Ocean. The magmas in the Batain area are petrogenetically related and appear to have originated in a single event, possibly triggered by the arrival of the hot material beneath the Batain lithosphere that had been recently metasomatised and is related spatially and compositionally to mantle upwelling associated with the rifting.

Nasir, S. J.

2009-05-01

84

Proposed artificial recharge studies in northern Qatar  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The aquifer system in northern Qatar comprises a water-table aquifer in the Rus Formation which is separated by an aquitard from a partially confined aquifer in the top of the overlying Umm er Radhuma Formation. These two aquifers are composed of limestone and dolomite of Eocene and Paleocene age and contain a fragile lens of freshwater which is heavily exploited as a source of water for agricultural irrigation. Net withdrawals are greatly in excess of total recharge, and quality of ground water is declining. Use of desalinated seawater for artificial recharge has been proposed for the area. Artificial recharge, on a large scale, could stabilize the decline in ground-water quality while allowing increased withdrawals for irrigation. The proposal appears technically feasible. Recharge should be by injection to the Umm er Radhuma aquifer whose average transmissivity is about 2,000 meters squared per day (as compared to an average of about 200 meters squared per day for the Rus aquifer). Implementation of artificial recharge should be preceded by a hydrogeologic appraisal. These studies should include test drilling, conventional aquifer tests, and recharge-recovery tests at four sites in northern Qatar. (USGS)

Kimrey, J. O.

1985-01-01

85

A purely structural restoration of the NFP20-East cross section and potential tectonic overpressure in the Adula nappe (central Alps)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

extrusion-type models for the high- to ultrahigh-pressure Adula nappe require a major normal fault along the top of this unit which is not conveyed in the structural record. This implies that such a normal fault existed but was completely erased during later deformational stages. However, there is evidence that decompression occurred during top-to-the-foreland thrusting. We performed a new, purely structural kinematic restoration of the central part of the NFP20-East cross section in order to estimate the burial depths of individual units without converting petrological pressure data into depth under the assumption that pressures were lithostatic. The results show that pressures within most of the units were close to but somewhat higher than lithostatic for several stages of the tectono-metamorphic history. Only for the maximum burial stage of the Adula nappe, we estimate local tectonic overpressures of 40 to 80% of the lithostatic pressures. Accepting such an amount of overpressure, which is moderate compared to values theoretically possible, the Adula nappe was probably not subducted to subcrustal depth. We propose that the structural record of the Penninic nappe stack is quite complete and suggest that the decay of tectonic overpressure is a feasible explanation for decompression from eclogite- to amphibolite-facies conditions during thrusting. Consequently, exhumation and convergence rates of the Eocene to Oligocene Alps may be smaller than previously assumed.

Pleuger, Jan; Podladchikov, Yuri Y.

2014-05-01

86

Facies pattern of western Tethyan Middle Triassic black carbonates: The example of Gutenstein Formation in Silica Nappe, Carpathians, Hungary, and its correlation to formations of adjoining areas  

Microsoft Academic Search

During the Middle Triassic, a broad carbonate ramp developed at the western end of the Tethys Ocean. In the early phase of the ramp evolution dark grey or black, finely crystalline carbonates were deposited over a considerable part of the ramp. In the Aggtelek Karst, northeastern Hungary, carbonates of the Aggtelek facies of the Silica Nappe are exposed. In the

Kinga Hips

2007-01-01

87

Cathodoluminescence, fluid inclusion and stable C-O isotope study of tectonic breccias from thrusting plane of a thin-skinned calcareous nappe  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Basal hydraulic breccias of alpine thin-skinned Murá? nappe were investigated by means of cathodoluminescence petrography, stable isotope geochemistry and fluid inclusions analysis. Our study reveals an unusual dynamic fluid regime along basal thrust plane during final episode of the nappe emplacement over its metamorphic substratum. Basal thrusting fluids enriched in 18O, silica, alumina, alkalies and phosphates were generated in the underlying metamorphosed basement at epizonal conditions corresponding to the temperatures of 400-450°C. The fluids fluxed the tectonized nappe base, leached evaporite-bearing formations in hangingwall, whereby becoming oversaturated with sulphates and chlorides. The fluids further modified their composition by dedolomitization and isotopic exchange with the host carbonatic cataclasites. Newly formed mineral assemblage of quartz, phlogopite, albite, potassium feldspar, apatite, dravite tourmaline and anhydrite precipitated from these fluids on cooling down to 180-200°C. Finally, the cataclastic mush was cemented by calcite at ambient anchizonal conditions. Recurrent fluid injections as described above probably enhanced the final motion of the Murá? nappe.

Milovský, Rastislav; van den Kerkhof, Alfons; Hoefs, Jochen; Hurai, Vratislav; Prochaska, Walter

2012-03-01

88

U-Pb detrital zircon analysis of pre-Timanian passive-margin successions and Caledonian nappes of North Norway  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Neoproterozoic passive-margin successions of the pre-Timanian margin, northern Norway, include the thick, deep-marine to deltaic, basinal Barents Sea Group and a fluvial to shallow-marine platformal domain to the south. To the west, different rock successions occur in the Lower, Middle and Upper Allochthons of the Norwegian Caledonides. Many detrital investigations of circum-Arctic terranes claim to recognize a Timanian 'fingerprint' (c. 610-560 Ma zircon ages from subduction-related granitoids generated during Timanian orogenesis), yet the detrital zircon U-Pb age spectrum of these sediments has not been fully assessed. Provenance analysis of pre-Timanian passive-margin formations and selected Caledonian nappe rocks is used to characterize their provenance. This will allow us to evaluate to what extent (if any) these passive-margin sediments have been recycled, to recognize them in younger sedimentary formations, and to possibly correlate the now widely distributed allochthonous fragments which occur throughout the circum-Arctic. Twelve samples were collected across four tectonic units. The principal results so far include: 1) A single sample (STP1) from the Late Ediacaran Stáhpogieddi Formation, Gaissa Nappe Complex (GNC), has a major peak at c. 550 Ma and is likely to represent deposition in the Timanian foreland basin. Another sample (BRE1) from the same region is much different with two major peaks at 2.8-2.7 Ga and 2.4 Ga whose significance remains to be determined. 2) Seven samples show classic Baltican affinity, including FUG1, GRN1 and GMS1 from parautochthonous/autochthonous formations in the Tanafjorden-Varangerfjorden Region (TVR), VEI1 and F-4 from formations lying unconformably upon in-situ Palaeoproterozoic- Archean metamorphic complexes, and LAN1 and IFJ1 from the Laksefjord Nappe Complex. Their provenance includes: i) age peaks at c. 2.8-2.7 Ga, indicating input from the northern Fennoscandian Shield which is dominated by Neoarchaean complexes; ii) age peaks at 1.95-1.8 Ga derived from Palaeoproterozoic terranes of the craton and deformed during the 1.9-1.8 Ga Svecofennian orogeny; iii) Mesoproterozoic grains mainly from the TVR on Varanger Peninsula (also found earlier in a deltaic formation in the Barents Sea Group) with a non-specific provenance including a source possibly concealed beneath the Caledonian nappes and adjacent continental shelf, or a northward extension of the Sveconorwegian/Grenvillian orogeny, or a Tonian-emplaced, sandstone-dominated thrust sheet derived from the margin of Rodinia. In addition, the three samples from the TVR define a time-sequence with older grains decreasing and younger grains increasing stratigraphically upward. 3) Samples (STY1, SF1 and KG1) collected from formations in the Barents Sea Region have similar 1.8 Ga and 2.8-2.7 Ga peaks and abundant Mesoproterozoic grains, which likely derive from the passive margin before Timanian orogenesis, as no detrital zircon grains younger than 1000 Ma are present. The new provenance data help to confirm the interpretation of the Neoproterozoic Barents Sea Group succession as an established passive-margin depositional system with little or no coeval magmatism. The Timanian 'fingerprint' found in the Stáhpogieddi Formation suggests that further remnants of the Timanian foreland basin (which is represented in Russia as the Mezen Basin) may eventually be detected in the shallow-marine, platformal domain of the TVR.

Zhang, Wen; Roberts, David; Pease, Victoria

2014-05-01

89

Estimated recharge rates at the Hanford Site  

SciTech Connect

The Ground-Water Surveillance Project monitors the distribution of contaminants in ground water at the Hanford Site for the U.S. Department of Energy. A subtask called {open_quotes}Water Budget at Hanford{close_quotes} was initiated in FY 1994. The objective of this subtask was to produce a defensible map of estimated recharge rates across the Hanford Site. Methods that have been used to estimate recharge rates at the Hanford Site include measurements (of drainage, water contents, and tracers) and computer modeling. For the simulations of 12 soil-vegetation combinations, the annual rates varied from 0.05 mm/yr for the Ephrata sandy loam with bunchgrass to 85.2 mm/yr for the same soil without vegetation. Water content data from the Grass Site in the 300 Area indicated that annual rates varied from 3.0 to 143.5 mm/yr during an 8-year period. The annual volume of estimated recharge was calculated to be 8.47 {times} 10{sup 9} L for the potential future Hanford Site (i.e., the portion of the current Site bounded by Highway 240 and the Columbia River). This total volume is similar to earlier estimates of natural recharge and is 2 to 10x higher than estimates of runoff and ground-water flow from higher elevations. Not only is the volume of natural recharge significant in comparison to other ground-water inputs, the distribution of estimated recharge is highly skewed to the disturbed sandy soils (i.e., the 200 Areas, where most contaminants originate). The lack of good estimates of the means and variances of the supporting data (i.e., the soil map, the vegetation/land use map, the model parameters) translates into large uncertainties in the recharge estimates. When combined, the significant quantity of estimated recharge, its high sensitivity to disturbance, and the unquantified uncertainty of the data and model parameters suggest that the defensibility of the recharge estimates should be improved.

Fayer, M.J.; Walters, T.B.

1995-02-01

90

The relative contributions of summer and cool-season precipitation to groundwater recharge, Spring Mountains, Nevada, USA  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A comparison of the stable-isotope signatures of spring waters, snow, snowmelt, summer (July thru September) rain, and cool season (October thru June) rain indicates that the high-intensity, short-duration summer convective storms, which contribute approximately a third of the annual precipitation to the Spring Mountains, provide only a small fraction (perhaps 10%) of the recharge to this major upland in southern Nevada, USA. Late spring snowmelt is the principal means of recharging the fractured Paleozoic-age carbonate rocks comprising the central and highest portion of the Spring Mountains. Daily discharge measurements at Peak Spring Canyon Creek during the period 1978-94 show that snowpacks were greatly enhanced during El Niño events. Résumé La comparaison des signatures isotopiques stables des eaux de sources, de neige, de fonte de neige, des pluies d'été (juillet à septembre) et de saison froide (octobre à juin) montre que les précipitations convectives d'été de forte intensité et de courte durée, apportant un tiers des précipitations annuelles reçues par les Monts Spring, ne participent que pour une faible part (10%) à la recharge de cette importante zone d'altitude du sud du Nevada (États-Unis). La fonte tardive de la neige au printemps constitue l'essentiel de la recharge des roches carbonatées fracturées d'âge paléozoïque formant la partie centrale et la plus haute des Monts Spring. Les données journalières de débit sur la rivière du canyon de Peak Spring, entre 1978 et 1994, montrent que les hauteurs de neige ont été plus élevées pendant les événements El Niño. Resumen La comparación entre las marcas isotópicas de aguas de manantiales, nieve, deshielo, lluvias de verano (julio a septiembre) y resto de lluvias (octubre a junio) indican que las tormentas de verano, de corta duración y gran intensidad, las cuales suponen alrededor de un tercio de la precipitación total anual en las Spring Mountains, proporcionan sólo una fracción pequeña (alrededor del 10%) de la recarga en esta zona al sur de Nevada (EE.UU.). El deshielo de finales de la primavera es la principal fuente de recarga de las rocas carbonatadas fracturadas de edad Paleozoica que forman las partes central y superior de las Spring Mountains. Las medidas de descarga diarias en el Desfiladero de Peak Spring Canyon durante 1978-94 muestran que los espesores de nieve aumentaron coincidiendo con los fenómenos de El Niño.

Winograd, Isaac J.; Riggs, Alan C.; Coplen, Tyler B.

91

Transient, spatially varied groundwater recharge modeling  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The objective of this work is to integrate field data and modeling tools in producing temporally and spatially varying groundwater recharge in a pilot watershed in North Okanagan, Canada. The recharge modeling is undertaken by using the Richards equation based finite element code (HYDRUS-1D), ArcGIS™, ROSETTA, in situ observations of soil temperature and soil moisture, and a long-term gridded climate data. The public version of HYDUS-1D and another version with detailed freezing and thawing module are first used to simulate soil temperature, snow pack, and soil moisture over a one year experimental period. Statistical analysis of the results show both versions of HYDRUS-1D reproduce observed variables to the same degree. After evaluating model performance using field data and ROSETTA derived soil hydraulic parameters, the HYDRUS-1D code is coupled with ArcGIS™ to produce spatially and temporally varying recharge maps throughout the Deep Creek watershed. Temporal and spatial analysis of 25 years daily recharge results at various representative points across the study watershed reveal significant temporal and spatial variations; average recharge estimated at 77.8 ± 50.8 mm/year. Previous studies in the Okanagan Basin used Hydrologic Evaluation of Landfill Performance without any attempt of model performance evaluation, notwithstanding its inherent limitations. Thus, climate change impact results from this previous study and similar others, such as Jyrkama and Sykes (2007), need to be interpreted with caution.

Assefa, Kibreab Amare; Woodbury, Allan D.

2013-08-01

92

Des Moines.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document, intended for elementary students, contains articles and activities designed to acquaint young people with the history of Des Moines, Iowa. The articles are short, and new or difficult words are highlighted and defined for young readers. "The Raccoon River Indian Agency" discusses the archeological exploration of the indian…

Gore, Deborah, Ed.

1988-01-01

93

Rechargeable alkaline manganese dioxide/zinc batteries  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The rechargeable alkaline manganese dioxide/zinc MnO 2/Zn) system, long established commercial as a primay battery, has reached a high level of performance as a secondary battery system. The operating principles are presented and the technological achievements are surveyed by referencing the recent publications and patent literature. A review is also given of the improvements obtained with newly formulated cathodes and anodes and specially designed batteries. Supported by modelling of the cathode and anode processes and by statistical evidence during cycling of parallel/series-connected modules, the envisioned performance of the next generation of these batteries is described. The possibility of extending the practical use of the improved rechargeable MnO 2/Zn system beyond the field of small electronics into the area of power tools, and even to kW-sized power sources, is demonstrated. Finally, the commercial development in comparison with other rechargeable battery systems is examined.

Kordesh, K.; Weissenbacher, M.

94

All Inorganic Ambient Temperature Rechargeable Lithium Battery: Final Report.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Having the advantages of high energy density and good charge retention, rechargeable lithium batteries have been of interest to many companies and research organizations within the last 15 years. Various lithium rechargeable systems with different positiv...

H. C. Kuo A. N. Dey C. Schlaikjer D. Foster M. Kallianidis

1987-01-01

95

REFLEAK: NIST Leak/Recharge Simulation Program for Refrigerant Mixtures  

National Institute of Standards and Technology Data Gateway

SRD 73 NIST REFLEAK: NIST Leak/Recharge Simulation Program for Refrigerant Mixtures (PC database for purchase)   REFLEAK estimates composition changes of zeotropic mixtures in leak and recharge processes.

96

Electrolyte Additive for Lithium Rechargeable Organic Electrolyte Battery.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The invention relates in general to a rechargeable lithium organic electrolyte battery and, in particular, to an electrolyte additive for such a battery that provides overcharge protection. Rechargeable lithium-organic electrolyte batteries are being deve...

W. K. Behl D. T. Chin

1988-01-01

97

Electrode materials for aqueous rechargeable lithium batteries  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this review, we describe briefly the historical development of aqueous rechargeable lithium batteries, the advantages and\\u000a challenges associated with the use of aqueous electrolytes in lithium rechargeable battery with an emphasis on the electrochemical\\u000a performance of various electrode materials. The following materials have been studied as cathode materials: LiMn2O4, MnO2, LiNiO2, LiCoO2, LiMnPO4, LiFePO4, and anatase TiO2. Addition of

H. Manjunatha; G. S. Suresh; T. V. Venkatesha

2011-01-01

98

Solar recharging system for hearing aid cells.  

PubMed

We present a solar recharging system for nickel-cadmium cells of interest in areas where batteries for hearing aids are difficult to obtain. The charger has sun cells at the top. Luminous energy is converted into electrical energy, during the day and also at night if there is moonlight. The cost of the charger and hearing aid is very low at 35 US$. The use of solar recharging for hearing aids would be useful in alleviating the problems of deafness in parts of developing countries where there is no electricity. PMID:7964140

Gòmez Estancona, N; Tena, A G; Torca, J; Urruticoechea, L; Muñiz, L; Aristimuño, D; Unanue, J M; Torca, J; Urruticoechea, A

1994-09-01

99

Lithium-manganese oxide rechargeable battery  

SciTech Connect

A new type of rechargeable battery in which lithium ions shuttle between a lithium-manganese oxide electrode and a carbon electrode was unveiled recently by chemists from Bell Communications Research (Bellcore), Red Bank, N.J. The new battery--still experimental--is safer, longer lasting, and potentially cheaper to manufacture than other lithium-ion batteries. In addition, it provides three times the energy of nickel-cadmium cells, the most popular type of rechargeable battery. Bellcore scientists believe the new battery could replace nickel-cadmium and small lead-acid batteries in many applications.

Dagani, R.

1993-01-04

100

Improved Separators For Rechargeable Lithium Cells  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Improved pairs of separators proposed for use in rechargeable lithium cells operating at ambient temperature. Block growth of lithium dendrites and help prevent short circuits. Each cell contains one separator made of microporous polypropylene placed next to anode, and one separator made of microporous polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) next to cathode. Separators increase cycle lives of secondary lithium cells. Cells to which concept applicable those of Li/TiS(2), Li/NbSe(3), Li/CoO(2), Li/MoS(2), Li/VO(x), and Li/MnO(2) chemical systems. Advantageous in spacecraft, military, communications, automotive, and other applications in which high energy density and rechargeability needed.

Shen, David; Surampudi, Subbarao; Huang, Chen-Kuo; Halpert, Gerald

1994-01-01

101

Karst and artificial recharge: Theoretical and practical problems. A preliminary approach to artificial recharge assessment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

SummaryManaged Aquifer Recharge (MAR) is an emerging sustainable technique that has already generated successful results and is expected to solve many water resource problems, especially in semi-arid and arid zones. It is of great interest for karst aquifers that currently supply 20-25% of the world's potable water, particularly in Mediterranean countries. However, the high heterogeneity in karst aquifers is too complex to be able to locate and describe them simply via field observations. Hence, as compared to projects in porous media, MAR is still marginal in karst aquifers. Accordingly, the present work presents a conceptual methodology for Aquifer Rechargeability Assessment in Karst - referred to as ARAK. The methodology was developed noting that artificial recharge in karst aquifers is considered an improbable challenge to solve since karst conduits may drain off recharge water without any significant storage, or recharge water may not be able to infiltrate. The aim of the ARAK method is to determine the ability of a given karst aquifer to be artificially recharged and managed, and the best sites for implementing artificial recharge from the surface. ARAK is based on multi-criteria indexation analysis modeled on karst vulnerability assessment methods. ARAK depends on four independent criteria, i.e. Epikarst, Rock, Infiltration and Karst. After dividing the karst domain into grids, these criteria are indexed using geological and topographic maps refined by field observations. ARAK applies a linear formula that computes the intrinsic rechargeability index based on the indexed map for every criterion, coupled with its attributed weighting rate. This index indicates the aptitude for recharging a given karst aquifer, as determined by studying its probability first on a regional scale for the whole karst aquifer, and then by characterizing the most favorable sites. Subsequently, for the selected sites, a technical and economic feasibility factor is applied, weighted by the difficulties that could occur when trying to undertake a recharge operation at a selected site from the surface. Each site is finally rated by its rechargeability index - the product of two factors, the intrinsic rechargeability and the feasibility index. ARAK was applied to the region of Damour, Lebanon, on the Mediterranean coast where uncontrolled exploitation of public and private wells led to its partial salinization by seawater. A MAR system in Damour region represents an interesting solution to cope with salinization and the insufficiency of the resource.

Daher, Walid; Pistre, Séverin; Kneppers, Angeline; Bakalowicz, Michel; Najem, Wajdi

2011-10-01

102

UHT overprint of HP rocks? A case study from the Adula nappe complex (Central Alps, N Italy)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Adula-Cima Lunga nappe complex is located on the eastern flank of the Lepontine Dome and represents the highest of the Lower Penninic units of the Central Alps. The Adula nappe largely consists of orthogneiss and paragneiss of pre-Mesozoic origin, variably retrogressed eclogites preserved as boudins within paragneiss, minor ultramafic bodies and metasedimentary rocks of presumed Mesozoic age. The higher metamorphic conditions have been estimated for the peridotite lenses in the southern part of the nappe at pressure over 3.0 GPa and temperature of 800-850°C. Garnet lherzolite bodies crop out at three localities, from west to east: Cima di Gagnone, Alpe Arami and Mt. Duria. After the partial subduction of the European distal margin beneath the Africa-Adria margin, the HP rocks were overprinted by an upper amphibolite facies metamorphism that postdates the main phase of nappe stacking. In the southern sector of the Lepontine Dome, adjacent to the Insubric Fault, metamorphic conditions promoted extensive migmatization of both metasedimentary and metagranitoid rocks. In one single outcrop, at Monte Duria, garnet lherzolites occur in m-sized boudins hosted within partly granulitized amphibole-bearing and k-feldspar gneisses that contain also some decimeter-sized boudins of both mafic and metapelitic eclogites. This rock association is in turn embedded within the migmatitic gneisses that form most of the southern sector of the Adula nappe. Petrographic and chemical analyses indicate that garnet peridotite is composed of olivine (XMg=0.88), orthopyroxene, clinopyroxene and garnet (Py68; Cr2O3 up to 1.45 wt%) with inclusions of Cr-rich spinel (up to Cr/(Al+Cr)=0.55) surrounded by kelyphitic symplectites of opx + cpx/amph + spl. These reaction produced double coronas, one composed of opx (former ol) and one composed of cpx + opx+ spl. In one kelyphite, we observed the uncommon occurrence of ZrO2 (baddeleyite) and ZrTi2O6 (srilankite). Tiny crystals of these two Zr-bearing phases (˜1 ?m) are invariably located in the opx corona after ol. The cpx + opx + spl corona (after grt) contains, instead, zircon. Baddeleyite should have formed through a reaction of the type Mg2SiO4 + ZrSiO4 = MgSiO3 + ZrO2. ZrO2 and ZrTi2O6 display a low amount of solid solution. These compositions are consistent with T below 1200°C, but an improvement of the thermodynamic model is needed in order to better constrain the T of the granulitic overprint on the basis of these Zr-bearing phases. In mafic eclogites, the HP association consists of garnet (Py40Alm37Sp20), omphacite (preserved as inclusion, containing Jd30 and Mg# 0.87), kyanite and minor quartz. Omphacite is almost always replaced by cpx (Jd5) + plag (An55) symplectites. Garnet is surrounded by plag (An33) + opx (En70) symplectites. Kyanite is replaced by plag (An84) + spinel + sapphirine. The spinel-sapphirine Fe-Mg thermometer suggests T of about 850°C due to granulite-facies overprint. We observed sapphirine associated with cpx + opx + plag also in kelyphites after garnet in clinopyroxenites. In eclogitic metapelites, kyanite is replaced by a corundum + anorthite ± spinel assemblage. A corundum-rich layer occurs between eclogites and the host gneiss. Cm-sized emerald green zoisite in this layer is replaced by anorthitic plagioclase ± cpx ± spinel ± calcite. The observed assemblages point to a diffuse granulitization of both the peridotites and the hosting HP rocks of Mt. Duria, suggesting a nearly isothermal decompression from peak-pressure conditions. The surrounding migmatitic gneiss do not display evidence of such granulitic event, having been formed at T<700°C. The mechanism and timing of emplacement of the garnet peridotite and associated HP-HT rocks in the country migmatites, and whether or not the subduction event is related to the Alpine or to an older orogenic cycle are still a matter of debate.

Tumiati, Simone; Zanchetta, Stefano; Malaspina, Nadia; Poli, Stefano

2014-05-01

103

Regional Estimation of Total Recharge to Ground Water in Nebraska  

Microsoft Academic Search

Naturally occurring long-term mean annual recharge to ground water in Nebraska was estimated by a novel water-balance approach. This approach uses geographic information systems (GIS) layers of land cover, elevation of land and ground water surfaces, base recharge, and the recharge potential in combination with monthly climatic data. Long-term mean recharge > 140 rnm per year was estimated in eastern

Jozsef Szilagyi; F. Edwin Harvey; Jerry F. Ayers

2005-01-01

104

Assurance chômage des emprunteurs  

Microsoft Academic Search

La securisation des prets pour accession a la propriete concerne les organismes de credit mais aussi la puissance publique, avec le developpement des prets a taux zero. L'assurance chomage privee des prets hypothecaires evite la budgetisation des prestations qu'entrainerait un assurance publiquepour des prets aides. L'article etudie les conditions d'assurabilite du risque chomage des emprunteurs, et en regard la theorie

Pierre-André Chiappori; Jean Pinquet

1999-01-01

105

Global synthesis of groundwater recharge in semiarid and arid regions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Global synthesis of the findings from ¾140 recharge study areas in semiarid and arid regions provides important information on recharge rates, controls, and processes, which are critical for sustainable water development. Water resource evaluation, dryland salinity assessment (Australia), and radioactive waste disposal (US) are among the primary goals of many of these recharge studies. The chloride mass balance (CMB) technique

Bridget R. Scanlon; Kelley E. Keese; Alan L. Flint; Lorraine E. Flint; Cheikh B. Gaye; W. Michael Edmunds; Ian Simmers

2006-01-01

106

Global synthesis of groundwater recharge in semiarid and arid regions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Global synthesis of the findings from 140 recharge study areas in semiarid and arid regions provides important information on recharge rates, controls, and processes, which are critical for sustainable water development. Water resource evaluation, dryland salinity assessment (Australia), and radioactive waste disposal (US) are among the primary goals of many of these recharge studies. The chloride mass balance (CMB) technique

Bridget R. Scanlon; Kelley E. Keese; Alan L. Flint; Lorraine E. Flint; Cheikh B. Gaye; W. Michael Edmunds; Ian Simmers

2006-01-01

107

Natural vs. artificial groundwater recharge, quantification through inverse modeling  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Estimating the change in groundwater recharge from an introduced artificial recharge system is important in order to evaluate future water availability. This paper presents an inverse modeling approach to quantify the recharge contribution from both an ephemeral river channel and an introduced artificial recharge system based on floodwater spreading in arid Iran. The study used the MODFLOW-2000 to estimate recharge for both steady- and unsteady-state conditions. The model was calibrated and verified based on the observed hydraulic head in observation wells and model precision, uncertainty, and model sensitivity were analyzed in all modeling steps. The results showed that in a normal year without extreme events, the floodwater spreading system is the main contributor to recharge with 80% and the ephemeral river channel with 20% of total recharge in the studied area. Uncertainty analysis revealed that the river channel recharge estimation represents relatively more uncertainty in comparison to the artificial recharge zones. The model is also less sensitive to the river channel. The results show that by expanding the artificial recharge system, the recharge volume can be increased even for small flood events, while the recharge through the river channel increases only for major flood events.

Hashemi, H.; Berndtsson, R.; Kompani-Zare, M.; Persson, M.

2013-02-01

108

Natural vs. artificial groundwater recharge, quantification through inverse modeling  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Estimating the change in groundwater recharge from an introduced artificial recharge system is important in order to evaluate future water availability. This paper presents an inverse modeling approach to quantify the recharge contribution from both an ephemeral river channel and an introduced artificial recharge system based on floodwater spreading in arid Iran. The study used the MODFLOW-2000 to estimate recharge for both steady and unsteady-state conditions. The model was calibrated and verified based on the observed hydraulic head in observation wells and model precision, uncertainty, and model sensitivity were analyzed in all modeling steps. The results showed that in a normal year without extreme events the floodwater spreading system is the main contributor to recharge with 80% and the ephemeral river channel with 20% of total recharge in the studied area. Uncertainty analysis revealed that the river channel recharge estimation represents relatively more uncertainty in comparison to the artificial recharge zones. The model is also less sensitive to the river channel. The results show that by expanding the artificial recharge system the recharge volume can be increased even for small flood events while the recharge through the river channel increases only for major flood events.

Hashemi, H.; Berndtsson, R.; Kompani-Zare, M.; Persson, M.

2012-08-01

109

Estimating recharge rates with analytic element models and parameter estimation  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Quantifying the spatial and temporal distribution of recharge is usually a prerequisite for effective ground water flow modeling. In this study, an analytic element (AE) code (GFLOW) was used with a nonlinear parameter estimation code (UCODE) to quantify the spatial and temporal distribution of recharge using measured base flows as calibration targets. The ease and flexibility of AE model construction and evaluation make this approach well suited for recharge estimation. An AE flow model of an undeveloped watershed in northern Wisconsin was optimized to match median annual base flows at four stream gages for 1996 to 2000 to demonstrate the approach. Initial optimizations that assumed a constant distributed recharge rate provided good matches (within 5%) to most of the annual base flow estimates, but discrepancies of >12% at certain gages suggested that a single value of recharge for the entire watershed is inappropriate. Subsequent optimizations that allowed for spatially distributed recharge zones based on the distribution of vegetation types improved the fit and confirmed that vegetation can influence spatial recharge variability in this watershed. Temporally, the annual recharge values varied >2.5-fold between 1996 and 2000 during which there was an observed 1.7-fold difference in annual precipitation, underscoring the influence of nonclimatic factors on interannual recharge variability for regional flow modeling. The final recharge values compared favorably with more labor-intensive field measurements of recharge and results from studies, supporting the utility of using linked AE-parameter estimation codes for recharge estimation. Copyright ?? 2005 The Author(s).

Dripps, W. R.; Hunt, R. J.; Anderson, M. P.

2006-01-01

110

A slice of Upper Allochthon in a Middle Allochthon terrain? An ID-TIMS U-Pb study of the Hardanger-Ryfylke Nappe Complex, SW-Norway  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In southwestern Norway, Caledonian Nappes overly autochthonous and parautochthonous basement. The Hardanger-Ryfylke Nappe Complex is positioned south of the Jotun Nappe Complex, both assigned to the Middle Allochthon. It comprises a great variety of magmatic and sedimentary rocks, of greenschist to amphibolite facies metamorphic conditions. Previous extensive mapping, structural and geochemical analyses had distinguished three main units separated by mylonitic thrust zones, from bottom to top, the Dyrskard, Kvitenut and Revsegg nappe sheets. The available geochronological framework, established with Rb-Sr whole rock data, indicated mainly Mesoproterozoic ages for magmatic crystallization and subsequent deformation. Emplacement of the nappe stack occurred during the Caledonian orogeny but it is uncertain whether the three units were thrust as separate slices or together as one block. To increase our understanding on the evolution of these nappes we have carried out ID-TIMS U-Pb analyses using mainly single grains of zircon, titanite, rutile and apatite stemming from orthogneisses, metavolcanics, neosomes, pegmatites and granites. Our data indicate both similarities and differences in the evolution of the three units. The lowermost Dyrskard Group comprises metarhyolites giving a crystallization age of about 1500 Ma. Metamorphism and deformation led to the formation of leucosomes at ca. 1000 Ma, also indicating a metamorphic overprint at ca 430 Ma. The overlying Kvitenut Complex is dominated by orthogneisses with an age of crystallization of ca. 1600 Ma, and strong zircon resetting during metamorphism at 1000 Ma, both typical features of the main gneisses in the Jotun Nappe Complex. Leucosomes and a major granite body have zircon ages of 990-1000 Ma, comparable to that of the Dyrskard Group, which might suggest coeval evolution during this episode. In the mylonitic thrust zone between Dyrscard and Kvitenut two generations of titanite occur, one revealing a Caledonian age at 430 Ma, but also an older one, which we tentatively interpret as giving the time of Sveconorwegian thrusting of Kvitenut on to Dyrskard which also reveals a later metamorphic overprint at around 930 Ma. Metamorphic overprint during the Caledonian event formed local pegmatites in both units. The uppermost Revsegg Formation consists mainly of paragneisses. Dating of intrusive bodies of gabbro and granodiorite is still in progress, and hampered by the predominant xenocrystic character of the zircon population in the felsic units. Zircon and rutile in pegmatitic rocks indicate Caledonian intrusion and metamorphism at 430 Ma. However, in contrast to the other nappe sheets, in the Revsegg Formation we also find evidence for a ca. 450 Ma event in various minerals and lithologies. This age is not typical for the Middle Allochthon whereas it would fit the end of the Ordovician evolution of the upper Allochthon. Such an affinity had originally been proposed by Naterstad et al. (1973) but could not be confirmed by Rb-Sr work. Our data, however, point in that direction. Naterstad et al. 1973. Norges Geologiske Undersøkelse

Roffeis, C.; Corfu, F.; Gabrielsen, R. H.

2012-04-01

111

Late Maastrichtian foraminiferids and diatoms from the Polish Carpathians (Ropianka Formation, Skole Nappe): a case study from the Chmielnik-Grabówka composite section  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Gasi?ski, M.A., Olshtynska, A. and Uchman, A. 2013. Late Maastrichtian foraminiferids and diatoms from the Polish Carpathians (Ropianka Formation, Skole Nappe): a case study from the Chmielnik-Grabowka composite section. Acta Geologica Polonica, 63(4), 515-525. Warszawa. Well-preserved foraminiferids have been found in the Chmielnik-Grabowka section (Skole Nappe, Polish Carpathians). The Abathomphalus mayaroensis (late Maastrichtian) and Racemiguembelina fructicosa (earlylate Maastrichtian) standard planktonic foraminiferal biozones have been recognized, based on the occurrence of their respective index species. Sediments of the R. fructicosa Zone contain diatoms, which are a rare component of Cretaceous flysch microfossil assemblages in the Carpathians. The diatom frustules and some foraminiferid tests are pyritized, probably after burial in the sediment, below the redox boundary or in the oxygen- deficient microenvironment inside the frustules or tests of microfossils; the presence of trace fossils and bioturbational structures in the same bed indicate an oxygenated sea floor.

Gasi?ski, M. Adam; Olshtynska, Alexandra; Uchman, Alfred

2013-12-01

112

Rechargeable Lithium-Inorganic Electrolyte Cell.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The overall objective of the present contract research is to develop and improve performance of Li/SO2Cl2 rechargeable cells with particular emphasis on: safety, discharge capacity, and cycle life. In order to achieve these objectives our approach is to i...

S. Hossain P. Harris R. McDonald C. Todino R. Witter

1990-01-01

113

Prototype systems for rechargeable magnesium batteries  

Microsoft Academic Search

The thermodynamic properties of magnesium make it a natural choice for use as an anode material in rechargeable batteries, because it may provide a considerably higher energy density than the commonly used lead-acid and nickel-cadmium systems. Moreover, in contrast to lead and cadmium, magnesium is inexpensive, environmentally friendly and safe to handle. But the development of Mg batteries has been

D. Aurbach; Z. Lu; A. Schechter; Y. Gofer; H. Gizbar; R. Turgeman; Y. Cohen; M. Moshkovich; E. Levi

2000-01-01

114

Recharging "Hot-Melt" Adhesive Film  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Technique for recharging surface with "hot-melt" film makes use of one sided, high-temperature, pressure-sensitive adhesive tape. Purpose of the one-sided tape is to hold hot-melt charge in place until fused to surface. After adhesive has fused to surface and cooled, tape is removed, leaving adhesive on surface.

Progar, D. J.

1983-01-01

115

Lithium electronic environments in rechargeable battery electrodes  

Microsoft Academic Search

This work investigates the electronic environments of lithium in the electrodes of rechargeable batteries. The use of electron energy-loss spectroscopy (EELS) in conjunction with transmission electron microscopy (TEM) is a novel approach, which when coupled with conventional electrochemical experiments, yield a thorough picture of the electrode interior. Relatively few EELS experiments have been preformed on lithium compounds owing to their

Adrian Hightower

2001-01-01

116

Prototype Rechargeable Lithium Batteries. Phase 1.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report details the work performed on Phase I of an overall two-phase program. The aim of Phase I is to select a room-temperature lithium (Li) rechargeable couple that offers high energy density (60-90 Wh/1b), good rate capability (C/6-C/1), and low t...

W. B. Ebner H. W. Lin

1987-01-01

117

Mechanically Rechargeable Zinc-Air Battery.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The mechanically rechargeable zinc-air battery is a new power source that has an energy density in the order of 100 watthours per pound, twice that of the closest competing battery system. The many advantageous characteristics of this battery have encoura...

D. Linden

1969-01-01

118

Characteristics of carbon-lithium rechargeable batteries  

Microsoft Academic Search

Carbon-lithium rechargeable batteries are composed of an activated carbon positive electrode, a lithium-occluded alloy negative electrode, and an organic electrolyte. The discharge curve obtainable from batteries of this type exhibits the slightly inclining linearity of a capacitor. Potential applications are envisioned in computer memory backup power sources and maintenance-free power source applications involving solar cell arrays.

K. Momose; H. Hayakawa; N. Koshiba; T. Ikehata

1987-01-01

119

High reliability lithium rechargeable batteries for specialties  

Microsoft Academic Search

Since their development in the late 1980s, lithium rechargeable batteries have enjoyed rapid growth and wide use as a commodity battery known for its higher energy density storage and lightweight convenience. These same attributes are emerging as a strong platform in power source development for the medical and aerospace sectors with highly customized applications and narrowly defined criteria. Accordingly, this

H. Tsukamoto

2003-01-01

120

Anode for rechargeable ambient temperature lithium cells  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An ambient room temperature, high density, rechargeable lithium battery includes a Li(x)Mg2Si negative anode which intercalates lithium to form a single crystalline phase when x is up to 1.0 and an amorphous phase when x is from 1 to 2.0. The electrode has good reversibility and mechanical strength after cycling.

Huang, Chen-Kuo (inventor); Surampudi, Subbarao (inventor); Attia, Alan I. (inventor); Halpert, Gerald (inventor)

1994-01-01

121

Anode for Rechargeable Ambient Temperature Lithium Cells.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

An ambient room temperature, high density, rechargeable lithium battery includes a Li(x)Mg2Si negative anode which intercalates lithium to form a single crystalline phase when x is up to 1.0 and an amorphous phase when x is from 1 to 2.0. The electrode ha...

C. Huang S. Surampudi A. I. Attia G. Halpert

1992-01-01

122

High temperature rechargeable molten salt cell  

Microsoft Academic Search

This patent describes a high temperature rechargeable molten salt cell. It comprises: a member of the group consisting of lithium, lithium aluminum alloy, lithium silicon alloy, sodium, potassium, calcium, magnesium, an alkali metal, a group II A element, a group II A alloy and composite mixtures thereof, as the anode, a chemical compound of the composition XYSâ wherein X is

E. J. Plichta; W. K. Behl

1991-01-01

123

Recharging Our Sense of Idealism: Concluding Thoughts  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this article, the authors aim to recharge one's sense of idealism. They argue that idealism is the Vitamin C that sustains one's commitment to implementing humanistic principles and social justice practices in the work of counselors and educators. The idealism that characterizes counselors and educators who are humanistic and social justice…

D'Andrea, Michael; Dollarhide, Colette T.

2011-01-01

124

Tectono-thermal evolution in a region with thin-skinned tectonics: the western nappes in the Cantabrian Zone (Variscan belt of NW Spain)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The palaeotemperature distribution in the transition from diagenesis to metamorphism in the western nappes of the Cantabrian\\u000a Zone (Somiedo, La Sobia and Aramo Units) are analysed by conodont colour alteration index (CAI) and illite crystallinity (IC).\\u000a Structural and stratigraphic control in distribution of CAI and IC values is observed. Both CAI and IC value distributions\\u000a show that anchizonal conditions are

F. Bastida; C. Brime; S. García-López; G. N. Sarmiento

1999-01-01

125

The influence of deformation on zircon and the effect on their isotope system: a case study from the polymetamorphic Lindås Nappe, SW-Norway  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Zircon (ZrSiO4) is considered to be chemically robust under the range of conditions present in the earth's crust. Nevertheless, element mobility in zircon can occur, most importantly Pb-loss related to alteration, leaching by fluids and recrystallization. A recent discussion concerns the role of crystal-plastic deformation and microstructures in zircons and their effect on zircon geochemistry. In this study we have investigated different gabbroic-anorthositic samples from the Lindås Nappe in the Bergen Arcs, an arcuate structure composed of Caledonian thrust sheets. Although the samples stem from the same nappe und should therefore reveal the same geological history, major differences within the isotope system and therefore the measured ages can be observed. This is due to the diverse imprints of various geological mechanisms on the zircons and their isotopic compositions. This consideration can be used to deduce the polymetamorphic history of the Lindås Nappe by choosing samples variously affected by the different events. Zircons from the dominating anorthosite in the nappe give the oldest age of around 970 Ma, regarded to date the intrusive event. They also clearly reveal the HT Sveconorwegian event at 930 Ma, whereas they are less affected by the younger Caledonian event. The metamorphic age of the HP Caledonian event (425 Ma) is constrained by recrystallized zircons in a fluid driven shear zone within the surrounding anorthosites. Within this 2 cm wide shear zone zircons are exceptionally abundant, and are remarkable in terms of size of up to half a mm, the small amount of U and evidence of internal deformation. Extensive Caledonian Pb loss is linked to this deformation. Recrystallization seems to have happened during the Caledonian event since the recrystallized, smaller grains, located mainly in the pressure shadow of the older ones, yield Caledonian ages. Fluid driven mineral reactions and related volume changes are regarded to be the trigger for deforming the zircons.

Roffeis, Cornelia; Corfu, Fernando; Austrheim, Hâkon; Piazolo, Sandra

2010-05-01

126

Results of the radiological survey at the Napp Chemical Company, 199 Main Street, Lodi, New Jersey (LJ076)  

SciTech Connect

Maywood Chemical Works (MCW) of Maywood, New Jersey, generated process wastes and residues associated with the production and refining of thorium and thorium compounds from monazite ores from 1916 to 1956. MCW supplied rare earth metals and thorium compounds to the Atomic Energy Commission and various other government agencies from the late 1940s to the mid-1950s. Area residents used the sandlike waste from this thorium extraction process mixed with tea and cocoa leaves as mulch in their yards. Some of these contaminated wastes were also eroded from the site into Lodi Brook. At the request of the US Department of Energy (DOE), a group from Oak Ridge National Laboratory conducts investigative radiological surveys of properties in the vicinity of MCW to determine whether a property is contaminated with radioactive residues, principally {sup 232}Th, derived from the MCW site. The survey typically includes direct measurement of gamma radiation levels and soil sampling for radionuclide analyses. The survey of this site, the Napp Chemical Company, 199 Main Street, Lodi, New Jersey (LJ076), was conducted during 1987. Results of the survey demonstrated no radionuclide concentrations in excess of the DOE Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program criteria. The radionuclide distributions were not significantly different from normal background levels in the northern New Jersey area. 4 refs., 8 figs., 3 tabs.

Foley, R.D.; Floyd, L.M.; Carrier, R.F.

1989-11-01

127

Die Innervation des Dünndarmes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Zusammenfassung Bei den mit Curare vergifteten Tieren wird durch die Reizung der Medulla oblongata die Peristaltik und der Tonus des Dünndarmes vermindert. Diese Sympathicuswirkung kann jedoch durch die Durchtrennung des Rückenmarkes unterhalb der Medulla oblongata oder durch die Nicotinisierung des Ganglion coeliacum ausgeschaltet werden. Reizt man die Medulla oblongata nach einem dieser Eingriffe, so kommt es zu einer Steigerung des

B. v. Issekutz

1934-01-01

128

Modulation des aides, renforcement du deuxième pilier et répartition des subventions et des revenus agricoles  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ce texte présente trois scénarios de modulation des aides du premier pilier en vue de renforcer le deuxième pilier. Compte tenu du poids des aides dans le revenu, une redistribution plus égalitaire des subventions ne correspond pas automatiquement à une nette baisse de l’inégalité des revenus. La répartition des revenus dépend aussi très largement de l’évolution des prix relatifs des

Jean-Pierre Butault; Jean-Marc Rousselle

2007-01-01

129

Monitoring Cave Recharge in the Edwards Aquifer Recharge Zone for Natural and Simulated Rainfall Events  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Across semi-arid regions of the world, woody plant encroachment is widespread with potential implications for groundwater recharge and streamflow. In an effort to better understand the interactions between woody plants and recharge, we are monitoring drip rates in shallow caves in the Edwards Aquifer recharge zone of Central Texas. The surface is covered by a dense stand of ashe juniper (Juniperus ashei). In addition to stemflow, throughfall, and surface runoff was monitored for both natural precipitation events as well as simulated rainfall. Interception and throughfall are measured using a grid of rain gauges and throughfall collectors. Surface runoff measurements were quantified with a 15.24 centimeter H- flume instrumented with an ultrasonic water level sensor. Drip collectors constructed inside the cave collect recharge entering the cave from the ceiling. Large scale rainfall simulation equipment onsite allows us to "re-create" these naturally occurring rainfall events and compare the resulting data with that from the original event. Performing these types of tests allows us to learn important information about the cave footprint's ability to transmit recharge waters into the cave. During a simulation, water is applied directly to the cave footprint and not to the entire hillslope as in a natural rain event. We found that recharge for the natural and simulated events were similar. In each case, recharge makes up less than 5% of the water budget, in spite of the fact that there was little, if any, surface runoff. The working hypothesis is that most of the rainfall is routed off the hillslope as lateral subsurface flow.

Gregory, L.; Veni, G.; Shade, B.; Wilcox, B. P.; Munster, C. L.; Owens, M. K.

2005-12-01

130

Lithium rechargeable cell with a polymer cathode  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Thin films of electropolymerized poly 3-methylthiophene (PMT) were used as a rechargeable cathode in Li(SO2)3AlCl4 electrolyte. Capacity was superior to porous carbon electrodes of like thickness. Pulse power levels of 2 W cm-2 were achieved, and high rate constant current pulses of four-second duration were reproducible over cycles. Cells could be recharged at potentials below 4.0 V, minimizing the formation of chlorine and thereby diminishing the capacity for corrosion. For a primary cell, greater discharge capacity was obtained with thionyl chloride and sulfuryl chloride electrolytes. Since PMT becomes electrically insulating in the reduced state, this could be used as a built-in safety feature to avert the hazards associated with abuse over-discharge.

Walker, Charles W., Jr.

1991-11-01

131

Rechargeable Infection-responsive Antifungal Denture Materials  

PubMed Central

Candida-associated denture stomatitis (CADS) is a significant clinical concern. We developed rechargeable infection-responsive antifungal denture materials for potentially managing the disease. Polymethacrylic acid (PMAA) was covalently bound onto diurethane dimethacrylate denture resins in the curing step. The PMAA resins bound cationic antifungal drugs such as miconazole and chlorhexidine digluconate (CG) through ionic interactions. The anticandidal activities of the drug-containing PMAA-resin discs were sustained for a prolonged period of time (weeks and months). Drug release was much faster at acidic conditions (pH 5) than at pH 7. Drugs bound to the denture materials could be “washed out” by treatment with EDTA, and the drug-depleted resins could be recharged with the same or a different class of anticandidal drugs. These results suggest clinical potential of the newly developed antifungal denture materials in the management of CADS and other infectious conditions.

Cao, Z.; Sun, X.; Yeh, C.-K.; Sun, Y.

2010-01-01

132

Rechargeable infection-responsive antifungal denture materials.  

PubMed

Candida-associated denture stomatitis (CADS) is a significant clinical concern. We developed rechargeable infection-responsive antifungal denture materials for potentially managing the disease. Polymethacrylic acid (PMAA) was covalently bound onto diurethane dimethacrylate denture resins in the curing step. The PMAA resins bound cationic antifungal drugs such as miconazole and chlorhexidine digluconate (CG) through ionic interactions. The anticandidal activities of the drug-containing PMAA-resin discs were sustained for a prolonged period of time (weeks and months). Drug release was much faster at acidic conditions (pH 5) than at pH 7. Drugs bound to the denture materials could be "washed out" by treatment with EDTA, and the drug-depleted resins could be recharged with the same or a different class of anticandidal drugs. These results suggest clinical potential of the newly developed antifungal denture materials in the management of CADS and other infectious conditions. PMID:20940361

Cao, Z; Sun, X; Yeh, C-K; Sun, Y

2010-12-01

133

New mechanically rechargeable zinc-air batteries  

Microsoft Academic Search

This report describes the design, development and testing of new mechanically rechargeable zinc-air batteries. Following research and development of a low cost silver-mercury cathode catalyst, prototype battery tests were conducted. Cycle life tests at 3.5 amperes indicated satisfactory performance through at least 26 cycles when this test was terminated for the final hardware build. The cathode bi-cell design utilized the

J. Giltner

1975-01-01

134

Dynamically compacted rechargeable ceramic lithium batteries  

Microsoft Academic Search

A rechargeable ceramic battery is made of a LixMn2O4 (x = 1.1) cathode, a graphite anode and a BPO4:yLi2O (y ?- 0.035) solid electrolyte by dynamic compaction. This battery system has a theoretical open-circuit potential of 4.2 V and a high energy density, which makes it interesting for application in electric vehicles.

M. J. G. Jak; E. M. Kelder; M. Stuivinga; J. Schoonman

1996-01-01

135

Rechargeable alkaline zinc\\/ferricyanide battery  

Microsoft Academic Search

Technical and economic feasibility of the alkaline zinc\\/ferricy anide rechargeable battery for utility load leveling applications was assessed. This battery meets the requirements for this application with cell voltages of 1.94 V on charge and 1.78 V on discharge. Mean energy efficiency is 84% at 760 and 86% at 1110 4 hour cycles in full cell and redox half cell

G. B. Adams; R. P. Hollandsworth; B. D. Webber

1979-01-01

136

High specific power lithium polymer rechargeable battery  

Microsoft Academic Search

PolyPlus Battery Company (PPBC) is developing an advanced lithium polymer rechargeable battery based on its proprietary positive electrode. This battery offers high steady-state (>250 W\\/kg) and peak power densities (3000 W\\/kg), in a low cost and environmentally benign format. This PolyPlus lithium polymer battery also delivers high specific energy. The first generation battery has a energy density of 100 Wh\\/kg

May-Ying Chu; Lutgard De Jonghe; Steven Visco

1996-01-01

137

Rechargeable lithium batteries with aqueous electrolytes  

SciTech Connect

Rechargeable lithium-ion batteries that use an aqueous electrolyte have been developed. Cells with LiMn{sub 2}O{sub 4} and VO{sub 2}(B) as electrodes and 5 M LiNO{sub 3} in water as the electrolyte provide a fundamentally safe and cost-effective technology that can compete with nickel-cadmium and lead-acid batteries on the basis of stored energy per unit of weight.14 refs., 4 figs.

Li, Wu; Dahn, J.R. [Simon Fraser Univ., Burnaby, British Columbia (Canada); Wainwright, D.S. [Moli Energy (1990) Limited, Maple Ridge, British Columbia (Canada)

1994-05-20

138

Design and simulation of lithium rechargeable batteries  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lithium -based rechargeable batteries that utilize insertion electrodes are being considered for electric-vehicle applications because of their high energy density and inherent reversibility. General mathematical models are developed that apply to a wide range of lithium-based systems, including the recently commercialized lithium-ion cell. The modeling approach is macroscopic, using porous electrode theory to treat the composite insertion electrodes and concentrated

1995-01-01

139

Capacity degradation of lithium rechargeable batteries  

Microsoft Academic Search

Li rechargeable cells made with structural arrangement Li\\/membrane\\/LixV2O5 were examined under different charge states using ac impedance, environmental scanning electron microscope (ESEM), transmission electron microscope (TEM) and the high-resolution nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR). These states include charged, discharged, and over cycled. The lowest internal resistance was obtained from the cell at charged state; the resistance increased when the cell was

J. P. Zheng; P. L. Moss; R. Fu; Z. Ma; Y. Xin; G. Au; E. J. Plichta

2005-01-01

140

Rechargeable lithium batteries with aqueous electrolytes.  

PubMed

Rechargeable lithium-ion batteries that use an aqueous electrolyte have been developed. Cells with LiMn(2)O(4) and VO(2)(B) as electrodes and 5 M LiNO(3) in water as the electrolyte provide a fundamentally safe and cost-effective technology that can compete with nickelcadmium and lead-acid batteries on the basis of stored energy per unit of weight. PMID:17744893

Li, W; Dahn, J R; Wainwright, D S

1994-05-20

141

Charge control investigation of rechargeable lithium cells  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An ambient temperature rechargeable Li-TiS2 cell was cycled under conditions which simulate aerospace applications. A novel charge/discharge state-of-charge control scheme was used, together with tapered current charging, to overcome deleterious effects associated with end-of-charge and end-of-discharge voltages. The study indicates that Li-TiS2 cells hold promise for eventual synchronous satellite-type applications. Problem areas associated with performance degradation and reconditioning effects are identified.

Otzinger, B.; Somoano, R.

1984-01-01

142

Charge control investigation of rechargeable lithium cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

An ambient temperature rechargeable Li-TiS2 cell was cycled under conditions which simulate aerospace applications. A novel charge\\/discharge state-of-charge control scheme was used, together with tapered current charging, to overcome deleterious effects associated with end-of-charge and end-of-discharge voltages. The study indicates that Li-TiS2 cells hold promise for eventual synchronous satellite-type applications. Problem areas associated with performance degradation and reconditioning effects are

B. Otzinger; R. Somoano

1984-01-01

143

Advanced rechargeable lithium sulfur dioxide cell  

Microsoft Academic Search

The electrochemical performance and safety of the rechargeable lithium sulfur dioxide system has been investigated in laboratory cells and in high rate D cells. Small design and active materials were optimized to that cathode utilization of 1.6Ah\\/grams of carbon and 0.19Ah\\/cm3 of cathode were achieved with 100-200 cycles. Discharge and charge of cells at temperatures down to -30 C were

R. C. McDonald; P. Harris; F. Goebel; S. Hossain; R. Vierra

1991-01-01

144

Inorganic rechargeable non-aqueous cell  

DOEpatents

A totally inorganic non-aqueous rechargeable cell having an alkali or alkaline earth metal anode such as of lithium, a sulfur dioxide containing electrolyte and a discharging metal halide cathode, such as of CuCl.sub.2, CuBr.sub.2 and the like with said metal halide being substantially totally insoluble in SO.sub.2 and admixed with a conductive carbon material.

Bowden, William L. (Nashua, NH); Dey, Arabinda N. (Needham, MA)

1985-05-07

145

Rechargeable Infection-responsive Antifungal Denture Materials  

Microsoft Academic Search

Candida-associated denture stomatitis (CADS) is a significant clinical concern. We developed rechargeable infection-responsive antifungal denture materials for potentially managing the disease. Polymethacrylic acid (PMAA) was covalently bound onto diurethane dimethacrylate denture resins in the curing step. The PMAA resins bound cationic antifungal drugs such as miconazole and chlorhexidine digluconate (CG) through ionic interactions. The anticandidal activities of the drug-containing PMAA-resin

Z. Cao; X. Sun; C.-K. Yeh; Y. Sun

2010-01-01

146

Nanomaterials for lithium-ion rechargeable batteries.  

PubMed

In lithium-ion batteries, nanocrystalline intermetallic alloys, nanosized composite materials, carbon nanotubes, and nanosized transition-metal oxides are all promising new anode materials, while nanosized LiCoO2, LiFePO4, LiMn2O4, and LiMn2O4 show higher capacity and better cycle life as cathode materials than their usual larger-particle equivalents. The addition of nanosized metal-oxide powders to polymer electrolyte improves the performance of the polymer electrolyte for all solid-state lithium rechargeable batteries. To meet the challenge of global warming, a new generation of lithium rechargeable batteries with excellent safety, reliability, and cycling life is needed, i.e., not only for applications in consumer electronics, but especially for clean energy storage and for use in hybrid electric vehicles and aerospace. Nanomaterials and nanotechnologies can lead to a new generation of lithium secondary batteries. The aim of this paper is to review the recent developments on nanomaterials and nanotechniques used for anode, cathode, and electrolyte materials, the impact of nanomaterials on the performance of lithium batteries, and the modes of action of the nanomaterials in lithium rechargeable batteries. PMID:16573064

Liu, Hua Kun; Wang, Guo Xiu; Guo, Zaiping; Wang, Jiazhao; Konstantinov, Kosta

2006-01-01

147

Ground water recharge from Lake Chad  

SciTech Connect

Lake Chad is a shallow, closed basin lake located in Sub-Sharan Africa. It has the largest drainage basin of any lake in the world, and is also very old, being formed by tectonic processes during the Cretaceous. These features should combine to form a saline lake, but the open waters of Lake Chad are reasonably fresh, having a total dissolved solids concentration of about 320 mg/1. This apparent discrepancy can be explained by noting that recharge of the unconfined aquifer to the SW in Nigeria by ground water infiltration through the lakebed can remove significant quantities of water and dissolved solutes from the lake. The authors have measured and calculated ground water infiltration and velocities by several techniques. Direct, volumetric measurements of ground water recharge seepage give velocities on the order of .28-8.8 x 10/sup -3/ m/day. Tracer monitoring in a borehole dilution test yielded ground water velocities of 3.6 m/day to the SW (away from the lake). Hydraulic conductivities approx. .004-.6 m/day were determined by falling head measurements. Finally, using static water levels, the potentiometric surface within approx. 80 km of the southwest portion of Lake Chad yields water table gradients of 1.0-1.7 x 10/sup -4/ away from the lake. These results confirm that surface water and solute inflow to Lake Chad is removed by recharge to the unconfined aquifer in Nigeria.

Isiorho, S.; Matisoff, G.; McCall, P.L.

1985-01-01

148

Regional estimation of total recharge to ground water in Nebraska.  

PubMed

Naturally occurring long-term mean annual recharge to ground water in Nebraska was estimated by a novel water-balance approach. This approach uses geographic information systems (GIS) layers of land cover, elevation of land and ground water surfaces, base recharge, and the recharge potential in combination with monthly climatic data. Long-term mean recharge > 140 mm per year was estimated in eastern Nebraska, having the highest annual precipitation rates within the state, along the Elkhorn, Platte, Missouri, and Big Nemaha River valleys where ground water is very close to the surface. Similarly high recharge values were obtained for the Sand Hills sections of the North and Middle Loup, as well as Cedar River and Beaver Creek valleys due to high infiltration rates of the sandy soil in the area. The westernmost and southwesternmost parts of the state were estimated to typically receive < 30 mm of recharge a year. PMID:15726925

Szilagyi, Jozsef; Harvey, F Edwin; Ayers, Jerry F

2005-01-01

149

Effet des innovations organisationnelles et des technologies de l'information sur le rendement des entreprises  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dans ce document, on vise a determiner si les investissements dans les technologies de l'information et des communications, combines a des changements organisationnels et aux competences des travailleurs, contribuent a ameliorer le rendement des entreprises canadiennes.

Wulong Gera Surendra Gu

2004-01-01

150

Caractérisation d'alliages aluminium-silicium-nickel déposés par rechargement laser sur alliage d'aluminium  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The modifications brought to aluminium by addition of silicon and nickel are investigated after a laser cladding process by a Nd: YAG laser. Samples are characterized using microscopic examination, X-ray diffraction and micro-hardness measurement. The optimum composition (Al 22Si 27Ni (wt.%)) is selected for its fine and homogeneous microstructure: presence of equiaxis precipitates (Si) and AIN (average size of 20 and 5 ?m) and its high hardness (412 HV5). Les modifications apportées à l'aluminium par addition de silicium et de nickel ont été étudiées après rechargement laser réalisé grâce à un laser Nd : YAG. Les échantillons ont été caractérisés par microscopie optique, diffraction des rayons X et macro-indentation. La composition optimale (Al 22Si 27Ni (wt.%)) a été retenue pour sa microstructure fine et homogène : présence des précipités équiaxes (Si) et Al3Ni (dimensions moyennes de 20 et 5 ?m), ainsi que pour sa dureté élevée : 412 HV5.

Dubourg, L.; Hlawka, F.; Cornet, A.

2002-07-01

151

Modelling overbank flood recharge at a continental scale  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Accounting for groundwater recharge from overbank flooding is required to reduce uncertainty and error in river-loss terms and groundwater sustainable-yield calculations. However, continental- and global-scale models of surface water-groundwater interactions rarely include an explicit process to account for overbank flood recharge (OFR). This paper upscales previously derived analytical equations to a continental scale using national soil atlas data and satellite imagery of flood inundation, resulting in recharge maps for seven hydrologically distinct Australian catchments. Recharge for three of the catchments was validated against independent recharge estimates from bore hydrograph responses and one catchment was additionally validated against point-scale recharge modelling and catchment-scale change in groundwater storage. Flood recharge was predicted for four of the seven catchments modelled, but there was also unexplained recharge present from the satellite's flood inundation mapping data. At a catchment scale, recharge from overbank flooding was somewhat under-predicted using the analytical equations, but there was good confidence in the spatial patterns of flood recharge produced. Due to the scale of the input data, there were no significant relationships found when compared at a point scale. Satellite-derived flood inundation data and uncertainty in soil maps were the key limitations to the accuracy of the modelled recharge. Use of this method to model OFR was found to be appropriate at a catchment to continental scale, given appropriate data sources. The proportion of OFR was found to be at least 4% of total change in groundwater storage in one of the catchments for the period modelled, and at least 15% of the riparian recharge. Accounting for OFR is an important, but often overlooked, requirement for closing water balances in both the surface water and groundwater domains.

Doble, R.; Crosbie, R.; Peeters, L.; Joehnk, K.; Ticehurst, C.

2014-04-01

152

Shale recharge and production behavior of geopressured reservoirs  

SciTech Connect

The reservoir simulator MUSHRM was used to study the conditions under which significant shale recharge may be expected. The calculations presented herein show that shale recharge is a strong function of the vertical shale permeability but is not greatly influenced by the shale compressibility. Significant shale recharge will occur only if the vertical shale permeability is at least of the order of 0.01 ..mu..d.

Garg, S.K.

1980-04-01

153

Rechargeable zinc-air battery technology implementations in portable electronics  

Microsoft Academic Search

AER Energy's rechargeable zinc-air battery technology has the unique set of characteristics to provide long battery run-time for portable electronics. With more energy per pound and high energy content cells, rechargeable zinc-air can provide sufficient energy in a lightweight battery that is practical to build. Improvements made in the past year make AER Energy's rechargeable zinc-air even more flexible and

T. Cutler

1997-01-01

154

Making Li-air batteries rechargeable: material challenges  

SciTech Connect

A Li-air battery could potentially provide three to five times higher energy density/specific energy than conventional batteries, thus enable the driving range of an electric vehicle comparable to a gasoline vehicle. However, making Li-air batteries rechargeable presents significant challenges, mostly related with materials. Herein, we discuss the key factors that influence the rechargeability of Li-air batteries with a focus on nonaqueous system. The status and materials challenges for nonaqueous rechargeable Li-air batteries are reviewed. These include electrolytes, cathode (electocatalysts), lithium metal anodes, and oxygen-selective membranes (oxygen supply from air). The perspective of rechargeable Li-air batteries is provided.

Shao, Yuyan; Ding, Fei; Xiao, Jie; Zhang, Jian; Xu, Wu; Park, Seh Kyu; Zhang, Jiguang; Wang, Yong; Liu, Jun

2013-02-25

155

A review of groundwater recharge under irrigated agriculture in Australia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Quantification of recharge under irrigated agriculture is one of the most important but difficult tasks. It is the least understood component in groundwater studies because of its large variability in space and time and the difficulty of direct measurement. Better management of groundwater resources is only possible if we can accurately determine all fluxes going into and out of a groundwater system. One of the major challenges facing irrigated agriculture in Australia, and the world, is to reduce uncertainty in estimating or measuring the recharge flux. Reducing uncertainty in groundwater recharge under irrigated agriculture is a pre-requisite for effective, efficient and sustainable groundwater resource management especially in dry areas where groundwater usage is often the key to economic development. An accurate quantification of groundwater recharge under irrigated systems is also crucial because of its potential impacts on soil profile salinity, groundwater levels and groundwater quality. This paper aims to identify the main recharge control parameters thorough a review of past field and modelling recharge studies in Australia. We find that the main recharge control parameters under irrigated agriculture are soil type, irrigation management, watertable depth, land cover or plant water uptake, soil surface conditions, and soil, irrigation water and groundwater chemistry. The most commonly used recharge estimation approaches include chloride mass balance, water budget equation, lysimeters, Darcy's law and numerical models. Main sources and magnitude of uncertainty in recharge estimates associated with these approaches are discussed.

Riasat, Ali; Mallants, Dirk; Walker, Glen; Silberstein, Richard

2014-05-01

156

Seismicity induced by seasonal ground-water recharge at Mt  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract Groundwater recharge at Mt. Hood, Oregon, is dominated by spring snow melt which provides a natural large- amplitude,and narrow-width,pore-fluid pressure signal. Time delays between,this seasonal groundwater,recharge,and seismicity triggered by groundwater,recharge,can thus be used to estimate large-scale hydraulic,diffusivities and,the state of stress in the crust. We approximate,seasonal,variations in groundwater,recharge,with discharge in runoff- dominated streams at high elevations. We interpolate the

M. Saar; M. Manga

2003-01-01

157

New stratigraphic data from the Lower Penninic between the Adula nappe and the Gotthard massif and consequences for the tectonics and the paleogeography of the Central Alps  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

New stratigraphic data along a profile from the Helvetic Gotthard massif to the remnants of the North Penninic basin in eastern Ticino and Graubünden are presented. The stratigraphic record together with existing geochemical and structural data, motivate a new interpretation of the fossil European distal margin. We introduce a new group of Triassic facies, the North-Penninic-Triassic (NPT), which is characterised by the Ladinian "dolomie bicolori". The NPT was located in-between the Briançonnais carbonate platform and the Helvetic lands. The observed horizontal transition, coupled with the stratigraphic superposition of a Helvetic Liassic on a Briaçonnais Triassic in the Luzzone-Terri nappe, links, prior to Jurassic rifting, the Briançonnais paleogeographic domain at the Helvetic margin, south of the Gotthard. Our observations suggest that the Jurassic rifting separated the Briançonnais domain from the Helvetic margin by complex and protracted extension. The syn-rift stratigraphic record in the Adula nappe and surroundings suggests the presence of a diffuse rising area with only moderately subsiding basins above a thinned continental and proto-oceanic crust. Strong subsidence occurred in a second phase following protracted extension and the resulting delamination of the rising area. The stratigraphic coherency in the Adula's Mesozoic questions the idea of a lithospheric mélange in the eclogitic Adula nappe, which is more likely to be a coherent alpine tectonic unit. The structural and stratigraphic observations in the Piz Terri-Lunschania zone suggest the activity of syn-rift detachments. During the alpine collision these faults are reactivated (and inverted) and played a major role in allowing the Adula subduction, the "Penninic Thrust" above it and in creating the structural complexity of the Central Alps.

Galster, Federico; Cavargna-Sani, Mattia; Epard, Jean-Luc; Masson, Henri

2012-12-01

158

The impact of Outer Western Carpathian nappe tectonics on the recent stress-strain state in the Upper Silesian Coal Basin (Moravosilesian Zone, Bohemian Massif)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Upper Silesian Coal Basin (USCB) represents a typical foreland basin developed during the Variscan orogenic phase of the Late Carboniferous. Later, during the Alpine orogeny the Outer Western Carpathian nappes were thrust over the post-Variscan foreland, to which the USCB belongs. Due to this complex tectonic history, redistribution of stress fields occurred in the post-Variscan basement. Furthermore, post-Variscan denudation processes probably also contributed to recent stress regimes. Nevertheless, the impact of the West Carpathian orogeny can be regarded as the most significant influence. The in-situ measurement of recent stress fields in deposits of the Karviná Formation of the USCB and structural analysis of the Czech part of the USCB, has focused on verification of the structure and stress interference of the Carpathian nappes and post-Variscan foreland basement. In the southernmost part of the Karviná Subbasin, the easternmost domain of the USCB, situated in the apical zone of the Variscan accretionary wedge, hydrofracturing and overcoring stress measurements have been recorded in coal seams from selected coal mines. The data have been supplemented by interpretation of focal mechanism solutions of mine induced seismic events. Measurements of recent in-situ stress regimes in the Karviná Formation of the USCB indicate a dominant generally NW-SE orientation of the maximum horizontal compression stress. The results demonstrate that the stress-strain regime in the Karviná Formation in the Variscan Upper Carboniferous basement is significantly influenced by the stress field along the Outer Western Carpathian nappes front. Besides improving our understanding of recent regional stress fields within an area of mutual structural-tectonic interference by both the Variscan and Alpine orogenies, the measured data may contribute to more optimal and safer mining activities in the coal basin.

Ptá?ek, Ji?í; Grygar, Radomír; Koní?ek, Petr; Waclawik, Petr

2012-02-01

159

2D thermo-mechanical modeling of basement-cover deformation with application to the Helvetic nappe system and the external massifs in the Western Alps  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Basement-cover deformation and its relationship to nappe emplacement and massif formation in the external Western Alps has been a subject of controversy for many years. Although it is commonly accepted that these massifs are the result of basin inversion of European margin graben-type structures, the mechanisms of basin inversion itself is still highly debated. Some studies suggested that the geometry of some external crystalline massifs is essentially a cuspate-lobate (i.e. ductile) structure while other studies interpret the geometry of those massifs as a result of brittle thrust mechanics. Furthermore, the importance of reactivation of pre-existing brittle structures during basin inversion is still debated. To better understand basement-cover deformation we use a two-dimensional (2D) thermo-mechanical finite element model to investigate both the individual and combined influence of viscous, elastic and plastic rheologies on the deformation of half-graben structures under compression. Two types of boundary conditions are used, namely pure shear and shortening combined with basal drag exhibiting a singularity point (S-point). The surface is free. The resulting geometry and finite deformation patterns in both basement and sediment model units are then compared to cross-sections, finite strain ellipses and cleavage orientation from published data. Orientation and distribution of plastic shear bands in the model are compared to fault distribution from field data and sand box analogue models. First results suggest that a dominantly ductile behavior in the lowest part of the sediment-filled basin is needed in order to reproduce finite strain patterns similar to the ones found in fold nappes such as the Morcles nappe (Western Switzerland). Ductile behavior is possible at low temperature (300 °C) using realistic flow laws for calcite. The numerical results are further applied to interpret the tectonic evolution of the Aiguilles Rouges and Mont-Blanc massifs in the Western Alps.

Bauville, Arthur; Schmalholz, Stefan

2013-04-01

160

Supra-ophiolitic formations from the Thessaloniki nappe (Greece), and associated magmatism: An intra-oceanic subduction predates the Vardar obduction  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Vardar ophiolites from Chalkidiki (Thessaloniki nappe) show autochthonous cover formations. These formations include reefal limestones of Kimmeridgian-Tithonian age, and clastic deposits with spilite, andesite and granodiorite elements, suggesting an intra-oceanic island arc setting. The earliest continental clasts are found in post-Tithonian layers. A granodioritic intrusion associated with granitoid dykes crosscutting the ophiolite corresponds to deep parts of the arc. The Chaikidiki arc, 150-140 My old, can be followed northward for at least 150 km (Guevgueli). The Vardarian obduction would have occurred during the Early Cretaceous owing to the arc-continent collision.

Michard, André; Feinberg, Hugues; Montigny, Raymond

1998-10-01

161

Organic electrolyte for use in a lithium rechargeable electrochemical cell and lithium rechargeable electrochemical cell including said organic electrolyte  

SciTech Connect

This invention relates in general to use of an organic electrolyte in a lithium rechargeable electrochemical cell and to a lithium rechargeable electrochemical cell including said electrolyte; and, in particular, to the use of 1 to 2 mol/dm/sup 3/ LiAsF/sub 6/ in dimethylcarbonate (DMC) or 1 to 2 mol/dm/sup 3/ LiAsF/sub 6/ in (DMC) mixtures with methyl formate (MF) in which the mass percent of the (DMC) can vary from 25 to 100 mass percent as the electrolyte in a lithium rechargeable electrochemical cell, and to a lithium rechargeable electrochemical cell including said electrolyte.

Plichta, E.J.; Slane, S.M.; Salomon, M.

1987-07-06

162

Experimental survey of rechargeable alkaline zinc electrodes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Rechargeable alkaline zinc-air cells and zinc-manganese dioxide cells need zinc electrodes working for at least 100 cycles under anode limiting conditions. The discharge of the manganese dioxide cathode especially must be limited to a definite fraction (1/3) of its available capacity to obtain a good cycle life. This study proposes a new test cell for investigations on pasted alkaline zinc powder electrodes. When, following experimentation, the value of the construction was established, a series of different electrode mixtures was cycled. It was found that 100 full discharges could be obtained with a zinc utilization of about 30 percent in the final cycles.

Binder, L.; Odar, W.

1984-09-01

163

Characterization of AA size lithium rechargeable cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

Testing of AA size rechargeable cells for underwater vehicle and other naval applications is complete for AT&T's lithium\\/niobium triselenide (Li\\/NbSe3) and Moli Energy's lithium\\/molybdenum disulfide (Li\\/MoS2) and in progress on Moli Energy's lithium\\/manganese dioxide (Li\\/MnO2) and W. R. Grace's lithium\\/titanium disulfide (Li\\/TiS2). Cell cycling was performed at various discharge rates, temperatures, and depths of discharge. At 25 C and 1

T. C. Murphy; D. M. Cason-Smith; S. D. James; P. H. Smith

1990-01-01

164

Thin-film rechargeable lithium batteries  

SciTech Connect

Thin-film rechargeable lithium batteries using ceramic electrolyte and cathode materials have been fabricated by physical deposition techniques. The lithium phosphorous oxynitride electrolyte has exceptional electrochemical stability and a good lithium conductivity. The lithium insertion reaction of several different intercalation materials, amorphous V{sub 2}O{sub 5}, amorphous LiMn{sub 2}O{sub 4}, and crystalline LiMn{sub 2}O{sub 4} films, have been investigated using the completed cathode/electrolyte/lithium thin-film battery.

Dudney, N.J.; Bates, J.B.; Lubben, D. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States). Solid State Div.

1995-06-01

165

Characterization of AA size lithium rechargeable cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

Testing of AA size rechargeable cells for underwater vehicle and other naval applications is complete for AT&T's lithium\\/niobium triselenide (Li\\/NbSe3) and Moli Energy's lithium\\/molybdenum disulfide (Li\\/MoS2) and is in progress on Moli Energy's lithium\\/manganese dioxide (Li\\/MnO2) and W.R. Grace's lithium\\/titanium disulfide (Li\\/TiS2). Cell cycling was performed at various discharge rates, temperatures, and depths of discharge. At 25°C and 1 mA\\/cm2

T. C. Murphy; D. M. Cason-Smith; S. D. James; P. H. Smith

1990-01-01

166

Low temperature studies on rechargeable lithium cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rechargeable lithium cells using intercalating cathodes of TiS2, a-MoS3, and mixed a-MoS3\\/TiS2 were studied at temperatures from 25 to -40 C. On the basis of conductivity investigations, LiAsF6 and LiAlCl4 electrolytes were selected for use in a binary solvent containing 24.4 mass percent 4-butyrolactone in 1,2-dimethoxyethane. The Li\\/TiS2 and Li\\/a-MoS3-TiS2 cells cycled well at 2 mA\\/sq cm down to -30

E. J. Plichta; M. Salomon

1984-01-01

167

Sediment and microbial fouling of experimental groundwater recharge trenches  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A common method of recharging groundwater is by the use of injection wells and/or recharge trenches. With time the recharge capacities of the wells/trenches progressively decline. Deposition of suspended fines in the recharge water and growth of microorganisms in the aquifer are common causes of this decline. This paper presents an investigation of the relative significance of these two factors under controlled laboratory conditions. Large-scale physical models of recharge trenches were conducted in the laboratory to monitor the decline with time of the recharge capacity under controlled conditions. The physical models consisted of four hydraulically separate cells in which six different experiments were conducted. In three of the experiments microorganism were added as an inoculant. A nutrient and carbon fine solution was constantly injected into the influent stream entering through the inflow pipe. Both carbon fines and microorganisms caused plugging of the model recharge trenches in the laboratory. However, initialy the microbes appeared to have a beneficial effect by hindering the transport of the carbon fines from the gravel pack in the trench. Later the microbes contributed to the plugging of the gravel pack. A significant correlation was determined between the extent of carbon fine deposition and microbial growth. In the experiment using a biodegradable slurry, microbial growth did not affect the recharge capacity of the trench. One laboratory experiment involved the introduction of silt as a source of sediment fines to the model recharge trench. This experiment simulated conditions often found in the field when no carbon fine adsoprtion system is used and natural surface water is recharged into aquifer. This research will be useful in understanding the relative importance of factors contributing to the decline of recharge capacity observed in the field.

Warner, James W.; Gates, Timothy K.; Namvargolian, Reza; Miller, Paul; Comes, Gregory

1994-04-01

168

Challenges of Artificial Recharge at the Chain of Lakes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A series of gravel quarry lakes, A through I (i.e. Chain of Lakes) in Alameda County, California are planned to convert to off-channel spreading lakes for artificial groundwater recharge. An operational plan is needed for the near-term improvements that would allow safe and efficient operations of Lake H and Lake I recently acquired for artificial recharge operations. Water source for the groundwater recharge comes from State Water Project (SWP) water releases at the South Bay Aqueduct turnout. The released water flows approximately nine miles in Arroyo Mocho Creek to the planned diversion facility. The recharge system includes multiple water delivery components and recharge components. Reliability of SWP water delivery is a water supply constraint to the recharge system. Hydraulic capacities of each delivery component and recharge capacities of each recharge component are physical constraints to the development of the operational plan. Policy issues identified in the Mitigated Negative Declaration which contains mitigation measures addressing potential impacts of fisheries and erosion are regulatory constraints to the operational plan development. Our approach that addresses technical challenges and policy issues in the development of the operational plan includes i) determination of lake recharge under observed conditions using water budget method; ii) development and calibration of a ground water flow model using MODFLOW; iii) estimation of lake recharge capacity for a range of lake levels using the calibrated ground water flow model; iv) analysis of clogging layer effects on recharge capacity; and v) development and application of operations models for the stream delivery system and the lake system.

Zeng, X.

2004-12-01

169

Standardisierte Formen des Familieninterviews  

Microsoft Academic Search

Der Beitrag stellt standardisierte und strukturierte Formen des Familien-interviews vor. Neben den „klassischen“ Verfahren\\u000a des Structured Family Interviews (SFI) und des Camberwell Family Interviews (CFI) werden neuere, vorwiegend für Forschungszwecke\\u000a entwickelte Interviewmethoden beschrieben.

E. Nordmann; S. Kötter

170

Partage des coûts et tarification des infrastructures \\/ Partage des coûts et tarification des infrastructures  

Microsoft Academic Search

Une véritable valorisation des infrastructures communes doit reposer sur une approche rigoureuse du partage de leurs coûts et de leur tarification implicites sinon explicites. D’où l’intérêt et la pertinence du présent ouvrage qui se veut à la fois un regroupement en un seul lieu et une mise àjour des travaux que nous avons réalisés sur ce sujet au cours des

Marcel Boyer; Michel Moreaux; Michel Truchon

171

Deformation microstructures and water content of olivine in peridotite from the Lindås Nappe, Bergen Arc, western Norway  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Two peridotite outcrops in Lindas Nappe anorthosite complex, Bergen Arc, western Norway were studied to understand deformation microstructures of olivine. A mylonite zone was found in the peridotites and deformation fabrics of recrystallized olivine in the area were also studied. Lattice preferred orientation (LPO) of olivine was determined using electron backscattered diffraction (EBSD) in SEM. Water content of olivine in the samples was measured using the Fourier transformation infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy and small inclusions inside olivine and pyroxene grains were identified by using Micro-Raman spectroscopy. We observed various types of LPOs of olivine in wall rock area. A sample (372) showed that [100] axes of olivine are aligned subparallel to the lineation and [001] axes aligned normal to the foliation, which is known as E-type LPO of olivine (Jung et al., 2006). Most of other samples in wall rock showed a combination of two different types of LPOs: both [100] and [001] axes were aligned parallel to the lineation, and [010] axes were aligned normal to foliation plane. This is a combination of A- and B-type LPO of olivine. In the mylonite area, we discovered that there is a change in LPO of olivine from wall rock to mylonite. We observed olivine fabrics of B-, C-type LPO and a combination of B- and C-type LPO of olivine. The wall rock fabric is Grenvillian in age (ca 1000 Ma) while the ultramylonite zone is Caledonian (ca 400 Ma). Spinel is also present in the wall rock while small garnets have been found around the spinel in the mylonite zone. This suggests that the fabric in the wall rock developed in the spinel lherzolite field while the mylonite fabric evolved under garnet lherzolite conditions. FTIR analysis of olivine revealed that olivine in wall rock contains about 300 ppm H/Si of water content, while olivine in mylonite zone contains over 700 ppm H/Si, showing water content of olivine in mylonite area was much higher than that in wall rock area. In addition, we also found amosite and antigorite in mylonite area. These observations indicate that olivine fabric difference between wall rock and mylonite was caused by water. We observed a strong LPO and high dislocation density of olivine in wall rock area, indicating that dominant deformation mechanism of olivine in wall rock was dislocation creep. On the other hand, we found a weak LPO, low dislocation density of olivine and four grain junctions in the mylonite area which are indicative of enhanced grain boundary sliding.

Jung, S.; Jung, H.; Austrheim, H.

2011-12-01

172

Reliability of Rechargeable Batteries in a Photovoltaic Power Supply System  

Microsoft Academic Search

We investigate the reliability If a rechargeable battery acting as the energy storage component in a photovoltaic power supply system. A model system was constructed for this that includes the solar resource, the photovoltaic power supp Iy system, the rechargeable battery and a load. The solar resource and the system load are modeled as SI ochastic processes. The photovoltaic system

P. Barney; R. G. Jungst; D. Ingersoll; C. OGorman; T. L. Paez; A. Urbina

1998-01-01

173

Determining the recharge mode of Sahelian aquifers using water isotopes  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is proposed that the drainage network plays an important role in the recharge process of the fractured aquifers in the African Precambrian shield and that the fractured aquifer system is likely to be hydraulically continuous; this contrasts with most previous studies, which suggested direct recharge by rainwater percolation. Two areas were selected in Niger for the study of the

Pierre Girard; Claude Hillaire-Marcel; Marie Solange Oga

1997-01-01

174

Downstream of downtown: urban wastewater as groundwater recharge  

Microsoft Academic Search

Wastewater infiltration is often a major component of overall recharge to aquifers around urban areas, especially in more arid climates. Despite this, such recharge still represents only an incidental (or even accidental) byproduct of various current practices of sewage effluent handling and wastewater reuse. This topic is reviewed through reference to certain areas of detailed field research, with pragmatic approaches

S. S. D. Foster; P. J. Chilton

2004-01-01

175

Electrochemically active polymers for rechargeable batteries  

SciTech Connect

Electrochemical energy storage systems (batteries) have a tremendous role in technical applications. In this review the authors examine the prospects of electroactive polymers in view of the properties required for such batteries. Conducting organic polymers are considered here in the light of their rugged chemical environment: organic solvents, acids, and alkalis. The goal of the present article is to provide, first of all in tabular form, a survey of electroactive polymers in view of potential applications in rechargeable batteries. It reviews the preparative methods and the electrochemical performance of polymers as rechargeable battery electrodes. The theoretical values of specific charge of the polymers are comparable to those of metal oxide electrodes, but are not as high as those of most of the metal electrodes normally used in batteries. Therefore, it is an advantage in conventional battery designs to use the conducting polymer as a positive electrode material in combination with a negative electrode such as Li, Na, Mg, Zn, MeH{sub x}, etc. 504 refs.

Novak, P.; Haas, O. [Paul Scherrer Inst., Villigen PSI (Switzerland). Electrochemistry Section] [Paul Scherrer Inst., Villigen PSI (Switzerland). Electrochemistry Section; Santhanam, K.S.V. [Tata Inst. of Fundamental Research, Mumbai (India)] [Tata Inst. of Fundamental Research, Mumbai (India); Mueller, K.

1997-01-01

176

Global synthesis of groundwater recharge in semiarid and arid regions  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Global synthesis of the findings from ???140 recharge study areas in semiarid and arid regions provides important information on recharge rates, controls, and processes, which are critical for sustainable water development. Water resource evaluation, dryland salinity assessment (Australia), and radioactive waste disposal (US) are among the primary goals of many of these recharge studies. The chloride mass balance (CMB) technique is widely used to estimate recharge. Average recharge rates estimated over large areas (40-374000 km2) range from 0.2 to 35 mm year-1, representing 0.1-5% of long-term average annual precipitation. Extreme local variability in recharge, with rates up to ???720 m year-1, results from focussed recharge beneath ephemeral streams and lakes and preferential flow mostly in fractured systems. System response to climate variability and land use/land cover (LU/LC) changes is archived in unsaturated zone tracer profiles and in groundwater level fluctuations. Inter-annual climate variability related to El Nin??o Southern Oscillation (ENSO) results in up to three times higher recharge in regions within the SW US during periods of frequent El Nin??os (1977-1998) relative to periods dominated by La Nin??as (1941-1957). Enhanced recharge related to ENSO is also documented in Argentina. Climate variability at decadal to century scales recorded in chloride profiles in Africa results in recharge rates of 30 mm year-1 during the Sahel drought (1970-1986) to 150 mm year-1 during non-drought periods. Variations in climate at millennial scales in the SW US changed systems from recharge during the Pleistocene glacial period (??? 10 000 years ago) to discharge during the Holocene semiarid period. LU/LC changes such as deforestation in Australia increased recharge up to about 2 orders of magnitude. Changes from natural grassland and shrublands to dryland (rain-fed) agriculture altered systems from discharge (evapotranspiration, ET) to recharge in the SW US. The impact of LU change was much greater than climate variability in Niger (Africa), where replacement of savanna by crops increased recharge by about an order of magnitude even during severe droughts. Sensitivity of recharge to LU/LC changes suggests that recharge may be controlled through management of LU. In irrigated areas, recharge varies from 10 to 485 mm year-1, representing 1-25% of irrigation plus precipitation. However, irrigation pumpage in groundwater-fed irrigated areas greatly exceeds recharge rates, resulting in groundwater mining. Increased recharge related to cultivation has mobilized salts that accumulated in the unsaturated zone over millennia, resulting in widespread groundwater and surface water contamination, particularly in Australia. The synthesis of recharge rates provided in this study contains valuable information for developing sustainable groundwater resource programmes within the context of climate variability and LU/LC change. Copyright ?? 2006 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Scanlon, B. R.; Keese, K. E.; Flint, A. L.; Flint, L. E.; Gaye, C. B.; Edmunds, W. M.; Simmers, I.

2006-01-01

177

Imagerie des prolapsus périnéaux  

Microsoft Academic Search

Résumé  Deux principes doivent guider l’imagerie dynamique des prolapsus des quatre étages du pelvi-périnée pour répondre à l’approche\\u000a moderne d’une conception globale du plancher pelvien. C’est d’une part la prise en considération de la compétition des différents\\u000a prolapsus qui doit faire alterner la réplétion et la vidange des organes creux et le refoulement éventuel des organes pleins\\u000a dans un ordre précis.

J.-F. Lapray

2009-01-01

178

Groundwater Recharge Rate and Zone Structure Estimation Using PSOLVER Algorithm.  

PubMed

The quantification of groundwater recharge is an important but challenging task in groundwater flow modeling because recharge varies spatially and temporally. The goal of this study is to present an innovative methodology to estimate groundwater recharge rates and zone structures for regional groundwater flow models. Here, the unknown recharge field is partitioned into a number of zones using Voronoi Tessellation (VT). The identified zone structure with the recharge rates is associated through a simulation-optimization model that couples MODFLOW-2000 and the hybrid PSOLVER optimization algorithm. Applicability of this procedure is tested on a previously developed groundwater flow model of the Tahtal? Watershed. Successive zone structure solutions are obtained in an additive manner and penalty functions are used in the procedure to obtain realistic and plausible solutions. One of these functions constrains the optimization by forcing the sum of recharge rates for the grid cells that coincide with the Tahtal? Watershed area to be equal to the areal recharge rate determined in the previous modeling by a separate precipitation-runoff model. As a result, a six-zone structure is selected as the best zone structure that represents the areal recharge distribution. Comparison to results of a previous model for the same study area reveals that the proposed procedure significantly improves model performance with respect to calibration statistics. The proposed identification procedure can be thought of as an effective way to determine the recharge zone structure for groundwater flow models, in particular for situations where tangible information about groundwater recharge distribution does not exist. PMID:23746002

Ayvaz, M Tamer; Elçi, Alper

2014-05-01

179

Determining the recharge mode of Sahelian aquifers using water isotopes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

It is proposed that the drainage network plays an important role in the recharge process of the fractured aquifers in the African Precambrian shield and that the fractured aquifer system is likely to be hydraulically continuous; this contrasts with most previous studies, which suggested direct recharge by rainwater percolation. Two areas were selected in Niger for the study of the aquifer recharge process using isotopic analyses of water ( 2H, 18O, 3H). The first area, centred on the village of Kobio, is the 21-km 2 drainage basin of the Lomona intermittent stream, some 60 km southwest of Niamey (the capital city of Niger). The second area, in the vicinity of Niamey, represents a portion of the Niger basin, draining a surface area many orders of magnitude larger than the Lomona basin. The mean 18O composition of water from all wells in the Kobio aquifer provides evidence for recharge by evaporated water. This is confirmed by the concomitant increase of 18O content with rising static water levels as recharge proceeded. Tritium data suggest progressive aging of the Kobio aquifer water in the flow direction inferred from static water levels, with a down-gradient depletion of 18O composition, suggesting that `enriched' recharge water is progressively mixed with `depleted' aquifer water. Recharge by a reach of the Lomona is proposed to explain these results. In the Niamey area wells, the 18O time series clearly define an injection of evaporated water from the surface into the fractured aquifer. This recharging plume of evaporated water most likely originates from the Niger River. Thus, isotope data for two drainage basins of very different sizes indicate that aquifers are recharged by water from the rivers and that the flow regime of surface waters controls the recharge process.

Girard, Pierre; Hillaire-Marcel, Claude; Oga, Marie Solange

1997-10-01

180

Climate variability effects on urban recharge beneath low impact development  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Groundwater resources in urban and coastal environments are highly vulnerable to human pressures and climate variability and change, and many communities face water shortages and need to find alternative water supplies. Therefore, understanding how low impact development (LID) site planning and integrated/best management practices (BMPs) affect recharge rates and volumes is important because of the increasing use of LID and BMP to reduce stormwater runoff and improve surface-water quality. Often considered a secondary management benefit, many BMPs may also enhance recharge to local aquifers; however these hypothesized benefits have not been thoroughly tested or quantified. In this study, we quantify stormwater capture and recharge enhancement beneath a BMP infiltration trench of the LID research network at San Francisco State University, San Francisco, California. Stormwater capture and retention was analyzed using the SCS TR-55 curve number method and in-situ infiltration rates to assess LID storage. Recharge was quantified using vadose zone monitoring equipment, a detailed water budget analysis, and a Hydrus-2D model. Additionally, the effects of historical and predicted future precipitation on recharge rates were examined using precipitation from the Geophysical Fluid Dynamic Laboratory (GFDL) A1F1 climate scenario. Observed recharge rates beneath the infiltration trench range from 1,600 to 3,700 mm/year and are an order of magnitude greater than recharge beneath an irrigated grass lawn and a natural setting. The Hydrus-2D model results indicate increased recharge under the GFDL A1F1 scenario compared with historical and GFDL modeled 20th century rates because of the higher frequency of large precipitation events that induce runoff into the infiltration trench. However, under a simulated A1F1 El Niño year, recharge calculated by a water budget does not increase compared with current El Niño recharge rates. In comparison, simulated recharge rates were considerably lower beneath the grass lawn for historical and future precipitation years. This work highlights the potential management strategy of using LID to capture excess runoff during El Niño years that can be recharged and stored as groundwater. An additional benefit of LID in coastal aquifer systems is the ability to capture and redirect precipitation from runoff to recharge that may help mitigate the negative effects from groundwater pumping and sea-water intrusion.

Newcomer, M. E.; Gurdak, J. J.

2012-12-01

181

Rechargeable metal hydrides for spacecraft application  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Storing hydrogen on board the Space Station presents both safety and logistics problems. Conventional storage using pressurized bottles requires large masses, pressures, and volumes to handle the hydrogen to be used in experiments in the U.S. Laboratory Module and residual hydrogen generated by the ECLSS. Rechargeable metal hydrides may be competitive with conventional storage techniques. The basic theory of hydride behavior is presented and the engineering properties of LaNi5 are discussed to gain a clear understanding of the potential of metal hydrides for handling spacecraft hydrogen resources. Applications to Space Station and the safety of metal hydrides are presented and compared to conventional hydride storage. This comparison indicates that metal hydrides may be safer and require lower pressures, less volume, and less mass to store an equivalent mass of hydrogen.

Perry, J. L.

1988-01-01

182

Oxygen electrodes for rechargeable alkaline fuel cells  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Electrocatalysts and supports for the positive electrode of moderate temperature single unit rechargeable alkaline fuel cells were investigated and developed. The electrocatalysts are defined as the material with a higher activity for the oxygen electrode reaction than the support. Advanced development will require that the materials be prepared in high surface area forms, and may also entail integration of various candidate materials. Eight candidate support materials and seven electrocatalysts were investigated. Of the 8 support, 3 materials meet the preliminary requirements in terms of electrical conductivity and stability. Emphasis is now on preparing in high surface area form and testing under more severe corrosion stress conditions. Of the 7 electrocatalysts prepared and evaluated, at least 5 materials remain as potential candidates. The major emphasis remains on preparation, physical characterization and electrochemical performance testing.

Swette, Larry; Giner, Jose

1987-01-01

183

Spinel electrodes for rechargeable lithium batteries.  

SciTech Connect

This paper gives a historical account of the development of spinel electrodes for rechargeable lithium batteries. Research in the late 1970's and early 1980's on high-temperature . Li/Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} cells led to the evaluation of lithium spinels Li[B{sub 2}]X{sub 4} at room temperature (B = metal cation). This work highlighted the importance of the [B{sub 2}]X{sub 4}spinel framework as a host electrode structure and the ability to tailor the cell voltage by selection of different B cations. Examples of lithium-ion cells that operate with spinel anode/spinel cathode couples are provided. Particular attention is paid to spinels within the solid solution system Li{sub 1+x}Mn{sub 2-x}O{sub 4} (0 {le} x {le} 0.33).

Thackeray, M. M.

1999-11-10

184

Polymer Energy Rechargeable System (PERS) Development Program  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) and the Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL) have recently established a collaborative effort to support the development of polymer-based, lithium-based cell chemistries and battery technologies to address the next generation of aerospace applications and mission needs. The overall objective of this development program, which is referred to as PERS, Polymer Energy Rechargeable System, is to establish a world-class technology capability and U.S. leadership in polymer-based battery technology for aerospace applications. Programmatically, the PERS initiative will exploit both interagency collaborations to address common technology and engineering issues and the active participation of academia and private industry. The initial program phases will focus on R&D activities to address the critical technical issues and challenges at the cell level.

Baldwin, Richard S.; Manzo, Michelle A.; Dalton, Penni J.; Marsh, Richard A.; Surampudi, Rao

2001-01-01

185

Thin-film rechargeable lithium batteries  

SciTech Connect

Small thin-film rechargeable cells have been fabricated with a lithium phosphorus oxyniuide electrolyte, Li metal anode, and Li{sub 1-x}Mn{sub 2}O{sub 4} as the cathode film. The cathode films were fabricated by several different techniques resulting in both crystalline and amorphous films. These were compared by observing the cell discharge behavior. Estimates have been made for the scale-up of such a thin-film battery to meet the specifications for the electric vehicle application. The specific energy, energy density, and cycle life are expected to meet the USABC mid-term criteria. However, the areas of the thin-films needed to fabricate such a cell are very large. The required areas could be greatly reduced by operating the battery at temperatures near 100{degrees}C or by enhancing the lithium ion transport rate in the cathode material.

Dudney, N.J.; Bates, J.B.; Lubben, D.

1994-11-01

186

Polymer Energy Rechargeable System Battery Being Developed  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Long description. Illustrations of discotic liquid crystals, rod-coil polymers, lithium-ion conducting channel dilithium phthalocyanine (Li2Pc) from top and side, novel star polyethylene oxide structures, composite polyethylene oxide materials (showing polyethylene oxide + lithium salt, carbon atoms and oxygen atoms), homopolyrotaxanes, and diblock copolymers In fiscal year 2000, NASA established a program to develop the next generation, lithium-based, polymer electrolyte batteries for aerospace applications. The goal of this program, known as Polymer Energy Rechargeable Systems (PERS), is to develop a space-qualified, advanced battery system embodying polymer electrolyte and lithium-based electrode technologies and to establish world-class domestic manufacturing capabilities for advanced batteries with improved performance characteristics that address NASA s future aerospace battery requirements.

Manzo, Michelle A.

2003-01-01

187

Advanced rechargeable sodium batteries with novel cathodes  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Various high energy density rechargeable batteries are being considered for future space applications. Of these, the sodium sulfur battery is one of the leading candidates. The primary advantage is the high energy density (760 Wh/kg theoretical). Energy densities in excess of 180 Wh/kg have been realized in practical batteries. More recently, cathodes other than sulfur are being evaluated. Researchers at JPL are evaluating various new cathode materials for use in high energy density sodium batteries for advanced space applications. The approach is to carry out basic electrochemical studies of these materials in a sodium cell configuration in order to understand their fundamental behaviors. Thus far studies have focused on alternate metal chlorides such as CuCl2 and organic cathode materials such as tetracyanoethylene (TCNE).

Distefano, S.; Ratnakumar, B. V.; Bankston, C. P.

1989-01-01

188

Rechargeable thin-film lithium batteries  

SciTech Connect

Rechargeable thin-film batteries consisting of lithium metal anodes, an amorphous inorganic electrolyte, and cathodes of lithium intercalation compounds have recently been developed. The batteries, which are typically less than 6-{mu}m thick, can be fabricated to any specified size, large or small, onto a variety of substrates including ceramics, semiconductors, and plastics. The cells that have been investigated include Li-TiS{sub 2}, Li-V{sub 2}O{sub 5}, and Li-Li{sub x}Mn{sub 2}O{sub 4}, with open circuit voltages at full charge of about 2.5, 3.6, and 4.2, respectively. The development of these batteries would not have been possible without the discovery of a new thin-film lithium electrolyte, lithium phosphorus oxynitride, that is stable in contact with metallic lithium at these potentials. Deposited by rf magnetron sputtering of Li{sub 3}PO{sub 4} in N{sub 2}, this material has a typical composition of Li{sub 2.9}PO{sub 3.3}N{sub 0.46} and a conductivity at 25{degrees}C of 2 {mu}S/cm. The maximum practical current density obtained from the thin-film cells is limited to about 100 {mu}A/cm{sup 2} due to a low diffusivity of Li{sup +} ions in the cathodes. In this work, the authors present a short review of their work on rechargeable thin-film lithium batteries.

Bates, J.B.; Gruzalski, G.R.; Dudney, N.J.; Luck, C.F.; Yu, Xiaohua

1993-08-01

189

Quantifying the modern recharge of the "fossil" Sahara aquifers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The North-Western Sahara Aquifer System (NWSAS), one of the world's largest groundwater systems, shows an overall piezometric decline associated with increasing withdrawals. Estimating the recharge rate in such a semiarid system is challenging but crucial for sustainable water development. In this paper, the recharge of the NWSAS is estimated using a regional water budget based on GRACE terrestrial water storage monthly records, soil moisture from the GLDAS (a land data system that assimilates hydrological information), and groundwater pumping rates. A cumulated natural recharge rate of 1.40 ± 0.90 km3 yr-1is estimated for the two main aquifers. Our results suggest a renewal rate of about 40% which partly contradicts the premise that recharge in this area should be very low or even null. Aquifer depletion inferred from our analysis is consistent with observed piezometric head decline in the two main aquifers in the region. Annual recharge variations were also estimated and vary between 0 and 4.40 km3 yr-1for the period 2003-2010. These values correspond to a recharge between 0 and 6.75 mm yr-1 on the 650,000 km2of outcropping areas of the aquifers, which is consistent with the expected weak and sporadic recharge in this semiarid environment. These variations are also in line with annual rainfall variation with a lag time of about 1 year.

GonçAlvèS, J.; Petersen, J.; Deschamps, P.; Hamelin, B.; Baba-Sy, O.

2013-06-01

190

Petrogenesis of early cretaceous carbonatite and ultramafic lamprophyres in a diatreme in the Batain Nappes, Eastern Oman continental margin  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Allochthonous carbonatite and ultramafic lamprophyre occur in a diatreme at the beach of the Asseelah village, northeastern Oman. The diatreme consists of heterogeneous deposits dominated by `diatreme facies' pyroclastic rocks. These include aillikite and carbonatite, which intrude late Jurassic to early Cretaceous cherts and shales of the Wahra Formation within the Batain nappes. Both rock types are dominated by carbonate, altered olivine, Ti-Al-phlogopite and Cr-Al-spinel and contain varying amounts of apatite and rutile. The carbonatite occur as fine-grained heterolithic breccias with abundant rounded carbonatite xenoliths, glimmerite and crustal xenoliths. The aillikite consists of pelletal lapilli tuff with abundant fine-grained carbonatite autoliths and crustal xenoliths, which resemble those in the carbonatite breccia. The aillikite and carbonatite are characterized by low SiO2 (11-24 wt%), MgO (9.5-12.4 wt%) and K2O (<0.3 wt%), but high CaO (18-22 wt%), Al2O3 (4.75-7.04 wt%), Fe2O3tot (8.7-13.8 wt%) and loss-on-ignition (24-30 wt%). Higher CaO, Fe2O3total, Al2O3, MnO, TiO2, P2O5 and lower SiO2 and MgO content distinguish carbonatite from the aillikite. The associated carbonatite xenoliths and autoliths have intermediate composition between the aillikite and carbonatite. Mg number is variable and ranges between 58 and 66 in the carbonatite, 66 and 72 in the aillikite and between 48 to 64 in the carbonatite autoliths and xenoliths. The Asseelah aillikite, carbonatite, carbonatite xenoliths and autoliths overlap in most of their mineral parageneses, mineral composition and major and trace element chemistry and have variable but overlapping Sr, Nd and Pb isotopic composition, implying that these rocks are related to a common type of parental magma with variable isotopic characteristics. The Asseelah aillikite, carbonatite and carbonatites xenoliths are LREE-enriched and significantly depleted in HREE. They exhibit similar smooth, subparallel REE pattern and steep slopes with (La/Sm) n of 6-10 and relative depletion in heavy rare earth elements (Lu = 3-10 chondrite). Initial 87Sr/86Sr ratios vary from 0.70409 to 0.70787, whereas initial 143Nd/144Nd ratios vary between 0.512603 and 0.512716 (?Nd i between 2.8 and 3.6). 206Pb/204Pb i ratios vary between 18.4 and 18.76, 207Pb/204Pb i ratios vary between 15.34 and 15.63, whereas 208Pb/204Pb i varies between 38.42 and 39.05. Zircons grains extracted from the carbonatite have a mean age of 137 ± 1 Ma (95% confidence, MSWD = 0.49). This age correlates with large-scale tectonic events recorded in the early Indian Ocean at 140-160 Ma. Geochemical and isotopic signatures displayed by the Asseelah rocks can be accounted for by vein-plus-wall-rock model of Foley (1992) wherein veins are represented by phlogopite, carbonate and apatite and depleted peridotite constitutes the wall-rock. The carbonatite and aillikite magmatism is probably a distal effect of the breaking up of Gondwana, during and/or after the rift-to-drift transition that led to the opening of the Indian Ocean.

Nasir, S.; Al-Khirbash, S.; Rollinson, H.; Al-Harthy, A.; Al-Sayigh, A.; Al-Lazki, A.; Theye, T.; Massonne, H.-J.; Belousova, E.

2011-01-01

191

Echo Meadows Project Winter Artificial Recharge.  

SciTech Connect

This report discusses the findings of the Echo Meadows Project (BPA Project 2001-015-00). The main purpose of this project is to artificially recharge an alluvial aquifer, WITH water from Umatilla River during the winter high flow period. In turn, this recharged aquifer will discharge an increased flow of cool groundwater back to the river, thereby improving Umatilla River water quality and temperature. A considerable side benefit is that the Umatilla River should improve as a habitat for migration, spanning, and rearing of anadromous and resident fish. The scope of this project is to provide critical baseline information about the Echo Meadows and the associated reach of the Umatilla River. Key elements of information that has been gathered include: (1) Annual and seasonal groundwater levels in the aquifer with an emphasis on the irrigation season, (2) Groundwater hydraulic properties, particularly hydraulic conductivity and specific yield, and (3) Groundwater and Umatilla River water quality including temperature, nutrients and other indicator parameters. One of the major purposes of this data gathering was to develop input to a groundwater model of the area. The purpose of the model is to estimate our ability to recharge this aquifer using water that is only available outside of the irrigation season (December through the end of February) and to estimate the timing of groundwater return flow back to the river. We have found through the data collection and modeling efforts that this reach of the river had historically returned as much as 45 cubic feet per second (cfs) of water to the Umatilla River during the summer and early fall. However, this return flow was reduced to as low as 10 cfs primarily due to reduced quantities of irrigation application, gain in irrigation efficiencies and increased groundwater pumping. Our modeling indicated that it is possible to restore these critical return flows using applied water outside of the irrigation season. We further found that this water can be timed to return to the river during the desired time of the year (summer to early fall). This is because the river stage, which remains relatively high until this time, drops during the irrigation season-thereby releasing the stored groundwater and increasing river flows. A significant side benefit is that these enhanced groundwater return flows will be clean and cold, particularly as compared to the Umatilla River. We also believe that this same type of application of water could be done and the resulting stream flows could be realized in other watersheds throughout the Pacific Northwest. This means that it is critical to compare the results from this baseline report to the full implementation of the project in the next phase. As previously stated, this report only discusses the results of data gathered during the baseline phase of this project. We have attempted to make the data that has been gathered accessible with the enclosed databases and spreadsheets. We provide computer links in this report to the databases so that interested parties can fully evaluate the data that has been gathered. However, we cannot emphasize too strongly that the real value of this project is to implement the phases to come, compare the results of these future phases to this baseline and develop the science and strategies to successfully implement this concept to other rivers in the Pacific Northwest. The results from our verified and calibrated groundwater model matches the observed groundwater data and trends collected during the baseline phase. The modeling results indicate that the return flows may increase to their historic values with the addition of 1 acre-ft/acre of recharge water to the groundwater system (about 9,600 acre-feet total). What this means is that through continued recharge project, you can double to quadruple the annual baseflow of the Umatilla River during the low summer and fall flow periods as compared to the present base-flow. The cool and high quality recharge water is a significant beneficial impact to the river system.

Ziari, Fred

2002-12-19

192

Spatial and temporal distribution of groundwater recharge in northern Nigeria  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Moisture samples obtained from unsaturated-zone profiles in sands from northern Nigeria were used to obtain recharge estimates using the chloride (Cl) mass-balance method and to produce records of past recharge and climatic events. Recharge rates range from 14-49 mm/year, on the basis of unsaturated-zone Cl values and rainfall chemistry measured over eight years at three local stations. The unsaturated-zone results also provide a record of the changing recharge and climatic events of the past 80 years; this record compares quite well with modelling results using precipitation data from Maiduguri, especially for the late 20th-century period of drought. The best fit for the model is made, however, by using a lower mean rainfall Cl (0.65 mg/l) than that obtained from the mean of the field results (1.77 mg/l Cl). This result implies that the measured rainfall Cl probably overestimates the depositional flux of Cl, although the lower value is comparable to the minimum of the measured rainfall Cl values (0.6 mg/l Cl). Recharge estimates made using these lower Cl values range from 16-30 mm/year. The spatial variability was then determined using results from 360 regional shallow wells over 18,000 km2. Using the revised rainfall estimate, the Cl balance indicates a value of 43 mm for the regional recharge, suggesting that either additional preferential flow is taking place over and above that from the vadose one, or that the regional recharge represents inputs from earlier wetter periods. These recharge estimates compare favourably with those from hydraulic modelling in the same area and suggest that the recharge rates are much higher than values previously published for this area. High nitrate (NO3) concentrations (NO3-N>Cl) preserved under aerobic conditions in the vadose zone reflect secondary enrichment from N-fixing vegetation, as occurs elsewhere in the Sahel.

Edmunds, W. M.; Fellman, E.; Goni, I. B.; Prudhomme, C.

2002-02-01

193

Crustal Stretching and Subsidence in Sedimentary Basins: A Pilot Study in the Austro-Alpine Nappes of Eastern Switzerland and Permo-Carboniferous Basins in the Continental United States. Final Report.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Austro-Alpine nappe complex of eastern Switzerland, together with the southern Alps, represents the thinned continental crust of the southern margin of the Alpine trough whose demise led to the growth of the Alps. Detailed and systematic structural ma...

J. F. Dewey

1984-01-01

194

Serpentinite slices within a tectonic zone at the base of the Juvavic nappe system in the Northern Calcareous Alps (Austria): characterization and origin  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The investigated serpentinites are present in an ENE-WSW orientated tectonic zone at the base of Juvavic nappes (Northern Calcareous Alps), situated at the eastern margin of the Eastern Alps (Lower Austria). They form small tectonically squeezed slices, which are embedded in Permotriassic schists and Middle to Upper Triassic limestones. These serpentinites play an important, but not yet understood role in reconstructing Neotethys evolution, Alpine Orogeny and the correlation of Dinarides and Alps. The largest serpentinite body near to Unterhöflein is 400 to 100 meters in size and was investigated by mineralogical (XRD) and petrological/geochemical (XRF) methods. The primary mineral composition is olivine + orthopyroxene + clinopyroxene + chrome spinel. Pseudomorphs of pyroxenes are visible macroscopically, but almost all primary minerals are replaced by serpentine minerals. Former olivine is converted to chrysotile minerals, which show typical reticulate textures, orthopyroxene turned into lizardite pseudomorphs and chrome spinel is almost completely altered to magnetite. Major contents of chrysotile-?, chrysotile-? and lizardite and minor antigorite, as well as secondary minerals like talc, chlorite and hydrogrossular were identified with XRD. Results from whole rock geochemistry indicate harzburgitic precursor rocks for the serpentinites. According to the low antigorite content, the rocks have only a weak metamorphic imprint and therefore an obduction rather than a subduction history is likely. This leads to the assumption that these serpentinites possibly originate from the Neotethys and not from the Penninic oceanic realm. Further, the tectonic position of the serpentinite slices is in close vicinity to sediments of the Meliata unit which also occur between Juvavic and underlying Tirolic nappe system (Mandl & Ondrejickova, 1993). Additionally, remnants from ophiolite nappes are found reworked into the surrounding Upper Cretaceous Gosau Group. In the latter also chrome spinel detritus is present. In contrast to the altered chrome spinels in the investigated serpentinites, the spinels from Gosau Group are well preserved and they show similarities to those of Dinaric Cretaceous basins, concerning their harzburgitic and lherzolitic sources (Stern & Wagreich, 2013). If the investigated serpentinites belong to obducted material from Neothetys oceanic realm, a tectonic model of a slab-tearing induced sinistral strike-slip zone could explain the position in the Eastern Alps. However, the relationship to other basic magmatic rocks from several other localities in similar positions, mostly occurring within evaporitic sediments of Permian Haselgebirge (Schorn et al., 2013), has to be clarified.

Boehm, Katharina; Schuster, Ralf; Wagreich, Michael; Koller, Friedrich; Wimmer-Frey, Ingeborg

2014-05-01

195

New evidence of a magmatic arc in the southern Brasília Belt, Brazil: The Serra da Água Limpa batholith (Socorro-Guaxupé Nappe)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper presents a detailed description of the Neoproterozoic Serra da Água Limpa batholith (SALB) and the interpretation of its genesis. The batholith, located along the border of the states of Minas Gerais and São Paulo, was involved in the Socorro-Guaxupé Nappe, a tectonic unit that integrates the southern Brasília Belt. The tectonic evolution of this nappe is related to the convergence and subsequent collision between the Paranapanema paleocontinent, representing the upper plate, with the São Francisco paleocontinent, resulting in the construction of the southern Brasília Belt. The active margin of the Paranapanema paleocontinent developed during the pre-collisional stage a magmatic arc composed of batholithic igneous bodies. The Socorro-Guaxupé Nappe represents this active margin and SALB is one of those bodies. U-Pb dating (Laser Ablation, LA-ICP-MS) in zircon was performed in five samples of SALB. The results are as follows: sample RDTM 62, 667 ± 10 Ma; RDPA 44, 645 ± 5 Ma; RDPA 46, 630 ± 12 Ma; VAC 10, 631 ± 7 Ma and RDIT 41, 635 ± 8 Ma. These ages indicate that the body crystallized between 670 and 630 Ma, with predominance of ages in the interval 645-630 Ma, demonstrating that the magmatic event that formed the arc lasted at least 40 myr. Younger ages, measured in rims of zircon grains, mainly in the range 625-600 Ma were interpreted as metamorphic ages. The lithogeochemical analyses indicate that the I-type rocks of the Serra da Água Limpa batholith belong to the high K calc-alkaline series, and are metaluminous to slightly peraluminous. Tectonic environment diagrams also indicate that the batholith was produced in a volcanic arc setting which is confirmed by negative anomalies of elements of high ionic potential (HFS) in multi-element diagrams. Whole rock Sm-Nd isotope analyses show highly negative ?Nd values (-12 to -7), indicating significant crustal contamination or origin of the magma by melting of enriched lower crust.

Vinagre, Rodrigo; Trouw, Rudolph A. J.; Mendes, Julio Cezar; Duffles, Patrícia; Peternel, Rodrigo; Matos, Gabriel

2014-10-01

196

DES Supernova Results  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Dark Energy Survey Supernova program (DES SN) will discover approximately 3500 Type Ia supernovae with well-sampled multi-color light curves in the redshift range 0.2 < z < 1.2 over its five year duration. The large field of view and high z-band sensitivity of the Dark Energy Camera, combined with the precision photometry of DES and an improved handling of systematic uncertainties will allow DES SN to provide the strongest constraints on supernova cosmology to date. One of the main challenges for DES SN will be accurate classification of such a large number of faint transients. I will describe the unique spectroscopic follow-up strategy that we are employing, with emphasis on the 100 night, survey-status program at AAT which began in September. I will present preliminary supernova results obtained from the DES Science Verification period and the beginning of DES Year 1.

D'Andrea, Christopher; Dark Energy Survey, The

2014-01-01

197

Zur Histophysiologie des Inselapparates  

Microsoft Academic Search

1.Der Feinbau der Langerhansschen Inseln des neugeborenen und erwachsenen Hundes wird geschildert. Das Zahlenverhältnis der betazu den alpha-Zellen in den Inseln des normalen Hundes beträgt bei Zugrundelegung nach Gomori (Azan) gefärbter Präparate 7:1, von Gros-Schultze-Präparaten 8:1. Es wird eine Einteilung der nach Gros-Schultze im Pankreas des Hundes darstellbaren verschiedenartigen Silberzellen vorgenommen. Das Vorhandensein neuroinsulärer Komplexe (Simard, 1937) wird für das

W. Creutzfeldt

1949-01-01

198

Geothermobarometry of a stilpnomelane–garnet-bearing metapegmatite: P – T constraints on the Eo-Alpine metamorphic overprint of the Austroalpine nappes north of the Tauern Window  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Ordovician Kellerjochgneiss (Schwaz Augengneiss) is a polymetamorphic orthogneiss-bearing unit and is part of the Austroalpine\\u000a basement nappes north of the Tauern Window. Within the Kellerjochgneiss a small, strongly deformed metapegmatite dike occurs.\\u000a The pegmatite crosscuts the gneiss discordantly and contains the mineral assemblage muscovite 1,2+plagioclase+K-feldspar+chlorite+quartz+garnet\\u000a 1 (Alm67–76Andr0.9–2Sps17–28Prp0.4–5)+garnet 2 (Grs36–46Alm24–32Andr8–21Sps15–17Prp0–1)±stilpnomelane±biotite±clinozoisite. The magmatic protolith assemblage is comprised of relict K-feldspar, quartz

Andreas Piber; Peter Tropper; Peter W. Mirwald

2009-01-01

199

Soil Water Balance and Recharge Monitoring at the Hanford Site – FY 2010 Status Report  

SciTech Connect

This report summarizes the recharge data collected in FY 2010 at five locations on the Hanford Site in southeastern Washington State. Average monthly precipitation and temperature conditions in FY 2010 were near normal and did not present an opportunity for increased recharge. The recharge monitoring data confirmed those conditions, showing normal behavior in water content, matric head, and recharge rates. Also provided in this report is a strategy for recharge estimation for the next 5 years.

Fayer, Michael J.; Saunders, Danielle L.; Herrington, Ricky S.; Felmy, Diana

2010-10-27

200

GROUNDWATER RECHARGE/DISCHARGE, NEUSE RIVER WATERSHED, NC  

EPA Science Inventory

The North Carolina Department of Environment and Natural Resources, Division of Water Quality and Groundwater Section, in cooperation with the NC Center for Geographic Information and Analysis, developed the Groundwater Recharge/Discharge digital data to enhance planning, siting ...

201

Waste Water Recharge and Dispersion in Porous Media.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The recharge and disposal of treated and untreated waste waters in aquifers results in a mixing of these waters with the natural groundwater. The distribution and boundaries of the ensuing mixture are determined by dispersion and diffusion. This study inc...

J. A. Hoopes D. R. F. Harleman

1965-01-01

202

Reliability of Rechargeable Batteries in a Photovoltaic Power Supply System.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

We investigate the reliability If a rechargeable battery acting as the energy storage component in a photovoltaic power supply system. A model system was constructed for this that includes the solar resource, the photovoltaic power supp Iy system, the rec...

P. Barney R. G. Jungst C. O'Gorman T. L. Paez A. Urbina

1998-01-01

203

New Mechanically Rechargeable Zinc/Air Battery Design.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Performance characteristics of the Yardney 20 AH Zinc/Air mechanically rechargeable systems are discussed in the light of the high power output requirements of the Technical Guidelines. Several design changes and improvements were incorporated into the bi...

R. F. Chireau R. G. Gunther

1972-01-01

204

Improved zinc electrode and rechargeable zinc-air battery  

Microsoft Academic Search

The invention comprises an improved rechargeable zinc-air cell\\/battery having recirculating alkaline electrolyte and a zinc electrode comprising a porous foam support material which carries the active zinc electrode material. 5 figs.

P. N. Jr

1988-01-01

205

Improved zinc electrode and rechargeable zinc-air battery  

DOEpatents

The invention comprises an improved rechargeable zinc-air cell/battery having recirculating alkaline electrolyte and a zinc electrode comprising a porous foam support material which carries the active zinc electrode material. 5 figs.

Ross, P.N. Jr.

1988-06-21

206

ENGINEERING ECONOMIC ANALYSIS OF A PROGRAM FOR ARTIFICIAL GROUNDWATER RECHARGE.  

USGS Publications Warehouse

This study describes and demonstrates two alternate methods for evaluating the relative costs and benefits of artificial groundwater recharge using percolation ponds. The first analysis considers the benefits to be the reduction of pumping lifts and land subsidence; the second considers benefits as the alternative costs of a comparable surface delivery system. Example computations are carried out for an existing artificial recharge program in Santa Clara Valley in California. A computer groundwater model is used to estimate both the average long term and the drought period effects of artificial recharge in the study area. Results indicate that the costs of artificial recharge are considerably smaller than the alternative costs of an equivalent surface system. Refs.

Reichard, Eric, G.; Bredehoeft, John, D.

1984-01-01

207

Materials issues in lithium ion rechargeable battery technology.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Lithium ion rechargeable batteries are predicted to replace Ni/Cd as the workhorse consumer battery. The pace of development of this battery system is determined in large part by the availability of materials and the understanding of interfacial reactions...

D. H. Doughty

1995-01-01

208

Transition Metal Compounds as Cathodic Materials in Rechargeable Lithium Cells.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A comparison was made between rechargeable lithium batteries, based on lithium intercalation or lithium interstitial compounds of transition metal chalcogenides or oxides, and nickel-cadmium batteries. Several chalcogenides and oxides show promise as cath...

H. F. Hunger J. E. Ellison

1977-01-01

209

Status of the Development of Rechargeable Lithium Cells.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The progress in the development of the ambient temperature lithium - titanium disulfide rechargeable cell under development at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory is described in this paper. Originally aimed at achieving a specific energy of 100 Wh/kg, 'AA' cel...

G. Halpert S. Surampudi D. Shen C. Huang S. Narayanan

1993-01-01

210

Reliability of Rechargeable Batteries in a Photovoltaic Power Supply System  

SciTech Connect

We investigate the reliability If a rechargeable battery acting as the energy storage component in a photovoltaic power supply system. A model system was constructed for this that includes the solar resource, the photovoltaic power supp Iy system, the rechargeable battery and a load. The solar resource and the system load are modeled as SI ochastic processes. The photovoltaic system and the rechargeable battery are modeled deterministically, imd an artificial neural network is incorporated into the model of the rechargeable battery to simulate dartage that occurs during deep discharge cycles. The equations governing system behavior are solved simultaneously in the Monte Carlo framework and a fwst passage problem is solved to assess system reliability.

Barney, P.; Jungst, R.G., Ingersoll, D.; O'Gorman, C.; Paez, T.L.; Urbina, A.

1998-11-30

211

Bipolar rechargeable lithium battery for high power applications  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Viewgraphs of a discussion on bipolar rechargeable lithium battery for high power applications are presented. Topics covered include cell chemistry, electrolytes, reaction mechanisms, cycling behavior, cycle life, and cell assembly.

Hossain, Sohrab; Kozlowski, G.; Goebel, F.

1993-01-01

212

Graphite fiber as a positive electrode of rechargeable lithium cells  

SciTech Connect

Graphite compounds have gained interest as possible positive electrodes for rechargeable lithium cells. Their charge-discharge characteristics have been studied in organic electrolytic solutions such as sulfolane dimethylsulfite, and propylene carbonate.

Matsuda, Y.; Katsuma, H.; Morita, M.

1984-01-01

213

Cryogenic Transport of High-Pressure-System Recharge Gas  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A method of relatively safe, compact, efficient recharging of a high-pressure room-temperature gas supply has been proposed. In this method, the gas would be liquefied at the source for transport as a cryogenic fluid at or slightly above atmospheric pressure. Upon reaching the destination, a simple heating/expansion process would be used to (1) convert the transported cryogenic fluid to the room-temperature, high-pressure gaseous form in which it is intended to be utilized and (2) transfer the resulting gas to the storage tank of the system to be recharged. In conventional practice for recharging high-pressure-gas systems, gases are transported at room temperature in high-pressure tanks. For recharging a given system to a specified pressure, a transport tank must contain the recharge gas at a much higher pressure. At the destination, the transport tank is connected to the system storage tank to be recharged, and the pressures in the transport tank and the system storage tank are allowed to equalize. One major disadvantage of the conventional approach is that the high transport pressure poses a hazard. Another disadvantage is the waste of a significant amount of recharge gas. Because the transport tank is disconnected from the system storage tank when it is at the specified system recharge pressure, the transport tank still contains a significant amount of recharge gas (typically on the order of half of the amount transported) that cannot be used. In the proposed method, the cryogenic fluid would be transported in a suitably thermally insulated tank that would be capable of withstanding the recharge pressure of the destination tank. The tank would be equipped with quick-disconnect fluid-transfer fittings and with a low-power electric heater (which would not be used during transport). In preparation for transport, a relief valve would be attached via one of the quick-disconnect fittings (see figure). During transport, the interior of the tank would be kept at a near-ambient pressure far below the recharge pressure. As leakage of heat into the tank caused vaporization of the cryogenic fluid, the resulting gas would be vented through the relief valve, which would be set to maintain the pressure in the tank at the transport value. Inasmuch as the density of a cryogenic fluid at atmospheric pressure greatly exceeds that of the corresponding gas in a practical high-pressure tank at room temperature, a tank for transporting a given mass of gas according to the proposed method could be smaller (and, hence, less massive) than is a tank needed for transporting the same mass of gas according to the conventional method.

Ungar, Eugene K,; Ruemmele, Warren P.; Bohannon, Carl

2010-01-01

214

Estimating ground-water recharge from streamflow records  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this paper is to estimate ground-water recharge based on the investigation of the balance between ground-water recharge and discharge from streamflow hydrographs. Two methods of hydrograph analysis are employed in a case study of Cho-Shui River basin, Taiwan. The first is the recession-curve-displacement method, which assumes the linearity of the master recession curve while the profile of

Wei-Ping Chen; Cheng-Haw Lee

2003-01-01

215

Delineating volcanic aquifer recharge areas using geochemical and isotopic tools  

Microsoft Academic Search

Relative recharge areas are evaluated using geochemical and isotopic tools, and inverse modeling. Geochemistry and water quality\\u000a in springs discharging from a volcanic aquifer system in Guatemala are related to relative recharge area elevations and land\\u000a use. Plagioclase feldspar and olivine react with volcanically derived CO2 to produce Ca-montmorillonite, chalcedony and goethite in the groundwater. Alkalinity, Mg, Ca, Na, and

Brendan M. Mulligan; M. Cathryn Ryan; Tomás Padilla Cámbara

216

An approach for predicting groundwater recharge in mountainous watersheds  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

SummaryPredicting groundwater supply for an entire watershed in mountainous terrain required an approach that considered a wide range in data availability between valley bottom and headwater areas, large change in elevation, and steep topography. The methodology utilized the MIKE-SHE numerical code to simulate overland flow, actual evapotranspiration and recharge for data-rich areas, and a simpler, seasonal water budget for data-limited areas. Recharge estimates were combined to form spatially variable recharge boundary conditions for a larger-scale groundwater flow model of the entire mountainous watershed. Research focused on the BX Creek watershed, located in the north Okanagan Basin in British Columbia, one of Canada's fastest growing and most water-limited regions. Groundwater recharge was found to vary from 0 to 20 mm/yr at lower elevations, and from 20 to 50 mm/yr at higher elevations. Simulation of the whole flow system illustrated that 58% of the groundwater flux from upland areas occurs through a relatively narrow alluvial fan aquifer that extends to the valley bottom, and the remaining recharge is nearly equally divided between groundwater flow through the mountain block (20%) and direct recharge (22%). Geochemical data from domestic water wells within the watershed suggest that water in the alluvial aquifer and bedrock are generally similar (i.e., common origin); however, stable isotope data indicate that groundwater in the alluvial aquifer may be derived from snowmelt recharge at a different time and elevation than snowmelt recharge to the bedrock. The combination of modelling results and complimentary geochemical and isotopic analyses of surface water and groundwater, provide an adequate first-order approximation of groundwater flow in the watershed.

Smerdon, B. D.; Allen, D. M.; Grasby, S. E.; Berg, M. A.

2009-02-01

217

Zinc electrode and rechargeable zinc-air battery  

SciTech Connect

This patent describes an improved zinc electrode for a rechargeable zinc-air battery comprising an outer frame and a porous foam electrode support within the frame which is treated prior to the deposition of zinc thereon to inhibit the formation of zinc dendrites on the external surface thereof. The outer frame is provided with passageways for circulating an alkaline electrolyte through the treated zinc-coated porous foam. A novel rechargeable zinc-air battery system is also disclosed.

Ross, P.N. Jr.

1989-06-27

218

Electrochemical behavior of hydrated molybdenum oxides in rechargeable lithium batteries  

Microsoft Academic Search

Oxide-hydrates of molybdenum (OHM) are investigated as 3-volt cathode materials for rechargeable lithium batteries. These\\u000a materials with different water content showed a much better performance than that of MoO3 as cathode of the rechargeable lithium battery. We report the electrochemical characteristics of Li\\/\\/OHM batteries using\\u000a the oxides and oxide-hydrates of molybdenum which were synthesized from molybdic acid. The oxide has

B. Yebka; C. Julien; G. A. Nazri

1999-01-01

219

Inorganic electrolyte Li\\/CuCl2 rechargeable cell  

Microsoft Academic Search

A rechargeable lithium battery using a cathode of copper(II) chloride and an electrolyte consisting of LiAlCl4.3SO2 has been developed. The efficiency of lithium plating was evaluated in lithium-limited prototype cells. Cathode rechargeability was evaluated in cathode-limited prototypes, and system energy density was demonstrated by use of a wound D cell. The use of an electrolyte system which reacts reversibly with

A. N. Dey; W. L. Bowden; H. C. Kuo; M. L. Gopikanth; C. Schlaikjer; D. Foster

1989-01-01

220

Rechargeable Li\\/V2O5 D cell development  

Microsoft Academic Search

The authors report on practical ambient temperature rechargeable lithium cells and batteries using V2O5. V2 O5 has interesting characteristics as a positive for lithium rechargeable cells. The material can be used to a 2.8 V discharge cutoff (upper plateau) or to 2 V. The development of practical D size cells for both uses is discussed, and capacity retention date and

R. J. Staniewicz; A. Romero; M. Broussely; J. M. Bodet; J. Labat

1992-01-01

221

Estimating aquifer channel recharge using optical data interpretation.  

PubMed

Recharge through intermittent and ephemeral stream channels is believed to be a primary aquifer recharge process in arid and semiarid environments. The intermittent nature of precipitation and flow events in these channels, and their often remote locations, makes direct flow and loss measurements difficult and expensive. Airborne and satellite optical images were interpreted to evaluate aquifer recharge due to stream losses on the Frio River in south-central Texas. Losses in the Frio River are believed to be a major contributor of recharge to the Edwards Aquifer. The results of this work indicate that interpretation of readily available remote sensing optical images can offer important insights into the spatial distribution of aquifer recharge from losing streams. In cases where upstream gauging data are available, simple visual analysis of the length of the flowing reach downstream from the gauging station can be used to estimate channel losses. In the case of the Frio River, the rate of channel loss estimated from the length of the flowing reach at low flows was about half of the loss rate calculated from in-stream gain-loss measurements. Analysis based on water-surface width and channel slope indicated that losses were mainly in a reach downstream of the mapped recharge zone. The analysis based on water-surface width, however, did not indicate that this method could yield accurate estimates of actual flow in pool and riffle streams, such as the Frio River and similar rivers draining the Edwards Plateau. PMID:21434908

Walter, Gary R; Necsoiu, Marius; McGinnis, Ronald

2012-01-01

222

Seasonal variation in natural recharge of coastal aquifers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Many coastal zones around the world have irregular precipitation throughout the year. This results in discontinuous natural recharge of coastal aquifers, which affects the size of freshwater lenses present in sandy deposits. Temperature data for the period 1960-1990 from LocClim (local climate estimator) and those obtained from the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) SRES A1b scenario for 2070-2100, have been used to calculate the potential evapotranspiration with the Thornthwaite method. Potential recharge (difference between precipitation and potential evapotranspiration) was defined at 12 locations: Ameland (The Netherlands), Auckland and Wellington (New Zealand); Hong Kong (China); Ravenna (Italy), Mekong (Vietnam), Mumbai (India), New Jersey (USA), Nile Delta (Egypt), Kobe and Tokyo (Japan), and Singapore. The influence of variable/discontinuous recharge on the size of freshwater lenses was simulated with the SEAWAT model. The discrepancy between models with continuous and with discontinuous recharge is relatively small in areas where the total annual recharge is low (258-616 mm/year); but in places with Monsoon-dominated climate (e.g. Mumbai, with recharge up to 1,686 mm/year), the difference in freshwater-lens thickness between the discontinuous and the continuous model is larger (up to 5 m) and thus important to consider in numerical models that estimate freshwater availability.

Mollema, Pauline N.; Antonellini, Marco

2013-06-01

223

Structure des bilans et types de croissance des entreprises  

Microsoft Academic Search

[fre] Structures des bilans et types de croissance des entreprises par Eric HURET. Une étude sur les structures de bilan des entreprises est réalisée à partir d'un échantillon de 522 firmes fourni par la centrale des bilans du Crédit national. On étudie d'abord de manière traditionnelle, les différences entre les moyennes sectorielles. Les conclusions économiques qui peuvent en être tirées

Eric Huret

1973-01-01

224

Injectabilite des coulis de ciment dans des milieux fissures  

Microsoft Academic Search

Le travail presente ici est un bilan du travaux de recherche effectues sur l'injectabilite des coulis de ciment dans lu milieux fissures. Un certain nombre de coulis a base de ciment Portland et microfin ont ete selectionnes afin de caracteriser leur capacite a penetrer des milieux fissures. Une partie des essais a ete menee en laboratoire. L'etude rheologique des differents

Thameur Mnif

1997-01-01

225

Elimination des noeuds dans le probleme newtonien des quatre corps  

Microsoft Academic Search

Résumé Nous appliquons la méthode des transformations canoniques à variables imposées à la réduction du problème newtonien des quatre corps. L'élimination du centre de gravité étant supposée faite, le problème est ramené à celui des trois corps fictifs. Alors nous menons à bien la réduction dûe aux intégrales des aires explicitement sous forme Hamiltonienne en tenant compte de l'aspect géométrique

Françoise Boigey; M. Curie

1982-01-01

226

Rechargeable Magnesium Batteries: Low-Cost Rechargeable Magnesium Batteries with High Energy Density  

SciTech Connect

BEEST Project: Pellion Technologies is developing rechargeable magnesium batteries that would enable an EV to travel 3 times farther than it could using Li-ion batteries. Prototype magnesium batteries demonstrate excellent electrochemical behavior; delivering thousands of charge cycles with very little fade. Nevertheless, these prototypes have always stored too little energy to be commercially viable. Pellion Technologies is working to overcome this challenge by rapidly screening potential storage materials using proprietary, high-throughput computer models. To date, 12,000 materials have been identified and analyzed. The resulting best materials have been electrochemically tested, yielding several very promising candidates.

None

2010-10-01

227

Rechargeable wireless EMG sensor for prosthetic control.  

PubMed

Surface electrodes in modern myoelectric prosthetics are often embedded in the prosthesis socket and make contact with the skin. These electrodes detect and amplify muscle action potentials from voluntary contractions of the muscle in the residual limb and are used to control the prosthetic's movement and function. There are a number of performance-related deficiencies associated with external electrodes including the maintenance of sufficient electromyogram (EMG) signal amplitude, extraneous noise acquisition, and proper electrode interface maintenance that are expected to be improved or eliminated using the proposed implanted sensors. This research seeks to investigate the design components for replacing external electrodes with fully-implantable myoelectric sensors that include a wireless interface to the prosthetic limbs. This implanted technology will allow prosthetic limb manufacturers to provide products with increased performance, capability, and patient-comfort. The EMG signals from the intramuscular recording electrode are amplified and wirelessly transmitted to a receiver in the prosthetic limb. Power to the implant is maintained using a rechargeable battery and an inductive energy transfer link from the prosthetic. A full experimental system was developed to demonstrate that a wireless biopotential sensor can be designed that meets the requirements of size, power, and performance for implantation. PMID:21095801

Lichter, P A; Lange, E H; Riehle, T H; Anderson, S M; Hedin, D S

2010-01-01

228

Wearable textile battery rechargeable by solar energy.  

PubMed

Wearable electronics represent a significant paradigm shift in consumer electronics since they eliminate the necessity for separate carriage of devices. In particular, integration of flexible electronic devices with clothes, glasses, watches, and skin will bring new opportunities beyond what can be imagined by current inflexible counterparts. Although considerable progresses have been seen for wearable electronics, lithium rechargeable batteries, the power sources of the devices, do not keep pace with such progresses due to tenuous mechanical stabilities, causing them to remain as the limiting elements in the entire technology. Herein, we revisit the key components of the battery (current collector, binder, and separator) and replace them with the materials that support robust mechanical endurance of the battery. The final full-cells in the forms of clothes and watchstraps exhibited comparable electrochemical performance to those of conventional metal foil-based cells even under severe folding-unfolding motions simulating actual wearing conditions. Furthermore, the wearable textile battery was integrated with flexible and lightweight solar cells on the battery pouch to enable convenient solar-charging capabilities. PMID:24164580

Lee, Yong-Hee; Kim, Joo-Seong; Noh, Jonghyeon; Lee, Inhwa; Kim, Hyeong Jun; Choi, Sunghun; Seo, Jeongmin; Jeon, Seokwoo; Kim, Taek-Soo; Lee, Jung-Yong; Choi, Jang Wook

2013-01-01

229

Rechargeable thin-film lithium batteries  

SciTech Connect

Rechargeable thin-film batteries consisting of lithium metal anodes, an amorphous inorganic electrolyte, and cathodes of lithium intercalation compounds have been fabricated and characterized. These include Li-TiS{sub 2}, Li-V{sub 2}O{sub 5}, and Li-Li{sub x}Mn{sub 2}O{sub 4} cells with open circuit voltages at full charge of about 2.5 V, 3.7 V, and 4.2 V, respectively. The realization of these robust cells, which can be cycled thousands of times, was possible because of the stability of the amorphous lithium electrolyte, lithium phosphorus oxynitride. This material has a typical composition of Li{sub 2.9}PO{sub 3.3}N{sub 0.46}and a conductivity at 25 C of 2 {mu}S/cm. The thin-film cells have been cycled at 100% depth of discharge using current densities of 5 to 100 {mu}A/cm{sup 2}. Over most of the charge-discharge range, the internal resistance appears to be dominated by the cathode, and the major source of the resistance is the diffusion of Li{sup +} ions from the electrolyte into the cathode. Chemical diffusion coefficients were determined from ac impedance measurements.

Bates, J.B.; Gruzalski, G.R.; Dudney, N.J.; Luck, C.F.; Yu, X.

1993-09-01

230

Electrolyte for laminated polymer lithium rechargeable battery  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Proposed thin film battery is comprised of a polymer-lithium ion cell material with barrier-layer packaging and mechanical reinforcing layers. A semi-solid/ solid electrolyte and a mesoporous polymer separator are sandwiched in between of anode and cathode. A composite film with a carbon nanotube (CNT) network serves as the anode and a mesoporous transitional metal oxide LixCoO2 as the cathode, where porous metal sheets serve as the current collector. The CNT network fabrics have high in-plane tensile strength. LiCoO2 is used as the cathode, because the Co atoms do not migrate to Li layers, so that cathode does not generate flammable gases during charging that create safety problems. Merit of this study is using the porous metal sheet, which is flexible, lightweight, low electric resistance, high strength and strong stability in alkaline solution. This paper presented development of electrolyte for laminated polymer lithium rechargeable battery. Two-type electrolytes, semi-solid and solid, were attempted; high ionic conductivity of Li ion electrolytes was achieved.

Xu, Chunye; Ma, Chao; Taya, Minoru

2008-05-01

231

Organic electrolyte for use in a lithium rechargeable electrochemical cell and lithium rechargeable electrochemical cell including said organic electrolyte  

Microsoft Academic Search

This invention relates in general to use of an organic electrolyte in a lithium rechargeable electrochemical cell and to a lithium rechargeable electrochemical cell including said electrolyte; and, in particular, to the use of 1 to 2 mol\\/dm³ LiAsFâ in dimethylcarbonate (DMC) or 1 to 2 mol\\/dm³ LiAsFâ in (DMC) mixtures with methyl formate (MF) in which the mass percent

E. J. Plichta; S. M. Slane; M. Salomon

1987-01-01

232

La structure des verres étudiée par diffraction des neutrons  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

La diffraction des neutrons est une méthode largement utilisée pour déterminer la structure des matériaux amorphes et en particulier des verres. L'utilisation de la méthode de substitution isotopique permet d'extraire les fonctions de distribution de paires partielles centrées autour d'un élément choisi. Nous présentons quelques exemples récents d'études par diffraction des neutrons sur des verres qui ont permis de mieux comprendre à la fois le réseau polymérique de la matrice vitreuse et l'environnement local et à moyenne distance autour des cations. Ces études ont révélées un ordre structural s'étendant au delà des premiers voisins, jusque vers de distances d'environ 10Å. Le couplage avec d'autres méthodes expérimentales (diffraction anormale des rayons X) et des techniques de simulations (dynamique moléculaire, Monte Carlo Inverse ou RMC) sont indispensables pour affiner nos connaissances de la structure des verres.

Cormier, L.

2003-09-01

233

DES Galaxy Cluster Results  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Dark Energy Survey (DES) is a 5 year, 5000 square degree photometric survey in 5 bands (grizY), with the primary goals of exploring the cause of cosmic acceleration and to trace the growth of structure. Probing the growth of structure via clusters of galaxies, the most massive bound structures in the Universe, is one of the key Dark Energy probes of DES as they provide one of the best ways to distinguish between a cosmological constant and deviations from General Relativity on cosmological scales. From November 2012 through February 2013 DES performed a "science verification" observing campaign (SVA1), covering over 100 deg^2 in the southern sky to full DES depth. Here we describe early results from galaxy clusters from SVA1, including a new measurement of the red galaxy conditional luminosity function to 1. We also show how these results inform our catalog simulation work for better predictions of the DES performance after the full 5 year survey.

Rykoff, Eli S.; DES Cluster Working Group

2014-01-01

234

Estimated Infiltration, Percolation, and Recharge Rates at the Rillito Creek Focused Recharge Investigation Site, Pima County, Arizona  

USGS Publications Warehouse

A large fraction of ground water stored in the alluvial aquifers in the Southwest is recharged by water that percolates through ephemeral stream-channel deposits. The amount of water currently recharging many of these aquifers is insufficient to meet current and future demands. Improving the understanding of streambed infiltration and the subsequent redistribution of water within the unsaturated zone is fundamental to quantifying and forming an accurate description of streambed recharge. In addition, improved estimates of recharge from ephemeral-stream channels will reduce uncertainties in water-budget components used in current ground-water models. This chapter presents a summary of findings related to a focused recharge investigation along Rillito Creek in Tucson, Arizona. A variety of approaches used to estimate infiltration, percolation, and recharge fluxes are presented that provide a wide range of temporal- and spatial-scale measurements of recharge beneath Rillito Creek. The approaches discussed include analyses of (1) cores and cuttings for hydraulic and textural properties, (2) environmental tracers from the water extracted from the cores and cuttings, (3) seepage measurements made during sustained streamflow, (4) heat as a tracer and numerical simulations of the movement of heat through the streambed sediments, (5) water-content variations, (6) water-level responses to streamflow in piezometers within the stream channel, and (7) gravity changes in response to recharge events. Hydraulic properties of the materials underlying Rillito Creek were used to estimate long-term potential recharge rates. Seepage measurements and analyses of temperature and water content were used to estimate infiltration rates, and environmental tracers were used to estimate percolation rates through the thick unsaturated zone. The presence or lack of tritium in the water was used to determine whether or not water in the unsaturated zone infiltrated within the past 40 years. Analysis of water-level and temporal-gravity data were used to estimate recharge volumes. Data presented in this chapter were collected from 1999 though 2002. Precipitation and streamflow during this period were less than the long-term average; however, two periods of significant streamflow resulted in recharge?one in the summer of 1999 and the other in the fall/winter of 2000. Flux estimates of infiltration and recharge vary from less than 0.1 to 1.0 cubic meter per second per kilometer of streamflow. Recharge-flux estimates are larger than infiltration estimates. Larger recharge fluxes than infiltration fluxes are explained by the scale of measurements. Methods used to estimate recharge rates incorporate the largest volumetric and temporal scales and are likely to have fluxes from other nearby sources, such as unmeasured tributaries, whereas the methods used to estimate infiltration incorporate the smallest scales, reflecting infiltration rates at individual measurement sites.

Hoffmann, John P.; Blasch, Kyle W.; Pool, Don R.; Bailey, Matthew A.; Callegary, James B.

2007-01-01

235

La structure des solutions aqueuses  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

En commençant par l'étude par diffraction neutronique de la structure des liquides moléculaires puis de l'hydratation des ions en solution, ce cours montrera comment les principes présentés lors des cours précédents peuvent être appliqués à des systèmes aqueux. Des exemples tirés de la littérature seront utilisés pour illustrer les considérations expérimentales propre à ce domaine et le genre d'informations que nous pouvons obtenir. Ce cours montrera également l'applicaton de la diffraction neutronique à des systèmes d'intérêt biologique et environnemental et se terminera par un examen de la complémentarité fournie par la diffraction des rayons X, l'EXAFS et la RMN.

Powell, D. H.

2003-09-01

236

Fundamental Concepts of Recharge in the Desert Southwest  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recharge in arid basins does not occur in all years or at all locations. To address the temporal and spatial variability of recharge, one must (1) distinguish between recharge and net infiltration, (2) understand travel time in the unsaturated zone, and (3) comprehend the local- and basin-scale deterministic processes and surficial properties that control net infiltration. Net infiltration is the quantity of water that moves below the zone of surface evapotranspiration whereas recharge is the quantity or process of water entering the saturated zone. Under steady-state conditions, net infiltration becomes recharge unless diverted to an area of spring flow, generally by laterally extensive, low-permeability rock. The rate of net infiltration, thickness of unsaturated zone, and the effective porosity of the flow-pathway control travel time through the unsaturated zone. Net infiltration and recharge vary spatially owing to variations in surface microclimates, root zone and unconsolidated material thickness, faults and fractures, and thickness and hydrologic properties of geologic strata in the unsaturated zone. Although temporal fluctuations in net infiltration diminish with depth, resultant recharge is expected to vary on timescales of days to centuries making decadal-scale climate cycles significant to understanding recharge. Results of model simulations of recharge indicate that net infiltration occurs in less than 5 percent of the area of a typical southwest basin and only when the surface-water supply exceeds the storage capacity of the root zone and evapotranspiration over a fixed period of time. The critical components controlling net infiltration and recharge are precipitation, as rain or snow (and snow accumulation and melt); infiltration and water storage capacity of the overlying soil (within the zone of evapotranspiration); potential and actual evapotranspiration; and bedrock permeability. In the desert Southwest, potential evapotranspiration exceeds precipitation on a yearly basis. However, on shorter time scales and in certain areas of a basin, precipitation and (or) snowmelt exceed the infiltration capacity of the soil and becomes runoff or exceed the storage capacity of the soil and becomes runoff in shallow soils or percolates below the root zone in deeper soils. A method to simulate the spatial and temporal variability of net infiltration was developed using a deterministic water-balance model and extensive GIS coverages. The GIS coverages include a digital elevation model and maps of geology, soils, vegetation, precipitation, and air temperature. Other required surficial properties for the model, such as permeability, porosity, and water-retention functions, have been calculated from associated data sets. The deterministic model identifies the areas and climatic conditions that allow for excess water, quantifies the amount of water available either as runoff or in-place recharge, and allows inter-basin comparison of recharge mechanisms (i.e. mountain front, mountain block, ephemeral stream) and potential recharge for current, wetter, and drier climates. Travel time through the unsaturated zone can be estimated if unsaturated zone thickness and permeability data are available. The model, which uses a monthly time step, is being used to evaluate the role of decadal-scale climate cycles (El Niño/La Niña and the Pacific Decadal Oscillation) and recharge potential at a pixel scale (generally 30 - 90 meters) across the entire desert Southwest.

Flint, A. L.; Flint, L. E.; Blainey, J. B.; Hevesi, J. A.

2001-12-01

237

Contamination nitratee des eaux souterraines d'un bassin versant agricole hétérogène II. Évolution des concentrations dans la nappe Groundwater pollution by nitrates in a heterogeneous agricultural watershed II. Evolution of concentrations in the aquifer  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY Pesticides and nitrates represent the main sources of aquifer contamination in agricultural zones. In many régions, nitrate concentration levels reach and exceed the water quality criteria (50 mg NO3\\/L). The increasing use of minerai fertilizers (which has doubled during the 20 last years) and the intensive exploitation of the aquifers for crop irrigation (= 1,1 million ha in France)

A. DUPUY; M. RAZACK

238

Coupling Stormwater Capture and Managed Aquifer Recharge  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We are quantifying the performance of a system that couples stormwater capture and managed aquifer recharge (MAR). Our field site is a working ranch in the Pajaro Valley, central coastal California, where runoff from ~125 acres of farmed and grazed land is directed into a 2.5-acre infiltration basin. Stormwater captured for MAR at this site would otherwise be routed off the property and eventually into the ocean. We instrumented the site prior to the start of the 2013 water year (1 October 2012) to measure local precipitation, total inflow to the basin, and point-specific infiltration rates across the bottom of the basin using heat as a tracer. We also deployed sediment measurement and collection instruments to quantify the amount, texture, and biochemical nature of sediment accumulating in the basin, and to evaluate associated maintenance requirements for the system. The 2013 water year was relatively dry, with total precipitation less than 50% of the long-term average for this region; most of this precipitation occurred in December 2012. Water level and flow records indicate 17 distinct rain events that generated runoff, most early in the water year. The total inflow to the infiltration basin was 4.1 x 104 m3, equivalent to ~33 ac-ft. During a water year with average precipitation, it appears that this system could collect 80-100 ac-ft of runoff. There was up to 10 cm of sediment accumulation in some parts of the infiltration basin by the end of the rainy season. Sediment samples collected at the end of the season are being processed for analysis of sediment distribution and character. Thermal data are being analyzed to calculate spatial and temporal variations in infiltration rates across the basin. These data will be combined to assess the efficacy of coupling stormwater capture and MAR, and can guide future projects in this region of high groundwater demand and limited resources.

Beganskas, S.; Hill, C. L.; Fisher, A. T.; Los Huertos, M.

2013-12-01

239

Artificial-Recharge Experiments and Operations on the Southern High Plains of Texas and New Mexico  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Experiments using highly turbid water from playa lakes for injection into the Ogallala Formation have resulted in greatly decreased yield of the recharge wells, Recharge of ground or surface water of good quality has indicated, however, that injection through wells is an effective method of recharging the aquifer. Water that is slightly turbid can be successfully injected for a period of time, but generally results in constantly declining yields and capacity for recharge. Redevelopment through pumping and surging significantly prolongs the life of recharge wells under some conditions. Surface spreading is little practiced on the High Plains, but locally may be a feasible means of artificial recharge.

Brown, Richmond F.; Signor, Donald C.

1973-01-01

240

Fate of human viruses in groundwater recharge systems  

SciTech Connect

The overall objective of this research program was to determine the ability of a well-managed tertiary effluent-recharge system to return virologically acceptable water to the groundwater aquifer. The study assessed the quality of waters renovated by indigenous recharge operations and investigated a number of virus-soil interrelationships. The elucidation of the interactions led to the establishment of basin operating criteria for optimizing virus removal. Raw influents, chlorinated tertiary effluents, and renovated wastewater from the aquifer directly beneath a uniquely designed recharge test basin were assayed on a weekly basis for the presence of human enteroviruses and coliform bacteria. High concentrations of viruses were routinely isolated from influents but were isolated only on four occasions from tertiary-treated sewage effluents. In spite of the high quality effluent being recharged, viruses were isolated from the groundwater observation well, indicating their ability to penetrate the unsaturated zone. Results of poliovirus seeding experiments carried out in the test basin clearly indicated the need to operate recharge basins at low (e.g. 1 cm/h) infiltration rates in areas having soil types similar to those found at the study site. The method selected for reducing the test basin infiltration rate involved clogging the basin surface with settled organic material from highly turbid effluent. Alternative methods for slowing infiltration rates are discussed in the text.

Vaughn, J.M.; Landry, E.F.

1980-03-01

241

Estimating infiltration recharge using a response function model  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Rainfall infiltration influences both the quantity and quality of groundwater systems. The knowledge of the process of infiltration recharge is of great importance to the management of groundwater systems and the hydraulically connected streams. In this study, a response function model is developed to estimate soil water flux at the water table or the process of infiltration recharge from rainfall and evaporation data. The gamma probability density function is modified to represent the travel time distribution of infiltrating water by rainfall events. The travel time distribution is used to determine the recharge process according to the effective infiltration of a rainfall event. The effective infiltration is the amount of soil water pushed down into groundwater by infiltrating water of a rainfall event and is evaluated based on the vadose-zone soil water balance. Superposition is employed to compute the recharge rate produced by a sequence of rainfall events. Estimations of soil water flux at different groundwater depths are compared with lysimetric observations in the field. Good agreements between the estimated and observed results confirm the reliability of the response function model for predicting infiltration recharge processes.

Wu, Jinquan; Zhang, Renduo; Yang, Jinzhong

1997-11-01

242

Crustal stretching and subsidence in sedimentary basins: a pilot study in the Austro-Alpine nappes of eastern Switzerland and permo-carboniferous basins in the continental United States. Final report  

SciTech Connect

The Austro-Alpine nappe complex of eastern Switzerland, together with the southern Alps, represents the thinned continental crust of the southern margin of the Alpine trough whose demise led to the growth of the Alps. Detailed and systematic structural mapping in parts of the Austro-Alpine Nappes have allowed us to reconstruct the stretching factor, ..beta.., and its variability across the basin margin from which the subsidence and thermal history of a large rift complex has been deduced. From this, a basic picture has been derived of the mechanical behavior of the stretched crust-lithosphere during the attenuation process and a knowledge of lithospheric behavior during the prolonged period of Jurassic-Cretaceous cooling. A systematic and very detailed study has also been made of the stratigraphic-structural-thermal maturation history of the intracontinental Pennsylvanian-Permian basins and troughs of Colorado, Texas, and Oklahoma. (ACR)

Dewey, J.F.

1984-10-09

243

Note des Éditeurs scientifiques  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Cette série d'articles est une revue de résultats expérimentaux sur différents "fluides" moléculaires, dans lesquels la cohésion est due à des forces de Van der Waals et à des liaisons hydrogène, l'eau étant un de ces fluides. Ces résultats sont présentés de façon à justifier expérimentalement un modèle original, non extensif, des propriétés de ces fluides, et l'ensemble se présente sous la forme de trois articles décrivant le modèle, suivis chacun par un article le comparant aux résultats expérimentaux publiés par de nombreux auteurs. Le caractère non extensif des propriétés physiques des fluides est choquant, contraire à beaucoup d'idées établies, il semble n'avoir en sa faveur qu'un argument, la comparaison avec un nombre de résultats expérimentaux assez grand pour que l'effet du hasard soit difficilement soupçonnable. En particulier, les écarts entre des résultats de mesures faits par des auteurs différents dans des conditions différentes sont expliqués, le sérieux et la compétence des différents expérimentateurs ne sont plus mis en doute : mais l'interprétation de ces résultats avec un modèle extensif non adapté est seule mise en cause. Les modèles extensifs étant utilisés systématiquement, au delà des expériences de physiciens, dans les calculs d'ingénieurs, et dans la modélisation d'appareils qui fonctionnent et de phénomènes naturels observés par tout le monde, il fallait expliquer pourquoi on pouvait renoncer à l'extensivité. Les raisons du succès pratique des modèles extensifs sont données, d'abord dans le cas des nématiques, puis dans celui des liquides ordinaires, et c'est ce qui rend l'ensemble cohérent, tant avec les mesures physiques fines qu'avec les observations quotidiennes. Il n'en reste pas moins que si l'interprétation donnée dans cette série d'articles est généralisable, une justification théorique du modèle utilisé devient nécessaire. Pour ce qui est des propriétés d'équilibre, une séparation de l'énergie libre en énergie libre de volume et en énergie libre de surface devrait donner les mêmes résultats ; par contre les choses deviennent troublantes dès que l'on passe aux coefficients de transport, c'est-à-dire à l'aspect macroscopique de la dynamique moléculaire. Il y a là un écart notable avec les conceptions courantes, ce qui rend très surprenante la lecture de ces articles. On peut mentionner la liste des problèmes théoriques posés par la description phénoménologique qui est celle de cette série d'articles : la généralisation de lois d'échelle en dehors de zones critiques n'est pas absolument nouvelle, par contre la simplicité des lois reliant l'exposant v à la température pose problème ; le sens des temps de relaxation utilisés est sans doute également à préciser. Enfin les modes considérés semblent n'intervenir dans les propriétés thermodynamiques que par un facteur par mode, comme si seulement l'énergie potentielle devait intervenir, les termes cinétiques ne participant pas vraiment aux transitions de phase. Tout cela pose donc problème, et l'on peut se demander si un pareil modèle peut être compatible avec tout ce qui est connu par ailleurs en physique statistique. Mais s'il rend bien compte de beaucoup de résultats expérimentaux, ce sont ces derniers qui seraient en difficulté avec la mécanique statistique. Il a donc semblé préférable de publier le modèle, sa justification expérimentale et de poser quelques problèmes, tant aux théoriciens, qui pourraient expliquer pourquoi un tel modèle rend compte de résultats observés, qu'aux expérimentateurs, qui pourraient reprendre certaines mesures, et délimiter le caractère plus ou moins général du modèle.

Averbuch, P.

244

Alpine orogenic P-T-t-deformation history of the Catena Costiera area and surrounding regions (Calabrian Arc, southern Italy): The nappe edifice of north Calabria revised with insights on the Tyrrhenian-Apennine system formation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The nappe-structured belt of Calabria constitutes the eastward termination of the southern branch of the Alpine Mediterranean belt that delimits the northern edge of the Africa plate. Contrasting hypotheses for the origin and tectonic significance of the north Calabrian nappe edifice have been proposed, and kinematic data from north Calabria have been used to support different interpretations of the Alps-Apennines linkage and the polarity of the Tethyan subduction in the Apennine region. We reconstruct the architecture of the north Calabria nappe edifice through a multidisciplinary approach which integrates structural investigations with metamorphic thermobarometry and 40Ar/39Ar geochronology. Results from this study indicate that north Calabria consists of a Tertiary nappe stack, resulting from superimposed top-to-the-west extensional shearing (late Oligocene to middle Miocene in age) onto a previously structured top-to-the-east compressional belt (Eocene to Oligocene in age). This study also documents that the top-to-the-west extensional tectonics was achieved by means of regionally sized extensional detachment fault systems, stretching apart and translating as allochthonous fragments the previously accreted units. Thinning operated by top-to-the-west extensional detachment tectonics also resulted in the direct juxtaposition of non-Alpine or slightly Alpine metamorphosed units (upper plate complex) onto the previously exhumed deep-seated portions of the orogenic wedge, metamorphosed under blueschist facies metamorphic conditions (lower plate complex). These findings support a new tectonic scenario for the orogenic history of north Calabria, which may be adequately framed within the Tertiary Apennine-Tyrrhenian system evolution.

Rossetti, Federico; Goffé, Bruno; Monié, Patrick; Faccenna, Claudio; Vignaroli, Gianluca

2004-12-01

245

Heat transport in the vicinity of an artificial recharge site  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Since July 2002, the Intermunicipal Water Company of the Veurne region (IWVA) artificially recharges fresh water in the dunes of the western Belgian coastal plain by means of two recharge ponds. This recharge water is produced from secondary treated waste water effluent by the combination of ultra filtration and reverse osmosis. Extraction wells (112) are located north and south of the ponds. The artificial recharge project loops the water cycle: extracted water goes to the users and their waste water is purified and re-used. Therefore, it is an example of sustainable water management in coastal aquifers. Groundwater flow of this recharge site has been examined in the past by the use of a tracer test, hydrochemistry (environmental isotopes, conservative tracers) and groundwater flow modelling. Temperature, however, forms a relatively easy measurement which can add to or confirm the knowledge of the groundwater flow. Temperature time series (temperature as function of time) were measured at different levels in a number of wells located between the recharge ponds and the extraction wells, and in one well south of the recharge and extraction area. Secondly, temperature logs (temperature as function of depth) were measured in these wells at different times over the course of 2 years. Finally, the temperature of the recharged and extracted water is constantly monitored by the water company. The temperature of the recharge water shows a yearly fluctuation, ranging from 25 °C during summer to slightly above 0 °C during the winter. The temperature of the extracted water (combination of water extracted in all the wells) ranges between 17 °C during summer and 10 °C during winter. Minima and maxima in the extracted water are observed between 76 and 110 days (mean of 90 days and standard deviation of 13.5 days) later in the extracted water with respect to the recharged water. Measurements show that the difference in time when maxima and minima are observed in an observation well with reference to the ponds increases with depth (for instance from 28 days 4.1 m below surface to 154 days 10 m below surface for an observation well at 10 m from the ponds). This confirms previous flow modelling which showed that groundwater flows relatively rapidly laterally from the recharge ponds towards the extraction wells. Additionally, part of the recharge water flows in a deeper flow cycle towards the extraction wells. Residence times in this deeper flow cycle are evidently larger than in the direct lateral flow cycle from the ponds towards the wells. This explains the increase with depth. The 154 days (with respect to a mean time of 90 days) points to the fact that the extracted water contains a large spectrum of residence times with mean of 90 days for the heat transport, as was also derived by the flow modelling previously

Vandenbohede, Alexander; van Houtte, Emmanuel; Lebbe, Luc

2010-05-01

246

Hydrogeology of Regional Valley Fill Aquifers with Mountain System Recharge  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Groundwater in the North Okanagan was investigated using an integrated physical, geochemical and numerical approach. The North Okanagan Groundwater Characterization and Assessment (NOGWCA) project began with an investigation of the geology and hydrostratigraphy of the North Okanagan region. The Deep Creek and Fortune Creek watersheds were found to contain multiple valley-fill aquifers which are recharged via mountain system recharge (MSR) and direct recharge to unconfined aquifers in the valley bottom. Detailed hydrometric data indicates groundwater recharge within the alluvial fan of Fortune Creek, and discharge to surface water in the lower reaches of Deep Creek. Valley side recharge from the adjacent mountains generates artesian conditions in the valley center. Physical hydrogeological measurements and groundwater and surface water geochemistry were used to determine the overall groundwater flow regime, inter-aquifer exchange and surface-water groundwater interactions. Conservative elements and deuterium/oxygen isotopes were used in a mixing cell model (MCM) approach to assess groundwater flow between aquifers. Efforts to accurately quantify and understand MSR are hampered by sparse data on the geochemical character of bedrock aquifers. Watershed scale recharge estimates and water balances were derived from a regional integrated climate dataset coupled to FEFLOW simulations. The first stage modeled steady state conditions within the main valley center aquifer. Integrated surface water and groundwater modeling is to be carried out in the future. The groundwater flow modeling will contribute to subsequent water management decisions at the watershed scale. Climate change and economic change scenarios will be considered in the integrated surface water and groundwater modeling.

Ping, J.; Nichol, C.; Wei, A.

2009-05-01

247

Pharmakologie des Vasomotorenzentrums  

Microsoft Academic Search

Zusammenfassung 1.Untersuchungen an dezerebrierten Katzen mit durchschnittenen Nn. vagi und natürlicher Atmung haben gezeigt, daß die Erregbarkeit des Vasomotorenzentrums in der Medulla oblongata für den Kohlensäurereiz durch Chloroform, Äther, Chloralhydrat, Chloralose und Urethan herabgesetzt und aufgehoben werden kann.2.Bei genauen Untersuchungen über die Physiologie und Pharmakologie des Vasomotorenzentrums soll also die Verwendung von Narkoticis möglichst vermieden werden.3.Die Annahme von Itami, daß

L. W. van Esveld

1930-01-01

248

Instabilite des heures de travail au Canada  

Microsoft Academic Search

Les auteurs de nombreuses etudes des heures de travail ont tire d'importantes conclusions des resultats des enquetes transversales. Par exemple, a tout moment donne, la part des personnes qui travaillent de longues heures est assez importante. En outre, elle semble avoir augmente au cours des deux dernieres decennies, faisant ressortir la necessite d'elaborer des politiques visant a reduire les divergences

Andrew Larochelle-Cote Sebastien Heisz

2006-01-01

249

Study plan for determining recharge rates at the Hanford Site using environmental tracers.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report presents a study plan for estimating recharge at the Hanford Site using environmental tracers. Past operations at the Hanford Site have led to both soil and groundwater contamination, and recharge is one of the primary mechanisms for transport...

E. M. Murphy J. E. Szercsody

1991-01-01

250

77 FR 8325 - Sixth Meeting: RTCA Special Committee 225, Rechargeable Lithium Batteries and Battery Systems...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Committee 225, Rechargeable Lithium Batteries and Battery Systems, Small and Medium Size...Committee 225, Rechargeable Lithium Batteries and Battery Systems, Small...15 min). Results of EFB thermal runaway on flightdeck...

2012-02-14

251

Transmission losses, infiltration and groundwater recharge through ephemeral and intermittent streambeds: A review of applied methods  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Overview of methods to quantify recharge in ephemeral and intermittent streams.Provides temporal and spatial scales of recharge measured using each method.Identifies gaps in the literature and suggests future directions.

Shanafield, Margaret; Cook, Peter G.

2014-04-01

252

Thin rechargeable batteries for CMOS SRAM memory protection  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

New rechargeable battery technology is described and compared with classical primary battery back-up of SRAM PC cards. Thin solid polymer electrolyte cells with the thickness of TSOP memory components (1 mm nominal, 1.1 mm max) and capacities of 14 mAh/sq cm can replace coin cells. The SRAM PC cards with permanently installed rechargeable cells and optional electrochromic low battery voltage indicators will free the periodic PC card user from having to 'feed' their PC cards with coin cells and will allow a quick visual check of stored cards for their battery voltage status.

Crouse, Dennis N.

1993-02-01

253

Thin rechargeable batteries for CMOS SRAM memory protection  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

New rechargeable battery technology is described and compared with classical primary battery back-up of SRAM PC cards. Thin solid polymer electrolyte cells with the thickness of TSOP memory components (1 mm nominal, 1.1 mm max) and capacities of 14 mAh/sq cm can replace coin cells. The SRAM PC cards with permanently installed rechargeable cells and optional electrochromic low battery voltage indicators will free the periodic PC card user from having to 'feed' their PC cards with coin cells and will allow a quick visual check of stored cards for their battery voltage status.

Crouse, Dennis N.

1993-01-01

254

Permian volcanics in the Northern Gemericum and Bôrka Nappe system: U-Pb zircon dating and the implications for geodynamic evolution (Western Carpathians, Slovakia)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

U-Pb dating (SHRIMP) of magmatic zircon ages from the Northern Gemericum Permian volcanics (Petrová Hora Formation) yielded the Concordia age of 272.4 ± 7.3 Ma for basaltic andesite, as well as the Concordia age of 275.2 ± 4 Ma for rhyodacites. Both zircon ages correspond to the Cisuralian Epoch in the time span of the Kungurian Stage. Acquired 206Pb/238U zircon age data support the nearly contemporaneous origin of the acid and basic volcanogenic members in the Northern Gemericum Permian strata. The bimodal volcanic suite proves the transtension/extension tectonic regime in the North Gemeric sedimentary basin during the Late Cisuralian. The magmatic zircon ages of rhyodacites, occurring in the lower thrust sheet of the Bôrka Nappe (Jasov Formation), gave a younger Concordia age of 266 ± 1.8 Ma proving the Guadalupian Epoch, in the time span of the Wordian/Capitanian. In comparison to the Northern Gemericum realm, this age refers to the relatively younger stage of rift-related extensional movements. In the wide Alpine-Dinarides realm the Middle Permian (Guadalupian) movements are related to the beginning of the Alpine sedimentary cycle. Thus, the Middle Permian rifting expresses the beginning of the formation of the future Meliata oceanic trough.

Vozárová, Anna; Šmelko, Miloš; Paderin, Ilya; Larionov, Alexander

2012-06-01

255

Biostratigraphy and paleoenvironment of the Upper Cretaceous deposits in the northern Tarc?u Nappe (Eastern Carpathians) based on foraminifera and calcareous nannoplankton  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Late Cretaceous foraminiferal and calcareous nannoplankton assemblages from the northern part of the Tarc?u Nappe, Hangu Formation in the northern Eastern Carpathians are documented in order to reconstruct paleoenvironmental settings and biostratigraphy. The foraminiferal assemblages are dominated by flysch-type agglutinated taxa suggesting bathyal environments, close to the calcite compensation depth (CCD), and mesotrophic to oligotrophic conditions. The morphogroup analyses display variations in tubular and infaunal morphotypes suggesting different levels of oxygenation and seafloor disturbance caused by currents. Reddish hemipelagites containing only agglutinated foraminifera (dominant infaunal forms) occurring in the middle part of the section suggest an increase of water depth and changes in redox conditions. Based on foraminifera, the deposits were assigned to planktonic Globotruncana ventricosa and agglutinated Caudammina gigantea Zones. The first occurrence of Uniplanarius trifidus and last occurrence of Reinhardtites anthophorus demonstrate the presence of Late Campanian UC15cTP-UC16/CC21-CC23 calcareous nannoplankton Zones. Foraminiferal and nannofossil assemblages in the red beds have a high potential for stratigraphic correlation on a regional scale.

Bindiu, Raluca; Filipescu, Sorin; B?lc, Ramona

2013-04-01

256

Deformation temperatures, vorticity of flow, and strain in the Moine thrust zone and Moine nappe: Reassessing the tectonic evolution of the Scandian foreland-hinterland transition zone  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Examination of deformation temperature, 3-D strain and flow vorticity ( Wm) in mylonites from the Assynt-Loch More region of the Moine thrust zone (MTZ) allows quantitative kinematic and thermal characterization of shearing at the base of the Scandian (435-425 Ma) orogenic wedge. Quartz microstructures and c-axis fabric opening angles from mylonites in the immediate hangingwall and footwall to the Moine thrust suggest that deformation temperatures are highest in the eastern part of the Assynt region (including mylonites close to alkaline intrusive complexes) and decrease along strike both to the north (Stack of Glencoul - Loch More) and to the south (Knockan). Quartz c- and a-axis fabrics, together with limited 3-D strain data, indicate that deformation in both the footwall and hangingwall mylonites dominantly involved plane strain to general flattening, although domains of more constrictional flow are identified adjacent to thrust transport-parallel lineaments in the overlying Moine nappe. Rigid grain analyses indicate a remarkably constant flow vorticity for tens of kilometers along orogenic strike (40-60% pure shear) in both the hangingwall and footwall mylonites. Integration with previously reported strain and vorticity estimates from the Assynt region indicates a 50-75% sub-vertical shortening perpendicular to gently dipping foliation, that must have been accommodated by either volume loss or extrusion of material toward the synorogenic topographic surface. Extrusion implies a causal link between upper and lower crustal processes, with significant implications for the kinematic and geometric evolution of the Scandian wedge.

Thigpen, J. Ryan; Law, Richard D.; Lloyd, Geoffrey E.; Brown, Summer J.

2010-07-01

257

Ground-Water Recharge Through Active Sand Dunes in Northwestern Nevada  

Microsoft Academic Search

Most water-resouree investigations in semiarid basins of the Great Basin in western North America conclude that groundwater recharge from direct precipitation on the valley floor is negligible. However, many of these basins contain large areas covered by unvegetated, active sand dunes that may act as conduits for ground-water recharge. The potential for this previously undocumented recharge was investigated in an

David L. Berger

1992-01-01

258

A dimensionless number describing the effects of recharge and geometry on discharge from simple karstic aquifers  

Microsoft Academic Search

The responses of karstic aquifers to storms are often used to obtain information about aquifer geometry. In general, spring hydrographs are a function of both system geometry and recharge. However, the majority of prior work on storm pulses through karst has not studied the effect of recharge on spring hydrographs. To examine the relative importance of geometry and recharge, we

M. D. Covington; C. M. Wicks; M. O. Saar

2009-01-01

259

Pyramide des âges et gestion des ressources humaines  

Microsoft Academic Search

L'utilisation de la pyramide des âges dans les discours des directeurs de ressources humaines s'est développée au cours des années 1980. Elle renvoie au choix d'un critère de sélection de salariés jugés en sureffectif. Derrière l'âge et ses représentations, c'est bien la question de la capacité des salariés à s'adapter au changement de l'entreprise qui est posée. En définitive, il

Eric Godelier

2007-01-01

260

Oxygen electrodes for rechargeable alkaline fuel cells, 3  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The investigation and development of electrocatalysts and supports for the positive electrode of moderate temperature single unit rechargeable alkaline fuel cells is described. Focus is on chemical and electrochemical stability and O2 reduction/evolution activity of the electrode in question.

Swette, L.; Kackley, N.; Mccatty, S. A.

1991-01-01

261

WASTEWATER CONTAMINATE REMOVAL FOR GROUNDWATER RECHARGE AT WATER FACTORY 21  

EPA Science Inventory

This is the second report in a series which describes the performance of Water Factory 21, a 0.66 cu m/s advanced wastewater treatment plant designed to reclaim secondary effluent from a municipal wastewater treatment plant so that it can be used for injection and recharge of a g...

262

Trench infiltration for managed aquifer recharge to permeable bedrock  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Managed aquifer recharge to permeable bedrock is increasingly being utilized to enhance resources and maintain sustainable groundwater development practices. One such target is the Navajo Sandstone, an extensive regional aquifer located throughout the Colorado Plateau of the western United States. Spreading-basin and bank-filtration projects along the sandstone outcrop's western edge in southwestern Utah have recently been implemented to meet growth-related water demands. This paper reports on a new cost-effective surface-infiltration technique utilizing trenches for enhancing managed aquifer recharge to permeable bedrock. A 48-day infiltration trench experiment on outcropping Navajo Sandstone was conducted to evaluate this alternative surface-spreading artificial recharge method. Final infiltration rates through the bottom of the trench were about 0.5 m/day. These infiltration rates were an order of magnitude higher than rates from a previous surface-spreading experiment at the same site. The higher rates were likely caused by a combination of factors including the removal of lower permeability soil and surficial caliche deposits, access to open vertical sandstone fractures, a reduction in physical clogging associated with silt and biofilm layers, minimizing viscosity effects by maintaining isothermal conditions, minimizing chemical clogging caused by carbonate mineral precipitation associated with algal photosynthesis, and diminished gas clogging associated with trapped air and biogenic gases. This pilot study illustrates the viability of trench infiltration for enhancing surface spreading of managed aquifer recharge to permeable bedrock. ?? 2010.

Heilweil, V. M.; Watt, D. E.

2011-01-01

263

New Mechanically Rechargeable Zinc/Air Battery Design.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report discusses a program of study, design and development leading to the fabrication of new high performance 20 amphere hour mechanically rechargeable zinc/air batteries capable of meeting the requirements listed in the U.S. Army Electronics Command...

R. F. Chireau

1973-01-01

264

Zinc electrode and rechargeable zinc-air battery  

Microsoft Academic Search

An improved zinc electrode is disclosed for a rechargeable zinc-air battery comprising an outer frame and a porous foam electrode support within the frame which is treated prior to the deposition of zinc thereon to inhibit the formation of zinc dendrites on the external surface thereof. The outer frame is provided with passageways for circulating an alkaline electrolyte through the

Philip N

1989-01-01

265

Rechargeable zinc air batteries market and technology overview  

Microsoft Academic Search

AER Energy Resources is an Atlanta based technology company that has developed a rechargeable zinc air battery system. The primary advantage of the AER Energy Advanced Technology Battery is that its energy density on a weight basis is three times that of nickel cadmium, nickel metal hydride and lead acid batteries, and fifty percent higher than lithium ion batteries. This

M. Schimpf

1995-01-01

266

Zinc electrode and rechargeable zinc-air battery  

Microsoft Academic Search

This patent describes an improved zinc electrode for a rechargeable zinc-air battery comprising an outer frame and a porous foam electrode support within the frame which is treated prior to the deposition of zinc thereon to inhibit the formation of zinc dendrites on the external surface thereof. The outer frame is provided with passageways for circulating an alkaline electrolyte through

P. N. Jr

1989-01-01

267

Recent advances in rechargeable zinc-air battery technology  

Microsoft Academic Search

AER Energy's battery development effort is focused on improving the zinc-air rechargeable battery system to serve the portable computer market. Therefore system attributes such as energy density, power, life, form factor, environmental impact and safety are areas of active investigation. The battery system consists of cells in series, an air manager housing and an electronic control system for battery charge

D. Sieminski

1997-01-01

268

Rechargeable lithium battery anodes: alternatives to metallic lithium  

Microsoft Academic Search

This review is concerned with alternatives to metallic lithium for use in rechargeable lithium batteries. Emphasis is placed on the use of various materials and combinations of materials in different types of electrodes rather than on the properties of the materials themselves. The review includes carbon based electrodes, alloys, conducting polymers and transition metal compounds. Special consideration is given to

D. Fauteux; R. Koksbang

1993-01-01

269

Rechargeable lithium batteries in the Navy-policy and protocol  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rechargeable lithium batteries are an emerging technology that is finding widespread use in a myriad of applications. These batteries are supplanting many others because of superior performance characteristics, including high energy density and improved cycle life. The newest model laptop computers, camcorders and cellular phones are using these systems to provide lighter products with longer battery life. Potential military-use scenarios

Julie A. Banner; Clinton S. Winchester

1996-01-01

270

Hysteresis in Thin-Film Rechargeable Lithium Batteries.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Discharge - charge cycling of thin-film rechargeable lithium batteries with an amorphous or nanocrystalline LiXMn2.Y04 cathode reveals evidence for a true hysteresis in the lithium insertion reaction. This is compared with an apparent hysteresis attribute...

J. B. Bates N. J. Dudney C. D. Evans F. X. Hart

1999-01-01

271

Oxygen electrodes for rechargeable alkaline fuel cells-II  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The primary objective of this program is the investigation and development of electrocatalysts and supports for the positive electrode of moderate temperature single-unit rechargeable alkaline fuel cells. Approximately six support materials and five catalyst materials have been identified to date for further development.

Swette, L.; Kackley, N.

1989-01-01

272

Method of Increasing the Useful Life of Rechargeable Lithium Batteries.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The cycle life of rechargeable lithium batteries is significantly prolonged by applying to the battery as a charging mode a current interrupted at intervals of 1 milliseconds to 9 seconds in a frequency range of about 0.1 to about 10 Hertz.

O. C. Wagner

1986-01-01

273

Rechargeable Battery Management and Recycling: A Green Design Educational Module  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rechargeable battery use is expected to continue growing with the increasing prevalence of portable electronics, appliances, and tools. Batteries represent a large volume of toxic and hazardous materials in common use, and these materials must be managed to avoid or minimize dissipation into the environment. One type of battery widely used in portable applications is nickel-cadmium batteries (NiCds). This module

Rebecca Lankey; Francis McMichael

274

Preliminary Study of Rechargeable Lithium Cells for Space Applications.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Research carried out on lithium rechargeable cells using on organic electrolyte and intercalation compounds is described. Metal oxides such as V2O5, MoO3, and MoV2O8 are investigated as possible cathode materials. V2O5 shows the most potential of the thre...

J. Labat J. Goualard

1989-01-01

275

Characterization of Ether Electrolytes for Rechargeable Lithium Cells.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

2Methyl-tetrahydrofuran (2Me-THF)/LiAsF6 and several diethyl ether (DEE)/LiAsF6-based electrolytes have been characterized for their usefulness in rechargeable Li/TiS2 cells. This characterization has involved extended room temperature cell cycling at var...

K. M. Abraham J. L. Goldman D. L. Natwig

1982-01-01

276

Electrolytic characteristics of fluoromethyl methyl carbonate for lithium rechargeable batteries  

Microsoft Academic Search

Monofluorinated solvents exert the polar effect on various properties. We have investigated the electrolytic properties of fluoromethyl methyl carbonate (FMMC, monofluorinated dimethyl carbonate) and its application to lithium rechargeable batteries. We describe the dependence of electrolytic conductivity on the temperature, the molar concentrations of three lithium salts, and the molar fractions of the binary solvents. The conductivities of the FMMC

Noritoshi Nanbu; Susumu Watanabe; Masahiro Takehara; Makoto Ue; Yukio Sasaki

2009-01-01

277

Development of new safe electrode for lithium rechargeable battery  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new concept cathode was proposed to improve the safety of lithium rechargeable batteries. The cathode contains a positive temperature coefficient (PTC) compound that can drastically increase resistivity at more than a specified temperature (PTC properties). A PTC cathode containing the PTC compound was fabricated and its resistivity was evaluated. The resistivity of PTC cathodes increased by several tens at

Makiko Kise; Shoji Yoshioka; Kouji Hamano; Daigo Takemura; Takashi Nishimura; Hiroaki Urushibata; Hajimu Yoshiyasu

2005-01-01

278

NbSe3 Cathodes For Li Rechargeable Cells  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Report describes experimental studies involving preparation, characterization, and measurements of performance of NbSe3, intended for use as cathode material in lithium rechargeable electrochemical cells. Characteristics superior to those of other intercalating cathode materials, including high volumetric and gravimetric energy densities and ability to sustain discharges at high rates.

Bugga, Ratnakumar V.; Ni, Ching-Ion; Distefano, Salvador; Somoano, Robert B.; Bankston, C. Perry

1990-01-01

279

Lithium rechargeable cell with a poly 3-methylthiophene cathode  

Microsoft Academic Search

A poly 3-methylthiophene (PMT) cathode showed excellent coulombic efficiency during cycling in a lithium rechargeable cell. An electrolyte containing dimethyl carbonate was used since it is stable at the high anodic potentials reached during cell charging. The polymer cathode tolerated modest overcharge and was able to continue cycling after a severe short-circuit with minimal loss of capacity.

Charles W. Walker Jr.; Steven M. Slane

1992-01-01

280

Polypyrrole Electrodes as Cathodes in a Rechargeable Cell  

Microsoft Academic Search

A study on Li ion rechargeable cells fabricated with polypyrrole (PPy) conducting polymer cathodes is reported in this paper. The PPy was prepared by electropolymerization of pyrrole in the presence of large surfactant anion dodecylbenzene sulphonate. Polyacrylonitrile based solid polymer electrolytes containing lithium triflate and ethylene carbonate (EC) and propylene carbonate (PC) as plasticisers were used as the separators. Cycling

K. P. Vidanapathirana; M. A. Careem; S. Skaarup

2002-01-01

281

Rechargeable LiNiO sub 2 \\/carbon cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rechargeable cells can be made using two different intercalation compounds, in which the chemical potential of the intercalant differs by several eV, for the electrodes. In this paper, the authors discuss the factors that play a role in the selection of appropriate lithium intercalation compounds for such cells. For ease of cell assembly the cathode should be stable in air

J. R. Dahn; U. von Saken; M. W. Juzkow; H. Al-Janaby

1991-01-01

282

Rechargeable LiNiO2\\/carbon cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rechargeable cells can be made using two different intercalation compounds, in which the chemical potential of the intercalant differs by several eV, for the electrodes. The factors that play a role in the selection of appropriate lithium intercalation compounds for such cells are discussed. For the ease of cell assembly, the cathode should be stable in air when it is

J. R. Dahn; U. von Sacken; M. W. Juzkow; H. Al-Janaby

1991-01-01

283

Materials issues in lithium ion rechargeable battery technology  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lithium ion rechargeable batteries are predicted to replace Ni\\/Cd as the workhorse consumer battery. The pace of development of this battery system is determined in large part by the availability of materials and the understanding of interfacial reactions between materials. Lithium ion technology is based on the use of two lithium intercalating electrodes. Carbon is the most commonly used anode

Doughty

1995-01-01

284

Materials issues in lithium ion rechargeable battery technology  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lithium ion rechargeable batteries are predicted to replace Ni\\/Cd as the workhorse consumer battery. The pace of development of this battery system is determined in large part by the availability of materials and the understanding of interfacial reactions between materials. Lithium ion technology is based on the use of two lithium intercalating electrodes. Carbon is the most commonly used anode

Doughty

1996-01-01

285

Status of the development of rechargeable lithium cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

The progress in the development of the ambient temperature lithium - titanium disulfide rechargeable cell under development at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory is described in this paper. Originally aimed at achieving a specific energy of 100 Wh\\/kg, 'AA' cells have demonstrated 125 Wh\\/kg at the C\\/3 discharge rate. The results of evaluating cell design parameters are discussed and cycling test

G. Halpert; S. Surampudi; D. Shen; C.-K. Huang; S. Narayanan; E. Vamos; D. Perrone

1993-01-01

286

PRIORITY POLLUTANTS IN THE CEDAR CREEK WASTEWATER RECLAMATION - RECHARGE FACILITIES  

EPA Science Inventory

The Cedar Creek Wastewater Reclamation Plant (CCWRP) located in Nassau County, NY is a 0.24 cu m/s (5.5 mgd) advanced wastewater treatment (AWT) plant designed to produce a high quality effluent suitable for groundwater recharge. The CCWRP was constructed as a demonstration proje...

287

LOCALIZED RECHARGE INFLUENCES ON MTBE TRANSPORT AND WELL PLACEMENT CONSIDERATIONS  

EPA Science Inventory

Vertical characterization of a gasoline release site at East Patchogue, New York showed that methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) and aromatic plumes "dived" as they passed beneath a sand pit. That this behavior was caused by aquifer recharge was shown by two pieces of evidence. Fir...

288

Lithium-Air Battery: Study of Rechargeability and Scalability.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Lithium-air battery is anticipated as the battery with highest energy density among all existing rechargeable battery systems known now. Literature reports suggest that the theoretical energy density of Li-air battery is close to that of gasoline. Thus, i...

M. Nookala

2012-01-01

289

Rechargeable batteries: advances since 1977. [Collection of US patents  

Microsoft Academic Search

This book is based on US patents (including DOE patents) issued since January 1978 that deal with rechargeable batteries. It both supplies detailed technical information and can be used as a guide to the patent literature. Subjects treated are as follows: lead-acid batteries (grids, electrodes, terminals and connectors, polyolefin separators, polyvinyl chloride separators, other polymeric separators, other separators, electrolytes, venting

1980-01-01

290

A polymer electrolyte-based rechargeable lithium\\/oxygen battery  

Microsoft Academic Search

A novel rechargeable Li\\/Oâ battery is reported. It comprises a Li{sup +} conductive organic polymer electrolyte membrane sandwiched by a thin Li metal foil anode, and a thin carbon composite electrode on which oxygen, the electroactive cathode material, accessed from the environment, is reduced during discharge to generate electric power. It features an all solid state design in which electrode

K. M. Abraham; Z. Jiang

1996-01-01

291

Aspects épidémiologiques des fractures ostéoporotiques  

Microsoft Academic Search

Résumé  Les fractures du col fémoral, des vertèbres et du poignet sont traditionnellement rapportées à l’ostéoporose, mais la plupart\\u000a des fractures qui surviennent chez les femmes de plus de 60 ans sont liées à une densité minérale osseuse (DMO) abaissée et\\u000a peuvent donc être considérées comme des fractures ostéoporotiques. En l’absence de mesures de prévention efficaces, des estimations\\u000a américaines indiquent que

P. Dargent-Molina

2009-01-01

292

Application of the Chloride Mass-balance Approach for Recharge Estimation in a Humid Environment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recharge is a critical variable for water-balance within a hydrologic basin, and is thus an essential quantity for evaluating long-term ground-water resource sustainability and quality. Recharge studies have generally focused on arid and semi-arid regions, where water resources are most scarce and recharge is most influenced by near-surface conditions. Recharge processes have been addressed to a lesser degree in humid regions. Furthermore, recharge estimation in humid regions has focused more on regional-scale estimates, either from water-balance models or ground-water flow models. However, to address issues such as focused recharge and land-use impacts on recharge, point or local-scale values of recharge integrated over varying time intervals are necessary. Environmental tracers offer the opportunity to finely quantify recharge spatially and temporally over an area. The utility of tracers in estimating recharge has been demonstrated in arid and semi-arid environments, where the water-balance approaches are inapplicable. In this setting, recharge rates are relatively small compared to the measurements of precipitation (P) and evapotranspiration (ET). As a result, small errors associated with measurement of P and ET lead to large recharge estimation errors and limit the utility of soil- water balance methods. Applications of environmental tracers to determine recharge through the vadose zone have included chloride, 18O and 2H, and the radioactive isotopes, tritium and 36Cl, with chloride and tritium being the most common tracers used. In this study we use the chloride mass-balance approach, applied to both the vadose and saturated zones, to investigate recharge to a sand aquifer in a humid setting. The results are evaluated in light of the detailed soil and sediment stratigraphy and variations in chloride loading, and compared to recharge rates determined at differing scales using other methods.

Waldron, B.; Larsen, D.

2008-12-01

293

Enhanced recharge and karst, Edwards aquifer, south central Texas  

SciTech Connect

Enhanced recharge is a water management strategy which can add significant quantities of ground water to the available water resources of the San Antonio region by utilizing the immense storage capacity of the unconfined zone of the Edwards aquifer. The Edwards aquifer presently is the sole source of water for a population of over 1,200,000, meeting public supply, industrial, and irrigation demands over a wide area of south central Texas. Valdina Farms Sinkhole is located adjacent to Seco Creek in Medina County and is in the recharge zone of the aquifer. Initial studies indicated that the sinkholes was capable of taking flood flows from Seco Creek and functioning as a recharge structure. Stream channels in the cavern system associated with Valdina Farms Sinkhole were incised into cave deposits and flood debris was present in the caverns at some distance from the sinkhole. Chemical analyses of samples of water from the cave and from nearby wells showed nitrate concentrations that decreased with distance from the cavern. Gradient of the potentiometric surface in the vicinity of the cave was very low, indicating high values of hydraulic conductivity for the aquifer. Based on evidence from these field studies a dam was constructed in 1982 on Seco Creek and a flood diversion channel was excavated to the sinkhole. Reservoir capacity is 2 acre-feet and design recharge rate is 3.8-6.7 m[sup 3]/sec. Annual recharge at the sinkhole has varied from 0 during periods of low runoff to 12,915 acre-feet.

Hammond, W.W. Jr. (Univ. of Texas, San Antonio, TX (United States). Center for Water Research)

1993-02-01

294

Groundwater recharge measurements in gravel sandy sediments with monolith lysimeter  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ljubljana field aquifer is recharging through precipitation and the river Sava, which has the snow-rain flow regime. The sediments of the aquifer have high permeability and create fast flow as well as high regeneration of the dynamic reserves of the Ljubljana field groundwater resource. Groundwater recharge is vulnerable to climate change and it is very important for drinking water supply management. Water stored in the soil and less permeable layers is important for water availability under extreme weather conditions. Measurements of water percolation through the vadose zone provide important input for groundwater recharge assessment and estimation of contaminant migration from land surface to the groundwater. Knowledge of the processes governing groundwater recharge in the vadose zone is critical to understanding the overall hydrological cycle and quantifying the links between land uses and groundwater quantity and quality. To improve the knowledge on water balance for Ljubljana field aquifer we establish a lysimeter for measurements of processes in unsaturated zone in well field Kle?e. The type of lysimeter is a scientific lysimeter designed to solve the water balance equation by measuring the mass of the lysimeter monolith as well as that of outflow tank with high accuracy and high temporal resolution. We evaluated short period data, however the chosen month demonstrates weather extremes of the local climate - relatively dry periods, followed by high precipitation amount. In time of high water usage of vegetation only subsequent substantial precipitation events directly results in water flow towards lower layers. At the same time, gravely layers of the deeper parts of the unsaturated zone have little or no capacity for water retention, and in the event that water line leaves top soil, water flow moves downwards fairly quickly. On one hand this confirms high recharge capacity of Ljubljana field aquifer from precipitation on green areas; on the other hand it shows tremendous susceptibility of the aquifer to pollution and reinforces the position of groundwater protection zones above aquifer.

Bracic Zeleznik, Branka; Souvent, Petra; Cencur Curk, Barbara; Zupanc, Vesna

2013-04-01

295

Defining Flood Recharge Processes: Lower Bill Williams River, Western Arizona  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

River networks provide hydrologic connections between upland and headwater catchments and downstream reaches. In arid and semi-arid regions, full connectivity of a river system is rare and moments of connection may only occur during large flood events. Here we investigate the Bill Williams River, among the most arid river basins in the United States. The aridity of this system-and the associated lack of complicating hillslope processes adjacent to the river-provides a unique opportunity to study flood recharge processes in relative isolation. During all but the highest flows, the river infiltrates completely at the east end of Planet Valley and reemerges at the west end where it enters the Bill Williams River National Wildlife Refuge (NWR). Determining the source of baseflow in the lower Bill Williams/NWR, and the residence time of this water in the Planet Valley aquifer, will provide insight into the dependence of streamflow on earlier recharge-inducing floods. Defining this dependence more clearly is the next step toward a detailed knowledge of the long-term, basin-scale impacts of floods on water quality and quantity. To determine the impact of floods and the recharge they induce, surface and groundwater samples were collected during high and low flows throughout the basin from April 2007 through the present. Isotopic (?18OH2O, ?2HH2O) and chemical differences (most notably SO4) in streamflow and groundwater along the system indicate the importance of older groundwater in NWR baseflow-either in the form of prior flood recharge or influxes from local springs. Sulfate isotope analysis (?34SSO4, ?18OSO4) is pending for samples throughout the lower basin and this information should allow streamflow sources to be defined and quantified. This study provides a better characterization of the hydrologic and hydrochemical behavior of a Basin and Range river, and allows the effects of flood recharge processes to be more clearly defined at the basin scale.

Simpson, S. C.; Meixner, T.; Hogan, J.

2008-12-01

296

Classification of ground-water recharge potential in three parts of Santa Cruz County, California  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Ground-water recharge potential was classified in the Santa Cruz coastal area, North-central area, and Soquel-Aptos area in Santa Cruz County, Calif., for three data elements that affect recharge; slope, soils, and geology. Separate numerical maps for each element were composited into a single numerical map using a classification system that ranked the numbers into areas of good , fair, and poor recharge potential. Most of the Santa Cruz coastal area and the Norht-central area have a poor recharge potential, and much of the Soquel-Aptos area has a good to fair recharge potential. (Kosco-USGS)

Muir, K. S.; Johnson, Michael J.

1979-01-01

297

Electrolyte for Lithium-Inorganic Non-Aqueous Rechargeable Cell System and Rechargeable Cell System Including Said Electrolyte.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The general object of this invention is to provide an improved high energy lithium inorganic non-aqueous rechargeable cell system. A more particular object of the invention is to provide such an improved system wherein the lithium dithionite discharge pro...

R. J. Mammone M. Binder

1985-01-01

298

Electrolyte for use in high energy lithium based rechargeable electrochemical cell and rechargeable electrochemical cell including the electrolyte  

Microsoft Academic Search

The general object of this invention is to provide a lithium based rechargeable electrochemical cell having an improved capacity. A more specific object of the invention is to provide an electrolyte for such a cell. A still further object of the invention is to provide such a cell. A still further object of the invention is to provide such a

R. J. Mammone; M. Binder

1986-01-01

299

The spatial and temporal variability of groundwater recharge in a forested basin in northern Wisconsin  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Recharge varies spatially and temporally as it depends on a wide variety of factors (e.g. vegetation, precipitation, climate, topography, geology, and soil type), making it one of the most difficult, complex, and uncertain hydrologic parameters to quantify. Despite its inherent variability, groundwater modellers, planners, and policy makers often ignore recharge variability and assume a single average recharge value for an entire watershed. Relatively few attempts have been made to quantify or incorporate spatial and temporal recharge variability into water resource planning or groundwater modelling efforts. In this study, a simple, daily soil-water balance model was developed and used to estimate the spatial and temporal distribution of groundwater recharge of the Trout Lake basin of northern Wisconsin for 1996-2000 as a means to quantify recharge variability. For the 5 years of study, annual recharge varied spatially by as much as 18 cm across the basin; vegetation was the predominant control on this variability. Recharge also varied temporally with a threefold annual difference over the 5-year period. Intra-annually, recharge was limited to a few isolated events each year and exhibited a distinct seasonal pattern. The results suggest that ignoring recharge variability may not only be inappropriate, but also, depending on the application, may invalidate model results and predictions for regional and local water budget calculations, water resource management, nutrient cycling, and contaminant transport studies. Recharge is spatially and temporally variable, and should be modelled as such. Copyright ?? 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Dripps, W. R.; Bradbury, K. R.

2010-01-01

300

Groundwater Recharge In Semi-Arid Regions Of India: An Overview Of Results Obtained Using Tracers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Natural direct groundwater recharge was measured in the semi-arid/arid regions of India using techniques that employ environmental, geochemical, and artificial tracers. India is a sub-continent and has diverse hydrogeological and hydrometeorological conditions, including monsoon-type rainfall. Various geologic units were investigated, including unconsolidated, semiconsolidated, and consolidated materials and crystalline granitic/gneissic rocks. In the arid sands of Western Rajasthan and the semi-arid alluvial tracts of Gujarat, recharge rate is 3-10 percent (20-50 mm) of local average annual rainfall, whereas in the alluvial tracts of Uttar Pradesh, Punjab, and Haryana, recharge rates are about 12-20 percent (120-200 mm). The coastal semiconsolidated sandstone aquifers of Pondicherry and Neyveli have an average recharge rate of about 15-25 percent (200-300 mm). The consolidated aquifers, consisting of the basaltic and granitic-gneissic complexes, have a natural recharge rate of 3-15 percent (20-100 mm). Low values of recharge in Rajasthan and Gujarat are primarily due to arid conditions. The relatively high values of recharge to coastal aquifers are due to favourable hydrogeologic and climatic conditions. The weathered granitic and gneissic complexes of southern India have neither hydrogeological nor hydrometeorological factors in their favour, which accounts for their small recharge rates. The basaltic regions have intermediate recharge values (8-12 percent). Limited natural rainfall recharge and increased water use throughout the sub-continent calls for conservation as well as augmentation by artificial recharge techniques.

Sukhija, B. S.; Nagabhushanam, P.; Reddy, D. V.

1996-03-01

301

La diffraction des neutrons et des rayons X pour l'étude structurale des liquides et des verres  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

La compréhension de mainte propriété physique d'un verre ou d'un liquide nécessite la connaissance des facteurs de structure partiels (PSFs) qui décrivent chacun la distribution d'une espèce atomique autour d'une autre. La technique de diffraction des neutrons avec substitution isotopique (NDIS) [1,2,3], ayant bien réussi a déterminer les PSFs de certains composés [4,5], est pourtant restreinte aux isotopes présentant un contraste suffisant en longueur de diffusion. D'un autre cote, la technique de diffusion anomale des rayons X (AXS ou AXD) [6] permet de faire varier la longueur de diffusion d'une espèce atomique pourvu que son énergie d'absorption soit à la fois accessible et suffisamment élevée pour donner un assez grand transfert du moment. La combinaison des techniques de diffraction des neutrons (avec ou sans substitution isotopique) et de diffraction des rayons X (avec ou sans diffusion anomale) peut donc permettre d'obtenir un meilleur contraste en longueurs de diffusion pour un système donné, mais exige une analyse de données plus soignée pour pouvoir bien tenir compte des erreurs systématiques qui sont différentes pour les 2 techniques [7]. Pour les atomes ayant des distributions électroniques quasi-sphériques, e.g. dans le cas d'un alliage liquide, la combinaison des techniques de NDIS et de diffraction des rayons X s'est déjà montrée très avantageuse pour la détermination des PSFs [8,9]. Dans le cas des verres ayant d'importantes liaisons covalentes, l'effective combinaison des 2 techniques peut être moins directe mais facilitée lorsqu'il s'agit des atomes de grand Z [10,11]. Nous présentons ici un sommaire du méthode et quelques exemples des résultats.

Fischer, H. E.; Salmon, P. S.; Barnes, A. C.

2003-02-01

302

DES Science Verification  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Last summer, the DES Collaboration installed DECam, a new 570 Megapixel CCD camera with a 3 square degree field of view, on the Blanco 4-meter telescope at CTIO. A two month long commissioning period for the instrument and the new telescope control system was followed by three weeks of science verification. Science verification was a special observing program designed to verify that the camera and the telescope meet the requirements imposed by the DES science program. In a series of tests we evaluated both image quality and operational readiness. The 23 science verification nights were split between DES and a number of community observing programs selected by NOAO to explore the wide range of science opportunities made possible by the new instrument. In this presentation we will introduce the DECam science verification program, outlines the tests that were performed and present our initial results.

Honscheid, Klaus

2013-01-01

303

Hydrometeorological daily recharge assessment model (DREAM) for the Western Mountain Aquifer, Israel: Model application and effects of temporal patterns  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recharge is a critical issue for water management. Recharge assessment and the factors affecting recharge are of scientific and practical importance. The purpose of this study was to develop a daily recharge assessment model (DREAM) on the basis of a water balance principle with input from conventional and generally available precipitation and evaporation data and demonstrate the application of this

N. A. Sheffer; E. Dafny; H. Gvirtzman; S. Navon; A. Frumkin; E. Morin

2010-01-01

304

Transient, spatially-varied recharge for groundwater modeling  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study is aimed at producing spatially and temporally varying groundwater recharge for transient groundwater modeling in a pilot watershed in the North Okanagan, Canada. The recharge modeling is undertaken by using a Richard's equation based finite element code (HYDRUS-1D) [Simunek et al., 2002], ArcGISTM [ESRI, 2011], ROSETTA [Schaap et al., 2001], in situ observations of soil temperature and soil moisture and a long term gridded climate data [Nielsen et al., 2010]. The public version of HYDUS-1D [Simunek et al., 2002] and another beta version with a detailed freezing and thawing module [Hansson et al., 2004] are first used to simulate soil temperature, snow pack and soil moisture over a one year experimental period. Statistical analysis of the results show both versions of HYDRUS-1D reproduce observed variables to the same degree. Correlation coefficients for soil temperature simulation were estimated at 0.9 and 0.8, at depths of 10 cm and 50 cm respectively; and for soil moisture, 0.8 and 0.6 at 10 cm and 50 cm respectively. This and other standard measures of model performance (root mean square error and average error) showed a promising performance of the HYDRUS-1D code in our pilot watershed. After evaluating model performance using field data and ROSETTA derived soil hydraulic parameters, the HYDRUS-1D code is coupled with ArcGISTM to produce spatially and temporally varying recharge maps throughout the Deep Creek watershed. Temporal and spatial analysis of 25 years daily recharge results at various representative points across the study watershed reveal significant temporal and spatial variations; average recharge estimated at 77.8 ± 50.8mm /year. This significant variation over the years, caused by antecedent soil moisture condition and climatic condition, illustrates the common flaw of assigning a constant percentage of precipitation throughout the simulation period. Groundwater recharge modeling has previously been attempted in the Okanagan Basin and other parts of Canada by using the HELP code. However, HELP has known limitations related with boundary conditions as well as spatial and temporal discretization options, and thus cannot simulate highly variable fluxes near boundaries. The limitations are even more pronounced in semi-arid areas like the Okanagan Basin where upward fluxes can be high, because HELP assumes that water below evaporative zone simply drains to the base of a soil column without accounting for upward fluxes. In addition to these limitations, previous studies that used HELP for recharge estimation, [Towes and Allen, 2009; Jyrkama and Sykes, 2007], did not attempt to verify model performance in their study area. The study here presents an integrated procedure that can help address some of these often neglected modelling challenges. The significance of the method in transient groundwater modeling is demonstrated by applying the spatially and temporally varying recharge boundary condition to a saturated zone groundwater model, MIKESHE [DHI, 2009a]. The water table simulated using this method is found to be within 0.6 m of the observed values, whereas the water levels estimated using uniform recharge boundary condition can fluctuate by as much as 1.6 m. Root mean square errors were estimated at 0.3 and 0.94 respectively.

Assefa, K.; Woodbury, A. D.

2012-12-01

305

Monitoring induced denitrification in an artificial aquifer recharge system.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As demands on groundwater increase, artificial recharge is becoming a common method for enhancing groundwater supply. The Llobregat River is a strategic water supply resource to the Barcelona metropolitan area (Catalonia, NE Spain). Aquifer overexploitation has leaded to both a decrease of groundwater level and seawater intrusion, with the consequent deterioration of water quality. In the middle section of the aquifer, in Sant Vicenç del Horts, decantation and infiltration ponds recharged by water from the Llobregat River (highly affected from wastewater treatment plant effluents), were installed in 2007, in the framework of the ENSAT Life+ project. At the bottom of the infiltration pond, a vegetal compost layer was installed to promote the growth of bacteria, to induce denitrification and to create favourable conditions for contaminant biodegradation. This layer consists on a mixture of compost, aquifer material, clay and iron oxide. Understanding the fate of contaminants, such as nitrate, during artificial aquifer recharge is required to evaluate the impact of artificial recharge in groundwater quality. In order to distinguish the source of nitrate and to evaluate the capability of the organic reactive layer to induce denitrification, a multi-isotopic approach coupled with hydrogeochemical data was performed. Groundwater samples, as well as river samples, were sampled during artificial and natural recharge periods. The isotopic analysis included: ?15N and ?18O of dissolved nitrate, ?34S and ?18O of dissolved sulphate, ?13C of dissolved inorganic carbon, and ?2H and ?18O of water. Dissolved nitrate isotopic composition (?15NNO3 from +9 to +21 o and ?18ONO3 from +3 to +16 ) demonstrated that heterotrophic denitrification induced by the reactive layer was taking place during the artificial recharge periods. An approximation to the extent of nitrate attenuation was calculated, showing a range between 95 and 99% or between 35 and 45%, by using the extreme literature ?N values of -4o and -22o respectively (Aravena and Robertson, 1998; Pauwels et al., 2000). Ongoing denitrification batch experiments will allow us to determine the specific nitrogen and oxygen isotopic fractionation induced by the organic reactive layer, in order to estimate more precisely the extent of denitrification during artificial aquifer recharge. These results confirmed that the reactive layer induces denitrification in the recharge ponds area, proving the usefulness of an isotopic approach to characterize water quality improvement occurring during artificial aquifer recharge. References 1. Aravena, R., Robertson, W.D., 1998. Use of multiple isotope tracers to evaluate denitrification in ground water: Study of nitrate from a large-flux septic system plume. Ground Water, 36(6): 975-982. 2. Pauwels, H., J.C., Kloppmann, W., 2000. Denitrification and mixing in a schist aquifer: Influence on water chemistry and isotopes. Chemical Geology, 168(3-4): 307-324. Acknowledgment This study was supported by the projects CGL2011-29975-C04-01 from the Spanish Government, 2009SGR-00103 from the Catalan Government and ENPI/2011/280-008 from the European Commission. Please fill in your abstract text.

Grau-Martinez, Alba; Torrentó, Clara; Folch, Albert; Domènech, Cristina; Otero, Neus; Soler, Albert

2014-05-01

306

Seismic source study of the Racha-Dzhava (Georgia) earthquake from aftershocks and broad-band teleseismic body-wave records: An example of active nappe tectonics  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Racha-Dzhava earthquake (Ms = 7.0) that occurred on 1991 April 29 at 09:12:48.1 GMT in the southern border of the Great Caucasus is the biggest event ever recorded in the region, stronger than the Spitak earthquake (Ms = 6.9) of 1988. A field expedition to the epicentral area was organised and a temporary seismic network of 37 stations was deployed to record the aftershock activity. A very precise image of the aftershock distribution is obtained, showing an elongated cloud oriented N105??, with one branch trending N310?? in the western part. The southernmost part extends over 80 km, with the depth ranging from 0 to 15 km, and dips north. The northern branch, which is about 30 km long, shows activity that ranges in depth from 5 to 15 km. The complex thrust dips northwards. A stress-tensor inversion from P-wave first-motion polarities shows a state of triaxial compression, with the major principal axis oriented roughly N-S, the minor principal axis being vertical. Body-waveform inversion of teleseismic seismograms was performed for the main shock, which can be divided into four subevents with a total rupture-time duration of 22 s. The most important part of the seismic moment was released by a gentle northerly dipping thrust. The model is consistent with the compressive tectonics of the region and is in agreement with the aftershock distribution and the stress tensor deduced from the aftershocks. The focal mechanisms of the three largest aftershocks were also inverted from body-wave records. The April 29th (Ms = 6.1) and May 5th (Ms = 5.4) aftershocks have thrust mechanisms on roughly E-W-oriented planes, similar to the main shock. Surprisingly, the June 15th (Ms = 6.2) aftershock shows a thrust fault striking N-S. This mechanism is explained by the structural control of the rupture along the east-dipping geometry of the Dzirula Massif close to the Borzhomi-Kazbeg strike-slip fault. In fact, the orientation and shape of the stress tensor produce a thrust on a N-S oriented plane. Nappe tectonics has been identified as an important feature in the Caucasus, and the source mechanism is consistent with this observation. A hidden fault is present below the nappe, and no large surface breaks were observed due to the main shock. The epicentral region is characterized by sediments that are trapped between two crystalline basements: the Dzirula Massif, which crops out south of Chiatoura, and the Caucasus Main Range north of Oni. Most, if not all, of the rupture is controlled by the thrusting of overlapping, deformed and folded sediments over the Dzirula Massif. This event is another example of blind active faults, with the distinctive feature that the fault plane dips at a gentle angle. The Racha Range is one of the surface expressions of this blind thrust, and its growth is the consequence and evidence of similar earthquakes in the past.

Fuenzalida, H.; Rivera, L.; Haessler, H.; Legrand, D.; Philip, H.; Dorbath, L.; McCormack, D.; Arefiev, S.; Langer, C.; Cisternas, A.

1997-01-01

307

Toxicités des chimiothérapies orales  

Microsoft Academic Search

Résumé  Les effets secondaires toxiques sont indissociables de la chimiothérapie anticancéreuse. Mais aujourd’hui, nous nous trouvons\\u000a devant un phénomène nouveauqui est l’administration orale de ces médicaments anticancéreux. Des effets secondaires qui pouvaient\\u000a passer pour anodins lors de l’administration intraveineuse de ces produits, nausées-vomissements de grades 1 ou 2 par exemple,\\u000a donc non susceptibles d’arrêter le traitement, deviennent, avec la multiplication des

F. Lokiec

2007-01-01

308

Facies pattern of western Tethyan Middle Triassic black carbonates: The example of Gutenstein Formation in Silica Nappe, Carpathians, Hungary, and its correlation to formations of adjoining areas  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

During the Middle Triassic, a broad carbonate ramp developed at the western end of the Tethys Ocean. In the early phase of the ramp evolution dark grey or black, finely crystalline carbonates were deposited over a considerable part of the ramp. In the Aggtelek Karst, northeastern Hungary, carbonates of the Aggtelek facies of the Silica Nappe are exposed. In the latest Early Triassic, bioturbated mudstones-wackestones and occasionally packstones were formed in the outer ramp zone below the storm wave-base. During the Early Anisian, oxygen-depleted bottom conditions evolved. Gradual changes took place in the sedimentary features of mud-dominated deposits that is attributed to increasing oxygen depletion as a result of density stratification of seawater in the deeper ramp areas. Remarkable ecological and sedimentary changes began with the colonisation by sponges and microbes in the Aggtelek facies area that occurred coevally with a relative sea-level fall. The appearance of the foraminifer Glomospira densa points to late Early Anisian age for these changes. This unit is very variable in lithology and facies compared to the monotonous development of the lower units. Massive limestones and dolomites of microbial origin are ubiquitous; additionally, oolites with micro-oncoids, cross-bedded and cross-laminated bioclastic, peloidal packstones-grainstones, thin-bedded bioclastic wackestones-mudstones, laminated and brecciated dolomites with evaporite pseudomorphs, and dolocretes are also present. Specific microfacies types, i.e. automicrite (varicoloured micrite-microspar groundmass) and cuneiform spongy microfabric preserved by cryptic microbial films, are recognised and interpreted as sponge-microbe mud-mound deposits. The microfacies of pilot samples from Northern Calcareous Alps, Inner Western Carpathians and Dinarides exhibit similar sedimentary features. Tectonic setting, biota evolution after the end-Permian mass extinction, relative sea-level changes and hypersalinity may have been the most important controlling factors of the non-skeletal carbonate factory, which produced dark grey mud-dominated deposits.

Hips, Kinga

2007-01-01

309

The recent fault kinematics in the westernmost part of the Getic nappe system (Eastern Serbia): Evidence from fault slip and focal mechanism data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this study we performed a calculation of the tectonic stress tensor based on fault slip data and all available focal mechanisms in order to determine the principal stress axes and the recent tectonic regime of the westernmost unit of the Getic nappe system (Gornjak-Ravanica Zone, Eastern Serbia). The study is based on a combined dataset involving paleostress analyses, the inversion of focal mechanisms and remote sensing. The results show dominant strike-slip kinematics with the maximal compression axis oriented NNE-SSW. This is compatible with a combined northward motion and counterclockwise rotation of the Adria plate as the controlling factor. However, the local stress field is also shown to be of great importance and is superimposed on the far-field stress. We managed to distinguish three areas with distinct seismic activity. The northern part of the research area is characterized by transtensional tectonics, possibly under the influence of the extension in the areas situated more to the northeast. The central and seismically most active part is dominated by strike-slip tectonics whereas the southern area is slightly transpressional, possibly under the influence of the rigid Moesian Platform situated to the east of the research area. The dominant active fault systems are oriented N-S (to NE-SW) and NW-SE and they occur as structures of either regional or local significance. Regional structures are active in the northern and central part of the study area, while the active fault systems in the southern part are marked as locally important. This study suggests that seismicity of this area is controlled by the release of accumulated stress at local accommodation zones which are favourably oriented in respect to the active regional stress field.

Mladenovi?, Ana; Trivi?, Branislav; Anti?, Milorad; Cvetkovi?, Vladica; Pavlovi?, Radmila; Radovanovi?, Slavica; Fügenschuh, Bernhard

2014-04-01

310

Geophysical Methods for Improved Understanding of Managed Aquifer Recharge (Invited)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Managed aquifer recharge is increasingly being used as a means of augmenting groundwater supplies. With the increased use, questions arise regarding the suitability of sites for such operations, as well as the operational efficiency of these systems. In this work we specifically look at MAR using an artificial recharge pond. There are two operational challenges commonly faced in artificial recharge ponds: 1) A decrease in infiltration rate of water into the subsurface during operating; this limits the amount of stored water. 2) Low recovery rates of the stored water. Addressing both of these challenges requires sufficient information about the spatial and temporal variation in governing hydrologic properties and processes. Geophysical methods provide a novel way of obtaining such information from the region beneath a recharge pond. A study of the Harkins Slough Recharge Pond, near Watsonville California, presented a unique opportunity to develop and test geophysical methods, specifically for improved understanding off MAR. At this site we deployed a series of geophysical sensors aimed at addressing the two operational challenges at the site. We first addressed the question: What is controlling the decrease in filtration rate? The development and installation of electrical conductivity probes beneath the pond allowed us to monitor changes in the top ~1 m over a 4-month period. This dataset revealed that clogging in the top ~10 cm was responsible for the decreased infiltration rate. These 1D data were augmented by a time-lapse 2D ERT dataset that shows significant lateral variability in infiltration at the site. The second question we addressed was: Why is the recovery rate so low? Using a combination of cone-penetrometer testing and seismic reflection data, we developed a subsurface model that suggested there was a thin clay layer that may be impeding the flow of water to the recovery wells. To further understand this, we developed electrical conductivity probes, containing pore pressure transducers, to monitor changes in electrical conductivity and fluid pressure to a depth of 30 m. The data acquired with these probes clearly showed that the subsurface clay layer was impeding flow to the screened zone of the recovery wells. The findings at the site demonstrate the value of geophysics obtaining information regarding the siting and operation of artificial recharge ponds.

Pidlisecky, A.; Nenna, V.; Knight, R. J.

2013-12-01

311

Injectabilite des coulis de ciment dans des milieux fissures  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Le travail presente ici est un bilan du travaux de recherche effectues sur l'injectabilite des coulis de ciment dans lu milieux fissures. Un certain nombre de coulis a base de ciment Portland et microfin ont ete selectionnes afin de caracteriser leur capacite a penetrer des milieux fissures. Une partie des essais a ete menee en laboratoire. L'etude rheologique des differents melanges a permis de tester l'influence de l'ajout de superplastifiant et/ou de fumee de silice sur la distribution granulometrique des coulis et par consequent sur leur capacite a injecter des colonnes de sable simulant un milieu fissure donne. La classe granulometrique d'un coulis, sa stabilite et sa fluidite sont apparus comme les trois facteurs principaux pour la reussite d'une injection. Un facteur de finesse a ete defini au cours de cette etude: base sur la classe granulometrique du ciment et sa stabilite, il peut entrer dans la formulation theorique du debit d'injection avant application sur chantier. La deuxieme et derniere partie de l'etude presente les resultats de deux projets de recherche sur l'injection realises sur chantier. L'injection de dalles de beton fissurees a permis le suivi de l'evolution des pressions avec la distance au point d'injection. L'injection de murs de maconnerie a caractere historique a montre l'importance de la definition de criteres de performance des coulis a utiliser pour traiter un milieu donne et pour un objectif donne. Plusieurs melanges peuvent ainsi etre predefinis et mis a disposition sur le chantier. La complementarite des ciments traditionnels et des ciments microfins devient alors un atout important. Le choix d'utilisation de ces melanges est fonction du terrain rencontre. En conclusion, cette recherche etablit une methodologie pour la selection des coulis a base de ciment et des pressions d'injection en fonction de l'ouverture des fissures ou joints de construction.

Mnif, Thameur

312

Prussian blue containing Nafion composite film as rechargeable battery  

SciTech Connect

A solid-state thin film rechargeable battery has been prepared using a novel efficient technique of ''surface complexation method'' by which a thin layer of Prussian blue (PB) can be overlaid on a solid polymer electrolyte of Nafion (NF) as matrix. An electrochemical cell made of the composite PB-Nf film sandwiched with supporting electrodes was examined on i-V curves in solid state and for characteristics as a rechargeable battery. The resulting PB-Nf battery showed good durability in repetitive cycles of charging and discharging and gave the following results: open-circuit voltage of the unit cell per 160 ..mu..m 0.68V, short-circuit current 0.2-2 mA/cm/sup 2/ depending upon the water content of the Nf matrix, and an energy density of about 50 Wh/kg.

Honda, K.; Hayashi, H.

1987-06-01

313

Zinc electrode and rechargeable zinc-air battery  

DOEpatents

An improved zinc electrode is disclosed for a rechargeable zinc-air battery comprising an outer frame and a porous foam electrode support within the frame which is treated prior to the deposition of zinc thereon to inhibit the formation of zinc dendrites on the external surface thereof. The outer frame is provided with passageways for circulating an alkaline electrolyte through the treated zinc-coated porous foam. A novel rechargeable zinc-air battery system is also disclosed which utilizes the improved zinc electrode and further includes an alkaline electrolyte within said battery circulating through the passageways in the zinc electrode and an external electrolyte circulation means which has an electrolyte reservoir external to the battery case including filter means to filter solids out of the electrolyte as it circulates to the external reservoir and pump means for recirculating electrolyte from the external reservoir to the zinc electrode.

Ross, Jr., Philip N. (Kensington, CA)

1989-01-01

314

Electronic structure and optical spectra of novel rechargeable lithium batteries  

Microsoft Academic Search

Electronic spectra of promising materials for rechargeable lithium batteries, LiC6 and LiMn2O4, have been studied. Theoretical calculations in combination with experiments for the pi*0 and sigma* x-ray absorption edges are reported for the pure graphite and the graphite intercalation compound, LiC6. The anisotropy of the absorption spectra is due to the difference in the optical matrix elements for two different

Gennadiy E. Grechnev; Rajeev Ahuja; Jinghua Guo; Olle Eriksson

2004-01-01

315

Templated Nanocarbon Black Nanocomposite Electrodes for Rechargeable Lithium Batteries  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this work, the fabrication of high energy density electrode materials for solid-state rechargeable batteries via block copolymer templating schemes was investigated. Atom transfer radical polymerization was used to synthesize the copolymer template poly((oligooxyethylene) methacrylate)-block-poly(butyl methacrylate), POEM-b-PBMA. Continuous, nanoscale phases of vanadium oxide were subsequently grown within the POEM domains of the microphase-separating block copolymer using sol-gel synthesis from a

Ozge Akbulut; Elsa A. Olivetti; Donald R. Sadoway; Anne M. Mayes

2006-01-01

316

Scale effects of hydrostratigraphy and recharge zonation on base flow  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Uncertainty regarding spatial variations of model parameters often results in the simplifying assumption that parameters are spatially uniform. However, spatial variability may be important in resource assessment and model calibration. In this paper, a methodology is presented for estimating a critical basin size, above which base flows appear to be relatively less sensitive to the spatial distribution of recharge and hydraulic conductivity, and below which base flows are relatively more sensitive to this spatial variability. Application of the method is illustrated for a watershed that exhibits distinct infiltration patterns and hydrostratigraphic layering. A ground water flow model (MODFLOW) and a parameter estimation code (UCODE) were used to evaluate the influence of recharge zonation and hydrostratigraphic layering on base flow distribution. Optimization after removing spatial recharge variability from the calibrated model altered base flow simulations up to 53% in watersheds smaller than 40 km2. Merging six hydrostratigraphic units into one unit with average properties increased base flow residuals up to 83% in basins smaller than 50 km2. Base flow residuals changed <5% in watersheds larger than 40 and 50 km2 when recharge and hydrostratigraphy were simplified, respectively; thus, the critical basin size for the example area is ???40 to 50 km2. Once identified for an area, a critical basin size could be used to guide the scale of future investigations. By ensuring that parameter discretization needed to capture base flow distribution is commensurate with the scope of the investigation, uncertainty caused by overextending uniform parameterization or by estimating extra parameter values is reduced. ?? 2006 National Ground Water Association.

Juckem, P. F.; Hunt, R. J.; Anderson, M. P.

2006-01-01

317

Virus fate and transport during artificial recharge with recycled water  

Microsoft Academic Search

A field-scale experiment was conducted at a research site using bacterial viruses (bacteriophage) MS2 and PRD1 as surrogates for human viruses, bromide as a conservative tracer, and tertiary-treated municipal wastewater (recycled water) to investigate the fate and transport of viruses during artificial recharge. Observed virus concentrations were fitted using a mathematical model that simulates virus transport in one-dimensional, homogeneous, water-saturated

Robert Anders; C. V. Chrysikopoulos

2005-01-01

318

Evaluation of Recharge Potential at Crater U5a (WISHBONE)  

SciTech Connect

Radionuclides are present both below and above the water table at the Nevada Test Site (NTS), as the result of underground nuclear testing. Mobilization and transport of radionuclides from the vadose zone is a complex process that is influenced by the solubility and sorption characteristics of the individual radionuclides, as well as the soil water flux. On the NTS, subsidence craters resulting from testing underground nuclear weapons are numerous, and many intercept surface water flows. Because craters collect surface water above the sub-surface point of device detonation, these craters may provide a mechanism for surface water to recharge the groundwater aquifer system underlying the NTS. Given this situation, there is a potential for the captured water to introduce contaminants into the groundwater system. Crater U5a (WISHBONE), located in Frenchman Flat, was selected for study because of its potentially large drainage area, and significant erosional features, which suggested that it has captured more runoff than other craters in the Frenchman Flat area. Recharge conditions were studied in subsidence crater U5a by first drilling boreholes and analyzing the collected soil cores to determine the soil properties and moisture conditions. This information, coupled with a 32-year precipitation record, was used to conduct surface and vaodse zone modeling. Surface water modeling predicted that approximately 13 ponding events had occurred during the life of the crater. Vadose zone modeling indicated that since the crater's formation approximately 5,900 m3 of water were captured by the crater. Of this total, approximately 5,200 m3 of potential recahrge may have occurred, and the best estimates of annual average potential recharge rates lie between 36 and 188 cm of water per year. The term potential is used here to indicate that the water is not technically recharged because it has not yet reached the water table.

Richard H. French; Samuel L. Hokett

1998-11-01

319

Changes in vegetation diversity caused by artificial recharge  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Efforst to increase the rate of artificial recharge through basins often necessitates scrapping and ditching before and during operations. Such operations can result in more or less drastic changes in vegetation (depending on what was there before), characterized by diminisched numbers of species and lowered diversity. Two examples, one from Texas and one from the Netherlands are presented showing how similar treatments cause similar changes in two completely difference plant communities. ?? 1979 Dr. W. Junk b.v. - Publishers.

van, Hylckama, T. E. A.

1979-01-01

320

Heat as a Tracer for Estimating Ground-water Recharge  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Temperature profiles above the water table may be analyzed to estimate ground-water recharge (or discharge). Depending on depth, sediment temperature profiles are established by meteorological conditions and/or the geothermal gradient, and modified by the direction and rate of ground-water fluxes through the sediments. For shallow water tables (less than 30 m), the combined effects of meteorological boundary conditions and ground-water fluxes generally determine sediment temperature profiles, while for deeper water tables, the combined effects of the geothermal gradient and ground-water fluxes determine vertical temperature profiles. Three approaches are presented to demonstrate the manner in which recharge rates may be estimated by matching predicted temperatures with measured temperatures above the water table. For the case of a shallow water table beneath a streambed, a variably saturated heat and water (liquid-only) transport simulation code, VS2DH, was used with an optimization procedure to inversely fit simulated temperatures to measured temperatures for several Southwestern stream channels. In some cases, temperature-based estimates of vertical flux were compared to surface-water measurements of streamflow loss. For the case of a deep water table, two different approaches were examined. An analytical solution with limitations on stratigraphic complexity was compared to measured temperature profiles beneath Yucca Flat, NV. A simulation code, TOUGH2, was used to match simulated to measured temperatures profiles beneath washes near Beatty, NV. Hypothetical results using the analytical solution generated a linear vertical temperature gradient for no-flow conditions, a concave upward gradient for groundwater recharge, and a concave downward gradient for groundwater discharge. TOUGH2 simulation results were capable of matching the complex temperature profiles in the deep, highly layered unsaturated material underlying the wash sites. Best-fit analytical and simulation temperature profiles yielded estimates of ground-water recharge for the Yucca Flat and wash sites, which reflected their dissimilar hydrological settings.

Constantz, J. E.; Tyler, S. W.; Kwicklis, E.

2001-12-01

321

Optimized zinc electrode for the rechargeable zinc–air battery  

Microsoft Academic Search

For the development of a long-lived, electrically rechargeable zinc–air battery the structure and wettability of pasted zinc electrodes were optimized. Pasted zinc electrodes containing 1 to 10% cellulose but having almost the same nominal capacities were prepared and tested in zinc\\/oxygen cells. The effect of discharge rate on cell voltage and delivered capacity, as well as the maximum power, were

S. Müller; F. Holzer; O. Haas

1998-01-01

322

Rechargeable zinc air batteries market and technology overview  

Microsoft Academic Search

AER Energy Resources is a US-based technology company that has developed a rechargeable zinc-air battery system. The advantage of the AER Energy Technology Battery is that it's energy density on a weight basis is three times that of nickel-cadmium, nickel metal hydride and lead-acid batteries, and almost twice that of currently available lithium-ion batteries. This new battery technology can enable

M. Schimpf

1993-01-01

323

Advanced materials for electrodes and electrolyte in rechargeable lithium batteries  

Microsoft Academic Search

The lithium-ion (Li-ion) battery possesses many outstanding advantages over the well known rechargeable battery systems, in particularly higher energy density and longer shelf life, as well as not suffering from the memory effect problems of Ni-MH batteries. Those advantages are making it the greatest energy source of choice for the portable electronic market. Graphite and LiCoO2 are commonly used in

Sau yen Chew

2009-01-01

324

Nanostructured cathode materials for alkaline and lithium rechargeable batteries  

Microsoft Academic Search

US Nanocorp, Inc. is pioneering the synthesis of nanostructured active battery materials by a novel aqueous solution reaction (ASR) process that is inherently low cost and scalable to volume production. Strategies for the production of high energy content battery electrodes are discussed. Focus areas include Ni(OH)2, both pure and Al-doped and ?-MnO2 for rechargeable alkaline batteries as well as the

D. E. Reisner; Jinxiang Daib; Rongde Gea; Meidong Wanga; Hui Yea; D. Xiao; A. J. Salkind

1999-01-01

325

Seismicity induced by seasonal groundwater recharge at Mt. Hood, Oregon  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Groundwater recharge at Mt. Hood, Oregon, is dominated by spring snow melt which provides a natural large-amplitude and narrow-width pore-fluid pressure signal. Time delays between this seasonal groundwater recharge and seismicity triggered by groundwater recharge can thus be used to estimate large-scale hydraulic diffusivities and the state of stress in the crust. We approximate seasonal variations in groundwater recharge with discharge in runoff-dominated streams at high elevations. We interpolate the time series of number of earthquakes, N, seismic moment, Mo, and stream discharge, Q, and determine cross-correlation coefficients at equivalent frequency bands between Q and both N and Mo. We find statistically significant correlation coefficients at a mean time lag of about 151 days. This time lag and a mean earthquake depth of about 4.5 km are used in the solution to the pressure diffusion equation, under periodic (1 year) boundary conditions, to estimate a hydraulic diffusivity of ??10 -1 m 2/s, a hydraulic conductivity of about Kh?10 -7 m/s, and a permeability of about k?10 -15 m 2. Periodic boundary conditions also allow us to determine a critical pore-fluid pressure fraction, P'/ P0?0.1, of the applied near-surface pore-fluid pressure perturbation, P0?0.1 MPa, that has to be reached at the mean earthquake depth to cause hydroseismicity. The low magnitude of P'?0.01 MPa is consistent with other studies that propose 0.01? P'?0.1 MPa and suggests that the state of stress in the crust near Mt. Hood could be near critical for failure. Therefore, we conclude that, while earthquakes occur throughout the year at Mt. Hood, elevated seismicity levels along pre-existing faults south of Mt. Hood during summer months are hydrologically induced by a reduction in effective stress.

Saar, Martin O.; Manga, Michael

2003-09-01

326

Long cycle life rechargeable lithium\\/titanium disulfide cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lithium\\/titanium disulfide (Li\\/TiS2) cells are being developed for long life rechargeable applications. The effects of cathode thickness, packing density, percent carbon, electrolyte type, and anode type on cycle life were evaluated. Cathode thickness was found to have the most dramatic effect on cycle life, followed by cathode packing density and electrolyte type. The cycle life of AA Li\\/TiS2 cells increased

C. J. Post; E. S. Takeuchi

1992-01-01

327

Computer simulations of the impedance response of lithium rechargeable batteries  

Microsoft Academic Search

A mathematical model is developed to simulate the impedance response of a wide range of lithium rechargeable battery systems. The mathematical model is a macroscopic model of a full-cell sandwich utilizing porous electrode theory to treat the electrode region and concentrated solution theory for transport processes in solution. Insertion processes are described with charge-transfer kinetic expressions and solid-phase diffusion of

Marc Doyle; Jeremy P. Meyers; John Newman

2000-01-01

328

Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy of lithium-titanium disulfide rechargeable cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

The two-terminal alternating current impedance of Li\\/TiS2 rechargeable cells was studied as a function of frequency, state-of-charge, and extended cycling. Analysis based on a plausible equivalent circuit model for the Li\\/TiS2 cell leads to evaluation of kinetic parameters for the various physicochemical processes occurring at the electrode\\/electrolyte interfaces. To investigate the causes of cell degradation during extended cycling, the parameters

S. R. Narayanan; D. H. Shen; S. Surampudi; A. I. Attia; G. Halpert

1993-01-01

329

Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy of lithium-titanium disulfide rechargeable cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

The two-terminal alternating current impedance of lithium-titanium disulfide (Li\\/TiS[sub 2]) rechargeable cells has been studies as a function of frequency, state-of-charge, and extended cycling. Analysis based on a plausible equivalent circuit model for the Li\\/TiS[sub 2] cell leads to evaluation of kinetic parameters for the various physicochemical processes occurring at the electrode\\/electrolyte interfaces. To investigate the causes of cell degradation

S. R. Narayanan; D. H. Shen; S. Surampudi; A. I. Attia; G. Halpert

1993-01-01

330

12-Crown-4 Ether Improves Rechargeable Lithium Cells  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Experiments show addition of 12-crown-4 ether (12Cr4) to thin film of polyethylene oxide (PEO) and LiBF4 reduces charge-transfer resistance of film and enhances performance of electrochemical cell in which film is electrolyte, anode is lithium, and cathode is LixCoO2. By increasing conductivity of the electrolyte, 12Cr4 reduces polarization loss; enabling cell to sustain higher current. Result is new type of rechargeable lithium cell.

Nagasubramanian, Ganesan; Attia, Alan I.

1992-01-01

331

Recent developments and future prospects for lithium rechargeable batteries  

Microsoft Academic Search

Possible future developments of lithium rechargeable batteries are discussed. Lithium ion liquid electrolyte batteries are now well established, with energy densities of up to around 150Whkg?1. There are prospects of increases in the energy density to perhaps 200–250Whkg?1 by using new cathode materials (lithium nickel cobalt oxide) and light weight construction. High power cells make it possible for these batteries

A. G. Ritchie

2001-01-01

332

Hysteresis in Thin-Film Rechargeable Lithium Batteries  

SciTech Connect

Discharge - charge cycling of thin-film rechargeable lithium batteries with an amorphous or nanocrystalline LiXMn2.Y04 cathode reveals evidence for a true hysteresis in the lithium insertion reaction. This is compared with an apparent hysteresis attributed to a kinetically hindered phase transition near 3 V for batteries with either a crystalline or a nanocrystalline LiJ@Yo4 cathode.

Bates, J.B.; Dudney, N.J.; Evans, C.D.; Hart, F.X.

1999-04-25

333

Development of Carbon Anode for Rechargeable Lithium Cells  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Conventionally, rechargeable lithium cells employ a pure lithium anode. To overcome problems associated with the pure lithium electrode, it has been proposed to replace the conventional electrode with an alternative material having a greater stability with respect to the cell electrolytes. For this reason, several graphitic and coke based carbonaceous materials were evaluated as candidate anode materials...In this paper, we summarize the results of the studies on Li-ion cell development.

Huang, C. -K.; Surampudi, S.; Halpert, G.

1994-01-01

334

AC impedance study of Li\\/SO2 rechargeable cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

The kinetics of lithium passivation and the development of the impedance of carbon electrodes and LiGaCl4 and LiAlCl4 non-solvate electrolytes in rechargeable Li\\/SO2 cells have been studied using the AC impedance technique. The effects of cycling and depth of discharge (DOD) on impedance parameters and the effects of electrolyte concentration on cell performance and open circuit voltage (OCV) are discussed.

T. J. Lee; G. T. K. Fey

1990-01-01

335

Performance of lithium-sulfur dioxide rechargeable cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

The lithium-sulfur dioxide rechargeable system has been investigated with LiAlCl4 electrolyte in hermetically sealed experimental cells. Over 50 cells were tested at 1-5 mA\\/cm2 discharge and 0.5-2 mA\\/cm2 charge rates using carbon cathode material to evaluate cycle life and capacity at ambient (21°C) and low (-30°C) temperatures. Most of the cells delivered excellent cycle life with significantly higher capacity than

Sohrab Hossain; Peter Harris; Robert McDonald; Franz Goebel

1990-01-01

336

Characterization of ether electrolytes for rechargeable lithium cells. Technical report  

Microsoft Academic Search

2Methyl-tetrahydrofuran (2Me-THF)\\/LiAsFâ and several diethyl ether (DEE)\\/LiAsFâ-based electrolytes have been characterized for their usefulness in rechargeable Li\\/TiSâ cells. This characterization has involved extended room temperature cell cycling at various depths of discharge, evaluation of rate\\/capacity behavior of cells at 25C and -10C, and storage of cells at 50C for up to one month with subsequent cycling. The thermal stability of

K. M. Abraham; J. L. Goldman; D. L. Natwig

1982-01-01

337

Characteristics of an aqueous rechargeable lithium battery (ARLB)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Electrochemical performance of an aqueous rechargeable lithium battery (ARLB) containing a LiV3O8 (negative electrode) and LiCoO2 (positive electrode) in saturated LiNO3 aqueous electrolyte was studied. These two electrode materials are stable in the aqueous solution and intercalation\\/deintercalation of lithium ions occurs within the window of electrochemical stability of water. The obtained capacity of this cell system is about 55mAh\\/g based

G. J. Wang; N. H. Zhao; L. C. Yang; Y. P. Wu; H. Q. Wu; R. Holze

2007-01-01

338

Electrochemically Stable Cathode Current Collectors for Rechargeable Magnesium Batteries  

SciTech Connect

Rechargeable Mg batteries are attractive energy storage systems and could bring cost-effective energy solutions. Currently, however, no practical cathode current collectors that can withstand high voltages in Mg2+ electrolytes has been identified and therefore cathode research is greatly hindered. Here we identified that two metals, Mo and W, are electrochemically stable through formation of surface passive layers. The presented results could have significant impacts on the developments of high voltage Mg batteries.

Cheng, Yingwen; Liu, Tianbiao L.; Shao, Yuyan; Engelhard, Mark H.; Liu, Jun; Li, Guosheng

2014-01-01

339

Inorganic electrolyte solutions and gels for rechargable lithium batteries  

Microsoft Academic Search

A class of inorganic oxychloride compounds have been evaluated for use as electrolytic solvents in rechargeable lithium batteries. Compared with SOâ-based electrolytes, these showed much improved safety while maintaining room temperature conductivities of 10⁻³--10⁻² S\\/cm and electrochemical voltage windows of 4.5--5.5 vs. Li{sup +}\\/Li and supporting reversible lithium metal deposition\\/stripping. With the addition of 2 â¼ 5% polymer, the solutions

Kang Xu; N. D. Day; C. A. Angell

1996-01-01

340

Estimation of groundwater recharge parameters by time series analysis.  

USGS Publications Warehouse

A model is proposed that relates water level fluctuations in a Dupuit aquifer to effective precipitation at the top of the unsaturated zone. Effective precipitation, defined herein as that portion of precipitation which becomes recharge, is related to precipitation measured in a nearby gage by a two-parameter function. A second-order stationary assumption is used to connect the spectra of effective precipitation and water level fluctuations.-from Authors

Naff, R. L.; Gutjahr, A. L.

1983-01-01

341

Movement of water infiltrated from a recharge basin to wells  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Local surface water and stormflow were infiltrated intermittently from a 40-ha basin between September 2003 and September 2007 to determine the feasibility of recharging alluvial aquifers pumped for public supply, near Stockton, California. Infiltration of water produced a pressure response that propagated through unconsolidated alluvial-fan deposits to 125 m below land surface (bls) in 5 d and through deeper, more consolidated alluvial deposits to 194 m bls in 25 d, resulting in increased water levels in nearby monitoring wells. The top of the saturated zone near the basin fluctuates seasonally from depths of about 15 to 20 m. Since the start of recharge, water infiltrated from the basin has reached depths as great as 165 m bls. On the basis of sulfur hexafluoride tracer test data, basin water moved downward through the saturated alluvial deposits until reaching more permeable zones about 110 m bls. Once reaching these permeable zones, water moved rapidly to nearby pumping wells at rates as high as 13 m/d. Flow to wells through highly permeable material was confirmed on the basis of flowmeter logging, and simulated numerically using a two-dimensional radial groundwater flow model. Arsenic concentrations increased slightly as a result of recharge from 2 to 6 ?g/L immediately below the basin. Although few water-quality issues were identified during sample collection, high groundwater velocities and short travel times to nearby wells may have implications for groundwater management at this and at other sites in heterogeneous alluvial aquifers.

O'Leary, David R.; Izbicki, John A.; Moran, Jean E.; Meeth, Tanya; Nakagawa, Brandon; Metzger, Loren; Bonds, Chris; Singleton, Michael J.

2012-01-01

342

Identification of priority organic compounds in groundwater recharge of China.  

PubMed

Groundwater recharge using reclaimed water is considered a promising method to alleviate groundwater depletion, especially in arid areas. Traditional water treatment systems are inefficient to remove all the types of contaminants that would pose risks to groundwater, so it is crucial to establish a priority list of organic compounds (OCs) that deserve the preferential treatment. In this study, a comprehensive ranking system was developed to determine the list and then applied to China. 151 OCs, for which occurrence data in the wastewater treatment plants were available, were selected as candidate OCs. Based on their occurrence, exposure potential and ecological effects, two different rankings of OCs were established respectively for groundwater recharge by surface infiltration and direct aquifer injection. Thirty-four OCs were regarded as having no risks while the remaining 117 OCs were divided into three groups: high, moderate and low priority OCs. Regardless of the recharge way, nonylphenol, erythromycin and ibuprofen were the highest priority OCs; their removal should be prioritized. Also the database should be updated as detecting technology is developed. PMID:24960229

Li, Zhen; Li, Miao; Liu, Xiang; Ma, Yeping; Wu, Miaomiao

2014-09-15

343

Impact of climate change on groundwater recharge in arid areas  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Groundwater recharge in arid areas is critical for water resources management and for contaminant transport from waste deposit sites located in these areas. However, the impact of climate change on groundwater in arid areas is not well understood at this point, because of difficulties in accurately measuring soil-water flow processes under arid conditions and in quantifying complex interactions among climate, soil water, and vegetation in these areas. The purpose of this exploratory study is to develop an innovative approach to assessing the impact of climate change on soil-water dynamics in arid areas. The approach is based on a new hypothesis that in arid areas, temporally averaged soil-water saturation will not be affected by climate change during growing seasons as a result of the naturally occurring optimization processes for vegetation growth. Arid-area soil-water dynamics in growing seasons is important because precipitation and groundwater recharge mainly occur during these seasons. The hypothesis is supported by results from a comprehensive literature survey of published data. Stochastic models are developed based on the hypotheses to determine impacts of climate changes on groundwater recharge in arid areas. Modeling results show that the impacts are largely buffered by the associated vegetation dynamics.

Liu, H.; Zhang, K.

2009-12-01

344

Natural recharge and localization of fresh ground water in Kuwait  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Fresh ground water (200 parts per million total dissolved solids and upwards) occurs in portions of Pleistocene sandstone aquifers beneath basins and wadis in north Kuwait where the mean rainfall is about five inches per year. The fresh water is surrounded and underlain by brackish water (> 4000 ppm TDS). Drilling and testing show that fresh water saturation is restricted to wadis and basin areas; in Rawdatain basin it attains a maximum thickness of about 110 feet and a lateral extent of about seven miles. The fresh ground water represents recharge localized, during infrequent, torrential rain storms, in areas of concentrated runoff where sediments in the vadose zone are moderately permeable and depth to the water table is generally less than a hundred feet. Concentration of runoff appears to be the primary control in the localization of recharge. The fresh water percolates downward to the ground-water reservoir following rare storms, then flows in the direction of hydraulic gradient and gradually becomes brackish. Theoretical delineation of the recharge area and ground-water flow pattern in Rawdatain was confirmed by tritium and C14 dating of the water. Brackish ground-water conditions prevail from water table downward in areas where rainfall infiltrates essentially where it falls, permeability of sediments in the vadose zone is low, or the water table is several hundred feet below land surface. In these areas, rainfall is retained and lost within the soil zone or becomes mineralized during deep percolation. ?? 1964.

Bergstrom, R. E.; Aten, R. E.

1965-01-01

345

Simulation of ground-water level fluctuations using recharge estimated by field infiltrometer measurements  

USGS Publications Warehouse

An infiltrometer was used at multiple locations at a site in Lee County, Fl. to define the spatial variability in infiltration parameters. Water-level data from a well at this site were collected hourly and used to determine the temporal variability in recharge. These results were used to define recharge in a representative stochastic numerical model of the aquifer. Model results without recharge compare well with existing analytical solutions for spatial head variability. Simulations with representative recharge events indicate that recharge produces a significant to dominant effect on head variability, which creates dispersion of contaminants, and that small-scale spatial and temporal recharge variations are the predominant mechanism causing the head variations.

Swain, E. D.

1997-01-01

346

Sandstone matrix olistostrome deposited on intra-subduction complex serpentinite, trench slope basin deposits, and nappe and fold architecture and chronology, Franciscan Complex, Marin County, California  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Field mapping and U/Pb detrital zircon geochronology in the Franciscan subduction complex in Marin County, California offers insight into intra-subduction complex ultramafic rock accretion, mélange development, and fold geometry. From structurally low to high, the study area units comprise coherent sandstone, Nicasio Reservoir terrane (NRT) prehnite-pumpellyite grade pillow basalt and gabbro, serpentinized harzburgite, and two sandstone-matrix olistostromes. The two olistostromes were distinguished in the study area based on field relationships, detrital zircon ages, and differences in sandstone composition. The western olistostrome, with a maximum depositional age of 122 Ma, comprises lithic-rich sandstone matrix enclosing volcanic blocks; the eastern olistostrome has a maximum depositional age of 100 Ma and includes both volcanic and chert blocks. Both olistostromes exhibit minimal strain, indicating pre-tectonic sedimentary origins as submarine slide masses. Sedimentary breccia adjacent to the eastern olistostrome contact with serpentinite includes serpentinite clasts; combined with observed inverted sandstone facing directions within eastern olistostrome near the contact, these data indicate an overturned, depositional contact of olistostrome on intra-Franciscan serpentinized harzburgite. The serpentinite body appears internally coherent, with widespread preservation of relict peridotite textures. Coherent sandstone, deposited at ?122 Ma, dips beneath the NRT and exhibits moderate foliation development. Contact relationships with the serpentinite, sandstone bedding, and serpentinite foliation indicate folding of serpentinite and adjacent units into multi-kilometer scale isoclinal overturned folds verging SW and trending NW-SE. The coherent, intra-subduction complex nature of the serpentinite suggests derivation as a coherent fault sheet from the downgoing plate, rather than a klippe of the tectonically overlying Coast Range ophiolite, as previously suggested, or as sedimentary serpentinite as recently proposed for several intra-Franciscan serpentinite bodies. The outcrop pattern of the NRT and sandstone bedding orientations illustrate a second generation of multi-kilometer scale sub-horizontal open to gentle folds trending NE-SW, consistent with outcrop patterns observed elsewhere in the NRT, Yolla Bolly, and Novato Quarry terranes. The study area units structurally overlie the San Bruno Mountain terrane (SBMT), which has a maximum depositional age of 52 Ma and which in turn structurally (or stratigraphically) overlies rocks with a maximum depositional age of 92 Ma. These rock ages and structural relationships suggest that rather than being offscraped and underplated to the Franciscan accretionary stack, the SBMT originated as a trench-slope basin deposit. Applied elsewhere within the Franciscan Complex and other accretionary margins, these data imply significantly less structural thickness of the accretionary complex than structural thicknesses implied by the regional dips of strata and nappe contacts.

Prohoroff, R. E.; Wakabayashi, J.; Dumitru, T. A.

2011-12-01

347

Multiple-methods investigation of recharge at a humid-region fractured rock site, Pennsylvania, USA  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lysimeter-percolate and well-hydrograph analyses were combined to evaluate recharge for the Masser Recharge Site (central\\u000a Pennsylvania, USA). In humid regions, aquifer recharge through an unconfined low-porosity fractured-rock aquifer can cause\\u000a large magnitude water-table fluctuations over short time scales. The unsaturated hydraulic characteristics of the subsurface\\u000a porous media control the magnitude and timing of these fluctuations. Data from multiple sets of

Christopher S. Heppner; John R. Nimmo; Gordon J. Folmar; William J. Gburek; Dennis W. Risser

2007-01-01

348

Multiple-methods investigation of recharge at a humid-region fractured rock site, Pennsylvania, USA  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lysimeter-percolate and well-hydrograph analyses were combined to evaluate recharge for the Masser Recharge Site (central Pennsylvania, USA). In humid regions, aquifer recharge through an unconfined low-porosity fractured-rock aquifer can cause large magnitude water-table fluctuations over short time scales. The unsaturated hydraulic characteristics of the subsurface porous media control the magnitude and timing of these fluctuations. Data from multiple sets of

Christopher S. Heppner; John R. Nimmo; Gordon J. Folmar; William J. Gburek; Dennis W. Risser

2007-01-01

349

Estimation of groundwater recharge using the soil moisture budget method and the base-flow model  

Microsoft Academic Search

Estimation of groundwater recharge is extremely important for proper management of groundwater systems. Many different approaches\\u000a exist for estimating recharge. The main purpose of this paper is to apply a water balance concept with two methods to estimate\\u000a the groundwater recharge in the Ching-Shui watershed, Taiwan. First, a soil moisture budget method is established to estimate\\u000a the infiltration, runoff, evapotranspiration,

Cheng-Haw Lee; Hsin-Fu Yeh; Jin-Fa Chen

2008-01-01

350

Mountain-block recharge, present and past, in the eastern Española Basin, New Mexico, USA  

Microsoft Academic Search

Noble gas recharge temperatures (NGTs) and radiocarbon ages were determined for 43 groundwater samples collected in the eastern\\u000a Española Basin, New Mexico (USA), to identify mountain-block recharge in waters <10 thousand years (ka) old and to evaluate\\u000a possible changes in mountain-block recharge over the past ?35 ka. For Holocene samples from the southeastern area, NGTs are\\u000a dominantly 2–4° cooler than the

Andrew H. Manning

2011-01-01

351

Effect of land development on groundwater recharge determined from non-steady chloride profiles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The effect of clearing and subsequent crop and pasture growth on recharge to ground waters was investigated in three experimental catchments in the brigalow ( Acacia harpophylla) lands of north-eastern Australia. Recharge was calculated from soil chloride data, using a simple transient solute mass balance model. Clearing had a substantial initial effect on groundwater recharge, with average recharge rates of 29 to 70 mm year -1 in two cleared catchments, compared with 7 mm year -1 in an uncleared catchment. These results were attributed to record high rains that fell while both cleared catchments were bare of vegetation, before crops or pastures were established. The effect was only short lived, however, with no significant recharge occurring in any of the three catchments during the period in which crops and pastures were fully established. This lack of recharge was contrary to the general belief that clearing and establishment of crops or pastures causes a sustained increase in groundwater recharge. The low recharge rates at this site were attributed to the slowly permeable soils and the climate of the study site, where potential evaporation exceeds average rainfall in all months, and to the water use characteristic of brigalow. Brigalow is shallow-rooted, and at this site generated lower soil water deficits than either crops or pastures. Clearing is unlikely to result in high water-tables in these soils under pastures or opportunity cropping systems under the average climatic conditions of the region. The simple transient solute mass balance model used to estimate recharge rates gave important and significant differences in recharge when compared with a more commonly used steady-state model. All recharge rates calculated with the steady-state model were ? 1.8 mm year -1 (most < 0.3 mm year -1), and so this model could not identify the gross short-term recharge response to clearing at this site.

Thorburn, Peter J.; Cowie, Bruce A.; Lawrence, Paul A.

1991-04-01

352

Using CRD method for quantification of groundwater recharge in the Gaza Strip, Palestine  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rainfall is the main source of groundwater recharge in the Gaza Strip area in Palestine. The area is located in the semi-arid\\u000a zone and there is no source of recharge other than rainfall. Estimation of groundwater recharge from rainfall is not an easy\\u000a task since it depends on many uncertain parameters. The cumulative rainfall departure (CRD) method, which depends on

Husam Baalousha

2005-01-01

353

Comparison of recharge estimates at a small watershed in east-central Pennsylvania, USA  

Microsoft Academic Search

The common recommendation that recharge should be estimated from multiple methods is sound, but the inherent differences of\\u000a the methods make it difficult to assess the accuracy of differing results. In this study, four methods for estimating groundwater\\u000a recharge and two methods for estimating base flow (as a proxy for recharge) are compared at two hydrologic research sites\\u000a in east-central

Dennis W. Risser; William J. Gburek; Gordon J. Folmar

2009-01-01

354

A generalized estimate of ground-water-recharge rates in the Lower Peninsula of Michigan  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Ground-water recharge rates were estimated by analysis of streamflow, precipitation, and basin-characteristics data. Streamflow data were partitioned into ground-water-discharge and surface-water-runoff components. Regression equations relate ground-water discharge to precipitation at each basin. Basin-characteristics and long-term precipitation data were used to aid in the interpolation of recharge characteristics within gaged and ungaged areas. A multiple regression equation was developed to estimate spatial variation of recharge. The generalized estimate provides a consistent method for approximating recharge rates in the Lower Peninsula of Michigan.

Holtschlag, David J.

1997-01-01

355

Use of soil moisture probes to estimate ground water recharge at an oil spill site  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Soil moisture data collected using an automated data logging system were used to estimate ground water recharge at a crude oil spill research site near Bemidji, Minnesota. Three different soil moisture probes were tested in the laboratory as well as the field conditions of limited power supply and extreme weather typical of northern Minnesota: a self-contained reflectometer probe, and two time domain reflectometry (TDR) probes, 30 and 50 cm long. Recharge was estimated using an unsaturated zone water balance method. Recharge estimates for 1999 using the laboratory calibrations were 13 to 30 percent greater than estimates based on the factory calibrations. Recharge indicated by the self-contained probes was 170 percent to 210 percent greater than the estimates for the TDR probes regardless of calibration method. Results indicate that the anomalously large recharge estimates for the self-contained probes are not the result of inaccurate measurements of volumetric moisture content, but result from the presence of crude oil, or bore-hole leakage. Of the probes tested, the 50 cm long TDR probe yielded recharge estimates that compared most favorably to estimates based on a method utilizing water table fluctuations. Recharge rates for this probe represented 24 to 27 percent of 1999 precipitation. Recharge based on the 30 cm long horizontal TDR probes was 29 to 37 percent of 1999 precipitation. By comparison, recharge based on the water table fluctuation method represented about 29 percent of precipitation. (JAWRA) (Copyright ?? 2005).

Delin, G. N.; Herkelrath, W. N.

2005-01-01

356

Estimated ground-water recharge from streamflow in Fortymile Wash near Yucca Mountain, Nevada  

SciTech Connect

The two purposes of this report are to qualitatively document ground-water recharge from stream-flow in Fortymile Wash during the period 1969--95 from previously unpublished ground-water levels in boreholes in Fortymile Canyon during 1982--91 and 1995, and to quantitatively estimate the long-term ground-water recharge rate from streamflow in Fortymile Wash for four reaches of Fortymile Wash (Fortymile Canyon, upper Jackass Flats, lower Jackass Flats, and Amargosa Desert). The long-term groundwater recharge rate was estimated from estimates of the volume of water available for infiltration, the volume of infiltration losses from streamflow, the ground-water recharge volume from infiltration losses, and an analysis of the different periods of data availability. The volume of water available for infiltration and ground-water recharge in the four reaches was estimated from known streamflow in ephemeral Fortymile Wash, which was measured at several gaging station locations. The volume of infiltration losses from streamflow for the four reaches was estimated from a streamflow volume loss factor applied to the estimated streamflows. the ground-water recharge volume was estimated from a linear relation between infiltration loss volume and ground-water recharge volume for each of the four reaches. Ground-water recharge rates were estimated for three different periods of data availability (1969--95, 1983--95, and 1992--95) and a long-term ground-water recharge rate estimated for each of the four reaches.

Savard, C.S.

1998-10-01

357

Mountain-block recharge present and past in the eastern Española Basin, New Mexico, USA  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Noble gas recharge temperatures (NGTs) and radiocarbon ages were determined for 43 groundwater samples collected in the eastern Española Basin, New Mexico (USA), to identify mountain-block recharge in waters <10 thousand years (ka) old and to evaluate possible changes in mountain-block recharge over the past ~35 ka. For Holocene samples from the southeastern area, NGTs are dominantly 2-4° cooler than the measured water-table temperature near the mountain front. Computed minimum mountain-block recharge fractions are dominantly 0.2-0.5, consistent with previous large mountain-block recharge estimates. NGTs do not display the distinct low during the last glacial maximum observed in other paleorecharge studies; samples recharged 15-25 ka ago are on average only 1.3° cooler than Holocene samples. Instead, samples with the coldest NGTs were recharged 25-35 ka ago. A proposed explanation is that higher precipitation rates during the last glacial maximum resulted in a lower mean recharge elevation for the basin, essentially buffering the effect of the lower mean annual air temperature and producing NGTs similar to the Holocene. In the period preceding the last glacial maximum, precipitation rates more like today’s resulted in Holocene-like mountain-block recharge fractions, producing a mean NGT ~5° cooler than the Holocene, as expected.

Manning, Andrew H.

2011-01-01

358

Indirect and direct recharges in a tropical forested watershed: Mule Hole, India  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

SummaryIt is commonly accepted that forest plays role to modify the water cycle at the watershed scale. However, the impact of forest on aquifer recharge is still discussed: some studies indicate that infiltration is facilitated under forest while other studies suggest a decrease of recharge. This paper presents an estimate of recharge rates to groundwater in a humid forested watershed of India. Recharge estimates are based on the joint use of several methods: chloride mass balance, water table fluctuation, geophysics, groundwater chemistry and flow analysis. Two components of the recharge (direct and indirect) are estimated over 3 years of monitoring (2003-2006). The direct and localized recharges resulting from rainfall over the entire watershed surface area is estimated to 45 mm/yr while the indirect recharge occurring from the stream during flood events is estimated to 30 mm/yr for a 2 km-long stream. Calculated recharge rates, rainfall and runoff measurements are then combined in a water budget to estimate yearly evapotranspiration which ranges from 80% to 90% of the rainfall, i.e. 1050 mm/y as an average. This unexpected high value for a deciduous forest is nevertheless in agreement with the forest worldwide relationship between rainfall and evapotranspiration. The large evapotranspiration from the forest cover contributes to decrease the recharge rate which leads to a lowering of the water table. This is the reason why the stream is highly ephemeral.

Maréchal, Jean-Christophe; Varma, Murari R. R.; Riotte, Jean; Vouillamoz, Jean-Michel; Kumar, M. S. Mohan; Ruiz, Laurent; Sekhar, M.; Braun, Jean-Jacques

2009-01-01

359

Potential for, and possible effects of, artificial recharge in Carson Valley, Douglas County, Nevada  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Rapid population growth in Carson Valley, west- central Nevada, requires a dependable municipal water source. Artificial recharge of aquifers using available flow of the Carson River is one way to increase the amount of water in underground storage and maintain a dependable ground-water supply. Ground water can be artificially recharged by routing excess surface water or, after proper treatment, routing wastewater to infiltration basins or injection wells. Withdrawal wells would remove stored water when needed. As a first step, maps showing areas in Carson Valley with high, low, moderate and unknown potential for artificial recharge were developed on the basis of the distribution of geologic units, depth to water, specific yield, infiltration rate, and location of natural recharge and discharge. For recharge by means of infiltration, areas totaling 5,700 acres have high potential, 23,900 acres have moderate potential, and 6,200 acres have low potential. For recharge through injection, areas totaling 7,800 acres have high potential and 43,500 acres have moderate potential; 23,000 acres have unknown potential because data are lacking on subsurface conditions. A ground-water-flow model was used to assess the possible results of artificial recharge. Simulations with no accompanying ground-water withdrawal show that, when recharge by injection is simulated near the valley floor, heads in the semiconfined aquifer increase over much of the valley, floor; only about 20 percent of the recharged water is stored in the aquifer after 5 years and as much as 80 percent is lost to streamflow and evapotranspiration. When recharge is simulated on the eastern side of the valley, 80 percent of the recharged water remains in storage after 5 years. When recharge is simulated near the valley floor, more water is lost to discharge than when recharge is on the eastern side of the valley. When recharge is applied for long periods without accompanying withdrawal, recharged water moves downgradient to discharge areas. The recharge water that discharges to the surface-water system could in turn replenish base flow of the Carson River and benefit downstream users.

Maurer, Douglas K.; Peltz, Lorri A.

1994-01-01

360

SWB-A modified Thornthwaite-Mather Soil-Water-Balance code for estimating groundwater recharge  

USGS Publications Warehouse

A Soil-Water-Balance (SWB) computer code has been developed to calculate spatial and temporal variations in groundwater recharge. The SWB model calculates recharge by use of commonly available geographic information system (GIS) data layers in combination with tabular climatological data. The code is based on a modified Thornthwaite-Mather soil-water-balance approach, with components of the soil-water balance calculated at a daily timestep. Recharge calculations are made on a rectangular grid of computational elements that may be easily imported into a regional groundwater-flow model. Recharge estimates calculated by the code may be output as daily, monthly, or annual values.

Westenbroek, S. M.; Kelson, V. A.; Dripps, W. R.; Hunt, R. J.; Bradbury, K. R.

2010-01-01

361

Hydrological functions of sinkholes and characteristics of point recharge in groundwater basins  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Karstic limestone aquifers are hydrologically and hydrochemically extremely heterogeneous and point source recharge via sinkholes and fissures is a common feature. We studied three groundwater systems in karstic settings dominated by point source recharge in order to assess the relative contributions to total recharge from point sources using chloride and ?18O relations. Preferential groundwater flows were observed through an inter-connected network of highly conductive zones with groundwater mixing along flow paths. Measurements of salinity and chloride indicated that fresh water pockets exist at point recharge locations. A measurable fresh water plume develops only when a large quantity of surface water enters the aquifer as a point recharge source. The difference in chloride concentrations in diffuse and point recharge zones decreases as aquifer saturated thickness increases and the plumes become diluted through mixing. The chloride concentration in point recharge fluxes crossing the watertable plane can remain at or near surface runoff chloride concentrations, rather than in equilibrium with groundwater chloride. In such circumstances the conventional chloride mass balance method that assumes equilibrium of recharge water chloride with groundwater requires modification to include both point and diffuse recharge mechanisms.

Somaratne, N.; Smettem, K.; Lawson, J.; Nguyen, K.; Frizenschaf, J.

2013-09-01

362

Artificial-recharge investigation near Aurora, Nebraska: 2-year progress report  

USGS Publications Warehouse

This report presents the results of the first 2 years of a 4-year investigation of potential for artificial recharge and recharge methods that might be used to mitigate excessive aquifer depletion in Nebraska. A Quaternary sand-and-gravel aquifer near Aurora, Nebr., was recharged by injecting water through a well at a rate of approximately 730 gallons per minute for nearly 6 months. Total recharge was 530 acre-feet. Recharge was intermittent during the first 2 months, but was virtually continuous during the last 4 months. Buildup of the water level in the recharge well was 17 feet. The rate of buildup indicates that the well could have accepted water by gravity flow at more than 3,000 gallons per minute for at least 1 year. The cause of a continuing slow rise in water levels in the recharge well in contrast to nearly stable water levels in observation wells as close as 10 feet from the recharge well is as yet uncertain. The recharge water and the native ground water appeared to be chemically compatible. Infiltration rates from 24-foot-diameter surface impoundments ranged from 0.04 to 0.66 feet per day. The higher rates may have resulted in part from leakage down incompletely sealed holes that were drilled to install monitoring equipment. The investigation, including a report on the entire project, is scheduled for completion by 1980.

Lichtler, William F.; Stannard, David I.; Kouma, Edwin

1979-01-01

363

Rechargeable silver-modified mercuric oxide-zinc cell for cardiac pacemakers.  

PubMed

Tests were conducted on rechargeable mercury-zinc pacemaker batteries under simulated and actual biologic conditions, using a variety of discharge rates and charging schedules. In tests on 96 cells at a 6.4 milliampere (ma) discharge, recharging once every 15 months of simulated pacing at a 25 microampere (mua) drain, the earliest cell failure occurred after an equivalent of 50 years of pacing. The mean pacing equivalent for all 96 cells was more than 140 years. In 6.4 ma discharge tests on 24 cells, recharging once every 8 days of simulated pacing, only 1 cell in 24 failed after an equivalent of more than 500 years of pacing (actual time 2 years). In tests on 13 cells pacing at a 200 mua drain without recharging, the simulated mean duration of pacing before total discharge was 4.8 years. Seven other cells at a 200 mua drain with periodic recharging continue to function normally after more than 7 years of actual time, simulating 56 years of pacing at a 25 mua drain. Cardiac pacemakers using the rechargeable mercury-zinc cell have been implanted in animals for more than 2 1/2 years and in patients for more than 1 year with all units continuing to function satisfactorily. It has been demonstrated unequivocally that a rechargeable mercury-zinc pacemaker will function continuously for more than 4 years without recharging and that periodic recharging will extend pacing life far beyond that predicted for lithium and nuclear primary power sources. PMID:983958

Tyers, G F; Hughes, H C; Brownlee, R R; Manley, N J; Gorman, I N

1976-11-01

364

Zur Dampfstoßtheorie des Mondreliefs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Zusammenfassung  Die Dampfstoßtheorie gründet sich auf Experimente, deren Ergebnis an Hand geologischer Erfahrungen und Anschauungen auf den Maßstab des Mondes übertragen gedacht werden kann. Das Experiment ist also keineswegs bloß ein Modellversuch.Das Mondrelief ist das letzte Bild endogener Vorgänge, die auch auf der Erde, dort aber unter anderen Bedingungen, stattfinden.Die von der Aufsturztheorie vertretene Annahme, daß Stoßwirkungen gegen die Mondoberfläche von

Georg Dahmer

1938-01-01

365

Grundlagen des Tissue Engineering  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Die Organtransplantation stellt eine verbreitete Therapie dar, um bei krankheitsoder unfallbedingter Schädigung eines Organs die Gesamtheit seiner Funktionen wieder herzustellen, indem es durch ein Spenderorgan ersetzt wird. Organtransplantationen werden für die Leber, die Niere, die Lunge, das Herz oder bei schweren grossflächigen Verbrennungen der Haut vorgenommen. Der grosse apparative, personelle und logistische Aufwand und die Risiken der Transplantationschirurgie (Abstossungsreaktionen) sowie die mangelnde Verfügbarkeit von immunologisch kompatiblen Spenderorganen führen jedoch dazu, dass der Bedarf an Organtransplantaten nur zu einem sehr geringen Teil gedeckt werden kann. Sind Spenderorgane nicht verfügbar, können in einzelnen Fällen lebenswichtige Teilfunktionen, wie beispielsweise die Filtrationsfunktion der Niere durch die Blutreinigung mittels Dialyse ersetzt oder, bei mangelnder Funktion der Bauchspeicheldrüse (Diabetes), durch die Verabreichung von Insulin ein normaler Zustand des Gesamtorganismus auch über Jahre hinweg erhalten werden. Bei der notwendigen lebenslangen Anwendung apparativer oder medikamentöser Therapie können für den Patienten jedoch häufig schwerwiegende, möglicherweise lebensverkürzende Nebenwirkungen entstehen. Daher werden in der Forschung Alternativen gesucht, um die Funktionen des ausgefallenen Organs durch die Implantation von Zellen oder in vitro gezüchteten Geweben möglichst umfassend wieder herzustellen. Dies erfordert biologisch aktive Implantate, welche die für den Stoffwechsel des Organs wichtigen Zellen enthalten und einen organtypischen Stoffwechsel entfalten.

Mayer, Jörg; Blum, Janaki; Wintermantel, Erich

366

Partage des coûts et tarification des infrastructures - Enjeux, problématique et pertinence du partage efficace des coûts  

Microsoft Academic Search

La plupart des organisations, sinon toutes, répartissent d'une manière ou d'une autre des coûts communs entre leurs diverses composantes ou encore entre leurs différents partenaires. Ces problèmes de partage de coûts communs se posent avec de plus en plus d'acuité car les règles de partage de coûts communs sont des facteurs importants de compétitivité et de performance. Bien que leur

Marcel Boyer; Michel Moreaux; Michel Truchon

2002-01-01

367

Une investigation empirique des attitudes, comportements et perceptions des produits et des formes de vente  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cette recherche a pour objectif de proposer une typologie fondée sur les orientations d'achat mesurées à partir des attitudes des consommateurs envers les formes et points de vente mais aussi les produits et les marques. Puis, deux expériences sont conduites pour mettre en évidence des différences de perceptions par les consommateurs d'une offre commerciale en fonction de leurs orientations d'achat.

Blandine ANTEBLIAN-LAMBREY; Gérard FRANÇOIS

1998-01-01

368

Sources and mechanisms of recharge for ground water in the west-central Amargosa Desert, Nevada; a geochemical interpretation  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Ground water in the west-central Amargosa Desert, Nevada, was recharged primarily by overland flow of snowmelt in or near the present-day stream channels, rather than by subsurface flow from highland recharge areas to the north. Geochemical arguments, including reaction mechanisms, are used to support these findings. Carbon-, hydrogen-, and oxygen-isotope data show that much of the recharge in the area occurred during late Wisconsin time. Absence of ground-water recharge prior to late Pleistocene is considered to indicate that either climatic conditions were unfavorable for recharge or that ground-water velocities were such that they transported this earlier recharge away from the study aea. (USGS)

Claassen, H. C.

1983-01-01

369

Simulation of runoff and recharge and estimation of constituent loads in runoff, Edwards aquifer recharge zone (outcrop) and catchment area, Bexar County, Texas, 1997-2000  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The U.S. Geological Survey developed a watershed model (Hydrological Simulation Program?FORTRAN) to simulate runoff and recharge and to estimate constituent loads in surface-water runoff in the Edwards aquifer recharge zone (outcrop) and catchment area in Bexar County, Texas. Rainfall and runoff data collected during 1970?98 from four gaged basins in the outcrop and catchment area were used to calibrate and test the model. The calibration parameters were applied in simulations of the four calibration basins and six ungaged basins that compose the study area to obtain runoff and recharge volumes for 4 years, 1997?2000. In 1997, simulated runoff from the study area was 5.62 inches. Simulated recharge in the study area was 7.85 inches (20 percent of rainfall). In 1998, simulated runoff was 11.05 inches; simulated recharge was 10.99 inches (25 percent of rainfall). In 1999, simulated runoff was 0.66 inch; simulated recharge was 3.03 inches (19 percent of rainfall). In 2000, simulated runoff was 5.29 inches; simulated recharge was 7.19 inches (21 percent of rainfall). During 1997?2000, direct infiltration of rainfall accounted for about 56 percent of the total Edwards aquifer recharge in Bexar County. Streamflow losses contributed about 37 percent of the recharge; flood impoundment contributed 7 percent. The simulated runoff volumes were used with event-mean-concentration data from basins in the study area and from other Bexar County basins to compute constituent loads and yields for various land uses. Annual loads for suspended solids, dissolved solids, dissolved nitrite plus nitrate nitrogen, and total lead were consistently largest from undeveloped land and smallest from commercial land or transportation corridors. Annual loads and yields varied with rainfall, with the maximum loads produced in the wettest year (1998) and the minimum loads produced in the driest year (1999).

Ockerman, Darwin J.

2002-01-01

370

Über den Feinbau des Nebennierenmarkes des Igels ( Erinaceus europaeus L.)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Das Nebennierenmark des Igels (Erinaceus europaeus L.) wurde mit Durchlicht-, Phasenkontrast und Dunkelfeldmikroskopie untersucht. Elektronenmikroskopische Paralleluntersuchungen (Fixierung mit OsO4 und Acrolein-OsO4) sollten zunächst die Natur der sog. paranukleären Körper klären, darüber hinaus unsere Kenntnisse vom Feinbau des Markes der Nebenniere erweitern.

W. Bargmann; E. Lindner

1964-01-01

371

A 65 Ah rechargeable lithium molybdenum disulfide battery  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A rechargeable lithium molybdenum disulfide battery which has a number of superior performance characteristics which includes a high energy density, a high power density, and a long charge retention time was developed. The first cell sizes developed included a C size cell and an AA size cell. Over the last two years, a project to demonstrate the feasibility of the scale up to this technology to a BC size cell with 65 Ah capacity was undertaken. The objective was to develop, build, and test a .6 kWh storage battery consisting of 6 BC cells in series.

Brandt, K.

1986-01-01

372

Electrode performance of romanechite for rechargeable lithium batteries  

Microsoft Academic Search

We studied romanechite, (2×3) tunnel type manganese dioxide, as a positive electrode material for rechargeable lithium batteries. We synthesized the sample by soft chemical techniques, and its chemical composition was Ba0.18MnO2.10·0.42H2O. We obtained a first discharge capacity of 120mAhg?1 (energy density 264mWhg?1). The capacity decreased with cycling. We examined the thermal behavior of this material, revealing its high thermal stability.

Masayuki Tsuda; Hajime Arai; Yasue Nemoto; Yoji Sakurai

2001-01-01

373

A sealed rechargeable metal-oxygen battery for traction purposes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A prototype of a sealed, rechargeable iron-oxygen battery that is based on a new oxygen electrode design is described, noting that the electrode design has made it possible to considerably simplify construction. It is pointed out that the oxygen electrode can be described as a self-breathing oxygen pocket electrode. It reaches 2 cm above the electrolyte in the battery and is fed with oxygen at the top of the battery by virtue of the pressure difference between the top of the electrode and the bottom.

Bursell, M.

374

High pressure water electrolysis for space station EMU recharge  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A high pressure oxygen recharge system (HPORS), is being developed for application on board the Space Station. This electrolytic system can provide oxygen at up to 6000 psia without a mechanical compressor. The Hamilton standard HPORS based on a solid polymer electrolyte system is an extension of the much larger and succesful 3000 psia system of the U.S. Navy. Cell modules have been successfully tested under conditions beyond which spacecraft may encounter during launch. The control system with double redundancy and mechanical backups for all electronically controlled components is designed to ensure a safe shutdown.

Lance, Nick; Puskar, Michael; Moulthrop, Lawrence; Zagaja, John

1988-01-01

375

Chemical lithium extraction from manganese oxides for lithium rechargeable batteries  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chemical lithium extraction has been carried out on the following manganese oxides: the spinel-type compounds LiMn2O4 and Li(4\\/3)Mn(5\\/3)O4, and the rocksalt-related compound Li2MnO3. Lithium can be partially removed chemically from these compounds without destroying the host framework. Some compounds obtained by this method have been tested as cathodic materials in rechargeable lithium cells. Electrochemical results and X-ray diffraction patterns of

F. Lubin; A. Lecerf; M. Broussely; J. Labat

1991-01-01

376

RISING beamline (BL28XU) for rechargeable battery analysis  

PubMed Central

The newly installed BL28XU beamline at SPring-8 is dedicated to in situ structural and electronic analysis of rechargeable batteries. It supports the time range (1?ms to 100?s) and spatial range (1?µm to 1?mm) needed for battery analysis. Electrochemical apparatus for battery charging and discharging are available in experimental hutches and in a preparation room. Battery analysis can be carried out efficiently and effectively using X-ray diffraction, X-ray absorption fine-structure analysis and hard X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. Here, the design and performance of the beamline are described, and preliminary results are presented.

Tanida, H.; Fukuda, K.; Murayama, H.; Orikasa, Y.; Arai, H.; Uchimoto, Y.; Matsubara, E.; Uruga, T.; Takeshita, K.; Takahashi, S.; Sano, M.; Aoyagi, H.; Watanabe, A.; Nariyama, N.; Ohashi, H.; Yumoto, H.; Koyama, T.; Senba, Y.; Takeuchi, T.; Furukawa, Y.; Ohata, T.; Matsushita, T.; Ishizawa, Y.; Kudo, T.; Kimura, H.; Yamazaki, H.; Tanaka, T.; Bizen, T.; Seike, T.; Goto, S.; Ohno, H.; Takata, M.; Kitamura, H.; Ishikawa, T.; Ohta, T.; Ogumi, Z.

2014-01-01

377

Glyme-based nonaqueous electrolytes for rechargeable lithium cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

Poly(ethylene glycol)dimethyl ethers [(CH3O(CH2CH2O)nCH3, n = 1, 2, 3, and 4)] are generally known as “glymes”. This study examines the conductivity, lithium ion solvation state and charge–discharge cycling efficiency of lithium metal anodes in glyme-based electrolytes for rechargeable lithium cells. 1M (M: moll?1) LiPF6 was used as the solute. The properties of the glymes were investigated by using a ternary

S. Tobishima; H. Morimoto; M. Aoki; Y. Saito; T. Inose; T. Fukumoto; T. Kuryu

2004-01-01

378

Characterization of ether electrolytes for rechargeable lithium cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

2Methyl-tetrahydrofuran(2Me-THF)\\/LiAsFâ and several diethyl ether (DEE)\\/LiAsFâ-based electrolytes have been characterized for their usefulness in rechargeable Li\\/TiSâ cells. This characterization has involved extended room temperature cell cycling at various depths of discharge, evaluation of rate\\/capacity behavior of cells at 25° and -10°C, and storage of cells at 50°C for up to one month with subsequent cycling. The thermal stability of the

K. M. Abraham; J. L. Goldman; D. L. Natwig

1982-01-01

379

Using 14C and 3H to understand groundwater flow and recharge in an aquifer window  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Knowledge of groundwater residence times and recharge locations are vital to the sustainable management of groundwater resources. Here we investigate groundwater residence times and patterns of recharge in the Gellibrand Valley, southeast Australia, where outcropping aquifer sediments of the Eastern View Formation form an "aquifer window" that may receive diffuse recharge and recharge from the Gellibrand River. To determine recharge patterns and groundwater flowpaths, environmental isotopes (3H, 14C, ?13C, ?18O, ?2H) are used in conjunction with groundwater geochemistry and continuous monitoring of groundwater elevation and electrical conductivity. Despite the water table fluctuating by 0.9-3.7 m annually producing estimated recharge rates of 90 and 372 mm yr-1, residence times of shallow (11-29 m) groundwater determined by 14C ages are between 100 and 10 000 years. 3H activities are negligible in most of the groundwater and groundwater electrical conductivity in individual areas remains constant over the period of study. Although diffuse local recharge is evident, the depth to which it penetrates is limited to the upper 10 m of the aquifer. Rather, groundwater in the Gellibrand Valley predominantly originates from the regional recharge zone, the Barongarook High, and acts as a regional discharge zone where upward head gradients are maintained annually, limiting local recharge. Additionally, the Gellibrand River does not recharge the surrounding groundwater and has limited bank storage. 14C ages and Cl concentrations are well correlated and Cl concentrations may be used to provide a first-order estimate of groundwater residence times. Progressively lower chloride concentrations from 10 000 years BP to the present day are interpreted to indicate an increase in recharge rates on the Barongarook High.

Atkinson, A. P.; Cartwright, I.; Gilfedder, B. S.; Cendón, D. I.; Unland, N. P.; Hofmann, H.

2014-06-01

380

Ageismus – Sprachliche Diskriminierung des Alters  

Microsoft Academic Search

Daniel Sanders, einer der bedeutendsten Lexikografen des 19. Jahrhunderts, wertete für sein Wörterbuch Quellen seit der Lutherzeit aus und\\u000a vermerkt im Wörterbuchartikel zu alt eine „bald lobende, bald tadelnde“ Bedeutung des Adjektivs. Sein Zeit- und Berufsgenosse Jacob Grimm benennt in seiner Rede über das Alter die zeitgenössischen Synonyme zu alt und Alter: „aus einheimischen schriftstellern liesze sich eine lange reihe

Undine Kramer

381

Reconnaissance Estimates of Recharge Based on an Elevation-dependent Chloride Mass-balance Approach  

SciTech Connect

Significant uncertainty is associated with efforts to quantity recharge in arid regions such as southern Nevada. However, accurate estimates of groundwater recharge are necessary to understanding the long-term sustainability of groundwater resources and predictions of groundwater flow rates and directions. Currently, the most widely accepted method for estimating recharge in southern Nevada is the Maxey and Eakin method. This method has been applied to most basins within Nevada and has been independently verified as a reconnaissance-level estimate of recharge through several studies. Recharge estimates derived from the Maxey and Eakin and other recharge methodologies ultimately based upon measures or estimates of groundwater discharge (outflow methods) should be augmented by a tracer-based aquifer-response method. The objective of this study was to improve an existing aquifer-response method that was based on the chloride mass-balance approach. Improvements were designed to incorporate spatial variability within recharge areas (rather than recharge as a lumped parameter), develop a more defendable lower limit of recharge, and differentiate local recharge from recharge emanating as interbasin flux. Seventeen springs, located in the Sheep Range, Spring Mountains, and on the Nevada Test Site were sampled during the course of this study and their discharge was measured. The chloride and bromide concentrations of the springs were determined. Discharge and chloride concentrations from these springs were compared to estimates provided by previously published reports. A literature search yielded previously published estimates of chloride flux to the land surface. {sup 36}Cl/Cl ratios and discharge rates of the three largest springs in the Amargosa Springs discharge area were compiled from various sources. This information was utilized to determine an effective chloride concentration for recharging precipitation and its associated uncertainty via Monte Carlo simulations. Previously developed isohyetal maps were utilized to determine the mean and standard deviation of precipitation within the area. A digital elevation model was obtained to provide elevation information. A geologic model was obtained to provide the spatial distribution of alluvial formations. Both were used to define the lower limit of recharge. In addition, 40 boreholes located in alluvial sediments were drilled and sampled in an attempt to support the argument that the areal distribution of alluvial sediments can be used to define a zone of negligible recharge. The data were compiled in a geographic information system and used in a Monte Carlo analysis to determine recharge occurring within the study area. Results of the analysis yielded estimates of the mean and standard deviation of recharge occurring within the study area (28.168 x 10{sup 6} m{sup 3} yr{sup -1} and 7.008 x 10{sup 6} m{sup 3} yr{sup -1}, and 26.838 x 10{sup 6} m{sup 3} yr{sup -1} and 6.928 x 10{sup 6} m{sup 3} yr{sup -1}) for two sets of simulations using alternate definitions of the lower limit of recharge. A sensitivity analysis determined the recharge estimates were most sensitive to uncertainty associated with the chloride concentration of the spring discharge. The second most sensitive parameter was the uncertainty associated with the mean precipitation within the recharge areas. Comparison of the analysis to previously published estimates of recharge revealed mixed results with the recharge estimates derived during the course of this project generally greater relative to previously published estimates.

Charles E. Russell; Tim Minor

2002-08-31

382

Problemes aux limites en theorie des distributions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Résumé  Etude de la méthode des potentiels pour résoudre des problèmes aux limites relatifs à certains opérateurs différentiels. Résolution\\u000a et discussion des problèmes aux limites pour un système diffèrentiel elliptique lorsque les données sont des distributions\\u000a (le problème étant elliptique à droite ou à gauche).

Paul Krée

1969-01-01

383

Die „cortinähnliche“ Wirkung des g-Strophanthins  

Microsoft Academic Search

An normalen Kaninchen bewirkten höhere Dosen des Strophanthins eine Steigerung des Blutchlorid-, Natrium- und Zuckerspiegels und eine Erniedrigung der Plasmakaliumkonzentration. An normalen Hunden wird der Chlorid- und Natriumgehalt des Blutes auf Strophanthin erhöht, der Kaliumgehalt des Plasmas gesenkt. Die mit dem Harn ausgeschiedenen Natriummengen sanken nach Strophanthinbehandlung ab und gleichzeitig nahm die Kaliumausscheidung stark zu. Im Lichte dieser auf den

E. Varga; D. Bagdy; L. Kesztyüs

1949-01-01

384

Recharge Rates and Chemistry Beneath Playas of the High Plains Aquifer - A Literature Review and Synthesis  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Playas are ephemeral, closed-basin wetlands that are important zones of recharge to the High Plains (or Ogallala) aquifer and critical habitat for birds and other wildlife in the otherwise semiarid, shortgrass prairie and agricultural landscape. The ephemeral nature of playas, low regional recharge rates, and a strong reliance on ground water from the High Plains aquifer has prompted many questions regarding the contribution of recharge from playas to the regional aquifer. To address these questions and concerns, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Playa Lakes Joint Venture, present a review and synthesis of the more than 175 publications about recharge rates and chemistry beneath playas and interplaya settings. Although a number of questions remain regarding the controls on recharge rates and chemistry beneath playas, the results from most published studies indicate that recharge rates beneath playas are substantially (1 to 2 orders of magnitude) higher than recharge rates beneath interplaya settings. The synthesis presented here supports the conceptual model that playas are important zones of recharge to the High Plains aquifer and are not strictly evaporative pans. The major findings of this synthesis yield science-based implications for the protection and management of playas and ground-water resources of the High Plains aquifer and directions for future research.

Gurdak, Jason J.; Roe, Cassia D.

2009-01-01

385

Probabilistic Analysis of Rechargeable Batteries in a Photovoltaic Power Supply System  

Microsoft Academic Search

We developed a model for the probabilistic behavior of a rechargeable battery acting as the energy storage component in a photovoltaic power supply system. Stochastic and deterministic models are created to simulate the behavior of the system component;. The components are the solar resource, the photovoltaic power supply system, the rechargeable battery, and a load. Artificial neural networks are incorporated

P. Barney; D. Ingersoll; R. Jungst; C. OGorman; T. L. Paez; A. Urbina

1998-01-01

386

Application of a Genetic Algorithm for Estimating Recharge Potential of the Choushui Rover Alluvial Fan  

Microsoft Academic Search

As groundwater resources are vital to the regional water supply, protection of groundwater resources have become important issues. A systematic approach to locating high recharge areas is the first step in protection of groundwater. In a previous study proposed by the Central Geological Survey (CGS), the CGS used a factor-based approach to determine the spatial distribution of recharge potential (RP).

S. Yang; L. Chang; Y. Chen; C. Jung; C. Huang; J. Chen; P. J. Tsai

2010-01-01

387

PROSPECTS FOR ENHANCED GROUNDWATER RECHARGE VIA INFILTRATION OF URBAN STORMWATER RUNOFF: A CASE STUDY  

EPA Science Inventory

The rain garden is an urban storm water best management practice that is used to infiltrate runoff close to its source, thereby disconnecting impervious area while providing an avenue for groundwater recharge. Groundwater recharge may provide additional benefits to aquatic ecosys...

388

Air, ground, and groundwater recharge temperatures in an alpine setting, Brighton Basin, Utah  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Noble gases are useful tracers for constraining groundwater recharge temperature and elevation, critical in determining source areas of groundwater recharge in mountainous terrain. A monitoring network in the alpine Brighton Basin in the Wasatch Mountains of northern Utah, USA, was established to examine the relationship between air temperatures, ground temperatures, and noble gas groundwater recharge temperatures. Maximum noble gas groundwater recharge temperatures computed using the closed-system equilibration model from 25 samples collected over the 2 year period 2007 to 2009 averaged 2.9 ± 1.2°C, within the experimental error of the mean ground temperature of 2.3°C measured within the probable recharge area. Maximum noble gas recharge temperatures vary from 0 to 7°C, also comparable to ground temperature variations in the region. Groundwater ages in the collected samples vary from 0 to 7 years indicating changing flow paths to the collection site during the experiment. Mean ground temperatures in the upper 1 m of soil over the 2 year time period is 2.3°C, which is 1°C cooler than the mean surface air temperature extrapolated from a nearby meteorological station. This comparison contradicts an earlier observation that mean annual ground temperatures in central Utah are generally warmer than air temperatures. The offset in the Brighton Basin is explained by modeling a snow effect on ground temperature. This detailed study suggests that interpretation of groundwater recharge temperatures derived from noble gases should be attentive to the complex local ground temperature effects in the recharge areas.

Masbruch, Melissa D.; Chapman, David S.; Solomon, D. Kip

2012-10-01

389

Inferring time-varying recharge from inverse analysis of long-term water levels  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Water levels in aquifers typically vary in response to time-varying rates of recharge, suggesting the possibility of inferring time-varying recharge rates on the basis of long-term water level records. Presumably, in the southwestern United States (Arizona, Nevada, New Mexico, southern California, and southern Utah), rates of mountain front recharge to alluvial aquifers depend on variations in precipitation rates due to known climate cycles such as the El Nin??o-Southern Oscillation index and the Pacific Decadal Oscillation. This investigation examined the inverse application of a one-dimensional analytical model for periodic flow described by Lloyd R. Townley in 1995 to estimate periodic recharge variations on the basis of variations in long-term water level records using southwest aquifers as the case study. Time-varying water level records at various locations along the flow line were obtained by simulation of forward models of synthetic basins with applied sinusoidal recharge of either a single period or composite of multiple periods of length similar to known climate cycles. Periodic water level components, reconstructed using singular spectrum analysis (SSA), were used to calibrate the analytical model to estimate each recharge component. The results demonstrated that periodic recharge estimates were most accurate in basins with nearly uniform transmissivity and the accuracy of the recharge estimates depends on monitoring well location. A case study of the San Pedro Basin, Arizona, is presented as an example of calibrating the analytical model to real data.

Dickinson, J. E.; Hanson, R. T.; Ferre, T. P. A.; Leake, S. A.

2004-01-01

390

A new approach to delineate the groundwater recharge zone in hard rock terrain  

Microsoft Academic Search

Delineation of potential groundwater recharge zone is vital to augment groundwater resources in hard rock terrain. It is also important for the sustainable deve - lopment and management of groundwater resources. Conventionally, suitable zone for potential groundwater recharge is deciphered using tritium injection, hydro - geological, geophysical geomorphological maps and regional groundwater model, which are often time consuming and uneconomical.

N. C. Mondal; V. S. Singh

391

Silicon nanowires as a rechargeable template for hydride transfer in redox biocatalysis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report a new possible application of hydrogen-terminated silicon nanowires (H-SiNWs) as a rechargeable template for hydride transfer in redox biocatalysis. H-SiNWs transfer hydride efficiently to regenerate NADH by oxidizing Si-Hx bonds. The oxidized H-SiNWs were readily recharged for the continuous regeneration of NADH and enzymatic reactions.

Lee, Hwa Young; Kim, Jae Hong; Son, Eun Jin; Park, Chan Beum

2012-11-01

392

A numerical analysis on the applicability of the water level fluctuation method for quantifying groundwater recharge  

Microsoft Academic Search

The water table fluctuation(WTF) method is a conventional method for quantifying groundwater recharge by multiplying the specific yield to the water level rise. Based on the van Genuchten model, an analytical relationship between groundwater recharge and the water level rise is derived. The equation is used to analyze the effects of the depth to water level and the soil properties

M. Koo; D. Lee

2002-01-01

393

Influence of model conceptualisation on one-dimensional recharge quantification: Uley South, South Australia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Model conceptualisation is a key source of uncertainty in one-dimensional recharge modelling. The effects of different conceptualisations on transient recharge predictions for the semi-arid Uley South Basin, South Australia, were investigated. One-dimensional unsaturated zone modelling was used to quantify the effect of variations of (1) lithological complexity of the unsaturated zone, and (2) representation of preferential flow pathways. The simulations considered ranges of water-table depths, vegetation characteristics, and top soil thicknesses representative for the study area. Complex lithological profiles were more sensitive to the selected vegetation characteristics and water-table depth. Scenarios considering runoff infiltration into, and preferential flow through sinkholes resulted in higher and faster recharge rates. A comparison of modelled and field-based recharge estimates indicated that: (1) the model simulated plausible recharge rates, (2) only the models with preferential flow correctly reproduced the timing of recharge, and (3) preferential flow is probably redistributed in the unsaturated zone rather than passing to the water table directly. Because different but equally plausible conceptual models produce widely varying recharge rates, field-based recharge estimates are essential to constrain the modelling results.

Ordens, Carlos M.; Post, Vincent E. A.; Werner, Adrian D.; Hutson, John L.

2014-06-01

394

Rainwater and Groundwater Chemistry in the Eritrean Highlands - Inference for Groundwater Recharge  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fractured aquifers made of metamorphosed volcanic and sedimentary sequenced are the major sources of groundwater across the highland region of Eritrea. Areas of relatively high recharge rate are located in riverbeds and fracture zones. The significance of groundwater as potential resources for usage in the area is related to the amount of recharge that occurs as well as factors that

E. Haile; G. Jacks

2005-01-01

395

The Guarani Aquifer System: estimation of recharge along the Uruguay-Brazil border  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The cities of Rivera and Santana do Livramento are located on the outcropping area of the sandstone Guarani Aquifer on the Brazil-Uruguay border, where the aquifer is being increasingly exploited. Therefore, recharge estimates are needed to address sustainability. First, a conceptual model of the area was developed. A multilayer, heterogeneous and anisotropic groundwater-flow model was built to validate the conceptual model and to estimate recharge. A field campaign was conducted to collect water samples and monitor water levels used for model calibration. Field data revealed that there exists vertical gradients between confining basalts and underlying sandstones, suggesting basalts could indirectly recharge sandstone in fractured areas. Simulated downward flow between them was a small amount within the global water budget. Calibrated recharge rates over basalts and over outcropping sandstones were 1.3 and 8.1% of mean annual precipitation, respectively. A big portion of sandstone recharge would be drained by streams. The application of a water balance yielded a recharge of 8.5% of average annual precipitation. The numerical model and the water balance yielded similar recharge values consistent with determinations from previous authors in the area and other regions of the aquifer, providing an upper bound for recharge in this transboundary aquifer.

Gómez, Andrea A.; Rodríguez, Leticia B.; Vives, Luis S.

2010-11-01

396

Polymer electrolyte lithium batteries rechargeability and positive electrode degradation: An AC impedance study  

Microsoft Academic Search

AC impedance measurements of polymer electrolyte-based, symmetrical composite cathode cells were used to probe the effects of the composite cathode composition and fabrication process upon its performance when used in polymer electrolyte-based thin film rechargeable lithium batteries. The relationship between cycling performance and AC impedance measurements were used to elucidate some of the reported failure mechanisms of rechargeable lithium polymer

R. Koksbang; I. I. Olsen; P. E. Tonder; N. Knudsen; D. Fauteux

1991-01-01

397

Groundwater recharge in natural dune systems and agricultural ecosystems in the Thar Desert region, Rajasthan, India  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Water and nutrient availability for crop production are critical issues in (semi)arid regions. Unsaturated-zone Cl tracer data and nutrient (NO3 and PO4) concentrations were used to quantify recharge rates using the Cl mass balance approach and nutrient availability in the Thar Desert, Rajasthan, India. Soil cores were collected in dune/interdune settings in the arid Thar Desert (near Jaisalmer) and in rain-fed (nonirrigated) and irrigated cropland in the semiarid desert margin (near Jaipur). Recharge rates were also simulated using unsaturated zone modeling. Recharge rates in sparsely vegetated dune/interdune settings in the Jaisalmer study area are 2.7-5.6 mm/year (2-3% of precipitation, 165 mm/year). In contrast, recharge rates in rain-fed agriculture in the Jaipur study area are 61-94 mm/year (10-16% of precipitation, 600 mm/year). Minimum recharge rates under current freshwater irrigated sites are 50-120 mm/year (8-20% of precipitation). Nitrate concentrations are low at most sites. Similarity in recharge rates based on SO4 with those based on Cl is attributed to a meteoric origin of SO4 and generally conservative chemical behavior in these sandy soils. Modeling results increased confidence in tracer-based recharge estimates. Recharge rates under rain-fed agriculture indicate that irrigation of 20-40% of cultivated land with 300 mm/year should be sustainable.

Scanlon, Bridget R.; Mukherjee, Abhijit; Gates, John; Reedy, Robert C.; Sinha, Amarendra K.

2010-06-01

398

Effects of rainwater-harvesting-induced artificial recharge on the groundwater of wells in Rajasthan, India  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In light of the increasing deterioration of groundwater supplies in Rajasthan, India, rainwater harvesting practices in southern Rajasthan were studied to determine the effects of artificially recharged groundwater on the supply and quality of local groundwater. A physical and geochemical investigation utilizing environmental tracers (?18O and Cl-), groundwater level and groundwater quality measurements, and geological surveys was conducted with two objectives: (1) to quantify the proportion of artificially recharged groundwater in wells located near rainwater harvesting structures and (2) to examine potential effects of artificial recharge on the quality of groundwater in these wells. A geochemical mixing model revealed that the proportion of artificial recharge in these wells ranged from 0 to 75%. Groundwater tracer, water table, and geological data provided evidence of complex groundwater flow and were used to explain the spatial distribution of artificial recharge. Furthermore, wells receiving artificial recharge had improved groundwater quality. Statistical analysis revealed a significant difference between the water quality in these wells and wells determined not to receive artificial recharge, for electrical conductivity and SO{4/-}. The findings from this study provide quantitative evidence that rainwater harvesting structures in southern Rajasthan influence the groundwater supply and quality of nearby wells by artificially recharging local groundwater.

Stiefel, John M.; Melesse, Assefa M.; McClain, Michael E.; Price, René M.; Anderson, Elizabeth P.; Chauhan, Narendra K.

2009-12-01

399

Development of advanced electrode materials for use in rechargeable lithium batteries  

Microsoft Academic Search

Batteries are a necessary companion to most portable electronic devices, and the rechargeable lithium battery is the most energy dense and lightest of all the competing battery types. These features make it the most likely battery to be used in future electronic devices, which will be smaller and have increased functionality. Therefore, the performance of the rechargeable lithium battery must

Scott Andrew Needham

2007-01-01

400

Paleosols as deep regolith: implications for ground-water recharge across a loessial climosequence  

Microsoft Academic Search

Thick loess deposits consisting of paleosol sequences comprise the deep regolith of the Palouse region in eastern Washington and northern Idaho. Ground water is the principal water supply for the Palouse Basin, yet recharge mechanisms and rates through this regolith are poorly understood. Forecasting the sustainability of the water supply has been hampered because models that predict ground-water recharge are

A. T. O'Geen; P. A. McDaniel; J. Boll; C. K. Keller

2005-01-01

401

Importance of unsaturated zone flow for simulating recharge in a humid climate  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Transient recharge to the water table is often not well understood or quantified. Two approaches for simulating transient recharge in a ground water flow model were investigated using the Trout Lake watershed in north-central Wisconsin: (1) a traditional approach of adding recharge directly to the water table and (2) routing the same volume of water through an unsaturated zone column to the water table. Areas with thin (less than 1 m) unsaturated zones showed little difference in timing of recharge between the two approaches; when water was routed through the unsaturated zone, however, less recharge was delivered to the water table and more discharge occurred to the surface because recharge direction and magnitude changed when the water table rose to the land surface. Areas with a thick (15 to 26 m) unsaturated zone were characterized by multimonth lags between infiltration and recharge, and, in some cases, wetting fronts from precipitation events during the fall overtook and mixed with infiltration from the previous spring snowmelt. Thus, in thicker unsaturated zones, the volume of water infiltrated was properly simulated using the traditional approach, but the timing was different from simulations that included unsaturated zone flow. Routing of rejected recharge and ground water discharge at land surface to surface water features also provided a better simulation of the observed flow regime in a stream at the basin outlet. These results demonstrate that consideration of flow through the unsaturated zone may be important when simulating transient ground water flow in humid climates with shallow water tables.

Hunt, R. J.; Prudic, D. E.; Walker, J. F.; Anderson, M. P.

2008-01-01

402

DISTRIBUTION OF AREAL RECHARGE TO A DISCRETE FRACTURE NETWORK (FRACNET) MODEL USING THE ANALYTIC ELEMENT METHOD  

EPA Science Inventory

Rain water filtering down through the soil will provide recharge of the saturated fractured rock aquifer. he computer model FRACNET has been designed to distribute areal recharge into linear fracture zones in order to complete the regional water balance. n this presentation, a te...

403

Rechargeable lithium batteries. (Latest citations from the INSPEC database). Published Search  

SciTech Connect

The bibliography contains citations concerning the design, development, evaluation, and applications of rechargeable lithium batteries. Citations discuss rechargeability, electrolyte formulation, electrode materials, high power capability, thermal management, and overcharge protection. Applications in automotive vehicles, space equipment, computers, and telephones are also discussed. (Contains a minimum of 99 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

Not Available

1994-01-01

404

Quantifying ground water recharge at multiple scales using PRMS and GIS.  

PubMed

Management of ground water resources requires a method to calculate demonstrably accurate recharge rates at local to regional scales using readily available information bases. Many methods are available to calculate recharge, but most are unable to satisfy all these conditions. A distributed parameter model is shown to meet the stated needs. Such models are input intensive, however, so a procedure to define most inputs from GIS and hydrogeological sources is presented. It simplifies the PRMS calibration observed streamflow hydrographs by reducing degrees of freedom from dozens to four. For seven watersheds (60 to 500 km2), the GIS-aided calibrations have average errors of 5% on recharge and 2% on total streamflow, verifying the accuracy of the process. Recharge is also calculated for 63 local-scale subwatersheds (average size 37 km2). For the study area, calculated recharges average 11 cm/yr. Soil and rock conductivity, porosity, and depth to the water table are shown to be the physical properties which dominate the spatial variability of recharge. The model has been extended to uncalibrated watersheds where GIS and climatic information are known. It reproduces total annual discharge and recharge to within 9% and 10%, respectively, indicating the process can also be used to calculate recharge in ungauged watersheds. It has not been tested outside the study area, however. PMID:14763622

Cherkauer, Douglas S

2004-01-01

405

Mitigating agricultural impacts on groundwater using distributed managed aquifer recharge ponds  

Microsoft Academic Search

Groundwater is likely to become increasingly important for irrigated agriculture due to anticipated changes to the hydrologic cycle associated with climate change. Protecting the quantity and quality of subsurface water supplies will require flexible management strategies that can enhance groundwater recharge. We present results from a study of managed aquifer recharge (MAR) in central coastal California, and propose the use

C. M. Schmidt; T. A. Russo; A. T. Fisher; A. J. Racz; C. G. Wheat; M. Los Huertos; B. S. Lockwood

2010-01-01

406

Natural water purification and water management by artificial groundwater recharge  

PubMed Central

Worldwide, several regions suffer from water scarcity and contamination. The infiltration and subsurface storage of rain and river water can reduce water stress. Artificial groundwater recharge, possibly combined with bank filtration, plant purification and/or the use of subsurface dams and artificial aquifers, is especially advantageous in areas where layers of gravel and sand exist below the earth’s surface. Artificial infiltration of surface water into the uppermost aquifer has qualitative and quantitative advantages. The contamination of infiltrated river water will be reduced by natural attenuation. Clay minerals, iron hydroxide and humic matter as well as microorganisms located in the subsurface have high decontamination capacities. By this, a final water treatment, if necessary, becomes much easier and cheaper. The quantitative effect concerns the seasonally changing river discharge that influences the possibility of water extraction for drinking water purposes. Such changes can be equalised by seasonally adapted infiltration/extraction of water in/out of the aquifer according to the river discharge and the water need. This method enables a continuous water supply over the whole year. Generally, artificially recharged groundwater is better protected against pollution than surface water, and the delimitation of water protection zones makes it even more save.

Balke, Klaus-Dieter; Zhu, Yan

2008-01-01

407

Tritium tracer test to estimate aquifer recharge under irrigated conditions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Environmental tracers, as tritium, have been generally used to estimate aquifer recharge under natural conditions. A tritium tracer test to estimate recharge under semi-arid and irrigated conditions is presented. The test was carried out in an experimental plot under drip irrigation, located in SE Spain, with annual row crops (rotation lettuce and melon), following common agricultural practices in open air. Tritiated water was applied as an irrigation pulse, soil cores were taken at different depths and a liquid scintillation analyzer was used to measure the concentration of tritium in soil samples. Transport of tritium was simulated with SOLVEG code, a one-dimensional numerical model for simulating transport of heat, water and tritiated water in liquid and gas phase, which has been modified and adapted for this experience, including ground cover, root growth and root water uptake. One crop has been used to calibrate the modeling approach and other three crops to validate it. Results of flow and transport modelling show a good agreement between observed and estimated tritium concentration profile. For the period October 2007-September 2008, total drainage obtained value was 441 mm.

Jimenez-Martinez, J.; Tamoh, K.; Candela, L.

2009-12-01

408

Recharge and sustainability of a coastal aquifer in northern Albania  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The River Mati in Albania has formed a coastal plain with Holocene and Pleistocene sediments. The outer portion of the plain is clay, with three underlying aquifers that are connected to an alluvial fan at the entry of the river into the plain. The aquifers supply water for 240,000 people. Close to the sea the aquifers are brackish. The brackish water is often artesian and found to be thousands of years old. Furthermore, the salinity, supported by ?18O results, does not seem to be due to mixing with old seawater but due to diffusion from intercalated clay layers. Heavy metals from mines in the upstream section of River Mati are not an immediate threat, as the pH buffering of the river water is good. Moreover, the heavy metals are predominantly found in suspended and colloidal phases. Two sulphur isotope signatures, one mirroring seawater sulphate in the brackish groundwater (?34S >21 ‰) and one showing the influence of sulphide in the river and the fresh groundwater (?34S <10 ‰), indicate that the groundwater in the largest well field is recharged from the river. The most serious threat is gravel extraction in the alluvial fan, decreasing the hydraulic head necessary for recharge and causing clogging of sediments.

Kumanova, X.; Marku, S.; Fröjdö, S.; Jacks, G.

2014-06-01

409

Heat flow from rechargeable neuromodulation systems into surrounding media.  

PubMed

A synergistic investigation involving both experiment and numerical simulation was performed in vitro to determine the heat flow from rechargeable neuromodulation systems into surrounding media. Each system consists of an implant and an external recharging antenna, and the heat flows of each of these components were determined separately. Three systems, each produced by a different medical device firm, were evaluated. The evaluated products included those from Medtronic Inc. (MDT), ANS (a St. Jude Company), and the Boston Scientific Company (BSC, formerly Advanced Bionics). To ensure statistical significance, three nominally identical samples of each of the three systems were included in the study. Furthermore, for each sample of each system, replicate evaluations were performed for both the implant and the antenna. It was found that for both components of MDT, substantially lower rates of heat flow were produced compared with those for ANS and BSC. With regard to the latter systems, the higher rates of heat flow were not consistently ordered for the implant and for the antenna. In general, replicate data runs for each system and each component were in satisfactory agreement. The different samples of the MDT system showed only minor deviations with regard to heat flow. The deviations among the different samples of both ANS and BSC were larger than those evidenced for MDT. PMID:22151284

Weinmann, Jacob J; Sparrow, Ephraim M

2009-04-01

410

Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy of lithium-titanium disulfide rechargeable cells  

SciTech Connect

The two-terminal alternating current impedance of lithium-titanium disulfide (Li/TiS[sub 2]) rechargeable cells has been studies as a function of frequency, state-of-charge, and extended cycling. Analysis based on a plausible equivalent circuit model for the Li/TiS[sub 2] cell leads to evaluation of kinetic parameters for the various physicochemical processes occurring at the electrode/electrolyte interfaces. To investigate the causes of cell degradation during extended cycling, the parameters evaluated for cells cycled five times have been compared with the parameters of cells that have been cycled over 600 times. The findings are that the combined ohmic resistance of the electrolyte and electrodes suffers a ten-fold increase after extended cycling, while the charge-transfer resistance and diffusional impedance at the TiS[sub 2]/electrolyte interface are not significantly affected. The results reflect the morphological change and increase in area of the anode due to cycling. The study also shows that overdischarge of a cathode-limited cell causes a decrease in the diffusion coefficient of the lithium ion in the cathode. The study demonstrate the value of electrochemical impedance spectroscopy in investigating failure mechanisms. The approach and methodology followed here can be extended to other rechargeable lithium battery system.

Narayanan, S.R.; Shen, D.H.; Surampudi, S.; Attia, A.I.; Halpert, G. (California Inst. of Technology, Pasadena, CA (United States). Jet Propulsion Lab.)

1993-07-01

411

Feasibility of groundwater recharge dam projects in arid environments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A new method for determining feasibility and prioritizing investments for agricultural and domestic recharge dams in arid regions is developed and presented. The method is based on identifying the factors affecting the decision making process and evaluating these factors, followed by determining the indices in a GIS-aided environment. Evaluated parameters include results from field surveys and site visits, land cover and soils data, precipitation data, runoff data and modeling, number of beneficiaries, domestic irrigation demand, reservoir objectives, demography, reservoirs yield and reliability, dam structures, construction costs, and operation and maintenance costs. Results of a case study on more than eighty proposed dams indicate that assessment of reliability, annualized cost/demand satisfied and yield is crucial prior to investment decision making in arid areas. Irrigation demand is the major influencing parameter on yield and reliability of recharge dams, even when only 3 months of the demand were included. Reliability of the proposed reservoirs as related to their standardized size and net inflow was found to increase with increasing yield. High priority dams were less than 4% of the total, and less priority dams amounted to 23%, with the remaining found to be not feasible. The results of this methodology and its application has proved effective in guiding stakeholders for defining most favorable sites for preliminary and detailed design studies and commissioning.

Jaafar, H. H.

2014-05-01

412

Coupling of Oceanic and Continental Crust During Eocene Eclogite-Facies Metamorphism: Evidence From the Monte Rosa Nappe, Western Alps, Italy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Subduction of continental crust to HP-UHP metamorphic conditions requires overcoming density contrasts that are unfavorable to deep burial, whereas exhumation of these rocks can be reasonably explained through buoyancy-assisted transport in the subduction channel to more shallow depths. In the western Alps, both continental and oceanic lithosphere has been subducted to eclogite-facies metamorphic conditions. The burial and exhumation histories of these sections of lithosphere bear directly on the dynamics of subduction and the stacking of units within the subduction channel. We address the burial history of the continental crust with high precision U-Pb rutile and Lu-Hf garnet geochronology of the eclogite-facies Monte Rosa nappe (MR), western Alps, Italy. U-Pb rutile ages from quartz-carbonate-white mica-rutile veins that are hosted within eclogite and schist of the MR, Gressoney Valley, Italy, indicate that it was at eclogite-facies metamorphic conditions at 42.6 +/- 0.6 Ma. The sample area (Indren glacier, Furgg zone; Dal Piaz, 2001) consists of eclogite boudins that are surrounded by micaceous schist. Associated with the eclogite and schist are quartz-carbonate-white mica-rutile veins that formed in tension cracks in the eclogite and along the contact between eclogite and surrounding schist. Intrusion of the veins occurred at eclogite-facies metamorphic conditions (480-570°C, >1.3-1.4 GPa) based on textural relations, oxygen isotope thermometry, and geothermobarometry. Lu-Hf geochronology of garnet from a chloritoid-talc-garnet-phengite-quartz-calcite-pyrite - chalcopyrite bearing boudin within talc-chloritoid whiteschists of the MR, Val d'Ayas, Italy (Chopin and Monie, 1984; Pawlig, 2001) yields an age of 40.54 +/- 0.36 Ma. The talc-chloritoid whiteschists from the area record pressures and temperatures of 1.6-2.4 GPa and 500-530°C (Chopin and Monie, 1984; Le Bayon et al., 2006) indicating near UHP metamorphic conditions. Based on the age, P-T, and textural data, the rutile age likely represents the prograde-leg of the eclogite-facies P-T path whereas the Lu-Hf garnet age likely represents higher grade metamorphic conditions. The timing of eclogite-facies metamorphism in the MR is within the same time interval as the duration of prograde metamorphism (~55-40) recorded in the structurally overlying Zermatt-Saas ophiolite (ZSO; e.g., Amato et al., 1999; Lapen et al., 2003; Mahlen et al., this meeting). In particular, the Lu-Hf garnet age from the MR is identical within error to a relatively young 40.8 +/- 1.8 Ma Lu-Hf garnet-whole rock-cpx age from a structurally low slice of the ZSO at Saas-Fee, Switzerland (Mahlen et al., this meeting). Not only do the ages of eclogite-facies metamorphism overlap between the MR and ZSO, but so do the P-T conditions (e.g., between 1.6-2.8 GPa; 500-600°C). These data, combined with the relative structural positions of the MR and ZSO in the western Alps, suggest that the MR and ZSO were likely juxtaposed within the subduction channel through underplating of the MR beneath the ZSO. The strong negative buoyancy of the MR has likely aided in the exhumation of sections of the ZSO. Therefore, coupling of continental and oceanic terranes in a subduction channel, perhaps a general feature in the western Alps, may be critical in preventing permanent loss of oceanic crust to the mantle.

Lapen, T. J.; Johnson, C. M.; Baumgartner, L. P.; Skora, S.; Mahlen, N. J.; Beard, B. L.

2006-12-01

413

Role of brittle deformation during the initiation of ductile HP-LT shear zone in a metarhyolite (Suretta nappe, Eastern Central Alps).  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Although ductile shear zones are common deformation structures in the middle to deep continental lithosphere, the initiation of such structures among homogeneous and isotropic protolith (e.g. granitoid bodies) is still a matter of debate. Indeed, the lack of consensus concerns the presence and the nature of a preexisting heterogeneity (structural or compositional, such as dykes, joints or cracks). This is mainly due to the lack of observation of preserved precursors, which, if they were present initially, are generally obliterated by subsequent intense deformation. Different conceptual models require a structural precursor, which enables fluids to flow and promotes metamorphic and metasomatic reactions via fluid-rock interactions. Those fluid-rock interactions are commonly presented as a key factor controlling strain localization or lateral propagation. The main goal of this contribution is to present the first observations, to our knowledge, of a preserved brittle precursor of a millimeter scale shear zone under blueschist facies metamorphic conditions. This work provides new evidences into how ductile shear zones occurring within homogeneous and isotropic protolith nucleate and develop. The present study exposes shear zones from the Roffna metarhyolite, a subvolcanic intrusion representing most of the northern part of the Suretta nappe (Penninic domain, Eastern Central Alps). This early Permian massif intruded an older basement and was affected only by Tertiary Alpine tectonics. The heterogeneous strain pattern consists, at all scales of anastomosing shear zones surrounding lenses of nearly undeformed rocks The investigated outcrop is characterized by the presence of a shear zone network from millimetric to plurimetric scale developed under blueschist facies conditions related to continental subduction of the European plate. A combined study including field observations, EBSD analysis, SEM-CL and conventional imaging together with thermodynamic modeling of phase relations allow us to decipher the interplay between brittle and ductile deformation at the onset of shear zone development. At First, the field study shows that the strain pattern defined by millimeter to centimeter wide brittle precusors is identical with the strain pattern defined by plurimeter scale mature shear zones. This suggests that the initiation of the shear zone, via brittle deformation occurs in the same strain field as the development and widening of the shear zone under ductile conditions. Microtextural observations also clearly indicate a brittle component during the shear zone formation. An analysis of the chemical composition of white mica, biotite and epidote, which crystallize within the precursor, confirms that the crystallization of these phases has taken place under blueschist facies metamorphic conditions (T ? 450°C and P ? 10 kbar) although deformation was brittle. Moreover, high resolution X-ray mapping of the precursor shows that the rock in the vicinity of the precursor has undergone mass transfer, suggesting that fluid-rock interactions occurred during the first stage of the shear zone initiation and are not restricted only to the stage of shear zone widening. Our observations confirm that ductile shear zones in the Roffna metarhyolite developed from a non-inherited brittle precursor involving a brittle-to-ductile behavior evolution under blueschist metamorphic facies conditions.

Poilvet, Jean-Charles; Goncalves, Philippe; Oliot, Emilien; Marquer, Didier

2014-05-01

414

The ophiolite of the Eohellenic nappe in the island of Skyros, Greece: Geotectonic environment of formation and metamorphic conditions inferred by mineralogical and geochemical data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The island of Skyros is located in the Sporades-Aegean region. It includes an ophiolitic mélange sequence consisting of serpentinites, gabbroic and doleritic rocks, and also lavas which mostly appear in massive form, but in rare cases as deformed pillows. The ophiolitic mélange sequence also includes rodingites, ophicalcites, as well as radiolarites. This formation belongs to the Eohellenic tectonic nappe, which encompasses marbles, sandstones and schists and was emplaced onto the Pelagonian Zone during Early Cretaceous [1, 2]. Serpentinites were most likely formed after serpentinization of harzburgitic protoliths and consist of serpentine, bastite, spinel and magnetite. The chemistry of spinels (TiO2=0.14-0.25 wt.%, Al2O3=35.1-35.21 wt.%, Cr#=37.38-38.87), shows that the harzburgitic protoliths plausibly resemble back-arc basin peridotites [3]. Gabbros and dolerites present mostly subophitic textures, between the hornblende/clinopyroxene and plagioclase grains. Based upon their petrography and on their mineral chemistry hornblendes have been distinguished into magmatic and metamorphic hornblendes, with the first occurring mostly in gabbroic rocks. Magmatic hornblendes exhibit relatively high TiO2 (1.42-1.62 wt.%), Al2O3 (5.11-5.86 wt.%) and Na2O (1.01-1.09 wt.%) contents, with their presence implying that the magma was at least to some degree hydrous. Lavas are tholeiitic basalts with relatively high FeOt?12 wt.% and low K2O and Th contents, consisting mostly albite, altered clinopyroxene and devitrified glass. Tectonomagmatic discrimination diagrams [4, 5] illustrate that the studied gabbros and lavas of Skyros are most likely associated with SSZ processes. Gabbroic rocks, subvolcanic dolerites and lavas have been subjected to greenschist/subgreenschist metamorphic processes, as confirmed by the presence of secondary amphiboles (metamorphic hornblende, actinolite/tremolite), epidote, pumpellyite and chlorite in all of the studied samples. On the other hand, the occurrence of rodingites and ophicalcites clearly point to interaction of the gabbroic rocks and serpentinites with hydrothermal fluids, which most probably took place during the stage of exhumation and tectonic emplacement. Ophicalcites contain serpentine, calcite, magnetite, as well as rare pyroxene and spinel. Rodingites on their behalf include hydroandradite (Alm0.00Adr61.33-67.43Grs28.25-35.18Prp0.10-2.49Sps0.00-0.33Uv0.41-2.75), vesuvianite (MgO=2.78-3.33 wt.%; TiO2=0.02-0.59 wt.%) diopside neoblasts (En48.53-49.89Wo47.56-48.10Fs2.32-3.33; Mg#=93.96-96.28), chlorite and also accessory prehnite. Some small-sized Cr-bearing hydrogarnet crystals (Cr2O3=10.34 wt.%) were most likely formed at the expense of spinel. The types of hydrogarnet and vesuvianite crystals are highly indicative for the involvement of subduction-related fluids during the formation of the rodingites [6]. References: [1] Jacobshagen & Wallbrecher 1984: Geol. Soc., London, Sp. Pub. 17, 591-602, [2] Pe-Piper 1991: Ofioliti, 16, 111 - 120, [3] Kamenetsky Sobolev, Joron & Semet 2001: J Petrol 42, 655-671, [4] Agrawal, Guevara & Verma 2008: Intern. Geol. Rev. 50, 1057-1079, [5] Pearce & Cann 1973: Earth Plan. Sci. Lett. 19, 290-300, [6] Koutsovitis, Magganas, Pomonis & Ntaflos 2013. Lithos 172-173, 139-157.

Karkalis, Christos; Magganas, Andreas; Koutsovitis, Petros

2014-05-01

415

Des Moines Water Works  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Users can access information about educational programs and materials for teachers and students, including tours, traveling exhibits and presentations by the staff of the Des Moines Water Works. "Water Trunks", which contain water-related literature, books, science experiments, videos, games, CD-ROMs, hands-on activities, picture cards, career information, and a teacher resource book, are available to order. There are also links to other water websites, a teachers' newsletter and pollution prevention tips for classroom use and for the general public.

2001-01-01

416

The Li-ion rechargeable battery: a perspective.  

PubMed

Each cell of a battery stores electrical energy as chemical energy in two electrodes, a reductant (anode) and an oxidant (cathode), separated by an electrolyte that transfers the ionic component of the chemical reaction inside the cell and forces the electronic component outside the battery. The output on discharge is an external electronic current I at a voltage V for a time ?t. The chemical reaction of a rechargeable battery must be reversible on the application of a charging I and V. Critical parameters of a rechargeable battery are safety, density of energy that can be stored at a specific power input and retrieved at a specific power output, cycle and shelf life, storage efficiency, and cost of fabrication. Conventional ambient-temperature rechargeable batteries have solid electrodes and a liquid electrolyte. The positive electrode (cathode) consists of a host framework into which the mobile (working) cation is inserted reversibly over a finite solid-solution range. The solid-solution range, which is reduced at higher current by the rate of transfer of the working ion across electrode/electrolyte interfaces and within a host, limits the amount of charge per electrode formula unit that can be transferred over the time ?t = ?t(I). Moreover, the difference between energies of the LUMO and the HOMO of the electrolyte, i.e., electrolyte window, determines the maximum voltage for a long shelf and cycle life. The maximum stable voltage with an aqueous electrolyte is 1.5 V; the Li-ion rechargeable battery uses an organic electrolyte with a larger window, which increase the density of stored energy for a given ?t. Anode or cathode electrochemical potentials outside the electrolyte window can increase V, but they require formation of a passivating surface layer that must be permeable to Li(+) and capable of adapting rapidly to the changing electrode surface area as the electrode changes volume during cycling. A passivating surface layer adds to the impedance of the Li(+) transfer across the electrode/electrolyte interface and lowers the cycle life of a battery cell. Moreover, formation of a passivation layer on the anode robs Li from the cathode irreversibly on an initial charge, further lowering the reversible ?t. These problems plus the cost of quality control of manufacturing plague development of Li-ion rechargeable batteries that can compete with the internal combustion engine for powering electric cars and that can provide the needed low-cost storage of electrical energy generated by renewable wind and/or solar energy. Chemists are contributing to incremental improvements of the conventional strategy by investigating and controlling electrode passivation layers, improving the rate of Li(+) transfer across electrode/electrolyte interfaces, identifying electrolytes with larger windows while retaining a Li(+) conductivity ?(Li) > 10(-3) S cm(-1), synthesizing electrode morphologies that reduce the size of the active particles while pinning them on current collectors of large surface area accessible by the electrolyte, lowering the cost of cell fabrication, designing displacement-reaction anodes of higher capacity that allow a safe, fast charge, and designing alternative cathode hosts. However, new strategies are needed for batteries that go beyond powering hand-held devices, such as using electrode hosts with two-electron redox centers; replacing the cathode hosts by materials that undergo displacement reactions (e.g. sulfur) by liquid cathodes that may contain flow-through redox molecules, or by catalysts for air cathodes; and developing a Li(+) solid electrolyte separator membrane that allows an organic and aqueous liquid electrolyte on the anode and cathode sides, respectively. Opportunities exist for the chemist to bring together oxide and polymer or graphene chemistry in imaginative morphologies. PMID:23294028

Goodenough, John B; Park, Kyu-Sung

2013-01-30

417

Coupled Model Development between Groundwater Recharge Quantity and Climate Change in Nakdong River Watershed using GIS  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

: Global climate change is disturbing the water circulation balance by changing rates of precipitation, recharge and discharge, and evapotranspiration. Groundwater, which occupies a considerable portion of the world's water resources, is related to climate change via surface water such as rivers, lakes, and marshes. In this study, the authors selected a relevant climate change scenario, A1B from the Special Report on Emission Scenario (SRES) which is distributed at Korea Meteorological Administration. By using data on temperature, rainfall, soil, and land use, the groundwater recharge rate for the research area was estimated by periodically and embodied as geographic information system (GIS). In order to calculate the groundwater recharge quantity, Visual HELP3 was used as main model, and the physical properties of weather, temperature, and soil layers were used as main input data. General changes to water circulation due to climate change have already been predicted. In order to systematically solve problems of ground circulation system, it may be urgent to recalculate the groundwater recharge quantity and consequent change under future climate change. The space-time calculation of changes of the groundwater recharge quantity in the study area may serve as a foundation to present additional measures to improve domestic groundwater resource management. Results showed that 26.19% of total precipitation was recharged from 1971 to 2000, 27.37% will be recharged from 2001 to 2030, 27.43% will be recharged from 2031 to 2050, and 26.06% will be recharged from 2051 to 2070, 27.88% will be recharged from 2051 to 2100. The groundwater recharge rate in this research showed susceptibility to changes in precipitation. The recharge rate was relatively little affected by the changes in Curve Number (CN), but it was rapidly reduced, as it approached the impermeable layers. Accordingly, the findings herein provide a basis for establishment of national plans on water resources management, use of groundwater in local areas for the purpose of settlement, and estimation of groundwater recharge quantities in areas where the groundwater hydrology is not measured. KEY WORDS: Groundwater recharge; Climate change; Curve Number; Special Report on Emissions Scenarios; Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change

Lee, M.; Jeongho, L.; Changsub, S.; SeongWoo, J.

2011-12-01

418

Spatio-temporal recharge patterns in a semi-arid alluvial basin with irrigated crops  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recharge in semi-arid regions with irrigated crops is predominantly driven by irrigation technology and cropping patterns, but also by the seasonal distribution of rainfall and the availability of irrigation water. A significant amount of basin recharge occurs from ephemeral streams and unlined irrigation canals. A spatially distributed, GIS-based hydrologic model of water application and water use at the land-atmosphere interface was developed to estimate transient recharge to the deep vadose zone and into the unconfined alluvial aquifer. The spatial basis for the hydrologic model are individual landuse units (diffuse recharge) and a network of streams and canals with water seepage (lineal recharge). The land-atmosphere interface and unsaturated zone model component (LAIUZ) is coupled to a surface water supply model component (SWSM) that provides surface water deliveries by district or sub-district, depending on available information. Using LAIUZ and SWSM, we investigate the regional behavior and spatio-temporal variability of deep vadose zone recharge in the 3,800 square kilometer Tule groundwater basin of the San Joaquin Valley, California. Surface water management in the topographically flat basin is divided between two dozen irrigation and water districts. All surface water is imported or is natural discharge into the basin. Groundwater extractions are managed by landowners on a field-by-field basis. Monthly varying recharge and groundwater pumping rates are computed for the hydrologic years 1970 through 2000. The average size of the GIS landuse units is 0.4 sq. kilometers. The GIS coverage distinguishes over 60 landuse types. Applied and consumptive water use are computed based on actual evapotranspiration and known irrigation or water use efficiencies for each landuse unit. Seepage from streams is computed by mass balance. The resulting model estimates of groundwater recharge and pumping are in good agreement with measured groundwater level changes for the thirty-year period (model validation). Throughout the region, the deep vadose zone (up to 30 m deep) is found to account for a significant amount of intermediate-term basin storage, particularly during wet year cycles. The hydrologic model demonstrates that practically all of the annual precipitation (230 mm) is available for intermediate storage in the root zone, crop water uptake, or deep percolation. No direct losses to evaporation occur, presumably because most precipitation occurs during the winter months. Diffuse recharge is 110 mm/year (range: 38 - 200 mm/year). Lineal recharge accounts for one-third of the total recharge (170 mm/year) in the basin. In wet years, lineal recharge along streams and in intentional recharge basins may account for over 50% of the total recharge, whereas in dry years it may be as little as 8%.

Ruud, N. C.; Harter, T.; Naugle, A. W.

2001-12-01

419

Climate Impact on Groundwater Recharge in Southeastern Louisiana and Southwestern Mississippi  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Increases of concentrations of CO2 and other greenhouse gases have a significant effect on global climate, precipitation and hydrology, which in turn influences recharge to aquifers. Groundwater recharge study is imperative to the sole source aquifer, for example the Southern Hills aquifer system in southeastern Louisiana and southwestern Mississippi, which provides more than 50 percent of the drinking water consumed in the area overlying the aquifer and has no substitute drinking water source(s). To trace the climate impact and its consequent groundwater availability, this study developed a GIS-based integrated framework to connect climate models to a high-resolution hydrologic model to quantify long-term groundwater recharge. We employed the Hydrologic Evaluation of Landfill Performance (HELP3) model as our hydrologic model to estimate spatial-temporal distribution of potential recharge for a regional scale. HELP3 model was especially suitable for our recharge study due to Louisiana humid climate and the use of a regional-scale water budget approach. Detailed surficial soil property and land cover were obtained from the NRCS and the USGS to derive maps of curve number for the HELP3 model. Wireline well logs and drillers logs were analyzed to determine stratigraphic lithology and the first major sand encountered beneath the soil layer. For a regional scale, we used global circulation model (GCM) downscaled daily precipitation and temperature obtained from USGS CASCaDE Project Climate Data as the forcing input to the HELP3 model. The emission scenarios considered in this study were A2, B1 and A1FI from Parallel Climate Model 1 (PCM) and from the NOAA Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Lab's GFDL CM2.1 model. We used the computed runoff from USGS WaterWatch along with the HELP3 model to calculate the recharge index (RI) and delineate the recharge index map for individual hydrologic units in terms of Hydrologic Unit Codes (HUCs). The recharge index was defined as the percentage of precipitation that recharges aquifers. High-resolution recharge index maps were obtained to quantify the spatial impact of climate change on long-term groundwater availability. The framework was applied to the recharge study on the Southern Hills aquifer system overlain by twenty HUCs. The RI map for the Southern Hill aquifer system was obtained based on the computed runoff data from 1951 to 2000 in WaterWatch. Then the HELP3 model was applied to recharge estimation from 2000 to 2050. The results showed the differences in recharge estimation given different climate scenarios. Moreover, the results showed spatial-temporal variation of recharge in the aquifer system due to variations in land use, soil characteristics and predicted meteorological variables.

Beigi, E.; Tsai, F. T.

2012-12-01

420

3H and 14C as tracers of ground-water recharge  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Surface spreading of water from the Santa Clara River is used to recharge aquifers underlying the Oxnard Plain. These aquifers are divided into an upper system about 400 feet thick, and a lower system more than 1,000 feet thick. In previous studies, it has been reported that surface spreading recharged aquifers in both the upper and lower systems. Water from most wells perforated in the upper system has tritium levels consistent with decay-corrected concentrations found in water recharged after 1952 when tritium levels increased as a result of atmospheric testing of nuclear weapons. Water from most wells in the lower system does not contain measurable tritium and must have been recharged prior to 1952. Carbon-14 ages estimated for water from wells in the lower system range from recent to about 25,000 years before present. These data show that the lower system is not effectively recharged by surface spreading.

Izbicki, John, A.; Michel, Robert, L.; Martin, Peter

1992-01-01