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1

Recharge  

SciTech Connect

This chapter describes briefly the nature and measurement of recharge in support of the CH2M HILL Tank Farm Vadose Zone Project. Appendix C (Recharge) and the Recharge Data Package (Fayer and Keller 2007) provide a more thorough and extensive review of the recharge process and the estimation of recharge rates for the forthcoming RCRA Facility Investigation report for Hanford single-shell tank (SST) Waste Management Areas (WMAs).

Fayer, Michael J.

2008-01-17

2

Recharge characteristics of a phreatic aquifer as determined by storage accumulation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The cumulative storage accumulation curve (CSAC) is a tool for saturated-volume fluctuation (SVF) analysis of transient recharge to shallow phreatic aquifers discharging only to springs. The method assumes that little underflow or phreatic evapotranspiration occurs. The CSAC is a modified water-table hydrograph that distinguishes storage increase caused by recharge from loss due to springflow-induced recession. Required for the analysis are water-table fluctuations at a single representative location within the catchment of a single spring and either direct measurements or robust interpolations of springflows at different aquifer stages. The method employs empirical manipulation of head observations, varying spring catchment area to minimize CSAC water-level changes in late portions of long recessions. Results include volumetric estimates of recharge integrated over individual events and instantaneous rates of recharge to the water table, at the temporal resolution of the water-level sampling interval. The analysis may also yield physically realistic information on spring catchment and recharge focusing. In a test case in West Virginia, USA, recharge estimates by this technique were consistent with integrated springflow time series but greater than estimates based on potential evapotranspiration. Results give insight into dynamic recharge behavior over time as well as an indication of recharge catchment size. Résumé. La courbe cumulative de stockage est un outil d'analyse de la fluctuation du volume de la zone saturée en recharge transitoire de nappes peu profondes se déchargeant uniquement par des sources. La méthode suppose que les effets de la drainance ou de l'évapotranspiration sont faibles. La courbe cumulative de stockage est un hydrogramme de nappe modifié qui fait la distinction entre l'accroissement du stockage dû à la recharge et les pertes dues à la récession liée à l'écoulement aux sources. Sont nécessaires pour cette analyse les fluctuations de la nappe en un point unique représentatif du bassin d'alimentation d'une source unique et soit des mesures directes soit des interpolations robustes des écoulements à la source pour les différents états de l'aquifère. La méthode recourt à une manipulation empirique des observations de la piézométrie, faisant varier l'extension du bassin d'alimentation de la source, afin de minimiser les variations du niveau de la nappe liées à la courbe cumulative de stockage dans les parties lointaines des longues récessions. Les résultats prennent en compte les estimations de volume de la recharge intégré sur des événements individuels et sur des taux instantanés de recharge de la nappe, pour une résolution temporelle de l'intervalle d'observation de la nappe. L'analyse peut aussi fournir une information physiquement réaliste sur le bassin d'alimentation de la source et sur la concentration de la recharge. Dans un test effectué en Virginie occidentale (États-Unis), les estimations de la recharge par cette technique concordaient avec la chronique des débits de la source, mais étaient supérieures à celles basées sur l'évapotranspiration potentielle. Les résultats donnent un aperçu sur le comportement de la recharge dynamique au cours du temps aussi bien qu'une indication sur l'étendue de l'aire de recharge. Resumen. La curva acumulativa de incremento de almacenamiento (acrónimo CSAC, en inglés) es una herramienta para analizar la fluctuación del volumen saturado debida a la recarga transitoria en acuíferos freáticos someros que descargan únicamente por medio de manantiales. El método presupone que la evapotranspiración desde el nivel freático es pequeña. El CSAC es un hidrógrafo modificado del nivel freático, que permite distinguir el aumento de almacenamiento causado por la recarga de la descarga a través de los manantiales. El análisis requiere conocer las fluctuaciones del nivel freático en un punto representativo dentro de la cuenca de un manantial y, o bien medidas o bien interpolaciones robustas de los caudales en el

Ketchum, Neil; Donovan, Joseph; Avery, William

2000-09-01

3

Identifying and quantifying urban recharge: a review  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The sources of and pathways for groundwater recharge in urban areas are more numerous and complex than in rural environments. Buildings, roads, and other surface infrastructure combine with man-made drainage networks to change the pathways for precipitation. Some direct recharge is lost, but additional recharge can occur from storm drainage systems. Large amounts of water are imported into most cities for supply, distributed through underground pipes, and collected again in sewers or septic tanks. The leaks from these pipe networks often provide substantial recharge. Sources of recharge in urban areas are identified through piezometry, chemical signatures, and water balances. All three approaches have problems. Recharge is quantified either by individual components (direct recharge, water-mains leakage, septic tanks, etc.) or holistically. Working with individual components requires large amounts of data, much of which is uncertain and is likely to lead to large uncertainties in the final result. Recommended holistic approaches include the use of groundwater modelling and solute balances, where various types of data are integrated. Urban recharge remains an under-researched topic, with few high-quality case studies reported in the literature. Résumé. Les origines et les trajets de la recharge des nappes en zones urbaines sont plus nombreux et plus complexes qu'en zones rurales. Les bâtiments, les routes et les autres infrastructures de surface se combinent avec les réseaux de drainage artificiels en modifiant les voies d'écoulements des précipitations. Une partie de la recharge directe est perdue, mais une recharge supplémentaire peut intervenir à partir des systèmes de drainage d'eaux pluviales. Des quantités importantes d'eau sont importées dans la plupart des villes pour l'alimentation, sont distribuées par des conduites souterraines et sont collectées dans des égouts ou des fosses septiques. Les fuites de ces réseaux de conduites constituent souvent une part importante de la recharge. L'origine de la recharge en zones urbaines est mise en évidence grâce à la piézométrie, aux signatures chimiques et aux bilans hydrologiques. Ces trois approches posent des problèmes. La recharge est quantifiée soit à partir de ses composantes individuelles (la recharge directe, les fuites d'eaux des réseaux, les fosses septiques, etc.), soit de façon globale. Pour travailler avec les composantes individuelles, il faut de grandes quantités de données, dont beaucoup comportent des incertitudes, et le résultat final présentera vraisemblablement des incertitudes importantes. Les approches globales recommandées s'appuient sur la modélisation de l'aquifère et les bilans de solutés, dans lesquels différents types de données sont intégrés. La recharge en zone urbaine reste un sujet délaissé par la recherche, offrant dans la littérature peu d'études de cas de bonne qualité. Resumen. Las fuentes y vías de recarga en zonas urbanas son más numerosas y complejas que en medios rurales. Los edificios, carreteras y otras infraestructuras superficiales se combinan con las obras antrópicas de drenaje para modificar las vías de infiltración. Una parte de la recarga directa se pierde, pero puede haber contribuciones adicionales a partir de los sistemas de drenaje de aguas pluviales. Se importa grandes volúmenes de agua a la mayoría de las ciudades para abastecimiento, siendo distribuida por medio de tuberías subterráneas, y recogida de nuevo en alcantarillas o fosas sépticas. Las pérdidas en las redes de distribución a menudo aportan una recarga substancial. Las fuentes de recarga en zonas urbanas se identifican mediante la piezometría, trazadores químicos y balances de agua, pero los tres métodos presentan problemas. La recarga se cuantifica bien por sus componentes individuales (recarga directa, goteo en tuberías, fosas sépticas, etc.) o bien de forma holística. La primera opción requiere muchos datos, a menudo inciertos, y es probable que se obtengan enormes incertidumbres en el resultado fin

Lerner, David

2002-01-01

4

ÉCOULEMENTS NON PERMANENTS DES NAPPES A SURFACE LIBRE PRISE EN COMPTE DE LA ZONE NON SATURÉE CRITIQUE DES MODÈLES ANALOGIQUES CLASSIQUES  

Microsoft Academic Search

An attempt has been made to consider as a whole the flow of water in both saturated and unsaturated zones. It is indeed clear that the position of the water table, when considering the hydrodynamics of free surface aquifers, must be controlled by the flow occuring in the unsaturated zone (evaporation, recharge, etc…).A system of two differential equations—each one related

G. VACHAUD; J. L. THONY

1969-01-01

5

Estimation of groundwater recharge using the chloride mass-balance method, Pingtung Plain, Taiwan  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Due to rapid economic growth in the Pingtung Plain of Taiwan, the use of groundwater resources has changed dramatically. Over-pumping of the groundwater reservoir, which lowers hydraulic heads in the aquifers, is not only affecting the coastal area negatively but has serious consequences for agriculture throughout the plain. In order to determine the safe yield of the aquifer underlying the plain, a reliable estimate of groundwater recharge is desirable. In the present study, for the first time, the chloride mass-balance method is adopted to estimate groundwater recharge in the plain. Four sites in the central part were chosen to facilitate the estimations using the ion-chromatograph and Thiessen polygon-weighting methods. Based on the measured and calculated results, in all sites, including the mountain and river boundaries, recharge to the groundwater is probably 15% of the annual rainfall, excluding recharge from additional irrigation water. This information can improve the accuracy of future groundwater-simulation and management models in the plain. Résumé Du fait de la croissance économique rapide de la plaine de Pingtung à Taiwan, l'utilisation des ressources en eau souterraine s'est considérablement modifié. La surexploitation des aquifères, qui a abaissé le niveau des nappes, n'affecte pas seulement la région côtière, mais a de sérieuses répercutions sur l'agriculture dans toute la plaine. Afin de déterminer les ressources renouvelables de l'aquifère sous la plaine, une estimation précise de la recharge de la nappe est nécessaire. Dans cette étude, le taux de recharge de la nappe a d'abord été estimé au moyen d'un bilan de matière de chlorure. Quatre sites de la partie centrale ont été sélectionnés pour réaliser ces estimations, à l'aide d'un chromatographe ionique et de la méthode des polygones de Thiessen. A partir des résultats mesurés et calculés, à chaque site, et en prenant comme limites les montagnes et les rivières, la recharge de la nappe a étéévaluée à environ 15% des précipitations annuelles, sans tenir compte de la recharge par le retour d'irrigation. Ce résultat doit permettre de tester la précision de la simulation de nappe qui va être faite, ainsi que les modèles de gestion de la plaine. Resumen Debido al rápido crecimiento económico de la zona de la Llanura de Pingtung, Taiwan, el uso de los recursos de agua subterránea ha cambiado radicalmente. La sobreexplotación, con el consiguiente descenso de los niveles piezométricos en los acuíferos, no sólo afecta las áreas costeras, sino que está teniendo consecuencias importantes para la agricultura de la zona. Para determinar la extracción sostenible en el acuífero, es deseable una buena estimación de la recarga. En este estudio se adopta por primera vez el método de balance de cloruros para estimar la recarga en el llano. Se seleccionaron cuatro puntos en la parte central para facilitar las estimaciones mediante los métodos de cromatógrafo iónico y de polígonos de Thiessen. A partir de los resultados medidos y calculados en toda la zona, e incluyendo los contornos de montañas y ríos, la recarga subterránea es de cerca del 15% de la precipitación anual, excluyendo la recarga que se produce por riego adicional. Este dato permitirá mejorar la precisión de los modelos de simulación de flujo y de gestión que se realizarán en el futuro.

Ting, Cheh-Shyh; Kerh, Tienfuan; Liao, Chiu-Jung

6

Crimean orogene: A nappe interpretation  

SciTech Connect

On the International Tectonic Map of Europe, the Crimean orogene presents a structure that has no analog in the Alpine orogenic belt. The Crimean mountain system lacks nappe structures of Alpine age. Its geosynclinal folding deformation is restricted to the Tavria flysch formation, previously dated as Triassic-Liassic. Therefore, the Crimean orogene was considered as the Kimmerian tectonotype. In our model, the Crimean orogene is characterized by nappe structures. The Yayla nappe is composed to Upper Jurassic and Neocomian sediments and is located below the Tavrian nappe, which consists of the Tavrian flysch formation. We dated the age of the Tavrian formation as Hauterivian-Aptian on the basis of published ammonite finds in the stratotype section. Nappe displacements are dated roughly as Austrian (albian) by the occurrence of upper-middle Albian sediments below the nappes and the Upper Cretaceous age of their neoautochthonous sedimentary cover. These north-vergent nappes have a horizontal displacement of about 20 km. In the eastern part of the orogene, these nappe structures were overprinted by Laramide-Savic (Paleocene and end Oligocene-early Miocene) deformations, as evident in the Kerch peninsula. The nature of these late deformation is not clear. The hydrocarbon potential of the prenapping autochthonous series has not yet been studied. Exploration for oil and gas in the Crimean sector of the Black Sea must take the suggested model and its implications into account.

Popadyuk, I.V.; Smirnov, S.E. (Ukrainian State Geological Research Institute, Lvov (Ukraine))

1993-09-01

7

Dynamics of fold nappe formation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Fold nappes are large-scale recumbent folds that have most likely formed by dominantly ductile deformation. In the Western Swiss Alps, the Middle and Lower Penninic basement nappes as well as the Helvetic ones display, in most cases, the typical geometry and stratigraphy of fold nappes with a normal flank, a frontal part and an overturned limb. The core of fold nappes often consists of metamorphic basement surrounded by a sedimentary cover. Examples are the Morcle-Mont-Blanc nappe or the Antigorio nappe. Although fold nappes are a prominent tectonic structure in the Alps and in many other past and present mountain belts, there are only few studies that investigated the dynamics of the formation of fold nappes. Therefore, there are still many open questions concerning the controlling forces (gravity or horizontal compression), the far-field deformation field (simple and/or pure shear), the effective rheology (e.g. Newtonian viscous, power-law or viscoplastic) and the impact of geometrical and material heterogeneities (e.g. effective viscosity ratio or initial geometry). In this study, numerical results of finite element models simulating the formation of fold nappes in ductile multilayers are presented. In these models, the sedimentary cover is modelled with ductile multilayers exhibiting a power-law rheology and the basement is modelled with one thick layer having also a power-law rheology. The far-field deformation field is assumed to be simple-shear. The applied finite element method employs a Lagrangian formulation with re-meshing where the numerical grid is deformed with the calculated velocity field. This method ensures that the boundaries between the different layers (i.e. sedimentary units and basement) are accurately resolved during the entire large strain deformation. Although the presented models are basic, the results already show several interesting features: a) the sedimentary layers are detached from the basement at several locations, b) folds of different size and order are formed, c) fold axial planes with different orientations are formed during one continuous deformation phase and d) recumbent folds with overturned limbs more or less parallel to the far-field simple shear direction are formed. Furthermore, in the middle of the model the multilayers formed a fold nappe which has an overturned limb, a frontal part and a normal limb. The applicability of the presented numerical models to natural fold nappes in the Alps is discussed. Also, modelling approaches for a more realistic numerical modelling of fold nappes in the Alps are presented.

Markus Schmalholz, Stefan

2010-05-01

8

Remote sensing of soil moisture: implications for groundwater recharge  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Remote sensing provides information on the land surface. Therefore, linkages must be established if these data are to be used in groundwater and recharge analyses. Keys to this process are the use of remote sensing techniques that provide information on soil moisture and water-balance models that tie these observations to the recharge. Microwave remote sensing techniques are used to map the spatial domain of surface soil moisture and to monitor its temporal dynamics, information that cannot be measured using other techniques. The physical basis of this approach is presented with examples of how microwave remote sensing is utilized in groundwater recharge and related studies. Résumé. La télédétection fournit des informations sur la surface du sol. C'est pourquoi des liens doivent être établis lorsque ces données sont utilisées dans l'étude des eaux souterraines et de leur recharge. Les clés de cette démarche sont l'utilisation des techniques de télédétection qui informent sur l'humidité du sol et les modèles de bilan hydrologique qui associent ces observations à la recharge. Les techniques de télédétection dans le domaine des micro-ondes sont mises en œuvre pour cartographier l'humidité du sol en surface dans l'espace et pour suivre sa dynamique dans le temps, informations qui ne peuvent pas être obtenues par d'autres techniques. La base physique de cette approche est présentée avec des exemples d'utilisation de la télédétection micro-onde pour la recharge de nappes et dans les études associées. Resumen. La teledetección proporciona información de la superficie terrestre. Por ello, se debe establecer vínculos si se pretende utilizar dichos datos para análisis de aguas subterráneas y recarga. Son factores clave en este proceso el uso de técnicas de teledetección para recoger información sobre la humedad del suelo y los modelos de balance de agua que ligan estas observaciones con la recarga. Las técnicas de teledetección por microondas se emplean con el fin de cartografiar el dominio espacial de la humedad superficial del suelo y controlar su dinámica temporal, cosa que no se puede lograr con otros medios. Se presenta el fundamento físico de este enfoque mediante ejemplos de cómo la teledetección por microondas es aplicada en estudios de recarga y trabajos relacionados.

Jackson, Thomas

2002-01-01

9

Groundwater recharge and chemical evolution in the southern High Plains of Texas, USA  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The unconfined High Plains (Ogallala) aquifer is the largest aquifer in the USA and the primary water supply for the semiarid southern High Plains of Texas and New Mexico. Analyses of water and soils northeast of Amarillo, Texas, together with data from other regional studies, indicate that processes during recharge control the composition of unconfined groundwater in the northern half of the southern High Plains. Solute and isotopic data are consistent with a sequence of episodic precipitation, concentration of solutes in upland soils by evapotranspiration, runoff, and infiltration beneath playas and ditches (modified locally by return flow of wastewater and irrigation tailwater). Plausible reactions during recharge include oxidation of organic matter, dissolution and exsolution of CO2, dissolution of CaCO3, silicate weathering, and cation exchange. Si and 14C data suggest leakage from perched aquifers to the High Plains aquifer. Plausible mass-balance models for the High Plains aquifer include scenarios of flow with leakage but not reactions, flow with reactions but not leakage, and flow with neither reactions nor leakage. Mechanisms of recharge and chemical evolution delineated in this study agree with those noted for other aquifers in the south-central and southwestern USA. Résumé. L'aquifère libre des Hautes Plaines (Ogallala) est le plus vaste aquifère des états-Unis et la ressource de base pour l'eau potable de la région semi-aride du sud des Hautes Plaines du Texas et du Nouveau-Mexique. Des analyses de l'eau et des sols prélevés au nord-est d'Amarillo (Texas), associées à des données provenant d'autres études dans cette région, indiquent que des processus intervenant au cours de l'infiltration contrôlent la composition de l'eau de la nappe libre dans la moitié septentrionale du sud des Hautes Plaines. Les données chimiques et isotopiques sont compatibles avec une séquence de précipitation épisodique, avec la reconcentration en solutés dans les sols des hautes terres par évapotranspiration, avec le ruissellement et l'infiltration dans les playas et les fossés (modifiée localement par l'écoulement en retour des eaux usées et des laisses d'irrigation). Des réactions probables intervenant au cours de la recharge sont l'oxydation de la matière organique, la dissolution et le dégazage du CO2, la dissolution du CaCO3, l'altération des silicates et l'échange de cations. Les données concernant Si et 14C laissent penser qu'il existe une drainance descendante à partir d'aquifères perchés vers l'aquifère des Hautes Plaines. Des modèles vraisemblables de bilan de matière pour l'aquifère des Hautes Plaines prennent en compte des scénarios d'écoulement avec drainance mais sans réactions, des écoulements avec réactions mais sans drainance et des écoulements sans réactions ni drainance. Les mécanismes de recharge et d'évolution chimique déterminés dans cette étude sont en accord avec ceux mis en évidence dans d'autres aquifères du centre sud et du sud-ouest des états-Unis. Resumen. El acuífero libre de High Plains (Ogallala) es el mayor de los Estados Unidos y supone la fuente principal de abastecimiento en la región semiárida del sur de High Plains (Texas) y de Nuevo México. Los análisis de agua y suelos realizados al nordeste de Amarillo (Texas), junto con los datos de otros estudios regionales, indican que los procesos que tienen lugar durante la recarga del acuífero controlan la composición de las aguas subterráneas en la mitad septentrional de los High Plains del Sur. Los datos isotópicos y hidroquímicos son coherentes con una secuencia de episodios de precipitación, concentración de solutos en la parte superior del suelo por evapotranspiración, escorrentía, e infiltración a través de 'playas' y zanjas (modificadas localmente por los flujos de retorno de aguas residuales y de excedentes de riego).

Fryar, Alan; Mullican, William; Macko, Stephen

2001-11-01

10

NAPP Rubric for Peer Helping Programs  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Indiana Department of Education, at the direction of Phyllis Lewis, commissioned the National Association of Peer Programs (NAPP: formerly known as the National Peer Helpers Association) and the authors listed above to develop a rubric for peer helping programs. Development of the rubric began with a review of the NAPP Programmatic Standards…

Black, David R.; Routson, Sue; Spight, Damon L.; Tindall, Judith A.; Wegner, Carolyn

2007-01-01

11

Estimating recharge at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, USA: comparison of methods  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Obtaining values of net infiltration, groundwater travel time, and recharge is necessary at the Yucca Mountain site, Nevada, USA, in order to evaluate the expected performance of a potential repository as a containment system for high-level radioactive waste. However, the geologic complexities of this site, its low precipitation and net infiltration, with numerous mechanisms operating simultaneously to move water through the system, provide many challenges for the estimation of the spatial distribution of recharge. A variety of methods appropriate for arid environments has been applied, including water-balance techniques, calculations using Darcy's law in the unsaturated zone, a soil-physics method applied to neutron-hole water-content data, inverse modeling of thermal profiles in boreholes extending through the thick unsaturated zone, chloride mass balance, atmospheric radionuclides, and empirical approaches. These methods indicate that near-surface infiltration rates at Yucca Mountain are highly variable in time and space, with local (point) values ranging from zero to several hundred millimeters per year. Spatially distributed net-infiltration values average 5 mm/year, with the highest values approaching 20 mm/year near Yucca Crest. Site-scale recharge estimates range from less than 1 to about 12 mm/year. These results have been incorporated into a site-scale model that has been calibrated using these data sets that reflect infiltration processes acting on highly variable temporal and spatial scales. The modeling study predicts highly non-uniform recharge at the water table, distributed significantly differently from the non-uniform infiltration pattern at the surface. Résumé. Les valeurs d'infiltration nette, de temps de parcours de l'eau souterraine et de la recharge sont nécessaires sur le site de Yucca Mountain, Nevada, USA, pour évaluer les capacités d'un site de stockage potentiel pour le confinement de déchets hautement radioactifs. Cependant, la complexité géologique du site, les faibles valeurs de précipitation et d'infiltration nette, associées à de nombreux mécanismes agissant simultanément pour faire se déplacer l'eau dans le système, posent de nombreux problèmes pour estimer la distribution spatiale de la recharge. Un ensemble de méthodes adaptées aux environnements arides a été mis en œuvre, comprenant les techniques de bilan hydrologique, des calculs s'appuyant sur la loi de Darcy en milieu non saturé, une méthode de physique des sols appliquée aux données de teneur en eau par mesure neutronique, une modélisation inverse des profils thermiques en forage portant sur l'épaisse zone non saturée, le bilan de masse des chlorures, les radionucléides atmosphériques et des approches empiriques. Ces méthodes indiquent que les taux d'infiltration au voisinage de la surface à Yucca Mountain sont très variables dans le temps et dans l'espace, avec des valeurs locales, ponctuelles, comprises entre 0 et plusieurs centaines de mm/an. Les valeurs d'infiltration nette distribuées dans l'espace sont en moyenne de 5 mm/an, les plus fortes approchant 20 mm/an. Ces résultats ont été introduits dans un modèle à l'échelle du site qui a été calibré au moyen de ces jeux de données, reflétant les processus d'infiltration agissant à des échelles de temps et d'espace à forte variabilité. L'étude par modélisation prédit une recharge fortement non uniforme de la nappe, dont la distribution est significativement différente de l'organisation de l'infiltration non uniforme en surface. Resumen. Se necesitan conocer los valores de infiltración neta, el tiempo de tránsito de las aguas subterráneas y la recarga en el emplazamiento de Yucca Mountain, Nevada, USA, con el fin de evaluar el comportamiento esperado de un repositorio potencial como sistema de contención de residuos de alta radioactividad. Sin embargo, la complejidad geológica del lugar y los pequeños valores de precipitación e infiltración neta, junto con los numerosos mecanismos que operan simultáneamente en relació

Flint, Alan; Flint, Lorraine; Kwicklis, Edward; Fabryka-Martin, June; Bodvarsson, Gudmundur

2002-01-01

12

Analyse optique d'écoulements tridimensionnels par nappes laser cylindriques  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We propose an optical device consisting of a double conical reflector which allows to convert a laser beam into a thin cylindrical light sheet. The sheet energy distribution is uniform and the geometrical parameters (diameter, focusing distance and field depth) are easily adjustable. The application domains in Fluid Mechanics are the optical studies of three-dimensional flows, especially when centrifugal instabilities occur. We present here an example of visualization in a Taylor-Couette flow between two rotating co-axial cylinders. Nous proposons un système optique à double réflecteur conique, permettant de transformer un faisceau laser en une fine nappe de lumière cylindrique. La répartition énergétique de la nappe est uniforme et les paramètres géométriques (diamètre, distance de focalisation et profondeur de champ) sont aisément réglables. Les domaines d'application en mécanique des fluides sont ceux des écoulements tridimensionnels, notamment dans le cas d'instabilités centrifuges; nous présentons ici un exemple de visualisation réalisé dans un écoulement de Taylor-Couette, entre deux cylindres coaxiaux en rotation.

Pocar, R.; Prenel, J. P.

1992-05-01

13

Choosing appropriate techniques for quantifying groundwater recharge  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Various techniques are available to quantify recharge; however, choosing appropriate techniques is often difficult. Important considerations in choosing a technique include space/time scales, range, and reliability of recharge estimates based on different techniques; other factors may limit the application of particular techniques. The goal of the recharge study is important because it may dictate the required space/time scales of the recharge estimates. Typical study goals include water-resource evaluation, which requires information on recharge over large spatial scales and on decadal time scales; and evaluation of aquifer vulnerability to contamination, which requires detailed information on spatial variability and preferential flow. The range of recharge rates that can be estimated using different approaches should be matched to expected recharge rates at a site. The reliability of recharge estimates using different techniques is variable. Techniques based on surface-water and unsaturated-zone data provide estimates of potential recharge, whereas those based on groundwater data generally provide estimates of actual recharge. Uncertainties in each approach to estimating recharge underscore the need for application of multiple techniques to increase reliability of recharge estimates. Résumé. Il existe différentes techniques pour quantifier la recharge; toutefois, il est souvent difficile de choisir les techniques appropriées. Les points importants pour le choix d'une technique sont l'échelle de temps et d'espace, la gamme de valeurs et la validité des estimations de la recharge basées sur différentes techniques; d'autres facteurs peuvent limiter l'application de techniques particulières. Le but des études de la recharge est important parce qu'il peut imposer les échelles de temps et d'espace des estimations de recharge. Les buts de ces études concernent habituellement l'évaluation des ressources en eau, qui requiert des informations sur la recharge à des échelles spatiales étendues et sur des durées comptées en dizaines d'années, et l'évaluation de la vulnérabilité des aquifères aux contaminations, qui exige des informations détaillées sur la variabilité spatiale et les écoulements préférentiels. La gamme des taux de recharge qui peuvent être estimés par différentes approches doit être adaptée aux valeurs attendues de la recharge sur le site. La validité des estimations de recharge faites par des techniques différentes est variable. Des techniques s'appuyant sur des données concernant les eaux de surface et la zone non saturée fournissent des estimations de recharge potentielle, tandis que celles basées sur les données des eaux souterraines donnent généralement des estimations de la recharge réelle. Les incertitudes de chaque approche d'estimation de la recharge mettent en relief la nécessité d'appliquer des techniques multiples pour accroître la validité des estimations de la recharge. Resumen. Existen diversas técnicas para cuantificar la recarga, pero elegir las apropiadas es a menudo difícil. Entre las consideraciones a tener en cuenta, hay que citar las escalas espacial y temporal, el rango y la fiabilidad de las estimaciones de la recarga obtenidas por medio de técnicas diferentes; hay otros factores que pueden limitar la aplicación de técnicas particulares. El objetivo de un estudio de recarga es importante, ya que puede condicionar las escalas temporal y espacial de las estimaciones. Los objetivos típicos comprenden la evaluación de recursos, cosa que requiere información de la recarga para escalas espaciales extensas y escalas temporales cifradas en décadas, y la evaluación de la vulnerabilidad del acuífero a la contaminación, para lo que hace falta información detallada sobre la variabilidad espacial y el flujo preferente. Se debería contrastar el rango de los valores estimados de recarga mediante enfoques diferentes con los valores esperados en un emplazamiento. La fiabilidad de las estimaciones basadas en técnicas diferentes es variable. Así, la

Scanlon, Bridget; Healy, Richard; Cook, Peter

2002-01-01

14

Isotopes (?D and ?18O) in precipitation, groundwater and surface water in the Ordos Plateau, China: implications with respect to groundwater recharge and circulation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The characteristics of ?D and ?18O in precipitation, groundwater and surface water have been used to understand the groundwater flow system in the Ordos Plateau, north-central China. The slope of the local meteoric water line (LMWL) is smaller than that of the global meteoric water line (GMWL), which signifies secondary evaporation during rainfall. The distribution of stable isotopes of precipitation is influenced by temperature and the amount of precipitation. The lake water is enriched isotopically due to evaporation and its isotopic composition is closely related to the source of recharge and location in the groundwater flow systems. River water is enriched isotopically, indicating that it suffers evaporation. The deep groundwater (more than 150 m) is depleted in heavy isotopes relative to the shallow groundwater (less than 150 m), suggesting that deep groundwater may have been recharged during the late Pleistocene and early Holocene, when the climate was wetter and colder than at present. All groundwater samples plot around the LMWL, implying groundwater is of meteoric origin. Shallow groundwater has undergone evaporation and the average evaporation loss is 53%. There are two recharge mechanisms: preferential flow, and the mixture of evaporated soil moisture and subsequent rain. Les caractéristiques de ?D et ?18O dans l’eau de précipitation, de nappe et de surface, ont été utilisées pour comprendre le système d’écoulement du Plateau Ordos, Centre-Nord de la Chine. La pente de la Ligne Météorique Eau Locale (LMWL) est plus faible que celle de la Ligne Météorique Eau Globale, ce qui signifie évaporation secondaire durant la précipitation. La distribution des isotopes stables des précipitations est influencée par la température et la hauteur de précipitation. L’eau du lac présente un enrichissement isotopique dû à l’évaporation et sa composition isotopique est étroitement reliée à la source de recharge et à sa localisation. L’eau de rivière présente un enrichissement isotopique indiquant qu’elle subit une évaporation. La nappe profonde (plus de 150 m) est appauvrie en isotopes lourds comparativement à la nappe superficielle (moins de 150 m), suggérant que la nappe profonde peut avoir été rechargée durant le Pléistocène tardif et le début de l’Holocène, quand le climat était plus humide et plus froid qu’à présent. Tous les échantillons d’eau de nappe se placent près de la LMWL, impliquant que l’eau est d’origine météorique. L’eau de la nappe superficielle a subi une évaporation et la perte moyenne par évaporation est 53 %. Il y a deux mécanismes de recharge: infiltration directe et infiltration secondaire de l’humidité du sol, évaporée puis reprécipitée. Se usaron las características de ?D y ?18O en la precipitación, el agua subterránea y el agua superficial para entender el sistema de flujo subterráneo en el Ordos Plateau, centro norte de China. La pendiente de la línea de agua meteórica local (LMWL) es más pequeña que la línea de agua meteórica global, lo cual significa una evaporación secundaria durante la precipitación. La distribución de los isótopos estables de la precipitación está influenciada por la temperatura y la cantidad de la precipitación. El agua del lago está enriquecida isotópicamente debido a la evaporación y su composición isotópica está estrechamente relacionada con el origen de la recarga y la ubicación en el sistema de flujo subterráneo. El agua del río está enriquecida isotópicamente, indicando que sufre evaporación. El agua subterránea profunda (más de 150 m) es reducida en isótopos pesados en relación al agua subterránea somera (menor de 150 m), lo cual sugiere que el agua subterránea puede haber sido recargada durante el Pleistoceno tardío y Holoceno temprano, cuando el clima fue más húmedo y más frío que en el presente. Todas las muestras de agua subterránea están ploteadas alrededor de la LMWL, implicaron que el agua subterránea es de origen meteórico. El agua subter

Yin, Lihe; Hou, Guangcai; Su, Xiaosi; Wang, Dong; Dong, Jiaqiu; Hao, Yonghong; Wang, Xiaoyong

2010-11-01

15

The Jotun and related nappe complexes, southern Norway  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Caledonides in southern Norway have a substrate of autochthonous to parautochthonous metasedimentary rocks overlain by allochthonous crystalline nappe complexes. The Jotun Nappe Complex, the largest of these, is itself composed of several parts with somewhat different histories. The common element linking all the parts is an intense overprint during the Sveconorwegian orogeny, varying in intensity from deformation at relatively low to medium grade metamorphic conditions to high grade metamorphism and local anatexis (Schärer 1980; Lundmark et al. (2007). The Inner Sogn anorthosite complex was emplaced at about 970 Ma (Lundmark and Corfu 2008), but most of the nappe formed between 1700 and 1600 Ma, with local components of 1450 and 1250 Ma, and with locally important felsic dyke complexes intruded in the Mid Silurian (427 Ma) during thrusting. The association of Sveconorwegian gabbro-anorthosite intrusion, high grade metamorphism and Caledonian felsic magmas is also a characteristic of the Lindås Nappe in the Bergen Arc, except that the latter contains Caledonian eclogites which have yet to be observed in the Jotun Nappe Complex. In the northeastern parts of the region, the Jotun Nappe Complex is underlain by the Espedalen Nappe Complex, which also contains an anorthosite massif, but is distinct in terms of primary age, most parts having formed at about 1520 Ma before undergoing Sveconorwegian metamorphism. The western flank of the Jotun Nappe Complex in the Sognefjell region is instead underlain by a highly sheared and distinct suite of 960-950 Ma gabbroic to tonalitic rocks and ca. 1700 Ma orthogneiss. These rocks may link up to the Bergsdalen nappes to the southwest. Another important element of these allochthons is the Hardanger-Ryfylke Nappe Complex, whose major nappe sheet (Kvitenut) compares with the Jotun Nappe Complex in being composed of 1700-1600 Ma orthogneisses severely affected by Sveconorwegian deformation and local anatexis. There is, however, an important distinction in that the Sveconorwegian activity (including granitic magmatism) occurred at 1000 Ma in Kvitenut and Dyrskard (Roffeis et al., this meeting), but later at 950-900 Ma in Jotun and Lindås. The uppermost sheet of the Hardanger-Ryfylke Nappe Complex appears to have a special history which may link it to a higher tectonic level (Upper Allochthon) not present elsewhere in these nappes. In conclusion, most elements of these nappes in the Middle Allochthon in southern Norway are consistent with a pre-Caledonian position at the edge of Baltica, but there are many internal peculiarities which will eventually contribute to constrain more precisely their specific original locations. Lundmark et al. 2007. Precambrian Res 159: 133-154 Lundmark and Corfu 2008. Contrib Mineral Petrol 155: 147-163 Schärer 1980. Earth Planet Sci Lett 49: 205-218

Corfu, F.; Roffeis, C.

2012-04-01

16

Emplacement of a fold-nappe, Betic orogen, southern Spain  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Aguilón nappe, Sierra Alhamilla, southeast Spain, is a north-closing recumbent isoclinal fold with a greatly thinned lower limb. This large-scale geometry can be demonstrated using small-scale structures. The fold nappe is detached along the lower limb and lies on a carpet of mylonitic schist, mylonite, and cataclasite. Formation of the nappe must have involved northward relative transport—a point of current controversy in the Betic Zone. During emplacement, the nappe underwent extensive ductile deformation, accomplished partly by pressure solution of silica. In the highly deformed footwall rocks, however, quartz was deformed by crystal-plastic processes. The change in deformational mechanism suggests a downward increase in deviatoric stress, which is compatible with a gravitational mechanism of nappe emplacement. The core of the low-grade nappe is occupied by medium-grade schist. The abrupt change in grade suggests that the schist contact is an extensional fault that excised part of the original metamorphic zonation and was subsequently refolded in the nappe. Such relations are common in the Betic Zone and suggest extension by listric normal faulting, a characteristic feature of nappes emplaced by gravity spreading.

Platt, J. P.

1982-02-01

17

Crustal melting in the Helgeland Nappe Complex, central Norway  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present new geochronological and structural data and a working synopsis for the evolution of the Helgeland Nappe Complex (HNC), the uppermost nappe sequence within the Caledonian Orogen, central Norway. The HNC consists of at least 4 distinct east-dipping nappes (W to E): Sauren-Torghatten (S-T), Lower, Middle, and Upper. The nappes are bounded by shear zones with complex kinematics. In at least two cases, initial thrust-sense shear is overprinted by extensional deformation. Basal parts of the S-T and Middle Nappes are characterized by incomplete ophiolitic slivers overlain by low- to medium-grade pelites, psammites, conglomerates, and marbles (Vietti et al., this meeting). The Lower and Upper Nappes are characterized by quartzo-feldspathic gneisses, migmatitic gneisses, and marble. New LA-ICPMS U-Pb zircon ages from migmatitic rocks of the upper nappe are 480.6 ±3.8 Ma for a diatexite and 480.2 +/- 3.6 Ma for a melanosome within a stromatic migmatite. These ages are identical to SHRIMP U-Pb (zircon) ages from the Lower Nappe interpreted by Yoshinobu et al. (2002) to date crustal melting. The HNC was intruded by plutons of the Bindal Batholith from ~480-430 Ma. The oldest plutons (479-466 Ma) are crustally-derived peraluminous granites; they intrude the S-T and Lower Nappes. The largest of these, the 470 Ma Vega pluton, was emplaced into rocks similar to the S-T Nappe during a regional migmatization/deformation event (D3; Anderson et al., Marko et al., this meeting). Post-450 Ma plutons intrude all nappes. The oldest post-450 Ma plutons were emplaced at pressures as high as 700 MPa and exhumed to 400 MPa during crystallization at 447 Ma. At least locally, they crosscut nappe-bounding shear zones but some were apparently deformed along exhumation-related shear zones. No quantitative P-T-t estimates are available for the Middle Nappe. The Upper Nappe migmatites contain GASP assemblages yielding pressures of 500 MPa. These migmatitic rocks are intruded by tonalitic intrusions at 447.6±2.8, 431.9±3.5, and 424.7±5.6 Ma. A growing body of evidence indicates that the Ordovician structural, metamorphic, and magmatic history of the HNC has affinities with the Laurentian Taconic Orogeny, rather than with an early phase of the Baltica-Laurentia (Caledonian) collision. These new data indicate that either a) a protracted (480-470 Ma), regionally extensive, thermal and structural event caused crustal melting and produced large crustally-derived granitic plutons in the S-T, Lower, and Upper Nappes, but not the Middle Nappe, or b) contemporaneous but spatially distinct regional crustal melting events that affected all three nappes.

Yoshinobu, A.; Reid, K.; Barnes, C.; Allen, C. M.

2005-12-01

18

Salinité des ressources en eau: intrusion marine et interaction eaux–roches (Maroc occidental)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Le flux migratoire de la population vers les grandes villes et la multiplication des activités industrielles et agricoles, lors des ces dernières années (1990–2006), ont provoqué un accroissement des besoins en eaux de la nappe du bassin du Rharb (ouest du Maroc). Cette forte sollicitation a produit une augmentation de la minéralisation et une dégradation de la qualité hydrochimique (salinité)

Lahcen Zouhri; El Arbi Toto; Erick Carlier; Taha-Hocine Debieche

2010-01-01

19

Numerical Models For The Control of Inherited Basin Geometries On Structural Style and Emplacement of The Klippen Nappe (swiss Prealps)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cover nappes commonly deform above a shallow basal detachment surface located above strong crystalline basement rocks. Inherited basin geometries are presumed to control the kinematic evolution and detachment of cover nappes in the accretionary wedge. We compare results from two-dimensional finite element modeling with the structural style of a natural cover nappe, the Klippen nappe, which was detached from its

S. B. Wissing; O. A. Pfiffner

2002-01-01

20

Numerical models for the control of inherited basin geometries on structures and emplacement of the Klippen nappe (Swiss Prealps)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cover nappes commonly deform above a shallow basal detachment surface located above rigid crystalline basement rocks. Inherited basin geometries are presumed to control the kinematic evolution and detachment of cover nappes in an accretionary wedge. We compare results from two-dimensional finite element modelling with the structural style of a natural cover nappe, the Klippen nappe, which was detached from its

S. B Wissing; O. A Pfiffner

2003-01-01

21

Evaluation of scraping treatments to restore initial infiltration capacity of three artificial recharge projects in central Iran  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A limiting factor in developing artificial recharge of groundwater is clogging of the soil surface and consequent reduction of infiltration rates. In order to evaluate the degree of improving infiltration rates by scraping away various amounts of the upper soil materials, a study was conducted at three artificial recharge sites (Kohrouyeh, Bagh-Sorkh, and Kachak) in Isfahan Province, central Iran. Five treatments (T1-T5) were considered. Infiltration was measured: T1, on deposited sediment layer; T2, after removing the sediments; T3, scraping of sediments and 5cm of soil; T4, scraping of sediments and 10cm of soil; and T5, removing sediments and 15cm of soil. Initial soil-moisture content of the sites ranged from 1.0-2.87% for Kohrouyeh, 1.18-3.47% for Bagh-Sorkh, and 1.89-3.93% for Kachak. The main texture of the soils was sandy loam. Clay particles have penetrated to a depth of more than 40cm in some of the recharge basins. A significant increase in final infiltration rate of T5 as compared to T1 treatment was observed for all recharge sites. The final infiltration rates of T1 and T5 treatments for Kohrouyeh, Bagh-Sorkh, and Kachak sites were 0.35, 7.9; 1.22, 12.3; and 0.93, 6.2cm/h, respectively. The differences between infiltration rates of T2, T3, and T4 treatments were not statistically significant. It is concluded that on average, the infiltration capacity of the untreated recharge facilities have reached 20.3% of the original values, and that scraping the top sediment layer and 15cm of topsoil could restore 68.3% of the initial infiltration capacity. Résumé Un facteur limitant lorsqu'on développe la recharge artificielle d'une nappe est le colmatage de la surface du sol et la réduction concomitante des taux d'infiltration. Afin d'évaluer le degré d'amélioration de l'infiltration en grattant de différentes manières la surface du sol, une étude a été conduite sur trois sites de recharge artificielle (Kohrouyeh, Bagh-Sorkh et Kachak) dans la province d'Ispahan (Iran central). Cinq traitements (T1-T5) ont été testés et l'infiltration a été mesurée: T1, sur une couche de sédiments déposés T2, après enlèvement du sédiment T3, grattage des sédiments et du sol sur 5cm T4, grattage des sédiments et du sol sur 10cm et T5, enlèvement des sédiments et de 15cm de sol. La teneur initiale en eau du sol sur les sites va de 1.0 à 2.87% à Kohrouyeh, 1.18 à 3.47% à Bagh-Sorkh, et 1.89 à 3.93% à Kachak. Les sols sonbt surtout des sols végétaux sableux. Les particules argileuses ont pénétré jusqu'à plus de >40cm de profondeur dans certains bassins de recharge. Un accroissement significatif du taux final d'infiltration de la procédure T5 comparée à T1 a été observée sur tous les sites de recharge. Les taux finaux d'infiltration des procédures T1 et T5 à Kohrouyeh, Bagh-Sorkh et Kachak étaient respectivement 0.35 et 7.9, 1.22 et 12.3, et 0.93 et 6.2cm/h. Les taux d'infiltration des procédures T2, T3 et T4 ne présentaient pas statistiquement de différences significatives. On en conclut donc qu'en moyenne la capacité d'infiltration de la recharge non traitée s'est accrue de 20.3 % par rapport aux valeurs initiales, et que le grattage du sommet du sédiment et du sol sur 15cm peut améliorer 68.3 % de la capacité initiale d'infiltration.

Mousavi, Sayed-Farhad; Rezai, Vafa

22

Crustal imbrication and nappe folding in the southeastern Tauern Window  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Metapelitic rocks in the cover of the European Basement exposed in the southeastern Tauern Window document a polyphase deformational history associated with Cenozoic subduction, accretion and exhumation along the European continental margin during Alpine Orogeny. The Mallnitz area is special in exposing almost all structural levels of the Alpine metamorphic edifice, including a stack of imbricated nappes derived from the European margin (Venediger Nappe System) that is separated by a roof thrust from overlying ophiolites of Alpine Tethys (Glockner Nappe). Our samples record four distinct phases of mineral growth and define a clockwise P-T path with two baric peaks that are separated by a period of decompression: (1) Pseudomorphs after lawsonite preserved within garnet clasts and predate the earliest schistosity in the area. These pseudomorphs are interpreted to document Paleogene accretion and subduction of a distal part of the European margin, possibly to blueschist-facies conditions; (2) Subsequent growth of a first generation of biotite and phengite forming the earliest schistosity indicate temperatures of about 560°C at 8 kbar. Chloritoid inclusions in garnet yield similar temperatures within error and are characteristic of amphibolite-facies conditions during isoclinal folding of the obducted nappes; (3) Newly formed staurolite and a second generation of micas characterize the second and main schistosity in the area which, together with continued garnet growth, indicate a second peak of metamorphism at 600°C and 9 kbar. We attribute this second baric peak to tectonic imbrication and thickening associated with the formation of the Venediger Nappe Complex. Subsequently, the nappe stack was exhumed in Late Paleogene time at nearly isothermal conditions. Cross micas overgrow the main schistosity and their recorded range of decreasing temperatures and pressures indicate ongoing exhumation and cooling in Neogene time. We relate this to upright folding and doming, and to extensional shearing along the Katschberg shear zone in the eastern part of the Tauern Window. This final phase of exhumation appears to be related to late orogenic indentation of the Adriatic microplate in early to middle Miocene time.

Hawemann, Friedrich; Gipper, Peter; Handy, Mark R.; Oberhänsli, Roland

2013-04-01

23

QUALITÉ DES EAUX SOUTERRAINES DANS UNE RÉGION ARIDE DU MAROC: IMPACT DES POLLUTIONS SUR LA BIODIVERSITÉ ET RELATIONS CRUSTACÉS – BACTÉRIES D'INTÉRÊT SANITAIRE  

Microsoft Academic Search

Au nord de la ville de Marrakech (Maroc), l'activité anthropique intense et la perméabilité des terrains géologiques rendent la nappe phréatique des Jbilet vulnérable. Les résultats des analyses physico?chimiques, réalisées sur l'eau des puits durant l'année 2006, ont permis aux auteurs de distinguer deux groupes de puits. D'une part ceux situés sur la rive droite de l'Oued Tensift, loin de

F. Hallam; K. Oufdou; M. Boulanouar

2008-01-01

24

Portable photovoltaic battery recharger  

Microsoft Academic Search

A portable photovoltaic battery recharger is described for simultaneously recharging a plurality of rechargeable batteries having different sizes and respective optimum charging current levels, comprising: a plurality of photovoltaic solar cell arrays corresponding to the number of different battery sizes, each of the cell arrays having a plurality of individual solar cells, each cell of a respective array having a

A. M. Ricaud; F. Artigliere

1989-01-01

25

Structures along the contact zone between the Lycian nappes and the Menderes Massif, SW Turkey: Implications for tectonic transport directions of the Lycian nappes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Structural data recorded along the contact zone between the Menderes Massif and the overlying Lycian nappes provide information about tectonic transport directions of the Lycian nappes in southwestern Turkey. Key units were investigated in the Milas region. Flysch-type sedimentary rocks form the uppermost unit of the Menderes Massif. Metapelites and metapsammites form the basal unit of the Lycian nappes. The metasediments of the Lycian nappes overlie the Menderes Massif along a south-dipping, low-angle tectonic contact, along which thin slices of sheared serpentinite are found. The kinematic data suggest the presence of three deformation phases in the Milas region. The first deformation phase (D1) is characterised by a ductile deformation with top-to-the-NE sense of shear suggesting that the lowermost unit of the Lycian nappes was emplaced initially from southwest to northeast onto the Menderes Massif during the Early Eocene. The second deformation phase (D2) is also ductile in nature. It is characterised by an E-W-trending stretching lineation with a bivergent sense of shear, which is probably related to the load of the overlying nappes. A third deformation phase (D3) is characterised by south-dipping normal faults with top-to-the-S sense of movement and can be related to southward movement of the Lycian nappes along a low-angle décollement zone.

Arslan, Arzu; Güngör, Talip; Erdo?an, Burhan; Passchier, Cees W.

2010-05-01

26

Cyclic frictional-viscous slip oscillations along the base of an advancing nappe complex: Insights into brittle-ductile nappe emplacement mechanisms from the Naukluft Nappe Complex, central Namibia  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Naukluft Nappe Complex (NNC) forms a far-traveled fold and thrust belt klippe of the Panafrican Damara Belt in central Namibia. Estimates of the SE directed displacement range between 50 and 80 km. The entire nappe stack was thrust along an out-of-sequence, nearly planar, horizontal structure, the “Naukluft Thrust.” The thrust zone consists of several distinct lithological components whose typical

Giulio Viola; Neil S. Mancktelow; Jodie A. Miller

2006-01-01

27

Cyclic frictional-viscous slip oscillations along the base of an advancing nappe complex: Insights into brittle-ductile nappe emplacement mechanisms from the Naukluft Nappe Complex, central Namibia  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Naukluft Nappe Complex (NNC) forms a far-traveled fold and thrust belt klippe of the Panafrican Damara Belt in central Namibia. Estimates of the SE directed displacement range between 50 and 80 km. The entire nappe stack was thrust along an out-of-sequence, nearly planar, horizontal structure, the ``Naukluft Thrust.'' The thrust zone consists of several distinct lithological components whose typical

Giulio Viola; Neil S. Mancktelow; Jodie A. Miller

2006-01-01

28

Reinterpretation of basement-cored nappes in the eastern Basal Gneiss Complex, central Norwegian Caledonides  

SciTech Connect

The Basal Gneiss Complex (BGC) of the western-central Norwegian Caledonides forms the core of the Silurian orogen, exposing deep crustal structures formed during continental convergence. Compilation of the geology of the eastern BGC in the Oppdal District by Krill (N.G.U.) and correlations by other workers have shown that units mapped here are equivalent to thrust-nappes exposed in Sweden along the eastern front of the orogen. This tectonostratigraphy of thrust-nappes has been infolded into the felsic basement gneisses forming complex interference patterns. Detailed mapping and computer-aided analysis of 180 km/sup 2/ in the southern closure of a major trumpet-shaped infold, the Groevudal area of the northern Dovrefjell, has shown that the structure is a tight north-facing near-recumbent fold-nappe refolded by an east-verging antiform. Meso- and microstructures, including sheath folds, indicate high strain, transposition and flow; in contrast to correlative units 30 km east which show well preserved primary structures. These observations suggest that basement gneisses to the east in the Lonset area, and other basement gneisses in the eastern BGC, are underlain by near-recumbent isoclinal infolds of thrust-nappes. The geometry is that of two major east-verging sheath-like basement nappes, N to S: the Trollheimen nappe and the Lonset nappe. These antiformal sheath-nappes are bounded by 3 synformal sheath-nappes, N to S: the Surnadal, Grovudal and Lesja fold nappes. The geometry of regional low-angle sheath-folds with superposed steeper folds has produced type 2 and 3 interference patterns. Displacements of the basement fold-nappes exceed 50 km.

Vollmer, F.W.

1985-01-01

29

Rechargeable zinc halogen battery  

SciTech Connect

A rechargeable zinc halogen battery has an aqueous electrolyte containing ions of zinc and halogen and an amount of polysaccharide and/or sorbitol sufficient to prevent zinc dendrite formation during recharging. The electrolyte may also contain trace amounts of metals such as tungsten, molybdenum, and lead. 7 tables.

Spaziante, P.M.; Nidola, A.

1980-01-01

30

Portable photovoltaic battery recharger  

SciTech Connect

A portable photovoltaic battery recharger is described for simultaneously recharging a plurality of rechargeable batteries having different sizes and respective optimum charging current levels, comprising: a plurality of photovoltaic solar cell arrays corresponding to the number of different battery sizes, each of the cell arrays having a plurality of individual solar cells, each cell of a respective array having a selectively chosen surface area for generating the respective optimum charging current levels when insolated; battery receptacle means for holding the plurality of rechargeable batteries in a recharging position; and circuit means for connecting the plurality of photovoltaic solar cell arrays to the battery receptacle means to charge each of the different size batteries with the respective optimum charging current level.

Ricaud, A.M.; Artigliere, F.

1989-02-28

31

Structural evolution and finite geometry of the Siviez-Mischabel nappe, Valais, Swiss Alps  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In order to understand the formation mechanisms of large-scale crystalline basement nappes within continental collision zones, the internal geometry and structural evolution of such basement nappes has to be assessed. The Siviez-Mischabel nappe, exposed within the Penninic zone of western Switzerland, represents a major nappe complex which is ideal to study nappe-forming processes within continental collision zones. However, its large-scale geometry and structural evolution is still enigmatic. According to the classical model of Argand (1916), the Siviez-Mischabel nappe represents a large-scale, isoclinal, basement-cored, recumbent and north-vergent fold, surrounded by Permo-Triassic sediments. In contrast, Markley et al. (1996) proposed that the Siviez-Mischabel nappe consists mainly of thrust sheets which were placed on top of each other, without the development of large-scale isoclinal folds. In addition, Marthaler et al. (2008) proposed that the entire nappe complex is cross-cut by large subhorizontal post-nappe top-to-the-W shear zones, which might be kinematically linked with the Simplon-Rhone shear zone. In this contribution we present new N-S to NNW-SSE structural profiles across the Siviez-Mischabel nappe between the Turtmann Valley and Val de Bagnes. We discuss the field evidence for the two models of Argand (1916) and Markley et al. (1996), and propose that the discrepancy between the models could be the result of the presence of a Permo-Carboniferous trough in the western part of the study area, which caused an overturned limb, and the absence of this trough in the eastern part of the study area, which exhibits mainly thrusting. We present a structural model for the investigated area, which includes (1) the preservation of a pre-alpine(?) fabric in parts of the crystalline basement, which is overprinted by (2) a south-dipping to subhorizontal top-to-the-N fabric associated with large-scale thrusts, which in turn is overprinted by (3) south-vergent folds with a N-dipping spaced cleavage associated with the large-scale Mischabel backfold. This basically two-phase alpine evolution with first a thrust-related, subhorizontal fabric overprinted by a second, backfolding-related fabric seems to be characteristic for the Middle Penninic basement nappes of the Alpine orogen (e.g. Suretta nappe, Scheiber et al., 2010).

Scheiber, T.; Pfiffner, O. A.; Schreurs, G.

2012-04-01

32

Alternatives for the source of the exotic green clasts from Moldavian Nappes (East Carpathians, Romania)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Important segment of the Carpathian chain, the East Carpathians consists of several tectonic units build up during the Mesozoic and Cenozoic closure of the Tethyan Ocean. These tectonic units are composed by crystalline basements and sedimentary covers, or only by sedimentary piles and they represent a result of two compressional phases of Alpine orogenesis: one during Late Cretaceous that was responsible for thrusting of Central East Carpathian Nappes and Outher Dacian Nappes, and a second phase during Early and Middle Miocene interval that involved the Moldavian Nappes as the external nappes (Sandulescu, 1988). The Moldavian Nappes consist of cover nappes tectonically detached from the basement upon which it was deposited. From inside towards outside several units occur: Convolute Flysch Nappe, Macla Nappe, Audia Nappe, Tarcau Nappe, Marginal Folds Nappe and Subcarpathian Nappe (Sãndulescu et al., 1981). If the internal units (up to Audia Nappe) are represented by the Cretaceous sediment piles, in the external units, especially in the Tarcau Nappe and also in the Marginal Folds Nappe the lithology is dominated by the Paleogene deposits, especially by the Oligocene formations. The most particular for these units are the presence of heterogeneous composition induced by the wildflysch type sedimentation. Previous researchers have considered the piles of the both units as flyschoid deposits, and for a minor central part (Slon Facies) they accepted a wildflysch scenario. Based on our field studies between Prahova valley (Romania) and Tisa upper stream basin (Ukraine), the different sedimentary strata (the Oligocene Tarcau, Fusaru, Kliwa sandstones, dysodilic and menilitic rocks, polymictic conglomerates, marls and argillaceous deposits together with Upper Cretaceous polymictic conglomerates and green-reddish argillaceous deposits) are tectonically mixed during the late-Oligocene - Middle Miocene events. The mechanism of sedimentary mélange is supposed to be related to submarine landslide initiated by huge earthquake activity. In this way the velocity of landslide sedimentation was high and as result the spatial distribution of different rock types is inhomogeneous. On the other hand, high velocity of syn-sedimentary deformation generates synchronous shear zones. The stress field in this environment is influenced by the lithological amalgamation and local discontinuities. After sedimentary deposition and syn - deformation processes in all the area, suborizontal shear zones (SSZ) are formed along the borders of sandstone olistoliths embedded in fine-grained sand-argillaceous sediments; they are related to the Miocene tectogenesis. Taking into account that are not lithological differences in the Tarcau and the Marginal Folds units, the contact between them as all major SSZ represent the intra-formational thrusts (Sandulescu, 1984). An important characteristic of the Moldavian Nappes is the presence of the exotic rocks as clasts in conglomerates that are very different in nature (igneous, metamorphic and sedimentary), volume and size and generally green in colour. Many authors who studied this lithological aspect have suggested that a Cumanian ridge was their source. The ridge was active since Upper Creataceous till Miocene widespread from Central Dobrogea to Poland and mainly composed by "dobrogean green schist" rocks. This ridge was placed between Audia and Macla sedimentation areas, or between Audia and Tarcau sedimentation areas. According to our studies, the green clasts from various conglomerates with igneous (intrusive and extrusive aspects), metamorphic (medium to low grade) and sedimentary nature present a variable participation. The green clasts are apparently similar with the central dobrogean green schist rocks and are less than 10% in participation in all Moldavian units. For this reason we suggest that the Central Dobrogean domain wasn't the source area for the discussed clasts. After Oszczypko (2006), in the Polish Carpathians, between the Magura and Silesian basins during the Upper Cretaceous - Mioce

Tatu, M.

2009-04-01

33

Formation of recumbent folds during synorogenic crustal extension (Austroalpine nappes, Switzerland)  

Microsoft Academic Search

In sedimentary rocks of the Austroalpine nappes in eastern Switzerland, several generations of Alpine (Cretaceous-Tertiary) folds can be distinguished by overprinting relations. The second generation (D2), probably Late Cretaceous in age, includes spectacular, kilometre-scale folds refolding the earlier formed nappe pile. D2 folds are interpreted here as resulting from east-southeast-directed crustal extension rather than, as previously assumed, from north-south crustal

Nikolaus Froitzheim

1992-01-01

34

Tectonic transport directions of the Lycian nappes in southwest Turkey constrained by kinematic indicators  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The orientation, asymmetry and cross-cutting relationships of the structures along the contact zone between the Lycian nappes and the Menderes Massif suggest the presence of three deformation phases in the Milas region of southwest Turkey. The first deformation phase (D1) is characterized by a ductile deformation with top-to-the-NE sense of shear. Structural data of the first deformation measured along the uppermost part of the Menderes Massif and the base of the Lycian nappes suggest that the lowermost unit of the Lycian nappes was emplaced initially from southwest to northeast onto the Menderes Massif during the Early Eocene. The second deformation phase (D2) is also ductile in nature and is characterized by an E-W-trending stretching lineation with a bivergent sense of shear, which is probably related to the load of the overlying nappes. A third deformation phase (D3) is characterized by south-dipping normal faults with top-to-the-S sense of movement. This third deformation phase can be related to southward movement of the Lycian nappes along a low-angle décollement zone. The tectonic contact between the Menderes Massif and the Lycian nappes and their strongly-deformed rocks are unconformably covered by approximately flat-lying, coal-bearing Early-Middle Miocene sedimentary rocks, which constrains the upper time limit for all three deformation phases.

Arslan, Arzu; Güngör, Talip; Erdo?an, Burhan; Passchier, Cees W.

2013-03-01

35

3D modeling of the Seidlwinkl-Nappe in the central Tauern Window, Austria  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Seidlwinkl-Nappe in the central Tauern Window is an intensively folded nappe containing Permian to Early Cretaceous metasediments affected by Alpine (Paleogene) tectono-metamorphic event. Although these metasediments have been mapped in great detail, the complex three-dimensional geometry of the nappe is not easily envisaged from the map view. The general structure of the nappe comprises a NW-verging, mostly isoclinal fold with a sheared and thinned lower limb, and parasitic folds of variable orientation and amplitude in the upper limb close to the large-scale fold hinge. In order to facilitate geological interpretation, we created a 3D tectonic model of three selected tectono-stratigraphic contacts with different lithologies within the Seidlwinkl-Nappe, i.e. the top of the gneissic metasediments (Wustkogel Formation), the top of the Triassic carbonate rocks and the top of the Early Cretaceous schistose metasediments, using the commercial software Gocad (Paradigm). By intersecting the mapped horizons with a digital elevation model of the area, we constructed the three-dimensional outcrop line of the horizons. Additional information on the orientation of the layers was used to construct dip direction and dip for each layer in each position. Finally, the exposed parts were connected to create the full surface for each horizon, respecting the existing or missing intersections with topography. The modeled geometry of the nappe displays the shape of a large scale sheath fold. Parasitic folds (of several 10 to 100 m amplitude) are present along the entire large scale fold hinge. However, the orientation of their fold axes is roughly N-S in the western part of the nappe, but NW-SE in the eastern part, with a smooth transition between the two. Clearly, this modeling cannot replace thorough field work and structural analysis. However, key areas could be identified, which should be visited in future field studies to distinguish between polyphase deformation and single-phase folding and associated sheath fold formation.

Hilty, L.; Exner, U.; Pestal, G.; Linner, M.; Schuster, R.

2012-04-01

36

Emplacement age and direction of the Lycian nappes in the Söke-Selçuk region, western Turkey  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the Söke-Selçuk region, western Turkey, the northernmost exposures of the Lycian nappes are found as tectonic slices on the Menderes Massif. The Menderes Massif is represented by a continuous platform sequence and a blocky unit. The lower parts of the Menderes platform sequence is composed of Triassic-Jurassic marbles and an alternation of calcschists and micaschists; however, the upper parts are composed of emery- and rudist-bearing massive marbles. Along a gradational boundary, a blocky unit is found on top of the platform sequence, and it comprises blocks of metaophiolite and emery-bearing marble set in garnet-micaschists matrix. Along a low-angle fault marked by thin slices of red-green phyllites, tectonic slices of the Lycian nappes overlay garnet-micaschists of the massif. The Lycian nappes are represented mainly by a carbonate sequence which consists of dolomites, oncoidal limestones, intraformational limestone conglomerates, and cherty limestones. In the carbonate sequence of the Lycian nappes, undeformed primary structures are clearly observed just several meters above the sole fault, indicating a metamorphic break between the Lycian nappes and the Menderes Massif. The linear fabric in red-green phyllites at the sole of the Lycian nappes trends NNE-SSW, gently plunges to SSW and NNE, and is parallel to the linear fabric of the neotectonic period in the western Turkey. S/C relation suggests top-to-the SSW sense of shear in red-green phyllites. The deformation localized along the sole of the tectonic slices indicates that the red-green phyllites acted as a decollement surface. The deformational features, stratigraphic relations, orientation of linear fabric and metamorphic break reveal that Lycian nappes were emplaced on the Menderes Massif along a low-angle normal fault, after the Early to Middle Eocene Main Menderes metamorphism and prior to the deposition of the Middle Miocene sedimentary cover.

Güngör, Talip; Erdo?an, B.

2001-03-01

37

A simple thermo-mechanical shear model applied to the Morcles fold nappe (Western Alps)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present a one-dimensional shear zone model with a power-law flow law and a temperature dependent viscosity. The analytical solution for the velocity profile across the shear zone depends only on the single dimensionless parameter ?. ? depends on the activation energy of the applied flow law, the temperature at the base of the shear zone and the temperature difference across it. The solution can describe three types of shear deformation: (1) homogeneous simple shear for ? < < 1, (2) thrust-sheet emplacement on top of a thin ductile shear zone for ? > > 1 and (3) heterogeneous simple shear potentially generating fold nappes for ? ~ 5-10. We perform a systematic parameter search and determine the parameters that provide the best fit between a sheared model line and a reference line representing the first-order geometry of the frontal part of the Morcles nappe. We also apply a more elaborated pressure-driven model to test whether published flow laws for calcite and realistic pressure gradients provide realistic velocities and strain rates for the Morcles nappe. The value of ? applicable to the Morcles nappe is estimated with three independent methods: (1) applying reported values for temperatures and activation energy to the analytical formula for ?, (2) fitting the first-order geometry of the Morcles fold nappe and (3) comparing results of a velocity-driven (i.e. kinematic boundary condition) and pressure-driven (i.e. pressure source term and free surface) shear zone model. All three methods yield consistent estimates for ? between 3 and 15. Our results show that previously published kinematic models, which explain the tectonic evolution of the Morcles fold nappe within a crustal shear zone, are physically feasible. The results further suggest that viscous heterogeneous simple shear played a dominant role during the formation of the Morcles fold nappe.

Bauville, Arthur; Epard, Jean-Luc; Schmalholz, Stefan M.

2013-01-01

38

Universal connector for rechargeable and non-rechargeable batteries  

Microsoft Academic Search

In an electrical product having battery recharging means and a load adapted for energization from a battery, a battery connector is described which consists of: terminal means adapted to contact the output terminals of either a non-rechargeable battery having a first physical configuration or a rechargeable battery having a second physical configuration, the terminal means coupled to the load of

G. R. Mundschenk; R. C. Decker

1986-01-01

39

3D FEM modeling of fold nappe formation in the Western Swiss Alps  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Fold nappes are recumbent folds with amplitudes exceeding 10 km and have been presumably formed by heterogeneous simple shear. They often exhibit a constant sense of shearing and a non-linear increase of shear strain towards their overturned limb. The fold axes of the Morcles fold nappe in western Switzerland plunges to the ENE whereas the fold axes in the more eastern Doldenhorn nappe plunges to the WSW. These opposite plunge directions characterize the Wildstrubel depression (Rawil depression, Ramsay, 1981). The Morcles nappe is mainly the result of layer contraction and shearing (Ramsay, 1981). During the compression the massive limestones were more competent than the surrounding marls and shales, which led to the buckling characteristics of the Morcles nappe, especially in the north-dipping normal limb. There are still no 3D numerical studies which investigate the fundamental dynamics of the formation of the large-scale 3D structure including the Morcles and Doldenhorn fold nappes and the related Wildstrubel depression. Such studies require a numerical algorithm that can accurately track material interfaces for large differences in material properties (e.g. between limestone and shale) and for large deformations. We present a numerical algorithm based on the finite element method (FEM) which can simulate 3D fluid flow for a power-law viscous rheology. Our FEM code combines a numerical marker technique and a deformable Lagrangian mesh with re-meshing (Poliakov and Podladchikov, 1992) and is used to study the formation of 3D fold nappes similar to the ones in the Western Swiss Alps. The numerical method requires the interpolation of material properties to the integration points because the layer interface can lie within a finite element. To guarantee accuracy the number of integration points in the finite elements is increased considerably. The interpolation is only performed during several re-meshing steps when the deformed Lagrangian mesh is too distorted. During the re-meshing the global coordinates of the contour points specifying the interface between different materials remain unchanged and the new local coordinates of the contour points are interpolated from the element nodes of the new mesh. Our new FEM code is tested for large strain density driven diapirism and single-layer folding of power-law viscous layers by comparing numerical results with analytical solutions. Also, the results of the new 3D algorithm are compared with results of existing and tested 2D algorithms for cylindrical folding. We present first results for the formation of fold nappes in 3D. We further present preliminary numerical results for the formation of the Morcles-Doldenhorn fold nappe system.

von Tscharner, M.; Schmalholz, S.

2012-04-01

40

Strain state and kinematic evolution of a fold-nappe beneath the Samail Ophiolite, Oman  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Saih Hatat domal culmination of the Oman Mountains, Arabian Peninsula contains a major, refolded, NE-facing, recumbent, anticlinal fold-nappe within Pre-Ordovician sedimentary cover (autochthon) and Mesozoic platform carbonates that underlie the Samail and Hawasina nappes. Tracts of overturned stratigraphy covering over a 1000 km2 are associated with a marked strain gradient towards sheath-like, a-type folds that define the fold-nappe lower limb transitional into an elongated SW-facing recumbent syncline and the underlying upper plate lower plate shear zone. Directions of stretching recorded by fibrous, pressure shadow fringes on pyrite show a 20 30° counterclockwise rotation in the foliation plane. Strain and kinematic constraints require the fold-nappe to form progressively during top-to-the-NE shearing of the Arabian margin with (1) development of a high-strain zone, and (2) subsequent folding of the strongly deformed to transposed stratigraphy in the hanging wall to the shear zone. Rolling of the autochthonous stratigraphic layering of the upper limb through the hinge accompanied by differential shear strain produced the regional scale, highly attenuated a-type folds at the structurally lowest levels. This occurred by simple underthrusting of the footwall (lower plate), as the upper limb of the fold-nappe has to be pinned to the autochthon.

Gray, David R.; Miller, John Mcl.; Gregory, Robert T.

2005-11-01

41

Apparatus for charging rechargeable battery  

Microsoft Academic Search

A rechargeable battery is supplied with a charging voltage from a charging voltage source and exhibits a charging voltage characteristic having a peak shortly before the rechargeable battery reaches a fully charged state. A resistor voltage dividing circuit having a plurality of voltage output terminals is connected to both terminals of the rechargeable battery. A voltage memory device is provided

K. Oyamada; K. Tada

1982-01-01

42

Rechargeable galvanic cell  

Microsoft Academic Search

An improved rechargeable cell is described which has an anode structure which in its uncharged state comprises a coherent metallic porous body with its pores substantially filled with oxidized zinc and alkaline electrolyte. This anode structure is generated in situ, within the cell, by exposing a predetermined admixture of active zinc metal and an oxide of a metal less anodically

1978-01-01

43

Rechargeable Alkaline Zinc System.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Rechargeable alkaline zinc batteries have been investigated heretofore as power sources capable of high energy density applications. One of the major problems with their use is the short circuiting of the unit cells by growth of zinc dendrites from the an...

O. C. Wagner

1970-01-01

44

REMOTELY RECHARGEABLE EPD  

SciTech Connect

Radiation measurements inside the Contact Decon Maintenance Cell (CDMC) in the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) at the Savannah River Site (SRS) are required to determine stay times for personnel. A system to remotely recharge the transmitter of an Electronic Personnel Dosimeter (EPD) and bail assembly to transport the EPD within the CDMC was developed by the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) to address this need.

Vrettos, N; Athneal Marzolf, A; Scott Bowser, S

2007-11-13

45

Reinterpretation of nappe structures in the Central Alps Evidence from 3D foliation field modelling  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Lepontine Alps represent the classic region for both, fold nappe development at mid-crustal levels and fold interference patterns from outcrop to regional scale. They have also been proposed as models for rapid burial and exhumation. However, before such models can be applied or critically assessed, the geometry of the units involved must be accurately known in three dimensions and

M. Maxelon; N. S. Mancktelow

2003-01-01

46

Ravia nappe, Bryan County, Oklahoma: a gravity slide block off the Tishomingo uplift  

SciTech Connect

The Ravia nappe in Bryan County, Oklahoma, is located along the southwestern flank of the Tishomingo uplift, between the Cumberland and East Durant oil fields. This mass of Cambrian-Ordovician through Mississippian sediments tectonically overlies younger Springer shales (Pennsylvanian) of the Ardmore basin. Previously, this feature has been interpreted to have been thrust southward along the Cumberland fault, a fault parallel to the Ravia thrust. Reinterpretation of this area, with additional well data, indicates the Ravia nappe is a gravity slide block off the uplifted Tishomingo mountains. The Ravia nappe is interpreted to have been originally the southwest overturned limb of the Tishomingo uplift. Prior to the major thrusting on the Ravia thrust, but after compressional folding and uplift of the Tishomingo mountains, a breakaway fault formed across the most intensely folded beds. The breakaway fault undercut the overturned southwestern limb of the Tishomingo uplift in a concave-upward fault surface. Gravitational forces caused the Ravia nappe Mississippian Caney rocks to Cambrian-Ordoviciena Arbuckle rocks to slide rotationally southwestward 2.5 mi (4 km). Topographic relief prior to the slide may have been as much as 9000 ft (2700 m). The slide occurred sometime during late Morrowan to early Desmoinesian.

Jacobson, M.I.

1983-08-01

47

Ravia nappe, Bryan County, Oklahoma: a gravity slide block off the Tishomingo uplift  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Ravia nappe in Bryan County, Oklahoma, is located along the southwestern flank of the Tishomingo uplift, between the Cumberland and East Durant oil fields. This mass of Cambrian-Ordovician through Mississippian sediments tectonically overlies younger Springer shales (Pennsylvanian) of the Ardmore basin. Previously, this feature has been interpreted to have been thrust southward along the Cumberland fault, a fault parallel

1983-01-01

48

Hot granulite nappes — Tectonic styles and thermal evolution of the Proterozoic granulite belts in East Africa  

Microsoft Academic Search

A section through the Neoproterozoic Mozambique Belt of Tanzania exposes western foreland (Archaean Tanzania Craton and Palaeoproterozoic Usagaran Belt), marginal (Western Granulites) and eastern, internal (Eastern Granulites) portions of the orogen. The assembly of granulite nappes at ca. 620 Ma displays westward emplacement along an eastward deepening basal decollement and forward propagation of thrusts, climbing from the deep crust to the

Harald Fritz; Veronika Tenczer; Christoph Hauzenberger; Eckart Wallbrecher; Sospeter Muhongo

2009-01-01

49

New, high-precision PT estimates for Oman blueschists: implications for obduction, nappe stacking and exhumation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Oman blueschists and eclogites lie below the obduction nappe of the Semail ophiolite in one of the key areas on Earth for the study of plate convergence. Here new metamorphic and tectonic constraints are provided for the central, yet poorly constrained Hulw unit, sandwiched between the low-grade units (? 10 kbar, <300 ? C) and the As Sifah eclogites (Pmax

P. YAMATO; P. AGARD; B. GOFFE; V. DE ANDRADE; O. VIDAL; L. JOLIVET

2007-01-01

50

Water Table Fluctuations Induced by Intermittent Recharge  

Microsoft Academic Search

The problem of water table fluctuations in response to repeated recharges is considered. The effect on the water table of intermittent constant recharge (recharge applied intermittently at a constant rate) and of intermittent instantaneous recharge (recharge applied instantaneoulsy at regular intervals) is analyzed in detail. The final results are shown to consist of a combination of periodic and transient components;

Marinus Maasland

1959-01-01

51

A Dimensionless Parameter Study of Groundwater Recharge.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The method of coefficients has been used to predict groundwater recharge for several years. A new approach was attempted using a 'dimensionless parameter' concept to relate recharge to other known parameters, i.e., pumpage, permeability, rainfall, recharg...

G. A. Coleman J. K. Cheng J. F. Harp J. G. Laguros

1972-01-01

52

Universal connector for rechargeable and non-rechargeable batteries  

SciTech Connect

In an electrical product having battery recharging means and a load adapted for energization from a battery, a battery connector is described which consists of: terminal means adapted to contact the output terminals of either a non-rechargeable battery having a first physical configuration or a rechargeable battery having a second physical configuration, the terminal means coupled to the load of the product such that the load may be energized from either the non-rechargeable battery or the rechargeable battery; circuit means coupling the terminal means and the battery recharging means, the circuit means including a switch having an open state preventing charging through the circuit means of a battery coupled to the terminal means and a closed state permitting charging through the circuit means of a battery coupled to the terminal means; and biased actuating means coupled to the switch for moving the switch between its closed and open sites, the actuating means adapted to coact with the first physical configuration of a non-rechargeable battery to move the switch against a bias to its open state and adapted to coact with the second physical configuration of a rechargeable battery to allow the switch to move with the bias to its closed state; whereby the physical configurations of a battery connected to the battery connector determines whether or not the battery will be charged.

Mundschenk, G.R.; Decker, R.C.

1986-07-22

53

Salinité de la nappe à Greve, Danemark: origine sur la base de données historiques  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Elevated salinity in groundwater (over 250 mg/l chloride) in a fractured chalk aquifer in the municipality of Greve, Denmark, has been attributed to seawater intrusion from the Baltic Sea, resulting in the closure of a number of wells nearest to the coastline. However, a recent study in eastern Denmark shows that the salinity could also be from ancient connate pore waters. Historical chemistry data from bulk-water samples collected from wells have been used to determine the source. The sample data were studied with respect to their historical changes and temporal trends in chloride, carbonate, sulfate, sodium, potassium, magnesium, and calcium. Wells in the southern third of the municipality are relatively low in sodium and carbonate and high in chloride and calcium/magnesium, indicating waters undergoing saline intrusion. Wells in the northern two-thirds of the municipality are high in carbonate and sodium, but low in chloride and calcium/magnesium, indicating a freshening of the aquifer. This is confirmed by the temporal trends in chloride, where chloride levels in the northern wells remain constant, whereas in the south, chloride increases as abstraction continues. Therefore close monitoring for seawater intrusion should be conducted in the southern third of the municipality. La salinité élevée de l’eau de nappe (supérieure à 250 mg/l) dans un aquifère carbonaté fracturé, commune de Greve, Danemark, a été attribuée à une intrusion marine de la Mer Baltique suite à la fermeture d’un certain nombre de puits, les plus proches du rivage. Cependant, une récente étude à l’Est du Danemark montre que la salinité pourrait correspondre à de l’eau interstitielle connée ancienne. Des données chimiques historiques sur un grand nombre d’échantillons d’eau de puits ont été utilisées pour en déterminer la source. L’étude porte sur les variations historiques des concentrations et tendances des chlorures, carbonates, sulfates, sur le sodium, potassium, magnésium et calcium. Les puits du tiers Sud de la commune sont relativement pauvres en sodium et carbonates et riches en chlorures et calcium/magnésium, indiquant des eaux subissant une intrusion saline. Les puits des deux tiers Nord de la commune sont riches en carbonates et en sodium, mais pauvres en chlorures et calcium/magnésium, indiquant un adoucissement de l’aquifère. Ceci est confirmé par les tendances dans le temps, les niveaux de chlorures dans les puits du Nord restant constants, tandis qu’au Sud la concentration en chlorures augmente lorsque l’exhaure se poursuit. C’est pourquoi une surveillance étroite de l’intrusion marine devrait être exercée dans le tiers Sud de la commune. La elevada salinidad en el agua subterránea (más de 250 mg/l de cloruro) en un acuífero de creta fracturada en la municipalidad de Greve, Dinamarca, se ha atribuido a la intrusión de agua salada desde el Mar Báltico, lo que resultó en el cierre de un número de pozos muy cercanos a la línea de costa. Sin embargo, un estudio reciente en el este de Dinamarca muestra que la salinidad podría provenir también desde aguas porales connatas antiguas. Se han usado los datos químicos históricos a partir de los muestreos del agua colectada de los pozos para determinar el origen. Los datos de las muestras fueron estudiados con respecto a sus cambios históricos y tendencias temporales en cloruro, carbonato, sulfato, sodio, potasio, magnesio y calcio. Los pozos en el tercio meridional de la municipalidad son relativamente bajos en sodio y carbonato y altos en cloruro y calcio/magnesio, lo que indica que las aguas experimentan una intrusión salina. Los pozos en las dos terceras partes septentrionales de la municipalidad son altamente carbonatados y sódicos, pero bajos en cloruro y calcio/magnesio, lo que indica una desalinización del agua del acuífero. Esto está confirmado por las tendencias temporales en cloruro, donde los niveles de cloruro en los pozos del norte permanecen constantes, mientras que en el sur el cloruro se incrementa a medid

Thorn, Paul

2010-12-01

54

Novel rechargeable sodium batteries  

Microsoft Academic Search

The program was concerned with the development of a high energy density rechargeable sodium battery operating in the moderate temperature range of 175 to 200 C. The suitability of NaFeOâ and FeOCl as cathode materials in Na cells having the configuration--Molten Na\\/beta-AlâOâ\\/Molten NaAlC{sub l4}, NaFeOâ or FeOC{sub l}--has been studied. Cells containing either NaFeOâ or FeOCl were found to cycle

1988-01-01

55

High Power Rechargeable Thermal Battery.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Report developed under STTR contract; a proof of concept for a portable, rechargeable thermal battery (RTB). Including a superinsulated case, a lightweight (10 lb) RTB can provide 250W for 2-6h at 140 Wh/kg with days of activation between recharging. It c...

T. D. Kaun

1997-01-01

56

Coupling of oceanic and continental crust during Eocene eclogite-facies metamorphism: evidence from the Monte Rosa nappe, western Alps  

Microsoft Academic Search

High precision U–Pb geochronology of rutile from quartz–carbonate–white mica–rutile veins that are hosted within eclogite\\u000a and schist of the Monte Rosa nappe, western Alps, Italy, indicate that the Monte Rosa nappe was at eclogite-facies metamorphic\\u000a conditions at 42.6 ± 0.6 Ma. The sample area [Indren glacier, Furgg zone; Dal Piaz (2001) Geology of the Monte Rosa massif: historical review and personal comments. SMPM

Thomas J. Lapen; Clark M. Johnson; Lukas P. Baumgartner; Giorgio V. Dal Piaz; Susanne Skora; Brian L. Beard

2007-01-01

57

Coupling of oceanic and continental crust during Eocene eclogite-facies metamorphism: evidence from the Monte Rosa nappe, western Alps  

Microsoft Academic Search

High precision U Pb geochronology of rutile from quartz carbonate white mica rutile veins that are hosted within eclogite and schist of the Monte Rosa nappe, western Alps, Italy, indicate that the Monte Rosa nappe was at eclogite-facies metamorphic conditions at 42.6 ± 0.6 Ma. The sample area [Indren glacier, Furgg zone; Dal Piaz (2001) Geology of the Monte Rosa

Thomas J. Lapen; Clark M. Johnson; Lukas P. Baumgartner; Giorgio V. Dal Piaz; Susanne Skora; Brian L. Beard

2007-01-01

58

Isotopic evidence for the Precambrian provenance and Caledonian metamorphism of high grade paragneisses from the Seve Nappes, Scandinavian Caledonides  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ion microprobe U-Th-Pb analyses of residual cores and metamorphic mantles of zircons from three high grade paragneisses from the Seve Nappe Complex, north-western Sweden, show that: 1) The sediments comprising the protolith of the Seve Nappes gneisses over a distance of 250 km were probably derived from similarly-aged source terranes. 2) Those source terranes were dominated by rocks with ages

I. S. Williams; S. Claesson

1987-01-01

59

Brittle faulting in the Rawil depression: field observations from the Rezli fault zones, Helvetic nappes, Western Switzerland  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Helvetic nappes in the Swiss Alps form a classic fold-and-thrust belt related to overall NNW-directed transport. In western\\u000a Switzerland, the plunge of nappe fold axes and the regional distribution of units define a broad depression, the Rawil depression,\\u000a between the culminations of Aiguilles Rouge massif to the SW and Aar massif to the NE. A compilation of data from

Deta GasserNeil; Neil S. Mancktelow

2010-01-01

60

Microstructural and Lattice-Preferred Orientation Analyses of Ductile Shear Zones: Maggia Nappe, Switzerland  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Microstructures from 24 samples and quartz lattice-preferred orientations (LPO) of 13 samples from the crystalline Maggia Nappe, Switzerland were measured in order to assess the deformation history, mechanisms, and conditions of ductile shear zone development related to nappe formation. Microstructures suggest dislocation creep-accommodated dynamic recrystallization as evidenced by grain size reduction and grain boundary area reduction (GBAR). However, weak LPOs suggest diffusion processes that destroyed previously developed crystalline fabrics. Large grain size (~100-300m) suggests a major component of diffusion creep-accommodated grain-boundary sliding (GBS) followed by grain size growth. Undulatory extinction in grains implies grain growth was not entirely post deformational and that fabrics are not purely magmatic. Assuming stain rates of 10-13s-1, the deformation history of the Maggia Nappe at conditions of 450° -650° C and 3-10 kbar is constrained as 1) development of a lineated magmatic fabric, 2) development of ductile shear zones and strong LPO through dislocation creep, 3) onset of diffusion creep- accommodated GBS after sufficient grain size reduction, 4) destruction of LPOs, and 5) syn- and post- deformational grain growth.

Barnhart, W. D.; Rahl, J. M.

2008-12-01

61

Water recharge in Larderello Geothermal field  

SciTech Connect

In this paper, the variations in fluid composition observed in area of Larderello field that are strongly affected by induced recharge are ascribed to a simple mechanism, and a comprehensive conceptual model is presented for these areas. According to out interpretation, the steam produced in areas affected by induced recharge is a mixture of two components (steam from recharge water and original deep steam). The natural recharge increased and recharge became an important phenomenon as a consequence of the pressure drawdown caused by exploitation. Three separate estimates of the water recharge give similar results and confirm that a significant fraction of the produced steam derives from recharge water.

Celati, R.; Calore, C.; Grassi, S.; D'Amore, F. (CNR International Int. for Geothermal Research, Piazza Solferino 2, 56126 Pisa (IT)); Cappetti, G. (ENEL Vice-Direction of Geothermal Activity, Via Andrea Pisano 120, 56122 Pisa (IT))

1991-01-01

62

Zones d'oxydo-réduction dans l'aquifère de la Craie des bassins de Paris et de l'Allemagne du nord  

Microsoft Academic Search

L' étude géochimique et isotopique de la nappe de la Craie des bassins de Paris et de l'Allemagne du nord montre une zonation chimique distincte en ce qui concerne d'une part des éléments multivalents (O, N, S, Fe, Mn, U) et d'autre part le potentiel d'oxydo-réduction (Eh) mesuré. L'oxygène dissous et les nitrates disparaissent lors du passage d'une “barrière rédox\\

W. KLOPPMANN; L. DEVER; W. M. EDMUNDS

1996-01-01

63

Rechargeable natrium batteries. (Genopladelige natriumbatterier).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Investigations on rechargeable molten salt batteries have been carried out. Molten chloride aluminates have been used as electrolytes, and aluminium as anodes, the cathodes have often been transient metal sulphides. Furthermore, investigations on natrium ...

H. Hjuler B. C. Knutz B. Vestergaard N. J. Bjerrum

1992-01-01

64

Advanced Rechargeable Batteries, Phase 2.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In the framework of the program Advanced rechargeable batteries, intended to evaluate the suitability, the applicability and possible problems of advanced batteries on naval ships (both surface and submarine) studies and tests have been performed on two p...

I. D. Schmal I. W. ter Veen I. C. Kluiters

1999-01-01

65

Apparatus for charging rechargeable battery  

SciTech Connect

A rechargeable battery is supplied with a charging voltage from a charging voltage source and exhibits a charging voltage characteristic having a peak shortly before the rechargeable battery reaches a fully charged state. A resistor voltage dividing circuit having a plurality of voltage output terminals is connected to both terminals of the rechargeable battery. A voltage memory device is provided for storing a predetermined voltage based on a voltage supplied from the voltage dividing circuit corresponding to the peak point of the charging voltage characteristic and comparison is made of the other output voltage obtained from the voltage dividing circuit after the peak point is passed and the stored voltage in the voltage memory device and a supply of a charging power from the charging voltage source to the rechargeable battery is interrupted when the difference between these voltages becomes zero.

Oyamada, K.; Tada, K.

1982-10-12

66

Electrically Rechargeable Redox Flow Cell.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A bulk energy storage system is described. The system includes an electrically rechargeable reduction-oxidation cell divided by a membrane into two compartments, each containing an electrode. An anode fluid is directed through the first compartment at the...

L. H. Thaller

1975-01-01

67

Novel rechargeable sodium batteries  

SciTech Connect

The program was concerned with the development of a high energy density rechargeable sodium battery operating in the moderate temperature range of 175 to 200 C. The suitability of NaFeO{sub 2} and FeOCl as cathode materials in Na cells having the configuration--Molten Na/beta-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}/Molten NaAlC{sub l4}, NaFeO{sub 2} or FeOC{sub l}--has been studied. Cells containing either NaFeO{sub 2} or FeOCl were found to cycle about 3 Na per Fe reversibly, in a two step discharge. The voltage profiles of cells containing either of these materials are strikingly similar. Chemical reactions between the NaAlC{sub l4} electrolyte and NaFeO{sub 2} or FeOCl have been proposed which suggest the formation of the identical intermediate in cells of either type. The quasi-theoretical specific energy is 1545 Wh/kg for the Na/NaFeO{sub 2} couple, and 1475 Wh/kg for the Na/FeOCl cell. When the possible involvement of one mole of NaAlCl4 in the discharge reaction is considered, these values become 628 Wh/kg for the former, and 603 Wh/kg for the latter.

Abraham, K.M.

1988-07-28

68

Reinterpretation of nappe structures in the Central Alps Evidence from 3D foliation field modelling  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Lepontine Alps represent the classic region for both, fold nappe development at mid-crustal levels and fold interference patterns from outcrop to regional scale. They have also been proposed as models for rapid burial and exhumation. However, before such models can be applied or critically assessed, the geometry of the units involved must be accurately known in three dimensions and this is a challenging task in this complex region. The three-dimensional geometry of the Lepontine nappes is not established unequivocally, as the integration and visualisation of structural data reflecting at least five different deformation phases has not yet been achieved satisfactorily. The present study focusses on a combination of new structural mapping in critical and/or contradictory areas, existing observations and their geostatistical assessment with modern computer-based tools (Editeur Géologique, Gocad) in order to develop a testable three-dimensional model of the geometry of the Lepontine Nappes in the Central Alps. Here we present a regional-scale three dimensional model of the southern central part of the Lepontine Region, bordered by the Swiss-Italian frontier in the east and Valle Leventina to the west and by Biasca and Locarno to the north and south. The model visualises a geostatistical calculation of the dominant foliation field in three dimensions, based on field measurements. The present day tectonostratigraphy and nappe geometry are mainly influenced by the three earliest recognisable Alpine deformation phases D_1 to D_3. D_1 structures are associated with first-time crustal nappe emplacement. Lithologies that are interpreted as nappe separators - mainly Mesozoic sediments such as "Bündnerschiefer" - have mostly been interleaved between the nappes during D_1, which entails strong isoclinal folding and pronounced boudinage of the infolded lithologies, with the development of a penetrative foliation S_1. S_1 and the infolded Mesozoic have been intensely refolded by the subsequent deformation event D_2, which also produced large-scale isoclinal folds and the present-day dominant foliation S_2 axial plane to F_2 structures on all scales. The majority of the regionally important fold structures in the northern part of the Penninic realm are assigned to D_2. D_3 produced comparably broad large-scale folds of long wavelength in the north that tighten dramatically in the south as the trend of their fold axial planes swings into parallelism with the Insubric Fault. D_3 only locally produced a new foliation S_3 parallel to its fold axial planes. On the outcrop scale, D_3-folds are poly- to disharmonic and of variable wavelength and amplitude. Regional D_3 structures are mainly defined on the basis of large-scale changes in the orientation of S_2. However, due to the previously mentioned strong tightening in the south, D_3 and later deformations progressively obliterate most D_2 structures, as the Insubric Fault is approached from the north. Our three dimensional model is entirely based on measurements of S_2, i.e. the dominant foliation throughout the study area and therefore only shows the effects of D_3 and later stages of deformation. In addition to well-known regional structures, auch as the Campo Tencia Synform, which dominates the area between northern Valle Maggia and northern Valle Leventina, this model reveals further folds of regional impact that have not previously been given sufficient attention. The most important finding in this context is the existence of a major, mainly east-west striking D_3 synform adjacent to the Insubric Line, which we will refer to as the Locarno-Synform. Lithologies on opposite limbs of the same fold clearly should not be assigned to different tectonic units. The new model is therefore not in accord with the present interpretation of this area, where one major tectonic unit, namely the Cima Lunga Nappe, is sandwiched between the tectonically juxtaposed but supposedly distinct Maggia and Simano Nappes. Instead we conclude that the Maggia and Simano Nappes in fact represent diff

Maxelon, M.; Mancktelow, N. S.

2003-04-01

69

Early evaluation of a rechargeable pacemaker system.  

PubMed

A rechargeable demand pulse generator for permanent transvenous cardiac pacing was evaluated in 66 patients. During a cumulative follow-up period of 895 patient months there was no instance of failure of either the pulse generator or of the recharging circuit. Acceptance of the recharging concept was high, there being only one patient in whom it was necessary to replace the rechargeable generator because of inability to master the recharging technique. The early findings indicate that with proper patient selection the rechargeable pulse generator promises to be an important contribution to pacemaker therapy. PMID:978092

Stertzer, S H; DePasquale, N P; Bruno, M S; Cohn, L J

1976-01-01

70

Cyclic Brittle and Ductile Deformation During Nappe Decoupling Along a Propagating thrust Fault  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Earthquakes cause perturbations in the crustal stress field. Differential stresses decrease along the fault plane, while the crust at and below the lower fault tip is loaded to high differential stress due to the taper-off in slip. These stress peaks relax during postseismic creep. The stress cycles leave a conspicuous imprint in the fabrics of metamorphic rocks. Metamorphic rocks exposed in the hanging wall of a thrust fault must have been detached from their roots, probably by downward fault propagation. In front of the approaching fault front, the rocks are subjected to successive cycles of coseismic loading with increasing amplitude and postseismic stress relaxation, until the fault front has passed the site of observation. After decoupling, all further deformation is localized into the fault, and the rocks at the observation site are now subjected to cycles of coseismic stress relieve and gradual reloading. In this study we test the hypothesis that such a stress history may leave a characteristic structural record in the hanging wall of a thrust fault. We investigate a profile of 150 m length at the base of the metamorphic Preveli nappe, thrusted upon unmetamorphic sedimentary rocks of the Pindos unit in southern Crete, Greece. The base of the nappe consists of a 30m thick matrix-supported breccia layer. The fragments are exclusively derived from the metamorphic rocks of the nappe, measure up to several centimetres in diameter, are angular to roundish, and do not show a shape preferred orientation. This indicates the absence of notable post-brecciation deformation. The internal structures and microfabrics of neighbouring clasts are not correlated in style or orientation, and hence reflect deformation prior to brecciation. Quartz microfabrics indicate brittle failure followed by ductile creep, deformation in the regimes of low-temperature plasticity, and dislocation creep at high differential stress accompanied by dynamic recrystallization, all prior to brecciation. After brecciation, pseudotachylyte veins were injected into the breccia layer, indicating that the rocks at the observation site were now subjected to cycles of coseismic stress relieve and gradual reloading. The crosscutting pseudotachylites remained undeformed. Based on these observations we conclude: (1) The internal fabrics of the clasts reflect several consecutive stress cycles, related to earthquakes during which the fault propagated towards the site of observation. (2) Brecciation marks the stage of decoupling of the nappe from its former roots; the breccia represents the damage wake formed at the propagating fault front. (3) Preservation of the breccia and crosscutting pseudotachylites indicate subsequent localization of deformation into a weak thrust fault beneath the site of observation during transport and emplacement of the nappe. We propose that brecciation marks the switch from coseismic loading to coseismic stress relieve for the site of observation, related to propagation of a seismogenic fault into the middle crust. Such type of record may be systematically found at the base of nappes with mid-crustal provenience.

Nuechter, J. A.; Wassmann, S.; Stoeckhert, B.

2010-12-01

71

Functional materials for rechargeable batteries.  

PubMed

There is an ever-growing demand for rechargeable batteries with reversible and efficient electrochemical energy storage and conversion. Rechargeable batteries cover applications in many fields, which include portable electronic consumer devices, electric vehicles, and large-scale electricity storage in smart or intelligent grids. The performance of rechargeable batteries depends essentially on the thermodynamics and kinetics of the electrochemical reactions involved in the components (i.e., the anode, cathode, electrolyte, and separator) of the cells. During the past decade, extensive efforts have been dedicated to developing advanced batteries with large capacity, high energy and power density, high safety, long cycle life, fast response, and low cost. Here, recent progress in functional materials applied in the currently prevailing rechargeable lithium-ion, nickel-metal hydride, lead acid, vanadium redox flow, and sodium-sulfur batteries is reviewed. The focus is on research activities toward the ionic, atomic, or molecular diffusion and transport; electron transfer; surface/interface structure optimization; the regulation of the electrochemical reactions; and the key materials and devices for rechargeable batteries. PMID:21394791

Cheng, Fangyi; Liang, Jing; Tao, Zhanliang; Chen, Jun

2011-03-11

72

High Plains States Groundwater Demonstration Program. Rillito Recharge Project Artificial Groundwater Recharge Project Artificial Groundwater Recharge Demonstration Project Summary.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report summarizes the development, conduct, and findings of the Rillito Recharge Project. Detailed information can be found in the Final Report: Rillito Recharge Project. The project is one of 13 demonstration projects by the Bureau of Reclamation (R...

1996-01-01

73

Chronology of nappe assembly in the Pan-African Dahomeyide orogen, West Africa: evidence from 40Ar 39 Ar mineral ages  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Pan-African Dahomeyide orogen represents the southwestern segments of the eastern tectonic zone along which the West African Craton was incorporated into Gondwana. Orogenic contraction produced nappe complexes comprised of passive margin sediments and accreted exotic magmatic rocks in Ghana and Togo. External nappes include the Atacora, composed of lower amphibolite facies quartzite and mica schist which were structurally imbricated

Kodjopa Attoh; R. D. Dallmeyer; Pascal Affaton

1997-01-01

74

A Sveconorwegian terrane boundary in the Caledonian Hardanger-Ryfylke Nappe Complex: the lost link between Telemarkia and the Western Gneiss Region?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Magmatic and metamorphic events in two of the nappes of the Hardanger-Ryfylke Nappe Complex in the Caledonides in SW-Norway, and in the intervening thrust zone, have been investigated by means of ID-TIMS U-Pb zircon and titanite data. Orthogneiss protoliths in the upper Kvitenut nappe are dated at 1615 ± 6 Ma, showing analogies to the Gothian terrane, including the Western Gneiss Region. By contrast, the Dyrskard nappe is composed of metasedimentary rocks and metarhyolites with a 1508 ± 4 Ma extrusive age and shows an affinity to rocks of the Telemarkia terranes. We argue that the time of thrusting and juxtaposition of the two nappes along the shear zone is constrained by the age of 999 ± 5 Ma of a syndeformational granite body and co-genetic pegmatitic leucosomes, with late Sveconorwegian movements and fluid activity being recorded by titanite at 924 ± 6 Ma. Both nappes behaved as one block during the Silurian emplacement in the Caledonian nappe stack, sharing a 434 ± 1 Ma metamorphic peak and later overprints, as young as 414 ± 2 Ma, related to retrogression. The distinct origin and Sveconorwegian age of coupling of the Dyrskard and the Kvitenut nappes suggest that, in their pre-Caledonian location to the west-northwest, they represent the now hidden boundary zone between the Western Gneiss Region and Telemarkia.

Roffeis, Cornelia; Corfu, Fernando; Gabrielsen, Roy

2013-04-01

75

Net aerial primary production (NAPP) of the marsh macrophyte Scirpus maritimus estimated by a combination of destructive and non-destructive sampling methods  

Microsoft Academic Search

Net aerial primary production (NAPP) of marsh macrophytes is usually estimated either by destructive sampling techniques or by phenometric techniques. Destructive methods, however, are thought to be inaccurate while phenometric techniques are very labour intensive. In this study a new method is presented which allows an accurate and more efficient estimation of NAPP. The method combines destructive sampling to determine

J. De Leeuw; A. Wielemaker; W. De Munck; P. M. J. Herman

1996-01-01

76

Did the entire Seve Nappe Complex in the Scandinavian Caledonides undergo HP metamorphism?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Seve Nappe Complex (SNC) in the Scandinavian Caledonides is composed of high grade metamorphic rocks, derived from the outer(most) parts of the Baltica margin. The main lithologies are represented by amphibolite facies metasediments and granulite facies gneisses, locally with migmatites. Granulites from the SNC on Åreskutan and Snasahögarna in west-central Jämtland (Sweden), give an excellent opportunity to investigate the high grade metamorphic history of these far-travelled nappes. As there are only two areas within the SNC, where eclogites have been found, there is a necessity to look for other evidence of HP metamorphism elsewhere to unravel a more complete history of the SNC. The latest zircon ion microprobe dating (Ladenberger et.al., 2012) of the Åreskutan Nappe indicate that the peak (temperature) of metamorphism occurred at 442-436 Ma. An earlier history of higher pressure metamorphism has been identified by EMP monazite dating (Majka et. al., in press), probably occurring in the mid-late Ordovician as in northwestern Jämtland (Root and Corfu, 2011, Brueckner and van Roermund, 2007). Kyanite-bearing leucogranulite and pyroxene-dominated paleosome samples from granulite facies migmatites were collected in the Åreskutan Nappe, as well as garnet-clinopyroxene granulite on Tväråklumparna in the Snasahögarna area near Storlien. Garnet chemistry and kyanite-sillimanite transformation were investigated in thin sections using light microscopy, WDS analysis and Raman spectroscopy. In the Tväråklumparna granulite almandine with high Ca content (19-20% grs) contain inclusions of diopside. Garnets from the Åreskutan granulite are homogenous, have high Ca content (26-27% grs) and lack inclusions. Preliminary estimates from garnet - clinopyroxene geothermobarometric calculations give 760°C and 18kbar for the Tväråklumparna granulite and 740°C and 20kbar for the Åreskutan mafic granulite. The presence of HP kyanite- replaced by LP sillimanite-bearing assemblages in leucogranulite, provide evidence of possible continuous partial-melt crystallization from high pressure towards lower pressure conditions. Extensive field work, chemical profiling of garnets and pyroxenes, the discovery of the kyanite - sillimanite transformation and microtextures analysis suggest that the entire SNC in western Jämtland may have undergone high pressure metamorphism prior to the early Silurian partial melting and emplacement from the hinterland eastwards onto the Baltoscandian platform.

Klonowska, I.; Rosén, Š.; Majka, J.; Ladenberger, A.; Gee, D. G.

2012-04-01

77

A new method for mapping groundwater recharge areas and for zoning recharge for an inverse model  

Microsoft Academic Search

This thesis presents a new methodology for delineating groundwater recharge and discharge areas. Estimates of recharge rates and locations of recharge areas are important components in strategies for managing groundwater resources. The main contribution of this thesis is a method for zoning recharge for parameter-estimation (inverse) models. The importance of the zoning method presented here is that it is objective,

Stoertz

1989-01-01

78

Discharging and recharging of anomalous positive charges in MOSFETs  

Microsoft Academic Search

The discharging of positive charges is found to increase with bias. Following the same discharging, higher recharging bias leads to larger recharging of APC. However, under the same recharging bias with different previous discharging, the recharging does show a different response. In particular, there is larger recharging after the larger previous discharging, whatever the same recharging bias

Yongjun Wu; Mingzhen Xu; Changhua Tan; Jianlin Wei; Yi Liang; Yangyuan Wang

1998-01-01

79

Water recharge in Larderello Geothermal field  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, the variations in fluid composition observed in area of Larderello field that are strongly affected by induced recharge are ascribed to a simple mechanism, and a comprehensive conceptual model is presented for these areas. According to out interpretation, the steam produced in areas affected by induced recharge is a mixture of two components (steam from recharge water

R. Celati; C. Calore; S. Grassi; F. DAmore; G. Cappetti

1991-01-01

80

Reusable Energy and Power Sources: Rechargeable Batteries  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Rechargeable batteries are very popular within consumer electronics. If one uses a cell phone or portable electric tool, she/he understands the need to have a reliable product and the need to remember to use the recharging systems that follow a cycle of charge/discharge. Rechargeable batteries are being called "green" energy sources. They are a…

Hsiung, Steve C.; Ritz, John M.

2007-01-01

81

Apparatus for successively charging rechargeable batteries  

Microsoft Academic Search

A charging apparatus charges a plurality of rechargeable batteries individually and in succession. Each of the plurality of rechargeable batteries is coupled to one corresponding charging branch. The charging apparatus comprises a charging completion detecting circuit for detecting a charging completion of a rechargeable battery now in a charging operation, a high voltage detecting circuit for detecting an abnormal voltage

K. Matsuura; K. Oyamada

1983-01-01

82

Manganese oxide cathodes for rechargeable batteries  

Microsoft Academic Search

Manganese oxides are considered as promising cathodes for rechargeable batteries due to their low cost and low toxicity as well as the abundant natural resources. In this dissertation, manganese oxides have been investigated as cathodes for both rechargeable lithium and alkaline batteries. Nanostructured lithium manganese oxides designed for rechargeable lithium cells have been synthesized by reducing lithium permanganate with methanol

Dongmin Im

2002-01-01

83

Rechargeable lithium polymer electrolyte batteries  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rechargeable lithium polymer electrolyte batteries have been under development for over ten years. The organic electrolyte has a low-vapor pressure and, in principle, during times of abuse, will be safe with respect to volatilization, ignition, and explosion. The electrolyte can be fabricated in the form of a thin solid film so no other separator element is required. Thus, the very

Boone B. Owens

1992-01-01

84

NAPP and PIRP Encode Subunits of a Putative Wave Regulatory Protein Complex Involved in Plant Cell Morphogenesis  

PubMed Central

The ARP2/3 complex is an important regulator of actin nucleation and branching in eukaryotic organisms. All seven subunits of the ARP2/3 complex have been identified in Arabidopsis thaliana, and mutation of at least three of the subunits results in defects in epidermal cell expansion, including distorted trichomes. However, the mechanisms regulating the activity of the ARP2/3 complex in plants are largely unknown. In mammalian cells, WAVE and WASP proteins are involved in activation of the ARP2/3 complex. WAVE1 activity is regulated by a protein complex containing NAP1/HEM/KETTE/GEX-3 and PIR121/Sra-1/CYFIP/GEX-2. Here, we show that the WAVE1 regulatory protein complex is partly conserved in plants. We have identified Arabidopsis genes encoding homologs of NAP1 (NAPP), PIR121 (PIRP), and HSPC300 (BRK1). T-DNA inactivation of NAPP and PIRP results in distorted trichomes, similar to ARP2/3 complex mutants. The napp-1 mutant is allelic to the distorted mutant gnarled. The actin cytoskeleton in napp-1 and pirp-1 mutants shows orientation defects and increased bundling compared with wild-type plants. The results presented show that activity of the ARP2/3 complex in plants is regulated through an evolutionarily conserved mechanism.

Brembu, Tore; Winge, Per; Seem, Martin; Bones, Atle M.

2004-01-01

85

Groundwater recharge and agricultural contamination  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Agriculture has had direct and indirect effects on the rates and compositions of groundwater recharge and aquifer biogeochemistry. Direct effects include dissolution and transport of excess quantities of fertilizers and associated materials and hydrologic alterations related to irrigation and drainage. Some indirect effects include changes in water-rock reactions in soils and aquifers caused by increased concentrations of dissolved oxidants, protons, and major ions. Agrilcultural activities have directly or indirectly affected the concentrations of a large number of inorganic chemicals in groundwater, for example NO3-, N2, Cl, SO42-, H+, P, C, K, Mg, Ca, Sr, Ba, Ra, and As, as well a wide variety of pesticides and other organic compounds. For reactive contaminants like NO3-, a combination of chemical, isotopic, and environmental-tracer analytical approaches might be required to resolve changing inputs from subsequent alterations as causes of concentration gradients in groundwater. Groundwater records derived from multi-component hydrostratigraphic data can be used to quantify recharge rates and residence times of water and dissolved contaminants, document past variations in recharging contaminant loads, and identify natural contaminant-remediation processes. These data indicate that many of the world's surficial aquifers contain transient records of changing agricultural contamination from the last half of the 20th century. The transient agricultural groundwater signal has important implications for long-term trends and spatial heterogeneity in discharge.

Bohlke, J. -K.

2002-01-01

86

Groundwater recharge and agricultural contamination  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Agriculture has had direct and indirect effects on the rates and compositions of groundwater recharge and aquifer biogeochemistry. Direct effects include dissolution and transport of excess quantities of fertilizers and associated materials and hydrologic alterations related to irrigation and drainage. Some indirect effects include changes in water-rock reactions in soils and aquifers caused by increased concentrations of dissolved oxidants, protons, and major ions. Agricultural activities have directly or indirectly affected the concentrations of a large number of inorganic chemicals in groundwater, for example NO3 -, N2, Cl, SO4 2-, H+, P, C, K, Mg, Ca, Sr, Ba, Ra, and As, as well as a wide variety of pesticides and other organic compounds. For reactive contaminants like NO3 -, a combination of chemical, isotopic, and environmental-tracer analytical approaches might be required to resolve changing inputs from subsequent alterations as causes of concentration gradients in groundwater. Groundwater records derived from multi-component hydrostratigraphic data can be used to quantify recharge rates and residence times of water and dissolved contaminants, document past variations in recharging contaminant loads, and identify natural contaminant-remediation processes. These data indicate that many of the world's surficial aquifers contain transient records of changing agricultural contamination from the last half of the 20th century. The transient agricultural groundwater signal has important implications for long-term trends and spatial heterogeneity in discharge.

Böhlke, John-Karl

2002-02-01

87

Multilevel Multisensor-Based Intelligent Recharging System for Mobile Robot  

Microsoft Academic Search

Based on the sensor-based detection method, this paper presents an intelligent recharging system for a mobile robot. First, we design a flexible and reasonable intelligent recharging system for the mobile robot. It consists of a recharging station, a recharging device, and an intelligent power-detection module. The recharging station is designed to have 2 DOFs, such that it can move along

Ren C. Luo; Kuo L. Su

2008-01-01

88

Evaluation of a rechargeable pacemaker system.  

PubMed

A rechargeable-demand nickel-cadmium pulse generator for permanent transvenous cardiac pacing was evaluated in 66 patients. During a cumulative follow-up period of 2,333 patient months (194.4 patient years), failure of the pacing circuit occurred in 3 patients at 21, 25, and 27 months, respectively. Nine patients had difficulty accepting the recharging concept and, in 3 of these patients, it became necessary to replace the rechargeable generator with a conventional energy source. The overall failure rate of approximately 3% per year (including the 3 patients in whom it was necessary to remove the generator because of failure to recharge properly), coupled with the inconvenience of recharging, limits the usefulness of the rechargeable system compared to the newer lithium-powered generator. PMID:83632

Stertzer, S H; DePasquale, N P; Cohn, L J; Bruno, M S

1978-04-01

89

Choosing appropriate techniques for quantifying groundwater recharge  

Microsoft Academic Search

.   Various techniques are available to quantify recharge; however, choosing appropriate techniques is often difficult. Important\\u000a considerations in choosing a technique include space\\/time scales, range, and reliability of recharge estimates based on different\\u000a techniques; other factors may limit the application of particular techniques. The goal of the recharge study is important\\u000a because it may dictate the required space\\/time scales of

Bridget R. Scanlon; Richard W. Healy; Peter G. Cook

2002-01-01

90

Using groundwater levels to estimate recharge  

Microsoft Academic Search

.   Accurate estimation of groundwater recharge is extremely important for proper management of groundwater systems. Many different\\u000a approaches exist for estimating recharge. This paper presents a review of methods that are based on groundwater-level data.\\u000a The water-table fluctuation method may be the most widely used technique for estimating recharge; it requires knowledge of\\u000a specific yield and changes in water levels

Richard W. Healy; Peter G. Cook

2002-01-01

91

Identifying and quantifying urban recharge: a review  

Microsoft Academic Search

.   The sources of and pathways for groundwater recharge in urban areas are more numerous and complex than in rural environments.\\u000a Buildings, roads, and other surface infrastructure combine with man-made drainage networks to change the pathways for precipitation.\\u000a Some direct recharge is lost, but additional recharge can occur from storm drainage systems. Large amounts of water are imported\\u000a into most

David N. Lerner

2002-01-01

92

Variability in simulated recharge using different GCMs  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Variations in the prediction of recharge is addressed by comparing recharge simulated using climate data generated using a state-of-the-art downscaling method, TreeGen, with a range of global climate models (GCMs). The study site is the transnational Abbotsford-Sumas aquifer in coastal British Columbia, Canada and Washington State, USA, and is representative of a wet coastal climate. Sixty-four recharge zones were defined based on combinations of classed soil permeability, vadose zone permeability, and unsaturated zone depth (or depth to water table) mapped in the study area. One-dimensional recharge simulations were conducted for each recharge zone using the HELP hydrologic model, which simulates percolation through a vertical column. The HELP model is driven by mean daily temperature, daily precipitation, and daily solar radiation. For the historical recharge simulations, the climate data series was generated using the LARS-WG stochastic weather generator. Historical recharge was compared to recharge simulated using climate data series derived from the TreeGen downscaling model for three future time periods: 2020s (2010-2039), 2050s (2040-2069), and 2080s (2070-2099) for each of four GCMs (CGCM3.1, ECHAM5, PCM1, and CM2.1). Recharge results are compared on an annual basis for the entire aquifer area. Both increases and decreases relative to historical recharge are simulated depending on time period and model. By the 2080s, the range of model predictions spans -10.5% to +23.2% relative to historical recharge. This variability in recharge predictions suggests that the seasonal performance of the downscaling tool is important and that a range of GCMs should be considered for water management planning.

Allen, D. M.; Cannon, A. J.; Toews, M. W.; Scibek, J.

2010-10-01

93

Coupling of oceanic and continental crust during Eocene eclogite-facies metamorphism: evidence from the Monte Rosa nappe, western Alps  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

High precision U Pb geochronology of rutile from quartz carbonate white mica rutile veins that are hosted within eclogite and schist of the Monte Rosa nappe, western Alps, Italy, indicate that the Monte Rosa nappe was at eclogite-facies metamorphic conditions at 42.6 ± 0.6 Ma. The sample area [Indren glacier, Furgg zone; Dal Piaz (2001) Geology of the Monte Rosa massif: historical review and personal comments. SMPM] consists of eclogite boudins that are exposed inside a south-plunging overturned synform within micaceous schist. Associated with the eclogite and schist are quartz carbonate white mica rutile veins that formed in tension cracks in the eclogite and along the contact between eclogite and surrounding schist. Intrusion of the veins at about 42.6 Ma occurred at eclogite-facies metamorphic conditions (480 570°C, >1.3 1.4 GPa) based on textural relations, oxygen isotope thermometry, and geothermobarometry. The timing of eclogite-facies metamorphism in the Monte Rosa nappe determined in this study is identical to that of the Gran Paradiso nappe [Meffan-Main et al. (2004) J Metamorphic Geol 22:261 281], confirming that these two units have shared the same Alpine metamorphic history. Furthermore, the Gran Paradiso and Monte Rosa nappes underwent eclogite-facies metamorphism within the same time interval as the structurally overlying Zermatt-Saas ophiolite [˜50 40 Ma; e.g., Amato et al. (1999) Earth Planet Sci Lett 171:425 438; Mayer et al. (1999) Eur Union Geosci 10:809 (abstract); Lapen et al. (2003) Earth Planet Sci Lett 215:57 72]. The nearly identical P T t histories of the Gran Paradiso, Monte Rosa, and Zermatt-Saas units suggest that these units shared a common Alpine tectonic and metamorphic history. The close spatial and temporal associations between high pressure (HP) ophiolite and continental crust during Alpine orogeny indicates that the HP internal basement nappes in the western Alps may have played a key role in exhumation and preservation of the ophiolitic rocks through buoyancy-driven uplift. Coupling of oceanic and continental crust may therefore be critical in preventing permanent loss of oceanic crust to the mantle.

Lapen, Thomas J.; Johnson, Clark M.; Baumgartner, Lukas P.; Piaz, Giorgio V. Dal; Skora, Susanne; Beard, Brian L.

2007-02-01

94

System for charging a rechargeable battery  

SciTech Connect

This patent describes, for use in an energy-using device adapted to operate from an external source of A-C power and from either rechargeable type or non-rechargeable type batteries of the same standard size and configuration, a charging system comprising in combination: a housing for the energy-using device. The energy-using device is operable in a first mode when connected to the external source of A-C power to supply the A-C power to a load disposed within the energy-using device and to recharge the rechargeable battery type and in a second mode when disconnected from the source of A-C power to supply power to the load alternatively from the rechargeable or non-rechargeable battery types; and electrical charging circuit disposed within the housing of the energy-using device for charging the rechargeable battery type when the energy-using device is connected to the external source of A-C power; and a cavity disposed within the housing of the energy-using device for alternatively receiving therein batteries of both of the rechargeable and non-rechargeable types. Each of the types has a positive power terminal and a negative power terminal for providing electrical energy from the battery types to the energy-using device.

Scholefield, C.L.

1986-12-09

95

Cathodoluminescence, fluid inclusion and stable C–O isotope study of tectonic breccias from thrusting plane of a thin-skinned calcareous nappe  

Microsoft Academic Search

Basal hydraulic breccias of alpine thin-skinned Murá? nappe were investigated by means of cathodoluminescence petrography,\\u000a stable isotope geochemistry and fluid inclusions analysis. Our study reveals an unusual dynamic fluid regime along basal thrust\\u000a plane during final episode of the nappe emplacement over its metamorphic substratum. Basal thrusting fluids enriched in 18O, silica, alumina, alkalies and phosphates were generated in the

Rastislav Milovský; Alfons van den Kerkhof; Jochen Hoefs; Vratislav Hurai; Walter Prochaska

2011-01-01

96

Identifying Recharge Location Using Noble Gas Recharge Temperatures, Pajarito Plateau, New Mexico  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The solubility of noble gases in water is temperature dependent. Noble gas concentrations in ground water can therefore be used to determine the temperature at the water table at the recharge location (recharge temperature). The Pajarito Plateau in Northern New Mexico is an example of a hydrogeologic setting where noble gas recharge temperatures provide valuable information about recharge location which could be utilized in numerical model calibration. Previous studies have identified two potentially significant components of recharge to the regional aquifer underlying the plateau: (1) infiltration of precipitation in the Jemez Mountains adjacent to the plateau (mountain-block recharge); and (2) infiltration of stream water in the bottoms of canyons that traverse the plateau (plateau recharge). However, results regarding the relative importance of these two components are conflicting and uncertain. Their relative magnitude is of particular concern because Los Alamos National Laboratory is located on the plateau, and the susceptibility of the regional aquifer to lab-generated wastes depends directly upon the amount of plateau recharge. The Pajarito Plateau is an ideal location for applying noble gas recharge thermometry; mountain-block recharge should have cool recharge temperatures (<12°C) due to the shallow water table in the mountains, whereas plateau recharge should have distinctly warmer recharge temperatures (18 to 21°C) due to water table depths of 200 to 300m on the plateau. Noble gas samples were collected from wells screened in the regional aquifer across the plateau. Those analyzed to date from wells screened in the upper 30m of the aquifer yield recharge temperatures of 18 to 23°C. Exceptions are two wells located within 2km of the mountain front, which have recharge temperatures of 12 and 13°C. The one sample analyzed to date from a well screened deeper in the aquifer (125m below the water table) yields a recharge temperature of 11°C. Preliminary results therefore suggest that plateau recharge comprises nearly all of the water in the upper 30m of the regional aquifer throughout much of the plateau. However, the cooler recharge temperatures closer to the mountains and at depth indicate that mountain-block recharge may still constitute most of the total recharge to the aquifer; plateau recharge may be limited to a thin layer along the top of the aquifer at distances >2km from the mountain front.

Manning, A. H.; Dale, M.

2008-12-01

97

Episodic and long-lasting Paleozoic felsic magmatism in the pre-Alpine basement of the Suretta nappe (eastern Swiss Alps)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Suretta nappe of eastern Switzerland contains a series of meta-igneous rocks, with the Rofna Porphyry Complex (RPC) being the most prominent member. We present LA-ICP-MS U-Pb zircon data from 12 samples representing a broad spectrum of meta-igneous rocks within the Suretta nappe, in order to unravel the pre-Alpine magmatic history of this basement unit. Fine-grained porphyries and coarse-grained augengneisses from the RPC give crystallization ages between 284 and 271 Ma, which either represent distinct magma pulses or long-lasting magmatic activity in a complex magma chamber. There is also evidence for an earlier Variscan magmatic event at ~320-310 Ma. Mylonites at the base of the Suretta nappe are probably derived from either the RPC augengneisses or another unknown Carboniferous-Permian magmatic protolith with a crystallization age between 320 and 290 Ma. Two polymetamorphic orthogneisses from the southern Suretta nappe yield crystallization ages of ~490 Ma. Inherited zircon cores are mainly of late Neoproterozoic age, with minor Neo- to Paleoproterozoic sources. We interpret the Suretta nappe as mainly representing a Gondwana-derived crustal unit, which was subsequently intruded by minor Cambrian-Ordovician and major Carboniferous-Permian magmatic rocks. Finally, the Suretta nappe was thrust into its present position during the Alpine orogeny, which hardly affected the U-Pb system in zircon.

Scheiber, T.; Berndt, J.; Heredia, B. D.; Mezger, K.; Pfiffner, O. A.

2013-06-01

98

Numerical analysis of deep-seated mass movements in the Magura Nappe; Flysch Belt of the Western Carpathians (Czech Republic)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Deep-seated slope failures are common features in the mountains of the Raca Unit, Magura Nappe of the Flysch Belt of Western Carpathians. Since they represent very complicated system, understanding of their evolution and triggers still remains unclear. We tried to provide a back-analysis of their development by using a finite difference code (FDM) of continua (Flac 4.0). We confirmed that

I. Baron; F. Agliardi; C. Ambrosi; G. B. Crosta

2005-01-01

99

Petrogenesis of early cretaceous carbonatite and ultramafic lamprophyres in a diatreme in the Batain Nappes, Eastern Oman continental margin  

Microsoft Academic Search

Allochthonous carbonatite and ultramafic lamprophyre occur in a diatreme at the beach of the Asseelah village, northeastern\\u000a Oman. The diatreme consists of heterogeneous deposits dominated by ‘diatreme facies’ pyroclastic rocks. These include aillikite\\u000a and carbonatite, which intrude late Jurassic to early Cretaceous cherts and shales of the Wahra Formation within the Batain\\u000a nappes. Both rock types are dominated by carbonate,

S. Nasir; S. Al-Khirbash; H. Rollinson; A. Al-Harthy; A. Al-Sayigh; A. Al-Lazki; T. Theye; H.-J. Massonne; E. Belousova

2011-01-01

100

Analogue and geophysical modelling of the Garmsar Salt Nappe, Iran: constraints on the evolution of the Alborz Mountains  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Alborz Mountains are forming a ~100-km-wide east-west trending orogenic belt that stretches 2000 m across northern Iran south of the Caspian Sea. The Alborz Mountains consist of salt-bearing Neogene sediments, which are folded and cut by faults. Global positioning system studies indicate N-S directed shortening across the Alborz range, which is accommodated by right and left-lateral strike-slip along ESE-WNW and ENE-WSW trending faults, respectively. A 20 km × 10 km × 03 km sheet of salt extruded over the central plateau of Iran arising at the front of the advancing Alborz Mountains. The extruded salt forms the Eyvanekey plateau between Eyvanekey and Garmsar, which is now known, as the Garmsar Salt Nappe. To get more insights in the evolution of the Garmsar Salt Nappe, analogue modelling has been carried out using PDMS as salt analogue and sand as analogue for the brittle overburden. The structures produced consist of folds and thrusts, which were formed while the salt analogue PDMS was rising up. The modelling results are compatible with our interpretation that the deformation front of the Alborz Mountains advanced SSW when overriding a salt sequence in the Garmsar area. Depth estimations using the gravity and magnetic fields suggest that the salt in the Garmsar Salt Nappe extruded from a depth less than 2000 m.

Baikpour, Shahram; Zulauf, Gernold; Sebti, Arash; Kheirolahi, Hassan; Dietl, Carlo

2010-08-01

101

NORTH CAROLINA GROUNDWATER RECHARGE RATES 1994  

EPA Science Inventory

North Carolina Groundwater Recharge Rates, from Heath, R.C., 1994, Ground-water recharge in North Carolina: North Carolina State University, as prepared for the NC Department of Environment, Health and Natural Resources (NC DEHNR) Division of Enviromental Management Groundwater S...

102

Reflections on Dry-Zone Recharge  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Quantifying recharge in regions of low precipitation remains a challenging task. The design of permanent nuclear-waste isolation at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, the design of arid-site landfill covers and the pumping of groundwater in desert cities, like Las Vegas, are examples where accurate recharge estimates are needed because they affect billion-dollar decisions. Recharge cannot be measured directly and must rely on estimation methods of various kinds including chemical tracers, thermal profiling, lysimetry, and water-balance modeling. Chemical methods, like chloride-mass-balance can significantly underestimate actual recharge rates and water-balance models are generally limited by large uncertainties. Studies at the U. S. Department of Energy's Hanford Site in Washington State, USA illustrate how estimates of recharge rates have changed over time and how these estimates can affect waste management decisions. Lysimetry has provided reliable estimates of recharge for a wide range of surface condittions. Lysimetric observations of reduced recharge, resulting from advective drying of coarse rock piles, suggest a way to avoid costly recharge protection using titanium shields at Yucca Mountain. The Pacific Northwest National Laboratory is funded by the U. S. Department of Energy under contract DE-AC05-76-RL01830.

Gee, G. W.

2005-05-01

103

Transformer Recharging with Alpha Channeling in Tokamaks  

SciTech Connect

Transformer recharging with lower hybrid waves in tokamaks can give low average auxiliary power if the resistivity is kept high enough during the radio frequency (rf) recharging stage. At the same time, operation in the hot ion mode via alpha channeling increases the effective fusion reactivity. This paper will address the extent to which these two large cost saving steps are compatible. __________________________________________________

N.J. Fisch

2009-12-21

104

Transformer Recharging with Alpha Channeling in Tokamaks.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Transformer recharging with lower hybrid waves in tokamaks can give low average auxiliary power if the resistivity is kept high enough during the radio frequency (rf) recharging stage. At the same time, operation in the hot ion mode via alpha channeling i...

N. J. Fisch

2009-01-01

105

N-APP binds DR6 to cause axon pruning and neuron death via distinct caspases  

PubMed Central

Naturally-occurring axonal pruning and neuronal cell death help sculpt neuronal connections during development, but their mechanistic basis remains poorly understood. We report that Amyloid Precursor Protein (APP) and Death Receptor 6 (DR6) activate a widespread caspase-dependent self-destruction program. DR6 is broadly expressed by developing neurons, and is required for normal cell body death and axonal pruning both in vivo and after trophic factor deprivation in vitro. Unlike neuronal cell body apoptosis, which requires caspase-3, we show that axonal degeneration requires caspase-6, which is activated in a punctate pattern that parallels the pattern of axonal fragmentation. DR6 is activated locally by an inactive surface ligand(s) that is released in active form upon trophic factor deprivation, and we identify APP as a DR6 ligand. Trophic factor deprivation triggers shedding of surface APP in a beta-secretase (BACE)-dependent manner. Loss- and gain-of-function studies support a model in which a cleaved amino-terminal fragment of APP (N-APP) binds DR6 and triggers degeneration. Genetic support is provided by a common neuromuscular junction phenotype in mutant mice. Our results indicate that APP and DR6 are components of a neuronal self-destruction pathway, and suggest that an extracellular fragment of APP, acting via DR6 and caspase-6, contributes to Alzheimer’s disease.

Nikolaev, Anatoly; McLaughlin, Todd; O'Leary, Dennis; Tessier-Lavigne, Marc

2009-01-01

106

An extensional piggyback model for large apparent displacements along major ``thrusts'': examples from nappes of the Norwegian Caledonides (Invited)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Many collisional orogens are characterized by large-scale thrusts or nappes with postulated horizontal displacements over the underlying basement exceeding 100 km. For example the Jotun Nappe of the Norwegian Caledonides has long been credited with over 300 km of lateral thrusting. A model is proposed where initial thrusting is succeeded by passive transport on top of an exhuming high pressure/ultrahigh pressure (HP/UHP) metamorphic terrane. The initial thrusting occurs when cratons collide and the leading edge of one craton is subducted beneath the other and plunged deeply into the mantle where it undergoes HP/UHP metamorphism, partial melting and the insertion of peridotites from the overlying mantle wedge. The subsequent exhumation of the subducted terrane can be accomplished by true extension, which effectively “pulls” the crustal terrane and underlying continental lithosphere out of the mantle, or by buoyancy driven crustal extrusion, which allows the crustal slab to insert itself into the overlying crust bounded below and above by a thrust fault and a low angle normal fault, respectively, or by a combination of both mechanisms. In both models, the shear traction along the top of the exhuming terrane will reverse from the earlier thrust motion (top to the foreland) to a normal displacement (top to the hinterland). The resultant shear can detach the leading edge of the upper plate from the rest of the plate allowing it to be carried passively towards the foreland on the exhuming plate with the length of transport a function of the amount of exhumation of the lower plate. The Jotun Nappe and the nappes of the Trondheim Basin were thrust (sensu stricto) unknown distances towards foreland during the early phases of the Scandian Orogeny (ca. 430-415 ma) when the western edge of Baltica was subducted into the mantle beneath the eastern margin of Laurentia. The subducted edge of Baltica was metamorphosed into a HP/UHP terrane known as the Western Gneiss Region (WGR). Kinematic indicators along the basal decollément of the Jotun Nappe and below and within the Upper and Middle Allochthons of the Trondheim Basin indicate a change in shear sense from top to the east to top to the west at essentially the same time the WGR began its exhumation out of the mantle at ca. 415 Ma. The normal sense shear along the top of the exhuming HP/UHP plate ultimately separated the leading edges of the overlying plates away from their main body, which were then carried passively (i.e. no more shear tractions along the basal decollément) or semi-passively (distributed shear along the basal decollément) eastward as the WGR was exhumed between 415-390 Ma. Thus the total apparent displacement of ca. 300 km for the Jotun Nappe was only partly the result of thrusting; most of it was the result of piggyback transport on top of the exhuming WGR. A similar mechanism can explain the present positions of other Caledonian Allochthons along the length of the orogen as well as purported large-scale nappes and thrusts in other mountain systems.

Brueckner, H. K.

2010-12-01

107

Lithium ion rechargeable systems studies  

SciTech Connect

Lithium ion systems, although relatively new, have attracted much interest worldwide. Their high energy density, long cycle life and relative safety, compared with metallic lithium rechargeable systems, make them prime candidates for powering portable electronic equipment. Although lithium ion cells are presently used in a few consumer devices, e.g., portable phones, camcorders, and laptop computers, there is room for considerable improvement in their performance. Specific areas that need to be addressed include: (1) carbon anode--increase reversible capacity, and minimize passivation; (2) cathode--extend cycle life, improve rate capability, and increase capacity. There are several programs ongoing at Sandia National Laboratories which are investigating means of achieving the stated objectives in these specific areas. This paper will review these programs.

Levy, S.C.; Lasasse, R.R.; Cygan, R.T.; Voigt, J.A.

1995-02-01

108

Battery charging system including means for distinguishing between rechargeable and non-rechargeable batteries  

SciTech Connect

A battery charging system adapted to distinguish a rechargeable battery type from a non-rechargeable battery type is described, both types being of substantially similar size and having first and second external load terminals for delivering electrical energy. The system consists of: a battery charging circuit having a first non-charging mode and a second charging mode, the circuit having first and second charging contacts arranged for engagement with the first and second external load terminals respectively of when a battery is connected to the contacts; sensing means for sensing the value of at least one parameter common to both rechargeable and non-rechargeable batteries, the value for a rechargeable battery differing from the value for a non-rechangeable battery; enabling means responsive to the sensing means for disabling the charging circuit when the value is indicative of a non-rechargeable battery.

Hodgman, J.S.; Mullersman, F.H.

1986-03-18

109

Experimental studies in natural groundwater-recharge dynamics: The analysis of observed recharge events  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sophocleous, M. and Perry, C.A., 1985. Experimental studies in natural groundwater- recharge dynamics: The analysis of observed recharge events. J. Hydrol., 81 : 297--332. The amounts and time distribution of groundwater recharge from precipitation over an approximately 19-month period were investigated at two instrumented sites in south- central Kansas. Precipitation and evapotranspiration sequences, soil-moisture profiles and storage changes, water fluxes

MARIOS SOPHOCLEOUS; CHARLES A. PERRY

1985-01-01

110

Basement nappes on the NE boundary the Ossa-Morena Zone (SW Iberian Variscides)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The studied area is located in the Abrantes (W-central Portugal) region of the Ossa Morena Zone, where the NW tip of the Tomar-Badajoz-Cordoba Shear Zone (TBCSZ) stops against the Porto-Tomar-Ferreira do Alentejo Shear Zone (PTFASZ). The TBCSZ is a WNW-ESE sinistral transpressive intra-plate Variscan flower structure, whereas the PTFASZ is N-S dextral paleotransform during the Variscan Wilson cycle in SW Iberia. The NE branch of the TBCSZ, with top to NE sense of thrusting, is characterized by the following tectonic units, from top to bottom: - Paleozoic cover: Bimodal volcanics, marbles and arkoses, metamorphosed under greenschist facies (and displaying a minor thrust at the base), inferred to be of Lower Paleozoic age by stratigraphic correlation with other sectors dated as Cambrian to Silurian in the Ossa Morena Zone. - Cadomian intermediate crust: low/intermediate pressure (~ 4 - 7 kb) retrograded granulites, including a mafic (meta-gabbroic) component that yielded metamorphic zircons dated at 539±3 Ma (Henriques et al., 2009). - Cadomian upper crust: granitic gneisses, yielding prismatic, oscillatory-zoned, igneous zircons dated at 570 Ma, and 540±5 Ma metamorphic monazites (Henriques et al., 2009). - Cadomian volcano-sedimentary sequences: Greenschist facies black phyllites and greywackes, intercalated with black chert beds and bimodal metavolcanics ("Série Negra"), which are correlated with the Neoproterozoic sequences of the Ibero-Armorican Massif. All the tectonic units are separated by top to NE thrusts, operating under ductile conditions in the upper units and under a brittle regime in the lower units; thus, inverting the inherited Cadomian crust below the basal décollement of Palaeozoic cover. The tectonic units belong to the Ossa-Morena Zone and were transported towards NE, on top of the (very low-grade) Central-Iberian Zone relative autochthon (Ediacarian/Cambrian to Lower Devonian). The amount of the NE thrust displacement in the granulite basement nappe is considerable, at least 5 to 10 km, considering the presence of mafic granulites included in intermediate granulites, both retrograded into the amphibolite facies, in the SW Bioucas and in the NE Olalhas klippe, resting on top of the lower-grade poly-metamorphic Cadomian assemblages. Geological data summarized above confirm the presence of Cadomian basement nappes that were reactivated under a thick-skinned thrust regime during the Variscan cycle; therefore, implying a poly-orogenic evolution for the studied tectonic units. TBCSZ represents a Cadomian suture that was initially reactivated during Lower Paleozoic intercontinental rifting, later evolving to transpressive intra-plate flower structure during the Upper Paleozoic Variscan convergence phase. It is concluded that thick-skinned tectonic regime by Variscan reactivation of Cadomian basement is a major element in the geodynamic evolution in the internal zones of SW European Variscides and of the Variscan Orogen in general terms.

Romao, Jose Manuel; Ribeiro, Antonio; Munha, Jose; Ribeiro, Luisa

2010-05-01

111

REVISED NORTH CAROLINA GROUNDWATER RECHARGE RATES 1998  

EPA Science Inventory

Revised North Carolina Groundwater Recharge Rates, from Heath, R.C., 1994, unpublished map: North Carolina State University, as modified by the NC Department of Environment and Natural Resources (DENR) Division of Water Quality (DWQ) Groundwater Section, (polygons)...

112

Organic Pollutants in Ground-Recharged Water.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The objective of this project was to determine the identities of the haloforms (THMs) in ground recharged water as well as the concentrations and identities of the haloform precursors (THMPs). A second objective was the determination of these compounds in...

C. Steelink H. Bohn M. A. Mikita K. Thorn J. Hobson

1981-01-01

113

Rechargeable thin-film lithium batteries.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Rechargeable thin-film batteries consisting of lithium metal anodes, an amorphous inorganic electrolyte, and cathodes of lithium intercalation compounds have recently been developed. The batteries, which are typically less than 6-(mu)m thick, can be fabri...

J. B. Bates G. R. Gruzalski N. J. Dudney C. F. Luck X. Yu

1993-01-01

114

Method of Recharging Fire Extinguisher Bottles.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This invention relates to a method of recharging fire extinguisher bottles wherein special transfer cylindrs are used to store and discharge predetermined quantities of liquid fire suppressant and pressurizing gas to the bottle. The process is carried out...

A. J. Monte

1980-01-01

115

Rechargeable manganese oxide batteries. (Genopladelige manganoxid batterier).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Former work on lithium and sodium batteries proved the feasibility of making solid state cells with high energy density and reversibility. The utility of manganese oxides as cathode material in rechargeable alkali metal solid state intercalation batteries...

B. Zachau-Christensen K. West S. Skaarup

1992-01-01

116

Methods for Fabricating Lithium Rechargeable Batteries.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

There are provided novel methods of fabricating batteries, particularly rechargeable lithium ion batteries comprising a microporous polymeric gel layer on one or more electrodes of the batteries. The methods include laminating a gellable polymer film to a...

B. Oh K. Amine

2005-01-01

117

Recharging the Ogallala Formation Using Shallow Holes.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Natural groundwater recharge cannot sustain the Southern High Plains portion of the Ogallala Formation. Nearly all the water used in this region is derived from the Ogallala Formation. The southern part of the Ogallala is hydrologically isolated from all ...

M. J. Dvoracek S. H. Peterson

1970-01-01

118

Issues and challenges facing rechargeable lithium batteries  

Microsoft Academic Search

Technological improvements in rechargeable solid-state batteries are being driven by an ever-increasing demand for portable electronic devices. Lithium-ion batteries are the systems of choice, offering high energy density, flexible and lightweight design, and longer lifespan than comparable battery technologies. We present a brief historical review of the development of lithium-based rechargeable batteries, highlight ongoing research strategies, and discuss the challenges

J.-M. Tarascon; M. Armand

2001-01-01

119

Conductivity of electrolytes for rechargeable lithium batteries  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The conductivity of 150 nonaqueous electrolytes for rechargeable Li batteries between -60 and 80 C is reported. A wide range of solvents including esters, ethers, aromatics, chlorinated solvents, etc., and mixtures thereof, were studied. Results for five electrolyte salts which have some promise for rechargeable Li cells are presented. Several of the trends in the data are discussed, and the importance of solvent viscosity in determining electrolyte conductivity is shown.

Dudley, J. T.; Wilkinson, D. P.; Thomas, G.; Levae, R.; Woo, S.

1991-06-01

120

System for charging a rechargeable battery  

Microsoft Academic Search

This patent describes, for use in an energy-using device adapted to operate from an external source of A-C power and from either rechargeable type or non-rechargeable type batteries of the same standard size and configuration, a charging system comprising in combination: a housing for the energy-using device. The energy-using device is operable in a first mode when connected to the

Scholefield

1986-01-01

121

Proposed artificial recharge studies in northern Qatar  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The aquifer system in northern Qatar comprises a water-table aquifer in the Rus Formation which is separated by an aquitard from a partially confined aquifer in the top of the overlying Umm er Radhuma Formation. These two aquifers are composed of limestone and dolomite of Eocene and Paleocene age and contain a fragile lens of freshwater which is heavily exploited as a source of water for agricultural irrigation. Net withdrawals are greatly in excess of total recharge, and quality of ground water is declining. Use of desalinated seawater for artificial recharge has been proposed for the area. Artificial recharge, on a large scale, could stabilize the decline in ground-water quality while allowing increased withdrawals for irrigation. The proposal appears technically feasible. Recharge should be by injection to the Umm er Radhuma aquifer whose average transmissivity is about 2,000 meters squared per day (as compared to an average of about 200 meters squared per day for the Rus aquifer). Implementation of artificial recharge should be preceded by a hydrogeologic appraisal. These studies should include test drilling, conventional aquifer tests, and recharge-recovery tests at four sites in northern Qatar. (USGS)

Kimrey, J. O.

1985-01-01

122

Middle Oligocene extension in the Mediterranean Calabro-Peloritan belt (southern Italy): Insights from the Aspromonte nappes pile  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Calabro-Peloritan belt constitutes the eastward termination of the southern segment of the Alpine Mediterranean belt. This orogenic system was built up during the convergence between the Eurasian and the African plates, roughly north-south directed since the Upper Cretaceous. It was subsequently fragmented during the opening of the western Mediterranean basins since Oligocene times. The curved shape of the Calabro-Peloritan belt was acquired during the opening of the Tyrrhenian basin since the Tortonian. The origin, kinematics, and significance of the Calabro-Peloritan tectonic pile are still debated. Our data in the Aspromonte Massif of southern Calabria reveal an Alpine history marked by two main superimposed kinematic regimes. A first phase corresponds to the piling up of basement nappes with a top-to-the-SE vergence, i.e., in a direction orthogonal to the belt trend and toward the Adriatic foreland. This external vergence is similar to what is observed in both northeastern Sicily and northern Calabria. In Sicily, the age of nappe piling is Alpine, as evidenced by pinched slices of Mesozoic sediments. In the Aspromonte Massif, thrusting age is less constrained. Our data suggest remnants of late Hercynian structuration before the Alpine stacking. A second phase corresponds to the thinning of the continental crust, dated at around 30 Ma by both geochronological and stratigraphical data. This extension is mainly localized on two low-angle detachment contacts, with top-to-the-NE displacement. The lower one corresponds to the reworking of the former main nappe contact. The upper one is a large detachment fault cutting across the pile from upper sedimentary levels down to metamorphic basement. Extension of similar Alpine age and similar internal vergence has been already recognized in other parts of the Calabro-Peloritan Arc, i.e., in the basement nappes of northeastern Sicily and in the ophiolitic units of northern Calabria. Coming back to the original geometry and position of the Calabro-Peloritan belt, before its bending and the opening of the Liguro-Provençal and Tyrrhenian basins, we evidence a homogeneous Oligocene NE-SW extension all along the Calabro-Peloritan segment of the Alpine Mediterranean belt. This tectonometamorphic history is best explained within the framework of the continuous Tertiary westward dipping subduction of the Tethyan oceanic domain below the European active margin and the progressive southeastward retreat of the Apennine trench since Oligocene times.

Heymes, T.; Bouillin, J.-P.; Pêcher, A.; Monié, P.; Compagnoni, R.

2008-04-01

123

Battery charging system including means for distinguishing between rechargeable and non-rechargeable batteries  

Microsoft Academic Search

A battery charging system adapted to distinguish a rechargeable battery type from a non-rechargeable battery type is described, both types being of substantially similar size and having first and second external load terminals for delivering electrical energy. The system consists of: a battery charging circuit having a first non-charging mode and a second charging mode, the circuit having first and

J. S. Hodgman; F. H. Mullersman

1986-01-01

124

Modeling Recharge - can it be Done?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In sub-humid areas where rainfall is relatively low and sporadic, recharge (defined as water movement beyond the active root zone) is the small difference between the much larger numbers rainfall and evapotranspiration. It is very difficult to measure and often modeling is resorted to instead. But is modeling this small number any less difficult than measurement? In Australia there is considerable debate over the magnitude of recharge under different agricultural systems because of its contribution to rising saline groundwater levels following the clearing of native vegetation in the last 100 years. Hence the adequacy of measured and modeled estimates of recharge is under close scrutiny. Results will be presented for the water balance of an intensively monitored 8 year sequence of crops and pastures. Measurements included meteorological inputs, evapotranspiration measured with a pair of weighing lysimeters, and soil water content was measured with TDR and neutron moisture meter. Recharge was estimated from the percolate removed from the lysimeters as well as, when conditions were suitable, from soil water measurements and combined soil water and evapotranspiration measurements. This data was simulated using a comprehensive soil-plant-atmosphere model (APSIM). Comparison with field measurements shows that the recharge can be simulated with an accuracy similar to that with which it can be measured. However, is either sufficiently accurate for the applications for which they are required?

Verburg, K.; Bond, W. J.; Smith, C. J.; Dunin, F. X.

2001-12-01

125

Apparatus for successively charging rechargeable batteries  

SciTech Connect

A charging apparatus charges a plurality of rechargeable batteries individually and in succession. Each of the plurality of rechargeable batteries is coupled to one corresponding charging branch. The charging apparatus comprises a charging completion detecting circuit for detecting a charging completion of a rechargeable battery now in a charging operation, a high voltage detecting circuit for detecting an abnormal voltage of a charging branch now in a charging operation, wherein single pulse is generated responsive to the outputs of the charging completion detecting circuit and the abnormal voltage detecting circuit. A charging branch being connected to the charging voltage source is selectively and automatically switched responsive to the above described single pulse. Furthermore, the charging completion detecting circuit and the abnormal voltage detecting circuit are reset to an initial state responsive to the above described single pulse.

Matsuura, K.; Oyamada, K.

1983-06-07

126

Impacts of vegetation change on groundwater recharge  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Vegetation change is the accepted cause of increasing river salt concentrations and the salinisation of millions of hectares of farm land in Australia. Replacement of perennial native vegetation by annual crops and pastures following European settlement has altered the water balance causing increased groundwater recharge and mobilising the naturally saline groundwater. The Redesigning Agriculture for Australian Landscapes Program, of which the work described here is a part, was established to develop agricultural practices that are more attuned to the delicate water balance described above. Results of field measurements will be presented that contrast the water balance characteristics of native vegetation with those of conventional agricultural plants, and indicate the functional characteristics required of new agricultural practices to reduce recharge. New agricultural practices may comprise different management of current crops and pastures, or may involve introducing totally new species. In either case, long-term testing is required to examine their impact on recharge over a long enough climate record to encompass the natural variability of rainfall that is characteristic of most Australian farming regions. Field experimentation therefore needs to be complemented and extended by computer simulation. This requires a modelling approach that is more robust than conventional crop modelling because (a) it needs to be sensitive enough to predict small changes in the residual recharge term, (b) it needs to be able to simulate a variety of vegetation in different sequences, (c) it needs to be able to simulate continuously for several decades of input data, and (d) it therefore needs to be able to simulate the period between crops, which often has a critical impact on recharge. The APSIM simulation framework will be used to illustrate these issues and to explore the effect of different vegetation combinations on recharge.

Bond, W. J.; Verburg, K.; Smith, C. J.

2003-12-01

127

Structural evolution of the contact between two Penninic nappes (Zermatt-Saas zone and Combin zone, Western Alps) and implications for the exhumation mechanism and palaeogeography  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The boundary zone between two Penninic nappes, the eclogite-facies to ultrahigh-pressure Zermatt-Saas zone in the footwall and the blueschist-facies Combin zone in the hanging wall, has been interpreted previously as a major normal fault reflecting synorogenic crustal extension. Quartz textures of mylonites from this fault were measured using neutron diffraction. Together with structural field observations, the data allow a refined reconstruction of the kinematic evolution of the Pennine nappes. The main results are: (1) the contact is not a normal fault but a major thrust towards northwest which was only later overprinted by southeast-directed normal faulting; (2) exhumation of the footwall rocks did not occur during crustal extension but during crustal shortening; (3) the Sesia-Dent Blanche nappe system originated from a continental fragment (Cervinia) in the Alpine Tethys ocean, and the Combin zone ophiolites from the ocean basin southeast of Cervinia; (4) out-of-sequence thrusting played a major role in the tectonic evolution of the Penninic nappes.

Pleuger, Jan; Roller, Sybille; Walter, Jens M.; Jansen, Ekkehard; Froitzheim, Nikolaus

2007-04-01

128

Sedimentological, geochemical and microfaunal responses to environmental changes around the Cenomanian–Turonian boundary in the Outer Carpathian Basin; a record from the Subsilesian Nappe, Poland  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sedimentological, micropalaeontological and geochemical data from the upper Cenomanian–lower Turonian Zasa? section (Outer Carpathians, Subsilesian Nappe, Poland) provide new insights into the sedimentary environment and its changes in a basin at the northern margin of the Western Tethys. A global oceanic event (OAE2) has been identified on the basis of lithology and radiolarian stratigraphic data. This event is marked by

Krzysztof B?k

2006-01-01

129

Cathodoluminescence, fluid inclusion and stable C-O isotope study of tectonic breccias from thrusting plane of a thin-skinned calcareous nappe  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Basal hydraulic breccias of alpine thin-skinned Murá? nappe were investigated by means of cathodoluminescence petrography, stable isotope geochemistry and fluid inclusions analysis. Our study reveals an unusual dynamic fluid regime along basal thrust plane during final episode of the nappe emplacement over its metamorphic substratum. Basal thrusting fluids enriched in 18O, silica, alumina, alkalies and phosphates were generated in the underlying metamorphosed basement at epizonal conditions corresponding to the temperatures of 400-450°C. The fluids fluxed the tectonized nappe base, leached evaporite-bearing formations in hangingwall, whereby becoming oversaturated with sulphates and chlorides. The fluids further modified their composition by dedolomitization and isotopic exchange with the host carbonatic cataclasites. Newly formed mineral assemblage of quartz, phlogopite, albite, potassium feldspar, apatite, dravite tourmaline and anhydrite precipitated from these fluids on cooling down to 180-200°C. Finally, the cataclastic mush was cemented by calcite at ambient anchizonal conditions. Recurrent fluid injections as described above probably enhanced the final motion of the Murá? nappe.

Milovský, Rastislav; van den Kerkhof, Alfons; Hoefs, Jochen; Hurai, Vratislav; Prochaska, Walter

2012-03-01

130

Correlation of very low grade data to calibrate a thermal maturity model in a nappe tectonic setting, a case study from the Alps  

Microsoft Academic Search

Vitrinite and bituminite reflectance data, XRD studies on clay minerals, radiometric data, and geochemical data have been used to investigate metamorphism of very low and low grade sediments from the Lower Austroalpine and South Penninic nappes in the Oberhalbstein valley (central Alps). Numerical maturity modelling methods are calibrated with petrological, structural and new geochronological data to reconstruct temperature histories, even

Rafael Ferreiro Mählmann

2001-01-01

131

Computer Program for Predicting Recharge with a Master Recession Curve.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Water-table fluctuations occur in unconfined aquifers owing to ground-water recharge following precipitation and infiltration, and ground-water discharge to streams between storm events. Ground-water recharge can be estimated from well hydrograph data usi...

C. S. Heppner J. R. Nimmo

2005-01-01

132

30 CFR 56.4203 - Extinguisher recharging or replacement.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...STANDARDS-SURFACE METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Fire Prevention and Control Firefighting Equipment § 56.4203 Extinguisher recharging or replacement. Fire extinguishers shall be recharged or replaced with a...

2013-07-01

133

30 CFR 57.4203 - Extinguisher recharging or replacement.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Fire Prevention and Control Firefighting Equipment § 57.4203 Extinguisher recharging or replacement. Fire extinguishers shall be recharged or replaced with a...

2013-07-01

134

Quantifying Mountain Front Recharge Using Isotopic Tracers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

To improve our conceptual and quantitative understanding of mountain-front/mountain-block recharge (MFR) associated with the Huachuca Mountains of the Upper San Pedro River Basin in Arizona, we employed a suite of geochemical measurements including isotopic tracers and noble gases. MFR is frequently the dominant source of recharge to alluvial basins in the semiarid Basin and Range province. It consists of mountain runoff that infiltrates at the mountain front (mountain-front recharge), and percolation through the mountain bedrock that reaches the basin via the movement of deep groundwater (mountain-block recharge). The rate of MFR can be estimated from a water balance, a Darcy's law analysis, or inverse modeling of groundwater processes. Despite the large volume of research on water resources in the basin and the critical importance of MFR to the water budget, the best estimates of MFR obtained using these methods may have errors as large as 100%. We find that geochemical tracers address mechanistic questions regarding recharge seasonality, location, and rates as well as addressing groundwater flowpaths and residence times. The gradient of stable isotopes of hydrogen and oxygen in groundwater with elevation mirrors that of regional precipitation, providing a constraint on the location and seasonality of recharge. Stable isotopic signatures indicate that MFR is dominated by winter precipitation but has 1/3 or more contribution from monsoon precipitation. Detectable tritium and 14C values greater than 100 pMC for springs, shallow groundwater in mountain canyons, and from wells along the mountain front indicate decade-scale residence times. Away from the mountain front 14C values rapidly decrease, reaching 12.3±0.2 pMC near the river. This suggests total basin residence times greater than 10,000 years, consistent with past measurements. Ongoing analysis of noble gas concentrations will provide an indication of recharge conditions. The solubility of noble gases in water depends on temperature and pressure; thus, noble gas concentrations provide a means to distinguish water samples recharged at different elevations.

Wahi, A. K.; Ekwurzel, B.; Hogan, J. F.; Eastoe, C. J.; Baillie, M. N.

2005-05-01

135

Global-scale modeling of groundwater recharge  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Long-term average groundwater recharge, which is equivalent to renewable groundwater resources, is the major limiting factor for the sustainable use of groundwater. Compared to surface water resources, groundwater resources are more protected from pollution, and their use is less restricted by seasonal and inter-annual flow variations. To support water management in a globalized world, it is necessary to estimate groundwater recharge at the global scale. Here, we present a best estimate of global-scale long-term average diffuse groundwater recharge (i.e. renewable groundwater resources) that has been calculated by the most recent version of the WaterGAP Global Hydrology Model WGHM (spatial resolution of 0.5° by 0.5°, daily time steps). The estimate was obtained using two state-of-the art global data sets of gridded observed precipitation that we corrected for measurement errors, which also allowed to quantify the uncertainty due to these equally uncertain data sets. The standard WGHM groundwater recharge algorithm was modified for semi-arid and arid regions, based on independent estimates of diffuse groundwater recharge, which lead to an unbiased estimation of groundwater recharge in these regions. WGHM was tuned against observed long-term average river discharge at 1235 gauging stations by adjusting, individually for each basin, the partitioning of precipitation into evapotranspiration and total runoff. We estimate that global groundwater recharge was 12 666 km3/yr for the climate normal 1961-1990, i.e. 32% of total renewable water resources. In semi-arid and arid regions, mountainous regions, permafrost regions and in the Asian Monsoon region, groundwater recharge accounts for a lower fraction of total runoff, which makes these regions particularly vulnerable to seasonal and inter-annual precipitation variability and water pollution. Average per-capita renewable groundwater resources of countries vary between 8 m3/(capita yr) for Egypt to more than 1 million m3/(capita yr) for the Falkland Islands, the global average in the year 2000 being 2091 m3/(capita yr). Regarding the uncertainty of estimated groundwater resources due to the two precipitation data sets, deviation from the mean is less than 1% for 50 out of the 165 countries considered, between 1 and 5% for 62, between 5 and 20% for 43 and between 20 and 80% for 10 countries. Deviations at the grid scale can be much larger, ranging between 0 and 186 mm/yr.

Döll, P.; Fiedler, K.

2007-11-01

136

Global-scale modeling of groundwater recharge  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Long-term average groundwater recharge, which is equivalent to renewable groundwater resources, is the major limiting factor for the sustainable use of groundwater. Compared to surface water resources, groundwater resources are more protected from pollution, and their use is less restricted by seasonal and inter-annual flow variations. To support water management in a globalized world, it is necessary to estimate groundwater recharge at the global scale. Here, we present a best estimate of global-scale long-term average diffuse groundwater recharge (i.e. renewable groundwater resources) that has been calculated by the most recent version of the WaterGAP Global Hydrology Model WGHM (spatial resolution of 0.5° by 0.5°, daily time steps). The estimate was obtained using two state-of-the-art global data sets of gridded observed precipitation that we corrected for measurement errors, which also allowed to quantify the uncertainty due to these equally uncertain data sets. The standard WGHM groundwater recharge algorithm was modified for semi-arid and arid regions, based on independent estimates of diffuse groundwater recharge, which lead to an unbiased estimation of groundwater recharge in these regions. WGHM was tuned against observed long-term average river discharge at 1235 gauging stations by adjusting, individually for each basin, the partitioning of precipitation into evapotranspiration and total runoff. We estimate that global groundwater recharge was 12 666 km3/yr for the climate normal 1961-1990, i.e. 32% of total renewable water resources. In semi-arid and arid regions, mountainous regions, permafrost regions and in the Asian Monsoon region, groundwater recharge accounts for a lower fraction of total runoff, which makes these regions particularly vulnerable to seasonal and inter-annual precipitation variability and water pollution. Average per-capita renewable groundwater resources of countries vary between 8 m3/(capita yr) for Egypt to more than 1 million m3/(capita yr) for the Falkland Islands, the global average in the year 2000 being 2091 m3/(capita yr). Regarding the uncertainty of estimated groundwater resources due to the two precipitation data sets, deviation from the mean is 1.1% for the global value, and less than 1% for 50 out of the 165 countries considered, between 1 and 5% for 62, between 5 and 20% for 43 and between 20 and 80% for 10 countries. Deviations at the grid scale can be much larger, ranging between 0 and 186 mm/yr.

Döll, P.; Fiedler, K.

2008-05-01

137

Lithium-manganese oxide rechargeable battery  

SciTech Connect

A new type of rechargeable battery in which lithium ions shuttle between a lithium-manganese oxide electrode and a carbon electrode was unveiled recently by chemists from Bell Communications Research (Bellcore), Red Bank, N.J. The new battery--still experimental--is safer, longer lasting, and potentially cheaper to manufacture than other lithium-ion batteries. In addition, it provides three times the energy of nickel-cadmium cells, the most popular type of rechargeable battery. Bellcore scientists believe the new battery could replace nickel-cadmium and small lead-acid batteries in many applications.

Dagani, R.

1993-01-04

138

Rechargeable battery and electrical circuit for charging thereof  

Microsoft Academic Search

This patent describes a nickel-cadmium rechargeable cell for use in an energy-using device having at least one charging terminal contact for recharging the cell. The energy-using device adapted to alternately receive either a standard cylindrical AA, AAA, C or D size non-rechargeable cell has a pair of power terminal contacts spaced apart by a standard distance. The rechargeable cell comprises:

Toops

1987-01-01

139

Control circuit for a solar-powered rechargeable power source and load  

Microsoft Academic Search

A solar rechargeable apparatus is described comprising: a rechargeable power source; a solar panel connected to the rechargeable power source for supplying a charging current to the rechargeable power source; a device connected between the rechargeable power source and the solar panel to prevent discharge of current from the rechargeable power source to the solar panel; a load; and a

R. W. Janda; J. L. Douglas; E. F. Jr. Condon

1993-01-01

140

Fundamental Concepts of Recharge in the Desert Southwest  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recharge in arid basins does not occur in all years or at all locations. To address the temporal and spatial variability of recharge, one must (1) distinguish between recharge and net infiltration, (2) understand travel time in the unsaturated zone, and (3) comprehend the local- and basin-scale deterministic processes and surficial properties that control net infiltration. Net infiltration is the

A. L. Flint; L. E. Flint; J. B. Blainey; J. A. Hevesi

2001-01-01

141

Natural vs. artificial groundwater recharge, quantification through inverse modeling  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Estimating the change in groundwater recharge from an introduced artificial recharge system is important in order to evaluate future water availability. This paper presents an inverse modeling approach to quantify the recharge contribution from both an ephemeral river channel and an introduced artificial recharge system based on floodwater spreading in arid Iran. The study used the MODFLOW-2000 to estimate recharge for both steady- and unsteady-state conditions. The model was calibrated and verified based on the observed hydraulic head in observation wells and model precision, uncertainty, and model sensitivity were analyzed in all modeling steps. The results showed that in a normal year without extreme events, the floodwater spreading system is the main contributor to recharge with 80% and the ephemeral river channel with 20% of total recharge in the studied area. Uncertainty analysis revealed that the river channel recharge estimation represents relatively more uncertainty in comparison to the artificial recharge zones. The model is also less sensitive to the river channel. The results show that by expanding the artificial recharge system, the recharge volume can be increased even for small flood events, while the recharge through the river channel increases only for major flood events.

Hashemi, H.; Berndtsson, R.; Kompani-Zare, M.; Persson, M.

2013-02-01

142

Natural vs. artificial groundwater recharge, quantification through inverse modeling  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Estimating the change in groundwater recharge from an introduced artificial recharge system is important in order to evaluate future water availability. This paper presents an inverse modeling approach to quantify the recharge contribution from both an ephemeral river channel and an introduced artificial recharge system based on floodwater spreading in arid Iran. The study used the MODFLOW-2000 to estimate recharge for both steady and unsteady-state conditions. The model was calibrated and verified based on the observed hydraulic head in observation wells and model precision, uncertainty, and model sensitivity were analyzed in all modeling steps. The results showed that in a normal year without extreme events the floodwater spreading system is the main contributor to recharge with 80% and the ephemeral river channel with 20% of total recharge in the studied area. Uncertainty analysis revealed that the river channel recharge estimation represents relatively more uncertainty in comparison to the artificial recharge zones. The model is also less sensitive to the river channel. The results show that by expanding the artificial recharge system the recharge volume can be increased even for small flood events while the recharge through the river channel increases only for major flood events.

Hashemi, H.; Berndtsson, R.; Kompani-Zare, M.; Persson, M.

2012-08-01

143

Estimating recharge rates with analytic element models and parameter estimation  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Quantifying the spatial and temporal distribution of recharge is usually a prerequisite for effective ground water flow modeling. In this study, an analytic element (AE) code (GFLOW) was used with a nonlinear parameter estimation code (UCODE) to quantify the spatial and temporal distribution of recharge using measured base flows as calibration targets. The ease and flexibility of AE model construction and evaluation make this approach well suited for recharge estimation. An AE flow model of an undeveloped watershed in northern Wisconsin was optimized to match median annual base flows at four stream gages for 1996 to 2000 to demonstrate the approach. Initial optimizations that assumed a constant distributed recharge rate provided good matches (within 5%) to most of the annual base flow estimates, but discrepancies of >12% at certain gages suggested that a single value of recharge for the entire watershed is inappropriate. Subsequent optimizations that allowed for spatially distributed recharge zones based on the distribution of vegetation types improved the fit and confirmed that vegetation can influence spatial recharge variability in this watershed. Temporally, the annual recharge values varied >2.5-fold between 1996 and 2000 during which there was an observed 1.7-fold difference in annual precipitation, underscoring the influence of nonclimatic factors on interannual recharge variability for regional flow modeling. The final recharge values compared favorably with more labor-intensive field measurements of recharge and results from studies, supporting the utility of using linked AE-parameter estimation codes for recharge estimation. Copyright ?? 2005 The Author(s).

Dripps, W. R.; Hunt, R. J.; Anderson, M. P.

2006-01-01

144

Study on Clogging Mechanism and Control Methods of Artificial Recharge  

Microsoft Academic Search

The severe global fresh water shortage, the over-exploitation of groundwater and its related ecological environment geology problems, the global climate change, all of them are stimulating the study and practice of artificial recharge. But the clogging problem during artificial recharge is always to be the most common obstacle, it can reduce the recharge rate, increase the maintenance cost and shorten

Xueyan Ye; Xinqiang Du; Shengtao Li; Yuesuo Yang

2010-01-01

145

Circuit Model of Battery Recharging by Volume Conduction  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many current implantable devices require large capacity batteries implanted in the body. In this paper we present a new approach of transcutaneous battery recharging by volume conduction and its circuit model. We also analyze the current transmitting efficiency and rechargeable prerequisite of transcutaneous battery recharging by applying this circuit model. The experiments prove the legitimacy of the circuit model.

Zhide Tang; R. J. Sclabassi; Caixin Sun; Jun Zhao; S. A. Hackworth; Mingui Sun

2006-01-01

146

Analysis of the infrastructure for recharging electric vehicles  

Microsoft Academic Search

An analysis of the infrastructure ofr recharging electric vehicles (EV), equivalent to the refueling infrastructure for internal combustion engines (ICE), shows that many of the infrastructure elements required to recharge a large number of EV's in the U.S. are already in place. The U.S. utility industry has sufficient capacity to support at least 13 million EV's if they are recharged

R. Kaiser; C. Graver

1980-01-01

147

Global synthesis of groundwater recharge in semiarid and arid regions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Global synthesis of the findings from ¾140 recharge study areas in semiarid and arid regions provides important information on recharge rates, controls, and processes, which are critical for sustainable water development. Water resource evaluation, dryland salinity assessment (Australia), and radioactive waste disposal (US) are among the primary goals of many of these recharge studies. The chloride mass balance (CMB) technique

Bridget R. Scanlon; Kelley E. Keese; Alan L. Flint; Lorraine E. Flint; Cheikh B. Gaye; W. Michael Edmunds; Ian Simmers

2006-01-01

148

Global synthesis of groundwater recharge in semiarid and arid regions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Global synthesis of the findings from 140 recharge study areas in semiarid and arid regions provides important information on recharge rates, controls, and processes, which are critical for sustainable water development. Water resource evaluation, dryland salinity assessment (Australia), and radioactive waste disposal (US) are among the primary goals of many of these recharge studies. The chloride mass balance (CMB) technique

Bridget R. Scanlon; Kelley E. Keese; Alan L. Flint; Lorraine E. Flint; Cheikh B. Gaye; W. Michael Edmunds; Ian Simmers

2006-01-01

149

Potential for Recharge in Agricultural Soils of the Mississippi Delta  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ground water models predict that 5 percent or less of precipitation in the Mississippi Delta region recharges the heavily-used alluvial aquifer; however the presence of agricultural chemicals in ground water suggests more substantial recharge. In a preliminary assessment of the potential for aerial recharge through the agricultural soils of the Bogue Phalia basin in the Mississippi Delta, we applied a

K. S. Perkins; J. R. Nimmo; R. H. Coupe; C. E. Rose; M. A. Manning

2007-01-01

150

Artificial Groundwater Recharge, San Luis Valley, Colorado.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Intense use of aquifers for irrigation waters has caused groundwater storage depletion in many areas of the arid and semi-arid west, including the San Luis Valley in south central Colorado. Artificial recharge is a means of alleviating this problem. To sh...

D. K. Sunada J. W. Warner D. J. Molden

1983-01-01

151

REUSE OF MUNICIPAL WASTEWATER FOR GROUNDWATER RECHARGE  

EPA Science Inventory

A survey of groundwater recharge operations with municipal wastewater effluent was conducted. It was found that this activity is being practiced at 10 sites in the U.S. with a total capacity of 77 MGD. The most successful employ percolation with alternate flooding and drying cycl...

152

An approach to identify urban groundwater recharge  

Microsoft Academic Search

Evaluating the proportion in which waters from different origins are mixed in a given water sample is relevant for many hydrogeological problems, such as quantifying total recharge, assessing groundwater pollution risks, or managing water resources. Our work is motivated by urban hydrogeology, where waters with different chemical signature can be identified (losses from water supply and sewage networks, infiltration from

E. Vázquez-Suñé; J. Carrera; I. Tubau; X. Sánchez-Vila; A. Soler

2010-01-01

153

Anode for rechargeable ambient temperature lithium cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

An ambient room temperature, high density, rechargeable lithium battery includes a Li(x)Mg2Si negative anode which intercalates lithium to form a single crystalline phase when x is up to 1.0 and an amorphous phase when x is from 1 to 2.0. The electrode has good reversibility and mechanical strength after cycling.

Chen-Kuo Huang; Subbarao Surampudi; Alan I. Attia; Gerald Halpert

1994-01-01

154

Anode for rechargeable ambient temperature lithium cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

An ambient room temperature, high density, rechargeable lithium battery includes a Li(x)Mg2Si negative anode which intercalates lithium to form a single crystalline phase when x is up to 1.0 and an amorphous phase when x is from 1 to 2.0. The electrode has good reversibility and mechanical strength after cycling.

Chen-Kuo Huang; Subbarao Surampudi; Alan I. Attia; Gerald Halpert

1992-01-01

155

High temperature rechargeable molten salt cell  

Microsoft Academic Search

This patent describes a high temperature rechargeable molten salt cell. It comprises: a member of the group consisting of lithium, lithium aluminum alloy, lithium silicon alloy, sodium, potassium, calcium, magnesium, an alkali metal, a group II A element, a group II A alloy and composite mixtures thereof, as the anode, a chemical compound of the composition XYSâ wherein X is

E. J. Plichta; W. K. Behl

1991-01-01

156

Application potential of rechargeable lithium batteries  

SciTech Connect

Rechargeable lithium cells with Cr /SUB 0.5/ V/sub 0/ /sub 5/S/sub 2/ and MoO/sub 3/ cathodes were investigated in the temperature range of -30/sup 0/C to +25/sup 0/C. The electrolyte was 1.5M LiAsF/sub 6/ in 2-methyl tetrahydrofuran with tetrahydrofuran (50:50 V percent). Current densities and capacities as a function of temperature, cathode utilization efficiencies versus cycle life, and shelf lives were determined. The state of charge could be related to open circuit voltages after partial discharge. The potential of the system for communication applications is discussed. Recent advances in rechargeable lithium batteries were mainly due to the discovery of stable, cyclic ether electrolyte solvents (1) and to the use of rechargeable cathode materials (2). The practical usefulness of rechargeable lithium cells with Cr /SUB 0.5/ V /SUB 0.5/ S/sub 2/ and MoO/sub 3/ cathodes was investigated in the temperature range of -30/sup 0/C to +25/sup 0/C. The electrolyte was mainly 1.5M LiAsF/sub 6/ in 2-methyl tetrahydrofuran with tetrahydrofuran (50:50 V percent). The two cathode materials were chosen because Cr /SUB 0.5/ V /SUB 0.5/ S/sub 2/ resembles TiS/sub 2/ in capacity and cycling behavior and MoO/sub 3/ is a low cost cathode material of interest.

Hunger, H.F.; Bramhall, P.J.

1983-10-01

157

Recharging robot teams: A tanker approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

We examine the use of a tanker robot to distribute energy in a system of autonomous robots. Consider a team of autonomous mobile worker robots performing some task, each with a finite but rechargeable energy supply such as a battery or fuel cell. To work, the robots must expend energy. To expend more energy than is contained in a single

Pawel Zebrowski; Richard T. Vaughan

2005-01-01

158

Battery recharging circuit with indicator means  

Microsoft Academic Search

This patent describes a recharging circuit including a diode and a battery serially connected and coupled in parallel to a power source. The circuit consists of: first means connected across the power source for indicating the presence of a charging current delivered by the power source; second means connected between the power source and the junction of the diode with

Keiper

1986-01-01

159

High reliability lithium rechargeable batteries for specialties  

Microsoft Academic Search

Since their development in the late 1980s, lithium rechargeable batteries have enjoyed rapid growth and wide use as a commodity battery known for its higher energy density storage and lightweight convenience. These same attributes are emerging as a strong platform in power source development for the medical and aerospace sectors with highly customized applications and narrowly defined criteria. Accordingly, this

H. Tsukamoto

2003-01-01

160

All inorganic ambient temperature rechargeable lithium battery  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Having the advantages of high energy density and good charge retention, rechargeable lithium batteries have been of interest to many companies and research organizations within the last 15 years. Various lithium rechargeable systems with different positive electrodes and electrolytes have been reported in literature. Most are using electrolytes with organic solvents. Duracell Inc. has demonstrated the feasibility of using totally inorganic electrolytes based on liquid SO2 for the ambient temperature recharageable lithium battery. The system has lithium as the negative electrode and porous carbon as the positive electrode with SO2 as the depolarizer and electrolyte solvent. A four year cost-shared joint program with the Department of Energy was initiated in October 1980 to investigate the SO2-based electrolytes and to develop an ambient temperature rechargeable lithium battery for future energy storage applications. The ultimate goal of this program is to develop a battery having an energy density over 150 whkg with cycle life of 500 to 800 at 80 to 100 percent depth of discharge. During the four years, SO2 electrolytes with various inorganic salts and various positive electrodes made of porous carbon and solid active materials were evaluated. Promising systems having good rechargeability and high energy density, such as LiCuCl2 and LiLiAlCl4-SO2 carbon were identified. This report summarizes the progress achieved in the program.

Kuo, H. C.; Dey, A. N.; Schlaikjer, C.; Foster, D.; Kallianidis, M.

1987-10-01

161

Recharging Our Sense of Idealism: Concluding Thoughts  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|In this article, the authors aim to recharge one's sense of idealism. They argue that idealism is the Vitamin C that sustains one's commitment to implementing humanistic principles and social justice practices in the work of counselors and educators. The idealism that characterizes counselors and educators who are humanistic and social justice…

D'Andrea, Michael; Dollarhide, Colette T.

2011-01-01

162

Solid polymer electrolytes for rechargeable batteries  

Microsoft Academic Search

SRI International has synthesized novel solid polymer electrolytes for high energy density, rechargeable lithium batteries. We have systematically replaced the oxygens in polyethylene oxide (PEO) with sulfur to reduce the strong hard-acid hard-base interaction, while retaining the favorable helical conformation of the polymer backbone. The best polymer electrolyte produced so far is suitable for a medium power battery. In another

S. C. Narang; D. D. MacDonald

1990-01-01

163

Lithium-polymer electrolyte rechargeable batteries  

Microsoft Academic Search

There have been increasing efforts to develop lithium\\/polymer rechargeable batteries with high rate capability and long cycle life. Research efforts in preparing novel lithium-polymer electrolytes with enhanced conductivity have shown some progress and there is a great need for high conductivity electrolytes. Improvements made in the preparation of electrolytes with enhanced conductivity are described. Results of our research and development

H. V. Venkatasetty

2000-01-01

164

Fault zone architecture of a major oblique-slip fault in the Rawil depression, Western Helvetic nappes, Switzerland  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Helvetic nappes in the Swiss Alps form a classic fold-and-thrust belt related to overall NNW-directed transport. In western Switzerland, the plunge of nappe fold axes and the regional distribution of units define a broad depression, the Rawil depression, between the culminations of Aiguilles Rouge massif to the SW and Aar massif to the NE. A compilation of data from the literature establishes that, in addition to thrusts related to nappe stacking, the Rawil depression is cross-cut by four sets of brittle faults: (1) SW-NE striking normal faults that strike parallel to the regional fold axis trend, (2) NW-SE striking normal faults and joints that strike perpendicular to the regional fold axis trend, and (3) WNW-ESE striking normal plus dextral oblique-slip faults as well as (4) WSW-ENE striking normal plus dextral oblique-slip faults that both strike oblique to the regional fold axis trend. We studied in detail a beautifully exposed fault from set 3, the Rezli fault zone (RFZ) in the central Wildhorn nappe. The RFZ is a shallow to moderately-dipping (ca. 30-60?) fault zone with an oblique-slip displacement vector, combining both dextral and normal components. It must have formed in approximately this orientation, because the local orientation of fold axes corresponds to the regional one, as does the generally vertical orientation of extensional joints and veins associated with the regional fault set 2. The fault zone crosscuts four different lithologies: limestone, intercalated marl and limestone, marl and sandstone, and it has a maximum horizontal dextral offset component of ~300 m and a maximum vertical normal offset component of ~200 m. Its internal architecture strongly depends on the lithology in which it developed. In the limestone, it consists of veins, stylolites, cataclasites and cemented gouge, in the intercalated marls and limestones of anastomosing shear zones, brittle fractures, veins and folds, in the marls of anastomosing shear zones, pressure solution seams and veins and in the sandstones of coarse breccia and veins. Later, straight, sharp fault planes cross-cut all these features. In all lithologies, common veins and calcite-cemented fault rocks indicate the strong involvement of fluids during faulting. Today, the southern Rawil depression and the Rhone Valley belong to one of the seismically most active regions in Switzerland. Seismogenic faults interpreted from earthquake focal mechanisms strike ENE-WSW to WNW-ESE, with dominant dextral strike-slip and minor normal components and epicentres at depths of < 15 km. All three Neogene fault sets (2-4) could have been active under the current stress field inferred from the current seismicity. This implies that the same mechanisms that formed these fault zones in the past may still persist at depth. The Rezli fault zone allows the detailed study of a fossil fault zone that can act as a model for processes still occurring at deeper levels in this seismically active region.

Gasser, D.; Mancktelow, N. S.

2009-04-01

165

Southern termination of Butternut Hill fold and evaluation of the nappe model for the Chester dome, Vermont  

SciTech Connect

According to previous interpretations the Acadian Hill fold (Thompson, Ph.D. thesis 1950) is a major, 20 km long, north-plunging synformal digitation containing inverted Middle Proterozoic gneiss and cover rocks along the western flank of the Chester dome. It constitutes the principal evidence for inversion of rocks in the nappe model of the Chester dome. Reexamination of the southern closure reveals that it does not close in a north plunging synform but the contact between cover rock and Middle Proterozoic gneiss dips southwest and west in a series of well-exposed minor folds. Steeply plunging folds in the cover rocks are the result of Acadian refolding of the earlier steeply dipping Taconian schistosity, that passes through vertical on the nose of the fold. The hingelines of the Acadian folds are highly irregular, but commonly plunge at 60 to 90 degrees within the subvertical and west dipping Acadian axial surfaces. Rather than supporting northerly dips and subhorizontal axial surfaces, plunges of hingelines of interference folds and of intersection lineations indicate folding of steeply-dipping schistosity and contacts. The data therefore do not support the existence of subhorizontal recumbent folds prior to development of the Butternut Hill fold. Projections showing the Butternut Hill fold as a downward closing synformal S shaped'' digitation of Middle Proterozoic core gneisses and cover rocks are not supported by the data presented here, as it is Z shaped in profile and upward closing. In the present interpretation, the Butternut Hill fold is a simple antiformal structure, possibly developed on a pre-existing (Taconian) reclined fold, that originally plunged steeply southeast in the regional (Taconian) schistosity. These observations suggest that a reevaluation of the Acadian nappe model for the Chester and Athens domes is necessary.

Ratcliffe, N.M. (Geological Survey, Reston, VA (United States))

1993-03-01

166

An approach to identify urban groundwater recharge  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Evaluating the proportion in which waters from different origins are mixed in a given water sample is relevant for many hydrogeological problems, such as quantifying total recharge, assessing groundwater pollution risks, or managing water resources. Our work is motivated by urban hydrogeology, where waters with different chemical signature can be identified (losses from water supply and sewage networks, infiltration from surface runoff and other water bodies, lateral aquifers inflows, ...). The relative contribution of different sources to total recharge can be quantified by means of solute mass balances, but application is hindered by the large number of potential origins. Hence, the need to incorporate data from a large number of conservative species, the uncertainty in sources concentrations and measurement errors. We present a methodology to compute mixing ratios and end-members composition, which consists of (i) Identification of potential recharge sources, (ii) Selection of tracers, (iii) Characterization of the hydrochemical composition of potential recharge sources and mixed water samples, and (iv) Computation of mixing ratios and reevaluation of end-members. The analysis performed in a data set from samples of the Barcelona city aquifers suggests that the main contributors to total recharge are the water supply network losses (22%), the sewage network losses (30%), rainfall, concentrated in the non-urbanized areas (17%), from runoff infiltration (20%), and the Besòs River (11%). Regarding species, halogens (chloride, fluoride and bromide), sulfate, total nitrogen, and stable isotopes (18O, 2H, and 34S) behaved quite conservatively. Boron, residual alkalinity, EDTA and Zn did not. Yet, including these species in the computations did not affect significantly the proportion estimations.

Vázquez-Suñé, E.; Carrera, J.; Tubau, I.; Sánchez-Vila, X.; Soler, A.

2010-10-01

167

An approach to identify urban groundwater recharge  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Evaluating the proportion in which waters from different origins are mixed in a given water sample is relevant for many hydrogeological problems, such as quantifying total recharge, assessing groundwater pollution risks, or managing water resources. Our work is motivated by urban hydrogeology, where waters with different chemical signature can be identified (losses from water supply and sewage networks, infiltration from surface runoff and other water bodies, lateral aquifers inflows, ...). The relative contribution of different sources to total recharge can be quantified by means of solute mass balances, but application is hindered by the large number of potential origins. Hence, the need to incorporate data from a large number of conservative species, the uncertainty in sources concentrations and measurement errors. We present a methodology to compute mixing ratios and end-members composition, which consists of (i) Identification of potential recharge sources, (ii) Selection of tracers, (iii) Characterization of the hydrochemical composition of potential recharge sources and mixed water samples, and (iv) Computation of mixing ratios and reevaluation of end-members. The analysis performed in a data set from samples of the Barcelona city aquifers suggests that the main contributors to total recharge are the water supply network losses (22%), the sewage network losses (30%), rainfall, concentrated in the non-urbanized areas (17%), from runoff infiltration (20%), and the Besòs River (11%). Regarding species, halogens (chloride, fluoride and bromide), sulfate, total nitrogen, and stable isotopes (18O2H, and 34S) behaved quite conservatively. Boron, residual alkalinity, EDTA and Zn did not. Yet, including these species in the computations did not affect significantly the proportion estimations.

Vázquez-Suñé, E.; Carrera, J.; Tubau, I.; Sánchez-Vila, X.; Soler, A.

2010-04-01

168

Quantifying macropore recharge: Examples from a semi-arid area  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The purpose of this paper is to illustrate the significantly increased resolution of determining macropore recharge by combining physical, chemical, and isotopic methods of analysis. Techniques for quantifying macropore recharge were developed for both small-scale (1 to 10 km2) and regional-scale areas in and semi-arid areas. The Southern High Plains region of Texas and New Mexico was used as a representative field site to test these methods. Macropore recharge in small-scale areas is considered to be the difference between total recharge through floors of topographically dosed basins and interstitial recharge through the same area. On the regional scale, macropore recharge was considered to be the difference between regional average annual recharge and interstitial recharge measured in the unsaturated zone. Stable isotopic composition of ground water and precipitation was used us an independent estimate of macropore recharge on the regional scale. Results of this analysis suggest that in the Southern High Plains recharge flux through macropores is between 60 and 80 percent of the total 11 mm/y. Between 15 and 35 percent of the recharge occurs by interstitial recharge through the basin floors. Approximately 5 percent of the total recharge occurs as either interstitial or matrix recharge between the basin floors, representing approximately 95 percent of the area. The approach is applicable to other arid and semi-arid areas that focus rainfall into depressions or valleys.The purpose of this paper is to illustrate the significantly increased resolution of determining macropore recharge by combining physical, chemical, and isotopic methods of analysis. Techniques for quantifying macropore recharge were developed for both small-scale (1 to 10 km2) and regional-scale areas in arid and semi-arid areas. The Southern High Plains region of Texas and New Mexico was used as a representative field site to test these methods. Macropore recharge in small-scale areas is considered to be the difference between total recharge through floors of topographically closed basins and interstitial recharge through the same area. On the regional scale, macropore recharge was considered to be the difference between regional average annual recharge and interstitial recharge measured in the unsaturated zone. Stable isotopic composition of ground water and precipitation was used as an independent estimate of macropore recharge on the regional scale. Results of this analysis suggest that in the Southern High Plains recharge flux through macropores is between 60 and 80 percent of the total 11 mm/y. Between 15 and 35 percent of the recharge occurs by interstitial recharge through the basin floors. Approximately 5 percent of the total recharge occurs as either interstitial or matrix recharge between the basin floors, representing approximately 95 percent of the area. The approach is applicable to other arid and semi-arid areas that focus rainfall into depressions or valleys.

Wood, W. W.; Rainwater, K. A.; Thompson, D. B.

1997-01-01

169

Automatic rainfall recharge model induction by evolutionary computational intelligence  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Genetic programming (GP) is used to develop models of rainfall recharge from observations of rainfall recharge and rainfall, calculated potential evapotranspiration (PET) and soil profile available water (PAW) at four sites over a 4 year period in Canterbury, New Zealand. This work demonstrates that the automatic model induction method is a useful development in modeling rainfall recharge. The five best performing models evolved by genetic programming show a highly nonlinear relationship between rainfall recharge and the independent variables. These models are dominated by a positive correlation with rainfall, a negative correlation with the square of PET, and a negative correlation with PAW. The best performing GP models are more reliable than a soil water balance model at predicting rainfall recharge when rainfall recharge is observed in the late spring, summer, and early autumn periods. The "best" GP model provides estimates of cumulative sums of rainfall recharge that are closer than a soil water balance model to observations at all four sites.

Hong, Yoon-Seok Timothy; White, Paul A.; Scott, David M.

2005-08-01

170

Automatic rainfall recharge model induction by evolutionary computational intelligence  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Genetic programming (GP) is used to develop models of rainfall recharge from observations of rainfall recharge and rainfall, calculated potential evapotranspiration (PET) and soil profile available water (PAW) at four sites over a 4 year period in Canterbury, New Zealand. This work demonstrates that the automatic model induction method is a useful development in modeling rainfall recharge. The five best performing models evolved by genetic programming show a highly nonlinear relationship between rainfall recharge and the independent variables. These models are dominated by a positive correlation with rainfall, a negative correlation with the square of PET, and a negative correlation with PAW. The best performing GP models are more reliable than a soil water balance model at predicting rainfall recharge when rainfall recharge is observed in the late spring, summer, and early autumn periods. The ``best'' GP model provides estimates of cumulative sums of rainfall recharge that are closer than a soil water balance model to observations at all four sites.

Hong, Yoon-Seok Timothy; White, Paul A.; Scott, David M.

2005-08-01

171

Manganese oxide cathodes for rechargeable batteries  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Manganese oxides are considered as promising cathodes for rechargeable batteries due to their low cost and low toxicity as well as the abundant natural resources. In this dissertation, manganese oxides have been investigated as cathodes for both rechargeable lithium and alkaline batteries. Nanostructured lithium manganese oxides designed for rechargeable lithium cells have been synthesized by reducing lithium permanganate with methanol or hydrogen in various solvents followed by firing at moderate temperatures. The samples have been characterized by wet-chemical analyses, thermal methods, spectroscopic methods, and electron microscopy. It has been found that chemical residues in the oxides such as carboxylates and hydroxyl groups, which could be controlled by varying the reaction medium, reducing agents, and additives, make a significant influence on the electrochemical properties. The Li/Mn ratio in the material has also been found to be a critical factor in determining the rechargeability of the cathodes. The optimized samples exhibit a high capacity of close to 300 mAh/g with good cyclability and charge efficiency. The high capacity with a lower discharge voltage may make these nanostructured oxides particularly attractive for lithium polymer batteries. The research on the manganese oxide cathodes for alkaline batteries is focused on an analysis of the reaction products generated during the charge/discharge processes or by some designed chemical reactions mimicking the electrochemical processes. The factors influencing the formation of Mn3O4 in the two-electron redox process of delta-MnO2 have been studied with linear sweep voltammetry combined with X-ray diffraction. The presence of bismuth, the discharge rate, and the microstructure of the electrodes are found to affect the formation of Mn3O4, which is known to be electrochemically inactive. A faster voltage sweep and a more intimate mixing of the manganese oxide and carbon in the cathode are found to suppress the formation of Mn3O4. Bismuth has also been found to be beneficial in the one-electron process of gamma-MnO 2 when incorporated into the cathode. The results of a series of chemical reactions reveal that bismuth is blocking some reaction paths leading to the unwanted birnessite or Mn3O4. Barium is also found to play a similar role, but it is less effective than bismuth for the same amount of additive. Optimization of the additives has the potential to make the rechargeable alkaline cells based on manganese oxides to successfully compete with other rechargeable systems due to their low cost, environmental friendliness, and excellent safety features.

Im, Dongmin

172

Des Moines.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This document, intended for elementary students, contains articles and activities designed to acquaint young people with the history of Des Moines, Iowa. The articles are short, and new or difficult words are highlighted and defined for young readers. "The Raccoon River Indian Agency" discusses the archeological exploration of the indian…

Gore, Deborah, Ed.

1988-01-01

173

Rechargeable Infection-responsive Antifungal Denture Materials  

PubMed Central

Candida-associated denture stomatitis (CADS) is a significant clinical concern. We developed rechargeable infection-responsive antifungal denture materials for potentially managing the disease. Polymethacrylic acid (PMAA) was covalently bound onto diurethane dimethacrylate denture resins in the curing step. The PMAA resins bound cationic antifungal drugs such as miconazole and chlorhexidine digluconate (CG) through ionic interactions. The anticandidal activities of the drug-containing PMAA-resin discs were sustained for a prolonged period of time (weeks and months). Drug release was much faster at acidic conditions (pH 5) than at pH 7. Drugs bound to the denture materials could be “washed out” by treatment with EDTA, and the drug-depleted resins could be recharged with the same or a different class of anticandidal drugs. These results suggest clinical potential of the newly developed antifungal denture materials in the management of CADS and other infectious conditions.

Cao, Z.; Sun, X.; Yeh, C.-K.; Sun, Y.

2010-01-01

174

Solid polymer electrolytes for rechargeable batteries  

SciTech Connect

SRI International has synthesized novel solid polymer electrolytes for high energy density, rechargeable lithium batteries. We have systematically replaced the oxygens in PEO with sulfur to reduce the strong hard-acid hard-base interaction, while retaining the favorable helical conformation of the polymer backbone. The best polymer electrolyte produced so far is suitable for a medium power battery. In another effort, we have synthesized single ion conducting polymer electrolytes based on polyethyleneimine, polyphosphazene, and polysiloxane backbones. The single ion conducting polymer electrolytes will allow greater depth of charge and discharge by preventing dc polarization. The best conductivity so far with single ion conductors is 1.0 {times} 10{sup {minus}3} Scm{sup {minus}1} at room temperature. Further optimization of electrical and mechanical properties will allow the use of these polymer electrolytes in the fabrication of rechargeable lithium batteries. 8 tabs.

Narang, S.C.; Macdonald, D.D.

1990-11-01

175

Rechargeable Infection-responsive Antifungal Denture Materials  

Microsoft Academic Search

Candida-associated denture stomatitis (CADS) is a significant clinical concern. We developed rechargeable infection-responsive antifungal denture materials for potentially managing the disease. Polymethacrylic acid (PMAA) was covalently bound onto diurethane dimethacrylate denture resins in the curing step. The PMAA resins bound cationic antifungal drugs such as miconazole and chlorhexidine digluconate (CG) through ionic interactions. The anticandidal activities of the drug-containing PMAA-resin

Z. Cao; X. Sun; C.-K. Yeh; Y. Sun

2010-01-01

176

Rechargeable Antibacterial and Antifungal Polymeric Silver Sulfadiazines  

Microsoft Academic Search

Poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA)-based rechargeable antibacterial and antifungal polymeric silver sulfadiazines were prepared by copolymerizing acryloyl sulfadiazine with methyl methacrylate and sequentially treating the copolymers with dilute silver nitrate aqueous solutions. The chemical structures of the samples were characterized by FT-IR, 1H-NMR, XPS, and TGA analyses. On contact, the PMMA-based polymeric silver sulfadiazines provided 100% inactivation of 108—109 CFU\\/mL of Escherichia

Zhengbing Cao; Xinbo Sun; Yuyu Sun; Hao Fong

2009-01-01

177

Rechargeable Lithium Batteries with Aqueous Electrolytes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Rechargeable lithium-ion batteries that use an aqueous electrolyte have been developed. Cells with LiMn_2O_4 and VO_2(B) as electrodes and 5 M LiNO_3 in water as the electrolyte provide a fundamentally safe and cost-effective technology that can compete with nickel-cadmium and lead-acid batteries on the basis of stored energy per unit of weight.

Li, Wu; Dahn, J. R.; Wainwright, D. S.

1994-05-01

178

Recharge pattern of contemporary glass ionomer restoratives  

PubMed Central

Background: As glass ionomers have the ability to reload fluoride from outside sources, the aim was to compare the recharge pattern of six glass ionomer cements after exposure to fluoride. Materials and Methods: Fuji VII, Fuji IX, Riva Pink, Riva Bleach, Ketac Fil and Fuji IX Extra were investigated. The fluoride-containing materials used were tooth paste and mouth wash (Colgate). Specimens of each material (n=15) were immersed separately in deionized water for 59 days. Then the samples of each material were divided into three groups of five each. Two groups were recharged for 2, 20 and 60 min daily during three consecutive weekly intervals and then no treatment for one week. The third group was used as control. Fluoride release measurements (?g/cm2/day) were made in every 24 h. One-way and repeated measures analysis of variance tests were used. Results: Tooth paste recharged materials showed higher level of recharge. On day 1, the difference of fluoride release from different treatment groups of different materials except for Fuji IX Extra were not significant (P>0.05). On days 7 and 14, the differences observed were significant (P<0.05) for all materials except for Fuji VII (tooth paste versus mouth wash) and Trial Fuji IX (mouth wash versus control) and on day 14 for Rvia Pink (mouth wash versus control). On days 21 and 28, the differences observed were significant for all the materials (P<0.05) except for Riva Pink (toothpaste versus mouth wash), Riva Bleach, Ketac Fil and Trial FujiI X (mouth wash versus control) on day 28. Conclusion: A time tabled schedule of application of fluoride-containing materials could help to achieve high fluoride release.

Arbabzadeh-Zavareh, Farahnaz; Gibbs, Tim; Meyers, Ian A.; Bouzari, Majid; Mortazavi, Shiva; Walsh, Laurence J.

2012-01-01

179

Application potential of rechargeable lithium batteries  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rechargeable lithium cells with Cr \\/SUB 0.5\\/ Vâ âSâ and MoOâ cathodes were investigated in the temperature range of -30°C to +25°C. The electrolyte was 1.5M LiAsFâ in 2-methyl tetrahydrofuran with tetrahydrofuran (50:50 V percent). Current densities and capacities as a function of temperature, cathode utilization efficiencies versus cycle life, and shelf lives were determined. The state of charge could

H. F. Hunger; P. J. Bramhall

1983-01-01

180

Recharge monitoring in an interplaya setting  

SciTech Connect

The objective of this investigation is to monitor infiltration in response to precipitation events in an interplaya setting. The authors evaluated data gathered from the interplaya recharge monitoring installation at the Pantex Plant from March through December 1998. They monitored thermocouple psychrometer (TCP) instruments to measure water potential and time-domain reflectometry (TDR) probes to measure water content and bulk soil conductivity. Heat-dissipation sensor (HDS) instruments were monitored to supplement the TCP data.

Scanlon, B.R.; Reedy, R.C.; Liang, J. [Univ. of Texas, Austin, TX (United States). Bureau of Economic Geology

1999-03-01

181

Lithium-manganese oxide rechargeable battery  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new type of rechargeable battery in which lithium ions shuttle between a lithium-manganese oxide electrode and a carbon electrode was unveiled recently by chemists from Bell Communications Research (Bellcore), Red Bank, N.J. The new battery--still experimental--is safer, longer lasting, and potentially cheaper to manufacture than other lithium-ion batteries. In addition, it provides three times the energy of nickel-cadmium cells,

Dagani

1993-01-01

182

High specific power lithium polymer rechargeable battery  

Microsoft Academic Search

PolyPlus Battery Company (PPBC) is developing an advanced lithium polymer rechargeable battery based on its proprietary positive electrode. This battery offers high steady-state (>250 W\\/kg) and peak power densities (3000 W\\/kg), in a low cost and environmentally benign format. This PolyPlus lithium polymer battery also delivers high specific energy. The first generation battery has a energy density of 100 Wh\\/kg

May-Ying Chu; Lutgard De Jonghe; Steven Visco

1996-01-01

183

Solid polymer electrolytes for rechargeable batteries  

Microsoft Academic Search

SRI International has synthesized and tested new, dimensionally stable polymer electrolytes for high energy density rechargeable lithium batteries. We have prepared semi-interpenetrating networks of sulfur-substituted polyethyleneoxide with tetraethylorthosilicate (TEOS). The in situ hydrolysis of TEOS produces a mechanically stable three-dimensional network that entangles the polymer electrolytes and makes the film dimensionally flexible and stable. With this approach, the best dimensionally

Subhash C. Narang; Susanna C. Ventura

1992-01-01

184

Rechargeable batteries and battery management systems design  

Microsoft Academic Search

Estimated worldwide sales for rechargeable batteries, was around US$36 billion in 2008 and this is expected to grow towards US$51 billion by 2013. As per market reports, US demand for primary and secondary batteries will increase by 2.5% annually to 16.8 billion in 2012, while primary batteries will account for 5.8 billion with a growth rate of 3%. The insatiable

N. Kularatna

2010-01-01

185

Rechargeable lithium batteries with aqueous electrolytes.  

PubMed

Rechargeable lithium-ion batteries that use an aqueous electrolyte have been developed. Cells with LiMn(2)O(4) and VO(2)(B) as electrodes and 5 M LiNO(3) in water as the electrolyte provide a fundamentally safe and cost-effective technology that can compete with nickelcadmium and lead-acid batteries on the basis of stored energy per unit of weight. PMID:17744893

Li, W; Dahn, J R; Wainwright, D S

1994-05-20

186

Ground water recharge from Lake Chad  

SciTech Connect

Lake Chad is a shallow, closed basin lake located in Sub-Sharan Africa. It has the largest drainage basin of any lake in the world, and is also very old, being formed by tectonic processes during the Cretaceous. These features should combine to form a saline lake, but the open waters of Lake Chad are reasonably fresh, having a total dissolved solids concentration of about 320 mg/1. This apparent discrepancy can be explained by noting that recharge of the unconfined aquifer to the SW in Nigeria by ground water infiltration through the lakebed can remove significant quantities of water and dissolved solutes from the lake. The authors have measured and calculated ground water infiltration and velocities by several techniques. Direct, volumetric measurements of ground water recharge seepage give velocities on the order of .28-8.8 x 10/sup -3/ m/day. Tracer monitoring in a borehole dilution test yielded ground water velocities of 3.6 m/day to the SW (away from the lake). Hydraulic conductivities approx. .004-.6 m/day were determined by falling head measurements. Finally, using static water levels, the potentiometric surface within approx. 80 km of the southwest portion of Lake Chad yields water table gradients of 1.0-1.7 x 10/sup -4/ away from the lake. These results confirm that surface water and solute inflow to Lake Chad is removed by recharge to the unconfined aquifer in Nigeria.

Isiorho, S.; Matisoff, G.; McCall, P.L.

1985-01-01

187

Late-orogenic Sveconorwegian massif anorthosite in the Jotun Nappe Complex, SW Norway, and causes of repeated AMCG magmatism along the Baltoscandian margin  

Microsoft Academic Search

The age and tectonometamorphic history of massif anorthosite in the Jotun Nappe Complex, SW Norway, were investigated by zircon\\u000a and titanite U–Pb ID-TIMS. The anorthosite contains sparse zircons showing complex U–Pb systematics reflecting events dated\\u000a at 965 ± 4 and 913 ± 2 Ma, and a pronounced Caledonian metamorphic overprint. The oldest age is interpreted as the protolith\\u000a age of the massif anorthosite. We propose

A. M. Lundmark; F. Corfu

2008-01-01

188

Polyorogenic /sup 40/Ar//sup 39/Ar mineral age record in the Seve and Koeli Nappes of the Gaeddede area, northwestern Jaemtland, central Scandinavian Caledonides  

SciTech Connect

Eugeoclinal terranes represented in the Koeli Nappes were thrust > 500 km onto the Baltoscandian platform during the early to middle Paleozoic. Underlying thrust sheets of the Seve Nappe complex are suspected to have been derived from the outer margin of continent Baltica. Contrasting tectonothermal histories are recorded in Seve and Koeli Nappes. Eclogite-bearing Seve rocks underwent an initial amphibolite-grade regional metamorphism. Subsequent ductile imbrication of high- and intermediate-pressure structural units occurred prior to c. 460-470 Ma. A later thermal overprint everywhere rejuvenated Seve biotite and muscovite argon systems at c. 430 +/- 5 Ma. /sup 40/Ar//sup 39/Ar plateau ages of hornblende suggest attainment of peak metamorphic conditions in the Lower and Middle Koeli Nappes at ca. 430 +/- 5 Ma. Plateau dates of muscovite and biotite in both Seve and Koeli units range down to 417 Ma. Comparison with /sup 40/Ar//sup 39/Ar mineral ages reported elsewhere in the central Scandinavian Caledonides suggests a polyorogenic evolution consisting of: (1) variable high-pressure metamorphism of distal Baltoscandian miogeoclinal sequences during their entrainment in an accretionary wedge that developed in the Late Cambrian-Early Ordovician over a westdipping subduction zone; related arc volcanic activity occurred in more outboard, western terranes; (2) ductile imbrication of high- and intermediate-pressure sequences within the accretionary wedge (diachronous cooling and/or chronologically distinct tectonic episodes are indicated through the Early and Middle Ordovician); (3) ultimate accretion of a variety of eugeoclinal terranes along the Baltic continental margin; and (4) imbrication and metamorphism of the eugeoclinal terranes and previously deformed portions of the miogeocline during eastward translation onto the Baltoscandian platform in the Silurian and Devonian.

Dallmeyer, R.D.; Gee, D.G.

1988-03-01

189

Probabilistic analysis of the effects of climate change on groundwater recharge  

Microsoft Academic Search

Groundwater recharge is likely to be affected by climate change. In semiarid regions where groundwater resources are often critical, annual recharge rates are typically small and most recharge occurs episodically. Such episodic recharge is uncertain and difficult to predict. This paper analyzes the impacts of different climate predictions on diffuse episodic recharge at a low-relief semiarid rain-fed agricultural area. The

Gene-Hua Crystal Ng; Dennis McLaughlin; Dara Entekhabi; Bridget R. Scanlon

2010-01-01

190

High-pressure partial melting of eclogite and garnet amphibolite rocks during decompression and heating, the Tromso Nappe, Norway.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

It has recently been argued that melting of high-P, high-T rocks in thickened arcs is an important process in magma genesis (e.g. Petford and Atherton, 1993; Rapp et al., 2003), producing rocks such as adakites. Such melting, however, has rarely been studied in-situ, and has instead relied on inferences from experimental and numerical studies, often based on quite different oceanic crustal lithologies. 452 Ma eclogites and garnet amphibolites in the Tromso Nappe, Norway provide one of the first opportunities to examine such melting in-situ. Evidence for a variety of melt forming reactions is preserved, involving melting of some or all of the eclogitic or retrograded eclogite components to form melt and peritectic garnet or amphibole. Thermobarometry shows that melting of eclogite involving peritectic garnet occurred at the highest pressures (P: 1.8 - 2.3 GPa), but lower than peak eclogite conditions of 3.3 GPa (Krogh-Ravna, pers.comm. 2004). Partial melting involving peritectic amphibole and melting of garnet amphibolite involving peritectic garnet both yield lower pressures (P: 1.1 GPa). These results suggest that melting of eclogite rock in continental arcs may be intimately linked to exhumation of those arcs. Temperatures remained high (T: 800 C), most likely in response to the emplacement of the neighbouring Skattora Migmatite Complex (Selbekk and Skjerlie, 2002). This supports the modelling of Petford & Gallagher (2001) that suggests that melting in lower continental arcs may be in response to intrusion of magmatic bodies nearby, and suggests that melting of the eclogites and garnet amphibolites in the Tromso Nappe was due to both decompression and heating. Four reactions are inferred qualitatively: (1) Omphacite +/- Zoisite +/- Kyanite +/- Phengite +/- Quartz goes to Garnet + Melt; (2) Omphacite + Garnet +/- Zoisite +/- Kyanite +/- Phengite +/- Quartz goes to Amphibole + Melt; (3) Omphacite +/- Zoisite +/- Kyanite +/- Phengite +/- Quartz goes to Amphibole + Melt; (4) Amphibole +/- Omphacite +/- Quartz +/- Biotite goes to Garnet + Melt. Current work is focusing on fully quantifying these reactions and the composition of melts produced. References: Petford, N. and Atherton, M. 1996. Na-rich partial melts from newly underplated basaltic crust: the Cordillera Blanca Batholith, Peru. J. Pet. 37, 1491-1521. Petford, N. and Gallagher, K. 2001. Partial melting of mafic (amphibolitic) lower crust by periodic influx of basaltic magma. EPSL, 193, 483-499. Rapp, R. P., Shimizu, N. and Norman, M. D. 2003. Growth of early continental crust by partial melting of eclogite. Nature, 425, 605-609. Selbekk, R. and Skjerlie, K-P. 2002. Petrogenesis of the Anorthosiste Dyke Swarm of Tromso, North Norway: Experimental evidence for Hydrous Anatexis of an Alkaline Mafic Complex. J. Pet. 43, 943-962.

Stevenson, J. A.

2004-12-01

191

Modelling overbank flood recharge at a continental scale  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Accounting for groundwater recharge from overbank flooding is required to reduce uncertainty and error in river loss terms and groundwater sustainable yield calculations. However, continental and global scale models of surface water-groundwater interactions rarely include an explicit process to account for overbank flood recharge (OFR). This paper upscales previously derived analytical equations to a continental scale using national soil atlas data and satellite imagery of flood inundation, resulting in recharge maps for seven hydrologically distinct Australian catchments. Recharge for three of the catchments was validated against independent recharge estimates from bore hydrograph responses and one catchment was additionally validated against point scale recharge modelling and catchment scale change in groundwater storage. Flood recharge was predicted for four of the seven catchments modelled, but there was also unexplained recharge present from the satellite flood inundation mapping data. At a catchment scale, recharge from overbank flooding was somewhat under predicted using the analytical equations, but there was good confidence in the spatial patterns of flood recharge produced. Due to the scale of the input data, there were no significant relationships found when compared at a point scale. Satellite derived flood inundation data and uncertainty in soil maps were the key limitations to the accuracy of the modelled recharge. Use of this method to model OFR was found to be appropriate at a catchment to continental scale, given appropriate data sources. The proportion of OFR was found to be at least 4% of total change in groundwater storage in one of the catchments for the period modelled, and at least 15% of the riparian recharge. Accounting for OFR is an important, and often overlooked, requirement for closing water balances in both the surface water and groundwater domains.

Doble, R.; Crosbie, R.; Peeters, L.; Joehnk, K.; Ticehurst, C.

2013-10-01

192

Using environmental isotopes in the study of the recharge-discharge mechanisms of the Yarmouk catchment area in Jordan  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The recharge sources, the flow mechanisms and discharge areas of the different groundwater bodies underlying the Yarmouk River catchment area in Jordan, have, until now, not been adequately explained, although a wide range of hydrological, hydrogeological, and hydrochemical studies have been done. Along the Jordanian part of the catchment area of the Yarmouk River, groundwater issues from different aquifers with a variety of chemistries and types within the same aquifer and in between the different aquifers. Conventional recharge/discharge mechanisms, water balances and chemical analyses did not adequately explain the chemical variations and the different water types found in the area. Applying environmental isotopic tools combined with their altitude effects due to topographic variations (250-1,300 m a.s.l. within a distance of 20 km), and taking into consideration re-evaporation effects on the isotopic depletion and enrichment of rainwater, has greatly helped in understanding the recharge discharge mechanisms of the different aquifers. Precipitation along the highlands of an average of 600 mm/year is found to be depleted in its isotopic content of ?O18 = -7.0 to -7.26 and ?D = -32.2 to -33.28, whereas that of the Jordan Valley of 350 mm/year is highly enriched in isotopes with ?O18 = -4.06 and ?D = -14.5. The groundwater recharged along the highlands is depleted in isotopes (?O18 = -6, ?D = -30), groundwater at the intermediate elevations is enriched (?O18 = -5, ?D = -23) and that of the Jordan Valley aquifers containing meteoric water is highly enriched (?O18 -3.8, ?D = -18). The deep aquifers in the Jordan Valley foothills are depleted in isotopes (?O18 -18 = -6, ?D = -30) and resemble those of the highland aquifers. Only through using isotopes as a tool, were the sources of the different groundwater bodies and recharge and discharge mechanisms unambiguously explained. It was found that recharge takes place all over the study area and produces groundwater, which, from the highlands towards the Jordan Valley, shows increasing enrichment in isotopes. The highlands aquifer, with its groundwater depleted in isotopes, becomes confined towards the Jordan Valley; and, due to its confining pressure, leaks water upwards into the overlying aquifers causing their water to become less enriched in isotopes. Water depleted in its isotopic composition also seeps upward to the ground surface at the mountain foothills through faults and fissures. Les zones de recharge, les mécanismes d'écoulement et les zones de décharges des différentes masses d'eau souterraine sous le bassin versant de la rivière Yarmouk en Jordanie, étaient expliquées de manière ambiguë par les seuls outils isotopiques. Le long de la parti Jordanienne du bassin versant de la rivière Yarmouk l'eau souterraine provient de différents aquifères et se distinguent par leur type et leur composition chimique, selon que l'eau provient du même ou des différents aquifères. Les mécanismes conventionnels de recharge et de décharge, bilan hydrologique ne donnaient pas d'explications satisfaisantes concernant les variations chimiques et les différents types d'eau. En appliquant les isotopes environnementaux combinés aux effets de l'altitude sur les variations des teneurs isotopiques (l'altitude varie de 250 à 1,300 m sur une distance de 20 km.) et en prenant en considération les effets de ré-évaporation sur l'appauvrissement et l'enrichissement isotopique des eaux pluviales ont fortement contribués à une meilleure compréhension des mécanismes de recharge des différents aquifères. Les précipitations annuelles sont comprises entre 600 mm dans les zones en altitude et 350 mm dans la vallée de la Jordanie. Les écoulements de l'eau souterraine sont dirigés des zones en altitude vers la vallée de la Jordanie. Les eaux souterraines des zones en altitude sont isotopiquement appauvries (?O18 = -6, ?D = -30), les eaux souterraines des zones de moyenne altitude sont enrichies (?O18 = -5, ?D = -23) et les eaux de la vallée très enrichies (

Salameh, Elias

193

Age of eclogite facies metamorphism of metabasic boudins within schist and gneiss of the Monte Rosa nappe, Val di Gressoney, Western Alps, Italy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

High precision 238U-206Pb geochronology of rutile from quartz-carbonate-rutile tension veins in eclogite boudins indicate that eclogite-facies metamorphism may have lasted at least from 52 to 46 Ma. The eclogite boudins occur within quartzo-feldspathic schist and gneiss of the Monte Rosa nappe near the Indren glacier, Val di Gressoney, Western Alps, Italy. The association of a few eclogite boudins with serpentenite and gabbro suggests that some of the boudins may be tectonic slices of the Zermatt-Saas ophiolite, which lies structurally above the Monte Rosa nappe. The sampled tension veins, which typically consist of quartz, carbonate, and rutile, are usually oriented at high angles to the long axis of the boudins and are likely synchronous with boudinage of more coherent tracts of metabasite. The sampled tension veins cross-cut eclogite facies minerals but there is little or no associated retrogression of the eclogite-facies minerals adjacent to the veins, suggesting that vein formation occurred under eclogite-facies conditions. The age data suggests that rutile growth was episodic, perhaps associated with fluid pulses, and likely represents a possible age range of eclogite facies conditions recorded in these boudins. The eclogite boudins are locally isoclinally folded, possibly under lower eclogite to greenschist facies conditions based on the mineral assemblages in the fold hinges. This indicates that the eclogites, if they are exotic to the Monte Rosa nappe, were juxtaposed with schist and gneiss at least prior to this folding event. Regardless of the exotic or in-situ origin of the eclogites, if the boudinage of eclogites occurred within the Monte Rosa nappe, the age of high pressure metamorphism in the Monte Rosa may also be between 46 and 52 Ma. The geodynamic implications are that the Monte Rosa nappe experienced high pressure conditions synchronously with the Zermatt-Saas ophiolite and that they were in contact during exhumation (e.g. Reddy et al., 1999), raising the possibility that buoyancy-driven processes in part aided in the exhumation of the Zermatt-Saas ophiolite complex.

Lapen, T. J.; Johnson, C. M.; Baumgartner, L. P.; Beard, B. L.

2004-12-01

194

Nappes, tectonics of oblique plate convergence, and metamorphic evolution related to 140 million years of continuous subduction, Franciscan Complex, California  

SciTech Connect

This paper presents a new synthesis of Franciscan Complex tectonics, with the emphasis on the pre-San Andreas fault history of these rocks. Field relations suggest that the Franciscan is characterized by nappe structures that formed during sequential accretion at the trench. The presence of these structures along with other field relations, including the lack of evidence for large offset of conglomerate suites, indicates that strike-slip fault systems of large displacement ({gt}500 km) did not cut the Franciscan Complex during subduction. Regional geology and comparisons to modern arc-trench systems suggest that strike-slip faulting associated with oblique subduction took place inboard (east) of the Franciscan in the vicinity of the magmatic arc. The Franciscan varies along strike, because individual accreted elements (packets of trench sediment, seamounts, etc.) did not extend the full length of the trench. Different depths of underplating, distribution of post-metamorphic faulting, and level of erosion produced the present-day surface distribution of high P/T metamorphism. Franciscan Complex tectonic history is presented in this paper.

Wakabayashi, J. (Earth Sciences Associates Inc., Palo Alto, CA (United States))

1992-01-01

195

Continental collision, crustal thinning and nappe forming during the pre-Miocene evolution of the Alpujarride Complex (Alboran Domain, Betics)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The tectono-metamorphic evolution of the Alpujarride Complex within the internal zones of the Gibraltar Arc indicates that the Alboran Crustal Domain underwent several contractional and extensional events. The superposition of structures and the metamorphic evolution observed in the Alpujarride Complex, and in particular in the Adra unit, suggest that these events are as follows: (a) the first thickening event (D1) results from continental subduction, and is evidenced by the presence of pre-S2 high-pressure mineral relicts; (b) the thinning and associated vertical shortening event (D2) is indicated by an almost isothermal decompression during which the S2 main foliation developed; (c) kilometric-scale N-vergent recumbent folds of the condensed metamorphic sequences, and thrust and nappe-forming in the Alpujarride Complex, suggest that a second thickening event (D3) took place; (d) the second thinning event (D4), which affects the whole Alboran Domain, is evidenced by extensional fault systems resulting in the opening of the Alboran Sea. The oldest synrift deposits are of the Late Oligocene and Early Miocene, suggesting that D1 to D3 events are pre-Miocene; and (e) from the Late Tortonian to the Pliocene, the extensional systems were folded due to a continuous N-S to NW-SE compression.

Azan˜Ón, JoséMiguel; Crespo-Blanc, Ana; García-Duen˜As ´Ctor, Vi

1997-08-01

196

Magnetic fabric development in a highly anisotropic magnetite-bearing ductile shear zone (Seve Nappe Complex, Scandinavian Caledonides)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Magnetite-bearing mylonitic garnet-micaschists close to the major suture between the Baltica and Iapetus terranes (Seve Nappe Complex, Scandinavian Caledonides) show very high anisotropy of magnetic susceptibility (AMS) with corrected degree of anisotropy ( P') up to 4.8. Three different magnetic fabric types can be distinguished. They correspond to protomylonite (type I, P' < 2), mylonite (type II, 2 < P' < 3), and ultramylonite (type III, P' > 3), respectively. The orientation of the ellipsoid axes from all applied magnetic fabric methods in this study is similar with shallow dips of the metamorphic foliation toward WSW and subhorizontal, mostly NW-SE trending mineral lineation. Differences between subfabrics were minimized under high shear strain as all markers tend to align parallel with the shear plane. The very high anisotropies and mostly oblate ellipsoid shapes of type III correlate with high magnetic susceptibility ( k mean up to 55 × 10-3 SI units) and are related to the concentration of magnetite aggregates with shape-preferred orientation. They show a distinct field dependence of magnetic susceptibility of up to 10% in the k max-direction. We attribute this field dependence to a "memory" of high strains in the domain walls of the crystals acquired during synkinematic magnetite growth during shear zone fabric development at temperatures of 550-570°C.

Kontny, A.; Engelmann, R.; Grimmer, J. C.; Greiling, R. O.; Hirt, A.

2012-04-01

197

U-Pb geochronology of two discrete Ordovician high-pressure metamorphic events in the Seve Nappe Complex, Scandinavian Caledonides  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

U-Pb geochronology for eclogites in two different areas of the Seve Nappe Complex (SNC) in Sweden confirms previous indications of discrete Ordovician high-pressure events affecting various parts of the complex. In Norrbotten, just north of the Arctic circle, eclogites from the Tsäkkok and Vaimok Lenses yield identical metamorphic zircon ages of 482 ± 1 Ma. Titanite in a metagabbro from the Vaimok Lens retains an older age of 607 ± 2 Ma, which may date a protolith coeval with mafic dikes in the overlying Sarek Lens; high-U zircon cores in one of the eclogites also indicate a similar age. Farther south, in Jämtland, the Tjeliken eclogite yields a significantly younger metamorphic age of 446 ± 1 Ma. Although they support the age discrepancy between the Norrbotten and Jämtland eclogites, the U-Pb ages of both eclogite suites are ca. 20 m.y. younger than previously reported Sm-Nd ages. The latter may either represent early prograde growth or be spuriously too old due to isotopic disequilibrium. The SNC has traditionally been taken to represent the outermost margin of Baltica, linking the Early Caledonian eclogite-forming events to subduction of Baltica below an offshore arc. Alternatively, the coincidence of these eclogite-forming events with orogenic phases recorded on the Laurentian margin may point to an origin from other regions of the Iapetus Ocean.

Root, David; Corfu, Fernando

2012-05-01

198

Organic electrolyte for use in a lithium rechargeable electrochemical cell and lithium rechargeable electrochemical cell including said organic electrolyte  

SciTech Connect

This invention relates in general to use of an organic electrolyte in a lithium rechargeable electrochemical cell and to a lithium rechargeable electrochemical cell including said electrolyte; and, in particular, to the use of 1 to 2 mol/dm/sup 3/ LiAsF/sub 6/ in dimethylcarbonate (DMC) or 1 to 2 mol/dm/sup 3/ LiAsF/sub 6/ in (DMC) mixtures with methyl formate (MF) in which the mass percent of the (DMC) can vary from 25 to 100 mass percent as the electrolyte in a lithium rechargeable electrochemical cell, and to a lithium rechargeable electrochemical cell including said electrolyte.

Plichta, E.J.; Slane, S.M.; Salomon, M.

1987-07-06

199

Définition des priorités sanitaires et rationnement. L'opinion des Suisses, des Administrateurs hospitaliers et des Départements sanitaires des Cantons  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectifs. Le but de cette analyse est,[i] de présenter l'opinion actuelle de la population suisse sur des thèmes liés à la limitation des ressources, à la définition des priorités et au rationnement dans le secteur sanitaire, [ii] de comparer cette opinion avec celle d'autres groupes professionnellement engagés dans le secteur (administrateurs des hôpitaux et directions des Départements sanitaires des cantons)

Gianfranco DOMENIGHETTI; Jenny MAGGI

2000-01-01

200

Challenges of Artificial Recharge at the Chain of Lakes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A series of gravel quarry lakes, A through I (i.e. Chain of Lakes) in Alameda County, California are planned to convert to off-channel spreading lakes for artificial groundwater recharge. An operational plan is needed for the near-term improvements that would allow safe and efficient operations of Lake H and Lake I recently acquired for artificial recharge operations. Water source for the groundwater recharge comes from State Water Project (SWP) water releases at the South Bay Aqueduct turnout. The released water flows approximately nine miles in Arroyo Mocho Creek to the planned diversion facility. The recharge system includes multiple water delivery components and recharge components. Reliability of SWP water delivery is a water supply constraint to the recharge system. Hydraulic capacities of each delivery component and recharge capacities of each recharge component are physical constraints to the development of the operational plan. Policy issues identified in the Mitigated Negative Declaration which contains mitigation measures addressing potential impacts of fisheries and erosion are regulatory constraints to the operational plan development. Our approach that addresses technical challenges and policy issues in the development of the operational plan includes i) determination of lake recharge under observed conditions using water budget method; ii) development and calibration of a ground water flow model using MODFLOW; iii) estimation of lake recharge capacity for a range of lake levels using the calibrated ground water flow model; iv) analysis of clogging layer effects on recharge capacity; and v) development and application of operations models for the stream delivery system and the lake system.

Zeng, X.

2004-12-01

201

Porous silicon nanowires for lithium rechargeable batteries  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Porous silicon nanowire is fabricated by a simple electrospinning process combined with a magnesium reduction; this material is investigated for use as an anode material for lithium rechargeable batteries. We find that the porous silicon nanowire electrode from the simple and scalable method can deliver a high reversible capacity with an excellent cycle stability. The enhanced performance in terms of cycling stability is attributed to the facile accommodation of the volume change by the pores in the interconnect and the increased electronic conductivity due to a multi-level carbon coating during the fabrication process.

Yoo, Jung-Keun; Kim, Jongsoon; Lee, Hojun; Choi, Jaesuk; Choi, Min-Jae; Sim, Dong Min; Jung, Yeon Sik; Kang, Kisuk

2013-10-01

202

Porous silicon nanowires for lithium rechargeable batteries.  

PubMed

Porous silicon nanowire is fabricated by a simple electrospinning process combined with a magnesium reduction; this material is investigated for use as an anode material for lithium rechargeable batteries. We find that the porous silicon nanowire electrode from the simple and scalable method can deliver a high reversible capacity with an excellent cycle stability. The enhanced performance in terms of cycling stability is attributed to the facile accommodation of the volume change by the pores in the interconnect and the increased electronic conductivity due to a multi-level carbon coating during the fabrication process. PMID:24067596

Yoo, Jung-Keun; Kim, Jongsoon; Lee, Hojun; Choi, Jaesuk; Choi, Min-Jae; Sim, Dong Min; Jung, Yeon Sik; Kang, Kisuk

2013-09-25

203

Recharge into Southern High Plains aquifer - Possible mechanisms, unresolved questions  

Microsoft Academic Search

The High Plains aquifer in the Southern High Plains (Texas and New Mexico), consisting of Tertiary, Cretaceous, and Triassic formations, has traditionally been considered to be recharged by its uppermost water-bearing unit the Tertiary Ogallala aquifer. This article provides hydrologic, chemical and isotopic evidence that in the Southern High Plains: (1) Cretaceous rocks actually contain independent recharge sources; (2) Triassic

Nativ

2009-01-01

204

Generator and rechargeable battery system for pedal powered vehicles  

Microsoft Academic Search

A generator and rechargeable battery system for use with pedal powered vehicles, such as bicycles, and where either the generator or battery can intermittently power a load such as a lighting system of the vehicle in one mode of operation, and in which the generator can recharge the battery in another mode of operation. A simple selection switch which is

Ryan

1985-01-01

205

Current collectors for rechargeable Li-Air batteries  

SciTech Connect

Here we report the negative influence of porous nickel foam for use as current collectors in rechargeable Li-air batteries. Uncoated nickel foam promotes the decomposition of LiPF6-organic carbonate electrolytes under normal charging conditions reported for rechargeable Li-air cells. We have identified Ni free porous carbon supports as more appropriate cathode current collectors.

Veith, Gabriel M [ORNL; Dudney, Nancy J [ORNL

2011-01-01

206

Hydrogeology of Regional Valley Fill Aquifers with Mountain System Recharge  

Microsoft Academic Search

Groundwater in the North Okanagan was investigated using an integrated physical, geochemical and numerical approach. The North Okanagan Groundwater Characterization and Assessment (NOGWCA) project began with an investigation of the geology and hydrostratigraphy of the North Okanagan region. The Deep Creek and Fortune Creek watersheds were found to contain multiple valley-fill aquifers which are recharged via mountain system recharge (MSR)

J. Ping; C. Nichol; A. Wei

2009-01-01

207

Intrinsically safe 5-V, 4-A rechargeable power supply  

Microsoft Academic Search

The U.S. Bureau of Mines has developed a regulated, intrinsically safe, rechargeable power supply for portable electronic equipment for underground use. The regulated output is ideal for microprocessor power requirements and is suited for operation in hazardous environments. Two rechargeable, sealed batteries are contained within the power supply. Provisions are made to use an external source of power if these

John J. Sammarco

1989-01-01

208

Comparative analysis of piezoelectric power harvesting circuits for rechargeable batteries  

Microsoft Academic Search

Using piezoelectric materials to harvest energy from ambient vibrations to power wireless sensors has been of great interest over the past few years. Due to the power output of the piezoelectric materials is relatively low, rechargeable battery is considered as one kind of energy storage to accumulate the harvested energy for intermittent use. Piezoelectric harvesting circuits for rechargeable batteries have

Mingjie Guan; Wei-Hsin Liao

2005-01-01

209

Transcutaneous Battery Recharging By Volume Conduction and its Circuit Modeling  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many implantable devices require large capacity batteries implanted in the body. Transcutaneous battery recharging can effectively maintain the longevity of these implants. Based on this consideration we have developed a transcutaneous battery recharging circuit unit which takes advantages of skin volume conduction. This unit is able to pass 2.8 mA from the outside to the inside of pig skin with

Zhide Tang; R. J. Sclabassi; C. Sun; S. A. Hackworth; Jun Zhao; X. T. Cui; M. Sun

2006-01-01

210

Computational Aspect of Artificial Ground Water Recharging into Unconfined Aquifer  

Microsoft Academic Search

CARE FOR GROUND WATER BEFORE IT BECOMES RARE therefore CATCHES WATER IN EVERY POSSIBLE WAY AND EVERY POSSIBLE PLACE IT FALLS. Mathematical aspect of ground water flow related to unconfined aquifer and a change in saturated thickness with variation in piezometric level so, permeability k, radius of influences L, distance between two recharge wells and presence of recharge by rainfall

Pratima Patel; M. D. Desai

211

Determining the recharge mode of Sahelian aquifers using water isotopes  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is proposed that the drainage network plays an important role in the recharge process of the fractured aquifers in the African Precambrian shield and that the fractured aquifer system is likely to be hydraulically continuous; this contrasts with most previous studies, which suggested direct recharge by rainwater percolation. Two areas were selected in Niger for the study of the

Pierre Girard; Claude Hillaire-Marcel; Marie Solange Oga

1997-01-01

212

Prototype systems for rechargeable magnesium batteries.  

PubMed

The thermodynamic properties of magnesium make it a natural choice for use as an anode material in rechargeable batteries, because it may provide a considerably higher energy density than the commonly used lead-acid and nickel-cadmium systems. Moreover, in contrast to lead and cadmium, magnesium is inexpensive, environmentally friendly and safe to handle. But the development of Mg batteries has been hindered by two problems. First, owing to the chemical activity of Mg, only solutions that neither donate nor accept protons are suitable as electrolytes; but most of these solutions allow the growth of passivating surface films, which inhibit any electrochemical reaction. Second, the choice of cathode materials has been limited by the difficulty of intercalating Mg ions in many hosts. Following previous studies of the electrochemistry of Mg electrodes in various non-aqueous solutions, and of a variety of intercalation electrodes, we have now developed rechargeable Mg battery systems that show promise for applications. The systems comprise electrolyte solutions based on Mg organohaloaluminate salts, and Mg(x)Mo3S4 cathodes, into which Mg ions can be intercalated reversibly, and with relatively fast kinetics. We expect that further improvements in the energy density will make these batteries a viable alternative to existing systems. PMID:11048714

Aurbach, D; Lu, Z; Schechter, A; Gofer, Y; Gizbar, H; Turgeman, R; Cohen, Y; Moshkovich, M; Levi, E

2000-10-12

213

Recharge and salinization in the Madrid Basin  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The purpose of this work was to reinvestigate the existing hydrogeological conceptual model of the basin of Madrid, Spain. A cumulative chemical isotopic diagram which enabled the distinction between different groups of water as well as calculation of the mode of their blending was used for this investigation. It was found that the groups of discharge were lighter in their isotopic composition than that of recharge. The previous explanation of this fact, backed by carbon-14 dating, was the long residence time due to flow lines going down to depths of more than 1000 m. This flow model assumes homogenous conditions to these depths. This assumption can not be supported by evidence from deep wells. Thus a modified model is suggested which maintains homogenous conditions only to about 300 m and a deep confined aquifer below containing paleowater. The higher degree of depletion of this water has been explained by a colder climate on top of an altitude effect. Another interesting observation was the correlation between the isotopic composition of the rains, the month of the rain event and the composition of the recharge group groundwater. It could be seen that the winter rains resemble the groundwater composition, which shows that practically all the spring and summer rains were evapotranspirated.

Issar, A. S.; Llamas, R. M.; Herraez, I.

1993-04-01

214

An areal recharge and discharge simulating method for MODFLOW  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As a widely used groundwater flow model, MODFLOW offers a set of packages to simulate hydrologic stresses, inflows and outflows, to a groundwater system. Speci?cally, MODFLOW lacks a general method to process areally distributed recharge and discharge to groundwater. One solution would be to create a new package for MODFLOW. Alternatively, it is also possible to make the best use of existing code to the same effect. In this note, a simple, yet effective method to simulate areal recharge and discharge is proposed based on the recharge (RCH) package of MODFLOW, allowing multiple instances of the RCH package to be used in one model. The method has been implemented in MODFLOW2000/2005 and has been successfully applied to a regional groundwater flow model to simulate areally distributed precipitation recharge, agricultural discharge and irrigation infiltration recharge in a simple approach.

Dong, Yanhui; Li, Guomin; Xu, Haizhen

2012-05-01

215

Groundwater Recharge Rate and Zone Structure Estimation Using PSOLVER Algorithm.  

PubMed

The quantification of groundwater recharge is an important but challenging task in groundwater flow modeling because recharge varies spatially and temporally. The goal of this study is to present an innovative methodology to estimate groundwater recharge rates and zone structures for regional groundwater flow models. Here, the unknown recharge field is partitioned into a number of zones using Voronoi Tessellation (VT). The identified zone structure with the recharge rates is associated through a simulation-optimization model that couples MODFLOW-2000 and the hybrid PSOLVER optimization algorithm. Applicability of this procedure is tested on a previously developed groundwater flow model of the Tahtal? Watershed. Successive zone structure solutions are obtained in an additive manner and penalty functions are used in the procedure to obtain realistic and plausible solutions. One of these functions constrains the optimization by forcing the sum of recharge rates for the grid cells that coincide with the Tahtal? Watershed area to be equal to the areal recharge rate determined in the previous modeling by a separate precipitation-runoff model. As a result, a six-zone structure is selected as the best zone structure that represents the areal recharge distribution. Comparison to results of a previous model for the same study area reveals that the proposed procedure significantly improves model performance with respect to calibration statistics. The proposed identification procedure can be thought of as an effective way to determine the recharge zone structure for groundwater flow models, in particular for situations where tangible information about groundwater recharge distribution does not exist. PMID:23746002

Ayvaz, M Tamer; Elçi, Alper

2013-06-01

216

Where the Caledonides crosses the Grenville: The Grenvillian Glenelg Inlier as an allochthonous pip within a fold-nappe complex in the Scottish Caledonides  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Grenvillian (1100 - 990 Ma) and Caledonian (470-420 Ma) orogenies represent pivotal tectonic events in the evolution of Laurentia and Baltica. Significantly, these two orogenic belts lie at a high angle to one another, with an inferred intersection in NW Scotland. This relationship is most readily examined at the Glenelg Inlier of NW Scotland, a basement gneiss inlier within the Scottish Caledonides nappe pile. This inlier contains a Western Glenelg Inlier, composed of orthogneiss with no record of Grenville metamorphism, and a separate Eastern Glenelg Inlier, comprising both ortho-and paragneisses that experienced Grenvillian eclogite-facies metamorphism. The two components of the Glenelg Inlier are interleaved and/or infolded with locally unconformable, basal Moine Supergroup metasediments, deposited (just) after Grenvillian orogenesis. The inlier and the metasediments are now located in the hanging wall of the well-studied Caledonian Moine Thrust. Despite decades of research and classical structural studies, the overall geometry and structural evolution of the Glenelg Inlier and the surrounding Moine metasediments remain elusive. The synthesis presented here is based upon both new, and hitherto unpublished, mapping. The Glenelg Inlier and enclosing Moine were deformed by three generations of major ductile fold structures (F1-F3). In areas of medium strain, away from the basement inliers, F2 and F3 large-scale structures face and verge towards the west, and record coaxial interference patterns. In areas of higher strain, F2 fold axes were rotated into parallelism with the (westerly) transport direction. Subsequent refolding of these F2 folds by west-vergent (N-S trending) F3 folds led in some areas to high-angle, non-coaxial fold interference patterns, including dome-and-basin structures. On structural grounds, both F2 and F3 are thought to be of Caledonian age. An approximate restoration of the F2 and F3 folds reveals the pre-F2 basement-cover architecture of the fold nappe. It demonstrates that Moine metasediments can be separated into an 'upper limb' and a 'lower limb' of a major F1 isoclinal fold nappe with respect to the gneisses of the Glenelg Inlier. Moine metasediments in the 'upper limb' are medium strained with locally well-preserved sedimentary structures. In the 'lower limb', regional metamorphism (to sillimanite grade), deformation, and migmatisation are more pervasive. The entire region should thus be seen as a large-scale ductile fold nappe complex covering some 20 x 60 km, comprising three parts: a) a complex, recumbent anticlinal F1 fold core, the Glenelg Inlier, locally with sheared-out parasitic limbs; b) an 'upper limb' that is relatively low strained, broadly right-way-up and contains a coherent Moine stratigraphy up to 8 km thick; c) a 'lower limb' comprising highly metamorphosed, sheared and partially inverted Moine metasediments. The entire ductile fold nappe complex was subsequently displaced in the hangingwall of the Moine Thrust. The facing and transport direction, as well as the age (Knoydartian or Caledonian?), of the early F1 fold-nappe complex remain uncertain. The Eastern Glenelg Inlier (with the Grenvillian remnants) is in essence the core of a rootless isoclinal fold, and is thus allochthonous in three dimensions. Consequently, the exact exhumation mechanism of the eclogite-facies Eastern Glenelg Inlier cannot be established.

Krabbendam, M.; Ramsay, J. G.; Leslie, A. G.; Tanner, P. W. G.; Dietrich, D.; Goodenough, K. M.

2012-04-01

217

Nanocarbon networks for advanced rechargeable lithium batteries.  

PubMed

Carbon is one of the essential elements in energy storage. In rechargeable lithium batteries, researchers have considered many types of nanostructured carbons, such as carbon nanoparticles, carbon nanotubes, graphene, and nanoporous carbon, as anode materials and, especially, as key components for building advanced composite electrode materials. Nanocarbons can form efficient three-dimensional conducting networks that improve the performance of electrode materials suffering from the limited kinetics of lithium storage. Although the porous structure guarantees a fast migration of Li ions, the nanocarbon network can serve as an effective matrix for dispersing the active materials to prevent them from agglomerating. The nanocarbon network also affords an efficient electron pathway to provide better electrical contacts. Because of their structural stability and flexibility, nanocarbon networks can alleviate the stress and volume changes that occur in active materials during the Li insertion/extraction process. Through the elegant design of hierarchical electrode materials with nanocarbon networks, researchers can improve both the kinetic performance and the structural stability of the electrode material, which leads to optimal battery capacity, cycling stability, and rate capability. This Account summarizes recent progress in the structural design, chemical synthesis, and characterization of the electrochemical properties of nanocarbon networks for Li-ion batteries. In such systems, storage occurs primarily in the non-carbon components, while carbon acts as the conductor and as the structural buffer. We emphasize representative nanocarbon networks including those that use carbon nanotubes and graphene. We discuss the role of carbon in enhancing the performance of various electrode materials in areas such as Li storage, Li ion and electron transport, and structural stability during cycling. We especially highlight the use of graphene to construct the carbon conducting network for alloy anodes, such as Si and Ge, to accelerate electron transport, alleviate volume change, and prevent the agglomeration of active nanoparticles. Finally, we describe the power of nanocarbon networks for the next generation rechargeable lithium batteries, including Li-S, Li-O(2), and Li-organic batteries, and provide insights into the design of ideal nanocarbon networks for these devices. In addition, we address the ways in which nanocarbon networks can expand the applications of rechargeable lithium batteries into the emerging fields of stationary energy storage and transportation. PMID:22953777

Xin, Sen; Guo, Yu-Guo; Wan, Li-Jun

2012-09-06

218

2D thermo-mechanical modeling of basement-cover deformation with application to the Helvetic nappe system and the external massifs in the Western Alps  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Basement-cover deformation and its relationship to nappe emplacement and massif formation in the external Western Alps has been a subject of controversy for many years. Although it is commonly accepted that these massifs are the result of basin inversion of European margin graben-type structures, the mechanisms of basin inversion itself is still highly debated. Some studies suggested that the geometry of some external crystalline massifs is essentially a cuspate-lobate (i.e. ductile) structure while other studies interpret the geometry of those massifs as a result of brittle thrust mechanics. Furthermore, the importance of reactivation of pre-existing brittle structures during basin inversion is still debated. To better understand basement-cover deformation we use a two-dimensional (2D) thermo-mechanical finite element model to investigate both the individual and combined influence of viscous, elastic and plastic rheologies on the deformation of half-graben structures under compression. Two types of boundary conditions are used, namely pure shear and shortening combined with basal drag exhibiting a singularity point (S-point). The surface is free. The resulting geometry and finite deformation patterns in both basement and sediment model units are then compared to cross-sections, finite strain ellipses and cleavage orientation from published data. Orientation and distribution of plastic shear bands in the model are compared to fault distribution from field data and sand box analogue models. First results suggest that a dominantly ductile behavior in the lowest part of the sediment-filled basin is needed in order to reproduce finite strain patterns similar to the ones found in fold nappes such as the Morcles nappe (Western Switzerland). Ductile behavior is possible at low temperature (300 °C) using realistic flow laws for calcite. The numerical results are further applied to interpret the tectonic evolution of the Aiguilles Rouges and Mont-Blanc massifs in the Western Alps.

Bauville, Arthur; Schmalholz, Stefan

2013-04-01

219

Unlinkable Priced Oblivious Transfer with Rechargeable Wallets  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present the first truly unlinkable priced oblivious transfer protocol. Our protocol allows customers to buy database records while remaining fully anonymous, i.e., (1) the database does not learn who purchases a record, and cannot link purchases by the same customer; (2) the database does not learn which record is being purchased, nor the price of the record that is being purchased; (3) the customer can only obtain a single record per purchase, and cannot spend more than his account balance; (4) the database does not learn the customer's remaining balance. In our protocol customers keep track of their own balances, rather than leaving this to the database as done in previous protocols. Our priced oblivious transfer protocol is also the first to allow customers to (anonymously) recharge their balances. Finally, we prove our protocol secure in the standard model (i.e., without random oracles).

Camenisch, Jan; Dubovitskaya, Maria; Neven, Gregory

220

Solid polymer electrolytes for rechargeable batteries  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

SRI International has synthesized and tested new, dimensionally stable polymer electrolytes for high energy density rechargeable lithium batteries. We have prepared semi-interpenetrating networks of sulfur-substituted polyethyleneoxide with tetraethylorthosilicate (TEOS). The in situ hydrolysis of TEOS produces a mechanically stable three-dimensional network that entangles the polymer electrolytes and makes the film dimensionally flexible and stable. With this approach, the best dimensionally stable polymer electrolyte of this type produced so far, has a room temperature lithium ion conductivity of 7.5 x 10(exp -4) S cm(exp -1). Another type of solid polymer electrolytes, polydiacetylene-based single-ion conductors with high room temperature proton conductivity were also developed. The best conductivity of these polymers is two orders of magnitude higher than that of Nafion under comparable experimental conditions. With further appropriate chemical modification, the new polymers could be used in fuel cells.

Narang, Subhash C.; Ventura, Susanna C.

1992-02-01

221

Spinel electrodes for rechargeable lithium batteries.  

SciTech Connect

This paper gives a historical account of the development of spinel electrodes for rechargeable lithium batteries. Research in the late 1970's and early 1980's on high-temperature . Li/Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} cells led to the evaluation of lithium spinels Li[B{sub 2}]X{sub 4} at room temperature (B = metal cation). This work highlighted the importance of the [B{sub 2}]X{sub 4}spinel framework as a host electrode structure and the ability to tailor the cell voltage by selection of different B cations. Examples of lithium-ion cells that operate with spinel anode/spinel cathode couples are provided. Particular attention is paid to spinels within the solid solution system Li{sub 1+x}Mn{sub 2-x}O{sub 4} (0 {le} x {le} 0.33).

Thackeray, M. M.

1999-11-10

222

ANALYSE SPATIALE DE L'ÉROSION EN NAPPE ET DE L'INFILTRABILITÉ DES SOLS DANS LE PRÉ-RIF MAROCAIN  

Microsoft Academic Search

Diagnosis of runoff and erosion hazard in a watershed requires a good understanding of the soil hydrodynamic behavior, particularly the runoff origin and the soil infiltration capacity according to landuse and soil type. The survey of the erosion processes offers a great interest for optimal and sustainable sol use. The main part of this study is to achieve a landuse\\/landcover

ABDELKADER EL GAROUANIa; MOHAMED RACHED

223

Application d'une modélisation avec "panneau de données" à la prédiction des niveaux de nappe dans la Plaine de Neishaboor, Iran  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The aim of this research was to predict groundwater levels in the Neishaboor plain, Iran, using a "panel-data" model. Panel-data analysis endows regression analysis with both spatial and temporal dimensions. The spatial dimension pertains to a set of cross-sectional units of observation. The temporal dimension pertains to periodic observations of a set of variables characterizing these cross-sectional units over a particular time span. Firstly, the available observation wells in the Neishaboor plain were clustered according to their fluctuation behavior using the "Ward" method, which resulted in six areal zones. Then, for each cluster, an observation well was selected as its representative, and for each zone, values of monthly precipitation and temperature, as independent variables, were estimated by the inverse-distance method. Finally, the performance of different panel-data regression models such as fixed-effects and random-effects models were investigated. The results showed that the two-way fixed-effects model was superior. The performance indicators for this model (R 2 = 0.97, RMSE = 0.05 m and ME = 0.81 m) reveal the effectiveness of the method. In addition, the results were compared with the results of an artificial-neural-network (ANN) model, which demonstrated the superiority of the panel-data model over the ANN model.

Izady, A.; Davary, K.; Alizadeh, A.; Ghahraman, B.; Sadeghi, M.; Moghaddamnia, A.

2011-12-01

224

[Effects of reclaimed water recharge on groundwater quality: a review].  

PubMed

Reclaimed water recharge to groundwater is an effective way to relieve water resource crisis. However, reclaimed water contains some pollutants such as nitrate, heavy metals, and new type contaminants, and thus, there exists definite environmental risk in the reclaimed water recharge to groundwater. To promote the development of reclaimed water recharge to groundwater and the safe use of reclaimed water in China, this paper analyzed the relevant literatures and practical experiences around the world, and summarized the effects of different reclaimed water recharge modes on the groundwater quality. Surface recharge makes the salt and nitrate contents in groundwater increased but the risk of heavy metals pollution be smaller, whereas well recharge can induce the arsenic release from sedimentary aquifers, which needs to be paid more attention to. New type contaminants are the hotspots in current researches, and their real risks are unknown. Pathogens have less pollution risks on groundwater, but some virus with strong activity can have the risks. Some suggestions were put forward to reduce the risks associated with the reclaimed water recharge to groundwater in China. PMID:24015541

Chen, Wei-Ping; Lü, Si-Dan; Wang, Mei-E; Jiao, Wen-Tao

2013-05-01

225

Using atmospheric tracers to reduce uncertainty in groundwater recharge areas.  

PubMed

A Monte Carlo-based approach to assess uncertainty in recharge areas shows that incorporation of atmospheric tracer observations (in this case, tritium concentration) and prior information on model parameters leads to more precise predictions of recharge areas. Variance-covariance matrices, from model calibration and calculation of sensitivities, were used to generate parameter sets that account for parameter correlation and uncertainty. Constraining parameter sets to those that met acceptance criteria, which included a standard error criterion, did not appear to bias model results. Although the addition of atmospheric tracer observations and prior information produced similar changes in the extent of predicted recharge areas, prior information had the effect of increasing probabilities within the recharge area to a greater extent than atmospheric tracer observations. Uncertainty in the recharge area propagates into predictions that directly affect water quality, such as land cover in the recharge area associated with a well and the residence time associated with the well. Assessments of well vulnerability that depend on these factors should include an assessment of model parameter uncertainty. A formal simulation of parameter uncertainty can be used to delineate probabilistic recharge areas, and the results can be expressed in ways that can be useful to water-resource managers. Although no one model is the correct model, the results of multiple models can be evaluated in terms of the decision being made and the probability of a given outcome from each model. PMID:21416662

Starn, J Jeffrey; Bagtzoglou, Amvrossios C; Robbins, Gary A

226

Quantifying the modern recharge of the "fossil" Sahara aquifers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The North-Western Sahara Aquifer System (NWSAS), one of the world's largest groundwater systems, shows an overall piezometric decline associated with increasing withdrawals. Estimating the recharge rate in such a semiarid system is challenging but crucial for sustainable water development. In this paper, the recharge of the NWSAS is estimated using a regional water budget based on GRACE terrestrial water storage monthly records, soil moisture from the GLDAS (a land data system that assimilates hydrological information), and groundwater pumping rates. A cumulated natural recharge rate of 1.40 ± 0.90 km3 yr-1is estimated for the two main aquifers. Our results suggest a renewal rate of about 40% which partly contradicts the premise that recharge in this area should be very low or even null. Aquifer depletion inferred from our analysis is consistent with observed piezometric head decline in the two main aquifers in the region. Annual recharge variations were also estimated and vary between 0 and 4.40 km3 yr-1for the period 2003-2010. These values correspond to a recharge between 0 and 6.75 mm yr-1 on the 650,000 km2of outcropping areas of the aquifers, which is consistent with the expected weak and sporadic recharge in this semiarid environment. These variations are also in line with annual rainfall variation with a lag time of about 1 year.

GonçAlvèS, J.; Petersen, J.; Deschamps, P.; Hamelin, B.; Baba-Sy, O.

2013-06-01

227

Geostatistical estimates of future recharge for the Death Valley region  

SciTech Connect

Spatially distributed estimates of regional ground water recharge rates under both current and potential future climates are needed to evaluate a potential geologic repository for high-level nuclear waste at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, which is located within the Death Valley ground-water region (DVGWR). Determining the spatial distribution of recharge is important for regional saturated-zone ground-water flow models. In the southern Nevada region, the Maxey-Eakin method has been used for estimating recharge based on average annual precipitation. Although this method does not directly account for a variety of location-specific factors which control recharge (such as bedrock permeability, soil cover, and net radiation), precipitation is the primary factor that controls in the region. Estimates of recharge obtained by using the Maxey-Eakin method are comparable to estimates of recharge obtained by using chloride balance studies. The authors consider the Maxey-Eakin approach as a relatively simple method of obtaining preliminary estimates of recharge on a regional scale.

Hevesi, J.A. [Geological Survey, Las Vegas, NV (United States); Flint, A.L. [Geological Survey, Sacramento, CA (United States)

1998-12-01

228

Aquifer recharging in South Carolina: radiocarbon in environmental hydrogeology  

SciTech Connect

Radiocarbon activities of dissolved inorganic carbon (and tritium activities where infiltration rates are rapid and aquifers shallow) provide relatively unambiguous and inexpensive evidence for identification of significant recharge areas. Such evidence is for the actual occurrence of modern recharge in the aquifer and thus is less inferential than stratigraphic or potentiometric evidence. These underutilized isotopic techniques are neither arcane nor complex and have been more-or-less standardized by earlier researchers. In South Carolina, isotopic evidence has been used from both calcareous and siliceous sedimentary aquifers and fractured crystalline rock aquifers. The Tertiary limestone aquifer is shown not to be principally recharged in its subcrop area, unlike conditions assumed for many other sedimentary aquifers in southeastern United States, and instead receives considerable lateral recharge from interfingering updip Tertiary sand aquifers in the middle coastal plain. Induced recharging at Hilton Head Island is mixing ancient relict water and modern recharge water. Recharging to deeper portions of the Cretaceous Middendorf basal sand aquifer occurs at least as far coastward as the middle coastal plain, near sampling sites that stratigraphically appear to be confined. Pronounced mineralization of water in fractured rocks cannot be considered as evidence of ancient or relict ground water that is isolated from modern contaminants, some of these waters contain considerable radiocarbon and hydrogen-bomb tritium.

Stone, P.A.; Knox, R.L.; Mathews, T.D.

1985-01-01

229

Echo Meadows Project Winter Artificial Recharge.  

SciTech Connect

This report discusses the findings of the Echo Meadows Project (BPA Project 2001-015-00). The main purpose of this project is to artificially recharge an alluvial aquifer, WITH water from Umatilla River during the winter high flow period. In turn, this recharged aquifer will discharge an increased flow of cool groundwater back to the river, thereby improving Umatilla River water quality and temperature. A considerable side benefit is that the Umatilla River should improve as a habitat for migration, spanning, and rearing of anadromous and resident fish. The scope of this project is to provide critical baseline information about the Echo Meadows and the associated reach of the Umatilla River. Key elements of information that has been gathered include: (1) Annual and seasonal groundwater levels in the aquifer with an emphasis on the irrigation season, (2) Groundwater hydraulic properties, particularly hydraulic conductivity and specific yield, and (3) Groundwater and Umatilla River water quality including temperature, nutrients and other indicator parameters. One of the major purposes of this data gathering was to develop input to a groundwater model of the area. The purpose of the model is to estimate our ability to recharge this aquifer using water that is only available outside of the irrigation season (December through the end of February) and to estimate the timing of groundwater return flow back to the river. We have found through the data collection and modeling efforts that this reach of the river had historically returned as much as 45 cubic feet per second (cfs) of water to the Umatilla River during the summer and early fall. However, this return flow was reduced to as low as 10 cfs primarily due to reduced quantities of irrigation application, gain in irrigation efficiencies and increased groundwater pumping. Our modeling indicated that it is possible to restore these critical return flows using applied water outside of the irrigation season. We further found that this water can be timed to return to the river during the desired time of the year (summer to early fall). This is because the river stage, which remains relatively high until this time, drops during the irrigation season-thereby releasing the stored groundwater and increasing river flows. A significant side benefit is that these enhanced groundwater return flows will be clean and cold, particularly as compared to the Umatilla River. We also believe that this same type of application of water could be done and the resulting stream flows could be realized in other watersheds throughout the Pacific Northwest. This means that it is critical to compare the results from this baseline report to the full implementation of the project in the next phase. As previously stated, this report only discusses the results of data gathered during the baseline phase of this project. We have attempted to make the data that has been gathered accessible with the enclosed databases and spreadsheets. We provide computer links in this report to the databases so that interested parties can fully evaluate the data that has been gathered. However, we cannot emphasize too strongly that the real value of this project is to implement the phases to come, compare the results of these future phases to this baseline and develop the science and strategies to successfully implement this concept to other rivers in the Pacific Northwest. The results from our verified and calibrated groundwater model matches the observed groundwater data and trends collected during the baseline phase. The modeling results indicate that the return flows may increase to their historic values with the addition of 1 acre-ft/acre of recharge water to the groundwater system (about 9,600 acre-feet total). What this means is that through continued recharge project, you can double to quadruple the annual baseflow of the Umatilla River during the low summer and fall flow periods as compared to the present base-flow. The cool and high quality recharge water is a significant beneficial impact to the river system.

Ziari, Fred

2002-12-19

230

Effects of artificial recharge on the Ogallala aquifer, Texas  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Four recharge tests were conducted by injecting water from playa lakes through wells into the Ogallala Formation. Injection was by gravity flow and by pumping under pressure. At one site, 34-acre feet of water was injected by gravity and produced a significant increase in yield of the well. At a second site, gravity injection of only 0.58 acre-foot caused a significant decrease in permeability due to plugging by suspended sediment. At two other sites, injection by pumping 6 and 14 acre-feet respectively, resulted in discharge of water at the surface and in perching of water above the water table. Differences in success of recharge were largely due to aquifer lithology and, therefore, the type of permeability; the concentration of suspended solids in the recharge water; and the injection technique. The injection technique can be controlled and the concentration of suspended solids can be minimized by treatment, but the site for well recharge will accept water most rapidly if it is selected on the basis of a favorable geohydrologic environment. Geophysical logs were used to study the effect of aquifer lithology on recharge and to understand the movement of injected water. Temperature logs were particularly useful in tracing the movement of recharged water. Natural-gamma, gamma-gamma, and neutron logs provided important data on lithology and porosity in the aquifer and changes in porosity and water distribution resulting from recharge. Effective recharge of the Ogallala Formation, using water from playa lakes, is possible where geohydrologic conditions are favorable and the recharge system is properly constructed.

Brown, Richmond Flint; Keys, W. S.

1985-01-01

231

Der Sauerstoffverbrauch des stillstehenden, des leerschlagenden und des flimmernden Herzens  

Microsoft Academic Search

An Hunden mit offenem Thorax wurden unter Verwendung eines extrakorporalen Kreislaufs vergleichende Messungen von O2-Verbrauch und Durchblutung des stillstehenden, leerschlagenden und flimmernden Herzens durchgeführt. Durch eine besondere Technik war es möglich, ohne Kanulierung beide Coronarien zu durchströmen und damit den O2-Verbrauch des ganzen Herzens zu messen.

Hans-Eberhard Hoffmeister; Heinrich Kreuzer; Wilhelm Schoeppe

1959-01-01

232

Accumulation des profits et désendettement des entreprises  

Microsoft Academic Search

En modélisant un arbitrage intertemporel, le désendettement est un choix rationnel en présence d'un rendement marginal des nouveaux investissements inférieur au taux d'intérêt réel sur l'encours de la dette et supérieur au coût d'opportunité des placements des fonds internes. Dans ce cas, le désendettement évince l'investissement ; les profits n'ont pas d'effet sur l'investissement et un effet négatif sur le

Jean-Bernard Chatelain

1998-01-01

233

Ground-water recharge from streamflow data, NW Florida  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Annual base flows of streams draining Okaloosa County and adjacent areas in northwest Florida were determined through hydrograph separation and correlation techniques for purposes of evaluating variations in ground-water recharge rates. Base flows were least in the northern part of the county and greatest in the southern part. Topographic and soils data were then superimposed on the distribution of base flow by subbasin to produce a map showing distribution of ground-water recharge throughout the county. The highest recharge rate occurs in the southern part of the county where relatively flat upland areas underlain by excessively drained sandy soils result in minimal storm runoff and evapotranspiration.

Vecchioli, John; Bridges, W. C.; Rumenik, R. P.; Grubbs, J. W.

1991-01-01

234

Évaluation des produits combinés  

Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research (CBER)

Text Version... des Centres respectifs. Les cases du tableau présentent quelques- unes des principales étapes d'examen. Veuillez noter ... More results from www.fda.gov/downloads/biologicsbloodvaccines/internationalactivities

235

Soil Water Balance and Recharge Monitoring at the Hanford Site – FY 2010 Status Report  

SciTech Connect

This report summarizes the recharge data collected in FY 2010 at five locations on the Hanford Site in southeastern Washington State. Average monthly precipitation and temperature conditions in FY 2010 were near normal and did not present an opportunity for increased recharge. The recharge monitoring data confirmed those conditions, showing normal behavior in water content, matric head, and recharge rates. Also provided in this report is a strategy for recharge estimation for the next 5 years.

Fayer, Michael J.; Saunders, Danielle L.; Herrington, Ricky S.; Felmy, Diana

2010-10-27

236

Folded continental and oceanic nappes on the southern side of Monte Rosa (western Alps, Italy): Anatomy of a double collision suture  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Previous work suggested a double collision suture, including ophiolites from two oceanic basins (Valais and Piemont-Liguria), on the southern side of Monte Rosa (Penninic Alps, northern Italy). This area was studied using field mapping, microstructural analysis, and neutron texture goniometry. After its formation and eclogite-facies metamorphism of continental and oceanic units, the suture was deformed by four successive folding and shearing events under greenschist-facies conditions, all of them taking place between 40 and 28 Ma. After fold retrodeformation, the following tectonostratigraphy results, from base to top: Monte Rosa gneiss (European margin), Balma serpentinite/eclogite unit (Cretaceous crust of Valais ocean), Stolemberg gneiss (Iberia-Briançonnais continent), Zermatt-Saas and Tsaté ophiolites (Jurassic crust of Piemont-Ligurian ocean), Sesia nappe (continental fragment off the Adria margin). The preservation of this lithological sequence suggests that deep-seated deformation during multiple continent collision produces heterogeneous strain and extreme thinning of nappes but their original stacking order can still be reconstructed using kinematic analysis and overprinting criteria. This is due to the ductile nature of the collisional deformation which retains the continuity of tectonic contacts.

Pleuger, Jan; Froitzheim, Nikolaus; Jansen, Ekkehard

2005-08-01

237

GROUNDWATER RECHARGE/DISCHARGE, NEUSE RIVER WATERSHED, NC  

EPA Science Inventory

The North Carolina Department of Environment and Natural Resources, Division of Water Quality and Groundwater Section, in cooperation with the NC Center for Geographic Information and Analysis, developed the Groundwater Recharge/Discharge digital data to enhance planning, siting ...

238

Recharging of contaminated aquifer with reclaimed sewage water  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

About 40% of the water supply of Cairo, Egypt, is drawn from a groundwater reservoir located southeast of the Nile Delta. Several thousand shallow wells supply drinking water to the farmers from the same groundwater reservoir, which is recharged by seepage from Ismailia canal, the irrigation canal network, and other wastewater lagoons in the same areas. Sewage water lagoons were located at the high ground of the area, recharging contaminated water into the aquifer. Since the groundwater in this area is used for drinking purposes, it was decided to treat the sewage water recharging the aquifer for health reasons. In this paper a solution to the problem is presented using an injection well recharging good quality water into the aquifer. A pumping well located at a distance downstream is used to pump the contaminated water out of the aquifer. A three-dimensional solute transport model was developed to study the concentration distribution with remediation time in the contaminated zone.

Soliman, M. M.; El-Din, M. Nour; Hassan, N. A.

1995-04-01

239

Solid polymer electrolytes for rechargeable batteries. Final report.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

SRI International has synthesized and tested new, dimensionally stable polymer electrolytes for high energy density rechargeable lithium batteries. We have prepared semi-interpenetrating networks of sulfur-substituted polyethyleneoxide with tetmethylortho...

S. C. Narang S. C. Ventura

1992-01-01

240

Intrinsically Safe 5-V, 4-A: Rechargeable Power Supply.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The U.S. Bureau of Mines has developed a regulated, intrinsically safe, rechargeable power supply for portable electronic equipment for underground use. The regulated output is ideal for microprocessor power requirements and is suited for operation in haz...

J. J. Sammarco

1989-01-01

241

Lithium Rechargeable Cell With a Poly 3-Methylthiophene Cathode.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A poly 3-methylthiophene (PMT) cathode showed excellent coulombic efficiency during cycling in a lithium rechargeable cell. An electrolyte containing dimethyl carbonate was used since it is stable at the high anodic potentials reached during cell charging...

C. W. Walker S. M. Slane

1992-01-01

242

Spatial and temporal variations in seepage during managed aquifer recharge  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Managed aquifer recharge (MAR) is an increasingly important means of supplementing fresh water resources and helping to limit ground water overdraft. Many MAR systems are operated above a vadose zone and usually recharge rapidly during an initial phase of diversion. Recharge typically slows considerably within subsequent weeks to months as sedimentation, biofouling, soil compaction, drainage at the base of the wetting front, and other processes reduce the hydraulic conductance below the percolation pond. Studies of such systems provide controlled windows into subsurface conditions and processes, vital both for improving MAR efficiency and generating better understanding of recharge processes in general. We instrumented a 3 ha MAR pond above a shallow aquifer in central coastal California, to quantify variations in rates and locations of recharge, and to measure changes in soil properties with time during a recharge season. Using heat as a tracer of fluid flow, we utilize data recorded by autonomous temperature loggers installed in the base of the pond to calculate point-specific seepage rates based on time-series analysis. Pressure loggers installed in the same locations allow quantification of head gradients with time. By combining gradient and seepage data, we determine absolute values of the hydraulic conductance of the saturated soil at the base of the pond, including changes in these values with time. Point-specific seepage rates vary enormously throughout the recharge cycle and across the pond base. Areas with rapid initial seepage rates exceeding 5 m d-1 decrease abruptly to <0.1 m d-1 after the first few weeks of MAR operation. Conversely, seepage rates in areas which are virtually stagnant at the onset of recharge increase to >0.5 m d-1 after several months, accounting for the majority of late-season recharge. In effect, the locus of seepage assumes the form of a kinematic wave as it propagates laterally with time across the pond bed. Seepage appears to correlate with soil type, with areas of initial rapid seepage corresponding to more coarsely grained soils, and later recharge occurring in areas overlying significantly finer material. Collection of soil samples before and after the seepage season, as well as geochemical data from the aquifer below the pond, help to resolve the fraction of the pond, and hence the subsurface conditions, that contribute most to recharge.

Racz, A. J.; Fisher, A. T.; Schmidt, C. M.; Lockwood, B. S.; Los Huertos, M.

2009-12-01

243

The timing of EV recharging and its effect on utilities  

SciTech Connect

Electric vehicles (EV's) represent an important future load on the electric utility system which, if properly managed, could increase power plant utilization and reduce the average cost of generating electricity. A future EV population of 7.5 million is addressed, together with its characteristics, vehicle use, consequent recharging loads, and the impact of EV's on electric utilities in terms of the generation of electric power, fuel use, and costs. The impact on utilities will depend in part on when the vehicles are recharged. If the price of electricity is uniform throughout the day, recharging is likely to begin when vehicles are parked at home. Most of the recharging would then occur during late afternoon and early evening hours when other demands for electricity are high. In the year 2000, peak electricity demand would increase by 5700 MW, and oil- and gas-fired power plants would generate 39 percent of the recharge power. Marginal generating costs would average 7.6 cents/kWh in 1982 dollars. If electricity were priced by time of day, recharging could shift to late night hours when the other demands for electricity are low. The peak demand would increase by only 400 MW; 27 percent of the power would come from oil and gas, and marginal generating costs would average only 5.1 cents/kWh, some 25 percent less than the marginal cost of the system load without EV's. The fuels to recharge EV's were found to vary from one region of the country to the next. Utilities in the northeast would use the most oil and gas for recharging (more than 75 percent), while those in the central part of the country would use the least.

Collins, M.M.; Mader, G.H.

1983-02-01

244

Electrochemical behavior of hydrated molybdenum oxides in rechargeable lithium batteries  

Microsoft Academic Search

Oxide-hydrates of molybdenum (OHM) are investigated as 3-volt cathode materials for rechargeable lithium batteries. These\\u000a materials with different water content showed a much better performance than that of MoO3 as cathode of the rechargeable lithium battery. We report the electrochemical characteristics of Li\\/\\/OHM batteries using\\u000a the oxides and oxide-hydrates of molybdenum which were synthesized from molybdic acid. The oxide has

B. Yebka; C. Julien; G. A. Nazri

1999-01-01

245

Estimating Regional Groundwater Recharge Using a Hydrological Budget Method  

Microsoft Academic Search

Estimating groundwater recharge is a key component in determining the sustainable yield of groundwater resources in arid and\\u000a semi-arid areas such as southern California. Estimating groundwater recharge on a regional scale requires developing a water\\u000a budget that incorporates data on boundary conditions, aquifer properties, groundwater levels, and groundwater production.\\u000a The hydrological budget method proposed herein is simple, cost-effective, and easy

Fakhri Manghi; Behrooz Mortazavi; Christie Crother; Moshrik R. Hamdi

2009-01-01

246

Ground water recharge and flow characterization using multiple isotopes.  

PubMed

Stable isotopes of delta(18)O, delta(2)H, and (13)C, radiogenic isotopes of (14)C and (3)H, and ground water chemical compositions were used to distinguish ground water, recharge areas, and possible recharge processes in an arid zone, fault-bounded alluvial aquifer. Recharge mainly occurs through exposed stream channel beds as opposed to subsurface inflow along mountain fronts. This recharge distribution pattern may also occur in other fault-bounded aquifers, with important implications for conceptualization of ground water flow systems, development of ground water models, and ground water resource management. Ground water along the mountain front near the basin margins contains low delta(18)O, (14)C (percent modern carbon [pmC]), and (3)H (tritium units [TU]), suggesting older recharge. In addition, water levels lie at greater depths, and basin-bounding faults that locally act as a flow barrier may further reduce subsurface inflow into the aquifer along the mountain front. Chemical differences in ground water composition, attributed to varying aquifer mineralogy and recharge processes, further discriminate the basin-margin and the basin-center water. Direct recharge through the indurated sandstones and mudstones in the basin center is minimal. Modern recharge in the aquifer is mainly through the broad, exposed stream channel beds containing coarse sand and gravel where ground water contains higher delta(18)O, (14)C (pmC), and (3)H (TU). Spatial differences in delta(18)O, (14)C (pmC), and (3)H (TU) and occurrences of extensive mudstones in the basin center suggest sluggish ground water movement, including local compartmentalization of the flow system. PMID:18384592

Chowdhury, Ali H; Uliana, Matthew; Wade, Shirley

2008-04-02

247

Recharge signal identification based on groundwater level observations.  

PubMed

This study applied a method of the rotated empirical orthogonal functions to directly decompose the space-time groundwater level variations and determine the potential recharge zones by investigating the correlation between the identified groundwater signals and the observed local rainfall records. The approach is used to analyze the spatiotemporal process of piezometric heads estimated by Bayesian maximum entropy method from monthly observations of 45 wells in 1999-2007 located in the Pingtung Plain of Taiwan. From the results, the primary potential recharge area is located at the proximal fan areas where the recharge process accounts for 88% of the spatiotemporal variations of piezometric heads in the study area. The decomposition of groundwater levels associated with rainfall can provide information on the recharge process since rainfall is an important contributor to groundwater recharge in semi-arid regions. Correlation analysis shows that the identified recharge closely associates with the temporal variation of the local precipitation with a delay of 1-2 months in the study area. PMID:22016042

Yu, Hwa-Lung; Chu, Hone-Jay

2011-10-21

248

Estimating aquifer channel recharge using optical data interpretation.  

PubMed

Recharge through intermittent and ephemeral stream channels is believed to be a primary aquifer recharge process in arid and semiarid environments. The intermittent nature of precipitation and flow events in these channels, and their often remote locations, makes direct flow and loss measurements difficult and expensive. Airborne and satellite optical images were interpreted to evaluate aquifer recharge due to stream losses on the Frio River in south-central Texas. Losses in the Frio River are believed to be a major contributor of recharge to the Edwards Aquifer. The results of this work indicate that interpretation of readily available remote sensing optical images can offer important insights into the spatial distribution of aquifer recharge from losing streams. In cases where upstream gauging data are available, simple visual analysis of the length of the flowing reach downstream from the gauging station can be used to estimate channel losses. In the case of the Frio River, the rate of channel loss estimated from the length of the flowing reach at low flows was about half of the loss rate calculated from in-stream gain-loss measurements. Analysis based on water-surface width and channel slope indicated that losses were mainly in a reach downstream of the mapped recharge zone. The analysis based on water-surface width, however, did not indicate that this method could yield accurate estimates of actual flow in pool and riffle streams, such as the Frio River and similar rivers draining the Edwards Plateau. PMID:21434908

Walter, Gary R; Necsoiu, Marius; McGinnis, Ronald

2011-03-24

249

Alpine structures and metamorphism at the Pillonet Klippe — a remnant of the Austroalpine nappe system in the Italian Western Alps  

Microsoft Academic Search

Zusammenfassung  Die Pillonet-Klippe ist ein Überrest des Austroalpinen Dent Blanche — Sesia Lanzo Dekkensystems in den italienischen W-Alpen. Detaillierte gefügekundliche Untersuchungen haben dort zu folgenden Ergebnissen geführt:Man muß zwei deckenbildende Deformationsakte unterscheiden. Der erste steht am Anfang, der zweite am Ende der alpinen Deformations-Metamorphose-Geschichte. Decken bilden sich zum ersten Mal bei eoalpiner Subduktion unter Hochdruck-Niedrigtemperatur-Metamorphose. Ein zweites Mal nach Lepontiner Metamorphose,

Wolf Stefan Vogler

1984-01-01

250

Recharge to the North Richland well field  

SciTech Connect

The investigation was based on a preliminary ground-water flow model of the 1100 Area. Because few local data were available for this effort, an existing regional ground-water flow model of the Hanford Site was applied, which is based on the Variable Thickness Transient (VTT) ground-water flow code (Kipp et al., 1976). A submodel of the Hanford Site model was developed based on the VTT code. An independent model consisting of a simple representation of the local conditions in the vicinity of the North Richland well field was also used in the investigation. This model, based on the MODFLOW code (McDonald and Harbaugh, 1984), was used in a series of transient simulations to examine dynamic aspects of the well field/recharge basin. Results from this simple model also provide an independent, qualitative check of results produced with the 1100 Area model based on the VTT code. This report summarizes the 1100 Area modeling investigation, including the approach used to generate results for the regional and 1100 Area VTT models, the approach used in the transient MODFLOW model, results from some initial steady-state and transient simulations with the submodel and the MODFLOW models, and resulting conclusions and recommendations. Because local data were lacking to develop and calibrate the models, the investigation described in this report can best be described as a ''sensitivity analysis'' of ground-water flow in the 1100 Area. 4 refs., 10 figs., 2 tabs.

Law, A.G.

1989-07-01

251

Advanced rechargeable sodium batteries with novel cathodes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Various high energy density rechargeable batteries are being considered for future space applications. Of these, the sodium-sulfur battery is one of the leading candidates. The primary advantage is the high energy density (760 Wh/kg theoretical). Energy densities in excess of 180 Wh/kg were realized in practical batteries. Other technological advantages include its chemical simplicity, absence of self-discharge, and long cycle life possibility. More recently, other high temperature sodium batteries have come into the spotlight. These systems can be described as follow: Na/Beta Double Prime-Al2O3/NaAlCl4/Metal Dichloride Sodium/metal dichloride systems are colloquially known as the zebra system and are currently being developed for traction and load leveling applications. The sodium-metal dichloride systems appear to offer many of the same advantages of the Na/S system, especially in terms of energy density and chemical simplicity. The metal dichloride systems offer increased safety and good resistance to overcharge and operate over a wide range of temperatures from 150 to 400 C with less corrosion problems.

Distefano, S.; Ratnakumar, B. V.; Bankston, C. P.

1989-12-01

252

Characterization of AA size lithium rechargeable cells  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Testing of AA size rechargeable cells for underwater vehicle and other naval applications is complete for AT&T's lithium/niobium triselenide (Li/NbSe3) and Moli Energy's lithium/molybdenum disulfide (Li/MoS2) and in progress on Moli Energy's lithium/manganese dioxide (Li/MnO2) and W. R. Grace's lithium/titanium disulfide (Li/TiS2). Cell cycling was performed at various discharge rates, temperatures, and depths of discharge. At 25 C and 1 mA/cm2 (roughly the C/4 rate), delivered energy densities were about 40 Wh/lb for NbSe3, TiS2, and MnO2 and 22 Wh/lb for MoS2. Under the same conditions, nickel/cadmium (Ni/Cd) cells deliver only 10 Wh/lb. However Ni/Cd cycles much longer and the lithium cells are far more vulnerable than Ni/Cd to performance loss in low temperature, high discharge rate cycling. The NbSe3 data and the (limited) TiS2 data indicate that these cells tend to accept excessive charge which is often associated with lithium dendrite shorting and considered potentially hazardous. At 1 mA/cm2 and 25 C, discharge plateaus ranged from 2.9 V for MnO2 to 1.8 V for MoS2.

Murphy, T. C.; Cason-Smith, D. M.; James, S. D.; Smith, P. H.

253

Rechargeable lithiated thin film intercalation electrode battery  

SciTech Connect

This patent describes a rechargeable lithium battery, it comprises: an electrode providing a source of lithium ions, an electrolyte, and a counter-electrode consisting essentially of a lithiated transition metal oxide intercalation compound selected from the class consisting of LiMn{sub 2}O{sub 4}, LiCoO{sub 2} and LiNiO{sub 2} characterized in that the counter-electrode consists essentially of a thin film of the intercalation compound prepared by situating a suitable coating substrate in an air-tight enclosure with a supply of the lithiated metal oxide; establishing within the enclosure a low pressure, carbon-free atmosphere; vaporizing at least a portion of the metal oxide; condensing the metal oxide vapor on a surface of the substrate in a coating having a thickness in the range of about 1 to 5 micrometers; and heating the coating within the atmosphere at a temperature and for a time sufficient to convert the coating to crystallites of the metal oxide having a grain size in the range of about 0.05 to 0.1 micrometer.

Shokoohi, F.K.; Tarascon, J.M.

1992-05-05

254

Electrolyte for laminated polymer lithium rechargeable battery  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Proposed thin film battery is comprised of a polymer-lithium ion cell material with barrier-layer packaging and mechanical reinforcing layers. A semi-solid/ solid electrolyte and a mesoporous polymer separator are sandwiched in between of anode and cathode. A composite film with a carbon nanotube (CNT) network serves as the anode and a mesoporous transitional metal oxide LixCoO2 as the cathode, where porous metal sheets serve as the current collector. The CNT network fabrics have high in-plane tensile strength. LiCoO2 is used as the cathode, because the Co atoms do not migrate to Li layers, so that cathode does not generate flammable gases during charging that create safety problems. Merit of this study is using the porous metal sheet, which is flexible, lightweight, low electric resistance, high strength and strong stability in alkaline solution. This paper presented development of electrolyte for laminated polymer lithium rechargeable battery. Two-type electrolytes, semi-solid and solid, were attempted; high ionic conductivity of Li ion electrolytes was achieved.

Xu, Chunye; Ma, Chao; Taya, Minoru

2008-05-01

255

Chronique des tendances de la société française  

Microsoft Academic Search

[fre] Cette chronique porte sur quatre des tendances que Louis Dirn suit régulièrement : • L'effort pour assurer une meilleure égalité des chances sco- laires se heurte à des effets pervers qui résultent des politiques de gestion des établissements et des stratégies des familles. La diver- sification des établissements offre une nouvelle liberté de choix aux familles qui en jouent

Alain Beurdeley; Jean-Pierre Jaslin; Nicolas Herpin; Serge Paugam

1995-01-01

256

Fate of human viruses in groundwater recharge systems  

SciTech Connect

The overall objective of this research program was to determine the ability of a well-managed tertiary effluent-recharge system to return virologically acceptable water to the groundwater aquifer. The study assessed the quality of waters renovated by indigenous recharge operations and investigated a number of virus-soil interrelationships. The elucidation of the interactions led to the establishment of basin operating criteria for optimizing virus removal. Raw influents, chlorinated tertiary effluents, and renovated wastewater from the aquifer directly beneath a uniquely designed recharge test basin were assayed on a weekly basis for the presence of human enteroviruses and coliform bacteria. High concentrations of viruses were routinely isolated from influents but were isolated only on four occasions from tertiary-treated sewage effluents. In spite of the high quality effluent being recharged, viruses were isolated from the groundwater observation well, indicating their ability to penetrate the unsaturated zone. Results of poliovirus seeding experiments carried out in the test basin clearly indicated the need to operate recharge basins at low (e.g. 1 cm/h) infiltration rates in areas having soil types similar to those found at the study site. The method selected for reducing the test basin infiltration rate involved clogging the basin surface with settled organic material from highly turbid effluent. Alternative methods for slowing infiltration rates are discussed in the text.

Vaughn, J.M.; Landry, E.F.

1980-03-01

257

Transcutaneous battery recharging by volume conduction and its circuit modeling.  

PubMed

Many implantable devices require large capacity batteries implanted in the body. Transcutaneous battery recharging can effectively maintain the longevity of these implants. Based on this consideration we have developed a transcutaneous battery recharging circuit unit which takes advantages of skin volume conduction. This unit is able to pass 2.8 mA from the outside to the inside of pig skin with a current transmitting efficiency of 27%. Theoretical analysis and experiments have validated that this battery recharging technology is an effective approach. In this research we have constructed an x-type equivalent circuit model of skin volume conduction for battery recharging. The parameters of the x-type equivalent circuit can be easily measured and used to evaluate the battery charging system characteristics, such as the rechargeable prerequisite and the current transmitting efficiency limitation. We have analyzed the transcutaneous current transmitting efficiency by applying the x-type equivalent circuit model and discussed approaches for enhancing current transmitting efficiency. PMID:17945991

Tang, Zhide; Sclabassi, Robert J; Sun, Caixin; Hackworth, Steven A; Zhao, Jun; Cui, Xinyan T; Sun, Mingui

2006-01-01

258

Delineating volcanic aquifer recharge areas using geochemical and isotopic tools  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Relative recharge areas are evaluated using geochemical and isotopic tools, and inverse modeling. Geochemistry and water quality in springs discharging from a volcanic aquifer system in Guatemala are related to relative recharge area elevations and land use. Plagioclase feldspar and olivine react with volcanically derived CO2 to produce Ca-montmorillonite, chalcedony and goethite in the groundwater. Alkalinity, Mg, Ca, Na, and SiO2(aq) are produced, along with minor increases in Cl and SO4 concentrations. Variations in groundwater ?D and ?18O values are attributed to recharge elevation and used in concert with geochemical evolution to distinguish local, intermediate, and regional flow systems. Springs with geochemically inferred short flow paths provided useful proxies to estimate an isotopic gradient for precipitation (-0.67 ?18O/100 m). No correlation between spring discharge and relative flow-path length or interpreted recharge elevation was observed. The conceptual model was consistent with evidence of anthropogenic impacts (sewage and manure) in springs recharged in the lower watershed where livestock and humans reside. Spring sampling is a low-budget approach that can be used to develop a useful conceptual model of the relative scale of groundwater flow (and appropriate watershed protection areas), particularly in volcanic terrain where wells and boreholes are scarce.

Mulligan, Brendan M.; Ryan, M. Cathryn; Cámbara, Tomás Padilla

2011-11-01

259

Thermal evolution of an extensional detachment as constrained by organic metamorphic data and thermal modeling: Graz Paleozoic Nappe Complex (Eastern Alps)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Following Early Cretaceous nappe stacking, the Eastern Alps were affected by late-orogenic extension during the Late Cretaceous. In the eastern segment of this range, a Late Cretaceous detachment separates a very low- to low-grade metamorphic cover (Graz Paleozoic Nappe Complex, GPNC) above a low- to high-grade metamorphic basement. Synchronously, the Kainach Gosau Basin (KGB) collapsed and subsided on top of the section. Metamorphism of organic material within this section has been investigated using vitrinite reflectance data and Raman spectra of extracted carbonaceous material. In the southern part of the GPNC, vitrinite reflectance indicates a decrease in organic maturity towards the stratigraphic youngest unit. The remaining part of the GPNC is characterized by an aureole of elevated vitrinite reflectance values and Raman R2 ratios that parallels the margins of the GPNC. Vitrinite reflectance in the KGB shows a steep coalification gradient and increases significantly towards the western basin margin. The observed stratigraphic trend in the southern GPNC is a result of deep Paleozoic to Early Cretaceous burial. This maturity pattern was overprinted along the margins by advective heat and convective fluids during Late Cretaceous to Paleogene exhumation of basement rocks. During shearing, the fault zone was heated up to ca. 500 °C. This overprint is explained by a two-dimensional thermal model with a ramp-flat fault geometry and a slip rate of 1 to 1.5 cm/year during 5 Ma fault movement. The collapse basin above the detachment subsided in a thermal regime which was characterized by relaxing isotherms.

Rantitsch, Gerd; Sachsenhofer, Reinhard F.; Hasenhüttl, Christian; Russegger, Barbara; Rainer, Thomas

2005-12-01

260

Geothermobarometry of a stilpnomelane-garnet-bearing metapegmatite: P- T constraints on the Eo-Alpine metamorphic overprint of the Austroalpine nappes north of the Tauern Window  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Ordovician Kellerjochgneiss (Schwaz Augengneiss) is a polymetamorphic orthogneiss-bearing unit and is part of the Austroalpine basement nappes north of the Tauern Window. Within the Kellerjochgneiss a small, strongly deformed metapegmatite dike occurs. The pegmatite crosscuts the gneiss discordantly and contains the mineral assemblage muscovite 1,2+plagioclase+K-feldspar+chlorite+quartz+garnet 1 (Alm67-76Andr0.9-2Sps17-28Prp0.4-5)+garnet 2 (Grs36-46Alm24-32Andr8-21Sps15-17Prp0-1)±stilpnomelane±biotite±clinozoisite. The magmatic protolith assemblage is comprised of relict K-feldspar, quartz and garnet 1. Textural observations indicate that biotite and muscovite cores (muscovite 1) are either part of the magmatic- or an earlier (Variscan?) metamorphic assemblage. Geothermobarometry of the metapegmatite was done on the latest-stage (Eo-Alpine) mineral assemblage garnet 2+muscovite 2+chlorite+stilpnomelane+plagioclase+quartz. Calculations of H2O-absent intersections in the system [KCNFMAS] with the multi-equilibrium program THERMOCALC v.3.1 yielded P- T estimates of 4.4 to 6.7 kbar and 321°C to 376°C. Calculations of the P- T conditions by using the assemblage muscovite 2+chlorite+stilpnomelane+quartz yielded slightly higher pressures of 6.4 to 7.2 kbar at temperatures of 310-325°C. Correlating these P- T data with geochronological data from the neighbouring lithologies (Kellerjochgneiss, Innsbruck Quartzphyllite, Wildschönau Schists) and with structural investigations from these units indicate that the P- T estimates obtained in this investigation represent the Eo-Alpine metamorphic overprint. Hence, these unusual rocks provide important information on the Eo-Alpine P- T conditions since most samples studied from the investigated Austroalpine basement nappes north of the Tauern Window rarely contain mineral assemblages suitable for geothermobarometry.

Piber, Andreas; Tropper, Peter; Mirwald, Peter W.

2009-05-01

261

Effets secondaires des androgènes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Resume  Les androgènes utilisés à des doses 10 à 100 fois supérieures aux doses thérapeutiques provoquent des effets qui peuvent être\\u000a classés en 4 catégories: 1) Effets androgéniques: Chez l’homme, les androgènes provoquent atrophie testiculaire et azoospermie\\u000a avec stérilité, réversibles en 2 à 3 mois à l’arrêt du traitement. Il serait utile de surveiller à long terme la prostate\\u000a des sujets

I. Mowszowicz

1995-01-01

262

Heat transport in the vicinity of an artificial recharge site  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Since July 2002, the Intermunicipal Water Company of the Veurne region (IWVA) artificially recharges fresh water in the dunes of the western Belgian coastal plain by means of two recharge ponds. This recharge water is produced from secondary treated waste water effluent by the combination of ultra filtration and reverse osmosis. Extraction wells (112) are located north and south of the ponds. The artificial recharge project loops the water cycle: extracted water goes to the users and their waste water is purified and re-used. Therefore, it is an example of sustainable water management in coastal aquifers. Groundwater flow of this recharge site has been examined in the past by the use of a tracer test, hydrochemistry (environmental isotopes, conservative tracers) and groundwater flow modelling. Temperature, however, forms a relatively easy measurement which can add to or confirm the knowledge of the groundwater flow. Temperature time series (temperature as function of time) were measured at different levels in a number of wells located between the recharge ponds and the extraction wells, and in one well south of the recharge and extraction area. Secondly, temperature logs (temperature as function of depth) were measured in these wells at different times over the course of 2 years. Finally, the temperature of the recharged and extracted water is constantly monitored by the water company. The temperature of the recharge water shows a yearly fluctuation, ranging from 25 °C during summer to slightly above 0 °C during the winter. The temperature of the extracted water (combination of water extracted in all the wells) ranges between 17 °C during summer and 10 °C during winter. Minima and maxima in the extracted water are observed between 76 and 110 days (mean of 90 days and standard deviation of 13.5 days) later in the extracted water with respect to the recharged water. Measurements show that the difference in time when maxima and minima are observed in an observation well with reference to the ponds increases with depth (for instance from 28 days 4.1 m below surface to 154 days 10 m below surface for an observation well at 10 m from the ponds). This confirms previous flow modelling which showed that groundwater flows relatively rapidly laterally from the recharge ponds towards the extraction wells. Additionally, part of the recharge water flows in a deeper flow cycle towards the extraction wells. Residence times in this deeper flow cycle are evidently larger than in the direct lateral flow cycle from the ponds towards the wells. This explains the increase with depth. The 154 days (with respect to a mean time of 90 days) points to the fact that the extracted water contains a large spectrum of residence times with mean of 90 days for the heat transport, as was also derived by the flow modelling previously

Vandenbohede, Alexander; van Houtte, Emmanuel; Lebbe, Luc

2010-05-01

263

Estimating ground water recharge from topography, hydrogeology, and land cover.  

PubMed

Proper management of ground water resources requires knowledge of the rates and spatial distribution of recharge to aquifers. This information is needed at scales ranging from that of individual communities to regional. This paper presents a methodology to calculate recharge from readily available ground surface information without long-term monitoring. The method is viewed as providing a reasonable, but conservative, first approximation of recharge, which can then be fine-tuned with other methods as time permits. Stream baseflow was measured as a surrogate for recharge in small watersheds in southeastern Wisconsin. It is equated to recharge (R) and then normalized to observed annual precipitation (P). Regression analysis was constrained by requiring that the independent and dependent variables be dimensionally consistent. It shows that R/P is controlled by three dimensionless ratios: (1) infiltrating to overland water flux, (2) vertical to lateral distance water must travel, and (3) percentage of land cover in the natural state. The individual watershed properties that comprise these ratios are now commonly available in GIS data bases. The empirical relationship for predicting R/P developed for the study watersheds is shown to be statistically viable and is then tested outside the study area and against other methods of calculating recharge. The method produces values that agree with baseflow separation from streamflow hydrographs (to within 15% to 20%), ground water budget analysis (4%), well hydrograph analysis (12%), and a distributed-parameter watershed model calibrated to total streamflow (18%). It has also reproduced the temporal variation over 5 yr observed at a well site with an average error < 12%. PMID:15726928

Cherkauer, Douglas S; Ansari, Sajjad A

264

Evaluation of Methods for Estimation of Aquifer Recharge from Precipitation on Semi-Arid Lands.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Precipitation falling on semi-arid, non-irrigated lands may represent a significant percentage of total aquifer recharge in areas such as the eastern Snake River Plain in southern Idaho. Direct measurement of precipitation recharge is usually not feasible...

G. S. Johnson C. E. Brockway A. Coiner

1985-01-01

265

VIRUS REMOVAL DURING GROUNDWATER RECHARGE: EFFECTS OF INFILTRATION RATE ON ADSORPTION OF POLIOVIRUS TO SOIL  

EPA Science Inventory

Studies were conducted to determine the influence of infiltration rate on poliovirus removal during groundwater recharge with tertiary-treated wastewater effluents. Experiments were conducted at a uniquely designed, field-situated test recharge basin facility through which some 6...

266

SPATIAL SCALING OF SURFACE WATER INFILTRATION AND ITS IMPLICATIONS FOR ESTIMATING GROUNDWATER RECHARGE  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The GRAPHIC Project has identified priority research topics related to groundwater recharge, discharge, storage, and water quality. This presentation focuses on some physical aspects affecting spatial groundwater recharge estimation and uncertainty associated with spatial variability. Previous wor...

267

Rechargeable Zn-MnO sub 2 alkaline batteries  

SciTech Connect

In this paper progress in the development of rechargeable alkaline zinc-manganese dioxide cells is described. The advantages and limitations of the system are evaluated. Laboratory tests run on commercial primary alkaline cells as well as model simulations of a bipolar MnO{sub 2} electrode show that the rechargeable alkaline battery may be able to compete with lead-acid, nickel-cadmium, and secondary lithium cells for low- to moderate-rate applications. However, because of this poor performance at high rates and low temperatures, the alkaline MnO{sub 2} battery is not suitable for present automotive starting applications.

Wruck, W.J.; Reichman, B.; Bullock, K.R.; Kao, W.H. (Corporate Applied Research, Johnson Controls, Inc., Milwaukee, WI (US))

1991-12-01

268

Modelling of recharge and pollutant fluxes to urban groundwaters.  

PubMed

Urban groundwater resources are of considerable importance to the long-term viability of many cities world-wide, yet prediction of the quantity and quality of recharge is only rarely attempted at anything other than a very basic level. This paper describes the development of UGIf, a simple model written within a GIS, designed to provide estimates of spatially distributed recharge and recharge water quality in unconfined but covered aquifers. The following processes (with their calculation method indicated) are included: runoff and interception (curve number method); evapotranspiration (Penman-Grindley); interflow (empirical index approach); volatilization (Henry's law); sorption (distribution coefficient); and degradation (first order decay). The input data required are: meteorological data, landuse/cover map with event mean concentration attributes, geological maps with hydraulic and geochemical attributes, and topographic and water table elevation data in grid form. Standard outputs include distributions of: surface runoff, infiltration, potential recharge, ground level slope, interflow, actual recharge, pollutant fluxes in surface runoff, travel times of each pollutant through the unsaturated zone, and the pollutant fluxes and concentrations at the water table. The process of validation has commenced with a study of the Triassic Sandstone aquifer underlying Birmingham, UK. UGIf predicts a similar average recharge rate for the aquifer as previous groundwater flow modelling studies, but with significantly more spatial detail: in particular the results indicate that recharge through paved areas may be more important than previously thought. The results also highlight the need for more knowledge/data on the following: runoff estimation; interflow (including the effects of lateral flow and channelling on flow times and therefore chemistry); evapotranspiration in paved areas; the nature of unsaturated zone flow below paved areas; and the role of the pipe network. Although considerably more verification is needed, UGIf shows promise for use: in providing input for regional groundwater solute transport models; in identifying gaps in knowledge and data; in determining which processes are the most important influences on urban groundwater quantity and quality; in evaluating existing recharge models; in planning, for example in investigation of the effects of landuse or climate change; and in assessing groundwater vulnerability. PMID:16325236

Thomas, Abraham; Tellam, John

2005-12-01

269

Surveillance par Wattpilote du fraisage grande vitesse des rechargements stellite 6  

Microsoft Academic Search

The forging work involves extreme impacts, forces, stresses and temperatures. Thus, mould dies must be extremely resistant. The aim of the project ANR PROMETFOR is to create a rapid prototyping process answering to forging conditions integrating a Stellite 6 hardfacing deposed PTA process. This study talks about the dry machining of the hardfacing, using a two tips machining tool and

Mohieddine Benghersallah; Lakhdar Boulanouar; Gaël Lecoz; Daniel Dudzinski

270

An Early Proterozoic metamorphic basement of the Tuva-Mongolia microcontinent as a part of the Tunka fold-nappe terrane (South Siberia): constraints from U/Pb geochronology  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The eastern Altai-Sayan orogenic belt in South Siberia was formed in the Ordovician as a direct result of the collision between the Siberian continent and the Tuva-Mongolia (TM) microcontinent. In this part of the Altai-Sayan, carbonate and terrigenous rocks are widespread and commonly regarded as deformed fragments of the sedimentary cover of the TM microcontinent. The TM microcontinent basement has a complex structure including small blocks of the Early Proterozoic continental crust and accreted Proterozoic island-arc units. The Gargan block, the western edge of which is considered to be Tuva-Mongolia, is the only reliable Early Proterozoic metamorphic unit of the TM basement. The ages of other high-grade metamorphic complexes in the region are Ordovician though, formed during the Siberia-TM collision, and therefore can not be regarded as fragments of the microcontinental basement as has been done hitherto. Further eastward, tectonic nappes dominated by biotite gneisses occur within the fold-and-thrust structure of the Tunka terrane. The gneisses, which are hardly mylonitized and include boudins of garnet-amphibolite, which are intruded by migmatite veins. The gneiss nappes are thrust on the red Carboniferous conglomerates and sandstones of the Sagansair Formation, which is a synorogenic continental molasse. Zircon grains were extracted from the gneissic units and dated by ICP-MS (U/Pb). All the dated grains are (sub)rounded, mostly unzoned, however, several grains display core and rims. The U/Pb dating yielded the ages of 2.7 - 2.4 Ga in the cores and 2.0 - 1.7 Ga in the rims. The gneiss nappe is one of a package of several nappes, all thrust over the Siberian Craton to the north. The gneisses nappe is thrust over the tectonically emplaced metacarbonate cover of the TM microcontinent. We suggest that these gneissic units are an eastern fragment of the TM microcontinent basement. Exhumation of the gneiss nappe consequently possibly took place during a Late Carboniferous - Early Permian orogenic event that (re)deformed the entire Ordovician orogenic edifice. That thick-skin tectonism not only involved the detached sedimentary cover, but clearly affected the underlying gneissic basement as well.

Zhimulev, Fedor; Safonova, Inna; Ryabinin, Alexander; Buslov, Mikhail

2010-05-01

271

Temporal and spatial variability of groundwater recharge on Jeju Island, Korea  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Baseline mean island-wide groundwater recharge was computed as 884 mm year-1.Baseline recharge rate was computed as 42% and below previous estimates of 44-48%.Recharge estimates are conservative and do not include irrigation or other sources.

Mair, Alan; Hagedorn, Benjamin; Tillery, Suzanne; El-Kadi, Aly I.; Westenbroek, Stephen; Ha, Kyoochul; Koh, Gi-Won

2013-09-01

272

Assessing the Impact of Land Use on Groundwater Recharge in the Southern High Plains  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although it is widely recognized that land use and land use changes can have a significant impact on the near surface water budget and groundwater recharge, field studies documenting the impact of land use on recharge are limited. The purpose of this study was to determine the role of land use on groundwater recharge using electromagnetic induction, soil physics (water

R. C. Reedy; B. R. Scanlon

2003-01-01

273

Impact of Land use Change From Natural to Agricultural Ecosystems on Groundwater Recharge  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recharge is a critical component of the water cycle for groundwater resources. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the impact of land use changes from natural to agricultural ecosystems on groundwater recharge in the Amargosa Desert, Nevada and Southern High Plains, Texas. A variety of approaches were used to evaluate groundwater recharge, including noninvasive electromagnetic induction, matric potential

B. R. Scanlon; R. C. Reedy; D. A. Stonestrom

2004-01-01

274

A battery recharge model for WSNs using Free-Space Optics (FSO)  

Microsoft Academic Search

One of the most critical limiting factor for a Wireless Sensor Network (WSN) is its battery life. Therefore, a very desirable feature of WSN would be its rechargability to remain operational over longer period of times. However, the nodes needing recharge may not be accessible. In this paper, we present a battery recharge model in WSNs for inaccessible or hard

Muhammd Imran Afzal; Waqar Mahmood; Ali Hammad Akbar

2008-01-01

275

Control circuit for a solar-powered rechargeable power source and load  

SciTech Connect

A solar rechargeable apparatus is described comprising: a rechargeable power source; a solar panel connected to the rechargeable power source for supplying a charging current to the rechargeable power source; a device connected between the rechargeable power source and the solar panel to prevent discharge of current from the rechargeable power source to the solar panel; a load; and a switching circuit connected between the load and the rechargeable power source and responsive to the potential of the solar panel and the potential of the rechargeable power source, the switching circuit operatively adapted to permit current to flow from the rechargeable power source through the load when the potential across the solar panel is less than the potential across the rechargeable power source, and further in which the switching circuit is further characterized as operatively adapted to permit current to flow from the rechargeable power source through the load when the potential across the solar panel is less than the combined potential across the rechargeable power source and a predetermined potential.

Janda, R.W.; Douglas, J.L.; Condon, E.F. Jr.

1993-06-22

276

Role of vegetation in interplay of climate, soil and groundwater recharge in a global dataset  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Groundwater is an essential resource for people and ecosystems worldwide. Our capacity to ameliorate predicted global water shortages and to maintain sustainable water supplies depend on a better understanding of the controls of recharge and how vegetation change may affect recharge mechanisms. The goals of this study are to quantify the importance of vegetation as a dominant control on recharge globally and to compare the importance of vegetation with other hydrologically important variables, including climate and soil. We based our global analysis on > 500 recharge estimates from the literature that contained information on vegetation, soil and climate or location. Plant functional types significantly affected groundwater recharge rates substantially. After climatic factors (water inputs, PET, and seasonality), vegetation types explained about 15% of the residuals in the dataset. Across all climatic factors, croplands had the highest recharge rates, followed by grasslands, scrublands and woodlands (average recharge: 75, 63, 30, 22 mm/yr respectively). Recharge under woodlands showed the most nonlinear response to water inputs. Differences in recharge between the vegetation types were more exaggerated at arid climates and in clay soils, indicating greater biological control on soil water fluxes in these conditions. Our results shows that vegetation greatly affects recharge rates globally and alters relationship between recharge and physical variables allowing us to better predict recharge rates globally.

Kim, J. H.; Jackson, R. B.

2010-12-01

277

Potential climate change effects on groundwater recharge in the High Plains Aquifer, USA  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Considering that past climate changes have significantly impacted groundwater resources, quantitative predictions of climate change effects on groundwater recharge may be valuable for effective management of future water resources. This study used 16 global climate models (GCMs) and three global warming scenarios to investigate changes in groundwater recharge rates for a 2050 climate relative to a 1990 climate in the U.S. High Plains region. Groundwater recharge was modeled using the Soil-Vegetation-Atmosphere-Transfer model WAVES for a variety of soil and vegetation types representative of the High Plains. The median projection under a 2050 climate includes increased recharge in the Northern High Plains (+8%), a slight decrease in the Central High Plains (-3%), and a larger decrease in the Southern High Plains (-10%), amplifying the current spatial trend in recharge from north to south. There is considerable uncertainty in both the magnitude and direction of these changes in recharge projections. Predicted changes in recharge between dry and wet future climate scenarios encompass both an increase and decrease in recharge rates, with the magnitude of this range greater than 50% of current recharge. On a proportional basis, sensitivity of recharge to changes in rainfall indicates that areas with high current recharge rates are least sensitive to change in rainfall and vice versa. Sensitivity analyses indicate an amplification of change in recharge compared to change in rainfall, and this amplification is in the range of 1-6 with an average of 2.5-3.5 depending upon the global warming scenario.

Crosbie, Russell S.; Scanlon, Bridget R.; Mpelasoka, Freddie S.; Reedy, Robert C.; Gates, John B.; Zhang, Lu

2013-07-01

278

Les vacances des Français  

Microsoft Academic Search

[fre] Depuis 1964, l'INSEE effectue chaque année une enquête sur les vacances. De 1964 à 1977, la proportion des Français qui sont partis en vacances a augmenté de 44 % à 53 %; pendant la période, la part des séjours d'hiver est passée de 15 à 29 %. Il faut remarquer toutefois la baisse du taux de départ entre 1976

Jean Anfré; Jean-Michel Rempp

1978-01-01

279

La structure des verres étudiée par diffraction des neutrons  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

La diffraction des neutrons est une méthode largement utilisée pour déterminer la structure des matériaux amorphes et en particulier des verres. L'utilisation de la méthode de substitution isotopique permet d'extraire les fonctions de distribution de paires partielles centrées autour d'un élément choisi. Nous présentons quelques exemples récents d'études par diffraction des neutrons sur des verres qui ont permis de mieux comprendre à la fois le réseau polymérique de la matrice vitreuse et l'environnement local et à moyenne distance autour des cations. Ces études ont révélées un ordre structural s'étendant au delà des premiers voisins, jusque vers de distances d'environ 10Å. Le couplage avec d'autres méthodes expérimentales (diffraction anormale des rayons X) et des techniques de simulations (dynamique moléculaire, Monte Carlo Inverse ou RMC) sont indispensables pour affiner nos connaissances de la structure des verres.

Cormier, L.

2003-09-01

280

PRINCIPALS OF ORGANIC CONTAMINANT BEHAVIOR DURING ARTIFICIAL RECHARGE  

EPA Science Inventory

The behavior of a variety of organic contaminants having low molecular weight has been observed during groundwater recharge with reclaimed water. The evidence is site-specific, but is believed to have broader implications regarding the general behavior of organic contaminants in ...

281

PRIORITY POLLUTANTS IN THE CEDAR CREEK WASTEWATER RECLAMATION - RECHARGE FACILITIES  

EPA Science Inventory

The Cedar Creek Wastewater Reclamation Plant (CCWRP) located in Nassau County, NY is a 0.24 cu m/s (5.5 mgd) advanced wastewater treatment (AWT) plant designed to produce a high quality effluent suitable for groundwater recharge. The CCWRP was constructed as a demonstration proje...

282

WASTEWATER CONTAMINATE REMOVAL FOR GROUNDWATER RECHARGE AT WATER FACTORY 21  

EPA Science Inventory

This is the second report in a series which describes the performance of Water Factory 21, a 0.66 cu m/s advanced wastewater treatment plant designed to reclaim secondary effluent from a municipal wastewater treatment plant so that it can be used for injection and recharge of a g...

283

Carbon materials for lithium-ion rechargeable batteries  

Microsoft Academic Search

The recent development of lithium rechargeable batteries results from the use of carbon materials as lithium reservoir at the negative electrode. Reversible intercalation, or insertion, of lithium into the carbon host lattice avoids the problem of lithium dendrite formation and provides large improvement in terms of cycleability and safety. This paper reviews the main achievements on performance and understanding of

S. Flandrois; B. Simon

1999-01-01

284

Moderate temperature rechargeable NaNiS2 cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

A rechargeable sodium battery of the configuration, liquid Na\\/beta double prime -Al2O3\\/molten NaAlCl4, NiS2, operating in the temperature range of 170 to 190 C, is described. This battery is capable of delivering or = to 50 W-hr\\/1b and 1000 deep discharge\\/charge cycles.

K. M. Abraham

1983-01-01

285

Moderate temperature rechargeable NaNiS2 cells  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A rechargeable sodium battery of the configuration, liquid Na/beta double prime -Al2O3/molten NaAlCl4, NiS2, operating in the temperature range of 170 to 190 C, is described. This battery is capable of delivering or = to 50 W-hr/1b and 1000 deep discharge/charge cycles.

Abraham, K. M.

1983-10-01

286

Effects of recharge wells and flow barriers on seawater intrusion.  

PubMed

The installation of recharge wells and subsurface flow barriers are among several strategies proposed to control seawater intrusion on coastal groundwater systems. In this study, we performed laboratory-scale experiments and numerical simulations to determine the effects of the location and application of recharge wells, and of the location and penetration depth of flow barriers, on controlling seawater intrusion in unconfined coastal aquifers. We also compared the experimental results with existing analytical solutions. Our results showed that more effective saltwater repulsion is achieved when the recharge water is injected at the toe of the saltwater wedge. Point injection yields about the same repulsion compared with line injection from a screened well for the same recharge rate. Results for flow barriers showed that more effective saltwater repulsion is achieved with deeper barrier penetration and with barriers located closer to the coast. When the flow barrier is installed inland from the original toe position however, saltwater intrusion increases with deeper barrier penetration. Saltwater repulsion due to flow barrier installation was found to be linearly related to horizontal barrier location and a polynomial function of the barrier penetration depth. PMID:20533955

Luyun, Roger; Momii, Kazuro; Nakagawa, Kei

287

Rechargeable lithium batteries in the Navy-policy and protocol  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rechargeable lithium batteries are an emerging technology that is finding widespread use in a myriad of applications. These batteries are supplanting many others because of superior performance characteristics, including high energy density and improved cycle life. The newest model laptop computers, camcorders and cellular phones are using these systems to provide lighter products with longer battery life. Potential military-use scenarios

Julie A. Banner; Clinton S. Winchester

1996-01-01

288

Issue and challenges facing rechargeable thin film lithium batteries  

Microsoft Academic Search

New materials hold the key to fundamental advances in energy conversion and storage, both of which are vital in order to meet the challenge of global warming and the finite nature of fossil fuels. Nanomaterials in particular offer unique properties or combinations of properties as electrodes and electrolytes in a range of energy devices. Technological improvements in rechargeable solid-state batteries

Arun Patil; Vaishali Patil; Dong Wook Shin; Ji-Won Choi; Dong-Soo Paik; Seok-Jin Yoon

2008-01-01

289

Application of electrochemically formed polyazulene to rechargeable lithium battery  

Microsoft Academic Search

An electrochemically formed polyazulene(PAz), one of the electroconductive polycyclic hydrocarbons, was studied for its electrochemical properties in order to examine the possibility of utilizing it as a cathode active material of rechargeable lithium battery. The electrode kinetics of PAz film electrode, especially the anion doping-undoping process, were investigated mainly with cyclic voltammetry and FFT impedance method. The cyclic voltammetric results

Tetsuya Osaka; K. Naoi; T. Hirabayashi

1987-01-01

290

GIS for the assessment of the groundwater recharge potential zone  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Water resources in Taiwan are unevenly distributed in spatial and temporal domains. Effectively utilizing the water resources is an imperative task due to climate change. At present, groundwater contributes 34% of the total annual water supply and is an important fresh water resource. However, over-exploitation has decreased groundwater availability and has led to land subsidence. Assessing the potential zone of groundwater recharge is extremely important for the protection of water quality and the management of groundwater systems. The Chih-Pen Creek basin in eastern Taiwan is examined in this study to assess its groundwater resources potential. Remote sensing and the geographical information system (GIS) are used to integrate five contributing factors: lithology, land cover/land use, lineaments, drainage, and slope. The weights of factors contributing to the groundwater recharge are derived using aerial photos, geology maps, a land use database, and field verification. The resultant map of the groundwater potential zone demonstrates that the highest recharge potential area is located towards the downstream regions in the basin because of the high infiltration rates caused by gravelly sand and agricultural land use in these regions. In contrast, the least effective recharge potential area is in upstream regions due to the low infiltration of limestone.

Yeh, Hsin-Fu; Lee, Cheng-Haw; Hsu, Kuo-Chin; Chang, Po-Hsun

2009-07-01

291

GIS for the Assessment of the Groundwater Recharge Potential Zone  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Water resources in Taiwan are unevenly distributed in spatial and temporal domains. Effectively utilizing the water resources is an imperative task due to climate change. At present, groundwater contributes 34% of the total annual water supply and is an important fresh water resource. However, over-exploitation has decreased groundwater availability and has led to land subsidence. Assessing the potential zone of groundwater recharge is extremely important for the protection of water quality and the management of groundwater systems. The Chih-Pen Creek basin in eastern Taiwan is examined in this study to assess its groundwater resources potential. Remote sensing and the Geographical Information System (GIS) are used to integrate five contributing factors: lithology, land cover/land use, lineaments, drainage, and slope. The weights of factors contributing to the groundwater recharge are derived using aerial photos, geology maps, a land use database, and field verification. The resultant map of the groundwater potential zone demonstrates that the highest recharge potential area is located towards the downstream regions in the basin because of the high infiltration rates caused by gravelly sand and agricultural land use in these regions. In contrast, the least effective recharge potential area is in upstream regions due to the low infiltration of limestone.

Lee, C.; Yeh, H.; Chen, J.; Hsu, K.

2008-12-01

292

Bubble plumes generated during recharge of basaltic magma reservoirs  

Microsoft Academic Search

CO2 is relatively insoluble in basaltic magma at low crustal pressures. It therefore exists as a gas phase in the form of bubbles in shallow crustal reservoirs. Over time these bubbles may separate gravitationally from the magma in the chamber. As a result, any new magma which recharges the chamber from deeper in the crust may be more bubble-rich and

J. C. Phillips; A. W. Woods

2001-01-01

293

LOCALIZED RECHARGE INFLUENCES ON MTBE TRANSPORT AND WELL PLACEMENT CONSIDERATIONS  

EPA Science Inventory

Vertical characterization of a gasoline release site at East Patchogue, New York showed that methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) and aromatic plumes "dived" as they passed beneath a sand pit. That this behavior was caused by aquifer recharge was shown by two pieces of evidence. Fir...

294

System and circuit for charging a rechargeable battery  

Microsoft Academic Search

A system and circuit for charging a rechargeable battery from an external source of direct current is provided wherein the circuit includes an indicator for indicating the passage of charge current through the circuit. The circuit precludes the indicator from providing a false indication of the passage of charging current.

Mullersman

1984-01-01

295

System and circuit for charging a rechargeable battery  

SciTech Connect

A system and circuit for charging a rechargeable battery from an external source of direct current is provided wherein the circuit includes an indicator for indicating the passage of charge current through the circuit. The circuit precludes the indicator from providing a false indication of the passage of charging current.

Mullersman, F. H.

1984-12-25

296

Rechargeable battery and electrical circuit for charging thereof  

SciTech Connect

This patent describes a nickel-cadmium rechargeable cell for use in an energy-using device having at least one charging terminal contact for recharging the cell. The energy-using device adapted to alternately receive either a standard cylindrical AA, AAA, C or D size non-rechargeable cell has a pair of power terminal contacts spaced apart by a standard distance. The rechargeable cell comprises: a hollow cylindrical cell container one end of which provides an axially facing negative power terminal contact; a cell cover disposed at the other end of the cylindrical cell and electrically insulated form the container and the cover cooperating with the container to seal the interior of the cell from the environment external thereto. The cover has a positive power terminal contact surface spaced apart from the negative power terminal contact by a distance equal to the standard distance, the cover further having a terminal extension carried by the cover and extending axially away from the cell container. The terminal extension has a terminal extension charging contact surface adapted to engage the charging terminal contact of the energy-using device, the surface spaced apart from the negative power terminal contact by a distance greater than the standard distance.

Toops, K.E.

1987-02-24

297

A Wireless Power Interface for Rechargeable Battery Operated Medical Implants  

Microsoft Academic Search

This brief presents a highly integrated wirelessly powered battery charging circuit for miniature lithium (Li)-ion rechargeable batteries used in medical implant applications. An inductive link and integrated Schottky barrier rectifying diodes are used to extract the DC signal from a power carrier while providing low forward voltage drop for improved efficiency. The battery charger employs a new control loop that

Pengfei Li; Rizwan Bashirullah

2007-01-01

298

Hysteresis in Thin-Film Rechargeable Lithium Batteries.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Discharge - charge cycling of thin-film rechargeable lithium batteries with an amorphous or nanocrystalline LiXMn2.Y04 cathode reveals evidence for a true hysteresis in the lithium insertion reaction. This is compared with an apparent hysteresis attribute...

J. B. Bates N. J. Dudney C. D. Evans F. X. Hart

1999-01-01

299

High power, rechargeable, pile type silver zinc battery  

Microsoft Academic Search

This patent describes a high rate rechargeable silver-zinc pile type battery including a plurality of bipolar electrodes which are assembled into a full scale multi-cell pile. Each of bipolar electrodes includes a positive side having a porous silver matrix attached to silver foil and a negative side having a porous zinc structure vapor deposited on silver foil. A separator including

L. R. Erisman; R. A. Marsh

1978-01-01

300

Separation composition evaluation in model rechargeable silver-zinc cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

In previous reports, the evaluation of Viskase sausage casings (SCs) in a variety of configurations for silver\\/zinc rechargeable cells has been reported. The conclusions have been that several layers of SC, while providing improved resistance to silver migration acid zinc dendrite growth compared to standard cellophane film, also impart increased internal impedance which leads to faster capacity loss in comparison

H. Lewis; S. Henderson; T. Danko

2001-01-01

301

Uncertainty in Climatology-Based Estimates of Shallow Groundwater Recharge  

Microsoft Academic Search

The groundwater recharge (GR) estimates for flow and transport projections are often evaluated as a fixed percentage of average annual precipitation. The chemical transport in variably saturated heterogeneous porous media is not linearly related to the average velocity. The objective of this study was to estimate the variability in annual, seasonal, and event-based GR at the field scale and to

A. K. Guber; Y. Pachepsky; T. J. Gish; T. J. Nicholson; R. R. Cady

2007-01-01

302

Trench infiltration for managed aquifer recharge to permeable bedrock  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Managed aquifer recharge to permeable bedrock is increasingly being utilized to enhance resources and maintain sustainable groundwater development practices. One such target is the Navajo Sandstone, an extensive regional aquifer located throughout the Colorado Plateau of the western United States. Spreading-basin and bank-filtration projects along the sandstone outcrop's western edge in southwestern Utah have recently been implemented to meet growth-related water demands. This paper reports on a new cost-effective surface-infiltration technique utilizing trenches for enhancing managed aquifer recharge to permeable bedrock. A 48-day infiltration trench experiment on outcropping Navajo Sandstone was conducted to evaluate this alternative surface-spreading artificial recharge method. Final infiltration rates through the bottom of the trench were about 0.5 m/day. These infiltration rates were an order of magnitude higher than rates from a previous surface-spreading experiment at the same site. The higher rates were likely caused by a combination of factors including the removal of lower permeability soil and surficial caliche deposits, access to open vertical sandstone fractures, a reduction in physical clogging associated with silt and biofilm layers, minimizing viscosity effects by maintaining isothermal conditions, minimizing chemical clogging caused by carbonate mineral precipitation associated with algal photosynthesis, and diminished gas clogging associated with trapped air and biogenic gases. This pilot study illustrates the viability of trench infiltration for enhancing surface spreading of managed aquifer recharge to permeable bedrock. ?? 2010.

Heilweil, V. M.; Watt, D. E.

2011-01-01

303

A rechargeable non-aqueous Mg-O2 battery.  

PubMed

We propose a catalytic cycle using the iodine-dimethylsulfoxide (I2-DMSO) complex for the realization of secondary Mg-O2 batteries. We have demonstrated that the Mg-O2 battery incorporating an I2-DMSO complex electrolyte showed evidence of being rechargeable. PMID:23985777

Shiga, Tohru; Hase, Yoko; Kato, Yuichi; Inoue, Masae; Takechi, Kensuke

2013-08-29

304

Electrolytes for rechargeable lithium batteries. Research and development technical report  

SciTech Connect

Theoretical considerations predict increased stability of cyclic ethers and diethers against reductive cleavage by lithium if the ethers have 2 methyl substitution. Diethers are solvents with low viscosity which are desirable for high rate rechargeable lithium batteries. Synergistic, mixed solvent effects increase electrolyte conductance and rate capability of lithium intercalating cathodes.

Hunger, H.F.

1981-09-01

305

Climate change effects on vegetation characteristics and groundwater recharge  

Microsoft Academic Search

Climate change is among the most pressing issues of our time. Increase in temperature, a decrease in summer precipitation and increase in reference evapotranspiration might affect the water balance, freshwater availability and the spatial distribution and type of vegetation. Precipitation and evapotranspiration (ET) largely determine groundwater recharge. Therefore, climate change likely affects both the spatial and temporal freshwater availability for

2010-01-01

306

A polymer electrolyte-based rechargeable lithium\\/oxygen battery  

Microsoft Academic Search

A novel rechargeable Li\\/Oâ battery is reported. It comprises a Li{sup +} conductive organic polymer electrolyte membrane sandwiched by a thin Li metal foil anode, and a thin carbon composite electrode on which oxygen, the electroactive cathode material, accessed from the environment, is reduced during discharge to generate electric power. It features an all solid state design in which electrode

K. M. Abraham; Z. Jiang

1996-01-01

307

Climate Change Effects on Yucca Mountain Region Groundwater Recharge  

Microsoft Academic Search

Groundwater geochemical data from 211 sampling locations in the Amargosa Desert region are analyzed to better understand the general flow system and climate-induced changes in recharge around Fortymile Wash near Yucca Mountain. Major ion groundwater chemistry was examined using the multivariate statistical methods of principal component analysis and k-means cluster analysis. These analyses showed several groundwater signatures, or potential flowpaths;

Arturo Woocay; John C. Walton

2006-01-01

308

Potential for Recharge in Agricultural Soils of the Mississippi Delta  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ground water models predict that 5 percent or less of precipitation in the Mississippi Delta region recharges the heavily-used alluvial aquifer; however the presence of agricultural chemicals in ground water suggests more substantial recharge. In a preliminary assessment of the potential for aerial recharge through the agricultural soils of the Bogue Phalia basin in the Mississippi Delta, we applied a method for rapidly measuring field- saturated hydraulic conductivity (Kfs) in 26 locations in cotton and soybean fields. The technique makes use of a portable falling-head, small-diameter, single-ring infiltrometer and an analytical formula for Kfs that compensates both for falling head and for subsurface radial spreading. Soil samples were also collected at the surface and at about 6 cm depth at each location for particle size analysis. Kfs values are generally higher than anticipated and vary over more than three orders of magnitude from 1x10-2 to 5x10-6 cm/s. There is also a correlation between Kfs and mean particle size which may prove useful in generalizing recharge rates over larger areas. A 2-m ring infiltration test is planned that will include the use of tracers and subsurface instruments for measuring water content and matric potential from the near surface to about 5 m to evaluate flow and transport below the root zone.

Perkins, K. S.; Nimmo, J. R.; Coupe, R. H.; Rose, C. E.; Manning, M. A.

2007-12-01

309

Lithium-Air Battery: Study of Rechargeability and Scalability.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Lithium-air battery is anticipated as the battery with highest energy density among all existing rechargeable battery systems known now. Literature reports suggest that the theoretical energy density of Li-air battery is close to that of gasoline. Thus, i...

M. Nookala

2012-01-01

310

Rechargeable zinc air batteries market and technology overview  

Microsoft Academic Search

AER Energy Resources is an Atlanta based technology company that has developed a rechargeable zinc air battery system. The primary advantage of the AER Energy Advanced Technology Battery is that its energy density on a weight basis is three times that of nickel cadmium, nickel metal hydride and lead acid batteries, and fifty percent higher than lithium ion batteries. This

M. Schimpf

1995-01-01

311

Climate change effects on vegetation characteristics and groundwater recharge  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Climate change is among the most pressing issues of our time. Increase in temperature, a decrease in summer precipitation and increase in reference evapotranspiration might affect the water balance, freshwater availability and the spatial distribution and type of vegetation. Precipitation and evapotranspiration (ET) largely determine groundwater recharge. Therefore, climate change likely affects both the spatial and temporal freshwater availability for nature conservation, agriculture and drinking water supply. Moreover, in the coastal (dune) areas, the groundwater recharge is crucial to the maintenance of the freshwater bell and the dynamics of the fresh - salt interface. Current knowledge, however, is insufficient to estimate reliably the effects of climate change on future freshwater availability. Future groundwater recharge, the driving force of the groundwater system, can only be assessed if we understand how vegetation responds to changing climatic conditions, and how vegetation feedbacks on groundwater recharge through altered actual ET. Although the reference ET (i.e. the ET of a reference vegetation, defined as a short grassland completely covering the soil and optimally provided by water) is predicted to increase, the future actual ET (i.e. the ET of the actual ‘real' vegetation under the ‘real' moisture conditions) is highly unknown. It is the dynamics in the actual ET, however, through which the vegetation feeds back on the groundwater recharge. In an earlier study we showed that increased atmospheric CO2 raises the water use efficiency of plants, thus reducing ET. Here we demonstrate another important vegetation feedback in dune systems: the fraction of bare soil and non-rooting species (lichens and mosses) in the dune vegetation will increase when, according to the expectations, summers become drier. From our calculations it appeared that on south slopes of dunes, which receive more solar radiation and are warmer than north facing surfaces, the fraction of vascular plants may drop from 70 to 20 percent in the future (2050) climate due to increased moisture deficits. ET of bare soil and non-rooting species is much lower than that of vascular plants and thus the vegetation composition feeds back on the soil moisture conditions. Knowledge on such feedback mechanisms is indispensable in the analysis of climate change effects on the future groundwater recharge. Important questions are how, in the course of time, climate change will affect both groundwater table depth and dynamics, and how water management could adapt to these changes. We pursue a dynamic modeling approach that takes account of the interacting processes in the soil-plant-atmosphere system, including feedback mechanisms of the vegetation. This allows us to analyze climate change effects on groundwater recharge and thus future freshwater availability.

(Flip) Witte, J. P. M.; (Ruud) Bartholomeus, R. P.; (Gijsbert) Cirkel, D. G.

2010-05-01

312

La structure des solutions aqueuses  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

En commençant par l'étude par diffraction neutronique de la structure des liquides moléculaires puis de l'hydratation des ions en solution, ce cours montrera comment les principes présentés lors des cours précédents peuvent être appliqués à des systèmes aqueux. Des exemples tirés de la littérature seront utilisés pour illustrer les considérations expérimentales propre à ce domaine et le genre d'informations que nous pouvons obtenir. Ce cours montrera également l'applicaton de la diffraction neutronique à des systèmes d'intérêt biologique et environnemental et se terminera par un examen de la complémentarité fournie par la diffraction des rayons X, l'EXAFS et la RMN.

Powell, D. H.

2003-09-01

313

Ecohydrologic process modeling of mountain block groundwater recharge.  

PubMed

Regional mountain block recharge (MBR) is a key component of alluvial basin aquifer systems typical of the western United States. Yet neither water scientists nor resource managers have a commonly available and reasonably invoked quantitative method to constrain MBR rates. Recent advances in landscape-scale ecohydrologic process modeling offer the possibility that meteorological data and land surface physical and vegetative conditions can be used to generate estimates of MBR. A water balance was generated for a temperate 24,600-ha mountain watershed, elevation 1565 to 3207 m, using the ecosystem process model Biome-BGC (BioGeochemical Cycles) (Running and Hunt 1993). Input data included remotely sensed landscape information and climate data generated with the Mountain Climate Simulator (MT-CLIM) (Running et al. 1987). Estimated mean annual MBR flux into the crystalline bedrock terrain is 99,000 m(3) /d, or approximately 19% of annual precipitation for the 2003 water year. Controls on MBR predictions include evapotranspiration (radiation limited in wet years and moisture limited in dry years), soil properties, vegetative ecotones (significant at lower elevations), and snowmelt (dominant recharge process). The ecohydrologic model is also used to investigate how climatic and vegetative controls influence recharge dynamics within three elevation zones. The ecohydrologic model proves useful for investigating controls on recharge to mountain blocks as a function of climate and vegetation. Future efforts will need to investigate the uncertainty in the modeled water balance by incorporating an advanced understanding of mountain recharge processes, an ability to simulate those processes at varying scales, and independent approaches to calibrating MBR estimates. PMID:19702780

Magruder, Ian A; Woessner, William W; Running, Steve W

2009-08-20

314

Classification of ground-water recharge potential in three parts of Santa Cruz County, California  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Ground-water recharge potential was classified in the Santa Cruz coastal area, North-central area, and Soquel-Aptos area in Santa Cruz County, Calif., for three data elements that affect recharge; slope, soils, and geology. Separate numerical maps for each element were composited into a single numerical map using a classification system that ranked the numbers into areas of good , fair, and poor recharge potential. Most of the Santa Cruz coastal area and the Norht-central area have a poor recharge potential, and much of the Soquel-Aptos area has a good to fair recharge potential. (Kosco-USGS)

Muir, K. S.; Johnson, Michael J.

1979-01-01

315

An overview of experiences of basin artificial recharge of ground water in Japan  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, the author reviews the present situation of basin artificial recharge of ground water (MAR: managed aquifer recharge) as of 2007 in Japan. Most of the artificial recharge of basin method is carried out using alluvial fans. The enhancing groundwater resources in the Rokugo alluvial aquifer has resulted in sustainability for the groundwater environment, especially in the distal fan. As a general judgment, the basin artificial recharge contributes to sustainable aquifer management in alluvium. As a result of this review, the basin artificial recharge will be utilized more in the future, not only in Japan, but in monsoon Asian countries as well.

Hida, Noboru

316

Process for recharging secondary batteries. [Vapor transport of S during recharging improved by maintaining temperature gradient in cathodic reaction zone  

Microsoft Academic Search

An improved process is described for recharging secondary cells or batteries of the type which in the discharged state comprise (a) an anodic reaction zone containing a molten alkali metal reactant-anode in electrical contact with an external circuit; (b) a cathodic reaction zone containing (1) cathodic reactants selected from the group consisting of (i) a single-phase composition comprising molten polysulfide

R. W. Minck; N. Weber; Y. Chang

1976-01-01

317

Probabilistic analysis of the effects of climate change on groundwater recharge  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Groundwater recharge is likely to be affected by climate change. In semiarid regions where groundwater resources are often critical, annual recharge rates are typically small and most recharge occurs episodically. Such episodic recharge is uncertain and difficult to predict. This paper analyzes the impacts of different climate predictions on diffuse episodic recharge at a low-relief semiarid rain-fed agricultural area. The analysis relies on a probabilistic approach that explicitly accounts for uncertainties in meteorological forcing and in soil and vegetation properties. An ensemble of recharge forecasts is generated from Monte Carlo simulations of a study site in the southern High Plains, United States. Soil and vegetation parameter realizations are conditioned on soil moisture and soil water chloride observations (Ng et al., 2009). A stochastic weather generator provides realizations of meteorological time series for climate alternatives from different general circulation models. For most climate alternatives, predicted changes in average recharge (spanning -75% to +35%) are larger than the corresponding changes in average precipitation (spanning -25% to +20%). This suggests that amplification of climate change impacts may occur in groundwater systems. Predictions also include varying changes in the frequency and magnitude of recharge events. The temporal distribution of precipitation change (over seasons and rain events) explains most of the variability in predictions of recharge totals and episodic occurrence. The ensemble recharge analysis presented in this study offers a systematic approach to investigating interactions between uncertainty and nonlinearities in episodic recharge.

Ng, Gene-Hua Crystal; McLaughlin, Dennis; Entekhabi, Dara; Scanlon, Bridget R.

2010-07-01

318

A New Method for Estimating Recharge to Unconfined Aquifers Using Differential River Gauging.  

PubMed

In semiarid and arid environments, leakage from rivers is a major source of recharge to underlying unconfined aquifers. Differential river gauging is widely used to estimate the recharge. However, the methods commonly applied are limited in that the temporal resolution is event-scale or longer. In this paper, a novel method is presented for quantifying both the total recharge volume for an event, and variation in recharge rate during an event from hydrographs recorded at the upstream and downstream ends of a river reach. The proposed method is applied to river hydrographs to illustrate the method steps and investigate recharge processes occurring in a sub-catchment of the Murray Darling Basin (Australia). Interestingly, although it is the large flood events which are commonly assumed to be the main source of recharge to an aquifer, our analysis revealed that the smaller flow events were more important in providing recharge. PMID:23550897

McCallum, Andrew M; Andersen, Martin S; Acworth, R Ian

2013-04-01

319

Hydrometeorological daily recharge assessment model (DREAM) for the Western Mountain Aquifer, Israel: Model application and effects of temporal patterns  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recharge is a critical issue for water management. Recharge assessment and the factors affecting recharge are of scientific and practical importance. The purpose of this study was to develop a daily recharge assessment model (DREAM) on the basis of a water balance principle with input from conventional and generally available precipitation and evaporation data and demonstrate the application of this

N. A. Sheffer; E. Dafny; H. Gvirtzman; S. Navon; A. Frumkin; E. Morin

2010-01-01

320

Combined estimation of specific yield and natural recharge in a semi-arid groundwater basin with irrigated agriculture  

Microsoft Academic Search

A water budget approach is developed to jointly estimate specific yield and natural recharge in an unconfined aquifer with significant seasonal water table fluctuations. Water table fluctuations are due to distinct seasonality in groundwater recharge. The separation of the hydrologic year into two (or more) extended seasons of recharge (wet season) and no-recharge (dry season) with accompanying changes in water

J. C. Maréchal; B. Dewandel; S. Ahmed; L. Galeazzi; F. K. Zaidi

2006-01-01

321

Zur Physiologie des Liegens  

Microsoft Academic Search

Zusammenfassung  Durch Unterwasseraufnahmen wird die Winkelstellung in Hüfte und Knie bei maximaler Entspannung ermittelt sowie die Abhängigkeit des Kniewinkels vom Hüftwinkel bei Zwischenstellungen zwischen Sitzen und Liegen. Die gewonnenen Unterlagen können für die zweckmäßige Konstruktion von Liegestühlen verwendet werden.

Gunther Lehmann

1940-01-01

322

Anatomophysiologie des algies pudendales  

Microsoft Academic Search

Résumé  Les algies pudendales sont périnéales de type tronculaire et somatique. Elles siègent dans le territoire du nerf atteint et\\u000a sont positionnelles, ce qui évoque un phénomène de compression lors de la position assise. L’anatomophysiologie de ces douleurs\\u000a met l’accent sur plusieurs items: a) définition et innervation du périnée; b) étude du parcours des voies de la douleur; étude\\u000a des structures

R. Robert; Y. Beaudic; O. Hamel; M. Khalfallah; J.-J. Labat; T. Riant

2007-01-01

323

Ground-Water Recharge from Small Intermittent Streams in the Western Mojave Desert, California  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Population growth has impacted ground-water resources in the western Mojave Desert, where declining water levels suggest that recharge rates have not kept pace with withdrawals. Recharge from the Mojave River, the largest hydrographic feature in the study area, is relatively well characterized. In contrast, recharge from numerous smaller streams that convey runoff from the bounding mountains is poorly characterized. The current study examined four representative streams to assess recharge from these intermittent sources. Hydraulic, thermal, geomorphic, chemical, and isotopic data were used to study recharge processes, from streamflow generation and infiltration to percolation through the unsaturated zone. Ground-water movement away from recharge areas was also assessed. Infiltration in amounts sufficient to have a measurable effect on subsurface temperature profiles did not occur in every year in instrumented study reaches. In addition to streamflow availability, results showed the importance of sediment texture in controlling infiltration and eventual recharge. Infiltration amounts of about 0.7 meters per year were an approximate threshold for the occurrence of ground-water recharge. Estimated travel times through the thick unsaturated zones underlying channels reached several hundred years. Recharging fluxes were influenced by stratigraphic complexity and depositional dynamics. Because of channel meandering, not all water that penetrates beneath the root zone can be assumed to become recharge on active alluvial fans. Away from study washes, elevated chloride concentrations and highly negative water potentials beneath the root zone indicated negligible recharge from direct infiltration of precipitation under current climatic conditions. In upstream portions of washes, generally low subsurface chloride concentrations and near-zero water potentials indicated downward movement of water toward the water table, driven primarily by gravity. Recharging conditions did not extend to the distal ends of all washes. Where urbanization had concentrated spatially distributed runoff into a small number of fixed channels, enhanced infiltration induced recharging conditions, mobilizing accumulated chloride. Estimated amounts of ground-water recharge from the studied reaches were small. Extrapolating on the basis of drainage areas, the estimated aggregate recharge from small intermittent streams is minor compared to recharge from the Mojave River. Recharge is largely controlled by streamflow availability, which primarily reflects precipitation patterns. Precipitation in the Mojave Desert is strongly controlled by topography. Cool moist air masses from the Pacific Ocean are mostly blocked from entering the desert by the high mountains bordering its southern edge. Storms do, however, readily enter the region through Cajon Pass. These storms generate flow in the Mojave River that often reaches Afton Canyon, more than 150 kilometers downstream. The isotopic composition of ground water reflects the localization of recharge beneath the Mojave River. Similar processes occur near San Gorgonio Pass, 75 kilometers southeast from Cajon Pass along the bounding San Andreas Fault.

Izbicki, John A.; Johnson, Russell U.; Kulongoski, Justin; Predmore, Steven

2007-01-01

324

Early Cambrian oceanic plagiogranite in the Silvretta Nappe, eastern Alps: geochemical, zircon U-Pb and Rb-Sr data from garnet-hornblende-plagioclase gneisses  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Garnet-hornblende-plagioclase gneisses rich in incompatible elements occur in the crystalline basement of the Austro-Alpine Silvretta nappe and are associated with clinopyroxene norites and harzburgite cumulates. It is proposed here that the gneisses were formerly oceanic plagiogranites. An ?Nd(530) value of +5.6 for the gneisses as well as initial87Sr/86Sr values of 0.7036 0.7037 for the gabbroic rocks and 0.7026 0.7027 for the ultramafic rocks suggest a mantle source for this rock association. The geochemical characteristics of the garnet-hornblende-plagioclase gneisses indicate that their precursors were derived by fractional crystallization from a basaltic parent magma, by the same process which produced the adjacent clinopyroxene norites and ultramafic cumulates as well. The combined U-Pb upper intercept ages of zircons from two gneiss samples yield an igneous crystallization age of 532 ± 30 Ma, similar to previously dated (mostly calcalkaline) orthogneisses in the same area. High-quality transparent zircons showed the least degree of discordance, but contain extremely low U and Pb levels. The rock suite, including this plagiogranite, was emplaced within oceanic crust which formed in the latest Precambrian-early Palaeozoic off the northern continental margin of Gondwana.

Müller, Bernhard; Schaltegger, Urs; Klötzli, Urs; Flisch, Markus

1996-12-01

325

Early Cambrian oceanic plagiogranite in the Silvretta Nappe, eastern Alps: geochemical, zircon U-Pb and Rb-Sr data from garnet-hornblende-plagioclase gneisses  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Garnet-hornblende-plagioclase gneisses rich in incompatible elements occur in the crystalline basement of the Austro-Alpine Silvretta nappe and are associated with clinopyroxene norites and harzburgite cumulates. It is proposed here that the gneisses were formerly oceanic plagiogranites. An ?Nd(530) value of +5.6 for the gneisses as well as initial 87Sr/86Sr values of 0.7036-0.7037 for the gabbroic rocks and 0.7026-0.7027 for the ultramafic rocks suggest a mantle source for this rock association. The geochemical characteristics of the garnet-hornblende-plagioclase gneisses indicate that their precursors were derived by fractional crystallization from a basaltic parent magma, by the same process which produced the adjacent clinopyroxene norites and ultramafic cumulates as well. The combined U-Pb upper intercept ages of zircons from two gneiss samples yield an igneous crystallization age of 532+/-30Ma, similar to previously dated (mostly calc-alkaline) orthogneisses in the same area. High-quality transparent zircons showed the least degree of discordance, but contain extremely low U and Pb levels. The rock suite, including this plagiogranite, was emplaced within oceanic crust which formed in the latest Precambrian-early Palaeozoic off the northern continental margin of Gondwana.

Müller, Bernhard; Klötzli, Urs; Schaltegger, Urs; Flisch, Markus

326

sup 40 Ar/ sup 39 laser-probe dating by step heating and spot fusion of phengites from the Dora Maira nappe of the western Alps, Italy  

SciTech Connect

{sup 40}Ar/{sup 39}Ar laser-probe dating of phengitic micas has been carried out by step-heating and spot-fusion procedures. These micas represent successive deformation stages in the structural evolution of the internal Dora Maira nappe, western Alps. Single phengites from a gneiss affected by a single ductile strain under retrogressive conditions (sample 99.1) display complete isotopic resetting with nearly homogeneous intracrystalline Ar distribution and yield plateau ages of about 40 Ma. Small clusters of phengites from an earlier foliation were selected from a polydeformed mica schist (sample PTX3). They show a partial isotopic resetting in response to overprinting during the retrogressive deformation stage with a concentric age zoning from 68 Ma on the rim to 87 Ma in the core one cleavage plane. This zonation is fully consistent with the laser-derived discordant age spectrum, which ranges from 40 to 90 Ma from low to high temperatures. According to the deformation history of both samples, these preliminary data suggest a deformation control on Ar migration during recrystallization processes, and they are consistent with the timing of the collisional evolution previously reported for southern Dora Maira units. This study shows that the {sup 40}Ar/{sup 39}Ar continuous laser-probe dating technique produces data accurate enough to discriminate several tectonometamorphic episodes recorded in single hand samples.

Scaillet, S.; Feraud, G. (Universite de Nice (France)); Lagabrielle, Y. (Universite de Bretagne Occidentale (France)); Ballevre, M.; Ruffet, G. (Faculte des Sciences, Rennes (France))

1990-08-01

327

Biostratigraphy and paleoenvironment of the Upper Cretaceous deposits in the northern Tarc?u Nappe (Eastern Carpathians) based on foraminifera and calcareous nannoplankton  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Late Cretaceous foraminiferal and calcareous nannoplankton assemblages from the northern part of the Tarc?u Nappe, Hangu Formation in the northern Eastern Carpathians are documented in order to reconstruct paleoenvironmental settings and biostratigraphy. The foraminiferal assemblages are dominated by flysch-type agglutinated taxa suggesting bathyal environments, close to the calcite compensation depth (CCD), and mesotrophic to oligotrophic conditions. The morphogroup analyses display variations in tubular and infaunal morphotypes suggesting different levels of oxygenation and seafloor disturbance caused by currents. Reddish hemipelagites containing only agglutinated foraminifera (dominant infaunal forms) occurring in the middle part of the section suggest an increase of water depth and changes in redox conditions. Based on foraminifera, the deposits were assigned to planktonic Globotruncana ventricosa and agglutinated Caudammina gigantea Zones. The first occurrence of Uniplanarius trifidus and last occurrence of Reinhardtites anthophorus demonstrate the presence of Late Campanian UC15cTP-UC16/CC21-CC23 calcareous nannoplankton Zones. Foraminiferal and nannofossil assemblages in the red beds have a high potential for stratigraphic correlation on a regional scale.

Bindiu, Raluca; Filipescu, Sorin; B?lc, Ramona

2013-04-01

328

Cycle-life sensor for rechargeable lithium batteries. Phase 1  

SciTech Connect

The research addressed the problem of characterizing the state of a rechargeable Li battery as a function of cycle life history. Because all Li batteries are hermetically sealed, researchers chose to evaluate the amount and distribution of Li-electrolyte degradation products in situ by the application of electroanalytical techniques at microelectrodes imbedded in the cell package. Good correlations between Li stripping currents and cycle life were achieved in Li/Li half cells. However, when the electroanalytical technique was employed in Li/TiS2 full cells, no systematic trend was found. Moreover, Li-electrolyte degradation products were found to be either insoluble or electroinactive over the available electrochemical window. Thus, this approach to predicting rechargeable Li battery cycle life has no commercial utility.

Koch, V.R.

1988-08-15

329

Intrinsically safe 5-V, 4-A rechargeable power supply  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The U.S. Bureau of Mines has developed a regulated, intrinsically safe, rechargeable power supply for portable electronic equipment for underground use. The regulated output is ideal for microprocessor power requirements and is suited for operation in hazardous environments. Two rechargeable, sealed batteries are contained within the power supply. Provisions are made to use an external source of power if these batteries fail. Provisions are also made to charge these internal batteries when needed. The circuit is composed of three main circuits: the main regulator circuit, the input protection circuit, and the output protection circuit. The main regulator circuit provides remote voltage sensing, current sensing, fault monitoring, and internal thermal protection. The input protection circuit checks for excessive input current and low battery conditions. The output protection circuit contains two overvoltage detection devices. Schematics, a parts list, and a calibration procedure are provided in the report to enable readers to fabricate the power supply.

Sammarco, John J.

330

Novel electrolyte chemistries for Mg-Ni rechargeable batteries.  

SciTech Connect

Commercial hybrid electric vehicles (HEV) and battery electric vehicles (BEV) serve as means to reduce the nation's dependence on oil. Current electric vehicles use relatively heavy nickel metal hydride (Ni-MH) rechargeable batteries. Li-ion rechargeable batteries have been developed extensively as the replacement; however, the high cost and safety concerns are still issues to be resolved before large-scale production. In this study, we propose a new highly conductive solid polymer electrolyte for Mg-Ni high electrochemical capacity batteries. The traditional corrosive alkaline aqueous electrolyte (KOH) is replaced with a dry polymer with conductivity on the order of 10{sup -2} S/cm, as measured by impedance spectroscopy. Several potential novel polymer and polymer composite candidates are presented with the best-performing electrolyte results for full cell testing and cycling.

Garcia-Diaz, Brenda (Savannah River National Laboratory); Kane, Marie; Au, Ming (Savannah River National Laboratory)

2010-10-01

331

Biomaterials immobilized with chitosan for rechargeable antimicrobial drug delivery.  

PubMed

Microbial contamination on medical device material surfaces causes serious problems including device-related infections. Here we report a new strategy to produce rechargeable antimicrobial biomaterial surfaces to address the issue. Methacrylic acid (MAA) was grafted onto the surfaces of polyurethane (PU), a widely used biomaterial with excellent biological and mechanical properties. Chitosan was covalently bonded onto the MAA-grafted surfaces. The new chitosan-containing PU strongly bound and then slowed release anionic antibiotics (e.g., rifampin) for weeks to months to kill microbes. The released drug could be recharged with the same or a different class of drugs to further extend antimicrobial duration. Also, the new surfaces demonstrated good biocompatibility against mammal cells, pointing to great potentials for a wide range of biomedical applications. PMID:22865542

Lv, Wei; Luo, Jie; Deng, Ying; Sun, Yuyu

2012-08-03

332

Prussian blue containing Nafion composite film as rechargeable battery  

SciTech Connect

A solid-state thin film rechargeable battery has been prepared using a novel efficient technique of ''surface complexation method'' by which a thin layer of Prussian blue (PB) can be overlaid on a solid polymer electrolyte of Nafion (NF) as matrix. An electrochemical cell made of the composite PB-Nf film sandwiched with supporting electrodes was examined on i-V curves in solid state and for characteristics as a rechargeable battery. The resulting PB-Nf battery showed good durability in repetitive cycles of charging and discharging and gave the following results: open-circuit voltage of the unit cell per 160 ..mu..m 0.68V, short-circuit current 0.2-2 mA/cm/sup 2/ depending upon the water content of the Nf matrix, and an energy density of about 50 Wh/kg.

Honda, K.; Hayashi, H.

1987-06-01

333

Intrinsically safe 5-V, 4-A rechargeable power supply  

SciTech Connect

The author reports on a regulated, intrinsically safe, rechargeable power supply for portable electronic equipment for underground use. The regulated output is ideal for microprocessor power requirements and is suited for operation in hazardous environments. Two rechargeable, sealed batteries are contained within the power supply. Provisions are made to use an external source of power if these batteries fail. Provisions are also made to charge these internal batteries when needed. The circuit is composed of three main circuits: the main regulator circuit, the input protection circuit, and the output protection circuit. The main regulator circuit provides remote voltage sensing, current sensing, fault monitoring, and internal thermal protection. The input protection circuit checks for excessive input current and low battery conditions. The output protection circuit contains two overvoltage detection devices. Schematics, a parts list, and a calibration procedure are provided.

Sammarco, J.J.

1989-01-01

334

A polymer electrolyte-based rechargeable lithium/oxygen battery  

SciTech Connect

A novel rechargeable Li/O{sub 2} battery is reported. It comprises a Li{sup +} conductive organic polymer electrolyte membrane sandwiched by a thin Li metal foil anode, and a thin carbon composite electrode on which oxygen, the electroactive cathode material, accessed from the environment, is reduced during discharge to generate electric power. It features an all solid state design in which electrode and electrolyte layers are laminated to form a 200 to 300 {micro}m thick battery cell. The overall cell reaction during discharge appears to be 2Li + O{sub 2} {yields} Li{sub 2}O{sub 2}. It has an open-circuit voltage of about 3 V, and a load voltage that spans between 2 and 2.8 V depending upon the load resistance. The cell can be recharged with good coulombic efficiency using a cobalt phthalocyanine catalyzed carbon electrode.

Abraham, K.M.; Jiang, Z. [EIC Labs., Inc., Norwood, MA (United States)

1996-01-01

335

Water quality management of aquifer recharge using advanced tools.  

PubMed

Managed aquifer recharge (MAR) with recycled water or other alternative resources is one of the most rapidly growing techniques that is viewed as a necessity in water-short areas. In order to better control health and environmental effects of MAR, this paper presents two case studies demonstrating how to improve water quality, enable reliable tracing of injected water and better control and manage MAR operation in the case of indirect and direct aquifer recharge. Two water quality management strategies are illustrated on two full-scale case studies, including the results of the combination of non conventional and advanced technologies for water quality improvement, comprehensive sampling and monitoring programs including emerging pollutants, tracer studies using boron isotopes and integrative aquifer 3D GIS hydraulic and hydrodispersive modelling. PMID:22214066

Lazarova, Valentina; Emsellem, Yves; Paille, Julie; Glucina, Karl; Gislette, Philippe

2011-01-01

336

Using Managed Aquifer Recharge to Remove Contaminants from Water  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Managed aquifer recharge (MAR) is a mechanism that has strong potential to aid in the capture and reuse of water where there is a need for additional resources. It has been employed around the world to improve water resources for local communities and has also been demonstrated to have the potential to improve the quality of recharged water. Information is still lacking, however, on many of the processes impacting the fate and behavior of contaminants such as microbial pathogens, trace organics, and nutrients on anything larger than a local scale. Government regulators, conservation groups, and local communities remain concerned about the applicability of transferring research findings on MAR from one region and nation to another. This paper will examine the current knowledge base and research relating to the fate of pathogens, trace organics, and nutrients during MAR, and discuss the applicability to transfer these findings between regions.

Toze, Imon

337

Using MODFLOW 2000 to model ET and recharge for shallow ground water problems.  

PubMed

In environments with shallow ground water elevation, small changes in the water table can cause significant variations in recharge and evapotranspiration fluxes. Particularly, where ground water is close to the soil surface, both recharge and evapotranspiration are regulated by a thin unsaturated zone and, for accuracy, must be represented using nonconstant and often nonlinear relationships. The most commonly used ground water flow model today, MODFLOW, was originally designed with a modular structure with independent packages representing recharge and evaporation processes. Systems with shallow ground water, however, may be better represented using either a recharge function that varies with ground water depth or a continuous recharge and evapotranspiration function that is dependent on depth to water table. In situations where the boundaries between recharging and nonrecharging cells change with time, such as near a seepage zone, a continuous ground water flux relationship allows recharge rates to change with depth rather than having to calculate them at each stress period. This research article describes the modification of the MODFLOW 2000 recharge and segmented evapotranspiration packages into a continuous recharge-discharge function that allows ground water flux to be represented as a continuous process, dependent on head. The modifications were then used to model long-term recharge and evapotranspiration processes on a saline, semiarid floodplain in order to understand spatial patterns of salinization, and an overview of this process is given. PMID:18624693

Doble, Rebecca C; Simmons, Craig T; Walker, Glen R

2008-06-28

338

Episodic recharge and climate change in the Murray-Darling Basin, Australia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In semi-arid areas, episodic recharge can form a significant part of overall recharge, dependant upon infrequent rainfall events. With climate change projections suggesting changes in future rainfall magnitude and intensity, groundwater recharge in semi-arid areas is likely to be affected disproportionately by climate change. This study sought to investigate projected changes in episodic recharge in arid areas of the Murray-Darling Basin, Australia, using three global warming scenarios from 15 different global climate models (GCMs) for a 2030 climate. Two metrics were used to investigate episodic recharge: at the annual scale the coefficient of variation was used, and at the daily scale the proportion of recharge in the highest 1% of daily recharge. The metrics were proportional to each other but were inconclusive as to whether episodic recharge was to increase or decrease in this environment; this is not a surprising result considering the spread in recharge projections from the 45 scenarios. The results showed that the change in the low probability of exceedance rainfall events was a better predictor of the change in total recharge than the change in total rainfall, which has implications for the selection of GCMs used in impact studies and the way GCM results are downscaled.

Crosbie, Russell S.; McCallum, James L.; Walker, Glen R.; Chiew, Francis H. S.

2012-03-01

339

Scale effects of hydrostratigraphy and recharge zonation on base flow.  

PubMed

Uncertainty regarding spatial variations of model parameters often results in the simplifying assumption that parameters are spatially uniform. However, spatial variability may be important in resource assessment and model calibration. In this paper, a methodology is presented for estimating a critical basin size, above which base flows appear to be relatively less sensitive to the spatial distribution of recharge and hydraulic conductivity, and below which base flows are relatively more sensitive to this spatial variability. Application of the method is illustrated for a watershed that exhibits distinct infiltration patterns and hydrostratigraphic layering. A ground water flow model (MODFLOW) and a parameter estimation code (UCODE) were used to evaluate the influence of recharge zonation and hydrostratigraphic layering on base flow distribution. Optimization after removing spatial recharge variability from the calibrated model altered base flow simulations up to 53% in watersheds smaller than 40 km(2). Merging six hydrostratigraphic units into one unit with average properties increased base flow residuals up to 83% in basins smaller than 50 km(2). Base flow residuals changed <5% in watersheds larger than 40 and 50 km(2) when recharge and hydrostratigraphy were simplified, respectively; thus, the critical basin size for the example area is approximately 40 to 50 km(2). Once identified for an area, a critical basin size could be used to guide the scale of future investigations. By ensuring that parameter discretization needed to capture base flow distribution is commensurate with the scope of the investigation, uncertainty caused by overextending uniform parameterization or by estimating extra parameter values is reduced. PMID:16681517

Juckem, Paul F; Hunt, Randall J; Anderson, Mary P

340

Templated Nanocarbon Black Nanocomposite Electrodes for Rechargeable Lithium Batteries  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this work, the fabrication of high energy density electrode materials for solid-state rechargeable batteries via block copolymer templating schemes was investigated. Atom transfer radical polymerization was used to synthesize the copolymer template poly((oligooxyethylene) methacrylate)-block-poly(butyl methacrylate), POEM-b-PBMA. Continuous, nanoscale phases of vanadium oxide were subsequently grown within the POEM domains of the microphase-separating block copolymer using sol-gel synthesis from a

Ozge Akbulut; Elsa A. Olivetti; Donald R. Sadoway; Anne M. Mayes

2006-01-01

341

Alkaline composite film as a separator for rechargeable lithium batteries  

Microsoft Academic Search

We report a new type of separator film for application in rechargeable lithium and lithium-ion batteries. The films are made\\u000a of mainly alkaline calcium carbonate (CaCO3) and a small amount of polymer binder. Owing to porosity and capillarity, the composite films show excellent wettability\\u000a with non-aqueous liquid electrolytes. Typically, the composite films composed of CaCO3 and Teflon and wetted with

S. S. Zhang; K. Xu; T. R. Jow

2003-01-01

342

Virus fate and transport during artificial recharge with recycled water  

Microsoft Academic Search

A field-scale experiment was conducted at a research site using bacterial viruses (bacteriophage) MS2 and PRD1 as surrogates for human viruses, bromide as a conservative tracer, and tertiary-treated municipal wastewater (recycled water) to investigate the fate and transport of viruses during artificial recharge. Observed virus concentrations were fitted using a mathematical model that simulates virus transport in one-dimensional, homogeneous, water-saturated

Robert Anders; C. V. Chrysikopoulos

2005-01-01

343

Estimating recharge at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, USA: comparison of methods  

Microsoft Academic Search

.   Obtaining values of net infiltration, groundwater travel time, and recharge is necessary at the Yucca Mountain site, Nevada,\\u000a USA, in order to evaluate the expected performance of a potential repository as a containment system for high-level radioactive\\u000a waste. However, the geologic complexities of this site, its low precipitation and net infiltration, with numerous mechanisms\\u000a operating simultaneously to move water

Alan L. Flint; Lorraine E. Flint; Edward M. Kwicklis; June T. Fabryka-Martin; Gudmundur S. Bodvarsson

2002-01-01

344

Estimating recharge at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, USA: Comparison of methods  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Obtaining values of net infiltration, groundwater travel time, and recharge is necessary at the Yucca Mountain site, Nevada, USA, in order to evaluate the expected performance of a potential repository as a containment system for high-level radioactive waste. However, the geologic complexities of this site, its low precipitation and net infiltration, with numerous mechanisms operating simultaneously to move water through the system, provide many challenges for the estimation of the spatial distribution of recharge. A variety of methods appropriate for arid environments has been applied, including water-balance techniques, calculations using Darcy's law in the unsaturated zone, a soil-physics method applied to neutron-hole water-content data, inverse modeling of thermal profiles in boreholes extending through the thick unsaturated zone, chloride mass balance, atmospheric radionuclides, and empirical approaches. These methods indicate that near-surface infiltration rates at Yucca Mountain are highly variable in time and space, with local (point) values ranging from zero to several hundred millimeters per year. Spatially distributed net-infiltration values average 5 mm/year, with the highest values approaching 20 mm/year near Yucca Crest. Site-scale recharge estimates range from less than 1 to about 12 mm/year. These results have been incorporated into a site-scale model that has been calibrated using these data sets that reflect infiltration processes acting on highly variable temporal and spatial scales. The modeling study predicts highly non-uniform recharge at the water table, distributed significantly differently from the non-uniform infiltration pattern at the surface.

Flint, A. L.; Flint, L. E.; Kwicklis, E. M.; Fabryka-Martin, J. T.; Bodvarsson, G. S.

2002-01-01

345

Fluoride content and recharge ability of five glassionomer dental materials  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: The relationship between fluoride content and fluoride release for glass-ionomer cements is not well understood. The aim of this laboratory study was: to determine the fluoride concentrations at the surfaces of glass-ionomer materials with respect to different storage media and different pH environments; to examine the recharge ability of the materials after NaF immersion; and to assess the morphological

Dejan Lj Markovic; Bojan B Petrovic; Tamara O Peric

2008-01-01

346

Spatial and temporal infiltration dynamics during managed aquifer recharge.  

PubMed

Natural groundwater recharge is inherently difficult to quantify and predict, largely because it comprises a series of processes that are spatially distributed and temporally variable. Infiltration ponds used for managed aquifer recharge (MAR) provide an opportunity to quantify recharge processes across multiple scales under semi-controlled conditions. We instrumented a 3-ha MAR infiltration pond to measure and compare infiltration patterns determined using whole-pond and point-specific methods. Whole-pond infiltration was determined by closing a transient water budget (accounting for inputs, outputs, and changes in storage), whereas point-specific infiltration rates were determined using heat as a tracer and time series analysis at eight locations in the base of the pond. Whole-pond infiltration, normalized for wetted area, rose rapidly to more than 1.0 m/d at the start of MAR operations (increasing as pond stage rose), was sustained at high rates for the next 40 d, and then decreased to less than 0.1 m/d by the end of the recharge season. Point-specific infiltration rates indicated high spatial and temporal variability, with the mean of measured values generally being lower than rates indicated by whole-pond calculations. Colocated measurements of head gradients within saturated soils below the pond were combined with infiltration rates to calculate soil hydraulic conductivity. Observations indicate a brief period of increasing saturated hydraulic conductivity, followed by a decrease of one to two orders of magnitude during the next 50 to 75 d. Locations indicating the most rapid infiltration shifted laterally during MAR operation, and we suggest that infiltration may function as a "variable source area" processes, conceptually similar to catchment runoff. PMID:22050208

Racz, Andrew J; Fisher, Andrew T; Schmidt, Calla M; Lockwood, Brian S; Los Huertos, Marc

2011-11-03

347

Hysteresis in Thin-Film Rechargeable Lithium Batteries  

SciTech Connect

Discharge - charge cycling of thin-film rechargeable lithium batteries with an amorphous or nanocrystalline LiXMn2.Y04 cathode reveals evidence for a true hysteresis in the lithium insertion reaction. This is compared with an apparent hysteresis attributed to a kinetically hindered phase transition near 3 V for batteries with either a crystalline or a nanocrystalline LiJ@Yo4 cathode.

Bates, J.B.; Dudney, N.J.; Evans, C.D.; Hart, F.X.

1999-04-25

348

Recharge estimate for the Hanford Site 200 Areas plateau  

Microsoft Academic Search

An evaluation was made to assess the magnitude of recharge from natural precipitation on the Hanford Site 200 Areas plateau. Two sources of data were used in the evaluation moisture accumulation in a 200 East Area closed-bottom lysimeter for 13 yr, and distribution of ¹³⁷Cs in a solid-waste trench in which contaminated soil had been buried for 10 yr. Cesium-137

R. C. Routson; M. R. Fuchs; W. A. Jordan

1988-01-01

349

Equivalent circuits for switched-capacitor networks including recharging devices  

Microsoft Academic Search

Equivalent circuits for switched-capacitor (SC) networks including recharging devices are derived. Parasitic effects, like stray capacitances and nonideal op amps, are taken into account. As a result, the equivalent time-invariant network is split up into a frequency dependent impedance network and a purely (negative) resistive network which corresponds directly to the capacitor network of the SC-filter and allows for the

JOSEF A. NOSSEK; HANS WEINRICHTER

1980-01-01

350

Managed aquifer recharge: rediscovering nature as a leading edge technology.  

PubMed

Use of Managed Aquifer Recharge (MAR) has rapidly increased in Australia, USA, and Europe in recent years as an efficient means of recycling stormwater or treated sewage effluent for non-potable and indirect potable reuse in urban and rural areas. Yet aquifers have been relied on knowingly for water storage and unwittingly for water treatment for millennia. Hence if 'leading edge' is defined as 'the foremost part of a trend; a vanguard', it would be misleading to claim managed aquifer recharge as a leading edge technology. However it has taken a significant investment in scientific research in recent years to demonstrate the effectiveness of aquifers as sustainable treatment systems to enable managed aquifer recharge to be recognised along side engineered treatment systems in water recycling. It is a 'cross-over' technology that is applicable to water and wastewater treatment and makes use of passive low energy processes to spectacularly reduce the energy requirements for water supply. It is robust within limits, has low cost, is suitable from village to city scale supplies, and offers as yet almost untapped opportunities for producing safe drinking water supplies where they do not yet exist. It will have an increasingly valued role in securing water supplies to sustain cities affected by climate change and population growth. However it is not a universal panacea and relies on the presence of suitable aquifers and sources of water together with effective governance to ensure human health and environment protection and water resources planning and management. This paper describes managed aquifer recharge, illustrates its use in Australia, outlining economics, guidelines and policies, and presents some of the knowledge about aquifer treatment processes that are revealing the latent value of aquifers as urban water infrastructure and provide a driver to improving our understanding of urban hydrogeology. PMID:21076220

Dillon, P; Toze, S; Page, D; Vanderzalm, J; Bekele, E; Sidhu, J; Rinck-Pfeiffer, S

2010-01-01

351

Changes in vegetation diversity caused by artificial recharge  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Efforst to increase the rate of artificial recharge through basins often necessitates scrapping and ditching before and during operations. Such operations can result in more or less drastic changes in vegetation (depending on what was there before), characterized by diminisched numbers of species and lowered diversity. Two examples, one from Texas and one from the Netherlands are presented showing how similar treatments cause similar changes in two completely difference plant communities. ?? 1979 Dr. W. Junk b.v. - Publishers.

van, Hylckama, T. E. A.

1979-01-01

352

Overcharge protection for rechargeable lithium polymer electrolyte batteries  

Microsoft Academic Search

Overcharge protection for rechargeable lithium polymer electrolyte cells by addition of redox shuttle additives to the polymer electrolyte was examined. Shuttle onset potentials and effective diffusion coefficients were determined for 12 redox shuttle species in polyethylene oxide-based electrolytes at 85 C. The four most promising additives were tested in Li\\/PEO-LiN(SOâCFâ)â\\/Li{sub 2+x}MnâOâ cells under normal and severe overcharging conditions. In addition

Thomas J. Richardson; P. N. Jr. Ross

1996-01-01

353

Polymer Considerations in Rechargeable Lithium Ion Plastic Batteries  

Microsoft Academic Search

A series of polymers have been investigated in order to determine their suitability as ionically conductive binders of the active electrode materials and as hybrid electrolyte matrices in plastic lithium ion rechargeable batteries. Hybrid electrolyte films used in this study have been prepared by solvent casting using a 1:1 w\\/w mixture of the matrix polymer with 1 M LiPF6 in

Antoni S. Gozdz; Jean-Marie Tarascon; Caroline N. Schmutz; Paul Warren; O. S. Gebizlioglu; F. Shokoohi

1995-01-01

354

Solid polymer electrolytes for rechargeable batteries. Final report  

Microsoft Academic Search

SRI International has synthesized and tested new, dimensionally stable polymer electrolytes for high energy density rechargeable lithium batteries. We have prepared semi-interpenetrating networks of sulfur-substituted polyethyleneoxide with tetmethylorthosilicate (TEOS). The in situ hydrolysis of TEOS produces a mechanically stable three-dimensional network that entangles the polymer electrolytes and makes the film dimensionally flexible and stable. With this approach, the best dimensionally

S. C. Narang; S. C. Ventura

1992-01-01

355

Computer simulations of the impedance response of lithium rechargeable batteries  

Microsoft Academic Search

A mathematical model is developed to simulate the impedance response of a wide range of lithium rechargeable battery systems. The mathematical model is a macroscopic model of a full-cell sandwich utilizing porous electrode theory to treat the electrode region and concentrated solution theory for transport processes in solution. Insertion processes are described with charge-transfer kinetic expressions and solid-phase diffusion of

Marc Doyle; Jeremy P. Meyers; John Newman

2000-01-01

356

Natural groundwater recharge and water balance at the Hanford Site  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this report is to present water-balance data collected in 1988 and 1989 from the 300 Area Buried Waste Test Facility and Grass Site, and the 200 East Area closed-bottom lysimeter. This report is an annual update of previous recharge status reports by Gee, Rockhold, and Downs, and Gee. Data from several other lysimeter sites are included for comparison. 43 refs., 28 figs., 7 tabs.

Rockhold, M.L.; Fayer, M.J.; Gee, G.W.; Kanyid, M.J.

1990-01-01

357

Evaluation of Recharge Potential at Crater U5a (WISHBONE)  

SciTech Connect

Radionuclides are present both below and above the water table at the Nevada Test Site (NTS), as the result of underground nuclear testing. Mobilization and transport of radionuclides from the vadose zone is a complex process that is influenced by the solubility and sorption characteristics of the individual radionuclides, as well as the soil water flux. On the NTS, subsidence craters resulting from testing underground nuclear weapons are numerous, and many intercept surface water flows. Because craters collect surface water above the sub-surface point of device detonation, these craters may provide a mechanism for surface water to recharge the groundwater aquifer system underlying the NTS. Given this situation, there is a potential for the captured water to introduce contaminants into the groundwater system. Crater U5a (WISHBONE), located in Frenchman Flat, was selected for study because of its potentially large drainage area, and significant erosional features, which suggested that it has captured more runoff than other craters in the Frenchman Flat area. Recharge conditions were studied in subsidence crater U5a by first drilling boreholes and analyzing the collected soil cores to determine the soil properties and moisture conditions. This information, coupled with a 32-year precipitation record, was used to conduct surface and vaodse zone modeling. Surface water modeling predicted that approximately 13 ponding events had occurred during the life of the crater. Vadose zone modeling indicated that since the crater's formation approximately 5,900 m3 of water were captured by the crater. Of this total, approximately 5,200 m3 of potential recahrge may have occurred, and the best estimates of annual average potential recharge rates lie between 36 and 188 cm of water per year. The term potential is used here to indicate that the water is not technically recharged because it has not yet reached the water table.

Richard H. French; Samuel L. Hokett

1998-11-01

358

Rechargeable zinc air batteries market and technology overview  

Microsoft Academic Search

AER Energy Resources is a US-based technology company that has developed a rechargeable zinc-air battery system. The advantage of the AER Energy Technology Battery is that it's energy density on a weight basis is three times that of nickel-cadmium, nickel metal hydride and lead-acid batteries, and almost twice that of currently available lithium-ion batteries. This new battery technology can enable

M. Schimpf

1993-01-01

359

Modelling the groundwater recharge of an urban area in Germany  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Groundwater recharge is an important part of the natural water cycle. This cycle is disturbed particularly in urban areas. Sealing negatively influences the hydrological and mechanical soil properties. The continued sealing of soils, mainly caused by urbanisation, will continue to reduce the infiltration of water to groundwater and increase the surface run-off. Furthermore, recent and future climate changes strongly affect the available water resources. Those changes in water availability interfere with i.e., the cultivation of land, forest management, water supply, waste water disposal and urban infrastructure. Those issues are studied in the BMBF-supported joint research project REGKLAM that deals with climate change adaptation options in the model region Dresden. This work aims at simulating the groundwater recharge for the status quo and regionalised climate change scenarios and thus will deliver a central component to other parts of the REGKLAM project. Modelling is done using the two-dimensional hydrological model BOWAM. Current groundwater recharge models miss not only a high resolution, but also a realistic description of soil properties. Thus, it was necessary to develop a differentiated classification of soil and land use data. At present, we focus on the Quaternary aquifer of the region of Dresden, as there have been already conducted several studies that may serve as a reference for our more detailed and actual results.

Tesch, Sabine; Dunger, Volkmar; Matschullat, Jörg

2010-05-01

360

Recharge of aquifers by flood events in an arid region  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The process of aquifer recharge by flood events in an arid region was investigated as applied to the Hazeva Formation (the Karkom graben, the Wadi Paran watershed, Israel). The hydrological model was established as a complex system, with due regard for groundwater and transmission losses of surface runoff. It was based on a previously outlined hydrogeological model of the Karkom graben and a model of transmission losses in arid watercourses under conditions of data deficiency. Proceeding from calculation of groundwater balances, the contribution of surface runoff as a decisive balance component was confirmed. The main characteristics of aquifer regimes, such as changes in storage volume and groundwater level, as well as lateral flow, were all found to be dependent upon the net extraction rate, i.e. pumpage discounting replenishment by flood events. Analysis and physical interpretation of model parameters enabled assessment of the influence of groundwater extraction on aquifer recharge. This became apparent as increasing absorption capacity and recharge availability of the aquifer as a result of the groundwater abstraction.

Shentsis, Isabella; Rosenthal, Eliyahu

2003-03-01

361

Issue and challenges facing rechargeable thin film lithium batteries  

SciTech Connect

New materials hold the key to fundamental advances in energy conversion and storage, both of which are vital in order to meet the challenge of global warming and the finite nature of fossil fuels. Nanomaterials in particular offer unique properties or combinations of properties as electrodes and electrolytes in a range of energy devices. Technological improvements in rechargeable solid-state batteries are being driven by an ever-increasing demand for portable electronic devices. Lithium batteries are the systems of choice, offering high energy density, flexible, lightweight design and longer lifespan than comparable battery technologies. We present a brief historical review of the development of lithium-based thin film rechargeable batteries highlight ongoing research strategies and discuss the challenges that remain regarding the discovery of nanomaterials as electrolytes and electrodes for lithium batteries also this article describes the possible evolution of lithium technology and evaluates the expected improvements, arising from new materials to cell technology. New active materials under investigation and electrode process improvements may allow an ultimate final energy density of more than 500 Wh/L and 200 Wh/kg, in the next 5-6 years, while maintaining sufficient power densities. A new rechargeable battery technology cannot be foreseen today that surpasses this. This report will provide key performance results for thin film batteries and highlight recent advances in their development.

Patil, Arun; Patil, Vaishali; Shin, Dong Wook; Choi, Ji-Won; Paik, Dong-Soo [Thin Film Materials Research Center, Korea Institute of Science and Technology, Seoul 136-791 (Korea, Republic of); Yoon, Seok-Jin [Thin Film Materials Research Center, Korea Institute of Science and Technology, Seoul 136-791 (Korea, Republic of)], E-mail: sjyoon@kist.re.kr

2008-08-04

362

Movement of water infiltrated from a recharge basin to wells.  

PubMed

Local surface water and stormflow were infiltrated intermittently from a 40-ha basin between September 2003 and September 2007 to determine the feasibility of recharging alluvial aquifers pumped for public supply, near Stockton, California. Infiltration of water produced a pressure response that propagated through unconsolidated alluvial-fan deposits to 125 m below land surface (bls) in 5 d and through deeper, more consolidated alluvial deposits to 194 m bls in 25 d, resulting in increased water levels in nearby monitoring wells. The top of the saturated zone near the basin fluctuates seasonally from depths of about 15 to 20 m. Since the start of recharge, water infiltrated from the basin has reached depths as great as 165 m bls. On the basis of sulfur hexafluoride tracer test data, basin water moved downward through the saturated alluvial deposits until reaching more permeable zones about 110 m bls. Once reaching these permeable zones, water moved rapidly to nearby pumping wells at rates as high as 13 m/d. Flow to wells through highly permeable material was confirmed on the basis of flowmeter logging, and simulated numerically using a two-dimensional radial groundwater flow model. Arsenic concentrations increased slightly as a result of recharge from 2 to 6 µg/L immediately below the basin. Although few water-quality issues were identified during sample collection, high groundwater velocities and short travel times to nearby wells may have implications for groundwater management at this and at other sites in heterogeneous alluvial aquifers. PMID:21740423

O'Leary, David R; Izbicki, John A; Moran, Jean E; Meeth, Tanya; Nakagawa, Brandon; Metzger, Loren; Bonds, Chris; Singleton, Michael J

2011-07-08

363

Ponds and Rice Fields: The Hydrology and Chemistry of Aquifer Recharge in Bangladesh  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The shallow aquifer in Bangladesh, which provides drinking water for millions and irrigation water for innumerable rice fields, is severely contaminated with naturally occurring arsenic. Water balance calculations show that surface ponds and irrigated rice fields are the primary sources of recharge to this contaminated aquifer. Recharge from an individual rice field is both temporally and spatially heterogeneous, whereas flow from a pond is more constant and uniform through the pond sediments. Rice field recharge is focused through bunds (the berms surrounding the field), and depends on irrigation intervals. Field flow patterns are controlled by cracks and the development of an unsaturated zone. The water chemistry of these two recharge sources is distinctly different. Compared to the rice fields, ponds contribute recharge with a higher organic carbon load and increased concentrations of solutes associated with anoxic microbial respiration. The differences in the recharge behavior and solute loads of these two sources may explain the spatial patterns of groundwater chemistry that control arsenic concentrations.

Neumann, R. B.; Harvey, C. F.

2007-12-01

364

Multiple-methods investigation of recharge at a humid-region fractured rock site, Pennsylvania, USA  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lysimeter-percolate and well-hydrograph analyses were combined to evaluate recharge for the Masser Recharge Site (central\\u000a Pennsylvania, USA). In humid regions, aquifer recharge through an unconfined low-porosity fractured-rock aquifer can cause\\u000a large magnitude water-table fluctuations over short time scales. The unsaturated hydraulic characteristics of the subsurface\\u000a porous media control the magnitude and timing of these fluctuations. Data from multiple sets of

Christopher S. Heppner; John R. Nimmo; Gordon J. Folmar; William J. Gburek; Dennis W. Risser

2007-01-01

365

Soil Water Balance and Recharge Monitoring at the Hanford Site - FY09 Status Report  

SciTech Connect

Recharge provides the primary driving force for transporting contaminants from the vadose zone to underlying aquifer systems. Quantification of recharge rates is important for assessing contaminant transport and fate and for evaluating remediation alternatives. This report describes the status of soil water balance and recharge monitoring performed by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory at the Hanford Site for Fiscal Year 2009. Previously reported data for Fiscal Years 2004 - 2008 are updated with data collected in Fiscal Year 2009 and summarized.

Rockhold, Mark L.; Saunders, Danielle L.; Strickland, Christopher E.; Waichler, Scott R.; Clayton, Ray E.

2009-09-28

366

Estimation of groundwater recharge using the soil moisture budget method and the base-flow model  

Microsoft Academic Search

Estimation of groundwater recharge is extremely important for proper management of groundwater systems. Many different approaches\\u000a exist for estimating recharge. The main purpose of this paper is to apply a water balance concept with two methods to estimate\\u000a the groundwater recharge in the Ching-Shui watershed, Taiwan. First, a soil moisture budget method is established to estimate\\u000a the infiltration, runoff, evapotranspiration,

Cheng-Haw Lee; Hsin-Fu Yeh; Jin-Fa Chen

2008-01-01

367

Climatic controls on diffuse groundwater recharge in semiarid environments of the southwestern United States  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although there is no diffuse groundwater recharge at many semiarid sites, evidence for diffuse recharge exists at some locations where mean annual precipitation $\\\\overline{P}$ is much less than mean annual potential evapotranspiration $\\\\overline{PET}$, particularly where soils are coarse and rainfall variable is substantial. We investigate the climatic controls on diffuse recharge using a one-dimensional, variably saturated flow model. The model

Eric E. Small

2005-01-01

368

Die pharmakologische Wirkung des Ephedrins  

Microsoft Academic Search

Zusammenfassung 1.Die pharmakologische Wirkung des Ephedrins wurde zu analysieren versucht durch Studium der Beeinflussung des Blutdrucks, der Herzaktion und der Gefäße, des Effekts am Atemzentrum und an den Bronchien, der Wirkung auf die Pupillenweite, auf den Darm und den Uterus, auf die Sekretion verschiedener Drüsen und den Blutzuckerspiegel.2.Es wurden folgende Wirkungen gefunden: Der Blutdruck wird erhöht durch kleine Dosen, erniedrigt

H. Kreitmair

1927-01-01

369

Estimated ground-water recharge from streamflow in Fortymile Wash near Yucca Mountain, Nevada  

SciTech Connect

The two purposes of this report are to qualitatively document ground-water recharge from stream-flow in Fortymile Wash during the period 1969--95 from previously unpublished ground-water levels in boreholes in Fortymile Canyon during 1982--91 and 1995, and to quantitatively estimate the long-term ground-water recharge rate from streamflow in Fortymile Wash for four reaches of Fortymile Wash (Fortymile Canyon, upper Jackass Flats, lower Jackass Flats, and Amargosa Desert). The long-term groundwater recharge rate was estimated from estimates of the volume of water available for infiltration, the volume of infiltration losses from streamflow, the ground-water recharge volume from infiltration losses, and an analysis of the different periods of data availability. The volume of water available for infiltration and ground-water recharge in the four reaches was estimated from known streamflow in ephemeral Fortymile Wash, which was measured at several gaging station locations. The volume of infiltration losses from streamflow for the four reaches was estimated from a streamflow volume loss factor applied to the estimated streamflows. the ground-water recharge volume was estimated from a linear relation between infiltration loss volume and ground-water recharge volume for each of the four reaches. Ground-water recharge rates were estimated for three different periods of data availability (1969--95, 1983--95, and 1992--95) and a long-term ground-water recharge rate estimated for each of the four reaches.

Savard, C.S.

1998-10-01

370

Hydrological functions of sinkholes and characteristics of point recharge in groundwater basins  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Karstic limestone aquifers are hydrologically and hydrochemically extremely heterogeneous and point source recharge via sinkholes and fissures is a common feature. We studied three groundwater systems in karstic settings dominated by point source recharge in order to assess the relative contributions to total recharge from point sources using chloride and ?18O relations. Preferential groundwater flows were observed through an inter-connected network of highly conductive zones with groundwater mixing along flow paths. Measurements of salinity and chloride indicated that fresh water pockets exist at point recharge locations. A measurable fresh water plume develops only when a large quantity of surface water enters the aquifer as a point recharge source. The difference in chloride concentrations in diffuse and point recharge zones decreases as aquifer saturated thickness increases and the plumes become diluted through mixing. The chloride concentration in point recharge fluxes crossing the watertable plane can remain at or near surface runoff chloride concentrations, rather than in equilibrium with groundwater chloride. In such circumstances the conventional chloride mass balance method that assumes equilibrium of recharge water chloride with groundwater requires modification to include both point and diffuse recharge mechanisms.

Somaratne, N.; Smettem, K.; Lawson, J.; Nguyen, K.; Frizenschaf, J.

2013-09-01

371

A numerical analysis on the applicability of the water level fluctuation method for quantifying groundwater recharge  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The water table fluctuation(WTF) method is a conventional method for quantifying groundwater recharge by multiplying the specific yield to the water level rise. Based on the van Genuchten model, an analytical relationship between groundwater recharge and the water level rise is derived. The equation is used to analyze the effects of the depth to water level and the soil properties on the recharge estimate using the WTF method. The results show that the WTF method is reliable when applied to the aquifers of the fluvial sand provided the water table is below 1m depth. However, if it is applied to the silt loam having the water table depth ranging 4~10m, the recharge is overestimated by 30~80%, and the error increases drastically as the water table is getting shallower. A 2-D unconfined flow model with a time series of the recharge rate is developed. It is used for elucidating the errors of the WTF method, which is implicitly based on the tank model where the horizontal flow in the saturated zone is ignored. Simulations show that the recharge estimated by the WTF method is underestimated for the observation well near the discharge boundary. This is due to the fact that the hydraulic stress resulting from the recharge is rapidly dissipating by the horizontal flow near the discharge boundary. Simulations also reveal that the recharge is significantly underestimated with increase in the hydraulic conductivity and the recharge duration, and decrease in the specific yield.

Koo, M.; Lee, D.

2002-12-01

372

Recharge in Karst Shrublands of Central Texas: Monitoring Drip Rates in Shallow Caves  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The exceedingly complex subsurface hydrology of karst landscapes presents formidable challenges to understanding recharge rates and the relationships between rainfall and recharge. In this study, we have established a network of drip collectors and monitoring stations in shallow caves in the Edwards Plateau to better understand the dynamics of recharge and eventually for determining the effect of woody plants on recharge rates. Understanding recharge rates has direct relevance for management of the Edwards Aquifer, which serves as the main source of fresh water for the city of San Antonio and surrounding communities, As population around San Antonio continues to grow so does the demand for water, in turn, a need to address the supply exists. We have instrumented two caves that lie within the Camp Bullis Training Facility north of San Antonio, Texas. Data collected at each site record precipitation on the surface and measure recharge inside the caves. Monitoring of natural rainfall events at these sites began in October 2004. To date, all monitoring and data collection has occurred with the juniper canopy in place. Results have shown that cave recharge is influenced by 1) rainfall intensity and duration, 2) antecedent soil moisture condition, 3) depth of soil, and 4) surface geology. We plan to remove the tree canopy in the summer of 2008 and continue monitoring cave recharge in response to natural and re-created rainfall events. Comparing data collected with and without juniper cover in place will allow us to determine if recharge may be increased by reducing tree cover.

Bazan, R. A.; Wilcox, B. P.; Munster, C. L.; Owens, K.; Shade, B.

2007-12-01

373

Artificial-recharge investigation near Aurora, Nebraska: 2-year progress report  

USGS Publications Warehouse

This report presents the results of the first 2 years of a 4-year investigation of potential for artificial recharge and recharge methods that might be used to mitigate excessive aquifer depletion in Nebraska. A Quaternary sand-and-gravel aquifer near Aurora, Nebr., was recharged by injecting water through a well at a rate of approximately 730 gallons per minute for nearly 6 months. Total recharge was 530 acre-feet. Recharge was intermittent during the first 2 months, but was virtually continuous during the last 4 months. Buildup of the water level in the recharge well was 17 feet. The rate of buildup indicates that the well could have accepted water by gravity flow at more than 3,000 gallons per minute for at least 1 year. The cause of a continuing slow rise in water levels in the recharge well in contrast to nearly stable water levels in observation wells as close as 10 feet from the recharge well is as yet uncertain. The recharge water and the native ground water appeared to be chemically compatible. Infiltration rates from 24-foot-diameter surface impoundments ranged from 0.04 to 0.66 feet per day. The higher rates may have resulted in part from leakage down incompletely sealed holes that were drilled to install monitoring equipment. The investigation, including a report on the entire project, is scheduled for completion by 1980.

Lichtler, William F.; Stannard, David I.; Kouma, Edwin

1979-01-01

374

Localization of Deformation and Rheological Evolution of the Lower Crust Controlled by Dehydration and Hydration: Examples from Mm-Scale Shear Zones to Nappe Thrusts in Norway  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The formation of strong lower crust is well documented in the Seiland Igneous Province (SIP) of northern Norway. During the intrusion of mafic plutons the hosting paragneisses experienced contact metamorphism, partial melting (by dehydration melting of biotite) and shear deformation in mylonites. According to P-T-X pseudo-section modelling using synkinematic mineral assemblages, shear deformation occurred at T=760-820°C, P=0.85 GPa and in the presence of < 5vol% of Kfs-rich residual melt. Consistently, Titanium-in-quartz geothermometry indicates 820°C as peak T during shearing. FTIR measurements on single quartz grains in mylonites indicate that they are essentially dry (average H2O content of 22 ppm). Quartz recrystallizes to a fine-grained aggregate (15 ?m average grain size) and the CPO is strong, consistent with dislocation creep. Piezometry of quartz yields differential stresses of 50-100 MPa. The quartz should have deformed at strain rates of 10-5 to 10-8 s-1, if flow laws for wet dislocation creep are used. This appears unlikely - instead, we believe that the strength of quartz was high due to dry conditions during deformation. Thus, there is evidence for the formation of substantial parts of dry, mechanically strong lower crust by dehydration partial melting and removal of aqueous fluid in the form of melt. The Lofoten islands and the SIP show examples of localized shear zones in dry lower crustal magmatic rocks. Invariably, the deformation commenced by fracturing and/or formation of pseudotachylites, both of which have subsequently deformed viscously in fine-grained aggregates with ultramylonite fabrics. Deformation temperatures have been determined to range between 650 and 800°C at pressures of 500 to 1200 MPa. The initial fracturing at high temperatures is evidence for the high strength of the dry lower crustal rocks. The ultramylonites commonly show hydrated mineral assemblages. The fluid access is restricted to the shear zones. New grains of opx and plagioclase show a compositional difference to host grains so that grain size reduction occurs by heterogeneous nucleation (e.g. on small fragments). Phase mixtures show random or anticlustered distributions and all grain shapes are equant. The deformation mechanism in all cases is diffusion creep in the fine grained aggregates. Brittle deformation facilitating fluid access appears to be a prerequisite for the grain size reduction, nucleation of new phases, and viscous deformation of otherwise dry and strong lower crustal rocks. The SIP is part of the largest nappe complex in the Caledonides. A systematic study along the nappe thrust indicates that the whole complex consists of lenses of high grade relicts inside a sheared matrix of retrograded material. Thus, the processes identified in localized shear zones can be applied to a length scale of ~100 km indicating that thrusting during continental collision is facilitated by rehydration of dry lower crust, which previously is mechanically strong because of dehydration partial melting. The results indicate that the observed deformation processes are critically dependent on the availability of aqueous fluid.

Stunitz, H.; Menegon, L.; Nasipuri, P.; Jerabek, P.

2011-12-01

375

Facies pattern of western Tethyan Middle Triassic black carbonates: The example of Gutenstein Formation in Silica Nappe, Carpathians, Hungary, and its correlation to formations of adjoining areas  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

During the Middle Triassic, a broad carbonate ramp developed at the western end of the Tethys Ocean. In the early phase of the ramp evolution dark grey or black, finely crystalline carbonates were deposited over a considerable part of the ramp. In the Aggtelek Karst, northeastern Hungary, carbonates of the Aggtelek facies of the Silica Nappe are exposed. In the latest Early Triassic, bioturbated mudstones wackestones and occasionally packstones were formed in the outer ramp zone below the storm wave-base. During the Early Anisian, oxygen-depleted bottom conditions evolved. Gradual changes took place in the sedimentary features of mud-dominated deposits that is attributed to increasing oxygen depletion as a result of density stratification of seawater in the deeper ramp areas. Remarkable ecological and sedimentary changes began with the colonisation by sponges and microbes in the Aggtelek facies area that occurred coevally with a relative sea-level fall. The appearance of the foraminifer Glomospira densa points to late Early Anisian age for these changes. This unit is very variable in lithology and facies compared to the monotonous development of the lower units. Massive limestones and dolomites of microbial origin are ubiquitous; additionally, oolites with micro-oncoids, cross-bedded and cross-laminated bioclastic, peloidal packstones grainstones, thin-bedded bioclastic wackestones mudstones, laminated and brecciated dolomites with evaporite pseudomorphs, and dolocretes are also present. Specific microfacies types, i.e. automicrite (varicoloured micrite microspar groundmass) and cuneiform spongy microfabric preserved by cryptic microbial films, are recognised and interpreted as sponge microbe mud-mound deposits. The microfacies of pilot samples from Northern Calcareous Alps, Inner Western Carpathians and Dinarides exhibit similar sedimentary features. Tectonic setting, biota evolution after the end-Permian mass extinction, relative sea-level changes and hypersalinity may have been the most important controlling factors of the non-skeletal carbonate factory, which produced dark grey mud-dominated deposits.

Hips, Kinga

2007-01-01

376

La diffraction des neutrons et des rayons X pour l'étude structurale des liquides et des verres  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

La compréhension de mainte propriété physique d'un verre ou d'un liquide nécessite la connaissance des facteurs de structure partiels (PSFs) qui décrivent chacun la distribution d'une espèce atomique autour d'une autre. La technique de diffraction des neutrons avec substitution isotopique (NDIS) [1,2,3], ayant bien réussi a déterminer les PSFs de certains composés [4,5], est pourtant restreinte aux isotopes présentant un contraste suffisant en longueur de diffusion. D'un autre cote, la technique de diffusion anomale des rayons X (AXS ou AXD) [6] permet de faire varier la longueur de diffusion d'une espèce atomique pourvu que son énergie d'absorption soit à la fois accessible et suffisamment élevée pour donner un assez grand transfert du moment. La combinaison des techniques de diffraction des neutrons (avec ou sans substitution isotopique) et de diffraction des rayons X (avec ou sans diffusion anomale) peut donc permettre d'obtenir un meilleur contraste en longueurs de diffusion pour un système donné, mais exige une analyse de données plus soignée pour pouvoir bien tenir compte des erreurs systématiques qui sont différentes pour les 2 techniques [7]. Pour les atomes ayant des distributions électroniques quasi-sphériques, e.g. dans le cas d'un alliage liquide, la combinaison des techniques de NDIS et de diffraction des rayons X s'est déjà montrée très avantageuse pour la détermination des PSFs [8,9]. Dans le cas des verres ayant d'importantes liaisons covalentes, l'effective combinaison des 2 techniques peut être moins directe mais facilitée lorsqu'il s'agit des atomes de grand Z [10,11]. Nous présentons ici un sommaire du méthode et quelques exemples des résultats.

Fischer, H. E.; Salmon, P. S.; Barnes, A. C.

2003-02-01

377

La vitalité des spermatozoïdes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Résumé  Malgré l’existence de nombreux moyens d’étude de la vitalité des spermatozoïdes, la plupart restent dans le domaine de la\\u000a recherche biomédicale. Ce sont surtout les tests classiques, tels que le test à l’éosinenigrosine et le test de gonflement\\u000a flagellaire en milieu hypo-osmolaire (HOST) qui permettent d’apprécier le pourcentage de vitalité des spermatozoïdes en spermiologie\\u000a courante. Un résultat anormalement bas définit

T. Forges; P. Monnier-Barbarino; B. Foliguet

2001-01-01

378

Artificial recharge through a thick, heterogeneous unsaturated zone.  

PubMed

Thick, heterogeneous unsaturated zones away from large streams in desert areas have not previously been considered suitable for artificial recharge from ponds. To test the potential for recharge in these settings, 1.3 x 10(6) m(3) of water was infiltrated through a 0.36-ha pond along Oro Grande Wash near Victorville, California, between October 2002 and January 2006. The pond overlies a regional pumping depression 117 m below land surface and is located where thickness and permeability of unsaturated deposits allowed infiltration and saturated alluvial deposits were sufficiently permeable to allow recovery of water. Because large changes in water levels caused by nearby pumping would obscure arrival of water at the water table, downward movement of water was measured using sensors in the unsaturated zone. The downward rate of water movement was initially as high as 6 m/d and decreased with depth to 0.07 m/d; the initial time to reach the water table was 3 years. After the unsaturated zone was wetted, water reached the water table in 1 year. Soluble salts and nitrate moved readily with the infiltrated water, whereas arsenic and chromium were less mobile. Numerical simulations done using the computer program TOUGH2 duplicated the downward rate of water movement, accumulation of water on perched zones, and its arrival at the water table. Assuming 10 x 10(6) m(3) of recharge annually for 20 years, a regional ground water flow model predicted water level rises of 30 m beneath the ponds, and rises exceeding 3 m in most wells serving the nearby urban area. PMID:18194322

Izbicki, John A; Flint, Alan L; Stamos, Christina L

2008-01-09

379

Modeled impacts of predicted climate change on recharge and groundwater levels  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A methodology is developed for linking climate models and groundwater models to investigate future impacts of climate change on groundwater resources. An unconfined aquifer, situated near Grand Forks in south central British Columbia, Canada, is used to test the methodology. Climate change scenarios from the Canadian Global Coupled Model 1 (CGCM1) model runs are downscaled to local conditions using Statistical Downscaling Model (SDSM), and the change factors are extracted and applied in LARS-WG stochastic weather generator and then input to the recharge model. The recharge model simulated the direct recharge to the aquifer from infiltration of precipitation and consisted of spatially distributed recharge zones, represented in the Hydrologic Evaluation of Landfill Performance (HELP) hydrologic model linked to a geographic information system (GIS). A three-dimensional transient groundwater flow model, implemented in MODFLOW, is then used to simulate four climate scenarios in 1-year runs (1961-1999 present, 2010-2039, 2040-2069, and 2070-2099) and compare groundwater levels to present. The effect of spatial distribution of recharge on groundwater levels, compared to that of a single uniform recharge zone, is much larger than that of temporal variation in recharge, compared to a mean annual recharge representation. The predicted future climate for the Grand Forks area from the downscaled CGCM1 model will result in more recharge to the unconfined aquifer from spring to the summer season. However, the overall effect of recharge on the water balance is small because of dominant river-aquifer interactions and river water recharge.

Scibek, J.; Allen, D. M.

2006-11-01

380

Electrode performance of romanechite for rechargeable lithium batteries  

Microsoft Academic Search

We studied romanechite, (2×3) tunnel type manganese dioxide, as a positive electrode material for rechargeable lithium batteries. We synthesized the sample by soft chemical techniques, and its chemical composition was Ba0.18MnO2.10·0.42H2O. We obtained a first discharge capacity of 120mAhg?1 (energy density 264mWhg?1). The capacity decreased with cycling. We examined the thermal behavior of this material, revealing its high thermal stability.

Masayuki Tsuda; Hajime Arai; Yasue Nemoto; Yoji Sakurai

2001-01-01

381

Nonflammable gel electrolyte containing alkyl phosphate for rechargeable lithium batteries  

Microsoft Academic Search

A nonflammable polymeric gel electrolyte has been developed for rechargeable lithium battery systems. The gel film consists of poly(vinylidenefluoride-co-hexafluoropropylene) (PVdF-HFP) swollen with lithium hexafluorophosphate (LiPF6) solution in ternary solvent containing trimethyl phosphate (TMP). High ionic conductivity of 6.2mScm?1 at 20°C was obtained for the gel electrolyte consisting of 0.8M LiPF6\\/EC+DEC+TMP (55:25:20) with PVdF-HFP, which is comparable to that of the

Nobuko Yoshimoto; Yoshihiro Niida; Minato Egashira; Masayuki Morita

2006-01-01

382

The Noise Diagnostics of Organic Electrolytes for Rechargeable Lithium Batteries  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We investigated the electrochemical noise of lithium electrode under the current control. Different aprotic organic electrolytes containing different solvents and lithium salts were used as well as anodic and cathodic currents. It was found that level of electrochemical noises depends strongly on the kind of electrolyte. The electrolyte systems with high lithium cycling efficiency and without the dendrite forming posses the low level of noise. This means the electrochemical noises method can be used for express screening organic electrolytes for rechargeable batteries with negative electrode of metal lithium.

Kanevskii, Leonid S.; Grafov, Boris M.; Astafiev, Mikhail G.

2005-08-01

383

Glyme-based nonaqueous electrolytes for rechargeable lithium cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

Poly(ethylene glycol)dimethyl ethers [(CH3O(CH2CH2O)nCH3, n = 1, 2, 3, and 4)] are generally known as “glymes”. This study examines the conductivity, lithium ion solvation state and charge–discharge cycling efficiency of lithium metal anodes in glyme-based electrolytes for rechargeable lithium cells. 1M (M: moll?1) LiPF6 was used as the solute. The properties of the glymes were investigated by using a ternary

S. Tobishima; H. Morimoto; M. Aoki; Y. Saito; T. Inose; T. Fukumoto; T. Kuryu

2004-01-01

384

High capacity anode materials for rechargeable sodium-ion batteries  

SciTech Connect

Electrochemical techniques have been used to study the reversible insertion of sodium into hard-carbon host structures at room temperature. In this paper the authors compare these results with those for lithium insertion in the same materials and demonstrate the presence of similar alkali metal insertion mechanisms in both cases. Despite the gravimetric capacities being lower for sodium than lithium insertion, the authors achieved a reversible sodium capacity of 300 mAh/g, close to that for lithium insertion in graphitic carbon anode materials. Such materials may therefore be useful as anodes in rechargeable sodium-ion batteries.

Stevens, D.A.; Dahn, J.R.

2000-04-01

385

Lithiated manganese oxide cathodes for rechargeable lithium batteries  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lithiated manganese oxides LixMnyO2 prepared at the low temperature of 400-450°C exhibited significantly different electrochemical properties than the spinel phase, LiMn2O4, formed at 650-850°C. The former was nonstoichiometric and yielded a capacity of ~0.7 LiMn2 unit at ~2.8 V in polymer electrolyte-based Li cells. Its excellent rechargeability was demonstrated by more than 100 charge\\/discharge cycles. Spinel Li2Mn4 was formed by

K. M. Abraham; D. M. Pasquariello; T. H. Hguyen; Z. Jiang; D. Peramunage

1996-01-01

386

Chemical lithium extraction from manganese oxides for lithium rechargeable batteries  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chemical lithium extraction has been carried out on the following manganese oxides: the spinel-type compounds LiMn2O4 and Li(4\\/3)Mn(5\\/3)O4, and the rocksalt-related compound Li2MnO3. Lithium can be partially removed chemically from these compounds without destroying the host framework. Some compounds obtained by this method have been tested as cathodic materials in rechargeable lithium cells. Electrochemical results and X-ray diffraction patterns of

F. Lubin; A. Lecerf; M. Broussely; J. Labat

1991-01-01

387

Reconnaissance Estimates of Recharge Based on an Elevation-dependent Chloride Mass-balance Approach  

SciTech Connect

Significant uncertainty is associated with efforts to quantity recharge in arid regions such as southern Nevada. However, accurate estimates of groundwater recharge are necessary to understanding the long-term sustainability of groundwater resources and predictions of groundwater flow rates and directions. Currently, the most widely accepted method for estimating recharge in southern Nevada is the Maxey and Eakin method. This method has been applied to most basins within Nevada and has been independently verified as a reconnaissance-level estimate of recharge through several studies. Recharge estimates derived from the Maxey and Eakin and other recharge methodologies ultimately based upon measures or estimates of groundwater discharge (outflow methods) should be augmented by a tracer-based aquifer-response method. The objective of this study was to improve an existing aquifer-response method that was based on the chloride mass-balance approach. Improvements were designed to incorporate spatial variability within recharge areas (rather than recharge as a lumped parameter), develop a more defendable lower limit of recharge, and differentiate local recharge from recharge emanating as interbasin flux. Seventeen springs, located in the Sheep Range, Spring Mountains, and on the Nevada Test Site were sampled during the course of this study and their discharge was measured. The chloride and bromide concentrations of the springs were determined. Discharge and chloride concentrations from these springs were compared to estimates provided by previously published reports. A literature search yielded previously published estimates of chloride flux to the land surface. {sup 36}Cl/Cl ratios and discharge rates of the three largest springs in the Amargosa Springs discharge area were compiled from various sources. This information was utilized to determine an effective chloride concentration for recharging precipitation and its associated uncertainty via Monte Carlo simulations. Previously developed isohyetal maps were utilized to determine the mean and standard deviation of precipitation within the area. A digital elevation model was obtained to provide elevation information. A geologic model was obtained to provide the spatial distribution of alluvial formations. Both were used to define the lower limit of recharge. In addition, 40 boreholes located in alluvial sediments were drilled and sampled in an attempt to support the argument that the areal distribution of alluvial sediments can be used to define a zone of negligible recharge. The data were compiled in a geographic information system and used in a Monte Carlo analysis to determine recharge occurring within the study area. Results of the analysis yielded estimates of the mean and standard deviation of recharge occurring within the study area (28.168 x 10{sup 6} m{sup 3} yr{sup -1} and 7.008 x 10{sup 6} m{sup 3} yr{sup -1}, and 26.838 x 10{sup 6} m{sup 3} yr{sup -1} and 6.928 x 10{sup 6} m{sup 3} yr{sup -1}) for two sets of simulations using alternate definitions of the lower limit of recharge. A sensitivity analysis determined the recharge estimates were most sensitive to uncertainty associated with the chloride concentration of the spring discharge. The second most sensitive parameter was the uncertainty associated with the mean precipitation within the recharge areas. Comparison of the analysis to previously published estimates of recharge revealed mixed results with the recharge estimates derived during the course of this project generally greater relative to previously published estimates.

Charles E. Russell; Tim Minor

2002-08-31

388

Des Vents et des Jets Astrophysiques  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Plasma outflows from a central gravitating object are a widespread phenomenon in astrophysics. They include the solar and stellar winds, jets from Young Stellar Objects, jets from compact stellar objects and extra-galactic jets associated with Active Galactic Nuclei and quasars. Beyond this huge zoology, a common theoretical ground exists. The aim of this review is to present qualitatively the various theories of winds (Part 1) and how different astrophysical domains interplay. A more or less complete catalog of the ideas proposed for explaining the acceleration and the morphologies of winds and jets is intended. All this part avoids getting into any mathematical formalism. Some macroscopic properties of such outflows may be described by solving the time-independent and axisymmetric magnetohydrodynamic equations. This formalism, underlying most of the theories, is presented in Part 2. It helps to introduce quantitatively the free integrals that such systems possess. Those integrals play an important role in the basic physics of acceleration and collimation, in particular the mass loss rate, the angular momentum loss rate and the energy of the magnetic rotator. Most of the difficulty in modelling flows lies in the necessity to cross critical points, characteristic of non linear equations. The physical nature and the location of such critical points is debated because they are the clue towards the resolution. We thus introduce the notions of topology and critical points (Parts 3 and 4) from the simplest hydrodynamic and spherically symmetric case to the most sophisticated, MHD and axisymmetric cases. Particular attention is given to self-similar models which allows to give some general and simple ideas on the problem due to their semi-analytical treatment. With the use of these notions, a more quantitative comparison of the various models is given (Parts 3 and 4), especially on the shape of the flows. It is thus shown that magnetic collimation of winds into jets is a well expected result from the theory. Although, collimation may be conical, paraboloidal or cylindrical (Part 4), cylindrical collimation is the more likely to occur. The shape of outflows may then be used as a tool to predict physical conditions on the flows or on their source. L'éjection continue de plasma autour d'objets massifs est un phénomène largement répandu en astrophysique, que ce soit sous la forme du vent solaire, de vents stellaires, de jets d'étoiles en formation, de jets stellaires autour d'objets compacts ou de jets extra-galactiques. Cette zoologie diversifiée fait pourtant l'objet d'un commun effort de modélisation. Le but de cette revue est d'abord de présenter qualitativement le développement, depuis leur origine, des diverses théories de vents (Partie 1) et l'inter disciplinarité dans ce domaine. Il s'agit d'une énumération, plus ou moins exhaustive, des idées proposées pour expliquer l'accélération et la morphologie des vents et des jets, accompagnée d'une présentation sommaire des aspects observationnels. Cette partie s'abstient de tout aspect faisant appel au formalisme mathématique. Ces écoulements peuvent être décrits, au moins partiellement, en résolvant les équations magnétohydrodynamiques, axisymétriques et stationnaires. Ce formalisme, à la base de la plupart des théories, est exposé dans la Partie 2. Il permet d'introduire quantitativement les intégrales premières qu'un tel système possède. Ces dernières sont amenées à jouer un rôle important dans la compréhension des phénomènes d'accélération ou de collimation, en particulier le taux de perte de masse, le taux de perte de moment angulaire ou l'énergie du rotateur magnétique. La difficulté de modélisation réside dans l'existence de points critiques, propres aux équations non linéaires, qu'il faut franchir. La nature physique et la localisation de ces points critiques fait l'objet d'un débat important car ils sont la clef de voute de la résolution. Nous introduisons donc la notion de topologie des points critiques (Parties 3 et 4

Sauty, C.

389

La rigidité des prix en France : quelques enseignements des relevés de prix à la consommation  

Microsoft Academic Search

[fre] La rigidité des prix en France: quelques enseignements des relevés de prix à la consommation . . Pour décrire À l’aide de l’échantillon des relevés de prix utilisés pour le calcul de l’indice des prix à la consommation (IPC), les la rigidité des prix à la consommation en France, divers indicateurs (durée de vie des prix, fréquence et amplitude

Laurent Baudry; Hervé Le Bihan; Patrick Sevestre; Sylvie Tarrieu

2005-01-01

390

Betriebliche Determinanten des Überstundeneinsatzes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Auswertungen repräsentativer Daten des IAB-Betriebspanels für Westdeutschland von 1993 bis 1998 zeigen, dass nur zwischen 20 und 30 Prozent aller Betriebe bezahlte Überstunden einsetzten. In diesen Betrieben fielen im Durchschnitt 1,6 bezahlte Überstunden pro abhängig Beschäftigten und Woche an. Weniger als 7 Prozent der Betriebe griffen in jedem Jahr auf Überstunden zurück, wozu vor allem Großbetriebe zählten. Auch generell stieg

Thorsten Schank; Claus Schnabel

2004-01-01

391

Le Chemin des Ecoliers  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article is developed from extracts from a report of a study undertaken by the authors on the availability and use of television in primary and nursery schools. It looks at ‘Le Chemin des Ecoliers’ developed by CNDP (the Centre National de Documentation Pedagogique), Paris and transmitted on the French TV Channel TF1. It estimates the audiences, sees how the

Josette Blanc

1991-01-01

392

Estimating recharge thresholds in tropical karst island aquifers: Barbados, Puerto Rico and Guam  

Microsoft Academic Search

The hydrology and geochemistry of groundwater in tropical island aquifers, such as Barbados, Guam and Puerto Rico, are significantly influenced by tropical climatic conditions. Recharge to these aquifers is the product of regional and local climate patterns that control rainfall. Oxygen isotopes can be used to estimate the amount and timing of recharge on these islands because seasonal fluctuations of

Ian C. Jones; Jay L. Banner

2003-01-01

393

Groundwater recharge in natural dune systems and agricultural ecosystems in the Thar Desert region, Rajasthan, India  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Water and nutrient availability for crop production are critical issues in (semi)arid regions. Unsaturated-zone Cl tracer data and nutrient (NO3 and PO4) concentrations were used to quantify recharge rates using the Cl mass balance approach and nutrient availability in the Thar Desert, Rajasthan, India. Soil cores were collected in dune/interdune settings in the arid Thar Desert (near Jaisalmer) and in rain-fed (nonirrigated) and irrigated cropland in the semiarid desert margin (near Jaipur). Recharge rates were also simulated using unsaturated zone modeling. Recharge rates in sparsely vegetated dune/interdune settings in the Jaisalmer study area are 2.7-5.6 mm/year (2-3% of precipitation, 165 mm/year). In contrast, recharge rates in rain-fed agriculture in the Jaipur study area are 61-94 mm/year (10-16% of precipitation, 600 mm/year). Minimum recharge rates under current freshwater irrigated sites are 50-120 mm/year (8-20% of precipitation). Nitrate concentrations are low at most sites. Similarity in recharge rates based on SO4 with those based on Cl is attributed to a meteoric origin of SO4 and generally conservative chemical behavior in these sandy soils. Modeling results increased confidence in tracer-based recharge estimates. Recharge rates under rain-fed agriculture indicate that irrigation of 20-40% of cultivated land with 300 mm/year should be sustainable.

Scanlon, Bridget R.; Mukherjee, Abhijit; Gates, John; Reedy, Robert C.; Sinha, Amarendra K.

2010-06-01

394

PROSPECTS FOR ENHANCED GROUNDWATER RECHARGE VIA INFILTRATION OF URBAN STORMWATER RUNOFF: A CASE STUDY  

EPA Science Inventory

The rain garden is an urban storm water best management practice that is used to infiltrate runoff close to its source, thereby disconnecting impervious area while providing an avenue for groundwater recharge. Groundwater recharge may provide additional benefits to aquatic ecosys...

395

MODIS-Aided Statewide Net Groundwater-Recharge Estimation in Nebraska.  

PubMed

Monthly evapotranspiration (ET) rates (2000 to 2009) across Nebraska at about 1-km resolution were obtained by linear transformations of the MODIS (MODerate resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer) daytime surface temperature values with the help of the Priestley-Taylor equation and the complementary relationship of evaporation. For positive values of the mean annual precipitation and ET differences, the mean annual net recharge was found by an additional multiplication of the power-function-transformed groundwater vulnerability DRASTIC-code values. Statewide mean annual net recharge became about 29 mm (i.e., 5% of mean annual precipitation) with the largest recharge rates (in excess of 100 mm/year) found in the eastern Sand Hills and eastern Nebraska. Areas with the largest negative net recharge rates caused by declining groundwater levels due to large-scale irrigation are found in the south-western region of the state. Error bounds of the estimated values are within 10% to 15% of the corresponding precipitation rates and the estimated net recharge rates are sensitive to errors in the precipitation and ET values. This study largely confirms earlier base-flow analysis-based statewide groundwater recharge estimates when considerations are made for differences in the recharge definitions. The current approach not only provides better spatial resolution than available earlier studies for the region but also quantifies negative net recharge rates that become especially important in numerical modeling of shallow groundwater systems. PMID:23216050

Szilagyi, Jozsef; Jozsa, Janos

2012-12-05

396

Polymer electrolyte lithium batteries rechargeability and positive electrode degradation: An AC impedance study  

Microsoft Academic Search

AC impedance measurements of polymer electrolyte-based, symmetrical composite cathode cells were used to probe the effects of the composite cathode composition and fabrication process upon its performance when used in polymer electrolyte-based thin film rechargeable lithium batteries. The relationship between cycling performance and AC impedance measurements were used to elucidate some of the reported failure mechanisms of rechargeable lithium polymer

R. Koksbang; I. I. Olsen; P. E. Tonder; N. Knudsen; D. Fauteux

1991-01-01

397

Estimating Recharge through Playa Lakes to the Southern High Plains Aquifer  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the Southern High Plains of Texas, it is accepted that focused recharge to the High Plains Aquifer (locally known as the Ogallala) occurs through over 20,000 playa lakes, which are local depressions that collect storm runoff. The amount and rate of recharge is not precisely known, and the impact of the land use surrounding each playa lake on the

K. Rainwater; G. Ganesan; D. Gitz; R. Zartman; W. Hudnall; L. Smith

2009-01-01

398

Recharge into Southern High Plains aquifer—possible mechanisms, unresolved questions  

Microsoft Academic Search

The High Plains aquifer in the Southern High Plains (Texas and New Mexico), consisting of Tertiary, Cretaceous, and Triassic formations, has traditionally been considered to be recharged by its uppermost water-bearing unit, the Tertiary Ogallala aquifer. This article provides hydrologic, chemical, and isotopic evidence that in the Southern High Plains: (1) Cretaceous rocks actually contain independent recharge sources; (2) Triassic

Ronit Nativ

1992-01-01

399

Mitigating agricultural impacts on groundwater using distributed managed aquifer recharge ponds  

Microsoft Academic Search

Groundwater is likely to become increasingly important for irrigated agriculture due to anticipated changes to the hydrologic cycle associated with climate change. Protecting the quantity and quality of subsurface water supplies will require flexible management strategies that can enhance groundwater recharge. We present results from a study of managed aquifer recharge (MAR) in central coastal California, and propose the use

C. M. Schmidt; T. A. Russo; A. T. Fisher; A. J. Racz; C. G. Wheat; M. Los Huertos; B. S. Lockwood

2010-01-01

400

Variations in climate and ephemeral channel recharge in southeastern Arizona, United States  

Microsoft Academic Search

Significant variations in interannual and decadal recharge rates are likely in alluvial basins of the semiarid southwestern United States on the basis of decadal variations in climate and precipitation and correlation of El Niño with high rates of winter precipitation and streamflow. A better understanding of the magnitude of recharge variations in semiarid and arid regions would reduce water budget

D. R. Pool

2005-01-01

401

Assessing Recharge and Hydrostratigraphic Model Uncertainty in the Climax Mine Area of the Nevada Test Site  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hydrologic analyses are commonly based on a single conceptual model. Yet hydrologic environments are open and complex, rendering them prone to multiple interpretations and conceptualizations. Considering conceptual model uncertainty is a critical process for the assessment of hydrologic uncertainty. This study assesses recharge and geologic model uncertainty for the Climax Mine area of the Nevada Test Site, Nevada, where recharge

Ming Ye; Karl F. Pohlmann; Jenny B. Chapman; Greg M. Pohll; Donald M. Reeves

402

Statistical analysis of hydrographs and water-table fluctuation to estimate groundwater recharge  

Microsoft Academic Search

Using water-table monitoring data from the National Groundwater Monitoring Network in Korea, groundwater hydrographs were classified into five typical groups. Then, to estimate groundwater recharge, a modified water-table fluctuation (WTF) method was developed from the relation between the cumulative WTF and corresponding precipitation records. Applying this method to different types of hydrographs, the spatial variability of recharge in river basins

Sang-Ki Moon; Nam C Woo; Kwang S Lee

2004-01-01

403

Promoting the Market for Plug-in Hybrid and Battery Electric Vehicles: Role of Recharge Availability  

SciTech Connect

Much recent attention has been drawn to providing adequate recharge availability as a means to promote the battery electric vehicle (BEV) and plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (PHEV) market. The possible role of improved recharge availability in developing the BEV-PHEV market and the priorities that different charging options should receive from the government require better understanding. This study reviews the charging issue and conceptualizes it into three interactions between the charge network and the travel network. With travel data from 3,755 drivers in the National Household Travel Survey, this paper estimates the distribution among U.S. consumers of (a) PHEV fuel-saving benefits by different recharge availability improvements, (b) range anxiety by different BEV ranges, and (c) willingness to pay for workplace and public charging in addition to home recharging. With the Oak Ridge National Laboratory MA3T model, the impact of three recharge improvements is quantified by the resulting increase in BEV-PHEV sales. Compared with workplace and public recharging improvements, home recharging improvement appears to have a greater impact on BEV-PHEV sales. The impact of improved recharging availability is shown to be amplified by a faster reduction in battery cost.

Lin, Zhenhong [ORNL; Greene, David L [ORNL

2012-01-01

404

Prospects for enhanced groundwater recharge via infiltration of urban storm water runoff: A case study  

Microsoft Academic Search

The rain garden is an urban storm water best management practice that is used to infiltrate runoff close to its source, thereby disconnecting impervious area while providing an avenue for groundwater recharge. Groundwater recharge may provide additional benefits to aquatic ecosystems via enhancement of stream base flow. Yet, soil conditions can impact on certain aspects of rain garden performance and

W. D. Shuster; R. Gehring; J. Gerken

405

Comparison of Aquifer Recharge Estimates Based on Measured and Estimated Hydraulic Properties  

Microsoft Academic Search

Because unsaturated hydraulic properties, which are used to estimate recharge, are difficult and time consuming to measure accurately, models that estimate these properties indirectly are often used. Using data from six locations in southern New Jersey that appear to have steady-state flow conditions, five hydraulic property prediction and parameterization techniques were evaluated for recharge estimation. The unsaturated zone at this

K. S. Perkins

2003-01-01

406

Hydrogeochemical evidence for surface water recharge to a shallow regional aquifer in northern Victoria, Australia  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Third, Middle and Reedy Lakes system in northern Victoria is a series of interconnected lakes in which groundwater discharge and recharge occur under seasonal climatic and artificial influences. At high lake levels there is a pronounced mounding effect which tends to cause localised perturbation of flow systems and recharge into the uppermost aquifer. Three hydrostratigraphic units (referred to as

L. A. Chambers; J. G. Bartley; A. L. Herczeg

1996-01-01

407

Mode changing stability of wind turbine in an integrated wind turbine and rechargeable battery system  

Microsoft Academic Search

Power generated by wind turbines changes due to variation in wind speed that is independent of the load power. Rechargeable batteries could be used as a reserve power source to alleviate unbalance between the load power and power generated by wind turbines. A supervisory controller is proposed for an integrated wind turbine-battery system (wind turbine electrically connected to a rechargeable

Christine A. Mecklenborg; Dushyant Palejiya; John F. Hall; Dongmei Chen

2011-01-01

408

Hydropedologic Analysis of Ground-Water Recharge at the Field Scale  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Estimating ground-water recharge is an important element in water resources characterization, vulnerability assessment, and utilization. Contaminant sources often occur in the unsaturated zone where ground-water recharge may mobilize it to migrate into a water table aquifer. Cumulative soil water...

409

Inferring time-varying recharge from inverse analysis of long-term water levels  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Water levels in aquifers typically vary in response to time-varying rates of recharge, suggesting the possibility of inferring time-varying recharge rates on the basis of long-term water level records. Presumably, in the southwestern United States (Arizona, Nevada, New Mexico, southern California, and southern Utah), rates of mountain front recharge to alluvial aquifers depend on variations in precipitation rates due to known climate cycles such as the El Nin??o-Southern Oscillation index and the Pacific Decadal Oscillation. This investigation examined the inverse application of a one-dimensional analytical model for periodic flow described by Lloyd R. Townley in 1995 to estimate periodic recharge variations on the basis of variations in long-term water level records using southwest aquifers as the case study. Time-varying water level records at various locations along the flow line were obtained by simulation of forward models of synthetic basins with applied sinusoidal recharge of either a single period or composite of multiple periods of length similar to known climate cycles. Periodic water level components, reconstructed using singular spectrum analysis (SSA), were used to calibrate the analytical model to estimate each recharge component. The results demonstrated that periodic recharge estimates were most accurate in basins with nearly uniform transmissivity and the accuracy of the recharge estimates depends on monitoring well location. A case study of the San Pedro Basin, Arizona, is presented as an example of calibrating the analytical model to real data.

Dickinson, J. E.; Hanson, R. T.; Ferre, T. P. A.; Leake, S. A.

2004-01-01

410

Chemical modifications of groundwater contaminated by recharge of treated sewage effluent  

Microsoft Academic Search

Long-term monitoring of the chemical composition of recharge sewage effluent and associated contaminated groundwater from the Dan Region Sewage Reclamation Project shows, after 16 years of recharge operation, the presence of a distinct saline plume (up to 400 mg\\/l Cl), extending 1600 m downgradient in the Coastal Plain aquifer of Israel. The recorded electrolyte composition of groundwater in the vicinity

Avner Vengosh; Rami Keren

1996-01-01

411

The Effects of Ashe Juniper on Groundwater Recharge in the Edwards Aquifer  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Understanding groundwater recharge rates has direct relevance for management of the Edwards Aquifer, which serves as the main source of fresh water for the city of San Antonio and surrounding communities. As population around San Antonio continues to grow, so does the demand for water and the stress placed on the aquifer. A method that is commonly believed to augment water yields is brush management. Recently on the Edwards Plateau decreasing streamflow has coincided with increasing juniper density. This has led many to believe that removing juniper would increase available water. Due to its karstic nature, the recharge zone of the Edwards Aquifer is assumed to be a prime location for augmenting water yields through vegetation manipulation. This study assesses the dynamics of recharge and the effects of manipulating surface vegetation. To accomplish this, a shallow cave located in the Edwards Aquifer recharge zone in San Antonio, Texas was instrumented to monitor drip recharge in response to simulated rainfall events. In 2004, simulations were conducted over the cave to measure recharge rates with a dense Ashe juniper canopy. The data and observations from the initial simulations were used to establish a baseline with the juniper in place. In March 2008 the juniper stand was cleared and the rainfall simulations were reproduced in June and July 2008. Results initially indicated that removing the juniper decreases recharge, however, surface runoff was significantly increased. From the results we can conclude that the dynamics of recharge are affected initially following removal of juniper.

Bazan, R. A.; Wilcox, B. P.; Munster, C. L.; Gregory, L. F.

2008-12-01

412

Intrinsically safe 5-V, 4-A: Rechargeable power supply. Information circular\\/1989  

Microsoft Academic Search

The U.S. Bureau of Mines has developed a regulated, intrinsically safe, rechargeable power supply for portable electronic equipment for underground use. The regulated output is ideal for microprocessor power requirements and is suited for operation in hazardous environments. Two rechargeable, sealed batteries are contained within the power supply. Provisions are made to use an external source of power if these

Sammarco

1989-01-01

413

A ring-oscillator-based active quenching and active recharge circuit for single photon avalanche diodes  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper proposes a new active quenching and active recharge circuit for single photon avalanche diodes (SPADs). Thanks to the simple ring oscillator architecture, the circuit is one of the most compact active quenching circuits published in the literature. Additionally, a simple modification to the basic version of the circuit allows to measure the hold-off delay and the recharge pulse

M. Gronholm; J. Poikonen; M. Laiho

2009-01-01

414

Voltage regulator for variant light intensity photovoltaic recharging of secondary batteries  

Microsoft Academic Search

A simplified voltage regulator circuit permits varient light intensity photovoltaic recharging of secondary batteries. The regulator circuit electronically shunts serially connected regions of a photovoltaic recharger array to avoid overcharging during periods of high light intensity or full battery charge conditions. The regulator circuitry provides minimal series resistance to the photovoltaic array and requires nominal driving power. The photovoltaic array

Nazimek

1981-01-01

415

Transient-boundary voltage method for measurement of equivalent circuit components of rechargeable batteries  

Microsoft Academic Search

A method is presented for measuring the equivalent circuit components of rechargeable batteries. The temporal discharge–rest–charge–rest sequence of a rechargeable battery is described, using the principles of transient circuit analysis, to derive equations for the battery voltage as a function of time during voltage transients and at the boundaries at transitions between transient phases. The equations lead to a new

K. H. Norian

416

Long-Term Monitoring of Infiltration at a Managed Aquifer Recharge Site Using Electrical Resistivity Probes  

Microsoft Academic Search

As part of an effort to understand the hydrogeologic parameters that influence the performance of a managed aquifer recharge project, four Electrical Resistivity Imaging (ERI) probes were installed beneath an artificial recharge pond to monitor changes in bulk electrical resistivity as a function of time. The probes were three meters long and installed to a depth of two meters below

R. Cockett; A. Pidlisecky; R. J. Knight

2010-01-01

417

Vertical Recharge of a Confined Aquifer in the Fish Farming Area  

Microsoft Academic Search

The rate of vertical groundwater recharge into a confined aquifer is often difficult to estimate due to poor information about confining beds and local pumping activities. Previous studies on a confined aquifer in the coastal plain of Taiwan suggested that its groundwater is primarily recharged laterally from the eastern highland. However, heavy rainfalls that cause all water wells to cease

Y. Chia; W. Liou; T. Lee; Y. Chiu

2004-01-01

418

Rechargeable lithium batteries. (Latest citations from the INSPEC database). Published Search  

SciTech Connect

The bibliography contains citations concerning the design, development, evaluation, and applications of rechargeable lithium batteries. Citations discuss rechargeability, electrolyte formulation, electrode materials, high power capability, thermal management, and overcharge protection. Applications in automotive vehicles, space equipment, computers, and telephones are also discussed. (Contains 50-250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.) (Copyright NERAC, Inc. 1995)

NONE

1996-12-01

419

Calculating the average natural recharge in large areas as a factor of their lithology and precipitation  

Microsoft Academic Search

In an area as large as Spain, it is shown by statistical inference on a sample of 875 springs (with discharges greater than 10 l s-1), whose average flow, lithology and catchment areas are known, and which were grouped into regions of contrasting rainfall, that the average annual recharge is a fixed fraction of annual rainfall for each lithology. Recharge

E. Sanz; I. Menéndez Pidal de Navascués; C. Távara

2011-01-01

420

Portrayal of fuzzy recharge areas for water balance modelling - a case study in northern Oman  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The research project IWAS Oman aims at implementing integrated water resources management (IWRM) to a pilot area in Al Batinah, Oman. This requires - amongst others - a realistic assessment of groundwater recharge to the alluvial aquifer which obviously has to be based upon the extension of recharge areas. In this context, the subsequent investigation focuses on the role of vagueness as regards the portrayal of the areas that provide water for particular aquifers. For that purpose, concepts of fuzziness in spatial analysis are applied to describe possible extents of recharge areas. In general, any water assessment is based on clearly delineated boundaries. However, in many cases, aquifer recharge areas are not clearly defined due to the nature of the study area. Hence, surfaces indicating a gradual membership to the recharge area of a particular aquifer are used in this investigation. These surfaces, which are based on available qualitative information, visualise a potential range of spatial extension. With regard to water balance calculations, functional relationships in tabular form are derived as well. Based on a regionalisation approach providing spatially distributed recharge rates, the corresponding recharge volume is calculated. Hence, this methodology provides fuzzy input data for water balance calculations. Beyond the portrayal of one singular aquifer recharge area, this approach also supports the complementary consideration of adjacent areas.

Gerner, A.; Schütze, N.; Schmitz, G. H.

2012-06-01