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1

Comment valuer les services rendus par les rseaux d'irrigation ? Application au cas de la recharge de nappe  

E-print Network

recharge de nappe Les réseaux d'irrigation gravitaires du Sud de la France sont souvent confrontés à des : assainissement pluvial, recharge des nappes... Une méthode d'évaluation économique des externalités produites par, recharge des nappes, lutte contre les inondations et feux de forêts, support d'activités récréatives (Ladki

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

2

Production des prairies permanentes irrigues de Crau et recharge des nappes : tude des relations production/irrigation/drainage en conditions de changement global  

E-print Network

relations production/irrigation/drainage en conditions de changement global Françoise Ruget et Albert par le drainage. Le sujet est composé d'une partie analytique sur deux points qui nécessitent d en conditions irriguées, drainage, recharge de la nappe, Crau, changement climatique #12;

Naud Frédéric

3

TUDE EXPRIMENTALE DES COURANTS DE CONVECTION DANS UNE NAPPE LIQUIDE. 2014 RGIME PERMANENT : TOURBILLONS CELLULAIRES;  

E-print Network

513 ?TUDE EXP?RIMENTALE DES COURANTS DE CONVECTION DANS UNE NAPPE LIQUIDE. 2014 R?GIME PERMANENT convection dans une nappe liquide horizontale : seulement ce sera dans toute l'étendue de la surface de vertical uniforme. Quant à la surface de niveau supérieure de la nappe liquide, on est obligé, pour pouvoir

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

4

Modlisation du transfert des nitrates couple avec une analyse socioconomique afin de donner les outils pour la gestion des eaux souterraines. Application la nappe alluviale de  

E-print Network

outils pour la gestion des eaux souterraines. Application à la nappe alluviale de la plaine de l hydrogéochimique des eaux et la modélisation du transfert des nitrates dans la nappe et ii) une approche en 2009. Le modèle BICHE de transfert des nitrates des sols vers la nappe au travers

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

5

Mcanismes associs la formation des nappes perches du Sud de l'le-de-France  

E-print Network

1 Mécanismes associés à la formation des nappes perchées du Sud de l'?le-de-France Gérard 7179, 4 avenue du Petit-Château, 91800 Brunoy, France Résumé Les mécanismes de formation des nappes outre, au cours de cette même période des mesures ont été réalisées sur les nappes phréatiques, en

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

6

Identification et quantification des changes nappes/rivire par analyse spatiale : Contexte de donnes fragmentes et htrognes.  

E-print Network

1 Identification et quantification des échanges nappes/rivière par analyse spatiale : Contexte de-Etienne Cedex 2 E-mail : paran@emse.fr ; dechomets@emse.fr ; graillot@emse.fr Mots clefs : Echanges nappes « Evaluation des échanges nappes/rivière et de la part des apports souterrains dans l'alimentation des eaux de

Boyer, Edmond

7

Remplissages marins successifs, palocnes et ocnes, de palokarsts polyphass dans les calcaires crtacs des nappes de l'Empord (Pyrnes  

E-print Network

crétacés des nappes de l'Empordà (Pyrénées Catalanes, Espagne) : relations tectonique Catalanes, Espagne Résumé. ­ En Catalogne espagnole (Province de Girona), le matériel mésozoïque des nappes pyrénéennes de l'Empordà les plus méridionales (nappes de Montgrí et de Figueres), mises en place durant l

Demouchy, Sylvie

8

ESTIMATION DES VOLUMES D'EAU POMPS DANS LA NAPPE POUR L'IRRIGATION (PLAINE DU hAOUz, MARRAKECh,  

E-print Network

?preuve ESTIMATION DES VOLUMES D'EAU POMP?S DANS LA NAPPE POUR L'IRRIGATION (PLAINE DU h Estimation of groundwater volumes pumped for irrigation (Haouz Plain, Marrakesh, Morocco). Comparison croissant à l'irrigation. L'objectif principal de cette étude est la détermination des volumes d'eau pompés

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

9

Colloque Eau, Dchets et Dveloppement Durable, 28 31 mars 2010, Alexandrie, Egypte Caractrisation spatio-temporelle des changes nappes/rivire  

E-print Network

Caractérisation spatio-temporelle des échanges nappes/rivière à l'échelle de deux grands fleuves français, 2005). De plus, une telle problématique visant à caractériser spatialement les échanges nappes nappes phréatiques, patrimoine souterrain et invisible, et plus généralement à la préservation de la

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

10

Mmoires de Gologie (Lausanne) La nappe de Morcles  

E-print Network

Mémoires de Géologie (Lausanne) La nappe de Morcles au sud-ouest du Mont-Blanc par Jean-Luc Epard;Université de Lausanne Faculté des Sciences Institut de Géologie et de Paléontologie La napp de Morcles au provenant de la nappe de Roselette. Je remercie tous ces spécialistes de leur aide précieuse. Je sais gré à

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

11

[Gologie Alpine, t. 45, 1969, p. 5-204] La zone du Flysch dans les nappes  

E-print Network

[Géologie Alpine, t. 45, 1969, p. 5-204] La « zone du Flysch » dans les nappes de TEmbrunais : SCH?MA STRUCTURAL DES NAPPES DE LEMBRUNATS UBAYE, DE LEUR SOUBASSEMENT ET DES R?GIONS VOISINES. I revers italien de l'Argen- tera. 3) Flysch à Helminthoïdes et écailles basales. A) Nappe de l'Autapie. B

Boyer, Edmond

12

COULEMENT PERMANENT D'UNE NAPPE LIBRE DANS UNE STRATE FAIBLEMENT INCLINE  

E-print Network

?COULEMENT PERMANENT D'UNE NAPPE LIBRE DANS UNE STRATE FAIBLEMENT INCLIN?E Robert P. Chapuis 1 1 idéale à nappe libre, inclinée, rechargée par infiltration efficace. Une équation de conservation moyenne de la nappe quand l'infiltration efficace prend la valeur moyenne établie sur une base annuelle, l

Aubertin, Michel

13

Bull. Soc. gol. Fr., 2008, no The alkaline intraplate volcanism of the Antalya nappes (Turkey): a Late  

E-print Network

Bull. Soc. géol. Fr., 2008, no 4 The alkaline intraplate volcanism of the Antalya nappes (Turkey belonging to the Kara Dere ­ Sayrun unit of the Middle Antalya nappes, southwestern Turkey. New with their emplacement in an in- tra-oceanic setting. Le volcanisme alcalin intraplaque des nappes d'Antalya (Turquie

Demouchy, Sylvie

14

Nappes et sous-varietes. 2.1 Nappes.  

E-print Network

Chapitre 2 Nappes et sous-vari´et´es. 2.1 Nappes. Apr`es les courbes on voudrait ´etudier les`eres. La matrice A d´efinie par A = fi xj (x) 1id 1jd 17 #12;18 CHAPITRE 2. NAPPES ET SOUS-VARI´ET´ES. est

Mounoud, Pierre

15

Cbles electriques - Calcul du courant admissible - Partie 1: Equations de l'intensit du courant admissible (facteur de charge 100%) et calcul des pertes - Section 2: Facteurs de pertes par courants de Foucault dans les gaines dans le cas de deux circuits disposs en nappe  

E-print Network

Cbles electriques - Calcul du courant admissible - Partie 1: Equations de l'intensit du courant admissible (facteur de charge 100%) et calcul des pertes - Section 2: Facteurs de pertes par courants de Foucault dans les gaines dans le cas de deux circuits disposs en nappe

International Electrotechnical Commission. Geneva

1993-01-01

16

Estimation of groundwater recharge using the chloride mass-balance method, Pingtung Plain, Taiwan  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Due to rapid economic growth in the Pingtung Plain of Taiwan, the use of groundwater resources has changed dramatically. Over-pumping of the groundwater reservoir, which lowers hydraulic heads in the aquifers, is not only affecting the coastal area negatively but has serious consequences for agriculture throughout the plain. In order to determine the safe yield of the aquifer underlying the plain, a reliable estimate of groundwater recharge is desirable. In the present study, for the first time, the chloride mass-balance method is adopted to estimate groundwater recharge in the plain. Four sites in the central part were chosen to facilitate the estimations using the ion-chromatograph and Thiessen polygon-weighting methods. Based on the measured and calculated results, in all sites, including the mountain and river boundaries, recharge to the groundwater is probably 15% of the annual rainfall, excluding recharge from additional irrigation water. This information can improve the accuracy of future groundwater-simulation and management models in the plain. Rsum Du fait de la croissance conomique rapide de la plaine de Pingtung Taiwan, l'utilisation des ressources en eau souterraine s'est considrablement modifi. La surexploitation des aquifres, qui a abaiss le niveau des nappes, n'affecte pas seulement la rgion ctire, mais a de srieuses rpercutions sur l'agriculture dans toute la plaine. Afin de dterminer les ressources renouvelables de l'aquifre sous la plaine, une estimation prcise de la recharge de la nappe est ncessaire. Dans cette tude, le taux de recharge de la nappe a d'abord t estim au moyen d'un bilan de matire de chlorure. Quatre sites de la partie centrale ont t slectionns pour raliser ces estimations, l'aide d'un chromatographe ionique et de la mthode des polygones de Thiessen. A partir des rsultats mesurs et calculs, chaque site, et en prenant comme limites les montagnes et les rivires, la recharge de la nappe a tvalue environ 15% des prcipitations annuelles, sans tenir compte de la recharge par le retour d'irrigation. Ce rsultat doit permettre de tester la prcision de la simulation de nappe qui va tre faite, ainsi que les modles de gestion de la plaine. Resumen Debido al rpido crecimiento econmico de la zona de la Llanura de Pingtung, Taiwan, el uso de los recursos de agua subterrnea ha cambiado radicalmente. La sobreexplotacin, con el consiguiente descenso de los niveles piezomtricos en los acuferos, no slo afecta las reas costeras, sino que est teniendo consecuencias importantes para la agricultura de la zona. Para determinar la extraccin sostenible en el acufero, es deseable una buena estimacin de la recarga. En este estudio se adopta por primera vez el mtodo de balance de cloruros para estimar la recarga en el llano. Se seleccionaron cuatro puntos en la parte central para facilitar las estimaciones mediante los mtodos de cromatgrafo inico y de polgonos de Thiessen. A partir de los resultados medidos y calculados en toda la zona, e incluyendo los contornos de montaas y ros, la recarga subterrnea es de cerca del 15% de la precipitacin anual, excluyendo la recarga que se produce por riego adicional. Este dato permitir mejorar la precisin de los modelos de simulacin de flujo y de gestin que se realizarn en el futuro.

Ting, Cheh-Shyh; Kerh, Tienfuan; Liao, Chiu-Jung

17

Mouvements actuels des blocs tectoniques dans l'arc Btico-Rifain partir des mesures GPS entre 1999 et 2005  

E-print Network

'amortissent des nappes du Rif vers l'avant-pays. Pour citer cet article : A. Tahayt et al., C. R. Geoscience 340) the Oriental Rif block undergoing clockwise rotation. GPS-derived motions decrease in rate from the Rif nappes

Demouchy, Sylvie

18

B a n q u e A f r i c a i n e d e D v e l o p p e m e n t Usage agricole des eaux  

E-print Network

des nappes pour l'agriculture p.6 3 ­ Stratégie des agriculteurs face aux impacts de l'usage non durable des nappes p.7 4 ­ Risques associés à l'usage non durable des nappes p.8 5 ­ Dispositifs ­ Pistes de réflexion pour une économie agricole fondée sur l'usage durable des nappes et qui prenne en

Boyer, Edmond

19

Confrence internationale Hydrologie des rgions mditerranennes et semi-arides , ENSA, Montpellier 1-4 avril 2003.  

E-print Network

, 107% pour les nappes phréatiques et 75% pour les nappes profondes (Continental intercalaire et la nappe moins profonde du complexe terminal). Les zones sahariennes de l'est algérien (Biskra, El Oued, Oued Righ, Ouargla) connaissent aussi une intensification des pompages dans les nappes profondes

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

20

Optimisation de procds de BIOdpollution des eaux souterraines contamines par des hydrocarbures par un monitoring  

E-print Network

BIOPHY est de développer une nouvelle filière de traitement in situ de nappe basée sur : le surveillance (géophysiques et d'analyse de gaz) pour optimiser des bio-traitements de sol et de nappe de la dépollution des nappes d'eau souterraine, contaminées par des mélanges de composés organiques d

Demouchy, Sylvie

21

Dixneuvimes journes techniques du Comit Franais d'Hydrogologie de l'Association Internationale des Hydrogologues.  

E-print Network

nappes du Sud des Charentes sont soumises à une forte pression visàvis des prélèvements (pour l'irrigation en particulier) qui peuvent impacter significativement les niveaux d'eau dans les nappes mais (aquifère) ; le Cénomanien basal et le Jurassique Supérieur. Les nappes étant en relation

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

22

APPORT DE LA GOLOGIE, DE L'HYDROGOLOGIE ET DES ISOTOPES DE L'ENVIRONNEMENT LA CONNAISSANCE  

E-print Network

«NAPPES EN CREUX» DU GRAND YA?R? (NORD CAMEROUN) Contribution of geology, hydrogeology and environmentalLogone-Chari-Tchad met en évidence des anomalies piézométriques interprétées comme des « nappes en creux ». Les nappes superficielles biseautent sur un substratum semi-perméable. Ces nappes sont caractérisées par des

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

23

Etat des connaissances sur les effets du changement climatique  

E-print Network

) Déficit de débits et assèchement des nappes (sécheresse hydrologique) Evapotranspiration Cycle de l) Déficit de débits et assèchement des nappes (sécheresse hydrologique) Evapotranspiration Cycle de l météorologique) Déficit de débits et assèchement des nappes (sécheresse hydrologique) Evapotranspiration Cycle de

Ribes, Aurélien

24

Groundwater recharge and chemical evolution in the southern High Plains of Texas, USA  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The unconfined High Plains (Ogallala) aquifer is the largest aquifer in the USA and the primary water supply for the semiarid southern High Plains of Texas and New Mexico. Analyses of water and soils northeast of Amarillo, Texas, together with data from other regional studies, indicate that processes during recharge control the composition of unconfined groundwater in the northern half of the southern High Plains. Solute and isotopic data are consistent with a sequence of episodic precipitation, concentration of solutes in upland soils by evapotranspiration, runoff, and infiltration beneath playas and ditches (modified locally by return flow of wastewater and irrigation tailwater). Plausible reactions during recharge include oxidation of organic matter, dissolution and exsolution of CO2, dissolution of CaCO3, silicate weathering, and cation exchange. Si and 14C data suggest leakage from perched aquifers to the High Plains aquifer. Plausible mass-balance models for the High Plains aquifer include scenarios of flow with leakage but not reactions, flow with reactions but not leakage, and flow with neither reactions nor leakage. Mechanisms of recharge and chemical evolution delineated in this study agree with those noted for other aquifers in the south-central and southwestern USA. Rsum. L'aquifre libre des Hautes Plaines (Ogallala) est le plus vaste aquifre des tats-Unis et la ressource de base pour l'eau potable de la rgion semi-aride du sud des Hautes Plaines du Texas et du Nouveau-Mexique. Des analyses de l'eau et des sols prlevs au nord-est d'Amarillo (Texas), associes des donnes provenant d'autres tudes dans cette rgion, indiquent que des processus intervenant au cours de l'infiltration contrlent la composition de l'eau de la nappe libre dans la moiti septentrionale du sud des Hautes Plaines. Les donnes chimiques et isotopiques sont compatibles avec une squence de prcipitation pisodique, avec la reconcentration en soluts dans les sols des hautes terres par vapotranspiration, avec le ruissellement et l'infiltration dans les playas et les fosss (modifie localement par l'coulement en retour des eaux uses et des laisses d'irrigation). Des ractions probables intervenant au cours de la recharge sont l'oxydation de la matire organique, la dissolution et le dgazage du CO2, la dissolution du CaCO3, l'altration des silicates et l'change de cations. Les donnes concernant Si et 14C laissent penser qu'il existe une drainance descendante partir d'aquifres perchs vers l'aquifre des Hautes Plaines. Des modles vraisemblables de bilan de matire pour l'aquifre des Hautes Plaines prennent en compte des scnarios d'coulement avec drainance mais sans ractions, des coulements avec ractions mais sans drainance et des coulements sans ractions ni drainance. Les mcanismes de recharge et d'volution chimique dtermins dans cette tude sont en accord avec ceux mis en vidence dans d'autres aquifres du centre sud et du sud-ouest des tats-Unis. Resumen. El acufero libre de High Plains (Ogallala) es el mayor de los Estados Unidos y supone la fuente principal de abastecimiento en la regin semirida del sur de High Plains (Texas) y de Nuevo Mxico. Los anlisis de agua y suelos realizados al nordeste de Amarillo (Texas), junto con los datos de otros estudios regionales, indican que los procesos que tienen lugar durante la recarga del acufero controlan la composicin de las aguas subterrneas en la mitad septentrional de los High Plains del Sur. Los datos isotpicos y hidroqumicos son coherentes con una secuencia de episodios de precipitacin, concentracin de solutos en la parte superior del suelo por evapotranspiracin, escorrenta, e infiltracin a travs de 'playas' y zanjas (modificadas localmente por los flujos de retorno de aguas residuales y de excedentes de riego).

Fryar, Alan; Mullican, William; Macko, Stephen

2001-11-01

25

Downstream of downtown: urban wastewater as groundwater recharge  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Wastewater infiltration is often a major component of overall recharge to aquifers around urban areas, especially in more arid climates. Despite this, such recharge still represents only an incidental (or even accidental) byproduct of various current practices of sewage effluent handling and wastewater reuse. This topic is reviewed through reference to certain areas of detailed field research, with pragmatic approaches being identified to reduce the groundwater pollution hazard of these practices whilst attempting to retain their groundwater resource benefit. Since urban sewage effluent is probably the only `natural resource' whose global availability is steadily increasing, the socioeconomic importance of this topic for rapidly developing urban centres in the more arid parts of Asia, Africa, Latin America and the Middle East will be apparent. L'infiltration des eaux uses est souvent la composante essentielle de toute la recharge des aquifres des zones urbaines, particulirement sous les climats les plus arides. Malgr cela, une telle recharge ne constitue encore qu'un sous-produit incident, ou mme accidentel, de pratiques courantes varies du traitement de rejets d'gouts et de rutilisation d'eaux uses. Ce sujet est pass en revue en se rfrant certaines rgions tudies en dtail, par des approches pragmatiques reconnues pour permettre de rduire les risques de pollution des nappes dues ces pratiques tout en permettant d'en tirer profit pour leur ressource en eau souterraine. Puisque les effluents d'gouts urbains sont probablement la seule ressource naturelle dont la disponibilit globale va croissant constamment, l'importance socio-conomique de ce sujet est vidente pour les centres urbains dveloppement rapide de l'Asie, de l'Afrique, de l'Amrique latine et du Moyen-Orient. La infiltracin de aguas residuales es a menudo un componente principal de la recarga total en acuferos ubicados en torno a zonas urbanas, especialmente en los climas ms ridos. A pesar de ello, dicho componente todava es una consecuencia secundaria (o incluso accidental) de diversas prcticas asociadas con la manipulacin de las aguas residuales y con la reutilitzacin de aguas depuradas. Este tema se revisa mediante referencias a ciertas reas en las que existen investigacin detallada de campo, identificando enfoques pragmticos con el fin de reducir el riesgo de contaminacin de las aguas subterrneas por tales prcticas, a la vez tratando de conservar los beneficios para los recursos del acufero. Dado que los efluentes de aguas residuales urbanas son probablemente la nica `fuente natural' cuya disponibilidad global se halla en del aumento, la importancia socioeconmica de este tema ser evidente para los centros urbanos de rpido desarrollo en Asia, Latinoamrica y Oriente Medio.

Foster, S. S. D.; Chilton, P. J.

26

Gologie Alpine, Mm. h.s. n015, .1990 CARTOGRAPHIE AUTOMATISEE DES ZONES A HAUTS RISQUES NATURELS  

E-print Network

l'agglomération seillannaise est constituée de nappes de cailloutis récents, parfois colluvionnés l'importance du volume des nappes est limité par les dimensions de la couche aquifère. Les nappes rarement on constate tine alimentation des nappes par les rivières. b) Les formations calcaires et

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

27

Introduction et chapitre 1 de la TH`ESE 1 DEVANT L'UNIVERSITE DE RENNES 1  

E-print Network

`ESE : ´Etude des mécanismes hydrologiques et biogéochimiques de la recharge des nappes à surface libre Soutenue et le chapitre 1 "La recharge des nappes libres" d'une thèse en 6 chapitres. tel-00130462,version1 mécanismes hydrologiques et biogéochimiques de la recharge des nappes à surface libre. La recharge des nappes

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

28

HABILITATION A DIRIGER DES RECHERCHES Universit Toulouse III -Paul Sabatier  

E-print Network

sens physique s'exprime jusque sur les nappes des restaurants, un peu comme des notes qui pétillent sur gribouillis sur ces fameuses nappes et nos longues conversations. Merci pour ta grande générosité. Même si mes

Ribes, Aurélien

29

RESEARCH ARTICLE L. Ciannelli R. D. Brodeur J. M. Napp  

E-print Network

RESEARCH ARTICLE L. Ciannelli ? R. D. Brodeur ? J. M. Napp Foraging impact on zooplankton by age-0 Marine Science Center, NOAA/Northwest Fisheries Science Center, Newport, OR 97365, USA J. M. Napp Alaska

30

Aimant PS: controle de l'etat des sertissages internes des PFW mesures effectues surl'ensemble des aimants du PS pendant le grand arret 2004/2006  

E-print Network

Les sertissages (douilles), utiliss pour raccorder les mplats du circuit principal des PFW leurs cbles dalimentation, prsentent parfois des dfauts de ralisation qui entranent une rsistance lectrique anormale. Pour mettre en vidence ces dfauts, la rsistance des 4 sertissages des nappes polaires est mesure. Les nappes sont alimentes avec un courant efficace nominal de 80A.Les mesures sont effectues entre le bornier de connexions des 4 cbles dalimentation des PFW et les circuits auxiliaires correspondants (Pick-ups brass sur les enroulements). De ces mesures (cble dalimentation et une courte partie du circuit principal) est dduite la valeur de la rsistance du sertissage qui en assure la liaison. A la mesure des rsistances des sertissages des nappes polaires suprieures sajoute la rsistance des cbles qui assurent la liaison entre borniers. Dans le cadre de la rnovation des aimants du PS, les 100 units on t mesures.

Ottaviani, J

2005-01-01

31

Comptes Rendus des JNC 17 -Poitiers 2011 Fissuration des nouveaux composites multiaxiaux multiplis cousus sous  

E-print Network

, ZI les Nappes 38630 Les Avenières-France. Résumé Les nouveaux renforts composites constitués de nappes unidirectionnelles non-tissées cousues du type NCF (Non Crimp Fabrics) sont adaptés au procédé RTM vieillissement hygrothermiques. L'arrivée des nouveaux renforts composites constitués de nappes

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

32

The Mont Collon mafic complex (Austroalpine Dent Blanche nappe)  

E-print Network

The Mont Collon mafic complex (Austroalpine Dent Blanche nappe) Permian evolution of the Western of Mont Collon (Dent Blanche nappe, western Alps) Philippe Monjoie, François Bussy, Henriette Lapierre et the Permian Mont Collon mafic complex (Austroalpine Dent Blanche nappe, Western Alps): titre non

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

33

Comptes Rendus des JNC 17 -Poitiers 2011 Caractrisation des dommages au choc de composites stratifis aronautiques  

E-print Network

étudiés sont constitués de nappes pré-imprégnées unidirectionnelles superposées de M21/T700GC. Les essais 2011 2 menée sur des plaques stratifiées constituées de nappes pré-imprégnées unidirectionnelles M21/T

Boyer, Edmond

34

Dixhuitimes journes techniques du Comit Franais d'Hydrogologie de l'Association Internationale des Hydrogologues.  

E-print Network

'analyser les relations nappes/rivières. - à contribuer à différentes problématiques sur la gestion des. Il renferme peu de ressources souterraines (nappes localisées au sein des altérites) et le'InfraToarcien sont composées principalement de faciès calcaires plus ou moins dolomitisés et gréseux. Cette nappe

Boyer, Edmond

35

gologieurbaine gestion des donnes gologiques en milieu urbain  

E-print Network

:politiques d'aménagement,décaissements sous nappe,zones imper- méabilisées, modifications des écoulements considérée comme stratégique, avec de très bons débits d'exploitation. Les nappes « profondes » de l de faible extension, générale- ment peu productifs. Les nappes alluviales sont incluses dans les

Boyer, Edmond

36

Les eaux souterraines reprsentent environ 23% des rserves en eau douce de la plante,  

E-print Network

corollaire d'une intrusion d'eau de mer dans les nappes littorales(1) . Quant à la qualité des eaux, elle réduire la dégradation des nappes phréatiques. les cahiers de l'INRIARendez-vous avec les sciences et

Boyer, Edmond

37

Analyse statistique de la dynamique de la nappe  

E-print Network

Analyse statistique de la dynamique de la nappe d'Alsace Rapport de stage dans le cadre du projet Région Alsace - Interreg III "Outils pédagogiques sur la nappe rhénane" BRGM/RP-53326-FR Août 2006 #12;Analyse statistique de la dynamique de la nappe d'Alsace Rapport de stage dans le cadre du projet Région

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

38

Colloque SHF : Risques inondation en Ile de France, Paris, 24-25 mars 2010 Ducharne et al. Les crues de la Seine au 21me VOLUTION POTENTIELLE DU REGIME DES CRUES DE LA  

E-print Network

ème siècle, avec une baisse des nappes et des débits en moyenne annuelle. A l'échelle saisonnière, la, grâce au climat océanique et à l'influence régulatrice des nappes souterraines, ces hydrosystèmes

Boyer, Edmond

39

Contrle de l'tat des sertissages internes des PFW mesures effectues sur l'ensemble des aimants du PS aprs la rnovation de 26 aimants et avant le redmarrage de 2006  

E-print Network

Les sertissages (douilles), utiliss pour raccorder les mplats du circuit principal des PFW leurs cbles d'alimentation, prsentent parfois des dfauts de ralisation qui entranent une rsistance lectrique anormale. Pour mettre en vidence ces dfauts, on mesure la rsistance des 4 sertissages des nappes polaires. Les nappes sont alimentes avec un courant efficace nominal de 80A. On effectue les mesures entre le bornier de connexions des 4 cbles d'alimentation des PFW et les circuits auxiliaires correspondants (Pick-ups brass sur les enroulements). De ces mesures (cble d'alimentation et une courte partie du circuit principal), on en dduit la valeur de la rsistance du sertissage qui en assure la liaison. A la mesure des rsistances des sertissages des nappes polaires suprieures s'ajoute la rsistance des cbles qui assurent la liaison entre borniers. Durant le grand arrt, 26 aimants, entirement rnovs et quips de nouvelles bobines et PFW, ont t remis dans l'ann...

Ottaviani, J

2006-01-01

40

tabli pour l'Universit Pierre et Marie Curie UFR Sciences de la Terre et Evolution des Milieux Naturels  

E-print Network

"Hydrosystèmes et Bioprocédés" (HBAN) Cemagref, groupement d'Antony « Une hydrologie des versants à nappes hydrologie des versants à nappes superficielles drainées : approches multi-processus et multi-échelles Le

Boyer, Edmond

41

Version du 9 nov 2010 L'eau souterraine en Inde du Sud : un savoir rserv aux nouveaux  

E-print Network

classificatoire 2) Quels savoirs li�s au pompage ? Sourciers et foreurs Profondeur de la nappe Pomper sans limites Accuser le ciel sec ou quelle notion de la recharge des nappes ? - Quand le discours sur la recharge des nappes est appropri� � des fins personnelles hal-01053415,version1-8Sep2014 Manuscrit auteur, publi� dans

42

Crustal melting in the Helgeland Nappe Complex, central Norway  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present new geochronological and structural data and a working synopsis for the evolution of the Helgeland Nappe Complex (HNC), the uppermost nappe sequence within the Caledonian Orogen, central Norway. The HNC consists of at least 4 distinct east-dipping nappes (W to E): Sauren-Torghatten (S-T), Lower, Middle, and Upper. The nappes are bounded by shear zones with complex kinematics. In at least two cases, initial thrust-sense shear is overprinted by extensional deformation. Basal parts of the S-T and Middle Nappes are characterized by incomplete ophiolitic slivers overlain by low- to medium-grade pelites, psammites, conglomerates, and marbles (Vietti et al., this meeting). The Lower and Upper Nappes are characterized by quartzo-feldspathic gneisses, migmatitic gneisses, and marble. New LA-ICPMS U-Pb zircon ages from migmatitic rocks of the upper nappe are 480.6 3.8 Ma for a diatexite and 480.2 +/- 3.6 Ma for a melanosome within a stromatic migmatite. These ages are identical to SHRIMP U-Pb (zircon) ages from the Lower Nappe interpreted by Yoshinobu et al. (2002) to date crustal melting. The HNC was intruded by plutons of the Bindal Batholith from ~480-430 Ma. The oldest plutons (479-466 Ma) are crustally-derived peraluminous granites; they intrude the S-T and Lower Nappes. The largest of these, the 470 Ma Vega pluton, was emplaced into rocks similar to the S-T Nappe during a regional migmatization/deformation event (D3; Anderson et al., Marko et al., this meeting). Post-450 Ma plutons intrude all nappes. The oldest post-450 Ma plutons were emplaced at pressures as high as 700 MPa and exhumed to 400 MPa during crystallization at 447 Ma. At least locally, they crosscut nappe-bounding shear zones but some were apparently deformed along exhumation-related shear zones. No quantitative P-T-t estimates are available for the Middle Nappe. The Upper Nappe migmatites contain GASP assemblages yielding pressures of 500 MPa. These migmatitic rocks are intruded by tonalitic intrusions at 447.62.8, 431.93.5, and 424.75.6 Ma. A growing body of evidence indicates that the Ordovician structural, metamorphic, and magmatic history of the HNC has affinities with the Laurentian Taconic Orogeny, rather than with an early phase of the Baltica-Laurentia (Caledonian) collision. These new data indicate that either a) a protracted (480-470 Ma), regionally extensive, thermal and structural event caused crustal melting and produced large crustally-derived granitic plutons in the S-T, Lower, and Upper Nappes, but not the Middle Nappe, or b) contemporaneous but spatially distinct regional crustal melting events that affected all three nappes.

Yoshinobu, A.; Reid, K.; Barnes, C.; Allen, C. M.

2005-12-01

43

Serge Marlet et Pierre Ruelle (diteurs scientifiques), 2002. Vers une matrise des impacts  

E-print Network

: salinisation liée à l'évaporation ou à la remontée des nappes, baisse de fertilité chimique liée à la mise en négatif que ceux supposés sur l'évolution des sols et des nappes dans la vallée du Sénégal. Néanmoins, l'évaporation et/ou à la remontée de nappes salées due à la percolation, appauvrissement du sol en éléments

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

44

Actes de l'atelier du PCSI, 2-3 dcembre 2003, Montpellier, France 1 Le Goulven P., Bouarfa S., Kuper M., 2004. Gestion intgre  

E-print Network

plaine de Kairouan, essentiellement par recharge des nappes, exploitées ensuite autour de la ville de, avec des prélèvements d'eau dans les fonds d'oueds ou dans des nappes très localisées. Figure 1. Les et de nappes, si bien que le barrage alimente en permanence la nappe aval par une recharge non

Boyer, Edmond

45

Aimant PS - Contrle de l'Etat de 28 Sertissages Internes des PFW - Mesures Effectues pendant le Grand Arrt 2003/2004  

E-print Network

Les sertissages (douilles), utiliss pour raccorder les mplats du circuit principal des PFW leurs cbles d'alimentation, prsentent parfois des dfauts de ralisation qui entranent une rsistance lectrique anormale. Pour mettre en vidence ces dfauts, on mesure la rsistance des 4 sertissages des nappes polaires. Les nappes sont alimentes avec un courant efficace nominal de 80A. On effectue les mesures entre le bornier de connexions des 4 cbles d'alimentation des PFW et les circuits auxiliaires correspondants (Pick-ups brass sur les enroulements). De ces mesures (cble d'alimentation et une courte partie du circuit principal), on en dduit la valeur de la rsistance du sertissage qui en assure la liaison. A la mesure des rsistances des sertissages des nappes polaires suprieures s'ajoute la rsistance des cbles qui assurent la liaison entre borniers.

Ottaviani, J

2004-01-01

46

Time-relevant 2D behaviors Diego Napp, Paolo Rapisarda and Paula Rocha  

E-print Network

Time-relevant 2D behaviors Diego Napp, Paolo Rapisarda and Paula Rocha Abstract-- In this work we autonomous [25] time-relevant stable systems in terms of the location of the Paula Rocha and Diego Napp

Southampton, University of

47

ELSEVIER Tectonophysics 285 (1998) 119133 Ar muscovite dates from the nappe region of southwestern  

E-print Network

ELSEVIER Tectonophysics 285 (1998) 119­133 40 Ar/39 Ar muscovite dates from the nappe region Abstract The Caledonian thrust nappes and basal de´collement zone above the Baltic shield record penetrative Caledonian deformation related to ESE-directed nappe transport, and subsequent WNW

Fossen, Haakon

48

EVIDENCE AGAINST THE ALLOCHTHONOUS NATURE OF THE STANBRIDGE NAPPE AT HIGHGATE GORGE, NORTHWESTERN VERMONT  

E-print Network

A2 - 1 EVIDENCE AGAINST THE ALLOCHTHONOUS NATURE OF THE STANBRIDGE NAPPE AT HIGHGATE GORGE) THE STANBRIDGE NAPPE OF SOUTHERN QUEBEC Adjacent to the International Border, in southern Quebec (Figure 1), the east-dipping Ordovician-aged Stanbridge Nappe has previously been interpreted to be an allochthonous

Kidd, William S. F.

49

The Bering Sea: Current status and recent events Jeffrey M. Napp  

E-print Network

24 The Bering Sea: Current status and recent events Jeffrey M. Napp Alaska Fisheries Science Center 7600 Sand Point Way NE, Seattle, WA 98115-0070, U.S.A. E-mail: Jeff.Napp@noaa.gov Dr. Jeffrey (Jeff) Napp is a Biological/Fisheries Oceanographer at the Alaska Fisheries Science Center of NOAA

50

The Bering Sea: Current status and recent events Jeffrey M. Napp  

E-print Network

The Bering Sea: Current status and recent events Jeffrey M. Napp NOAA ­ Fisheries/Alaska Fisheries Science Center 7600 Sand Point Way NE, Seattle, WA 98115-0070, U.S.A. E-mail: Jeff.Napp@noaa.gov Dr. Jeffrey (Jeff) Napp is a Biological/Fisheries Oceanographer at the Alaska Fisheries Science Center of NOAA

51

Hot nappes and lumpy channels: Mid-crustal flow modes in the western Grenville orogen  

E-print Network

Hot nappes and lumpy channels: Mid-crustal flow modes in the western Grenville orogen REBECCA A modes, including homogeneous channels, heterogeneous ("lumpy") channels, and hot fold-nappes (Beaumont nappe-channel system active during the Ottawan orogeny (ca. 1090-1030 Ma). If so, the CGB provides

Beaumont, Christopher

52

North-directed Triassic nappes in Northeastern Vietnam (East Bac Bo) Claude Lepvrier a  

E-print Network

1 1 North-directed Triassic nappes in Northeastern Vietnam (East Bac Bo) Claude Lepvrier nappes, including recumbent folds, formed during the Triassic, prior to the unconformable deposition of « preyunnanaises nappes », represented by Middle-Upper Paleozoic foliated limestone resting through a flat

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

53

Late Paleoproterozoic (19001800 Ma) nappe stacking and polyphase deformation in the HengshanWutaishan area  

E-print Network

Late Paleoproterozoic (1900­1800 Ma) nappe stacking and polyphase deformation in the Hengshan nappes herein called the Orthogneiss and Volcanites Unit (OVU) and the Low Grade Mafic Unit (LGMU and mineral lineation with a top-to-the SE sense of shear that corresponds to the sense of nappe motion. U

Boyer, Edmond

54

The Bering Sea: Current status and recent events Jeffrey M. Napp  

E-print Network

The Bering Sea: Current status and recent events Jeffrey M. Napp Alaska Fisheries Science Center, NMFS 7600 Sand Point Way NE, Seattle, WA 98115-0070, U.S.A. E-mail: Jeff.Napp@noaa.gov Dr. Jeffrey (Jeff) Napp is a biological/fisheries oceanographer at the Alaska Fisheries Science Center of NOAA

55

PERI-GONDWANAN ELEMENTS IN THE CALEDONIAN NAPPES OF FINNMARK, NORTHERN NORWAY: IMPLICATIONS FOR THE  

E-print Network

PERI-GONDWANAN ELEMENTS IN THE CALEDONIAN NAPPES OF FINNMARK, NORTHERN NORWAY: IMPLICATIONS***, LEWIS D. ASHWAL** and DONALD M. RAMSAY**** ABSTRACT. The Kalak Nappe Complex in the northern event at 600 Ma is seen in the basal unit of the overlying Vaddas Nappe. The timing of this activity

Torsvik, Trond Helge

56

The Bering Sea: Current status and recent events Jeffrey M. Napp  

E-print Network

The Bering Sea: Current status and recent events Jeffrey M. Napp Alaska Fisheries Science Center 7600 Sand Point Way NE, Seattle, WA 98115-0070, U.S.A. E-mail: Jeff.Napp@noaa.gov Dr. Jeffrey (Jeff) Napp is a Biological/Fisheries Oceanographer at the Alaska Fisheries Science Center of NOAA

57

QUANTUM COMPUTATION AND REAL MULTIPLICATION MATILDE MARCOLLI AND JOHN NAPP  

E-print Network

QUANTUM COMPUTATION AND REAL MULTIPLICATION MATILDE MARCOLLI AND JOHN NAPP Abstract. We propose, and are obtained from the basic modules and the real multiplication structure. 1. Introduction Quantum computation operations on data. It is believed that quantum computation is signifi- cantly more powerful than classical

Marcolli, Matilde

58

WASHINGTON UNIVERSITY RECHARGE CENTERS  

E-print Network

9/1/2005 1 WASHINGTON UNIVERSITY RECHARGE CENTERS revised July 1, 2005 A. SCOPE Recharge centers in charges to federal and nonfederal grants and contracts. In connection with Washington University's receipt recharge centers. This policy helps assure that Washington University consistently applies sound cost

Subramanian, Venkat

59

Structural Framework of Deolapar Area, Central India and its Implications for Proterozoic Nappe Tectonics  

Microsoft Academic Search

A controversial nappe-like structure (Deolapar Nappe) in the intensely deformed and polymetamorphosed Precambrian rocks of the Sausar Fold Belt around the Deolapar area of Central India has remained the subject of a long- standing, unresolved debate. While some workers interpreted it as the inverted limb of a large-scale recumbent fold which has been thrusted onto the adjoining part of the

Anupam Chattopadhyay; A. K. Huin; A. S. Khan

2003-01-01

60

Triassic alkaline magmatism of the Hawasina Nappes: post-breakup melting of the Oman lithospheric mantle  

E-print Network

Triassic alkaline magmatism of the Hawasina Nappes: post-breakup melting of the Oman lithospheric within three tectonostratigraphic groups of the Hawasina Nappes in the Oman Mountains the Oman lithospheric mantle, the original DMM-HIMU signature of which was overprinted during its pervasive

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

61

Comportement exprimental de semis de chne pdoncul, chne sessile et htre en prsence d'une nappe d'eau  

E-print Network

'une nappe d'eau dans le sol Y. LEF?VRE ols, la Microbiologie G. LEVY, avec la co M. BECKER llaboration tech présence de nappes situées à diffé- rentes profondeurs dans le sol. Lorsque Iu nappe est installée dès le semis, puis maintenue en place, on note les résultats suivants : - une nappe très superficiellc (à -2 cm

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

62

Nocetti, Jouini, Napp: Properties of the Social Discount Rate Properties of the Social Discount Rate in a Benthamite Framework  

E-print Network

Nocetti, Jouini, Napp: Properties of the Social Discount Rate@ceremade.dauphine.fr Clotilde Napp CNRS, UMR7088, F-75016 Paris, France DRM, Université Paris-Dauphine, F-75016 Paris, France, clotilde.napp@dauphine.fr This paper derives the properties of the discount rate that should be applied

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

63

Monazite ages in the Chesham Pond Nappe, SW New Hampshire, USA: implications for assembly of central New England thrust sheets (Revision #1)  

E-print Network

Monazite ages in the Chesham Pond Nappe, SW New Hampshire, USA: implications for assembly in samples from the Chesham Pond Nappe, and three (monazite compositional domains 2, 3 and 4) have been in the Chesham Pond Nappe and adjacent structural units to the west constrain the commencement of nappe

Spear, Frank S.

64

Encadrement: BOLVIN H. (Pr., UAPV), MESGOUEZ A. (MCF., UAPV), RUY Stphane (CR., INRA Avignon)  

E-print Network

appréhender, gérer et optimiser les ressources environnementales. En particulier, la recharge des nappes régionaux et permettront ainsi une amélioration des modalités de gestion des nappes. Les recherches

Naud Frédéric

65

Emplacement of a Silurian granitic dyke swarm during nappe translation in the Scandinavian Caledonides  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper investigates the geometry, deformation history and age of the synkinematic granitic rdal dyke complex in the Upper Jotun Nappe, SW Norway. The typically subparallel north-trending dykes are folded and boudinaged, reflecting emplacement and deformation in a top-to-southeast non-coaxial strain field. The synmagmatic strain field is interpreted to reflect thrusting of the nappe at 427 1 Ma, the zircon U-Pb TIMS age of the rdal dyke complex. The Upper Jotun Nappe is a displaced part of the Baltic Shield; the age is therefore a minimum age for initiation of Caledonian thrusting of crystalline Baltica crust in western Norway.

Lundmark, Anders Mattias; Corfu, Fernando

2008-07-01

66

Structural evolution and finite geometry of the Siviez-Mischabel nappe, Valais, Swiss Alps  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In order to understand the formation mechanisms of large-scale crystalline basement nappes within continental collision zones, the internal geometry and structural evolution of such basement nappes has to be assessed. The Siviez-Mischabel nappe, exposed within the Penninic zone of western Switzerland, represents a major nappe complex which is ideal to study nappe-forming processes within continental collision zones. However, its large-scale geometry and structural evolution is still enigmatic. According to the classical model of Argand (1916), the Siviez-Mischabel nappe represents a large-scale, isoclinal, basement-cored, recumbent and north-vergent fold, surrounded by Permo-Triassic sediments. In contrast, Markley et al. (1996) proposed that the Siviez-Mischabel nappe consists mainly of thrust sheets which were placed on top of each other, without the development of large-scale isoclinal folds. In addition, Marthaler et al. (2008) proposed that the entire nappe complex is cross-cut by large subhorizontal post-nappe top-to-the-W shear zones, which might be kinematically linked with the Simplon-Rhone shear zone. In this contribution we present new N-S to NNW-SSE structural profiles across the Siviez-Mischabel nappe between the Turtmann Valley and Val de Bagnes. We discuss the field evidence for the two models of Argand (1916) and Markley et al. (1996), and propose that the discrepancy between the models could be the result of the presence of a Permo-Carboniferous trough in the western part of the study area, which caused an overturned limb, and the absence of this trough in the eastern part of the study area, which exhibits mainly thrusting. We present a structural model for the investigated area, which includes (1) the preservation of a pre-alpine(?) fabric in parts of the crystalline basement, which is overprinted by (2) a south-dipping to subhorizontal top-to-the-N fabric associated with large-scale thrusts, which in turn is overprinted by (3) south-vergent folds with a N-dipping spaced cleavage associated with the large-scale Mischabel backfold. This basically two-phase alpine evolution with first a thrust-related, subhorizontal fabric overprinted by a second, backfolding-related fabric seems to be characteristic for the Middle Penninic basement nappes of the Alpine orogen (e.g. Suretta nappe, Scheiber et al., 2010).

Scheiber, T.; Pfiffner, O. A.; Schreurs, G.

2012-04-01

67

Estimating groundwater recharge  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Groundwater recharge is the entry of fresh water into the saturated portion of the subsurface part of the hydrologic cycle, the modifier "saturated" indicating that the pressure of the pore water is greater than atmospheric.

Stonestrom, David A.

2011-01-01

68

Structural analysis of a complex nappe sequence and late-orogenic basins from the Aegean Island of Samos, Greece  

Microsoft Academic Search

The island of Samos in the Aegean Sea exposes high-pressure metamorphic rocks of the Cycladic blueschist unit which are sandwiched between the mildly blueschist-facies Kerketas nappe below and the overlying non-metamorphic Kallithea nappe. Structural and metamorphic analysis shows that deformation can generally be divided into four main stages: (1) Eocene and earliest Oligocene ?ESEWNW-oriented nappe stacking (D1 and D2) associated

Uwe Ring; Susanne Laws; Matthias Bernet

1999-01-01

69

3D FEM modeling of fold nappe formation in the Western Swiss Alps  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Fold nappes are recumbent folds with amplitudes exceeding 10 km and have been presumably formed by heterogeneous simple shear. They often exhibit a constant sense of shearing and a non-linear increase of shear strain towards their overturned limb. The fold axes of the Morcles fold nappe in western Switzerland plunges to the ENE whereas the fold axes in the more eastern Doldenhorn nappe plunges to the WSW. These opposite plunge directions characterize the Wildstrubel depression (Rawil depression, Ramsay, 1981). The Morcles nappe is mainly the result of layer contraction and shearing (Ramsay, 1981). During the compression the massive limestones were more competent than the surrounding marls and shales, which led to the buckling characteristics of the Morcles nappe, especially in the north-dipping normal limb. There are still no 3D numerical studies which investigate the fundamental dynamics of the formation of the large-scale 3D structure including the Morcles and Doldenhorn fold nappes and the related Wildstrubel depression. Such studies require a numerical algorithm that can accurately track material interfaces for large differences in material properties (e.g. between limestone and shale) and for large deformations. We present a numerical algorithm based on the finite element method (FEM) which can simulate 3D fluid flow for a power-law viscous rheology. Our FEM code combines a numerical marker technique and a deformable Lagrangian mesh with re-meshing (Poliakov and Podladchikov, 1992) and is used to study the formation of 3D fold nappes similar to the ones in the Western Swiss Alps. The numerical method requires the interpolation of material properties to the integration points because the layer interface can lie within a finite element. To guarantee accuracy the number of integration points in the finite elements is increased considerably. The interpolation is only performed during several re-meshing steps when the deformed Lagrangian mesh is too distorted. During the re-meshing the global coordinates of the contour points specifying the interface between different materials remain unchanged and the new local coordinates of the contour points are interpolated from the element nodes of the new mesh. Our new FEM code is tested for large strain density driven diapirism and single-layer folding of power-law viscous layers by comparing numerical results with analytical solutions. Also, the results of the new 3D algorithm are compared with results of existing and tested 2D algorithms for cylindrical folding. We present first results for the formation of fold nappes in 3D. We further present preliminary numerical results for the formation of the Morcles-Doldenhorn fold nappe system.

von Tscharner, M.; Schmalholz, S.

2012-04-01

70

Rechargeable Lithium Batteries  

Microsoft Academic Search

Much of materials electrochemistry represents a fusion of solid-state chemistry and electrochemistry. The commercial success of the world's first rechargeable lithium battery, introduced recently by Sony, is a triumph of materials electrochemistry. By developing radically new anodes, cathodes and electrolytes, a cell has been produced which can store three times the energy per unit weight and volume compared with conventional

Peter G. Bruce

1996-01-01

71

The nappe theory in the Connecticut Valley region: Thirty-five years since Jim Thompson's first proposal  

Microsoft Academic Search

AssrRAcr The nappe theory in the Bronson Hill anticlinorium of the Connecticut Valley region began with Jim Thompson's analysis of the structure of Skitchewaug Mountain in 1954. By 1968 the theory included the recognition of three giant fold nappes formed early in the Devonian Acadian orogeny, with tens of kilometers of east to west overfolding. These were, from lowest to

Prrnn J. TnonrpsoN

72

Middle Oligocene extension in the Mediterranean Calabro-Peloritan belt (Southern1 Italy). Insights from the Aspromonte nappes-pile.2  

E-print Network

). Insights from the Aspromonte nappes-pile.2 3 Heymes, T., Bouillin, J.-P., Pêcher, A., Monié, P15 nappes with a top-to-the-SE vergence, i.e in a direction orthogonal to the belt trend and16 Northeastern Sicily and Northern Calabria. In Sicily, the age of nappe piling is Alpine, as18 evidenced

Boyer, Edmond

73

Triassic alkaline magmatism of the Hawasina Nappes: Post-breakup melting of the Oman lithospheric mantle modified by the Permian Neotethyan Plume  

E-print Network

Triassic alkaline magmatism of the Hawasina Nappes: Post-breakup melting of the Oman lithospheric Triassic lavas were sampled within three tectonostratigraphic groups of the Hawasina Nappes in the Oman in the Hawasina Nappes. The Triassic lavas derive from low-degree melting of an enriched OIB-type mantle source

Demouchy, Sylvie

74

Micro-tectonic constraints on the evolution of the Barles half-window (Digne Nappe, southern Alps). Implications for the timing of folding in the Valensole foreland basin  

E-print Network

Micro-tectonic constraints on the evolution of the Barles half-window (Digne Nappe, southern Alps 179 (2008) 551-568" #12;2 Keywords: Barles tectonic half-window, Digne Nappe, Valensole foreland basin Cenozoic at the front of the Digne Nappe. Microstructural analyses reveal that mesoscale faulting

75

Advanced Small Rechargeable Batteries  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Lithium-based units offer highest performance. Paper reviews status of advanced, small rechargeable batteries. Covers aqueous systems including lead/lead dioxide, cadmium/nickel oxide, hydrogen/nickel oxide, and zinc/nickel oxide, as well as nonaqueous systems. All based on lithium anodes, nonaqueous systems include solid-cathode cells (lithium/molybdenum disulfide, lithium/titanium disulfide, and lithium/vanadium oxide); liquid-cathode cells (lithium/sulfur dioxide cells); and new category, lithium/polymer cells.

Halpert, Gerald

1989-01-01

76

Rechargeable Magnesium Power Cells  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Rechargeable power cells based on magnesium anodes developed as safer alternatives to high-energy-density cells like those based on lithium and sodium anodes. At cost of some reduction in energy density, magnesium-based cells safer because less susceptible to catastrophic meltdown followed by flames and venting of toxic fumes. Other advantages include ease of handling, machining, and disposal, and relatively low cost.

Koch, Victor R.; Nanjundiah, Chenniah; Orsini, Michael

1995-01-01

77

Evidence for dilution of deep, confined ground water by vertical recharge of isotopically heavy Pleistocene water  

Microsoft Academic Search

New analyses of the isotopic composition of water, 14-dating of dissolved inorganic carbon, and order-of-magnitude Darcy calculations suggest that a dilute body of water, trending north-south in the Cambrian-Ordovician aquifer of Iowa, was emplaced as vertical recharge of Pleistocene-age water from the base of the Des Moines lobe of late Wisconsin time. The recharge occurred through more than 300 m

D. I. Siegel

1991-01-01

78

Hot granulite nappes Tectonic styles and thermal evolution of the Proterozoic granulite belts in East Africa  

Microsoft Academic Search

A section through the Neoproterozoic Mozambique Belt of Tanzania exposes western foreland (Archaean Tanzania Craton and Palaeoproterozoic Usagaran Belt), marginal (Western Granulites) and eastern, internal (Eastern Granulites) portions of the orogen. The assembly of granulite nappes at ca. 620Ma displays westward emplacement along an eastward deepening basal decollement and forward propagation of thrusts, climbing from the deep crust to the

Harald Fritz; Veronika Tenczer; Christoph Hauzenberger; Eckart Wallbrecher; Sospeter Muhongo

2009-01-01

79

Structural development of the Tso Morari ultra-high pressure nappe of the Ladakh Himalaya  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A continental subduction-related and multistage exhumation process for the Tso Morari ultra-high pressure nappe is proposed. The model is constrained by published thermo-barometry and age data, combined with new geological and tectonic maps. Additionally, observations on the structural and metamorphic evolution of the Tso Morari area and the North Himalayan nappes are presented. The northern margin of the Indian continental crust was subducted to a depth of > 90 km below Asia after continental collision some 55 Ma ago. The underthrusting was accompanied by the detachment and accretion of Late Proterozoic to Early Eocene sediments, creating the North Himalayan accretionary wedge, in front of the active Asian margin and the 103-50 Ma Ladakh arc batholith. The basic dikes in the Ordovician Tso Morari granite were transformed to eclogites with crystallization of coesite, some 53 Ma ago at a depth of > 90 km (> 27 kbar) and temperatures of 500 to 600 C. The detachment and extrusion of the low density Tso Morari nappe, composed of 70% of the Tso Morari granite and 30% of graywackes with some eclogitic dikes, occurred by ductile pure and simple shear deformation. It was pushed by buoyancy forces and by squeezing between the underthrusted Indian lithosphere and the Asian mantle wedge. The extruding Tso Morari nappe reached a depth of 35 km at the base of the North Himalayan accretionary wedge some 48 Ma ago. There the whole nappe stack recrystallized under amphibolite facies conditions of a Barrovian regional metamorphism with a metamorphic field gradient of 20 C/km. An intense schistosity with a W-E oriented stretching lineation L 1 and top-to-the E shear criteria and crystallization of oriented sillimanite needles after kyanite, testify to the Tso Morari nappe extrusion and pressure drop. The whole nappe stack, comprising from the base to top the Tso Morari, Tetraogal, Karzok and Mata-Nyimaling-Tsarap nappes, was overprinted by new schistosities with a first N-directed and a second NE-directed stretching lineation L 2 and L 3 reaching the base of the North Himalayan accretionary wedge. They are characterized by top-to-the S and SW shear criteria. This structural overprint was related to an early N- and a younger NE-directed underthrusting of the Indian plate below Asia that was accompanied by anticlockwise rotation of India. The warping of the Tso Morari dome started already some 48 Ma ago with the formation of an extruding nappe at depth. The Tso Morari dome reached a depth of 15 km about 40 Ma ago in the eastern Kiagar La region and 30 Ma ago in the western Nuruchan region. The extrusion rate was of about 3 cm/yr between 53 and 48 Ma, followed by an uplift rate of 1.2 mm/yr between 48 and 30 Ma and of only 0.5 mm/yr after 30 Ma. Geomorphology observations show that the Tso Morari dome is still affected by faults, open regional dome, and basin and pull-apart structures, in a zone of active dextral transpression parallel to the Indus Suture zone.

Epard, Jean-Luc; Steck, Albrecht

2008-04-01

80

Contrle des Circuits Auxiliaires des P.F.W. (arrt machine 2003/2004)  

E-print Network

Les PFW sont des nappes polaires installes sur les ples des aimants du PS. Elles sont au nombre de 4 par unit d'aimant et constitues d'un circuit principal (dans lequel circule le courant dsir selon le cycle magntique utilis) et des circuits auxiliaires. Les circuits auxiliaires sont des enroulements de correction (boucles de tour et "pick-up" brass sur les enroulements principaux). Pendant la variation du champ magntique del'aimant PS, on utilise des tensions induites dans ces circuits auxiliaires pour corriger les erreurs de champ dues aux pertes par courants de Foucault dans la chambre vide. Chaque anne, pendant l'arrt machine, on vrifie si les caractristiques des circuits auxiliaires correspondent aux normes (mesures de rsistances des boucles de tours, rsistances entre "pick-up" et isolation des circuits) afin de faire un suivi. Les 404 PFW sont ainsi vrifies. Dans cette note, on ne relvera que les PFW ayant des dfauts (valeurs hors tolrances, boucles ouvertes ...

Ottaviani, J

2004-01-01

81

Contrle des Circuits Auxiliaires des PFW (arrt machines 2002/2003)  

E-print Network

Les PFW sont des nappes polaires installes sur les ples des aimants du PS. Elles sont au nombre de 4 par unit d aimant et constitues d un circuit principal (dans lequel circule le courant dsir selon le cycle magntique utilis) et de circuits auxiliaires. Les circuits auxiliaires sont des enroulements de correction (boucles de tour et pick-up brass sur les enroulements). Pendant la variation du champ magntique de l aimant PS, on utilise des tensions induites dans ces circuits auxiliaires pour corriger les erreurs de champ dues aux courants de Foucault dans la chambre vide. Chaque anne, pendant l arrt machine, on vrifie si les caractristiques des circuits auxiliaires correspondent aux normes (mesures des rsistances des boucles de tours, rsistances entre pick-up et isolation des circuits) afin de faire un suivi. Les 404 PFW sont ainsi vrifies. Dans cette note, on ne relvera que les PFW ayant des dfauts (valeurs hors tolrances, boucles ouvertes ou en court-circuit, df...

Ottaviani, J

2003-01-01

82

Contrle des circuits auxiliaires des P.F.W. (arret machine 2004/2006)  

E-print Network

Les PFW sont des nappes polaires installes sur les ples des aimants du PS. Elles sont au nombre de 4 par unit daimant et constitues dun circuit principal (dans lequel circule le courant dsir selon le cycle magntique utilis) et de circuits auxiliaires. Les circuits auxiliaires sont des enroulements de correction (boucles de tour et pick-up brass sur les enroulements principaux). Pendant la variation du champ magntique de laimant PS, on utilise des tensions induites dans ces circuits auxiliaires pour corriger les erreurs de champ dues aux pertes par courants de Foucault dans la chambre vide. Chaque anne, pendant larrt machine, on vrifie si les caractristiques des circuits auxiliaires correspondent aux normes (mesures des rsistances des boucles de tours, rsistances entre pick-up et isolation des circuits) afin de faire un suivi. Les 404 PFW sont ainsi vrifies. Dans cette note, on ne relvera que les PFW ayant des dfauts (valeurs hors tolrances, ...

Ottaviani, J

2005-01-01

83

Rechargeable batteries with aqueous electrolytes  

Microsoft Academic Search

In recent years, rechargeable batteries (RBs) have found important new applications in rapidly expanding markets, such as portable computers (laptops), telecommunication equipment (handies), camcorders and tools. The interest in electric vehicles has continued to stimulate research on RBs having improved specific energy. Attention has been focussed on nonaqueous battery systems, in particular on lithium batteries. Small rechargeable lithium batteries, available

Fritz Beck; Paul Retschi

2000-01-01

84

AIMANTS PS CIRCUITS AUXILIAIRES DES PFW : UTILISATION DES PICK-UPS ET BOUCLES DE TOURS SELON LES TYPES DE CORRECTION  

E-print Network

Les PFW sont des nappes polaires installes sur les ples des aimants du PS. Elles sont au nombre de 4 par unit daimant et constitues dun circuit principal (dans lequel circule le courant dsir selon le cycle magntique utilis) et de circuits auxiliaires. Les circuits auxiliaires sont des enroulements de correction (pick-ups brass sur les enroulements principaux et boucles de tours). Pendant la variation du champ magntique de laimant PS, on utilise des tensions induites dans ces circuits auxiliaires pour corriger les erreurs de champ dues aux pertes par courants de Foucault dans la chambre vide. Les corrections amener pour uniformiser le champ magntique tout au long de la machine PS sont fonction des diffrents types de chambres vide. A ce jour, nous utilisons 18 types de correction diffrents.

Ottaviani, J

2005-01-01

85

Thrusting and transpressional shearing in the Pan-African nappe southwest El-Sibai core complex, Central Eastern Desert, Egypt  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Wadi El-Shush area in the Central Eastern Desert (CED) of Egypt is occupied by the Sibai core complex and its surrounding Pan-African nappe complex. The sequence of metamorphic and structural events in the Sibai core complex and the enveloping Pan-African nappe can be summarized as follows: (1) high temperature metamorphism associated with partial melting of amphibolites and development of

Mohamed A. Abd El-Wahed

2008-01-01

86

Extension in the Aegean nappe-stacks: Numerical Model and their Geological Validation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

After mountain building, the crust exhibits complex structure. Especially, thickening achieved by nappe-stacking induces rheological heterogenities at all scales: from the fault scale up to the crustal scale. This process is likely to influence post-orogenic evolution. However, it is generally not considered in numerical models. In this study, we consider the impact of pre-existing thrusts and nappes structures on the mode of post-orogenic extension. We focus on thermomechanical modeling of reactivation of convergent structures inherited from compression. The Aegean domain that experienced extension after the formation of the Hellenides is considered as a natural laboratory. Natural data are used to constrain a priori the geometry and rheology of the models and to validate them a posteriori. Three problems at different scales are considered. Firstly, we model the reactivation of a thrust as a low angle normal fault. Recent studies show that Aegean detachments were active in the brittle field with very shallow dips. These observations are in contradiction with the classical fault mechanics theory. In order to reconcile both point of view, we propose a new model by introducing an elasto-plastic frictional fault gouge that is able to compact. Our models show that plastic strain on badly oriented faults is favored by compaction of the fault gouge. Secondly, we model the formation of the Corinth rift. The Phyllite-Quartizte nappe is introduced in the upper crust as a weak shallow-dipping layer between the Pindos and Tripolitza massive carbonate nappes. The competence contrast between this nappe and its surrounding controls the dynamics of rifting. High competence contrast leads to the formation of crustal-scale planar faults rooting on the brittle ductile transition of the crust and thin-skinned listric faults rooting on the nappe itself. This model is consistent with the observed microseismicity patterns, the asymmetry of the Corinth Gulf, and the kinematics of fault migration within the basin. Thirdly, we model the formation of the Cycladic metamorphic core complexes. The initial setup takes into account the wedge structure of the Hellenic nappe-pile before extension and the rheology of the different nappes. A metamorphic core complex form with detachements rooting in the former thrust with the same dip. Our model recover the main characteristics of the Cycladic metamorphic core complexes: geometry, finite deformation field, mean exhumation velocities. Moreover it allows to reproduce the complex distribution of P-T paths in the metamorphic units. As a result, structures inherited from compression have a major impact on the evolution of post-orogenic extension. Particularly, the former thrusts can act as decollement layers at all levels in the crust. This process is likely to take part in the weakness of orogens when boundary conditions become divergent.

Lecomte, E.; Huet, B.; Le Pourhiet, L.; Labrousse, L.; Jolivet, L.

2010-12-01

87

Improved rechargeable lithium electrode  

SciTech Connect

The goals of the research were (1) to demonstrate that a synthetically generated lithium-ion-conducting interphase could extend the cycle life of the lithium electrode; and (2) to determine whether an organic solvent's stability toward lithium is intrinsic or simply due to mediating surface films. The presence of superoxide ion was found to quadruple the life of LiAlCl4/tetrahydrofuran electrolyte and to allow lithium to be cycled to LiAlCl4/2-methyl tetrahydrofuran. The discovery that 2-methyl tetrahydrofuran is more stable toward lithium-mercury amalgam than is tetrahydrofuran suggests that structural features of a solvent molecule may be manipulated so as to decrease its propensity for reduction by lithium metal. These results are said to provide a basis upon which solvents and the lithium solvent interface may be modified, leading to a practical secondary lithium electrode for use in rechargeable high-energy-density batteries.

Koch, V.R.

1983-04-01

88

FLUIDIC: Metal Air Recharged  

ScienceCinema

Fluidic, with the help of ARPA-E funding, has developed and deployed the world's first proven high cycle life metal air battery. Metal air technology, often used in smaller scale devices like hearing aids, has the lowest cost per electron of any rechargeable battery storage in existence. Deploying these batteries for grid reliability is competitive with pumped hydro installations while having the advantages of a small footprint. Fluidic's battery technology allows utilities and other end users to store intermittent energy generated from solar and wind, as well as maintain reliable electrical delivery during power outages. The batteries are manufactured in the US and currently deployed to customers in emerging markets for cell tower reliability. As they continue to add customers, they've gained experience and real world data that will soon be leveraged for US grid reliability.

Friesen, Cody

2014-04-02

89

Late Cretaceous exhumation history of an extensional extruding wedge (Graz Paleozoic Nappe Complex, Austria)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Late Cretaceous structures within the eastern Graz Paleozoic Nappe Complex define an extruding wedge with north-eastward directed thrusting in eastern portions and strike-slip shear along the margins. Stacking structures are overprinted by south-westward directed extension with low-grade metamorphic rocks in the hangingwall and high-grade basement rocks in the footwall. Pressure-temperature and structural data are obtained from successively opening quartz veins that record various stages of progressive deformation and metamorphism. Fluid inclusion data and related structures show that during extension isothermal decompression from ca. 550C and 8 kbar down to ca. 450C and 2 kbar was related to exhumation of rocks from deep crustal levels. The data point to a high geothermal gradient and explain condensed paleo-isotherms due to ductile normal faulting in the eastern areas of the Graz Paleozoic Nappe Complex. The investigated Late Cretaceous structural elements suggest that the Graz Paleozoic Nappe Complex decoupled from the surrounding basement units and operated as a large-scale extension-extrusion corridor that evolved prior to Miocene extrusion tectonics in the Eastern Alps.

Kurt, Krenn; Harald, Fritz; Aberra, Mogessie; Johannes, Schaflechner

2008-11-01

90

JOURNAL DE PHYSIQUE Colloque Cl, supplment au n 1, Tome 37, Janvier 1976, page Cl-191 INSTABILIT D'UNE NAPPE CYLINDRIQUE DE TOURBILLONS  

E-print Network

D'UNE NAPPE CYLINDRIQUE DE TOURBILLONS N. BOCCARA, R. CONTE et G. SARMA Service de Physique du la stabilité d'une nappe cylindrique de tourbillons relativement à de petites déformations, le fluide dans lequel est placée la nappe étant incompressible et parfait. L'étude numérique de ce problème plan

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

91

CIRAD-ES UMR MOISA Intitul du sujet  

E-print Network

surexploitation des sols et de la nappe de la plaine alluviale Kairouan qui compte plus de 65.000 hectares nappes alluviales de l'amont du bassin versant du Merguellil autour de la « vallée de la lumière », où à territoire rural, zone de recharge directe de nappes stratégiques pour l'approvisionnement régional en eau

92

Contrle des circuits auxiliaires des P.F.W. (arret machine 2004/2006, aprs rnovation de 25 aimants)  

E-print Network

Les PFW sont des nappes polaires installes sur les ples des aimants du PS. Elles sont au nombre de 4 par unit d'aimant et constitues d'un circuit principal (dans lequel circule le courant dsir selon le cycle magntique utilis) et de circuits auxiliaires. Les circuits auxiliaires sont des enroulements de correction (boucles de tour et ?pick-up? brass sur les enroulements principaux). Pendant la variation du champ magntique de l'aimant PS, on utilise des tensions induites dans ces circuits auxiliaires pour corriger les erreurs de champ dues aux pertes par courants de Foucault dans la chambre vide. Chaque anne, pendant l'arrt machine, on vrifie si les caractristiques des circuits auxiliaires correspondent aux normes (mesures des rsistances des boucles de tours, rsistances entre ?pick-up? et isolation des circuits) afin de faire un suivi. Des mesures ont t faites au dbut du grand arrt en dcembre 2004 afin de dfinir quels aimants seraient rnover (l'tat des PFW e...

Ottaviani, J

2006-01-01

93

Hot granulite nappes Tectonic styles and thermal evolution of the Proterozoic granulite belts in East Africa  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A section through the Neoproterozoic Mozambique Belt of Tanzania exposes western foreland (Archaean Tanzania Craton and Palaeoproterozoic Usagaran Belt), marginal (Western Granulites) and eastern, internal (Eastern Granulites) portions of the orogen. The assembly of granulite nappes at ca. 620 Ma displays westward emplacement along an eastward deepening basal decollement and forward propagation of thrusts, climbing from the deep crust to the surface. This goes along with eastward increase of syntectonic temperatures, derived from prevalent deformation mechanisms, and eastward decrease of the kinematic vorticity number. Distinctly different pressure - temperature paths with a branch of isothermal decompression (ITD) in Western Granulites and isobaric cooling (IBC) in Eastern Granulites reflect residence times of rocks within lower crustal levels. Western Granulites, exhumed rapidly at the orogen margin, display ITD and non-coaxial fabrics. Eastern Granulites in the internal orogen portions escaped from rapid exhumation and show IBC and co-axial flow fabrics. The vertical variation of structural elements, i.e. basement cover relations within the Eastern Granulites, shows decoupling between lower and middle crust with horizontal west east stretching in the basement and horizontal west east shortening in the cover. A model of hot fold nappes [Beaumont, C., Nguyen, M.H., Jamieson, R.A., Ellis, S., 2006. Crustal flow modes in large hot orogens. In: Law, R.D., Searle, M.P., Godin, L., (eds). Channel Flow, Ductile Extrusion and Exhumation in Continental Collision Zones. Geological Society, London, Special Publications. vol. 268, 91-145] is adopted to explain flow diversity in the deep crust. The lower crust represented by Eastern Granulite basement flowed coaxially outwards (westward) in response to thickened crust and elevated gravitational forces, supported by a melt-weakened, viscous channel at the crustal base. Horizontal flow with rates faster than thermal equilibration gave rise to isobaric cooling. Simultaneously the mid crust (Eastern Granulite cover) was shortened when hot fold nappes moved along upward climbing thrust planes. Western Granulites preserved isothermal decompression through exhumation by thrusting and coeval erosion at the orogen front. Two different styles define the Neoproterozoic East African Orogen between northern Egypt and southern Mozambique. The Arabian Nubian Shield in the north is classified as small and cold orogen in which thin skinned thrusting was associated with lateral extrusion. The Central Mozambique Belt in Tanzania/Southern Kenya is classified as large and hot orogen characterized by thick-skinned thrusting and assembly of large granulite nappes.

Fritz, Harald; Tenczer, Veronika; Hauzenberger, Christoph; Wallbrecher, Eckart; Muhongo, Sospeter

2009-11-01

94

Functional materials for rechargeable batteries.  

PubMed

There is an ever-growing demand for rechargeable batteries with reversible and efficient electrochemical energy storage and conversion. Rechargeable batteries cover applications in many fields, which include portable electronic consumer devices, electric vehicles, and large-scale electricity storage in smart or intelligent grids. The performance of rechargeable batteries depends essentially on the thermodynamics and kinetics of the electrochemical reactions involved in the components (i.e., the anode, cathode, electrolyte, and separator) of the cells. During the past decade, extensive efforts have been dedicated to developing advanced batteries with large capacity, high energy and power density, high safety, long cycle life, fast response, and low cost. Here, recent progress in functional materials applied in the currently prevailing rechargeable lithium-ion, nickel-metal hydride, lead acid, vanadium redox flow, and sodium-sulfur batteries is reviewed. The focus is on research activities toward the ionic, atomic, or molecular diffusion and transport; electron transfer; surface/interface structure optimization; the regulation of the electrochemical reactions; and the key materials and devices for rechargeable batteries. PMID:21394791

Cheng, Fangyi; Liang, Jing; Tao, Zhanliang; Chen, Jun

2011-04-19

95

Along-strike variations of PT conditions in accretionary wedges and syn-orogenic extension, the HPLT PhylliteQuartzite Nappe in Crete and the  

E-print Network

, the HP­LT Phyllite­Quartzite Nappe in Crete and the Peloponnese Laurent Joliveta Fabien Trotetb retreat on the shape of P­T paths using the example of the Phyllite­Quartzite Nappe that has been exhumed

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

96

Deformation history of the high-pressure Lycian Nappes and implications for tectonic evolution of SW Turkey  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In southwestern Turkey, the Lycian nappe complex which overlies the autochthonous Menderes Massif and Bey Da? platform, consists from base to top of metasediments, a mlange unit and an ophiolitic sequence. Fresh Fe-Mg-carpholite occurrence in the metasediments attests to a high-pressure low-temperature metamorphic event. We report the distribution of Fe-Mg-carpholite and its breakdown products (e.g., pyrophyllite and chloritoid) on the Bodrum peninsula, south of the Menderes crystalline massif. The distribution of Fe-Mg-carpholite and its relics shows that the low-grade high-pressure metamorphism affected a widespread area in the lower units of the Lycian Nappes. Analysis of the ductile deformation in HP-LT metasediments indicates shear senses top-to-the-northeast to top-to-the-east. Most of this deformation is contemporaneous with the retrogression of high-pressure low-temperature parageneses and is therefore coeval with exhumation from a depth of about 30 km. At the top of the Menderes Massif "cover series," close to the contact with the Lycian Nappes, similar eastward displacements are observed and trajectories of the stretching lineations are continuous from the Lycian Nappes to the Menderes Massif across the contact. These observed movements are incompatible with the southward transport of the Lycian Nappes over the Menderes Massif. We discuss the regional tectonic implications and conclude that the Lycian Nappes and the southernmost part of the Menderes Massif were exhumed in two stages: (1) Eocene (?) top-to-the-NE shear (syn-orogenic extension?), (2) Miocene deformation contemporaneous with the Aegean extension.

Rimmel, GaTan; Jolivet, Laurent; OberhNsli, Roland; Goff, Bruno

2003-04-01

97

Choosing appropriate techniques for quantifying groundwater recharge  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Various techniques are available to quantify recharge; however, choosing appropriate techniques is often difficult. Important considerations in choosing a technique include space/time scales, range, and reliability of recharge estimates based on different techniques; other factors may limit the application of particular techniques. The goal of the recharge study is important because it may dictate the required space/time scales of the recharge estimates. Typical study goals include water-resource evaluation, which requires information on recharge over large spatial scales and on decadal time scales; and evaluation of aquifer vulnerability to contamination, which requires detailed information on spatial variability and preferential flow. The range of recharge rates that can be estimated using different approaches should be matched to expected recharge rates at a site. The reliability of recharge estimates using different techniques is variable. Techniques based on surface-water and unsaturated-zone data provide estimates of potential recharge, whereas those based on groundwater data generally provide estimates of actual recharge. Uncertainties in each approach to estimating recharge underscore the need for application of multiple techniques to increase reliability of recharge estimates.

Scanlon, B.R.; Healy, R.W.; Cook, P.G.

2002-01-01

98

Reusable Energy and Power Sources: Rechargeable Batteries  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Rechargeable batteries are very popular within consumer electronics. If one uses a cell phone or portable electric tool, she/he understands the need to have a reliable product and the need to remember to use the recharging systems that follow a cycle of charge/discharge. Rechargeable batteries are being called "green" energy sources. They are a

Hsiung, Steve C.; Ritz, John M.

2007-01-01

99

Revised 06-2011 Rechargeable  

E-print Network

Waste Label (see separate instructions). Step 4: Bag It Insert a battery or cell phone in a provided bagRevised 06-2011 Rechargeable Battery And Cell Phone Recycling Program Guidelines University. For big batteries, or if no bag is available, cover terminals with non- conductive tape. Step 5: Seal

Taylor, Jerry

100

Zircon UPb dating reveals two discrete episodes of Ordovician high-pressure metamorphism within the Seve Nappe Complex, Scandinavian Caledonides  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Seve Nappe Complex (SNC) consists predominantly of clastic sedimentary rocks, which were intruded by dolerite dikes and rift-related mafic rocks in the Neoproterozoic (ca. 600 Ma). The rocks were locally metamorphosed to eclogite facies prior to emplacement of the SNC in its current position during the Scandian (Silurian-Devonian) collision of Laurentia and Baltica. Eclogites have been described from two

D. B. Root; F. Corfu

2009-01-01

101

Simple Passive Valves for Addressable Pneumatic Actuation Nils Napp, Brandon Araki+, Michael T. Tolley, Radhika Nagpal, Robert J. Wood  

E-print Network

Simple Passive Valves for Addressable Pneumatic Actuation Nils Napp, Brandon Araki+, Michael T pneumatic or hy- draulic actuation to achieve complicated compliant motion is currently an active area to control their infinite degrees of freedom. One successful approach is to actuate pneumatic channels

Napp, Nils

102

Unsteady Climate, Groundwater Recharge, and Human Influence  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recharge is arguably the starting point of the groundwater hydrologic cycle. It marries above-ground hydrologic and climatic processes -runoff, precipitation, evapotranspiration- with groundwater flow and biochemical dynamics. This paper focuses on unsteady climate and ground water recharge linkages. Unsteady climate by virtue of its seasonal and inter-annual fluctuations or by shifts in the earth-atmosphere's radiative budget caused by secular forcing. Recharge is primarily caused by spatially diffuse percolation or by streamflow seepage. These two mechanisms are briefly reviewed. Examples of regional recharge governed by unsteady climate and affected by unsteady population are presented. Questions are raised about climate-recharge-human feebacks, and adaptation possibilities are proposed.

Loaiciga, H. A.

2007-12-01

103

First occurrence of Fe-Mg-carpholite documenting a high-pressure metamorphism in metasediments of the Lycian Nappes, SW Turkey  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the basal thrust sheets of the Lycian nappes fresh Fe-Mg-carpholite documents low-grade, high-pressure (HP) metamorphism. Here we describe the first occurrences of this HP indicator mineral in Turkey, its regional distribution and geodynamic consequences. Carpholite and its breakdown products, such as chloritiod and pyrophyllite, occur in the Lycian nappes s.s. Relics of Fe-Mg-carpholite were also found in klippen of Lycian nappe material located on top of the Menderes crystalline massif. The distribution of the Fe-Mg-carpholite and its relics traces an extensive area of HP metamorphism in the sediments of a passive continental margin.

Oberhnsli, R.; Partzsch, J.; Candan, O.; Cetinkaplan, M.

2001-03-01

104

Electrically rechargeable REDOX flow cell  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A bulk energy storage system is designed with an electrically rechargeable reduction-oxidation (REDOX) cell divided into two compartments by a membrane, each compartment containing an electrode. An anode fluid is directed through the first compartment at the same time that a cathode fluid is directed through the second compartment. Means are provided for circulating the anode and cathode fluids, and the electrodes are connected to an intermittent or non-continuous electrical source, which when operating, supplies current to a load as well as to the cell to recharge it. Ancillary circuitry is provided for disconnecting the intermittent source from the cell at prescribed times and for circulating the anode and cathode fluids according to desired parameters and conditions.

Thaller, L. H. (inventor)

1976-01-01

105

Survey of rechargeable battery technology  

SciTech Connect

We have reviewed rechargeable battery technology options for a specialized application in unmanned high altitude aircraft. Consideration was given to all rechargeable battery technologies that are available commercially or might be available in the foreseeable future. The LLNL application was found to impose very demanding performance requirements which cannot be met by existing commercially available battery technologies. The most demanding requirement is for high energy density. The technology that comes closest to providing the LLNL requirements is silver-zinc, although the technology exhibits significant shortfalls in energy density, charge rate capability and cyclability. There is no battery technology available ``off-the-shelf` today that can satisfy the LLNL performance requirements. All rechargeable battery technologies with the possibility of approaching/meeting the energy density requirements were reviewed. Vendor interviews were carried out for all relevant technologies. A large number of rechargeable battery systems have been developed over the years, though a much smaller number have achieved commercial success and general availability. The theoretical energy densities for these systems are summarized. It should be noted that a generally useful ``rule-of-thumb`` is that the ratio of packaged to theoretical energy density has proven to be less than 30%, and generally less than 25%. Data developed for this project confirm the usefulness of the general rule. However, data shown for the silver-zinc (AgZn) system show a greater conversion of theoretical to practical energy density than would be expected due to the very large cell sizes considered and the unusually high density of the active materials.

Not Available

1993-07-01

106

Groundwater recharge and agricultural contamination  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Agriculture has had direct and indirect effects on the rates and compositions of groundwater recharge and aquifer biogeochemistry. Direct effects include dissolution and transport of excess quantities of fertilizers and associated materials and hydrologic alterations related to irrigation and drainage. Some indirect effects include changes in water-rock reactions in soils and aquifers caused by increased concentrations of dissolved oxidants, protons, and major ions. Agrilcultural activities have directly or indirectly affected the concentrations of a large number of inorganic chemicals in groundwater, for example NO3-, N2, Cl, SO42-, H+, P, C, K, Mg, Ca, Sr, Ba, Ra, and As, as well a wide variety of pesticides and other organic compounds. For reactive contaminants like NO3-, a combination of chemical, isotopic, and environmental-tracer analytical approaches might be required to resolve changing inputs from subsequent alterations as causes of concentration gradients in groundwater. Groundwater records derived from multi-component hydrostratigraphic data can be used to quantify recharge rates and residence times of water and dissolved contaminants, document past variations in recharging contaminant loads, and identify natural contaminant-remediation processes. These data indicate that many of the world's surficial aquifers contain transient records of changing agricultural contamination from the last half of the 20th century. The transient agricultural groundwater signal has important implications for long-term trends and spatial heterogeneity in discharge.

Bhlke, J.K.

2002-01-01

107

Rechargeable lithium battery technology - A survey  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The technology of the rechargeable lithium battery is discussed with special attention given to the types of rechargeable lithium cells and to their expected performance and advantages. Consideration is also given to the organic-electrolyte and polymeric-electrolyte cells and to molten salt lithium cells, as well as to technical issues, such as the cycle life, charge control, rate capability, cell size, and safety. The role of the rechargeable lithium cell in future NASA applications is discussed.

Halpert, Gerald; Surampudi, Subbarao

108

Micro windmills to recharge your mobile phone  

E-print Network

0Tweet 0 Micro windmills to recharge your mobile phone Discussion in 'Other Engineering Trades be hosted on your mobile phone and used to charge your mobile phone on the go. Rao's work has seen a greatMicro windmills to recharge your mobile phone | CrazyEngineers 1/19/2014http://www.crazyengineers.com/threads/micro-windmills-to-recharge-your-mobile-phone

Chiao, Jung-Chih

109

Cathodoluminescence, fluid inclusion and stable CO isotope study of tectonic breccias from thrusting plane of a thin-skinned calcareous nappe  

Microsoft Academic Search

Basal hydraulic breccias of alpine thin-skinned Mur? nappe were investigated by means of cathodoluminescence petrography,\\u000a stable isotope geochemistry and fluid inclusions analysis. Our study reveals an unusual dynamic fluid regime along basal thrust\\u000a plane during final episode of the nappe emplacement over its metamorphic substratum. Basal thrusting fluids enriched in 18O, silica, alumina, alkalies and phosphates were generated in the

Rastislav Milovsk; Alfons van den Kerkhof; Jochen Hoefs; Vratislav Hurai; Walter Prochaska

2011-01-01

110

Lu-Hf garnet systematics of a polymetamorphic basement unit: new evidence for coherent exhumation of the Adula Nappe (Central Alps) from eclogite-facies conditions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Adula Nappe in the Central Alps is a mixture of various pre-Mesozoic continental basement rocks, metabasics, ultrabasics, and Mesozoic cover rocks, which were pervasively deformed during Alpine orogeny. Metabasics, ultrabasics, and locally garnet-mica schists preserve eclogite-facies assemblages while the bulk of the nappe lacks such evidence. We provide garnet major-element data, Lu profiles, and Lu-Hf garnet geochronology from eclogites sampled along a north-south traverse. A southward increasing Alpine overprint over pre-Alpine garnets is observed throughout the nappe. Garnets in a sample from the northern Adula Nappe display a single growth cycle and yield a Variscan age of 323.8 6.9 Ma. In contrast, a sample from Alpe Arami in the southernmost part contains unzoned garnets that fully equilibrated to Alpine high-pressure (HP) metamorphic conditions with temperatures exceeding 800 C. We suggest that the respective Eocene Lu-Hf age of 34.1 2.8 Ma is affected by partial re-equilibration after the Alpine pressure peak. A third sample from the central part of the nappe contains separable Alpine and Variscan garnet populations. The Alpine population yields a maximum age of 38.8 4.3 Ma in line with a previously published garnet maximum age from the central nappe of 37.1 0.9 Ma. The Adula Nappe represents a coherent basement unit, which preserves a continuous Alpine high-pressure metamorphic gradient. It was subducted as a whole in a single, short-lived event in the upper Eocene. Controversial HP ages and conditions in the Adula Nappe may result from partly preserved Variscan assemblages in Alpine metamorphic rocks.

Sandmann, Sascha; Nagel, Thorsten J.; Herwartz, Daniel; Fonseca, Ral O. C.; Kurzawski, Robert M.; Mnker, Carsten; Froitzheim, Nikolaus

2014-11-01

111

Ground Water Recharge through Pits and Wells.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Well water was successfully recharged to the Meade formation in Southcentral Kansas through a pit and a well. However, when surface runoff water was recharged, the surface of the pit became sealed over for all practical purposes and the specific capacity ...

H. L. Manges

1973-01-01

112

Recharge at the Hanford Site: Status report  

SciTech Connect

A variety of field programs designed to evaluate recharge and other water balance components including precipitation, infiltration, evaporation, and water storage changes, have been carried out at the Hanford Site since 1970. Data from these programs have indicated that a wide range of recharge rates can occur depending upon specific site conditions. Present evidence suggests that minimum recharge occurs where soils are fine-textured and surfaces are vegetated with deep-rooted plants. Maximum recharge occurs where coarse soils or gravels exist at the surface and soils are kept bare. Recharge can occur in areas where shallow-rooted plants dominate the surface, particularly where soils are coarse-textured. Recharge estimates have been made for the site using simulation models. A US Geological Survey model that attempts to account for climate variability, soil storage parameters, and plant factors has calculated recharge values ranging from near zero to an average of about 1 cm/yr for the Hanford Site. UNSAT-H, a deterministic model developed for the site, appears to be the best code available for estimating recharge on a site-specific basis. Appendix I contains precipitation data from January 1979 to June 1987. 42 refs., 11 figs., 11 tabs.

Gee, G.W.

1987-11-01

113

High power rechargeable batteries Paul V. Braun  

E-print Network

High power rechargeable batteries Paul V. Braun , Jiung Cho, James H. Pikul, William P. King storage Secondary batteries High energy density High power density Lithium ion battery 3D battery of rechargeable (second- ary) batteries, as this is critical for most applications. As the penetration

Braun, Paul

114

Transformer Recharging with Alpha Channeling in Tokamaks  

SciTech Connect

Transformer recharging with lower hybrid waves in tokamaks can give low average auxiliary power if the resistivity is kept high enough during the radio frequency (rf) recharging stage. At the same time, operation in the hot ion mode via alpha channeling increases the effective fusion reactivity. This paper will address the extent to which these two large cost saving steps are compatible. __________________________________________________

N.J. Fisch

2009-12-21

115

Structural analysis of a complex nappe sequence and late-orogenic basins from the Aegean Island of Samos, Greece  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The island of Samos in the Aegean Sea exposes high-pressure metamorphic rocks of the Cycladic blueschist unit which are sandwiched between the mildly blueschist-facies Kerketas nappe below and the overlying non-metamorphic Kallithea nappe. Structural and metamorphic analysis shows that deformation can generally be divided into four main stages: (1) Eocene and earliest Oligocene ESE-WNW-oriented nappe stacking (D 1 and D 2) associated with blueschist- and transitional blueschist-greenschist-facies metamorphism (M 1 and M 2). D 2 caused emplacement of the blueschist unit onto the Kerketas nappe indicating that thrusting occurred during decompression. (2) A subsequent history of Oligocene and Miocene horizontal crustal extension (D 3) before and after greenschist-facies metamorphism (M 3). Ductile flow during D 3 was characterized by a high degree of coaxial deformation but in general caused displacement of upper units towards the ENE. Nonetheless, the late-stage D 3 emplacement of the Kallithea nappe between 9 and 10 Ma had a top-to-the-NW/NNW sense of shear. (3) A short period of brittle E-W crustal contraction (D 4) occurred between <8.6 and 9 Ma. (4) A phase of N-S-directed normal faulting (D 5, <8.6 Ma to Recent). ESE-WNW-directed tectonic transport during D 1 through D 3 is in contrast to uniform NNE-SSW-directed tectonic transport in the adjacent Cyclades, Greece, as well as in the neighbouring Menderes Massif of western Turkey. Published paleomagnetic data reveal sinistral rotation between the Cyclades and western Turkey. We interpret this rotation as a consequence of differential extension between the severely extended Aegean and the moderately extended Menderes Massif during D 3. The onset of D 3 crustal extension is coeval with a marked change in the thermal structure. We propose that the thermal reorganization was associated with the retreat of the subduction zone towards the external Hellenides in the Early Oligocene and a subsequent increase in magmatic activity.

Ring, Uwe; Laws, Susanne; Bernet, Matthias

1999-11-01

116

Rechargeable lithium-ion cell  

DOEpatents

The invention relates to a rechargeable lithium-ion cell, a method for its manufacture, and its application. The cell is distinguished by the fact that it has a metallic housing (21) which is electrically insulated internally by two half shells (15), which cover electrode plates (8) and main output tabs (7) and are composed of a non-conductive material, where the metallic housing is electrically insulated externally by means of an insulation coating. The cell also has a bursting membrane (4) which, in its normal position, is located above the electrolyte level of the cell (1). In addition, the cell has a twisting protection (6) which extends over the entire surface of the cover (2) and provides centering and assembly functions for the electrode package, which comprises the electrode plates (8).

Bechtold, Dieter (Bad Vilbel, DE); Bartke, Dietrich (Kelkheim, DE); Kramer, Peter (Konigstein, DE); Kretzschmar, Reiner (Kelkheim, DE); Vollbert, Jurgen (Hattersheim, DE)

1999-01-01

117

Lithium ion rechargeable systems studies  

SciTech Connect

Lithium ion systems, although relatively new, have attracted much interest worldwide. Their high energy density, long cycle life and relative safety, compared with metallic lithium rechargeable systems, make them prime candidates for powering portable electronic equipment. Although lithium ion cells are presently used in a few consumer devices, e.g., portable phones, camcorders, and laptop computers, there is room for considerable improvement in their performance. Specific areas that need to be addressed include: (1) carbon anode--increase reversible capacity, and minimize passivation; (2) cathode--extend cycle life, improve rate capability, and increase capacity. There are several programs ongoing at Sandia National Laboratories which are investigating means of achieving the stated objectives in these specific areas. This paper will review these programs.

Levy, S.C.; Lasasse, R.R.; Cygan, R.T.; Voigt, J.A.

1995-02-01

118

Rechargeable lead-acid batteries.  

PubMed

Batteries used in medical equipment, like their counterparts in consumer products, attract little attention until they fail to function effectively. In some applications, such as in emergency medical devices, battery failure can have fatal consequences. While modern batteries are usually quite reliable, ECRI has received 53 written problem reports and countless verbal reports or questions related to battery problems in hospitals during the past five years. This large number of reports is due, at least in part, to the enormous quality of batteries used to operate or provide backup power in contemporary hospital equipment. As part of an ongoing evaluation of rehabilitation assistive equipment, ECRI has been studying the performance of 12 V rechargeable deep-cycle lead-acid batteries used in powered wheelchairs. During the course of this evaluation, it has become apparent that many professionals, both clinical and industrial, regard batteries as "black box" devices and know little about proper care and maintenance--and even less about battery selection and purchase. Because equipment performance and reliability can be strongly influenced by different battery models, an understanding of battery characteristics and how they affect performance is essential when selecting and purchasing batteries. The types of rechargeable batteries used most commonly in hospitals are lead-acid and nickel-cadmium (nicad), which we compare below; however, the guidance we provide in this article focuses on lead-acid batteries. While the examples given are for high-capacity 12 V deep-cycle batteries, similar analyses can be applied to smaller lead-acid batteries of different voltages. PMID:2211174

1990-09-01

119

Design of an AUV recharging system  

E-print Network

The utility of present Autonomous Underwater Vehicles (AUVs) is limited by their on-board energy storage capability. Research indicates that rechargeable batteries will continue to be the AUV power source of choice for at ...

Gish, Lynn Andrew

2004-01-01

120

Issues and challenges facing rechargeable lithium batteries  

Microsoft Academic Search

Technological improvements in rechargeable solid-state batteries are being driven by an ever-increasing demand for portable electronic devices. Lithium-ion batteries are the systems of choice, offering high energy density, flexible and lightweight design, and longer lifespan than comparable battery technologies. We present a brief historical review of the development of lithium-based rechargeable batteries, highlight ongoing research strategies, and discuss the challenges

J.-M. Tarascon; M. Armand

2001-01-01

121

Theory of the generalized chloride mass balance method for recharge estimation in groundwater basins characterised by point and diffuse recharge  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Application of the conventional chloride mass balance (CMB) method to point recharge dominant groundwater basins can substantially under-estimate long-term average annual recharge by not accounting for the effects of localized surface water inputs. This is because the conventional CMB method ignores the duality of infiltration and recharge found in karstic systems, where point recharge can be a contributing factor. When point recharge is present in groundwater basins, recharge estimation is unsuccessful using the conventional CMB method with, either unsaturated zone chloride or groundwater chloride. In this paper we describe a generalized CMB that can be applied to groundwater basins with point recharge. Results from this generalized CMB are shown to be comparable with long-term recharge estimates obtained using the watertable fluctuation method, groundwater flow modelling and Darcy flow calculations. The generalized CMB method provides an alternative, reliable long-term recharge estimation method for groundwater basins characterised by both point and diffuse recharge.

Somaratne, N.; Smettem, K. R. J.

2014-01-01

122

Constraining exhumation pathway in an accretionary wedge by (U-Th)/He thermochronologyCase study on Meliatic nappes in the Western Carpathians  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study reconstructs the late stages in the exhumation history of a nappe derived from the Meliatic accretionary wedge in the Western Carpathians by means of zircon and apatite (U-Th)/He dating. The Meliatic accretionary wedge formed due to the closure of the Neotethyan Triassic-Jurassic Meliata-Hallstatt Ocean in the Late Jurassic. The studied fragments of the blueschist-bearing Meliatic Brka Nappe were metamorphosed at low-temperature and high- to medium-pressure conditions at ca. 160-150 Ma and included into the accretionary wedge. The time of the accretionary wedge formation constrains the beginning of the Brka Nappe northward thrusting over the Gemeric Unit of the evolving Central Western Carpathians (CWC) orogenic wedge. The zircon (U-Th)/He data on four samples recorded three evolutionary stages: (i) cooling through the ?180 C isotherm at 130-120 Ma related to starting collapse of the accretionary wedge, following exhumation of the high-pressure slices in the Meliatic accretionary wedge; (ii) postponed exhumation and cooling of some fragments through the ?180 C isotherm from 115 to 95 Ma due to ongoing collapse of this wedge; and (iii) cooling from 80 to 65 Ma, postdating the thrusting (?100-80 Ma) of the Brka Nappe slices during the Late Cretaceous compression related to formation of the CWC orogenic wedge. The third stage already documents cooling of the Meliatic Brka Nappe slices in the CWC orogenic wedge. The apatite (U-Th)/He data may indicate cooling of a Brka Nappe slice to near-surface temperatures at ?65 Ma. The younger AHe age clusters indicate that at least one, or possibly two, reheating events could have occurred in the longer interval from ?40 to ?10 Ma during the Oligocene-Miocene. These were related to sedimentary burial and/or the magmatism as documented in other parts of the CWC.

Puti, Marin; Danik, Martin; Rui?ka, Peter; Schmiedt, Ivan

2014-11-01

123

Duality of magmatism in the plutonic sequence of the Sumail Nappe, Oman  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Detailed field mapping of the crustal sequence in several areas of the Sumail Ophiolite Nappe, mainly in the Fizh, the Salahi and the Haylayn blocks, and comparisons with other well-studied areas, have shown that the crustal sequence was constructed by two distinct, although nearly contemporaneous, magmatic series: The first, a gabbroic series, was emplaced during the accretion stage at an oceanic spreading centre which formed the layered gabbro unit, the high-level isotropic gabbro unit and their by-products, the sheeted dyke complex and the lower extrusives. Fine-grained homogeneous, planar-laminated gabbros commonly occur at the top of the layered gabbro sequence. In some specific areas (Wadi Haymiliyah and Wadi Rajmi), these are strongly differentiated Fe-Ti-rich gabbronorites and norites, which coincide with large-scale discontinuities within the plutonic sequence, interpreted as axial discontinuities of the spreading magma chambers. The second series, an ultramafic wehrlitic series, is locally rooted in the upper mantle (i.e., the impregnated dunitic transition zone). This has intruded the whole crustal sequence up to the pillow lavas. Countless discordant and concordant wehrlitic bodies intruded the plutonic sequence, making up 20-40% of it in volume. We describe the various settings and forms of these intrusions, which were largely underestimated in previous studies. We also describe their mineralogy and textures, and show with chemical and mineralogical arguments that these bodies evolved as relatively closed systems, independently from each other. We infer from the study of the contacts that the gabbros were still hot and consolidated just at the moment of the wehrlitic intrusion. At the base of the crust however, indications of immiscibility between gabbros and wehrlites are common, suggesting that both magmatic series were quite contemporaneous. The wehrlites are commonly isotropic and may exhibit an internal layering of the dunite-wehrlite-clinopyroxenite type, sometimes appearing at the upper or lower margins of the intrusions. In this case, the ultramafic layered cumulates show lobate intrusive contacts with the adjacent layered gabbros. These plagioclase-free ultramafic layered cumulates, therefore, are not interbedded within the gabbro cumulates, but actually belong to the wehrlitic intrusive series. Picritic dykes radiating from the uppermost intrusions can be traced up to the upper extrusives, which are for the main part cogenetic with the wehrlites. The time of this second magmatic event coincides with the cessation of the accretion process and with the beginning of the intraoceanic detachment of the ophiolite at the spreading centre. We believe that the compressive regime that initiated the detachment acted as an efficient filter press and helped the extraction and ascent of the wehrlitic magmas towards the uppermost levels of the crust.

Juteau, T.; Ernewein, M.; Reuber, I.; Whitechurch, H.; Dahl, R.

1988-09-01

124

Structural evidence for the allochthonous nature of the Bulbul terrane in southern Ethiopia: A west-verging thrust nappe  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Neoproterozoic basement of southern Ethiopia links the low-grade Pan-African province of the Arabian-Nubian Shield to the high-grade Mozambique Belt to the south. In this intervening area, a northward terminating low-grade metavolcano-sedimentary and mafic-ultramafic sequence of the Bulbul terrane gently overlies moderately to steeply dipping granitic migmatites of the Alghe gneissic terrane. The contact between the two terranes is a right lateral thrust. In the Bulbul terrane, rocks are part of an overturned sequence with a gently east-dipping composite D1/D2 foliation containing downdip and NE-plunging stretching lineations and westerly verging intrafolial folds. These structures are interpreted to have been developed during westward thrusting. The Bulbul sequence was therefore detached and tectonically transported to the west as a thrust nappe of which the lower inverted limb is still preserved. Structural evidence suggest yet another smaller nappe sequence (terrane) is present in southern Ethiopia and further suggest that Neoproterozoic obducted crust of the Arabian-Nubian Shield in eastern Ethiopia may be located beneath Phanerozoic cover.

Yihunie, Tadesse; Tesfaye, Melaku

2002-02-01

125

Cyclic ductile and brittle deformation related to coseismic thrust fault propagation: Structural record at the base of a basement nappe (Preveli, Crete)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

structural record at the base of a basement nappe (Preveli nappe, Crete, Greece) thrust upon sedimentary rocks is investigated, aimed on understanding mechanisms which result in decoupling of the thrust sheet from its original substratum. We identify several superimposed deformation stages, each with characteristic structural style and indications of episodic deformation at initially high differential stress. The final stage involves formation of a matrix supported breccia transected by pseudotachylytes, comprising the lowermost 30 m of the nappe. Brecciation and pseudotachylyte formation occurred in a single event, and structures were not modified afterward. Complete induration of breccia and composition of phengite crystallized during devitrification of pseudotachylytes place the sequence of events into the middle crust. We propose a model relating episodic deformation and cyclic stress history to propagation of a thrust fault in a limited number of seismic events. Terminal brecciation and frictional fusion record passage of the fault front beneath the site of observation and decoupling of the thrust sheet. Absence of discernible further deformation is consistent with negligible basal friction during transport as a nappe. Brecciation and pseudotachylyte formation mark the switch from a history of repeated coseismic loading and postseismic stress relaxation in the plastosphere, driven by seismic events on the approaching thrust fault, to passive transport with deformation localized in a weak thrust plane. For a sequence of superimposed ductile to brittle structures, our model provides an alternative to progressive cooling and exhumation concomitant with deformation over millions of years.

Nchter, Jens-Alexander; Wassmann, Sara; Stckhert, Bernhard

2013-09-01

126

P-T Alpine metamorphic evolution of the Monte Rosa nappe along the Piedmont Zone boundary (Gressoney Valley, NW Italy)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The pseudosection modelling of two chemical systems (both metabasic and metapelitic) allowed to reconstruct the exhumation P-T path followed by the southern slope of the Monte Rosa nappe (Upper Gressoney Valley) during the Alpine orogenesis. The metamorphic evolution of the polymetamorphic basement complex from the Monte Rosa nappe is marked by texturally distinct mineral assemblages, defining four Alpine metamorphic stages (M1 to M4) reflecting a sequence of different P-T conditions. Well preserved eclogitic boudins (M1 and M2 assemblages) were investigated to reconstruct the HP history related to the subduction phase, while re-equilibrated metapelites allowed to infer the P-T conditions attained during the development of the regional foliation (M3 and M4 assemblages). The HP stage (M1) occurred at 550-570 C and 24-27 kbar and is characterised by the assemblage Omp + Grt + Lws + Phe + Qtz + Gln Tlc in the eclogites. The M2 metamorphic stage consists of the assemblage Omp + Grt + Barr + Zo + Phe + Pg + Qtz and developed at 590-630 C and 14.5-16.5 kbar suggesting a T increasing during decompression. After a further decompressional stage associated with a T decrease, the M3 tectono-metamorphic stage developed syn-kinematically with the main regional foliation S1. It is marked by the assemblage Phe + Pg + Grt + Chl + Ab/Olig + Hbl + Qtz + Rt/Ilm Bt in metapelites and by Cam (blue-green) + Chl + Ab + Bt + Qtz + Rt in the re-equilibrated metabasite boudins. S1 developed during increasing T (from 550 to ca. 600 C) and sligthly increasing P (from 7 to 9 kbar). Finally, the M4 assemblage grew as rims over the M3 minerals or overgrew the S1 regional foliation (albite porphyroblasts overgrowing the S1 foliation already defined by albite) and therefore can be considered as the final stage of the M3 stage. The P-T path proposed for the Monte Rosa nappe differs from previous works. In particular, we propose post-eclogitic decompression trajectory up to 7 kbar, followed by a P-T increase that can be related to a second burial-exhumation cycle during Alpine orogenesis, as recently reported for other Alpine units.

Gasco, Ivano; Borghi, Alessandro; Gattiglio, Marco

2011-11-01

127

Improved Separators For Rechargeable Lithium Cells  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Improved pairs of separators proposed for use in rechargeable lithium cells operating at ambient temperature. Block growth of lithium dendrites and help prevent short circuits. Each cell contains one separator made of microporous polypropylene placed next to anode, and one separator made of microporous polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) next to cathode. Separators increase cycle lives of secondary lithium cells. Cells to which concept applicable those of Li/TiS(2), Li/NbSe(3), Li/CoO(2), Li/MoS(2), Li/VO(x), and Li/MnO(2) chemical systems. Advantageous in spacecraft, military, communications, automotive, and other applications in which high energy density and rechargeability needed.

Shen, David; Surampudi, Subbarao; Huang, Chen-Kuo; Halpert, Gerald

1994-01-01

128

Electrode materials for aqueous rechargeable lithium batteries  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this review, we describe briefly the historical development of aqueous rechargeable lithium batteries, the advantages and\\u000a challenges associated with the use of aqueous electrolytes in lithium rechargeable battery with an emphasis on the electrochemical\\u000a performance of various electrode materials. The following materials have been studied as cathode materials: LiMn2O4, MnO2, LiNiO2, LiCoO2, LiMnPO4, LiFePO4, and anatase TiO2. Addition of

H. Manjunatha; G. S. Suresh; T. V. Venkatesha

2011-01-01

129

Computer Program for Predicting Recharge with a Master Recession Curve.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Water-table fluctuations occur in unconfined aquifers owing to ground-water recharge following precipitation and infiltration, and ground-water discharge to streams between storm events. Ground-water recharge can be estimated from well hydrograph data usi...

C. S. Heppner, J. R. Nimmo

2005-01-01

130

REFLEAK: NIST Leak/Recharge Simulation Program for Refrigerant Mixtures  

National Institute of Standards and Technology Data Gateway

SRD 73 NIST REFLEAK: NIST Leak/Recharge Simulation Program for Refrigerant Mixtures (PC database for purchase) REFLEAK estimates composition changes of zeotropic mixtures in leak and recharge processes.

131

Melt-Formable Block Copolymer Electrolytes for Lithium Rechargeable Batteries  

E-print Network

conductivity in polymer electrolytes for solid-state rechargeable lithium batteries. However, due to the strong in solid-state rechargeable lithium batteries. Yet, technical obstacles to their commercialization derive

Sadoway, Donald Robert

132

Southern termination of Butternut Hill fold and evaluation of the nappe model for the Chester dome, Vermont  

SciTech Connect

According to previous interpretations the Acadian Hill fold (Thompson, Ph.D. thesis 1950) is a major, 20 km long, north-plunging synformal digitation containing inverted Middle Proterozoic gneiss and cover rocks along the western flank of the Chester dome. It constitutes the principal evidence for inversion of rocks in the nappe model of the Chester dome. Reexamination of the southern closure reveals that it does not close in a north plunging synform but the contact between cover rock and Middle Proterozoic gneiss dips southwest and west in a series of well-exposed minor folds. Steeply plunging folds in the cover rocks are the result of Acadian refolding of the earlier steeply dipping Taconian schistosity, that passes through vertical on the nose of the fold. The hingelines of the Acadian folds are highly irregular, but commonly plunge at 60 to 90 degrees within the subvertical and west dipping Acadian axial surfaces. Rather than supporting northerly dips and subhorizontal axial surfaces, plunges of hingelines of interference folds and of intersection lineations indicate folding of steeply-dipping schistosity and contacts. The data therefore do not support the existence of subhorizontal recumbent folds prior to development of the Butternut Hill fold. Projections showing the Butternut Hill fold as a downward closing synformal S shaped'' digitation of Middle Proterozoic core gneisses and cover rocks are not supported by the data presented here, as it is Z shaped in profile and upward closing. In the present interpretation, the Butternut Hill fold is a simple antiformal structure, possibly developed on a pre-existing (Taconian) reclined fold, that originally plunged steeply southeast in the regional (Taconian) schistosity. These observations suggest that a reevaluation of the Acadian nappe model for the Chester and Athens domes is necessary.

Ratcliffe, N.M. (Geological Survey, Reston, VA (United States))

1993-03-01

133

Estimating recharge rates with analytic element models and parameter estimation  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Quantifying the spatial and temporal distribution of recharge is usually a prerequisite for effective ground water flow modeling. In this study, an analytic element (AE) code (GFLOW) was used with a nonlinear parameter estimation code (UCODE) to quantify the spatial and temporal distribution of recharge using measured base flows as calibration targets. The ease and flexibility of AE model construction and evaluation make this approach well suited for recharge estimation. An AE flow model of an undeveloped watershed in northern Wisconsin was optimized to match median annual base flows at four stream gages for 1996 to 2000 to demonstrate the approach. Initial optimizations that assumed a constant distributed recharge rate provided good matches (within 5%) to most of the annual base flow estimates, but discrepancies of >12% at certain gages suggested that a single value of recharge for the entire watershed is inappropriate. Subsequent optimizations that allowed for spatially distributed recharge zones based on the distribution of vegetation types improved the fit and confirmed that vegetation can influence spatial recharge variability in this watershed. Temporally, the annual recharge values varied >2.5-fold between 1996 and 2000 during which there was an observed 1.7-fold difference in annual precipitation, underscoring the influence of nonclimatic factors on interannual recharge variability for regional flow modeling. The final recharge values compared favorably with more labor-intensive field measurements of recharge and results from studies, supporting the utility of using linked AE-parameter estimation codes for recharge estimation. Copyright ?? 2005 The Author(s).

Dripps, W. R.; Hunt, R. J.; Anderson, M. P.

2006-01-01

134

Spatial and temporal variations in seepage during managed aquifer recharge  

Microsoft Academic Search

Managed aquifer recharge (MAR) is an increasingly important means of supplementing fresh water resources and helping to limit ground water overdraft. Many MAR systems are operated above a vadose zone and usually recharge rapidly during an initial phase of diversion. Recharge typically slows considerably within subsequent weeks to months as sedimentation, biofouling, soil compaction, drainage at the base of the

A. J. Racz; A. T. Fisher; C. M. Schmidt; B. S. Lockwood; M. Los Huertos

2009-01-01

135

Heat transport in the vicinity of an artificial recharge site  

Microsoft Academic Search

Since July 2002, the Intermunicipal Water Company of the Veurne region (IWVA) artificially recharges fresh water in the dunes of the western Belgian coastal plain by means of two recharge ponds. This recharge water is produced from secondary treated waste water effluent by the combination of ultra filtration and reverse osmosis. Extraction wells (112) are located north and south of

Alexander Vandenbohede; Emmanuel van Houtte; Luc Lebbe

2010-01-01

136

Global synthesis of groundwater recharge in semiarid and arid regions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Global synthesis of the findings from 140 recharge study areas in semiarid and arid regions provides important information on recharge rates, controls, and processes, which are critical for sustainable water development. Water resource evaluation, dryland salinity assessment (Australia), and radioactive waste disposal (US) are among the primary goals of many of these recharge studies. The chloride mass balance (CMB) technique

Bridget R. Scanlon; Kelley E. Keese; Alan L. Flint; Lorraine E. Flint; Cheikh B. Gaye; W. Michael Edmunds; Ian Simmers

2006-01-01

137

Global synthesis of groundwater recharge in semiarid and arid regions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Global synthesis of the findings from 140 recharge study areas in semiarid and arid regions provides important information on recharge rates, controls, and processes, which are critical for sustainable water development. Water resource evaluation, dryland salinity assessment (Australia), and radioactive waste disposal (US) are among the primary goals of many of these recharge studies. The chloride mass balance (CMB) technique

Bridget R. Scanlon; Kelley E. Keese; Alan L. Flint; Lorraine E. Flint; Cheikh B. Gaye; W. Michael Edmunds; Ian Simmers

2006-01-01

138

Rechargeable metal hydrides for spacecraft application  

Microsoft Academic Search

Storing hydrogen on board the Space Station presents both safety and logistics problems. Conventional storage using pressurized bottles requires large masses, pressures, and volumes to handle the hydrogen to be used in experiments in the U.S. Laboratory Module and residual hydrogen generated by the ECLSS. Rechargeable metal hydrides may be competitive with conventional storage techniques. The basic theory of hydride

J. L. Perry

1988-01-01

139

Prototype systems for rechargeable magnesium batteries  

Microsoft Academic Search

The thermodynamic properties of magnesium make it a natural choice for use as an anode material in rechargeable batteries, because it may provide a considerably higher energy density than the commonly used lead-acid and nickel-cadmium systems. Moreover, in contrast to lead and cadmium, magnesium is inexpensive, environmentally friendly and safe to handle. But the development of Mg batteries has been

D. Aurbach; Z. Lu; A. Schechter; Y. Gofer; H. Gizbar; R. Turgeman; Y. Cohen; M. Moshkovich; E. Levi

2000-01-01

140

Self-Recharging Virtual Currency David Irwin  

E-print Network

or starve. We outline the design and rationale for self-recharging currency in Cereus, a system for market to discourage fraudulent behav- ior. Currency transactions in Cereus are accountable: offline third-party audits use in Cereus1 , a system for service-oriented util- ity computing. The Cereus system is based

Shenoy, Prashant

141

Rechargeable solid polymer electrolyte battery cell  

DOEpatents

A rechargeable battery cell comprising first and second electrodes sandwiching a solid polymer electrolyte comprising a layer of a polymer blend of a highly conductive polymer and a solid polymer electrolyte adjacent said polymer blend and a layer of dry solid polymer electrolyte adjacent said layer of polymer blend and said second electrode.

Skotheim, Terji (East Patchoque, NY)

1985-01-01

142

Recharging Our Sense of Idealism: Concluding Thoughts  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this article, the authors aim to recharge one's sense of idealism. They argue that idealism is the Vitamin C that sustains one's commitment to implementing humanistic principles and social justice practices in the work of counselors and educators. The idealism that characterizes counselors and educators who are humanistic and social justice

D'Andrea, Michael; Dollarhide, Colette T.

2011-01-01

143

Design considerations for rechargeable lithium batteries  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Viewgraphs of a discussion of design considerations for rechargable lithium batteries. The objective is to determine the influence of cell design parameters on the performance of Li-TiS2 cells. Topics covered include cell baseline design and testing, cell design and testing, cell design parameters studies, and cell cycling performance.

Shen, D. H.; Huang, C.-K.; Davies, E.; Perrone, D.; Surampudi, S.; Halpert, Gerald

1993-01-01

144

An approach to identify urban groundwater recharge  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Evaluating the proportion in which waters from different origins are mixed in a given water sample is relevant for many hydrogeological problems, such as quantifying total recharge, assessing groundwater pollution risks, or managing water resources. Our work is motivated by urban hydrogeology, where waters with different chemical signature can be identified (losses from water supply and sewage networks, infiltration from surface runoff and other water bodies, lateral aquifers inflows, ...). The relative contribution of different sources to total recharge can be quantified by means of solute mass balances, but application is hindered by the large number of potential origins. Hence, the need to incorporate data from a large number of conservative species, the uncertainty in sources concentrations and measurement errors. We present a methodology to compute mixing ratios and end-members composition, which consists of (i) Identification of potential recharge sources, (ii) Selection of tracers, (iii) Characterization of the hydrochemical composition of potential recharge sources and mixed water samples, and (iv) Computation of mixing ratios and reevaluation of end-members. The analysis performed in a data set from samples of the Barcelona city aquifers suggests that the main contributors to total recharge are the water supply network losses (22%), the sewage network losses (30%), rainfall, concentrated in the non-urbanized areas (17%), from runoff infiltration (20%), and the Bess River (11%). Regarding species, halogens (chloride, fluoride and bromide), sulfate, total nitrogen, and stable isotopes (18O, 2H, and 34S) behaved quite conservatively. Boron, residual alkalinity, EDTA and Zn did not. Yet, including these species in the computations did not affect significantly the proportion estimations.

Vzquez-Su, E.; Carrera, J.; Tubau, I.; Snchez-Vila, X.; Soler, A.

2010-10-01

145

An approach to identify urban groundwater recharge  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Evaluating the proportion in which waters from different origins are mixed in a given water sample is relevant for many hydrogeological problems, such as quantifying total recharge, assessing groundwater pollution risks, or managing water resources. Our work is motivated by urban hydrogeology, where waters with different chemical signature can be identified (losses from water supply and sewage networks, infiltration from surface runoff and other water bodies, lateral aquifers inflows, ...). The relative contribution of different sources to total recharge can be quantified by means of solute mass balances, but application is hindered by the large number of potential origins. Hence, the need to incorporate data from a large number of conservative species, the uncertainty in sources concentrations and measurement errors. We present a methodology to compute mixing ratios and end-members composition, which consists of (i) Identification of potential recharge sources, (ii) Selection of tracers, (iii) Characterization of the hydrochemical composition of potential recharge sources and mixed water samples, and (iv) Computation of mixing ratios and reevaluation of end-members. The analysis performed in a data set from samples of the Barcelona city aquifers suggests that the main contributors to total recharge are the water supply network losses (22%), the sewage network losses (30%), rainfall, concentrated in the non-urbanized areas (17%), from runoff infiltration (20%), and the Bess River (11%). Regarding species, halogens (chloride, fluoride and bromide), sulfate, total nitrogen, and stable isotopes (18O2H, and 34S) behaved quite conservatively. Boron, residual alkalinity, EDTA and Zn did not. Yet, including these species in the computations did not affect significantly the proportion estimations.

Vzquez-Su, E.; Carrera, J.; Tubau, I.; Snchez-Vila, X.; Soler, A.

2010-04-01

146

The effect of early Alpine thrusting in late-stage extensional tectonics: Evidence from the Kulidzhik nappe and the Pelevun extensional allochthon in the Rhodope Massif, Bulgaria  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the northeastern Rhodope Massif, the Kulidzhik nappe exposes a unique juxtaposition of a high-grade basement allochthon onto a low-grade Mesozoic unit, and the counterpart Pelevun extensional allochthon belonging to the same unit. The Kulidzhik nappe tectonostratigraphy comprises structurally upward: (i) a lower unit consisting of high-grade basement orthogneisses; (ii) a low-grade greenschist-phyllite unit consisting of Jurassic extrusive rocks and metasedimentary rocks; (iii) the nappe allochthon built by the lower high-grade basement unit orthogneisses; and (iv) Eocene sedimentary rocks and Oligocene volcanic cover rocks. The Pelevun extensional allochthon is heterogeneous, and consists of Mesozoic low-grade unit marbles and greenschists and the upper high-grade basement unit. We have combined structure and kinematics, with lithological information and 40?r/ 39?r geochronology to constrain the tectonic evolution and regional significance of the Kulidzhik nappe and the Pelevun extensional allochthon. Mineral chemistry reveals igneous phases of the granitic protolith of the allochthonous orthogneisses with textures related to ductile deformation and metamorphism higher than 500 C. Their trace element patterns are indistinguishable from the high-grade basement orthogneisses in the eastern Rhodope. Mineral chemistry of the metamorphic assemblage in the underlying greenschists is consistent with medium-grade greenschist-facies metamorphism at temperatures well below 450 C, whose geochemistry defines transitional MORB to IAT affinities with a strong arc imprint. The greenschist's composition is extremely similar to the composition of a supra-subduction zone Jurassic arc extrusive suite that occurs in the low-grade unit of the eastern Rhodope. The structural elements in all of the tectono-metamorphic units and the nappe surface indicate top-to-the NNE tectonic transport. Deformation evolved from ductile to brittle conditions coevally with a progressive decrease from lower amphibolite to weak greenschist-facies metamorphism towards the structural top. Two klippen gave plateau 40?r/ 39?r mica ages of 154.23 0.66 Ma and 156.70 0.81 Ma, respectively, which reflect cooling following the greenschist-facies event below 350 C, during shallow crustal level thrust emplacement and exhumation of the Kulidzhik allochthon. The hanging-wall Pelevun extensional allochthon preserves an internal NNE-directed ductile tectonic transport trend, but is underlain by a SSW-directed ductile-brittle extensional detachment and has experienced NE-SW brittle extension on high-angle normal faults. An amphibole 40?r/ 39?r inverse isochron age of 156.58 0.60 Ma constrains a Late Jurassic upper greenschist-facies tectono-metamorphic event, whereas a white mica plateau age of 39.66 0.47 Ma provides evidence for Middle Eocene cooling and exhumation of the Pelevun extensional allochthon in the hanging wall of the detachment. We relate the Kulidzhik nappe to Late Jurassic crustal deformation during arc-continental margin collision that involved NNE-directed nappe staking and metamorphism of continental margin basement and island arc units. The nappe shares a tectono-metamorphic history with the nappes of the adjacent Strandzha Massif, implying a region-wide early Alpine orogenic system. Our results reveal a record of early Alpine thrust tectonics and show the significance of crustal accretion-related assembly for the tectonic evolution of the Rhodope Massif. Both the Late Jurassic thrusting event and the subsequent Cretaceous thrusting event thickened the Rhodope crust creating crustal instability, which influenced Tertiary crustal extension.

Bonev, Nikolay; Spikings, Richard; Moritz, Robert; Marchev, Peter

2010-06-01

147

Geological structure, recharge processes and underground drainage of a glacierised karst aquifer system, Tsanfleuron-Sanetsch, Swiss Alps  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The relationships between stratigraphic and tectonic setting, recharge processes and underground drainage of the glacierised karst aquifer system Tsanfleuron-Sanetsch in the Swiss Alps have been studied by means of various methods, particularly tracer tests (19 injections). The area belongs to the Helvetic nappes and consists of Jurassic to Palaeogene sedimentary rocks. Strata are folded and form a regional anticlinorium. Cretaceous Urgonian limestone constitutes the main karst aquifer, overlain by a retreating glacier in its upper part. Polished limestone surfaces are exposed between the glacier front and the end moraine of 1855/1860 (Little Ice Age); typical alpine karrenfields can be observed further below. Results show that (1) large parts of the area are drained by the Glarey spring, which is used as a drinking water source, while marginal parts belong to the catchments of other springs; (2) groundwater flow towards the Glarey spring occurs in the main aquifer, parallel to stratification, while flow towards another spring crosses the entire stratigraphic sequence, consisting of about 800 m of marl and limestone, along deep faults that were probably enlarged by mass movements; (3) the variability of glacial meltwater production influences the shape of the tracer breakthrough curves and, consequently, flow and transport in the aquifer.

Gremaud, Vivian; Goldscheider, Nico; Savoy, Ludovic; Favre, Grald; Masson, Henri

2009-12-01

148

Manganese oxide cathodes for rechargeable batteries  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Manganese oxides are considered as promising cathodes for rechargeable batteries due to their low cost and low toxicity as well as the abundant natural resources. In this dissertation, manganese oxides have been investigated as cathodes for both rechargeable lithium and alkaline batteries. Nanostructured lithium manganese oxides designed for rechargeable lithium cells have been synthesized by reducing lithium permanganate with methanol or hydrogen in various solvents followed by firing at moderate temperatures. The samples have been characterized by wet-chemical analyses, thermal methods, spectroscopic methods, and electron microscopy. It has been found that chemical residues in the oxides such as carboxylates and hydroxyl groups, which could be controlled by varying the reaction medium, reducing agents, and additives, make a significant influence on the electrochemical properties. The Li/Mn ratio in the material has also been found to be a critical factor in determining the rechargeability of the cathodes. The optimized samples exhibit a high capacity of close to 300 mAh/g with good cyclability and charge efficiency. The high capacity with a lower discharge voltage may make these nanostructured oxides particularly attractive for lithium polymer batteries. The research on the manganese oxide cathodes for alkaline batteries is focused on an analysis of the reaction products generated during the charge/discharge processes or by some designed chemical reactions mimicking the electrochemical processes. The factors influencing the formation of Mn3O4 in the two-electron redox process of delta-MnO2 have been studied with linear sweep voltammetry combined with X-ray diffraction. The presence of bismuth, the discharge rate, and the microstructure of the electrodes are found to affect the formation of Mn3O4, which is known to be electrochemically inactive. A faster voltage sweep and a more intimate mixing of the manganese oxide and carbon in the cathode are found to suppress the formation of Mn3O4. Bismuth has also been found to be beneficial in the one-electron process of gamma-MnO 2 when incorporated into the cathode. The results of a series of chemical reactions reveal that bismuth is blocking some reaction paths leading to the unwanted birnessite or Mn3O4. Barium is also found to play a similar role, but it is less effective than bismuth for the same amount of additive. Optimization of the additives has the potential to make the rechargeable alkaline cells based on manganese oxides to successfully compete with other rechargeable systems due to their low cost, environmental friendliness, and excellent safety features.

Im, Dongmin

149

Assessing controls on diffuse groundwater recharge using unsaturated flow modeling  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Understanding climate, vegetation, and soil controls on recharge is essential for estimating potential impacts of climate variability and land use/land cover change on recharge. Recharge controls were evaluated by simulating drainage in 5-m-thick profiles using a one-dimensional (1-D) unsaturated flow code (UNSAT-H), climate data, and vegetation and soil coverages from online sources. Soil hydraulic properties were estimated from STATSGO/SSURGO soils data using pedotransfer functions. Vegetation parameters were obtained from the literature. Long-term (1961-1990) simulations were conducted for 13 county-scale regions representing arid to humid climates and different vegetation and soil types, using data for Texas. Areally averaged recharge rates are most appropriate for water resources; therefore Geographic Information Systems were used to determine spatial weighting of recharge results from 1-D models for the combination of vegetation and soils in each region. Simulated 30-year mean annual recharge in bare sand is high (51-709 mm/yr) and represents 23-60% (arid-humid) of mean annual precipitation (MAP). Adding vegetation reduced recharge by factors of 2-30 (humid-arid), and soil textural variability reduced recharge by factors of 2-11 relative to recharge in bare sand. Vegetation and soil textural variability both resulted in a large range of recharge rates within each region; however, spatially weighted, long-term recharge rates were much less variable and were positively correlated with MAP (r2 = 0.85 for vegetated sand; r2 = 0.62 for variably textured soils). The most realistic simulations included vegetation and variably textured soils, which resulted in recharge rates from 0.2 to 118 mm/yr (0.1-10% of MAP). Mean annual precipitation explains 80% of the variation in recharge and can be used to map recharge.

Keese, K. E.; Scanlon, B. R.; Reedy, R. C.

2005-06-01

150

Rechargeable Infection-responsive Antifungal Denture Materials  

PubMed Central

Candida-associated denture stomatitis (CADS) is a significant clinical concern. We developed rechargeable infection-responsive antifungal denture materials for potentially managing the disease. Polymethacrylic acid (PMAA) was covalently bound onto diurethane dimethacrylate denture resins in the curing step. The PMAA resins bound cationic antifungal drugs such as miconazole and chlorhexidine digluconate (CG) through ionic interactions. The anticandidal activities of the drug-containing PMAA-resin discs were sustained for a prolonged period of time (weeks and months). Drug release was much faster at acidic conditions (pH 5) than at pH 7. Drugs bound to the denture materials could be washed out by treatment with EDTA, and the drug-depleted resins could be recharged with the same or a different class of anticandidal drugs. These results suggest clinical potential of the newly developed antifungal denture materials in the management of CADS and other infectious conditions. PMID:20940361

Cao, Z.; Sun, X.; Yeh, C.-K.; Sun, Y.

2010-01-01

151

A slice of Upper Allochthon in a Middle Allochthon terrain? An ID-TIMS U-Pb study of the Hardanger-Ryfylke Nappe Complex, SW-Norway  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In southwestern Norway, Caledonian Nappes overly autochthonous and parautochthonous basement. The Hardanger-Ryfylke Nappe Complex is positioned south of the Jotun Nappe Complex, both assigned to the Middle Allochthon. It comprises a great variety of magmatic and sedimentary rocks, of greenschist to amphibolite facies metamorphic conditions. Previous extensive mapping, structural and geochemical analyses had distinguished three main units separated by mylonitic thrust zones, from bottom to top, the Dyrskard, Kvitenut and Revsegg nappe sheets. The available geochronological framework, established with Rb-Sr whole rock data, indicated mainly Mesoproterozoic ages for magmatic crystallization and subsequent deformation. Emplacement of the nappe stack occurred during the Caledonian orogeny but it is uncertain whether the three units were thrust as separate slices or together as one block. To increase our understanding on the evolution of these nappes we have carried out ID-TIMS U-Pb analyses using mainly single grains of zircon, titanite, rutile and apatite stemming from orthogneisses, metavolcanics, neosomes, pegmatites and granites. Our data indicate both similarities and differences in the evolution of the three units. The lowermost Dyrskard Group comprises metarhyolites giving a crystallization age of about 1500 Ma. Metamorphism and deformation led to the formation of leucosomes at ca. 1000 Ma, also indicating a metamorphic overprint at ca 430 Ma. The overlying Kvitenut Complex is dominated by orthogneisses with an age of crystallization of ca. 1600 Ma, and strong zircon resetting during metamorphism at 1000 Ma, both typical features of the main gneisses in the Jotun Nappe Complex. Leucosomes and a major granite body have zircon ages of 990-1000 Ma, comparable to that of the Dyrskard Group, which might suggest coeval evolution during this episode. In the mylonitic thrust zone between Dyrscard and Kvitenut two generations of titanite occur, one revealing a Caledonian age at 430 Ma, but also an older one, which we tentatively interpret as giving the time of Sveconorwegian thrusting of Kvitenut on to Dyrskard which also reveals a later metamorphic overprint at around 930 Ma. Metamorphic overprint during the Caledonian event formed local pegmatites in both units. The uppermost Revsegg Formation consists mainly of paragneisses. Dating of intrusive bodies of gabbro and granodiorite is still in progress, and hampered by the predominant xenocrystic character of the zircon population in the felsic units. Zircon and rutile in pegmatitic rocks indicate Caledonian intrusion and metamorphism at 430 Ma. However, in contrast to the other nappe sheets, in the Revsegg Formation we also find evidence for a ca. 450 Ma event in various minerals and lithologies. This age is not typical for the Middle Allochthon whereas it would fit the end of the Ordovician evolution of the upper Allochthon. Such an affinity had originally been proposed by Naterstad et al. (1973) but could not be confirmed by Rb-Sr work. Our data, however, point in that direction. Naterstad et al. 1973. Norges Geologiske Underskelse

Roffeis, C.; Corfu, F.; Gabrielsen, R. H.

2012-04-01

152

Rechargeable batteries and battery management systems design  

Microsoft Academic Search

Estimated worldwide sales for rechargeable batteries, was around US$36 billion in 2008 and this is expected to grow towards US$51 billion by 2013. As per market reports, US demand for primary and secondary batteries will increase by 2.5% annually to 16.8 billion in 2012, while primary batteries will account for 5.8 billion with a growth rate of 3%. The insatiable

N. Kularatna

2010-01-01

153

Ampere-Hour Meter For Rechargeable Battery  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Low-power analog/digital electronic circuit meters discharge of storage battery in ampere-hours. By metering discharge, one obtains indication of state of charge of battery and avoids unnecessary recharging, maintaining capacity of battery and prolonging life. Because of its small size and low power consumption, useful in such applications as portable video cameras, communication equipment on boats, portable audio equipment, and portable medical equipment.

Tripp, John S.; Schott, Timothy D.; Tcheng, Ping

1993-01-01

154

Rechargeable Lithium Batteries with Aqueous Electrolytes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rechargeable lithium-ion batteries that use an aqueous electrolyte have been developed. Cells with LiMn_2O_4 and VO_2(B) as electrodes and 5 M LiNO_3 in water as the electrolyte provide a fundamentally safe and cost-effective technology that can compete with nickel-cadmium and lead-acid batteries on the basis of stored energy per unit of weight.

Wu Li; J. R. Dahn; D. S. Wainwright

1994-01-01

155

Rechargeable lithium batteries with aqueous electrolytes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rechargeable lithium-ion batteries that use an aqueous electrolyte have been developed. Cells with LiMnO and VO(B) as electrodes and 5 M LiNO in water as the electrolyte provide a fundamentally safe and cost-effective technology that can compete with nickel-cadmium and lead-acid batteries on the basis of stored energy per unit of weight.14 refs., 4 figs.

Wu Li; J. R. Dahn; D. S. Wainwright

1994-01-01

156

Inorganic rechargeable non-aqueous cell  

DOEpatents

A totally inorganic non-aqueous rechargeable cell having an alkali or alkaline earth metal anode such as of lithium, a sulfur dioxide containing electrolyte and a discharging metal halide cathode, such as of CuCl.sub.2, CuBr.sub.2 and the like with said metal halide being substantially totally insoluble in SO.sub.2 and admixed with a conductive carbon material.

Bowden, William L. (Nashua, NH); Dey, Arabinda N. (Needham, MA)

1985-05-07

157

Rechargeable alkaline zinc\\/ferricyanide battery  

Microsoft Academic Search

Technical and economic feasibility of the alkaline zinc\\/ferricy anide rechargeable battery for utility load leveling applications was assessed. This battery meets the requirements for this application with cell voltages of 1.94 V on charge and 1.78 V on discharge. Mean energy efficiency is 84% at 760 and 86% at 1110 4 hour cycles in full cell and redox half cell

G. B. Adams; R. P. Hollandsworth; B. D. Webber

1979-01-01

158

Non-aqueous, rechargeable electrochemical cell  

SciTech Connect

Non-aqueous rechargeable electrochemical cell is described comprising a negative electrode, a positive electrode containing an active material and an electrolyte solution into which said electrodes are immersed; said negative electrode comprising lithium; said electrolyte solution comprising sulfur dioxide (SO[sub 2]) as solvent and at least one solute which is a lithium salt with an anion of a group 3A element halide; and said positive electrode comprising a lithium cobalt oxide as the active material.

Heitbaum, J.; Hambitzer, G.

1993-05-25

159

Rechargeable lithium batteries with aqueous electrolytes  

SciTech Connect

Rechargeable lithium-ion batteries that use an aqueous electrolyte have been developed. Cells with LiMn{sub 2}O{sub 4} and VO{sub 2}(B) as electrodes and 5 M LiNO{sub 3} in water as the electrolyte provide a fundamentally safe and cost-effective technology that can compete with nickel-cadmium and lead-acid batteries on the basis of stored energy per unit of weight.14 refs., 4 figs.

Li, Wu; Dahn, J.R. [Simon Fraser Univ., Burnaby, British Columbia (Canada); Wainwright, D.S. [Moli Energy (1990) Limited, Maple Ridge, British Columbia (Canada)

1994-05-20

160

Rechargeable lithium batteries with aqueous electrolytes.  

PubMed

Rechargeable lithium-ion batteries that use an aqueous electrolyte have been developed. Cells with LiMn(2)O(4) and VO(2)(B) as electrodes and 5 M LiNO(3) in water as the electrolyte provide a fundamentally safe and cost-effective technology that can compete with nickelcadmium and lead-acid batteries on the basis of stored energy per unit of weight. PMID:17744893

Li, W; Dahn, J R; Wainwright, D S

1994-05-20

161

Kinematics and dynamics of tectonic nappes: 2-D numerical modelling and implications for high and ultra-high pressure tectonism in the Western Alps  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present two-dimensional numerical simulations of lithospheric shortening with a crust containing weak and strong inclusions. Thermo-mechanical coupling is included, and a crustal-scale shear zone develops self-consistently due to viscous heating and thermal softening of temperature dependent viscosities. Several tests for crustal conditions are performed showing that 1) the thickness of and strain rates within the shear zone are independent on the numerical resolution and applied numerical method (finite element and finite difference method), 2) the shear zone is stable and rotates during large strain deformation, 3) the numerical algorithm conserves total thermal and mechanical energies, and 4) the bulk horizontal force balance is fulfilled during large strain deformation. A fold nappe develops around the shear zone in the lithospheric shortening simulation. In this simulation the stresses in the crust are limited by a friction angle of 30. Significant tectonic overpressure (PO) occurs in strong lower crustal rocks and in strong inclusions. Significant PO also occurs in a weak inclusion that is only partly surrounded by strong crustal rock suggesting that a continuous strong vessel is not required to generate significant PO in weak rocks. Maximal values of PO are ~ 2.2 GPa with corresponding deviatoric stresses ~ 1.5 GPa and occur in a depth of ~ 42 km. Maximal pressure of ~ 3.4 GPa and maximal temperatures > 700 C occur during the formation of the fold nappe in crustal depth. Synthetic pressure-temperature paths exhibit entire cycles of pressure and temperature increase and decrease, and suggest that crustal rocks in depths < 50 km can reach the ultrahigh pressure metamorphic facies fields. Applications to tectonic nappes with high and ultra-high pressure rocks in the Western Alps are discussed, and a dynamic model for the evolution of fold nappes in the Western Alps is proposed.

Schmalholz, Stefan M.; Duretz, Thibault; Schenker, Filippo L.; Podladchikov, Yuri Y.

2014-09-01

162

The influence of deformation on zircon and the effect on their isotope system: a case study from the polymetamorphic Linds Nappe, SW-Norway  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Zircon (ZrSiO4) is considered to be chemically robust under the range of conditions present in the earth's crust. Nevertheless, element mobility in zircon can occur, most importantly Pb-loss related to alteration, leaching by fluids and recrystallization. A recent discussion concerns the role of crystal-plastic deformation and microstructures in zircons and their effect on zircon geochemistry. In this study we have investigated different gabbroic-anorthositic samples from the Linds Nappe in the Bergen Arcs, an arcuate structure composed of Caledonian thrust sheets. Although the samples stem from the same nappe und should therefore reveal the same geological history, major differences within the isotope system and therefore the measured ages can be observed. This is due to the diverse imprints of various geological mechanisms on the zircons and their isotopic compositions. This consideration can be used to deduce the polymetamorphic history of the Linds Nappe by choosing samples variously affected by the different events. Zircons from the dominating anorthosite in the nappe give the oldest age of around 970 Ma, regarded to date the intrusive event. They also clearly reveal the HT Sveconorwegian event at 930 Ma, whereas they are less affected by the younger Caledonian event. The metamorphic age of the HP Caledonian event (425 Ma) is constrained by recrystallized zircons in a fluid driven shear zone within the surrounding anorthosites. Within this 2 cm wide shear zone zircons are exceptionally abundant, and are remarkable in terms of size of up to half a mm, the small amount of U and evidence of internal deformation. Extensive Caledonian Pb loss is linked to this deformation. Recrystallization seems to have happened during the Caledonian event since the recrystallized, smaller grains, located mainly in the pressure shadow of the older ones, yield Caledonian ages. Fluid driven mineral reactions and related volume changes are regarded to be the trigger for deforming the zircons.

Roffeis, Cornelia; Corfu, Fernando; Austrheim, Hkon; Piazolo, Sandra

2010-05-01

163

Nanomaterials for lithium-ion rechargeable batteries.  

PubMed

In lithium-ion batteries, nanocrystalline intermetallic alloys, nanosized composite materials, carbon nanotubes, and nanosized transition-metal oxides are all promising new anode materials, while nanosized LiCoO2, LiFePO4, LiMn2O4, and LiMn2O4 show higher capacity and better cycle life as cathode materials than their usual larger-particle equivalents. The addition of nanosized metal-oxide powders to polymer electrolyte improves the performance of the polymer electrolyte for all solid-state lithium rechargeable batteries. To meet the challenge of global warming, a new generation of lithium rechargeable batteries with excellent safety, reliability, and cycling life is needed, i.e., not only for applications in consumer electronics, but especially for clean energy storage and for use in hybrid electric vehicles and aerospace. Nanomaterials and nanotechnologies can lead to a new generation of lithium secondary batteries. The aim of this paper is to review the recent developments on nanomaterials and nanotechniques used for anode, cathode, and electrolyte materials, the impact of nanomaterials on the performance of lithium batteries, and the modes of action of the nanomaterials in lithium rechargeable batteries. PMID:16573064

Liu, Hua Kun; Wang, Guo Xiu; Guo, Zaiping; Wang, Jiazhao; Konstantinov, Kosta

2006-01-01

164

Late-orogenic Sveconorwegian massif anorthosite in the Jotun Nappe Complex, SW Norway, and causes of repeated AMCG magmatism along the Baltoscandian margin  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The age and tectonometamorphic history of massif anorthosite in the Jotun Nappe Complex, SW Norway, were investigated by zircon and titanite U-Pb ID-TIMS. The anorthosite contains sparse zircons showing complex U-Pb systematics reflecting events dated at 965 4 and 913 2 Ma, and a pronounced Caledonian metamorphic overprint. The oldest age is interpreted as the protolith age of the massif anorthosite. We propose that the Jotun anorthosite is related to 970-960 Ma magmatism in the Western Gneiss Region and coeval, orogen-perpendicular extension. Conversely, a 930 Ma high-grade metamorphic event in the Jotun Nappe Complex and the related Linds Nappe is likely related to formation of the autochthonous ca. 930 Ma Rogaland anorthosite complex. We suggest that the two late- to post-orogenic AMCG events reflect two instances of lithospheric foundering below the orogen separated by ca. 20-30 my. The 913 2 Ma metamorphic episode appears to date a heating event restricted to the outermost edge of the Western Gneiss Region. Leucosome formation in high-grade gneisses geographically close to the Jotun anorthosite is dated at 892 4 Ma and suggested to reflect CO2-rich (?) fluid flux along shear zones.

Lundmark, A. M.; Corfu, F.

2008-02-01

165

Using environmental isotopes in the study of the recharge-discharge mechanisms of the Yarmouk catchment area in Jordan  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The recharge sources, the flow mechanisms and discharge areas of the different groundwater bodies underlying the Yarmouk River catchment area in Jordan, have, until now, not been adequately explained, although a wide range of hydrological, hydrogeological, and hydrochemical studies have been done. Along the Jordanian part of the catchment area of the Yarmouk River, groundwater issues from different aquifers with a variety of chemistries and types within the same aquifer and in between the different aquifers. Conventional recharge/discharge mechanisms, water balances and chemical analyses did not adequately explain the chemical variations and the different water types found in the area. Applying environmental isotopic tools combined with their altitude effects due to topographic variations (250-1,300 m a.s.l. within a distance of 20 km), and taking into consideration re-evaporation effects on the isotopic depletion and enrichment of rainwater, has greatly helped in understanding the recharge discharge mechanisms of the different aquifers. Precipitation along the highlands of an average of 600 mm/year is found to be depleted in its isotopic content of ?O18 = -7.0 to -7.26 and ?D = -32.2 to -33.28, whereas that of the Jordan Valley of 350 mm/year is highly enriched in isotopes with ?O18 = -4.06 and ?D = -14.5. The groundwater recharged along the highlands is depleted in isotopes (?O18 = -6, ?D = -30), groundwater at the intermediate elevations is enriched (?O18 = -5, ?D = -23) and that of the Jordan Valley aquifers containing meteoric water is highly enriched (?O18 -3.8, ?D = -18). The deep aquifers in the Jordan Valley foothills are depleted in isotopes (?O18 -18 = -6, ?D = -30) and resemble those of the highland aquifers. Only through using isotopes as a tool, were the sources of the different groundwater bodies and recharge and discharge mechanisms unambiguously explained. It was found that recharge takes place all over the study area and produces groundwater, which, from the highlands towards the Jordan Valley, shows increasing enrichment in isotopes. The highlands aquifer, with its groundwater depleted in isotopes, becomes confined towards the Jordan Valley; and, due to its confining pressure, leaks water upwards into the overlying aquifers causing their water to become less enriched in isotopes. Water depleted in its isotopic composition also seeps upward to the ground surface at the mountain foothills through faults and fissures. Les zones de recharge, les mcanismes d'coulement et les zones de dcharges des diffrentes masses d'eau souterraine sous le bassin versant de la rivire Yarmouk en Jordanie, taient expliques de manire ambigu par les seuls outils isotopiques. Le long de la parti Jordanienne du bassin versant de la rivire Yarmouk l'eau souterraine provient de diffrents aquifres et se distinguent par leur type et leur composition chimique, selon que l'eau provient du mme ou des diffrents aquifres. Les mcanismes conventionnels de recharge et de dcharge, bilan hydrologique ne donnaient pas d'explications satisfaisantes concernant les variations chimiques et les diffrents types d'eau. En appliquant les isotopes environnementaux combins aux effets de l'altitude sur les variations des teneurs isotopiques (l'altitude varie de 250 1,300 m sur une distance de 20 km.) et en prenant en considration les effets de r-vaporation sur l'appauvrissement et l'enrichissement isotopique des eaux pluviales ont fortement contribus une meilleure comprhension des mcanismes de recharge des diffrents aquifres. Les prcipitations annuelles sont comprises entre 600 mm dans les zones en altitude et 350 mm dans la valle de la Jordanie. Les coulements de l'eau souterraine sont dirigs des zones en altitude vers la valle de la Jordanie. Les eaux souterraines des zones en altitude sont isotopiquement appauvries (?O18 = -6, ?D = -30), les eaux souterraines des zones de moyenne altitude sont enrichies (?O18 = -5, ?D = -23) et les eaux de la valle trs enrichies (

Salameh, Elias

166

Assessing controls on diffuse groundwater recharge using unsaturated flow modeling  

Microsoft Academic Search

Understanding climate, vegetation, and soil controls on recharge is essential for estimating potential impacts of climate variability and land use\\/land cover change on recharge. Recharge controls were evaluated by simulating drainage in 5-m-thick profiles using a one-dimensional (1-D) unsaturated flow code (UNSAT-H), climate data, and vegetation and soil coverages from online sources. Soil hydraulic properties were estimated from STATSGO\\/SSURGO soils

K. E. Keese; B. R. Scanlon; R. C. Reedy

2005-01-01

167

Climatic controls on diffuse groundwater recharge across Australia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Reviews of field studies of groundwater recharge have attempted to investigate how climate characteristics control recharge, but due to a lack of data have not been able to draw any strong conclusions beyond that rainfall is the major determinant. This study has used numerical modelling for a range of Kppen-Geiger climate types (tropical, arid and temperate) to investigate the effect of climate variables on recharge for different soil and vegetation types. For the majority of climate types, the correlation between the modelled recharge and total annual rainfall is weaker than the correlation between recharge and the annual rainfall parameters reflecting rainfall intensity. Under similar soil and vegetation conditions for the same annual rainfall, annual recharge in regions with winter-dominated rainfall is greater than in regions with summer-dominated rainfall. The importance of climate parameters other than rainfall in recharge estimation is highest in the tropical climate type. Mean annual values of solar radiation and vapour pressure deficit show a greater importance in recharge estimation than mean annual values of the daily mean temperature. Climate parameters have the lowest relative importance in recharge estimation in the arid climate type (with cold winters) and the temperate climate type. For 75% of all soil, vegetation and climate types investigated, recharge elasticity varies between 2 and 4 indicating a 20% to 40% change in recharge for a 10% change in annual rainfall. Understanding how climate controls recharge under the observed historical climate allows more informed choices of analogue sites if they are to be used for climate change impact assessments.

Barron, O. V.; Crosbie, R. S.; Dawes, W. R.; Charles, S. P.; Pickett, T.; Donn, M. J.

2012-12-01

168

Using noble gases to investigate mountain-front recharge  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mountain-front recharge is a major component of recharge to inter-mountain basin-fill aquifers. The two components of mountain-front recharge are (1) subsurface inflow from the mountain block (subsurface inflow), and (2) infiltration from perennial and ephemeral streams near the mountain front (stream seepage). The magnitude of subsurface inflow is of central importance in source protection planning for basin-fill aquifers and in

Andrew H Manning; D. Kip Solomon

2003-01-01

169

Modelling overbank flood recharge at a continental scale  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Accounting for groundwater recharge from overbank flooding is required to reduce uncertainty and error in river-loss terms and groundwater sustainable-yield calculations. However, continental- and global-scale models of surface water-groundwater interactions rarely include an explicit process to account for overbank flood recharge (OFR). This paper upscales previously derived analytical equations to a continental scale using national soil atlas data and satellite imagery of flood inundation, resulting in recharge maps for seven hydrologically distinct Australian catchments. Recharge for three of the catchments was validated against independent recharge estimates from bore hydrograph responses and one catchment was additionally validated against point-scale recharge modelling and catchment-scale change in groundwater storage. Flood recharge was predicted for four of the seven catchments modelled, but there was also unexplained recharge present from the satellite's flood inundation mapping data. At a catchment scale, recharge from overbank flooding was somewhat under-predicted using the analytical equations, but there was good confidence in the spatial patterns of flood recharge produced. Due to the scale of the input data, there were no significant relationships found when compared at a point scale. Satellite-derived flood inundation data and uncertainty in soil maps were the key limitations to the accuracy of the modelled recharge. Use of this method to model OFR was found to be appropriate at a catchment to continental scale, given appropriate data sources. The proportion of OFR was found to be at least 4% of total change in groundwater storage in one of the catchments for the period modelled, and at least 15% of the riparian recharge. Accounting for OFR is an important, but often overlooked, requirement for closing water balances in both the surface water and groundwater domains.

Doble, R.; Crosbie, R.; Peeters, L.; Joehnk, K.; Ticehurst, C.

2014-04-01

170

The national collection and recycling program for nickel-cadmium rechargeable batteries  

SciTech Connect

This presentation discusses the effort of the rechargeable battery and rechargeable consumer products industries to form and implement a national collection program for rechargeable batteries in the US. Many states have mandatory labeling and collection requirements for rechargeable batteries. A national rechargeable battery management program to collect and recycle batteries throughout the US is discussed.

England, C.N. [Portable Rechargeable Battery Association, Atlanta, GA (United States)

1995-07-01

171

Making Li-air batteries rechargeable: material challenges  

SciTech Connect

A Li-air battery could potentially provide three to five times higher energy density/specific energy than conventional batteries, thus enable the driving range of an electric vehicle comparable to a gasoline vehicle. However, making Li-air batteries rechargeable presents significant challenges, mostly related with materials. Herein, we discuss the key factors that influence the rechargeability of Li-air batteries with a focus on nonaqueous system. The status and materials challenges for nonaqueous rechargeable Li-air batteries are reviewed. These include electrolytes, cathode (electocatalysts), lithium metal anodes, and oxygen-selective membranes (oxygen supply from air). The perspective of rechargeable Li-air batteries is provided.

Shao, Yuyan; Ding, Fei; Xiao, Jie; Zhang, Jian; Xu, Wu; Park, Seh Kyu; Zhang, Jiguang; Wang, Yong; Liu, Jun

2013-02-25

172

Recycling of used Ni-MH rechargeable batteries  

SciTech Connect

The Ni-MH (nickel metal hydride) rechargeable battery was developed several years ago. Its higher electrochemical capacity and greater safety compared with the Ni-Cd rechargeable battery have resulted in very rapid increase in its production. The Ni-MH rechargeable battery consists of Ni, Co and rare earth metals, so that recycling is important to recover these valuable mineral resources. In this study, a basic recycling process for used Ni-MH rechargeable batteries has been developed, in which the Ni, Co and rare earth elements are recovered through a combination of mechanical processing and hydrometallurgical processing.

Yoshida, T.; Ono, H.; Shirai, R. [Mitsui Mining and Smelting Co., Ltd., Ageo, Saitama (Japan). Corporate R and D Center

1995-12-31

173

Climatic controls on diffuse groundwater recharge across Australia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Reviews of field studies of groundwater recharge have attempted to investigate how climate characteristics control recharge, but due to a lack of data have not been able to draw any strong conclusions beyond that rainfall is the major determinant. This study has used numerical modeling for a range of Kppen-Geiger climate types (tropical, arid and temperate) to investigate the effect of climate variables on recharge for different soil and vegetation types. For the majority of climate types the total annual rainfall had a weaker correlation with recharge than the rainfall parameters reflecting rainfall intensity. In regions with winter-dominated rainfall, annual recharge under the same annual rainfall, soils and vegetation conditions is greater than in regions with summer-dominated rainfall. The relative importance of climate parameters other than rainfall is higher for recharge under annual vegetation, but overall is highest in the tropical climate type. Solar radiation and vapour pressure deficit show a greater relative importance than mean annual daily mean temperature. Climate parameters have lowest relative importance in the arid climate type (with cold winters) and the temperate climate type. For 75% of all considered cases of soil, vegetation and climate types recharge elasticity varies between 2 and 4, indicating a 20% to 40% change in recharge for a 10% change in annual rainfall Understanding how climate controls recharge under the observed historical climate allows more informed choices of analogue sites if they are to be used for climate change impact assessments.

Barron, O. V.; Crosbie, R. S.; Pollock, D.; Dawes, W. R.; Charles, S. P.; Pickett, T.; Donn, M.

2012-05-01

174

A review of groundwater recharge under irrigated agriculture in Australia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Quantification of recharge under irrigated agriculture is one of the most important but difficult tasks. It is the least understood component in groundwater studies because of its large variability in space and time and the difficulty of direct measurement. Better management of groundwater resources is only possible if we can accurately determine all fluxes going into and out of a groundwater system. One of the major challenges facing irrigated agriculture in Australia, and the world, is to reduce uncertainty in estimating or measuring the recharge flux. Reducing uncertainty in groundwater recharge under irrigated agriculture is a pre-requisite for effective, efficient and sustainable groundwater resource management especially in dry areas where groundwater usage is often the key to economic development. An accurate quantification of groundwater recharge under irrigated systems is also crucial because of its potential impacts on soil profile salinity, groundwater levels and groundwater quality. This paper aims to identify the main recharge control parameters thorough a review of past field and modelling recharge studies in Australia. We find that the main recharge control parameters under irrigated agriculture are soil type, irrigation management, watertable depth, land cover or plant water uptake, soil surface conditions, and soil, irrigation water and groundwater chemistry. The most commonly used recharge estimation approaches include chloride mass balance, water budget equation, lysimeters, Darcy's law and numerical models. Main sources and magnitude of uncertainty in recharge estimates associated with these approaches are discussed.

Riasat, Ali; Mallants, Dirk; Walker, Glen; Silberstein, Richard

2014-05-01

175

PALEO-CHANNELS IN LOW ALLUVIAL PLAINS: INDIRECT RECHARGE PATHWAYS AND OPPORTUNITIES FOR INDUCING MORE RECHARGE  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper deals with description of a continuous monitoring scheme implemented in a sandy aquifer complex recharged by the Po river in low Padana plain near Ferrara (Italy). The aquifer actually is formed by two distinct sandy lithosomes: Holocenic paleo-channels (shallow unconfined aquifer) and Upper Pleistocenic sands (confined aquifer). The lithosomes are separated by a clayey aquitard but locally they

176

Glossary of testing terminology for rechargeable batteries  

SciTech Connect

The Battery Test Working Task Force was formed in 1983 for the purpose of coordinating the evaluation of development rechargeable batteries by DOE-funded labs. The Task Force developed this glossary of testing terminology to improve the accuracy of communication and to permit meaningful comparisons of test results. It consists of a section of technical terms and a separate section of programmatic phrases and acronyms. The glossary emphasizes terms related to electric vehicle batteries due to the significant development and testing activities in this area. 8 refs.

Butler, P.C.

1988-10-01

177

2/24/2014 Micro-Windmills to Recharge Cell Phones http://www.jadecadelina.com/innovation/micro-windmills-recharge-phones/ 1/2  

E-print Network

2/24/2014 Micro-Windmills to Recharge Cell Phones http://www.jadecadelina.com/innovation/micro-windmills-recharge-phones & Technology Search this site... R ECEN T P OSTS welcome Micro-Windmills to Recharge Cell Phones Super Ty phoon (required) Micro-Windmills to Recharge Cell Phones January 16, 2014 · by mr.jade · in Energy, Innovation

Chiao, Jung-Chih

178

Sediment and microbial fouling of experimental groundwater recharge trenches  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A common method of recharging groundwater is by the use of injection wells and/or recharge trenches. With time the recharge capacities of the wells/trenches progressively decline. Deposition of suspended fines in the recharge water and growth of microorganisms in the aquifer are common causes of this decline. This paper presents an investigation of the relative significance of these two factors under controlled laboratory conditions. Large-scale physical models of recharge trenches were conducted in the laboratory to monitor the decline with time of the recharge capacity under controlled conditions. The physical models consisted of four hydraulically separate cells in which six different experiments were conducted. In three of the experiments microorganism were added as an inoculant. A nutrient and carbon fine solution was constantly injected into the influent stream entering through the inflow pipe. Both carbon fines and microorganisms caused plugging of the model recharge trenches in the laboratory. However, initialy the microbes appeared to have a beneficial effect by hindering the transport of the carbon fines from the gravel pack in the trench. Later the microbes contributed to the plugging of the gravel pack. A significant correlation was determined between the extent of carbon fine deposition and microbial growth. In the experiment using a biodegradable slurry, microbial growth did not affect the recharge capacity of the trench. One laboratory experiment involved the introduction of silt as a source of sediment fines to the model recharge trench. This experiment simulated conditions often found in the field when no carbon fine adsoprtion system is used and natural surface water is recharged into aquifer. This research will be useful in understanding the relative importance of factors contributing to the decline of recharge capacity observed in the field.

Warner, James W.; Gates, Timothy K.; Namvargolian, Reza; Miller, Paul; Comes, Gregory

1994-04-01

179

Artificial recharge of groundwater and its role in water management  

USGS Publications Warehouse

This paper summarizes and discusses the various aspects and methods of artificial recharge with particular emphasis on its uses and potential role in water management in the Arabian Gulf region. Artificial recharge occurs when man's activities cause more water to enter an aquifer, either under pumping or non-pumping conditions, than otherwise would enter the aquifer. Use of artificial recharge can be a practical means of dealing with problems of overdraft of groundwater. Methods of artificial recharge may be grouped under two broad types: (a) water spreading techniques, and (b) well-injection techniques. Successful use of artificial recharge requires a thorough knowledge of the physical and chemical characteristics of the aquifier system, and extensive onsite experimentation and tailoring of the artificial-recharge technique to fit the local or areal conditions. In general, water spreading techniques are less expensive than well injection and large quantities of water can be handled. Water spreading can also result in significant improvement in quality of recharge waters during infiltration and movement through the unsaturated zone and the receiving aquifer. In comparison, well-injection techniques are often used for emplacement of fresh recharge water into saline aquifer zones to form a manageable lens of fresher water, which may later be partially withdrawn for use or continue to be maintained as a barrier against salt-water encroachment. A major advantage in use of groundwater is its availability, on demand to wells, from a natural storage reservoir that is relatively safe from pollution and from damage by sabotage or other hostile action. However, fresh groundwater occurs only in limited quantities in most of the Arabian Gulf region; also, it is heavily overdrafted in many areas, and receives very little natural recharge. Good use could be made of artificial recharge by well injection in replenishing and managing aquifers in strategic locations if sources of freshwater could be made available for the artificial-recharge operations. ?? 1989.

Kimrey, J. O.

1989-01-01

180

Probabilistic analysis of the effects of climate change on groundwater recharge  

E-print Network

[1] Groundwater recharge is likely to be affected by climate change. In semiarid regions where groundwater resources are often critical, annual recharge rates are typically small and most recharge occurs episodically. Such ...

Ng, Gene-Hua Crystal

181

Prototype systems for rechargeable magnesium batteries.  

PubMed

The thermodynamic properties of magnesium make it a natural choice for use as an anode material in rechargeable batteries, because it may provide a considerably higher energy density than the commonly used lead-acid and nickel-cadmium systems. Moreover, in contrast to lead and cadmium, magnesium is inexpensive, environmentally friendly and safe to handle. But the development of Mg batteries has been hindered by two problems. First, owing to the chemical activity of Mg, only solutions that neither donate nor accept protons are suitable as electrolytes; but most of these solutions allow the growth of passivating surface films, which inhibit any electrochemical reaction. Second, the choice of cathode materials has been limited by the difficulty of intercalating Mg ions in many hosts. Following previous studies of the electrochemistry of Mg electrodes in various non-aqueous solutions, and of a variety of intercalation electrodes, we have now developed rechargeable Mg battery systems that show promise for applications. The systems comprise electrolyte solutions based on Mg organohaloaluminate salts, and Mg(x)Mo3S4 cathodes, into which Mg ions can be intercalated reversibly, and with relatively fast kinetics. We expect that further improvements in the energy density will make these batteries a viable alternative to existing systems. PMID:11048714

Aurbach, D; Lu, Z; Schechter, A; Gofer, Y; Gizbar, H; Turgeman, R; Cohen, Y; Moshkovich, M; Levi, E

2000-10-12

182

Post-orogenic extension and metamorphic core complexes in a heterogeneous crust, the role of preexisting nappes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Field observations in post-orogenic domains evidence a strong partitioning of deformation between the upper and lower crusts during the formation of metamorphic core complexes (MCCs). Furthermore, numerical models suggest that major rheological contrasts between a resistant upper crust and a low viscosity lower crust are essential for the development of these structures. As a general agreement, warm thermal profiles are therefore considered to be the main cause of the rheological stratification. This assumption is however not compatible with the limited to absent retrograde heating within some exhumed High Pressure - Low Temperature (HP-LT) metamorphic units, as is observed in the northern Cycladic MCCs in the Aegean domain. The purpose of our study is to reconsider the initial state of the crust at the onset of post-orogenic extension. We investigate, through thermo-mechanical modeling, how crustal stratification, inherited from the nappe stacking stage, influences the occurrence of MCCs in former orogens. Rocks are believed to be more mafic with depth in normal crusts. If the nappe stacking episode is taken into account, the lithological profile of the crust can be more complex with some reversed strength gradients. The history of thickening may therefore strongly influence the crustal rheological profile at the onset of extension. To test this idea, we explored the effect of three possible crustal stratifications (homogeneous, normal and reversed), as well as three thermal profiles (cold, intermediate and warm). The numerical experiments show that the degree of lateral localization and the dynamics of exhumation are strongly controlled by the crustal stratification, and, to a lesser extent, by the temperature profile. Four modes of extension are distinguished: common-type rift, wide rift, metamorphic core complex and spreading dome. Spreading dome distinguishes from metamorphic core complex by the exhumation of material along a ridge located in the center of the dome. We emphasize three following points. First, a metamorphic core complex can develop in crusts with low thermal gradients if the lithological layering is reversed. HP-LT units are then exhumed without retrograde heating. In homogeneous crusts or normally stratified crusts, no MCC forms, even with high thermal gradients. High thermal gradients are therefore neither sufficient nor necessary for the development of MCCs in thickened crusts submitted to post-orogenic extension. Second, among the nine tested setups, the case considering a lithologically reversed crust and an intermediate thermal gradient is the only one reproducing an overall finite geometry, that compares with the Cycladic MCCs, and cool P-T paths for the exhumed metamorphic units. Third, in experiments showing the development of a MCC, the mantle strength has little influence on the dynamics of exhumation and the final geometry. The presence of metamorphic core complexes is therefore not sufficient to establish a long-term rheological model for the continental lithosphere.

Huet, B.; Le Pourhiet, L.; Labrousse, L.; Burov, E. B.; Jolivet, L.

2009-12-01

183

Sedimentary evolution of the siliciclastic Aptian-Albian Massylian flysch of the Chouamat Nappe (central Rif, Morocco)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Sandstone petrography and geochemistry (major, trace and rare earth elements) of the Aptian-Albian siliciclastic Massylian flysch from the Chouamat Nappe (central Rif Morocco) are used to highlight the chemical weathering conditions in the source area and to infer their provenance. Petrographic studies show that the studied samples are mostly quartzarenite, sublitharenite and subarkose generally composed of quartz (up to 99%), K-feldspar (less than 5%) and scarce fragments of sedimentary rocks. The samples plot in the continental block provenance field of the QtFLt diagram. Thus, the compositional maturity of analyzed sandstones is typical of cratonic environments. The sandstone samples shows high SiO2 content (up to 96%) and strong depletion in mobile components such as Na2O, CaO as well as in ferromagnesian minerals, which are mainly related to intense chemical weathering processes in the source area, as confirmed by high Chemical Index of Alteration values (mean = 79.8). Recycling is shown by the Th/Sc vs. Zr/Sc plot, where the studied sandstones fall along a trend involving zircon addition and thus sediment recycling. Several geochemical ratios, such as La/Sc, Th/Sc, Th/Co and Th/Cr, of the studied samples are similar to those of Post-Archean Australian Shales and of the Upper Continental Crust, and suggest a provenance from source area(s) mainly composed of plutonic and felsic metasedimentary and sedimentary rocks, which were most probably the basement rocks of the adjacent African plate. These source rocks are related to a large cratonic source region of Eburnean and Pan-African belts, Precambrian (?) and/or Variscan basements of the southeastern margin of the African plate.

El Talibi, Hajar; Zaghloul, Mohamed Najib; Perri, Francesco; Aboumaria, Khadija; Rossi, Abdelhamid; El Moussaoui, Said

2014-12-01

184

Comparing groundwater recharge and storage variability from GRACE satellite observations with observed water levels and recharge model simulations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Sustainable management of groundwater resources, particularly in water stressed regions, requires estimates of groundwater recharge. This study in southern Mali, Africa compares approaches for estimating groundwater recharge and understanding recharge processes using a variety of methods encompassing groundwater level-climate data analysis, GRACE satellite data analysis, and recharge modelling for current and future climate conditions. Time series data for GRACE (2002-2006) and observed groundwater level data (1982-2001) do not overlap. To overcome this problem, GRACE time series data were appended to the observed historical time series data, and the records compared. Terrestrial water storage anomalies from GRACE were corrected for soil moisture (SM) using the Global Land Data Assimilation System (GLDAS) to obtain monthly groundwater storage anomalies (GRACE-SM), and monthly recharge estimates. Historical groundwater storage anomalies and recharge were determined using the water table fluctuation method using observation data from 15 wells. Historical annual recharge averaged 145.0 mm (or 15.9% of annual rainfall) and compared favourably with the GRACE-SM estimate of 149.7 mm (or 14.8% of annual rainfall). Both records show lows and peaks in May and September, respectively; however, the peak for the GRACE-SM data is shifted later in the year to November, suggesting that the GLDAS may poorly predict the timing of soil water storage in this region. Recharge simulation results show good agreement between the timing and magnitude of the mean monthly simulated recharge and the regional mean monthly storage anomaly hydrograph generated from all monitoring wells. Under future climate conditions, annual recharge is projected to decrease by 8% for areas with luvisols and by 11% for areas with nitosols. Given this potential reduction in groundwater recharge, there may be added stress placed on an already stressed resource.

Allen, D. M.; Henry, C.; Demon, H.; Kirste, D. M.; Huang, J.

2011-12-01

185

ESTIMATION OF GROUND WATER RECHARGE USING SOIL MOISTURE BALANCE APPROACH  

E-print Network

ESTIMATION OF GROUND WATER RECHARGE USING SOIL MOISTURE BALANCE APPROACH C. P. Kumar* ABSTRACT is the principal means for replenishment of moisture in the soil water system and recharge to ground water at the upper boundary, the antecedent soil moisture conditions, the water table depth and the soil type

Kumar, C.P.

186

Autonomous Battery Recharging for Indoor Mobile Robots Seungjun Oh  

E-print Network

1 Autonomous Battery Recharging for Indoor Mobile Robots Seungjun Oh Australian National University the batteries on a mobile robot. The robot used in this project is the Nomadic Technologies? Nomad XR4000 mobile robot. The battery recharging system was implemented using the robot's built-in sensors to control

187

Transcutaneous Battery Recharging By Volume Conduction and its Circuit Modeling  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many implantable devices require large capacity batteries implanted in the body. Transcutaneous battery recharging can effectively maintain the longevity of these implants. Based on this consideration we have developed a transcutaneous battery recharging circuit unit which takes advantages of skin volume conduction. This unit is able to pass 2.8 mA from the outside to the inside of pig skin with

Zhide Tang; R. J. Sclabassi; C. Sun; S. A. Hackworth; Jun Zhao; X. T. Cui; M. Sun

2006-01-01

188

Caractrisation du procd d'estampage de composites thermoplastiques fibres longues  

E-print Network

« froissements » de nappes de fibres à l'intérieur des rayons et des amas de matrice lorsque les nappes sont nappes de fibres à l'intérieur des rayons et des amas de matrice lorsque les nappes sont bloquées par une

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

189

L'eau au coeur de la science 6 et que sa qualit se dgrade, la demande ne cesse de crotre.  

E-print Network

nombreuses mesures directes du débit des cours d'eau, du niveau des nappes souterraines ou encore de la pour reproduire, en le simplifiant, le fonctionnement des cours d'eau, des nappes souterraines, des mesures directes du débit des cours d'eau, du niveau des nappes souterraines ou encore de la qualité de l

190

Probabilistic estimation and prediction of groundwater recharge in a semi-arid environment  

E-print Network

Quantifying and characterizing groundwater recharge are critical for water resources management. Unfortunately, low recharge rates are difficult to resolve in dry environments, where groundwater is often most important. ...

Ng, Gene-Hua Crystal

2009-01-01

191

Global synthesis of groundwater recharge in semiarid and arid regions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Global synthesis of the findings from 140 recharge study areas in semiarid and arid regions provides important information on recharge rates, controls, and processes, which are critical for sustainable water development. Water resource evaluation, dryland salinity assessment (Australia), and radioactive waste disposal (US) are among the primary goals of many of these recharge studies. The chloride mass balance (CMB) technique is widely used to estimate recharge. Average recharge rates estimated over large areas (40-374 000 km2) range from 0.2 to 35 mm year-1, representing 0.1-5% of long-term average annual precipitation. Extreme local variability in recharge, with rates up to 720 m year-1, results from focussed recharge beneath ephemeral streams and lakes and preferential flow mostly in fractured systems. System response to climate variability and land use/land cover (LU/LC) changes is archived in unsaturated zone tracer profiles and in groundwater level fluctuations. Inter-annual climate variability related to El Nio Southern Oscillation (ENSO) results in up to three times higher recharge in regions within the SW US during periods of frequent El Nios (1977-1998) relative to periods dominated by La Nias (1941-1957). Enhanced recharge related to ENSO is also documented in Argentina. Climate variability at decadal to century scales recorded in chloride profiles in Africa results in recharge rates of 30 mm year-1 during the Sahel drought (1970-1986) to 150 mm year-1 during non-drought periods. Variations in climate at millennial scales in the SW US changed systems from recharge during the Pleistocene glacial period (10 000 years ago) to discharge during the Holocene semiarid period. LU/LC changes such as deforestation in Australia increased recharge up to about 2 orders of magnitude. Changes from natural grassland and shrublands to dryland (rain-fed) agriculture altered systems from discharge (evapotranspiration, ET) to recharge in the SW US. The impact of LU change was much greater than climate variability in Niger (Africa), where replacement of savanna by crops increased recharge by about an order of magnitude even during severe droughts. Sensitivity of recharge to LU/LC changes suggests that recharge may be controlled through management of LU. In irrigated areas, recharge varies from 10 to 485 mm year-1, representing 1-25% of irrigation plus precipitation. However, irrigation pumpage in groundwater-fed irrigated areas greatly exceeds recharge rates, resulting in groundwater mining. Increased recharge related to cultivation has mobilized salts that accumulated in the unsaturated zone over millennia, resulting in widespread groundwater and surface water contamination, particularly in Australia. The synthesis of recharge rates provided in this study contains valuable information for developing sustainable groundwater resource programmes within the context of climate variability and LU/LC change.

Scanlon, Bridget R.; Keese, Kelley E.; Flint, Alan L.; Flint, Lorraine E.; Gaye, Cheikh B.; Edmunds, W. Michael; Simmers, Ian

2006-10-01

192

FEMININ, MASCULIN : ANTHROPOLOGIE DES  

E-print Network

#12;#12;FEMININ, MASCULIN : ANTHROPOLOGIE DES CAT?GORIES ET DES PRATIQUES MEDICALES 2007 #12;AUX;FEMININ, MASCULIN. ANTHROPOLOGIE DES CAT?GORIES ET DES PRATIQUES MEDICALES Sous la direction de Virginie, en France, du paradoxe d'une surmortalité masculine et d'une surmor- bidité féminine. Cette apparente

Boyer, Edmond

193

Groundwater recharge rate and zone structure estimation using PSOLVER algorithm.  

PubMed

The quantification of groundwater recharge is an important but challenging task in groundwater flow modeling because recharge varies spatially and temporally. The goal of this study is to present an innovative methodology to estimate groundwater recharge rates and zone structures for regional groundwater flow models. Here, the unknown recharge field is partitioned into a number of zones using Voronoi Tessellation (VT). The identified zone structure with the recharge rates is associated through a simulation-optimization model that couples MODFLOW-2000 and the hybrid PSOLVER optimization algorithm. Applicability of this procedure is tested on a previously developed groundwater flow model of the Tahtal? Watershed. Successive zone structure solutions are obtained in an additive manner and penalty functions are used in the procedure to obtain realistic and plausible solutions. One of these functions constrains the optimization by forcing the sum of recharge rates for the grid cells that coincide with the Tahtal? Watershed area to be equal to the areal recharge rate determined in the previous modeling by a separate precipitation-runoff model. As a result, a six-zone structure is selected as the best zone structure that represents the areal recharge distribution. Comparison to results of a previous model for the same study area reveals that the proposed procedure significantly improves model performance with respect to calibration statistics. The proposed identification procedure can be thought of as an effective way to determine the recharge zone structure for groundwater flow models, in particular for situations where tangible information about groundwater recharge distribution does not exist. PMID:23746002

Ayvaz, M Tamer; Eli, Alper

2014-01-01

194

New evidence of a magmatic arc in the southern Braslia Belt, Brazil: The Serra da gua Limpa batholith (Socorro-Guaxup Nappe)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper presents a detailed description of the Neoproterozoic Serra da gua Limpa batholith (SALB) and the interpretation of its genesis. The batholith, located along the border of the states of Minas Gerais and So Paulo, was involved in the Socorro-Guaxup Nappe, a tectonic unit that integrates the southern Braslia Belt. The tectonic evolution of this nappe is related to the convergence and subsequent collision between the Paranapanema paleocontinent, representing the upper plate, with the So Francisco paleocontinent, resulting in the construction of the southern Braslia Belt. The active margin of the Paranapanema paleocontinent developed during the pre-collisional stage a magmatic arc composed of batholithic igneous bodies. The Socorro-Guaxup Nappe represents this active margin and SALB is one of those bodies. U-Pb dating (Laser Ablation, LA-ICP-MS) in zircon was performed in five samples of SALB. The results are as follows: sample RDTM 62, 667 10 Ma; RDPA 44, 645 5 Ma; RDPA 46, 630 12 Ma; VAC 10, 631 7 Ma and RDIT 41, 635 8 Ma. These ages indicate that the body crystallized between 670 and 630 Ma, with predominance of ages in the interval 645-630 Ma, demonstrating that the magmatic event that formed the arc lasted at least 40 myr. Younger ages, measured in rims of zircon grains, mainly in the range 625-600 Ma were interpreted as metamorphic ages. The lithogeochemical analyses indicate that the I-type rocks of the Serra da gua Limpa batholith belong to the high K calc-alkaline series, and are metaluminous to slightly peraluminous. Tectonic environment diagrams also indicate that the batholith was produced in a volcanic arc setting which is confirmed by negative anomalies of elements of high ionic potential (HFS) in multi-element diagrams. Whole rock Sm-Nd isotope analyses show highly negative ?Nd values (-12 to -7), indicating significant crustal contamination or origin of the magma by melting of enriched lower crust.

Vinagre, Rodrigo; Trouw, Rudolph A. J.; Mendes, Julio Cezar; Duffles, Patrcia; Peternel, Rodrigo; Matos, Gabriel

2014-10-01

195

Lithium electronic environments in rechargeable battery electrodes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This work investigates the electronic environments of lithium in the electrodes of rechargeable batteries. The use of electron energy-loss spectroscopy (EELS) in conjunction with transmission electron microscopy (TEM) is a novel approach, which when coupled with conventional electrochemical experiments, yield a thorough picture of the electrode interior. Relatively few EELS experiments have been preformed on lithium compounds owing to their reactivity. Experimental techniques were established to minimize sample contamination and control electron beam damage to studied compounds. Lithium hydroxide was found to be the most common product of beam damaged lithium alloys. Under an intense electron beam, halogen atoms desorbed by radiolysis in lithium halides. EELS spectra from a number of standard lithium compounds were obtained in order to identify the variety of spectra encountered in lithium rechargeable battery electrodes. Lithium alloys all displayed characteristically broad Li K-edge spectra, consistent with transitions to continuum states. Transitions to bound states were observed in the Li K and oxygen K-edge spectra of lithium oxides. Lithium halides were distinguished by their systematic chemical shift proportional to the anion electronegativity. Good agreement was found with measured lithium halide spectra and electron structure calculations using a self-consistant multiscattering code. The specific electrode environments of LiC6, LiCoO2, and Li-SnO were investigated. Contrary to published XPS predictions, lithium in intercalated graphite was determined to be in more metallic than ionic. We present the first experimental evidence of charge compensation by oxygen ions in deintercalated LiCoO2. Mossbauer studies on cycled Li-SnO reveal severely defective structures on an atomic scale. Metal hydride systems are presented in the appendices of this thesis. The mechanical alloying of immiscible Fe and Mg powders resulted in single-phase bcc alloys of less than 20 at% Mg. Kinetic studies on LaNi5-xSn x alloys proved that the mass transfer of hydrogen through these alloys was not hindered with increasing Sn substitutions for Ni. Collaborations with Energizer(c) found LanNi4.7Sn0.3 alloys to possess limited utility in rechargeable nickel-metal-hydride sealed-cell batteries.

Hightower, Adrian

196

Climate variability effects on urban recharge beneath low impact development  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Groundwater resources in urban and coastal environments are highly vulnerable to human pressures and climate variability and change, and many communities face water shortages and need to find alternative water supplies. Therefore, understanding how low impact development (LID) site planning and integrated/best management practices (BMPs) affect recharge rates and volumes is important because of the increasing use of LID and BMP to reduce stormwater runoff and improve surface-water quality. Often considered a secondary management benefit, many BMPs may also enhance recharge to local aquifers; however these hypothesized benefits have not been thoroughly tested or quantified. In this study, we quantify stormwater capture and recharge enhancement beneath a BMP infiltration trench of the LID research network at San Francisco State University, San Francisco, California. Stormwater capture and retention was analyzed using the SCS TR-55 curve number method and in-situ infiltration rates to assess LID storage. Recharge was quantified using vadose zone monitoring equipment, a detailed water budget analysis, and a Hydrus-2D model. Additionally, the effects of historical and predicted future precipitation on recharge rates were examined using precipitation from the Geophysical Fluid Dynamic Laboratory (GFDL) A1F1 climate scenario. Observed recharge rates beneath the infiltration trench range from 1,600 to 3,700 mm/year and are an order of magnitude greater than recharge beneath an irrigated grass lawn and a natural setting. The Hydrus-2D model results indicate increased recharge under the GFDL A1F1 scenario compared with historical and GFDL modeled 20th century rates because of the higher frequency of large precipitation events that induce runoff into the infiltration trench. However, under a simulated A1F1 El Nio year, recharge calculated by a water budget does not increase compared with current El Nio recharge rates. In comparison, simulated recharge rates were considerably lower beneath the grass lawn for historical and future precipitation years. This work highlights the potential management strategy of using LID to capture excess runoff during El Nio years that can be recharged and stored as groundwater. An additional benefit of LID in coastal aquifer systems is the ability to capture and redirect precipitation from runoff to recharge that may help mitigate the negative effects from groundwater pumping and sea-water intrusion.

Newcomer, M. E.; Gurdak, J. J.

2012-12-01

197

Unlinkable Priced Oblivious Transfer with Rechargeable Wallets  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present the first truly unlinkable priced oblivious transfer protocol. Our protocol allows customers to buy database records while remaining fully anonymous, i.e., (1) the database does not learn who purchases a record, and cannot link purchases by the same customer; (2) the database does not learn which record is being purchased, nor the price of the record that is being purchased; (3) the customer can only obtain a single record per purchase, and cannot spend more than his account balance; (4) the database does not learn the customer's remaining balance. In our protocol customers keep track of their own balances, rather than leaving this to the database as done in previous protocols. Our priced oblivious transfer protocol is also the first to allow customers to (anonymously) recharge their balances. Finally, we prove our protocol secure in the standard model (i.e., without random oracles).

Camenisch, Jan; Dubovitskaya, Maria; Neven, Gregory

198

Rechargeable metal hydrides for spacecraft application  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Storing hydrogen on board the Space Station presents both safety and logistics problems. Conventional storage using pressurized bottles requires large masses, pressures, and volumes to handle the hydrogen to be used in experiments in the U.S. Laboratory Module and residual hydrogen generated by the ECLSS. Rechargeable metal hydrides may be competitive with conventional storage techniques. The basic theory of hydride behavior is presented and the engineering properties of LaNi5 are discussed to gain a clear understanding of the potential of metal hydrides for handling spacecraft hydrogen resources. Applications to Space Station and the safety of metal hydrides are presented and compared to conventional hydride storage. This comparison indicates that metal hydrides may be safer and require lower pressures, less volume, and less mass to store an equivalent mass of hydrogen.

Perry, J. L.

1988-09-01

199

Spinel electrodes for rechargeable lithium batteries.  

SciTech Connect

This paper gives a historical account of the development of spinel electrodes for rechargeable lithium batteries. Research in the late 1970's and early 1980's on high-temperature . Li/Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} cells led to the evaluation of lithium spinels Li[B{sub 2}]X{sub 4} at room temperature (B = metal cation). This work highlighted the importance of the [B{sub 2}]X{sub 4}spinel framework as a host electrode structure and the ability to tailor the cell voltage by selection of different B cations. Examples of lithium-ion cells that operate with spinel anode/spinel cathode couples are provided. Particular attention is paid to spinels within the solid solution system Li{sub 1+x}Mn{sub 2-x}O{sub 4} (0 {le} x {le} 0.33).

Thackeray, M. M.

1999-11-10

200

Oxygen electrodes for rechargeable alkaline fuel cells  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Electrocatalysts and supports for the positive electrode of moderate temperature single unit rechargeable alkaline fuel cells were investigated and developed. The electrocatalysts are defined as the material with a higher activity for the oxygen electrode reaction than the support. Advanced development will require that the materials be prepared in high surface area forms, and may also entail integration of various candidate materials. Eight candidate support materials and seven electrocatalysts were investigated. Of the 8 support, 3 materials meet the preliminary requirements in terms of electrical conductivity and stability. Emphasis is now on preparing in high surface area form and testing under more severe corrosion stress conditions. Of the 7 electrocatalysts prepared and evaluated, at least 5 materials remain as potential candidates. The major emphasis remains on preparation, physical characterization and electrochemical performance testing.

Swette, Larry; Giner, Jose

1987-01-01

201

Rechargeable metal hydrides for spacecraft application  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Storing hydrogen on board the Space Station presents both safety and logistics problems. Conventional storage using pressurized bottles requires large masses, pressures, and volumes to handle the hydrogen to be used in experiments in the U.S. Laboratory Module and residual hydrogen generated by the ECLSS. Rechargeable metal hydrides may be competitive with conventional storage techniques. The basic theory of hydride behavior is presented and the engineering properties of LaNi5 are discussed to gain a clear understanding of the potential of metal hydrides for handling spacecraft hydrogen resources. Applications to Space Station and the safety of metal hydrides are presented and compared to conventional hydride storage. This comparison indicates that metal hydrides may be safer and require lower pressures, less volume, and less mass to store an equivalent mass of hydrogen.

Perry, J. L.

1988-01-01

202

Advanced rechargeable sodium batteries with novel cathodes  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Various high energy density rechargeable batteries are being considered for future space applications. Of these, the sodium sulfur battery is one of the leading candidates. The primary advantage is the high energy density (760 Wh/kg theoretical). Energy densities in excess of 180 Wh/kg have been realized in practical batteries. More recently, cathodes other than sulfur are being evaluated. Researchers at JPL are evaluating various new cathode materials for use in high energy density sodium batteries for advanced space applications. The approach is to carry out basic electrochemical studies of these materials in a sodium cell configuration in order to understand their fundamental behaviors. Thus far studies have focused on alternate metal chlorides such as CuCl2 and organic cathode materials such as tetracyanoethylene (TCNE).

Distefano, S.; Ratnakumar, B. V.; Bankston, C. P.

1989-01-01

203

Advanced rechargeable sodium batteries with novel cathodes  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Various high energy density rechargeable batteries are being considered for future space applications. Of these, the sodium-sulfur battery is one of the leading candidates. The primary advantage is the high energy density (760 W h/kg theoretical). Energy densities in excess of 180 W h/kg have been realized in practical batteries. More recently, cathodes other than sulfur are being evaluated. Various new cathode materials are presently being evaluated for use in high energy density sodium batteries for advanced space applications. The approach is to carry out basic electrochemical studies of these materials in a sodium cell configuration in order to understand their fundamental behaviors. Thus far, the studies have focussed on alternative metal chlorides such as CuCl2 and organic cathode materials such as TCNE.

Di Stefano, S.; Ratnakumar, B. V.; Bankston, C. P.

1990-01-01

204

Advances in development of rechargeable mitochondrial antioxidants.  

PubMed

It has been about 15 years since the introduction of the rechargeable mitochondria-targeted antioxidants (RMA). Two major groups have been developing RMA of the MitoQ and SkQ types independently, and many additional trials have been done by other researchers. This has provided solid preclinical evidence of RMA efficacy in various models. Human trials of systemic MitoQ were not followed by further advances, but the safety of MitoQ and, most likely, other RMA in humans has been demonstrated. A prooxidant effect at higher concentrations of RMA was described. For RMA of the SkQ type, a large window between anti- and prooxidant concentrations was observed, which makes SkQs promising as potential medicines. Significant RMA-induced improvements in many diseases that do not have an accepted treatment have been described. This justifies further clinical trials of RMA. PMID:25149221

Lukashev, Alexander N; Skulachev, Maxim V; Ostapenko, Victoria; Savchenko, Alla Yu; Pavshintsev, V V; Skulachev, Vladimir P

2014-01-01

205

Echo Meadows Project Winter Artificial Recharge.  

SciTech Connect

This report discusses the findings of the Echo Meadows Project (BPA Project 2001-015-00). The main purpose of this project is to artificially recharge an alluvial aquifer, WITH water from Umatilla River during the winter high flow period. In turn, this recharged aquifer will discharge an increased flow of cool groundwater back to the river, thereby improving Umatilla River water quality and temperature. A considerable side benefit is that the Umatilla River should improve as a habitat for migration, spanning, and rearing of anadromous and resident fish. The scope of this project is to provide critical baseline information about the Echo Meadows and the associated reach of the Umatilla River. Key elements of information that has been gathered include: (1) Annual and seasonal groundwater levels in the aquifer with an emphasis on the irrigation season, (2) Groundwater hydraulic properties, particularly hydraulic conductivity and specific yield, and (3) Groundwater and Umatilla River water quality including temperature, nutrients and other indicator parameters. One of the major purposes of this data gathering was to develop input to a groundwater model of the area. The purpose of the model is to estimate our ability to recharge this aquifer using water that is only available outside of the irrigation season (December through the end of February) and to estimate the timing of groundwater return flow back to the river. We have found through the data collection and modeling efforts that this reach of the river had historically returned as much as 45 cubic feet per second (cfs) of water to the Umatilla River during the summer and early fall. However, this return flow was reduced to as low as 10 cfs primarily due to reduced quantities of irrigation application, gain in irrigation efficiencies and increased groundwater pumping. Our modeling indicated that it is possible to restore these critical return flows using applied water outside of the irrigation season. We further found that this water can be timed to return to the river during the desired time of the year (summer to early fall). This is because the river stage, which remains relatively high until this time, drops during the irrigation season-thereby releasing the stored groundwater and increasing river flows. A significant side benefit is that these enhanced groundwater return flows will be clean and cold, particularly as compared to the Umatilla River. We also believe that this same type of application of water could be done and the resulting stream flows could be realized in other watersheds throughout the Pacific Northwest. This means that it is critical to compare the results from this baseline report to the full implementation of the project in the next phase. As previously stated, this report only discusses the results of data gathered during the baseline phase of this project. We have attempted to make the data that has been gathered accessible with the enclosed databases and spreadsheets. We provide computer links in this report to the databases so that interested parties can fully evaluate the data that has been gathered. However, we cannot emphasize too strongly that the real value of this project is to implement the phases to come, compare the results of these future phases to this baseline and develop the science and strategies to successfully implement this concept to other rivers in the Pacific Northwest. The results from our verified and calibrated groundwater model matches the observed groundwater data and trends collected during the baseline phase. The modeling results indicate that the return flows may increase to their historic values with the addition of 1 acre-ft/acre of recharge water to the groundwater system (about 9,600 acre-feet total). What this means is that through continued recharge project, you can double to quadruple the annual baseflow of the Umatilla River during the low summer and fall flow periods as compared to the present base-flow. The cool and high quality recharge water is a significant beneficial impact to the river system.

Ziari, Fred

2002-12-19

206

Using atmospheric tracers to reduce uncertainty in groundwater recharge areas.  

PubMed

A Monte Carlo-based approach to assess uncertainty in recharge areas shows that incorporation of atmospheric tracer observations (in this case, tritium concentration) and prior information on model parameters leads to more precise predictions of recharge areas. Variance-covariance matrices, from model calibration and calculation of sensitivities, were used to generate parameter sets that account for parameter correlation and uncertainty. Constraining parameter sets to those that met acceptance criteria, which included a standard error criterion, did not appear to bias model results. Although the addition of atmospheric tracer observations and prior information produced similar changes in the extent of predicted recharge areas, prior information had the effect of increasing probabilities within the recharge area to a greater extent than atmospheric tracer observations. Uncertainty in the recharge area propagates into predictions that directly affect water quality, such as land cover in the recharge area associated with a well and the residence time associated with the well. Assessments of well vulnerability that depend on these factors should include an assessment of model parameter uncertainty. A formal simulation of parameter uncertainty can be used to delineate probabilistic recharge areas, and the results can be expressed in ways that can be useful to water-resource managers. Although no one model is the correct model, the results of multiple models can be evaluated in terms of the decision being made and the probability of a given outcome from each model. PMID:21416662

Starn, J Jeffrey; Bagtzoglou, Amvrossios C; Robbins, Gary A

2010-01-01

207

Effects of artificial recharge on the Ogallala aquifer, Texas  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Four recharge tests were conducted by injecting water from playa lakes through wells into the Ogallala Formation. Injection was by gravity flow and by pumping under pressure. At one site, 34-acre feet of water was injected by gravity and produced a significant increase in yield of the well. At a second site, gravity injection of only 0.58 acre-foot caused a significant decrease in permeability due to plugging by suspended sediment. At two other sites, injection by pumping 6 and 14 acre-feet respectively, resulted in discharge of water at the surface and in perching of water above the water table. Differences in success of recharge were largely due to aquifer lithology and, therefore, the type of permeability; the concentration of suspended solids in the recharge water; and the injection technique. The injection technique can be controlled and the concentration of suspended solids can be minimized by treatment, but the site for well recharge will accept water most rapidly if it is selected on the basis of a favorable geohydrologic environment. Geophysical logs were used to study the effect of aquifer lithology on recharge and to understand the movement of injected water. Temperature logs were particularly useful in tracing the movement of recharged water. Natural-gamma, gamma-gamma, and neutron logs provided important data on lithology and porosity in the aquifer and changes in porosity and water distribution resulting from recharge. Effective recharge of the Ogallala Formation, using water from playa lakes, is possible where geohydrologic conditions are favorable and the recharge system is properly constructed.

Brown, Richmond Flint; Keys, W. S.

1985-01-01

208

Shear zone broadening driven by metasomatism: an example from the Roffna metarhyolite (Suretta nappe, eastern central Alps)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ductile shear zones in continental crust play a critical role in the accommodation of deformation at crustal scale. They are also pathways for fluid and therefore the loci of metamorphic and metasomatic reactions. These fluid-rock interactions (reactions and metasomatism) control the behaviour of the shear zone and may be one of the driving force for the development of the shear zone and its lateral propagation (widening). Our goal in this contribution is to quantify the role of these chemical processes on the shear zone formation. The present study focuses on shear zones in the Roffna metarhyolite, in the Suretta nappe (Penninic Domain, Eastern Central Alps). This early Permian massif intruded the older basement and was affected only by Alpine tectonics. The ductile deformation is characterized by a shear zone network from millimetric to plurimetric scale developed under blueschist facies conditions. Mass transfer results show gains in MgO, K2O and H2O coupled with losses in CaO and Na2O with increasing strain. The main mineralogical change along the gradient is the growth of phengite and quartz at the expense of K-Feldspar and plagioclases. The appearance of a small amount of epidote and a small decrease in the amount of biotite is also observed. In our conceptual model of shear zone formation, the ultramylonite is assumed to be produced by infiltration metasomatism. In contrast the intermediate rocks between the protolith and the highest strain rock is assumed to be the result of diffusion metasomatism. Therefore the amount of lateral propagation is controlled by the kinetics of diffusion and equilibration of the host rock. To test this hypothesis we have compared shear zones with different thickness which should represent various degree of equilibration of the host rock at the conditions of the deformation and fluid-rock interactions. Using a suite of PT and chemical potential computed phase diagrams, we are able to model the reaction path involved during the equilibration process between the host rock and the highest strain zone. Our work provide new insights into the role of chemical processes on the formation of shear zone.

Poilvet, J.-C.; Goncalves, P.; Marquer, D.

2012-04-01

209

Ground-water recharge from streamflow data, NW Florida  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Annual base flows of streams draining Okaloosa County and adjacent areas in northwest Florida were determined through hydrograph separation and correlation techniques for purposes of evaluating variations in ground-water recharge rates. Base flows were least in the northern part of the county and greatest in the southern part. Topographic and soils data were then superimposed on the distribution of base flow by subbasin to produce a map showing distribution of ground-water recharge throughout the county. The highest recharge rate occurs in the southern part of the county where relatively flat upland areas underlain by excessively drained sandy soils result in minimal storm runoff and evapotranspiration.

Vecchioli, John; Bridges, W. C.; Rumenik, R. P.; Grubbs, J. W.

1991-01-01

210

UNIVERSIT DE VERSAILLES-SAINT-QUENTIN UFR DES SCIENCES  

E-print Network

DOCTEUR EN SCIENCES DE L'UNIVERSIT? DE VERSAILLES Spécialité : Mathématiques par Pascal Hivert Nappes sous-groupes à 1 paramètre réguliers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 2 Nappes sous-régulières de G2 13 description dans le cas B2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15 2.2.1 La première nappe

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

211

Architecture of the south-eastern Carpathians nappes and Focsani Basin (Romania) from 2D ray tracing of densely-spaced refraction data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A velocity model of the upper crust (maximum depth 10-15 km) of the earthquake-prone Vrancea area (Romania) from 2D forward ray tracing of densely-spaced refraction data is presented. The model is derived from more than 11,000 travel times recorded at stations 100 m apart picked from 42 shot gathers along a 140 km line crossing the south-eastern Carpathian bending zone and the adjacent deep (foreland) Focsani Basin. The model refines basement structure beneath the south-eastern Carpathian nappe stack and Focsani Basin and documents reverse faults on which crystalline rocks or highly metamorphosed Mesozoic sedimentary cover of the crystalline basement have been elevated to depths as little as 3.5-4 km (with a vertical displacement of at least 2-2.5 km) beneath the external Carpathian nappes in the Vrancea Zone. Fault systems (flower structures) and normal faults associated with the overall tectonic subsidence of the foreland basin are also inferred. Some of the basement fault systems appear to be recently active, since they involve overlying young (Tertiary-Quaternary) sedimentary layers, and may be associated with intracrustal earthquakes recorded in the area.

Bocin, Andrei; Stephenson, Randell; Mocanu, Victor; Matenco, Liviu

2009-10-01

212

Evaluating Climate, Vegetation, and Soil Controls on Groundwater Recharge Using Unsaturated Flow Modeling  

Microsoft Academic Search

Understanding the relative importance of climate, vegetation, and soils in controlling groundwater recharge is critical for estimating recharge rates and for assessing the importance of these factors in controlling aquifer vulnerability to contamination. Understanding the role of climate and vegetation in controlling recharge will also be valuable in determining impacts of climate change and land use change on recharge. Numerical

K. E. Keese; B. R. Scanlon; R. C. Reedy

2003-01-01

213

Spatial Variability of Groundwater Recharge and its Effect on Shallow Groundwater Quality in Southern New Jersey  

Microsoft Academic Search

to the percentage of well-drained soils near wells. Spatial patterns of and topographic data to determine whether recharge recharge estimates, exceedance probabilities, and clay content indicate could be accurately predicted from landscape character- that sediment texture controls recharge in the study area. Relations with land elevation and a topographic wetness index were statistically istics. Finally, recharge estimates were compared with

Bernard T. Nolan; Arthur L. Baehr; Leon J. Kauffman

2003-01-01

214

Reliability of Rechargeable Batteries in a Photovoltaic Power Supply System  

SciTech Connect

We investigate the reliability If a rechargeable battery acting as the energy storage component in a photovoltaic power supply system. A model system was constructed for this that includes the solar resource, the photovoltaic power supp Iy system, the rechargeable battery and a load. The solar resource and the system load are modeled as SI ochastic processes. The photovoltaic system and the rechargeable battery are modeled deterministically, imd an artificial neural network is incorporated into the model of the rechargeable battery to simulate dartage that occurs during deep discharge cycles. The equations governing system behavior are solved simultaneously in the Monte Carlo framework and a fwst passage problem is solved to assess system reliability.

Barney, P.; Jungst, R.G., Ingersoll, D.; O'Gorman, C.; Paez, T.L.; Urbina, A.

1998-11-30

215

Improved zinc electrode and rechargeable zinc-air battery  

DOEpatents

The invention comprises an improved rechargeable zinc-air cell/battery having recirculating alkaline electrolyte and a zinc electrode comprising a porous foam support material which carries the active zinc electrode material. 5 figs.

Ross, P.N. Jr.

1988-06-21

216

ENGINEERING ECONOMIC ANALYSIS OF A PROGRAM FOR ARTIFICIAL GROUNDWATER RECHARGE.  

USGS Publications Warehouse

This study describes and demonstrates two alternate methods for evaluating the relative costs and benefits of artificial groundwater recharge using percolation ponds. The first analysis considers the benefits to be the reduction of pumping lifts and land subsidence; the second considers benefits as the alternative costs of a comparable surface delivery system. Example computations are carried out for an existing artificial recharge program in Santa Clara Valley in California. A computer groundwater model is used to estimate both the average long term and the drought period effects of artificial recharge in the study area. Results indicate that the costs of artificial recharge are considerably smaller than the alternative costs of an equivalent surface system. Refs.

Reichard, Eric G.; Bredehoeft, John D.

1984-01-01

217

Energy Storage with Ambient Temperature Rechargeable Lithium Batteries.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

An ambient temperature rechargeable lithium battery with characteristics suitable for load-levelling and electric vehicle applications was developed. The battery was to use an organic electrolyte and a dissolved depolarizer. Studies were made of transitio...

S. B. Brummer, F. W. Dampier, V. R. Koch, R. D. Rauh, T. F. Reise

1978-01-01

218

PHARMA -Rglement des examens et des jurys 2013-2014 Rglement des examens -Pharma 2013  

E-print Network

PHARMA - Règlement des examens et des jurys 2013-2014 Règlement des examens - Pharma 2013 1 missions décrites dans ce règlement. #12;PHARMA - Règlement des examens et des jurys 2013-2014 Règlement des examens - Pharma 2013 2 UNIVERSITE LIBRE DE BRUXELLES DEPARTEMENT ENSEIGNEMENT SERVICE D

Cerf, Nicolas

219

Cryogenic Transport of High-Pressure-System Recharge Gas  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A method of relatively safe, compact, efficient recharging of a high-pressure room-temperature gas supply has been proposed. In this method, the gas would be liquefied at the source for transport as a cryogenic fluid at or slightly above atmospheric pressure. Upon reaching the destination, a simple heating/expansion process would be used to (1) convert the transported cryogenic fluid to the room-temperature, high-pressure gaseous form in which it is intended to be utilized and (2) transfer the resulting gas to the storage tank of the system to be recharged. In conventional practice for recharging high-pressure-gas systems, gases are transported at room temperature in high-pressure tanks. For recharging a given system to a specified pressure, a transport tank must contain the recharge gas at a much higher pressure. At the destination, the transport tank is connected to the system storage tank to be recharged, and the pressures in the transport tank and the system storage tank are allowed to equalize. One major disadvantage of the conventional approach is that the high transport pressure poses a hazard. Another disadvantage is the waste of a significant amount of recharge gas. Because the transport tank is disconnected from the system storage tank when it is at the specified system recharge pressure, the transport tank still contains a significant amount of recharge gas (typically on the order of half of the amount transported) that cannot be used. In the proposed method, the cryogenic fluid would be transported in a suitably thermally insulated tank that would be capable of withstanding the recharge pressure of the destination tank. The tank would be equipped with quick-disconnect fluid-transfer fittings and with a low-power electric heater (which would not be used during transport). In preparation for transport, a relief valve would be attached via one of the quick-disconnect fittings (see figure). During transport, the interior of the tank would be kept at a near-ambient pressure far below the recharge pressure. As leakage of heat into the tank caused vaporization of the cryogenic fluid, the resulting gas would be vented through the relief valve, which would be set to maintain the pressure in the tank at the transport value. Inasmuch as the density of a cryogenic fluid at atmospheric pressure greatly exceeds that of the corresponding gas in a practical high-pressure tank at room temperature, a tank for transporting a given mass of gas according to the proposed method could be smaller (and, hence, less massive) than is a tank needed for transporting the same mass of gas according to the conventional method.

Ungar, Eugene K,; Ruemmele, Warren P.; Bohannon, Carl

2010-01-01

220

Remote sensing of soil moisture: implications for groundwater recharge  

Microsoft Academic Search

. Remote sensing provides information on the land surface. Therefore, linkages must be established if these data are to be\\u000a used in groundwater and recharge analyses. Keys to this process are the use of remote sensing techniques that provide information\\u000a on soil moisture and water-balance models that tie these observations to the recharge. Microwave remote sensing techniques\\u000a are used to

Thomas J. Jackson

2002-01-01

221

Recharge signal identification based on groundwater level observations.  

PubMed

This study applied a method of the rotated empirical orthogonal functions to directly decompose the space-time groundwater level variations and determine the potential recharge zones by investigating the correlation between the identified groundwater signals and the observed local rainfall records. The approach is used to analyze the spatiotemporal process of piezometric heads estimated by Bayesian maximum entropy method from monthly observations of 45 wells in 1999-2007 located in the Pingtung Plain of Taiwan. From the results, the primary potential recharge area is located at the proximal fan areas where the recharge process accounts for 88% of the spatiotemporal variations of piezometric heads in the study area. The decomposition of groundwater levels associated with rainfall can provide information on the recharge process since rainfall is an important contributor to groundwater recharge in semi-arid regions. Correlation analysis shows that the identified recharge closely associates with the temporal variation of the local precipitation with a delay of 1-2 months in the study area. PMID:22016042

Yu, Hwa-Lung; Chu, Hone-Jay

2012-10-01

222

Quantifying groundwater recharge from floods in semi-arid environments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Floods represent an important aquifer recharge component in semi-arid environment. Changes in land use and the creation of artificial barriers to protect land from inundation can considerably influence the amount of aquifer recharge. Despite their importance, mechanisms that control flood recharge are poorly understood. Moreover, groundwater flow models rarely incorporate these processes with an appropriate physics based approach. In this study, we use a fully integrated surface subsurface fluid flow model to quantify changes in flood recharge induced by changes in land use. First, the flow simulations are performed on a synthetic aquifer to understand first order controls on flood recharge. Later, the simulations are extended to a real aquifer located in the lower Namoi aquifer, New South Wales, Australia. The long term groundwater monitoring hydrographs are used to calibrate the aquifer model. Satellite and aero-photographic surveys available both before and after changes in land use enable the comparison of flood extent to groundwater hydrograph response. The results show that the volume of water provided by the floods can represent a significant fraction of the aquifer water balance, and that changes in land use have a considerable effect on it. In addition, the results highlight the importance of treating flood recharge as a non-linear process.

Comunian, A.; Ajami, H.; Kelly, B. F.

2013-12-01

223

Rechargeable Magnesium Batteries: Low-Cost Rechargeable Magnesium Batteries with High Energy Density  

SciTech Connect

BEEST Project: Pellion Technologies is developing rechargeable magnesium batteries that would enable an EV to travel 3 times farther than it could using Li-ion batteries. Prototype magnesium batteries demonstrate excellent electrochemical behavior; delivering thousands of charge cycles with very little fade. Nevertheless, these prototypes have always stored too little energy to be commercially viable. Pellion Technologies is working to overcome this challenge by rapidly screening potential storage materials using proprietary, high-throughput computer models. To date, 12,000 materials have been identified and analyzed. The resulting best materials have been electrochemically tested, yielding several very promising candidates.

None

2010-10-01

224

Wearable textile battery rechargeable by solar energy.  

PubMed

Wearable electronics represent a significant paradigm shift in consumer electronics since they eliminate the necessity for separate carriage of devices. In particular, integration of flexible electronic devices with clothes, glasses, watches, and skin will bring new opportunities beyond what can be imagined by current inflexible counterparts. Although considerable progresses have been seen for wearable electronics, lithium rechargeable batteries, the power sources of the devices, do not keep pace with such progresses due to tenuous mechanical stabilities, causing them to remain as the limiting elements in the entire technology. Herein, we revisit the key components of the battery (current collector, binder, and separator) and replace them with the materials that support robust mechanical endurance of the battery. The final full-cells in the forms of clothes and watchstraps exhibited comparable electrochemical performance to those of conventional metal foil-based cells even under severe folding-unfolding motions simulating actual wearing conditions. Furthermore, the wearable textile battery was integrated with flexible and lightweight solar cells on the battery pouch to enable convenient solar-charging capabilities. PMID:24164580

Lee, Yong-Hee; Kim, Joo-Seong; Noh, Jonghyeon; Lee, Inhwa; Kim, Hyeong Jun; Choi, Sunghun; Seo, Jeongmin; Jeon, Seokwoo; Kim, Taek-Soo; Lee, Jung-Yong; Choi, Jang Wook

2013-01-01

225

Advanced rechargeable sodium batteries with novel cathodes  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Various high energy density rechargeable batteries are being considered for future space applications. Of these, the sodium-sulfur battery is one of the leading candidates. The primary advantage is the high energy density (760 Wh/kg theoretical). Energy densities in excess of 180 Wh/kg were realized in practical batteries. Other technological advantages include its chemical simplicity, absence of self-discharge, and long cycle life possibility. More recently, other high temperature sodium batteries have come into the spotlight. These systems can be described as follow: Na/Beta Double Prime-Al2O3/NaAlCl4/Metal Dichloride Sodium/metal dichloride systems are colloquially known as the zebra system and are currently being developed for traction and load leveling applications. The sodium-metal dichloride systems appear to offer many of the same advantages of the Na/S system, especially in terms of energy density and chemical simplicity. The metal dichloride systems offer increased safety and good resistance to overcharge and operate over a wide range of temperatures from 150 to 400 C with less corrosion problems.

Distefano, S.; Ratnakumar, B. V.; Bankston, C. P.

1989-01-01

226

Des Programmes de recherche  

E-print Network

'aléa sismique. La cartographie du risque de tsunami obtenue - véritable photographie instantanée de l chercheurs expliquent certains modes de propagation du tsunami le long des côtes thaïlandaises. Ainsi, la'élaboration des plans d'urbanisation des zones côtières et le maintien ou la réimplan- tation des protections

227

Die Entwicklung des Universums  

E-print Network

/= =AbstandzwischenzweientferntenGalaxien Evolution des Universums (Einstein) Alter des Universums ~ 15 Milliarden Jahre Urknall Beobachtungen+ = Hintergrundstrahlung Rotverschiebung Alter ~ Jahre Chemie : 75% H, 25% He 10 1015 #12;T.Hebbeker Evolution des Universums (a la Einstein) == krit m 3 /3 mAtomeH - · Hubble-Konstante (kinetische Energie

Hebbeker, Thomas

228

Estimated Infiltration, Percolation, and Recharge Rates at the Rillito Creek Focused Recharge Investigation Site, Pima County, Arizona  

USGS Publications Warehouse

A large fraction of ground water stored in the alluvial aquifers in the Southwest is recharged by water that percolates through ephemeral stream-channel deposits. The amount of water currently recharging many of these aquifers is insufficient to meet current and future demands. Improving the understanding of streambed infiltration and the subsequent redistribution of water within the unsaturated zone is fundamental to quantifying and forming an accurate description of streambed recharge. In addition, improved estimates of recharge from ephemeral-stream channels will reduce uncertainties in water-budget components used in current ground-water models. This chapter presents a summary of findings related to a focused recharge investigation along Rillito Creek in Tucson, Arizona. A variety of approaches used to estimate infiltration, percolation, and recharge fluxes are presented that provide a wide range of temporal- and spatial-scale measurements of recharge beneath Rillito Creek. The approaches discussed include analyses of (1) cores and cuttings for hydraulic and textural properties, (2) environmental tracers from the water extracted from the cores and cuttings, (3) seepage measurements made during sustained streamflow, (4) heat as a tracer and numerical simulations of the movement of heat through the streambed sediments, (5) water-content variations, (6) water-level responses to streamflow in piezometers within the stream channel, and (7) gravity changes in response to recharge events. Hydraulic properties of the materials underlying Rillito Creek were used to estimate long-term potential recharge rates. Seepage measurements and analyses of temperature and water content were used to estimate infiltration rates, and environmental tracers were used to estimate percolation rates through the thick unsaturated zone. The presence or lack of tritium in the water was used to determine whether or not water in the unsaturated zone infiltrated within the past 40 years. Analysis of water-level and temporal-gravity data were used to estimate recharge volumes. Data presented in this chapter were collected from 1999 though 2002. Precipitation and streamflow during this period were less than the long-term average; however, two periods of significant streamflow resulted in recharge?one in the summer of 1999 and the other in the fall/winter of 2000. Flux estimates of infiltration and recharge vary from less than 0.1 to 1.0 cubic meter per second per kilometer of streamflow. Recharge-flux estimates are larger than infiltration estimates. Larger recharge fluxes than infiltration fluxes are explained by the scale of measurements. Methods used to estimate recharge rates incorporate the largest volumetric and temporal scales and are likely to have fluxes from other nearby sources, such as unmeasured tributaries, whereas the methods used to estimate infiltration incorporate the smallest scales, reflecting infiltration rates at individual measurement sites.

Hoffmann, John P.; Blasch, Kyle W.; Pool, Don R.; Bailey, Matthew A.; Callegary, James B.

2007-01-01

229

Oxygen electrodes for rechargeable alkaline fuel cells  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Electrocatalysts and supports for the positive electrode of moderate temperature single-unit rechargeable alkaline fuel cells are being investigated and developed. Candidate support materials were drawn from transition metal carbides, borides, nitrides and oxides which have high conductivity (greater than 1 ohm/cm). Candidate catalyst materials were selected largely from metal oxides of the form ABO sub x (where A = Pb, Cd, Mn, Ti, Zr, La, Sr, Na, and B = Pt, Pd, Ir, Ru, Ni (Co) which were investigated and/or developed for one function only, O2 reduction or O2 evolution. The electrical conductivity requirement for catalysts may be lower, especially if integrated with a higher conductivity support. All candidate materials of acceptable conductivity are subjected to corrosion testing. Materials that survive chemical testing are examined for electrochemical corrosion activity. For more stringent corrosion testing, and for further evaluation of electrocatalysts (which generally show significant O2 evolution at at 1.4 V), samples are held at 1.6 V or 0.6 V for about 100 hours. The surviving materials are then physically and chemically analyzed for signs of degradation. To evaluate the bifunctional oxygen activity of candidate catalysts, Teflon-bonded electrodes are fabricated and tested in a floating electrode configuration. Many of the experimental materials being studied have required development of a customized electrode fabrication procedure. In advanced development, the goal is to reduce the polarization to about 300 to 350 mV. Approximately six support materials and five catalyst materials were identified to date for further development. The test results will be described.

Swette, L.; Kackley, N.

1989-01-01

230

Design and simulation of lithium rechargeable batteries  

SciTech Connect

Lithium -based rechargeable batteries that utilize insertion electrodes are being considered for electric-vehicle applications because of their high energy density and inherent reversibility. General mathematical models are developed that apply to a wide range of lithium-based systems, including the recently commercialized lithium-ion cell. The modeling approach is macroscopic, using porous electrode theory to treat the composite insertion electrodes and concentrated solution theory to describe the transport processes in the solution phase. The insertion process itself is treated with a charge-transfer process at the surface obeying Butler-Volmer kinetics, followed by diffusion of the lithium ion into the host structure. These models are used to explore the phenomena that occur inside of lithium cells under conditions of discharge, charge, and during periods of relaxation. Also, in order to understand the phenomena that limit the high-rate discharge of these systems, we focus on the modeling of a particular system with well-characterized material properties and system parameters. The system chosen is a lithium-ion cell produced by Bellcore in Red Bank, NJ, consisting of a lithium-carbon negative electrode, a plasticized polymer electrolyte, and a lithium-manganese-oxide spinel positive electrode. This battery is being marketed for consumer electronic applications. The system is characterized experimentally in terms of its transport and thermodynamic properties, followed by detailed comparisons of simulation results with experimental discharge curves. Next, the optimization of this system for particular applications is explored based on Ragone plots of the specific energy versus average specific power provided by various designs.

Doyle, C.M.

1995-08-01

231

Artificial-Recharge Experiments and Operations on the Southern High Plains of Texas and New Mexico  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Experiments using highly turbid water from playa lakes for injection into the Ogallala Formation have resulted in greatly decreased yield of the recharge wells, Recharge of ground or surface water of good quality has indicated, however, that injection through wells is an effective method of recharging the aquifer. Water that is slightly turbid can be successfully injected for a period of time, but generally results in constantly declining yields and capacity for recharge. Redevelopment through pumping and surging significantly prolongs the life of recharge wells under some conditions. Surface spreading is little practiced on the High Plains, but locally may be a feasible means of artificial recharge.

Brown, Richmond F.; Signor, Donald C.

1973-01-01

232

Heat transport in the vicinity of an artificial recharge site  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Since July 2002, the Intermunicipal Water Company of the Veurne region (IWVA) artificially recharges fresh water in the dunes of the western Belgian coastal plain by means of two recharge ponds. This recharge water is produced from secondary treated waste water effluent by the combination of ultra filtration and reverse osmosis. Extraction wells (112) are located north and south of the ponds. The artificial recharge project loops the water cycle: extracted water goes to the users and their waste water is purified and re-used. Therefore, it is an example of sustainable water management in coastal aquifers. Groundwater flow of this recharge site has been examined in the past by the use of a tracer test, hydrochemistry (environmental isotopes, conservative tracers) and groundwater flow modelling. Temperature, however, forms a relatively easy measurement which can add to or confirm the knowledge of the groundwater flow. Temperature time series (temperature as function of time) were measured at different levels in a number of wells located between the recharge ponds and the extraction wells, and in one well south of the recharge and extraction area. Secondly, temperature logs (temperature as function of depth) were measured in these wells at different times over the course of 2 years. Finally, the temperature of the recharged and extracted water is constantly monitored by the water company. The temperature of the recharge water shows a yearly fluctuation, ranging from 25 C during summer to slightly above 0 C during the winter. The temperature of the extracted water (combination of water extracted in all the wells) ranges between 17 C during summer and 10 C during winter. Minima and maxima in the extracted water are observed between 76 and 110 days (mean of 90 days and standard deviation of 13.5 days) later in the extracted water with respect to the recharged water. Measurements show that the difference in time when maxima and minima are observed in an observation well with reference to the ponds increases with depth (for instance from 28 days 4.1 m below surface to 154 days 10 m below surface for an observation well at 10 m from the ponds). This confirms previous flow modelling which showed that groundwater flows relatively rapidly laterally from the recharge ponds towards the extraction wells. Additionally, part of the recharge water flows in a deeper flow cycle towards the extraction wells. Residence times in this deeper flow cycle are evidently larger than in the direct lateral flow cycle from the ponds towards the wells. This explains the increase with depth. The 154 days (with respect to a mean time of 90 days) points to the fact that the extracted water contains a large spectrum of residence times with mean of 90 days for the heat transport, as was also derived by the flow modelling previously

Vandenbohede, Alexander; van Houtte, Emmanuel; Lebbe, Luc

2010-05-01

233

Crab Burrows are Important Conduits for Groundwater Recharge in Bangladesh  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recent research suggests that recharge from man-made ponds may stimulate arsenic mobilization within Bangladeshi aquifers. Man-made ponds are widespread throughout Bangladesh and are generally underlain by low permeability clays that could potentially limit flow to the sandy aquifer below if they are not compromised by preferential flow paths. Animal borrows are one common type of preferential flow path through surface clays. Across the Ganges Delta, terrestrial crabs dig borrows, sometimes as long as 10 meters. In our study pond in Munshiganj, Bangladesh we found crab burrows extending through the surficial clays and down into the shallow aquifer spaced approximately every meter. We use these field observations along with a novel, coupled isotope and water balance model to quantify the fluxes into and out of the pond. We show that nearly all of the aquifer recharge from the pond is through crab burrows which have enhanced the hydraulic conductivity of the surficial sediments by several orders of magnitude. In addition we show that the recharging pond water is shifting the solute composition of water beneath the pond. We suggest that, as a result of crab burrows, young ponds may contribute large fluxes of recharge water whereas older ponds may contribute little recharge to the aquifer. All terrestrial crabs have gills that must remain moist to allow for respiration. So, to ensure an uninterrupted water source, their borrows must reach the maximum depth that the water table drops to seasonally after irrigation ceases and before the onset of the monsoon. Once a pond is installed crabs living within the sediments that now make up the new pond bottom would no longer need to construct burrows to ensure a constant supply of water. Over time, burrows that existed prior to pond construction can clog. Water balance data for an old pond at our study site indicates that this pond contributes less recharge than our newly constructed pond.

Stahl, M.; Tarek, M. H.; Yeo, D. C.; Badruzzaman, A.; Harvey, C. F.

2013-12-01

234

Focused Ground-Water Recharge in the Amargosa Desert Basin  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Amargosa River is an approximately 300-kilometer long regional drainage connecting the northern highlands on the Nevada Test Site in Nye County, Nev., to the floor of Death Valley in Inyo County, Calif. Streamflow analysis indicates that the Amargosa Desert portion of the river is dry more than 98 percent of the time. Infiltration losses during ephemeral flows of the Amargosa River and Fortymile Wash provide the main sources of ground-water recharge on the desert-basin floor. The primary use of ground water is for irrigated agriculture. The current study examined ground-water recharge from ephemeral flows in the Amargosa River by using streamflow data and environmental tracers. The USGS streamflow-gaging station at Beatty, Nev., provided high-frequency data on base flow and storm runoff entering the basin during water years 1998?2001. Discharge into the basin during the four-year period totaled 3.03 million cubic meters, three quarters of which was base flow. Streambed temperature anomalies indicated the distribution of ephemeral flows and infiltration losses within the basin. Major storms that produced regional flow during the four-year period occurred in February 1998, during a strong El Ni?o that more than doubled annual precipitation, and in July 1999. The study also quantified recharge beneath undisturbed native vegetation and irrigation return flow beneath irrigated fields. Vertical profiles of water potential and environmental tracers in the unsaturated zone provided estimates of recharge beneath the river channel (0.04?0.09 meter per year) and irrigated fields (0.1?0.5 meter per year). Chloride mass-balance estimates indicate that 12?15 percent of channel infiltration becomes ground-water recharge, together with 9?22 percent of infiltrated irrigation. Profiles of potential and chloride beneath the dominant desert-shrub vegetation suggest that ground-water recharge has been negligible throughout most of the basin since at least the early Holocene. Surface-based electrical-resistivity imaging provided areal extension of borehole information from sampled profiles. These images indicate narrowly focused recharge beneath the Amargosa River channel, flanked by large tracts of recharge-free basin floor.

Stonestrom, David A.; Prudic, David E.; Walvoord, Michelle A.; Abraham, Jared D.; Stewart-Deaker, Amy E.; Glancy, Patrick A.; Constantz, Jim; Laczniak, Randell J.; Andraski, Brian J.

2007-01-01

235

Thin Rechargeable Batteries for CMOS SRAM Memory Protection  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

New rechargeable battery technology is described and compared with classical primary battery back-up of SRAM PC cards. Thin solid polymer electrolyte cells with the thickness of TSOP memory components (1 mm nominal, 1.1 mm max) and capacities of 14 mAh/sq cm can replace coin cells. The SRAM PC cards with permanently installed rechargeable cells and optional electrochromic low battery voltage indicators will free the periodic PC card user from having to 'feed' their PC cards with coin cells and will allow a quick visual check of stored cards for their battery voltage status.

Crouse, Dennis N.

1993-01-01

236

Modelling of recharge and pollutant fluxes to urban groundwaters.  

PubMed

Urban groundwater resources are of considerable importance to the long-term viability of many cities world-wide, yet prediction of the quantity and quality of recharge is only rarely attempted at anything other than a very basic level. This paper describes the development of UGIf, a simple model written within a GIS, designed to provide estimates of spatially distributed recharge and recharge water quality in unconfined but covered aquifers. The following processes (with their calculation method indicated) are included: runoff and interception (curve number method); evapotranspiration (Penman-Grindley); interflow (empirical index approach); volatilization (Henry's law); sorption (distribution coefficient); and degradation (first order decay). The input data required are: meteorological data, landuse/cover map with event mean concentration attributes, geological maps with hydraulic and geochemical attributes, and topographic and water table elevation data in grid form. Standard outputs include distributions of: surface runoff, infiltration, potential recharge, ground level slope, interflow, actual recharge, pollutant fluxes in surface runoff, travel times of each pollutant through the unsaturated zone, and the pollutant fluxes and concentrations at the water table. The process of validation has commenced with a study of the Triassic Sandstone aquifer underlying Birmingham, UK. UGIf predicts a similar average recharge rate for the aquifer as previous groundwater flow modelling studies, but with significantly more spatial detail: in particular the results indicate that recharge through paved areas may be more important than previously thought. The results also highlight the need for more knowledge/data on the following: runoff estimation; interflow (including the effects of lateral flow and channelling on flow times and therefore chemistry); evapotranspiration in paved areas; the nature of unsaturated zone flow below paved areas; and the role of the pipe network. Although considerably more verification is needed, UGIf shows promise for use: in providing input for regional groundwater solute transport models; in identifying gaps in knowledge and data; in determining which processes are the most important influences on urban groundwater quantity and quality; in evaluating existing recharge models; in planning, for example in investigation of the effects of landuse or climate change; and in assessing groundwater vulnerability. PMID:16325236

Thomas, Abraham; Tellam, John

2006-05-01

237

Sedimentary Origins Of The Block-In-Matrix Fabric Of A Mlange Between Coherent Nappes Of A Subduction Complex: Localization Of The Paleosubduction Megathrust Along The Upper Mlange Contact  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Franciscan subduction complex of California comprises coherent nappes and intervening mlanges. The difference in metamorphic grade and/or accretionary age of adjacent coherent nappes suggests localization of paleosubduction megathrust horizons between them. One of the best examples of a mlange between coherent nappes crops out in an inactive quarry in El Cerrito in the eastern San Francisco Bay area. The upper coherent nappe consists of foliated, jadeite-bearing, blueschist facies metagraywacke, whereas the lower coherent nappe comprises prehnite-pumpellyite facies graywacke with little or no penetrative fabric makes. Detrital zircon geochronology indicates maximum depositional ages of 102 and 100 Ma, respectively, for these units. The foliation or bedding of the graywackes and their contacts strike northwest and dip northeast. C-s fabrics, shear bands, and asymmetric porphyroclasts show a consistent tops-to-the-southwest shear sense in the upper coherent unit, and this fabric developed with syntectonic growth of glaucophane, lawsonite, and jadeite. The intervening mlange has a matrix made up primarily of dark gray shale, with blocks of mostly graywacke, chert, and basalt. The mlange consists of mostly or entirely prehnite-pumpellyite facies material except for the upper 5-10 meters that features metamorphic growth of lawsonite, glaucophane, and jadeite. Thus, the metamorphic contrast between the two nappes, equivalent to at least 10 km in differential burial depth and greater amount of fault displacement, occurs within this narrow zone. The upper half of the mlange (~50 meters of structural thickness) exhibits a pronounced foliation oriented parallel to the bounding contacts. The foliation deflects into shear bands and c-surfaces and this fabric shows a consistent tops-to-the-southwest shear sense. Strain appears to increase structurally upward within the mlange. The structurally lowest part of the mlange displays virtually no strain, with minimal, if any, foliation development. Here the matrix consists of shale or sandstone matrix breccia and conglomerate with the same population of exotic clasts/blocks seen in the more deformed upper parts of the mlange; these clasts also include a pyroxenite block. These relationships indicate an olistostromal origin for the block-in-matrix fabric with subsequent accommodation of large-scale thrust displacement (the paleosubduction megathrust) along the upper contact of the mlange.

Wakabayashi, J.

2011-12-01

238

78 FR 16031 - Twelfth Meeting: RTCA Special Committee 225, Rechargeable Lithium Battery and Battery Systems...  

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2013-03-13

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2011-02-03

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77 FR 39321 - Eighth Meeting: RTCA Special Committee 225, Rechargeable Lithium Battery and Battery Systems...  

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76 FR 54527 - Fourth Meeting: RTCA Special Committee 225: Rechargeable Lithium Batteries and Battery Systems...  

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2011-09-01

249

PROGRAMMES DES LYCES MATHMATIQUES  

E-print Network

8 Le B.O. N°7 1ER SEPT. 2005 PROGRAMMES DES LYC?ES MATH?MATIQUES CLASSE TERMINALE - S?RIE LITT?RAIRE HORS-S?RIE Annexe #12;9Le B.O. N°7 1ER SEPT. 2005 PROGRAMMES DES LYC?ES MATH?MATIQUES CLASSE TERMINALE - S?RIE LITT?RAIRE HORS-S?RIE #12;10 Le B.O. N°7 1ER SEPT. 2005 PROGRAMMES DES LYC?ES

Menichi, Luc

250

Galaxy clusters in DES  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Galaxy clusters are one of the four key cosmic acceleration probes used by the Dark Energy Survey (DES) to measure cosmological parameters with unprecedented precision. DES has recently completed commissioning of its instrument and accomplished a successful science verification data taking phase. The survey proper started in Aug 31, 2013. In this talk, I review the motivation for using clusters of galaxies in cosmology, discuss the DES expected performance and present the prospects to improve our understanding of dark energy by constraining cosmological models using galaxy clusters found by the Voronoi Tesselation galaxy cluster finding algorithm. We show results of our galaxy cluster analysis based on the early DES data sets.

Soares-Santos, Marcelle; DES Collaboration

2014-01-01

251

Climate change impacts on groundwater recharge uncertainty, shortcomings, and the way forward?  

Microsoft Academic Search

An integrated approach to assessing the regional impacts of climate and socio-economic change on groundwater recharge is described from East Anglia, UK. Many factors affect future groundwater recharge including changed precipitation and temperature regimes, coastal flooding, urbanization, woodland establishment, and changes in cropping and rotations.Important sources of uncertainty and shortcomings in recharge estimation are discussed in the light of the

I. P. Holman

2006-01-01

252

Estimated Recharge Rates From Groundwater Temperatures In The Nara Basin, Japan  

Microsoft Academic Search

Groundwater recharge rates to the sandy aquifer in the Nara basin, Japan, were determined by using a theory that describes the simultaneous transfer of heat and water in a porous medium. Seasonal changes in temperatue-depth profiles were used to estimate the recharge rates in a relatively shallow aquifer. Estimations of the recharge rates were done by fitting a dimensionless parameter

Makoto Taniguchi

1994-01-01

253

Rechargeable Battery Management and Recycling: A Green Design Educational Module  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rechargeable battery use is expected to continue growing with the increasing prevalence of portable electronics, appliances, and tools. Batteries represent a large volume of toxic and hazardous materials in common use, and these materials must be managed to avoid or minimize dissipation into the environment. One type of battery widely used in portable applications is nickel-cadmium batteries (NiCds). This module

Rebecca Lankey; Francis McMichael

254

PRINCIPALS OF ORGANIC CONTAMINANT BEHAVIOR DURING ARTIFICIAL RECHARGE  

EPA Science Inventory

The behavior of a variety of organic contaminants having low molecular weight has been observed during groundwater recharge with reclaimed water. The evidence is site-specific, but is believed to have broader implications regarding the general behavior of organic contaminants in ...

255

Potential for Recharge in Agricultural Soils of the Mississippi Delta  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ground water models predict that 5 percent or less of precipitation in the Mississippi Delta region recharges the heavily-used alluvial aquifer; however the presence of agricultural chemicals in ground water suggests more substantial recharge. In a preliminary assessment of the potential for aerial recharge through the agricultural soils of the Bogue Phalia basin in the Mississippi Delta, we applied a method for rapidly measuring field- saturated hydraulic conductivity (Kfs) in 26 locations in cotton and soybean fields. The technique makes use of a portable falling-head, small-diameter, single-ring infiltrometer and an analytical formula for Kfs that compensates both for falling head and for subsurface radial spreading. Soil samples were also collected at the surface and at about 6 cm depth at each location for particle size analysis. Kfs values are generally higher than anticipated and vary over more than three orders of magnitude from 1x10-2 to 5x10-6 cm/s. There is also a correlation between Kfs and mean particle size which may prove useful in generalizing recharge rates over larger areas. A 2-m ring infiltration test is planned that will include the use of tracers and subsurface instruments for measuring water content and matric potential from the near surface to about 5 m to evaluate flow and transport below the root zone.

Perkins, K. S.; Nimmo, J. R.; Coupe, R. H.; Rose, C. E.; Manning, M. A.

2007-12-01

256

Separation composition evaluation in model rechargeable silver-zinc cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

In previous reports, the evaluation of Viskase sausage casings (SCs) in a variety of configurations for silver\\/zinc rechargeable cells has been reported. The conclusions have been that several layers of SC, while providing improved resistance to silver migration acid zinc dendrite growth compared to standard cellophane film, also impart increased internal impedance which leads to faster capacity loss in comparison

H. Lewis; S. Henderson; T. Danko

2001-01-01

257

High power, rechargeable, pile type silver zinc battery  

Microsoft Academic Search

This patent describes a high rate rechargeable silver-zinc pile type battery including a plurality of bipolar electrodes which are assembled into a full scale multi-cell pile. Each of bipolar electrodes includes a positive side having a porous silver matrix attached to silver foil and a negative side having a porous zinc structure vapor deposited on silver foil. A separator including

L. R. Erisman; R. A. Marsh

1978-01-01

258

Rechargeable batteries: advances since 1977. [Collection of US patents  

Microsoft Academic Search

This book is based on US patents (including DOE patents) issued since January 1978 that deal with rechargeable batteries. It both supplies detailed technical information and can be used as a guide to the patent literature. Subjects treated are as follows: lead-acid batteries (grids, electrodes, terminals and connectors, polyolefin separators, polyvinyl chloride separators, other polymeric separators, other separators, electrolytes, venting

1980-01-01

259

Technology uses micro-windmills to recharge cell phones  

E-print Network

Technology uses micro-windmills to recharge cell phones A micro-windmill is pictured on the face designed a micro-windmill that generates wind energy and may become an innovative solution to cell phone be embedded in a sleeve for a cell phone. Wind, created by waving the cell phone in air or holding it up

Chiao, Jung-Chih

260

Interdisciplinary Institute for Innovation Optimal Recharging Strategy for  

E-print Network

while the Spanish government has committed to having 1 million electric or hybrid cars on Spanish roads price differentials in electricity tariffs are designed to dissuade car owners from recharging for Electric Vehicles in France Margaret Armstrong Charles El Hajj Moussa Jérôme Adnot Alain Galli Philippe

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

261

Carbon materials for lithium-ion rechargeable batteries  

Microsoft Academic Search

The recent development of lithium rechargeable batteries results from the use of carbon materials as lithium reservoir at the negative electrode. Reversible intercalation, or insertion, of lithium into the carbon host lattice avoids the problem of lithium dendrite formation and provides large improvement in terms of cycleability and safety. This paper reviews the main achievements on performance and understanding of

S. Flandrois; B. Simon

1999-01-01

262

Rechargeable lithium batteries in the Navy -- Policy and protocol  

SciTech Connect

Rechargeable lithium batteries are an emerging technology that is finding widespread use in myriad applications. These batteries are supplanting many others because of superior performance characteristics, including high energy density and improved cycle life. The newest model laptop computers, camcorders and cellular phones are using these systems to provide lighter products with longer battery life. Potential military-use scenarios for this technology range from propulsion power for autonomous unmanned vehicles to power sources for exercise mines. Current battery chemistries that might eventually be replaced by rechargeable lithium batteries include silver-zinc batteries, lithium-thionyl chloride batteries, and possibly lithium thermal batteries. The Navy is developing and implementing a universal test protocol for evaluating the safety characteristics of rechargeable lithium power sources, as discussed by Winchester et al (1995). Test plans based on this protocol are currently being used to evaluate both commercially available and developmental products. In this paper the authors will review the testing protocol that has been developed for evaluating the safety of rechargeable lithium batteries. Relevant data from current test programs will be presented.

Banner, J.A.; Winchester, C.S. [Naval Surface Warfare Center, Silver Spring, MD (United States). Carderock Div.

1996-12-31

263

A polymer electrolyte-based rechargeable lithium\\/oxygen battery  

Microsoft Academic Search

A novel rechargeable Li\\/O battery is reported. It comprises a Li{sup +} conductive organic polymer electrolyte membrane sandwiched by a thin Li metal foil anode, and a thin carbon composite electrode on which oxygen, the electroactive cathode material, accessed from the environment, is reduced during discharge to generate electric power. It features an all solid state design in which electrode

K. M. Abraham; Z. Jiang

1996-01-01

264

Oxygen electrodes for rechargeable alkaline fuel cells. II  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The primary objective of this program is the investigation and development of electrocatalysts and supports for the positive electrode of moderate temperature, single-unit, rechargeable alkaline fuel cells. Approximately six support materials and five catalyst materials have been identified to date for further development.

Swette, L.; Kackley, N.

1990-01-01

265

Cops and Robber Game Without Recharging Fedor V. Fomin  

E-print Network

study of such games has a long history, tracing back to the work of Pierre Bouguer, who in 1732 studied applications reaching from law enforcement to video games and thus were studied within different disciplinesCops and Robber Game Without Recharging Fedor V. Fomin Petr A. Golovach Daniel Lokshtanov Abstract

Fomin, Fedor V.

266

Cops and Robber Game Without Recharging Fedor V. Fomin  

E-print Network

- ematical study of such games has a long history, tracing back to the work of Pierre Bouguer, who in 1732 applications reaching from law enforcement to video games and thus were studied within differ- ent disciplinesCops and Robber Game Without Recharging Fedor V. Fomin Petr A. Golovach Daniel Lokshtanov Abstract

Fomin, Fedor V.

267

Effects of recharge wells and flow barriers on seawater intrusion.  

PubMed

The installation of recharge wells and subsurface flow barriers are among several strategies proposed to control seawater intrusion on coastal groundwater systems. In this study, we performed laboratory-scale experiments and numerical simulations to determine the effects of the location and application of recharge wells, and of the location and penetration depth of flow barriers, on controlling seawater intrusion in unconfined coastal aquifers. We also compared the experimental results with existing analytical solutions. Our results showed that more effective saltwater repulsion is achieved when the recharge water is injected at the toe of the saltwater wedge. Point injection yields about the same repulsion compared with line injection from a screened well for the same recharge rate. Results for flow barriers showed that more effective saltwater repulsion is achieved with deeper barrier penetration and with barriers located closer to the coast. When the flow barrier is installed inland from the original toe position however, saltwater intrusion increases with deeper barrier penetration. Saltwater repulsion due to flow barrier installation was found to be linearly related to horizontal barrier location and a polynomial function of the barrier penetration depth. PMID:20533955

Luyun, Roger; Momii, Kazuro; Nakagawa, Kei

2011-01-01

268

NbSe3 Cathodes For Li Rechargeable Cells  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Report describes experimental studies involving preparation, characterization, and measurements of performance of NbSe3, intended for use as cathode material in lithium rechargeable electrochemical cells. Characteristics superior to those of other intercalating cathode materials, including high volumetric and gravimetric energy densities and ability to sustain discharges at high rates.

Bugga, Ratnakumar V.; Ni, Ching-Ion; Distefano, Salvador; Somoano, Robert B.; Bankston, C. Perry

1990-01-01

269

Oxygen electrodes for rechargeable alkaline fuel cells-II  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The primary objective of this program is the investigation and development of electrocatalysts and supports for the positive electrode of moderate temperature single-unit rechargeable alkaline fuel cells. Approximately six support materials and five catalyst materials have been identified to date for further development.

Swette, L.; Kackley, N.

1989-01-01

270

Spatial and Temporal Infiltration Dynamics during Managed Aquifer Recharge  

E-print Network

to catchment runoff.19 Introduction and Project Motivation20 Groundwater is essential for meeting fresh water to the environment and water supply associated with overdraft, artificial38 recharge of groundwater is gaining, Santa Cruz, Santa Cruz, California 95064 2 Pajaro Valley Water Management Agency, Watsonville

Fisher, Andrew

271

Oxygen electrodes for rechargeable alkaline fuel cells, 3  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The investigation and development of electrocatalysts and supports for the positive electrode of moderate temperature single unit rechargeable alkaline fuel cells is described. Focus is on chemical and electrochemical stability and O2 reduction/evolution activity of the electrode in question.

Swette, L.; Kackley, N.; Mccatty, S. A.

1991-01-01

272

Advanced traction rechargeable battery system for cableless mobile robot  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mobile robot often relies on a battery system as its power supply and such kind of mobile robot is called cableless mobile robot. In the past years, while there are many researches on automation and control techniques, mechanical and sensor designs of mobile robot, very little systematic and comprehensive work has been done in the design of rechargeable battery power

Chenghui Cai; Dong Du; Zhiyu Liu

2003-01-01

273

PRIORITY POLLUTANTS IN THE CEDAR CREEK WASTEWATER RECLAMATION - RECHARGE FACILITIES  

EPA Science Inventory

The Cedar Creek Wastewater Reclamation Plant (CCWRP) located in Nassau County, NY is a 0.24 cu m/s (5.5 mgd) advanced wastewater treatment (AWT) plant designed to produce a high quality effluent suitable for groundwater recharge. The CCWRP was constructed as a demonstration proje...

274

Recharge areas and hydrochemistry of carbonate springs issuing from Semmering Massif, Austria, based on long-term oxygen-18 and hydrochemical data evidence  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Rsum. Les teneurs en oxygne-18 et l'hydrochimie des sources mergeant du massif de Semmering ont t suivies de manire intensive dans le but de caractriser les zones de recharge et l'volution hydrochimique. L'effet d'altitude sur le ?18O a t dtermin grce aux donnes isotopiques et hydrogologiques de petites sources de rfrence, principalement en terrains cristallins; cet effet est d'environ -0,27 et -0,21 par 100 m pour les versants respectivement nord et sud du massif. En appliquant ces valeurs, l'altitude moyenne de recharge des sources a t calcule. Pour les sources fort dbit issues des carbonates, elle est comprise entre 1,100 et 1,400 m, compatible avec le cadre topographique et hydrogologique des calcaires et des dolomies de l'Austro-alpin infrieur alimentant ces sources. La composition chimique des sources des carbonates est domine par les ions Ca2+, Mg2+, HCO3- et SO42-. Les sources sont presque toutes proches de la saturation par rapport la calcite, mais sont sous-satures en dolomite (sauf quelques sources proches de la saturation). Comme cela est habituel en ce qui concerne le dioxyde de carbone fourni par les sols en rgions montagneuses, la pCO2 quilibrante moyenne est faible, comprise entre 10-3.0 et 10-2.5 atm (0,1 0,3% en volume). En ce qui concerne les variations long terme, le pH, SIc, Sid et la pCO2 quilibrante sont soumis des variations saisonnires, alors que les concentrations en Ca2+, Mg2+ et HCO3- ne varient pratiquement pas. En intgrant les rsultats de ?18O et les donnes hydrochimiques, la variabilit altitudinale du chimisme des eaux souterraines des carbonates est dmontre. Refltant les variations d'activit biologique et des conditions de recharge dans les zones d'alimentation, une covariation ngative rsulte de l'altitude de recharge et de la pCO2 et la concentration en HCO3- n'est pas modifie par aucun des termes source ou puits, ce qui fait varier la chimie des carbonates. La pCO2 et la concentration en HCO3- diminuent respectivement d'environ 0,22 unit log (atm) et 38,6 mg/l pour un accroissement de 100 m de l'altitude de recharge. Resumen. Se ha muestreado exhaustivamente el contenido en oxgeno-18 y la hidroqumica de los manantiales existentes en el macizo de Semmering (Austria) con el fin de caracterizar las reas de recarga y su evolucin hidroqumica. Se ha determinado el efecto altitudinal del ?18O con datos isotpicos e hidrogeolgicos obtenidos en pequeos manantiales originados en rocas cristalinas que sirven como nivel de referencia; los resultados han sido de -0,27 por cada 100 m en la zona Morte del macizo, y de -0,21/100 m hacia el Sur. Aplicando estos valores, se ha calculado la altitud promedio a la que se produce su recarga. Para los manantiales de caudal elevado en materiales carbonatados, la altitud de recarga vara entre 1.100 y 1.410 m, cosa que es compatible con el marco topogrfico e hidrogeolgico de las rocas calizas y dolomticas Mesozoicas propias del Austroalpino Bajo que los alimenta. La composicin hidroqumica de los manantiales carbonatados est dominada por los iones calcio, magnesio, bicarbonato y sulfato. Los manantiales estn casi saturados en calcita, pero subsaturados en dolomita, excepto en algunos que parecen hallarse cerca de la saturacin. Como caracteriza a los suelos en regiones montaosas, la presin parcial de equilibrio del dixido de carbono (PCO2) es baja, con valores comprendidos entre 10-3,0 y 10-2,5 atm. A largo plazo, el pH y los valores calculados de los ndices de saturacin en calcita (SIc) y en dolomita (SId), junto con la PCO2 en equilibrio, evidencian una fuerte estacionalidad; en cambio, las concentraciones de calcio, magnesio y bicarbonato prcticamente no varan. Integrando los resultados de ?18O y de la hidroqumica, se demuestra la variabilidad de la qumica de aguas subterrneas carbonatadas con respecto a la altitud. Reflejando el cambio sistemtico de la actividad bitica y de las condiciones de re

Yehdegho, Beyene; Reichl, Peter

2002-10-01

275

Climate change effects on vegetation characteristics and groundwater recharge  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Climate change is among the most pressing issues of our time. Increase in temperature, a decrease in summer precipitation and increase in reference evapotranspiration might affect the water balance, freshwater availability and the spatial distribution and type of vegetation. Precipitation and evapotranspiration (ET) largely determine groundwater recharge. Therefore, climate change likely affects both the spatial and temporal freshwater availability for nature conservation, agriculture and drinking water supply. Moreover, in the coastal (dune) areas, the groundwater recharge is crucial to the maintenance of the freshwater bell and the dynamics of the fresh - salt interface. Current knowledge, however, is insufficient to estimate reliably the effects of climate change on future freshwater availability. Future groundwater recharge, the driving force of the groundwater system, can only be assessed if we understand how vegetation responds to changing climatic conditions, and how vegetation feedbacks on groundwater recharge through altered actual ET. Although the reference ET (i.e. the ET of a reference vegetation, defined as a short grassland completely covering the soil and optimally provided by water) is predicted to increase, the future actual ET (i.e. the ET of the actual real' vegetation under the real' moisture conditions) is highly unknown. It is the dynamics in the actual ET, however, through which the vegetation feeds back on the groundwater recharge. In an earlier study we showed that increased atmospheric CO2 raises the water use efficiency of plants, thus reducing ET. Here we demonstrate another important vegetation feedback in dune systems: the fraction of bare soil and non-rooting species (lichens and mosses) in the dune vegetation will increase when, according to the expectations, summers become drier. From our calculations it appeared that on south slopes of dunes, which receive more solar radiation and are warmer than north facing surfaces, the fraction of vascular plants may drop from 70 to 20 percent in the future (2050) climate due to increased moisture deficits. ET of bare soil and non-rooting species is much lower than that of vascular plants and thus the vegetation composition feeds back on the soil moisture conditions. Knowledge on such feedback mechanisms is indispensable in the analysis of climate change effects on the future groundwater recharge. Important questions are how, in the course of time, climate change will affect both groundwater table depth and dynamics, and how water management could adapt to these changes. We pursue a dynamic modeling approach that takes account of the interacting processes in the soil-plant-atmosphere system, including feedback mechanisms of the vegetation. This allows us to analyze climate change effects on groundwater recharge and thus future freshwater availability.

(Flip) Witte, J. P. M.; (Ruud) Bartholomeus, R. P.; (Gijsbert) Cirkel, D. G.

2010-05-01

276

Climate change effects on vegetation characteristics and groundwater recharge  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Climate change is among the most pressing issues of our time. Increase in temperature, a decrease in summer precipitation and increase in reference evapotranspiration might affect the water balance, freshwater availability and the spatial distribution and type of vegetation. Precipitation and evapotranspiration (ET) largely determine groundwater recharge. Therefore, climate change likely affects both the spatial and temporal freshwater availability for nature conservation, agriculture and drinking water supply. Moreover, in the coastal (dune) areas, the groundwater recharge is crucial to the maintenance of the freshwater bell and the dynamics of the fresh - salt interface. Current knowledge, however, is insufficient to estimate reliably the effects of climate change on future freshwater availability. Future groundwater recharge, the driving force of the groundwater system, can only be assessed if we understand how vegetation responds to changing climatic conditions, and how vegetation feedbacks on groundwater recharge through altered actual ET. Although the reference ET (i.e. the ET of a reference vegetation, defined as a short grassland completely covering the soil and optimally provided by water) is predicted to increase, the future actual ET (i.e. the ET of the actual real vegetation under the real moisture conditions) is highly unknown. It is the dynamics in the actual ET, however, through which the vegetation feeds back on the groundwater recharge. In an earlier study we showed that increased atmospheric CO2 raises the water use efficiency of plants, thus reducing ET. Here we demonstrate another important vegetation feedback in dune systems: the fraction of bare soil and non-rooting species (lichens and mosses) in the dune vegetation will increase when, according to the expectations, summers become drier. From our calculations it appeared that on south slopes of dunes, which receive more solar radiation and are warmer than north facing surfaces, the fraction of vascular plants may drop from 70 to 20 percent in the future (2050) climate due to increased moisture deficits. ET of bare soil and non-rooting species is much lower than that of vascular plants and thus the vegetation composition feeds back on the soil moisture conditions. Knowledge on such feedback mechanisms is indispensable in the analysis of climate change effects on the future groundwater recharge. Important questions are how, in the course of time, climate change will affect both groundwater table depth and dynamics, and how water management could adapt to these changes. We pursue a dynamic modeling approach that takes account of the interacting processes in the soil-plant-atmosphere system, including feedback mechanisms of the vegetation. This allows us to analyze climate change effects on groundwater recharge and thus future freshwater availability.

Bartholomeus, R.; Voortman, B.; Witte, J.

2010-12-01

277

Elimination des noeuds dans le probleme newtonien des quatre corps  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rsum Nous appliquons la mthode des transformations canoniques variables imposes la rduction du problme newtonien des quatre corps. L'limination du centre de gravit tant suppose faite, le problme est ramen celui des trois corps fictifs. Alors nous menons bien la rduction de aux intgrales des aires explicitement sous forme Hamiltonienne en tenant compte de l'aspect gomtrique

Franoise Boigey; M. Curie

1982-01-01

278

MIGRATION DES JOINTS DE GRAINS LA MIGRATION DES JOINTS INTERGRANULAIRES  

E-print Network

MIGRATION DES JOINTS DE GRAINS LA MIGRATION DES JOINTS INTERGRANULAIRES O. DIMITROV Centre d nombre de faits fondamentaux concernant la migration des joints de grains sont brièvement rappelés considérant les forces qui provoquent ou qui freinent la migration. L'évolution des modèles proposés pour

Boyer, Edmond

279

LA GESTION DES RESULTATS COMPTABLES LORS DES FUSIONS  

E-print Network

in the year preceding the takeover. Key Words: Earnings management; Mergers and Acquisitions; InternationalLA GESTION DES RESULTATS COMPTABLES LORS DES FUSIONS ET ACQUISITIONS: UNE ANALYSE DANS LE CONTEXTE des résultats comptables lors des fusions et acquisitions: Une analyse dans le contexte Suisse Résumé

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

280

Facult des arts et des sciences Dpartement de communication  

E-print Network

Faculté des arts et des sciences Département de communication Plans de cours cadre Cours des programmes de premier cycle en sciences de la communication Comité des études de premier cycle Adopté par l..................................................................................................................................3 COM 1150 Rédaction en communication 1

Parrott, Lael

281

UPb dating of plutonic rocks involved in the nappe tectonic in southern Cameroon: consequence for the Pan-African orogenic evolution of the central African fold belt  

Microsoft Academic Search

TIMS-ID and SIMS UPb dating on zircons from metaplutonic rocks involved in the Pan-African nappe of southern Cameroon allow definition of three groups of subduction-related intrusions: group-I intrusions represented by the Masins metagabbro in the Lomie region yielded 66626Ma; group-II intrusions represented by the Mamb metasyenogabbro and the Yaound pyriclasite yielded ca. 620Ma and are broadly coeval with the deposition

Sadrack Felix Toteu; Rose Yongue Fouateu; Joseph Penaye; Jacqueline Tchakounte; Aubin Ciriaque Seme Mouangue; William Randall Van Schmus; Etienne Deloule; Henrik Stendal

2006-01-01

282

Groundwater recharge measurements in gravel sandy sediments with monolith lysimeter  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ljubljana field aquifer is recharging through precipitation and the river Sava, which has the snow-rain flow regime. The sediments of the aquifer have high permeability and create fast flow as well as high regeneration of the dynamic reserves of the Ljubljana field groundwater resource. Groundwater recharge is vulnerable to climate change and it is very important for drinking water supply management. Water stored in the soil and less permeable layers is important for water availability under extreme weather conditions. Measurements of water percolation through the vadose zone provide important input for groundwater recharge assessment and estimation of contaminant migration from land surface to the groundwater. Knowledge of the processes governing groundwater recharge in the vadose zone is critical to understanding the overall hydrological cycle and quantifying the links between land uses and groundwater quantity and quality. To improve the knowledge on water balance for Ljubljana field aquifer we establish a lysimeter for measurements of processes in unsaturated zone in well field Kle?e. The type of lysimeter is a scientific lysimeter designed to solve the water balance equation by measuring the mass of the lysimeter monolith as well as that of outflow tank with high accuracy and high temporal resolution. We evaluated short period data, however the chosen month demonstrates weather extremes of the local climate - relatively dry periods, followed by high precipitation amount. In time of high water usage of vegetation only subsequent substantial precipitation events directly results in water flow towards lower layers. At the same time, gravely layers of the deeper parts of the unsaturated zone have little or no capacity for water retention, and in the event that water line leaves top soil, water flow moves downwards fairly quickly. On one hand this confirms high recharge capacity of Ljubljana field aquifer from precipitation on green areas; on the other hand it shows tremendous susceptibility of the aquifer to pollution and reinforces the position of groundwater protection zones above aquifer.

Bracic Zeleznik, Branka; Souvent, Petra; Cencur Curk, Barbara; Zupanc, Vesna

2013-04-01

283

Serpentinites and low-K island arc meta-volcanic rocks in the Lower Kli Nappe of the central Scandinavian Caledonides: Late Cambrian-early Ordovician serpentinite mud volcanoes in a forearc basin?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The late Cambrian to early Ordovician meta-volcanic rocks of the Caledonian Lower Kli Nappe consist mainly of tholeiitic low-K island arc basalts, andesites, and rhyodacites. The dominance of rhyodacites in this meta-volcanic succession raises the question on whether fractional crystallization or partial melting were involved in their origin. Low Mg#, low Cr and Ni contents and compositional trends imply at least two stages of fractional crystallization for the origin of the meta-volcanic rocks. Sedimentary-hosted serpentinites occur stratigraphically below and above the meta-volcanic rocks raising the question on their origin. Geochemical data indicate strongly depleted harzburgitic-dunitic peridotite as precursor rocks of the serpentinites. Unusually high contents of As, Sb, Pb in these serpentinites are not in agreement with a depleted mantle geochemistry, but indicate enrichment by fluids from the subducted slab during serpentinization in the mantle wedge. The massive, detrital, and in places fossiliferous serpentinite bodies within the sedimentary host-rocks point to former serpentinite mud volcanoes within a non-accretionary forearc. Therefore it is suggested that the highly fractionated volcanic rocks were emplaced as lava flows and shallow intrusions in sedimentary forearc successions implying that the Lower Kli Nappe was part of a much larger trench-arc complex involving at least the immediate hanging wall Middle Kli Stikke Nappe.

Grimmer, Jens C.; Greiling, Reinhard O.

2012-05-01

284

Vincent Manet Mthode des  

E-print Network

Vincent Manet Méthode des éléments finis Vulgarisation des aspects mathématiques et illustration de la méthode Version 3 du 20 août 2013 cel-00763690,version3-22Aug2013 #12;Vincent Manet -- 2013 (Ceci

285

Classification of ground-water recharge potential in three parts of Santa Cruz County, California  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Ground-water recharge potential was classified in the Santa Cruz coastal area, North-central area, and Soquel-Aptos area in Santa Cruz County, Calif., for three data elements that affect recharge; slope, soils, and geology. Separate numerical maps for each element were composited into a single numerical map using a classification system that ranked the numbers into areas of good , fair, and poor recharge potential. Most of the Santa Cruz coastal area and the Norht-central area have a poor recharge potential, and much of the Soquel-Aptos area has a good to fair recharge potential. (Kosco-USGS)

Muir, K.S.; Johnson, Michael J.

1979-01-01

286

1/14/14 Technologyuses micro-windmills to recharge cell phones www.rdmag.com/news/2014/01/technology-uses-micro-windmills-recharge-cell-phones 1/10  

E-print Network

/01/technology-uses-micro-windmills-recharge-cell-phones 1/10 ADVERTISEMENT LOG IN REGISTERFIND MY COMPANY News ADVERTISEMENT Technology uses micro-windmills to recharge cell phones Mon, 01/13/2014 - 9:06am Get today's R micro-windmills to recharge cell phones www.rdmag.com/news/2014/01/technology-uses-micro-windmills-recharge-cell-phones

Chiao, Jung-Chih

287

1/14/14 Technologyuses micro-windmills to recharge cell phones www.rdmag.com/print/news/2014/01/technology-uses-micro-windmills-recharge-cell-phones 1/3  

E-print Network

1/14/14 Technologyuses micro-windmills to recharge cell phones www.rdmag.com/print/news/2014/01/technology-uses-micro-windmills-recharge-cell-phones 1/3 One of Smitha Rao's micro- windmills is placed here uses micro-windmills to recharge cell phones Technology uses micro-windmills to recharge cell phones

Chiao, Jung-Chih

288

3/4/2014 Mini Windmills Can Recharge Cell Phones http://www.cemag.us/news/2014/01/mini-windmills-can-recharge-cell-phones#.UxY6ePldWa8 1/9  

E-print Network

3/4/2014 Mini Windmills Can Recharge Cell Phones http://www.cemag.us/news/2014/01/mini-windmills-can-recharge-cell-phones'S GUIDE LOG IN REGISTERFIND MY COMPANY News Mini Windmills Can Recharge Cell Phones ADVERTISEMENT Mon, 01 energy and may become an innovative solution to cell phone batteries constantly in need of recharging

Chiao, Jung-Chih

289

Monitoring induced denitrification in an artificial aquifer recharge system.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As demands on groundwater increase, artificial recharge is becoming a common method for enhancing groundwater supply. The Llobregat River is a strategic water supply resource to the Barcelona metropolitan area (Catalonia, NE Spain). Aquifer overexploitation has leaded to both a decrease of groundwater level and seawater intrusion, with the consequent deterioration of water quality. In the middle section of the aquifer, in Sant Vicen del Horts, decantation and infiltration ponds recharged by water from the Llobregat River (highly affected from wastewater treatment plant effluents), were installed in 2007, in the framework of the ENSAT Life+ project. At the bottom of the infiltration pond, a vegetal compost layer was installed to promote the growth of bacteria, to induce denitrification and to create favourable conditions for contaminant biodegradation. This layer consists on a mixture of compost, aquifer material, clay and iron oxide. Understanding the fate of contaminants, such as nitrate, during artificial aquifer recharge is required to evaluate the impact of artificial recharge in groundwater quality. In order to distinguish the source of nitrate and to evaluate the capability of the organic reactive layer to induce denitrification, a multi-isotopic approach coupled with hydrogeochemical data was performed. Groundwater samples, as well as river samples, were sampled during artificial and natural recharge periods. The isotopic analysis included: ?15N and ?18O of dissolved nitrate, ?34S and ?18O of dissolved sulphate, ?13C of dissolved inorganic carbon, and ?2H and ?18O of water. Dissolved nitrate isotopic composition (?15NNO3 from +9 to +21 o and ?18ONO3 from +3 to +16 ) demonstrated that heterotrophic denitrification induced by the reactive layer was taking place during the artificial recharge periods. An approximation to the extent of nitrate attenuation was calculated, showing a range between 95 and 99% or between 35 and 45%, by using the extreme literature ?N values of -4o and -22o respectively (Aravena and Robertson, 1998; Pauwels et al., 2000). Ongoing denitrification batch experiments will allow us to determine the specific nitrogen and oxygen isotopic fractionation induced by the organic reactive layer, in order to estimate more precisely the extent of denitrification during artificial aquifer recharge. These results confirmed that the reactive layer induces denitrification in the recharge ponds area, proving the usefulness of an isotopic approach to characterize water quality improvement occurring during artificial aquifer recharge. References 1. Aravena, R., Robertson, W.D., 1998. Use of multiple isotope tracers to evaluate denitrification in ground water: Study of nitrate from a large-flux septic system plume. Ground Water, 36(6): 975-982. 2. Pauwels, H., J.C., Kloppmann, W., 2000. Denitrification and mixing in a schist aquifer: Influence on water chemistry and isotopes. Chemical Geology, 168(3-4): 307-324. Acknowledgment This study was supported by the projects CGL2011-29975-C04-01 from the Spanish Government, 2009SGR-00103 from the Catalan Government and ENPI/2011/280-008 from the European Commission. Please fill in your abstract text.

Grau-Martinez, Alba; Torrent, Clara; Folch, Albert; Domnech, Cristina; Otero, Neus; Soler, Albert

2014-05-01

290

Transient, spatially-varied recharge for groundwater modeling  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study is aimed at producing spatially and temporally varying groundwater recharge for transient groundwater modeling in a pilot watershed in the North Okanagan, Canada. The recharge modeling is undertaken by using a Richard's equation based finite element code (HYDRUS-1D) [Simunek et al., 2002], ArcGISTM [ESRI, 2011], ROSETTA [Schaap et al., 2001], in situ observations of soil temperature and soil moisture and a long term gridded climate data [Nielsen et al., 2010]. The public version of HYDUS-1D [Simunek et al., 2002] and another beta version with a detailed freezing and thawing module [Hansson et al., 2004] are first used to simulate soil temperature, snow pack and soil moisture over a one year experimental period. Statistical analysis of the results show both versions of HYDRUS-1D reproduce observed variables to the same degree. Correlation coefficients for soil temperature simulation were estimated at 0.9 and 0.8, at depths of 10 cm and 50 cm respectively; and for soil moisture, 0.8 and 0.6 at 10 cm and 50 cm respectively. This and other standard measures of model performance (root mean square error and average error) showed a promising performance of the HYDRUS-1D code in our pilot watershed. After evaluating model performance using field data and ROSETTA derived soil hydraulic parameters, the HYDRUS-1D code is coupled with ArcGISTM to produce spatially and temporally varying recharge maps throughout the Deep Creek watershed. Temporal and spatial analysis of 25 years daily recharge results at various representative points across the study watershed reveal significant temporal and spatial variations; average recharge estimated at 77.8 50.8mm /year. This significant variation over the years, caused by antecedent soil moisture condition and climatic condition, illustrates the common flaw of assigning a constant percentage of precipitation throughout the simulation period. Groundwater recharge modeling has previously been attempted in the Okanagan Basin and other parts of Canada by using the HELP code. However, HELP has known limitations related with boundary conditions as well as spatial and temporal discretization options, and thus cannot simulate highly variable fluxes near boundaries. The limitations are even more pronounced in semi-arid areas like the Okanagan Basin where upward fluxes can be high, because HELP assumes that water below evaporative zone simply drains to the base of a soil column without accounting for upward fluxes. In addition to these limitations, previous studies that used HELP for recharge estimation, [Towes and Allen, 2009; Jyrkama and Sykes, 2007], did not attempt to verify model performance in their study area. The study here presents an integrated procedure that can help address some of these often neglected modelling challenges. The significance of the method in transient groundwater modeling is demonstrated by applying the spatially and temporally varying recharge boundary condition to a saturated zone groundwater model, MIKESHE [DHI, 2009a]. The water table simulated using this method is found to be within 0.6 m of the observed values, whereas the water levels estimated using uniform recharge boundary condition can fluctuate by as much as 1.6 m. Root mean square errors were estimated at 0.3 and 0.94 respectively.

Assefa, K.; Woodbury, A. D.

2012-12-01

291

Transient,spatially-varied recharge for groundwater modeling  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study is aimed at producing spatially and temporally varying groundwater recharge for transient groundwater modeling in a pilot watershed in the North Okanagan, Canada. The recharge modeling is undertaken by using a Richard's equation based finite element code (HYDRUS-1D) [Simunek et al., 2002], ArcGISTM [ESRI, 2011], ROSETTA [Schaap et al., 2001], in situ observations of soil temperature and soil moisture and a long term gridded climate data [Nielsen et al., 2010]. The public version of HYDUS-1D [Simunek et al., 2002] and another beta version with a detailed freezing and thawing module [Hansson et al., 2004] are first used to simulate soil temperature, snow pack and soil moisture over a one year experimental period. Statistical analysis of the results show both versions of HYDRUS-1D reproduce observed variables to the same degree. Correlation coefficients for soil temperature simulation were estimated at 0.9 and 0.8, at depths of 10 cm and 50 cm respectively; and for soil moisture, 0.8 and 0.6 at 10 cm and 50 cm respectively. This and other standard measures of model performance (root mean square error and average error) showed a promising performance of the HYDRUS-1D code in our pilot watershed. After evaluating model performance using field data and ROSETTA derived soil hydraulic parameters, the HYDRUS-1D code is coupled with ArcGISTM to produce spatially and temporally varying recharge maps throughout the Deep Creek watershed. Temporal and spatial analysis of 25 years daily recharge results at various representative points across the study watershed reveal significant temporal and spatial variations; average recharge estimated at 77.8 50.8mm /year. This significant variation over the years, caused by antecedent soil moisture condition and climatic condition, illustrates the common flaw of assigning a constant percentage of precipitation throughout the simulation period. Groundwater recharge modeling has previously been attempted in the Okanagan Basin and other parts of Canada by using the HELP code. However, HELP has known limitations related with boundary conditions as well as spatial and temporal discretization options, and thus cannot simulate highly variable fluxes near boundaries. The limitations are even more pronounced in semi-arid areas like the Okanagan Basin where upward fluxes can be high, because HELP assumes that water below evaporative zone simply drains to the base of a soil column without accounting for upward fluxes. In addition to these limitations, previous studies that used HELP for recharge estimation, [Towes and Allen, 2009; Jyrkama and Sykes, 2007], did not attempt to verify model performance in their study area. The study here presents an integrated procedure that can help address some of these often neglected modelling challenges. The significance of the method in transient groundwater modeling is demonstrated by applying the spatially and temporally varying recharge boundary condition to a saturated zone groundwater model, MIKESHE [DHI, 2009a]. The water table simulated using this method is found to be within 0.6 m of the observed values, whereas the water levels estimated using uniform recharge boundary condition can fluctuate by as much as 1.6 m. Root mean square errors were estimated at 0.3 and 0.94 respectively.

Assefa, Kibreab; Woodbury, Allan

2013-04-01

292

sup 40 Ar/ sup 39 laser-probe dating by step heating and spot fusion of phengites from the Dora Maira nappe of the western Alps, Italy  

SciTech Connect

{sup 40}Ar/{sup 39}Ar laser-probe dating of phengitic micas has been carried out by step-heating and spot-fusion procedures. These micas represent successive deformation stages in the structural evolution of the internal Dora Maira nappe, western Alps. Single phengites from a gneiss affected by a single ductile strain under retrogressive conditions (sample 99.1) display complete isotopic resetting with nearly homogeneous intracrystalline Ar distribution and yield plateau ages of about 40 Ma. Small clusters of phengites from an earlier foliation were selected from a polydeformed mica schist (sample PTX3). They show a partial isotopic resetting in response to overprinting during the retrogressive deformation stage with a concentric age zoning from 68 Ma on the rim to 87 Ma in the core one cleavage plane. This zonation is fully consistent with the laser-derived discordant age spectrum, which ranges from 40 to 90 Ma from low to high temperatures. According to the deformation history of both samples, these preliminary data suggest a deformation control on Ar migration during recrystallization processes, and they are consistent with the timing of the collisional evolution previously reported for southern Dora Maira units. This study shows that the {sup 40}Ar/{sup 39}Ar continuous laser-probe dating technique produces data accurate enough to discriminate several tectonometamorphic episodes recorded in single hand samples.

Scaillet, S.; Feraud, G. (Universite de Nice (France)); Lagabrielle, Y. (Universite de Bretagne Occidentale (France)); Ballevre, M.; Ruffet, G. (Faculte des Sciences, Rennes (France))

1990-08-01

293

Geophysical Methods for Improved Understanding of Managed Aquifer Recharge (Invited)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Managed aquifer recharge is increasingly being used as a means of augmenting groundwater supplies. With the increased use, questions arise regarding the suitability of sites for such operations, as well as the operational efficiency of these systems. In this work we specifically look at MAR using an artificial recharge pond. There are two operational challenges commonly faced in artificial recharge ponds: 1) A decrease in infiltration rate of water into the subsurface during operating; this limits the amount of stored water. 2) Low recovery rates of the stored water. Addressing both of these challenges requires sufficient information about the spatial and temporal variation in governing hydrologic properties and processes. Geophysical methods provide a novel way of obtaining such information from the region beneath a recharge pond. A study of the Harkins Slough Recharge Pond, near Watsonville California, presented a unique opportunity to develop and test geophysical methods, specifically for improved understanding off MAR. At this site we deployed a series of geophysical sensors aimed at addressing the two operational challenges at the site. We first addressed the question: What is controlling the decrease in filtration rate? The development and installation of electrical conductivity probes beneath the pond allowed us to monitor changes in the top ~1 m over a 4-month period. This dataset revealed that clogging in the top ~10 cm was responsible for the decreased infiltration rate. These 1D data were augmented by a time-lapse 2D ERT dataset that shows significant lateral variability in infiltration at the site. The second question we addressed was: Why is the recovery rate so low? Using a combination of cone-penetrometer testing and seismic reflection data, we developed a subsurface model that suggested there was a thin clay layer that may be impeding the flow of water to the recovery wells. To further understand this, we developed electrical conductivity probes, containing pore pressure transducers, to monitor changes in electrical conductivity and fluid pressure to a depth of 30 m. The data acquired with these probes clearly showed that the subsurface clay layer was impeding flow to the screened zone of the recovery wells. The findings at the site demonstrate the value of geophysics obtaining information regarding the siting and operation of artificial recharge ponds.

Pidlisecky, A.; Nenna, V.; Knight, R. J.

2013-12-01

294

Zinc electrode and rechargeable zinc-air battery  

DOEpatents

An improved zinc electrode is disclosed for a rechargeable zinc-air battery comprising an outer frame and a porous foam electrode support within the frame which is treated prior to the deposition of zinc thereon to inhibit the formation of zinc dendrites on the external surface thereof. The outer frame is provided with passageways for circulating an alkaline electrolyte through the treated zinc-coated porous foam. A novel rechargeable zinc-air battery system is also disclosed which utilizes the improved zinc electrode and further includes an alkaline electrolyte within said battery circulating through the passageways in the zinc electrode and an external electrolyte circulation means which has an electrolyte reservoir external to the battery case including filter means to filter solids out of the electrolyte as it circulates to the external reservoir and pump means for recirculating electrolyte from the external reservoir to the zinc electrode.

Ross, Jr., Philip N. (Kensington, CA)

1989-01-01

295

Heat as a Tracer for Estimating Ground-water Recharge  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Temperature profiles above the water table may be analyzed to estimate ground-water recharge (or discharge). Depending on depth, sediment temperature profiles are established by meteorological conditions and/or the geothermal gradient, and modified by the direction and rate of ground-water fluxes through the sediments. For shallow water tables (less than 30 m), the combined effects of meteorological boundary conditions and ground-water fluxes generally determine sediment temperature profiles, while for deeper water tables, the combined effects of the geothermal gradient and ground-water fluxes determine vertical temperature profiles. Three approaches are presented to demonstrate the manner in which recharge rates may be estimated by matching predicted temperatures with measured temperatures above the water table. For the case of a shallow water table beneath a streambed, a variably saturated heat and water (liquid-only) transport simulation code, VS2DH, was used with an optimization procedure to inversely fit simulated temperatures to measured temperatures for several Southwestern stream channels. In some cases, temperature-based estimates of vertical flux were compared to surface-water measurements of streamflow loss. For the case of a deep water table, two different approaches were examined. An analytical solution with limitations on stratigraphic complexity was compared to measured temperature profiles beneath Yucca Flat, NV. A simulation code, TOUGH2, was used to match simulated to measured temperatures profiles beneath washes near Beatty, NV. Hypothetical results using the analytical solution generated a linear vertical temperature gradient for no-flow conditions, a concave upward gradient for groundwater recharge, and a concave downward gradient for groundwater discharge. TOUGH2 simulation results were capable of matching the complex temperature profiles in the deep, highly layered unsaturated material underlying the wash sites. Best-fit analytical and simulation temperature profiles yielded estimates of ground-water recharge for the Yucca Flat and wash sites, which reflected their dissimilar hydrological settings.

Constantz, J. E.; Tyler, S. W.; Kwicklis, E.

2001-12-01

296

Estimation of groundwater recharge parameters by time series analysis.  

USGS Publications Warehouse

A model is proposed that relates water level fluctuations in a Dupuit aquifer to effective precipitation at the top of the unsaturated zone. Effective precipitation, defined herein as that portion of precipitation which becomes recharge, is related to precipitation measured in a nearby gage by a two-parameter function. A second-order stationary assumption is used to connect the spectra of effective precipitation and water level fluctuations.-from Authors

Naff, R. L.; Gutjahr, A. L.

1983-01-01

297

Managed aquifer recharge: rediscovering nature as a leading edge technology.  

PubMed

Use of Managed Aquifer Recharge (MAR) has rapidly increased in Australia, USA, and Europe in recent years as an efficient means of recycling stormwater or treated sewage effluent for non-potable and indirect potable reuse in urban and rural areas. Yet aquifers have been relied on knowingly for water storage and unwittingly for water treatment for millennia. Hence if 'leading edge' is defined as 'the foremost part of a trend; a vanguard', it would be misleading to claim managed aquifer recharge as a leading edge technology. However it has taken a significant investment in scientific research in recent years to demonstrate the effectiveness of aquifers as sustainable treatment systems to enable managed aquifer recharge to be recognised along side engineered treatment systems in water recycling. It is a 'cross-over' technology that is applicable to water and wastewater treatment and makes use of passive low energy processes to spectacularly reduce the energy requirements for water supply. It is robust within limits, has low cost, is suitable from village to city scale supplies, and offers as yet almost untapped opportunities for producing safe drinking water supplies where they do not yet exist. It will have an increasingly valued role in securing water supplies to sustain cities affected by climate change and population growth. However it is not a universal panacea and relies on the presence of suitable aquifers and sources of water together with effective governance to ensure human health and environment protection and water resources planning and management. This paper describes managed aquifer recharge, illustrates its use in Australia, outlining economics, guidelines and policies, and presents some of the knowledge about aquifer treatment processes that are revealing the latent value of aquifers as urban water infrastructure and provide a driver to improving our understanding of urban hydrogeology. PMID:21076220

Dillon, P; Toze, S; Page, D; Vanderzalm, J; Bekele, E; Sidhu, J; Rinck-Pfeiffer, S

2010-01-01

298

A specialized ROV for cleaning groundwater recharge basins  

Microsoft Academic Search

In 1998, Harbor Branch Oceanographic Institution's (HBOI) Engineering Division completed the design and development of a precision dredge vehicle for Orange County Water District in Anaheim, California. The prototype vehicle-referred to as the basin cleaning vehicle (BCV)-is designed to remove the silt-clogging layer from the District's natural, sand-bottom, groundwater recharge lakes. The vehicle functions like a swimming pool cleaner to

Donna M. Kocak; Jerry W. Neely; John Holt; M. Miyake

1999-01-01

299

Advanced materials for electrodes and electrolyte in rechargeable lithium batteries  

Microsoft Academic Search

The lithium-ion (Li-ion) battery possesses many outstanding advantages over the well known rechargeable battery systems, in particularly higher energy density and longer shelf life, as well as not suffering from the memory effect problems of Ni-MH batteries. Those advantages are making it the greatest energy source of choice for the portable electronic market. Graphite and LiCoO2 are commonly used in

Sau yen Chew

2009-01-01

300

Natural groundwater recharge and water balance at the Hanford Site  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this report is to present water-balance data collected in 1988 and 1989 from the 300 Area Buried Waste Test Facility and Grass Site, and the 200 East Area closed-bottom lysimeter. This report is an annual update of previous recharge status reports by Gee, Rockhold, and Downs, and Gee. Data from several other lysimeter sites are included for comparison. 43 refs., 28 figs., 7 tabs.

Rockhold, M.L.; Fayer, M.J.; Gee, G.W.; Kanyid, M.J.

1990-01-01

301

Scale effects of hydrostratigraphy and recharge zonation on base flow.  

PubMed

Uncertainty regarding spatial variations of model parameters often results in the simplifying assumption that parameters are spatially uniform. However, spatial variability may be important in resource assessment and model calibration. In this paper, a methodology is presented for estimating a critical basin size, above which base flows appear to be relatively less sensitive to the spatial distribution of recharge and hydraulic conductivity, and below which base flows are relatively more sensitive to this spatial variability. Application of the method is illustrated for a watershed that exhibits distinct infiltration patterns and hydrostratigraphic layering. A ground water flow model (MODFLOW) and a parameter estimation code (UCODE) were used to evaluate the influence of recharge zonation and hydrostratigraphic layering on base flow distribution. Optimization after removing spatial recharge variability from the calibrated model altered base flow simulations up to 53% in watersheds smaller than 40 km(2). Merging six hydrostratigraphic units into one unit with average properties increased base flow residuals up to 83% in basins smaller than 50 km(2). Base flow residuals changed <5% in watersheds larger than 40 and 50 km(2) when recharge and hydrostratigraphy were simplified, respectively; thus, the critical basin size for the example area is approximately 40 to 50 km(2). Once identified for an area, a critical basin size could be used to guide the scale of future investigations. By ensuring that parameter discretization needed to capture base flow distribution is commensurate with the scope of the investigation, uncertainty caused by overextending uniform parameterization or by estimating extra parameter values is reduced. PMID:16681517

Juckem, Paul F; Hunt, Randall J; Anderson, Mary P

2006-01-01

302

Hysteresis in Thin-Film Rechargeable Lithium Batteries  

SciTech Connect

Discharge - charge cycling of thin-film rechargeable lithium batteries with an amorphous or nanocrystalline LiXMn2.Y04 cathode reveals evidence for a true hysteresis in the lithium insertion reaction. This is compared with an apparent hysteresis attributed to a kinetically hindered phase transition near 3 V for batteries with either a crystalline or a nanocrystalline LiJ@Yo4 cathode.

Bates, J.B.; Dudney, N.J.; Evans, C.D.; Hart, F.X.

1999-04-25

303

Characteristics of an aqueous rechargeable lithium battery (ARLB)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Electrochemical performance of an aqueous rechargeable lithium battery (ARLB) containing a LiV3O8 (negative electrode) and LiCoO2 (positive electrode) in saturated LiNO3 aqueous electrolyte was studied. These two electrode materials are stable in the aqueous solution and intercalation\\/deintercalation of lithium ions occurs within the window of electrochemical stability of water. The obtained capacity of this cell system is about 55mAh\\/g based

G. J. Wang; N. H. Zhao; L. C. Yang; Y. P. Wu; H. Q. Wu; R. Holze

2007-01-01

304

Alkaline composite film as a separator for rechargeable lithium batteries  

Microsoft Academic Search

We report a new type of separator film for application in rechargeable lithium and lithium-ion batteries. The films are made\\u000a of mainly alkaline calcium carbonate (CaCO3) and a small amount of polymer binder. Owing to porosity and capillarity, the composite films show excellent wettability\\u000a with non-aqueous liquid electrolytes. Typically, the composite films composed of CaCO3 and Teflon and wetted with

S. S. Zhang; K. Xu; T. R. Jow

2003-01-01

305

Electrochemically Stable Cathode Current Collectors for Rechargeable Magnesium Batteries  

SciTech Connect

Rechargeable Mg batteries are attractive energy storage systems and could bring cost-effective energy solutions. Currently, however, no practical cathode current collectors that can withstand high voltages in Mg2+ electrolytes has been identified and therefore cathode research is greatly hindered. Here we identified that two metals, Mo and W, are electrochemically stable through formation of surface passive layers. The presented results could have significant impacts on the developments of high voltage Mg batteries.

Cheng, Yingwen; Liu, Tianbiao L.; Shao, Yuyan; Engelhard, Mark H.; Liu, Jun; Li, Guosheng

2014-01-01

306

Impacts of Decreasing Recharge Rates on Sustainable Groundwater Management  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Groundwater is a vital resource for living and food security for at least two billion people worldwide. Ever increasing demand\\u000a on groundwater has led to overexploitation of the aquifers and degradation of groundwater quality. Climate change will exacerbate\\u000a these problems by producing reduced recharge rates in some areas, more reliance on groundwater resources due to decrease in\\u000a reliability of surface

Hasan Yazicigil; Koray K. Yilmaz; Burcu Unsal Erdemli; Ozlem Yagbasan

307

Molten Air -- A new, highest energy class of rechargeable batteries  

E-print Network

This study introduces the principles of a new class of batteries, rechargeable molten air batteries, and several battery chemistry examples are demonstrated. The new battery class uses a molten electrolyte, are quasi reversible, and have amongst the highest intrinsic battery electric energy storage capacities. Three examples of the new batteries are demonstrated. These are the iron, carbon and VB2 molten air batteries with respective intrinsic volumetric energy capacities of 10,000, 19,000 and 27,000 Wh per liter.

Licht, Stuart

2013-01-01

308

The MOLICEL(R) rechargeable lithium system: Multicell battery aspects  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

MOLICEL rechargeable lithium cells were cycled in batteries using series, parallel, and series/parallel connections. The individual cell voltages and branch currents were measured to understand the cell interactions. The observations were interpreted in terms of the inherent characteristics of the Li/MoS2 system and in terms of a singular cell failure mode. The results confirm that correctly configured multicell batteries using MOLICELs have performance characteristics comparable to those of single cells.

Fouchard, D.; Taylor, J. B.

1987-01-01

309

Dmographie Facult des arts et des sciences  

E-print Network

� sera maintenue). Professeur: LACHAUD, James Courriel: james.lachaud@umontreal.ca Local: C-5031'analyse explicative: les causes et cons�quences des ph�nom�nes. Le cours ciblera les r�gressions lin�aires et non-lin

Parrott, Lael

310

Ground-Water Recharge from Small Intermittent Streams in the Western Mojave Desert, California  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Population growth has impacted ground-water resources in the western Mojave Desert, where declining water levels suggest that recharge rates have not kept pace with withdrawals. Recharge from the Mojave River, the largest hydrographic feature in the study area, is relatively well characterized. In contrast, recharge from numerous smaller streams that convey runoff from the bounding mountains is poorly characterized. The current study examined four representative streams to assess recharge from these intermittent sources. Hydraulic, thermal, geomorphic, chemical, and isotopic data were used to study recharge processes, from streamflow generation and infiltration to percolation through the unsaturated zone. Ground-water movement away from recharge areas was also assessed. Infiltration in amounts sufficient to have a measurable effect on subsurface temperature profiles did not occur in every year in instrumented study reaches. In addition to streamflow availability, results showed the importance of sediment texture in controlling infiltration and eventual recharge. Infiltration amounts of about 0.7 meters per year were an approximate threshold for the occurrence of ground-water recharge. Estimated travel times through the thick unsaturated zones underlying channels reached several hundred years. Recharging fluxes were influenced by stratigraphic complexity and depositional dynamics. Because of channel meandering, not all water that penetrates beneath the root zone can be assumed to become recharge on active alluvial fans. Away from study washes, elevated chloride concentrations and highly negative water potentials beneath the root zone indicated negligible recharge from direct infiltration of precipitation under current climatic conditions. In upstream portions of washes, generally low subsurface chloride concentrations and near-zero water potentials indicated downward movement of water toward the water table, driven primarily by gravity. Recharging conditions did not extend to the distal ends of all washes. Where urbanization had concentrated spatially distributed runoff into a small number of fixed channels, enhanced infiltration induced recharging conditions, mobilizing accumulated chloride. Estimated amounts of ground-water recharge from the studied reaches were small. Extrapolating on the basis of drainage areas, the estimated aggregate recharge from small intermittent streams is minor compared to recharge from the Mojave River. Recharge is largely controlled by streamflow availability, which primarily reflects precipitation patterns. Precipitation in the Mojave Desert is strongly controlled by topography. Cool moist air masses from the Pacific Ocean are mostly blocked from entering the desert by the high mountains bordering its southern edge. Storms do, however, readily enter the region through Cajon Pass. These storms generate flow in the Mojave River that often reaches Afton Canyon, more than 150 kilometers downstream. The isotopic composition of ground water reflects the localization of recharge beneath the Mojave River. Similar processes occur near San Gorgonio Pass, 75 kilometers southeast from Cajon Pass along the bounding San Andreas Fault.

Izbicki, John A.; Johnson, Russell U.; Kulongoski, Justin; Predmore, Steven

2007-01-01

311

Movement of water infiltrated from a recharge basin to wells  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Local surface water and stormflow were infiltrated intermittently from a 40-ha basin between September 2003 and September 2007 to determine the feasibility of recharging alluvial aquifers pumped for public supply, near Stockton, California. Infiltration of water produced a pressure response that propagated through unconsolidated alluvial-fan deposits to 125 m below land surface (bls) in 5 d and through deeper, more consolidated alluvial deposits to 194 m bls in 25 d, resulting in increased water levels in nearby monitoring wells. The top of the saturated zone near the basin fluctuates seasonally from depths of about 15 to 20 m. Since the start of recharge, water infiltrated from the basin has reached depths as great as 165 m bls. On the basis of sulfur hexafluoride tracer test data, basin water moved downward through the saturated alluvial deposits until reaching more permeable zones about 110 m bls. Once reaching these permeable zones, water moved rapidly to nearby pumping wells at rates as high as 13 m/d. Flow to wells through highly permeable material was confirmed on the basis of flowmeter logging, and simulated numerically using a two-dimensional radial groundwater flow model. Arsenic concentrations increased slightly as a result of recharge from 2 to 6 ?g/L immediately below the basin. Although few water-quality issues were identified during sample collection, high groundwater velocities and short travel times to nearby wells may have implications for groundwater management at this and at other sites in heterogeneous alluvial aquifers.

O'Leary, David R.; Izbicki, John A.; Moran, Jean E.; Meeth, Tanya; Nakagawa, Brandon; Metzger, Loren; Bonds, Chris; Singleton, Michael J.

2012-01-01

312

Movement of water infiltrated from a recharge basin to wells.  

PubMed

Local surface water and stormflow were infiltrated intermittently from a 40-ha basin between September 2003 and September 2007 to determine the feasibility of recharging alluvial aquifers pumped for public supply, near Stockton, California. Infiltration of water produced a pressure response that propagated through unconsolidated alluvial-fan deposits to 125 m below land surface (bls) in 5 d and through deeper, more consolidated alluvial deposits to 194 m bls in 25 d, resulting in increased water levels in nearby monitoring wells. The top of the saturated zone near the basin fluctuates seasonally from depths of about 15 to 20 m. Since the start of recharge, water infiltrated from the basin has reached depths as great as 165 m bls. On the basis of sulfur hexafluoride tracer test data, basin water moved downward through the saturated alluvial deposits until reaching more permeable zones about 110 m bls. Once reaching these permeable zones, water moved rapidly to nearby pumping wells at rates as high as 13 m/d. Flow to wells through highly permeable material was confirmed on the basis of flowmeter logging, and simulated numerically using a two-dimensional radial groundwater flow model. Arsenic concentrations increased slightly as a result of recharge from 2 to 6 g/L immediately below the basin. Although few water-quality issues were identified during sample collection, high groundwater velocities and short travel times to nearby wells may have implications for groundwater management at this and at other sites in heterogeneous alluvial aquifers. PMID:21740423

O'Leary, David R; Izbicki, John A; Moran, Jean E; Meeth, Tanya; Nakagawa, Brandon; Metzger, Loren; Bonds, Chris; Singleton, Michael J

2012-01-01

313

Issue and challenges facing rechargeable thin film lithium batteries  

SciTech Connect

New materials hold the key to fundamental advances in energy conversion and storage, both of which are vital in order to meet the challenge of global warming and the finite nature of fossil fuels. Nanomaterials in particular offer unique properties or combinations of properties as electrodes and electrolytes in a range of energy devices. Technological improvements in rechargeable solid-state batteries are being driven by an ever-increasing demand for portable electronic devices. Lithium batteries are the systems of choice, offering high energy density, flexible, lightweight design and longer lifespan than comparable battery technologies. We present a brief historical review of the development of lithium-based thin film rechargeable batteries highlight ongoing research strategies and discuss the challenges that remain regarding the discovery of nanomaterials as electrolytes and electrodes for lithium batteries also this article describes the possible evolution of lithium technology and evaluates the expected improvements, arising from new materials to cell technology. New active materials under investigation and electrode process improvements may allow an ultimate final energy density of more than 500 Wh/L and 200 Wh/kg, in the next 5-6 years, while maintaining sufficient power densities. A new rechargeable battery technology cannot be foreseen today that surpasses this. This report will provide key performance results for thin film batteries and highlight recent advances in their development.

Patil, Arun; Patil, Vaishali; Shin, Dong Wook; Choi, Ji-Won; Paik, Dong-Soo [Thin Film Materials Research Center, Korea Institute of Science and Technology, Seoul 136-791 (Korea, Republic of); Yoon, Seok-Jin [Thin Film Materials Research Center, Korea Institute of Science and Technology, Seoul 136-791 (Korea, Republic of)], E-mail: sjyoon@kist.re.kr

2008-08-04

314

PHARMA -Rglement des examens et des jurys 2013-2014 Rglement des examens -Pharma juin 2013 1 / 16  

E-print Network

PHARMA - Règlement des examens et des jurys 2013-2014 Règlement des examens - Pharma juin 2013 1 missions décrites dans ce règlement. #12;PHARMA - Règlement des examens et des jurys 2013-2014 Règlement des examens - Pharma juin 2013 2 / 16 2 UNIVERSITE LIBRE DE BRUXELLES DEPARTEMENT ENSEIGNEMENT SERVICE

Cerf, Nicolas

315

PROCDURE DE DCLARATION DES ACCIDENTS, DES INCIDENTS ET DES SITUATIONS DANGEREUSES EN MILIEU DE TRAVAIL Novembre 2013  

E-print Network

PROC?DURE DE D?CLARATION DES ACCIDENTS, DES INCIDENTS ET DES SITUATIONS DANGEREUSES EN MILIEU DE de déclaration des accidents, des incidents et des situations dangereuses en milieu de travail. Ce, tout accident ou incident doit faire l'objet d'une déclaration officielle auprès de l'employeur. Selon

Meunier, Michel

316

CIRAD-ES UMR Innovation Intitul du sujet de thse  

E-print Network

'eau représente une ressource vitale pour la production agricole. Elle provient de plus en plus des nappes al, 2007 ; Le Bail et Le Gal, 2011). La durabilité des exploitations agricoles utilisant les nappes

317

Possible silica gel in the Olive Fault, Naukluft Nappe Complex, Namibia: A geologic record of dynamic weakening in faults during continental orogenesis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The apparently low frictional strength of faults during earthquake slip is not sufficiently well explained. Dynamic weakening has been observed in recent laboratory experiments at seismic slip rates, even if materials are strong at slow slip rates. Di Toro et al. (2004) performed experiments on crystalline rocks at slip rates of 1m/s and observed frictional strength drops to near zero. Examination of the slip surface revealed an amorophous silica had formed during fast slip and interpreted this as a solidified silica gel. If similar silica gel forms during earthquakes, and solidifies to amorphous silica, it would be expected to slowly crystallize over time. Ujiie et al (2007) reported a microcrystalline silica fault vein from the Shimanto Complex (Japan) which contains colloidal microspheres of silica, consistent with its origin as a silica gel. This vein may have been created during seismic slip, although other explanations are possible. No other natural examples of this potentially important coseismic weakening mechanism have been reported. To investigate whether silica gel actually forms during seismic slip, it will be necessary to discover and fully characterize additional natural examples. The Naukluft Nappe Complex in central Namibia is a foreland thrust stack at the distal southern margin of the Pan-African Damara Orogen (active at ~ 550Ma). A fault vein of microcrystalline silica has been found in an intra-nappe thrust fault . The vein occurs as a mostly continuous, planar, 0.1-1.0cm-thick fault vein within dolomite breccias of the Olive Fault. There are no other veins of silica associated with the fault. The hanging wall and footwall are dolomite and calcareous shales, respectively. The layer is petrographically similar to the microcrystalline silica described by Ujiie et al. (2007). The silica layer is purple-blue to white in color cathodoluminescence, in contrast to the bright turquoise typical of quartz. Although X-ray diffraction spectra show only silica and minor dolomite in the fault vein, SEM revealed the presence of small grains of Ti-oxides which have not been observed in the host rock. The cathodoluminescence has also revealed primary textures in the dolomite breccias which are overprinted by recrystallization and invisible in transmitted light . Transmission Electron Microscopy will be used to determine whether colloidal silica particles are present. The possible finding of the solidified silica gel in the Olive Fault is significant because it may represent a new way to identify fault surfaces which have slipped seismically in the past. In particular, the presence of this unusual silica vein in a carbonate-dominated environment is consistent with the experiments of Di Toro et al (2004) who suggested that quartz need not be present in the source rocks in order to form silica gel. Di Toro, G. et al. (2004) Friction falls towards zero in quartz rock as slip velocity approaches seismic rates. Nature, 427, 436-439 Ujie, K. et al. (2007) Fluidization of granular material in a subduction thrust at seismogenic depths. EPSL, 259, 307-318

Faber, C.; Rowe, C. D.; Miller, J. A.; Backeberg, N.; Sylvester, F.

2009-12-01

318

Evaluating Climate, Vegetation, and Soil Controls on Groundwater Recharge Using Unsaturated Flow Modeling  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Understanding the relative importance of climate, vegetation, and soils in controlling groundwater recharge is critical for estimating recharge rates and for assessing the importance of these factors in controlling aquifer vulnerability to contamination. Understanding the role of climate and vegetation in controlling recharge will also be valuable in determining impacts of climate change and land use change on recharge. Numerical modeling is a valuable tool for assessing controls on recharge and for developing a predictive understanding of recharge processes. Unsaturated flow modeling was used to simulate recharge for a range of climate (arid - humid), vegetation (shrub, grass, forest, crops), and soils (fine - coarse grained, monolithic - layered) using data from Texas. Data from 10 meteorological stations in the state provided long-term (30 yr) climate forcing ranging from arid to humid conditions. Spatial distribution of dominant vegetation associations provided by the USGS was used to assign vegetation parameters using GIS and including fractional vegetation coverage, leaf area index, root depth, and root length density. Varying levels of soils data were used in the simulations ranging from simple monolithic sand profiles to complex layered soil profiles from the SSURGO database and pedotransfer functions were used to translate soils data to hydraulic parameters for the simulations. The effect of climate was evaluated using monolithic sand profiles without vegetation. Recharge rates varied from 54 mm/yr in arid west Texas to 720 mm/yr in humid east Texas, correlating positively with precipitation (R=0.99, slope = 0.69). These recharge rates represent 24 to 61 percent of long-term average precipitation. High potential recharge rates in monolithic sand profiles indicate that climate is not the limiting factor controlling recharge and that vegetation and soil texture are important in reducing recharge. Addition of vegetation to the monolithic sand profiles reduced recharge rates for most cases by factors ranging from 2 to 11. Soil profile layering reduced recharge rates in most cases relative to recharge rates based on monolithic sand profiles by factors ranging from 2 to 10. Recharge estimates based on nonvegetated, layered soil profiles were quite variable locally depending on soil texture and sequence of layers. However, aerially weighted average recharge rates for the counties analyzed in this study were much less variable and were positively correlated with precipitation (R=0.79; slope = 0.19). The final simulations included vegetation and layered soil profiles and resulted in recharge rates ranging from 0 to 328 mm/yr which represent reductions from potential recharge by factors ranging from 6 to 380. Unsaturated flow modeling proved to be a useful tool in evaluating the effects of climate, soil, and vegetation on recharge because these factors could be isolated in different simulations. Modeling results indicate that long-term average precipitation can be used as a predictor of recharge, but is not the limiting factor; vegetation and soil texture are important in reducing recharge. The results of this study have important implications for estimating recharge and indicate that the role of vegetation and soil texture in reducing recharge could significantly impact aquifer vulnerability to contamination.

Keese, K. E.; Scanlon, B. R.; Reedy, R. C.

2003-12-01

319

Ponds and Rice Fields: The Hydrology and Chemistry of Aquifer Recharge in Bangladesh  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The shallow aquifer in Bangladesh, which provides drinking water for millions and irrigation water for innumerable rice fields, is severely contaminated with naturally occurring arsenic. Water balance calculations show that surface ponds and irrigated rice fields are the primary sources of recharge to this contaminated aquifer. Recharge from an individual rice field is both temporally and spatially heterogeneous, whereas flow from a pond is more constant and uniform through the pond sediments. Rice field recharge is focused through bunds (the berms surrounding the field), and depends on irrigation intervals. Field flow patterns are controlled by cracks and the development of an unsaturated zone. The water chemistry of these two recharge sources is distinctly different. Compared to the rice fields, ponds contribute recharge with a higher organic carbon load and increased concentrations of solutes associated with anoxic microbial respiration. The differences in the recharge behavior and solute loads of these two sources may explain the spatial patterns of groundwater chemistry that control arsenic concentrations.

Neumann, R. B.; Harvey, C. F.

2007-12-01

320

Mountain-block recharge, present and past, in the eastern Espaola Basin, New Mexico, USA  

Microsoft Academic Search

Noble gas recharge temperatures (NGTs) and radiocarbon ages were determined for 43 groundwater samples collected in the eastern\\u000a Espaola Basin, New Mexico (USA), to identify mountain-block recharge in waters <10 thousand years (ka) old and to evaluate\\u000a possible changes in mountain-block recharge over the past ?35ka. For Holocene samples from the southeastern area, NGTs are\\u000a dominantly 24 cooler than the

Andrew H. Manning

2011-01-01

321

Mountain-block recharge, present and past, in the eastern Espaola Basin, New Mexico, USA  

Microsoft Academic Search

Noble gas recharge temperatures (NGTs) and radiocarbon ages were determined for 43 groundwater samples collected in the eastern Espaola Basin, New Mexico (USA), to identify mountain-block recharge in waters <10 thousand years (ka) old and to evaluate possible changes in mountain-block recharge over the past 35 ka. For Holocene samples from the southeastern area, NGTs are dominantly 2-4 cooler than

Andrew H. Manning

2011-01-01

322

Synthesis of layered LiMnO2 as an electrode for rechargeable lithium batteries  

Microsoft Academic Search

RECHARGEABLE lithium batteries can store more than twice as much energy per unit weight and volume as other rechargeable batteries1,2. They contain lithium ions in an electrolyte, which shuttle back and forth between, and are intercalated by, the electrode materials. The first commercially successful rechargeable lithium battery3, introduced by the Sony Corporation in 1990, consists of a carbon-based negative electrode,

A. Robert Armstrong; Peter G. Bruce

1996-01-01

323

SURVEILLANCE ET CONTROLE DES ACTIVITES DES NAVIRES EN MER  

E-print Network

, clandestine immigrants, piracy, toxic waste pollution, accidents, etc.). Key words: Maritime border security1 SURVEILLANCE ET CONTROLE DES ACTIVITES DES NAVIRES EN MER ScanMaris Michel MOREL (DCNS), Aldo produits illicites, l'immigration clandestine, la sur exploitation des ressources halieutiques, les

Boyer, Edmond

324

Qualit des composts et des digestats Fabienne MULLER  

E-print Network

Qualité des composts et des digestats Fabienne MULLER Direction consommation durable et déchets organiques se construit, avec aujourd'hui le développement important de la méthanisation. Les composts actuellement produits, peuvent l'être avec des digestats ou non. Les quantités de compost produit ne cessent d

Boyer, Edmond

325

La modelisation mathematique des plasmas au service des technologies spatiales  

E-print Network

1 La mod�elisation math�ematique des plasmas au service des technologies spatiales C. Besse (1) P'activit�e solaire sur l'environnement terrestre . . . . . . . . . . 13 2.3 Qu'est ce qu'un plasma.3.2 Plasmas froids et plasmas chauds . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14 2.3.3 Autres aspects des

Vignal, Marie-Hélène

326

Plan de cours Facult des arts et des sciences  

E-print Network

Powerpoint sont en anglais tandis que je parle surtout en fran�ais et la plupart des discussions en classe se �tudiants devront pr�parer des diapositives en utilisant le logiciel PowerPoint. Les �tudiants doivent donc l'enseignement du fonctionnement des logiciels tels que PowerPoint, QuarkXPress, InDesign ou autre

Parrott, Lael

327

The DES Story: Lessons Learned  

Cancer.gov

Dr. Robert Hoover discusses the DES followup study, which follows diethylstilbestrol (DES) exposed and unexposed mothers, daughters and sons, and granddaughters for adverse health effects resulting from this exposure.

328

Artificial-recharge investigation near Aurora, Nebraska: 2-year progress report  

USGS Publications Warehouse

This report presents the results of the first 2 years of a 4-year investigation of potential for artificial recharge and recharge methods that might be used to mitigate excessive aquifer depletion in Nebraska. A Quaternary sand-and-gravel aquifer near Aurora, Nebr., was recharged by injecting water through a well at a rate of approximately 730 gallons per minute for nearly 6 months. Total recharge was 530 acre-feet. Recharge was intermittent during the first 2 months, but was virtually continuous during the last 4 months. Buildup of the water level in the recharge well was 17 feet. The rate of buildup indicates that the well could have accepted water by gravity flow at more than 3,000 gallons per minute for at least 1 year. The cause of a continuing slow rise in water levels in the recharge well in contrast to nearly stable water levels in observation wells as close as 10 feet from the recharge well is as yet uncertain. The recharge water and the native ground water appeared to be chemically compatible. Infiltration rates from 24-foot-diameter surface impoundments ranged from 0.04 to 0.66 feet per day. The higher rates may have resulted in part from leakage down incompletely sealed holes that were drilled to install monitoring equipment. The investigation, including a report on the entire project, is scheduled for completion by 1980.

Lichtler, William F.; Stannard, David I.; Kouma, Edwin

1979-01-01

329

Use of soil moisture probes to estimate ground water recharge at an oil spill site  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Soil moisture data collected using an automated data logging system were used to estimate ground water recharge at a crude oil spill research site near Bemidji, Minnesota. Three different soil moisture probes were tested in the laboratory as well as the field conditions of limited power supply and extreme weather typical of northern Minnesota: a self-contained reflectometer probe, and two time domain reflectometry (TDR) probes, 30 and 50 cm long. Recharge was estimated using an unsaturated zone water balance method. Recharge estimates for 1999 using the laboratory calibrations were 13 to 30 percent greater than estimates based on the factory calibrations. Recharge indicated by the self-contained probes was 170 percent to 210 percent greater than the estimates for the TDR probes regardless of calibration method. Results indicate that the anomalously large recharge estimates for the self-contained probes are not the result of inaccurate measurements of volumetric moisture content, but result from the presence of crude oil, or bore-hole leakage. Of the probes tested, the 50 cm long TDR probe yielded recharge estimates that compared most favorably to estimates based on a method utilizing water table fluctuations. Recharge rates for this probe represented 24 to 27 percent of 1999 precipitation. Recharge based on the 30 cm long horizontal TDR probes was 29 to 37 percent of 1999 precipitation. By comparison, recharge based on the water table fluctuation method represented about 29 percent of precipitation. (JAWRA) (Copyright ?? 2005).

Delin, G.N.; Herkelrath, W.N.

2005-01-01

330

Estimated ground-water recharge from streamflow in Fortymile Wash near Yucca Mountain, Nevada  

SciTech Connect

The two purposes of this report are to qualitatively document ground-water recharge from stream-flow in Fortymile Wash during the period 1969--95 from previously unpublished ground-water levels in boreholes in Fortymile Canyon during 1982--91 and 1995, and to quantitatively estimate the long-term ground-water recharge rate from streamflow in Fortymile Wash for four reaches of Fortymile Wash (Fortymile Canyon, upper Jackass Flats, lower Jackass Flats, and Amargosa Desert). The long-term groundwater recharge rate was estimated from estimates of the volume of water available for infiltration, the volume of infiltration losses from streamflow, the ground-water recharge volume from infiltration losses, and an analysis of the different periods of data availability. The volume of water available for infiltration and ground-water recharge in the four reaches was estimated from known streamflow in ephemeral Fortymile Wash, which was measured at several gaging station locations. The volume of infiltration losses from streamflow for the four reaches was estimated from a streamflow volume loss factor applied to the estimated streamflows. the ground-water recharge volume was estimated from a linear relation between infiltration loss volume and ground-water recharge volume for each of the four reaches. Ground-water recharge rates were estimated for three different periods of data availability (1969--95, 1983--95, and 1992--95) and a long-term ground-water recharge rate estimated for each of the four reaches.

Savard, C.S.

1998-10-01

331

Groundwater-recharge estimation in the Ordos Plateau, China: comparison of methods  

Microsoft Academic Search

Groundwater recharge is a key factor in water-balance studies, especially in (semi-)arid areas. In this study, multiple methods\\u000a were used to estimate groundwater recharge in the Ordos Plateau (China), including reference to water-table fluctuation, Darcys\\u000a law and the water budget. The mean annual recharge rates found were: water-table-fluctuation method (46109mm\\/yr); saturated-zone\\u000a Darcian method (1754mm\\/yr); and water-budget method (21109mm\\/yr). Generally, groundwater-recharge

Lihe Yin; Guangcheng Hu; Jinting Huang; Dongguang Wen; Jiaqiu Dong; Xiaoyong Wang; Hongbo Li

332

Hydrologic and hydraulic assessment of artificial recharge in the Sparta Aquifer of Union County, Arkansas .  

E-print Network

??Groundwater pumping from the Sparta aquifer in Union County, Arkansas, has long exceeded natural recharge, threatening the regional water supply. An alternative water-supply project, completed (more)

Sowby, Robert B

2013-01-01

333

Modeling spatiotemporal impacts of hydroclimatic extremes on groundwater recharge at a Mediterranean karst aquifer  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

aquifers provide large parts of the water supply for Mediterranean countries, though climate change is expected to have a significant negative impact on water availability. Recharge is therefore a key variable that has to be known for sustainable groundwater use. In this study, we present a new approach that combines two independent methods for karst recharge estimation. The first method derives spatially distributed information of mean annual recharge patterns through GIS analysis. The second is a process-based karst model that provides spatially lumped but temporally distributed information about recharge. By combining both methods, we add a spatial reference to the lumped simulations of the process-based model. In this way, we are able to provide spatiotemporal information of recharge and subsurface flow dynamics also during varying hydroclimatic conditions. We find that there is a nonlinear relationship between precipitation and recharge rates resulting in strong decreases of recharge following even moderate decreases of precipitation. This is primarily due to almost constant actual evapotranspiration amounts despite varying hydroclimatic conditions. During the driest year in the record, almost the entire precipitation was consumed as actual evapotranspiration and only little diffuse recharge took place at the high altitudes of our study site. During wettest year, recharge constituted a much larger fraction of precipitation and occurred at the entire study site. Our new method and our findings are significant for decision makers in similar regions that want to prepare for possible changes of hydroclimatic conditions in the future.

Hartmann, Andreas; Mudarra, Matas; Andreo, Bartolom; Marn, Ana; Wagener, Thorsten; Lange, Jens

2014-08-01

334

Des conflits toutes les chelles  

E-print Network

Des conflits à toutes les échelles Des conflits à toutes les échelles La ressource en eau se raréfie et la demande s'accroît. Cette situation peut être source de tensions ou raviver des conflits déjà ayant droits d'amont et ceux d'aval, - différends entre deux rives d'un même canal, - conflits entre des

335

Artificial recharge through a thick, heterogeneous unsaturated zone.  

PubMed

Thick, heterogeneous unsaturated zones away from large streams in desert areas have not previously been considered suitable for artificial recharge from ponds. To test the potential for recharge in these settings, 1.3 x 10(6) m(3) of water was infiltrated through a 0.36-ha pond along Oro Grande Wash near Victorville, California, between October 2002 and January 2006. The pond overlies a regional pumping depression 117 m below land surface and is located where thickness and permeability of unsaturated deposits allowed infiltration and saturated alluvial deposits were sufficiently permeable to allow recovery of water. Because large changes in water levels caused by nearby pumping would obscure arrival of water at the water table, downward movement of water was measured using sensors in the unsaturated zone. The downward rate of water movement was initially as high as 6 m/d and decreased with depth to 0.07 m/d; the initial time to reach the water table was 3 years. After the unsaturated zone was wetted, water reached the water table in 1 year. Soluble salts and nitrate moved readily with the infiltrated water, whereas arsenic and chromium were less mobile. Numerical simulations done using the computer program TOUGH2 duplicated the downward rate of water movement, accumulation of water on perched zones, and its arrival at the water table. Assuming 10 x 10(6) m(3) of recharge annually for 20 years, a regional ground water flow model predicted water level rises of 30 m beneath the ponds, and rises exceeding 3 m in most wells serving the nearby urban area. PMID:18194322

Izbicki, John A; Flint, Alan L; Stamos, Christina L

2008-01-01

336

Artificial recharge through a thick, heterogeneous unsaturated zone  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Thick, heterogeneous unsaturated zones away from large streams in desert areas have not previously been considered suitable for artificial recharge from ponds. To test the potential for recharge in these settings, 1.3 ?? 10 6 m3 of water was infiltrated through a 0.36-ha pond along Oro Grande Wash near Victorville, California, between October 2002 and January 2006. The pond overlies a regional pumping depression 117 m below land surface and is located where thickness and permeability of unsaturated deposits allowed infiltration and saturated alluvial deposits were sufficiently permeable to allow recovery of water. Because large changes in water levels caused by nearby pumping would obscure arrival of water at the water table, downward movement of water was measured using sensors in the unsaturated zone. The downward rate of water movement was initially as high as 6 m/d and decreased with depth to 0.07 m/d; the initial time to reach the water table was 3 years. After the unsaturated zone was wetted, water reached the water table in 1 year. Soluble salts and nitrate moved readily with the infiltrated water, whereas arsenic and chromium were less mobile. Numerical simulations done using the computer program TOUGH2 duplicated the downward rate of water movement, accumulation of water on perched zones, and its arrival at the water table. Assuming 10 ?? 10 6 m3 of recharge annually for 20 years, a regional ground water flow model predicted water level rises of 30 m beneath the ponds, and rises exceeding 3 m in most wells serving the nearby urban area.

Izbicki, J. A.; Flint, A. L.; Stamos, C. L.

2008-01-01

337

Indian Ocean Dipole interpreted in terms of Recharge Oscillator Theory  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Indian Ocean Dipole (IOD) is a year-to-year fluctuation with significant impacts on regional patterns of weather variability and ocean biogeochemical cycles. The IOD originates through ocean-atmosphere interactions and large scale ocean dynamics similar to those that characterize El Nio and the Southern Oscillation (ENSO) in the Pacific. In this presentation we use observations and a linear analytical wind forced model to address the question of whether variations in upper ocean heat content are a necessary precondition for the development of IOD events as they are for ENSO in the Pacific. High quality satellite altimetry data, which are a proxy for thermocline depth and upper ocean heat content, are used both to describe IOD variability over the period 1993-2011 and to validate the dynamical model. Results are interpreted in terms of Recharge Oscillator theory, which was originally developed to explain ENSO in the Pacific but can be applied to the IOD since similar processes are at work in both oceans on interannual time scales. As in the Pacific, the dominant modes of variability in the Indian Ocean include an east-west thermocline tilting mode, which is approximately in phase with zonal wind stress and SST gradients along the equator, and a zonally coherent recharge mode that leads the tilting mode by about four months. However, the maximum correlation between these two modes, which occurs when the recharge mode in boreal summer (JJA) leads the titling mode in boreal fall (SON), is very weak and not statistically significant. These spatial patterns and lead-lag correlations are found both in observations and the analytical model. These results suggest that, unlike for ENSO, heat content is of marginal value as a predictor in the equatorial Indian Ocean for the development of IOD events. We conclude that other factors, such as ENSO forcing from the Pacific, are more important in initiating IOD events than preconditioning of upper ocean heat content along the equator.

McPhaden, M. J.; Nagura, M.

2012-12-01

338

Die pharmakologische Wirkung des Ephedrins  

Microsoft Academic Search

Zusammenfassung 1.Die pharmakologische Wirkung des Ephedrins wurde zu analysieren versucht durch Studium der Beeinflussung des Blutdrucks, der Herzaktion und der Gefe, des Effekts am Atemzentrum und an den Bronchien, der Wirkung auf die Pupillenweite, auf den Darm und den Uterus, auf die Sekretion verschiedener Drsen und den Blutzuckerspiegel.2.Es wurden folgende Wirkungen gefunden: Der Blutdruck wird erhht durch kleine Dosen, erniedrigt

H. Kreitmair

1927-01-01

339

NOTE TECHNIQUE RECHERCHE DES SALMONELLA  

E-print Network

NOTE TECHNIQUE RECHERCHE DES SALMONELLA PAR IMMUNOFLUORESCENCE M. CATSARAS J. ANANI Laboratoire Salmonella, 366 prélèvements, dans 125 boucheries, pour lesquels nous avons comparé les techniques d, dus à des coliformes. Ses avantages et ses inconvénients pour la recherche des Salmonella sont

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

340

SYNTHSE DES RUNS AVEC RAPPEL  

E-print Network

SYNTH?SE DES RUNS ORCA05 AVEC RAPPEL Octobre 2009 Patrice Bellec et Thierry Huck Laboratoire de Physique des Océans (UMR 6523 CNRS IFREMER IRD UBO) #12;Sommaire DESCRIPTION DES RUNS ORCA05 ........................................................................................3 ORCA05-BPB14 : run libre de 1958 à 2008

Huck, Thierry

341

A 65 Ah rechargeable lithium molybdenum disulfide battery  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A rechargeable lithium molybdenum disulfide battery which has a number of superior performance characteristics which includes a high energy density, a high power density, and a long charge retention time was developed. The first cell sizes developed included a C size cell and an AA size cell. Over the last two years, a project to demonstrate the feasibility of the scale up to this technology to a BC size cell with 65 Ah capacity was undertaken. The objective was to develop, build, and test a .6 kWh storage battery consisting of 6 BC cells in series.

Brandt, K.

1986-09-01

342

RISING beamline (BL28XU) for rechargeable battery analysis  

PubMed Central

The newly installed BL28XU beamline at SPring-8 is dedicated to in situ structural and electronic analysis of rechargeable batteries. It supports the time range (1?ms to 100?s) and spatial range (1?m to 1?mm) needed for battery analysis. Electrochemical apparatus for battery charging and discharging are available in experimental hutches and in a preparation room. Battery analysis can be carried out efficiently and effectively using X-ray diffraction, X-ray absorption fine-structure analysis and hard X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. Here, the design and performance of the beamline are described, and preliminary results are presented. PMID:24365948

Tanida, H.; Fukuda, K.; Murayama, H.; Orikasa, Y.; Arai, H.; Uchimoto, Y.; Matsubara, E.; Uruga, T.; Takeshita, K.; Takahashi, S.; Sano, M.; Aoyagi, H.; Watanabe, A.; Nariyama, N.; Ohashi, H.; Yumoto, H.; Koyama, T.; Senba, Y.; Takeuchi, T.; Furukawa, Y.; Ohata, T.; Matsushita, T.; Ishizawa, Y.; Kudo, T.; Kimura, H.; Yamazaki, H.; Tanaka, T.; Bizen, T.; Seike, T.; Goto, S.; Ohno, H.; Takata, M.; Kitamura, H.; Ishikawa, T.; Ohta, T.; Ogumi, Z.

2014-01-01

343

Tracers in recharge Effects of partitioning in soils  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Partitioning among mobile and stationary water phases in a soil measurably reduces movement of a tracer relative to the mobile water phase. The quantity of water infiltrating the soil, however, still follows from the product of the distance travelled by the tracer and average moisture content of the soil over that distance. Partitioning between surface and water phases in a soil by proton and protium exchange has only a small effect on the retention of isotopically labelled water. Partitioning between surface, water and gas phases in a soil, however, strongly decreases diffusive movement of isotopically labelled water in the gas phase. In sandy soils with moisture contents less than 5%, the effective diffusion coefficient in the gas phase can be reduced by a factor between 50 and 5000. As a soil dries out, diffusive movement of 18O labelled water will become larger than of HDO and HTO. Negative charges on soil surfaces repel chloride and bromide. The effect of charge exclusion on movement of Cl - and Br - relative to HDO was measured in small columns for a number of soils from the southwest of Western Australia. Data from these experiments show that in the unsaturated zone of sandy soils, charge exclusion can reduce the pore volume available to Cl - and Br - in the water phase at field capacity by > 20%. Recharge to ground water, if calculated from the position of Cl - or Br - tracers and average moisture in the soil profile, must then be reduced by the same percentage. The effect of charge exclusion in soils on the calculation of recharge from profile data, was evaluated for a practical situation. Significant amounts of bromide from car exhaust gases accumulate in soils in urban areas and can be used to trace water movement. A site was chosen in metropolitan Perth on a sparsely vegetated calcareous sand near the junction of two busy roads. A seasonal effect on bromide accumulation in the soil profile at this site was clearly visible from data on the soil solution. The distribution of bromide in the soil profile appears to correspond to 93% of rainfall recharging ground water. Correcting the data for charge exclusion, results in a calculated recharge of ? 70% of annual rainfall.

Gerritse, Robert G.; Adeney, John A.

1992-02-01

344

Chemical lithium extraction from manganese oxides for lithium rechargeable batteries  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chemical lithium extraction has been carried out on the following manganese oxides: the spinel-type compounds LiMn2O4 and Li(4\\/3)Mn(5\\/3)O4, and the rocksalt-related compound Li2MnO3. Lithium can be partially removed chemically from these compounds without destroying the host framework. Some compounds obtained by this method have been tested as cathodic materials in rechargeable lithium cells. Electrochemical results and X-ray diffraction patterns of

F. Lubin; A. Lecerf; M. Broussely; J. Labat

1991-01-01

345

Lithiated manganese oxide cathodes for rechargeable lithium batteries  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lithiated manganese oxides LixMnyO2 prepared at the low temperature of 400-450C exhibited significantly different electrochemical properties than the spinel phase, LiMn2O4, formed at 650-850C. The former was nonstoichiometric and yielded a capacity of ~0.7 LiMn2 unit at ~2.8 V in polymer electrolyte-based Li cells. Its excellent rechargeability was demonstrated by more than 100 charge\\/discharge cycles. Spinel Li2Mn4 was formed by

K. M. Abraham; D. M. Pasquariello; T. H. Hguyen; Z. Jiang; D. Peramunage

1996-01-01

346

A 65 Ah rechargeable lithium molybdenum disulfide battery  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A rechargeable lithium molybdenum disulfide battery which has a number of superior performance characteristics which includes a high energy density, a high power density, and a long charge retention time was developed. The first cell sizes developed included a C size cell and an AA size cell. Over the last two years, a project to demonstrate the feasibility of the scale up to this technology to a BC size cell with 65 Ah capacity was undertaken. The objective was to develop, build, and test a .6 kWh storage battery consisting of 6 BC cells in series.

Brandt, K.

1986-01-01

347

Une charte pour scuriser la pratique des stages charte des stages des tudiants en entreprise  

E-print Network

Une charte pour sécuriser la pratique des stages charte des stages des étudiants en entreprise Le 26 avril 2006, une charte, dont l'objectif est de sécuriser la pratique des stages, a été conclue parcours pédagogique. Un stage ne peut être considéré comme un emploi. Cette charte, rédigée par les

Di Girolami, Cristina

348

Gocarrefour vol. 81/1 (2006)  

E-print Network

) ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................ Olivia Aubriot Baisse des nappes d'eau souterraine en Inde du Sud : forte demande sociale et absence de). ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................ R�f�rence �lectronique Olivia Aubriot, � Baisse des nappes d'eau souterraine en Inde du Sud : forte;Baisse des nappes d'eau souterraine en Inde du Sud : forte demande sociale et absence de (...) 2 G

349

Sminaire Pcsi, novembre 2004, Montpellier, France 1 A. Richard, P. Caron, J.Y. Jamin, T. Ruf (diteurs  

E-print Network

, novembre 2004, Montpellier, France. Cirad, Montpellier France, Colloques Stabilisation des nappes, qui-CATTIN, Bruno LIDON, Bernard TRIOMPHE Cirad, Montpellier Cedex 5, France Résumé -- Stabilisation des nappes, qui, la majorité des prélèvements sur ces nappes est imputable à l'agriculture. L'objectif est donc de

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

350

Numerical assessment of ASR recharge using small-diameter wells and surface basins  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Aquifer storage and recovery (ASR) methods are increasingly used to overcome the temporal imbalance between water demand and availability. Common ASR recharge methods utilize large-diameter injection wells or surface infiltration basins and trenches, and can be costly to implement. A new low-cost ASR recharge method is currently being developed. This approach is based on recharge via gravity in small-diameter wells installed with direct-push (DP) technology. Numerical modeling is used here to assess the potential of this new approach under conditions commonly faced in field settings. The primary objective is to investigate if a battery of small-diameter DP wells can serve as a viable alternative to a surface basin under typical field conditions, while the secondary objective is to assess which subsurface parameters have the greatest control on DP well performance. Simulation results indicate that gravity recharge via small-diameter wells appears to have a distinct advantage over recharge via surface infiltration basins. For example, two 0.05-m shallow vadose-zone wells with 9-m screens can recharge water at a greater rate than a 60 m2 basin. Also, results reveal that, contrary to an infiltration basin, the recharge rate in a DP well has a much stronger dependence on the horizontal component of hydraulic conductivity than on the vertical component. Moreover, near-surface layers of low hydraulic conductivity, which can significantly reduce the recharge capacity of a surface basin, have a relatively small impact on the recharge capacity of a well as long as a significant portion of the well screen is installed below those layers. Given that installation and operation costs can be low in comparison to common ASR recharge methods, this new approach appears to have great potential for recharging good quality water in shallow unconsolidated aquifers. A field investigation has recently been initiated to follow up the findings of this simulation assessment.

Hndel, Falk; Liu, Gaisheng; Dietrich, Peter; Liedl, Rudolf; Butler, James J.

2014-09-01

351

Ground-water recharge in Escambia and Santa Rosa Counties, Florida  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Ground water is a major component of Florida's water resources, accounting for 90 percent of all public-supply and self-supplied domestic water withdrawals, and 58 percent of self-supplied commercial-industrial and agricultural withdrawals of freshwater (Marella, 1992). Ground-water is also an important source of water for streams, lakes, and wetlands in Florida. Because of their importance, a good understanding of these resources is essential for their sound development, use, and protection. One area in which our understanding is lacking is in characterizing the rate at which ground water in aquifers is recharged, and how recharge rates vary geographically. Ground-water recharge (recharge) is the replenishment of ground water by downward infiltration of water from rainfall, streams, and other sources (American Society of Civil Engineers, 1987, p. 222). The recharge rates in many areas of Florida are unknown, of insufficient accuracy, or mapped at scales that are too coarse to be useful. Improved maps of recharge rates will result in improved capabilities for managing Florida's ground-water resources. In 1989, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Florida Department of Environmental Regulation, began a study to delineate high-rate recharge areas in several regions of Florida (Vecchioli and others, 1990). This study resulted in recharge maps that delineated areas of high (greater than 10 inches per year) and low (0 to 10 inches per year) recharge in three counties--Okaloosa, Pasco, and Volusia Counties--at a scale of 1:100,000. This report describes the results of a similar recharge mapping study for Escambia and Santa Rosa Counties (fig. 1), in which areas of high- and low-rates of recharge to the sand-and-gravel aquifer and Upper Floridan aquifer are delineated. The study was conducted in 1992 and 1993 by the U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with the Florida Department of Environmental Protection.

Grubbs, J. W.

1995-01-01

352

Historic Des Moines  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The early 20th century was a bustling time for many cities in the Midwest, and Des Moines was no exception. During this time, the city added streetcars, built many new public schools, and welcomed thousands of new residents. This digital collection from Drake University's Cowles Library offers hundreds of images of the city from 1904 through 1914. First-time visitors should read the introductory essay by John Zeller titled "From the Real to the Ideal; Images of Des Moines in the Progressive Era." After reading this piece, visitors will have a sense of the historical context of the images in the archive and Des Moines's history during this period. Visitors can browse at their leisure, and they can also use the interactive map to wander virtually around the city. Visitors should use the map to look at some of the wonderful homes around Union Park, including the L. Aulmann residence at 1712 Pennsylvania Avenue.

2012-02-24

353

Tritium tracer test to estimate aquifer recharge under irrigated conditions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Environmental tracers, as tritium, have been generally used to estimate aquifer recharge under natural conditions. A tritium tracer test to estimate recharge under semi-arid and irrigated conditions is presented. The test was carried out in an experimental plot under drip irrigation, located in SE Spain, with annual row crops (rotation lettuce and melon), following common agricultural practices in open air. Tritiated water was applied as an irrigation pulse, soil cores were taken at different depths and a liquid scintillation analyzer was used to measure the concentration of tritium in soil samples. Transport of tritium was simulated with SOLVEG code, a one-dimensional numerical model for simulating transport of heat, water and tritiated water in liquid and gas phase, which has been modified and adapted for this experience, including ground cover, root growth and root water uptake. One crop has been used to calibrate the modeling approach and other three crops to validate it. Results of flow and transport modelling show a good agreement between observed and estimated tritium concentration profile. For the period October 2007-September 2008, total drainage obtained value was 441 mm.

Jimenez-Martinez, J.; Tamoh, K.; Candela, L.

2009-12-01

354

Feasibility of groundwater recharge dam projects in arid environments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A new method for determining feasibility and prioritizing investments for agricultural and domestic recharge dams in arid regions is developed and presented. The method is based on identifying the factors affecting the decision making process and evaluating these factors, followed by determining the indices in a GIS-aided environment. Evaluated parameters include results from field surveys and site visits, land cover and soils data, precipitation data, runoff data and modeling, number of beneficiaries, domestic irrigation demand, reservoir objectives, demography, reservoirs yield and reliability, dam structures, construction costs, and operation and maintenance costs. Results of a case study on more than eighty proposed dams indicate that assessment of reliability, annualized cost/demand satisfied and yield is crucial prior to investment decision making in arid areas. Irrigation demand is the major influencing parameter on yield and reliability of recharge dams, even when only 3 months of the demand were included. Reliability of the proposed reservoirs as related to their standardized size and net inflow was found to increase with increasing yield. High priority dams were less than 4% of the total, and less priority dams amounted to 23%, with the remaining found to be not feasible. The results of this methodology and its application has proved effective in guiding stakeholders for defining most favorable sites for preliminary and detailed design studies and commissioning.

Jaafar, H. H.

2014-05-01

355

Rechargeable LI2O2 electrode for lithium batteries.  

PubMed

Rechargeable lithium batteries represent one of the most important developments in energy storage for 100 years, with the potential to address the key problem of global warming. However, their ability to store energy is limited by the quantity of lithium that may be removed from and reinserted into the positive intercalation electrode, Li(x)CoO(2), 0.5 < x < 1 (corresponding to 140 mA.h g(-1) of charge storage). Abandoning the intercalation electrode and allowing Li to react directly with O(2) from the air at a porous electrode increases the theoretical charge storage by a remarkable 5-10 times! Here we demonstrate two essential prerequisites for the successful operation of a rechargeable Li/O(2) battery; that the Li(2)O(2) formed on discharging such an O(2) electrode is decomposed to Li and O(2) on charging (shown here by in situ mass spectrometry), with or without a catalyst, and that charge/discharge cycling is sustainable for many cycles. PMID:16433559

Ogasawara, Takeshi; Dbart, Aurlie; Holzapfel, Michael; Novk, Petr; Bruce, Peter G

2006-02-01

356

Natural water purification and water management by artificial groundwater recharge  

PubMed Central

Worldwide, several regions suffer from water scarcity and contamination. The infiltration and subsurface storage of rain and river water can reduce water stress. Artificial groundwater recharge, possibly combined with bank filtration, plant purification and/or the use of subsurface dams and artificial aquifers, is especially advantageous in areas where layers of gravel and sand exist below the earths surface. Artificial infiltration of surface water into the uppermost aquifer has qualitative and quantitative advantages. The contamination of infiltrated river water will be reduced by natural attenuation. Clay minerals, iron hydroxide and humic matter as well as microorganisms located in the subsurface have high decontamination capacities. By this, a final water treatment, if necessary, becomes much easier and cheaper. The quantitative effect concerns the seasonally changing river discharge that influences the possibility of water extraction for drinking water purposes. Such changes can be equalised by seasonally adapted infiltration/extraction of water in/out of the aquifer according to the river discharge and the water need. This method enables a continuous water supply over the whole year. Generally, artificially recharged groundwater is better protected against pollution than surface water, and the delimitation of water protection zones makes it even more save. PMID:18357624

Balke, Klaus-Dieter; Zhu, Yan

2008-01-01

357

Clogging in Managed Aquifer Recharge: Hydrodynamics and Geochemistry  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Managed aquifer recharge (MAR) is the engineered process by which water is delivered into an aquifer for storage, transmission, or treatment. Perhaps the most significant technical challenge in MAR is clogging, a detrimental reduction of permeability in the aquifer porous media. This presentation describes research from the allied fields of water treatment, soil science, and petrology, each of which sheds light on the mechanisms by which hydrodynamics and geochemistry influence clogging in MAR. The primary focus is clogging by suspended solids, especially clay colloids, which are ubiquitous in natural porous media. When colloids deposit in aquifers, they reduce the effective porosity and alter the pore space geometry, both of which can inhibit the flow of groundwater. Management of clogging is complicated by the complexity inherent in this system, in which hydrodynamics, geochemistry, clay mineralogy, and colloidal effects each play a role. This presentation will briefly review colloid filtration, mobilization, and clogging models, then highlight the key physical and chemical variables that control clogging. It will be argued that clogging in managed aquifer recharge is analogous to clogging in soils or hydrocarbon reservoirs, rather than to clogging in granular media filters used for water treatment. Based on this analogy, the presentation will conclude with several recommendations to prevent or manage clogging in MAR.

Mays, D. C.

2013-12-01

358

Recycling rechargeable lithium ion batteries: Critical analysis of natural resource savings  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rechargeable Li-ion battery applications in consumer products are fastly growing, resulting in increasing resources demand: it is for example estimated that battery applications account for nearly 25% of the worldwide cobalt demand in 2007. It is obvious that recycling of batteries may help saving natural resources. However, it is not straightforward to quantify to what extent rechargeable battery recycling saves

Jo Dewulf; Geert Van der Vorst; Kim Denturck; Herman Van Langenhove; Wouter Ghyoot; Jan Tytgat; Kurt Vandeputte

2010-01-01

359

www.VadoseZoneJournal.org | 6622011, Vol. 10 Groundwater Recharge through  

E-print Network

groundwater recharge, including water quantity and quality. Soil core samples (0­11-m depth) from six recharge fluxes and to test matrix vs. preferential flow hypotheses. Water contents under irrigated Cropland vs. Natural Land, Israel Land use change from natural ecosystems to cropland influences

Scanlon, Bridget R.

360

Promoting the Market for Plug-in Hybrid and Battery Electric Vehicles: Role of Recharge Availability  

SciTech Connect

Much recent attention has been drawn to providing adequate recharge availability as a means to promote the battery electric vehicle (BEV) and plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (PHEV) market. The possible role of improved recharge availability in developing the BEV-PHEV market and the priorities that different charging options should receive from the government require better understanding. This study reviews the charging issue and conceptualizes it into three interactions between the charge network and the travel network. With travel data from 3,755 drivers in the National Household Travel Survey, this paper estimates the distribution among U.S. consumers of (a) PHEV fuel-saving benefits by different recharge availability improvements, (b) range anxiety by different BEV ranges, and (c) willingness to pay for workplace and public charging in addition to home recharging. With the Oak Ridge National Laboratory MA3T model, the impact of three recharge improvements is quantified by the resulting increase in BEV-PHEV sales. Compared with workplace and public recharging improvements, home recharging improvement appears to have a greater impact on BEV-PHEV sales. The impact of improved recharging availability is shown to be amplified by a faster reduction in battery cost.

Lin, Zhenhong [ORNL; Greene, David L [ORNL

2012-01-01

361

A Wireless Power Interface for Rechargeable Battery Operated Neural Recording Implants  

E-print Network

A Wireless Power Interface for Rechargeable Battery Operated Neural Recording Implants Pengfei Li describes an integrated analog front-end for wireless powering and recharging of miniature Li-ion bat is accomplished using Schottky barrier contact diodes with lower forward voltage drop for improved efficiency

Slatton, Clint

362

Electrode materials for lithium rechargeable batteries: Synthesis, spectroscopic studies and electrochemical performance  

Microsoft Academic Search

The lithium rechargeable battery is the newest member of the rechargeable battery family and is best known for its high energy density, long battery life, low self-discharge rate and light weight. This battery may become one of the most important energy sources in consumer market, industrial and military applications. Intercalation compounds play a critical role in determining the overall performance

Xulong Zhang

1997-01-01

363

Paleosols as deep regolith: implications for ground-water recharge across a loessial climosequence  

Microsoft Academic Search

Thick loess deposits consisting of paleosol sequences comprise the deep regolith of the Palouse region in eastern Washington and northern Idaho. Ground water is the principal water supply for the Palouse Basin, yet recharge mechanisms and rates through this regolith are poorly understood. Forecasting the sustainability of the water supply has been hampered because models that predict ground-water recharge are

A. T. O'Geen; P. A. McDaniel; J. Boll; C. K. Keller

2005-01-01

364

The Guarani Aquifer System: estimation of recharge along the Uruguay-Brazil border  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The cities of Rivera and Santana do Livramento are located on the outcropping area of the sandstone Guarani Aquifer on the Brazil-Uruguay border, where the aquifer is being increasingly exploited. Therefore, recharge estimates are needed to address sustainability. First, a conceptual model of the area was developed. A multilayer, heterogeneous and anisotropic groundwater-flow model was built to validate the conceptual model and to estimate recharge. A field campaign was conducted to collect water samples and monitor water levels used for model calibration. Field data revealed that there exists vertical gradients between confining basalts and underlying sandstones, suggesting basalts could indirectly recharge sandstone in fractured areas. Simulated downward flow between them was a small amount within the global water budget. Calibrated recharge rates over basalts and over outcropping sandstones were 1.3 and 8.1% of mean annual precipitation, respectively. A big portion of sandstone recharge would be drained by streams. The application of a water balance yielded a recharge of 8.5% of average annual precipitation. The numerical model and the water balance yielded similar recharge values consistent with determinations from previous authors in the area and other regions of the aquifer, providing an upper bound for recharge in this transboundary aquifer.

Gmez, Andrea A.; Rodrguez, Leticia B.; Vives, Luis S.

2010-11-01

365

Modeling of Groundwater Artificial Recharge by Reactivating an Old Stream Bed  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper refers to the development and verification of a groundwater artificial recharge model in Xanthi plain, Thrace, Greece. The relative geological and hydrogeological research of the study area is described, as well as the artificial recharge application by reactivating an old stream bed of Kosynthos River, since 1994. The simulation of the aquifer system of the study area was

F. Pliakas; C. Petalas; I. Diamantis; A. Kallioras

2005-01-01

366

DISTRIBUTION OF AREAL RECHARGE TO A DISCRETE FRACTURE NETWORK (FRACNET) MODEL USING THE ANALYTIC ELEMENT METHOD  

EPA Science Inventory

Rain water filtering down through the soil will provide recharge of the saturated fractured rock aquifer. he computer model FRACNET has been designed to distribute areal recharge into linear fracture zones in order to complete the regional water balance. n this presentation, a te...

367

Recharge characteristics of a phreatic aquifer as determined by storage accumulation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The cumulative storage accumulation curve (CSAC) is a tool for saturated-volume fluctuation (SVF) analysis of transient recharge to shallow phreatic aquifers discharging only to springs. The method assumes that little underflow or phreatic evapotranspiration occurs. The CSAC is a modified water-table hydrograph that distinguishes storage increase caused by recharge from loss due to springflow-induced recession. Required for the analysis are water-table fluctuations at a single representative location within the catchment of a single spring and either direct measurements or robust interpolations of springflows at different aquifer stages. The method employs empirical manipulation of head observations, varying spring catchment area to minimize CSAC water-level changes in late portions of long recessions. Results include volumetric estimates of recharge integrated over individual events and instantaneous rates of recharge to the water table, at the temporal resolution of the water-level sampling interval. The analysis may also yield physically realistic information on spring catchment and recharge focusing. In a test case in West Virginia, USA, recharge estimates by this technique were consistent with integrated springflow time series but greater than estimates based on potential evapotranspiration. Results give insight into dynamic recharge behavior over time as well as an indication of recharge catchment size.

Ketchum, Neil J.; Donovan, Joseph J.; Avery, William H.

2000-12-01

368

Portrayal of fuzzy recharge areas for water balance modelling - a case study in northern Oman  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The research project IWAS Oman aims at implementing integrated water resources management (IWRM) to a pilot area in Al Batinah, Oman. This requires - amongst others - a realistic assessment of groundwater recharge to the alluvial aquifer which obviously has to be based upon the extension of recharge areas. In this context, the subsequent investigation focuses on the role of vagueness as regards the portrayal of the areas that provide water for particular aquifers. For that purpose, concepts of fuzziness in spatial analysis are applied to describe possible extents of recharge areas. In general, any water assessment is based on clearly delineated boundaries. However, in many cases, aquifer recharge areas are not clearly defined due to the nature of the study area. Hence, surfaces indicating a gradual membership to the recharge area of a particular aquifer are used in this investigation. These surfaces, which are based on available qualitative information, visualise a potential range of spatial extension. With regard to water balance calculations, functional relationships in tabular form are derived as well. Based on a regionalisation approach providing spatially distributed recharge rates, the corresponding recharge volume is calculated. Hence, this methodology provides fuzzy input data for water balance calculations. Beyond the portrayal of one singular aquifer recharge area, this approach also supports the complementary consideration of adjacent areas.

Gerner, A.; Schtze, N.; Schmitz, G. H.

2012-06-01

369

Groundwater recharge modelling using the Monte Carlo technique, Manawatu region, New Zealand  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The study area, the Manawatu region of New Zealand, covers approximately 4200 km 2 and contains numerous aquifers in unconsolidated Quaternary sedimentary formations. Most of the 5000 bores are shallow, with over 75% being less than 50 m. Of concern, is that 20% of bores in the south tap groundwater with a nitrate-nitrogen concentration above the drinking water standard (11.3 mg/l). An effective regional vulnerability assessment was therefore developed to mitigate this problem. While four factors largely control aquifer vulnerability in the study area, this paper focuses on developing a regional rainfall recharge model. Percolating rainwater is the major transporting agent for contaminants through soil and unsaturated zone. Mean annual recharge was calculated at each rainfall station throughout the study area using the Monte Carlo technique to randomise soil moisture parameters and approximate the variability of soils. These point estimates of recharge were then modelled spatially to produce a 'recharge surface'. Good agreement between the modelled and actual groundwater levels was obtained. Likewise, the regional recharge surface is consistent with the physical processes and the expected pattern. Uncertainty of recharge estimation is expressed as the standard deviation of the mean annual recharge resulting from the Monte Carlo modelling. Estimates of both recharge and uncertainty are presented as readily assimilated colour-coded maps which can be used by resource planners and other laypersons. This methodology is considered appropriate for other non-arid areas with limited soil and groundwater data coverage.

Bekesi, G.; McConchie, J.

1999-11-01

370

Influence of model conceptualisation on one-dimensional recharge quantification: Uley South, South Australia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Model conceptualisation is a key source of uncertainty in one-dimensional recharge modelling. The effects of different conceptualisations on transient recharge predictions for the semi-arid Uley South Basin, South Australia, were investigated. One-dimensional unsaturated zone modelling was used to quantify the effect of variations of (1) lithological complexity of the unsaturated zone, and (2) representation of preferential flow pathways. The simulations considered ranges of water-table depths, vegetation characteristics, and top soil thicknesses representative for the study area. Complex lithological profiles were more sensitive to the selected vegetation characteristics and water-table depth. Scenarios considering runoff infiltration into, and preferential flow through sinkholes resulted in higher and faster recharge rates. A comparison of modelled and field-based recharge estimates indicated that: (1) the model simulated plausible recharge rates, (2) only the models with preferential flow correctly reproduced the timing of recharge, and (3) preferential flow is probably redistributed in the unsaturated zone rather than passing to the water table directly. Because different but equally plausible conceptual models produce widely varying recharge rates, field-based recharge estimates are essential to constrain the modelling results.

Ordens, Carlos M.; Post, Vincent E. A.; Werner, Adrian D.; Hutson, John L.

2014-06-01

371

Rechargeable lithium batteries. (Latest citations from the INSPEC database). Published Search  

SciTech Connect

The bibliography contains citations concerning the design, development, evaluation, and applications of rechargeable lithium batteries. Citations discuss rechargeability, electrolyte formulation, electrode materials, high power capability, thermal management, and overcharge protection. Applications in automotive vehicles, space equipment, computers, and telephones are also discussed. (Contains a minimum of 126 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

NONE

1995-01-01

372

Rechargeable lithium batteries. (Latest citations from the INSPEC database). Published Search  

SciTech Connect

The bibliography contains citations concerning the design, development, evaluation, and applications of rechargeable lithium batteries. Citations discuss rechargeability, electrolyte formulation, electrode materials, high power capability, thermal management, and overcharge protection. Applications in automotive vehicles, space equipment, computers, and telephones are also discussed. (Contains 50-250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.) (Copyright NERAC, Inc. 1995)

NONE

1995-11-01

373

Rechargeable lithium batteries. (Latest citations from the INSPEC database). Published Search  

SciTech Connect

The bibliography contains citations concerning the design, development, evaluation, and applications of rechargeable lithium batteries. Citations discuss rechargeability, electrolyte formulation, electrode materials, high power capability, thermal management, and overcharge protection. Applications in automotive vehicles, space equipment, computers, and telephones are also discussed. (Contains 50-250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.) (Copyright NERAC, Inc. 1995)

NONE

1996-12-01

374

Self-doped block copolymer electrolytes for solid-state, rechargeable lithium batteries  

E-print Network

Self-doped block copolymer electrolytes for solid-state, rechargeable lithium batteries Donald R reserved. Keywords: Block copolymer; Lithium batteries; Transference number; Single-ion conductor 1 and cathode binder thin-�lm, solid-state, rechargeable lithium batteries of the type Li/ BCE/LiMnO2 have been

Sadoway, Donald Robert

375

Rechargeable lithium batteries. (Latest citations from the INSPEC database). Published Search  

SciTech Connect

The bibliography contains citations concerning the design, development, evaluation, and applications of rechargeable lithium batteries. Citations discuss rechargeability, electrolyte formulation, electrode materials, high power capability, thermal management, and overcharge protection. Applications in automotive vehicles, space equipment, computers, and telephones are also discussed. (Contains a minimum of 99 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

Not Available

1994-01-01

376

Development of advanced electrode materials for use in rechargeable lithium batteries  

Microsoft Academic Search

Batteries are a necessary companion to most portable electronic devices, and the rechargeable lithium battery is the most energy dense and lightest of all the competing battery types. These features make it the most likely battery to be used in future electronic devices, which will be smaller and have increased functionality. Therefore, the performance of the rechargeable lithium battery must

Scott Andrew Needham

2007-01-01

377

Groundwater recharge simulation under the steady-state and transient climate conditions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Groundwater recharge simulation under the steady-state and transient climate conditions Diffusive groundwater recharge is a vertical water flux through the water table, i.e. through the boundary between the unsaturated and saturated zones. This flux features temporal and spatial changes due to variations in the climatic conditions, landscape the state of vegetation, and the spatial variability of vadoze zone characteristics. In

S. Pozdniakov; N. Lykhina

2010-01-01

378

Relation of pathways and transit times of recharge water to nitrate concentrations using stable isotopes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Oxygen and hydrogen stable isotope values of precipitation, irrigation water, soil water, and ground water were used with soil-moisture contents and water levels to estimate transit times and pathways of recharge water in the unsaturated zone of a sand and gravel aquifer. Nitrate-nitrogen (nitrate) concentrations in ground water were also measured to assess their relation to seasonal recharge. Stable isotope

Matthew K. Landon; Geoffrey N. Delin; Stephen C. Komor; Charles P. Regan

2000-01-01

379

Derived Operating Rules for Allocating Recharges and Withdrawals among Unconnected Aquifers  

E-print Network

either a specified target delivery rate for withdrawals or available surface water supply to recharge solutions. The results show how cost characteristics, fraction of recharged water available for withdrawal discharge; Water storage; Pumps; Optimization. Introduction Water storage for many water supply systems

Pasternack, Gregory B.

380

A time series approach to inferring groundwater recharge using the water table fluctuation method  

Microsoft Academic Search

The water table fluctuation method for determining recharge from precipitation and water table measurements was originally developed on an event basis. Here a new multievent time series approach is presented for inferring groundwater recharge from long-term water table and precipitation records. Additional new features are the incorporation of a variable specific yield based upon the soil moisture retention curve, proper

Russell S. Crosbie; Philip Binning; Jetse D. Kalma

2005-01-01

381

COMPARATIVE LIFE CYCLE ASSESSMENT OF ALCALINE CELLS AND NI-MH RECHARGEABLE BATTERIES  

E-print Network

Page 1 COMPARATIVE LIFE CYCLE ASSESSMENT OF ALCALINE CELLS AND NI-MH RECHARGEABLE BATTERIES Jean by applying the LCA methodology to evaluate the environmental footprint of alkaline cells and Ni-MH batteries phase. Besides, the emphasis on rechargeable batteries is only justified from an environmental point

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

382

Inferring time-varying recharge from inverse analysis of long-term water levels  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Water levels in aquifers typically vary in response to time-varying rates of recharge, suggesting the possibility of inferring time-varying recharge rates on the basis of long-term water level records. Presumably, in the southwestern United States (Arizona, Nevada, New Mexico, southern California, and southern Utah), rates of mountain front recharge to alluvial aquifers depend on variations in precipitation rates due to known climate cycles such as the El Nin??o-Southern Oscillation index and the Pacific Decadal Oscillation. This investigation examined the inverse application of a one-dimensional analytical model for periodic flow described by Lloyd R. Townley in 1995 to estimate periodic recharge variations on the basis of variations in long-term water level records using southwest aquifers as the case study. Time-varying water level records at various locations along the flow line were obtained by simulation of forward models of synthetic basins with applied sinusoidal recharge of either a single period or composite of multiple periods of length similar to known climate cycles. Periodic water level components, reconstructed using singular spectrum analysis (SSA), were used to calibrate the analytical model to estimate each recharge component. The results demonstrated that periodic recharge estimates were most accurate in basins with nearly uniform transmissivity and the accuracy of the recharge estimates depends on monitoring well location. A case study of the San Pedro Basin, Arizona, is presented as an example of calibrating the analytical model to real data.

Dickinson, J.E.; Hanson, R.T.; Ferre, T.P.A.; Leake, S.A.

2004-01-01

383

MODIS-aided statewide net groundwater-recharge estimation in Nebraska.  

PubMed

Monthly evapotranspiration (ET) rates (2000 to 2009) across Nebraska at about 1-km resolution were obtained by linear transformations of the MODIS (MODerate resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer) daytime surface temperature values with the help of the Priestley-Taylor equation and the complementary relationship of evaporation. For positive values of the mean annual precipitation and ET differences, the mean annual net recharge was found by an additional multiplication of the power-function-transformed groundwater vulnerability DRASTIC-code values. Statewide mean annual net recharge became about 29 mm (i.e., 5% of mean annual precipitation) with the largest recharge rates (in excess of 100 mm/year) found in the eastern Sand Hills and eastern Nebraska. Areas with the largest negative net recharge rates caused by declining groundwater levels due to large-scale irrigation are found in the south-western region of the state. Error bounds of the estimated values are within 10% to 15% of the corresponding precipitation rates and the estimated net recharge rates are sensitive to errors in the precipitation and ET values. This study largely confirms earlier base-flow analysis-based statewide groundwater recharge estimates when considerations are made for differences in the recharge definitions. The current approach not only provides better spatial resolution than available earlier studies for the region but also quantifies negative net recharge rates that become especially important in numerical modeling of shallow groundwater systems. PMID:23216050

Szilagyi, Jozsef; Jozsa, Janos

2013-01-01

384

Groundwater recharge and evapotranspiration for two natural ecosystems covered with oak and heather  

Microsoft Academic Search

The evapotranspiration and groundwater recharge from two natural areas with high (oak) and low (heath) vegetation were estimated by calibrating a semi-physical numerical soil water and heat model to fit 8 and 7 years of TDR-measurements of water content, respectively. The measurements were made between the surface and 7 m depth. For the oak stand, the estimated annual recharge for

U. L. Ladekarl; K. R. Rasmussen; S. Christensen; K. H. Jensen; B. Hansen

2005-01-01

385

Uncertainty quantification in predicting deep aquifer recharge rates, with applicability in the Power River Basin, Wyoming  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper proposes an approach to determine the uncertainties associated with a water budget model developed to predict recharge rates to deep aquifers in the Power River Basin of northeastern Wyoming. The inputs to this model are springtime snowmelt, streambed infiltration, infrequent convective rainfall, and evapotranspiration. The dominant recharge mechanism for the deeper aquifer units is assumed to be infiltrated

F. L. Ogden; K. Puckett

2006-01-01

386

Silicon nanowires as a rechargeable template for hydride transfer in redox biocatalysis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report a new possible application of hydrogen-terminated silicon nanowires (H-SiNWs) as a rechargeable template for hydride transfer in redox biocatalysis. H-SiNWs transfer hydride efficiently to regenerate NADH by oxidizing Si-Hx bonds. The oxidized H-SiNWs were readily recharged for the continuous regeneration of NADH and enzymatic reactions.

Lee, Hwa Young; Kim, Jae Hong; Son, Eun Jin; Park, Chan Beum

2012-11-01

387

77 FR 66084 - Tenth Meeting: RTCA Special Committee 225, Rechargeable Lithium Battery and Battery Systems-Small...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...RTCA Special Committee 225, Rechargeable Lithium Battery and Battery Systems--Small and Medium Size AGENCY: Federal...of RTCA Special Committee 225, Rechargeable Lithium Battery and Battery Systems--Small and Medium...

2012-11-01

388

77 FR 56253 - Ninth Meeting: RTCA Special Committee 225, Rechargeable Lithium Battery and Battery Systems-Small...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...RTCA Special Committee 225, Rechargeable Lithium Battery and Battery Systems--Small and Medium Size AGENCY: Federal...of RTCA Special Committee 225, Rechargeable Lithium Battery and Battery Systems--Small and Medium...

2012-09-12

389

76 FR 70531 - Fifth Meeting: RTCA Special Committee 225, Rechargeable Lithium Battery and Battery Systems-Small...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...RTCA Special Committee 225, Rechargeable Lithium Battery and Battery Systems--Small and Medium Size AGENCY: Federal...of RTCA Special Committee 225, Rechargeable Lithium Battery and Battery Systems--Small and Medium...

2011-11-14

390

ELSEVIER Journal of Hydrology180(1996)31-53 Groundwater recharge in the Victoria Nile basin of east  

E-print Network

recharge. Recharge investigations in this environment are typically inhibited by a shortage of good quality infiltration of rainfall, an assumption implicit in the soil moisture balance approach. Deforestation over

Jones, Peter JS

391

78 FR 52107 - Special Conditions: Boeing Model 777-200, -300, and -300ER Series Airplanes; Rechargeable Lithium...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...airworthiness standard for lead acid batteries and nickel cadmium batteries...of the nickel cadmium and lead acid rechargeable batteries. Rechargeable lithium ion...Unlike nickel cadmium and lead acid batteries, some types of lithium...

2013-08-22

392

78 FR 76731 - Special Conditions: Boeing Model 777-200, -300, and -300ER Series Airplanes; Rechargeable Lithium...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...airworthiness standard for lead acid batteries and nickel cadmium batteries...of the nickel cadmium and lead acid rechargeable batteries. Rechargeable lithium ion...Unlike nickel cadmium and lead acid batteries, some types of lithium...

2013-12-19

393

Coupled Model Development between Groundwater Recharge Quantity and Climate Change in Nakdong River Watershed using GIS  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

: Global climate change is disturbing the water circulation balance by changing rates of precipitation, recharge and discharge, and evapotranspiration. Groundwater, which occupies a considerable portion of the world's water resources, is related to climate change via surface water such as rivers, lakes, and marshes. In this study, the authors selected a relevant climate change scenario, A1B from the Special Report on Emission Scenario (SRES) which is distributed at Korea Meteorological Administration. By using data on temperature, rainfall, soil, and land use, the groundwater recharge rate for the research area was estimated by periodically and embodied as geographic information system (GIS). In order to calculate the groundwater recharge quantity, Visual HELP3 was used as main model, and the physical properties of weather, temperature, and soil layers were used as main input data. General changes to water circulation due to climate change have already been predicted. In order to systematically solve problems of ground circulation system, it may be urgent to recalculate the groundwater recharge quantity and consequent change under future climate change. The space-time calculation of changes of the groundwater recharge quantity in the study area may serve as a foundation to present additional measures to improve domestic groundwater resource management. Results showed that 26.19% of total precipitation was recharged from 1971 to 2000, 27.37% will be recharged from 2001 to 2030, 27.43% will be recharged from 2031 to 2050, and 26.06% will be recharged from 2051 to 2070, 27.88% will be recharged from 2051 to 2100. The groundwater recharge rate in this research showed susceptibility to changes in precipitation. The recharge rate was relatively little affected by the changes in Curve Number (CN), but it was rapidly reduced, as it approached the impermeable layers. Accordingly, the findings herein provide a basis for establishment of national plans on water resources management, use of groundwater in local areas for the purpose of settlement, and estimation of groundwater recharge quantities in areas where the groundwater hydrology is not measured. KEY WORDS: Groundwater recharge; Climate change; Curve Number; Special Report on Emissions Scenarios; Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change

Lee, M.; Jeongho, L.; Changsub, S.; SeongWoo, J.

2011-12-01

394

Climate Impact on Groundwater Recharge in Southeastern Louisiana and Southwestern Mississippi  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Increases of concentrations of CO2 and other greenhouse gases have a significant effect on global climate, precipitation and hydrology, which in turn influences recharge to aquifers. Groundwater recharge study is imperative to the sole source aquifer, for example the Southern Hills aquifer system in southeastern Louisiana and southwestern Mississippi, which provides more than 50 percent of the drinking water consumed in the area overlying the aquifer and has no substitute drinking water source(s). To trace the climate impact and its consequent groundwater availability, this study developed a GIS-based integrated framework to connect climate models to a high-resolution hydrologic model to quantify long-term groundwater recharge. We employed the Hydrologic Evaluation of Landfill Performance (HELP3) model as our hydrologic model to estimate spatial-temporal distribution of potential recharge for a regional scale. HELP3 model was especially suitable for our recharge study due to Louisiana humid climate and the use of a regional-scale water budget approach. Detailed surficial soil property and land cover were obtained from the NRCS and the USGS to derive maps of curve number for the HELP3 model. Wireline well logs and drillers logs were analyzed to determine stratigraphic lithology and the first major sand encountered beneath the soil layer. For a regional scale, we used global circulation model (GCM) downscaled daily precipitation and temperature obtained from USGS CASCaDE Project Climate Data as the forcing input to the HELP3 model. The emission scenarios considered in this study were A2, B1 and A1FI from Parallel Climate Model 1 (PCM) and from the NOAA Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Lab's GFDL CM2.1 model. We used the computed runoff from USGS WaterWatch along with the HELP3 model to calculate the recharge index (RI) and delineate the recharge index map for individual hydrologic units in terms of Hydrologic Unit Codes (HUCs). The recharge index was defined as the percentage of precipitation that recharges aquifers. High-resolution recharge index maps were obtained to quantify the spatial impact of climate change on long-term groundwater availability. The framework was applied to the recharge study on the Southern Hills aquifer system overlain by twenty HUCs. The RI map for the Southern Hill aquifer system was obtained based on the computed runoff data from 1951 to 2000 in WaterWatch. Then the HELP3 model was applied to recharge estimation from 2000 to 2050. The results showed the differences in recharge estimation given different climate scenarios. Moreover, the results showed spatial-temporal variation of recharge in the aquifer system due to variations in land use, soil characteristics and predicted meteorological variables.

Beigi, E.; Tsai, F. T.

2012-12-01

395

3/5/2014 Micro-Windmill Technology: Future Uses Include Recharging Your Smartphone | Philippine Latest News http://philsense.com/2014/01/11/micro-windmill-technology-future-uses-include-recharging-your-smartphone/ 1/6  

E-print Network

3/5/2014 Micro-Windmill Technology: Future Uses Include Recharging Your Smartphone | Philippine Latest News http://philsense.com/2014/01/11/micro-windmill-technology-future-uses-include-recharging-your-smartphone Micro-Windmill Technology: Future Uses Include Recharging Your Smartphone Your ads w ill be inserted

Chiao, Jung-Chih

396

4/2/2014 Micro windmills maysoon recharge your mobile phone -Yahoo News Philippines https://ph.news.yahoo.com/micro-windmills-may-soon-recharge-mobile-phone-091158453.html 1/1  

E-print Network

4/2/2014 Micro windmills maysoon recharge your mobile phone - Yahoo News Philippines https://ph.news.yahoo.com/micro-windmills-may-soon-recharge-mobile-phone-091158453.html 1/1 Micro windmills may soon recharge your mobile phone GMA News Online ­ Mon, Jan 13, 2014 Taking a cue from the Dutch

Chiao, Jung-Chih

397

1/12/14 Researchers Develop Micro-Windmills to Recharge Cell Phones www.sciencespacerobots.com/researchers-develop-micro-windmills-to-recharge-cell-phones-11020142 1/2  

E-print Network

1/12/14 Researchers Develop Micro-Windmills to Recharge Cell Phones www.sciencespacerobots.com/researchers-develop-micro-windmills-to-recharge-cell-phones-Windmills to Recharge Cell Phones A University of Texas at Arlington research associate and electrical engineering be used to charge cell phone batteries by embedding hundreds of them in a cell phone sleeve

Chiao, Jung-Chih

398

2/17/2014 TechnologyUses Micro-Windmills to Recharge Cell Phones http://powerelectronics.com/print/blog/technology-uses-micro-windmills-recharge-cell-phones?group_id=17022 1/2  

E-print Network

2/17/2014 TechnologyUses Micro-Windmills to Recharge Cell Phones http://powerelectronics.com/print/blog/technology-uses-micro-windmills-recharge-cell-phones?group_id=17022 1/2 print | close Technology Uses Micro-Windmills to Recharge Cell Phones Fri, 2014-01-24 14:30 A UT Arlington (Texas) research

Chiao, Jung-Chih

399

4/2/2014 Micro-windmills can recharge cell phones -PC Advisor http://www.pcadvisor.co.uk/news/digital-home/3497368/micro-windmills-can-recharge-cell-phones/ 1/12  

E-print Network

4/2/2014 Micro-windmills can recharge cell phones - PC Advisor http://www.pcadvisor.co.uk/news/digital-home/3497368/micro-windmills-can-recharge-cell-phones/ 1/12 Sign In Sign in with your email address Sign up;4/2/2014 Micro-windmills can recharge cell phones - PC Advisor http

Chiao, Jung-Chih

400

2/1/2014 New Micro-Windmill TechnologyTo Recharge Cell Phone Batteries http://www.technocrazed.com/new-micro-windmill-technology-to-recharge-cell-phone-batteries 1/4  

E-print Network

2/1/2014 New Micro-Windmill TechnologyTo Recharge Cell Phone Batteries http://www.technocrazed.com/new-micro-windmill-technology-to-recharge-cell-phone-batteries manual winding or new batteries. It is the researchers' dream to recharge the cell phone batteries automatically. So that these batteries provide the unlimited autonomy to the users. Luckily, an electrical

Chiao, Jung-Chih

401

Comparison of local- to regional-scale estimates of ground-water recharge in Minnesota, USA  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Regional ground-water recharge estimates for Minnesota were compared to estimates made on the basis of four local- and basin-scale methods. Three local-scale methods (unsaturated-zone water balance, water-table fluctuations (WTF) using three approaches, and age dating of ground water) yielded point estimates of recharge that represent spatial scales from about 1 to about 1000 m2. A fourth method (RORA, a basin-scale analysis of streamflow records using a recession-curve-displacement technique) yielded recharge estimates at a scale of 10-1000s of km2. The RORA basin-scale recharge estimates were regionalized to estimate recharge for the entire State of Minnesota on the basis of a regional regression recharge (RRR) model that also incorporated soil and climate data. Recharge rates estimated by the RRR model compared favorably to the local and basin-scale recharge estimates. RRR estimates at study locations were about 41% less on average than the unsaturated-zone water-balance estimates, ranged from 44% greater to 12% less than estimates that were based on the three WTF approaches, were about 4% less than the age dating of ground-water estimates, and were about 5% greater than the RORA estimates. Of the methods used in this study, the WTF method is the simplest and easiest to apply. Recharge estimates made on the basis of the UZWB method were inconsistent with the results from the other methods. Recharge estimates using the RRR model could be a good source of input for regional ground-water flow models; RRR model results currently are being applied for this purpose in USGS studies elsewhere. ?? 2006 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Delin, G. N.; Healy, R. W.; Lorenz, D. L.; Nimmo, J. R.

2007-01-01

402

Data-Conditioned Distributions of Groundwater Recharge Under Climate Change Scenarios  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Groundwater recharge is likely to be impacted by climate change, with changes in precipitation amounts altering moisture availability and changes in temperature affecting evaporative demand. This could have major implications for sustainable aquifer pumping rates and contaminant transport into groundwater reservoirs in the future, thus making predictions of recharge under climate change very important. Unfortunately, in dry environments where groundwater resources are often most critical, low recharge rates are difficult to resolve due to high sensitivity to modeling and input errors. Some recent studies on climate change and groundwater have considered recharge using a suite of general circulation model (GCM) weather predictions, an obvious and key source of uncertainty. This work extends beyond those efforts by also accounting for uncertainty in other land-surface model inputs in a probabilistic manner. Recharge predictions are made using a range of GCM projections for a rain-fed cotton site in the semi-arid Southern High Plains region of Texas. Results showed that model simulations using a range of unconstrained literature-based parameter values produce highly uncertain and often misleading recharge rates. Thus, distributional recharge predictions are found using soil and vegetation parameters conditioned on current unsaturated zone soil moisture and chloride concentration observations; assimilation of observations is carried out with an ensemble importance sampling method. Our findings show that the predicted distribution shapes can differ for the various GCM conditions considered, underscoring the importance of probabilistic analysis over deterministic simulations. The recharge predictions indicate that the temporal distribution (over seasons and rain events) of climate change will be particularly critical for groundwater impacts. Overall, changes in recharge amounts and intensity were often more pronounced than changes in annual precipitation and temperature, thus suggesting high susceptibility of groundwater systems to future climate change. Our approach provides a probabilistic sensitivity analysis of recharge under potential climate changes, which will be critical for future management of water resources.

McLaughlin, D.; Ng, G. C.; Entekhabi, D.; Scanlon, B.

2008-12-01

403

Conservation des Textiles  

E-print Network

Conservation des Textiles Les 22 et 23 mai 2013 Soit 2 jours - 14 heures OBJECTIFS DE LA FORMATION essentielles dans la gestion de collections textiles, depuis leur identification jusqu'à leur conservation conservation d'éléments et de collections textiles, et toutes personnes travaillant dans le domaine du

Brest, Université de

404

Therapiestrategien des fortgeschrittenen Nierenkarzinoms  

Microsoft Academic Search

Die Therapie des metastasierten Nierenkarzinoms hat in den letzten Jahren eine grundlegende Wandlung erfahren. Galt diese Entitt frher als infaust und inoperabel, so gilt mittlerweile als gesichert, dass die Tumornephrektomie auch bei metastasierten Primrtumoren als urologisch-onkologischer Standard gilt, sofern im individuellen Fall vertretbar und technisch machbar. Auch die operative Entfernung von Metastasen, sofern eine komplette Resektion mglich ist, gilt als

M. Staehler; N. Haseke; G. Schppler; T. Stadler; C. Adam; C. G. Stief

2006-01-01

405

Des Vents et des Jets Astrophysiques  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Plasma outflows from a central gravitating object are a widespread phenomenon in astrophysics. They include the solar and stellar winds, jets from Young Stellar Objects, jets from compact stellar objects and extra-galactic jets associated with Active Galactic Nuclei and quasars. Beyond this huge zoology, a common theoretical ground exists. The aim of this review is to present qualitatively the various theories of winds (Part 1) and how different astrophysical domains interplay. A more or less complete catalog of the ideas proposed for explaining the acceleration and the morphologies of winds and jets is intended. All this part avoids getting into any mathematical formalism. Some macroscopic properties of such outflows may be described by solving the time-independent and axisymmetric magnetohydrodynamic equations. This formalism, underlying most of the theories, is presented in Part 2. It helps to introduce quantitatively the free integrals that such systems possess. Those integrals play an important role in the basic physics of acceleration and collimation, in particular the mass loss rate, the angular momentum loss rate and the energy of the magnetic rotator. Most of the difficulty in modelling flows lies in the necessity to cross critical points, characteristic of non linear equations. The physical nature and the location of such critical points is debated because they are the clue towards the resolution. We thus introduce the notions of topology and critical points (Parts 3 and 4) from the simplest hydrodynamic and spherically symmetric case to the most sophisticated, MHD and axisymmetric cases. Particular attention is given to self-similar models which allows to give some general and simple ideas on the problem due to their semi-analytical treatment. With the use of these notions, a more quantitative comparison of the various models is given (Parts 3 and 4), especially on the shape of the flows. It is thus shown that magnetic collimation of winds into jets is a well expected result from the theory. Although, collimation may be conical, paraboloidal or cylindrical (Part 4), cylindrical collimation is the more likely to occur. The shape of outflows may then be used as a tool to predict physical conditions on the flows or on their source. L'jection continue de plasma autour d'objets massifs est un phnomne largement rpandu en astrophysique, que ce soit sous la forme du vent solaire, de vents stellaires, de jets d'toiles en formation, de jets stellaires autour d'objets compacts ou de jets extra-galactiques. Cette zoologie diversifie fait pourtant l'objet d'un commun effort de modlisation. Le but de cette revue est d'abord de prsenter qualitativement le dveloppement, depuis leur origine, des diverses thories de vents (Partie 1) et l'inter disciplinarit dans ce domaine. Il s'agit d'une numration, plus ou moins exhaustive, des ides proposes pour expliquer l'acclration et la morphologie des vents et des jets, accompagne d'une prsentation sommaire des aspects observationnels. Cette partie s'abstient de tout aspect faisant appel au formalisme mathmatique. Ces coulements peuvent tre dcrits, au moins partiellement, en rsolvant les quations magntohydrodynamiques, axisymtriques et stationnaires. Ce formalisme, la base de la plupart des thories, est expos dans la Partie 2. Il permet d'introduire quantitativement les intgrales premires qu'un tel systme possde. Ces dernires sont amenes jouer un rle important dans la comprhension des phnomnes d'acclration ou de collimation, en particulier le taux de perte de masse, le taux de perte de moment angulaire ou l'nergie du rotateur magntique. La difficult de modlisation rside dans l'existence de points critiques, propres aux quations non linaires, qu'il faut franchir. La nature physique et la localisation de ces points critiques fait l'objet d'un dbat important car ils sont la clef de voute de la rsolution. Nous introduisons donc la notion de topologie des points critiques (Parties 3 et 4

Sauty, C.

406

Temporal and spatial scaling of hydraulic response to recharge in fractured aquifers: Insights from a frequency domain analysis  

E-print Network

Temporal and spatial scaling of hydraulic response to recharge in fractured aquifers: Insights from investigate the hydraulic response to recharge of a fractured aquifer, using a frequency domain approach scaling of hydraulic response to recharge in fractured aquifers: Insights from a frequency domain analysis

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

407

Response to recharge variation of thin rainwater lenses and their mixing zone with underlying saline groundwater  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In coastal zones with saline groundwater, fresh groundwater lenses may form due to infiltration of rain water. The thickness of both the lens and the mixing zone, determines fresh water availability for plant growth. Due to recharge variation, the thickness of the lens and the mixing zone are not constant, which may adversely affect agricultural and natural vegetation if saline water reaches the root zone during the growing season. In this paper, we study the response of thin lenses and their mixing zone to variation of recharge. The recharge is varied using sinusoids with a range of amplitudes and frequencies. We vary lens characteristics by varying the Rayleigh number and Mass flux ratio of saline and fresh water, as these dominantly influence the thickness of thin lenses and their mixing zone. Numerical results show a linear relation between the normalised lens volume and the main lens and recharge characteristics, enabling an empirical approximation of the variation of lens thickness. Increase of the recharge amplitude causes increase and the increase of recharge frequency causes a decrease in the variation of lens thickness. The average lens thickness is not significantly influenced by these variations in recharge, contrary to the mixing zone thickness. The mixing zone thickness is compared to that of a Fickian mixing regime. A simple relation between the travelled distance of the centre of the mixing zone position due to variations in recharge and the mixing zone thickness is shown to be valid for both a sinusoidal recharge variation and actual records of daily recharge data. Starting from a step response function, convolution can be used to determine the effect of variable recharge in time. For a sinusoidal curve, we can determine delay of lens movement compared to the recharge curve as well as the lens amplitude, derived from the convolution integral. Together the proposed equations provide us with a first order approximation of lens characteristics using basic lens and recharge parameters without the use of numerical models. This enables the assessment of the vulnerability of any thin fresh water lens on saline, upward seeping groundwater to salinity stress in the root zone.

Eeman, S.; van der Zee, S. E. A. T. M.; Leijnse, A.; de Louw, P. G. B.; Maas, C.

2012-10-01

408

Response to recharge variation of thin lenses and their mixing zone with underlying saline groundwater  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In coastal zones with saline groundwater, fresh groundwater lenses may form due to infiltration of rain water. The thickness of both the lens and the mixing zone, determines fresh water availability for plant growth. Due to recharge variation, the thickness of the lens and the mixing zone are not constant, which may adversely affect agricultural and natural vegetation if saline water reaches the root zone during the growing season. In this paper, we study the response of thin lenses and their mixing zone to variation of recharge. The recharge is varied using sinusoids with a range of amplitudes and frequencies. We vary lens characteristics by varying the Rayleigh number and Mass flux ratio of saline and fresh water, as these dominantly influence the thickness of thin lenses and their mixing zone. Numerical results show a linear relation between the normalized lens volume and the main lens and recharge characteristics, enabling an analytical approximation of the variation of lens thickness. Increase of the recharge amplitude causes increase, and increase of recharge frequency causes decrease in the variation of lens thickness. The average lens thickness is not significantly influenced by these variations in recharge, contrary to the mixing zone thickness. The mixing zone thickness is compared to that of a Fickian mixing regime. A simple relation between the travelled distance of the center of the mixing zone position due to variations in recharge and the mixing zone thickness is shown to be valid for both a sinusoidal recharge variation and actual records of daily recharge data. Starting from a step response function, convolution can be used to determine the effect of variable recharge in time. For a sinusoidal curve, we can determine delay of lens movement compared to the recharge curve as well as the lens amplitude, derived from the convolution integral. Together the proposed equations provide us with a first order approximation of lens characteristics using basic lens and recharge parameters without the use of numerical models. This enables the assessment of the vulnerability of any thin fresh water lens on saline, upward seeping groundwater to salinity stress in the root zone.

Eeman, S.; van der Zee, S. E. A. T. M.; Leijnse, A.; de Louw, P. G. B.; Maas, C.

2012-01-01

409

Expos de synthse Etude immunochimique des molcules du CMH des  

E-print Network

Exposé de synthèse Etude immunochimique des molécules du CMH des bovins (BoLA) D. Levy, J'histocompatibilité - réunion scientifique - structure - fonction Bovine CMH (BoLA) molecules : immunochemical study major'histocom- patibilité (CMH) des bovins (BOLA) pré- sente un triple intérêt : - sur le plan économique, les bovins

Boyer, Edmond

410

Apprendre dialoguer avec des lves : le cas des dialogues philosophiques  

E-print Network

.*, & Daniel, M.-F. (2009). Apprendre à dialoguer > avec des élèves : le cas des dialogues philosophiques Daniel Laboratoire P.A.E.D.I. Iufm d'Auvergne, JE2432 & Laboratoire de psychologie cognitive et clinique maître qu'aux élèves ? Du côté du maître, existe-t-il des gestes professionnels susceptibles d'amener

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

411

charnues, des sauges, et des cosmos peine sor-  

E-print Network

°39 L'hebdo de l'?cole normale supérieure NOUVELLES DES SERVICES ELLES se nomment Lili Marlen, Queen'esprit de l'as- sidu du snack vers des nourritures moins terrestres, distraire le candidat au concours de des savoirs [cf. normale sup' info n°4] qui a pour vocation de mettre à la disposition de tous les

Gutkin, Boris

412

UNIVERSIT DE MONTRAL Facult des arts et des sciences  

E-print Network

UNIVERSIT? DE MONTR?AL Faculté des arts et des sciences Département d'informatique et de recherche'étudiant :_____________________________________________________________ (en caractère d'imprimerie) Code permanent : ________________________________________ Programme : M.Sc. Maîtrise (2-175-1-0) Informatique Ph.D. Doctorat (3-175-1-0) Informatique Trimestre/Année du début des

Montréal, Université de

413

A rechargeable hydrogen battery based on Ru catalysis.  

PubMed

Apart from energy generation, the storage and liberation of energy are among the major problems in establishing a sustainable energy supply chain. Herein we report the development of a rechargeable H2 battery which is based on the principle of the Ru-catalyzed hydrogenation of CO2 to formic acid (charging process) and the Ru-catalyzed decomposition of formic acid to CO2 and H2 (discharging process). Both processes are driven by the same catalyst at elevated temperature either under pressure (charging process) or pressure-free conditions (discharging process). Up to five charging-discharging cycles were performed without decrease of storage capacity. The resulting CO2/H2 mixture is free of CO and can be employed directly in fuel-cell technology. PMID:24803414

Hsu, Shih-Fan; Rommel, Susanne; Eversfield, Philipp; Muller, Keven; Klemm, Elias; Thiel, Werner R; Plietker, Bernd

2014-07-01

414

Status of the development of rechargeable lithium cells  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The progress in the development of the ambient temperature lithium - titanium disulfide rechargeable cell under development at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory is described in this paper. Originally aimed at achieving a specific energy of 100 Wh/kg, 'AA' cells have demonstrated 125 Wh/kg at the C/3 discharge rate. The results of evaluating cell design parameters are discussed and cycling test data are also included in the paper. Safety tests results at various over-charge and over discharge conditions and rates proved to be uneventful. The test results of cell with built-in overcharge mechanism proved the concept was feasible. Replacing the lithium foil electrode with a Li(x)C resulted in a capacity at 1mA/cm(exp 2) of 200 mAh/gm and 235 mAh/gm at 0.167 mA.

Halpert, G.; Surampudi, S.; Shen, D.; Huang, C.-K.; Narayanan, S.; Vamos, E.; Perrone, D.

1993-11-01

415

Biologically inspired pteridine redox centres for rechargeable batteries.  

PubMed

The use of biologically occurring redox centres holds a great potential in designing sustainable energy storage systems. Yet, to become practically feasible, it is critical to explore optimization strategies of biological redox compounds, along with in-depth studies regarding their underlying energy storage mechanisms. Here we report a molecular simplification strategy to tailor the redox unit of pteridine derivatives, which are essential components of ubiquitous electron transfer proteins in nature. We first apply pteridine systems of alloxazinic structure in lithium/sodium rechargeable batteries and unveil their reversible tautomerism during energy storage. Through the molecular tailoring, the pteridine electrodes can show outstanding performance, delivering 533?Wh?kg(-1) within 1?h and 348?Wh?kg(-1) within 1?min, as well as high cyclability retaining 96% of the initial capacity after 500 cycles at 10?A?g(-1). Our strategy combined with experimental and theoretical studies suggests guidance for the rational design of organic redox centres. PMID:25359101

Hong, Jihyun; Lee, Minah; Lee, Byungju; Seo, Dong-Hwa; Park, Chan Beum; Kang, Kisuk

2014-01-01

416

Using isotopes for design and monitoring of artificial recharge systems  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Over the past years, the IAEA has provided support to a number of Member States engaged in the implementation of hydrological projects dealing with the design and monitoring of artificial recharge ( A R ) systems, primarily situated in arid and semiarid regions. AR is defined as any engineered system designed to introduce water to, and store water in, underlying aquifers. Aquifer storage and recovery (ASR) is a specific type of AR used with the purpose of increasing groundwater resources. Different water management strategies have been tested under various geographical, hydrological and climatic regimes. However, the success of such schemes cannot easily be predicted, since many variables need to be taken into account in the early stages of every AR project.

Contributors: Hendriksson, N.; Kulongoski, J.T.; Massmann, G.; Newman, B.

2013-01-01

417

DOM in recharge waters of the Santa Ana River Basin  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The urban Santa Ana River in California is the primary source of recharge water for Orange County's groundwater basin, which provides water to more than two million residents. This study was undertaken to determine the unidentified portion of dissolved organic matter (DOM) in various natural surface and reclaimed waters of the Santa Ana River Basin and to assess the potential health risk of this material. The most abundant organic contaminants were anionic detergent degradation products (constituting about 12% of the DOM), which have no known adverse health effects. In addition, high percentages of dissolved colloids from bacterial cell walls were found during storm flows; these colloids foul membranes used in water treatment. Although no significant health risks were ascribed to the newly characterized DOM, the authors note that even the small amounts of humic substances deposited during storm flow periods were responsible for significant increases in disinfection by_product formation potential in these waters.

Leenheer, J. A.; Aiken, G. R.; Woodside, G.; O'Connor-Patel, K.

2007-01-01

418

Biologically inspired pteridine redox centres for rechargeable batteries  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The use of biologically occurring redox centres holds a great potential in designing sustainable energy storage systems. Yet, to become practically feasible, it is critical to explore optimization strategies of biological redox compounds, along with in-depth studies regarding their underlying energy storage mechanisms. Here we report a molecular simplification strategy to tailor the redox unit of pteridine derivatives, which are essential components of ubiquitous electron transfer proteins in nature. We first apply pteridine systems of alloxazinic structure in lithium/sodium rechargeable batteries and unveil their reversible tautomerism during energy storage. Through the molecular tailoring, the pteridine electrodes can show outstanding performance, delivering 533?Wh?kg?1 within 1?h and 348?Wh?kg?1 within 1?min, as well as high cyclability retaining 96% of the initial capacity after 500 cycles at 10?A?g?1. Our strategy combined with experimental and theoretical studies suggests guidance for the rational design of organic redox centres.

Hong, Jihyun; Lee, Minah; Lee, Byungju; Seo, Dong-Hwa; Park, Chan Beum; Kang, Kisuk

2014-10-01

419

Status of the development of rechargeable lithium cells  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The progress in the development of the ambient temperature lithium - titanium disulfide rechargeable cell under development at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory is described in this paper. Originally aimed at achieving a specific energy of 100 Wh/kg, 'AA' cells have demonstrated 125 Wh/kg at the C/3 discharge rate. The results of evaluating cell design parameters are discussed and cycling test data are also included in the paper. Safety tests results at various over-charge and over discharge conditions and rates proved to be uneventful. The test results of cell with built-in overcharge mechanism proved the concept was feasible. Replacing the lithium foil electrode with a Li(x)C resulted in a capacity at 1mA/cm(exp 2) of 200 mAh/gm and 235 mAh/gm at 0.167 mA.

Halpert, G.; Surampudi, S.; Shen, D.; Huang, C-K.; Narayanan, S.; Vamos, E.; Perrone, D.

1993-01-01

420

Overcharge protection for rechargeable lithium polymer electrolyte batteries  

SciTech Connect

Overcharge protection for rechargeable lithium polymer electrolyte cells by addition of redox shuttle additives to the polymer electrolyte was examined. Shuttle onset potentials and effective diffusion coefficients were determined for 12 redox shuttle species in polyethylene oxide-based electrolytes at 85 C. The four most promising additives were tested in Li/PEO-LiN(SO{sub 2}CF{sub 3}){sub 2}/Li{sub 2+x}Mn{sub 4}O{sub 9} cells under normal and severe overcharging conditions. In addition to tricyanobenzene and tetracyanoquinodimethane, two anionic redox shuttle additives, salts of 1,2,4-triazole and imidazole, demonstrated effectiveness in extending cycle life and good compatibility with cell components.

Richardson, T.J.; Ross, P.N. Jr. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab., CA (United States). Materials Sciences Div.

1996-12-01

421

Layered cathode materials for lithium ion rechargeable batteries  

DOEpatents

A number of materials with the composition Li.sub.1+xNi.sub..alpha.Mn.sub..beta.Co.sub..gamma.M'.sub..delta.O.sub.2-- zF.sub.z (M'=Mg,Zn,Al,Ga,B,Zr,Ti) for use with rechargeable batteries, wherein x is between about 0 and 0.3, .alpha. is between about 0.2 and 0.6, .beta. is between about 0.2 and 0.6, .gamma. is between about 0 and 0.3, .delta. is between about 0 and 0.15, and z is between about 0 and 0.2. Adding the above metal and fluorine dopants affects capacity, impedance, and stability of the layered oxide structure during electrochemical cycling.

Kang, Sun-Ho (Naperville, IL); Amine, Khalil (Downers Grove, IL)

2007-04-17

422

Palaeo-Recharge Impact on Aquifer Hydrodynamics: Paris Basin Case  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Here we investigate the response of the Paris basin groundwater system to variations in its hydrodynamic boundary conditions induced by past climate and geodynamic changes over the last five million years. For the purpose of this work, a three-dimensional transient modeling of the Paris basin aquifer/aquitard system was developed using the code NEWSAM (Paris School of Mine). The geometry and hydrodynamic parameters of the model originate from a basin model, NEWBAS (Paris School of Mine), built to simulate the geological history of the basin. Geomorphologic evolution is deduced from digital elevation model analysis, which allows estimating of river-valley incision and alpine uptlif. Climate forcing results from palaeoclimate modeling experiments using the LMDz atmospheric general circulation model (Pierre Simon Laplace Institute) with a refined spatial resolution, for the present, the Last Glacial Maximum (21 kyr BP) and the Middle Pliocene (~3 Myr). The water balance is computed by the distributed hydrological model MODSUR (Paris School of Mine) and provides recharge value to aquifer at each time step. We present the simulated evolution of piezometric heads in the system in response to the altered boundary conditions. For the present, the comparison of head patterns between steady state and time dependent simulation shows little differences for aquifer layers close to the surface but suggests a transient state of the current system in the main aquitards of the basin and in the deep aquifers, characterized by abnormally low fluid potentials. The dependence of the boundary-induced transient effects on the hydraulic diffusivity is illustrated by means of a sensitivity study. Time dependant change of recharge induces rapid inversion of leakage orientation through the multilayered aquifers that may induce modification of groundwater quality.

Jost, A.; Violette, S.; Goncalves, J.; Ledoux, E.; Guillocheau, F.; Ramstein, G.; Suc, J.

2007-12-01

423

Die Theorie des Radikalen Konstruktivismus im Kommunikationsmodell des NLP.  

E-print Network

??Der Radikale Konstruktivismus setzt sich mit dem Verhltnis von Wissen und Wirklichkeit auseinander. In der Theorie des Radikalen Konstruktivismus ist die Wirklichkeit keine objektive Voraussetzung, (more)

Brezna, Christa

2009-01-01

424

Die Kommerzialisierung des Kinderfernsehens unter besonderer Bercksichtigung des Merchandising.  

E-print Network

??Die vorliegende Arbeit thematisiert die Kommerzialisierungsentwicklungen im Kinderfernsehprogramm im deutschsprachigen Raum unter besonderer Bercksichtigung der Praxis des Merchandising. Die Beobachtung, dass uns Figuren aus dem (more)

Nigl, Andrea

2009-01-01

425

Les protines des corps d'inclusion des Baculovirus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rsum頠La comparaison des granules ou des protines de granules desBaculovirus dePieris brassicae, Pygaera anastomosis, Hyphantria cunea, Carpocapsa pomonella, Mythimna unipuncta, Mamestra oleracea a t entreprise par les techniques d'lectrophorse, d'agglutination, d'immunofluorescence et de prcipitation en gel. L'lectrophorse\\u000a fait apparatre l'troite ressemblance qui existe entre les protines des six sortes de corps d'inclusion. L'analyse immunochimique\\u000a montre que chaque granule est bien

G. Croizier; G. Meynadier

1973-01-01

426

Multiple-methods investigation of recharge at a humid-region fractured rock site, Pennsylvania, USA  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Lysimeter-percolate and well-hydrograph analyses were combined to evaluate recharge for the Masser Recharge Site (central Pennsylvania, USA). In humid regions, aquifer recharge through an unconfined low-porosity fractured-rock aquifer can cause large magnitude water-table fluctuations over short time scales. The unsaturated hydraulic characteristics of the subsurface porous media control the magnitude and timing of these fluctuations. Data from multiple sets of lysimeters at the site show a highly seasonal pattern of percolate and exhibit variability due to both installation factors and hydraulic property heterogeneity. Individual event analysis of well hydrograph data reveals the primary influences on water-table response, namely rainfall depth, rainfall intensity, and initial water-table depth. Spatial and seasonal variability in well response is also evident. A new approach for calculating recharge from continuous water-table elevation records using a master recession curve (MRC) is demonstrated. The recharge estimated by the MRC approach when assuming a constant specific yield is seasonal to a lesser degree than the recharge estimate resulting from the lysimeter analysis. Partial reconciliation of the two recharge estimates is achieved by considering a conceptual model of flow processes in the highly-heterogeneous underlying fractured porous medium. ?? Springer-Verlag 2007.

Heppner, C. S.; Nimmo, J. R.; Folmar, G. J.; Gburek, W. J.; Risser, D. W.

2007-01-01

427

Estimation of natural groundwater recharge in the Karoo aquifers of South Africa  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A 3-year project, to study the natural groundwater recharge of aquifers in the semi-arid Karoo formations of South Africa, was undertaken. Two typical Karoo aquifers, at Dewetsdorp and De Aar, were selected for study purposes. Data were collected from both the saturated and unsaturated zone. Neutron probe measurements showed that there was no increase in the water content beneath a depth of 1m below the surface. Even with the exceptionally high rainfall in February 1988, neutron measurements indicated that very little soil matrix flow occurred, which implied that most of the recharge occurred along preferred pathways. A triangular finite element network was used to determine the relative saturated volume fluctuations (SVF) of the aquifers from the observed water-level changes over a period of time, which allowed determination of the storativity S and the recharge. The main advantage of the method lies in determining recharge and storativity which are both unknowns in the water balance equation and which both contribute to the water-level response. The SVF method showed that the recharge in the Karoo formations of South Africa varies between 2 and 5% of the annual rainfall. In areas which are overlain by a thick soil cover, the recharge is less than 3%, while recharge in hilly areas with a thin soil cover may be of the order of 5%.

Van Tonder, G. J.; Kirchner, J.

1990-12-01

428

Estimation of natural recharge and its dependency on sub-surface geoelectric parameters  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Natural groundwater recharge is estimated using the injected tracer technique in the Bairasagara watershed of Kolar district, Karnataka (India) comprising of medium grained granite and granitic gneiss with weathering/fracturing up to 46 m depth. On a macroscopic scale, it is estimated that the weathered granites act as a uniform body having a recharge capacity of about 6-200 mm per annum for an average value of rainfall of 968 mm. Marked differences of infiltration rates (nil to 130 cm/year) were observed under cultivated and dry areas. The water level fluctuation and recharge are found to be minimum in the ayacut area as compared to the catchment area. Studies helped in demarcating recharge and discharge areas. Qualitative correlation studies of estimated natural groundwater recharge have been carried out with depth to basement, resistivity of subsurface layers, and water level fluctuations. An attempt has been made to get empirical relationships between recharge vs. depth to basement, and recharge vs. water level fluctuations. The paper discusses the studies carried out, the result obtained, and the importance of such studies in the evaluation of groundwater resources.

Chand, R.; Chandra, S.; Rao, V. A.; Singh, V. S.; Jain, S. C.

2004-11-01

429

Mechanisms of subglacial groundwater recharge as derived from noble gas, 14C, and stable isotopic data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Noble gas, stable isotope and 14C data from samples collected along groundwater flow path within a confined Paleozoic aquifer in northeastern Wisconsin, USA are used to deduce the effect of the Laurentide Ice Sheet (LIS) on the underlying groundwater and its recharge dynamics. During the last glacial maximum the investigated area was near the center of the Green Bay Lobe of the LIS. 14C ages that extend to 26 k.a. and low ?18O derived temperatures during the time that the LIS was present indicate that aquifer recharge continued when ice covered the area. ?18O values as low as -17.5 and ?2H values as low as -127.7 indicate that a significant portion of aquifer recharge was derived from glacial meltwater that maintained its glacial isotopic signature during melting and subsequent recharge. Noble gas temperatures that remain above freezing at a constant ~3 C, unusually high excess air (?Ne) values and noble gas fractionation patterns indicate that recharge occurred across a very dynamic water table located within the ice sheet. This englacial hydrologic system experienced recharge heads of as much as 7.8 m. Evidence for direct recharge of basal meltwater into the aquifer is not seen. To the authors' knowledge this is the first time that noble gas and isotope tracers have been used to deduce the provenance of aquifer water beneath continental ice sheets.

Grundl, Tim; Magnusson, Nathan; Brennwald, Matthias S.; Kipfer, Rolf

2013-05-01

430

Comparison of recharge estimates at a small watershed in east-central Pennsylvania, USA  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The common recommendation that recharge should be estimated from multiple methods is sound, but the inherent differences of the methods make it difficult to assess the accuracy of differing results. In this study, four methods for estimating groundwater recharge and two methods for estimating base flow (as a proxy for recharge) are compared at two hydrologic research sites in east-central Pennsylvania, USA. Results from the multiple methods all provided reasonable estimates of groundwater recharge that differed considerably. The estimates of mean annual recharge for the period 1994-2001 ranged from 22.9 to 35.7 cm - about 45% of the mean of all estimates. For individual years, recharge estimates from the multiple methods ranged from 30 to 42% of the mean value during the dry years and 64 to 76% of the mean value during wet years. Comparison of multiple methods was found to be useful for determining the range of plausible recharge rates and highlighting the uncertainty of the estimates. ?? US Government 2008.

Risser, D.W.; Gburek, W.J.; Folmar, G.J.

2009-01-01

431

Interactions of diffuse and focused allogenic recharge in an eogenetic karst aquifer (Florida, USA)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The karstic upper Floridan aquifer in north-central Florida (USA) is recharged by both diffuse and allogenic recharge. To understand how recharged water moves within the aquifer, water levels and specific conductivities were monitored and slug tests were conducted in wells installed in the aquifer surrounding the Santa Fe River Sink and Rise. Results indicate that diffuse recharge does not mix rapidly within the aquifer but instead flows horizontally. Stratification may be aided by the high matrix porosity of the eogenetic karst aquifer. Purging wells for sample collection perturbed conductivity for several days, reflecting mixing of the stratified water and rendering collection of representative samples difficult. Interpretive numerical simulations suggest that diffuse recharge impacts the intrusion of allogenic water from the conduit by increasing hydraulic head in the surrounding aquifer and thereby reducing influx to the aquifer from the conduit. In turn, the increase of head within the conduits affects flow paths of diffuse recharge by moving newly recharged water vertically as the water table rises and falls. This movement may result in a broad vertical zone of dissolution at the water table above the conduit system, with thinner and more focused water-table dissolution at greater distance from the conduit.

Langston, Abigail L.; Screaton, Elizabeth J.; Martin, Jonathan B.; Bailly-Comte, Vincent

2012-06-01

432

Artificial Groundwater Recharge Zones Mapping Using Remote Sensing and GIS: A Case Study in Indian Punjab  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Artificial groundwater recharge plays a vital role in sustainable management of groundwater resources. The present study was carried out to identify the artificial groundwater recharge zones in Bist Doab basin of Indian Punjab using remote sensing and geographical information system (GIS) for augmenting groundwater resources. The study area has been facing severe water scarcity due to intensive agriculture for the past few years. The thematic layers considered in the present study are: geomorphology (2004), geology (2004), land use/land cover (2008), drainage density, slope, soil texture (2000), aquifer transmissivity, and specific yield. Different themes and related features were assigned proper weights based on their relative contribution to groundwater recharge. Normalized weights were computed using the Saaty's analytic hierarchy process. Thematic layers were integrated in ArcGIS for delineation of artificial groundwater recharge zones. The recharge map thus obtained was divided into four zones (poor, moderate, good, and very good) based on their influence to groundwater recharge. Results indicate that 15, 18, 37, and 30 % of the study area falls under "poor," "moderate," "good," and "very good" groundwater recharge zones, respectively. The highest recharge potential area is located towards western and parts of middle region because of high infiltration rates caused due to the distribution of flood plains, alluvial plain, and agricultural land. The least effective recharge potential is in the eastern and middle parts of the study area due to low infiltration rate. The results of the study can be used to formulate an efficient groundwater management plan for sustainable utilization of limited groundwater resources.

Singh, Amanpreet; Panda, S. N.; Kumar, K. S.; Sharma, Chandra Shekhar

2013-07-01

433

Estimation of shallow ground-water recharge in the Great Lakes basin  

USGS Publications Warehouse

This report presents the results of the first known integrated study of long-term average ground-water recharge to shallow aquifers (generally less than 100 feet deep) in the United States and Canada for the Great Lakes, upper St. Lawrence, and Ottawa River Basins. The approach used was consistent throughout the study area and allows direct comparison of recharge rates in disparate parts of the study area. Estimates of recharge are based on base-flow estimates for streams throughout the Great Lakes Basin and the assumption that base flow in a given stream is equal to the amount of shallow ground-water recharge to the surrounding watershed, minus losses to evapotranspiration. Base-flow estimates were developed throughout the study area using a single model based on an empirical relation between measured base-flow characteristics at streamflow-gaging stations and the surficial-geologic materials, which consist of bedrock, coarse-textured deposits, fine-textured deposits, till, and organic matter, in the surrounding surface-water watershed. Model calibration was performed using base-flow index (BFI) estimates for 959 stations in the U.S. and Canada using a combined 28,784 years of daily streamflow record determined using the hydrograph-separation software program PART. Results are presented for watersheds represented by 8-digit hydrologic unit code (HUC, U.S.) and tertiary (Canada) watersheds. Recharge values were lowest (1.6-4.0 inches/year) in the eastern Lower Peninsula of Michigan; southwest of Green Bay, Wisconsin; in northwestern Ohio; and immediately south of the St. Lawrence River northeast of Lake Ontario. Recharge values were highest (12-16.8 inches/year) in snow shadow areas east and southeast of each Great Lake. Further studies of deep aquifer recharge and the temporal variability of recharge would be needed to gain a more complete understanding of ground-water recharge in the Great Lakes Basin.

Neff, B.P.; Piggott, A.R.; Sheets, R.A.

2006-01-01

434

Chemical and isotopic indicators of point-source recharge to a karst aquifer, South Australia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Several hundred sinkholes, swamps and open drainage boreholes throughout the semi-arid to sub-humid areas of the southeast of South Australia are potential recharge sites to the upper part of the Gambier Limestone aquifer. This paper presents the results from a hydrochemical (Cl - and carbonate chemistry) and isotopic ( ?2H, S 18O and 36Cl study used to estimate the importance of localised recharge from these point-source features to the karstic groundwater system. Results show that water recharging the groundwater via point-source features is detectable only on a local scale. Chemical and isotopic compositions of groundwaters more than 150 m from the larger of the point-source features are indistinguishable from regional groundwater compositions. Chloride concentrations, carbonate chemistry, and isotope data show that annual input of water via point sources contributes less than 10% of total recharge, with diffuse recharge providing the remainder to the study area as a whole. Point-source recharge is generally intermittent, and was observed to occur only for a few days at a time and only after a threshold of sustained rainfall had been exceeded (i.e. greater than 2.5 mm day -1 for more than 3 days). The stable isotopic composition of waters recharging via sinkholes tends to be enriched in 2H and 18O relative to regional groundwater and local precipitation. This is probably caused by a small degree of evaporation (less than 596 of water falling within the catchment) occurring during winter at high relative humidity (greater than 9596) before recharge. 36Cl from weapons testing is detectable in groundwaters near sinkholes and indicates significant retardation of Cl - within soils of the respective sub-drainage systems. Recharge has therefore occurred within the past 30 years, but cannot be quantified with any reliable precision from the 36Cl data.

Herczeg, A. L.; Leaney, F. W. J.; Stadler, M. F.; Allan, G. L.; Fifield, L. K.

1997-05-01

435

The ophiolite of the Eohellenic nappe in the island of Skyros, Greece: Geotectonic environment of formation and metamorphic conditions inferred by mineralogical and geochemical data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The island of Skyros is located in the Sporades-Aegean region. It includes an ophiolitic mlange sequence consisting of serpentinites, gabbroic and doleritic rocks, and also lavas which mostly appear in massive form, but in rare cases as deformed pillows. The ophiolitic mlange sequence also includes rodingites, ophicalcites, as well as radiolarites. This formation belongs to the Eohellenic tectonic nappe, which encompasses marbles, sandstones and schists and was emplaced onto the Pelagonian Zone during Early Cretaceous [1, 2]. Serpentinites were most likely formed after serpentinization of harzburgitic protoliths and consist of serpentine, bastite, spinel and magnetite. The chemistry of spinels (TiO2=0.14-0.25 wt.%, Al2O3=35.1-35.21 wt.%, Cr#=37.38-38.87), shows that the harzburgitic protoliths plausibly resemble back-arc basin peridotites [3]. Gabbros and dolerites present mostly subophitic textures, between the hornblende/clinopyroxene and plagioclase grains. Based upon their petrography and on their mineral chemistry hornblendes have been distinguished into magmatic and metamorphic hornblendes, with the first occurring mostly in gabbroic rocks. Magmatic hornblendes exhibit relatively high TiO2 (1.42-1.62 wt.%), Al2O3 (5.11-5.86 wt.%) and Na2O (1.01-1.09 wt.%) contents, with their presence implying that the magma was at least to some degree hydrous. Lavas are tholeiitic basalts with relatively high FeOt?12 wt.% and low K2O and Th contents, consisting mostly albite, altered clinopyroxene and devitrified glass. Tectonomagmatic discrimination diagrams [4, 5] illustrate that the studied gabbros and lavas of Skyros are most likely associated with SSZ processes. Gabbroic rocks, subvolcanic dolerites and lavas have been subjected to greenschist/subgreenschist metamorphic processes, as confirmed by the presence of secondary amphiboles (metamorphic hornblende, actinolite/tremolite), epidote, pumpellyite and chlorite in all of the studied samples. On the other hand, the occurrence of rodingites and ophicalcites clearly point to interaction of the gabbroic rocks and serpentinites with hydrothermal fluids, which most probably took place during the stage of exhumation and tectonic emplacement. Ophicalcites contain serpentine, calcite, magnetite, as well as rare pyroxene and spinel. Rodingites on their behalf include hydroandradite (Alm0.00Adr61.33-67.43Grs28.25-35.18Prp0.10-2.49Sps0.00-0.33Uv0.41-2.75), vesuvianite (MgO=2.78-3.33 wt.%; TiO2=0.02-0.59 wt.%) diopside neoblasts (En48.53-49.89Wo47.56-48.10Fs2.32-3.33; Mg#=93.96-96.28), chlorite and also accessory prehnite. Some small-sized Cr-bearing hydrogarnet crystals (Cr2O3=10.34 wt.%) were most likely formed at the expense of spinel. The types of hydrogarnet and vesuvianite crystals are highly indicative for the involvement of subduction-related fluids during the formation of the rodingites [6]. References: [1] Jacobshagen & Wallbrecher 1984: Geol. Soc., London, Sp. Pub. 17, 591-602, [2] Pe-Piper 1991: Ofioliti, 16, 111 - 120, [3] Kamenetsky Sobolev, Joron & Semet 2001: J Petrol 42, 655-671, [4] Agrawal, Guevara & Verma 2008: Intern. Geol. Rev. 50, 1057-1079, [5] Pearce & Cann 1973: Earth Plan. Sci. Lett. 19, 290-300, [6] Koutsovitis, Magganas, Pomonis & Ntaflos 2013. Lithos 172-173, 139-157.

Karkalis, Christos; Magganas, Andreas; Koutsovitis, Petros

2014-05-01

436

Coupling of Oceanic and Continental Crust During Eocene Eclogite-Facies Metamorphism: Evidence From the Monte Rosa Nappe, Western Alps, Italy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Subduction of continental crust to HP-UHP metamorphic conditions requires overcoming density contrasts that are unfavorable to deep burial, whereas exhumation of these rocks can be reasonably explained through buoyancy-assisted transport in the subduction channel to more shallow depths. In the western Alps, both continental and oceanic lithosphere has been subducted to eclogite-facies metamorphic conditions. The burial and exhumation histories of these sections of lithosphere bear directly on the dynamics of subduction and the stacking of units within the subduction channel. We address the burial history of the continental crust with high precision U-Pb rutile and Lu-Hf garnet geochronology of the eclogite-facies Monte Rosa nappe (MR), western Alps, Italy. U-Pb rutile ages from quartz-carbonate-white mica-rutile veins that are hosted within eclogite and schist of the MR, Gressoney Valley, Italy, indicate that it was at eclogite-facies metamorphic conditions at 42.6 +/- 0.6 Ma. The sample area (Indren glacier, Furgg zone; Dal Piaz, 2001) consists of eclogite boudins that are surrounded by micaceous schist. Associated with the eclogite and schist are quartz-carbonate-white mica-rutile veins that formed in tension cracks in the eclogite and along the contact between eclogite and surrounding schist. Intrusion of the veins occurred at eclogite-facies metamorphic conditions (480-570C, >1.3-1.4 GPa) based on textural relations, oxygen isotope thermometry, and geothermobarometry. Lu-Hf geochronology of garnet from a chloritoid-talc-garnet-phengite-quartz-calcite-pyrite - chalcopyrite bearing boudin within talc-chloritoid whiteschists of the MR, Val d'Ayas, Italy (Chopin and Monie, 1984; Pawlig, 2001) yields an age of 40.54 +/- 0.36 Ma. The talc-chloritoid whiteschists from the area record pressures and temperatures of 1.6-2.4 GPa and 500-530C (Chopin and Monie, 1984; Le Bayon et al., 2006) indicating near UHP metamorphic conditions. Based on the age, P-T, and textural data, the rutile age likely represents the prograde-leg of the eclogite-facies P-T path whereas the Lu-Hf garnet age likely represents higher grade metamorphic conditions. The timing of eclogite-facies metamorphism in the MR is within the same time interval as the duration of prograde metamorphism (~55-40) recorded in the structurally overlying Zermatt-Saas ophiolite (ZSO; e.g., Amato et al., 1999; Lapen et al., 2003; Mahlen et al., this meeting). In particular, the Lu-Hf garnet age from the MR is identical within error to a relatively young 40.8 +/- 1.8 Ma Lu-Hf garnet-whole rock-cpx age from a structurally low slice of the ZSO at Saas-Fee, Switzerland (Mahlen et al., this meeting). Not only do the ages of eclogite-facies metamorphism overlap between the MR and ZSO, but so do the P-T conditions (e.g., between 1.6-2.8 GPa; 500-600C). These data, combined with the relative structural positions of the MR and ZSO in the western Alps, suggest that the MR and ZSO were likely juxtaposed within the subduction channel through underplating of the MR beneath the ZSO. The strong negative buoyancy of the MR has likely aided in the exhumation of sections of the ZSO. Therefore, coupling of continental and oceanic terranes in a subduction channel, perhaps a general feature in the western Alps, may be critical in preventing permanent loss of oceanic crust to the mantle.

Lapen, T. J.; Johnson, C. M.; Baumgartner, L. P.; Skora, S.; Mahlen, N. J.; Beard, B. L.

2006-12-01

437

Iron-Air Rechargeable Battery: A Robust and Inexpensive Iron-Air Rechargeable Battery for Grid-Scale Energy Storage  

SciTech Connect

GRIDS Project: USC is developing an iron-air rechargeable battery for large-scale energy storage that could help integrate renewable energy sources into the electric grid. Iron-air batteries have the potential to store large amounts of energy at low costiron is inexpensive and abundant, while oxygen is freely obtained from the air we breathe. However, current iron-air battery technologies have suffered from low efficiency and short life spans. USC is working to dramatically increase the efficiency of the battery by placing chemical additives on the batterys iron-based electrode and restructuring the catalysts at the molecular level on the batterys air-based electrode. This can help the battery resist degradation and increase life span. The goal of the project is to develop a prototype iron-air battery at significantly cost lower than todays best commercial batteries.

None

2010-10-01

438

Probabilistic Analysis of Rechargeable Batteries in a Photovoltaic Power Supply System  

SciTech Connect

We developed a model for the probabilistic behavior of a rechargeable battery acting as the energy storage component in a photovoltaic power supply system. Stochastic and deterministic models are created to simulate the behavior of the system component;. The components are the solar resource, the photovoltaic power supply system, the