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1

Mthode d'analyse du mouvement de l'paule par utilisation de nappes de marqueurs  

E-print Network

'un système de caméras VICON. Le suivi du mouvement des nappes par un algorithme de recalage robuste doit, Epaule, Marqueurs, Nappe, Système VICON, signal. 1 Introduction Le membre supérieur humain a été moins

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

2

Estimation of groundwater recharge using the chloride mass-balance method, Pingtung Plain, Taiwan  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Due to rapid economic growth in the Pingtung Plain of Taiwan, the use of groundwater resources has changed dramatically. Over-pumping of the groundwater reservoir, which lowers hydraulic heads in the aquifers, is not only affecting the coastal area negatively but has serious consequences for agriculture throughout the plain. In order to determine the safe yield of the aquifer underlying the plain, a reliable estimate of groundwater recharge is desirable. In the present study, for the first time, the chloride mass-balance method is adopted to estimate groundwater recharge in the plain. Four sites in the central part were chosen to facilitate the estimations using the ion-chromatograph and Thiessen polygon-weighting methods. Based on the measured and calculated results, in all sites, including the mountain and river boundaries, recharge to the groundwater is probably 15% of the annual rainfall, excluding recharge from additional irrigation water. This information can improve the accuracy of future groundwater-simulation and management models in the plain. Rsum Du fait de la croissance conomique rapide de la plaine de Pingtung Taiwan, l'utilisation des ressources en eau souterraine s'est considrablement modifi. La surexploitation des aquifres, qui a abaiss le niveau des nappes, n'affecte pas seulement la rgion ctire, mais a de srieuses rpercutions sur l'agriculture dans toute la plaine. Afin de dterminer les ressources renouvelables de l'aquifre sous la plaine, une estimation prcise de la recharge de la nappe est ncessaire. Dans cette tude, le taux de recharge de la nappe a d'abord t estim au moyen d'un bilan de matire de chlorure. Quatre sites de la partie centrale ont t slectionns pour raliser ces estimations, l'aide d'un chromatographe ionique et de la mthode des polygones de Thiessen. A partir des rsultats mesurs et calculs, chaque site, et en prenant comme limites les montagnes et les rivires, la recharge de la nappe a tvalue environ 15% des prcipitations annuelles, sans tenir compte de la recharge par le retour d'irrigation. Ce rsultat doit permettre de tester la prcision de la simulation de nappe qui va tre faite, ainsi que les modles de gestion de la plaine. Resumen Debido al rpido crecimiento econmico de la zona de la Llanura de Pingtung, Taiwan, el uso de los recursos de agua subterrnea ha cambiado radicalmente. La sobreexplotacin, con el consiguiente descenso de los niveles piezomtricos en los acuferos, no slo afecta las reas costeras, sino que est teniendo consecuencias importantes para la agricultura de la zona. Para determinar la extraccin sostenible en el acufero, es deseable una buena estimacin de la recarga. En este estudio se adopta por primera vez el mtodo de balance de cloruros para estimar la recarga en el llano. Se seleccionaron cuatro puntos en la parte central para facilitar las estimaciones mediante los mtodos de cromatgrafo inico y de polgonos de Thiessen. A partir de los resultados medidos y calculados en toda la zona, e incluyendo los contornos de montaas y ros, la recarga subterrnea es de cerca del 15% de la precipitacin anual, excluyendo la recarga que se produce por riego adicional. Este dato permitir mejorar la precisin de los modelos de simulacin de flujo y de gestin que se realizarn en el futuro.

Ting, Cheh-Shyh; Kerh, Tienfuan; Liao, Chiu-Jung

3

Finite strain patterns in some Alpine nappes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The patterns of finite strain in some Alpine nappes and thrust sheets are reviewed, together with their tectonic evolution. Glarus Nappe. The finite strain pattern, approximately that of heterogeneous simple shear, was acquired during Upper Oligocene times when the Helvetic thrust block was deformed together with its infrastructure and basement. The Glarus Thrust was formed during Miocene times and modified by Pliocene to Recent differential uplift. Morcles Nappe. This large recumbent fold nappe overrode the Aiguilles Rouges Massif and its cover towards the northwest. The finite-strain pattern resulted from successive diagenetic compaction, multilayer buckling and heterogeneous simple shear. High strains occur along the inverted limb of the nappe and fold hinges are oriented subperpendicular to the NW stretching lineation. Final emplacement of the nappe, during the Miocene, was perhaps a later event. Chartreuse Massif. 33% E-W shortening was developed across this fold and thrust belt during post-Helvetian times by dcollement along the Oxfordian shales, in response to thrusting and uplift in the Belledonne basement. The Oxfordian shales had earlier accommodated a pre-Helvetian (probably Oligocene) deformation in the basement and its Trias-Bajocian cover, when N030 trending, subhorizontal folds, cleavage and a stretching lineation (18% N030 stretching) were developed. Digne Nappe. Detached along the Keuper evaporites, the cover was displaced westwards in two stages: (1) late Oligocene, with folding, cleavage development, formation of the frontal slices and an overall E-W shortening of 20% and (2) late Miocene-Pliocene, after emplacement of the Embrunais Nappes in the east, producing the Digne Thrust. It is concluded that for these Alpine nappes geological criteria must be used to establish their evolution. If the internal deformation can then be assigned to part of this evolution, the pattern of finite strain can be used to quantify and elucidate that part. A maximum of information is gained if the incremental deformation history can also be obtained from study of syntectonic fibres.

Siddans, A. W. B.

4

Analyse optique d'coulements tridimensionnels par nappes laser cylindriques  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We propose an optical device consisting of a double conical reflector which allows to convert a laser beam into a thin cylindrical light sheet. The sheet energy distribution is uniform and the geometrical parameters (diameter, focusing distance and field depth) are easily adjustable. The application domains in Fluid Mechanics are the optical studies of three-dimensional flows, especially when centrifugal instabilities occur. We present here an example of visualization in a Taylor-Couette flow between two rotating co-axial cylinders. Nous proposons un systme optique double rflecteur conique, permettant de transformer un faisceau laser en une fine nappe de lumire cylindrique. La rpartition nergtique de la nappe est uniforme et les paramtres gomtriques (diamtre, distance de focalisation et profondeur de champ) sont aisment rglables. Les domaines d'application en mcanique des fluides sont ceux des coulements tridimensionnels, notamment dans le cas d'instabilits centrifuges; nous prsentons ici un exemple de visualisation ralis dans un coulement de Taylor-Couette, entre deux cylindres coaxiaux en rotation.

Pocar, R.; Prenel, J. P.

1992-05-01

5

Groundwater capture processes under a seasonal variation in natural recharge and discharge  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

"Capture" is the increase in recharge and the decrease in discharge that occurs when pumping is imposed on an aquifer system that was in a previous state of approximate dynamic equilibrium. Regional groundwater models are usually used to calculate capture in a two-step procedure. A steady-state solution provides an initial-head configuration, a set of flows through the boundaries for the modeled region, and the initial basis for the capture calculation. The transient solutions provide the total change in flows through the boundaries. A difference between the transient and steady-state solutions renders the capture calculation. When seasonality is a modeling issue, the use of a single initial hydraulic head and a single set of boundary flows leads to miscalculations of capture. Instead, an initial condition for each season should be used. This approach may be accomplished by determining steady oscillatory solutions, which vary through the seasons but repeat from year to year. A regional groundwater model previously developed for a portion of the San Pedro River basin, Arizona, USA, is modified to illustrate the effect that different initial conditions have on transient solutions and on capture calculations. Rsum Les "prlvements" sont constitus par l'augmentation de la recharge et par la diminution de l'coulement qui se produit lorsqu'un pompage est impos un systme aquifre qui tait auparavant dans un tat proche de l'quilibre dynamique. Les modles rgionaux de nappe sont en gnral utiliss pour calculer les prlvements dans une procdure deux tapes. Une solution en rgime permanent donne la configuration pizomtrique initiale, un jeu de conditions aux limites pour la rgion modlise et les donnes de base pour le calcul des prlvements. Les solutions transitoires donnent les modifications globales des conditions aux limites. Lorsque des variations saisonnires sont produites en sortie du modle, le recours une pizomtrie initiale unique et un seul jeu de donnes de conditions aux limites conduit un mauvais calcul des prlvements. Il faut alors utiliser une condition de recharge initiale pour chaque saison. Cette approche peut tre ralise en dterminant des solutions permanentes priodiques, variantes au cours des saisons, mais se rptant d'anne en anne. Un modle de nappe rgional, prcdemment mis au point pour une partie du bassin de la rivire San Pedro (Arizona, tats-Unis), a t modifi pour illustrer l'effet de conditions initiales diffrentes sur des solutions transitoires et sur le calcul des prlvements. Resumen Se define como "captura" al aumento de recarga y descenso de descarga que tiene lugar cuando se impone un bombeo en un acufero en estado de equilibrio dinmico. Se suelen utilizar modelos regionales de agua subterrnea para calcular la captura en un procedimiento que consta de dos etapas. Una solucin en rgimen estacionario proporciona la distribucin inicial de niveles piezomtricos, los flujos a travs de los contornos de la regin modelada y el punto de partida para el clculo de la captura. Las soluciones transitorias proporcionan los cambios en los flujos a travs de los contornos. La diferencia entre las soluciones estacionaria y transitoria da el valor de la captura. Cuando los cambios estacionales son importantes, la utilizacin de un nico estado inicial de niveles y de flujos en los contornos da lugar a errores en el clculo de la captura. En este caso debe usarse una condicin inicial para cada una de las estaciones. Esto se puede conseguir obteniendo soluciones peridicas estacionarias, que varen a lo largo de las estaciones, pero que se repitan ao a ao. Un modelo regional desarrollado previamente para el estudio de una parte de la cuenca del Ro San Pedro, en Arizona (EE.UU.) se modific para ilustrar el efecto que las distintas condiciones iniciales tienen en el clculo de la captura.

Maddock, Thomas, III.; Vionnet, Leticia Beatriz

6

Global dynamics analysis of nappe oscillation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The unsteady global dynamics of a gravitational liquid sheet interacting with a one-sided adjacent air enclosure, typically referred to as nappe oscillation, is addressed, under the assumptions of potential flow and absence of surface tension effects. To the purpose of shedding physical insights, the investigation examines both the dynamics and the energy aspects. An interesting re-formulation of the problem consists of recasting the nappe global behavior as a driven damped spring-mass oscillator, where the inertial effects are linked to the liquid sheet mass and the spring is represented by the equivalent stiffness of the air enclosure acting on the average displacement of the compliant nappe centerline. The investigation is carried out through a modal (i.e., time asymptotic) and a non-modal (i.e., short-time transient) linear approach, which are corroborated by direct numerical simulations of the governing equation. The modal analysis shows that the flow system is characterized by low-frequency and high-frequency oscillations, the former related to the crossing time of the perturbations over the whole domain and the latter related to the spring-mass oscillator. The low-frequency oscillations, observed in real life systems, are produced by the (linear) combination of multiple modes. The non-normality of the operator is responsible for short-time energy amplifications even in asymptotically stable configurations, which are confirmed by numerical simulations and justified by energy budget considerations. Strong analogies with the edge-tone problem are encountered; in particular, the integer-plus-one-quarter resonance criterion is uncovered, where the basic frequency to be multiplied by n + /1 4 is just the one related to the spacing among the imaginary parts of the eigenvalues.

De Rosa, Fortunato; Girfoglio, Michele; de Luca, Luigi

2014-12-01

7

How to Select and Order NAPP and NHAP Photographs  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The locations of aerial photographs from the National Aerial Photography Program (NAPP) and the National High Altitude Photography (NHAP) program are shown on flight-line indexes, which are available on microfiche or printed copy of microfiche.

U.S. Geological Survey

2001-01-01

8

Study of thrust and nappe tectonics in the eastern Jiaodong Peninsula, China  

Microsoft Academic Search

Thrust and nappe tectonics have affected the eastern Jiaodong Peninsula, the easternmost terminal of the Sulu Ultra-high Pressure\\u000a Metamorphic Belt. Four nappes have been mapped, named respectively the Shidao, Rongcheng, Mishan and Mouping nappes. The methods\\u000a used included multi-scale structural analysis and structural chronology analysis. These nappes define four deep level slip-thrust\\u000a shear zones that were mainly active in the

HongYuan Zhang; QuanLin Hou; DaiYong Cao

2007-01-01

9

RESEARCH ARTICLE L. Ciannelli R. D. Brodeur J. M. Napp  

E-print Network

, the Marine Biology (2004) 144: 515­526 DOI 10.1007/s00227-003-1215-4 Communicated by T. Ikeda, Hakodate L fishes during late summer determines their nutritional status and size in the first winter of life Marine Science Center, NOAA/Northwest Fisheries Science Center, Newport, OR 97365, USA J. M. Napp Alaska

10

Recharge unit provides for optimum recharging of battery cells  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Percent recharge unit permits each cell of a rechargeable battery to be charged to a preset capacity of the cell. The unit automatically monitors and controls a rechargeable battery subjected to charge-discharge cycling tests.

Baer, D.; Ford, F. E.

1968-01-01

11

Reinterpretation of basement-cored nappes in the eastern Basal Gneiss Complex, central Norwegian Caledonides  

SciTech Connect

The Basal Gneiss Complex (BGC) of the western-central Norwegian Caledonides forms the core of the Silurian orogen, exposing deep crustal structures formed during continental convergence. Compilation of the geology of the eastern BGC in the Oppdal District by Krill (N.G.U.) and correlations by other workers have shown that units mapped here are equivalent to thrust-nappes exposed in Sweden along the eastern front of the orogen. This tectonostratigraphy of thrust-nappes has been infolded into the felsic basement gneisses forming complex interference patterns. Detailed mapping and computer-aided analysis of 180 km/sup 2/ in the southern closure of a major trumpet-shaped infold, the Groevudal area of the northern Dovrefjell, has shown that the structure is a tight north-facing near-recumbent fold-nappe refolded by an east-verging antiform. Meso- and microstructures, including sheath folds, indicate high strain, transposition and flow; in contrast to correlative units 30 km east which show well preserved primary structures. These observations suggest that basement gneisses to the east in the Lonset area, and other basement gneisses in the eastern BGC, are underlain by near-recumbent isoclinal infolds of thrust-nappes. The geometry is that of two major east-verging sheath-like basement nappes, N to S: the Trollheimen nappe and the Lonset nappe. These antiformal sheath-nappes are bounded by 3 synformal sheath-nappes, N to S: the Surnadal, Grovudal and Lesja fold nappes. The geometry of regional low-angle sheath-folds with superposed steeper folds has produced type 2 and 3 interference patterns. Displacements of the basement fold-nappes exceed 50 km.

Vollmer, F.W.

1985-01-01

12

Rechargeable battery powered electric car and recharging station therefor  

Microsoft Academic Search

The invention discloses a rechargeable battery powered electric vehicle comprising an electric motor powered by a rechargeable storage battery in combination with a recharging station comprising extendible electrodes for supplying recharging power for the vehicle's storage battery, the vehicle comprising a charging circuit connected to the battery with one lead grounded to the vehicle body and one lead connected to

Rose; W. R. II

1979-01-01

13

Triassic alkaline magmatism of the Hawasina Nappes: post-breakup melting of the Oman lithospheric mantle  

E-print Network

Triassic alkaline magmatism of the Hawasina Nappes: post-breakup melting of the Oman lithospheric within three tectonostratigraphic groups of the Hawasina Nappes in the Oman Mountains the Oman lithospheric mantle, the original DMM-HIMU signature of which was overprinted during its pervasive

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

14

Nappe-Bounding Shear Zones Initiated On Syn-Tectonic, Pegmatite-Filled Extensional Shear Fractures During Deep-Crustal Nappe Flow In A Large Hot Orogen  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Central Gneiss Belt (CGB) of the Proterozoic western Grenville Province is an extensive exposure of the mid-crustal levels (upper amphibolite facies, lesser granulites) of a large hot orogen. Numerical models give a credible prediction of structure and metamorphism accompanying CGB deep-crustal nappe flow and define a temporal framework based on four developmental phases: thickening, heating, nappe-flow and post convergence extensional spreading. These phases are diachronous in direction of orogen propagation and imply a spatial framework: externides (close to orogen-craton boundary) containing moderately inclined thickening and/or extensional structures, and internides containing thickening structures overprinted by sub-horizontal nappe flow structures, which may be locally overprinted by those due to extensional spreading. Although on average of granitoid composition, CGB nappes differ in rheology, varying from fertile and weak (unmetamorphosed before Grenville, meltable) to infertile and strong (metamorphosed at high grade before Grenville, unmeltable) or mixed fertile-infertile protoliths. Deformation style varies from diffuse in fertile nappes, weakened by pervasive melting, to localised in shear zones on boundaries or interiors of infertile nappes. Specifically, in terms of deformation phase and location within the orogen, shear zones occur as: thickening structures of externides, early thickening- and later overprinting nappe-flow structures of infertile internide nappes, and extension-related shear zones in externides and internides. Many of the nappe-flow shear zones of the internides are associated with pegmatites. One example has been recognized of a preserved progression from small-scale fracture arrays to regional shear zone. The sequence is present on a km-scale and initiates in the interior of a nappe of layered granulite with arrays of pegmatite filled extensional-shear fractures (mm to cm width) displaying amphibolized margins. The fracture arrays develop into systems of pegmatite cored amphibolite facies shear zones (cm to dm width) lying within metre-scale corridors of variably retrogressed unsheared layered granulite. The sequence culminates with transposition of the layered protolith within the kilometre-scale amphibolite facies shear zone that forms the base of the granulite nappe. The pegmatitic hydrous magma clearly plays a role in initial crack formation, progressive retrogression and weakening of the granulite but its source remains obscure.

Culshaw, Nicholas; Gerbi, Christopher; Marsh, Jeffrey; Regan, Peter

2014-05-01

15

Rechargeable hybrid aqueous batteries  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A new aqueous rechargeable battery combining an intercalation cathode with a metal (first order electrode) anode has been developed. The concept is demonstrated using LiMn2O4 and zinc metal electrodes in an aqueous electrolyte containing two electrochemically active ions (Li+ and Zn2+). The battery operates at about 2V and preliminarily tests show excellent cycling performance, with about 90% initial capacity retention over 1000 charge-discharge cycles. Use of cation-doped LiMn2O4 cathode further improves the cyclability of the system, which reaches 95% capacity retention after 4000 cycles. The energy density for a prototype battery, estimated at 50-80Whkg-1, is comparable or superior to commercial 2V rechargeable batteries. The combined performance attributes of this new rechargeable aqueous battery indicate that it constitutes a viable alternative to commercial lead-acid system and for large scale energy storage application.

Yan, Jing; Wang, Jing; Liu, Hao; Bakenov, Zhumabay; Gosselink, Denise; Chen, P.

2012-10-01

16

The Exxon rechargeable cells  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The design and performance of ambient temperature secondary cells based on the titanium disulfide cathode are discussed. These limited performance products were developed for microelectronic applications such as solar rechargeable watches and clocks which require low drain rate and do not require many deep cycles.

Malachesky, P. A.

1980-04-01

17

Structural development of the Tso Morari ultra-high pressure nappe of the Ladakh Himalaya  

Microsoft Academic Search

A continental subduction-related and multistage exhumation process for the Tso Morari ultra-high pressure nappe is proposed. The model is constrained by published thermo-barometry and age data, combined with new geological and tectonic maps. Additionally, observations on the structural and metamorphic evolution of the Tso Morari area and the North Himalayan nappes are presented. The northern margin of the Indian continental

Jean-Luc Epard; Albrecht Steck

2008-01-01

18

The Helvetic nappes in the boundary area between Eastern and Western Alps  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the context of a deep geothermal potential study for Vorarlberg several balanced cross-sections on a crustal scale were constructed between the Rhine valley in the west and the Kleinwalser valley in the east. The construction of these cross-sections was based on surface geology, drillings as well as on reinterpreted seismic lines. The general geological architecture of the examined area can be described as a typical foreland fold-and-thrust belt, comprising the tectonic units of the Subalpine Molasse, (Ultra-)Helvetic, Penninic, and Austroalpine nappes. Along the south-dipping listric Alpine basal thrust these units overthrusted the autochthonous Molasse. The Subalpine Molasse is multiply stacked, forming a triangle-zone (MLLER et al. 1984). A well-defined seismic feature is the European basement together with its autochthonous cover, slightly dipping southward from about 3500m BSL to approx. 6500m BSL in the south. Furthermore a discontinuous double reflector, interpreted as the base of the Helvetic nappe complexes (approx. at 5000m BSL in the southernmost parts), could be identified. The internal structure of the Helvetic nappe stack could hardly be resolved. The assumed hinterland dipping duplex-structure of the Helvetic nappes results from surface and borehole-data. However, there are at least two Helvetic nappes needed to fill the available space. The deeper one, mostly labeled "Hohenemser nappe" (WYSSLING 1985), was probably overthrusted by the superficially exposed "Sntis nappe". In the western part the Cretaceous cover units of the "Hohenemser nappe" seem to be completely detached from the older strata. In the southern part of the Sntis nappe (below the "Bregenzer Wald") we suspect a Dogger basin (cut across by well VBG Au1) which is bordered by two steep lateral ramps, accompanied by tear faults in the hanging wall. Based on our sections, the shortening within the Helvetic nappes has been calculated using the Cretaceous "Kieselkalk" and the Jurassic "Quinten Limestone". It amounts to approx. 50%, which is consistent with the shortening in cross-sections from eastern Switzerland (e.g. SCHMID et al. 1997, TRMPY 1969).

Schulz, M.; Pomella, H.; Zerlauth, M.; Ortner, H.; Fgenschuh, B.

2012-04-01

19

Advanced Small Rechargeable Batteries  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Lithium-based units offer highest performance. Paper reviews status of advanced, small rechargeable batteries. Covers aqueous systems including lead/lead dioxide, cadmium/nickel oxide, hydrogen/nickel oxide, and zinc/nickel oxide, as well as nonaqueous systems. All based on lithium anodes, nonaqueous systems include solid-cathode cells (lithium/molybdenum disulfide, lithium/titanium disulfide, and lithium/vanadium oxide); liquid-cathode cells (lithium/sulfur dioxide cells); and new category, lithium/polymer cells.

Halpert, Gerald

1989-01-01

20

REMOTELY RECHARGEABLE EPD  

SciTech Connect

Radiation measurements inside the Contact Decon Maintenance Cell (CDMC) in the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) at the Savannah River Site (SRS) are required to determine stay times for personnel. A system to remotely recharge the transmitter of an Electronic Personnel Dosimeter (EPD) and bail assembly to transport the EPD within the CDMC was developed by the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) to address this need.

Vrettos, N; Athneal Marzolf, A; Scott Bowser, S

2007-11-13

21

Rechargeable Magnesium Power Cells  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Rechargeable power cells based on magnesium anodes developed as safer alternatives to high-energy-density cells like those based on lithium and sodium anodes. At cost of some reduction in energy density, magnesium-based cells safer because less susceptible to catastrophic meltdown followed by flames and venting of toxic fumes. Other advantages include ease of handling, machining, and disposal, and relatively low cost.

Koch, Victor R.; Nanjundiah, Chenniah; Orsini, Michael

1995-01-01

22

Water Table Fluctuations Induced by Intermittent Recharge  

Microsoft Academic Search

The problem of water table fluctuations in response to repeated recharges is considered. The effect on the water table of intermittent constant recharge (recharge applied intermittently at a constant rate) and of intermittent instantaneous recharge (recharge applied instantaneoulsy at regular intervals) is analyzed in detail. The final results are shown to consist of a combination of periodic and transient components;

Marinus Maasland

1959-01-01

23

The Alpine nappe stack in western Austria: A crustal-scale cross-section  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A N-S oriented crustal-scale cross-section was constructed east of the Rhine valley in Vorarlberg, western Austria addressing the central Alps-eastern Alps boundary. The construction was based on published data, surface geology, drillings, as well as on reinterpreted seismic lines. The general architecture of the examined area can be described as a typical foreland fold-and-thrust belt, comprising the tectonic units of the Subalpine Molasse, (Ultra-)Helvetic, Penninic, and Austroalpine nappes. These units overthrusted the autochthonous Molasse along the south-dipping listric Alpine basal thrust. The thermotectonic evolution of this nappe stack is adressed by Bertrand et al. (this session). The Subalpine Molasse is multiply stacked, forming a triangle-zone (Mller et al. 1984). The shortening within the Subalpine Molasse in the cross section has been calculated using the Lower Marine Molasse as a reference and amounts to approx. 46 km, (~70%). Towards east the shortening within the Subalpine Molasse decreases dramatically as shown by Ortner et al. (this session). A well-defined seismic feature in the research area is the European basement together with its autochthonous cover, with a moderate southward dip from about 3500m BSL to approx. 6500m BSL along the ca. 50km long section. Several seismic sections show fault structures offsetting the top of the European basement as well as autochthonous cover. Another discontinuous double reflector that can be identified in several seismic sections is interpreted as the base of the Helvetic nappe complex (approx. at 5000m BSL in the southernmost parts). The internal structure of the Helvetic nappe stack could hardly be resolved. The assumed hinterland dipping duplex-structure of the Helvetic nappes results from surface and borehole-data. However, there are at least two Helvetic nappes needed to fill the available space. The deeper one, termed "Hohenemse nappe" (Wyssling, 1985), is overlain by the superficially exposed "Vorarlberg Sntis nappe". In the southern part of the Vorarlberg Sntis nappe (below the "Bregenzer Wald") we suspect a Dogger basin (cut across by well V-Au1) which is, at least to the east, bordered by steep lateral ramps, accompanied by tear faults in the hanging wall (Ostergunten fault system). References Mller, M., Nieberding, F. and Wanninger, A. (1988). Geologische Rundschau, 77/3, 787-796. Wyssling, G. (1985). Palinspastische Abwicklung der helvetischen Decken von Vorarlberg und Allgu. - Jb. Geol. B.-A., 127/4, 701-706.

Pomella, Hannah; Bertrand, Audrey; Ortner, Hugo; Zerlauth, Michael; Fgenschuh, Bernhard

2013-04-01

24

Basement lithostratigraphy of the Adula nappe: implications for Palaeozoic evolution and Alpine kinematics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Adula nappe belongs to the Lower Penninic domain of the Central Swiss Alps. It consists mostly of pre-Triassic basement lithologies occurring as strongly folded and sheared gneisses of various types with mafic boudins. We propose a new lithostratigraphy for the northern Adula nappe basement that is supported by detailed field investigations, U-Pb zircon geochronology, and whole-rock geochemistry. The following units have been identified: Cambrian clastic metasediments with abundant carbonate lenses and minor bimodal magmatism (Salahorn Formation); Ordovician metapelites associated with amphibolite boudins with abundant eclogite relicts representing oceanic metabasalts (Trescolmen Formation); Ordovician peraluminous metagranites of calc-alkaline affinity ascribed to subduction-related magmatism (Garenstock Augengneiss); Ordovician metamorphic volcanic-sedimentary deposits (Heinisch Stafel Formation); Early Permian post-collisional granites recording only Alpine orogenic events (Zervreila orthogneiss). All basement lithologies except the Permian granites record a Variscan + Alpine polyorogenic metamorphic history. They document a complex Paleozoic geotectonic evolution consistent with the broader picture given by the pre-Mesozoic basement framework in the Alps. The internal consistency of the Adula basement lithologies and the stratigraphic coherence of the overlying Triassic sediments suggest that most tectonic contacts within the Adula nappe are pre-Alpine in age. Consequently, mlange models for the Tertiary emplacement of the Adula nappe are not consistent and must be rejected. The present-day structural complexity of the Adula nappe is the result of the intense Alpine ductile deformation of a pre-structured entity.

Cavargna-Sani, Mattia; Epard, Jean-Luc; Bussy, Franois; Ulianov, Alex

2014-01-01

25

North-directed Triassic nappes in Northeastern Vietnam (East Bac Bo)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A careful re-examination of the previous tectonic descriptions and the acquisition of new structural and kinematic data have been undertaken in Northeastern Vietnam. The structure of the area consists of a system of slightly metamorphosed but ductilely deformed nappes, including recumbent folds, formed during the Triassic, prior to the unconformable deposition of the Upper Triassic terrigenous sediments. These results confirm the previous interpretation of "preyunnanaises nappes", represented by Middle-Upper Paleozoic foliated limestone resting through a flat mylonitic contact over an intermediate "Song Mien unit" ( Deprat, 1915), the latter made essentially of deformed Lower Triassic sedimentary and volcanic formations, which previously filled the Song Hien rift ( Bourret, 1922a,b). In the external part of the belt, the Triassic strata conformably overlie slightly deformed and unmetamorphosed Upper Paleozoic rocks, forming an autochthonous domain. Alternatively, the same Triassic succession can be seen resting tectonically through dcollement zones, directly over the Middle Paleozoic marbles, to form a distinct but subsidiary allochthonous unit. Our data show that the Song Chay orthogneiss and its Lower Paleozoic sedimentary country rocks belong to the main nappe. They also demonstrate that this nappe was transported to the N-NE. A newly discovered ophiolitic mlange of supposed oceanic nature and Triassic age, lying along the Song Chay Fault, North of the Nui Con Voi, could hypothetically represent the rooted zone of the nappe. A Tertiary overprinting event, in particular accommodated by strike-slip movements, likely accounts for the present orocline of NE Vietnam.

Lepvrier, Claude; Faure, Michel; Van, Vuong Nguyen; Vu, Tich Van; Lin, Wei; Trong, Thang Ta; Hoa, Phuong Ta

2011-04-01

26

Bull. Soc. gol. Fr., 2008, no The alkaline intraplate volcanism of the Antalya nappes (Turkey): a Late  

E-print Network

Bull. Soc. géol. Fr., 2008, no 4 The alkaline intraplate volcanism of the Antalya nappes (Turkey-words. ­ Alkali basalt, Intraplate volcanism, Triassic (Upper), Neotethys, Turkey, Geochemistry. Abstract. ­ Late belonging to the Kara Dere ­ Sayrun unit of the Middle Antalya nappes, southwestern Turkey. New

Demouchy, Sylvie

27

FLUIDIC: Metal Air Recharged  

ScienceCinema

Fluidic, with the help of ARPA-E funding, has developed and deployed the world's first proven high cycle life metal air battery. Metal air technology, often used in smaller scale devices like hearing aids, has the lowest cost per electron of any rechargeable battery storage in existence. Deploying these batteries for grid reliability is competitive with pumped hydro installations while having the advantages of a small footprint. Fluidic's battery technology allows utilities and other end users to store intermittent energy generated from solar and wind, as well as maintain reliable electrical delivery during power outages. The batteries are manufactured in the US and currently deployed to customers in emerging markets for cell tower reliability. As they continue to add customers, they've gained experience and real world data that will soon be leveraged for US grid reliability.

Friesen, Cody

2014-04-02

28

FLUIDIC: Metal Air Recharged  

SciTech Connect

Fluidic, with the help of ARPA-E funding, has developed and deployed the world's first proven high cycle life metal air battery. Metal air technology, often used in smaller scale devices like hearing aids, has the lowest cost per electron of any rechargeable battery storage in existence. Deploying these batteries for grid reliability is competitive with pumped hydro installations while having the advantages of a small footprint. Fluidic's battery technology allows utilities and other end users to store intermittent energy generated from solar and wind, as well as maintain reliable electrical delivery during power outages. The batteries are manufactured in the US and currently deployed to customers in emerging markets for cell tower reliability. As they continue to add customers, they've gained experience and real world data that will soon be leveraged for US grid reliability.

Friesen, Cody

2014-03-07

29

Deformation bands and the history of folding in the Magura nappe, Western Outer Carpathians (Poland)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Deformation bands (db) which are indicative for soft-sediment deformation during the folding of flysch sediments are widespread within the Eocene strata of the Magura nappe. Four types of db have been distinguished: (1) db with no cataclasis of detrital sand grains; (2) db with traces of feldspar cataclasis; (3) db with strong cataclasis of detritic feldspar grains; and (4) db

Anna ?wierczewska; Antoni K Tokarski

1998-01-01

30

The Bering Sea: Current status and recent events Jeffrey M. Napp  

E-print Network

, NMFS 7600 Sand Point Way NE, Seattle, WA 98115-0070, U.S.A. E-mail: Jeff.Napp@noaa.gov Dr. Jeffrey at the above address. Recent climate and upper ocean observations The winter of 2003-04 brought weather typical to the moderating influence of the shelf water, recorded near- normal air temperatures overall

31

Load Balancing for Multi-Robot Construction Nils Napp, Eric Klavins  

E-print Network

Load Balancing for Multi-Robot Construction Nils Napp, Eric Klavins {nnapp balancing in routing building materials for stochastic, distributed, multi-robot construction systems. We and prove correctness of the load-balancing controller for a wide range of conditions. We adapt a proof from

Napp, Nils

32

Thrusting and transpressional shearing in the Pan-African nappe southwest El-Sibai core complex, Central Eastern Desert, Egypt  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Wadi El-Shush area in the Central Eastern Desert (CED) of Egypt is occupied by the Sibai core complex and its surrounding Pan-African nappe complex. The sequence of metamorphic and structural events in the Sibai core complex and the enveloping Pan-African nappe can be summarized as follows: (1) high temperature metamorphism associated with partial melting of amphibolites and development of

Mohamed A. Abd El-Wahed

2008-01-01

33

Isotopic evidence for the Precambrian provenance and Caledonian metamorphism of high grade paragneisses from the Seve Nappes, Scandinavian Caledonides  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ion microprobe U-Th-Pb analyses of residual cores and metamorphic mantles of zircons from three high grade paragneisses from the Seve Nappe Complex, north-western Sweden, show that: 1) The sediments comprising the protolith of the Seve Nappes gneisses over a distance of 250 km were probably derived from similarly-aged source terranes. 2) Those source terranes were dominated by rocks with ages

I. S. Williams; S. Claesson

1987-01-01

34

Functional materials for rechargeable batteries.  

PubMed

There is an ever-growing demand for rechargeable batteries with reversible and efficient electrochemical energy storage and conversion. Rechargeable batteries cover applications in many fields, which include portable electronic consumer devices, electric vehicles, and large-scale electricity storage in smart or intelligent grids. The performance of rechargeable batteries depends essentially on the thermodynamics and kinetics of the electrochemical reactions involved in the components (i.e., the anode, cathode, electrolyte, and separator) of the cells. During the past decade, extensive efforts have been dedicated to developing advanced batteries with large capacity, high energy and power density, high safety, long cycle life, fast response, and low cost. Here, recent progress in functional materials applied in the currently prevailing rechargeable lithium-ion, nickel-metal hydride, lead acid, vanadium redox flow, and sodium-sulfur batteries is reviewed. The focus is on research activities toward the ionic, atomic, or molecular diffusion and transport; electron transfer; surface/interface structure optimization; the regulation of the electrochemical reactions; and the key materials and devices for rechargeable batteries. PMID:21394791

Cheng, Fangyi; Liang, Jing; Tao, Zhanliang; Chen, Jun

2011-04-19

35

Late Cretaceous exhumation history of an extensional extruding wedge (Graz Paleozoic Nappe Complex, Austria)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Late Cretaceous structures within the eastern Graz Paleozoic Nappe Complex define an extruding wedge with north-eastward directed\\u000a thrusting in eastern portions and strike-slip shear along the margins. Stacking structures are overprinted by south-westward\\u000a directed extension with low-grade metamorphic rocks in the hangingwall and high-grade basement rocks in the footwall. Pressuretemperature\\u000a and structural data are obtained from successively opening quartz veins

Krenn Kurt; Fritz Harald; Mogessie Aberra; Schaflechner Johannes

2008-01-01

36

Current deformation of the Digne Nappe (southwestern Alps) from a comparison between triangulation and GPS data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The negligible present-day convergence between northern Italy and stable Europe as shown by continuous GPS measurements and the low level of Alpine seismicity both indicate that present-day deformation in the western Alps is very moderate. Nevertheless, from historical seismicity records, the Moyenne Durance Fault can be identified as an active structure, and a brief neotectonic and geomorphological analysis indicates that Plio-Quaternary deformation occurred in the northern Valensole Basin and in the Digne Nappe. A comparison is made between 1949 and 1952 triangulation data and 1997 GPS data to estimate the current deformation in the Digne Nappe and around the Moyenne Durance Fault in the southwestern Alps. The deformation is represented by the maximum angular shear rates needed to make the characterization of the deformation independent of the rigid rotation and scale effects that are introduced in the velocity field when using triangulation data. Errors on maximum angular shear rates are simulated using a Monte Carlo analysis of the errors of the triangulation data. The main results are: (1) the existence of moderate deformation in the inner part of the Digne Nappe; (2) deformation of the northern Valensole Basin; (3) significant deformation in the southern part of the Moyenne Durance Fault; and (4) a lack of measurable deformation in the southern Valensole Basin-Provencale range area and south of the Lure Mountain.

Jouanne, Franois; Hippolyte, J. C.; Gamond, J. F.; Martinod, J.

2001-02-01

37

Late Cretaceous exhumation history of an extensional extruding wedge (Graz Paleozoic Nappe Complex, Austria)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Late Cretaceous structures within the eastern Graz Paleozoic Nappe Complex define an extruding wedge with north-eastward directed thrusting in eastern portions and strike-slip shear along the margins. Stacking structures are overprinted by south-westward directed extension with low-grade metamorphic rocks in the hangingwall and high-grade basement rocks in the footwall. Pressure-temperature and structural data are obtained from successively opening quartz veins that record various stages of progressive deformation and metamorphism. Fluid inclusion data and related structures show that during extension isothermal decompression from ca. 550C and 8 kbar down to ca. 450C and 2 kbar was related to exhumation of rocks from deep crustal levels. The data point to a high geothermal gradient and explain condensed paleo-isotherms due to ductile normal faulting in the eastern areas of the Graz Paleozoic Nappe Complex. The investigated Late Cretaceous structural elements suggest that the Graz Paleozoic Nappe Complex decoupled from the surrounding basement units and operated as a large-scale extension-extrusion corridor that evolved prior to Miocene extrusion tectonics in the Eastern Alps.

Kurt, Krenn; Harald, Fritz; Aberra, Mogessie; Johannes, Schaflechner

2008-11-01

38

Expressing user profiles for data recharging  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mobile devices need two basic renewable resources - power and data. Power recharging is easy; data recharging is a much more problematic activity. It requires complex interaction between a user and a collection of data sources. We provide an automatic data recharging capability based on user profiles written in an expressive profile language. A profile identifies relevant information and orders

Mitch Cherniack; Michael J. Franklin; Stan Zdonik

2001-01-01

39

Reusable Energy and Power Sources: Rechargeable Batteries  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Rechargeable batteries are very popular within consumer electronics. If one uses a cell phone or portable electric tool, she/he understands the need to have a reliable product and the need to remember to use the recharging systems that follow a cycle of charge/discharge. Rechargeable batteries are being called "green" energy sources. They are a

Hsiung, Steve C.; Ritz, John M.

2007-01-01

40

A stratigraphic and geophysical approach to studying the deep-circulating groundwater and thermal springs, and their recharge areas, in Cimini Mountains-Viterbo area, central Italy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The stratigraphic and structural setting of the Cimini Mountains and Viterbo area of Italy has been reconstructed. The architecture of the tectonic edifice, below the Pleistocene Cimino and Vicano volcanic districts cover, is characterized by the Mesozoic-Cenozoic Tuscan Nappe and the similar Umbria-Marche Succession; both are capped by the overthrusted Ligurian Late Cretaceous-Eocene Tolfa Flysch. A shallow unconfined volcanic aquifer is separated, by a thick aquiclude, from the deep confined carbonate aquifer consisting of the Tuscan Nappe and the Umbria-Marche Succession. The volcanic aquifer hosts cold waters, whilst the carbonate aquifer hosts hot sulphate-alkaline earth waters that emerge in the thermal area of Viterbo with a temperature of 30-60C. The recharge area of cold waters is located in the Cimini Mountains. Thermal waters of the Viterbo hot springs are derived from a circuit of waters that emerge along the River Nera near Narni (about 34 km ENE of Viterbo), with a high salinity, a temperature of 16-18C, a sulphate-alkaline earth composition, and a discharge of 13 m3/sec, whose recharge area is located in the central pre-Apennines reliefs.

Chiocchini, Ugo; Castaldi, Fabio; Barbieri, Maurizio; Eulilli, Valeria

2010-09-01

41

Rechargeable nickel-zinc batteries  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Device proves superiority in having two and one half to three times the energy content of popular lead-zinc or nickel-cadmium batteries. Application to electric utility vehicles improved acceleration rate and nearly doubled driving range between rechargings. Unit contributes substantially toward realization of practical urban electrical automobiles.

Soltis, D. G.

1977-01-01

42

Aquifer Management with Logistic Recharge  

Microsoft Academic Search

Theoretical principles of sustainable aquifer management are laid out in this work. The premise of our treatment is that groundwater is a renewable, although exhaustible, natural resource. The theory of this work is aimed at aquifers with a relatively homogeneous recharge that can be approximated by a logistic growth function. Sustainable aquifer exploitation occurs when the rate of ground-water extraction

Hugo A. Laiciga; Roy B. Leipnik

2001-01-01

43

Revised 06-2011 Rechargeable  

E-print Network

Nickel ­ Cadmium Nickel Metal Hydride Li-ion Pb Acid NiCd NiMH Used mainly in consumer electronics UsedRevised 06-2011 Rechargeable Battery And Cell Phone Recycling Program Guidelines University Waste Label (see separate instructions). Step 4: Bag It Insert a battery or cell phone in a provided bag

Taylor, Jerry

44

The pronounced seasonality of global groundwater recharge  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

recharged by meteoric water supports human life by providing two billion people with drinking water and by supplying 40% of cropland irrigation. While annual groundwater recharge rates are reported in many studies, fewer studies have explicitly quantified intra-annual (i.e., seasonal) differences in groundwater recharge. Understanding seasonal differences in the fraction of precipitation that recharges aquifers is important for predicting annual recharge groundwater rates under changing seasonal precipitation and evapotranspiration regimes in a warming climate, for accurately interpreting isotopic proxies in paleoclimate records, and for understanding linkages between ecosystem productivity and groundwater recharge. Here we determine seasonal differences in the groundwater recharge ratio, defined here as the ratio of groundwater recharge to precipitation, at 54 globally distributed locations on the basis of 18O/16O and 2H/1H ratios in precipitation and groundwater. Our analysis shows that arid and temperate climates have wintertime groundwater recharge ratios that are consistently higher than summertime groundwater recharge ratios, while tropical groundwater recharge ratios are at a maximum during the wet season. The isotope-based recharge ratio seasonality is consistent with monthly outputs from a global hydrological model (PCR-GLOBWB) for most, but not all locations. The pronounced seasonality in groundwater recharge ratios shown in this study signifies that, from the point of view of predicting future groundwater recharge rates, a unit change in winter (temperate and arid regions) or wet season (tropics) precipitation will result in a greater change to the annual groundwater recharge rate than the same unit change to summer or dry season precipitation.

Jasechko, Scott; Birks, S. Jean; Gleeson, Tom; Wada, Yoshihide; Fawcett, Peter J.; Sharp, Zachary D.; McDonnell, Jeffrey J.; Welker, Jeffrey M.

2014-11-01

45

Electrically rechargeable REDOX flow cell  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A bulk energy storage system is designed with an electrically rechargeable reduction-oxidation (REDOX) cell divided into two compartments by a membrane, each compartment containing an electrode. An anode fluid is directed through the first compartment at the same time that a cathode fluid is directed through the second compartment. Means are provided for circulating the anode and cathode fluids, and the electrodes are connected to an intermittent or non-continuous electrical source, which when operating, supplies current to a load as well as to the cell to recharge it. Ancillary circuitry is provided for disconnecting the intermittent source from the cell at prescribed times and for circulating the anode and cathode fluids according to desired parameters and conditions.

Thaller, L. H. (inventor)

1976-01-01

46

Research on rechargeable oxygen electrodes  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Studies were carried out on a number of factors which may influence the behavior of the platinum electrocatalyst of oxygen electrodes for use in rechargeable metal-oxygen batteries or hydrogen-oxygen fuel cells. The effects of pretreatments for various potentials and added ionic species, which could be present in such systems, were studied with reguard to: (1) the state of surface oxidation, (2) platinum dissolution, (3) the kinetics of oxygen evolution and reduction (including the role of hydrogen peroxide), and (4) changes in porous electrode structure. These studies were carried out on smooth platinum, platinized platinum, and Teflon-bonded platinum black electrodes in carefully purified electrolyte solutions. The main factors which appear to affect rechargeable oxygen electrode performance and life are: (1) the buildup of a refractory anodic layer on extended cycling, and (2) the dissolution of platinum.

Giner, J.; Malachesky, P. A.; Holleck, G.

1971-01-01

47

Nanomaterials for rechargeable lithium batteries.  

PubMed

Energy storage is more important today than at any time in human history. Future generations of rechargeable lithium batteries are required to power portable electronic devices (cellphones, laptop computers etc.), store electricity from renewable sources, and as a vital component in new hybrid electric vehicles. To achieve the increase in energy and power density essential to meet the future challenges of energy storage, new materials chemistry, and especially new nanomaterials chemistry, is essential. We must find ways of synthesizing new nanomaterials with new properties or combinations of properties, for use as electrodes and electrolytes in lithium batteries. Herein we review some of the recent scientific advances in nanomaterials, and especially in nanostructured materials, for rechargeable lithium-ion batteries. PMID:18338357

Bruce, Peter G; Scrosati, Bruno; Tarascon, Jean-Marie

2008-01-01

48

Rechargeable solid state lithium microbatteries  

Microsoft Academic Search

A rechargeable thin-film lithium battery that can be used as a miniature power supply for small devices has been developed. The battery consists of an amorphous vanadium pentoxide (aV2O5) cathode, an amorphous lithium phosphorus oxynitride (Lipon) electrolyte, and a lithium anode. A thin-film cover layer protects the battery from exposure to air and water vapor. The battery can deliver up

J. B. Bates; G. R. Gruzalski; C. F. Luck

1993-01-01

49

Eclogite nappe-stack in the Grivola-Urtier Ophiolites (Southern Aosta Valley, Western Alps)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the Western Alpine chain, ophiolites represent a section of the Mesozoic Tethys oceanic lithosphere, involved in subduction during the convergence between the paleo-Africa and paelo-Europe continents during the Cretaceous - Eocene. The Western Alpine ophiolites consist of several tectonic units, the most famous being the Zermatt-Saas and Combin nappes, and other major ophiolite bodies as the Voltri, Monviso, and Rocciavr that show different rock assemblages and contrasting metamorphic imprints. The Grivola-Urtier (GU) unit is exposed in the southern Aosta Valley, covering an area of about 100 km2; it is tectonically sandwiched between the continentally-derived Pennidic Gran Paradiso Nappe below, and the Austroalpine Mount Emilius klippe above. This unit has been so far considered as part of the Zermatt-Saas nappe extending from the Saas-Fee area (Switzerland) to the Aosta Valley (Italy). The GU unit consists of serpentinized peridotites that include pods and boudinaged layers of eclogitic Fe-metagabbro and trondhjemite, rodingites and chloriteschists transposed in the main foliation together with calcschists and micaschists. All rocks preserve particularly fresh eclogitic mineral assemblages. The contact between the serpentinites and calcshists is marked by a tectonic mlange consisting of mylonitic marble and calcschist with stretched and boudinaged serpentinite blocks. Continentally-derived allochthonous blocks ranging in size from100 meters to meters are also included within the ophiolites. New field, petrographic and geochemical data reveal the complex nature of the fossil Tethyan oceanic lithosphere exposed in the southern Aosta Valley, as well as the extent and size of the continental-oceanic tectonic mlange. The geological setting of the GU unit is here inferred as a key tool for understanding the complex architecture of the ophiolites in the Western Alps.

Tartarotti, Paola

2013-04-01

50

Triassic alkaline magmatism of the Hawasina Nappes: Post-breakup melting of the Oman lithospheric mantle modified by the Permian Neotethyan Plume  

E-print Network

Triassic alkaline magmatism of the Hawasina Nappes: Post-breakup melting of the Oman lithospheric Keywords: Neotethys Passive margin Post-breakup magmatism Triassic Hawasina Oman Mountains Middle to Late Triassic lavas were sampled within three tectonostratigraphic groups of the Hawasina Nappes in the Oman

Demouchy, Sylvie

51

Groundwater recharge and agricultural contamination  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Agriculture has had direct and indirect effects on the rates and compositions of groundwater recharge and aquifer biogeochemistry. Direct effects include dissolution and transport of excess quantities of fertilizers and associated materials and hydrologic alterations related to irrigation and drainage. Some indirect effects include changes in water-rock reactions in soils and aquifers caused by increased concentrations of dissolved oxidants, protons, and major ions. Agrilcultural activities have directly or indirectly affected the concentrations of a large number of inorganic chemicals in groundwater, for example NO3-, N2, Cl, SO42-, H+, P, C, K, Mg, Ca, Sr, Ba, Ra, and As, as well a wide variety of pesticides and other organic compounds. For reactive contaminants like NO3-, a combination of chemical, isotopic, and environmental-tracer analytical approaches might be required to resolve changing inputs from subsequent alterations as causes of concentration gradients in groundwater. Groundwater records derived from multi-component hydrostratigraphic data can be used to quantify recharge rates and residence times of water and dissolved contaminants, document past variations in recharging contaminant loads, and identify natural contaminant-remediation processes. These data indicate that many of the world's surficial aquifers contain transient records of changing agricultural contamination from the last half of the 20th century. The transient agricultural groundwater signal has important implications for long-term trends and spatial heterogeneity in discharge.

Bhlke, J.K.

2002-01-01

52

Detrital zircon data support a Timanian origin for the Kalak Nappe Complex, North Norwegian Caledonides  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Detrital zircon data support a Timanian origin for the Kalak Nappe Complex, North Norwegian Caledonides. Arild Andresen, Nana Yaw Agyei-Dwarko & Mark G. Steltenpohl The origin of the Kalak Nappe Complex (KNC) in the Arctic Caledonides of Norway is historically enigmatic. Psammitic rocks of the KNC traditionally are thought to have been derived from the thinned, rifted margin of western Baltica. Recently, it has been proposed that U-Pb ages on detrital zircon and on magmatic zircon from the many intrusives present in KNC suggest derivation from Laurentian (Kirkland et al. 2007) and peri-Gondwanan (Corfu et al. 2011) realms. In this contribution we argue for a third alternative. Our LA-ICP-MS U-Pb ages on detrital zircon from the Ediacaran and Lower Paleozoic deposits (Dividal Group) in northern Scandinavia indicate that their source region was the Timanian Orogen, formed along Baltica`s northeastern margin in the Late Neoproterozoic. A large proportion of the detrital zircon grains from the Ediacaran-Cambrian deposits range in age between c. 1.7 and 1.0 Ga, but a distinct population of c. 0.57 Ga old-detrital zircon is also present in several samples. The source areas for these Late Paleoproterozoic and younger zircons are unknown from northeastern Fennoscandia, but are, however, known from basement rocks (Timanides) below the Pechora Basin in NW Russia and thus is a fingerprint for sediments derived from the Timanides. Psammitic units of the allochthonous Kalak Nappe Complex (KNC) have zircon-age populations similar to those from the Dividal Group with the exception of the 0.57 Ga zircons. If, however, the detrital zircon dates from the KNC are mixed with detrital zircons from the c. 0.57 Ga Sry Igneous Complex, then an almost identical zircon age population should be expected. Instead of arguing for a Laurentian or peri-Gondwana origin of KNC, as some authors do, we prefer to link the KNC to the Timanides, preferentially the northwestern part of the present exposed part of the Timanides. Incorporation of the KNC into the Scandinavian Caledonides can thus be explained by oblique rifting (transtension) between Baltica and the remaining Rodinia in the Cryogenian, followed by emplacement of KNC as a series of nappes during collision between Baltica and Laurentia in the Late Silurian-Early Silurian.

Andresen, Arild; Agyei-Dwarko, Nana; Steltenpohl, Mark

2014-05-01

53

Did the entire Seve Nappe Complex in the Scandinavian Caledonides undergo HP metamorphism?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Seve Nappe Complex (SNC) in the Scandinavian Caledonides is composed of high grade metamorphic rocks, derived from the outer(most) parts of the Baltica margin. The main lithologies are represented by amphibolite facies metasediments and granulite facies gneisses, locally with migmatites. Granulites from the SNC on reskutan and Snasahgarna in west-central Jmtland (Sweden), give an excellent opportunity to investigate the high grade metamorphic history of these far-travelled nappes. As there are only two areas within the SNC, where eclogites have been found, there is a necessity to look for other evidence of HP metamorphism elsewhere to unravel a more complete history of the SNC. The latest zircon ion microprobe dating (Ladenberger et.al., 2012) of the reskutan Nappe indicate that the peak (temperature) of metamorphism occurred at 442-436 Ma. An earlier history of higher pressure metamorphism has been identified by EMP monazite dating (Majka et. al., in press), probably occurring in the mid-late Ordovician as in northwestern Jmtland (Root and Corfu, 2011, Brueckner and van Roermund, 2007). Kyanite-bearing leucogranulite and pyroxene-dominated paleosome samples from granulite facies migmatites were collected in the reskutan Nappe, as well as garnet-clinopyroxene granulite on Tvrklumparna in the Snasahgarna area near Storlien. Garnet chemistry and kyanite-sillimanite transformation were investigated in thin sections using light microscopy, WDS analysis and Raman spectroscopy. In the Tvrklumparna granulite almandine with high Ca content (19-20% grs) contain inclusions of diopside. Garnets from the reskutan granulite are homogenous, have high Ca content (26-27% grs) and lack inclusions. Preliminary estimates from garnet - clinopyroxene geothermobarometric calculations give 760C and 18kbar for the Tvrklumparna granulite and 740C and 20kbar for the reskutan mafic granulite. The presence of HP kyanite- replaced by LP sillimanite-bearing assemblages in leucogranulite, provide evidence of possible continuous partial-melt crystallization from high pressure towards lower pressure conditions. Extensive field work, chemical profiling of garnets and pyroxenes, the discovery of the kyanite - sillimanite transformation and microtextures analysis suggest that the entire SNC in western Jmtland may have undergone high pressure metamorphism prior to the early Silurian partial melting and emplacement from the hinterland eastwards onto the Baltoscandian platform.

Klonowska, I.; Rosn, .; Majka, J.; Ladenberger, A.; Gee, D. G.

2012-04-01

54

Choosing appropriate techniques for quantifying groundwater recharge  

Microsoft Academic Search

. Various techniques are available to quantify recharge; however, choosing appropriate techniques is often difficult. Important\\u000a considerations in choosing a technique include space\\/time scales, range, and reliability of recharge estimates based on different\\u000a techniques; other factors may limit the application of particular techniques. The goal of the recharge study is important\\u000a because it may dictate the required space\\/time scales of

Bridget R. Scanlon; Richard W. Healy; Peter G. Cook

2002-01-01

55

Rechargeable lithium battery technology - A survey  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The technology of the rechargeable lithium battery is discussed with special attention given to the types of rechargeable lithium cells and to their expected performance and advantages. Consideration is also given to the organic-electrolyte and polymeric-electrolyte cells and to molten salt lithium cells, as well as to technical issues, such as the cycle life, charge control, rate capability, cell size, and safety. The role of the rechargeable lithium cell in future NASA applications is discussed.

Halpert, Gerald; Surampudi, Subbarao

1990-01-01

56

Identifying and quantifying urban recharge: a review  

Microsoft Academic Search

. The sources of and pathways for groundwater recharge in urban areas are more numerous and complex than in rural environments.\\u000a Buildings, roads, and other surface infrastructure combine with man-made drainage networks to change the pathways for precipitation.\\u000a Some direct recharge is lost, but additional recharge can occur from storm drainage systems. Large amounts of water are imported\\u000a into most

David N. Lerner

2002-01-01

57

Nappes, Tectonics of Oblique Plate Convergence, and Metamorphic Evolution Related to 140 Million Years of Continuous Subduction, Franciscan Complex, California  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a new synthesis of Franciscan Complex tectonics, with the emphasis on the pre-San Andreas fault history of these rocks. Field relations suggest that the Franciscan is characterized by nappe structures that formed during sequential accretion at the trench. The presence of these structures along with other field relations, including the lack of evidence for large offset of

John Wakabayashi

1992-01-01

58

NORTH CAROLINA GROUNDWATER RECHARGE RATES 1994  

EPA Science Inventory

North Carolina Groundwater Recharge Rates, from Heath, R.C., 1994, Ground-water recharge in North Carolina: North Carolina State University, as prepared for the NC Department of Environment, Health and Natural Resources (NC DEHNR) Division of Enviromental Management Groundwater S...

59

Maximizing Charging Throughput in Rechargeable Sensor Networks  

E-print Network

Maximizing Charging Throughput in Rechargeable Sensor Networks Xiaojiang Ren Weifa Liang Wenzheng reliable energy supplies for sensors in wireless rechargeable sensor net- works. The adoption of wireless. The lifetime of traditional battery-powered sensor networks is limited by the capacities of batteries. Even

Liang, Weifa

60

Transformer Recharging with Alpha Channeling in Tokamaks  

SciTech Connect

Transformer recharging with lower hybrid waves in tokamaks can give low average auxiliary power if the resistivity is kept high enough during the radio frequency (rf) recharging stage. At the same time, operation in the hot ion mode via alpha channeling increases the effective fusion reactivity. This paper will address the extent to which these two large cost saving steps are compatible. __________________________________________________

N.J. Fisch

2009-12-21

61

Recharge at the Hanford Site: Status report  

SciTech Connect

A variety of field programs designed to evaluate recharge and other water balance components including precipitation, infiltration, evaporation, and water storage changes, have been carried out at the Hanford Site since 1970. Data from these programs have indicated that a wide range of recharge rates can occur depending upon specific site conditions. Present evidence suggests that minimum recharge occurs where soils are fine-textured and surfaces are vegetated with deep-rooted plants. Maximum recharge occurs where coarse soils or gravels exist at the surface and soils are kept bare. Recharge can occur in areas where shallow-rooted plants dominate the surface, particularly where soils are coarse-textured. Recharge estimates have been made for the site using simulation models. A US Geological Survey model that attempts to account for climate variability, soil storage parameters, and plant factors has calculated recharge values ranging from near zero to an average of about 1 cm/yr for the Hanford Site. UNSAT-H, a deterministic model developed for the site, appears to be the best code available for estimating recharge on a site-specific basis. Appendix I contains precipitation data from January 1979 to June 1987. 42 refs., 11 figs., 11 tabs.

Gee, G.W.

1987-11-01

62

Identifying and quantifying urban recharge: a review  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The sources of and pathways for groundwater recharge in urban areas are more numerous and complex than in rural environments. Buildings, roads, and other surface infrastructure combine with man-made drainage networks to change the pathways for precipitation. Some direct recharge is lost, but additional recharge can occur from storm drainage systems. Large amounts of water are imported into most cities for supply, distributed through underground pipes, and collected again in sewers or septic tanks. The leaks from these pipe networks often provide substantial recharge. Sources of recharge in urban areas are identified through piezometry, chemical signatures, and water balances. All three approaches have problems. Recharge is quantified either by individual components (direct recharge, water-mains leakage, septic tanks, etc.) or holistically. Working with individual components requires large amounts of data, much of which is uncertain and is likely to lead to large uncertainties in the final result. Recommended holistic approaches include the use of groundwater modelling and solute balances, where various types of data are integrated. Urban recharge remains an under-researched topic, with few high-quality case studies reported in the literature.

Lerner, David N.

2002-02-01

63

INTRODUCTION TO ARTIFICIAL GROUND-WATER RECHARGE  

EPA Science Inventory

Artificial ground-water recharge has been practiced for scores of years throughout the world. The purpose of artificial recharge is to increase the rate at which water infiltrates the land surface in order to supplement the quantity of ground water in storage. A variety of rechar...

64

Syn-sedimentary tectonics in the Cretaceous succession of the Wildhorn nappe (SW Switzerland)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

During Early Cretaceous to Early Tertiary times, the area of the future Helvetic Nappes was part of a large ramp-type depositional system on the European margin, in which the area of the Wildhorn nappe was transitional to the more distal and relatively deeper Ultra-Helvetic basin. The Wildhorn nappe includes a late Cretaceous succession bearing clear evidence for post-breakup extensional tectonics such as: synsedimentary geometries related to well oriented, parallel and spaced NE-striking faults; sedimentary dykes; lateral variations in the thickness and facies of formations; anomalous and discordant contacts corresponding to paleoescarpments; and slump folds. This field evidence indicates an important Late Cretaceous extensional tectonic event that affects the older Jurassic passive margin sequence. This process cannot be related to partial or local gravitational collapse, being the faults cross-cut suitable candidates for preferential gliding (e.g. the thick succession of Lower Cretaceous shales). Until now, the regional importance and magnitude of this late Cretaceous extension was not recognized in this part of the Alps. During the Cretaceous, this transitional area experienced three tectonic and sedimentary stages. (1) Post- Cenomanian disruption and exhumation of the Schrattenkalk platform was related to distribute normal faulting, which contributed to the initiation of karst erosion on the topographic highs and sedimentation in the lower parts. (2) During the Campanian and following a marine transgression, the area experienced more localized normal faulting accompanied by subsidence and slope instability directed toward the fault-scarps. A transition from distributed to more localized faulting is observed, related to a final stage in the evolution of the Cretaceous extensional process. The facies and thickness of subsequent post-Campanian sediments reflect a passive adaption to the pre-existing topography of the sea floor, established during the earlier tectonic movements. (3) Post-Maastrichtian north-directed tilting and erosion were caused by normal reactivation of a few main faults. During Eocene-Oligocene, mixed siliciclastic and calcareous deposits passively filled the rejuvenated topography and sealed the fault scarps. The first two stages can therefore be related to widespread post-breakup extension affecting the Mediterranean Tethys during the Late Cretaceous, whereas the later Early Tertiary event can be associated with pre-orogenic flexure of the Alpine foreland.

Cardello, G. L.; Mancktelow, N. S.

2012-04-01

65

Rechargeable lithium-ion cell  

DOEpatents

The invention relates to a rechargeable lithium-ion cell, a method for its manufacture, and its application. The cell is distinguished by the fact that it has a metallic housing (21) which is electrically insulated internally by two half shells (15), which cover electrode plates (8) and main output tabs (7) and are composed of a non-conductive material, where the metallic housing is electrically insulated externally by means of an insulation coating. The cell also has a bursting membrane (4) which, in its normal position, is located above the electrolyte level of the cell (1). In addition, the cell has a twisting protection (6) which extends over the entire surface of the cover (2) and provides centering and assembly functions for the electrode package, which comprises the electrode plates (8).

Bechtold, Dieter (Bad Vilbel, DE); Bartke, Dietrich (Kelkheim, DE); Kramer, Peter (Konigstein, DE); Kretzschmar, Reiner (Kelkheim, DE); Vollbert, Jurgen (Hattersheim, DE)

1999-01-01

66

Rechargeable lead-acid batteries.  

PubMed

Batteries used in medical equipment, like their counterparts in consumer products, attract little attention until they fail to function effectively. In some applications, such as in emergency medical devices, battery failure can have fatal consequences. While modern batteries are usually quite reliable, ECRI has received 53 written problem reports and countless verbal reports or questions related to battery problems in hospitals during the past five years. This large number of reports is due, at least in part, to the enormous quality of batteries used to operate or provide backup power in contemporary hospital equipment. As part of an ongoing evaluation of rehabilitation assistive equipment, ECRI has been studying the performance of 12 V rechargeable deep-cycle lead-acid batteries used in powered wheelchairs. During the course of this evaluation, it has become apparent that many professionals, both clinical and industrial, regard batteries as "black box" devices and know little about proper care and maintenance--and even less about battery selection and purchase. Because equipment performance and reliability can be strongly influenced by different battery models, an understanding of battery characteristics and how they affect performance is essential when selecting and purchasing batteries. The types of rechargeable batteries used most commonly in hospitals are lead-acid and nickel-cadmium (nicad), which we compare below; however, the guidance we provide in this article focuses on lead-acid batteries. While the examples given are for high-capacity 12 V deep-cycle batteries, similar analyses can be applied to smaller lead-acid batteries of different voltages. PMID:2211174

1990-09-01

67

Mesozoic to Early Tertiary tectonic-sedimentary evolution of the Northern Neotethys Ocean: evidence from the Beysehir-Hoyran-Hadim Nappes, S.W. Turkey.  

E-print Network

The Bey?ehir-Hoyran-Hadim Nappes crop out over 700km, from east to west in the Pisidian and Central Taurus Mountains of southern Turkey. During this study, field obsevations of lithological, structural and sedimentological features are combined...

Andrew, Theo

68

Regional Estimation of Total Recharge to Ground Water in Nebraska  

E-print Network

Regional Estimation of Total Recharge to Ground Water in Nebraska by Jozsef Szilagyi1m2,F. Edwin Harvey', and Jerry F. Ayers' Abstract Naturally occurring long-term mean annual recharge to ground water (GIS) layers of land cover, elevation of land and ground water surfaces,base recharge, and the recharge

Szilagyi, Jozsef

69

Lu-Hf garnet systematics of a polymetamorphic basement unit: new evidence for coherent exhumation of the Adula Nappe (Central Alps) from eclogite-facies conditions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Adula Nappe in the Central Alps is a mixture of various pre-Mesozoic continental basement rocks, metabasics, ultrabasics, and Mesozoic cover rocks, which were pervasively deformed during Alpine orogeny. Metabasics, ultrabasics, and locally garnet-mica schists preserve eclogite-facies assemblages while the bulk of the nappe lacks such evidence. We provide garnet major-element data, Lu profiles, and Lu-Hf garnet geochronology from eclogites sampled along a north-south traverse. A southward increasing Alpine overprint over pre-Alpine garnets is observed throughout the nappe. Garnets in a sample from the northern Adula Nappe display a single growth cycle and yield a Variscan age of 323.8 6.9 Ma. In contrast, a sample from Alpe Arami in the southernmost part contains unzoned garnets that fully equilibrated to Alpine high-pressure (HP) metamorphic conditions with temperatures exceeding 800 C. We suggest that the respective Eocene Lu-Hf age of 34.1 2.8 Ma is affected by partial re-equilibration after the Alpine pressure peak. A third sample from the central part of the nappe contains separable Alpine and Variscan garnet populations. The Alpine population yields a maximum age of 38.8 4.3 Ma in line with a previously published garnet maximum age from the central nappe of 37.1 0.9 Ma. The Adula Nappe represents a coherent basement unit, which preserves a continuous Alpine high-pressure metamorphic gradient. It was subducted as a whole in a single, short-lived event in the upper Eocene. Controversial HP ages and conditions in the Adula Nappe may result from partly preserved Variscan assemblages in Alpine metamorphic rocks.

Sandmann, Sascha; Nagel, Thorsten J.; Herwartz, Daniel; Fonseca, Ral O. C.; Kurzawski, Robert M.; Mnker, Carsten; Froitzheim, Nikolaus

2014-11-01

70

Groundwater recharge estimation and regionalization: the Great Bend Prairie of central Kansas and its recharge statistics  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sophocleous, M., 1992. Groundwater recharge estimation and regionalization: the Great Bend Prairie of central Kansas and its recharge statistics. J. Hydrol., 137: 113-140. The results of a 6 year recharge st,dy in the Great Bend Prairie of t:entral Kansas are statistically analyzed to regionalize the limited number of site-specific but year-round measurements. Emphasis is placed on easily measured parameters and

Marios Sophocleous

1992-01-01

71

REVISED NORTH CAROLINA GROUNDWATER RECHARGE RATES 1998  

EPA Science Inventory

Revised North Carolina Groundwater Recharge Rates, from Heath, R.C., 1994, unpublished map: North Carolina State University, as modified by the NC Department of Environment and Natural Resources (DENR) Division of Water Quality (DWQ) Groundwater Section, (polygons)...

72

Groundwater Recharge Simulator M. Tech. Thesis  

E-print Network

Groundwater Recharge Simulator M. Tech. Thesis by Dharmvir Kumar Roll No: 07305902 Guide: Prof;Contents 1 Introduction 1 1.1 Groundwater Theory.1.5 Groundwater Flow Equation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11 1.2 Numerical Solvers and Boundary

Sohoni, Milind

73

Design of an AUV recharging system  

E-print Network

The utility of present Autonomous Underwater Vehicles (AUVs) is limited by their on-board energy storage capability. Research indicates that rechargeable batteries will continue to be the AUV power source of choice for at ...

Gish, Lynn Andrew

2004-01-01

74

Teeny tiny windmills could recharge phones Share it now!  

E-print Network

Teeny tiny windmills could recharge phones Green Tech Share it now! 0 One of the tiny windmills recharge phones | VantageWire 2/1/2014http://www.vantagewire.com/2014/01/teeny-tiny-windmills-could-recharge-phones could recharge phones | VantageWire 2/1/2014http://www.vantagewire.com/2014/01/teeny-tiny-windmills-could-recharge-phones

Chiao, Jung-Chih

75

Hydrocarbon possibilities of concealed Mesozoic-Paleogene sediments below Himalayan nappes - reappraisal  

SciTech Connect

Hydrocarbon exploration of the Ganga (Ganges) and Sub-Himalayan basins indicates the presence of upper Neogene-Quaternary continental molasse and the absence of Paleogene sediments regarded as hydrocarbon source beds. Marine to brackish water Paleogene-lower Neogene sediments, closely fringing the Sub-Himalayan foothills, increase in thickness northward. Their presence and facies in the frontal schuppen zone and in the Lesser Himalayan windows, commonly in close association with upper Mesozoic shelf sediments, indicate a formerly greater width for the late Mesozoic-early Neogene shelf-miogeosynclinal basin. The pre-Tertiary rocks of the Lesser Himalayas are in nappes floored by the flat-lying sole thrust redesignated the Main Boundary thrust (MBT). Schuppen structure and lateral shortening complicate the geometry of the MBT. Pre-Tertiary tectonic grain and metamorphism, ubiquitously developed within the Lesser Himalayan cover rocks, are typically absent in the subjacent Paleogene-lower Neogene window-zone sediments. This opinion is corroborated by a few oil and gas shows from the Eocene limestone outcrops close to the MBT and also from the Lesser Himalayan pre-Tertiary metamorphic cover rocks.

Acharyya, S.K. (Geological Survey of India, Dimapur); Ray, K.K.

1982-01-01

76

Modeling Recharge - can it be Done?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In sub-humid areas where rainfall is relatively low and sporadic, recharge (defined as water movement beyond the active root zone) is the small difference between the much larger numbers rainfall and evapotranspiration. It is very difficult to measure and often modeling is resorted to instead. But is modeling this small number any less difficult than measurement? In Australia there is considerable debate over the magnitude of recharge under different agricultural systems because of its contribution to rising saline groundwater levels following the clearing of native vegetation in the last 100 years. Hence the adequacy of measured and modeled estimates of recharge is under close scrutiny. Results will be presented for the water balance of an intensively monitored 8 year sequence of crops and pastures. Measurements included meteorological inputs, evapotranspiration measured with a pair of weighing lysimeters, and soil water content was measured with TDR and neutron moisture meter. Recharge was estimated from the percolate removed from the lysimeters as well as, when conditions were suitable, from soil water measurements and combined soil water and evapotranspiration measurements. This data was simulated using a comprehensive soil-plant-atmosphere model (APSIM). Comparison with field measurements shows that the recharge can be simulated with an accuracy similar to that with which it can be measured. However, is either sufficiently accurate for the applications for which they are required?

Verburg, K.; Bond, W. J.; Smith, C. J.; Dunin, F. X.

2001-12-01

77

Using groundwater levels to estimate recharge  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Accurate estimation of groundwater recharge is extremely important for proper management of groundwater systems. Many different approaches exist for estimating recharge. This paper presents a review of methods that are based on groundwater-level data. The water-table fluctuation method may be the most widely used technique for estimating recharge; it requires knowledge of specific yield and changes in water levels over time. Advantages of this approach include its simplicity and an insensitivity to the mechanism by which water moves through the unsaturated zone. Uncertainty in estimates generated by this method relate to the limited accuracy with which specific yield can be determined and to the extent to which assumptions inherent in the method are valid. Other methods that use water levels (mostly based on the Darcy equation) are also described. The theory underlying the methods is explained. Examples from the literature are used to illustrate applications of the different methods.

Healy, R.W.; Cook, P.G.

2002-01-01

78

Experimental studies in natural groundwater-recharge dynamics: The analysis of observed recharge events  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The amounts and time distribution of groundwater recharge from precipitation over an approximately 19-month period were investigated at two instrumented sites in south-central Kansas. Precipitation and evapotranspiration sequences, soil-moisture profiles and storage changes, water fluxes in the unsaturated zone and hydraulic gradients in the saturated zone at various depths, soil temperatures, water-table hydrographs, and water-level changes in nearby wells clearly depict the recharge process. Antecedent moisture conditions and the thickness and nature of the unsaturated zone were found to be the major factors affecting recharge. Although the two instrumented sites are located in sand-dune environments in areas characterized by shallow water table and subhumid continental climate, a significant difference was observed in the estimated effective recharge. The estimates ranged from less than 2.5 to approximately 154 mm at the two sites from February to June 1983. The main reasons for this large difference in recharge estimates were the greater thickness of the unsaturated zone and the lower moisture content in that zone resulting from lower precipitation and higher potential evapotranspiration for one of the sites. Effective recharge took place only during late winter and spring. No summer or fall recharge was observed at either site during the observation period of this study.

Sophocleous, Marios; Perry, Charles A.

1985-11-01

79

Impacts of vegetation change on groundwater recharge  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Vegetation change is the accepted cause of increasing river salt concentrations and the salinisation of millions of hectares of farm land in Australia. Replacement of perennial native vegetation by annual crops and pastures following European settlement has altered the water balance causing increased groundwater recharge and mobilising the naturally saline groundwater. The Redesigning Agriculture for Australian Landscapes Program, of which the work described here is a part, was established to develop agricultural practices that are more attuned to the delicate water balance described above. Results of field measurements will be presented that contrast the water balance characteristics of native vegetation with those of conventional agricultural plants, and indicate the functional characteristics required of new agricultural practices to reduce recharge. New agricultural practices may comprise different management of current crops and pastures, or may involve introducing totally new species. In either case, long-term testing is required to examine their impact on recharge over a long enough climate record to encompass the natural variability of rainfall that is characteristic of most Australian farming regions. Field experimentation therefore needs to be complemented and extended by computer simulation. This requires a modelling approach that is more robust than conventional crop modelling because (a) it needs to be sensitive enough to predict small changes in the residual recharge term, (b) it needs to be able to simulate a variety of vegetation in different sequences, (c) it needs to be able to simulate continuously for several decades of input data, and (d) it therefore needs to be able to simulate the period between crops, which often has a critical impact on recharge. The APSIM simulation framework will be used to illustrate these issues and to explore the effect of different vegetation combinations on recharge.

Bond, W. J.; Verburg, K.; Smith, C. J.

2003-12-01

80

Solar recharging system for hearing aid cells.  

PubMed

We present a solar recharging system for nickel-cadmium cells of interest in areas where batteries for hearing aids are difficult to obtain. The charger has sun cells at the top. Luminous energy is converted into electrical energy, during the day and also at night if there is moonlight. The cost of the charger and hearing aid is very low at 35 US$. The use of solar recharging for hearing aids would be useful in alleviating the problems of deafness in parts of developing countries where there is no electricity. PMID:7964140

Gmez Estancona, N; Tena, A G; Torca, J; Urruticoechea, L; Muiz, L; Aristimuo, D; Unanue, J M; Torca, J; Urruticoechea, A

1994-09-01

81

REFLEAK: NIST Leak/Recharge Simulation Program for Refrigerant Mixtures  

National Institute of Standards and Technology Data Gateway

SRD 73 NIST REFLEAK: NIST Leak/Recharge Simulation Program for Refrigerant Mixtures (PC database for purchase) REFLEAK estimates composition changes of zeotropic mixtures in leak and recharge processes.

82

Basement nappes on the NE boundary the Ossa-Morena Zone (SW Iberian Variscides)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The studied area is located in the Abrantes (W-central Portugal) region of the Ossa Morena Zone, where the NW tip of the Tomar-Badajoz-Cordoba Shear Zone (TBCSZ) stops against the Porto-Tomar-Ferreira do Alentejo Shear Zone (PTFASZ). The TBCSZ is a WNW-ESE sinistral transpressive intra-plate Variscan flower structure, whereas the PTFASZ is N-S dextral paleotransform during the Variscan Wilson cycle in SW Iberia. The NE branch of the TBCSZ, with top to NE sense of thrusting, is characterized by the following tectonic units, from top to bottom: - Paleozoic cover: Bimodal volcanics, marbles and arkoses, metamorphosed under greenschist facies (and displaying a minor thrust at the base), inferred to be of Lower Paleozoic age by stratigraphic correlation with other sectors dated as Cambrian to Silurian in the Ossa Morena Zone. - Cadomian intermediate crust: low/intermediate pressure (~ 4 - 7 kb) retrograded granulites, including a mafic (meta-gabbroic) component that yielded metamorphic zircons dated at 5393 Ma (Henriques et al., 2009). - Cadomian upper crust: granitic gneisses, yielding prismatic, oscillatory-zoned, igneous zircons dated at 570 Ma, and 5405 Ma metamorphic monazites (Henriques et al., 2009). - Cadomian volcano-sedimentary sequences: Greenschist facies black phyllites and greywackes, intercalated with black chert beds and bimodal metavolcanics ("Srie Negra"), which are correlated with the Neoproterozoic sequences of the Ibero-Armorican Massif. All the tectonic units are separated by top to NE thrusts, operating under ductile conditions in the upper units and under a brittle regime in the lower units; thus, inverting the inherited Cadomian crust below the basal dcollement of Palaeozoic cover. The tectonic units belong to the Ossa-Morena Zone and were transported towards NE, on top of the (very low-grade) Central-Iberian Zone relative autochthon (Ediacarian/Cambrian to Lower Devonian). The amount of the NE thrust displacement in the granulite basement nappe is considerable, at least 5 to 10 km, considering the presence of mafic granulites included in intermediate granulites, both retrograded into the amphibolite facies, in the SW Bioucas and in the NE Olalhas klippe, resting on top of the lower-grade poly-metamorphic Cadomian assemblages. Geological data summarized above confirm the presence of Cadomian basement nappes that were reactivated under a thick-skinned thrust regime during the Variscan cycle; therefore, implying a poly-orogenic evolution for the studied tectonic units. TBCSZ represents a Cadomian suture that was initially reactivated during Lower Paleozoic intercontinental rifting, later evolving to transpressive intra-plate flower structure during the Upper Paleozoic Variscan convergence phase. It is concluded that thick-skinned tectonic regime by Variscan reactivation of Cadomian basement is a major element in the geodynamic evolution in the internal zones of SW European Variscides and of the Variscan Orogen in general terms.

Romao, Jose Manuel; Ribeiro, Antonio; Munha, Jose; Ribeiro, Luisa

2010-05-01

83

New data on the Vrancea Nappe (Moldavidian Basin, Outer Carpathian Domain, Romania): paleogeographic and geodynamic reconstructions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A study has been performed on the Cretaceous to Early Miocene succession of the Vrancea Nappe (Outer Carpathians, Romania), based on field reconstruction of the stratigraphic record, mineralogical-petrographic and geochemical analyses. Extra-basinal clastic supply and intra-basinal autochthonous deposits have been differentiated, appearing laterally inter-fingered and/or interbedded. The main clastic petrofacies consist of calcarenites, sub-litharenites, quartzarenites, sub-arkoses, and polygenic conglomerates derived from extra-basinal margins. An alternate internal and external provenance of the different supplies is the result of the paleogeographic re-organization of the basin/margins system due to tectonic activation and exhumation of rising areas. The intra-basinal deposits consist of black shales and siliceous sediments (silexites and cherty beds), evidencing major environmental changes in the Moldavidian Basin. Organic-matter-rich black shales were deposited during anoxic episodes related to sediment starvation and high nutrient influx due to paleogeographic isolation of the basin caused by plate drifting. The black shales display relatively high contents in sub-mature to mature, Type II lipidic organic matter (good oil and gas-prone source rocks) constituting a potentially active petroleum system. The intra-basinal siliceous sediments are related to oxic pelagic or hemipelagic environments under tectonic quiescence conditions although its increase in the Oligocene part of the succession can be correlated with volcanic supplies. The integration of all the data in the "progressive reorientation of convergence direction" Carpathian model, and their consideration in the framework of a foreland basin, led to propose some constrains on the paleogeographic-geodynamic evolutionary model of the Moldavidian Basin from the Late Cretaceous to the Burdigalian.

Amadori, Maria Letizia; Belayouni, Habib; Guerrera, Francesco; Martn-Martn, Manuel; Martin-Rojas, Ivn; Micl?u?, Crina; Raffaelli, Giuliana

2012-09-01

84

Micro Windmills to Recharge Cell Leave a reply  

E-print Network

Micro Windmills to Recharge Cell Phones Leave a reply The Windmill in Action At the University of Texas Arlington, scientists J.C. Chiao and Smitha Rao have developed micro-windmills which recharge Page 1 of 2Micro Windmills to Recharge Cell Phones | MADE 2/3/2014http://themadeblog.com/micro

Chiao, Jung-Chih

85

Microstructural Modeling and Design of Rechargeable Lithium-Ion Batteries  

E-print Network

Microstructural Modeling and Design of Rechargeable Lithium-Ion Batteries R. Edwin Garci´a,a, *,z information and constitutive material properties to calculate the response of rechargeable batteries of a recharge- able battery provides valuable insight into optimizing the perfor- mance of the device

García, R. Edwin

86

Melt-Formable Block Copolymer Electrolytes for Lithium Rechargeable Batteries  

E-print Network

Melt-Formable Block Copolymer Electrolytes for Lithium Rechargeable Batteries Anne-Vale´rie G conductivity in polymer electrolytes for solid-state rechargeable lithium batteries. However, due to the strong in solid-state rechargeable lithium batteries. Yet, technical obstacles to their commercialization derive

Sadoway, Donald Robert

87

Block Copolymer-Templated Nanocomposite Electrodes for Rechargeable Lithium Batteries  

E-print Network

Block Copolymer-Templated Nanocomposite Electrodes for Rechargeable Lithium Batteries S. C. Mui-organizing, nanocomposite electrode SONE system was developed as a model lithium alloy-based anode for rechargeable lithium of rechargeable lithium batteries, the search for high capacity anodes that avoid the safety concerns associated

Sadoway, Donald Robert

88

Sources of uncertainty in climate change impacts on groundwater recharge  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper assesses the significance of the many sources of uncertainty in future groundwater recharge estimation, based on lessons learnt from an integrated approach to assessing the regional impacts of climate and socio-economic change on groundwater recharge in East Anglia, UK. Many factors affect simulations of future groundwater recharge including changed precipitation and temperature regimes, coastal flooding, urbanization, woodland establishment,

I. P. Holman

2007-01-01

89

Origine des nitrates dans les nappes de fissures de la zone tropicale humide Exemple de la Cte d'Ivoire  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

High nitrate contents (up to 200 mg l -1) were observed in a sample of 230 tubewells reaching fissure groundwater beneath thick layers of weathered and decayed rock, in a humid tropical zone with annual rainfall of over 1000 mm. Examination and comparison of the regions studied led to envisaging two possible sources of the nitrates: first, classic domestic pollution, and second the leaching of the soil and rotting plant debris after local deforestation when villages or crops were established. An attempt was made to distinguish between the two sources by using 15N-NO 3. The results were rendered uncertain by the probable involvement of natural denitrification. Nevertheless, this approach provides arguments in support of nitrates originating in processes connected with deforestation.

Faillat, Jean-Pierre

1990-02-01

90

Composite Electrolytes for Lithium Rechargeable Batteries  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper reviews and presents attributes of emerging polymer-ceramic composite electrolytes for lithium rechargeable batteries. The electrochemical data of a diverse range of composite electrolytes reveal that the incorporation of a ceramic component in a polymer matrix leads to enhanced conductivity, increased lithium transport number, and improved electrode-electrolyte interfacial stability. The conductivity enhancement depends upon the weight fraction of the

Binod Kumar; Lawrence G. Scanlon

2000-01-01

91

Recharging Our Sense of Idealism: Concluding Thoughts  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this article, the authors aim to recharge one's sense of idealism. They argue that idealism is the Vitamin C that sustains one's commitment to implementing humanistic principles and social justice practices in the work of counselors and educators. The idealism that characterizes counselors and educators who are humanistic and social justice

D'Andrea, Michael; Dollarhide, Colette T.

2011-01-01

92

Tradable recharge rights in Coleambally Irrigation Area  

Microsoft Academic Search

Irrigated agriculture in Australia often leads to recharge of shared groundwater systems causing saline shallow watertables and soil salinity. In turn, these biophysical impacts impose costs, including reduced agricultural productivity, damage to ecosystems and degradation of local and off-site infrastructure, on irrigators and other members of the community. To the extent these costs are external to landowners they are not

Stuart Whitten; Shahbaz Khan

93

Anode for rechargeable ambient temperature lithium cells  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An ambient room temperature, high density, rechargeable lithium battery includes a Li(x)Mg2Si negative anode which intercalates lithium to form a single crystalline phase when x is up to 1.0 and an amorphous phase when x is from 1 to 2.0. The electrode has good reversibility and mechanical strength after cycling.

Huang, Chen-Kuo (inventor); Surampudi, Subbarao (inventor); Attia, Alan I. (inventor); Halpert, Gerald (inventor)

1994-01-01

94

Design considerations for rechargeable lithium batteries  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Viewgraphs of a discussion of design considerations for rechargable lithium batteries. The objective is to determine the influence of cell design parameters on the performance of Li-TiS2 cells. Topics covered include cell baseline design and testing, cell design and testing, cell design parameters studies, and cell cycling performance.

Shen, D. H.; Huang, C.-K.; Davies, E.; Perrone, D.; Surampudi, S.; Halpert, Gerald

1993-01-01

95

Rechargeable solid polymer electrolyte battery cell  

DOEpatents

A rechargeable battery cell comprising first and second electrodes sandwiching a solid polymer electrolyte comprising a layer of a polymer blend of a highly conductive polymer and a solid polymer electrolyte adjacent said polymer blend and a layer of dry solid polymer electrolyte adjacent said layer of polymer blend and said second electrode.

Skotheim, Terji (East Patchoque, NY)

1985-01-01

96

Alloys of clathrate allotropes for rechargeable batteries  

DOEpatents

The present disclosure is directed at an electrode for a battery wherein the electrode comprises clathrate alloys of silicon, germanium or tin. In method form, the present disclosure is directed at methods of forming clathrate alloys of silicon, germanium or tin which methods lead to the formation of empty cage structures suitable for use as electrodes in rechargeable type batteries.

Chan, Candace K; Miller, Michael A; Chan, Kwai S

2014-12-09

97

Constraining exhumation pathway in an accretionary wedge by (U-Th)/He thermochronologyCase study on Meliatic nappes in the Western Carpathians  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study reconstructs the late stages in the exhumation history of a nappe derived from the Meliatic accretionary wedge in the Western Carpathians by means of zircon and apatite (U-Th)/He dating. The Meliatic accretionary wedge formed due to the closure of the Neotethyan Triassic-Jurassic Meliata-Hallstatt Ocean in the Late Jurassic. The studied fragments of the blueschist-bearing Meliatic Brka Nappe were metamorphosed at low-temperature and high- to medium-pressure conditions at ca. 160-150 Ma and included into the accretionary wedge. The time of the accretionary wedge formation constrains the beginning of the Brka Nappe northward thrusting over the Gemeric Unit of the evolving Central Western Carpathians (CWC) orogenic wedge. The zircon (U-Th)/He data on four samples recorded three evolutionary stages: (i) cooling through the ?180 C isotherm at 130-120 Ma related to starting collapse of the accretionary wedge, following exhumation of the high-pressure slices in the Meliatic accretionary wedge; (ii) postponed exhumation and cooling of some fragments through the ?180 C isotherm from 115 to 95 Ma due to ongoing collapse of this wedge; and (iii) cooling from 80 to 65 Ma, postdating the thrusting (?100-80 Ma) of the Brka Nappe slices during the Late Cretaceous compression related to formation of the CWC orogenic wedge. The third stage already documents cooling of the Meliatic Brka Nappe slices in the CWC orogenic wedge. The apatite (U-Th)/He data may indicate cooling of a Brka Nappe slice to near-surface temperatures at ?65 Ma. The younger AHe age clusters indicate that at least one, or possibly two, reheating events could have occurred in the longer interval from ?40 to ?10 Ma during the Oligocene-Miocene. These were related to sedimentary burial and/or the magmatism as documented in other parts of the CWC.

Puti, Marin; Danik, Martin; Rui?ka, Peter; Schmiedt, Ivan

2014-11-01

98

Automatic rainfall recharge model induction by evolutionary computational intelligence  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Genetic programming (GP) is used to develop models of rainfall recharge from observations of rainfall recharge and rainfall, calculated potential evapotranspiration (PET) and soil profile available water (PAW) at four sites over a 4 year period in Canterbury, New Zealand. This work demonstrates that the automatic model induction method is a useful development in modeling rainfall recharge. The five best performing models evolved by genetic programming show a highly nonlinear relationship between rainfall recharge and the independent variables. These models are dominated by a positive correlation with rainfall, a negative correlation with the square of PET, and a negative correlation with PAW. The best performing GP models are more reliable than a soil water balance model at predicting rainfall recharge when rainfall recharge is observed in the late spring, summer, and early autumn periods. The ``best'' GP model provides estimates of cumulative sums of rainfall recharge that are closer than a soil water balance model to observations at all four sites.

Hong, Yoon-Seok Timothy; White, Paul A.; Scott, David M.

2005-08-01

99

Monitoring Cave Recharge in the Edwards Aquifer Recharge Zone for Natural and Simulated Rainfall Events  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Across semi-arid regions of the world, woody plant encroachment is widespread with potential implications for groundwater recharge and streamflow. In an effort to better understand the interactions between woody plants and recharge, we are monitoring drip rates in shallow caves in the Edwards Aquifer recharge zone of Central Texas. The surface is covered by a dense stand of ashe juniper (Juniperus ashei). In addition to stemflow, throughfall, and surface runoff was monitored for both natural precipitation events as well as simulated rainfall. Interception and throughfall are measured using a grid of rain gauges and throughfall collectors. Surface runoff measurements were quantified with a 15.24 centimeter H- flume instrumented with an ultrasonic water level sensor. Drip collectors constructed inside the cave collect recharge entering the cave from the ceiling. Large scale rainfall simulation equipment onsite allows us to "re-create" these naturally occurring rainfall events and compare the resulting data with that from the original event. Performing these types of tests allows us to learn important information about the cave footprint's ability to transmit recharge waters into the cave. During a simulation, water is applied directly to the cave footprint and not to the entire hillslope as in a natural rain event. We found that recharge for the natural and simulated events were similar. In each case, recharge makes up less than 5% of the water budget, in spite of the fact that there was little, if any, surface runoff. The working hypothesis is that most of the rainfall is routed off the hillslope as lateral subsurface flow.

Gregory, L.; Veni, G.; Shade, B.; Wilcox, B. P.; Munster, C. L.; Owens, M. K.

2005-12-01

100

A new rechargeable intelligent vehicle detection sensor  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Intelligent Transportation System (ITS) is a valid approach to solve the increasing transportation issue in cities. Vehicle detection is one of the key technologies in ITS. The ITS collects and processes traffic data (vehicle flow, vehicular speed, vehicle density and occupancy ratios) from vehicle detection sensors buried under the road or installed along the road. Inductive loop detector as one type of the vehicle detector is applied extensively, with the characters of stability, high value to cost ratio and feasibility. On the other hand, most of the existing inductive loop vehicle detection sensors have some weak points such as friability of detective loop, huge engineering for setting and traffic interruption during installing the sensor. The design and reality of a new rechargeable intelligent vehicle detection sensor is presented in this paper against these weak points existing now. The sensor consists of the inductive loop detector, the rechargeable batteries, the MCU (microcontroller) and the transmitter. In order to reduce the installing project amount, make the loop durable and easily maintained, the volume of the detective loop is reduced as much as we can. Communication in RF (radio frequency) brings on the advantages of getting rid of the feeder cable completely and reducing the installing project amount enormously. For saving the cable installation, the sensor is supplied by the rechargeable batteries. The purpose of the intelligent management of the energy and transmitter by means of MCU is to minimize the power consumption and prolong the working period of the sensor. In a word, the new sensor is more feasible with smaller volume, wireless communication, rechargeable batteries, low power consumption, low cost, high detector precision and easy maintenance and installation.

Lin, L.; Han, X. B.; Ding, R.; Li, G.; C-Y Lu, Steven; Hong, Q.

2005-01-01

101

Rechargeable lithium batteries with aqueous electrolytes.  

PubMed

Rechargeable lithium-ion batteries that use an aqueous electrolyte have been developed. Cells with LiMn(2)O(4) and VO(2)(B) as electrodes and 5 M LiNO(3) in water as the electrolyte provide a fundamentally safe and cost-effective technology that can compete with nickelcadmium and lead-acid batteries on the basis of stored energy per unit of weight. PMID:17744893

Li, W; Dahn, J R; Wainwright, D S

1994-05-20

102

Rechargeable batteries with organic radical cathodes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The first known application of stable radicals for energy storage systems is presented. A stable nitroxyl polyradical, poly (2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidinyloxy methacrylate) (PTMA) has been synthesized and applied to the cathode active materials in rechargeable batteries. These fabricated batteries have demonstrated an average discharge voltage of 3.5 V and a discharge capacity of 77 Ah\\/kg, which corresponds to 70% of the theoretical

K. Nakahara; S Iwasa; M Satoh; Y Morioka; J Iriyama; M Suguro; E Hasegawa

2002-01-01

103

Rechargeable lithium batteries with aqueous electrolytes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rechargeable lithium-ion batteries that use an aqueous electrolyte have been developed. Cells with LiMnO and VO(B) as electrodes and 5 M LiNO in water as the electrolyte provide a fundamentally safe and cost-effective technology that can compete with nickel-cadmium and lead-acid batteries on the basis of stored energy per unit of weight.14 refs., 4 figs.

Wu Li; J. R. Dahn; D. S. Wainwright

1994-01-01

104

Ampere-Hour Meter For Rechargeable Battery  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Low-power analog/digital electronic circuit meters discharge of storage battery in ampere-hours. By metering discharge, one obtains indication of state of charge of battery and avoids unnecessary recharging, maintaining capacity of battery and prolonging life. Because of its small size and low power consumption, useful in such applications as portable video cameras, communication equipment on boats, portable audio equipment, and portable medical equipment.

Tripp, John S.; Schott, Timothy D.; Tcheng, Ping

1993-01-01

105

Recharge monitoring in an interplaya setting  

SciTech Connect

The objective of this investigation is to monitor infiltration in response to precipitation events in an interplaya setting. The authors evaluated data gathered from the interplaya recharge monitoring installation at the Pantex Plant from March through December 1998. They monitored thermocouple psychrometer (TCP) instruments to measure water potential and time-domain reflectometry (TDR) probes to measure water content and bulk soil conductivity. Heat-dissipation sensor (HDS) instruments were monitored to supplement the TCP data.

Scanlon, B.R.; Reedy, R.C.; Liang, J. [Univ. of Texas, Austin, TX (United States). Bureau of Economic Geology

1999-03-01

106

High temperature rechargeable molten slat battery  

SciTech Connect

This patent describes a high temperature rechargeable molten salt battery. It comprises a transition metal-sulfide as the cathode, a lithium-aluminum alloy as the anode, a molten lithium salt as the electrolyte, and an alkaline earth metal sulfide as an additive to the transition metal sulfide cathode wherein the cathode mix is prepared by physically mixing the alkaline earth metal sulfide and the transition metal sulfide in the proper ratios.

Plichta, E.J.; Behl, W.

1990-09-11

107

Rechargeable batteries and battery management systems design  

Microsoft Academic Search

Estimated worldwide sales for rechargeable batteries, was around US$36 billion in 2008 and this is expected to grow towards US$51 billion by 2013. As per market reports, US demand for primary and secondary batteries will increase by 2.5% annually to 16.8 billion in 2012, while primary batteries will account for 5.8 billion with a growth rate of 3%. The insatiable

N. Kularatna

2010-01-01

108

Cathodoluminescence, fluid inclusion and stable C-O isotope study of tectonic breccias from thrusting plane of a thin-skinned calcareous nappe  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Basal hydraulic breccias of alpine thin-skinned Mur? nappe were investigated by means of cathodoluminescence petrography, stable isotope geochemistry and fluid inclusions analysis. Our study reveals an unusual dynamic fluid regime along basal thrust plane during final episode of the nappe emplacement over its metamorphic substratum. Basal thrusting fluids enriched in 18O, silica, alumina, alkalies and phosphates were generated in the underlying metamorphosed basement at epizonal conditions corresponding to the temperatures of 400-450C. The fluids fluxed the tectonized nappe base, leached evaporite-bearing formations in hangingwall, whereby becoming oversaturated with sulphates and chlorides. The fluids further modified their composition by dedolomitization and isotopic exchange with the host carbonatic cataclasites. Newly formed mineral assemblage of quartz, phlogopite, albite, potassium feldspar, apatite, dravite tourmaline and anhydrite precipitated from these fluids on cooling down to 180-200C. Finally, the cataclastic mush was cemented by calcite at ambient anchizonal conditions. Recurrent fluid injections as described above probably enhanced the final motion of the Mur? nappe.

Milovsk, Rastislav; van den Kerkhof, Alfons; Hoefs, Jochen; Hurai, Vratislav; Prochaska, Walter

2012-03-01

109

A purely structural restoration of the NFP20-East cross section and potential tectonic overpressure in the Adula nappe (central Alps)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

extrusion-type models for the high- to ultrahigh-pressure Adula nappe require a major normal fault along the top of this unit which is not conveyed in the structural record. This implies that such a normal fault existed but was completely erased during later deformational stages. However, there is evidence that decompression occurred during top-to-the-foreland thrusting. We performed a new, purely structural kinematic restoration of the central part of the NFP20-East cross section in order to estimate the burial depths of individual units without converting petrological pressure data into depth under the assumption that pressures were lithostatic. The results show that pressures within most of the units were close to but somewhat higher than lithostatic for several stages of the tectono-metamorphic history. Only for the maximum burial stage of the Adula nappe, we estimate local tectonic overpressures of 40 to 80% of the lithostatic pressures. Accepting such an amount of overpressure, which is moderate compared to values theoretically possible, the Adula nappe was probably not subducted to subcrustal depth. We propose that the structural record of the Penninic nappe stack is quite complete and suggest that the decay of tectonic overpressure is a feasible explanation for decompression from eclogite- to amphibolite-facies conditions during thrusting. Consequently, exhumation and convergence rates of the Eocene to Oligocene Alps may be smaller than previously assumed.

Pleuger, Jan; Podladchikov, Yuri Y.

2014-05-01

110

Application of GIS Based Tools for Groundwater Recharge and Evapotranspiration Estimation: Arc-Recharge and RIPGIS-NET  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Water managers are increasingly concerned about the potential impact of climate variability and change on groundwater resources. Climate impacts on groundwater resources are primarily determined by altering the amount of recharge and evapotranspiration (ET). Typically, groundwater models employ temporally static recharge or ET rates with limited spatial variability across the basin. As a result most groundwater models cannot be used to assess the impacts of climate on groundwater resources. A primary challenge addressing this shortcoming is the need for spatially and temporally explicit recharge and ET model inputs. Geographic Information Systems (GIS) and spatially explicit data can be applied to develop these improved model inputs by quantifying and distributing recharge and ET across the model domain. Two ArcGIS desktop applications were developed for ArcGIS 9.2 to enhance recharge and ET estimation- Arc- Recharge and RIPGIS-NET. Arc-Recharge an ArcGIS 9.2 custom application is developed to quantify and distribute recharge along MODFLOW cells. Using spatially explicit precipitation data and Digital Elevation Model (DEM), Arc-Recharge routes water through the landscape and distributes the recharge to the appropriate groundwater model cells. RIPGIS-NET is an ArcGIS custom application that was developed to provide parameters for the RIP-ET package. RIP-ET is an improved MODFLOW ET module that simulates ET using a set of eco-physiologically based ET curves. RIPGIS-NET improves alluvial recharge estimation by providing spatially explicit information about the riparian/wetland ET. Application of Arc-Recharge and RIPGIS-NET in groundwater modeling enhances recharge and ET estimation by incorporating temporally and spatially explicit data. Using such tools, assessment of climate variability on groundwater resources will be enhanced.

Ajami, H.; Hogan, J.; Maddock, T.; Meixner, T.

2007-12-01

111

P-T Alpine metamorphic evolution of the Monte Rosa nappe along the Piedmont Zone boundary (Gressoney Valley, NW Italy)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The pseudosection modelling of two chemical systems (both metabasic and metapelitic) allowed to reconstruct the exhumation P-T path followed by the southern slope of the Monte Rosa nappe (Upper Gressoney Valley) during the Alpine orogenesis. The metamorphic evolution of the polymetamorphic basement complex from the Monte Rosa nappe is marked by texturally distinct mineral assemblages, defining four Alpine metamorphic stages (M1 to M4) reflecting a sequence of different P-T conditions. Well preserved eclogitic boudins (M1 and M2 assemblages) were investigated to reconstruct the HP history related to the subduction phase, while re-equilibrated metapelites allowed to infer the P-T conditions attained during the development of the regional foliation (M3 and M4 assemblages). The HP stage (M1) occurred at 550-570 C and 24-27 kbar and is characterised by the assemblage Omp + Grt + Lws + Phe + Qtz + Gln Tlc in the eclogites. The M2 metamorphic stage consists of the assemblage Omp + Grt + Barr + Zo + Phe + Pg + Qtz and developed at 590-630 C and 14.5-16.5 kbar suggesting a T increasing during decompression. After a further decompressional stage associated with a T decrease, the M3 tectono-metamorphic stage developed syn-kinematically with the main regional foliation S1. It is marked by the assemblage Phe + Pg + Grt + Chl + Ab/Olig + Hbl + Qtz + Rt/Ilm Bt in metapelites and by Cam (blue-green) + Chl + Ab + Bt + Qtz + Rt in the re-equilibrated metabasite boudins. S1 developed during increasing T (from 550 to ca. 600 C) and sligthly increasing P (from 7 to 9 kbar). Finally, the M4 assemblage grew as rims over the M3 minerals or overgrew the S1 regional foliation (albite porphyroblasts overgrowing the S1 foliation already defined by albite) and therefore can be considered as the final stage of the M3 stage. The P-T path proposed for the Monte Rosa nappe differs from previous works. In particular, we propose post-eclogitic decompression trajectory up to 7 kbar, followed by a P-T increase that can be related to a second burial-exhumation cycle during Alpine orogenesis, as recently reported for other Alpine units.

Gasco, Ivano; Borghi, Alessandro; Gattiglio, Marco

2011-11-01

112

Probabilistic analysis of the effects of climate change on groundwater recharge  

Microsoft Academic Search

Groundwater recharge is likely to be affected by climate change. In semiarid regions where groundwater resources are often critical, annual recharge rates are typically small and most recharge occurs episodically. Such episodic recharge is uncertain and difficult to predict. This paper analyzes the impacts of different climate predictions on diffuse episodic recharge at a low-relief semiarid rain-fed agricultural area. The

Gene-Hua Crystal Ng; Dennis McLaughlin; Dara Entekhabi; Bridget R. Scanlon

2010-01-01

113

The relative contributions of summer and cool-season precipitation to groundwater recharge, Spring Mountains, Nevada, USA  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A comparison of the stable-isotope signatures of spring waters, snow, snowmelt, summer (July thru September) rain, and cool season (October thru June) rain indicates that the high-intensity, short-duration summer convective storms, which contribute approximately a third of the annual precipitation to the Spring Mountains, provide only a small fraction (perhaps 10%) of the recharge to this major upland in southern Nevada, USA. Late spring snowmelt is the principal means of recharging the fractured Paleozoic-age carbonate rocks comprising the central and highest portion of the Spring Mountains. Daily discharge measurements at Peak Spring Canyon Creek during the period 1978-94 show that snowpacks were greatly enhanced during El Nio events. Rsum La comparaison des signatures isotopiques stables des eaux de sources, de neige, de fonte de neige, des pluies d't (juillet septembre) et de saison froide (octobre juin) montre que les prcipitations convectives d't de forte intensit et de courte dure, apportant un tiers des prcipitations annuelles reues par les Monts Spring, ne participent que pour une faible part (10%) la recharge de cette importante zone d'altitude du sud du Nevada (tats-Unis). La fonte tardive de la neige au printemps constitue l'essentiel de la recharge des roches carbonates fractures d'ge palozoque formant la partie centrale et la plus haute des Monts Spring. Les donnes journalires de dbit sur la rivire du canyon de Peak Spring, entre 1978 et 1994, montrent que les hauteurs de neige ont t plus leves pendant les vnements El Nio. Resumen La comparacin entre las marcas isotpicas de aguas de manantiales, nieve, deshielo, lluvias de verano (julio a septiembre) y resto de lluvias (octubre a junio) indican que las tormentas de verano, de corta duracin y gran intensidad, las cuales suponen alrededor de un tercio de la precipitacin total anual en las Spring Mountains, proporcionan slo una fraccin pequea (alrededor del 10%) de la recarga en esta zona al sur de Nevada (EE.UU.). El deshielo de finales de la primavera es la principal fuente de recarga de las rocas carbonatadas fracturadas de edad Paleozoica que forman las partes central y superior de las Spring Mountains. Las medidas de descarga diarias en el Desfiladero de Peak Spring Canyon durante 1978-94 muestran que los espesores de nieve aumentaron coincidiendo con los fenmenos de El Nio.

Winograd, Isaac J.; Riggs, Alan C.; Coplen, Tyler B.

114

Making Li-air batteries rechargeable: material challenges  

SciTech Connect

A Li-air battery could potentially provide three to five times higher energy density/specific energy than conventional batteries, thus enable the driving range of an electric vehicle comparable to a gasoline vehicle. However, making Li-air batteries rechargeable presents significant challenges, mostly related with materials. Herein, we discuss the key factors that influence the rechargeability of Li-air batteries with a focus on nonaqueous system. The status and materials challenges for nonaqueous rechargeable Li-air batteries are reviewed. These include electrolytes, cathode (electocatalysts), lithium metal anodes, and oxygen-selective membranes (oxygen supply from air). The perspective of rechargeable Li-air batteries is provided.

Shao, Yuyan; Ding, Fei; Xiao, Jie; Zhang, Jian; Xu, Wu; Park, Seh Kyu; Zhang, Jiguang; Wang, Yong; Liu, Jun

2013-02-25

115

A review of groundwater recharge under irrigated agriculture in Australia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Quantification of recharge under irrigated agriculture is one of the most important but difficult tasks. It is the least understood component in groundwater studies because of its large variability in space and time and the difficulty of direct measurement. Better management of groundwater resources is only possible if we can accurately determine all fluxes going into and out of a groundwater system. One of the major challenges facing irrigated agriculture in Australia, and the world, is to reduce uncertainty in estimating or measuring the recharge flux. Reducing uncertainty in groundwater recharge under irrigated agriculture is a pre-requisite for effective, efficient and sustainable groundwater resource management especially in dry areas where groundwater usage is often the key to economic development. An accurate quantification of groundwater recharge under irrigated systems is also crucial because of its potential impacts on soil profile salinity, groundwater levels and groundwater quality. This paper aims to identify the main recharge control parameters thorough a review of past field and modelling recharge studies in Australia. We find that the main recharge control parameters under irrigated agriculture are soil type, irrigation management, watertable depth, land cover or plant water uptake, soil surface conditions, and soil, irrigation water and groundwater chemistry. The most commonly used recharge estimation approaches include chloride mass balance, water budget equation, lysimeters, Darcy's law and numerical models. Main sources and magnitude of uncertainty in recharge estimates associated with these approaches are discussed.

Riasat, Ali; Mallants, Dirk; Walker, Glen; Silberstein, Richard

2014-05-01

116

Geophysical Methods for Investigating Ground-Water Recharge  

USGS Publications Warehouse

While numerical modeling has revolutionized our understanding of basin-scale hydrologic processes, such models rely almost exclusively on traditional measurements?rainfall, streamflow, and water-table elevations?for calibration and testing. Model calibration provides initial estimates of ground-water recharge. Calibrated models are important yet crude tools for addressing questions about the spatial and temporal distribution of recharge. An inverse approach to recharge estimation is taken of necessity, due to inherent difficulties in making direct measurements of flow across the water table. Difficulties arise because recharging fluxes are typically small, even in humid regions, and because the location of the water table changes with time. Deep water tables in arid and semiarid regions make recharge monitoring especially difficult. Nevertheless, recharge monitoring must advance in order to improve assessments of ground-water recharge. Improved characterization of basin-scale recharge is critical for informed water-resources management. Difficulties in directly measuring recharge have prompted many efforts to develop indirect methods. The mass-balance approach of estimating recharge as the residual of generally much larger terms has persisted despite the use of increasing complex and finely gridded large-scale hydrologic models. Geophysical data pertaining to recharge rates, timing, and patterns have the potential to substantially improve modeling efforts by providing information on boundary conditions, by constraining model inputs, by testing simplifying assumptions, and by identifying the spatial and temporal resolutions needed to predict recharge to a specified tolerance in space and in time. Moreover, under certain conditions, geophysical measurements can yield direct estimates of recharge rates or changes in water storage, largely eliminating the need for indirect measures of recharge. This appendix presents an overview of physically based, geophysical methods that are currently available or under development for recharge monitoring. The material is written primarily for hydrogeologists. Uses of geophysical methods for improving recharge monitoring are explored through brief discussions and case studies. The intent is to indicate how geophysical methods can be used effectively in studying recharge processes and quantifying recharge. As such, the material constructs a framework for matching the strengths of individual geophysical methods with the manners in which they can be applied for hydrologic analyses. The appendix is organized in three sections. First, the key hydrologic parameters necessary to determine the rate, timing, and patterns of recharge are identified. Second, the basic operating principals of the relevant geophysical methods are discussed. Methods are grouped by the physical property that they measure directly. Each measured property is related to one or more of the key hydrologic properties for recharge monitoring. Third, the emerging conceptual framework for applying geophysics to recharge monitoring is presented. Examples of the application of selected geophysical methods to recharge monitoring are presented in nine case studies. These studies illustrate hydrogeophysical applications under a wide range of conditions and measurement scales, which vary from tenths of a meter to hundreds of meters. The case studies include practice-proven as well as emerging applications of geophysical methods to recharge monitoring.

Ferre, Ty P.A.; Binley, Andrew M.; Blasch, Kyle W.; Callegary, James B.; Crawford, Steven M.; Fink, James B.; Flint, Alan L.; Flint, Lorraine E.; Hoffmann, John P.; Izbicki, John A.; Levitt, Marc T.; Pool, Donald R.; Scanlon, Bridget R.

2007-01-01

117

Thin-film rechargeable lithium batteries  

SciTech Connect

Thin-film rechargeable lithium batteries using ceramic electrolyte and cathode materials have been fabricated by physical deposition techniques. The lithium phosphorous oxynitride electrolyte has exceptional electrochemical stability and a good lithium conductivity. The lithium insertion reaction of several different intercalation materials, amorphous V{sub 2}O{sub 5}, amorphous LiMn{sub 2}O{sub 4}, and crystalline LiMn{sub 2}O{sub 4} films, have been investigated using the completed cathode/electrolyte/lithium thin-film battery.

Dudney, N.J.; Bates, J.B.; Lubben, D. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States). Solid State Div.

1995-06-01

118

Artificial recharge of groundwater and its role in water management  

USGS Publications Warehouse

This paper summarizes and discusses the various aspects and methods of artificial recharge with particular emphasis on its uses and potential role in water management in the Arabian Gulf region. Artificial recharge occurs when man's activities cause more water to enter an aquifer, either under pumping or non-pumping conditions, than otherwise would enter the aquifer. Use of artificial recharge can be a practical means of dealing with problems of overdraft of groundwater. Methods of artificial recharge may be grouped under two broad types: (a) water spreading techniques, and (b) well-injection techniques. Successful use of artificial recharge requires a thorough knowledge of the physical and chemical characteristics of the aquifier system, and extensive onsite experimentation and tailoring of the artificial-recharge technique to fit the local or areal conditions. In general, water spreading techniques are less expensive than well injection and large quantities of water can be handled. Water spreading can also result in significant improvement in quality of recharge waters during infiltration and movement through the unsaturated zone and the receiving aquifer. In comparison, well-injection techniques are often used for emplacement of fresh recharge water into saline aquifer zones to form a manageable lens of fresher water, which may later be partially withdrawn for use or continue to be maintained as a barrier against salt-water encroachment. A major advantage in use of groundwater is its availability, on demand to wells, from a natural storage reservoir that is relatively safe from pollution and from damage by sabotage or other hostile action. However, fresh groundwater occurs only in limited quantities in most of the Arabian Gulf region; also, it is heavily overdrafted in many areas, and receives very little natural recharge. Good use could be made of artificial recharge by well injection in replenishing and managing aquifers in strategic locations if sources of freshwater could be made available for the artificial-recharge operations. ?? 1989.

Kimrey, J.O.

1989-01-01

119

Challenges of Artificial Recharge at the Chain of Lakes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A series of gravel quarry lakes, A through I (i.e. Chain of Lakes) in Alameda County, California are planned to convert to off-channel spreading lakes for artificial groundwater recharge. An operational plan is needed for the near-term improvements that would allow safe and efficient operations of Lake H and Lake I recently acquired for artificial recharge operations. Water source for the groundwater recharge comes from State Water Project (SWP) water releases at the South Bay Aqueduct turnout. The released water flows approximately nine miles in Arroyo Mocho Creek to the planned diversion facility. The recharge system includes multiple water delivery components and recharge components. Reliability of SWP water delivery is a water supply constraint to the recharge system. Hydraulic capacities of each delivery component and recharge capacities of each recharge component are physical constraints to the development of the operational plan. Policy issues identified in the Mitigated Negative Declaration which contains mitigation measures addressing potential impacts of fisheries and erosion are regulatory constraints to the operational plan development. Our approach that addresses technical challenges and policy issues in the development of the operational plan includes i) determination of lake recharge under observed conditions using water budget method; ii) development and calibration of a ground water flow model using MODFLOW; iii) estimation of lake recharge capacity for a range of lake levels using the calibrated ground water flow model; iv) analysis of clogging layer effects on recharge capacity; and v) development and application of operations models for the stream delivery system and the lake system.

Zeng, X.

2004-12-01

120

Using noble gases to investigate mountain-front recharge  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Mountain-front recharge is a major component of recharge to inter-mountain basin-fill aquifers. The two components of mountain-front recharge are (1) subsurface inflow from the mountain block (subsurface inflow), and (2) infiltration from perennial and ephemeral streams near the mountain front (stream seepage). The magnitude of subsurface inflow is of central importance in source protection planning for basin-fill aquifers and in some water rights disputes, yet existing estimates carry large uncertainties. Stable isotope ratios can indicate the magnitude of mountain-front recharge relative to other components, but are generally incapable of distinguishing subsurface inflow from stream seepage. Noble gases provide an effective tool for determining the relative significance of subsurface inflow, specifically. Dissolved noble gas concentrations allow for the determination of recharge temperature, which is correlated with recharge elevation. The nature of this correlation cannot be assumed, however, and must be derived for the study area. The method is applied to the Salt Lake Valley Principal Aquifer in northern Utah to demonstrate its utility. Samples from 16 springs and mine tunnels in the adjacent Wasatch Mountains indicate that recharge temperature decreases with elevation at about the same rate as the mean annual air temperature, but is on average about 2??C cooler. Samples from 27 valley production wells yield recharge elevations ranging from the valley elevation (about 1500 m) to mid-mountain elevation (about 2500 m). Only six of the wells have recharge elevations less than 1800 m. Recharge elevations consistently greater than 2000 m in the southeastern part of the basin indicate that subsurface inflow constitutes most of the total recharge in this area. ?? 2003 Published by Elsevier Science B.V.

Manning, A.H.; Solomon, D.K.

2003-01-01

121

Caractres hydrochimiques des nappes des roches endognes fissures en zone tropicale humide: l'exemple de la Cte d'Ivoire  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A set of 230 hydrochemical analysis of major constituents were carried out in the Ivory Coast, within a defined physical and geological environment. The statistical description of the data (conductivity, temperature, pH, Eh, Ca ++, Mg ++, Na +, K +, HCO 3, Cl, NO 3 et SO 4=) and some factors altering groundwaters chemistry in fissure aquifers (lithology, vegetation, men activities) are briefly presented.

Faillat, J. P.; Blavoux, B.

122

Prototype systems for rechargeable magnesium batteries.  

PubMed

The thermodynamic properties of magnesium make it a natural choice for use as an anode material in rechargeable batteries, because it may provide a considerably higher energy density than the commonly used lead-acid and nickel-cadmium systems. Moreover, in contrast to lead and cadmium, magnesium is inexpensive, environmentally friendly and safe to handle. But the development of Mg batteries has been hindered by two problems. First, owing to the chemical activity of Mg, only solutions that neither donate nor accept protons are suitable as electrolytes; but most of these solutions allow the growth of passivating surface films, which inhibit any electrochemical reaction. Second, the choice of cathode materials has been limited by the difficulty of intercalating Mg ions in many hosts. Following previous studies of the electrochemistry of Mg electrodes in various non-aqueous solutions, and of a variety of intercalation electrodes, we have now developed rechargeable Mg battery systems that show promise for applications. The systems comprise electrolyte solutions based on Mg organohaloaluminate salts, and Mg(x)Mo3S4 cathodes, into which Mg ions can be intercalated reversibly, and with relatively fast kinetics. We expect that further improvements in the energy density will make these batteries a viable alternative to existing systems. PMID:11048714

Aurbach, D; Lu, Z; Schechter, A; Gofer, Y; Gizbar, H; Turgeman, R; Cohen, Y; Moshkovich, M; Levi, E

2000-10-12

123

Lithium Metal Anodes for Rechargeable Batteries  

SciTech Connect

Rechargeable lithium metal batteries have much higher energy density than those of lithium ion batteries using graphite anode. Unfortunately, uncontrollable dendritic lithium growth inherent in these batteries (upon repeated charge/discharge cycling) and limited Coulombic efficiency during lithium deposition/striping has prevented their practical application over the past 40 years. With the emerging of post Li-ion batteries, safe and efficient operation of lithium metal anode has become an enabling technology which may determine the fate of several promising candidates for the next generation of energy storage systems, including rechargeable Li-air battery, Li-S battery, and Li metal battery which utilize lithium intercalation compounds as cathode. In this work, various factors which affect the morphology and Coulombic efficiency of lithium anode will be analyzed. Technologies used to characterize the morphology of lithium deposition and the results obtained by modeling of lithium dendrite growth will also be reviewed. At last, recent development in this filed and urgent need in this field will also be discussed.

Xu, Wu; Wang, Jiulin; Ding, Fei; Chen, Xilin; Nasybulin, Eduard N.; Zhang, Yaohui; Zhang, Jiguang

2014-02-28

124

Monitoring Groundwater Recharge In the Sierra Nevada Mountains For  

E-print Network

Monitoring Groundwater Recharge In the Sierra Nevada Mountains For Impact On Hydrologic Resources The Issue Snowmelt is a significant source of replenishing groundwater resources in the western United States. In addition, this groundwater recharge process is typically a major contributor to streamflow

125

Current collectors for rechargeable Li-Air batteries  

SciTech Connect

Here we report the negative influence of porous nickel foam for use as current collectors in rechargeable Li-air batteries. Uncoated nickel foam promotes the decomposition of LiPF6-organic carbonate electrolytes under normal charging conditions reported for rechargeable Li-air cells. We have identified Ni free porous carbon supports as more appropriate cathode current collectors.

Veith, Gabriel M [ORNL; Dudney, Nancy J [ORNL

2011-01-01

126

ESTIMATION OF GROUND WATER RECHARGE USING SOIL MOISTURE BALANCE APPROACH  

E-print Network

ESTIMATION OF GROUND WATER RECHARGE USING SOIL MOISTURE BALANCE APPROACH C. P. Kumar* ABSTRACT The amount of water that may be extracted from an aquifer without causing depletion is primarily dependent upon the ground water recharge. Thus, a quantitative evaluation of spatial and temporal distribution

Kumar, C.P.

127

Estimating infiltration recharge using a response function model  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rainfall infiltration influences both the quantity and quality of groundwater systems. The knowledge of the process of infiltration recharge is of great importance to the management of groundwater systems and the hydraulically connected streams. In this study, a response function model is developed to estimate soil water flux at the water table or the process of infiltration recharge from rainfall

Jinquan Wu; Renduo Zhang; Jinzhong Yang

1997-01-01

128

Determining the recharge mode of Sahelian aquifers using water isotopes  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is proposed that the drainage network plays an important role in the recharge process of the fractured aquifers in the African Precambrian shield and that the fractured aquifer system is likely to be hydraulically continuous; this contrasts with most previous studies, which suggested direct recharge by rainwater percolation. Two areas were selected in Niger for the study of the

Pierre Girard; Claude Hillaire-Marcel; Marie Solange Oga

1997-01-01

129

Probabilistic estimation and prediction of groundwater recharge in a semi-arid environment  

E-print Network

Quantifying and characterizing groundwater recharge are critical for water resources management. Unfortunately, low recharge rates are difficult to resolve in dry environments, where groundwater is often most important. ...

Ng, Gene-Hua Crystal

2009-01-01

130

Advances of aqueous rechargeable lithium-ion battery: A review  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The electrochemical characteristic of the aqueous rechargeable lithium-ion battery has been widely investigated in efforts to design a green and safe technology that can provide a highly specific capacity, high efficiency and long life for high power applications such as the smart grid and electric vehicle. It is believed that the advantages of this battery will overcome the limitations of the rechargeable lithium-ion battery with organic electrolytes that comprise safety and create high fabrication cost issues. This review focuses on the opportunities of the aqueous rechargeable lithium-ion battery compared to the conventional rechargeable lithium-ion battery with organic-based electrolytes. Previously reported studies are briefly summarised, together with the presentation of new findings based on the conductivity, morphology, electrochemical performance and cycling stability results. The factors that influence the electrochemical performance, the challenges and potential of the aqueous rechargeable lithium-ion battery are highlighted in order to understand and maintained the excellent battery performance.

Alias, Nurhaswani; Mohamad, Ahmad Azmin

2015-01-01

131

Groundwater recharge rate and zone structure estimation using PSOLVER algorithm.  

PubMed

The quantification of groundwater recharge is an important but challenging task in groundwater flow modeling because recharge varies spatially and temporally. The goal of this study is to present an innovative methodology to estimate groundwater recharge rates and zone structures for regional groundwater flow models. Here, the unknown recharge field is partitioned into a number of zones using Voronoi Tessellation (VT). The identified zone structure with the recharge rates is associated through a simulation-optimization model that couples MODFLOW-2000 and the hybrid PSOLVER optimization algorithm. Applicability of this procedure is tested on a previously developed groundwater flow model of the Tahtal? Watershed. Successive zone structure solutions are obtained in an additive manner and penalty functions are used in the procedure to obtain realistic and plausible solutions. One of these functions constrains the optimization by forcing the sum of recharge rates for the grid cells that coincide with the Tahtal? Watershed area to be equal to the areal recharge rate determined in the previous modeling by a separate precipitation-runoff model. As a result, a six-zone structure is selected as the best zone structure that represents the areal recharge distribution. Comparison to results of a previous model for the same study area reveals that the proposed procedure significantly improves model performance with respect to calibration statistics. The proposed identification procedure can be thought of as an effective way to determine the recharge zone structure for groundwater flow models, in particular for situations where tangible information about groundwater recharge distribution does not exist. PMID:23746002

Ayvaz, M Tamer; Eli, Alper

2014-01-01

132

Determining the recharge mode of Sahelian aquifers using water isotopes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

It is proposed that the drainage network plays an important role in the recharge process of the fractured aquifers in the African Precambrian shield and that the fractured aquifer system is likely to be hydraulically continuous; this contrasts with most previous studies, which suggested direct recharge by rainwater percolation. Two areas were selected in Niger for the study of the aquifer recharge process using isotopic analyses of water ( 2H, 18O, 3H). The first area, centred on the village of Kobio, is the 21-km 2 drainage basin of the Lomona intermittent stream, some 60 km southwest of Niamey (the capital city of Niger). The second area, in the vicinity of Niamey, represents a portion of the Niger basin, draining a surface area many orders of magnitude larger than the Lomona basin. The mean 18O composition of water from all wells in the Kobio aquifer provides evidence for recharge by evaporated water. This is confirmed by the concomitant increase of 18O content with rising static water levels as recharge proceeded. Tritium data suggest progressive aging of the Kobio aquifer water in the flow direction inferred from static water levels, with a down-gradient depletion of 18O composition, suggesting that `enriched' recharge water is progressively mixed with `depleted' aquifer water. Recharge by a reach of the Lomona is proposed to explain these results. In the Niamey area wells, the 18O time series clearly define an injection of evaporated water from the surface into the fractured aquifer. This recharging plume of evaporated water most likely originates from the Niger River. Thus, isotope data for two drainage basins of very different sizes indicate that aquifers are recharged by water from the rivers and that the flow regime of surface waters controls the recharge process.

Girard, Pierre; Hillaire-Marcel, Claude; Oga, Marie Solange

1997-10-01

133

UHT overprint of HP rocks? A case study from the Adula nappe complex (Central Alps, N Italy)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Adula-Cima Lunga nappe complex is located on the eastern flank of the Lepontine Dome and represents the highest of the Lower Penninic units of the Central Alps. The Adula nappe largely consists of orthogneiss and paragneiss of pre-Mesozoic origin, variably retrogressed eclogites preserved as boudins within paragneiss, minor ultramafic bodies and metasedimentary rocks of presumed Mesozoic age. The higher metamorphic conditions have been estimated for the peridotite lenses in the southern part of the nappe at pressure over 3.0 GPa and temperature of 800-850C. Garnet lherzolite bodies crop out at three localities, from west to east: Cima di Gagnone, Alpe Arami and Mt. Duria. After the partial subduction of the European distal margin beneath the Africa-Adria margin, the HP rocks were overprinted by an upper amphibolite facies metamorphism that postdates the main phase of nappe stacking. In the southern sector of the Lepontine Dome, adjacent to the Insubric Fault, metamorphic conditions promoted extensive migmatization of both metasedimentary and metagranitoid rocks. In one single outcrop, at Monte Duria, garnet lherzolites occur in m-sized boudins hosted within partly granulitized amphibole-bearing and k-feldspar gneisses that contain also some decimeter-sized boudins of both mafic and metapelitic eclogites. This rock association is in turn embedded within the migmatitic gneisses that form most of the southern sector of the Adula nappe. Petrographic and chemical analyses indicate that garnet peridotite is composed of olivine (XMg=0.88), orthopyroxene, clinopyroxene and garnet (Py68; Cr2O3 up to 1.45 wt%) with inclusions of Cr-rich spinel (up to Cr/(Al+Cr)=0.55) surrounded by kelyphitic symplectites of opx + cpx/amph + spl. These reaction produced double coronas, one composed of opx (former ol) and one composed of cpx + opx+ spl. In one kelyphite, we observed the uncommon occurrence of ZrO2 (baddeleyite) and ZrTi2O6 (srilankite). Tiny crystals of these two Zr-bearing phases (1 ?m) are invariably located in the opx corona after ol. The cpx + opx + spl corona (after grt) contains, instead, zircon. Baddeleyite should have formed through a reaction of the type Mg2SiO4 + ZrSiO4 = MgSiO3 + ZrO2. ZrO2 and ZrTi2O6 display a low amount of solid solution. These compositions are consistent with T below 1200C, but an improvement of the thermodynamic model is needed in order to better constrain the T of the granulitic overprint on the basis of these Zr-bearing phases. In mafic eclogites, the HP association consists of garnet (Py40Alm37Sp20), omphacite (preserved as inclusion, containing Jd30 and Mg# 0.87), kyanite and minor quartz. Omphacite is almost always replaced by cpx (Jd5) + plag (An55) symplectites. Garnet is surrounded by plag (An33) + opx (En70) symplectites. Kyanite is replaced by plag (An84) + spinel + sapphirine. The spinel-sapphirine Fe-Mg thermometer suggests T of about 850C due to granulite-facies overprint. We observed sapphirine associated with cpx + opx + plag also in kelyphites after garnet in clinopyroxenites. In eclogitic metapelites, kyanite is replaced by a corundum + anorthite spinel assemblage. A corundum-rich layer occurs between eclogites and the host gneiss. Cm-sized emerald green zoisite in this layer is replaced by anorthitic plagioclase cpx spinel calcite. The observed assemblages point to a diffuse granulitization of both the peridotites and the hosting HP rocks of Mt. Duria, suggesting a nearly isothermal decompression from peak-pressure conditions. The surrounding migmatitic gneiss do not display evidence of such granulitic event, having been formed at T<700C. The mechanism and timing of emplacement of the garnet peridotite and associated HP-HT rocks in the country migmatites, and whether or not the subduction event is related to the Alpine or to an older orogenic cycle are still a matter of debate.

Tumiati, Simone; Zanchetta, Stefano; Malaspina, Nadia; Poli, Stefano

2014-05-01

134

Late Maastrichtian foraminiferids and diatoms from the Polish Carpathians (Ropianka Formation, Skole Nappe): a case study from the Chmielnik-Grabwka composite section  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Gasi?ski, M.A., Olshtynska, A. and Uchman, A. 2013. Late Maastrichtian foraminiferids and diatoms from the Polish Carpathians (Ropianka Formation, Skole Nappe): a case study from the Chmielnik-Grabowka composite section. Acta Geologica Polonica, 63(4), 515-525. Warszawa. Well-preserved foraminiferids have been found in the Chmielnik-Grabowka section (Skole Nappe, Polish Carpathians). The Abathomphalus mayaroensis (late Maastrichtian) and Racemiguembelina fructicosa (earlylate Maastrichtian) standard planktonic foraminiferal biozones have been recognized, based on the occurrence of their respective index species. Sediments of the R. fructicosa Zone contain diatoms, which are a rare component of Cretaceous flysch microfossil assemblages in the Carpathians. The diatom frustules and some foraminiferid tests are pyritized, probably after burial in the sediment, below the redox boundary or in the oxygen- deficient microenvironment inside the frustules or tests of microfossils; the presence of trace fossils and bioturbational structures in the same bed indicate an oxygenated sea floor.

Gasi?ski, M. Adam; Olshtynska, Alexandra; Uchman, Alfred

2013-12-01

135

Nanocarbon networks for advanced rechargeable lithium batteries.  

PubMed

Carbon is one of the essential elements in energy storage. In rechargeable lithium batteries, researchers have considered many types of nanostructured carbons, such as carbon nanoparticles, carbon nanotubes, graphene, and nanoporous carbon, as anode materials and, especially, as key components for building advanced composite electrode materials. Nanocarbons can form efficient three-dimensional conducting networks that improve the performance of electrode materials suffering from the limited kinetics of lithium storage. Although the porous structure guarantees a fast migration of Li ions, the nanocarbon network can serve as an effective matrix for dispersing the active materials to prevent them from agglomerating. The nanocarbon network also affords an efficient electron pathway to provide better electrical contacts. Because of their structural stability and flexibility, nanocarbon networks can alleviate the stress and volume changes that occur in active materials during the Li insertion/extraction process. Through the elegant design of hierarchical electrode materials with nanocarbon networks, researchers can improve both the kinetic performance and the structural stability of the electrode material, which leads to optimal battery capacity, cycling stability, and rate capability. This Account summarizes recent progress in the structural design, chemical synthesis, and characterization of the electrochemical properties of nanocarbon networks for Li-ion batteries. In such systems, storage occurs primarily in the non-carbon components, while carbon acts as the conductor and as the structural buffer. We emphasize representative nanocarbon networks including those that use carbon nanotubes and graphene. We discuss the role of carbon in enhancing the performance of various electrode materials in areas such as Li storage, Li ion and electron transport, and structural stability during cycling. We especially highlight the use of graphene to construct the carbon conducting network for alloy anodes, such as Si and Ge, to accelerate electron transport, alleviate volume change, and prevent the agglomeration of active nanoparticles. Finally, we describe the power of nanocarbon networks for the next generation rechargeable lithium batteries, including Li-S, Li-O(2), and Li-organic batteries, and provide insights into the design of ideal nanocarbon networks for these devices. In addition, we address the ways in which nanocarbon networks can expand the applications of rechargeable lithium batteries into the emerging fields of stationary energy storage and transportation. PMID:22953777

Xin, Sen; Guo, Yu-Guo; Wan, Li-Jun

2012-10-16

136

Lithium electronic environments in rechargeable battery electrodes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This work investigates the electronic environments of lithium in the electrodes of rechargeable batteries. The use of electron energy-loss spectroscopy (EELS) in conjunction with transmission electron microscopy (TEM) is a novel approach, which when coupled with conventional electrochemical experiments, yield a thorough picture of the electrode interior. Relatively few EELS experiments have been preformed on lithium compounds owing to their reactivity. Experimental techniques were established to minimize sample contamination and control electron beam damage to studied compounds. Lithium hydroxide was found to be the most common product of beam damaged lithium alloys. Under an intense electron beam, halogen atoms desorbed by radiolysis in lithium halides. EELS spectra from a number of standard lithium compounds were obtained in order to identify the variety of spectra encountered in lithium rechargeable battery electrodes. Lithium alloys all displayed characteristically broad Li K-edge spectra, consistent with transitions to continuum states. Transitions to bound states were observed in the Li K and oxygen K-edge spectra of lithium oxides. Lithium halides were distinguished by their systematic chemical shift proportional to the anion electronegativity. Good agreement was found with measured lithium halide spectra and electron structure calculations using a self-consistant multiscattering code. The specific electrode environments of LiC6, LiCoO2, and Li-SnO were investigated. Contrary to published XPS predictions, lithium in intercalated graphite was determined to be in more metallic than ionic. We present the first experimental evidence of charge compensation by oxygen ions in deintercalated LiCoO2. Mossbauer studies on cycled Li-SnO reveal severely defective structures on an atomic scale. Metal hydride systems are presented in the appendices of this thesis. The mechanical alloying of immiscible Fe and Mg powders resulted in single-phase bcc alloys of less than 20 at% Mg. Kinetic studies on LaNi5-xSn x alloys proved that the mass transfer of hydrogen through these alloys was not hindered with increasing Sn substitutions for Ni. Collaborations with Energizer(c) found LanNi4.7Sn0.3 alloys to possess limited utility in rechargeable nickel-metal-hydride sealed-cell batteries.

Hightower, Adrian

137

Kinematics and dynamics of tectonic nappes: 2-D numerical modelling and implications for high and ultra-high pressure tectonism in the Western Alps  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present two-dimensional numerical simulations of lithospheric shortening with a crust containing weak and strong inclusions. Thermo-mechanical coupling is included, and a crustal-scale shear zone develops self-consistently due to viscous heating and thermal softening of temperature dependent viscosities. Several tests for crustal conditions are performed showing that 1) the thickness of and strain rates within the shear zone are independent on the numerical resolution and applied numerical method (finite element and finite difference method), 2) the shear zone is stable and rotates during large strain deformation, 3) the numerical algorithm conserves total thermal and mechanical energies, and 4) the bulk horizontal force balance is fulfilled during large strain deformation. A fold nappe develops around the shear zone in the lithospheric shortening simulation. In this simulation the stresses in the crust are limited by a friction angle of 30. Significant tectonic overpressure (PO) occurs in strong lower crustal rocks and in strong inclusions. Significant PO also occurs in a weak inclusion that is only partly surrounded by strong crustal rock suggesting that a continuous strong vessel is not required to generate significant PO in weak rocks. Maximal values of PO are ~ 2.2 GPa with corresponding deviatoric stresses ~ 1.5 GPa and occur in a depth of ~ 42 km. Maximal pressure of ~ 3.4 GPa and maximal temperatures > 700 C occur during the formation of the fold nappe in crustal depth. Synthetic pressure-temperature paths exhibit entire cycles of pressure and temperature increase and decrease, and suggest that crustal rocks in depths < 50 km can reach the ultrahigh pressure metamorphic facies fields. Applications to tectonic nappes with high and ultra-high pressure rocks in the Western Alps are discussed, and a dynamic model for the evolution of fold nappes in the Western Alps is proposed.

Schmalholz, Stefan M.; Duretz, Thibault; Schenker, Filippo L.; Podladchikov, Yuri Y.

2014-09-01

138

Advances in development of rechargeable mitochondrial antioxidants.  

PubMed

It has been about 15 years since the introduction of the rechargeable mitochondria-targeted antioxidants (RMA). Two major groups have been developing RMA of the MitoQ and SkQ types independently, and many additional trials have been done by other researchers. This has provided solid preclinical evidence of RMA efficacy in various models. Human trials of systemic MitoQ were not followed by further advances, but the safety of MitoQ and, most likely, other RMA in humans has been demonstrated. A prooxidant effect at higher concentrations of RMA was described. For RMA of the SkQ type, a large window between anti- and prooxidant concentrations was observed, which makes SkQs promising as potential medicines. Significant RMA-induced improvements in many diseases that do not have an accepted treatment have been described. This justifies further clinical trials of RMA. PMID:25149221

Lukashev, Alexander N; Skulachev, Maxim V; Ostapenko, Victoria; Savchenko, Alla Yu; Pavshintsev, V V; Skulachev, Vladimir P

2014-01-01

139

Oxygen electrodes for rechargeable alkaline fuel cells  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Electrocatalysts and supports for the positive electrode of moderate temperature single unit rechargeable alkaline fuel cells were investigated and developed. The electrocatalysts are defined as the material with a higher activity for the oxygen electrode reaction than the support. Advanced development will require that the materials be prepared in high surface area forms, and may also entail integration of various candidate materials. Eight candidate support materials and seven electrocatalysts were investigated. Of the 8 support, 3 materials meet the preliminary requirements in terms of electrical conductivity and stability. Emphasis is now on preparing in high surface area form and testing under more severe corrosion stress conditions. Of the 7 electrocatalysts prepared and evaluated, at least 5 materials remain as potential candidates. The major emphasis remains on preparation, physical characterization and electrochemical performance testing.

Swette, Larry; Giner, Jose

1987-01-01

140

Rechargeable metal hydrides for spacecraft application  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Storing hydrogen on board the Space Station presents both safety and logistics problems. Conventional storage using pressurized bottles requires large masses, pressures, and volumes to handle the hydrogen to be used in experiments in the U.S. Laboratory Module and residual hydrogen generated by the ECLSS. Rechargeable metal hydrides may be competitive with conventional storage techniques. The basic theory of hydride behavior is presented and the engineering properties of LaNi5 are discussed to gain a clear understanding of the potential of metal hydrides for handling spacecraft hydrogen resources. Applications to Space Station and the safety of metal hydrides are presented and compared to conventional hydride storage. This comparison indicates that metal hydrides may be safer and require lower pressures, less volume, and less mass to store an equivalent mass of hydrogen.

Perry, J. L.

1988-01-01

141

Advanced rechargeable sodium batteries with novel cathodes  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Various high energy density rechargeable batteries are being considered for future space applications. Of these, the sodium-sulfur battery is one of the leading candidates. The primary advantage is the high energy density (760 W h/kg theoretical). Energy densities in excess of 180 W h/kg have been realized in practical batteries. More recently, cathodes other than sulfur are being evaluated. Various new cathode materials are presently being evaluated for use in high energy density sodium batteries for advanced space applications. The approach is to carry out basic electrochemical studies of these materials in a sodium cell configuration in order to understand their fundamental behaviors. Thus far, the studies have focussed on alternative metal chlorides such as CuCl2 and organic cathode materials such as TCNE.

Di Stefano, S.; Ratnakumar, B. V.; Bankston, C. P.

1990-01-01

142

Polymer Energy Rechargeable System (PERS) Development Program  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) and the Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL) have recently established a collaborative effort to support the development of polymer-based, lithium-based cell chemistries and battery technologies to address the next generation of aerospace applications and mission needs. The overall objective of this development program, which is referred to as PERS, Polymer Energy Rechargeable System, is to establish a world-class technology capability and U.S. leadership in polymer-based battery technology for aerospace applications. Programmatically, the PERS initiative will exploit both interagency collaborations to address common technology and engineering issues and the active participation of academia and private industry. The initial program phases will focus on R&D activities to address the critical technical issues and challenges at the cell level.

Baldwin, Richard S.; Manzo, Michelle A.; Dalton, Penni J.; Marsh, Richard A.; Surampudi, Rao

2001-01-01

143

Thin-film rechargeable lithium batteries  

SciTech Connect

Small thin-film rechargeable cells have been fabricated with a lithium phosphorus oxyniuide electrolyte, Li metal anode, and Li{sub 1-x}Mn{sub 2}O{sub 4} as the cathode film. The cathode films were fabricated by several different techniques resulting in both crystalline and amorphous films. These were compared by observing the cell discharge behavior. Estimates have been made for the scale-up of such a thin-film battery to meet the specifications for the electric vehicle application. The specific energy, energy density, and cycle life are expected to meet the USABC mid-term criteria. However, the areas of the thin-films needed to fabricate such a cell are very large. The required areas could be greatly reduced by operating the battery at temperatures near 100{degrees}C or by enhancing the lithium ion transport rate in the cathode material.

Dudney, N.J.; Bates, J.B.; Lubben, D.

1994-11-01

144

Advanced rechargeable sodium batteries with novel cathodes  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Various high energy density rechargeable batteries are being considered for future space applications. Of these, the sodium sulfur battery is one of the leading candidates. The primary advantage is the high energy density (760 Wh/kg theoretical). Energy densities in excess of 180 Wh/kg have been realized in practical batteries. More recently, cathodes other than sulfur are being evaluated. Researchers at JPL are evaluating various new cathode materials for use in high energy density sodium batteries for advanced space applications. The approach is to carry out basic electrochemical studies of these materials in a sodium cell configuration in order to understand their fundamental behaviors. Thus far studies have focused on alternate metal chlorides such as CuCl2 and organic cathode materials such as tetracyanoethylene (TCNE).

Distefano, S.; Ratnakumar, B. V.; Bankston, C. P.

1989-01-01

145

Spinel electrodes for rechargeable lithium batteries.  

SciTech Connect

This paper gives a historical account of the development of spinel electrodes for rechargeable lithium batteries. Research in the late 1970's and early 1980's on high-temperature . Li/Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} cells led to the evaluation of lithium spinels Li[B{sub 2}]X{sub 4} at room temperature (B = metal cation). This work highlighted the importance of the [B{sub 2}]X{sub 4}spinel framework as a host electrode structure and the ability to tailor the cell voltage by selection of different B cations. Examples of lithium-ion cells that operate with spinel anode/spinel cathode couples are provided. Particular attention is paid to spinels within the solid solution system Li{sub 1+x}Mn{sub 2-x}O{sub 4} (0 {le} x {le} 0.33).

Thackeray, M. M.

1999-11-10

146

Monitoring of recharge water quality under woodland  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The study compares the quality of groundwater in the water table zone and soil moisture below the root zone, under woodland, with the quality of the regional precipitation. The water quality under forest shows evidence of the effect of atmospheric deposition of acidic components (e.g. SO 2) and ammonia volatilized from land and feed lots. Detailed chemical profiles of the upper meter of groundwater under different plots of forest, at varying distances from cultivated land, were obtained with a multilayer sampler, using the dialysis-cell method. Porous ceramic cups and a vacuum method were used to obtain soil moisture samples at 1.20 m depth under various types of trees, an open spot and arable land, for the period of a year. The investigation took place in the recharge area of a pumping station with mainly mixed forest, downwind of a vast agricultural area with high ammonia volatilization and underlain by an ice-deformed aquifer. Very high NO -3 concentrations were observed in soil moisture and groundwater (up to 21 mg Nl -1) under coniferous forest, especially in the border zone. This raises the question of the dilution capacity of recharge water under woodland in relation to the polluted groundwater under farming land. The buffering capacity of the unsaturated zone varies substantially and locally a low pH (4.5) was observed in groundwater. The large variability of leachate composition on different scales under a forest and the lesser but still significant concentration differences in the groundwater prove the importance of a monitoring system for the actual solute flux into the groundwater.

Krajenbrink, G. J. W.; Ronen, D.; Van Duijvenbooden, W.; Magaritz, M.; Wever, D.

1988-03-01

147

Rechargeable thin-film lithium batteries  

SciTech Connect

Rechargeable thin-film batteries consisting of lithium metal anodes, an amorphous inorganic electrolyte, and cathodes of lithium intercalation compounds have recently been developed. The batteries, which are typically less than 6-{mu}m thick, can be fabricated to any specified size, large or small, onto a variety of substrates including ceramics, semiconductors, and plastics. The cells that have been investigated include Li-TiS{sub 2}, Li-V{sub 2}O{sub 5}, and Li-Li{sub x}Mn{sub 2}O{sub 4}, with open circuit voltages at full charge of about 2.5, 3.6, and 4.2, respectively. The development of these batteries would not have been possible without the discovery of a new thin-film lithium electrolyte, lithium phosphorus oxynitride, that is stable in contact with metallic lithium at these potentials. Deposited by rf magnetron sputtering of Li{sub 3}PO{sub 4} in N{sub 2}, this material has a typical composition of Li{sub 2.9}PO{sub 3.3}N{sub 0.46} and a conductivity at 25{degrees}C of 2 {mu}S/cm. The maximum practical current density obtained from the thin-film cells is limited to about 100 {mu}A/cm{sup 2} due to a low diffusivity of Li{sup +} ions in the cathodes. In this work, the authors present a short review of their work on rechargeable thin-film lithium batteries.

Bates, J.B.; Gruzalski, G.R.; Dudney, N.J.; Luck, C.F.; Yu, Xiaohua

1993-08-01

148

Echo Meadows Project Winter Artificial Recharge.  

SciTech Connect

This report discusses the findings of the Echo Meadows Project (BPA Project 2001-015-00). The main purpose of this project is to artificially recharge an alluvial aquifer, WITH water from Umatilla River during the winter high flow period. In turn, this recharged aquifer will discharge an increased flow of cool groundwater back to the river, thereby improving Umatilla River water quality and temperature. A considerable side benefit is that the Umatilla River should improve as a habitat for migration, spanning, and rearing of anadromous and resident fish. The scope of this project is to provide critical baseline information about the Echo Meadows and the associated reach of the Umatilla River. Key elements of information that has been gathered include: (1) Annual and seasonal groundwater levels in the aquifer with an emphasis on the irrigation season, (2) Groundwater hydraulic properties, particularly hydraulic conductivity and specific yield, and (3) Groundwater and Umatilla River water quality including temperature, nutrients and other indicator parameters. One of the major purposes of this data gathering was to develop input to a groundwater model of the area. The purpose of the model is to estimate our ability to recharge this aquifer using water that is only available outside of the irrigation season (December through the end of February) and to estimate the timing of groundwater return flow back to the river. We have found through the data collection and modeling efforts that this reach of the river had historically returned as much as 45 cubic feet per second (cfs) of water to the Umatilla River during the summer and early fall. However, this return flow was reduced to as low as 10 cfs primarily due to reduced quantities of irrigation application, gain in irrigation efficiencies and increased groundwater pumping. Our modeling indicated that it is possible to restore these critical return flows using applied water outside of the irrigation season. We further found that this water can be timed to return to the river during the desired time of the year (summer to early fall). This is because the river stage, which remains relatively high until this time, drops during the irrigation season-thereby releasing the stored groundwater and increasing river flows. A significant side benefit is that these enhanced groundwater return flows will be clean and cold, particularly as compared to the Umatilla River. We also believe that this same type of application of water could be done and the resulting stream flows could be realized in other watersheds throughout the Pacific Northwest. This means that it is critical to compare the results from this baseline report to the full implementation of the project in the next phase. As previously stated, this report only discusses the results of data gathered during the baseline phase of this project. We have attempted to make the data that has been gathered accessible with the enclosed databases and spreadsheets. We provide computer links in this report to the databases so that interested parties can fully evaluate the data that has been gathered. However, we cannot emphasize too strongly that the real value of this project is to implement the phases to come, compare the results of these future phases to this baseline and develop the science and strategies to successfully implement this concept to other rivers in the Pacific Northwest. The results from our verified and calibrated groundwater model matches the observed groundwater data and trends collected during the baseline phase. The modeling results indicate that the return flows may increase to their historic values with the addition of 1 acre-ft/acre of recharge water to the groundwater system (about 9,600 acre-feet total). What this means is that through continued recharge project, you can double to quadruple the annual baseflow of the Umatilla River during the low summer and fall flow periods as compared to the present base-flow. The cool and high quality recharge water is a significant beneficial impact to the river system.

Ziari, Fred

2002-12-19

149

Geostatistical estimates of future recharge for the Death Valley region  

SciTech Connect

Spatially distributed estimates of regional ground water recharge rates under both current and potential future climates are needed to evaluate a potential geologic repository for high-level nuclear waste at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, which is located within the Death Valley ground-water region (DVGWR). Determining the spatial distribution of recharge is important for regional saturated-zone ground-water flow models. In the southern Nevada region, the Maxey-Eakin method has been used for estimating recharge based on average annual precipitation. Although this method does not directly account for a variety of location-specific factors which control recharge (such as bedrock permeability, soil cover, and net radiation), precipitation is the primary factor that controls in the region. Estimates of recharge obtained by using the Maxey-Eakin method are comparable to estimates of recharge obtained by using chloride balance studies. The authors consider the Maxey-Eakin approach as a relatively simple method of obtaining preliminary estimates of recharge on a regional scale.

Hevesi, J.A. [Geological Survey, Las Vegas, NV (United States); Flint, A.L. [Geological Survey, Sacramento, CA (United States)

1998-12-01

150

Stable isotope tracers: natural and anthropogenic recharge, Orange County, California  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Stable isotopic techniques have been utilized to locate occurrences and trace movements of a variety of naturally and anthropogenically recharged waters in aquifers of Orange County, California. This basin is of particular interest not only because it provides the dominant water supply for the two million residents of this well-populated county, but also because it is representative of a common arid environment where natural recharge is dominated by distant, high-elevation precipitation transported by a major river. Such arid basins are particularly sensitive to climatic and anthropogenic disturbance of their recharge and their subsurface hydrology. In order to identify distinctive waters, oxygen and hydrogen stable isotope ratios from Orange County wells have been compared with a regional database including an array of surface water samples representative of watershed runoff. Four distinctive subsurface water types can be resolved. Waters of "local" rainfall and imported, "Colorado" River aqueduct origins are easily distinguished from dominant, "native" Santa Ana river compositions by use of hydrogen and oxygen stable isotope analysis. Recent human interference with Santa Ana river flow and recharge is also marginally resolvable by isotopic techniques. Distinguishable isotopic signatures of "recent" Santa Ana recharge appear to be due to evaporative loss, perhaps during storage in the Prado Reservoir or in percolation ponds, prior to recharge into Orange County aquifers. Characterization of traceable isotopic signatures of distinct natural and anthropogenic recharge components provides a major advance towards use of such techniques for developing a well constrained, three-dimensional hydrologic model for this complex basin.

Williams, Alan E.

1997-12-01

151

Effects of artificial recharge on the Ogallala aquifer, Texas  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Four recharge tests were conducted by injecting water from playa lakes through wells into the Ogallala Formation. Injection was by gravity flow and by pumping under pressure. At one site, 34-acre feet of water was injected by gravity and produced a significant increase in yield of the well. At a second site, gravity injection of only 0.58 acre-foot caused a significant decrease in permeability due to plugging by suspended sediment. At two other sites, injection by pumping 6 and 14 acre-feet respectively, resulted in discharge of water at the surface and in perching of water above the water table. Differences in success of recharge were largely due to aquifer lithology and, therefore, the type of permeability; the concentration of suspended solids in the recharge water; and the injection technique. The injection technique can be controlled and the concentration of suspended solids can be minimized by treatment, but the site for well recharge will accept water most rapidly if it is selected on the basis of a favorable geohydrologic environment. Geophysical logs were used to study the effect of aquifer lithology on recharge and to understand the movement of injected water. Temperature logs were particularly useful in tracing the movement of recharged water. Natural-gamma, gamma-gamma, and neutron logs provided important data on lithology and porosity in the aquifer and changes in porosity and water distribution resulting from recharge. Effective recharge of the Ogallala Formation, using water from playa lakes, is possible where geohydrologic conditions are favorable and the recharge system is properly constructed.

Brown, Richmond Flint; Keys, W.S.

1985-01-01

152

Mountain-Block Hydrology and Mountain-Front Recharge* John L. Wilson and Huade Guan  

E-print Network

Mountain-Block Hydrology and Mountain-Front Recharge* John L. Wilson and Huade Guan New Mexico of recharge to basin aquifers oc- curs along the mountain front. Traditionally called "mountain-front recharge, mountain-front recharge estimates are based on the general pre- cipitation characteristics of the mountain

Texas at San Antonio, University of

153

Nappes, tectonics of oblique plate convergence, and metamorphic evolution related to 140 million years of continuous subduction, Franciscan Complex, California  

SciTech Connect

This paper presents a new synthesis of Franciscan Complex tectonics, with the emphasis on the pre-San Andreas fault history of these rocks. Field relations suggest that the Franciscan is characterized by nappe structures that formed during sequential accretion at the trench. The presence of these structures along with other field relations, including the lack of evidence for large offset of conglomerate suites, indicates that strike-slip fault systems of large displacement ({gt}500 km) did not cut the Franciscan Complex during subduction. Regional geology and comparisons to modern arc-trench systems suggest that strike-slip faulting associated with oblique subduction took place inboard (east) of the Franciscan in the vicinity of the magmatic arc. The Franciscan varies along strike, because individual accreted elements (packets of trench sediment, seamounts, etc.) did not extend the full length of the trench. Different depths of underplating, distribution of post-metamorphic faulting, and level of erosion produced the present-day surface distribution of high P/T metamorphism. Franciscan Complex tectonic history is presented in this paper.

Wakabayashi, J. (Earth Sciences Associates Inc., Palo Alto, CA (United States))

1992-01-01

154

ENGINEERING ECONOMIC ANALYSIS OF A PROGRAM FOR ARTIFICIAL GROUNDWATER RECHARGE.  

USGS Publications Warehouse

This study describes and demonstrates two alternate methods for evaluating the relative costs and benefits of artificial groundwater recharge using percolation ponds. The first analysis considers the benefits to be the reduction of pumping lifts and land subsidence; the second considers benefits as the alternative costs of a comparable surface delivery system. Example computations are carried out for an existing artificial recharge program in Santa Clara Valley in California. A computer groundwater model is used to estimate both the average long term and the drought period effects of artificial recharge in the study area. Results indicate that the costs of artificial recharge are considerably smaller than the alternative costs of an equivalent surface system. Refs.

Reichard, Eric G.; Bredehoeft, John D.

1984-01-01

155

Transportation Center Seminar "Electric Vehicle Recharging: Decision Support  

E-print Network

Transportation Center Seminar "Electric Vehicle Recharging: Decision Support Tools for Drivers Conference Center Refreshments available at 3:30 pm Abstract: Plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs) have become electric vehicles. #12;

Bustamante, Fabián E.

156

Reliability of Rechargeable Batteries in a Photovoltaic Power Supply System  

SciTech Connect

We investigate the reliability If a rechargeable battery acting as the energy storage component in a photovoltaic power supply system. A model system was constructed for this that includes the solar resource, the photovoltaic power supp Iy system, the rechargeable battery and a load. The solar resource and the system load are modeled as SI ochastic processes. The photovoltaic system and the rechargeable battery are modeled deterministically, imd an artificial neural network is incorporated into the model of the rechargeable battery to simulate dartage that occurs during deep discharge cycles. The equations governing system behavior are solved simultaneously in the Monte Carlo framework and a fwst passage problem is solved to assess system reliability.

Barney, P.; Jungst, R.G., Ingersoll, D.; O'Gorman, C.; Paez, T.L.; Urbina, A.

1998-11-30

157

Bipolar rechargeable lithium battery for high power applications  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Viewgraphs of a discussion on bipolar rechargeable lithium battery for high power applications are presented. Topics covered include cell chemistry, electrolytes, reaction mechanisms, cycling behavior, cycle life, and cell assembly.

Hossain, Sohrab; Kozlowski, G.; Goebel, F.

1993-01-01

158

Improved zinc electrode and rechargeable zinc-air battery  

DOEpatents

The invention comprises an improved rechargeable zinc-air cell/battery having recirculating alkaline electrolyte and a zinc electrode comprising a porous foam support material which carries the active zinc electrode material. 5 figs.

Ross, P.N. Jr.

1988-06-21

159

GROUNDWATER RECHARGE/DISCHARGE, NEUSE RIVER WATERSHED, NC  

EPA Science Inventory

The North Carolina Department of Environment and Natural Resources, Division of Water Quality and Groundwater Section, in cooperation with the NC Center for Geographic Information and Analysis, developed the Groundwater Recharge/Discharge digital data to enhance planning, siting ...

160

Soil Water Balance and Recharge Monitoring at the Hanford Site FY 2010 Status Report  

SciTech Connect

This report summarizes the recharge data collected in FY 2010 at five locations on the Hanford Site in southeastern Washington State. Average monthly precipitation and temperature conditions in FY 2010 were near normal and did not present an opportunity for increased recharge. The recharge monitoring data confirmed those conditions, showing normal behavior in water content, matric head, and recharge rates. Also provided in this report is a strategy for recharge estimation for the next 5 years.

Fayer, Michael J.; Saunders, Danielle L.; Herrington, Ricky S.; Felmy, Diana

2010-10-27

161

Cryogenic Transport of High-Pressure-System Recharge Gas  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A method of relatively safe, compact, efficient recharging of a high-pressure room-temperature gas supply has been proposed. In this method, the gas would be liquefied at the source for transport as a cryogenic fluid at or slightly above atmospheric pressure. Upon reaching the destination, a simple heating/expansion process would be used to (1) convert the transported cryogenic fluid to the room-temperature, high-pressure gaseous form in which it is intended to be utilized and (2) transfer the resulting gas to the storage tank of the system to be recharged. In conventional practice for recharging high-pressure-gas systems, gases are transported at room temperature in high-pressure tanks. For recharging a given system to a specified pressure, a transport tank must contain the recharge gas at a much higher pressure. At the destination, the transport tank is connected to the system storage tank to be recharged, and the pressures in the transport tank and the system storage tank are allowed to equalize. One major disadvantage of the conventional approach is that the high transport pressure poses a hazard. Another disadvantage is the waste of a significant amount of recharge gas. Because the transport tank is disconnected from the system storage tank when it is at the specified system recharge pressure, the transport tank still contains a significant amount of recharge gas (typically on the order of half of the amount transported) that cannot be used. In the proposed method, the cryogenic fluid would be transported in a suitably thermally insulated tank that would be capable of withstanding the recharge pressure of the destination tank. The tank would be equipped with quick-disconnect fluid-transfer fittings and with a low-power electric heater (which would not be used during transport). In preparation for transport, a relief valve would be attached via one of the quick-disconnect fittings (see figure). During transport, the interior of the tank would be kept at a near-ambient pressure far below the recharge pressure. As leakage of heat into the tank caused vaporization of the cryogenic fluid, the resulting gas would be vented through the relief valve, which would be set to maintain the pressure in the tank at the transport value. Inasmuch as the density of a cryogenic fluid at atmospheric pressure greatly exceeds that of the corresponding gas in a practical high-pressure tank at room temperature, a tank for transporting a given mass of gas according to the proposed method could be smaller (and, hence, less massive) than is a tank needed for transporting the same mass of gas according to the conventional method.

Ungar, Eugene K,; Ruemmele, Warren P.; Bohannon, Carl

2010-01-01

162

Fate of human viruses in groundwater recharge systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

The overall objective of this research program was to determine the ability of a well-managed tertiary effluent-recharge system to return virologically acceptable water to the groundwater aquifer. The study assessed the quality of waters renovated by indigenous recharge operations and investigated a number of virus-soil interrelationships. The elucidation of the interactions led to the establishment of basin operating criteria for

J. M. Vaughn; E. F. Landry

1980-01-01

163

The chemistry and status of rechargeable molten-salt batteries  

Microsoft Academic Search

The chemistry and the state of development of rechargeable molten salt cells and batteries of current interest are reviewed in this work. Molten-salt cells offer the most attractive combination of high specific energy (100-200 Wh\\/kg), high specific power (50-200 W\\/kg), and long cycle life (300-1500 cycles) of any rechargeable cells under investigation at this time. It is these important features

E. J. Cairns; G. Mamantov; R. P. Tischer; D. R. Vissers

1983-01-01

164

Recharge signal identification based on groundwater level observations.  

PubMed

This study applied a method of the rotated empirical orthogonal functions to directly decompose the space-time groundwater level variations and determine the potential recharge zones by investigating the correlation between the identified groundwater signals and the observed local rainfall records. The approach is used to analyze the spatiotemporal process of piezometric heads estimated by Bayesian maximum entropy method from monthly observations of 45 wells in 1999-2007 located in the Pingtung Plain of Taiwan. From the results, the primary potential recharge area is located at the proximal fan areas where the recharge process accounts for 88% of the spatiotemporal variations of piezometric heads in the study area. The decomposition of groundwater levels associated with rainfall can provide information on the recharge process since rainfall is an important contributor to groundwater recharge in semi-arid regions. Correlation analysis shows that the identified recharge closely associates with the temporal variation of the local precipitation with a delay of 1-2 months in the study area. PMID:22016042

Yu, Hwa-Lung; Chu, Hone-Jay

2012-10-01

165

Estimating aquifer channel recharge using optical data interpretation.  

PubMed

Recharge through intermittent and ephemeral stream channels is believed to be a primary aquifer recharge process in arid and semiarid environments. The intermittent nature of precipitation and flow events in these channels, and their often remote locations, makes direct flow and loss measurements difficult and expensive. Airborne and satellite optical images were interpreted to evaluate aquifer recharge due to stream losses on the Frio River in south-central Texas. Losses in the Frio River are believed to be a major contributor of recharge to the Edwards Aquifer. The results of this work indicate that interpretation of readily available remote sensing optical images can offer important insights into the spatial distribution of aquifer recharge from losing streams. In cases where upstream gauging data are available, simple visual analysis of the length of the flowing reach downstream from the gauging station can be used to estimate channel losses. In the case of the Frio River, the rate of channel loss estimated from the length of the flowing reach at low flows was about half of the loss rate calculated from in-stream gain-loss measurements. Analysis based on water-surface width and channel slope indicated that losses were mainly in a reach downstream of the mapped recharge zone. The analysis based on water-surface width, however, did not indicate that this method could yield accurate estimates of actual flow in pool and riffle streams, such as the Frio River and similar rivers draining the Edwards Plateau. PMID:21434908

Walter, Gary R; Necsoiu, Marius; McGinnis, Ronald

2012-01-01

166

Rechargeable Magnesium Batteries: Low-Cost Rechargeable Magnesium Batteries with High Energy Density  

SciTech Connect

BEEST Project: Pellion Technologies is developing rechargeable magnesium batteries that would enable an EV to travel 3 times farther than it could using Li-ion batteries. Prototype magnesium batteries demonstrate excellent electrochemical behavior; delivering thousands of charge cycles with very little fade. Nevertheless, these prototypes have always stored too little energy to be commercially viable. Pellion Technologies is working to overcome this challenge by rapidly screening potential storage materials using proprietary, high-throughput computer models. To date, 12,000 materials have been identified and analyzed. The resulting best materials have been electrochemically tested, yielding several very promising candidates.

None

2010-10-01

167

Wearable textile battery rechargeable by solar energy.  

PubMed

Wearable electronics represent a significant paradigm shift in consumer electronics since they eliminate the necessity for separate carriage of devices. In particular, integration of flexible electronic devices with clothes, glasses, watches, and skin will bring new opportunities beyond what can be imagined by current inflexible counterparts. Although considerable progresses have been seen for wearable electronics, lithium rechargeable batteries, the power sources of the devices, do not keep pace with such progresses due to tenuous mechanical stabilities, causing them to remain as the limiting elements in the entire technology. Herein, we revisit the key components of the battery (current collector, binder, and separator) and replace them with the materials that support robust mechanical endurance of the battery. The final full-cells in the forms of clothes and watchstraps exhibited comparable electrochemical performance to those of conventional metal foil-based cells even under severe folding-unfolding motions simulating actual wearing conditions. Furthermore, the wearable textile battery was integrated with flexible and lightweight solar cells on the battery pouch to enable convenient solar-charging capabilities. PMID:24164580

Lee, Yong-Hee; Kim, Joo-Seong; Noh, Jonghyeon; Lee, Inhwa; Kim, Hyeong Jun; Choi, Sunghun; Seo, Jeongmin; Jeon, Seokwoo; Kim, Taek-Soo; Lee, Jung-Yong; Choi, Jang Wook

2013-01-01

168

Advanced rechargeable sodium batteries with novel cathodes  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Various high energy density rechargeable batteries are being considered for future space applications. Of these, the sodium-sulfur battery is one of the leading candidates. The primary advantage is the high energy density (760 Wh/kg theoretical). Energy densities in excess of 180 Wh/kg were realized in practical batteries. Other technological advantages include its chemical simplicity, absence of self-discharge, and long cycle life possibility. More recently, other high temperature sodium batteries have come into the spotlight. These systems can be described as follow: Na/Beta Double Prime-Al2O3/NaAlCl4/Metal Dichloride Sodium/metal dichloride systems are colloquially known as the zebra system and are currently being developed for traction and load leveling applications. The sodium-metal dichloride systems appear to offer many of the same advantages of the Na/S system, especially in terms of energy density and chemical simplicity. The metal dichloride systems offer increased safety and good resistance to overcharge and operate over a wide range of temperatures from 150 to 400 C with less corrosion problems.

Distefano, S.; Ratnakumar, B. V.; Bankston, C. P.

1989-01-01

169

Rechargeable thin-film lithium batteries  

SciTech Connect

Rechargeable thin-film batteries consisting of lithium metal anodes, an amorphous inorganic electrolyte, and cathodes of lithium intercalation compounds have been fabricated and characterized. These include Li-TiS{sub 2}, Li-V{sub 2}O{sub 5}, and Li-Li{sub x}Mn{sub 2}O{sub 4} cells with open circuit voltages at full charge of about 2.5 V, 3.7 V, and 4.2 V, respectively. The realization of these robust cells, which can be cycled thousands of times, was possible because of the stability of the amorphous lithium electrolyte, lithium phosphorus oxynitride. This material has a typical composition of Li{sub 2.9}PO{sub 3.3}N{sub 0.46}and a conductivity at 25 C of 2 {mu}S/cm. The thin-film cells have been cycled at 100% depth of discharge using current densities of 5 to 100 {mu}A/cm{sup 2}. Over most of the charge-discharge range, the internal resistance appears to be dominated by the cathode, and the major source of the resistance is the diffusion of Li{sup +} ions from the electrolyte into the cathode. Chemical diffusion coefficients were determined from ac impedance measurements.

Bates, J.B.; Gruzalski, G.R.; Dudney, N.J.; Luck, C.F.; Yu, X.

1993-09-01

170

Thin-film rechargeable lithium batteries  

SciTech Connect

Rechargeable thin-films batteries with lithium metal anodes, an amorphous inorganic electrolyte, and cathodes of lithium intercalation compounds have been fabricated and characterized. The cathodes include TiS{sub 2}, the {omega} phase of V{sub 2}O{sub 5}, and the cubic spinel Li{sub x}Mn{sub 2}O{sub 4} with open circuit voltages at full charge of about 2.5 V, 3.7 V, and 4.2 V, respectively. The development of these robust cells, which can be cycled thousands of times, was possible because of the stability of the amorphous lithium electrolyte, lithium phosphorus oxynitride. This material has a typical composition of Li{sub 2.9}PO{sub 3.3}N{sub 0.46} and a conductivity at 25 C of 2 {mu}S/cm. Thin-film cells have been cycled at 100% depth of discharge using current densities of 2 to 100 {mu}A/cm{sup 2}. The polarization resistance of the cells is due to the slow insertion rate of Li{sup +} ions into the cathode. Chemical diffusion coefficients for Li{sup +} ions in the three types of cathodes have been estimated from the analysis of ac impedance measurements.

Bates, J.B.; Gruzalski, G.R.; Dudney, N.J.; Luck, C.F.; Yu, X.

1993-11-01

171

2/24/2014 Micro-Windmills to Recharge Cell Phones http://www.jadecadelina.com/innovation/micro-windmills-recharge-phones/ 1/2  

E-print Network

2/24/2014 Micro-Windmills to Recharge Cell Phones http://www.jadecadelina.com/innovation/micro & Technology Search this site... R ECEN T P OSTS welcome Micro-Windmills to Recharge Cell Phones Super Ty phoon (required) Micro-Windmills to Recharge Cell Phones January 16, 2014 · by mr.jade · in Energy, Innovation

Chiao, Jung-Chih

172

4/6/2014 Micro Windmill Recharges Phone Batteries | Solar Feeds http://www.solarfeeds.com/micro-windmill-recharges-phone-batteries/ 1/3  

E-print Network

4/6/2014 Micro Windmill Recharges Phone Batteries | Solar Feeds http://www.solarfeeds.com/micro-windmill-recharges-phone-batteries/ 1/3 Micro Windmill Recharges Phone Batteries 15 January of 2014 by SolarFeeds A UT Arlington the electricity that could be collected by the cell phone's battery. Rao's works in micro-robotic devices

Chiao, Jung-Chih

173

Post-orogenic extension and metamorphic core complexes in a heterogeneous crust, the role of preexisting nappes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Field observations in post-orogenic domains evidence a strong partitioning of deformation between the upper and lower crusts during the formation of metamorphic core complexes (MCCs). Furthermore, numerical models suggest that major rheological contrasts between a resistant upper crust and a low viscosity lower crust are essential for the development of these structures. As a general agreement, warm thermal profiles are therefore considered to be the main cause of the rheological stratification. This assumption is however not compatible with the limited to absent retrograde heating within some exhumed High Pressure - Low Temperature (HP-LT) metamorphic units, as is observed in the northern Cycladic MCCs in the Aegean domain. The purpose of our study is to reconsider the initial state of the crust at the onset of post-orogenic extension. We investigate, through thermo-mechanical modeling, how crustal stratification, inherited from the nappe stacking stage, influences the occurrence of MCCs in former orogens. Rocks are believed to be more mafic with depth in normal crusts. If the nappe stacking episode is taken into account, the lithological profile of the crust can be more complex with some reversed strength gradients. The history of thickening may therefore strongly influence the crustal rheological profile at the onset of extension. To test this idea, we explored the effect of three possible crustal stratifications (homogeneous, normal and reversed), as well as three thermal profiles (cold, intermediate and warm). The numerical experiments show that the degree of lateral localization and the dynamics of exhumation are strongly controlled by the crustal stratification, and, to a lesser extent, by the temperature profile. Four modes of extension are distinguished: common-type rift, wide rift, metamorphic core complex and spreading dome. Spreading dome distinguishes from metamorphic core complex by the exhumation of material along a ridge located in the center of the dome. We emphasize three following points. First, a metamorphic core complex can develop in crusts with low thermal gradients if the lithological layering is reversed. HP-LT units are then exhumed without retrograde heating. In homogeneous crusts or normally stratified crusts, no MCC forms, even with high thermal gradients. High thermal gradients are therefore neither sufficient nor necessary for the development of MCCs in thickened crusts submitted to post-orogenic extension. Second, among the nine tested setups, the case considering a lithologically reversed crust and an intermediate thermal gradient is the only one reproducing an overall finite geometry, that compares with the Cycladic MCCs, and cool P-T paths for the exhumed metamorphic units. Third, in experiments showing the development of a MCC, the mantle strength has little influence on the dynamics of exhumation and the final geometry. The presence of metamorphic core complexes is therefore not sufficient to establish a long-term rheological model for the continental lithosphere.

Huet, B.; Le Pourhiet, L.; Labrousse, L.; Burov, E. B.; Jolivet, L.

2009-12-01

174

Estimated Infiltration, Percolation, and Recharge Rates at the Rillito Creek Focused Recharge Investigation Site, Pima County, Arizona  

USGS Publications Warehouse

A large fraction of ground water stored in the alluvial aquifers in the Southwest is recharged by water that percolates through ephemeral stream-channel deposits. The amount of water currently recharging many of these aquifers is insufficient to meet current and future demands. Improving the understanding of streambed infiltration and the subsequent redistribution of water within the unsaturated zone is fundamental to quantifying and forming an accurate description of streambed recharge. In addition, improved estimates of recharge from ephemeral-stream channels will reduce uncertainties in water-budget components used in current ground-water models. This chapter presents a summary of findings related to a focused recharge investigation along Rillito Creek in Tucson, Arizona. A variety of approaches used to estimate infiltration, percolation, and recharge fluxes are presented that provide a wide range of temporal- and spatial-scale measurements of recharge beneath Rillito Creek. The approaches discussed include analyses of (1) cores and cuttings for hydraulic and textural properties, (2) environmental tracers from the water extracted from the cores and cuttings, (3) seepage measurements made during sustained streamflow, (4) heat as a tracer and numerical simulations of the movement of heat through the streambed sediments, (5) water-content variations, (6) water-level responses to streamflow in piezometers within the stream channel, and (7) gravity changes in response to recharge events. Hydraulic properties of the materials underlying Rillito Creek were used to estimate long-term potential recharge rates. Seepage measurements and analyses of temperature and water content were used to estimate infiltration rates, and environmental tracers were used to estimate percolation rates through the thick unsaturated zone. The presence or lack of tritium in the water was used to determine whether or not water in the unsaturated zone infiltrated within the past 40 years. Analysis of water-level and temporal-gravity data were used to estimate recharge volumes. Data presented in this chapter were collected from 1999 though 2002. Precipitation and streamflow during this period were less than the long-term average; however, two periods of significant streamflow resulted in recharge?one in the summer of 1999 and the other in the fall/winter of 2000. Flux estimates of infiltration and recharge vary from less than 0.1 to 1.0 cubic meter per second per kilometer of streamflow. Recharge-flux estimates are larger than infiltration estimates. Larger recharge fluxes than infiltration fluxes are explained by the scale of measurements. Methods used to estimate recharge rates incorporate the largest volumetric and temporal scales and are likely to have fluxes from other nearby sources, such as unmeasured tributaries, whereas the methods used to estimate infiltration incorporate the smallest scales, reflecting infiltration rates at individual measurement sites.

Hoffmann, John P.; Blasch, Kyle W.; Pool, Don R.; Bailey, Matthew A.; Callegary, James B.

2007-01-01

175

Sedimentary evolution of the siliciclastic Aptian-Albian Massylian flysch of the Chouamat Nappe (central Rif, Morocco)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Sandstone petrography and geochemistry (major, trace and rare earth elements) of the Aptian-Albian siliciclastic Massylian flysch from the Chouamat Nappe (central Rif Morocco) are used to highlight the chemical weathering conditions in the source area and to infer their provenance. Petrographic studies show that the studied samples are mostly quartzarenite, sublitharenite and subarkose generally composed of quartz (up to 99%), K-feldspar (less than 5%) and scarce fragments of sedimentary rocks. The samples plot in the continental block provenance field of the QtFLt diagram. Thus, the compositional maturity of analyzed sandstones is typical of cratonic environments. The sandstone samples shows high SiO2 content (up to 96%) and strong depletion in mobile components such as Na2O, CaO as well as in ferromagnesian minerals, which are mainly related to intense chemical weathering processes in the source area, as confirmed by high Chemical Index of Alteration values (mean = 79.8). Recycling is shown by the Th/Sc vs. Zr/Sc plot, where the studied sandstones fall along a trend involving zircon addition and thus sediment recycling. Several geochemical ratios, such as La/Sc, Th/Sc, Th/Co and Th/Cr, of the studied samples are similar to those of Post-Archean Australian Shales and of the Upper Continental Crust, and suggest a provenance from source area(s) mainly composed of plutonic and felsic metasedimentary and sedimentary rocks, which were most probably the basement rocks of the adjacent African plate. These source rocks are related to a large cratonic source region of Eburnean and Pan-African belts, Precambrian (?) and/or Variscan basements of the southeastern margin of the African plate.

El Talibi, Hajar; Zaghloul, Mohamed Najib; Perri, Francesco; Aboumaria, Khadija; Rossi, Abdelhamid; El Moussaoui, Said

2014-12-01

176

Recent progress in recognition of (U)HP lithologies in the Seve Nappe Complex of Jmtland, Swedish Caledonides  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Seve Nappe Complex (SNC) forms the highest metamorphic grade unit within the Middle Allochthon of the Scandinavian Caledonides. It is traditionally divisible into three subunits (Lower, Middle and Upper) differing in the metamorphic grade. Eclogites have been found so far only within the Lower and Middle Seve and just in two places, i.e. Norrbotten and Jmtland. Here, we focus on the recent evidence for (U)HP metamorphism in northern and central Jmtland, where the (U)HP lithologies comprise not only eclogites and peridotites, but also metasediments of the Baltoscandian outer margin. In northern Jmtland, the Friningen kyanite-bearing eclogite belonging to the Middle Seve yields P-T conditions of c. 30kbar and 800C. The Tjeliken phengite-bearing eclogite yields somewhat lower P-T conditions of c. 26kbar and 700C, but quartz inclusions in omphacite, surrounded by radial cracksindicate coesite breakdown. This biggest eclogite body in Jmtland has been considereded to belong to the Lower Seve; however the structural observations suggest that it may be a klippe of the Middle Seve. Some 150km south in central Jmtland, leucogranulites and kyanite-bearing gneisses of the Middle Seve yield P-T conditions of 24-32kbar and 700-720C. These new observations and P-T data imply (U)HP metamorphism of the SNC during deep subduction of the Baltican continental crust. Available age data from the Sm-Nd garnet, U-Pb zircon and U-Th-total Pb monazite datings yield a Late Ordovician age. This (U)HP metamorphism, recently documented within the SNC of Jmtland, was an important tectonic event in the evolution of the Scandinavian Caledonides suggesting that the Scandian collision could have started already in the Late Ordovician.

Majka, Jaros?aw; Jank, Marian; Klonowska, Iwona; Gee, David G.; Rosn, ke; Andersson, Barbro

2013-04-01

177

2D thermo-mechanical modeling of basement-cover deformation with application to the Helvetic nappe system and the external massifs in the Western Alps  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Basement-cover deformation and its relationship to nappe emplacement and massif formation in the external Western Alps has been a subject of controversy for many years. Although it is commonly accepted that these massifs are the result of basin inversion of European margin graben-type structures, the mechanisms of basin inversion itself is still highly debated. Some studies suggested that the geometry of some external crystalline massifs is essentially a cuspate-lobate (i.e. ductile) structure while other studies interpret the geometry of those massifs as a result of brittle thrust mechanics. Furthermore, the importance of reactivation of pre-existing brittle structures during basin inversion is still debated. To better understand basement-cover deformation we use a two-dimensional (2D) thermo-mechanical finite element model to investigate both the individual and combined influence of viscous, elastic and plastic rheologies on the deformation of half-graben structures under compression. Two types of boundary conditions are used, namely pure shear and shortening combined with basal drag exhibiting a singularity point (S-point). The surface is free. The resulting geometry and finite deformation patterns in both basement and sediment model units are then compared to cross-sections, finite strain ellipses and cleavage orientation from published data. Orientation and distribution of plastic shear bands in the model are compared to fault distribution from field data and sand box analogue models. First results suggest that a dominantly ductile behavior in the lowest part of the sediment-filled basin is needed in order to reproduce finite strain patterns similar to the ones found in fold nappes such as the Morcles nappe (Western Switzerland). Ductile behavior is possible at low temperature (300 C) using realistic flow laws for calcite. The numerical results are further applied to interpret the tectonic evolution of the Aiguilles Rouges and Mont-Blanc massifs in the Western Alps.

Bauville, Arthur; Schmalholz, Stefan

2013-04-01

178

New evidence of a magmatic arc in the southern Braslia Belt, Brazil: The Serra da gua Limpa batholith (Socorro-Guaxup Nappe)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper presents a detailed description of the Neoproterozoic Serra da gua Limpa batholith (SALB) and the interpretation of its genesis. The batholith, located along the border of the states of Minas Gerais and So Paulo, was involved in the Socorro-Guaxup Nappe, a tectonic unit that integrates the southern Braslia Belt. The tectonic evolution of this nappe is related to the convergence and subsequent collision between the Paranapanema paleocontinent, representing the upper plate, with the So Francisco paleocontinent, resulting in the construction of the southern Braslia Belt. The active margin of the Paranapanema paleocontinent developed during the pre-collisional stage a magmatic arc composed of batholithic igneous bodies. The Socorro-Guaxup Nappe represents this active margin and SALB is one of those bodies. U-Pb dating (Laser Ablation, LA-ICP-MS) in zircon was performed in five samples of SALB. The results are as follows: sample RDTM 62, 667 10 Ma; RDPA 44, 645 5 Ma; RDPA 46, 630 12 Ma; VAC 10, 631 7 Ma and RDIT 41, 635 8 Ma. These ages indicate that the body crystallized between 670 and 630 Ma, with predominance of ages in the interval 645-630 Ma, demonstrating that the magmatic event that formed the arc lasted at least 40 myr. Younger ages, measured in rims of zircon grains, mainly in the range 625-600 Ma were interpreted as metamorphic ages. The lithogeochemical analyses indicate that the I-type rocks of the Serra da gua Limpa batholith belong to the high K calc-alkaline series, and are metaluminous to slightly peraluminous. Tectonic environment diagrams also indicate that the batholith was produced in a volcanic arc setting which is confirmed by negative anomalies of elements of high ionic potential (HFS) in multi-element diagrams. Whole rock Sm-Nd isotope analyses show highly negative ?Nd values (-12 to -7), indicating significant crustal contamination or origin of the magma by melting of enriched lower crust.

Vinagre, Rodrigo; Trouw, Rudolph A. J.; Mendes, Julio Cezar; Duffles, Patrcia; Peternel, Rodrigo; Matos, Gabriel

2014-10-01

179

Oxygen electrodes for rechargeable alkaline fuel cells  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Electrocatalysts and supports for the positive electrode of moderate temperature single-unit rechargeable alkaline fuel cells are being investigated and developed. Candidate support materials were drawn from transition metal carbides, borides, nitrides and oxides which have high conductivity (greater than 1 ohm/cm). Candidate catalyst materials were selected largely from metal oxides of the form ABO sub x (where A = Pb, Cd, Mn, Ti, Zr, La, Sr, Na, and B = Pt, Pd, Ir, Ru, Ni (Co) which were investigated and/or developed for one function only, O2 reduction or O2 evolution. The electrical conductivity requirement for catalysts may be lower, especially if integrated with a higher conductivity support. All candidate materials of acceptable conductivity are subjected to corrosion testing. Materials that survive chemical testing are examined for electrochemical corrosion activity. For more stringent corrosion testing, and for further evaluation of electrocatalysts (which generally show significant O2 evolution at at 1.4 V), samples are held at 1.6 V or 0.6 V for about 100 hours. The surviving materials are then physically and chemically analyzed for signs of degradation. To evaluate the bifunctional oxygen activity of candidate catalysts, Teflon-bonded electrodes are fabricated and tested in a floating electrode configuration. Many of the experimental materials being studied have required development of a customized electrode fabrication procedure. In advanced development, the goal is to reduce the polarization to about 300 to 350 mV. Approximately six support materials and five catalyst materials were identified to date for further development. The test results will be described.

Swette, L.; Kackley, N.

1989-01-01

180

Design and simulation of lithium rechargeable batteries  

SciTech Connect

Lithium -based rechargeable batteries that utilize insertion electrodes are being considered for electric-vehicle applications because of their high energy density and inherent reversibility. General mathematical models are developed that apply to a wide range of lithium-based systems, including the recently commercialized lithium-ion cell. The modeling approach is macroscopic, using porous electrode theory to treat the composite insertion electrodes and concentrated solution theory to describe the transport processes in the solution phase. The insertion process itself is treated with a charge-transfer process at the surface obeying Butler-Volmer kinetics, followed by diffusion of the lithium ion into the host structure. These models are used to explore the phenomena that occur inside of lithium cells under conditions of discharge, charge, and during periods of relaxation. Also, in order to understand the phenomena that limit the high-rate discharge of these systems, we focus on the modeling of a particular system with well-characterized material properties and system parameters. The system chosen is a lithium-ion cell produced by Bellcore in Red Bank, NJ, consisting of a lithium-carbon negative electrode, a plasticized polymer electrolyte, and a lithium-manganese-oxide spinel positive electrode. This battery is being marketed for consumer electronic applications. The system is characterized experimentally in terms of its transport and thermodynamic properties, followed by detailed comparisons of simulation results with experimental discharge curves. Next, the optimization of this system for particular applications is explored based on Ragone plots of the specific energy versus average specific power provided by various designs.

Doyle, C.M.

1995-08-01

181

Arsenic release during managed aquifer recharge (MAR)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The mobilization and addition of geogenic trace metals to groundwater is typically caused by anthropogenic perturbations of the physicochemical conditions in the aquifer. This can add dangerously high levels of toxins to groundwater, thus compromising its use as a source of drinking water. In several regions world-wide, aquifer storage and recovery (ASR), a form of managed aquifer recharge (MAR), faces the problem of arsenic release due to the injection of oxygenated storage water. To better understand this process we coupled geochemical reactive transport modeling to bench-scale leaching experiments to investigate and verify the mobilization of geogenic arsenic (As) under a range of redox conditions from an arsenic-rich pyrite bearing limestone aquifer in Central Florida. Modeling and experimental observations showed similar results and confirmed the following: (1) native groundwater and aquifer matrix, including pyrite, were in chemical equilibrium, thus preventing the release of As due to pyrite dissolution under ambient conditions; (2) mixing of oxygen-rich surface water with oxygen-depleted native groundwater changed the redox conditions and promoted the dissolution of pyrite, and (3) the behavior of As along a flow path was controlled by a complex series of interconnected reactions. This included the oxidative dissolution of pyrite and simultaneous sorption of As onto neo-formed hydrous ferric oxides (HFO), followed by the reductive dissolution of HFO and secondary release of adsorbed As under reducing conditions. Arsenic contamination of drinking water in these systems is thus controlled by the re-equilibration of the system to more reducing conditions rather than a purely oxidative process.

Pichler, T.; Lazareva, O.; Druschel, G.

2013-12-01

182

Thermal Methods for Investigating Ground-Water Recharge  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Recharge of aquifers within arid and semiarid environments is defined as the downward flux of water across the regional water table. The introduction of recharging water at the land surface can occur at discreet locations, such as in stream channels, or be distributed over the landscape, such as across broad interarroyo areas within an alluvial ground-water basin. The occurrence of recharge at discreet locations is referred to as focused recharge, whereas the occurrence of recharge over broad regions is referred to as diffuse recharge. The primary interest of this appendix is focused recharge, but regardless of the type of recharge, estimation of downward fluxes is essential to its quantification. Like chemical tracers, heat can come from natural sources or be intentionally introduced to infer transport properties and aquifer recharge. The admission and redistribution of heat from natural processes such as insolation, infiltration, and geothermal activity can be used to quantify subsurface flow regimes. Heat is well suited as a ground-water tracer because it provides a naturally present dynamic signal and is relatively harmless over a useful range of induced perturbations. Thermal methods have proven valuable for recharge investigations for several reasons. First, theoretical descriptions of coupled water-and-heat transport are available for the hydrologic processes most often encountered in practice. These include land-surface mechanisms such as radiant heating from the sun, radiant cooling into space, and evapotranspiration, in addition to the advective and conductive mechanisms that usually dominate at depth. Second, temperature is theoretically well defined and readily measured. Third, thermal methods for depths ranging from the land surface to depths of hundreds of meters are based on similar physical principles. Fourth, numerical codes for simulating heat and water transport have become increasingly reliable and widely available. Direct measurement of water flux in the subsurface is difficult, prompting investigators to pursue indirect methods. Geophysical approaches that exploit the coupled relation between heat and water transport provide an attractive class of methods that have become widely used in investigations of recharge. This appendix reviews the application of heat to the problem of recharge estimation. Its objective is to provide a fairly complete account of the theoretical underpinnings together with a comprehensive review of thermal methods in practice. Investigators began using subsurface temperatures to delineate recharge areas and infer directions of ground-water flow around the turn of the 20th century. During the 1960s, analytical and numerical solutions for simplified heat- and fluid-flow problems became available. These early solutions, though one-dimensional and otherwise restricted, provided a strong impetus for applying thermal methods to problems of liquid and vapor movement in systems ranging from soils to geothermal reservoirs. Today?s combination of fast processors, massive data-storage units, and efficient matrix techniques provide numerical solutions to complex, three-dimensional transport problems. These approaches allow researchers to take advantage of the considerable information content routinely achievable in high-accuracy temperature work.

Blasch, Kyle W.; Constantz, Jim; Stonestrom, David A.

2007-01-01

183

Artificial-Recharge Experiments and Operations on the Southern High Plains of Texas and New Mexico  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Experiments using highly turbid water from playa lakes for injection into the Ogallala Formation have resulted in greatly decreased yield of the recharge wells, Recharge of ground or surface water of good quality has indicated, however, that injection through wells is an effective method of recharging the aquifer. Water that is slightly turbid can be successfully injected for a period of time, but generally results in constantly declining yields and capacity for recharge. Redevelopment through pumping and surging significantly prolongs the life of recharge wells under some conditions. Surface spreading is little practiced on the High Plains, but locally may be a feasible means of artificial recharge.

Brown, Richmond F.; Signor, Donald C.

1973-01-01

184

Fate of human viruses in groundwater recharge systems  

SciTech Connect

The overall objective of this research program was to determine the ability of a well-managed tertiary effluent-recharge system to return virologically acceptable water to the groundwater aquifer. The study assessed the quality of waters renovated by indigenous recharge operations and investigated a number of virus-soil interrelationships. The elucidation of the interactions led to the establishment of basin operating criteria for optimizing virus removal. Raw influents, chlorinated tertiary effluents, and renovated wastewater from the aquifer directly beneath a uniquely designed recharge test basin were assayed on a weekly basis for the presence of human enteroviruses and coliform bacteria. High concentrations of viruses were routinely isolated from influents but were isolated only on four occasions from tertiary-treated sewage effluents. In spite of the high quality effluent being recharged, viruses were isolated from the groundwater observation well, indicating their ability to penetrate the unsaturated zone. Results of poliovirus seeding experiments carried out in the test basin clearly indicated the need to operate recharge basins at low (e.g. 1 cm/h) infiltration rates in areas having soil types similar to those found at the study site. The method selected for reducing the test basin infiltration rate involved clogging the basin surface with settled organic material from highly turbid effluent. Alternative methods for slowing infiltration rates are discussed in the text.

Vaughn, J.M.; Landry, E.F.

1980-03-01

185

Groundwater recharge from Long Lake, Indiana Dunes National Lakeshore  

SciTech Connect

Long Lake, located between Lake Michigan and the Dune-complexes of Indiana Dunes, was formed during Pleistocene and Holocene epochs. The lake is currently being studied to understand the detailed hydrology. One of the objective of the study is to understand the hydrologic relationship between the lake and a water treatment holding pond to the northeast. Understanding the water movement between the two bodies of water, if any, would be very important in the management and protection of nature preserves in the area. Seepage measurement and minipiezometric tests indicate groundwater recharge from Long Lake. The groundwater recharge rate is approximately 1.40 to 22.28 x 10[sup [minus]4] m/day. An estimate of the amount of recharge of 7.0 x 10[sup 6] m[sup 3]/y may be significant in terms of groundwater recharge of the upper aquifer system of the Dunes area. The water chemistry of the two bodies of water appears to be similar, however, the pH of the holding pond is slightly alkaline (8.5) while that of Long Lake is less alkaline (7.7). There appears to be no direct contact between the two bodies of water (separated by approximately six meters of clay rich sediment). The geology of the area indicates a surficial aquifer underlying Long Lake. The lake should be regarded as a recharge area and should be protected from pollutants as the degradation of the lake would contaminate the underlying aquifer.

Isiorho, S.A.; Beeching, F.M. (Indiana Univ., Fort Wayne, IN (United States). Geosciences Dept.); Whitman, R.L.; Stewart, P.M. (National Park Services, Porter, IN (United States). Indiana Dunes National Lakeshore); Gentleman, M.A.

1992-01-01

186

78 FR 76731 - Special Conditions: Boeing Model 777-200, -300, and -300ER Series Airplanes; Rechargeable Lithium...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Series Airplanes; Rechargeable Lithium Ion Batteries and Battery Systems AGENCY: Federal...the installation of rechargeable lithium ion batteries and battery system that will be...equipment that uses rechargeable lithium ion batteries and battery systems in the...

2013-12-19

187

78 FR 52107 - Special Conditions: Boeing Model 777-200, -300, and -300ER Series Airplanes; Rechargeable Lithium...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Series Airplanes; Rechargeable Lithium Ion Batteries and Battery Systems AGENCY: Federal...specifically the rechargeable lithium ion batteries and battery system that will be...equipment that uses rechargeable lithium ion batteries and battery systems in the...

2013-08-22

188

Hydrogeology of Regional Valley Fill Aquifers with Mountain System Recharge  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Groundwater in the North Okanagan was investigated using an integrated physical, geochemical and numerical approach. The North Okanagan Groundwater Characterization and Assessment (NOGWCA) project began with an investigation of the geology and hydrostratigraphy of the North Okanagan region. The Deep Creek and Fortune Creek watersheds were found to contain multiple valley-fill aquifers which are recharged via mountain system recharge (MSR) and direct recharge to unconfined aquifers in the valley bottom. Detailed hydrometric data indicates groundwater recharge within the alluvial fan of Fortune Creek, and discharge to surface water in the lower reaches of Deep Creek. Valley side recharge from the adjacent mountains generates artesian conditions in the valley center. Physical hydrogeological measurements and groundwater and surface water geochemistry were used to determine the overall groundwater flow regime, inter-aquifer exchange and surface-water groundwater interactions. Conservative elements and deuterium/oxygen isotopes were used in a mixing cell model (MCM) approach to assess groundwater flow between aquifers. Efforts to accurately quantify and understand MSR are hampered by sparse data on the geochemical character of bedrock aquifers. Watershed scale recharge estimates and water balances were derived from a regional integrated climate dataset coupled to FEFLOW simulations. The first stage modeled steady state conditions within the main valley center aquifer. Integrated surface water and groundwater modeling is to be carried out in the future. The groundwater flow modeling will contribute to subsequent water management decisions at the watershed scale. Climate change and economic change scenarios will be considered in the integrated surface water and groundwater modeling.

Ping, J.; Nichol, C.; Wei, A.

2009-05-01

189

Architecture of the south-eastern Carpathians nappes and Focsani Basin (Romania) from 2D ray tracing of densely-spaced refraction data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A velocity model of the upper crust (maximum depth 10-15 km) of the earthquake-prone Vrancea area (Romania) from 2D forward ray tracing of densely-spaced refraction data is presented. The model is derived from more than 11,000 travel times recorded at stations 100 m apart picked from 42 shot gathers along a 140 km line crossing the south-eastern Carpathian bending zone and the adjacent deep (foreland) Focsani Basin. The model refines basement structure beneath the south-eastern Carpathian nappe stack and Focsani Basin and documents reverse faults on which crystalline rocks or highly metamorphosed Mesozoic sedimentary cover of the crystalline basement have been elevated to depths as little as 3.5-4 km (with a vertical displacement of at least 2-2.5 km) beneath the external Carpathian nappes in the Vrancea Zone. Fault systems (flower structures) and normal faults associated with the overall tectonic subsidence of the foreland basin are also inferred. Some of the basement fault systems appear to be recently active, since they involve overlying young (Tertiary-Quaternary) sedimentary layers, and may be associated with intracrustal earthquakes recorded in the area.

Bocin, Andrei; Stephenson, Randell; Mocanu, Victor; Matenco, Liviu

2009-10-01

190

Illite crystallinity and conodont alteration index in a polymetamorphic nappe pile: the Montagne Noire (S-France)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Montagne Noire is situated on the southern flank of the Variscan Belt in South France (e.g. MATTE 1991). The S flank is composed of a tectonic pile of recumbent, grossly southward facing fold nappes (D1, ECHTLER 1990) involving Cambrian to Carboniferous sedimentary rocks. In a second step, HT/LP gneisses were exhumed in a central "Zone Axiale" (D2). Since a laterally consistent sequence of Palaeozoic sediments (quartzites, greywackes, pelites, radiolarian cherts and carbonates) may be traced across the metamorphic zonation, from diagenesis into amphibolite facies, the Montagne Noire offers ideal conditions for methodical metamorphic studies. Earlier petrological studies have revealed a concentric zonation of low pressure metamorphism centred around the gneissic core (DEMANGE 1985). A field study was carried out on the southern part, in order to compare the records of the conodont alteration indexes (CAI) and illite crystallinity (IC) methods, and to provide additional constraints on the tectono-metamorphic evolution. Illite crystallinity is defined as the "full width at half maximum" (FWHM given in *2 of the basal 10 A illite peak. The IC values were transformed into Kuebler index values (KI) using the "crystallinity index standard" (CIS). CAI was analyzed in a continuous belt of Devonian to Early Carboniferoushemipelagic limestones (WIEDERER et al., 2002). Both methods show similar metamorphic evolution: CAI is highest (5-7) in the neighbourhood of the Zone Axiale, and decreases down to diagenetic grade (CAI = 2) at the southern margin of the Montagne Noire. The KI values show also a decreasing metamorphism (epizone to diagenetic zone) away from the "Zone Axiale". Since CAI and IC zonations cut across the overturned limbs of large recumbent D1 folds, the origin of CAI and the IC must post-date D1. It appears that metamorphism of both the Zone Axiale and its lower grade cover were controlled by the exhumation of the hot gneissic core. The correlation between the two methods, using preliminary results, show CAI values of 3 and 4.5 for the diagenetic zone - anchizone and the anchizone - epizone transition, respectively. This correlation between CAI and KI shows lower values for the anchizone than those found in literature. DEMANGE (1985), Chemical Geology, 50, 173-188. ECHTLER (1990), Tectonophysics, 177, 109-123. MATTE (1991), Tectonophysics, 196, 309-337. WIEDERER et al. (2002), Schweiz. Mineral. Petrogr. Mitt., 82, 393-407.

Doublier, M. P.

2003-04-01

191

Rechargeable room-temperature CF(x)-sodium battery.  

PubMed

Here we demonstrate for the first time that CFx cathodes show rechargeable capability in sodium ion batteries with an initial discharge capacity of 1061 mAh g(-1) and a reversible discharge capacity of 786 mAh g(-1). The highly reversible electrochemical reactivity of CFx with Na at room temperature indicates that the decomposition of NaF could be driven by carbon formed during the first discharge. The high reversible capacity made it become a promising cathode material for future rechargeable sodium batteries. PMID:24494989

Liu, Wen; Li, Hong; Xie, Jing-Ying; Fu, Zheng-Wen

2014-02-26

192

Thin Rechargeable Batteries for CMOS SRAM Memory Protection  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

New rechargeable battery technology is described and compared with classical primary battery back-up of SRAM PC cards. Thin solid polymer electrolyte cells with the thickness of TSOP memory components (1 mm nominal, 1.1 mm max) and capacities of 14 mAh/sq cm can replace coin cells. The SRAM PC cards with permanently installed rechargeable cells and optional electrochromic low battery voltage indicators will free the periodic PC card user from having to 'feed' their PC cards with coin cells and will allow a quick visual check of stored cards for their battery voltage status.

Crouse, Dennis N.

1993-01-01

193

Focused Ground-Water Recharge in the Amargosa Desert Basin  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Amargosa River is an approximately 300-kilometer long regional drainage connecting the northern highlands on the Nevada Test Site in Nye County, Nev., to the floor of Death Valley in Inyo County, Calif. Streamflow analysis indicates that the Amargosa Desert portion of the river is dry more than 98 percent of the time. Infiltration losses during ephemeral flows of the Amargosa River and Fortymile Wash provide the main sources of ground-water recharge on the desert-basin floor. The primary use of ground water is for irrigated agriculture. The current study examined ground-water recharge from ephemeral flows in the Amargosa River by using streamflow data and environmental tracers. The USGS streamflow-gaging station at Beatty, Nev., provided high-frequency data on base flow and storm runoff entering the basin during water years 1998?2001. Discharge into the basin during the four-year period totaled 3.03 million cubic meters, three quarters of which was base flow. Streambed temperature anomalies indicated the distribution of ephemeral flows and infiltration losses within the basin. Major storms that produced regional flow during the four-year period occurred in February 1998, during a strong El Ni?o that more than doubled annual precipitation, and in July 1999. The study also quantified recharge beneath undisturbed native vegetation and irrigation return flow beneath irrigated fields. Vertical profiles of water potential and environmental tracers in the unsaturated zone provided estimates of recharge beneath the river channel (0.04?0.09 meter per year) and irrigated fields (0.1?0.5 meter per year). Chloride mass-balance estimates indicate that 12?15 percent of channel infiltration becomes ground-water recharge, together with 9?22 percent of infiltrated irrigation. Profiles of potential and chloride beneath the dominant desert-shrub vegetation suggest that ground-water recharge has been negligible throughout most of the basin since at least the early Holocene. Surface-based electrical-resistivity imaging provided areal extension of borehole information from sampled profiles. These images indicate narrowly focused recharge beneath the Amargosa River channel, flanked by large tracts of recharge-free basin floor.

Stonestrom, David A.; Prudic, David E.; Walvoord, Michelle A.; Abraham, Jared D.; Stewart-Deaker, Amy E.; Glancy, Patrick A.; Constantz, Jim; Laczniak, Randell J.; Andraski, Brian J.

2007-01-01

194

78 FR 76772 - Special Conditions: Airbus Model A350-900 Airplanes; Permanently Installed Rechargeable Lithium...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Permanently Installed Rechargeable Lithium-Ion Batteries and Battery Systems AGENCY: Federal...permanently installed rechargeable lithium-ion batteries and battery systems. These batteries...did not anticipate the use of lithium-ion batteries and battery systems on...

2013-12-19

195

78 FR 55773 - Fourteenth Meeting: RTCA Special Committee 225, Rechargeable Lithium Battery and Battery Systems...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Rechargeable Lithium Battery and Battery Systems--Small and Medium Size...Committee 225, Rechargeable Lithium Battery and Battery Systems--Small and Medium Size...from last Plenary meeting. Li-ion Current Events. Status of...

2013-09-11

196

78 FR 38093 - Thirteenth Meeting: RTCA Special Committee 225, Rechargeable Lithium Battery and Battery Systems...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Rechargeable Lithium Battery and Battery Systems--Small and Medium Size...Committee 225, Rechargeable Lithium Battery and Battery Systems--Small and Medium Size...and discussion of next steps. Li-ion Current Events. Working...

2013-06-25

197

Self-doped block copolymer electrolytes for solid-state, rechargeable lithium batteries  

E-print Network

Self-doped block copolymer electrolytes for solid-state, rechargeable lithium batteries Donald R and cathode binder thin-®lm, solid-state, rechargeable lithium batteries of the type Li/ BCE/LiMnO2 have been to be addressed to meet the demanding requirements of a commercially viable solid- state rechargeable battery

Sadoway, Donald Robert

198

A Wireless Power Interface for Rechargeable Battery Operated Neural Recording Implants  

E-print Network

A Wireless Power Interface for Rechargeable Battery Operated Neural Recording Implants Pengfei Li a biocompatible rechargeable battery. As battery technology continues to advance toward higher volumetric for a low power elec- tronic interface capable of supporting a rechargeable battery implant framework

Slatton, Clint

199

Real-time Scheduling of periodic tasks in a monoprocessor system with rechargeable energy storage  

E-print Network

such as a solar panel or a furl cell, and a rechargeable energy storage such as a battery or a super- capacitor with a rechargeable battery. In this model, all task periods are identical, all task deadlines are equal to the common that the wasted recharging energy is minimized and the battery level is at all times within two limits, starting

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

200

Ground-Water Recharge Through Active Sand Dunes in Northwestern Nevada  

Microsoft Academic Search

Most water-resouree investigations in semiarid basins of the Great Basin in western North America conclude that groundwater recharge from direct precipitation on the valley floor is negligible. However, many of these basins contain large areas covered by unvegetated, active sand dunes that may act as conduits for ground-water recharge. The potential for this previously undocumented recharge was investigated in an

David L. Berger

1992-01-01

201

Climate change impacts on groundwater recharge uncertainty, shortcomings, and the way forward?  

Microsoft Academic Search

An integrated approach to assessing the regional impacts of climate and socio-economic change on groundwater recharge is described from East Anglia, UK. Many factors affect future groundwater recharge including changed precipitation and temperature regimes, coastal flooding, urbanization, woodland establishment, and changes in cropping and rotations. Important sources of uncertainty and shortcomings in recharge estimation are discussed in the light of

I. P. Holman

2006-01-01

202

Climate change impacts on groundwater recharge uncertainty, shortcomings, and the way forward?  

Microsoft Academic Search

An integrated approach to assessing the regional impacts of climate and socio-economic change on groundwater recharge is described from East Anglia, UK. Many factors affect future groundwater recharge including changed precipitation and temperature regimes, coastal flooding, urbanization, woodland establishment, and changes in cropping and rotations.Important sources of uncertainty and shortcomings in recharge estimation are discussed in the light of the

I. P. Holman

2006-01-01

203

Impacts of climate change on groundwater in Australia: a sensitivity analysis of recharge  

Microsoft Academic Search

Groundwater recharge is a complex process reflecting many interactions between climate, vegetation and soils. Climate change will impact upon groundwater recharge but it is not clear which climate variables have the greatest influence over recharge. This study used a sensitivity analysis of climate variables using a modified version of WAVES, a soil-vegetation-atmosphere-transfer model (unsaturated zone), to determine the importance of

J. L. McCallum; R. S. Crosbie; G. R. Walker; W. R. Dawes

2010-01-01

204

A dimensionless number describing the effects of recharge and geometry on discharge from simple karstic aquifers  

Microsoft Academic Search

The responses of karstic aquifers to storms are often used to obtain information about aquifer geometry. In general, spring hydrographs are a function of both system geometry and recharge. However, the majority of prior work on storm pulses through karst has not studied the effect of recharge on spring hydrographs. To examine the relative importance of geometry and recharge, we

M. D. Covington; C. M. Wicks; M. O. Saar

2009-01-01

205

Maintaining Sensor Networks Perpetually Via Wireless Recharging Mobile Vehicles  

E-print Network

Maintaining Sensor Networks Perpetually Via Wireless Recharging Mobile Vehicles Weifa Liang resonant coupling is a promising technology for wireless sensor networks as it can provide a controllable mobile vehicles to charge sensors in a sensor network so that none of the sensors runs out of its energy

Liang, Weifa

206

PRINCIPALS OF ORGANIC CONTAMINANT BEHAVIOR DURING ARTIFICIAL RECHARGE  

EPA Science Inventory

The behavior of a variety of organic contaminants having low molecular weight has been observed during groundwater recharge with reclaimed water. The evidence is site-specific, but is believed to have broader implications regarding the general behavior of organic contaminants in ...

207

Oxygen electrodes for rechargeable alkaline fuel cells, 3  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The investigation and development of electrocatalysts and supports for the positive electrode of moderate temperature single unit rechargeable alkaline fuel cells is described. Focus is on chemical and electrochemical stability and O2 reduction/evolution activity of the electrode in question.

Swette, L.; Kackley, N.; Mccatty, S. A.

1991-01-01

208

Oxygen electrodes for rechargeable alkaline fuel cells-II  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The primary objective of this program is the investigation and development of electrocatalysts and supports for the positive electrode of moderate temperature single-unit rechargeable alkaline fuel cells. Approximately six support materials and five catalyst materials have been identified to date for further development.

Swette, L.; Kackley, N.

1989-01-01

209

Oxygen electrodes for rechargeable alkaline fuel cells. II  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The primary objective of this program is the investigation and development of electrocatalysts and supports for the positive electrode of moderate temperature, single-unit, rechargeable alkaline fuel cells. Approximately six support materials and five catalyst materials have been identified to date for further development.

Swette, L.; Kackley, N.

1990-01-01

210

Climate Change Effects on Yucca Mountain Region Groundwater Recharge  

Microsoft Academic Search

Groundwater geochemical data from 211 sampling locations in the Amargosa Desert region are analyzed to better understand the general flow system and climate-induced changes in recharge around Fortymile Wash near Yucca Mountain. Major ion groundwater chemistry was examined using the multivariate statistical methods of principal component analysis and k-means cluster analysis. These analyses showed several groundwater signatures, or potential flowpaths;

Arturo Woocay; John C. Walton

2006-01-01

211

A fuzzy logic model for estimation of groundwater recharge  

Microsoft Academic Search

Water budget models are commonly accepted methods for estimating the groundwater recharge. Some of the inputs to these models such as soil-moisture deficit, actual evapotranspiration, direct runoff etc, are difficult to measure. The space dynamic nature of these parameters makes their quantification even more difficult. The error in estimation increases significantly during extreme events. In addition, it has been found

A. K. Awasthi; O. P. Dubey; S. Sharma

2005-01-01

212

Methods Note/ Net Recharge vs. Depth to Groundwater  

E-print Network

Methods Note/ Net Recharge vs. Depth to Groundwater Relationship in the Platte River Valley rates were correlated with depth to groundwater (d) values in the wide alluvial valley of the Platte soils with a shallow groundwater table. The transition depth (dt) between negative and positive values

Szilagyi, Jozsef

213

A Wireless Power Interface for Rechargeable Battery Operated Medical Implants  

Microsoft Academic Search

This brief presents a highly integrated wirelessly powered battery charging circuit for miniature lithium (Li)-ion rechargeable batteries used in medical implant applications. An inductive link and integrated Schottky barrier rectifying diodes are used to extract the DC signal from a power carrier while providing low forward voltage drop for improved efficiency. The battery charger employs a new control loop that

Pengfei Li; Rizwan Bashirullah

2007-01-01

214

A polymer electrolyte-based rechargeable lithium\\/oxygen battery  

Microsoft Academic Search

A novel rechargeable Li\\/O battery is reported. It comprises a Li{sup +} conductive organic polymer electrolyte membrane sandwiched by a thin Li metal foil anode, and a thin carbon composite electrode on which oxygen, the electroactive cathode material, accessed from the environment, is reduced during discharge to generate electric power. It features an all solid state design in which electrode

K. M. Abraham; Z. Jiang

1996-01-01

215

Recent developments and likely advances in lithium rechargeable batteries  

Microsoft Academic Search

Developments in lithium rechargeable batteries since the last International Power Sources Symposium in Manchester in 2001 are described. The major developments are that, as expected, lithium cobalt oxide cathode material is being replaced by lithium cobalt\\/nickel oxide and polymer electrolyte batteries are now coming into production. Likely future developments are new cathode and electrolyte materials to reduce cost and to

A. G. Ritchie

2004-01-01

216

Carbon materials for lithium-ion rechargeable batteries  

Microsoft Academic Search

The recent development of lithium rechargeable batteries results from the use of carbon materials as lithium reservoir at the negative electrode. Reversible intercalation, or insertion, of lithium into the carbon host lattice avoids the problem of lithium dendrite formation and provides large improvement in terms of cycleability and safety. This paper reviews the main achievements on performance and understanding of

S. Flandrois; B. Simon

1999-01-01

217

24. APPERATUS FOR RECHARGING MINERS' HEADLAMPS, LOCATED AGAINST THE NORTH ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

24. APPERATUS FOR RECHARGING MINERS' HEADLAMPS, LOCATED AGAINST THE NORTH WALL OF THE LOWER LEVEL OF THE CHIPPY HOIST HOUSE, LOOKING NORTHWEST. SOME OF THE BATTERY PACKS ARE STILL IN PLACE, AND ONE HAS A LAMP HANGING AT THE END - Butte Mineyards, Anselmo Mine, Butte, Silver Bow County, MT

218

Rechargeable batteries: advances since 1977. [Collection of US patents  

Microsoft Academic Search

This book is based on US patents (including DOE patents) issued since January 1978 that deal with rechargeable batteries. It both supplies detailed technical information and can be used as a guide to the patent literature. Subjects treated are as follows: lead-acid batteries (grids, electrodes, terminals and connectors, polyolefin separators, polyvinyl chloride separators, other polymeric separators, other separators, electrolytes, venting

1980-01-01

219

Secure recharge of disposable RFID tickets Riccardo Focardi1  

E-print Network

, so to avoid the card cloning or the restoring some already used resources. In summary, (i) we give Ultralight cards in detail, and we present a new secure method for the recharge of these RFID disposable but yet realistic semantics of these cards, and we also define a simple imperative language suitable

Focardi, Riccardo

220

Moderate temperature rechargeable NaNiS2 cells  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A rechargeable sodium battery of the configuration, liquid Na/beta double prime -Al2O3/molten NaAlCl4, NiS2, operating in the temperature range of 170 to 190 C, is described. This battery is capable of delivering or = to 50 W-hr/1b and 1000 deep discharge/charge cycles.

Abraham, K. M.

1983-01-01

221

Aquifer storage and recharge: Innovation in water resources management  

Microsoft Academic Search

Stormwater and treated sewerage effluent, previously regarded as waste, are now being reused in South Australia through the innovative aquifer storage and recharge technique. After pretreatment in wetlands, this water is stored in otherwise unused brackish aquifers for summer irrigation of parklands. Trials are underway using recycled water from the Bolivar Wastewater Treatment Plant for irrigation of market gardens. This

S. R. Barnett; S. R. Howles; R. R. Martin; N. Z. Gerges

2000-01-01

222

Investigation of Possible Extra ~Recharge During Pumping in Nottinghant .Aquifer  

E-print Network

completely from aquifer storage. The value may approach zero if it is estimated based on the draw- downInvestigation of Possible Extra ~Recharge During Pumping in Nottinghant .Aquifer by Jiu J. Jiaoa by analyzing the pumping test data from the Nottingham aquifer, UK. The pumping lasted more than 200 days

Jiao, Jiu Jimmy

223

Cycle-life sensor for rechargeable lithium batteries. Phase 1  

Microsoft Academic Search

The research addressed the problem of characterizing the state of a rechargeable Li battery as a function of cycle life history. Because all Li batteries are hermetically sealed, researchers chose to evaluate the amount and distribution of Li-electrolyte degradation products in situ by the application of electroanalytical techniques at microelectrodes imbedded in the cell package. Good correlations between Li stripping

Koch

1988-01-01

224

Technology uses micro-windmills to recharge cell phones  

E-print Network

was quite surprised with the micro-windmill idea when we showed the demo video of working devices," Rao saidTechnology uses micro-windmills to recharge cell phones A micro-windmill is pictured on the face designed a micro-windmill that generates wind energy and may become an innovative solution to cell phone

Chiao, Jung-Chih

225

Issue and challenges facing rechargeable thin film lithium batteries  

Microsoft Academic Search

New materials hold the key to fundamental advances in energy conversion and storage, both of which are vital in order to meet the challenge of global warming and the finite nature of fossil fuels. Nanomaterials in particular offer unique properties or combinations of properties as electrodes and electrolytes in a range of energy devices. Technological improvements in rechargeable solid-state batteries

Arun Patil; Vaishali Patil; Dong Wook Shin; Ji-Won Choi; Dong-Soo Paik; Seok-Jin Yoon

2008-01-01

226

WASTEWATER CONTAMINATE REMOVAL FOR GROUNDWATER RECHARGE AT WATER FACTORY 21  

EPA Science Inventory

This is the second report in a series which describes the performance of Water Factory 21, a 0.66 cu m/s advanced wastewater treatment plant designed to reclaim secondary effluent from a municipal wastewater treatment plant so that it can be used for injection and recharge of a g...

227

Computational uncertainty analysis of groundwater recharge in catchment  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, a computational environinformatics (environmental informatics) operation for mapping the groundwater climatological recharge in regional sub-basin is presented. It is based on a soilwater balance (SWB) and spatial statistics integrated in a GIS environment. Mediterranean is a region with large demands for groundwater supplies. However, water catchment data are affected by large uncertainty, arising from sampling and modelling,

Nazzareno Diodato; Michele Ceccarelli

2006-01-01

228

Climate change effects on vegetation characteristics and groundwater recharge  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Climate change is among the most pressing issues of our time. Increase in temperature, a decrease in summer precipitation and increase in reference evapotranspiration might affect the water balance, freshwater availability and the spatial distribution and type of vegetation. Precipitation and evapotranspiration (ET) largely determine groundwater recharge. Therefore, climate change likely affects both the spatial and temporal freshwater availability for nature conservation, agriculture and drinking water supply. Moreover, in the coastal (dune) areas, the groundwater recharge is crucial to the maintenance of the freshwater bell and the dynamics of the fresh - salt interface. Current knowledge, however, is insufficient to estimate reliably the effects of climate change on future freshwater availability. Future groundwater recharge, the driving force of the groundwater system, can only be assessed if we understand how vegetation responds to changing climatic conditions, and how vegetation feedbacks on groundwater recharge through altered actual ET. Although the reference ET (i.e. the ET of a reference vegetation, defined as a short grassland completely covering the soil and optimally provided by water) is predicted to increase, the future actual ET (i.e. the ET of the actual real vegetation under the real moisture conditions) is highly unknown. It is the dynamics in the actual ET, however, through which the vegetation feeds back on the groundwater recharge. In an earlier study we showed that increased atmospheric CO2 raises the water use efficiency of plants, thus reducing ET. Here we demonstrate another important vegetation feedback in dune systems: the fraction of bare soil and non-rooting species (lichens and mosses) in the dune vegetation will increase when, according to the expectations, summers become drier. From our calculations it appeared that on south slopes of dunes, which receive more solar radiation and are warmer than north facing surfaces, the fraction of vascular plants may drop from 70 to 20 percent in the future (2050) climate due to increased moisture deficits. ET of bare soil and non-rooting species is much lower than that of vascular plants and thus the vegetation composition feeds back on the soil moisture conditions. Knowledge on such feedback mechanisms is indispensable in the analysis of climate change effects on the future groundwater recharge. Important questions are how, in the course of time, climate change will affect both groundwater table depth and dynamics, and how water management could adapt to these changes. We pursue a dynamic modeling approach that takes account of the interacting processes in the soil-plant-atmosphere system, including feedback mechanisms of the vegetation. This allows us to analyze climate change effects on groundwater recharge and thus future freshwater availability.

Bartholomeus, R.; Voortman, B.; Witte, J.

2010-12-01

229

Climate change effects on vegetation characteristics and groundwater recharge  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Climate change is among the most pressing issues of our time. Increase in temperature, a decrease in summer precipitation and increase in reference evapotranspiration might affect the water balance, freshwater availability and the spatial distribution and type of vegetation. Precipitation and evapotranspiration (ET) largely determine groundwater recharge. Therefore, climate change likely affects both the spatial and temporal freshwater availability for nature conservation, agriculture and drinking water supply. Moreover, in the coastal (dune) areas, the groundwater recharge is crucial to the maintenance of the freshwater bell and the dynamics of the fresh - salt interface. Current knowledge, however, is insufficient to estimate reliably the effects of climate change on future freshwater availability. Future groundwater recharge, the driving force of the groundwater system, can only be assessed if we understand how vegetation responds to changing climatic conditions, and how vegetation feedbacks on groundwater recharge through altered actual ET. Although the reference ET (i.e. the ET of a reference vegetation, defined as a short grassland completely covering the soil and optimally provided by water) is predicted to increase, the future actual ET (i.e. the ET of the actual real' vegetation under the real' moisture conditions) is highly unknown. It is the dynamics in the actual ET, however, through which the vegetation feeds back on the groundwater recharge. In an earlier study we showed that increased atmospheric CO2 raises the water use efficiency of plants, thus reducing ET. Here we demonstrate another important vegetation feedback in dune systems: the fraction of bare soil and non-rooting species (lichens and mosses) in the dune vegetation will increase when, according to the expectations, summers become drier. From our calculations it appeared that on south slopes of dunes, which receive more solar radiation and are warmer than north facing surfaces, the fraction of vascular plants may drop from 70 to 20 percent in the future (2050) climate due to increased moisture deficits. ET of bare soil and non-rooting species is much lower than that of vascular plants and thus the vegetation composition feeds back on the soil moisture conditions. Knowledge on such feedback mechanisms is indispensable in the analysis of climate change effects on the future groundwater recharge. Important questions are how, in the course of time, climate change will affect both groundwater table depth and dynamics, and how water management could adapt to these changes. We pursue a dynamic modeling approach that takes account of the interacting processes in the soil-plant-atmosphere system, including feedback mechanisms of the vegetation. This allows us to analyze climate change effects on groundwater recharge and thus future freshwater availability.

(Flip) Witte, J. P. M.; (Ruud) Bartholomeus, R. P.; (Gijsbert) Cirkel, D. G.

2010-05-01

230

Groundwater suitability recharge zones modelling - A GIS application  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Groundwater quality in Gujarat state is highly variable and due to multiplicity of factors viz. influenced by direct sea water encroachment, inherent sediment salinity, water logging, overexploitation leading to overall deterioration in ground water quality, coupled with domestic and industrial pollution etc. The groundwater scenario in the state is not very encouraging due to imbalance between recharge and groundwater exploitation. Further, the demand for water has increased manifold owing to agricultural, industrial and domestic requirement and this has led to water scarcity in many parts of the state, which is likely to become more severe in coming future due to both natural and manmade factors. Therefore, sustainable development of groundwater resource requires precise quantitative assessment based on reasonably valid scientific principles. Hence, delineation of groundwater potential zones (GWPZ), has acquired great significance. The present study focuses on the integrated Geospatial and Multi-Criteria Decision Making (MCDM) techniques to determine the most important contributing factors that affect the groundwater resources and also to delineate the potential zones for groundwater recharge. The multiple thematic layers of influencing parameters viz. geology, geomorphology, soil, slope, drainage density and land use, weightages were assigned to the each factor according to their relative importance as per subject experts opinion owing to the natural setup of the region. The Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP) was applied to these factors and potential recharge zones were identified. The study area for the assessment of groundwater recharge potential zones is Mahi-Narmada inter-stream region of Gujarat state. The study shows that around 28 % region has the excellent suitability of the ground water recharge.

Dabral, S.; Bhatt, B.; Joshi, J. P.; Sharma, N.

2014-11-01

231

Enhanced recharge and karst, Edwards aquifer, south central Texas  

SciTech Connect

Enhanced recharge is a water management strategy which can add significant quantities of ground water to the available water resources of the San Antonio region by utilizing the immense storage capacity of the unconfined zone of the Edwards aquifer. The Edwards aquifer presently is the sole source of water for a population of over 1,200,000, meeting public supply, industrial, and irrigation demands over a wide area of south central Texas. Valdina Farms Sinkhole is located adjacent to Seco Creek in Medina County and is in the recharge zone of the aquifer. Initial studies indicated that the sinkholes was capable of taking flood flows from Seco Creek and functioning as a recharge structure. Stream channels in the cavern system associated with Valdina Farms Sinkhole were incised into cave deposits and flood debris was present in the caverns at some distance from the sinkhole. Chemical analyses of samples of water from the cave and from nearby wells showed nitrate concentrations that decreased with distance from the cavern. Gradient of the potentiometric surface in the vicinity of the cave was very low, indicating high values of hydraulic conductivity for the aquifer. Based on evidence from these field studies a dam was constructed in 1982 on Seco Creek and a flood diversion channel was excavated to the sinkhole. Reservoir capacity is 2 acre-feet and design recharge rate is 3.8-6.7 m[sup 3]/sec. Annual recharge at the sinkhole has varied from 0 during periods of low runoff to 12,915 acre-feet.

Hammond, W.W. Jr. (Univ. of Texas, San Antonio, TX (United States). Center for Water Research)

1993-02-01

232

Serpentinite slices within a tectonic zone at the base of the Juvavic nappe system in the Northern Calcareous Alps (Austria): characterization and origin  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The investigated serpentinites are present in an ENE-WSW orientated tectonic zone at the base of Juvavic nappes (Northern Calcareous Alps), situated at the eastern margin of the Eastern Alps (Lower Austria). They form small tectonically squeezed slices, which are embedded in Permotriassic schists and Middle to Upper Triassic limestones. These serpentinites play an important, but not yet understood role in reconstructing Neotethys evolution, Alpine Orogeny and the correlation of Dinarides and Alps. The largest serpentinite body near to Unterhflein is 400 to 100 meters in size and was investigated by mineralogical (XRD) and petrological/geochemical (XRF) methods. The primary mineral composition is olivine + orthopyroxene + clinopyroxene + chrome spinel. Pseudomorphs of pyroxenes are visible macroscopically, but almost all primary minerals are replaced by serpentine minerals. Former olivine is converted to chrysotile minerals, which show typical reticulate textures, orthopyroxene turned into lizardite pseudomorphs and chrome spinel is almost completely altered to magnetite. Major contents of chrysotile-?, chrysotile-? and lizardite and minor antigorite, as well as secondary minerals like talc, chlorite and hydrogrossular were identified with XRD. Results from whole rock geochemistry indicate harzburgitic precursor rocks for the serpentinites. According to the low antigorite content, the rocks have only a weak metamorphic imprint and therefore an obduction rather than a subduction history is likely. This leads to the assumption that these serpentinites possibly originate from the Neotethys and not from the Penninic oceanic realm. Further, the tectonic position of the serpentinite slices is in close vicinity to sediments of the Meliata unit which also occur between Juvavic and underlying Tirolic nappe system (Mandl & Ondrejickova, 1993). Additionally, remnants from ophiolite nappes are found reworked into the surrounding Upper Cretaceous Gosau Group. In the latter also chrome spinel detritus is present. In contrast to the altered chrome spinels in the investigated serpentinites, the spinels from Gosau Group are well preserved and they show similarities to those of Dinaric Cretaceous basins, concerning their harzburgitic and lherzolitic sources (Stern & Wagreich, 2013). If the investigated serpentinites belong to obducted material from Neothetys oceanic realm, a tectonic model of a slab-tearing induced sinistral strike-slip zone could explain the position in the Eastern Alps. However, the relationship to other basic magmatic rocks from several other localities in similar positions, mostly occurring within evaporitic sediments of Permian Haselgebirge (Schorn et al., 2013), has to be clarified.

Boehm, Katharina; Schuster, Ralf; Wagreich, Michael; Koller, Friedrich; Wimmer-Frey, Ingeborg

2014-05-01

233

Classification of ground-water recharge potential in three parts of Santa Cruz County, California  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Ground-water recharge potential was classified in the Santa Cruz coastal area, North-central area, and Soquel-Aptos area in Santa Cruz County, Calif., for three data elements that affect recharge; slope, soils, and geology. Separate numerical maps for each element were composited into a single numerical map using a classification system that ranked the numbers into areas of good , fair, and poor recharge potential. Most of the Santa Cruz coastal area and the Norht-central area have a poor recharge potential, and much of the Soquel-Aptos area has a good to fair recharge potential. (Kosco-USGS)

Muir, K.S.; Johnson, Michael J.

1979-01-01

234

Petrogenesis of early cretaceous carbonatite and ultramafic lamprophyres in a diatreme in the Batain Nappes, Eastern Oman continental margin  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Allochthonous carbonatite and ultramafic lamprophyre occur in a diatreme at the beach of the Asseelah village, northeastern Oman. The diatreme consists of heterogeneous deposits dominated by `diatreme facies' pyroclastic rocks. These include aillikite and carbonatite, which intrude late Jurassic to early Cretaceous cherts and shales of the Wahra Formation within the Batain nappes. Both rock types are dominated by carbonate, altered olivine, Ti-Al-phlogopite and Cr-Al-spinel and contain varying amounts of apatite and rutile. The carbonatite occur as fine-grained heterolithic breccias with abundant rounded carbonatite xenoliths, glimmerite and crustal xenoliths. The aillikite consists of pelletal lapilli tuff with abundant fine-grained carbonatite autoliths and crustal xenoliths, which resemble those in the carbonatite breccia. The aillikite and carbonatite are characterized by low SiO2 (11-24 wt%), MgO (9.5-12.4 wt%) and K2O (<0.3 wt%), but high CaO (18-22 wt%), Al2O3 (4.75-7.04 wt%), Fe2O3tot (8.7-13.8 wt%) and loss-on-ignition (24-30 wt%). Higher CaO, Fe2O3total, Al2O3, MnO, TiO2, P2O5 and lower SiO2 and MgO content distinguish carbonatite from the aillikite. The associated carbonatite xenoliths and autoliths have intermediate composition between the aillikite and carbonatite. Mg number is variable and ranges between 58 and 66 in the carbonatite, 66 and 72 in the aillikite and between 48 to 64 in the carbonatite autoliths and xenoliths. The Asseelah aillikite, carbonatite, carbonatite xenoliths and autoliths overlap in most of their mineral parageneses, mineral composition and major and trace element chemistry and have variable but overlapping Sr, Nd and Pb isotopic composition, implying that these rocks are related to a common type of parental magma with variable isotopic characteristics. The Asseelah aillikite, carbonatite and carbonatites xenoliths are LREE-enriched and significantly depleted in HREE. They exhibit similar smooth, subparallel REE pattern and steep slopes with (La/Sm) n of 6-10 and relative depletion in heavy rare earth elements (Lu = 3-10 chondrite). Initial 87Sr/86Sr ratios vary from 0.70409 to 0.70787, whereas initial 143Nd/144Nd ratios vary between 0.512603 and 0.512716 (?Nd i between 2.8 and 3.6). 206Pb/204Pb i ratios vary between 18.4 and 18.76, 207Pb/204Pb i ratios vary between 15.34 and 15.63, whereas 208Pb/204Pb i varies between 38.42 and 39.05. Zircons grains extracted from the carbonatite have a mean age of 137 1 Ma (95% confidence, MSWD = 0.49). This age correlates with large-scale tectonic events recorded in the early Indian Ocean at 140-160 Ma. Geochemical and isotopic signatures displayed by the Asseelah rocks can be accounted for by vein-plus-wall-rock model of Foley (1992) wherein veins are represented by phlogopite, carbonate and apatite and depleted peridotite constitutes the wall-rock. The carbonatite and aillikite magmatism is probably a distal effect of the breaking up of Gondwana, during and/or after the rift-to-drift transition that led to the opening of the Indian Ocean.

Nasir, S.; Al-Khirbash, S.; Rollinson, H.; Al-Harthy, A.; Al-Sayigh, A.; Al-Lazki, A.; Theye, T.; Massonne, H.-J.; Belousova, E.

2011-01-01

235

Transient,spatially-varied recharge for groundwater modeling  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study is aimed at producing spatially and temporally varying groundwater recharge for transient groundwater modeling in a pilot watershed in the North Okanagan, Canada. The recharge modeling is undertaken by using a Richard's equation based finite element code (HYDRUS-1D) [Simunek et al., 2002], ArcGISTM [ESRI, 2011], ROSETTA [Schaap et al., 2001], in situ observations of soil temperature and soil moisture and a long term gridded climate data [Nielsen et al., 2010]. The public version of HYDUS-1D [Simunek et al., 2002] and another beta version with a detailed freezing and thawing module [Hansson et al., 2004] are first used to simulate soil temperature, snow pack and soil moisture over a one year experimental period. Statistical analysis of the results show both versions of HYDRUS-1D reproduce observed variables to the same degree. Correlation coefficients for soil temperature simulation were estimated at 0.9 and 0.8, at depths of 10 cm and 50 cm respectively; and for soil moisture, 0.8 and 0.6 at 10 cm and 50 cm respectively. This and other standard measures of model performance (root mean square error and average error) showed a promising performance of the HYDRUS-1D code in our pilot watershed. After evaluating model performance using field data and ROSETTA derived soil hydraulic parameters, the HYDRUS-1D code is coupled with ArcGISTM to produce spatially and temporally varying recharge maps throughout the Deep Creek watershed. Temporal and spatial analysis of 25 years daily recharge results at various representative points across the study watershed reveal significant temporal and spatial variations; average recharge estimated at 77.8 50.8mm /year. This significant variation over the years, caused by antecedent soil moisture condition and climatic condition, illustrates the common flaw of assigning a constant percentage of precipitation throughout the simulation period. Groundwater recharge modeling has previously been attempted in the Okanagan Basin and other parts of Canada by using the HELP code. However, HELP has known limitations related with boundary conditions as well as spatial and temporal discretization options, and thus cannot simulate highly variable fluxes near boundaries. The limitations are even more pronounced in semi-arid areas like the Okanagan Basin where upward fluxes can be high, because HELP assumes that water below evaporative zone simply drains to the base of a soil column without accounting for upward fluxes. In addition to these limitations, previous studies that used HELP for recharge estimation, [Towes and Allen, 2009; Jyrkama and Sykes, 2007], did not attempt to verify model performance in their study area. The study here presents an integrated procedure that can help address some of these often neglected modelling challenges. The significance of the method in transient groundwater modeling is demonstrated by applying the spatially and temporally varying recharge boundary condition to a saturated zone groundwater model, MIKESHE [DHI, 2009a]. The water table simulated using this method is found to be within 0.6 m of the observed values, whereas the water levels estimated using uniform recharge boundary condition can fluctuate by as much as 1.6 m. Root mean square errors were estimated at 0.3 and 0.94 respectively.

Assefa, Kibreab; Woodbury, Allan

2013-04-01

236

Monitoring induced denitrification in an artificial aquifer recharge system.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As demands on groundwater increase, artificial recharge is becoming a common method for enhancing groundwater supply. The Llobregat River is a strategic water supply resource to the Barcelona metropolitan area (Catalonia, NE Spain). Aquifer overexploitation has leaded to both a decrease of groundwater level and seawater intrusion, with the consequent deterioration of water quality. In the middle section of the aquifer, in Sant Vicen del Horts, decantation and infiltration ponds recharged by water from the Llobregat River (highly affected from wastewater treatment plant effluents), were installed in 2007, in the framework of the ENSAT Life+ project. At the bottom of the infiltration pond, a vegetal compost layer was installed to promote the growth of bacteria, to induce denitrification and to create favourable conditions for contaminant biodegradation. This layer consists on a mixture of compost, aquifer material, clay and iron oxide. Understanding the fate of contaminants, such as nitrate, during artificial aquifer recharge is required to evaluate the impact of artificial recharge in groundwater quality. In order to distinguish the source of nitrate and to evaluate the capability of the organic reactive layer to induce denitrification, a multi-isotopic approach coupled with hydrogeochemical data was performed. Groundwater samples, as well as river samples, were sampled during artificial and natural recharge periods. The isotopic analysis included: ?15N and ?18O of dissolved nitrate, ?34S and ?18O of dissolved sulphate, ?13C of dissolved inorganic carbon, and ?2H and ?18O of water. Dissolved nitrate isotopic composition (?15NNO3 from +9 to +21 o and ?18ONO3 from +3 to +16 ) demonstrated that heterotrophic denitrification induced by the reactive layer was taking place during the artificial recharge periods. An approximation to the extent of nitrate attenuation was calculated, showing a range between 95 and 99% or between 35 and 45%, by using the extreme literature ?N values of -4o and -22o respectively (Aravena and Robertson, 1998; Pauwels et al., 2000). Ongoing denitrification batch experiments will allow us to determine the specific nitrogen and oxygen isotopic fractionation induced by the organic reactive layer, in order to estimate more precisely the extent of denitrification during artificial aquifer recharge. These results confirmed that the reactive layer induces denitrification in the recharge ponds area, proving the usefulness of an isotopic approach to characterize water quality improvement occurring during artificial aquifer recharge. References 1. Aravena, R., Robertson, W.D., 1998. Use of multiple isotope tracers to evaluate denitrification in ground water: Study of nitrate from a large-flux septic system plume. Ground Water, 36(6): 975-982. 2. Pauwels, H., J.C., Kloppmann, W., 2000. Denitrification and mixing in a schist aquifer: Influence on water chemistry and isotopes. Chemical Geology, 168(3-4): 307-324. Acknowledgment This study was supported by the projects CGL2011-29975-C04-01 from the Spanish Government, 2009SGR-00103 from the Catalan Government and ENPI/2011/280-008 from the European Commission. Please fill in your abstract text.

Grau-Martinez, Alba; Torrent, Clara; Folch, Albert; Domnech, Cristina; Otero, Neus; Soler, Albert

2014-05-01

237

The Cretaceous-Paleogene boundary in turbiditic deposits identified to the bed: a case study from the Skole Nappe (Outer Carpathians, southern Poland)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Cretaceous-Paleogene (K-T) boundary has been recognized in turbiditic sediments of the Ropianka Formation in the Skole Nappe (B?kowiec section) on the basis of planktonic foraminiferids with an accuracy of 40 cm. Such precise determination of the K-T boundary for the first time in the Carpathians and in turbiditic flysch sediments in general was possible due to the successive occurrence of the Early Paleocene planktonic taxa of the P1 Zone above the latest Maastrichtian Abathomphalus mayaroensis Zone with the Racemiguembelina fructicosa Subzone. The trends in composition of the latest Maastrichtian foraminiferal assemblages are similar to the Gaj section from the adjacent thrust sheet, probably due to the influence of the same paleoenvironmental factors.

Gasi?ski, M. Adam; Uchman, Alfred

2011-08-01

238

Zinc electrode and rechargeable zinc-air battery  

DOEpatents

An improved zinc electrode is disclosed for a rechargeable zinc-air battery comprising an outer frame and a porous foam electrode support within the frame which is treated prior to the deposition of zinc thereon to inhibit the formation of zinc dendrites on the external surface thereof. The outer frame is provided with passageways for circulating an alkaline electrolyte through the treated zinc-coated porous foam. A novel rechargeable zinc-air battery system is also disclosed which utilizes the improved zinc electrode and further includes an alkaline electrolyte within said battery circulating through the passageways in the zinc electrode and an external electrolyte circulation means which has an electrolyte reservoir external to the battery case including filter means to filter solids out of the electrolyte as it circulates to the external reservoir and pump means for recirculating electrolyte from the external reservoir to the zinc electrode.

Ross, Jr., Philip N. (Kensington, CA)

1989-01-01

239

Recharging the Silicon Crucible in a Hot Furnace  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

"Melt recharger" adds raw silicon to crucible in crystal-growing furnace without disturbing inert-gas atmosphere or significantly lowering temperature of melt. Crucible-refill hopper is lowered into hot zone of crystal-pulling chamber through an isolation valve. Cable that supports hopper is fastened to cone-shaped stopper in bottom of hopper. Stopper moves out of opening in hopper, allowing part of polysilicon charge to drop into crucible.

Lane, R. L.

1982-01-01

240

Changes in vegetation diversity caused by artificial recharge  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Efforst to increase the rate of artificial recharge through basins often necessitates scrapping and ditching before and during operations. Such operations can result in more or less drastic changes in vegetation (depending on what was there before), characterized by diminisched numbers of species and lowered diversity. Two examples, one from Texas and one from the Netherlands are presented showing how similar treatments cause similar changes in two completely difference plant communities. ?? 1979 Dr. W. Junk b.v. - Publishers.

Van Hylckama, T. E. A.

1979-01-01

241

Molten Air -- A new, highest energy class of rechargeable batteries  

E-print Network

This study introduces the principles of a new class of batteries, rechargeable molten air batteries, and several battery chemistry examples are demonstrated. The new battery class uses a molten electrolyte, are quasi reversible, and have amongst the highest intrinsic battery electric energy storage capacities. Three examples of the new batteries are demonstrated. These are the iron, carbon and VB2 molten air batteries with respective intrinsic volumetric energy capacities of 10,000, 19,000 and 27,000 Wh per liter.

Licht, Stuart

2013-01-01

242

Computer simulations of the impedance response of lithium rechargeable batteries  

Microsoft Academic Search

A mathematical model is developed to simulate the impedance response of a wide range of lithium rechargeable battery systems. The mathematical model is a macroscopic model of a full-cell sandwich utilizing porous electrode theory to treat the electrode region and concentrated solution theory for transport processes in solution. Insertion processes are described with charge-transfer kinetic expressions and solid-phase diffusion of

Marc Doyle; Jeremy P. Meyers; John Newman

2000-01-01

243

NiF2 Cathodes For Rechargeable Na Batteries  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Use of NiF2 cathodes in medium-to-high-temperature rechargeable sodium batteries increases energy and power densities by 25 to 30 percent without detracting from potential advantage of safety this type of sodium battery offers over sodium batteries having sulfur cathodes. High-energy-density sodium batteries with metal fluoride cathodes used in electric vehicles and for leveling loads on powerlines.

Bugga, Ratnakumar V.; Distefano, Salvador; Halpert, Gerald

1992-01-01

244

An implantable power supply with an optically rechargeable lithium battery  

Microsoft Academic Search

A novel power supply for medical implants has been developed. A wireless near-infrared power transmission recharges a lithium secondary battery in the power supply. A photovoltaic cell array embedded under skin receives near-infrared light through the skin and charges the battery directly powering an implanted device. The authors have shown that, for a photodiode area of 2.1 cm 2, 17

Kazuya Goto; Tetsuya Nakagawa; Osamu Nakamura; Satoshi Kawata

2001-01-01

245

A polyaniline and Nafion composite film as a rechargeable battery  

Microsoft Academic Search

The charge-discharge characteristics of polyaniline (PAn)-Nafion-PAn composite films used as rechargeable batteries were investigated. The batteries were formed chemically by sandwiching Nafion between two thin layers of PAn-Nafion composite in equilibrium with various electrolytes. It was found that cells with LiClO4 in propylene carbonate as electrolyte showed the highest capacity. The charge and discharge performance of the battery was almost

N. Li; J. Y. Lee; L. H. Ong

1992-01-01

246

A manganese oxyiodide cathode for rechargeable lithium batteries  

Microsoft Academic Search

The increasing demand for portable electronic devices is driving the development of compact lightweight batteries of high energy density. Lithium-ion batteries tend to be the systems of choice, as they offer higher energy densities and longer operational lifetimes than other rechargeable battery systems,. But commercially available lithium-ion batteries make use of layered LiCoO2 cathodes,, and the high cost and toxicity

Jaekook Kim; Arumugam Manthiram

1997-01-01

247

Focused Recharge in a Semi-arid Riparian Zone  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Precipitation-induced recharge can be an important component of the water balance of semi-arid riparian zones. Recharge mechanisms were assessed as part of an ecohydrologic investigation at a site in a vegetated riparian zone along the Arkansas River in south-central Kansas (Larned Research Site). This site contains a network of shallow wells for water-table monitoring, neutron-probe access tubes for vadose-zone water content observations, a stream-gage station, and a weather station. Over the last four years, the Arkansas River has flowed at the site for less than four months, so the usual state of the channel is a dry, 20-30 m swath of coarse sand and gravel bounded by riparian-zone vegetation. An evaluation of water-table responses to precipitation at wells located at different distances from the channel found that recharge appears to be primarily occurring through the channel deposits. In the absence of rainfall, the general trend of ground water flow is from west to east. During and shortly after rain events, however, the hydraulic gradient changes and ground water flows outward from a mound underneath the channel. The peaks in the water-table hydrographs produced by precipitation events are lagged and attenuated with distance from the river channel in a manner very similar to what is observed when a flow event occurs in the river channel. These changes with distance from the channel appear to be independent of the depth to the water table. In addition, vadose-zone water content data show little evidence of vertical flow through the vadose zone in the vegetated riparian area in response to the precipitation. Variations in the dissolved solids content of ground water across the riparian area are consistent with recharge primarily occurring through the channel deposits.

Cook, A.; Geyer, T.; Shook, G.; Butler, J. J.; Whittemore, D.; Kluitenberg, G.

2006-12-01

248

Using artificial recharge to restore groundwater / surface water interactions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Intensive use of ground water resources in small alluvial aquifers usually results in a severe depletion of ground water resources and a reduction of the stream discharge. As a result, a loss of ecological dynamics occurs in the riparian areas. In regions where recharge is quite limited because of climatic factors, those situations may endure as long as a wet year does not provide continuous stream discharge and replenishment of ground water resources. Another option to restore the interaction between ground and surface water consists in using reclaimed urban wastewater to recharge the alluvial aquifers. In that way, overall extractions may be partially balanced by returning used water to the ground. Such a situation has been studied in the Onyar River basin (NE Catalonia, Spain; extension: 295 sq km) where a continuous water table drawdown took place after several years of drought. As a consequence, stream discharge was nil, except on those river reaches were treated urban water was dumped. Because of high nutrient concentrations and salinity of treated water, the environmental quality of the riparian system degraded over time. Therefore, aquifer recharge using infiltration ponds (instead of dumping treated water to the stream) can be considered an appropriate action to rise the water table levels and to improve water quality through soil nutrient elimination. Field and laboratory experiments have been conducted to measure infiltration rates and soil solute reduction capability. Preliminary results show that the alluvial sediments of the Onyar basin may perform adequately if treated water is applied. Furthermore, a mathematical flow model allows to estimate water table levels after infiltration, the mass balance between the alluvial aquifer and the stream, and finally the length of the stream that will benefit from recharge. Acknowledgments: Research funded by joint project Fundacin AGBAR - ICTA (UAB).

Menci, A.; Vilanova, E.; Mas-Pla, J.

2003-04-01

249

Polymer Considerations in Rechargeable Lithium Ion Plastic Batteries  

Microsoft Academic Search

A series of polymers have been investigated in order to determine their suitability as ionically conductive binders of the active electrode materials and as hybrid electrolyte matrices in plastic lithium ion rechargeable batteries. Hybrid electrolyte films used in this study have been prepared by solvent casting using a 1:1 w\\/w mixture of the matrix polymer with 1 M LiPF6 in

Antoni S. Gozdz; Jean-Marie Tarascon; Caroline N. Schmutz; Paul Warren; O. S. Gebizlioglu; F. Shokoohi

1995-01-01

250

The MOLICEL(R) rechargeable lithium system: Multicell battery aspects  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

MOLICEL rechargeable lithium cells were cycled in batteries using series, parallel, and series/parallel connections. The individual cell voltages and branch currents were measured to understand the cell interactions. The observations were interpreted in terms of the inherent characteristics of the Li/MoS2 system and in terms of a singular cell failure mode. The results confirm that correctly configured multicell batteries using MOLICELs have performance characteristics comparable to those of single cells.

Fouchard, D.; Taylor, J. B.

1987-01-01

251

Estimating recharge at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, USA: Comparison of methods  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Obtaining values of net infiltration, groundwater travel time, and recharge is necessary at the Yucca Mountain site, Nevada, USA, in order to evaluate the expected performance of a potential repository as a containment system for high-level radioactive waste. However, the geologic complexities of this site, its low precipitation and net infiltration, with numerous mechanisms operating simultaneously to move water through the system, provide many challenges for the estimation of the spatial distribution of recharge. A variety of methods appropriate for arid environments has been applied, including water-balance techniques, calculations using Darcy's law in the unsaturated zone, a soil-physics method applied to neutron-hole water-content data, inverse modeling of thermal profiles in boreholes extending through the thick unsaturated zone, chloride mass balance, atmospheric radionuclides, and empirical approaches. These methods indicate that near-surface infiltration rates at Yucca Mountain are highly variable in time and space, with local (point) values ranging from zero to several hundred millimeters per year. Spatially distributed net-infiltration values average 5 mm/year, with the highest values approaching 20 mm/year near Yucca Crest. Site-scale recharge estimates range from less than 1 to about 12 mm/year. These results have been incorporated into a site-scale model that has been calibrated using these data sets that reflect infiltration processes acting on highly variable temporal and spatial scales. The modeling study predicts highly non-uniform recharge at the water table, distributed significantly differently from the non-uniform infiltration pattern at the surface.

Flint, A.L.; Flint, L.E.; Kwicklis, E.M.; Fabryka-Martin, J. T.; Bodvarsson, G.S.

2002-01-01

252

Estimating recharge at Yucca Mountain, Nevada: A case study  

SciTech Connect

Obtaining values of net infiltration, groundwater travel time, and recharge is necessary at the Yucca Mountain site, Nevada, USA, in order to evaluate the expected performance of a potential repository as a containment system for high-level radioactive waste. However, the geologic complexities of this site, its low precipitation and net infiltration, with numerous mechanisms operating simultaneously to move water through the system, provide many challenges for the estimation of the spatial distribution of recharge. A variety of methods appropriate for arid environments has been applied, including water-balance techniques, calculations using Darcy's law in the unsaturated zone, a soil-physics method applied to neutron-hole water-content data, inverse modeling of thermal profiles in boreholes extending through the thick unsaturated zone, chloride mass balance, atmospheric radionuclides, and empirical approaches. These methods indicate that near-surface infiltration rates at Yucca Mountain are highly variable in time and space, with local (point) values ranging from zero to several hundred millimeters per year. Spatially distributed net-infiltration values average 5 mm/year, with the highest values approaching 20 mm/year near Yucca Crest. Site-scale recharge estimates range from less than 1 to about 12 mm/year. These results have been incorporated into a site-scale model that has been calibrated using these data sets that reflect infiltration processes acting on highly variable temporal and spatial scales. The modeling study predicts highly non-uniform recharge at the water table, distributed significantly differently from the non-uniform infiltration pattern at the surface.

Flint, A.; Flint, L.; Kwicklis, E.; Fabryka-Martin, J.; Bodvarsson, G.S.

2001-05-13

253

Estimating recharge at yucca mountain, nevada, usa: comparison of methods  

SciTech Connect

Obtaining values of net infiltration, groundwater travel time, and recharge is necessary at the Yucca Mountain site, Nevada, USA, in order to evaluate the expected performance of a potential repository as a containment system for high-level radioactive waste. However, the geologic complexities of this site, its low precipitation and net infiltration, with numerous mechanisms operating simultaneously to move water through the system, provide many challenges for the estimation of the spatial distribution of recharge. A variety of methods appropriate for and environments has been applied, including water-balance techniques, calculations using Darcy's law in the unsaturated zone, a soil-physics method applied to neutron-hole water-content data, inverse modeling of thermal profiles in boreholes extending through the thick unsaturated zone, chloride mass balance, atmospheric radionuclides, and empirical approaches. These methods indicate that near-surface infiltration rates at Yucca Mountain are highly variable in time and space, with local (point) values ranging from zero to several hundred millimeters per year. Spatially distributed net-infiltration values average 5 mm/year, with the highest values approaching 20 nun/year near Yucca Crest. Site-scale recharge estimates range from less than I to about 12 mm/year. These results have been incorporated into a site-scale model that has been calibrated using these data sets that reflect infiltration processes acting on highly variable temporal and spatial scales. The modeling study predicts highly non-uniform recharge at the water table, distributed significantly differently from the non-uniform infiltration pattern at the surface. [References: 57

Flint, A. L.; Flint, L. E.; Kwicklis, E. M.; Fabryka-Martin, J. T.; Bodvarsson, G. S.

2001-11-01

254

Electrochemically Stable Cathode Current Collectors for Rechargeable Magnesium Batteries  

SciTech Connect

Rechargeable Mg batteries are attractive energy storage systems and could bring cost-effective energy solutions. Currently, however, no practical cathode current collectors that can withstand high voltages in Mg2+ electrolytes has been identified and therefore cathode research is greatly hindered. Here we identified that two metals, Mo and W, are electrochemically stable through formation of surface passive layers. The presented results could have significant impacts on the developments of high voltage Mg batteries.

Cheng, Yingwen; Liu, Tianbiao L.; Shao, Yuyan; Engelhard, Mark H.; Liu, Jun; Li, Guosheng

2014-01-01

255

Development of Carbon Anode for Rechargeable Lithium Cells  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Conventionally, rechargeable lithium cells employ a pure lithium anode. To overcome problems associated with the pure lithium electrode, it has been proposed to replace the conventional electrode with an alternative material having a greater stability with respect to the cell electrolytes. For this reason, several graphitic and coke based carbonaceous materials were evaluated as candidate anode materials...In this paper, we summarize the results of the studies on Li-ion cell development.

Huang, C. -K.; Surampudi, S.; Halpert, G.

1994-01-01

256

Performance of Bellcore's plastic rechargeable Li-ion batteries  

Microsoft Academic Search

Polymer Li-ion batteries have received little attention mainly because of the unproved, but long-held belief, that safe Li polymer-batteries can be developed. Herein we review the development of the first practical plastic rechargeable Li-ion battery. Bellcore's new plastic Li-ion cell compares well with its liquid Li-ion counterparts in terms of volumetric energy density, cycle life, power rate, while offering several

J.-M. Tarascon; A. S. Gozdz; C. Schmutz; F. Shokoohi; P. C. Warren

1996-01-01

257

Using MODFLOW 2000 to model ET and recharge for shallow ground water problems.  

PubMed

In environments with shallow ground water elevation, small changes in the water table can cause significant variations in recharge and evapotranspiration fluxes. Particularly, where ground water is close to the soil surface, both recharge and evapotranspiration are regulated by a thin unsaturated zone and, for accuracy, must be represented using nonconstant and often nonlinear relationships. The most commonly used ground water flow model today, MODFLOW, was originally designed with a modular structure with independent packages representing recharge and evaporation processes. Systems with shallow ground water, however, may be better represented using either a recharge function that varies with ground water depth or a continuous recharge and evapotranspiration function that is dependent on depth to water table. In situations where the boundaries between recharging and nonrecharging cells change with time, such as near a seepage zone, a continuous ground water flux relationship allows recharge rates to change with depth rather than having to calculate them at each stress period. This research article describes the modification of the MODFLOW 2000 recharge and segmented evapotranspiration packages into a continuous recharge-discharge function that allows ground water flux to be represented as a continuous process, dependent on head. The modifications were then used to model long-term recharge and evapotranspiration processes on a saline, semiarid floodplain in order to understand spatial patterns of salinization, and an overview of this process is given. PMID:18624693

Doble, Rebecca C; Simmons, Craig T; Walker, Glen R

2009-01-01

258

Issue and challenges facing rechargeable thin film lithium batteries  

SciTech Connect

New materials hold the key to fundamental advances in energy conversion and storage, both of which are vital in order to meet the challenge of global warming and the finite nature of fossil fuels. Nanomaterials in particular offer unique properties or combinations of properties as electrodes and electrolytes in a range of energy devices. Technological improvements in rechargeable solid-state batteries are being driven by an ever-increasing demand for portable electronic devices. Lithium batteries are the systems of choice, offering high energy density, flexible, lightweight design and longer lifespan than comparable battery technologies. We present a brief historical review of the development of lithium-based thin film rechargeable batteries highlight ongoing research strategies and discuss the challenges that remain regarding the discovery of nanomaterials as electrolytes and electrodes for lithium batteries also this article describes the possible evolution of lithium technology and evaluates the expected improvements, arising from new materials to cell technology. New active materials under investigation and electrode process improvements may allow an ultimate final energy density of more than 500 Wh/L and 200 Wh/kg, in the next 5-6 years, while maintaining sufficient power densities. A new rechargeable battery technology cannot be foreseen today that surpasses this. This report will provide key performance results for thin film batteries and highlight recent advances in their development.

Patil, Arun; Patil, Vaishali; Shin, Dong Wook; Choi, Ji-Won; Paik, Dong-Soo [Thin Film Materials Research Center, Korea Institute of Science and Technology, Seoul 136-791 (Korea, Republic of); Yoon, Seok-Jin [Thin Film Materials Research Center, Korea Institute of Science and Technology, Seoul 136-791 (Korea, Republic of)], E-mail: sjyoon@kist.re.kr

2008-08-04

259

Overview of Ground-Water Recharge Study Sites  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Multiyear studies were done to examine meteorologic and hydrogeologic controls on ephemeral streamflow and focused ground-water recharge at eight sites across the arid and semiarid southwestern United States. Campaigns of intensive data collection were conducted in the Great Basin, Mojave Desert, Sonoran Desert, Rio Grande Rift, and Colorado Plateau physiographic areas. During the study period (1997 to 2002), the southwestern region went from wetter than normal conditions associated with a strong El Ni?o climatic pattern (1997?1998) to drier than normal conditions associated with a La Ni?a climatic pattern marked by unprecedented warmth in the western tropical Pacific and Indian Oceans (1998?2002). The strong El Ni?o conditions roughly doubled precipitation at the Great Basin, Mojave Desert, and Colorado Plateau study sites. Precipitation at all sites trended generally lower, producing moderate- to severe-drought conditions by the end of the study. Streamflow in regional rivers indicated diminishing ground-water recharge conditions, with annual-flow volumes declining to 10?46 percent of their respective long-term averages by 2002. Local streamflows showed higher variability, reflecting smaller scales of integration (in time and space) of the study-site watersheds. By the end of the study, extended periods (9?15 months) of zero or negligible flow were observed at half the sites. Summer monsoonal rains generated the majority of streamflow and associated recharge in the Sonoran Desert sites and the more southerly Rio Grande Rift site, whereas winter storms and spring snowmelt dominated the northern and westernmost sites. Proximity to moisture sources (primarily the Pacific Ocean and Gulf of California) and meteorologic fluctuations, in concert with orography, largely control the generation of focused ground-water recharge from ephemeral streamflow, although other factors (geology, soil, and vegetation) also are important. Watershed area correlated weakly with focused infiltration volumes, the latter providing an upper bound on associated ground-water recharge. Estimates of annual focused infiltration for the research sites ranged from about 105 to 107 cubic meters from contributing areas that ranged from 26 to 2,260 square kilometers.

Constantz, Jim; Adams, Kelsey S.; Stonestrom, David A.

2007-01-01

260

Ground-water recharge through active sand dunes in northwestern Nevada  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Most water-resource investigations in semiarid basins of the Great Basin in western North America conclude that ground-water recharge from direct precipitation on the valley floor is negligible. However, many of these basins contain large areas covered by unvegetated, active sand dunes that may act as conduits for ground-water recharge. The potential for this previously undocumented recharge was investigated in an area covered by sand dunes in Desert Valley, northwestern Nevada, using a deep percolation model. The model uses daily measurements of precipitation and temperature to determine energy and moisture balance, from which estimates of long-term mean annual recharge are made. For the study area, the model calculated a mean annual recharge rate of as much as 1.3 inches per year, or 17 percent of the long-term mean precipitation. Model simulations also indicate that recharge would be virtually zero if the study area were covered by vegetation rather than dunes.

Berger, D.L.

1992-01-01

261

Simulation of ground-water level fluctuations using recharge estimated by field infiltrometer measurements  

USGS Publications Warehouse

An infiltrometer was used at multiple locations at a site in Lee County, Fl. to define the spatial variability in infiltration parameters. Water-level data from a well at this site were collected hourly and used to determine the temporal variability in recharge. These results were used to define recharge in a representative stochastic numerical model of the aquifer. Model results without recharge compare well with existing analytical solutions for spatial head variability. Simulations with representative recharge events indicate that recharge produces a significant to dominant effect on head variability, which creates dispersion of contaminants, and that small-scale spatial and temporal recharge variations are the predominant mechanism causing the head variations.

Swain, E.D.

1997-01-01

262

Mountain-block recharge, present and past, in the eastern Espaola Basin, New Mexico, USA  

Microsoft Academic Search

Noble gas recharge temperatures (NGTs) and radiocarbon ages were determined for 43 groundwater samples collected in the eastern\\u000a Espaola Basin, New Mexico (USA), to identify mountain-block recharge in waters <10 thousand years (ka) old and to evaluate\\u000a possible changes in mountain-block recharge over the past ?35ka. For Holocene samples from the southeastern area, NGTs are\\u000a dominantly 24 cooler than the

Andrew H. Manning

2011-01-01

263

Impacts of climate change on groundwater in Australia: a sensitivity analysis of recharge  

Microsoft Academic Search

Groundwater recharge is a complex process reflecting many interactions between climate, vegetation and soils. Climate change\\u000a will impact upon groundwater recharge but it is not clear which climate variables have the greatest influence over recharge.\\u000a This study used a sensitivity analysis of climate variables using a modified version of WAVES, a soil-vegetation-atmosphere-transfer\\u000a model (unsaturated zone), to determine the importance of

J. L. McCallum; R. S. Crosbie; G. R. Walker; W. R. Dawes

2010-01-01

264

Soil Water Balance and Recharge Monitoring at the Hanford Site - FY09 Status Report  

SciTech Connect

Recharge provides the primary driving force for transporting contaminants from the vadose zone to underlying aquifer systems. Quantification of recharge rates is important for assessing contaminant transport and fate and for evaluating remediation alternatives. This report describes the status of soil water balance and recharge monitoring performed by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory at the Hanford Site for Fiscal Year 2009. Previously reported data for Fiscal Years 2004 - 2008 are updated with data collected in Fiscal Year 2009 and summarized.

Rockhold, Mark L.; Saunders, Danielle L.; Strickland, Christopher E.; Waichler, Scott R.; Clayton, Ray E.

2009-09-28

265

Estimated ground-water recharge from streamflow in Fortymile Wash near Yucca Mountain, Nevada  

SciTech Connect

The two purposes of this report are to qualitatively document ground-water recharge from stream-flow in Fortymile Wash during the period 1969--95 from previously unpublished ground-water levels in boreholes in Fortymile Canyon during 1982--91 and 1995, and to quantitatively estimate the long-term ground-water recharge rate from streamflow in Fortymile Wash for four reaches of Fortymile Wash (Fortymile Canyon, upper Jackass Flats, lower Jackass Flats, and Amargosa Desert). The long-term groundwater recharge rate was estimated from estimates of the volume of water available for infiltration, the volume of infiltration losses from streamflow, the ground-water recharge volume from infiltration losses, and an analysis of the different periods of data availability. The volume of water available for infiltration and ground-water recharge in the four reaches was estimated from known streamflow in ephemeral Fortymile Wash, which was measured at several gaging station locations. The volume of infiltration losses from streamflow for the four reaches was estimated from a streamflow volume loss factor applied to the estimated streamflows. the ground-water recharge volume was estimated from a linear relation between infiltration loss volume and ground-water recharge volume for each of the four reaches. Ground-water recharge rates were estimated for three different periods of data availability (1969--95, 1983--95, and 1992--95) and a long-term ground-water recharge rate estimated for each of the four reaches.

Savard, C.S.

1998-10-01

266

Artificial-recharge investigation near Aurora, Nebraska: 2-year progress report  

USGS Publications Warehouse

This report presents the results of the first 2 years of a 4-year investigation of potential for artificial recharge and recharge methods that might be used to mitigate excessive aquifer depletion in Nebraska. A Quaternary sand-and-gravel aquifer near Aurora, Nebr., was recharged by injecting water through a well at a rate of approximately 730 gallons per minute for nearly 6 months. Total recharge was 530 acre-feet. Recharge was intermittent during the first 2 months, but was virtually continuous during the last 4 months. Buildup of the water level in the recharge well was 17 feet. The rate of buildup indicates that the well could have accepted water by gravity flow at more than 3,000 gallons per minute for at least 1 year. The cause of a continuing slow rise in water levels in the recharge well in contrast to nearly stable water levels in observation wells as close as 10 feet from the recharge well is as yet uncertain. The recharge water and the native ground water appeared to be chemically compatible. Infiltration rates from 24-foot-diameter surface impoundments ranged from 0.04 to 0.66 feet per day. The higher rates may have resulted in part from leakage down incompletely sealed holes that were drilled to install monitoring equipment. The investigation, including a report on the entire project, is scheduled for completion by 1980.

Lichtler, William F.; Stannard, David I.; Kouma, Edwin

1979-01-01

267

Use of soil moisture probes to estimate ground water recharge at an oil spill site  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Soil moisture data collected using an automated data logging system were used to estimate ground water recharge at a crude oil spill research site near Bemidji, Minnesota. Three different soil moisture probes were tested in the laboratory as well as the field conditions of limited power supply and extreme weather typical of northern Minnesota: a self-contained reflectometer probe, and two time domain reflectometry (TDR) probes, 30 and 50 cm long. Recharge was estimated using an unsaturated zone water balance method. Recharge estimates for 1999 using the laboratory calibrations were 13 to 30 percent greater than estimates based on the factory calibrations. Recharge indicated by the self-contained probes was 170 percent to 210 percent greater than the estimates for the TDR probes regardless of calibration method. Results indicate that the anomalously large recharge estimates for the self-contained probes are not the result of inaccurate measurements of volumetric moisture content, but result from the presence of crude oil, or bore-hole leakage. Of the probes tested, the 50 cm long TDR probe yielded recharge estimates that compared most favorably to estimates based on a method utilizing water table fluctuations. Recharge rates for this probe represented 24 to 27 percent of 1999 precipitation. Recharge based on the 30 cm long horizontal TDR probes was 29 to 37 percent of 1999 precipitation. By comparison, recharge based on the water table fluctuation method represented about 29 percent of precipitation. (JAWRA) (Copyright ?? 2005).

Delin, G.N.; Herkelrath, W.N.

2005-01-01

268

Estimation of groundwater recharge in a major sand and gravel aquifer in Ireland using multiple approaches  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Groundwater recharge was investigated in the most extensive sand and gravel aquifer (area of approximately 200 km2) in the Republic of Ireland as part of a wider study seeking to derive recharge estimates using aquifer vulnerability mapping. The proportion of effective rainfall (total rainfall minus actual evapotranspiration) that leads to recharge is known as the recharge coefficient. The recharge investigation involved a variety of approaches, including soil moisture budgeting, well hydrograph analysis, numerical modelling and a catchment water balance. The adoption of multiple techniques provided insights on recharge and also on aquifer properties. Comparison of two soil moisture budgeting approaches (FAO Penman-Monteith with Penman-Grindley) showed how variations in the effective rainfall values from these methods influence groundwater levels simulated in a numerical groundwater model. The catchment water balance estimated the recharge coefficient to be between 81 and 85%, which is considered a reasonable range for this aquifer, where overland flow is rarely observed. The well hydrograph analysis, using a previous estimate of specific yield (0.13), gave recharge coefficients in the range of 40-80%, considered low for this aquifer: a revised specific yield of 0.19 resulted in a more reasonable range of recharge coefficients of between 70 and 100%.

Misstear, B. D. R.; Brown, L.; Johnston, P. M.

2009-05-01

269

Groundwater-recharge estimation in the Ordos Plateau, China: comparison of methods  

Microsoft Academic Search

Groundwater recharge is a key factor in water-balance studies, especially in (semi-)arid areas. In this study, multiple methods\\u000a were used to estimate groundwater recharge in the Ordos Plateau (China), including reference to water-table fluctuation, Darcys\\u000a law and the water budget. The mean annual recharge rates found were: water-table-fluctuation method (46109mm\\/yr); saturated-zone\\u000a Darcian method (1754mm\\/yr); and water-budget method (21109mm\\/yr). Generally, groundwater-recharge

Lihe Yin; Guangcheng Hu; Jinting Huang; Dongguang Wen; Jiaqiu Dong; Xiaoyong Wang; Hongbo Li

270

A generalized estimate of ground-water-recharge rates in the Lower Peninsula of Michigan  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Ground-water recharge rates were estimated by analysis of streamflow, precipitation, and basin-characteristics data. Streamflow data were partitioned into ground-water-discharge and surface-water-runoff components. Regression equations relate ground-water discharge to precipitation at each basin. Basin-characteristics and long-term precipitation data were used to aid in the interpolation of recharge characteristics within gaged and ungaged areas. A multiple regression equation was developed to estimate spatial variation of recharge. The generalized estimate provides a consistent method for approximating recharge rates in the Lower Peninsula of Michigan.

Holtschlag, David J.

1997-01-01

271

Seasonalizing mountain system recharge in semi-arid basins-climate change impacts.  

PubMed

Climate variability and change impact groundwater resources by altering recharge rates. In semi-arid Basin and Range systems, this impact is likely to be most pronounced in mountain system recharge (MSR), a process which constitutes a significant component of recharge in these basins. Despite its importance, the physical processes that control MSR have not been fully investigated because of limited observations and the complexity of recharge processes in mountainous catchments. As a result, empirical equations, that provide a basin-wide estimate of mean annual recharge using mean annual precipitation, are often used to estimate MSR. Here North American Regional Reanalysis data are used to develop seasonal recharge estimates using ratios of seasonal (winter vs. summer) precipitation to seasonal actual or potential evapotranspiration. These seasonal recharge estimates compared favorably to seasonal MSR estimates using the fraction of winter vs. summer recharge determined from isotopic data in the Upper San Pedro River Basin, Arizona. Development of hydrologically based seasonal ratios enhanced seasonal recharge predictions and notably allows evaluation of MSR response to changes in seasonal precipitation and temperature because of climate variability and change using Global Climate Model (GCM) climate projections. Results show that prospective variability in MSR depends on GCM precipitation predictions and on higher temperature. Lower seasonal MSR rates projected for 2050-2099 are associated with decreases in summer precipitation and increases in winter temperature. Uncertainty in seasonal MSR predictions arises from the potential evapotranspiration estimation method, the GCM downscaling technique and the exclusion of snowmelt processes. PMID:22091994

Ajami, Hoori; Meixner, Thomas; Dominguez, Francina; Hogan, James; Maddock, Thomas

2012-01-01

272

Fragments of deeper parts of the hanging wall mantle preserved as orogenic peridotites in the central belt of the Seve Nappe Complex, Sweden  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Formation conditions of olivine microstructures are investigated in the Kittelfjll spinel peridotite (KSP), a fragment of lithospheric mantle which occurs as an isolated body within high grade metamorphic crustal rocks of the Seve Nappe Complex (SNC), southern Vsterbotten, central Sweden. The KSP is an orogenic peridotite containing a well developed penetrative compositional layering, defined by highly depleted dunite with olivine Mg# (100 Mg/Mg + Fe) of 92.0-93.5 and harzburgite with lower Mg# (91.0-92.5). Dunite is characterized by three contrasting olivine microstructures formed in response to different tectonometamorphic events: Coarse-grained, highly strained olivine porphyroclasts (M1) up to 20 cm long are surrounded by dynamically recrystallized olivine grains (M2) defining a characteristic olivine "foam" microstructure (grain size: 200-2000 ?m). An olivine "mortar" (M3) microstructure (10-50 ?m) forms a penetrative fabric element only in strongly localized, cm-to-m sized shear zones that crosscut earlier structures/foliations. Olivine fabric analysis in synergy, with mineralogical and chemical analyses, reveals that the KSP body represents old, possibly Archean, sub-continental lithospheric mantle that was crustally emplaced into the Caledonian tectonic edifice from the hanging wall mantle during exhumation of the subducted Seve Nappe Complex (Jmtlandian orogeny ~ 454 Ma). Olivine porphyroclasts (M1) grew at high temperature during dominant isobaric cooling after extensive polybaric melt extraction (> 40%) and subsequent refertilization. The onset of the early Caledonian deformation is interpreted to be related to the crustal emplacement of the KSP during eduction of the SNC. This phase is characterized by the development of the olivine M2 foam microstructure, formed at 650-830 C/1-2 GPa by dislocation creep processes producing an E-type CPO's by the operation of the [100](001) and subordinate [001](100) slip systems with operating flow stress levels around 8-48 MPa. In contrast the M3 olivine "mortar" microstructure formed at 550-600 C/0.45-0.6 GPa and represents deformation after the subducted slab had returned to shallow crustal levels. It is proposed here that the presence of a penetrative olivine M2 "foam" microstructure can be used as an easy tool in the field to discriminate between mantle wedge (i.e. sub-continental affinity), ophiolite (i.e. sub-oceanic affinity), and/or hyper-extensional peridotite in the Scandinavian Caledonides. The latter two peridotite subtypes may have similar M2 microstructures, but exclusively restricted to the structural base of the bodies. Alternatively in basal parts of ophiolites, M3 microstructures directly overprint coarser grained proto-granular olivine microstructures.

Clos, Frediano; Gilio, Mattia; van Roermund, Herman L. M.

2014-04-01

273

Recharge areas and hydrochemistry of carbonate springs issuing from Semmering Massif, Austria, based on long-term oxygen-18 and hydrochemical data evidence  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Rsum. Les teneurs en oxygne-18 et l'hydrochimie des sources mergeant du massif de Semmering ont t suivies de manire intensive dans le but de caractriser les zones de recharge et l'volution hydrochimique. L'effet d'altitude sur le ?18O a t dtermin grce aux donnes isotopiques et hydrogologiques de petites sources de rfrence, principalement en terrains cristallins; cet effet est d'environ -0,27 et -0,21 par 100 m pour les versants respectivement nord et sud du massif. En appliquant ces valeurs, l'altitude moyenne de recharge des sources a t calcule. Pour les sources fort dbit issues des carbonates, elle est comprise entre 1,100 et 1,400 m, compatible avec le cadre topographique et hydrogologique des calcaires et des dolomies de l'Austro-alpin infrieur alimentant ces sources. La composition chimique des sources des carbonates est domine par les ions Ca2+, Mg2+, HCO3- et SO42-. Les sources sont presque toutes proches de la saturation par rapport la calcite, mais sont sous-satures en dolomite (sauf quelques sources proches de la saturation). Comme cela est habituel en ce qui concerne le dioxyde de carbone fourni par les sols en rgions montagneuses, la pCO2 quilibrante moyenne est faible, comprise entre 10-3.0 et 10-2.5 atm (0,1 0,3% en volume). En ce qui concerne les variations long terme, le pH, SIc, Sid et la pCO2 quilibrante sont soumis des variations saisonnires, alors que les concentrations en Ca2+, Mg2+ et HCO3- ne varient pratiquement pas. En intgrant les rsultats de ?18O et les donnes hydrochimiques, la variabilit altitudinale du chimisme des eaux souterraines des carbonates est dmontre. Refltant les variations d'activit biologique et des conditions de recharge dans les zones d'alimentation, une covariation ngative rsulte de l'altitude de recharge et de la pCO2 et la concentration en HCO3- n'est pas modifie par aucun des termes source ou puits, ce qui fait varier la chimie des carbonates. La pCO2 et la concentration en HCO3- diminuent respectivement d'environ 0,22 unit log (atm) et 38,6 mg/l pour un accroissement de 100 m de l'altitude de recharge. Resumen. Se ha muestreado exhaustivamente el contenido en oxgeno-18 y la hidroqumica de los manantiales existentes en el macizo de Semmering (Austria) con el fin de caracterizar las reas de recarga y su evolucin hidroqumica. Se ha determinado el efecto altitudinal del ?18O con datos isotpicos e hidrogeolgicos obtenidos en pequeos manantiales originados en rocas cristalinas que sirven como nivel de referencia; los resultados han sido de -0,27 por cada 100 m en la zona Morte del macizo, y de -0,21/100 m hacia el Sur. Aplicando estos valores, se ha calculado la altitud promedio a la que se produce su recarga. Para los manantiales de caudal elevado en materiales carbonatados, la altitud de recarga vara entre 1.100 y 1.410 m, cosa que es compatible con el marco topogrfico e hidrogeolgico de las rocas calizas y dolomticas Mesozoicas propias del Austroalpino Bajo que los alimenta. La composicin hidroqumica de los manantiales carbonatados est dominada por los iones calcio, magnesio, bicarbonato y sulfato. Los manantiales estn casi saturados en calcita, pero subsaturados en dolomita, excepto en algunos que parecen hallarse cerca de la saturacin. Como caracteriza a los suelos en regiones montaosas, la presin parcial de equilibrio del dixido de carbono (PCO2) es baja, con valores comprendidos entre 10-3,0 y 10-2,5 atm. A largo plazo, el pH y los valores calculados de los ndices de saturacin en calcita (SIc) y en dolomita (SId), junto con la PCO2 en equilibrio, evidencian una fuerte estacionalidad; en cambio, las concentraciones de calcio, magnesio y bicarbonato prcticamente no varan. Integrando los resultados de ?18O y de la hidroqumica, se demuestra la variabilidad de la qumica de aguas subterrneas carbonatadas con respecto a la altitud. Reflejando el cambio sistemtico de la actividad bitica y de las condiciones de re

Yehdegho, Beyene; Reichl, Peter

2002-10-01

274

Artificial recharge through a thick, heterogeneous unsaturated zone  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Thick, heterogeneous unsaturated zones away from large streams in desert areas have not previously been considered suitable for artificial recharge from ponds. To test the potential for recharge in these settings, 1.3 ?? 10 6 m3 of water was infiltrated through a 0.36-ha pond along Oro Grande Wash near Victorville, California, between October 2002 and January 2006. The pond overlies a regional pumping depression 117 m below land surface and is located where thickness and permeability of unsaturated deposits allowed infiltration and saturated alluvial deposits were sufficiently permeable to allow recovery of water. Because large changes in water levels caused by nearby pumping would obscure arrival of water at the water table, downward movement of water was measured using sensors in the unsaturated zone. The downward rate of water movement was initially as high as 6 m/d and decreased with depth to 0.07 m/d; the initial time to reach the water table was 3 years. After the unsaturated zone was wetted, water reached the water table in 1 year. Soluble salts and nitrate moved readily with the infiltrated water, whereas arsenic and chromium were less mobile. Numerical simulations done using the computer program TOUGH2 duplicated the downward rate of water movement, accumulation of water on perched zones, and its arrival at the water table. Assuming 10 ?? 10 6 m3 of recharge annually for 20 years, a regional ground water flow model predicted water level rises of 30 m beneath the ponds, and rises exceeding 3 m in most wells serving the nearby urban area.

Izbicki, J.A.; Flint, A.L.; Stamos, C.L.

2008-01-01

275

Des Moines.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document, intended for elementary students, contains articles and activities designed to acquaint young people with the history of Des Moines, Iowa. The articles are short, and new or difficult words are highlighted and defined for young readers. "The Raccoon River Indian Agency" discusses the archeological exploration of the indian

Gore, Deborah, Ed.

1988-01-01

276

RISING beamline (BL28XU) for rechargeable battery analysis  

PubMed Central

The newly installed BL28XU beamline at SPring-8 is dedicated to in situ structural and electronic analysis of rechargeable batteries. It supports the time range (1?ms to 100?s) and spatial range (1?m to 1?mm) needed for battery analysis. Electrochemical apparatus for battery charging and discharging are available in experimental hutches and in a preparation room. Battery analysis can be carried out efficiently and effectively using X-ray diffraction, X-ray absorption fine-structure analysis and hard X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. Here, the design and performance of the beamline are described, and preliminary results are presented. PMID:24365948

Tanida, H.; Fukuda, K.; Murayama, H.; Orikasa, Y.; Arai, H.; Uchimoto, Y.; Matsubara, E.; Uruga, T.; Takeshita, K.; Takahashi, S.; Sano, M.; Aoyagi, H.; Watanabe, A.; Nariyama, N.; Ohashi, H.; Yumoto, H.; Koyama, T.; Senba, Y.; Takeuchi, T.; Furukawa, Y.; Ohata, T.; Matsushita, T.; Ishizawa, Y.; Kudo, T.; Kimura, H.; Yamazaki, H.; Tanaka, T.; Bizen, T.; Seike, T.; Goto, S.; Ohno, H.; Takata, M.; Kitamura, H.; Ishikawa, T.; Ohta, T.; Ogumi, Z.

2014-01-01

277

Lithiated manganese oxide cathodes for rechargeable lithium batteries  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lithiated manganese oxides LixMnyO2 prepared at the low temperature of 400-450C exhibited significantly different electrochemical properties than the spinel phase, LiMn2O4, formed at 650-850C. The former was nonstoichiometric and yielded a capacity of ~0.7 LiMn2 unit at ~2.8 V in polymer electrolyte-based Li cells. Its excellent rechargeability was demonstrated by more than 100 charge\\/discharge cycles. Spinel Li2Mn4 was formed by

K. M. Abraham; D. M. Pasquariello; T. H. Hguyen; Z. Jiang; D. Peramunage

1996-01-01

278

Chemical lithium extraction from manganese oxides for lithium rechargeable batteries  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chemical lithium extraction has been carried out on the following manganese oxides: the spinel-type compounds LiMn2O4 and Li(4\\/3)Mn(5\\/3)O4, and the rocksalt-related compound Li2MnO3. Lithium can be partially removed chemically from these compounds without destroying the host framework. Some compounds obtained by this method have been tested as cathodic materials in rechargeable lithium cells. Electrochemical results and X-ray diffraction patterns of

F. Lubin; A. Lecerf; M. Broussely; J. Labat

1991-01-01

279

High pressure water electrolysis for space station EMU recharge  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A high pressure oxygen recharge system (HPORS), is being developed for application on board the Space Station. This electrolytic system can provide oxygen at up to 6000 psia without a mechanical compressor. The Hamilton standard HPORS based on a solid polymer electrolyte system is an extension of the much larger and succesful 3000 psia system of the U.S. Navy. Cell modules have been successfully tested under conditions beyond which spacecraft may encounter during launch. The control system with double redundancy and mechanical backups for all electronically controlled components is designed to ensure a safe shutdown.

Lance, Nick; Puskar, Michael; Moulthrop, Lawrence; Zagaja, John

1988-01-01

280

A 65 Ah rechargeable lithium molybdenum disulfide battery  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A rechargeable lithium molybdenum disulfide battery which has a number of superior performance characteristics which includes a high energy density, a high power density, and a long charge retention time was developed. The first cell sizes developed included a C size cell and an AA size cell. Over the last two years, a project to demonstrate the feasibility of the scale up to this technology to a BC size cell with 65 Ah capacity was undertaken. The objective was to develop, build, and test a .6 kWh storage battery consisting of 6 BC cells in series.

Brandt, K.

1986-01-01

281

Using Multiple Natural Tracers to Investigate Groundwater Recharge and Flow in Mountains  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Because mountain precipitation provides the majority of groundwater recharge in the western USA, an understanding of groundwater recharge and flow in mountain ranges is needed to make informed resource-management decisions. Natural tracers are excellent tools for studying these systems, but a single tracer can only provide limited information. As a result, using multiple tracers is ideal - by using several tracers, several aspects of mountain groundwater systems can be examined. For instance, groundwater stable-isotope measurements (?D and ?18O) can reveal the elevation at which the water fell as precipitation, but not the elevation at which the water was recharged. However, concentrations of dissolved gases in groundwater can be used to determine actual recharge elevations. Major-ion chemistry can provide insight into the geologic units through which the water has moved, and may also provide a qualitative indication of residence time; radioisotopes can yield more precise estimates of groundwater age. Other information is helpful for interpreting natural tracer data, including the local and regional geology, the area's climate, and the locations where groundwater recharge ('disappearing' streams) or discharge (springs and seeps) occur. A study utilizing these tools was conducted in the Chiricahua Mountains (Arizona, USA). Stable-isotope data show that precipitation from near the crest of the range is responsible for the majority of the groundwater recharge. Dissolved-gas data indicate that, while most of this recharge takes place near the crest of the range; some waters recharge in a high-permeability zone near the base of the range. Based on our observations of the range's hydraulics, the majority of this low-elevation recharge appears to be 're-recharge'---water that recharged at higher elevations, flowed underground, discharged, flowed downslope overland, then re-recharged. Major-ion chemistry data show that both volcanic (tuff and rhyolite) and sedimentary (primarily carbonates) units are conduits for groundwater flow in the range, depending on location. Dissolved-gas data demonstrate that the extent of the high-elevation recharge zone is nearly identical to the area of the range that develops snowpack. If snowpack development is a needed condition for recharge in other ranges of the western USA, groundwater recharge could be seriously impacted if current predictions for global-warming-induced changes in precipitation in the western USA (decreased percentage of precipitation falling as snow, and higher snowlines) are accurate.

Earman, S.; Phillips, F. M.

2005-12-01

282

Numerical assessment of ASR recharge using small-diameter wells and surface basins  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Aquifer storage and recovery (ASR) methods are increasingly used to overcome the temporal imbalance between water demand and availability. Common ASR recharge methods utilize large-diameter injection wells or surface infiltration basins and trenches, and can be costly to implement. A new low-cost ASR recharge method is currently being developed. This approach is based on recharge via gravity in small-diameter wells installed with direct-push (DP) technology. Numerical modeling is used here to assess the potential of this new approach under conditions commonly faced in field settings. The primary objective is to investigate if a battery of small-diameter DP wells can serve as a viable alternative to a surface basin under typical field conditions, while the secondary objective is to assess which subsurface parameters have the greatest control on DP well performance. Simulation results indicate that gravity recharge via small-diameter wells appears to have a distinct advantage over recharge via surface infiltration basins. For example, two 0.05-m shallow vadose-zone wells with 9-m screens can recharge water at a greater rate than a 60 m2 basin. Also, results reveal that, contrary to an infiltration basin, the recharge rate in a DP well has a much stronger dependence on the horizontal component of hydraulic conductivity than on the vertical component. Moreover, near-surface layers of low hydraulic conductivity, which can significantly reduce the recharge capacity of a surface basin, have a relatively small impact on the recharge capacity of a well as long as a significant portion of the well screen is installed below those layers. Given that installation and operation costs can be low in comparison to common ASR recharge methods, this new approach appears to have great potential for recharging good quality water in shallow unconsolidated aquifers. A field investigation has recently been initiated to follow up the findings of this simulation assessment.

Hndel, Falk; Liu, Gaisheng; Dietrich, Peter; Liedl, Rudolf; Butler, James J.

2014-09-01

283

Using 14C and 3H to understand groundwater flow and recharge in an aquifer window  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Knowledge of groundwater residence times and recharge locations are vital to the sustainable management of groundwater resources. Here we investigate groundwater residence times and patterns of recharge in the Gellibrand Valley, southeast Australia, where outcropping aquifer sediments of the Eastern View Formation form an "aquifer window" that may receive diffuse recharge and recharge from the Gellibrand River. To determine recharge patterns and groundwater flowpaths, environmental isotopes (3H, 14C, ?13C, ?18O, ?2H) are used in conjunction with groundwater geochemistry and continuous monitoring of groundwater elevation and electrical conductivity. Despite the water table fluctuating by 0.9-3.7 m annually producing estimated recharge rates of 90 and 372 mm yr-1, residence times of shallow (11-29 m) groundwater determined by 14C ages are between 100 and 10 000 years. 3H activities are negligible in most of the groundwater and groundwater electrical conductivity in individual areas remains constant over the period of study. Although diffuse local recharge is evident, the depth to which it penetrates is limited to the upper 10 m of the aquifer. Rather, groundwater in the Gellibrand Valley predominantly originates from the regional recharge zone, the Barongarook High, and acts as a regional discharge zone where upward head gradients are maintained annually, limiting local recharge. Additionally, the Gellibrand River does not recharge the surrounding groundwater and has limited bank storage. 14C ages and Cl concentrations are well correlated and Cl concentrations may be used to provide a first-order estimate of groundwater residence times. Progressively lower chloride concentrations from 10 000 years BP to the present day are interpreted to indicate an increase in recharge rates on the Barongarook High.

Atkinson, A. P.; Cartwright, I.; Gilfedder, B. S.; Cendn, D. I.; Unland, N. P.; Hofmann, H.

2014-06-01

284

Using 14C and 3H to understand groundwater flow and recharge in an aquifer window  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Knowledge of groundwater residence times and recharge locations is vital to the sustainable management of groundwater resources. Here we investigate groundwater residence times and patterns of recharge in the Gellibrand Valley, southeast Australia, where outcropping aquifer sediments of the Eastern View Formation form an "aquifer window" that may receive diffuse recharge from rainfall and recharge from the Gellibrand River. To determine recharge patterns and groundwater flow paths, environmental isotopes (3H, 14C, ?13C, ?18O, ?2H) are used in conjunction with groundwater geochemistry and continuous monitoring of groundwater elevation and electrical conductivity. The water table fluctuates by 0.9 to 3.7 m annually, implying recharge rates of 90 and 372 mm yr-1. However, residence times of shallow (11 to 29 m) groundwater determined by 14C are between 100 and 10 000 years, 3H activities are negligible in most of the groundwater, and groundwater electrical conductivity remains constant over the period of study. Deeper groundwater with older 14C ages has lower ?18O values than younger, shallower groundwater, which is consistent with it being derived from greater altitudes. The combined geochemistry data indicate that local recharge from precipitation within the valley occurs through the aquifer window, however much of the groundwater in the Gellibrand Valley predominantly originates from the regional recharge zone, the Barongarook High. The Gellibrand Valley is a regional discharge zone with upward head gradients that limits local recharge to the upper 10 m of the aquifer. Additionally, the groundwater head gradients adjacent to the Gellibrand River are generally upwards, implying that it does not recharge the surrounding groundwater and has limited bank storage. 14C ages and Cl concentrations are well correlated and Cl concentrations may be used to provide a first-order estimate of groundwater residence times. Progressively lower chloride concentrations from 10 000 years BP to the present day are interpreted to indicate an increase in recharge rates on the Barongarook High.

Atkinson, A. P.; Cartwright, I.; Gilfedder, B. S.; Cendn, D. I.; Unland, N. P.; Hofmann, H.

2014-12-01

285

Ground-water recharge in Escambia and Santa Rosa Counties, Florida  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Ground water is a major component of Florida's water resources, accounting for 90 percent of all public-supply and self-supplied domestic water withdrawals, and 58 percent of self-supplied commercial-industrial and agricultural withdrawals of freshwater (Marella, 1992). Ground-water is also an important source of water for streams, lakes, and wetlands in Florida. Because of their importance, a good understanding of these resources is essential for their sound development, use, and protection. One area in which our understanding is lacking is in characterizing the rate at which ground water in aquifers is recharged, and how recharge rates vary geographically. Ground-water recharge (recharge) is the replenishment of ground water by downward infiltration of water from rainfall, streams, and other sources (American Society of Civil Engineers, 1987, p. 222). The recharge rates in many areas of Florida are unknown, of insufficient accuracy, or mapped at scales that are too coarse to be useful. Improved maps of recharge rates will result in improved capabilities for managing Florida's ground-water resources. In 1989, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Florida Department of Environmental Regulation, began a study to delineate high-rate recharge areas in several regions of Florida (Vecchioli and others, 1990). This study resulted in recharge maps that delineated areas of high (greater than 10 inches per year) and low (0 to 10 inches per year) recharge in three counties--Okaloosa, Pasco, and Volusia Counties--at a scale of 1:100,000. This report describes the results of a similar recharge mapping study for Escambia and Santa Rosa Counties (fig. 1), in which areas of high- and low-rates of recharge to the sand-and-gravel aquifer and Upper Floridan aquifer are delineated. The study was conducted in 1992 and 1993 by the U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with the Florida Department of Environmental Protection.

Grubbs, J.W.

1995-01-01

286

Reconnaissance Estimates of Recharge Based on an Elevation-dependent Chloride Mass-balance Approach  

SciTech Connect

Significant uncertainty is associated with efforts to quantity recharge in arid regions such as southern Nevada. However, accurate estimates of groundwater recharge are necessary to understanding the long-term sustainability of groundwater resources and predictions of groundwater flow rates and directions. Currently, the most widely accepted method for estimating recharge in southern Nevada is the Maxey and Eakin method. This method has been applied to most basins within Nevada and has been independently verified as a reconnaissance-level estimate of recharge through several studies. Recharge estimates derived from the Maxey and Eakin and other recharge methodologies ultimately based upon measures or estimates of groundwater discharge (outflow methods) should be augmented by a tracer-based aquifer-response method. The objective of this study was to improve an existing aquifer-response method that was based on the chloride mass-balance approach. Improvements were designed to incorporate spatial variability within recharge areas (rather than recharge as a lumped parameter), develop a more defendable lower limit of recharge, and differentiate local recharge from recharge emanating as interbasin flux. Seventeen springs, located in the Sheep Range, Spring Mountains, and on the Nevada Test Site were sampled during the course of this study and their discharge was measured. The chloride and bromide concentrations of the springs were determined. Discharge and chloride concentrations from these springs were compared to estimates provided by previously published reports. A literature search yielded previously published estimates of chloride flux to the land surface. {sup 36}Cl/Cl ratios and discharge rates of the three largest springs in the Amargosa Springs discharge area were compiled from various sources. This information was utilized to determine an effective chloride concentration for recharging precipitation and its associated uncertainty via Monte Carlo simulations. Previously developed isohyetal maps were utilized to determine the mean and standard deviation of precipitation within the area. A digital elevation model was obtained to provide elevation information. A geologic model was obtained to provide the spatial distribution of alluvial formations. Both were used to define the lower limit of recharge. In addition, 40 boreholes located in alluvial sediments were drilled and sampled in an attempt to support the argument that the areal distribution of alluvial sediments can be used to define a zone of negligible recharge. The data were compiled in a geographic information system and used in a Monte Carlo analysis to determine recharge occurring within the study area. Results of the analysis yielded estimates of the mean and standard deviation of recharge occurring within the study area (28.168 x 10{sup 6} m{sup 3} yr{sup -1} and 7.008 x 10{sup 6} m{sup 3} yr{sup -1}, and 26.838 x 10{sup 6} m{sup 3} yr{sup -1} and 6.928 x 10{sup 6} m{sup 3} yr{sup -1}) for two sets of simulations using alternate definitions of the lower limit of recharge. A sensitivity analysis determined the recharge estimates were most sensitive to uncertainty associated with the chloride concentration of the spring discharge. The second most sensitive parameter was the uncertainty associated with the mean precipitation within the recharge areas. Comparison of the analysis to previously published estimates of recharge revealed mixed results with the recharge estimates derived during the course of this project generally greater relative to previously published estimates.

Charles E. Russell; Tim Minor

2002-08-31

287

Recharge and sustainability of a coastal aquifer in northern Albania  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The River Mati in Albania has formed a coastal plain with Holocene and Pleistocene sediments. The outer portion of the plain is clay, with three underlying aquifers that are connected to an alluvial fan at the entry of the river into the plain. The aquifers supply water for 240,000 people. Close to the sea the aquifers are brackish. The brackish water is often artesian and found to be thousands of years old. Furthermore, the salinity, supported by ?18O results, does not seem to be due to mixing with old seawater but due to diffusion from intercalated clay layers. Heavy metals from mines in the upstream section of River Mati are not an immediate threat, as the pH buffering of the river water is good. Moreover, the heavy metals are predominantly found in suspended and colloidal phases. Two sulphur isotope signatures, one mirroring seawater sulphate in the brackish groundwater (?34S >21 ) and one showing the influence of sulphide in the river and the fresh groundwater (?34S <10 ), indicate that the groundwater in the largest well field is recharged from the river. The most serious threat is gravel extraction in the alluvial fan, decreasing the hydraulic head necessary for recharge and causing clogging of sediments.

Kumanova, X.; Marku, S.; Frjd, S.; Jacks, G.

2014-06-01

288

Large Scale Hydrological Modelling: Parameterisation of Groundwater Recharge  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

There is currently worldwide interest in the effect of human activity on the global environment, especially the effect of greenhouse gases and land-use change on the global climate, and models are being developed to study both global and local effects of global changes. This research involves the development and application of GRASP (Groundwater Recharge modelling Approach with a Scaling-up Procedure) intended as a component of UP (Upscaled physically based) large-scale hydrological model. GRASP comprises two modelling schemes: SM (Soil Moisture approach) and TF (Transfer Function approach), both based on the one-dimensional Richards' equation. TF is a transfer function model for inhomogeneous vertical flow in the unsaturated zone and gives the recharge response for a short pulse of infiltration at the ground surface or percolation from the root zone. TF is point-based and its parameters are physically-based, derived using the matric potential and unsaturated hydraulic conductivity functions. SM is a simple, computationally efficient, grid-based, two parameters scheme, which are derived based on TF's point-scale aggregated response. Since TF is linear, upscaled transfer functions can be derived through area-weighted summation of point scale transfer functions. Two applications of GRASP are shown, one using data for Little Washita catchment in the ARRB (USA) and another using data from ABRACOS experiment in Central Amazon (Brazil). Although completely validation of the GRASP model needs more data, as shown, results are quite encouraging.

Pimenteldasilva, L.

2002-12-01

289

Natural water purification and water management by artificial groundwater recharge  

PubMed Central

Worldwide, several regions suffer from water scarcity and contamination. The infiltration and subsurface storage of rain and river water can reduce water stress. Artificial groundwater recharge, possibly combined with bank filtration, plant purification and/or the use of subsurface dams and artificial aquifers, is especially advantageous in areas where layers of gravel and sand exist below the earths surface. Artificial infiltration of surface water into the uppermost aquifer has qualitative and quantitative advantages. The contamination of infiltrated river water will be reduced by natural attenuation. Clay minerals, iron hydroxide and humic matter as well as microorganisms located in the subsurface have high decontamination capacities. By this, a final water treatment, if necessary, becomes much easier and cheaper. The quantitative effect concerns the seasonally changing river discharge that influences the possibility of water extraction for drinking water purposes. Such changes can be equalised by seasonally adapted infiltration/extraction of water in/out of the aquifer according to the river discharge and the water need. This method enables a continuous water supply over the whole year. Generally, artificially recharged groundwater is better protected against pollution than surface water, and the delimitation of water protection zones makes it even more save. PMID:18357624

Balke, Klaus-Dieter; Zhu, Yan

2008-01-01

290

Clogging in Managed Aquifer Recharge: Hydrodynamics and Geochemistry  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Managed aquifer recharge (MAR) is the engineered process by which water is delivered into an aquifer for storage, transmission, or treatment. Perhaps the most significant technical challenge in MAR is clogging, a detrimental reduction of permeability in the aquifer porous media. This presentation describes research from the allied fields of water treatment, soil science, and petrology, each of which sheds light on the mechanisms by which hydrodynamics and geochemistry influence clogging in MAR. The primary focus is clogging by suspended solids, especially clay colloids, which are ubiquitous in natural porous media. When colloids deposit in aquifers, they reduce the effective porosity and alter the pore space geometry, both of which can inhibit the flow of groundwater. Management of clogging is complicated by the complexity inherent in this system, in which hydrodynamics, geochemistry, clay mineralogy, and colloidal effects each play a role. This presentation will briefly review colloid filtration, mobilization, and clogging models, then highlight the key physical and chemical variables that control clogging. It will be argued that clogging in managed aquifer recharge is analogous to clogging in soils or hydrocarbon reservoirs, rather than to clogging in granular media filters used for water treatment. Based on this analogy, the presentation will conclude with several recommendations to prevent or manage clogging in MAR.

Mays, D. C.

2013-12-01

291

Combinatorial investigations of advanced Li-ion rechargeable battery electrode materials  

Microsoft Academic Search

Future advances in Li-ion rechargeable battery performance are strongly linked to improved electrode materials. Candidate materials for the negative electrode of the future generally contain multiple elements and broad composition ranges. There are surprisingly few published accounts of combinatorial investigations of Li-ion rechargeable battery electrode materials. This paper describes the combinatorial infrastructure of the Dahn group at Dalhousie University as

M D Fleischauer; T D Hatchard; A Bonakdarpour; J R Dahn

2005-01-01

292

Estimation of groundwater recharge using the soil moisture budget method and the base-flow model  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Estimation of groundwater recharge is extremely important for proper management of groundwater systems. Many different approaches exist for estimating recharge. The main purpose of this paper is to apply a water balance concept with two methods to estimate the groundwater recharge in the Ching-Shui watershed, Taiwan. First, a soil moisture budget method is established to estimate the infiltration, runoff, evapotranspiration, and groundwater recharge in the watershed, where the moisture content of the soil is tracked through time. Both soil-water properties of the unsaturated zone and climatic conditions must be fully considered. Second the base-flow model uses the base-flow separation from the total streamflow discharge to obtain a measure of groundwater recharge so that groundwater evapotranspiration is negligible. In contrast to the soil moisture budget method, base-flow estimation does not require complex hydrogeologic modeling and detailed knowledge of soil characteristics. In a previous study, we suggested that high base-flow is caused by rainstorm events. Using model analysis, depths of recharge estimated by stable-base-flow analysis are adopted to obtain more reasonable groundwater recharge values. The results indicate that assessment of the average annual recharge obtained with a soil moisture budget and the base-flow are very close; the ratio of the two methods is about 95.3%.

Lee, Cheng-Haw; Yeh, Hsin-Fu; Chen, Jin-Fa

2008-06-01

293

Estimation of recharge from irrigation flows; Analysis of field and laboratory data and modeling.  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

This work is aimed at quantifying aquifer recharge due to irrigation in the Campo de Cartagena (SE Spain). A study of recharge was conducted on an experiment plot cropped in lettuce and irrigated with a drip system. The physico-chemical and hydraulic properties of the vadose zone were characterized ...

294

DISTRIBUTION OF AREAL RECHARGE TO A DISCRETE FRACTURE NETWORK (FRACNET) MODEL USING THE ANALYTIC ELEMENT METHOD  

EPA Science Inventory

Rain water filtering down through the soil will provide recharge of the saturated fractured rock aquifer. he computer model FRACNET has been designed to distribute areal recharge into linear fracture zones in order to complete the regional water balance. n this presentation, a te...

295

Influence of model conceptualisation on one-dimensional recharge quantification: Uley South, South Australia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Model conceptualisation is a key source of uncertainty in one-dimensional recharge modelling. The effects of different conceptualisations on transient recharge predictions for the semi-arid Uley South Basin, South Australia, were investigated. One-dimensional unsaturated zone modelling was used to quantify the effect of variations of (1) lithological complexity of the unsaturated zone, and (2) representation of preferential flow pathways. The simulations considered ranges of water-table depths, vegetation characteristics, and top soil thicknesses representative for the study area. Complex lithological profiles were more sensitive to the selected vegetation characteristics and water-table depth. Scenarios considering runoff infiltration into, and preferential flow through sinkholes resulted in higher and faster recharge rates. A comparison of modelled and field-based recharge estimates indicated that: (1) the model simulated plausible recharge rates, (2) only the models with preferential flow correctly reproduced the timing of recharge, and (3) preferential flow is probably redistributed in the unsaturated zone rather than passing to the water table directly. Because different but equally plausible conceptual models produce widely varying recharge rates, field-based recharge estimates are essential to constrain the modelling results.

Ordens, Carlos M.; Post, Vincent E. A.; Werner, Adrian D.; Hutson, John L.

2014-06-01

296

COMPARATIVE LIFE CYCLE ASSESSMENT OF ALCALINE CELLS AND NI-MH RECHARGEABLE BATTERIES  

E-print Network

Page 1 COMPARATIVE LIFE CYCLE ASSESSMENT OF ALCALINE CELLS AND NI-MH RECHARGEABLE BATTERIES Jean by applying the LCA methodology to evaluate the environmental footprint of alkaline cells and Ni-MH batteries phase. Besides, the emphasis on rechargeable batteries is only justified from an environmental point

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

297

05.15 1 Auxiliary Service Enterprises, Recharge Centers, and Self Funded Activities  

E-print Network

PART V ­ FINANCE AND BUSINESS MANAGEMENT Chapter 05.15 - Auxiliary Service Enterprises, Recharge Auxiliary Service Enterprises, Recharge Centers, and Self Funded Activities B. Approval to operate any. The president shall promulgate university regulation to govern the operation of auxiliary service enterprises

Pantaleone, Jim

298

PROSPECTS FOR ENHANCED GROUNDWATER RECHARGE VIA INFILTRATION OF URBAN STORMWATER RUNOFF: A CASE STUDY  

EPA Science Inventory

The rain garden is an urban storm water best management practice that is used to infiltrate runoff close to its source, thereby disconnecting impervious area while providing an avenue for groundwater recharge. Groundwater recharge may provide additional benefits to aquatic ecosys...

299

Ether sulfones with additives for electrolytes in rechargeable lithium ion batteries  

E-print Network

Ether sulfones with additives for electrolytes in rechargeable lithium ion batteries Xiao-Guang Sun in rechargeable lithium ion battery [1-5]. In a previous publication [6] we described a series of ether sulfones electrolyte interface (SEI) needed for the long battery cycle life, they are limited in their commercial

Angell, C. Austen

300

Theoretical and Experimental Study of Vanadium-Based Fluorophosphate Cathodes for Rechargeable Batteries  

E-print Network

for the development of the rechargeable Li-ion battery is the need to store electrical energy generated by windTheoretical and Experimental Study of Vanadium-Based Fluorophosphate Cathodes for Rechargeable Batteries Maowen Xu,,§, Penghao Xiao,, Shannon Stauffer, Jie Song, Graeme Henkelman,*,, and John B

Henkelman, Graeme

301

New Nanostructured Li2S/Silicon Rechargeable Battery with High Specific Energy  

E-print Network

New Nanostructured Li2S/Silicon Rechargeable Battery with High Specific Energy Yuan Yang,,§ Matthew, California 94305 ABSTRACT Rechargeable lithium ion batteries are important energy storage devices; however, the specific energy of existing lithium ion batteries is still insufficient for many applications due

Cui, Yi

302

Groundwater recharge in natural dune systems and agricultural ecosystems in the Thar Desert region, Rajasthan, India  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Water and nutrient availability for crop production are critical issues in (semi)arid regions. Unsaturated-zone Cl tracer data and nutrient (NO3 and PO4) concentrations were used to quantify recharge rates using the Cl mass balance approach and nutrient availability in the Thar Desert, Rajasthan, India. Soil cores were collected in dune/interdune settings in the arid Thar Desert (near Jaisalmer) and in rain-fed (nonirrigated) and irrigated cropland in the semiarid desert margin (near Jaipur). Recharge rates were also simulated using unsaturated zone modeling. Recharge rates in sparsely vegetated dune/interdune settings in the Jaisalmer study area are 2.7-5.6 mm/year (2-3% of precipitation, 165 mm/year). In contrast, recharge rates in rain-fed agriculture in the Jaipur study area are 61-94 mm/year (10-16% of precipitation, 600 mm/year). Minimum recharge rates under current freshwater irrigated sites are 50-120 mm/year (8-20% of precipitation). Nitrate concentrations are low at most sites. Similarity in recharge rates based on SO4 with those based on Cl is attributed to a meteoric origin of SO4 and generally conservative chemical behavior in these sandy soils. Modeling results increased confidence in tracer-based recharge estimates. Recharge rates under rain-fed agriculture indicate that irrigation of 20-40% of cultivated land with 300 mm/year should be sustainable.

Scanlon, Bridget R.; Mukherjee, Abhijit; Gates, John; Reedy, Robert C.; Sinha, Amarendra K.

2010-06-01

303

Fullerenes: non-transition metal clusters as rechargeable magnesium battery cathodes.  

PubMed

We discovered that non-transition metal clusters have great potential as rechargeable Mg battery cathodes. Fullerene (C60), one of the prototype materials, was discharged and recharged with a remarkable rate capability. This unique rate performance is attributed to its capability to delocalize electrons on the entire cluster rather than to individual atoms. PMID:25461490

Zhang, Ruigang; Mizuno, Fuminori; Ling, Chen

2015-01-21

304

Estimation of groundwater recharge to chalk and sandstone aquifers using simple soil models  

Microsoft Academic Search

On the assumption that the water draining below the root zone is potentially available for groundwater recharge, two current UK methods for estimating annual groundwater recharge have been compared with a new soil model using data from four sites under permanent grass in the UK: two sites representative of the Chalk aquifer at Bridgest Farm (Hampshire) and Fleam Dyke (Cambridgeshire),

R. Ragab; J. Finch; R. Harding

1997-01-01

305

Quantifying mountain block recharge by means of catchment-scale storage-discharge relationships  

E-print Network

Quantifying mountain block recharge by means of catchment-scale storage-discharge relationships the importance of mountainous catchments for providing freshwater resources, especially in semi-arid regions, little is known about key hydrological processes such as mountain block recharge (MBR). Here we implement

Troch, Peter

306

Estimation of Groundwater Recharge of the Western Aquifer Basin Using Water Level Fluctuation Approach  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Quantifying groundwater recharge is sensitive for water resources management particularly in the arid and semi-arid areas. This paper presents an alternative technique for estimating annual groundwater recharge using the fluctuation of water level within an aquifer during a specific time interval as a result of the water balance of inflows and outflows. The Western Aquifer Basin (WAB), West Bank and Israel, was depicted for a case study. The estimated amount of annual recharge was also correlated with monthly rainfall rates to study the effect of rainfall variation on the generated recharge. The results confirm that the high variations of annual recharge volumes are directly linked to monthly rainfall variation. For the WAB, the annual recharge is mainly dominated by the amounts of rainfall accumulated during the four wet months i.e. November, December, January and February. On the basis of these results a multi-regression equation has been developed to consider monthly distribution of rainfall as a chief factor in forecasting annual recharge within the aquifer. This equation can be applied in the future to generate any synthetic rainfall scenarios. The average annual recharge for WAB for the period 1970-2006 was estimated at 385 million cubic meters per year (Mm3/yr).

Abu Saada, Muath; Martin, Sauter

2013-04-01

307

Groundwater Recharge as affected by Climate Change in the Nakdong River Watershed  

Microsoft Academic Search

The main purpose of this paper is to develop a model and methodology for estimating groundwater recharge quantity on a watershed scale as affected by climate change, to estimate changes in the groundwater recharge rate in their temporal and spatial aspects, and to verify results by using observed data from the national groundwater observation network. The paper also evaluates changes

L. Moung Jin

2010-01-01

308

Prospects for enhanced groundwater recharge via infiltration of urban storm water runoff: A case study  

Microsoft Academic Search

The rain garden is an urban storm water best management practice that is used to infiltrate runoff close to its source, thereby disconnecting impervious area while providing an avenue for groundwater recharge. Groundwater recharge may provide additional benefits to aquatic ecosystems via enhancement of stream base flow. Yet, soil conditions can impact on certain aspects of rain garden performance and

W. D. Shuster; R. Gehring; J. Gerken

309

Implications of bioretention basin spatial arrangements on stormwater recharge and groundwater mounding  

Microsoft Academic Search

Stormwater bioretention basin recharge has the potential to raise the watertable and adversely impact subsurface infrastructure, undermining the benefits of naturalizing the urban water cycle. This research examined how groundwater mounding responded to three spatial arrangements of bioretention basins, from separated units to clustered units to single units, and changes in hydraulic conductivity, storm intensity, and antecedent recharge, for 28

T. Endreny; V. Collins

2009-01-01

310

ASSESSMENT OF NATURAL GROUND WATER RECHARGE IN UPPER GANGA CANAL COMMAND AREA  

E-print Network

ASSESSMENT OF NATURAL GROUND WATER RECHARGE IN UPPER GANGA CANAL COMMAND AREA C. P. Kumar* and P. V. Seethapathi** SYNOPSIS Quantification of the rate of natural ground water recharge is a pre-requisite for efficient ground water resource management. It is particularly important in regions with large demands

Kumar, C.P.

311

A time series approach to inferring groundwater recharge using the water table fluctuation method  

Microsoft Academic Search

The water table fluctuation method for determining recharge from precipitation and water table measurements was originally developed on an event basis. Here a new multievent time series approach is presented for inferring groundwater recharge from long-term water table and precipitation records. Additional new features are the incorporation of a variable specific yield based upon the soil moisture retention curve, proper

Russell S. Crosbie; Philip Binning; Jetse D. Kalma

2005-01-01

312

3/4/2014 Technologyuses micro-windmills to recharge cell phones http://www.innovationtoronto.com/2014/01/technology-microwindmills-recharge-cell-phones/ 1/4  

E-print Network

3/4/2014 » Technologyuses micro-windmills to recharge cell phones http://www.innovationtoronto.com/2014/01/technology-microwindmills-recharge-cell-phones/ 1/4 INNOVATION & INNOVATION NEEDED: THINGS Inside Your Car Technology uses micro-windmills to recharge cell phones Flat panels with thousand

Chiao, Jung-Chih

313

1/12/14 Researchers Develop Micro-Windmills to Recharge Cell Phones www.sciencespacerobots.com/researchers-develop-micro-windmills-to-recharge-cell-phones-11020142 1/2  

E-print Network

1/12/14 Researchers Develop Micro-Windmills to Recharge Cell Phones www.sciencespacerobots.com/researchers-develop-micro-windmills-to-recharge-cell-phones-Windmills to Recharge Cell Phones A University of Texas at Arlington research associate and electrical engineering be used to charge cell phone batteries by embedding hundreds of them in a cell phone sleeve

Chiao, Jung-Chih

314

2/1/2014 TinyMicro-Robotic Windmill Recharges Phone Batteries | The DailyFusion http://dailyfusion.net/2014/01/tiny-micro-windmill-recharges-phone-batteries-25864/ 1/4  

E-print Network

2/1/2014 TinyMicro-Robotic Windmill Recharges Phone Batteries | The DailyFusion http://dailyfusion.net/2014/01/tiny-micro-windmill-recharges-phone-batteries-25864/ 1/4 Knowledge is Power prev next A UT a relationship with UT Arlington. Tiny Micro-Robotic Windmill Recharges Phone Batteries January 14, 2014 @ 09

Chiao, Jung-Chih

315

2/1/2014 TinyMicro-Robotic Windmill Recharges Phone Batteries -Paperblog http://en.paperblog.com/tiny-micro-robotic-windmill-recharges-phone-batteries-769045/ 1/5  

E-print Network

with the micro-windmill idea when we showed the demo video of working devices," Rao said. "It was something2/1/2014 TinyMicro-Robotic Windmill Recharges Phone Batteries - Paperblog http://en.paperblog.com/tiny-micro-robotic-windmill-recharges-phone-batteries-769045/ 1/5 HOME > SOCIETY Tiny Micro-Robotic Windmill Recharges Phone Batteries Posted on the 14 January

Chiao, Jung-Chih

316

1/25/2014 WhyNot Use Micro Windmills to Recharge Your Devices ? -TECHVOIZE -Where Tech Talks http://www.techvoize.com/micro-windmills-to-recharge-your-devices/ 1/3  

E-print Network

1/25/2014 WhyNot Use Micro Windmills to Recharge Your Devices ? - TECHVOIZE - Where Tech Talks http://www.techvoize.com/micro-windmills-to-recharge-your-devices/ 1/3 RELATED ARTICLES Nokia Normandy Leaked Rumors; Dream Concept (VIDEO) January 25, 2014 Google Why Not Use Micro Windmills to Recharge Your Devices ? Engineers at the University of Texas Arlington

Chiao, Jung-Chih

317

3/4/2014 Micro windmills maysoon recharge your mobile phone -Yahoo News Singapore http://sg.news.yahoo.com/micro-windmills-may-soon-recharge-mobile-phone-091158453.html 1/1  

E-print Network

of houses or building to harvest energy for lighting, security or environmental sensing and wireless3/4/2014 Micro windmills maysoon recharge your mobile phone - Yahoo News Singapore http://sg.news.yahoo.com/micro-windmills-may-soon-recharge-mobile-phone-091158453.html 1/1 Micro windmills may soon recharge your mobile phone GMA News Online ­ Mon, Jan 13, 2014

Chiao, Jung-Chih

318

2/6/2014 Micro-Windmills Can Recharge Cellphones -CIO.com http://www.cio.com/article/746417/Micro_Windmills_Can_Recharge_Cellphones 1/4  

E-print Network

2/6/2014 Micro-Windmills Can Recharge Cellphones - CIO.com http://www.cio.com/article/746417/Micro_Windmills_Can_Recharge_Cellphones Recharge Cellphones Researchers at the University of Texas at Arlington have designed a miniscule windmill

Chiao, Jung-Chih

319

3H and 14C as tracers of ground-water recharge  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Surface spreading of water from the Santa Clara River is used to recharge aquifers underlying the Oxnard Plain. These aquifers are divided into an upper system about 400 feet thick, and a lower system more than 1,000 feet thick. In previous studies, it has been reported that surface spreading recharged aquifers in both the upper and lower systems. Water from most wells perforated in the upper system has tritium levels consistent with decay-corrected concentrations found in water recharged after 1952 when tritium levels increased as a result of atmospheric testing of nuclear weapons. Water from most wells in the lower system does not contain measurable tritium and must have been recharged prior to 1952. Carbon-14 ages estimated for water from wells in the lower system range from recent to about 25,000 years before present. These data show that the lower system is not effectively recharged by surface spreading.

Izbicki, John A.; Michel, Robert L.; Martin, Peter

1992-01-01

320

78 FR 62495 - Special Conditions: Learjet Model 35, 35A, 36, and 36A Airplanes; Rechargeable Lithium-Ion...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...and 36A Airplanes; Rechargeable Lithium-Ion Batteries and Battery Systems AGENCY: Federal...feature associated with rechargeable lithium-ion batteries and battery systems. These batteries...equipment that uses rechargeable lithium-ion battery systems in Learjet Model 35,...

2013-10-22

321

Electrochemical Properties of Nanostructured Al1-xCux Alloys as Anode Materials for Rechargeable Lithium-Ion Batteries  

E-print Network

challenge to use metallic alloys as anodes in rechargeable lithium batteries is to improve their cycling anode materials for rechargeable lithium-ion batteries have been widely investigated becauseElectrochemical Properties of Nanostructured Al1-xCux Alloys as Anode Materials for Rechargeable

Ceder, Gerbrand

322

Optimal transmission schemes for parallel and fading Gaussian broadcast channels with an energy harvesting rechargeable transmitter q  

E-print Network

. The transmit- ter is able to harvest energy from nature in order to recharge its battery. The energy is modeled the transmission starts. Although power allocation problem in traditional systems with non-rechargeable batteries techniques, off-line scheduling with rechargeable batteries in these two channel models are considerably

Ulukus, Sennur

323

3096 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON WIRELESS COMMUNICATIONS, VOL. 12, NO. 6, JUNE 2013 Distributed Sampling Rate Control for Rechargeable  

E-print Network

Rate Control for Rechargeable Sensor Nodes with Limited Battery Capacity Yongmin Zhang, Student Member. Most of existing works do not consider the limited capacity of rechargeable battery. In this paper, we the efficiency of the proposed algorithms. Index Terms--Rechargeable sensor networks, limited battery capacity

Shen, Xuemin "Sherman"

324

Temporal and spatial scaling of hydraulic response to recharge in fractured aquifers: Insights from a frequency domain analysis  

E-print Network

Temporal and spatial scaling of hydraulic response to recharge in fractured aquifers: Insights from investigate the hydraulic response to recharge of a fractured aquifer, using a frequency domain approach scaling of hydraulic response to recharge in fractured aquifers: Insights from a frequency domain analysis

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

325

Lithologic influences on groundwater recharge through incised glacial till from profile to regional scales: Evidence from glaciated Eastern Nebraska  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Variability in sediment hydraulic properties associated with landscape depositional and erosional features can influence groundwater recharge processes by affecting soil-water storage and transmission. This study considers recharge to aquifers underlying river-incised glaciated terrain where the distribution of clay-rich till is largely intact in upland locations but has been removed by alluvial erosion in stream valleys. In a stream-dissected glacial region in eastern Nebraska (Great Plains region of the United States), recharge estimates were developed for nested profile, aquifer, and regional scales using unsaturated zone profile measurements (matric potentials, Cl- and 3H), groundwater tracers (CFC-12 and SF6), and a remote sensing-assisted water balance model. Results show a consistent influence of till lithology on recharge rates across nested spatial scales despite substantial uncertainty in all recharge estimation methods, suggesting that minimal diffuse recharge occurs through upland glacial till lithology whereas diffuse recharge occurs in river valleys where till is locally absent. Diffuse recharge is estimated to account for a maximum of 61% of total recharge based on comparison of diffuse recharge estimated from the unsaturated zone (0-43 mm yr-1) and total recharge estimated from groundwater tracers (median 58 mm yr-1) and water balance modeling (median 56 mm yr-1). The results underscore the importance of lithologic controls on the distributions of both recharge rates and mechanisms.

Gates, John B.; Steele, Gregory V.; Nasta, Paolo; Szilagyi, Jozsef

2014-01-01

326

Use of Constructed Wetlands for Polishing Recharge Wastewater  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The use of constructed wetlands for waste water treatment is becoming increasingly popular as more focus is being shifted to natural means of waste treatment. These wetlands employ processes that occur naturally and effectively remove pollutants and can greatly minimize costs when compared to full scale treatment plants. Currently, wetland design is based on basic rules-of-thumb, meaning engineers have a general understanding but not necessarily a thorough knowledge of the intricate physical, biological, and chemical processes involved in these systems. Furthermore, there is very little consideration given to use the wetland as a recharge pond to allow the treated water to percolate and recharge the local groundwater aquifers. The City of Foley, located in Alabama, and the Utilities Board of the City of Foley partnered with Wolf Bay Watershed Watch to evaluate alternative wastewater effluent disposal schemes. Rather than discharging the treated water into a local stream, a pilot program has been developed to allow water from the treatment process to flow into a constructed wetlands area where, after natural treatment, the treated water will then be allowed to percolate into a local unconfined aquifer. The goal of this study is to evaluate how constructed wetlands can be used for polishing effluent as well as how this treated water might be reused. Research has shown that constructed wetlands, with proper design and construction elements, are effective in the treatment of BOD, TSS, nitrogen, phosphorous, pathogens, metals, sulfates, organics, and other substances commonly found in wastewater. Mesocosms will be used to model the wetland, at a much smaller scale, in order to test and collect data about the wetland treatment capabilities. Specific objectives include: 1. Determine optimum flow rates for surface flow wetlands where water treatment is optimized. 2. Evaluate the capabilities of constructed wetlands to remove/reduce common over the counter pharmaceuticals such as acetaminophen (Tylenol) and ibuprofen. 3. Evaluate the use of different wetland plants and their treatment characteristics. 4. Evaluate the effectiveness of the wetlands to allow treated to water to recharge local into a local groundwater aquifer.

Cardwell, W.

2009-12-01

327

Zeolite in horizontal permeable reactive barriers for artificial groundwater recharge  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Spanish Water Reuse Royal Decree 1620/2007 considers groundwater recharge as a feasible use of reclaimed water. To achieve the water quality established in the above-mentioned legislation, a tertiary wastewater treatment is required. In this context, the infiltration of effluents generated by secondary wastewater treatments through a Horizontal Permeable Reactive Barrier (HPRB) may represent a suitable regeneration technology. Some nutrients (phosphate and ammonium) and some Pharmaceutical and Personal Care Products (PPCPs) are not fully removed in conventional wastewater treatment plants. To avoid groundwater contamination when effluents of wastewater treatments plants are used in artificial recharge activities, these contaminants have to be removed. Due to its sorption capacities, zeolite is among the most used reactive materials in Permeable Reactive Barrier (PRB). Therefore, the main goal of this study is to evaluate the zeolite retention effectiveness of nutrients and PPCPs occurring in treated wastewater. Batch sorption experiments using synthetic wastewater (SWW) and zeolite were performed. A 1:4 zeolite/SWW ratio was selected due to the high sorption capacity of the reactive material.The assays were carried out by triplicate. All the bottles containing the SWW-zeolite mixture were placed on a mechanical shaker during 24 hours at 140 rpm and 25 C. Ammonium and phosphate, as main nutrients, and a group of PPCPs were selected as compounds to be tested during the experiments. Nutrients were analyzed by ion chromatography. For PPCPs determination, Solid Phase Extraction (SPE) was applied before their analysis by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry time of flight (LC-MS/ TOF). The experimental data were fitted to linearized Langmuir and Freundlich isotherm equations to obtain sorption parameters. In general, Freundlich model shows a greater capability of reproducing experimental data. To our knowledge, sorption of the investigated compounds on zeolite has rarely been addressed and this holds true especially for PPCPs. Therefore, the obtained results will be useful for the design and characterization of those HPRBs in which zeolite will be employed to regenerate treated wastewater for artificial recharge activities.

Leal, Mara; Martnez-Hernndez, Virtudes; Lillo, Javier; Meffe, Raffaella; de Bustamante, Irene

2013-04-01

328

Artificial recharge in arid zone- Example from the Arava Valley- Israel  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In arid zones direct recharge from rainfall is negligible. The indirect recharge like recharging of flood water is the principal source of water of the alluvial aquifers in arid environment. Flooding of ephemeral streams occur as a consequence of the rain intensity and its pattern, the basin size and the geomorphic settings as slops, vegetation and soil properties. In the Arava Valley there are several reservoirs that act as diversion levees. They were constructed on few ravines for two reasons. (1) to store large volumes of floodwater for direct use in nearby agricultural fields. (2) to enhance the recharge to the local alluvial aquifers. Since flood duration is relatively short compared to the infiltration (percolation) rate, it was assumed that by storing the water in the reservoirs it will increase the recharge volume because of higher water head, longer resistance time and larger surface area available for infiltration. Unfortunately, accumulation of silts and clays in the reservoirs clogged them to direct infiltration. The accumulation of silt and clay in the reservoirs is typically to arid zones where lack of vegetation cover creates a very high erosion rate and transportation of large amounts of sediment at the duration of the water flowing on the stream channel bed. To bypass the problem of reduction in the direct recharge inside the reservoirs because of clogging, and to continue the artificial recharge into the aquifer, two kinds of artificial recharge system are operating in the Arava Valley. In one site we use a system that is similar to the conventional spreading ponds system. The big reservoir is using to store the flood water and as a settling pond. The clean water is diverted to three infiltration ponds. In the rest five reservoirs we construct a drainage pipeline close to the bottom of the levee that allow us to release the clean water (after settling of the fine particles) downstream in a slow rate that is much more efficiency for artificial recharge than in high velocity. Monitoring after the recharge water is very important and in some cases very problematic. In cases where the groundwater is shallow (10-20 m' depth) the response to the recharge is quickly and takes few days (rising in water level and or decreasing in the salinity). But in cases where the water level is very deep (about 60-110 m' in most of the area) the response to the recharge can takes few months. At this condition, it is impossible to distinguish whether the rising in the water level and or decreasing in the salinity is a result of the artificial recharge or it is a result of natural lateral flow in the aquifer itself.

Guttman, Joseph

2010-05-01

329

A rechargeable hydrogen battery based on Ru catalysis.  

PubMed

Apart from energy generation, the storage and liberation of energy are among the major problems in establishing a sustainable energy supply chain. Herein we report the development of a rechargeable H2 battery which is based on the principle of the Ru-catalyzed hydrogenation of CO2 to formic acid (charging process) and the Ru-catalyzed decomposition of formic acid to CO2 and H2 (discharging process). Both processes are driven by the same catalyst at elevated temperature either under pressure (charging process) or pressure-free conditions (discharging process). Up to five charging-discharging cycles were performed without decrease of storage capacity. The resulting CO2/H2 mixture is free of CO and can be employed directly in fuel-cell technology. PMID:24803414

Hsu, Shih-Fan; Rommel, Susanne; Eversfield, Philipp; Muller, Keven; Klemm, Elias; Thiel, Werner R; Plietker, Bernd

2014-07-01

330

Identifying Recharge from Tropical Cyclonic Storms, Baja California Sur, Mexico.  

PubMed

Groundwater in the Todos Santos watershed in southern Baja California, and throughout the peninsula south of latitude 28N, has values of (?(18) O, ?D) ranging between (-8.3, -57) and (-10.9, -78). Such negative values are uncharacteristic of the site latitude near the sea level. Altitude effects do not explain the isotope data. Tropical depressions originating along the Pacific coast of North America yield rain with isotopic depletion; rain from these weather systems in southern Arizona commonly has ?(18) O values?recharge in southern Baja California, where named tropical depressions bring large rains (>50?mm) at least once every 2 to 3 years, and along the Pacific coast between Jalisco and Oaxaca. PMID:24635484

Eastoe, Christopher J; Hess, Greg; Mahieux, Susana

2014-03-17

331

Resilient design of recharging station networks for electric transportation vehicles  

SciTech Connect

As societies shift to 'greener' means of transportation using electricity-driven vehicles one critical challenge we face is the creation of a robust and resilient infrastructure of recharging stations. A particular issue here is the optimal location of service stations. In this work, we consider the placement of battery replacing service station in a city network for which the normal traffic flow is known. For such known traffic flow, the service stations are placed such that the expected performance is maximized without changing the traffic flow. This is done for different scenarios in which roads, road junctions and service stations can fail with a given probability. To account for such failure probabilities, the previously developed facility interception model is extended. Results show that service station failures have a minimal impact on the performance following robust placement while road and road junction failures have larger impacts which are not mitigated easily by robust placement.

Kris Villez; Akshya Gupta; Venkat Venkatasubramanian

2011-08-01

332

Chemical lithium extraction from manganese oxides for lithium rechargeable batteries  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Chemical lithium extraction has been carried out on the following manganese oxides: the spinel-type compounds LiMn2O4 and Li(4/3)Mn(5/3)O4, and the rocksalt-related compound Li2MnO3. Lithium can be partially removed chemically from these compounds without destroying the host framework. Some compounds obtained by this method have been tested as cathodic materials in rechargeable lithium cells. Electrochemical results and X-ray diffraction patterns of cycled cathodes are presented. Electrochemical insertion/extraction of Li(+) ions occurs with tetragonal/cubic distortion in the spinel framework, whereas Li(+) ions can move in compounds having the rocksalt structure, without significant modification of the X-ray patterns.

Lubin, F.; Lecerf, A.; Broussely, M.; Labat, J.

1991-03-01

333

Layered cathode materials for lithium ion rechargeable batteries  

DOEpatents

A number of materials with the composition Li.sub.1+xNi.sub..alpha.Mn.sub..beta.Co.sub..gamma.M'.sub..delta.O.sub.2-- zF.sub.z (M'=Mg,Zn,Al,Ga,B,Zr,Ti) for use with rechargeable batteries, wherein x is between about 0 and 0.3, .alpha. is between about 0.2 and 0.6, .beta. is between about 0.2 and 0.6, .gamma. is between about 0 and 0.3, .delta. is between about 0 and 0.15, and z is between about 0 and 0.2. Adding the above metal and fluorine dopants affects capacity, impedance, and stability of the layered oxide structure during electrochemical cycling.

Kang, Sun-Ho (Naperville, IL); Amine, Khalil (Downers Grove, IL)

2007-04-17

334

Recent advances in rechargeable battery materials: a chemist's perspective.  

PubMed

The constant increase in global energy demand, together with the awareness of the finite supply of fossil fuels, has brought about an imperious need to take advantage of renewable energy sources. At the same time, concern over CO(2) emissions and future rises in the cost of gasoline has boosted technological efforts to make hybrid and electric vehicles available to the general public. Energy storage is a vital issue to be addressed within this scenario, and batteries are certainly a key player. In this tutorial review, the most recent and significant scientific advances in the field of rechargeable batteries, whose performance is dependent on their underlying chemistry, are covered. In view of its utmost current significance and future prospects, special emphasis is given to progress in lithium-based technologies. PMID:19690737

Palacn, M Rosa

2009-09-01

335

Status of the development of rechargeable lithium cells  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The progress in the development of the ambient temperature lithium - titanium disulfide rechargeable cell under development at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory is described in this paper. Originally aimed at achieving a specific energy of 100 Wh/kg, 'AA' cells have demonstrated 125 Wh/kg at the C/3 discharge rate. The results of evaluating cell design parameters are discussed and cycling test data are also included in the paper. Safety tests results at various over-charge and over discharge conditions and rates proved to be uneventful. The test results of cell with built-in overcharge mechanism proved the concept was feasible. Replacing the lithium foil electrode with a Li(x)C resulted in a capacity at 1mA/cm(exp 2) of 200 mAh/gm and 235 mAh/gm at 0.167 mA.

Halpert, G.; Surampudi, S.; Shen, D.; Huang, C-K.; Narayanan, S.; Vamos, E.; Perrone, D.

1993-01-01

336

Using HDR (Hot Dry Rock) technology to recharge The Geysers  

SciTech Connect

The main reason for the productivity decline at The Geysers geothermal field is obvious: more fluid is being withdrawn from the reservoir than is being returned by reinjection and natural recharge. However, there is another factor that may be contributing to this decline --- the method of reinjection. By reinjecting cold condensate directly into the steam dome as is the current practice, the very large pressure difference between the injected condensate and the underpressured reservoir guarantees that the reinjected fluid will fall rapidly to the bottom of the reservoir, with very little residence time for heat transfer. This point is very important since the vast majority of the heat contained in The Geysers geothermal field is stored in the hot rock comprising the reservoir. 10 refs., 4 figs.

Brown, D.W.; Robinson, B.A.

1990-01-01

337

Using isotopes for design and monitoring of artificial recharge systems  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Over the past years, the IAEA has provided support to a number of Member States engaged in the implementation of hydrological projects dealing with the design and monitoring of artificial recharge ( A R ) systems, primarily situated in arid and semiarid regions. AR is defined as any engineered system designed to introduce water to, and store water in, underlying aquifers. Aquifer storage and recovery (ASR) is a specific type of AR used with the purpose of increasing groundwater resources. Different water management strategies have been tested under various geographical, hydrological and climatic regimes. However, the success of such schemes cannot easily be predicted, since many variables need to be taken into account in the early stages of every AR project.

Contributors: Hendriksson, N.; Kulongoski, J.T.; Massmann, G.; Newman, B.

2013-01-01

338

The chemistry and status of rechargeable molten-salt batteries  

SciTech Connect

The chemistry and the state of development of rechargeable molten salt cells and batteries of current interest are reviewed in this work. Molten-salt cells offer the most attractive combination of high specific energy (100-200 Wh/kg), high specific power (50-200 W/kg), and long cycle life (300-1500 cycles) of any rechargeable cells under investigation at this time. It is these important features that justify the development and application of cells that have the disadvantages of operation at elevated temperatures, and difficult materials problems. There are two major categories of molten-salt cells: those in which the molten salt is the sole electrolyte, and those in which the molten salt serves as a reactant and as an auxiliary electrolyte (the main electrolyte is a solid). In the first category are such cells as LiAl/LiCl-KCl/FeS, LiAl/LiCl-KCl/FeS/sub 2/, and Li/sub 4/Si/LiCl-KCl/FeS/sub 2/; in the second category are Na/Na/sub 2/O . xAl/sub 2/O/sub 3//Na/sub 2/S /SUB n/ -S, Na/Na/sup +/ glass/Na/sub 2/S /SUB n/ -S, Na/Na/sub 2/O . xAl/sub 2/O/sub 3//SCl/sub 3/AlCl/sub 4/ in NaCl-AlCl/sub 3/, and Li/Li/sub 2/O/LiNO/sub 3/-KNO/sub 3//V/sub 2/O/sub 5/. These cells have operating temperatures ranging from 150 to 475/sup 0/C, and all must be sealed from the atmosphere because of the alkali metal reactants and hydrolytic degradation of molten salt electrolytes.

Cairns, E.J.; Mamantov, G.; Tischer, R.P.; Vissers, D.R.

1983-05-01

339

Possible silica gel in the Olive Fault, Naukluft Nappe Complex, Namibia: A geologic record of dynamic weakening in faults during continental orogenesis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The apparently low frictional strength of faults during earthquake slip is not sufficiently well explained. Dynamic weakening has been observed in recent laboratory experiments at seismic slip rates, even if materials are strong at slow slip rates. Di Toro et al. (2004) performed experiments on crystalline rocks at slip rates of 1m/s and observed frictional strength drops to near zero. Examination of the slip surface revealed an amorophous silica had formed during fast slip and interpreted this as a solidified silica gel. If similar silica gel forms during earthquakes, and solidifies to amorphous silica, it would be expected to slowly crystallize over time. Ujiie et al (2007) reported a microcrystalline silica fault vein from the Shimanto Complex (Japan) which contains colloidal microspheres of silica, consistent with its origin as a silica gel. This vein may have been created during seismic slip, although other explanations are possible. No other natural examples of this potentially important coseismic weakening mechanism have been reported. To investigate whether silica gel actually forms during seismic slip, it will be necessary to discover and fully characterize additional natural examples. The Naukluft Nappe Complex in central Namibia is a foreland thrust stack at the distal southern margin of the Pan-African Damara Orogen (active at ~ 550Ma). A fault vein of microcrystalline silica has been found in an intra-nappe thrust fault . The vein occurs as a mostly continuous, planar, 0.1-1.0cm-thick fault vein within dolomite breccias of the Olive Fault. There are no other veins of silica associated with the fault. The hanging wall and footwall are dolomite and calcareous shales, respectively. The layer is petrographically similar to the microcrystalline silica described by Ujiie et al. (2007). The silica layer is purple-blue to white in color cathodoluminescence, in contrast to the bright turquoise typical of quartz. Although X-ray diffraction spectra show only silica and minor dolomite in the fault vein, SEM revealed the presence of small grains of Ti-oxides which have not been observed in the host rock. The cathodoluminescence has also revealed primary textures in the dolomite breccias which are overprinted by recrystallization and invisible in transmitted light . Transmission Electron Microscopy will be used to determine whether colloidal silica particles are present. The possible finding of the solidified silica gel in the Olive Fault is significant because it may represent a new way to identify fault surfaces which have slipped seismically in the past. In particular, the presence of this unusual silica vein in a carbonate-dominated environment is consistent with the experiments of Di Toro et al (2004) who suggested that quartz need not be present in the source rocks in order to form silica gel. Di Toro, G. et al. (2004) Friction falls towards zero in quartz rock as slip velocity approaches seismic rates. Nature, 427, 436-439 Ujie, K. et al. (2007) Fluidization of granular material in a subduction thrust at seismogenic depths. EPSL, 259, 307-318

Faber, C.; Rowe, C. D.; Miller, J. A.; Backeberg, N.; Sylvester, F.

2009-12-01

340

Responses of groundwater recharge to land-cover changes and climate variability  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

It is estimated that groundwater directly provides drinking water for 1.5 billion people in the world. Anthropogenic activities during the past 200 years have led to the conversion of large areas of natural forest and grassland to cropland and pasture. Understanding and quantification of changes in groundwater recharge after surface vegetation alteration are important not only for water resource management, but also for land-use and land-cover management. On the other hand, groundwater recharge also responds to climate variability and changes. In this paper, we discuss two groundwater recharge estimation methods of different temporal resolution: chloride mass balance (CMB), and storage-discharge relationship (S-Q). Application of the CMB method over areas of historical forest clearance, or recent plantation, suffers from two difficulties: pre-clearance (or pre-plantation) recharge may have been contaminated by recharge that occurred after forest clearance (or plantation); and the post-clearance (or post-plantation) recharge may not yet have reached new chloride equilibrium. In coastal areas, strong spatial variability in chloride deposition leads to an additional difficulty in appropriately applying the CMB method. This presentation will discuss some recent development to address these difficulties. Meanwhile, an improved conceptual framework of the S-Q method for estimating seasonal and inter-annual variability of groundwater recharge is presented as well. Both are shown with case studies based at the Mount Lofty Ranges of South Australia.

Guan, Huade; Xu, Xiang; Ding, Zhenyu; Deng, Zijuan; Simmons, Craig; Hutson, John; Love, Andy; Ajami, Hoori

2014-05-01

341

A simulation model to assess groundwater recharge over Europe's karst regions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Karst develops through the dissolution of carbonate rock and is a major source of groundwater contributing up to half of the total drinking water supply in some European countries. Previous approaches to model future water availability in Europe are either too-small scale or do not incorporate karst processes, i.e. preferential flow paths. This study presents the first simulations of groundwater recharge in all karst regions in Europe with a parsimonious karst hydrology model. A novel parameter confinement strategy combines a priori information with recharge-related observations (actual evapotranspiration and soil moisture) at locations across Europe while explicitly identifying uncertainty in the model parameters. Europe's karst regions are divided into 4 typical karst landscapes (humid, mountain, Mediterranean and desert) by cluster analysis and recharge is simulated from 2002 to 2012 for each karst landscape. Mean annual recharge ranges from negligible in deserts to > 1 m a-1 in humid regions. The majority of recharge rates ranges from 20-50% of precipitation and are sensitive to sub-annual climate variability. Simulation results are consistent with independent observations of mean annual recharge and significantly better than other global hydrology models that do not consider karst processes (PCR-GLOBWB, WaterGAP). Global hydrology models systematically underestimate karst recharge implying that they over-estimate actual evapotranspiration and surface runoff. Karst water budgets and thus information to support management decisions regarding drinking water supply and flood risk are significantly improved by our model.

Hartmann, A.; Gleeson, T.; Rosolem, R.; Pianosi, F.; Wada, Y.; Wagener, T.

2014-11-01

342

Vertical carbon-14 profiles for resolving spatial variability in recharge in arid environments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Groundwater age tracers are often measured to help constrain estimates of groundwater recharge, especially in arid environments where other methods are unsuitable. However multiple processes can influence the shape of vertical tracer profiles in an aquifer including (1) variation in tracer input concentrations from the unsaturated zone, (2) the role of diffusion in transporting tracer into the aquifer when fluxes are low and (3) spatial variability in recharge. This study demonstrates the influence of spatially variable recharge and spatially variable carbon-14 (14C) activities in the unsaturated zone on vertical 14C profiles in groundwater. Through groundwater flow and solute transport modelling, we demonstrate that recharge estimated from single point measurements of 14C may be wrong more than an order of magnitude when unsaturated zone 14C activities and recharge vary spatially. We then present a case study from the Ti Tree Basin in arid central Australia, where detailed profiles of 14C activity in unsaturated zone gas and groundwater have been measured, and spatial variability in unsaturated zone 14C is observed (ranging from 54 to 106 pMC above the watertable). Through modelling our data, we show that when unsaturated zone 14C activities are known, measurement of the 14C profile can help constrain estimates of recharge and its spatial variability. This approach improves our understanding of groundwater flow in the Ti Tree Basin, by showing mountain front recharge to be an important mechanism.

Wood, Cameron; Cook, Peter G.; Harrington, Glenn A.

2015-01-01

343

The recent fault kinematics in the westernmost part of the Getic nappe system (Eastern Serbia): Evidence from fault slip and focal mechanism data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this study we performed a calculation of the tectonic stress tensor based on fault slip data and all available focal mechanisms in order to determine the principal stress axes and the recent tectonic regime of the westernmost unit of the Getic nappe system (Gornjak-Ravanica Zone, Eastern Serbia). The study is based on a combined dataset involving paleostress analyses, the inversion of focal mechanisms and remote sensing. The results show dominant strike-slip kinematics with the maximal compression axis oriented NNE-SSW. This is compatible with a combined northward motion and counterclockwise rotation of the Adria plate as the controlling factor. However, the local stress field is also shown to be of great importance and is superimposed on the far-field stress. We managed to distinguish three areas with distinct seismic activity. The northern part of the research area is characterized by transtensional tectonics, possibly under the influence of the extension in the areas situated more to the northeast. The central and seismically most active part is dominated by strike-slip tectonics whereas the southern area is slightly transpressional, possibly under the influence of the rigid Moesian Platform situated to the east of the research area. The dominant active fault systems are oriented N-S (to NE-SW) and NW-SE and they occur as structures of either regional or local significance. Regional structures are active in the northern and central part of the study area, while the active fault systems in the southern part are marked as locally important. This study suggests that seismicity of this area is controlled by the release of accumulated stress at local accommodation zones which are favourably oriented in respect to the active regional stress field.

Mladenovi?, Ana; Trivi?, Branislav; Anti?, Milorad; Cvetkovi?, Vladica; Pavlovi?, Radmila; Radovanovi?, Slavica; Fgenschuh, Bernhard

2014-04-01

344

Estimation of shallow ground-water recharge in the Great Lakes basin  

USGS Publications Warehouse

This report presents the results of the first known integrated study of long-term average ground-water recharge to shallow aquifers (generally less than 100 feet deep) in the United States and Canada for the Great Lakes, upper St. Lawrence, and Ottawa River Basins. The approach used was consistent throughout the study area and allows direct comparison of recharge rates in disparate parts of the study area. Estimates of recharge are based on base-flow estimates for streams throughout the Great Lakes Basin and the assumption that base flow in a given stream is equal to the amount of shallow ground-water recharge to the surrounding watershed, minus losses to evapotranspiration. Base-flow estimates were developed throughout the study area using a single model based on an empirical relation between measured base-flow characteristics at streamflow-gaging stations and the surficial-geologic materials, which consist of bedrock, coarse-textured deposits, fine-textured deposits, till, and organic matter, in the surrounding surface-water watershed. Model calibration was performed using base-flow index (BFI) estimates for 959 stations in the U.S. and Canada using a combined 28,784 years of daily streamflow record determined using the hydrograph-separation software program PART. Results are presented for watersheds represented by 8-digit hydrologic unit code (HUC, U.S.) and tertiary (Canada) watersheds. Recharge values were lowest (1.6-4.0 inches/year) in the eastern Lower Peninsula of Michigan; southwest of Green Bay, Wisconsin; in northwestern Ohio; and immediately south of the St. Lawrence River northeast of Lake Ontario. Recharge values were highest (12-16.8 inches/year) in snow shadow areas east and southeast of each Great Lake. Further studies of deep aquifer recharge and the temporal variability of recharge would be needed to gain a more complete understanding of ground-water recharge in the Great Lakes Basin.

Neff, B.P.; Piggott, A.R.; Sheets, R.A.

2006-01-01

345

Effects of urban storm-runoff control on ground-water recharge in Nassau County, New York  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Before urban development, most ground-water recharge on Long Island, New York, occurred during the dormant season, when evapotranspiration is low. The use of recharge basins for collection and disposal of urban storm runoff in Nassau County has enabled ground-water recharge to occur also during the growing season. In contrast, the use of storm sewers to route storm runoff to streams and coastal waters has resulted in a decrease in ground-water recharge during the dormant season. The net result of these two forms of urban storm-runoff control has been an increase in annual recharge of about 12 percent in areas served by recharge basins and a decrease of about 10 percent in areas where storm runoff is routed to streams and tidewater. On a countywide basis, annual ground-water recharge has remained nearly the same as under predevelopment conditions, but its distribution pattern has changed. Redistribution resulted in increased recharge in the eastern and central parts of the county, and decreased recharge in the western and nearshore areas. Model simulation of recharge indicates that the water-table altitude has increased by as much as 5 ft above predevelopment levels in areas served by recharge basins and declined by as much as 3 feet in areas where stormwater is discharged to streams and tidewater.

Ku, Henry; Hagelin, Nathan; Buxton, Herbert

1992-01-01

346

Evaluation of recharge to the Skunk Creek Aquifer from a constructed wetland near Lyons, South Dakota  

USGS Publications Warehouse

A wetland was constructed in the Skunk Creek flood plain near Lyons in southeast South Dakota to mitigate for wetland areas that were filled during construction of a municipal golf course for the city of Sioux Falls. A water-rights permit was obtained to allow the city to pump water from Skunk Creek into the wetland during times when the wetland would be dry. The amount of water seeping through the wetland and recharging the underlying Skunk Creek aquifer was not known. The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the city of Sioux Falls, conducted a study during 1997-2000 to evaluate recharge to the Skunk Creek aquifer from the constructed wetland. Three methods were used to estimate recharge from the wetland to the aquifer: (1) analysis of the rate of water-level decline during periods of no inflow; (2) flow-net analysis; and (3) analysis of the hydrologic budget. The hydrologic budget also was used to evaluate the efficiency of recharge from the wetland to the aquifer. Recharge rates estimated by analysis of shut-off events ranged from 0.21 to 0.82 foot per day, but these estimates may be influenced by possible errors in volume calculations. Recharge rates determined by flow-net analysis were calculated using selected values of hydraulic conductivity and ranged from 566,000 gallons per day using a hydraulic conductivity of 0.5 foot per day to 1,684,000 gallons per day using a hydraulic conductivity of 1.0 foot per day. Recharge rates from the hydrologic budget varied from 0.74 to 0.85 foot per day, and averaged 0.79 foot per day. The amount of water lost to evapotranspiration at the study wetland is very small compared to the amount of water seeping from the wetland into the aquifer. Based on the hydrologic budget, the average recharge efficiency was estimated as 97.9 percent, which indicates that recharging the Skunk Creek aquifer by pumping water into the study wetland is highly efficient. Because the Skunk Creek aquifer is composed of sand and gravel, the 'recharge mound' is less distinct than might be found in an aquifer composed of finer materials. However, water levels recorded from piezometers in and around the wetland do show a higher water table than periods when the wetland was dry. The largest increases in water level occur between the wetland channel and Skunk Creek. The results of this study demonstrate that artificially recharged wetlands can be useful in recharging underlying aquifers and increasing water levels in these aquifers.

Thompson, Ryan F.

2002-01-01

347

Battery charging control methods, electric vehicle charging methods, battery charging apparatuses and rechargeable battery systems  

DOEpatents

Battery charging control methods, electric vehicle charging methods, battery charging apparatuses and rechargeable battery systems. According to one aspect, a battery charging control method includes accessing information regarding a presence of at least one of a surplus and a deficiency of electrical energy upon an electrical power distribution system at a plurality of different moments in time, and using the information, controlling an adjustment of an amount of the electrical energy provided from the electrical power distribution system to a rechargeable battery to charge the rechargeable battery.

Tuffner, Francis K. (Richland, WA); Kintner-Meyer, Michael C. W. (Richland, WA); Hammerstrom, Donald J. (West Richland, WA); Pratt, Richard M. (Richland, WA)

2012-05-22

348

Comparison of spatially and temporally distributed recharge simulated using coupled and decoupled watershed hydrology models  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Estimation of the temporal and spatial distribution of watershed-scale recharge is often required for the development of transient groundwater-flow models and for quantifying water budgets. The temporal distribution of recharge has often been empirically estimated by scaling precipitation distributions. For larger watersheds, however, temporal change in the spatial distribution of recharge is affected by spatial and temporal variability in precipitation and air temperature, combined with the effects of heterogeneity in the physical characteristics of the watershed; these factors make it difficult to represent transient recharge using empirical scaling methods. Precipitation-runoff models, calibrated to available streamflow records, have been used to simulate the changing distribution and magnitude of recharge, but the uncertainty in simulated recharge estimates usually is high due to the uncertainty in input data and other components of the water balance. In this study, GSFLOW, an integrated hydrologic model, was used to evaluate differences in simulated water balances and the magnitude and distribution of transient recharge using decoupled and coupled simulations of surface-water and groundwater flow in the Santa Rosa Plain watershed (SRPW), California, USA. GSFLOW is an integration of the precipitation-runoff model PRMS and the groundwater flow model MODFLOW. GSFLOW was run as a decoupled (PRMS-only) precipitation-runoff model, independent of the MODFLOW, to develop a preliminary ensemble of estimated water balances and recharge simulations. The ensemble consisted of a set of 60-year (water years 1950 through 2010) daily simulation results, all of which provided satisfactory calibration results to available daily streamflow records at 12 gaging sites within the SRPW. The PRMs parameter files developed for the calibrated PRMS-only simulations were used as input for the coupled GSFLOW simulations that were calibrated to available well hydrographs for water years 1976 through 2008. The PRMS-only simulated water budgets and transient recharge results were compared to those produced by GSFLOW for water years 1976 through 2008. The comparison indicated that recharge estimated by GSFLOW was in many cases significantly different than recharge estimated by the PRMS-only model. Differences in recharge were pronounced along numerous stream channels in the SRPW due to the ability to directly simulate surface water - groundwater interaction in GSFLOW. In most cases, locations simulated as dominantly groundwater discharge zones (such as gaining reaches) using GSFLOW had decreased recharge relative to the decoupled PRMS-only simulations, whereas losing reaches had increased recharge compared to the PRMS-only simulations. Although the coupled GSFLOW model provided more conceptually correct recharge and water balance results, application of the decoupled model to develop preliminary recharge and water budget results allowed for a more efficient calibration of the coupled model because of the much faster runtime of PRMS-only simulations and the ease of developing preliminary water budget and recharge estimates.

Hevesi, J. A.; Woolfenden, L. R.; Niswonger, R. G.; Nishikawa, T.

2011-12-01

349

Ground-water pumpage and artificial recharge estimates for calendar year 2000 and average annual natural recharge and interbasin flow by hydrographic area, Nevada  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Nevada's reliance on ground-water resources has increased because of increased development and surface-water resources being fully appropriated. The need to accurately quantify Nevada's water resources and water use is more critical than ever to meet future demands. Estimated ground-water pumpage, artificial and natural recharge, and interbasin flow can be used to help evaluate stresses on aquifer systems. In this report, estimates of ground-water pumpage and artificial recharge during calendar year 2000 were made using data from a variety of sources, such as reported estimates and estimates made using Landsat satellite imagery. Average annual natural recharge and interbasin flow were compiled from published reports. An estimated 1,427,100 acre-feet of ground water was pumped in Nevada during calendar year 2000. This total was calculated by summing six categories of ground-water pumpage, based on water use. Total artificial recharge during 2000 was about 145,970 acre-feet. At least one estimate of natural recharge was available for 209 of the 232 hydrographic areas (HAs). Natural recharge for the 209 HAs ranges from 1,793,420 to 2,583,150 acre-feet. Estimates of interbasin flow were available for 151 HAs. The categories and their percentage of the total ground-water pumpage are irrigation and stock watering (47 percent), mining (26 percent), water systems (14 percent), geothermal production (8 percent), self-supplied domestic (4 percent), and miscellaneous (less than 1 percent). Pumpage in the top 10 HAs accounted for about 49 percent of the total ground-water pumpage. The most ground-water pumpage in an HA was due to mining in Pumpernickel Valley (HA 65), Boulder Flat (HA 61), and Lower Reese River Valley (HA 59). Pumpage by water systems in Las Vegas Valley (HA 212) and Truckee Meadows (HA 87) were the fourth and fifth highest pumpage in 2000, respectively. Irrigation and stock watering pumpage accounted for most ground-water withdrawals in the HAs with the sixth through ninth highest pumpage. Geothermal production accounted for most pumpage in the Carson Desert (HA 101). Reinjection of ground water pumped for geothermal energy production accounted for about 64 percent (93,310 acre-feet) of the total artificial recharge. The only artificial recharge by water systems was in Las Vegas Valley, where 29,790 acre-feet of water from the Colorado River was injected into the aquifer system. Artificial recharge by mining totaled 22,870 acre-feet. Net ground-water flow was estimated only for the 143 HAs with available estimates of both natural recharge and interbasin flow. Of the 143 estimates, 58 have negative net ground-water flow, indicating that ground-water storage could be depleted if pumpage continues at the same rate. The State has designated HAs where permitted ground-water rights approach or exceed the estimated average annual recharge. Ten HAs were identified that are not designated and have a net ground-water flow between -1,000 to -35,000 acre-feet. Due to uncertainties in recharge, the water budgets for these HAs may need refining to determine if ground-water storage is being depleted.

Lopes, Thomas J.; Evetts, David M.

2004-01-01

350

Theory of SEI Formation in Rechargeable Batteries: Capacity Fade, Accelerated Aging and Lifetime Prediction  

E-print Network

Cycle life is critically important in applications of rechargeable batteries, but lifetime prediction is mostly based on empirical trends, rather than mathematical models. In practical lithium-ion batteries, capacity fade ...

Pinson, Matthew Bede

351

Amorphous Metallic Glass as New High Power and Energy Density Anodes For Lithium Ion Rechargeable Batteries  

E-print Network

We have investigated the use of aluminum based amorphous metallic glass as the anode in lithium ion rechargeable batteries. Amorphous metallic glasses have no long-range ordered microstructure; the atoms are less closely ...

Meng, Shirley Y.

352

USGS Professional Paper 1703--Ground-Water Recharge in the Arid and Semiarid Southwestern United States--  

E-print Network

States-- Appendix--1 Thermal Methods for Investigating Ground-Water Recharge By Kyle W. Blasch, Jim of hydrologic processes have appeared elsewhere (Stonestrom and Blasch, 2003; Niswonger and Prudic, 2003

353

Electrically recharged battery employing a packed/spouted bed metal particle electrode  

DOEpatents

A secondary metal air cell, employing a spouted/packed metal particle bed and an air electrode. More specifically a zinc air cell well suited for use in electric vehicles which is capable of being either electrically or hydraulically recharged.

Siu, Stanley C. (Alameda, CA); Evans, James W. (Piedmont, CA); Salas-Morales, Juan (Berkeley, CA)

1995-01-01

354

77 FR 2437 - Special Conditions: Gulfstream Aerospace Corporation, Model GVI Airplane; Rechargeable Lithium...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Conditions No. 25-455-SC] Special Conditions: Gulfstream Aerospace Corporation, Model GVI Airplane; Rechargeable Lithium Batteries...SUMMARY: These special conditions are issued for the Gulfstream Aerospace Corporation (GAC) Model GVI airplane. This airplane...

2012-01-18

355

Arsenic mobilization and attenuation by mineral?water interactions: implications for managed aquifer recharge  

EPA Science Inventory

Managed aquifer recharge (MAR) has a potential for addressing deficits in water supplies worldwide. It is also widely used for preventing saltwater intrusion, maintaining the groundwater table, and augmenting ecological stream flows among many beneficial environmental application...

356

Institutional innovation in water management : the case of Mexico City's recharge wells  

E-print Network

This thesis explores the difference in adoption patterns of water recharge well technology in Mexico City both by local entities and the central city government. The research finds that this technology, originally designed ...

Correa Ibargengoitia, Jos Antonio

2010-01-01

357

Recharge Data Package for the 2005 Integrated Disposal Facility Performance Assessment  

SciTech Connect

Pacific Northwest National Laboratory assisted CH2M Hill Hanford Group, Inc., (CHG) by providing estimates of recharge rates for current conditions and long-term scenarios involving disposal in the Integrated Disposal Facility (IDF). The IDF will be located in the 200 East Area at the Hanford Site and will receive several types of waste including immobilized low-activity waste. The recharge estimates for each scenario were derived from lysimeter and tracer data collected by the IDF PA Project and from modeling studies conducted for the project. Recharge estimates were provided for three specific site features (the surface barrier; possible barrier side slopes; and the surrounding soil) and four specific time periods (pre-Hanford; Hanford operations; surface barrier design life; post-barrier design life). CHG plans to conduct a performance assessment of the latest IDF design and call it the IDF 2005 PA; this recharge data package supports the upcoming IDF 2005 PA.

Fayer, Michael J.; Szecsody, Jim E.

2004-06-30

358

Ground-Water Recharge in the Arid and Semiarid Southwestern United States  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Ground-water recharge in the arid and semiarid southwestern United States results from the complex interplay of climate, geology, and vegetation across widely ranging spatial and temporal scales. Present-day recharge tends to be narrowly focused in time and space. Widespread water-table declines accompanied agricultural development during the twentieth century, demonstrating that sustainable ground-water supplies are not guaranteed when part of the extracted resource represents paleorecharge. Climatic controls on ground-water recharge range from seasonal cycles of summer monsoonal and winter frontal storms to multimillennial cycles of glacial and interglacial periods. Precipitation patterns reflect global-scale interactions among the oceans, atmosphere, and continents. Large-scale climatic influences associated with El Ni?o and Pacific Decadal Oscillations strongly, but irregularly, control weather in the study area, so that year-to-year variations in precipitation and ground-water recharge are large and difficult to predict. Proxy data indicate geologically recent periods of naturally occurring multidecadal droughts unlike any in the modern instrumental record. Any anthropogenically induced climate change will likely reduce ground-water recharge through diminished snowpack at higher elevations. Future changes in El Ni?o and monsoonal patterns, both crucial to precipitation in the study area, are highly uncertain in current models. Current land-use modifications influence ground-water recharge through vegetation, irrigation, and impermeable area. High mountain ranges bounding the study area?the San Bernadino Mountains and Sierra Nevada to the west, and the Wasatch and southern Colorado Rocky Mountains to the east?provide external geologic controls on ground-water recharge. Internal geologic controls stem from tectonic processes that led to numerous, variably connected alluvial-filled basins, exposure of extensive Paleozoic aquifers in mountainous recharge areas, and distinct modes of recharge in the Colorado Plateau and Basin and Range subregions. The chapters in this professional paper present (first) an overview of climatic and hydrogeologic framework (chapter A), followed by a regional analysis of ground-water recharge across the entire study area (chapter B). These are followed by an overview of site-specific case studies representing different subareas of the geographically diverse arid and semiarid southwestern United States (chapter C); the case studies themselves follow in chapters D?K. The regional analysis includes detailed hydrologic modeling within the framework of a high-resolution geographic-information system (GIS). Results from the regional analysis are used to explore both the distribution of ground-water recharge for mean climatic conditions as well as the influence of two climatic patterns?the El Ni?o-Southern Oscillation and Pacific Decadal Oscillation?that impart a high degree of variability to the hydrologic cycle. Individual case studies employ a variety of geophysical and geochemical techniques to investigate recharge processes and relate the processes to local geologic and climatic conditions. All of the case studies made use of naturally occurring tracers to quantify recharge. Thermal and geophysical techniques that were developed in the course of the studies are presented in appendices. The quantification of ground-water recharge in arid settings is inherently difficult due to the generally low amount of recharge, its spatially and temporally spotty nature, and the absence of techniques for directly measuring fluxes entering the saturated zone from the unsaturated zone. Deep water tables in arid alluvial basins correspond to thick unsaturated zones that produce up to millennial time lags between changes in hydrologic conditions at the land surface and subsequent changes in recharge to underlying ground water. Recent advances in physical, chemical, isotopic, and modeling techniques have foster

Stonestrom, David A.; Constantz, Jim; Ferre, Ty P.A.; Leake, Stanley A.

2007-01-01

359

77 FR 8325 - Sixth Meeting: RTCA Special Committee 225, Rechargeable Lithium Batteries and Battery Systems...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...RTCA Special Committee 225, Rechargeable Lithium Batteries and Battery Systems, Small and Medium Size. DATES: The meeting...Review action items. Review of current events with Li-Ion Batteries (15 min). Results of EFB thermal runaway...

2012-02-14

360

Simulation of the Recharging Method of Implantable Biosensors Based on a Wearable Incoherent Light Source  

PubMed Central

Recharging implantable electronics from the outside of the human body is very important for applications such as implantable biosensors and other implantable electronics. In this paper, a recharging method for implantable biosensors based on a wearable incoherent light source has been proposed and simulated. Firstly, we develop a model of the incoherent light source and a multi-layer model of skin tissue. Secondly, the recharging processes of the proposed method have been simulated and tested experimentally, whereby some important conclusions have been reached. Our results indicate that the proposed method will offer a convenient, safe and low-cost recharging method for implantable biosensors, which should promote the application of implantable electronics. PMID:25372616

Song, Yong; Hao, Qun; Kong, Xianyue; Hu, Lanxin; Cao, Jie; Gao, Tianxin

2014-01-01

361

Removal of organic micropollutants in an artificial recharge system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Emerging contaminants including pharmaceutically active compounds (PhACs), personal care products (PCPs) and pesticides are increasingly being identified in the environment. Emerging pollutants and their transformation products show low concentration in the environment (ng/L), but the effects of the mixtures and lifelong exposure to humans are currently unknown. Many of these contaminants are removed under aerobic conditions in water treatment plants. However, several pharmaceuticals and metabolites present in wastewater are not eliminated by conventional treatment processes. Several lab studies, however, show that the behaviour of many of these micropollutants is affected by the dominant redox conditions. However, data from field experiments are limited and sometimes contradictory. Artificial recharge is a widespread technology to increase the groundwater resources. In this study we propose a design to enhance the natural remediation potential of the aquifer with the installation of a reactive layer at the bottom of the infiltration pond. This layer is a mixture of compost, aquifer material, clay and iron oxide. This layer is intended to provide an extra amount of DOC to the recharge water and to promote biodegradation by means of the development of different redox zones along the travel path through the unsaturated zone and within the aquifer. Moreover, compost, clay and iron oxide of the layer are assumed to increase sorption surfaces for neutral, cationic and anionic compounds, respectively. The infiltration system is sited in Sant Vicen dels Horts (Barcelona, Spain). It consists of a decantation pond, receiving raw water from the Llobregat River (highly affected from treatment plant effluents), and an infiltration pond (5600 m2). The infiltration rate is around 1 m3/m2/day. The system is equipped with a network of piezometers, suction cups and tensiometers. Infiltration periods have been performed before and after the installation of the reactive layer. Water from the Infiltration pond, the unsaturated zone and groundwater have been sampled and analyzed in order to elucidate the effect of the reactive layer. First results of micropollutants under natural conditions show significant removal rates of atenolol and Ibuprofen as well as the recalcitrant behaviour of carbamazepine. Once the layer was installed, carbamazepine concentration in groundwater samples was lower than the concentration in the infiltration water. These preliminary results are promising but, however, they need to be confirmed by further analysis, which will be conducted during the next weeks.

Valhondo, C.; Ndler, K.; Kck-Schulmeyer, M.; Hernandez, M.; Licha, T.; Ayora, C.; Carrera, J.

2012-04-01

362

Magnesium insertion electrodes for rechargeable nonaqueous batteries a competitive alternative to lithium?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Magnesium-based rechargeable batteries might be an interesting future alternative to lithium-based batteries. Here the available results of research, both on rechargeable negative electrodes based either on metallic magnesium or alternative materials, and on materials suitable as positive, magnesium-inserting (counter)electrodes for secondary magnesium batteries, are critically reviewed. The reversible magnesium-metal electrode was scarcely investigated and remains poorly understood. More data are

Petr Novk; Roman Imhof; Otto Haas

1999-01-01

363

Tritium as an indicator of recharge and dispersion in a groundwater system in central Ontario  

Microsoft Academic Search

The detailed distribution of tritium (3H) in the recharge area of a shallow unconfined sand aquifer near Sturgeon Falls, Ontario, is described. At this forested, shallow water table site, bomb tritium has penetrated uniformly to a depth of 8-12 m indicating recharge of 15 cm\\/year, which is 16% of precipitation. The zone of bomb tritium contains 3H concentrations of from

W. D. Robertson; J. A. Cherry

1989-01-01

364

Urban recharge beneath low impact development and effects of climate variability and change  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

low impact development (LID) planning and best management practices (BMPs) effects on recharge is important because of the increasing use of LID BMPs to reduce storm water runoff and improve surface-water quality. LID BMPs are microscale, decentralized management techniques such as vegetated systems, pervious pavement, and infiltration trenches to capture, reduce, filter, and slow storm water runoff. Some BMPs may enhance recharge, which has often been considered a secondary management benefit. Here we report results of a field and HYDRUS-2D modeling study in San Francisco, California, USA to quantify urban recharge rates, volumes, and efficiency beneath a LID BMP infiltration trench and irrigated lawn considering historical El Nio/Southern Oscillation (ENSO) variability and future climate change using simulated precipitation from the Geophysical Fluid Dynamic Laboratory (GFDL) A1F1 climate scenario. We find that in situ and modeling methods are complementary, particularly for simulating historical and future recharge scenarios, and the in situ data are critical for accurately estimating recharge under current conditions. Observed (2011-2012) and future (2099-2100) recharge rates beneath the infiltration trench (1750-3710 mm yr-1) were an order of magnitude greater than beneath the irrigated lawn (130-730 mm yr-1). Beneath the infiltration trench, recharge rates ranged from 1390 to 5840 mm yr-1 and averaged 3410 mm yr-1 for El Nio years (1954-2012) and from 1540 to 3330 mm yr-1 and averaged 2430 mm yr-1 for La Nia years. We demonstrate a clear benefit for recharge and local groundwater resources using LID BMPs.

Newcomer, Michelle E.; Gurdak, Jason J.; Sklar, Leonard S.; Nanus, Leora

2014-02-01

365

The Effect of Modeled Recharge Distribution on Simulated Groundwater Availability and Capture.  

PubMed

Simulating groundwater flow in basin-fill aquifers of the semiarid southwestern United States commonly requires decisions about how to distribute aquifer recharge. Precipitation can recharge basin-fill aquifers by direct infiltration and transport through faults and fractures in the high-elevation areas, by flowing overland through high-elevation areas to infiltrate at basin-fill margins along mountain fronts, by flowing overland to infiltrate along ephemeral channels that often traverse basins in the area, or by some combination of these processes. The importance of accurately simulating recharge distributions is a current topic of discussion among hydrologists and water managers in the region, but no comparative study has been performed to analyze the effects of different recharge distributions on groundwater simulations. This study investigates the importance of the distribution of aquifer recharge in simulating regional groundwater flow in basin-fill aquifers by calibrating a groundwater-flow model to four different recharge distributions, all with the same total amount of recharge. Similarities are seen in results from steady-state models for optimized hydraulic conductivity values, fit of simulated to observed hydraulic heads, and composite scaled sensitivities of conductivity parameter zones. Transient simulations with hypothetical storage properties and pumping rates produce similar capture rates and storage change results, but differences are noted in the rate of drawdown at some well locations owing to the differences in optimized hydraulic conductivity. Depending on whether the purpose of the groundwater model is to simulate changes in groundwater levels or changes in storage and capture, the distribution of aquifer recharge may or may not be of primary importance. PMID:24841767

Tillman, F D; Pool, D R; Leake, S A

2014-05-19

366

Groundwater recharge and sustainability in the High Plains aquifer in Kansas, USA  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Sustainable use of groundwater must ensure not only that the future resource is not threatened by overuse, but also that natural environments that depend on the resource, such as stream baseflows, riparian vegetation, aquatic ecosystems, and wetlands are protected. To properly manage groundwater resources, accurate information about the inputs (recharge) and outputs (pumpage and natural discharge) within each groundwater basin is needed so that the long-term behavior of the aquifer and its sustainable yield can be estimated or reassessed. As a first step towards this effort, this work highlights some key groundwater recharge studies in the Kansas High Plains at different scales, such as regional soil-water budget and groundwater modeling studies, county-scale groundwater recharge studies, as well as field-experimental local studies, including some original new findings, with an emphasis on assumptions and limitations as well as on environmental factors affecting recharge processes. The general impact of irrigation and cultivation on recharge is to appreciably increase the amount of recharge, and in many cases to exceed precipitation as the predominant source of recharge. The imbalance between the water input (recharge) to the High Plains aquifer and the output (pumpage and stream baseflows primarily) is shown to be severe, and responses to stabilize the system by reducing water use, increasing irrigation efficiency, adopting water-saving land-use practices, and other measures are outlined. Finally, the basic steps necessary to move towards sustainable use of groundwater in the High Plains are delineated, such as improving the knowledge base, reporting and providing access to information, furthering public education, as well as promoting better understanding of the public's attitudinal motivations; adopting the ecosystem and adaptive management approaches to managing groundwater; further improving water efficiency; exploiting the full potential of dryland and biosaline agriculture; and adopting a goal of long-term sustainable use. ?? Springer-Verlag 2005.

Sophocleous, M.

2005-01-01

367

Regional Groundwater Modeling for Source-Area Delineation and Recharge Estimation From Long Term Climate Forcing  

Microsoft Academic Search

This research is developing a 3D groundwater model of the Spring creek and Spruce creek drainage basins in central Pennsylvania. The purpose of the model is to evaluate the source-area for drinking water supplies, rates of areal and focused recharge and the long-term effect of seasonal, annual and decadal climate variations on recharge and groundwater levels. A solid body model

F. Brachet; C. J. Duffy

2004-01-01

368

Modelling climate-change impacts on groundwater recharge in the Murray-Darling Basin, Australia  

Microsoft Academic Search

A methodology is presented for assessing the average changes in groundwater recharge under a future climate. The method is\\u000a applied to the 1,060,000km2 Murray-Darling Basin (MDB) in Australia. Climate sequences were developed based upon three scenarios for a 2030 climate relative\\u000a to a 1990 climate from the outputs of 15 global climate models. Dryland diffuse groundwater recharge was modelled in

Russell S. Crosbie; James L. McCallum; Glen R. Walker; Francis H. S. Chiew

2010-01-01

369

Modelling climate-change impacts on groundwater recharge in the Murray-Darling Basin, Australia  

Microsoft Academic Search

A methodology is presented for assessing the average changes in groundwater recharge under a future climate. The method is applied to the 1,060,000 km2 Murray-Darling Basin (MDB) in Australia. Climate sequences were developed based upon three scenarios for a 2030 climate relative to a 1990 climate from the outputs of 15 global climate models. Dryland diffuse groundwater recharge was modelled

Russell S. Crosbie; James L. McCallum; Glen R. Walker; Francis H. S. Chiew

2010-01-01

370

DESERTIFICATION IN NORTHERN MOROCCO DUE TO EFFECTS OF CLIMATE CHANGE ON GROUNDWATER RECHARGE  

Microsoft Academic Search

Groundwater resources in Morocco are expected to shrink in the next decades due to an increasing withdrawal for rural and\\u000a urban development, and a decreasing internal recharge by precipitation under the influence of climate change. The objective\\u000a of this work is to analyse the recharge of groundwater systems in a region with traditional agriculture and current transformations\\u000a in northern Morocco

Simone Van Dijck; Abdellah Laouina; Anabela Carvalho; Sander Loos; Aafke Schipper; Hans Van der Kwast; Rachida Nafaa; Mostafa Antari; Alfredo Rocha; Carlos Borrego; Coen Ritsema

2006-01-01

371

An Equatorial Ocean Recharge Paradigm for ENSO. Part I: Conceptual Model  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new conceptual model for ENSO has been constructed based upon the positive feedback of tropical ocean-atmosphere interaction proposed by Bjerknes as the growth mechanism and the recharge-discharge of the equatorial heat content as the phase-transition mechanism suggested by Cane and Zebiak and by Wyrtki. This model combines SST dynamics and ocean adjustment dynamics into a coupled basinwide recharge oscillator

Fei-Fei Jin

1997-01-01

372

A comparison of recharge rates in aquifers of the United States based on groundwater-age data  

USGS Publications Warehouse

An overview is presented of existing groundwater-age data and their implications for assessing rates and timescales of recharge in selected unconfined aquifer systems of the United States. Apparent age distributions in aquifers determined from chlorofluorocarbon, sulfur hexafluoride, tritium/helium-3, and radiocarbon measurements from 565 wells in 45 networks were used to calculate groundwater recharge rates. Timescales of recharge were defined by 1,873 distributed tritium measurements and 102 radiocarbon measurements from 27 well networks. Recharge rates ranged from?recharge rates based on tracers of young groundwater exhibited a significant inverse correlation with mean annual air temperature and a significant positive correlation with mean annual precipitation. Comparison of recharge derived from groundwater ages with recharge derived from stream base-flow evaluation showed similar overall patterns but substantial local differences. Results from this compilation demonstrate that age-based recharge estimates can provide useful insights into spatial and temporal variability in recharge at a national scale and factors controlling that variability. Local age-based recharge estimates provide empirical data and process information that are needed for testing and improving more spatially complete model-based methods.

McMahon, P.B.; Plummer, L.N.; Bhlke, J.K.; Shapiro, S.D.; Hinkle, S.R.

2011-01-01

373

A comparison of recharge rates in aquifers of the United States based on groundwater-age data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An overview is presented of existing groundwater-age data and their implications for assessing rates and timescales of recharge in selected unconfined aquifer systems of the United States. Apparent age distributions in aquifers determined from chlorofluorocarbon, sulfur hexafluoride, tritium/helium-3, and radiocarbon measurements from 565 wells in 45 networks were used to calculate groundwater recharge rates. Timescales of recharge were defined by 1,873 distributed tritium measurements and 102 radiocarbon measurements from 27 well networks. Recharge rates ranged from < 10 to 1,200 mm/yr in selected aquifers on the basis of measured vertical age distributions and assuming exponential age gradients. On a regional basis, recharge rates based on tracers of young groundwater exhibited a significant inverse correlation with mean annual air temperature and a significant positive correlation with mean annual precipitation. Comparison of recharge derived from groundwater ages with recharge derived from stream base-flow evaluation showed similar overall patterns but substantial local differences. Results from this compilation demonstrate that age-based recharge estimates can provide useful insights into spatial and temporal variability in recharge at a national scale and factors controlling that variability. Local age-based recharge estimates provide empirical data and process information that are needed for testing and improving more spatially complete model-based methods.

McMahon, P. B.; Plummer, L. N.; Bhlke, J. K.; Shapiro, S. D.; Hinkle, S. R.

2011-06-01

374

Artificial recharge in the Waterman Canyon-East Twin Creek area, San Bernardino County, California  

USGS Publications Warehouse

This is a study of the feasibility of recharging, in the Waterman Canyon-East Twin Creek area, imported water from northern California by way of the State Water Project beginning in 1972. The feasibility of recharging 30,000 acre-feet of water a year in the Waterman Canyon-East Twin Creek area will depend on the effectiveness of fault K as a barrier to ground-water movement near the land surface. The results of test drilling and an infiltration test indicate that the subsurface material at the spreading grounds is permeable enough to allow recharged water to percolate to the water table. The data indicate that fault K extends into the Waterman Canyon-East Twin Creek area and may impede the lateral movement of recharged water. Fault K has no known surface expression and therefore probably does not affect the highly permeable younger alluvium. If that is so, fault K will be less effective as a barrier to ground-water movement as the recharge mound rises. Monitoring of the observation wells near the spreading grounds as the planned recharge operation proceeds should provide data about the hydrologic effects of fault K near the land surface.

Warner, J.W.; Moreland, J.A.

1973-01-01

375

A water-budget model and estimates of groundwater recharge for Guam  

USGS Publications Warehouse

On Guam, demand for groundwater tripled from the early 1970s to 2010. The demand for groundwater is anticipated to further increase in the near future because of population growth and a proposed military relocation to Guam. Uncertainty regarding the availability of groundwater resources to support the increased demand has prompted an investigation of groundwater recharge on Guam using the most current data and accepted methods. For this investigation, a daily water-budget model was developed and used to estimate mean recharge for various land-cover and rainfall conditions. Recharge was also estimated for part of the island using the chloride mass-balance method. Using the daily water-budget model, estimated mean annual recharge on Guam is 394.1 million gallons per day, which is 39 percent of mean annual rainfall (999.0 million gallons per day). Although minor in comparison to rainfall on the island, water inflows from water-main leakage, septic-system leachate, and stormwater runoff may be several times greater than rainfall at areas that receive these inflows. Recharge is highest in areas that are underlain by limestone, where recharge is typically between 40 and 60 percent of total water inflow. Recharge is relatively high in areas that receive stormwater runoff from storm-drain systems, but is relatively low in urbanized areas where stormwater runoff is routed to the ocean or to other areas. In most of the volcanic uplands in southern Guam where runoff is substantial, recharge is less than 30 percent of total water inflow. The water-budget model in this study differs from all previous water-budget investigations on Guam by directly accounting for canopy evaporation in forested areas, quantifying the evapotranspiration rate of each land-cover type, and accounting for evaporation from impervious areas. For the northern groundwater subbasins defined in Camp, Dresser & McKee Inc. (1982), mean annual baseline recharge computed in this study is 159.1 million gallons per day, which is 50 percent of mean annual rainfall, and is 42 percent greater than the recharge estimate of Camp, Dresser & McKee Inc. (1982). For the northern aquifer sectors defined in Mink (1991), which encompass most of the northern half of the island, mean annual baseline recharge computed in this study is 238.0 million gallons per day, which is 51 percent of mean annual rainfall, and is about 6 percent lower than the recharge estimate of Mink (1991). For the drought simulation performed in this study, recharge for the entire island is 259.3 million gallons per day, which is 34 percent lower than recharge computed for baseline conditions. For all aquifer sectors defined by Mink (1991), total recharge during drought conditions is 32 percent lower than mean baseline recharge. For the future land-cover water-budget simulation, which represents potential land-cover changes owing to the military relocation and population growth, estimated recharge for the entire island is nearly equal to the baseline recharge estimate that was based on 2004 land cover. Using the water-budget model, estimated recharge in the northern half of the island is most sensitive to crop coefficients and net precipitation ratestwo of the water-budget parameters used in the estimation of total evapotranspiration. Estimated recharge in the southern half of the island is most sensitive to crop coefficients, net precipitation rate, and runoff-to-rainfall ratios. During March 2010 to May 2011, bulk-deposition samples from five rainfall stations on Guam were collected and analyzed for chloride. Additionally, samples from five groundwater sites were collected and analyzed for chloride. Results were used to estimate groundwater recharge using the chloride mass-balance method. Recharge estimates using this method at three bulk-deposition stations on the northern limestone plateau range from about 25 to 48 percent of rainfall. These recharge estimates are similar to the estimate of Ayers (1981) who also used this method. Recharge estimates at each bulk-deposition station, however, are lower

Johnson, Adam G.

2012-01-01

376

Groundwater recharge to a sedimentary aquifer in the topographically closed Uley South Basin, South Australia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The chloride mass balance (CMB) and water-table fluctuation (WTF) analysis methods were used to estimate recharge rates in the Uley South Basin, South Australia. Groundwater hydrochemistry and isotope data were used to infer the nature of recharge pathways and evapotranspiration processes. These data indicate that some combination of two plausible processes is occurring: (1) complete evaporation of rainfall occurs, and the precipitated salts are washed down and redissolved when recharge occurs, and (2) transpiration dominates over evaporation. It is surmised that sinkholes predominantly serve to by-pass the shallow soil zone and redistribute infiltration into the deeper unsaturated zone, rather than transferring rainfall directly to the water table. Chlorofluorocarbon measurements were used in approximating recharge origins to account for coastal proximity effects in the CMB method and pumping seasonality was accounted for in the WTF-based recharge estimates. Best estimates of spatially and temporally averaged recharge rates for the basin are 52-63 and 47-129 mm/year from the CMB and WTF analyses, respectively. Adaptations of both the CMB and WTF analyses to account for nuances of the system were necessary, demonstrating the need for careful application of these methods.

Ordens, Carlos M.; Werner, Adrian D.; Post, Vincent E. A.; Hutson, John L.; Simmons, Craig T.; Irvine, Benjamin M.

2012-02-01

377

Groundwater recharge in irrigated semi-arid areas: quantitative hydrological modelling and sensitivity analysis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

For semi-arid regions, methods of assessing aquifer recharge usually consider the potential evapotranspiration. Actual evapotranspiration rates can be below potential rates for long periods of time, even in irrigated systems. Accurate estimations of aquifer recharge in semi-arid areas under irrigated agriculture are essential for sustainable water-resources management. A method to estimate aquifer recharge from irrigated farmland has been tested. The water-balance-modelling approach was based on VisualBALAN v. 2.0, a computer code that simulates water balance in the soil, vadose zone and aquifer. The study was carried out in the Campo de Cartagena (SE Spain) in the period 1999-2008 for three different groups of crops: annual row crops (lettuce and melon), perennial vegetables (artichoke) and fruit trees (citrus). Computed mean-annual-recharge values (from irrigation+precipitation) during the study period were 397 mm for annual row crops, 201 mm for perennial vegetables and 194 mm for fruit trees: 31.4, 20.7 and 20.5% of the total applied water, respectively. The effects of rainfall events on the final recharge were clearly observed, due to the continuously high water content in soil which facilitated the infiltration process. A sensitivity analysis to assess the reliability and uncertainty of recharge estimations was carried out.

Jimnez-Martnez, Joaqun; Candela, Lucila; Molinero, Jorge; Tamoh, Karim

2010-12-01

378

Effects of topography and soil properties on recharge at two sites in an agricultural field  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Field experiments were conducted from 1992 to 1995 to estimate ground water recharge rates at two sites located within a 2.7-hectare agricultural field. The field lies in a sand plain setting in central Minnesota and is cropped continuously in field corn. The sites are located at a topographically high (upland) site and a topographically low (lowland) site in an effort to quantify the effects of depression focusing of recharge. Three site-specific methods were used to estimate recharge rates: Well hydrograph analysis, chlorofluorocarbon age dating, and an unsaturated zone water balance. All three recharge methods indicated that recharge rates at the lowland site (annual average of all methods of 29 cm) exceeded those at the upland site (annual average of 18 cm). On an annual basis, estimates by the individual methods ranged from 12 to 44 percent of precipitation at the upland site and from 21 to 83 percent at the lowland site. The difference in recharge rates between the sites is primarily attributed to depression focusing of surface water runon at the lowland site. However, two other factors were also important: The presence of thin lamellae at the upland site, and coarser textured soils below a depth of 1.5 m at the lowland site.

Delin, G.N.; Healy, R.W.; Landon, M.K.; Bhlke, J.K.

2000-01-01

379

A Watershed Approach for the Determination of Groundwater Recharge in Rajasthan, India  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The determination of groundwater recharge is imperative for sustainable water management, particularly in semi-arid regions where mitigation and adaptation strategies are needed. Two-thirds of India is underlain by hard rocks, and appropriate techniques for the estimation of groundwater recharge are currently problematic in such areas. Chloride mass balance (CMB) has been employed in this study to determine recharge rates from groundwater collected from a monsoon dependent area in the Aravalli Hills in Rajasthan, India. A monitoring program was established in the summer of 2009 in the Gangeshwar Watershed with local participation for the collection of rainfall and groundwater samples. Groundwater recharge estimation was spatially determined over a 3-year period with pre-monsoon and post-monsoon datasets. Irrigation return flow was likely to impact 90% of the samples, and has thus required stable isotope analysis using hydrogen (?2H) and oxygen (?18O) to corroborate nitrate and other anionic chemistry to determine sources of groundwater recharge. The possibilities of using total dissolved solutes (TDS) as an alternative for chloride have also been addressed as a way to simplify the determination of groundwater recharge at the user-level.

Rohde, M. M.; Edmunds, W.; Sharma, O.; Sharma, A.

2011-12-01

380

Silicon anode for rechargeable aqueous lithium-air batteries  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A novel aqueous lithium-air rechargeable cell with the configuration of Si/1 M LiClO4 in ethylene carbonate-diethylene carbonate/Li1+x+yAlx(Ti,Ge)2-xP3-ySiyO12/5 M LiCl-1 M LiOH aqueous solution/carbon black, air is proposed. A silicon anode composed of mechanically milled silicon power with an average particle size of ca. 0.5 ?m, vapor grown carbon fiber and a polyimide binder was examined. The open-circuit voltage at the charged state was 2.9 V at 25 C. The discharge capacity of 700 mAh g-silicon-1 was retained for 40 cycles at 0.3 mA cm-2 with cut-off voltages of 3.5 and 1.5 V. Significant capacity fade was observed at deep charge and discharge cycling at 2000 mAh g-silicon-1.

Teranishi, R.; Si, Q.; Mizukoshi, F.; Kawakubo, M.; Matsui, M.; Takeda, Y.; Yamamoto, O.; Imanishi, N.

2015-01-01

381

Validation of an operational model of direct recharge and evapotranspiration  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This work describes the validation of a distributed model for estimating direct recharge and evapotranspiration over arid and semiarid regions. This validation was performed for a lysimeter-site planted to festuca (grown under controlled irrigated treatment) and for two months, June and July 2003. The model, which can be classified as a distributed water balance model, puts its emphasis on two devising aspects. First, a detailed description of the effect of the land use on the water balance through processes of evaporation/transpiration and the evolution in time of the vegetated surfaces on the area. Second, the operational character of the model. The model was conceived to run integrated into a Geographical Information System and incorporates the pre-processing of the needed input parameters. This pre-processing comprises the use of remote sensing observations to monitor the plants status and their dynamics. In this study, agrometeorogical station records and information on irrigation scheduling, soil hydraulic properties and the festuca culture were used to run the model, whereas lysimeter measurements were used as validation data. Moreover, the performance of the model was checked for contrasting water conditions of the soil: completely wet and dried out.

Rubio, Eva; Mejuto, Miguel F.; Calera, Alfonso; Vela, Alicia; Castano, Santiago; Moratalla, Agueda

2004-02-01

382

Materials issues in lithium ion rechargeable battery technology  

SciTech Connect

Lithium ion rechargeable batteries are predicted to replace Ni/Cd as the workhorse consumer battery. The pace of development of this battery system is determined in large part by the availability of materials and the understanding of interfacial reactions between materials. Lithium ion technology is based on the use of two lithium intercalating electrodes. Carbon is the most commonly used anode material, while the cathode materials of choice have been layered lithium metal chalcogenides (LiMX{sub 2}) and lithium spinel-type compounds. Electrolytes may be either organic liquids or polymers. Although the first practical use of graphite intercalation compounds as battery anodes was reported in 1981 for molten salt cells and in 1983 for ambient temperature systems, it was not until Sony Energytech announced a new lithium ion intercalating carbon anode in 1990, that interest peaked. The reason for this heightened interest is that these electrochemical cells have the high energy density, high voltage and light weight of metallic lithium, but without the disadvantages of dendrite formation on charge, improving their safety and cycle life.

Doughty, D.H.

1995-07-01

383

Materials issues in lithium ion rechargeable battery technology  

SciTech Connect

Lithium ion rechargeable batteries are predicted to replace Ni/Cd as the workhorse consumer battery. The pace of development of this battery system is determined in large part by the availability of materials and the understanding of interfacial reactions between materials. Lithium ion technology is based on the use of two lithium intercalating electrodes. Carbon is the most commonly used anode material, while the cathode materials of choice have beem layered lithium metal chalcogenides (LiMX{sub 2}) and lithium spinel-type compounds. Electrolytes may be either organic liquids or polymers. Although the first practical use of graphite intercalation compounds as battery anodes was reported in 1981 for molten salt cells and, in 1983, for ambient temperature systems, it was not until Sony Energytech announced a new lithium ion intercalating carbon anode in 1990, that interest peaked. The reason for this heightened interest is that these electrochemical cells have the high energy density, high voltage, and light weight of metallic lithium, but without the disadvantages of dendrite formation on charge, improving their safety and cycle life. This publication will review recent developments in the field and materials needs that will enhance future prospects for this electrochemical system. 26 refs., 4 figs., 5 tabs.

Doughty, D.H. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

1996-03-01

384

Polyphase alloys as rechargeable electrodes in advanced battery systems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The rechargeability of electrochemical cells is often limited by negative electrode problems. These may include loss of capacity, increased impedance, macroscopic shape change, dendrite growth, or a tendency for filamentary or whisker growth. In principle, these problems can be reduced or eliminated by the use of alloys that undergo either displacement or insertion reactions at reactant species activities less than unity, rather than pure elements. The fundamental reasons for some of these problems with elemental electrodes, as well as the basic principles involved in the different behavior of alloys, are briefly discussed. More information is now available concerning the thermodynamic and kinetic properties of a number of alloys of potential interest for use as electrodes in elevated temperature lithium battery systems. Recent results have extended these results down to ambient temperatures, indicating that some such materials may be of interest for use with new low temperature molten salt electrolytes, or with organic solvent electrolytes. The all solid mixed conductor matrix concept is also reviewed.

Huggins, Robert A.

1987-01-01

385

Impacts of glacially recharged groundwater flow systems on talik evolution  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Most currently permafrost-covered landscapes underwent fundamental shifts in the hydrogeological and the thermal regime as a result of deglaciation after the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM). The transient effects of heat and fluid flow associated with retreating ice sheets are important to consider for the present-day hydrogeology of these regions. In this paper, we use numerical models to evaluate the evolution of taliks underneath proglacial lakes during deglaciation. In our models, the hydrological and thermal boundary conditions at the lake site are constraint by the hydrogeological impacts of ice sheet dynamics since the LGM. During the LGM, the ground surface was insulated from air temperatures, and as a result, there was no permafrost underneath the wet-based ice. Subsequently, ice sheet retreat led to an exposure of a proglacial area to subzero air temperatures and the formation of permafrost. Where proglacial lakes form, discharge of deeper groundwater becomes focused. In this scenario, subpermafrost groundwater flow is driven by a combination of direct subglacial recharge and elevated hydraulic heads preserved in that part of the aquifer. Advective heat flow can delay or prevent through taliks from freezing as function of aquifer properties. The presence and evolution of through taliks in thick permafrost can create complex and transient hydrogeological phenomena.

Scheidegger, J. M.; Bense, V. F.

2014-04-01

386

Oxide Fiber Cathode Materials for Rechargeable Lithium Cells  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

LiCoO2 and LiNiO2 fibers have been investigated as alternatives to LiCoO2 and LiNiO2 powders used as lithium-intercalation compounds in cathodes of rechargeable lithium-ion electrochemical cells. In making such a cathode, LiCoO2 or LiNiO2 powder is mixed with a binder [e.g., poly(vinylidene fluoride)] and an electrically conductive additive (usually carbon) and the mixture is pressed to form a disk. The binder and conductive additive contribute weight and volume, reducing the specific energy and energy density, respectively. In contrast, LiCoO2 or LiNiO2 fibers can be pressed and sintered to form a cathode, without need for a binder or a conductive additive. The inter-grain contacts of the fibers are stronger and have fewer defects than do those of powder particles. These characteristics translate to increased flexibility and greater resilience on cycling and, consequently, to reduced loss of capacity from cycle to cycle. Moreover, in comparison with a powder-based cathode, a fiber-based cathode is expected to exhibit significantly greater ionic and electronic conduction along the axes of the fibers. Results of preliminary charge/discharge-cycling tests suggest that energy densities of LiCoO2- and LiNiO2-fiber cathodes are approximately double those of the corresponding powder-based cathodes.

Rice, Catherine E.; Welker, Mark F.

2008-01-01

387

State-of-the-art of alkaline rechargeable batteries  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Alkaline rechargeable batteries represented by Ni-Cd and Ni-MH batteries are expanding their market, continuously meeting an increasing demand. Approximately 30 years have elapsed since the first sealed Ni-Cd battery was commercialized for consumer use, and the production of these alkaline batteries is still expanding. The high power performance and good cost performance of these batteries are the outstanding features, which are leading to new battery applications. Continuous R&D of many researchers and engineers has improved these features. Since first coming to the market in 1990, Ni-MH batteries have been extending their application as power sources for portable advanced information and communication equipment. Improvements in electrode materials and other components have increased the energy density of current Ni-MH batteries to values of 91 Wh/kg and 340 Wh/l. Recently, novel metallic alloys for hydrogen storage have been proposed to increase their capacity further, and further improvement in the performance of these batteries is expected.

Morioka, Y.; Narukawa, S.; Itou, T.

388

Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy of lithium-titanium disulfide rechargeable cells  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The two-terminal alternating current impedance of Li/TiS2 rechargeable cells was studied as a function of frequency, state-of-charge, and extended cycling. Analysis based on a plausible equivalent circuit model for the Li/TiS2 cell leads to evaluation of kinetic parameters for the various physicochemical processes occurring at the electrode/electrolyte interfaces. To investigate the causes of cell degradation during extended cycling, the parameters evaluated for cells cycled 5 times were compared with the parameters of cells cycled over 600 times. The findings are that the combined ohmic resistance of the electrolyte and electrodes suffers a tenfold increase after extended cycling, while the charge-transfer resistance and diffusional impedance at the TiS2/electrolyte interface are not significantIy affected. The results reflect the morphological change and increase in area of the anode due to cycling. The study also shows that overdischarge of a cathode-limited cell causes a decrease in the diffusion coefficient of the lithium ion in the cathode.

Narayanan, S. R.; Shen, D. H.; Surampudi, S.; Attia, A. I.; Halpert, G.

1993-01-01

389

Options for Monitoring Climate-driven Recharge Changes in Western Mountains  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ground-water supplies have long been used as fallback supplies during droughts and other lean times, and thus it has been natural to view them as fall backs if deficits develop as a result of long-term climate change. However, ground-water supplies may not be immune to detrimental influences from climate changes of the sort projected under the influence of increasing atmospheric greenhouse-gas concentrations. An example of a possible detrimental influence is the potential for significant reductions in mountain-based recharge in the western USA as mountain snowpacks decline in response to warming trends. Most recharge to western aquifers comes from snowmelt and, as snowpacks diminish, opportunities for recharge are at risk of serious declines. A multidisciplinary workshop, funded by the USGS and California Energy Commission, was held in July 2007 to discuss options for long-term monitoring of mountain recharge variations and changes in California and Nevada. The meeting polled hydrologists, geochemists, geophysicists, and biologists about methods for characterizing western recharge fluctuations. In particular, the meeting asked whether current methods exist for characterizing changing recharge rates and mechanisms that could be used in a geographically distributed, long-term monitoring network. Hydrologic methods, including monitoring wells and streambed methods, have been underutilized in mountain-recharge settings and offer important, but at-present uncommon, views of the influences and timing of recharge in western mountains. Among geophysical methods, repeated microgravity measurements appear to hold the most promise for tracking recharge fluctuations. The method has been used to measure recharge episodes on alluvial fans and basin floors, but has not been applied in mountain settings, so protocols and experience are needed prior to widespread mountain deployment. Biological observations at springs and seeps have the potential to provide important evidence of changing hydrologic conditions associated with recharge fluctuations but, to date, have been used thusly mostly at low-altitude springs. Geochemical methods--including major ions, isotopes and dissolved gases--have been used to characterize recharge mechanisms, rates, and pathways in western mountains. Studies to date have focused on characterizing spatial patterns and differences, but repeated sampling over the course of years has the potential to also characterize temporal variations. Although the general sense was that more research would be necessary to design an operational monitoring network using combinations of these methods, several opportunities were identified. In the Sierra Nevada, a number of extensively instrumented research watersheds were identified that do not yet include observations of ground water and recharge. These watersheds could be augmented with wells, streambed sensors, repeat geophysical surveys, and geochemical censuses to help close their water budgets and as opportunities for learning how to use these methods for recharge-variation monitoring. Elsewhere, historical surveys of hydrology, biology, and geochemistry at mountain springs and selected wells/mines in Nevada and California could be repeated regularly as a foundation for detection of recharge changes and as a complement to the kinds of focused studies that may grow from the research watersheds and basins.

Dettinger, M.; Earman, S.

2007-12-01

390

Modelling of groundwater recharge and drought statistics within the framework of a climate impact study in a Mediterranean catchment (Thau Lagoon, France)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

According to current climate projections until the year 2100, Mediterranean countries are likely to be at high risk for decreasing groundwater recharge during the hydrological winter half year as well as increasing drought severity and duration during summer. Thus, the irrigation needs of agricultural land might increase during the vegetation period and will have to be covered regionally specific partially from groundwater resources. This issue seems to be equally important to be investigated compared to the possible future change of the river discharge regime under changed climate conditions. Within the framework of the EU-founded CLIMB project (Climate Induced Changes on the Hydrology of Mediterranean Basins) the water balance model mGROWA (Herrmann, 2013) was applied in order to simulate the water balance within the Thau Lagoon catchment (France) under present and possible future climate conditions. The model was originally developed in order to simulate actual evapotranspiration and runoff components (e.g. groundwater recharge) in daily time-steps and with high spatial resolution (50 m grid). Area-differentiated groundwater recharge and soil water content can be simulated consistently using mGROWA because of an integrated multi-layer soil water module. In the framework of CLIMB, this module has been extended by routines to calculate drought statistics. The mGROWA-model will be briefly introduced and its application to the Thau Lagoon catchment will be presented. At first water balance was simulated for the reference period (1995-2010) based on observed climate data. Special attention will be paid to the simulated temporal variable water content in the root zone and thus to percolation water fluxes and drought statistics. Second, a possible bandwidth of future groundwater recharge (until 2070) is forecasted using climate data from a Regional-Climate-Modell-ensemble (RCM; Deidda, 2013). Three of the four RCM-mGROWA combinations indicate decreasing groundwater recharge up to 25 mm/a until 2070 compared to the reference period 1971-2000, whereas one RCM-mGROWA combination projects a nearly constant level of groundwater recharge for the future. The calculated drought indices however indicate that the frequency and duration of droughts will increase until 2070. References: Deidda R., M. Marrocu, G. Caroletti, G. Pusceddu, A. Langousis, V. Lucarini, M. Puliga, and A. Speranza (2013), Regional climate models' performance in representing precipitation and temperature over selected Mediterranean areas, Hydrology and Earth System Sciences, 17, 5041-5059, doi:10.5194/hess-17-5041-2013 Herrmann, F., Chen, S., Heidt, L., Elbracht, J., Engel, N., Kunkel, R., Mller, U., Rhm, H., Vereecken, H., Wendland, F., 2013. Zeitlich und rumlich hochaufgelste flchendifferenzierte Simulation des Landschaftswasserhaushalts in Niedersachsen mit dem Model mGROWA. Hydrologie und Wasserbewirtschaftung, 57(5): 206-224.

Herrmann, Frank; Baghdadi, Nicolas; Deidda, Roberto; La Jeunesse, Isabelle; Ludwig, Ralf; Sellami, Haykel; Vereecken, Harry; Wendland, Frank

2014-05-01

391

Use of environmental isotope tracer and GIS techniques to estimate basin recharge  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The extensive use of ground water only began with the advances in pumping technology at the early portion of 20th Century. Groundwater provides the majority of fresh water supply for municipal, agricultural and industrial uses, primarily because of little to no treatment it requires. Estimating the volume of groundwater available in a basin is a daunting task, and no accurate measurements can be made. Usually water budgets and simulation models are primarily used to estimate the volume of water in a basin. Precipitation, land surface cover and subsurface geology are factors that affect recharge; these factors affect percolation which invariably affects groundwater recharge. Depending on precipitation, soil chemistry, groundwater chemical composition, gradient and depth, the age and rate of recharge can be estimated. This present research proposes to estimate the recharge in Mimbres, Tularosa and Diablo Basin using the chloride environmental isotope; chloride mass-balance approach and GIS. It also proposes to determine the effect of elevation on recharge rate. Mimbres and Tularosa Basin are located in southern New Mexico State, and extend southward into Mexico. Diablo Basin is located in Texas in extends southward. This research utilizes the chloride mass balance approach to estimate the recharge rate through collection of groundwater data from wells, and precipitation. The data were analysed statistically to eliminate duplication, outliers, and incomplete data. Cluster analysis, piper diagram and statistical significance were performed on the parameters of the groundwater; the infiltration rate was determined using chloride mass balance technique. The data was then analysed spatially using ArcGIS10. Regions of active recharge were identified in Mimbres and Diablo Basin, but this could not be clearly identified in Tularosa Basin. CMB recharge for Tularosa Basin yields 0.04037mm/yr (0.0016in/yr), Diablo Basin was 0.047mm/yr (0.0016 in/yr), and 0.2153mm/yr (0.00848in/yr) for Mimbres Basin. The elevation where active recharge occurs was determined to be 1,500m for Mimbres and Tularosa Basin and 1,200m for Diablo Basin. The results obtained in this study were consistent with result obtained by other researchers working in basins with similar semiarid mountainous conditions, thereby validating the applicability of CMB in the three basins. Keywords: Recharge, chloride mass balance, elevation, Mimbres, Tularosa, Diablo, Basin, GIS, chloride, elevation.

Odunmbaku, Abdulganiu A. A.

392

Structure des ADN complmentaires des lactoprotines : application la recherche des gnes et leur localisation chromosomique  

E-print Network

Structure des ADN complémentaires des lactoprotéines : application à la recherche des gènes et à entrepris. 1) Construction de banques ovine et bovine d ADN complémentaires !ADNcJ. Sélection et identification des clones recombinants contenant les ADN complé- mentaires des ARNm des 6 principales

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

393

PHARMA -Rglement des examens et des jurys 2013-2014 Rglement des examens -Pharma 2013  

E-print Network

PHARMA - Règlement des examens et des jurys 2013-2014 Règlement des examens - Pharma 2013 1 missions décrites dans ce règlement. #12;PHARMA - Règlement des examens et des jurys 2013-2014 Règlement des examens - Pharma 2013 2 UNIVERSITE LIBRE DE BRUXELLES DEPARTEMENT ENSEIGNEMENT SERVICE D

Cerf, Nicolas

394

Artificial-recharge tests in Upper Black Squirrel Creek basin, Jimmy Camp Valley, and Fountain Valley, El Paso County, Colorado  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Artificial-recharge tests were conducted in the alluvium in upper Black Squirrel Creek basin, the alluvium in Jimmy Camp Valley, and in the alluvium overlying the Widefield aquifer which is located in an ancestral channel in Fountain Valley, Colo. Nine artificial-recharge pits with areas of approximately 9,200 square feet each were excavated in the unsaturated zones above the three aquifers. Each artificial-recharge site was instrumented to measure inflow, stage fluctuations, and water-table fluctuations. Artificial-recharge tests of approximately 10 days ' duration were conducted at each of the nine artificial-recharge sites and one extended test of approximately 30 days ' duration was conducted in each of the three study areas. Periphyton growth, present in most of the artificial-recharge ponds, was insufficient to cause noticeable decline in the rate of infiltration. (Woodard-USGS)

Emmons, P.J.

1977-01-01

395

Chloride mass-balance method for estimating ground water recharge in arid areas: Examples from western Saudi Arabia  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The chloride mass-balance method, which integrates time and aerial distribution of ground water recharge, was applied to small alluvial aquifers in the wadi systems of the Asir and Hijaz mountains in western Saudi Arabia. This application is an extension of the method shown to be suitable for estimating recharge in regional aquifers in semi-arid areas. Because the method integrates recharge in time and space it appears to be, with certain assumptions, particularly well suited for and areas with large temporal and spatial variation in recharge. In general, recharge was found to be between 3 to 4% of precipitation - a range consistent with recharge rates found in other arid and semi-arid areas of the earth.

Bazuhair, A.S.; Wood, W.W.

1996-01-01

396

Hydrometeorological daily recharge assessment model (DREAM) for the Western Mountain Aquifer, Israel: Model application and effects of temporal patterns  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recharge is a critical issue for water management. Recharge assessment and the factors affecting recharge are of scientific and practical importance. The purpose of this study was to develop a daily recharge assessment model (DREAM) on the basis of a water balance principle with input from conventional and generally available precipitation and evaporation data and demonstrate the application of this model to recharge estimation in the Western Mountain Aquifer (WMA) in Israel. The WMA (area 13,000 km2) is a karst aquifer that supplies 360-400 Mm3 yr-1 of freshwater, which constitutes 20% of Israel's freshwater and is highly vulnerable to climate variability and change. DREAM was linked to a groundwater flow model (FEFLOW) to simulate monthly hydraulic heads and spring flows. The models were calibrated for 1987-2002 and validated for 2003-2007, yielding high agreement between calculated and measured values (R2 = 0.95; relative root-mean-square error = 4.8%; relative bias = 1.04). DREAM allows insights into the effect of intra-annual precipitation distribution factors on recharge. Although annual precipitation amount explains 70% of the variability in simulated recharge, analyses with DREAM indicate that the rainy season length is an important factor controlling recharge. Years with similar annual precipitation produce different recharge values as a result of temporal distribution throughout the rainy season. An experiment with a synthetic data set exhibits similar results, explaining 90% of the recharge variability. DREAM represents significant improvement over previous recharge estimation techniques in this region by providing near-real-time recharge estimates that can be used to predict the impact of climate variability on groundwater resources at high temporal and spatial resolution.

Sheffer, N. A.; Dafny, E.; Gvirtzman, H.; Navon, S.; Frumkin, A.; Morin, E.

2010-05-01

397

An analytical formulation of two-dimensional groundwater dispersion induced by surficial recharge variability  

USGS Publications Warehouse

A predominant cause of dispersion in groundwater is advective mixing due to variability in seepage rates. Hydraulic conductivity variations have been extensively researched as a cause of this seepage variability. In this paper the effect of variations in surface recharge to a shallow surficial aquifer is investigated as an important additional effect. An analytical formulation has been developed that relates aquifer parameters and the statistics of recharge variability to increases in the dispersivity. This is accomplished by solving Fourier transforms of the small perturbation forms of the groundwater flow equations. Two field studies are presented in this paper to determine the statistics of recharge variability for input to the analytical formulation. A time series of water levels at a continuous groundwater recorder is used to investigate the temporal statistics of hydraulic head caused by recharge, and a series of infiltrometer measurements are used to define the spatial variability in the recharge parameters. With these field statistics representing head fluctuations due to recharge, the analytical formulation can be used to compute the dispersivity without an explicit representation of the recharge boundary. Results from a series of numerical experiments are used to define the limits of this analytical formulation and to provide some comparison. A sophisticated model has been developed using a particle-tracking algorithm (modified to account for temporal variations) to estimate groundwater dispersion. Dispersivity increases of 9 percent are indicated by the analytical formulation for the aquifer at the field site. A comparison with numerical model results indicates that the analytical results are reasonable for shallow surficial aquifers in which two-dimensional flow can be assumed.

Swain, E.D.; Chin, D.A.

2003-01-01

398

Vulnerability of Groundwater Recharge to Climate Change in an Alpine Basin (Martis Valley, California)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Martis Valley's groundwater basin is experiencing increasing water demand and changes in the amount and timing of snowmelt due to climate change. Groundwater is the exclusive water supply for the town of Truckee and its surrounding ski resorts and golf courses. The objective of this study was to examine seasonal variability in the aquifer recharge by analyzing supply wells for: 1) tritium and helium isotopes to determine groundwater sources and age, 2) dissolved noble gases to determine recharge temperatures and excess air concentrations and 3) stable isotopes to determine groundwater sources. Recharge temperatures were found to be similar to mean annual air temperatures at lower elevations, suggesting that most recharge is occurring at lower elevations after equilibrating in the vadose zone. Low levels of excess air found in groundwater confirm that most recharge is occurring in the valley alluvium rather than the mountain block. The mean integrated groundwater flow depth was estimated for each well from the temperature difference between recharge and discharge and the geothermal gradient. Groundwater samples contained large amounts of excess terrigenic helium, from both mantle and radiogenic sources. Terrigenic helium and tritium concentrations were used to reconstruct the mixing between the younger and older groundwater sources. Mantle helium originating from the Polaris Fault was used to trace groundwater flow directions. Higher seasonal variability was found in wells with younger groundwater and shallower flow depths, suggesting that changes in the timing and amount of recharge under warmer climate conditions will rather quickly impact at least a portion of the aquifer system in Martis Valley. This work was performed under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory under Contract DE-AC52-07NA27344.

Visser, A.; Segal, D.; Uristegui, S. H.; Singleton, M. J.; Moran, J. E.; Esser, B. K.

2013-12-01

399

A critical assessment of simple recharge models: application to the UK Chalk  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Quantification of the timing and magnitude of point-scale groundwater recharge is challenging, but possible at specific sites given sufficient high spatial and temporal resolution field observations, and a suitable physically based model. Such models are generally too computationally intensive and have too many unknown parameters to be practically applicable within distributed, larger-scale hydrological or groundwater models. This motivates the need for simpler recharge models, which are widely used within groundwater models. However, it is important that these models are able to capture adequately the unsaturated zone flow processes. We perform an inter-comparison of recharge simulated by a detailed physically based model and a simple recharge model, with both models applied to a field site in the fractured porous Chalk in the UK. Flow processes are simulated convincingly using a dual permeability, equivalent continuum, vertically heterogeneous, Richards' equation model, applied to a 2-D hillslope transect. A simple conventional recharge model was then calibrated to reproduce the water table response simulated by the physically based model. The performance in reproducing the water table was surprisingly good, given the known discrepancies between the actual processes and the model representation. However, comparisons of recharge fluxes simulated by each model highlighted problems with the process representations in the simple model. Specifically, bypass flow events during the summer were compensating for recharge that should have come from slow, continual drainage of the unsaturated zone. Such a model may still be useful for assessment of groundwater resources on a monthly basis, under non-extreme climatic conditions. However, under extreme wet or dry conditions, or under a changed climate the predictive capacity of such models is likely to be inadequate.

Ireson, A. M.; Butler, A. P.

2013-06-01

400

Borehole environmental tracers for evaluating net infiltration and recharge through desert bedrock  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Permeable bedrock aquifers in arid regions are being increasingly developed as water supplies, yet little is generally known about recharge processes and spatial and temporal variability. Environmental tracers from boreholes were used in this study to investigate net infiltration and recharge to the fractured Navajo Sandstone aquifer. Vadose zone tracer profiles at the Sand Hollow study site in southwestern Utah look similar to those of desert soils at other sites, indicating the predominance of matrix flow. However, recharge rates are generally higher in the Navajo Sandstone than in unconsolidated soils in similar climates because the sandstone matrix allows water movement but not root penetration. Water enters the vadose zone either as direct infiltration of precipitation through exposed sandstone and sandy soils or as focused infiltration of runoff. Net infiltration and recharge exhibit extreme spatial variability. High-recharge borehole sites generally have large amounts of vadose zone tritium, low chloride concentrations, and small vadose zone oxygen-18 evaporative shifts. Annual net-infiltration and recharge rates at different locations range from about 1 to 60 mm as determined using vadose zone tritium, 0 to 15 mm using vadose zone chloride, and 3 to 60 mm using groundwater chloride. Environmental tracers indicate a cyclical net-infiltration and recharge pattern, with higher rates earlier in the Holocene and lower rates during the late Holocene, and a return to higher rates during recent decades associated with anomalously high precipitation during the latter part of the 20th century. The slightly enriched stable isotopic composition of modern groundwater indicates this recent increase in precipitation may be caused by a stronger summer monsoon or winter southern Pacific El Nin??o storm track. ?? Soil Science Society of America.

Heilweil, V.M.; Solomon, D.K.; Gardner, P.M.

2006-01-01

401

Spatial variability of chloride deposition in a vegetated coastal area: Implications for groundwater recharge estimation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Knowledge of atmospheric chloride deposition is a prerequisite for applying the chloride mass balance (CMB) method for groundwater recharge estimation. Compared to bare areas, vegetated areas can significantly enhance chloride deposition rates as the vegetation canopy provides a large surface onto which water droplets and aerosols settle. Although generally acknowledged, this effect has often been ignored in practical applications of the CMB method. This paper studies the variability of chloride deposition in a coastal basin characterised by a heterogeneous vegetation cover, and the implications of this variability for groundwater recharge estimation using observation wells in the saturated zone. The study area is located on the Eyre Peninsula in South Australia. The theory of the CMB method for groundwater recharge estimation is revised in the context of highly spatially variable chloride deposition. A GIS-based approach is developed for mapping the chloride deposition accounting for distance from the coast, distribution of vegetation and edge effects; the latter implying a lower chloride deposition inside a vegetation stand than at the edge. In order to quantify the significance of one or several of these effects for recharge estimation, different chloride deposition maps and corresponding recharge estimates are derived. Compared with the reference scenario that accounts for all effects, neglecting the coastal effect results in a 33-36% higher average recharge estimate, whereas neglecting the vegetation effect results in a 17-22% lower average recharge estimate. The latter numbers are likely to represent a lower bound of the impact of neglecting the vegetation effect. A critical factor for accurate determination of the influence of vegetation appears to be the edge effect, albeit its importance is subject to significant uncertainty that warrants further monitoring.

Bresciani, E.; Ordens, C. M.; Werner, A. D.; Batelaan, O.; Guan, H.; Post, V. E. A.

2014-11-01

402

Current Status of the Nitrogen Oxygen Recharge System  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper presents an overview of the Nitrogen Oxygen Recharge System (NORS) to date and the current development status of the system. NORS is an element of the International Space Station (ISS) Environmental Control and Life Support Systems (ECLSS) used to resupply the ISS with Nitrogen and Oxygen following the impending retirement of the Space Shuttle. The paper will discuss why NASA is developing NORS, including a summary of other concepts considered, and other related concepts currently being developed by NASA. The current system architecture will be described, along with a summary of the current design of the NORS. The overall programmatic schedule of the NORS in the context of the upcoming shuttle retirement and future launch vehicle development will also be presented. Finally, the paper will examine the significant technical challenges encountered during the requirements and preliminary design phase of NORS development. A key challenge to the development of NORS is the international shipment - and associated regulations - of pressurized Oxygen, which is necessary due to the use of launch vehicles based in Japan and French Guiana to send NORS gasses to the ISS. The storage and use of relatively large quantities of high pressure (41,000 kPa) Oxygen and Nitrogen within the ISS, which is unprecedented both on the ISS and other space vehicles, has had a significant impact on the design and architecture of the system. The high pressure of the system also poses unique thermal considerations, which has led to the development of a heater system for thermal conditioning of high pressure gas to avoid thermal impacts on downstream hardware. The on-orbit envelope allocated to the NORS has changed (gotten smaller) and has impacted both the design and architecture of the system. Finally, the balance of safety considerations associated with these high pressure gasses, particularly high pressure Oxygen, with the functionality of the system has profoundly impacted the form of the system and will be discussed.

Dick, Brandon

2011-01-01

403

Lithium-Ion rechargeable batteries on Mars Rover  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

NASA's Mars Rovers, Spirit and Opportunity, have been roving on the surface of Mars, capturing impressive images of its terrain and analyzing the drillings from Martian rocks, to answer the ever -puzzling questions of life beyond Earth and origin of our planets. These rovers are being enabled by an advanced rechargeable battery system, lithium-ion, for the first time on a space mission of this scale, for keeping the rover electronics warm, and for supporting nighttime experimentation and communications. These rover Li-ion batteries are characterized by their unique low temperature capability, in addition to the usual advantages associated with Li-ion chemistry in terms of mass, volume and energy efficiency. To enable a rapid insertion of this advanced Li-ion chemistry into flight missions, we have performed several performance assessment studies on several prototype cells over the last few years. These tests mainly focused primarily on the long-term performance characteristics, such as cycling and storage, as described in our companion paper. In addition, various tests have been performed on MER cells and engineering and proto flight batteries; under conditions relevant to these missions. For example, we have examined the performance of the cells in: a) an inverted orientation, as during integration and launch, and b) conditions of low rate discharge, between 3.0-2.5 V to support the mission clock. Likewise, we have determined the impedance of the proto-flight Rover battery assembly unit in detail, with a view to asses whether a current-limiting resistor would be unduly stressed, in the event of a shorting induced by a failed pyro. In this paper we will describe these studies in detail, as well as the performance of Li-ion batteries in Spirit and Opportunity rovers, during cruise and on Mars.

Ratnakumar, B. V.; Smart, M. C.; Ewell, R. C.; Whitcanack, L. D.; Chin, K. B.; Surampudi, S.

2004-01-01

404

Use of the water-table fluctuation method to identify and characterize discrete episodes of positive and zero recharge  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As demand increases for limited water supplies, accurate estimates of groundwater recharge become more important from both a water supply and a water quality perspective. The water table fluctuation (WTF) method is often applied for this purpose. The principle of the WTF method is that recharge is equal to the product of specific yield and the water table rise over a particular time interval or episode. Previous research has demonstrated that recharge estimates based on the WTF method have strong sensitivity to the length of the designated time interval. We have developed a method of choosing time intervals for WTF recharge analysis based on intensity and duration of recharge events, correlating specific events with the rainfall that initiated them. In the absence of recharge, the rate of water-table recession can be taken to have a direct functional relationship with the water-table elevation (H). This relationship is referred to as a master recession curve (MRC). A robust MRC (i.e., one that is accurate over the relevant range of H) is essential for accurate WTF-based estimates of groundwater recharge. Where there is a high degree of subsurface heterogeneity, a simple functional form of the MRC (e.g., one based on the concept of a single pour point) may not accurately represent actual conditions. In a numerical algorithm for determining an MRC, we incorporated consistent criteria which allow the MRC to be based only on data representing receding water-tables during periods of negligible recharge. Another algorithm was created to utilize that MRC in estimations of recharge in an episodic fashion, based on a systematic designation of events, i.e. intervals of recharge and their associated rainfall and intervals of zero recharge, also with associated rainfall. We tested these methods using a data set exhibiting rapid water-table fluctuations at the Masser Site in Pennsylvania. The aquifer medium is a highly fractured sandstone with a small specific yield (0.001 < Sy < 0.013). The depth to the water table is 5-15 m and water level responses to intense rainfall typically occur within several hours. Our method partitions the continuous times series into discrete recharge and non-recharge episodes. Results show that high-intensity precipitation events produce increased recharge to precipitation recharge ratios. Thus, the method has value for predicting how increases in storm intensity resulting from climate change may increase the overall recharge to precipitation ratio.

Horowitz, C.; Nimmo, J. R.; Mitchell, L.

2011-12-01

405

The Significance of Accounting Order for Evapotranspiration and Recharge in Monthly and Daily Threshold-Type Water Budgets  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Most threshold-type water-budget models account for the loss of water by evapotranspiration before accounting for recharge. Recharge estimates can differ substantially, depending on whether recharge is counted before or after evapotranspiration in the water budget. This disparity is the source of uncertainty and is most pronounced for areas where soil-moisture storage capacity is small or for water budgets computed using a large time interval (such as monthly). Water budgets that account for recharge before evapotranspiration provide higher estimates of recharge and lower estimates of evapotranspiration relative to water budgets that account for evapotranspiration before recharge. The choice of accounting method is less significant for a daily computation interval than for a monthly computation interval. In general, uncertainty in recharge estimates is least for water budgets computed using the shortest computation interval that the data allow and that is consistent with the physical processes being represented. If the data only allow for long (weekly or monthly) computation intervals, then selecting the appropriate accounting order for the study area may be critical. For monthly water budgets, accounting for recharge before evapotranspiration is most appropriate in areas where rainfall occurs infrequently, whereas accounting for evapotranspiration before recharge is most appropriate where rainfall occurs relatively uniformly throughout the month.

Oki, Delwyn S.

2008-01-01

406

Compendium of Data for the Hanford Site (Fiscal Years 2004 to 2008) Applicable to Estimation of Recharge Rates  

SciTech Connect

This report is a compendium of recharge data collected in Fiscal Years 2004 through 2008 at various soil and surface covers found and planned in the 200 West and 200 East Areas of the U.S. Department of Energys Hanford Site in southeast Washington State. The addition of these new data to previously published recharge data will support improved estimates of recharge with respect to location and soil cover helpful to evaluations and risk assessments of radioactive and chemical wastes at this site. Also presented are evaluations of the associated uncertainties, limitations, and data gaps in the existing knowledge base for recharge at the Hanford Site.

Nichols, William E.; Rockhold, Mark L.; Downs, Janelle L.

2008-09-24

407

The Hydrometeorological DREAM: A Daily REcharge Assessment Model, for the Israeli Western Mountain Aquifer  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The western part of the Israeli Mountain Aquifer (WMA) supplies 360-400 MCM/y of fresh water to the Israeli water budget, which is approximately 20% of the total consumption. The annually recharge to the WMA is considered to be 25-35% of annual rainfall. The high variability in recharge to the WMA is due to spatial and temporal differences in the rain contributing to the aquifer. Different winters producing the same amount of rain may contribute differently to the aquifer due to the locations of the storms, intensity, duration, dry spells between successive rain events, etc. Moreover, besides the climatic-meteorological factors, the recharge is dependent also on geographical factors, such as lithology, pedology, land-use, slope gradient, slope direction etc. The need for a robust reliable Hydrometeorological Daily basis REcharge Assessment Model (Hydrometeorological DREAM) brought us to develop a model with a relatively high spatial and temporal resolution. The concept is based on a relatively simple water budget that states that rainfall over land is added to the soil, and removed later on by means of evapotranspiration, recharge and runoff. The method in use to date at the Hydrological Service for estimating recharge to the WMA is based on an annual regression curve that can be implemented only after the total annual rainfall is known. The DREAM is a near real time estimator of recharge to the WMA using daily rainfall and pan evaporation data. Comparison of the DREAM results with the annual regression curve show a high agreement on an annual basis. The improvements introduced by the DREAM are: 1) Near real time daily values of infiltration, as opposed to calculated annual values established after the rain season is over. 2) High spatial resolution. The DREAM produces daily recharge values in more than 3000 mesh points throughout the 2200 km2 of recharge area. By linking the DREAM output as input to a hydrogeological model (such as FEFLOW, MODFLOW etc.) a completion of the water cycle can by achieved.

Sheffer, N. A.; Dafny, E.; Gvirtzman, H.; Frumkin, A.; Navon, S.; Morin, E.

2008-05-01

408

Estimation of Relative Recharge Sequence to Groundwater with Minimum Entropy Deconvolution  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Groundwater is widely used as natural resources for the drink, spa, etc., and a supplement to the official and/or natural water supply. In these cases, the establishment of water balance model can provide a safe and effective usage of resources. To establish the appropriate water balance model and the design of water usage, recharge rate must be estimated with an allowed accuracy. For these purposes, many methods were suggested to estimate recharge rate. One of most popular methods in recent years is measuring groundwater age with environmental tracer(Solomon et. al., 1993; Leduc et. al., 1997; Bromley et. al., 1997; Williams, 1997; Ayalon et. al. 1998). Using the distributed environmental tracer, the vertical profile of groundwater age can be composed, and recharge rate can be estimated with the composed profile. Water budget analysis can be the other one of available method(Bradbury and Rushton, 1998; Finch, 1998; Bekesi and McConchie, 1999). However, to explain the expansion of contaminant with temporal variation of unsaturated flow, sequential estimation of recharge must be needed. Unfortunately, it is a very hard work to find out some studies on sequential approaches to estimate the recharge rate to groundwater. Even predictive deconvolution technique was rarely. In general, minimum phase condition, preposition of classical predictive deconvolution, can hardly be satisfied in nature. On the contrary, the input signal in natural system can be considered as a random signal. To avoid the strong restriction of minimum phase condition, Wiggins(1978) proposed minimum entropy deconvolution(MED) with varimax norm. However, solution process with varimax norm is non-linear. For the linearization of MED problem, Carbrelli suggested another criterion, D norm(1984). In this study, MED with D norm was applied to the estimation of the sequence of relative recharge rate, and the applicability of MED to evaluation of recharge sequence was investigated. To check out the applicability of MED to the estimation of relative recharge sequence, synthesized data set and two real data set were applied. To compare the estimated results with source wavelets, cross-correaltion coefficient was adopted. Cross-correaltion in synthesized cases are over 0.9, and in real case with rainfall sequence is 0.73~0.8. The cross correlations in both of two cases indicate that results from MED are the appropriate estimations of recharge sequences.

Kim, T.; Lee, K.

2002-12-01

409

Simulation of recharge for the Death Valley regional groundwater flow system using an integrated hydrologic model  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A proof-of-concept study was conducted using the integrated hydrologic model, GSFLOW, to simulate spatially and temporally distributed recharge for the Death Valley regional groundwater flow system (DVRFS). GSFLOW is an integrated groundwater - surface water flow model that combines two modeling applications: the Precipitation-Runoff-Modeling-System (PRMS) and MODFLOW. Previous methods used to estimate recharge for the DVRFS include empirical models based on precipitation, applications of the chloride mass-balance method, and applications of a precipitation-runoff model, INFIL, which used a daily time step to simulate recharge as net infiltration through the root zone. The GSFLOW model offers several potential advantages compared to the previous methods including (1) the ability to simulate complex flow through a thick unsaturated zone (UZ), allowing for the dampening and time delay of recharge relative to the infiltration signal at the top of the UZ and also allowing for the redistribution of flow within the UZ, as enabled by the MODFLOW-NWT and UZF capabilities, (2) the simulation of rejected recharge in response to the dynamics of groundwater discharge and low permeability zones in the UZ, (3) a more explicit representation of streamflow and recharge processes in the mostly ephemeral stream channels that characterize the DVRFS, and (4) the ability to simulate complex flow paths for runoff occurring as both overland flow and shallow subsurface flow (interflow) in the soil zone using a network of cascades connecting hydrologic response units (HRUs). Simulations were done using a daily time step for water years 1980-2010. Preliminary estimates of recharge using GSFLOW indicate that the distribution of recharge is highly variable both spatially and temporally due to variability in precipitation, snowmelt, evapotranspiration, runoff, and the permeability of bedrock and alluvium underlying the root zone. Results averaged over the areas of subbasins were similar to results obtained from previous studies. However, estimates of recharge on the local scale of the HRUs indicate significant (greater than 100 percent) differences at some locations compared to results obtained using INFIL due to differences in (1) the geometry and scale of HRUs, (2) the layout of the cascading flow network and the location of stream channels, (3) the representation of the physical characteristics of the root zone, and (4) model processes controlling the simulation of evapotranspiration and the movement of water through the root zone.

Hevesi, J. A.; Regan, R. S.; Hill, M. C.; Heywood, C.; Kohn, M. S.

2012-12-01

410

Investigating local variation in groundwater recharge along a topographic gradient, Walnut Creek, Iowa, USA  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Groundwater recharge is an important component to hydrologic studies but is known to vary considerably across the landscape. The purpose of this study was to examine 4 years of water-level behavior in a transect of four water-table wells installed at Walnut Creek, Iowa, USA to evaluate how groundwater recharge varied along a topographic gradient. The amount of daily water-table rise (WTR) in the wells was summed at monthly and annual scales and estimates of specific yield (Sy) were used to convert the WTR to recharge. At the floodplain site, Sy was estimated from the ratio of WTR to total rainfall and in the uplands was based on the ratio of baseflow to WTR. In the floodplain, where the water table is shallow, recharge occurred throughout the year whenever precipitation occurred. In upland areas where the water table was deeper, WTR occurred in a stepped fashion and varied by season. Results indicated that the greatest amount of water-table rise over the 4-year period was observed in the floodplain (379 mm), followed by the upland (211 mm) and sideslopes (122 mm). Incorporating spatial variability in recharge in a watershed will improve groundwater resource evaluation and flow and transport modeling. ?? Springer-Verlag 2008.

Schilling, K.E.

2009-01-01

411

Recharge Data Package for Hanford Single-Shell Tank Waste Management Areas  

SciTech Connect

Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) assists CH2M HILL Hanford Group, Inc., in its preparation of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) Facility Investigation report. One of the PNNL tasks is to use existing information to estimate recharge rates for past and current conditions as well as future scenarios involving cleanup and closure of tank farms. The existing information includes recharge-relevant data collected during activities associated with a host of projects, including those of RCRA, the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA), the CH2M HILL Tank Farm Vadose Zone Project, and the PNNL Remediation and Closure Science Project. As new information is published, the report contents can be updated. The objective of this data package was to use published data to provide recharge estimates for the scenarios being considered in the RCRA Facility Investigation. Recharge rates were estimated for areas that remain natural and undisturbed, areas where the vegetation has been disturbed, areas where both the vegetation and the soil have been disturbed, and areas that are engineered (e.g., surface barrier). The recharge estimates supplement the estimates provided by PNNL researchers in 2006 for the Hanford Site using additional field measurements and model analysis using weather data through 2006.

Fayer, Michael J.; Keller, Jason M.

2007-09-24

412

Estimating 1970-99 average annual groundwater recharge in Wisconsin using streamflow data  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Average annual recharge in Wisconsin for the period 1970-99 was estimated using streamflow data from U.S. Geological Survey continuous-record streamflow-gaging stations and partial-record sites. Partial-record sites have discharge measurements collected during low-flow conditions. The average annual base flow of a stream divided by the drainage area is a good approximation of the recharge rate; therefore, once average annual base flow is determined recharge can be calculated. Estimates of recharge for nearly 72 percent of the surface area of the State are provided. The results illustrate substantial spatial variability of recharge across the State, ranging from less than 1 inch to more than 12 inches per year. The average basin size for partial-record sites (50 square miles) was less than the average basin size for the gaging stations (305 square miles). Including results for smaller basins reveals a spatial variability that otherwise would be smoothed out using only estimates for larger basins. An error analysis indicates that the techniques used provide base flow estimates with standard errors ranging from 5.4 to 14 percent.

Gebert, Warren A.; Walker, John F.; Kennedy, James L.

2011-01-01

413

Areal variation in recharge to and discharge from the Floridan aquifer system in Florida  

USGS Publications Warehouse

This report is a revision and update of existing recharge maps of the Floridan aquifer system to include quantitative information derived from Regional Aquifer Systems Analysis models as well as other recent information and also includes information on discharge from the system. The report represents predevelopment conditions with inset map that describes the change in recharge resulting from development. Recharge is greater in areas where the Floridan is unconfined, poorly confined, or the overlying confining layer is breached by sinkholes, such as is commonly found in the area extending from Tallahassee to Tampa. Discharge from the Floridan is dominated by spring flow. Spring flow is common in the area between Tallahassee and Tampa. Offshore discharge by upward leakage and submarine springs also is an important component of the flow system. Little inflow or outflow occurs from the Floridan in large areas of Florida, including south Florida and the extreme panhandle. The principal factors affecting recharge to the Florida aquifer system are the thickness and hydraulic conductivity of the overlying confining bed. Other factors of importance include the vertical hydraulic gradient, water available for recharge, and aquifer transmissivity. (USGS)

Aucott, Walter R.

1988-01-01

414

Attenuation capacity of a coastal aquifer under managed recharge by reclaimed wastewater  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Managed Aquifer Recharge (MAR) is becoming an increasingly attractive water management option, especially in semiarid areas. Nevertheless, field studies on the fate and transport of priority substances, heavy metals and pharmaceutical products within the recharged aquifer are rare. Based on the above, the objective of this project is to study the hydrological conditions of the coastal aquifer of Ezousa (Cyprus) and its ability to attenuate pollutants. The Ezousa riverbed is a locally important aquifer used for a MAR project where treated effluent from the Paphos Waste Water Treatment Plant is recharged into the aquifer through a number of artificial ponds along the riverbed. Additionally, groundwater is pumped for irrigation purposes from wells located nearby. The hydrological conditions of the area are unique due to the construction of the Kannaviou dam in 2005 that reduced natural recharge of the Ezousa aquifer significantly, inducing the saltwater intrusion phenomenon. A three-dimensional finite element model of the area was constructed using the FEFLOW software to simulate the groundwater flow conditions and transport of Phosphorous and cooper in the subsurface from the recharge process. The model was calibrated using hydraulic head and chemical data for the time period of 2002-2011. The groundwater model was coupled with a geochemical model PHREEQC attempting to evaluate nitrate and Copper processes. Inverse modeling calculation was used to determine sets of moles transfers of phases that are attributed to the water composition change in groundwater between the mixture of natural groundwater and reclaimed wastewater and the final water composition.

Christodoulou, George; Dokou, Zoi; Tzoraki, Ourania; Gaganis, Petros; Karatzas, George

2013-08-01

415

Seasonal variation of high elevation groundwater recharge as indicator of climate response  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

High elevation groundwater basins in the western United States are facing changes in the amount and timing of snowmelt due to climate change. The objective of this study is to examine seasonal variability in a high elevation aquifer (Martis Valley Watershed near Truckee, CA) by analyzing (1) tritium and helium isotopes to determine groundwater sources and age, (2) dissolved noble gases to determine recharge temperatures and excess air concentrations. Recharge temperatures calculated at pressures corresponding to well head elevations are similar to mean annual air temperatures at lower elevations of the watershed, suggesting that most recharge is occurring at these elevations, after equilibrating in the vadose zone. The groundwater flow depth required to increase the water temperature from the recharge temperature to the discharge temperature was calculated for each well assuming a typical geothermal gradient. Groundwater samples contain large amounts of excess helium from terrigenic sources, including mantle helium and radiogenic helium. Terrigenic helium and tritium concentrations are used to determine the amount of mixing between the younger and older groundwater sources. Many of the wells sampled show a mix of groundwater ages ranging from >1000s of years old to groundwater with tritium concentrations that are in agreement with tritium in modern day precipitation. Higher seasonal variability found in wells with younger groundwater and shallower flow depths indicates that the recent recharge most vulnerable to climate impacts helps to supplement the older, less sustainable waters in the aquifer during periods of increased production.

Segal, Daniel C.; Moran, Jean E.; Visser, Ate; Singleton, Michael J.; Esser, Bradley K.

2014-11-01

416

Recharge assessment in an urban area: a case study of La Plata, Argentina  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Leakage from water mains, storm drainage and sewer systems in urban areas constitutes a source of recharge that is difficult to identify and quantify at a regional scale. The objective of this work is to apply a methodology that would make it possible to evaluate urban recharge at a regional scale, taking as a case study the city of La Plata (Argentina). In the study area, population growth and an increase in water demand has caused the intensive exploitation of groundwater with resulting alteration in groundwater flow. The methodology used was developed on the basis of a water balance and the simulation of the temporal evolution of the cones of depression and the volumes of water extracted from the aquifer. The method consists of adjusting the piezometry resulting from the numerical modelling to the measured piezometry, by means of the variation of the recharge parameter in the urban area. The results obtained make it possible to identify and quantify urban recharge, which in this case represents a volume of water similar to the recharge from precipitation.

Kruse, Eduardo; Carol, Eleonora; Mancuso, Malva; Laurencena, Patricia; Deluchi, Marta; Rojo, Adolfo

2013-08-01

417

Potential Groundwater Recharge from the Infiltration of Surface Runoff in Cold and Dry Creeks, Phase 2  

SciTech Connect

Runoff from Cold and Dry Creeks may provide an important source of groundwater recharge on the Hanford Site. This report presents estimates of total volume and distribution of such recharge from extreme precipitation events. Estimates were derived using a simple approach that combined the Soil Conservation Service curve number runoff method and an exponential-decay channel infiltration model. Fifteen-minute streamflow data from four gaging stations, and hourly precipitation data from one climate station, were used to compute curve numbers and calibrate the infiltration model. All data were from several storms occurring during January 1995. Design storm precipitation depths ranging from 1.6 to 2.7 inches were applied with computed curve numbers to produce total runoff/recharge of 7,700 to 15,900 ac-ft, or approximately 10 times the average annual rate from this recharge source as determined in a previous study. Approximately two-thirds of the simulated recharge occurred in the lower stream reaches contained in the broad alluvial valley that parallels State Highway 240 near the Hanford 200 Area.

Waichler, Scott R.

2005-12-13

418

The ophiolite of the Eohellenic nappe in the island of Skyros, Greece: Geotectonic environment of formation and metamorphic conditions inferred by mineralogical and geochemical data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The island of Skyros is located in the Sporades-Aegean region. It includes an ophiolitic mlange sequence consisting of serpentinites, gabbroic and doleritic rocks, and also lavas which mostly appear in massive form, but in rare cases as deformed pillows. The ophiolitic mlange sequence also includes rodingites, ophicalcites, as well as radiolarites. This formation belongs to the Eohellenic tectonic nappe, which encompasses marbles, sandstones and schists and was emplaced onto the Pelagonian Zone during Early Cretaceous [1, 2]. Serpentinites were most likely formed after serpentinization of harzburgitic protoliths and consist of serpentine, bastite, spinel and magnetite. The chemistry of spinels (TiO2=0.14-0.25 wt.%, Al2O3=35.1-35.21 wt.%, Cr#=37.38-38.87), shows that the harzburgitic protoliths plausibly resemble back-arc basin peridotites [3]. Gabbros and dolerites present mostly subophitic textures, between the hornblende/clinopyroxene and plagioclase grains. Based upon their petrography and on their mineral chemistry hornblendes have been distinguished into magmatic and metamorphic hornblendes, with the first occurring mostly in gabbroic rocks. Magmatic hornblendes exhibit relatively high TiO2 (1.42-1.62 wt.%), Al2O3 (5.11-5.86 wt.%) and Na2O (1.01-1.09 wt.%) contents, with their presence implying that the magma was at least to some degree hydrous. Lavas are tholeiitic basalts with relatively high FeOt?12 wt.% and low K2O and Th contents, consisting mostly albite, altered clinopyroxene and devitrified glass. Tectonomagmatic discrimination diagrams [4, 5] illustrate that the studied gabbros and lavas of Skyros are most likely associated with SSZ processes. Gabbroic rocks, subvolcanic dolerites and lavas have been subjected to greenschist/subgreenschist metamorphic processes, as confirmed by the presence of secondary amphiboles (metamorphic hornblende, actinolite/tremolite), epidote, pumpellyite and chlorite in all of the studied samples. On the other hand, the occurrence of rodingites and ophicalcites clearly point to interaction of the gabbroic rocks and serpentinites with hydrothermal fluids, which most probably took place during the stage of exhumation and tectonic emplacement. Ophicalcites contain serpentine, calcite, magnetite, as well as rare pyroxene and spinel. Rodingites on their behalf include hydroandradite (Alm0.00Adr61.33-67.43Grs28.25-35.18Prp0.10-2.49Sps0.00-0.33Uv0.41-2.75), vesuvianite (MgO=2.78-3.33 wt.%; TiO2=0.02-0.59 wt.%) diopside neoblasts (En48.53-49.89Wo47.56-48.10Fs2.32-3.33; Mg#=93.96-96.28), chlorite and also accessory prehnite. Some small-sized Cr-bearing hydrogarnet crystals (Cr2O3=10.34 wt.%) were most likely formed at the expense of spinel. The types of hydrogarnet and vesuvianite crystals are highly indicative for the involvement of subduction-related fluids during the formation of the rodingites [6]. References: [1] Jacobshagen & Wallbrecher 1984: Geol. Soc., London, Sp. Pub. 17, 591-602, [2] Pe-Piper 1991: Ofioliti, 16, 111 - 120, [3] Kamenetsky Sobolev, Joron & Semet 2001: J Petrol 42, 655-671, [4] Agrawal, Guevara & Verma 2008: Intern. Geol. Rev. 50, 1057-1079, [5] Pearce & Cann 1973: Earth Plan. Sci. Lett. 19, 290-300, [6] Koutsovitis, Magganas, Pomonis & Ntaflos 2013. Lithos 172-173, 139-157.

Karkalis, Christos; Magganas, Andreas; Koutsovitis, Petros

2014-05-01

419

Role of brittle deformation during the initiation of ductile HP-LT shear zone in a metarhyolite (Suretta nappe, Eastern Central Alps).  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Although ductile shear zones are common deformation structures in the middle to deep continental lithosphere, the initiation of such structures among homogeneous and isotropic protolith (e.g. granitoid bodies) is still a matter of debate. Indeed, the lack of consensus concerns the presence and the nature of a preexisting heterogeneity (structural or compositional, such as dykes, joints or cracks). This is mainly due to the lack of observation of preserved precursors, which, if they were present initially, are generally obliterated by subsequent intense deformation. Different conceptual models require a structural precursor, which enables fluids to flow and promotes metamorphic and metasomatic reactions via fluid-rock interactions. Those fluid-rock interactions are commonly presented as a key factor controlling strain localization or lateral propagation. The main goal of this contribution is to present the first observations, to our knowledge, of a preserved brittle precursor of a millimeter scale shear zone under blueschist facies metamorphic conditions. This work provides new evidences into how ductile shear zones occurring within homogeneous and isotropic protolith nucleate and develop. The present study exposes shear zones from the Roffna metarhyolite, a subvolcanic intrusion representing most of the northern part of the Suretta nappe (Penninic domain, Eastern Central Alps). This early Permian massif intruded an older basement and was affected only by Tertiary Alpine tectonics. The heterogeneous strain pattern consists, at all scales of anastomosing shear zones surrounding lenses of nearly undeformed rocks The investigated outcrop is characterized by the presence of a shear zone network from millimetric to plurimetric scale developed under blueschist facies conditions related to continental subduction of the European plate. A combined study including field observations, EBSD analysis, SEM-CL and conventional imaging together with thermodynamic modeling of phase relations allow us to decipher the interplay between brittle and ductile deformation at the onset of shear zone development. At First, the field study shows that the strain pattern defined by millimeter to centimeter wide brittle precusors is identical with the strain pattern defined by plurimeter scale mature shear zones. This suggests that the initiation of the shear zone, via brittle deformation occurs in the same strain field as the development and widening of the shear zone under ductile conditions. Microtextural observations also clearly indicate a brittle component during the shear zone formation. An analysis of the chemical composition of white mica, biotite and epidote, which crystallize within the precursor, confirms that the crystallization of these phases has taken place under blueschist facies metamorphic conditions (T ? 450C and P ? 10 kbar) although deformation was brittle. Moreover, high resolution X-ray mapping of the precursor shows that the rock in the vicinity of the precursor has undergone mass transfer, suggesting that fluid-rock interactions occurred during the first stage of the shear zone initiation and are not restricted only to the stage of shear zone widening. Our observations confirm that ductile shear zones in the Roffna metarhyolite developed from a non-inherited brittle precursor involving a brittle-to-ductile behavior evolution under blueschist metamorphic facies conditions.

Poilvet, Jean-Charles; Goncalves, Philippe; Oliot, Emilien; Marquer, Didier

2014-05-01

420

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Chiao, Jung-Chih

421

2/17/2014 TechnologyUses Micro-Windmills to Recharge Cell Phones http://powerelectronics.com/print/blog/technology-uses-micro-windmills-recharge-cell-phones?group_id=17022 1/2  

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Chiao, Jung-Chih

422

1/14/14 Technologyuses micro-windmills to recharge cell phones www.rdmag.com/print/news/2014/01/technology-uses-micro-windmills-recharge-cell-phones 1/3  

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Chiao, Jung-Chih