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Sample records for recife northeast brazil

  1. Serum Retinol Concentrations in Mothers and Newborns at Delivery in a Public Maternity Hospital in Recife, Northeast Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Andreto, Luciana Marques; Vieira, Carmina Silva dos Santos; de Arruda, Ilma Kruze Grande; Diniz, Alcides da Silva

    2014-01-01

    Serum retinol concentrations were compared in a consecutive series of 65 mother-newborn pairs at delivery in a public maternity hospital in Recife, Brazil, from January to August 2008 and examined their association with biological, socioeconomic, environmental and obstetrical characteristics. Serum retinol concentrations of the newborns (umbilical cord) and mothers (brachial venipuncture) were analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography. Prevalence of low (<0.70 µmol/L) and inadequate (<1.05 µmol/L) serum retinol concentrations were observed in 23.1% (95% CI 13.9-35.5) and 23.0% (95% CI 13.5-35.8) among newborns and mothers respectively. The serum retinol distribution was lower in male than female infants (-0.4 µmol/L, p=0.01) and, across both sexes, concentrations in paired newborn and mother were correlated (r=0.27, p=0.04). Further, maternal status explains only 7% of the variance in retinol concentrations in newborn's cord plasma. Among mothers delivering in public facilities in Recife, hypovitaminosis may exist. PMID:24847590

  2. Tracing the Origins and Processes of Groundwater Salinization in Coastal Aquifers with a Multi-isotopes Approach. Example of Recife, Northeast of Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cary, L.; Petelet-Giraud, E.; Bertrand, G.; Kloppmann, W.; Aquilina, L.; Pauwels, H.; Martins, V.; Hirata, R.; Montenegro, S.

    2015-12-01

    The Recife Metropolitan Region (PE, Brazil) is a typical "hot spot" illustrating the problems of southern countries on water issues inducing high pressures on water resources both on quantity and quality in the context of global social and environmental changes. By focusing on the groundwater geochemistry in a costal multilayer aquifer, this work aims at investigating the sources and processes of salinization. Two different Precambrian blocks separated by a large lineament area constitute the site basement. The sedimentary fillings of the two basins present different origins that were distinguished by the Sr isotope composition. The northern deep Beberibe aquifer displays very high 87Sr/86Sr with a large range of values (0.7102-0.7233) illustrating the main continental origin of sediments whereas the southern deep Cabo aquifer showed lower values (0.7097-0.7141) indicating the contribution of the marine sedimentation. Although sulfate isotopes, Electrical Conductivity and Cl contents indicate a mixing with seawater for some samples of the deep Cabo and Beberibe aquifers, all 87Sr/86Sr values are above the present-day seawater composition. This can be related to the complex local history of transgression/regression phases that induced alternatively salinisation and freshening with gains and losses of cations and Sr, together with water-rock interactions. δ18O-δ2H clearly evidence the local present day recharge in the surficial aquifer, some samples being affected by in situ evaporation processes and/or recharge with evaporated water from dams used for water supply. The deep aquifers display a high range of B (20-600µg/L) and δ11B (6.7-68.5‰) with some of the highest values known to date. Multiple sources and processes affect the B behavior, among which mixing with saline water, B sorption on clays/organic matter and mixing with wastewater. The surficial aquifers are locally salinized possibly due to present seawater intrusion, and highly contaminated with

  3. Multi-isotopes constraints on the origins and processes of groundwater salinization in coastal aquifers. Example of Recife, Northeast of Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cary, Lise; Petelet-Giraud, Emmanuelle; Bertrand, Guillaume; Kloppmann, Wolfram; Aquilina, Luc; Pauwels, Helène; Martins, Veridiana; Hirata, Ricardo; Montenegro, Suzana

    2015-04-01

    The Recife Metropolitan Region (PE, Brazil) is a typical "hot spot" illustrating the problems of southern countries on water issues inducing high pressures on water resources both on quantity and quality in the context of global social and environmental changes. This study focuses on the groundwater geochemistry in a costal multilayer aquifer and aims at investigating the sources and processes of salinization. The RMR basement is constituted by two different Precambrian blocks separated by a large lineament area. The sedimentary fillings of the two basins present different origins that can be distinguished by the Sr isotope composition. The northern deep Beberibe aquifer displays very high strontium isotope ratios with a large range of values (87Sr/86Sr = 0.7102 to 0.7233) illustrating the main continental origin of sediments whereas the southern deep Cabo aquifer showed lower 87Sr/86Sr values (87Sr/86Sr = 0.7097 to 0.7141) indicating the contribution of the marine sedimentation dating from the Atlantic opening. Although sulfate isotopes, Electric Conductivity and Cl contents indicate a clear mixing with seawater for some samples of the deep Cabo and Beberibe aquifers, all 87Sr/86Sr values are above the present-day seawater composition. This can be related to the complex local history of transgression/regression phases that induced alternatively salinisation and freshening with gains and losses of cations and Sr, together with water-rock interactions. Stable isotopes of the water molecule clearly evidence the local present day recharge especially within the surficial aquifer, whereas some samples are affected by in situ evaporation processes and/or recharge with evaporated water originating from dam used for water supply. The two deep aquifers display a high range of B concentrations (~20 to 600 µg.L-1) and B isotope composition (δ11B = 6.7 to 68.5 ‰), with the highest values known to date (63-68.5‰). This suggests multiple sources and processes affecting B

  4. Masculorum concubitores: views on homosexuality among Catholics in Recife, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Rios, Luís Felipe; de Aquino, Francisca Luciana; Coelho, David Handerson; Oliveira, Cinthia; de Almeida, Vagner; Parker, Richard

    2011-01-01

    This study focuses on Catholics' views towards homosexuality. The discussion is based on an ethnographic survey involving interviews with priests and lay leaders as well as participant observation of daily life in a working-class neighborhood in Recife, Pernambuco State, Brazil. The analysis points to persistent prejudice against homosexuality in the neighborhood and among Catholic clergy and lay leaders interviewed in the study. The priests base their assertions on the dialectics between desire/practice and chastity/reproduction. This interplay allows them to distinguish between “homosexuality,” condition of desire, and “homosexualism,” a sin of the flesh. Based on this understanding, they produce an attitude of tolerance towards homosexuals. Laypeople prove to be more intolerant and focus their assertions on the difference between the sexes as the condition for good, natural, and sanctified sexual interaction. This attitude appears to be consistent with the way the sex/gender system operates in the neighborhood, where homosexuality is evaluated in terms masculinity and femininity. In this setting, it is interesting to observe how the discourses of homosexual movements challenge lay people and destabilize their religious certainties. PMID:21822456

  5. [Years of potential life lost by female homicide victims in Recife, Pernambuco State, Brazil].

    PubMed

    Silva, Leonildo Severino da; Menezes, Maria Lúcia Neto de; Lopes, Cyntia Lins de Almeida; Corrêa, Maria Suely Medeiros

    2011-09-01

    This cross-sectional epidemiological study aimed to calculate the potential years of life lost by female homicide victims in Recife, Pernambuco State, Brazil, in 2003-2007. A database was used from the Operational Division for Information on Births and Deaths under the Recife Municipal Health Department. All death certificates for childbearing-age women were reviewed for the five-year period. The results showed a total of 12,120 potential years of life lost by these women, mostly young, black (88%), with unknown levels of schooling (78.2%), single (80%), in District III of the city, and murdered with firearms in their own homes. The specific mortality rate was 10.8 homicides per 100,000 childbearing-age women. The 43.3 years of life lost per woman express the city's characteristics, poverty levels, unemployment, population density, residential instability, and social inequality, exposing residents to social strife, crime, and violence. PMID:21986600

  6. Structure and Dynamics of the Shark Assemblage off Recife, Northeastern Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Afonso, André S.; Andrade, Humber A.; Hazin, Fábio H. V.

    2014-01-01

    Understanding the ecological factors that regulate elasmobranch abundance in nearshore waters is essential to effectively manage coastal ecosystems and promote conservation. However, little is known about elasmobranch populations in the western South Atlantic Ocean. An 8-year, standardized longline and drumline survey conducted in nearshore waters off Recife, northeastern Brazil, allowed us to describe the shark assemblage and to monitor abundance dynamics using zero-inflated generalized additive models. This region is mostly used by several carcharhinids and one ginglymostomid, but sphyrnids are also present. Blacknose sharks, Carcharhinus acronotus, were mostly mature individuals and declined in abundance throughout the survey, contrasting with nurse sharks, Ginglymostoma cirratum, which proliferated possibly due to this species being prohibited from all harvest since 2004 in this region. Tiger sharks, Galeocerdo cuvier, were mostly juveniles smaller than 200 cm and seem to use nearshore waters off Recife between January and September. No long-term trend in tiger shark abundance was discernible. Spatial distribution was similar in true coastal species (i.e. blacknose and nurse sharks) whereas tiger sharks were most abundant at the middle continental shelf. The sea surface temperature, tidal amplitude, wind direction, water turbidity, and pluviosity were all selected to predict shark abundance off Recife. Interspecific variability in abundance dynamics across spatiotemporal and environmental gradients suggest that the ecological processes regulating shark abundance are generally independent between species, which could add complexity to multi-species fisheries management frameworks. Yet, further research is warranted to ascertain trends at population levels in the South Atlantic Ocean. PMID:25010514

  7. Structure and dynamics of the shark assemblage off Recife, Northeastern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Afonso, André S; Andrade, Humber A; Hazin, Fábio H V

    2014-01-01

    Understanding the ecological factors that regulate elasmobranch abundance in nearshore waters is essential to effectively manage coastal ecosystems and promote conservation. However, little is known about elasmobranch populations in the western South Atlantic Ocean. An 8-year, standardized longline and drumline survey conducted in nearshore waters off Recife, northeastern Brazil, allowed us to describe the shark assemblage and to monitor abundance dynamics using zero-inflated generalized additive models. This region is mostly used by several carcharhinids and one ginglymostomid, but sphyrnids are also present. Blacknose sharks, Carcharhinus acronotus, were mostly mature individuals and declined in abundance throughout the survey, contrasting with nurse sharks, Ginglymostoma cirratum, which proliferated possibly due to this species being prohibited from all harvest since 2004 in this region. Tiger sharks, Galeocerdo cuvier, were mostly juveniles smaller than 200 cm and seem to use nearshore waters off Recife between January and September. No long-term trend in tiger shark abundance was discernible. Spatial distribution was similar in true coastal species (i.e. blacknose and nurse sharks) whereas tiger sharks were most abundant at the middle continental shelf. The sea surface temperature, tidal amplitude, wind direction, water turbidity, and pluviosity were all selected to predict shark abundance off Recife. Interspecific variability in abundance dynamics across spatiotemporal and environmental gradients suggest that the ecological processes regulating shark abundance are generally independent between species, which could add complexity to multi-species fisheries management frameworks. Yet, further research is warranted to ascertain trends at population levels in the South Atlantic Ocean. PMID:25010514

  8. KPC-PRODUCING Serratia marcescens IN A HOME-CARE PATIENT FROM RECIFE, BRAZIL.

    PubMed

    Margate, Emmily; Magalhães, Vera; Fehlberg, Lorena Cristina Corrêa; Gales, Ana Cristina; Lopes, Ana Catarina Souza

    2015-01-01

    In this brief communication we describe the occurrence of a KPC-producing Serratia marcescens isolate in a home-care patient from Recife, Brazil. The blaKPC, blaSPM, blaIMP, blaVIM, blaOXA, blaCTX-M, blaSHV, blaTEM and blaGES genes were investigated by Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) and DNA sequencing. The isolate was positive for blaKPC-2 and blaTEM-1 and was resistant to aztreonam, cefepime, cefotaxime, imipenem, meropenem, gentamicin, ciprofloxacin and cefazidime, and susceptible only to amikacin, tigecycline and gatifloxacin. This is the first report in Brazil of KPC-producing S. marcescens clinical isolate outside of a hospital environment. Caregivers should be alert for the presence of this isolate in the community setting. PMID:26422164

  9. 78 FR 38687 - Architecture Services Trade Mission to Rio de Janeiro and Recife, Brazil, October 7-10, 2013

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-27

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration Architecture Services Trade Mission to Rio de Janeiro and Recife, Brazil, October 7-10, 2013 AGENCY: International Trade Administration, Department of Commerce. ACTION: Notice. Mission Description The United...

  10. Homicide in children and adolescents: a case-control study in Recife, Brazil.

    PubMed Central

    Falbo, G. H.; Buzzetti, R.; Cattaneo, A.

    2001-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The homicide rate for children and adolescents in Recife, Brazil, mostly caused by firearms, is one of the highest that has been reported. The present case-control study was designed to identify factors that were potentially modifiable through preventive interventions. METHODS: Cases were 255 homicide victims under 20 years of age, who had died in 1997 and been identified at the Institute of Forensic Medicine, Police Department, Recife, and whose relatives were interviewed by two community health workers when they claimed the corpse. The 255 controls were neighbours of the cases, paired by age and sex to them, and identified within one week of identification of each case, and whose relatives were interviewed by a third community health worker. FINDINGS: The overall homicide rate in Recife for under-20-year-olds in 1997 was 49 per 100,000; among males aged 15-19 years it was 324 per 100,000. Firearms were responsible for 97% of deaths. After multivariate logistic regression, history of personal police records (odds ratio (OR) = 18.65; 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.91-182.50), use of illicit drugs (OR = 7.48; 95% CI = 1.86-30.17), tap water at home (OR = 7.30; 95% CI = 1.80-29.59), and maternal age at birth over 26 years (OR = 3.98; 95% CI = 1.79-8.84) were identified as risk factors, while higher education (OR = 0.22; 95% CI = 0.11-0.43), religious practice (OR = 0.25; 95% CI = 0.10-0.65), and presence of the father in the household (OR = 0.28; 95% CI = 0.09-0.81) were protective factors. CONCLUSION: Public health authorities should plan preventive interventions based on the findings of this study and should control the acquisition, possession and carrying of firearms. PMID:11217662

  11. [Epidemiological features of maternal deaths occurred in Recife, PE, Brazil (2000-2006)].

    PubMed

    Correia, Rafaella Araújo; Araújo, Hallana Cristina; Furtado, Betise Mery Alencar; Bonfim, Cristine

    2011-01-01

    This was a cross-sectional study that aimed to describe the epidemiological characteristics of maternal deaths among women living in Recife, PE, Brazil that occurred between 2000 and 2006. The data source consisted of investigation files on maternal deaths. To analyze the data, the EpiInfo 6.04d software was used. The analysis considered 111 deaths, corresponding to a maternal death ratio of 65.99/100,000 live births. The obstetric data showed that these women had had fewer than six prenatal consultations, between one and four previous pregnancies, cesarean deliveries and hospital admission in a severe condition. Hypertensive disorders were the main cause of death. Most of the deaths were considered avoidable. The results indicate the need to improve the healthcare for pregnant women prenatally, at delivery and during the puerperium. PMID:21468495

  12. Description of a Prospective 17DD Yellow Fever Vaccine Cohort in Recife, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    de Melo, Andréa Barbosa; da Silva, Maria da Paz C.; Magalhães, Maria Cecília F.; Gonzales Gil, Laura Helena Vega; Freese de Carvalho, Eduardo M.; Braga-Neto, Ulisses M.; Bertani, Giovani Rota; Marques, Ernesto T. A.; Cordeiro, Marli Tenório

    2011-01-01

    From September 2005 to March 2007, 238 individuals being vaccinated for the first time with the yellow fever (YF) -17DD vaccine were enrolled in a cohort established in Recife, Brazil. A prospective study indicated that, after immunization, anti-YF immunoglobulin M (IgM) and anti-YF IgG were present in 70.6% (IgM) and 98.3% (IgG) of the vaccinated subjects. All vaccinees developed protective immunity, which was detected by the plaque reduction neutralization test (PRNT) with a geometric mean titer of 892. Of the 238 individuals, 86.6% had IgG antibodies to dengue virus; however, the presence of anti-dengue IgG did not interfere significantly with the development of anti-YF neutralizing antibodies. In a separate retrospective study of individuals immunized with the 17DD vaccine, the PRNT values at 5 and 10 years post-vaccination remained positive but showed a significant decrease in neutralization titer (25% with PRNT titers < 100 after 5 years and 35% after 10 years). PMID:21976581

  13. Mutational and acquired carbapenem resistance mechanisms in multidrug resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa clinical isolates from Recife, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Cavalcanti, Felipe Lira de Sá; Mirones, Cristina Rodríguez; Paucar, Elena Román; Montes, Laura Álvarez; Leal-Balbino, Tereza Cristina; de Morais, Marcia Maria Camargo; Martínez-Martínez, Luis; Ocampo-Sosa, Alain Antonio

    2015-01-01

    An investigation was carried out into the genetic mechanisms responsible for multidrug resistance in nine carbapenem-resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosaisolates from different hospitals in Recife, Brazil. Susceptibility to antimicrobial agents was determined by broth microdilution. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was employed to detect the presence of genes encoding β-lactamases, aminoglycoside-modifying enzymes (AMEs), 16S rRNA methylases, integron-related genes and OprD. Expression of genes coding for efflux pumps and AmpC cephalosporinase were assessed by quantitative PCR. The outer membrane proteins were separated by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. The blaSPM-1, blaKPC-2 and blaGES-1 genes were detected in P. aeruginosaisolates in addition to different AME genes. The loss of OprD in nine isolates was mainly due to frameshift mutations, premature stop codons and point mutations. An association of loss of OprD with the overexpression of MexAB-OprM and MexXY-OprM was observed in most isolates. Hyper-production of AmpC was also observed in three isolates. Clonal relationship of the isolates was determined by repetitive element palindromic-PCR and multilocus sequence typing. Our results show that the loss of OprD along with overexpression of efflux pumps and β-lactamase production were responsible for the multidrug resistance in the isolates analysed. PMID:26676375

  14. Molecular characterization of bromeliads from northeast Brazil.

    PubMed

    Vieira, S D; Rabbani, A R C; Santos, F; Silva-Mann, R; Arrigoni-Blank, M F; Prata, A P N; Resende, L V; Pasqual, M; Blank, A F

    2014-01-01

    Bromeliaceae is an important botany family that includes many species with economic value; demand for members of this family is increasing. However, illegal collection frequently occurs, drastically reducing the species populations; thus, it is necessary to collect and store Bromeliaceae genetic material. In this study, we identified and quantified genetic variability of the Bromeliad family using dominant markers to create the first Germplasm Bank in the northeast region of Brazil. Molecular tools were used to characterize the collected accessions. The combination of 11 inter-simple sequence repeats and 13 random amplified polymorphic DNA markers were used to detect the genetic variability of wild bromeliad accessions. PMID:25501194

  15. Zygomycetes From Herbivore Dung in the Ecological Reserve of Dois IrmÃOs, Northeast Brazil

    PubMed Central

    de Azevedo Santiago, André Luiz Cabral Monteiro; Botelho Trufem, Sandra Farto; Malosso, Elaine; dos Santos, Paulo Jorge Parreira; de Queiroz Cavalcanti, Maria Auxiliadora

    2011-01-01

    Thirty-eight taxa of Zygomycetes distributed in 15 genera were recorded from tapir (Tapirus terrestris), camel (Camelus bactrianus), horse (Equus caballus), deer (Cervus elaphus), agouti (Dasyprocta aguti), donkey (Equus asinus), llama (Llama glama) and waterbuck (Kobus ellipsiprymnus) dung collected at the Reserva Ecológica de Dois Irmãos located in Recife, State of Pernambuco, Northeast Brazil. The samples were collected on a monthly basis from June 2005 to May 2006, taken to the laboratory and incubated in moist chambers. Higher number of taxa was observed in the excrements of tapir, followed by deer and donkey. The highest number of species was detected for Mucor, followed by Pilobolus. Statistical analyses showed significant differences in richness of Zygomycetes taxa between the herbivore dung types. Differences of species composition, however, were weak. Seasonality influenced the Zygomycetes species composition but not its richness. Variations in taxa composition between ruminants and non-ruminants dung were non significant. PMID:24031609

  16. Zygomycetes From Herbivore Dung in the Ecological Reserve of Dois IrmÃOs, Northeast Brazil.

    PubMed

    de Azevedo Santiago, André Luiz Cabral Monteiro; Botelho Trufem, Sandra Farto; Malosso, Elaine; Dos Santos, Paulo Jorge Parreira; de Queiroz Cavalcanti, Maria Auxiliadora

    2011-01-01

    Thirty-eight taxa of Zygomycetes distributed in 15 genera were recorded from tapir (Tapirus terrestris), camel (Camelus bactrianus), horse (Equus caballus), deer (Cervus elaphus), agouti (Dasyprocta aguti), donkey (Equus asinus), llama (Llama glama) and waterbuck (Kobus ellipsiprymnus) dung collected at the Reserva Ecológica de Dois Irmãos located in Recife, State of Pernambuco, Northeast Brazil. The samples were collected on a monthly basis from June 2005 to May 2006, taken to the laboratory and incubated in moist chambers. Higher number of taxa was observed in the excrements of tapir, followed by deer and donkey. The highest number of species was detected for Mucor, followed by Pilobolus. Statistical analyses showed significant differences in richness of Zygomycetes taxa between the herbivore dung types. Differences of species composition, however, were weak. Seasonality influenced the Zygomycetes species composition but not its richness. Variations in taxa composition between ruminants and non-ruminants dung were non significant. PMID:24031609

  17. Glacial recharge, salinisation and anthropogenic contamination in the coastal aquifers of Recife (Brazil).

    PubMed

    Chatton, E; Aquilina, L; Pételet-Giraud, E; Cary, L; Bertrand, G; Labasque, T; Hirata, R; Martins, V; Montenegro, S; Vergnaud, V; Aurouet, A; Kloppmann, W; Pauwels

    2016-11-01

    Implying large residence times and complex water origins deep coastal aquifers are of particular interest as they are remarkable markers of climate, water use and land use changes. Over the last decades, the Metropolitan Region of Recife (Brazil) went through extensive environmental changes increasing the pressure on water resources and giving rise to numerous environmental consequences on the coastal groundwater systems. We analysed the groundwater of the deep aquifers Cabo and Beberibe that are increasingly exploited. The processes potentially affecting groundwater residence times and flow paths have been studied using a multi-tracer approach (CFCs, SF6, noble gases, 14C, 2H and 18O). The main findings of these investigations show that: (1) Groundwaters of the Cabo and Beberibe aquifers have long residence times and were recharged about 20,000years ago. (2) Within these old groundwaters we can find palaeo-climate evidences from the last glacial period at the tropics with lower temperatures and dryer conditions than the present climate. (3) Recently, the natural slow dynamic of these groundwater systems was significantly affected by mixing processes with contaminated modern groundwater coming from the shallow unconfined Boa Viagem aquifer. (4) The large exploitation of these aquifers leads to a modification of the flow directions and causes the intrusion through palaeo-channels of saline water probably coming from the Capibaribe River and from the last transgression episodes. These observations indicate that the current exploitation of the Cabo and Beberibe aquifers is unsustainable regarding the long renewal times of these groundwater systems as well as their ongoing contamination and salinisation. The groundwater cycle being much slower than the human development rhythm, it is essential to integrate the magnitude and rapidity of anthropogenic impacts on this extremely slow cycle to the water management concepts. PMID:27387803

  18. Seroprevalence and risk factors for dengue infection in socioeconomically distinct areas of Recife, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Braga, Cynthia; Luna, Carlos Feitosa; Martelli, Celina MariaTurchi; de Souza, Wayner Vieira; Cordeiro, Marli Tenório; Alexander, Neal; Militão de Albuquerque, Maria de Fátima Pessoa; Silveira Júnior, José Constantino; Marques, Ernesto T.

    2013-01-01

    Brazil currently accounts for the majority of dengue cases reported in the Americas, with co-circulation of DENV 1, 2 and 3. Striking variation in the epidemiological pattern of infection within cities has been observed. Therefore, investigation of dengue transmission in small areas is important to formulate control strategies. A population-based household survey was performed in three diverse socio-economic and environmental areas of Recife, a large urban center of Brazil, between 2005 and 2006. Dengue serostatus and individual- and household-level risk factors for infection were collected in residents aged between 5 and 64 years. A total of 2,833 individuals were examined, and their residences were geo-referenced. Anti-dengue IgG antibodies were measured using commercial ELISA. The dengue seroprevalence and the force of infection were estimated in each area. Individual and household variables associated with seropositivity were assessed by multilevel models for each area. A spatial analysis was conducted to identify risk gradients of dengue seropositivity using generalized additive models (GAM). The dengue seroprevalence was 91.1%, 87.4% 74.3%, respectively, in the deprived, intermediate and high socioeconomic areas, inversely related to their socio-economic status. In the deprived area, 59% of children had already been exposed to dengue virus by the age of 5 years and the estimated force of infection was three times higher than that in the privileged area. The risk of infection increased with age in the three areas. Working or studying outside the home area was a risk factor for seropositivity in the deprived area (OR=2.26; 95% CI: 1.18-4.30). Number of persons per room was a risk factor for seropositivity in the intermediate (OR=3.00; 95% CI: 3.21-7.37) and privileged areas (OR=1.81; 95% CI: 1.07-3.04). Living in a house, as opposed to an apartment, was a risk factor for seropositivity in the privileged area (OR=3.62; 95% CI: 2.43-5.41). The main difference

  19. A Subnational Perspective for Comparative Research: Education and Development in Northeast Brazil and Northeast Thailand.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fry, Gerald; Kempner, Ken

    1996-01-01

    Case studies of northeast Brazil and northeast Thailand highlight the importance of a subnational approach to comparative research. Compares geographic and economic conditions, regional culture, ethnicity and gender issues, migration patterns, religion, literacy, and educational underdevelopment. Points out that neglect of a region and its people…

  20. Effects of a Community-Based, Professionally Supervised Intervention on Physical Activity Levels Among Residents of Recife, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Hallal, Pedro; Pratt, Michael; Ramos, Luiz; Munk, Marcia; Damascena, Wilson; Parra Perez, Diana; Hoehner, Christine M.; Gilbertz, David; Malta, Deborah Carvalho; Brownson, Ross C.

    2009-01-01

    Objectives. We evaluated the effects of a community-based intervention, the Academia da Cidade program (ACP), on increasing leisure-time physical activity among residents of Recife, Brazil. Methods. We used the International Physical Activity Questionnaire to assess leisure-time physical activity and transport physical activity (i.e., activities involved in traveling from place to place) levels in a random sample of 2047 Recife residents surveyed in 2007. We also examined factors related to exposure to ACP (participation in the intervention, residing near an intervention site, hearing about or seeing intervention activities). We estimated prevalence odds ratios (ORs) of moderate to high leisure-time and transport physical activity levels via intervention exposures adjusted for sociodemographic, health, and environmental variables. Results. Prevalence ORs for moderate to high levels of leisure-time physical activity were higher among former (prevalence OR = 2.0; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.0, 3.9) and current (prevalence OR = 11.3; 95% CI = 3.5, 35.9) intervention participants and those who had heard about or seen an intervention activity (prevalence OR = 1.8; 95% CI = 1.3, 2.5). Transport physical activity levels were inversely associated with residing near an ACP site. Conclusions. The ACP program appears to be an effective public health strategy to increase population-level physical activity in urban developing settings. PMID:19008499

  1. Potential leakage between aquifers in a deeply anthropized coastal sedimentary basin (Recife, Brazil): Strontium isotope constraints

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petelet-Giraud, Emmanuelle; Cary, Lise; Hirata, Ricardo; Martins, Veridiana; Bertrand, Guillaume; Montenegro, Suzana; Pauwels, Helene; Kloppmann, Wolfram; Aquilina, Luc

    2013-04-01

    Due to an increasing demographic pressure, the Metropolitan Region of Recife (RMR) went through remarkable changes of water and land uses over the last decades. These evolutions gave rise to numerous environmental consequences, such as a dramatic decline of the piezometric levels, groundwater salinization and contamination. This degradation of natural resources is linked to the increase of water demand, punctually amplified by drought periods which induced the construction of thousands of private wells. Recife was built on the estuarine area of the Capibaribe River and other small rivers. The Recife coastal plain is located in the geographic limits of the sedimentary basins of Cabo and Pernambuco-Paraíba which consist out of fluvial and marine geologic formations. It is composed of three main aquifers: the two semi-confined Cabo and Beberibe aquifers, both underlining the superficial Boa Viagem unconfined aquifer, which is the most directly exposed to contamination, since it is connected to mangroves, rivers, estuaries and highly urbanized areas. The Boa Viagem aquifer is made of marine terraces of sand, silt and clay has an average thickness of 40 m. The Cabo aquifer occurs in the south of Recife and comprises sandstones, siltstones and mudstones, with an average thickness of 90 m. The Beberibe aquifer occurs in the north and central area of Recife with an average thickness of 100 m of sandstones with intercalations of mudstone; it is the most important one, with the highest amount of good quality water. Both the Beberibe and Cabo aquifers contain large clay levels. The hydraulic connections between the three aquifers are not well known but isotopic studies have shown that the recharge processes are similar, suggesting that exchanges may occur and may be modified or amplified by overexploitation especially between the Cabo and Boa Viagem aquifers. Two other aquifers can be found west of the city: the Barreiras aquifer, characterized by alternating well stratified

  2. An anthropometric survey using digital photogrammetry: a case study in Recife, Pernambuco, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Barros, Bruno; Soares, Marcelo

    2012-01-01

    This study was carried out in a partnership with the Federal University of Pernambuco and the Faculty of Human Motricity of the Technical University in Lisbon (Portugal). The aim of the study was the measurement of human body segments throughout the digital photogramety, comparing and analysing data into Recife sample and to validate the Digital System as anthropometric survey tool. The result of the analysis has introduced: Data from the sample; Data by age; Data by Sex; Data by ethnicity; Data by region of birth; Difference of data from population individually. Besides to prove the true efficiency of the software. PMID:22317344

  3. Regional Climate Change Projections over Northeast Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cassain Sales, Domingo; Araújo Costa, Alexandre; Mariano da Silva, Emerson; Cavalcante, Arnóbio M. B.; das Chagas Vasconcelos Júnior, Francisco; Martins de Araújo Junior, Luiz; Oliveira Guimarães, Sullyandro

    2013-04-01

    Climate change and climate change impact studies often require a spatial resolution beyond the horizontal grid spacing of the data generated by Global Climate Models (GCMs). Dynamical Downscaling is one of techniques that allow regionalization of information from such models, in which the GCM data drive a Regional Climate Model (RCM) that in turn, at least theoretically, presents the climatological fields in more detail and can add value to climatic analysis. In this context, CORDEX is a coordinated experiment that standardizes dynamical downscaling simulations over continental regions, to provide a contribution from the regional climate modeling community to the IPCC/AR5 and beyond. Because computer resources are limited, a modeling group involved in CORDEX typically chooses one or few of the suggested domains, and use one or a few CMIP5 GCM data to drive its regional model. At the State University of Ceará (UECE), in Brazil, we used RAMS6.0 (Regional Atmospheric Modeling System Version 6.0), driven by HadGEM2-ES (Hadley Centre Global Enviroment Model Version 2 - Earth System) data, over a extended CORDEX Central America domain (longitude: 124.5W to 24.5W, latitude: 33.5N to 17.5S). This work presents the evaluation of climatological features of precipitation and temperature over Northeast Brazil region (longitude: 47W to 34.5W, latitude: 2.5S to 17.5S) for 20 years of the historical period (1985-2005) evaluating short-term (2015-2035), mid-term (2045-2065) and long-term (2079-2099) changes, under the RCP4.5 e RCP8.5 scenarios. For the historical period, the results were compared against several observed data sets, in order to evaluate the performance of RAMS6.0 nested to HadGEM2-ES. The correlation between the simulated and observed annual cycle of precipitation is high (above 0.93). RAMS6.0 shows a wet bias of 0.706 mm/day that is larger than HadGEM2-ES bias (0.197 mm/day), however the regional model corrects the month of maximum precipitation (the global model

  4. [Factors associated with geographic access to health services by TB patients in three State capitals in Northeast Brazil].

    PubMed

    Souza, Márcia São Pedro Leal; Aquino, Rosana; Pereira, Susan M; Costa, Maria da Conceição Nascimento; Barreto, Mauricio Lima; Natividade, Marcio; Ximenes, Ricardo; Souza, Wayner; Dantas, Odimariles Maria; Braga, José Ueleres

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to identify factors associated with geographic access to health services by tuberculosis patients in three State capitals in Northeast Brazil. The sample consisted of new tuberculosis cases reported in 2007. The study used data from the Information System on Notifiable Diseases and the National Registry of Healthcare Organizations. Addresses of households and health services were geocoded, and difficult access was defined as a distance greater than 800 meters from the household to the health service. Crude prevalence ratios were estimated, as well as adjusted prevalence ratios using Poisson regression. After adjusting the study variables, the only variable that remained associated with difficult access was primary healthcare units in Salvador, Bahia State (PR = 0.75; 95%CI: 0.720-0.794) and in Recife, Pernambuco State (PR = 0.402; 95%CI: 0.318-0.508). The study concluded that decentralization of primary care can help improve access to health services. PMID:25715296

  5. Incidence of child and adolescent abuse among incarcerated females in the northeast of Brazil.

    PubMed

    Falbo, Gilliatt; Caminha, Fátima; Aguiar, Florence; Albuquerque, Jácia; de Chacon Lourdes, M; Miranda, Simone; Marques, Sônia

    2004-10-01

    The intergenerational transmission of violence and the tendency for abused and neglected children to become abusers, delinquents, and violent offenders in their adult life is an important field to be understood. It is also important to understand these backgrounds to guide future preventative interventions. Through a cross-sectional study, the occurrence of abuse during childhood and adolescence of adult women incarcerated in a female state prison at Recife in northeast Brazil was investigated. Among 219 prisoners, 190 accepted to join the research; 149 were young women (23-27 years) with severe educational deficiency. Living in poor socioeconomical conditions with problematic and violent familiar relations, 116 (61 per cent) left home at the end of their adolescence and the same number reported having been abused (p < 0.000015). There was a statistical significance between the abuses suffered and witnessed by the subjects and the perpetration of abuse against children and adolescents by themselves (p < 0.0022 and p < 0.0000049). Parents were the most frequent perpetrators (37.4 per cent). Sexual activity and use of legal and illegal drugs occurred early in adolescence. The group also had a family history of violence. Based on the analysed data of this studied group, the authors assumed that the abuse suffered in childhood and adolescence of these women drove them to be abusers in adult life and could have been a predictive marker for their conduct disorders and subsequent criminal behavior. PMID:15510761

  6. Physical abuse of older people reported at the Institute of Forensic Medicine in Recife, Pernambuco State, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Abath, Marcella de Brito; Leal, Márcia Carréra Campos; Melo Filho, Djalma Agripino de; Marques, Ana Paula de Oliveira

    2010-09-01

    This cross-sectional study aimed to determine the profile of physical abuse against older people who underwent forensic examination at the Institute of Forensic Medicine in Recife, Pernambuco State, Brazil. The cases, with data from 1,027 forensic reports, were described according to characteristics of the incident, victim, and aggressor. Most cases of violence were produced by mechanical energy, either with blunt objects or by empty-handed attack; the most common day of the week was Sunday, most frequently in the evening, and in the victim's home; typical cases involved mild injuries on more than one part of the victim's body. The majority of the victims were men, 60 to 69 years of age, brown (mixed-race), married or living with a partner, and retirees/pensioners. The majority of the aggressors were men, known to the victim, and attacking alone. The social transcendence of violence against older people clearly calls for investment in programs to deal with the problem in order to ensure better quality of life for the elderly. PMID:20877940

  7. Prevalence and factors associated with intimate partner violence among women in Recife/Pernambuco, Brazil.

    PubMed

    de Barros, Érika Neves; Silva, Maria Arleide; Falbo Neto, Gilliatt Hanois; Lucena, Sara Gomes; Ponzo, Lucas; Pimentel, Amanda Patrícia

    2016-02-01

    Intimate partner violence is an important cause of morbidity and mortality among women. Although there are no official statistics, data reveal a high prevalence worldwide. This study aimed to estimate the prevalence and factors associated with intimate partner violence among women in a community in Recife, Pernambuco. A cross-sectional cohort study was conducted with 245 women in the 15 to 49-year age bracket. A questionnaire with sociodemographic variables was used, together with the WHO Violence Against Women (VAW) study tools and the Self-Reporting Questionnaire (SRQ-20). The participants all signed an informed consent form. The prevalence of intimate partner violence was classified by type of violence: emotional - 52.7%; physical - 46.1 %; and sexual - 13.6%. Bivariate analysis revealed an association between experiencing violence with not having a partner (p = 0.001) and drug use (p ≤ 0.001). In multivariate analysis, the variables were strongly associated with the outcome: sexual intercourse for fear (OR 5.58); depressive-anxious mood (OR 2.69); drug use (OR 2.57). A high prevalence of intimate partner violence in the community, especially emotional violence, emerges as an important finding, indicating the need for care in prevention and the overall health of this population. PMID:26910166

  8. Fauna used in popular medicine in Northeast Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Alves, Rômulo RN

    2009-01-01

    Background Animal-based remedies constitute an integral part of Brazilian Traditional Medicine. Due to its long history, zootherapy has in fact become an integral part of folk medicine both in rural and urban areas of the country. In this paper we summarize current knowledge on zootherapeutic practices in Northeast of Brazil, based on information compiled from ethnobiological scientific literature. Methods In order to examine the diversity of animals used in traditional medicine in Northeast of Brazil, all available references or reports of folk remedies based on animals sources were examined. 34 sources were analyzed. Only taxa that could be identified to species level were included in assessment of medicinal animal species. Scientific names provided in publications were updated. Results The review revealed that at least 250 animal species (178 vertebrates and 72 invertebrates) are used for medicinal purposes in Northeast of Brazil. The inventoried species comprise 10 taxonomic categories and belong to 141 Families. The groups with the greatest number of species were fishes (n = 58), mammals (n = 47) and reptiles (n = 37). The zootherapeutical products are used for the treatment of different illnesses. The most widely treated condition were asthma, rheumatism and sore throat, conditions, which had a wide variety of animals to treat them with. Many animals were used for the treatment of multiple ailments. Beyond the use for treating human diseases, zootherapeutical resources are also used in ethnoveterinary medicine Conclusion The number of medicinal species catalogued was quite expressive and demonstrate the importance of zootherapy as alternative therapeutic in Northeast of Brazil. Although widely diffused throughout Brazil, zootherapeutic practices remain virtually unstudied. There is an urgent need to examine the ecological, cultural, social, and public health implications associated with fauna usage, including a full inventory of the animal species used for

  9. Radiation exposure to patients and medical staff in hepatic chemoembolisation interventional procedures in Recife, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Khoury, H J; Garzon, W J; Andrade, G; Lunelli, N; Kramer, R; de Barros, V S M; Huda, A

    2015-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate patient and medical staff absorbed doses received from transarterial chemoembolisation of hepatocellular carcinoma, which is the most common primary liver tumour worldwide. The study was performed in three hospitals in Recife, capital of the state of Pernambuco, located in the Brazilian Northeastern region. Two are public hospitals (A and B), and one is private (C). For each procedure, the number of images, irradiation parameters (kV, mA and fluoroscopy time), the air kerma-area product (PKA) and the cumulative air kerma (Ka,r) at the reference point were registered. The maximum skin dose (MSD) of the patient was estimated using radiochromic film. For the medical staff dosimetry, thermoluminescence dosemeters (TLD-100) were attached next to the eyes, close to the thyroid (above the shielding), on the thorax under the apron, on the wrist and on the feet. The effective dose to the staff was estimated using the algorithm of von Boetticher. The results showed that the mean value of the total PKA was 267.49, 403.83 and 479.74 Gy cm(2) for Hospitals A, B and C, respectively. With regard to the physicians, the average effective dose per procedure was 17 µSv, and the minimum and maximum values recorded were 1 and 41 µSy, respectively. The results showed that the feet received the highest doses followed by the hands and lens of the eye, since the physicians did not use leaded glasses and the equipment had no lead curtain. PMID:25870436

  10. Analysis of atmospheric aerosol (PM2.5) in Recife city, Brazil.

    PubMed

    dos Santos, Luis H M; Kerr, Américo A F S; Veríssimo, Thiago G; Andrade, Maria de Fatima; de Miranda, Regina Maura; Fornaro, Adalgiza; Saldiva, Paulo

    2014-05-01

    Several studies indicate that mortality and morbidity can be well correlated to atmospheric aerosol concentrations with aerodynamic diameter less than 2.5 microm (PM2.5). In this work the PM2.5 at Recife city was analyzed as part of a main research project (INAIRA) to evaluate the air pollution impact on human health in six Brazilian metropolitan areas. The average concentration, for 309 samples (24-hr), from June 2007 to July 2008, was 7.3 microg/m3, with an average of 1.1 microg/m3 of black carbon. The elemental concentrations of samples were obtained by x-ray fluorescence. The concentrations were then used for characterizing the aerosol, and also were employed for receptor modelling to identify the major local sources of PM2.5. Positive matrix factorization analysis indicated six main factors, with four being associated to soil dust, vehicles and sea spray, metallurgical activities, and biomass burning, while for a chlorine factor, and others related to S, Ca, Br, and Na, we could make no specific source association. Principal component analysis also indicated six dominant factors, with some specific characteristics. Four factors were associated to soil dust, vehicles, biomass burning, and sea spray, while for the two others, a chlorine- and copper-related factor and a nickel-related factor, it was not possible to do a specific source association. The association of the factors to the likely sources was possible thanks to meteorological analysis and sources information. Each model, although giving similar results, showed factors' peculiarities, especially for source apportionment. The observed PM2.5 concentration levels were acceptable, notwithstanding the high urbanization of the metropolitan area, probably due to favorable conditions for air pollution dispersion. More than a valuable historical register these results should be very important for the next analysis, which will correlate health data, PM2.5 levels, and sources contributions in the context of the

  11. ASSOCIATION BETWEEN SMOKING, CRACK COCAINE ABUSE AND THE DISCONTINUATION OF COMBINATION ANTIRETROVIRAL THERAPY IN RECIFE, PERNAMBUCO, BRAZIL

    PubMed Central

    Batista, Joanna d'Arc Lyra; de Albuquerque, Maria de Fátima Pessoa Militão; Santos, Marcela Lopes; Miranda-Filho, Demócrito de Barros; Lacerda, Heloísa Ramos; Maruza, Magda; Moura, Libia Vilela; Coimbra, Isabella; Ximenes, Ricardo Arraes de Alencar

    2014-01-01

    Despite the effectiveness of combination antiretroviral therapy in the treatment of people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA), nonadherence to medication has become a major threat to its effectiveness. This study aimed to estimate the prevalence of self-reported irregular use of antiretroviral therapy and the factors associated with such an irregularity in PLWHA. A cross-sectional study of PLWHA who attended two referral centers in the city of Recife, in Northeastern Brazil, between June 2007 and October 2009 was carried out. The study analyzed socioeconomic factors, social service support and personal habits associated with nonadherence to antiretroviral therapy, adjusted by multivariable logistic regression analysis. The prevalence of PLWHA who reported irregular use of combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) was 25.7%. In the final multivariate model, the irregular use of cART was associated with the following variables: being aged less than 40 years (OR = 1.66, 95%-CI: 1.29-2.13), current smokers (OR = 1.76, 95%-CI: 1.31-2.37) or former smokers (OR = 1.43, 95%-CI: 1.05-1.95), and crack cocaine users (OR = 2.79, 95%-CI: 1.24-6.32). Special measures should be directed towards each of the following groups: individuals aged less than 40 years, smokers, former smokers and crack cocaine users. Measures for giving up smoking and crack cocaine should be incorporated into HIV-control programs in order to promote greater adherence to antiretroviral drugs and thus improve the quality of life and prolong life expectancy. PMID:24626414

  12. Origins and processes of groundwater salinization in the urban coastal aquifers of Recife (Pernambuco, Brazil): A multi-isotope approach.

    PubMed

    Cary, Lise; Petelet-Giraud, Emmanuelle; Bertrand, Guillaume; Kloppmann, Wolfram; Aquilina, Luc; Martins, Veridiana; Hirata, Ricardo; Montenegro, Suzana; Pauwels, Hélène; Chatton, Eliot; Franzen, Melissa; Aurouet, Axel

    2015-10-15

    In the coastal multilayer aquifer system of a highly urbanized southern city (Recife, Brazil), where groundwaters are affected by salinization, a multi-isotope approach (Sr, B, O, H) was used to investigate the sources and processes of salinization. The high diversity of the geological bodies, built since the Atlantic opening during the Cretaceous, highly constrains the heterogeneity of the groundwater chemistry, e.g. Sr isotope ratios, and needs to be integrated to explain the salinization processes and groundwater pathways. A paleoseawater intrusion, most probably the 120 kyB.P. Pleistocene marine transgression, and cationic exchange are clearly evidenced in the most salinized parts of the Cabo and Beberibe aquifers. All (87)Sr/(86)Sr values are above the past and present-day seawater signatures, meaning that the Sr isotopic signature is altered due to additional Sr inputs from dilution with different freshwaters, and water-rock interactions. Only the Cabo aquifer presents a well-delimitated area of Na-HCO3 water typical of a freshening process. The two deep aquifers also display a broad range of B concentrations and B isotope ratios with values among the highest known to date (63-68.5‰). This suggests multiple sources and processes affecting B behavior, among which mixing with saline water, B sorption on clays and mixing with wastewater. The highly fractionated B isotopic values were explained by infiltration of relatively salty water with B interacting with clays, pointing out the major role played by (palaeo)-channels for the deep Beberibe aquifer recharge. Based on an increase of salinity at the end of the dry season, a present-day seawater intrusion is identified in the surficial Boa Viagem aquifer. Our conceptual model presents a comprehensive understanding of the major groundwater salinization pathways and processes, and should be of benefit for other southern Atlantic coastal aquifers to better address groundwater management issues. PMID:26063126

  13. Risk factors for treatment delay in pulmonary tuberculosis in Recife, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    dos Santos, Martinho APS; Albuquerque, Maria FPM; Ximenes, Ricardo AA; Lucena-Silva, Norma LCL; Braga, Cynthia; Campelo, Antônio RL; Dantas, Odimariles MS; Montarroyos, Ulisses R; Souza, Wayner V; Kawasaki, Alexandre M; Rodrigues, Laura C

    2005-01-01

    Background Tuberculosis is still a great challenge to public health in Brazil and worldwide. Early detection followed by effective therapy is extremely important in controlling the disease. Recent studies have investigated reasons for delays in treatment, but there is no agreed definition of what constitutes an "acceptable" delay. This study investigates factors associated with total delay in treatment of tuberculosis. Methods A cohort of adult cases of pulmonary tuberculosis diagnosed over a two-year period was studied. Patients were interviewed on entry, reporting the duration of symptoms before the start of treatment, and sputum and blood samples were collected. It was decided that sixty days was an acceptable total delay. Associations were investigated using univariable and multivariable analysis and the population attributable fraction was estimated. Results Of 1105 patients, 62% had a delay of longer than 60 days. Age, sex, alcoholism and difficulty of access were not associated with delays, but associations were found in the case of unemployment, having given up smoking, having lost weight and being treated in two of the six health districts. The proportion attributable to: not being an ex-smoker was 31%; unemployment, 18%; weight loss, 12%, and going to the two worst health districts, 25%. Conclusion In this urban area, delays seem to be related to unemployment and general attitudes towards health. Although they reflect the way health services are organized, delays are not associated with access to care. PMID:15777473

  14. 78 FR 57619 - Architecture Services Trade Mission to Rio de Janeiro and Recife, Brazil, October 7-10, 2013

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-19

    ... Commercial Service is amending the Notice published at 78 FR 38687, June 27, 2013, regarding the Architecture... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration Architecture Services Trade Mission to Rio de Janeiro and Recife,...

  15. Projected Changes in Evapotranspiration Rates over Northeast Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Costa, Alexandre; Guimarães, Sullyandro; Vasconcelos, Francisco, Jr.; Sales, Domingo; da Silva, Emerson

    2015-04-01

    Climate simulations were performed using a regional model (Regional Atmospheric Modeling System, RAMS 6.0) driven by data from one of the CMIP5 models (Hadley Centre Global Environmental Model, version 2 - Earth System, HadGEM2-ES) over two CORDEX domains (South America and Central America) for the heavy-emission scenario (RCP8.5). Potential evapotranspiraion data from the RCM and from the CMIP5 global models were analyzed over Northeast Brazil, a semiarid region with a short rainy season (usually February to May in its northern portion due to the seasonal shift of the Intertropical Convergence Zone) and over which droughts are frequent. Significant changes in the potential evapotranspiration were found, with most models showing a increasing trend along the 21st century, which are expected to alter the surface water budget, increasing the current water deficit (precipitation is currently much smaller than potential evapotranspiration). Based on the projections from the majority of the models, we expect important impacts over local agriculture and water resources over Northeast Brazil.

  16. Climate variabilty in Northeast Brazil lakes since the LGM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Turcq, B.; Albuquerque, A.; Cordeiro, R. C.; Costa, R. L.; Sifeddine, A.; Zocatelli, R.

    2012-12-01

    The Late Glacial and Holocene climate evolution in Northeast Brazil is from different the rest of South America. We present here the results from two Northeast lakes: Caço and Boqueirão, both situated some tens of kilometers from the Atlantic coast. Although there is some indications of wetness during the LGM from stalagmite formation, the Caço lake, which is the only one where late glacial sediments have been sampled, was dry until 17 kyrs when sandy layers were deposited by flash floods. The lake developed during H1 and lake-level peaked from 16 to 12 kyrs. It has been shown that Heinrich events provoked a southward shift of ITCZ which should have enhanced rainfalls in Northeast Brazil. During the Holocene, what dominated the millenary climate trend is the change in insolation, due to the precession of equinoxes, which was increased (decreased) from January to February (June to August) from 12 to 9 kyrs. This forcing difference has been reduced progressively until now with a faster decrease around 5-4 kyrs. The insolation diminution in Austral summer provoked a drop of South American Monsoon, and associated rainfalls, which is marked in Southeast Brazil and Amazonia by savannah development and lake drying. In Northeast Brazil, on the contrary, Early to Middle Holocene climate (12 to 4 kyrs) is markedly wetter. Climate simulations by AOGCM indicate that it is due to a more southern position of ITCZ during austral summers. Analysis with IPSL AOGCM show that this situation lasted until at least 4 kyrs. The two lakes have almost completely dried around 3 kyrs for lake Caço and 1550 AD for Boqueirão. This is in agreement with what we know of Holocene paleoclimate and the diminishing presence of ITCZ in the region. What is surprising is the reappearance of both lakes, very recently, probably during the last 100 yrs. Another striking feature is the great decenal to centennial variability of lake-level observed between 3 and 2 kyrs at lake Boqueirão. Lake Caço was

  17. [Care and chronic illness: family caregiver's viewpoint in northeast Brazil].

    PubMed

    Pinto, Juliana Maria de Sousa; Nations, Marilyn Kay

    2012-02-01

    The provision of care causes stress in everyday family dynamics leading to physical, mental and emotional complications in caregivers and spouses' loss of liberty and/or overwork. Between March and November 2006, this anthropological research examined family caregiving in the context of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD). By means of ethnographic interviews, illness narratives and participant observation, the scope was to describe family reorganization and coexistence with the disease and its evolution, caregiver perceptions about patient difficulties and limitations experienced and strategies employed to tackle their illness. Six low-income family caregivers, living in poor, urban areas in the outskirts of the capital city, Fortaleza, Ceará, Brazil, participated in the study. From the Content Analysis, two categories arose: "sharing suffering" and "attitudes and behavior perceived and experienced by caregivers." In-depth narratives revealed marked affection between patients and their family caregivers. Despite poverty, structural violence, unemployment, social prejudice and low salaries endemic in the Northeast of Brazil, the caregivers find effective ways to cope with chronic illness besides creating strategies to diminish suffering caused by the illness. PMID:22267046

  18. The Catholic Church, moral doctrine, and HIV prevention in Recife, Brazil: Negotiating the contradictions between religious belief and the realities of everyday life

    PubMed Central

    Rios, Luis Felipe; de Aquino, Francisca Luciana; Muñoz-Laboy, Miguel; Murray, Laura R.; Oliveira, Cinthia; Parker, Richard G.

    2011-01-01

    Religious beliefs have had a key role in shaping local responses to HIV and AIDS. As the world’s largest Catholic country, Brazil is no exception. Yet little research has been conducted to document how the religious doctrine is enacted in practice among its lay leaders and followers. In this article, we present ethnographic research from Recife, Brazil, conducted to understand the way in which religious doctrines are interpreted on a local level. Contextualized within the sociology of contemporary Brazilian Catholicism, we draw on interviews with clergy members, lay leaders and parishioners in order to discuss how the Catholic Church’s vision of sexuality translates into the everyday lives of its followers by. We explore the disjuncture between the Catholic ideals of fidelity and delaying sex until marriage with the everyday reality of the Church’s followers, highlighting the role that gender plays in defining sexual roles and expectations. We conclude posing questions for future research and HIV prevention strategies considering the formal institutional response of the Brazilian Catholic Church to AIDS on one hand, and the social and cultural contexts in which Catholics live their daily lives on the other. PMID:22500141

  19. Evaluation of risks of groundwater quality alteration in Recife urban area (Pernambuco, Brazil) using a multi-isotopic approach.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bertrand, Guillaume; Hirata, Ricardo; Martins, Veridiana; Batista, Jonathan; Bertolo, Reginaldo; Santos, Jeane-Glaucia; Montenegro, Suzanna; Cary, Lise; Petelet-Giraud, Emmanuelle; Pauwels, Hélène; Picot, Géraldine; Braibant, Gilles; Chatton, Eliot; Aquilina, Luc; Labasque, Thierry; Hochreutener, Rebecca; Aurouet, Axel; Franzen, Melissa

    2015-04-01

    The Recife Metropolitan Region (RMR) is a heavily urbanized area located in a estuary zone and over a multi-layered sedimentary system on the Brazilian Atlantic coast. In a context of increasing land use pressures, involving aquifer overexploitation and surface water contamination, and repeated droughts, the identification of groundwater quality risks in RMR is a necessary management requirement. In this perspective, this work focused on the two shallow aquifer systems, named Boa Viagem and Barreiras aquifers, located at the interface between the city (the consumers) and the deeper semi-confined Cretaceous Cabo and Beberibe aquifers. The Holocenic Boa Viagem and Tertiary Barreiras formations conform unconfined sedimentary aquifers, with no more than 80 m of thickness. Cabo is the most important groundwater body for Recife private complementary water supply and it has experienced an intense exploitation in the last three decades. In contrast, Boa Viagem and Barreiras aquifers are more restrictively used, but it is important to understand their water quality degradation,because of hydraulic connections with deeper aquifers, mainly in the littoral part of Recife, where hydraulic potentiometric head of the Cabo aquifer is 60 m below sea water level in some places, with conditions for recharge from shallower aquifers. Through a multi-isotopic characterization (87Sr/86Sr, δ11B, δ18O-SO4, δ34S-SO4) of sampling of 19 wells and 3 surface waters, carried out during two field campaigns with additional geochemical parameters (major ions, noble and major gases, CFC' s and SF6), the spatio-temporal variability of groundwater quality was investigated. The detection of CFC' s, implying a modern recharge component, highlighted the vulnerability of Boa Viagem and Barreiras to surface contaminations. The increasing mineralization and decreasing 87Sr/86Sr from the inland sector wells to the wells located close to the coast or estuary, with higher well and population densities, were

  20. Rickettsial agents in avian ixodid ticks in northeast Brazil.

    PubMed

    Lugarini, Camile; Martins, Thiago Fernandes; Ogrzewalska, Maria; de Vasconcelos, Nathália Costa Teixeira; Ellis, Vincenzo A; de Oliveira, Jaqueline Bianque; Pinter, Adriano; Labruna, Marcelo B; Silva, Jean Carlos Ramos

    2015-04-01

    Birds are important in the maintenance and spread of ticks and tick-borne diseases. In this context we screened birds in the Atlantic forest north of the São Francisco River and Caatinga in northeast Brazil. In the Atlantic forest Amblyomma longirostre, Amblyomma nodosum, Amblyomma varium and Amblyomma auricularium were identified. A. longirostre was infected by "Candidatus Rickettsia amblyommii" and A. nodosum by a Rickettsia parkeri-like agent. In Caatinga, Amblyomma parvum and A. auricularium were identified. A. auricularium was infected by "Ca. R. amblyommii" and Rickettsia bellii. "Canditatus Rickettsia andenae" was also identified in A. parvum collected from birds in Caatinga. In addition, Rickettsia sp. genotype AL was identified in A. varium collected on the clothes of the field team in one area of Atlantic forest. Here we provide a series of new host records for several Neotropical Amblyomma species and document rickettsial infections of "Ca. R. amblyomii" and a R. parkeri-like agent in Paraíba State, and R. bellii and "Ca. R. andenae" in Bahia State. For the first time we provide information regarding the infection of A. varium by "Ca. R. amblyommii". PMID:25800099

  1. Oral Mucosal Lesions in Indians From Northeast Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Cury, Patricia Ramos; Porto, Lia Pontes Arruda; dos Santos, Jean Nunes; e Ribeiro, Livia Silva Figueiredo; de Aquino Xavier, Flavia Caló; Figueiredo, Andreia Leal; Ramalho, Luciana Maria Pedreira

    2014-01-01

    Abstract The aim of this cross-sectional study was to evaluate the prevalence of oral mucosal lesions, and their risk indicators in adult Kiriri Indians from Northeast Brazil. Clinical oral examination was performed on a representative sample of 223 Indians (age ≥19 years). A systematic evaluation of lips, labial mucosa and sulcus, commissures, buccal mucosa and sulcus, gingiva and alveolar ridge, tongue, floor of the mouth, and soft and hard palate was performed. Bivariate analysis was conducted to assess associations between mucosal conditions and age, gender, income, educational level, diabetic status, and smoking status. Mucosal lesions were found in 50 participants (22.4%). The most prevalent lesions were fistulae (6.2%) and traumatic ulcers (4.48%). Oral mucosal was associated with higher age (≥35 years; odds ratio [OR] = 1.99, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.05–3.76, P = 0.03) and lower education level (<9 years; OR = 2.13, 95% CI: 0.96–4.71, P = 0.06). Mucosal conditions are prevalent in Kiriri Indians and the presence of mucosal lesions is associated with advanced age and lower education. A public health program aimed at preventing and treating mucosal lesions and targeted toward the high-risk group is vital to improve the oral health status of this population. PMID:25501053

  2. New records of ribbon worms (Nemertea) from Ceará, Northeast Brazil.

    PubMed

    Mendes, Cecili B; Matthews-Cascon, Helena; Norenburg, Jon L

    2016-01-01

    Of 45 species of nemerteans reported for the Brazilian coast, only two were recorded from Brazil's Northeast coast. Here we report seven new records for the state of Ceará, in Northeast Brazil: Tubulanus rhabdotus Côrrea, 1954, Carinomella cf. lactea Coe, 1905, Baseodiscus delineatus (Delle-Chiaje 1825), Cerebratulus cf. lineolatus Coe, 1905, Cerebratulus sp. 1, Cerebratulus sp. 2 and Lineidae sp. 1. Specimens were collected at the following beaches: Praia dos Dois Coqueiros, Praia do Pacheco, Pecém harbor, Praia da Pedra Rachada and Praia do Guajiru. T. rhabdotus is a new record for Northeast Brazil, Carinomella cf. lactea and Cerebratulus cf. lineolatus are new records for the South Atlantic Ocean and both genera are new records for Brazil. PMID:27395488

  3. Antiproliferative effects of compounds derived from plants of Northeast Brazil.

    PubMed

    Pessoa, C; Silveira, E R; Lemos, T L; Wetmore, L A; Moraes, M O; Leyva, A

    2000-05-01

    Ten compounds derived from plants indigenous to Northeast Brazil were examined for antiproliferative effects on human cells in vitro. The effects of these phytochemicals on cell growth were determined by the MTT microtitre assay with 3-day continuous drug exposure. Three human cell lines were used: CEM leukaemia, SW1573 lung tumour and CCD922 normal skin fibroblasts. Four active compounds were found with IC(50) values less than 10 microg/mL in the two cancer cell lines. Oncocalyxones A and C, both 1,4-anthracenediones from Auxemma oncocalyx (Boraginaceae), showed cytotoxicity with mean IC(50) values of 0.8-2, 7-8 and 12-13 microg/mL against CEM, SW1573 and CCD922, respectively. One diterpene and one flavonoid, both from Egletes viscosa (Compositae), were also active. 12-Acetoxy-hawtriwaic acid lactone was cytotoxic with mean IC(50) values of 6, 10 and 10 microg/mL, respectively. 4,5-Dihydroxy-3,3,7, 8-tetramethoxy flavone (ternatin) was only growth-inhibitory with mean IC(50) values of 2, 1 and 10 microg/mL, respectively. These four most active compounds were examined further for their effects on DNA integrity and on DNA synthesis. All but ternatin caused substantial DNA damage and marked inhibition of 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine incorporation within 24 h. This study demonstrated the antiproliferative activity of four novel phytochemicals, three of which are DNA-reactive and inhibit DNA synthesis. Further studies are warranted to evaluate these compounds for antitumour potential. PMID:10815012

  4. Antimicrobial resistance profile of Staphylococcus aureus isolates obtained from skin and soft tissue infections of outpatients from a university hospital in Recife - PE, Brazil*

    PubMed Central

    Caraciolo, Fabiana Beserra; Maciel, Maria Amélia Vieira; dos Santos, Josemir Belo; Rabelo, Marcelle Aquino; Magalhães, Vera

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND Staphylococcus aureus has a notable ability to acquire resistance to antibiotics, and methicillin resistance represents a growing public health problem. Methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) has also become important outside the hospital environment, particularly in the United States. In Brazil, since 2005, cases of community skin infections caused by MRSA have been reported, but resistance studies involving outpatients are scarce. OBJECTIVE To know the resistance profile of S. aureus involved in skin and soft tissue infections of patients seen at the Dermatology outpatient clinic of a university hospital in Recife, Pernambuco State, northeastern Brazil. METHODS Prospective study involving 30 patients with skin and soft tissue infections, seen at the Dermatology outpatient clinic from May until November 2011. To evaluate the susceptibility of S. aureus to antibiotics, the disk diffusion method and oxacillin screening agar were used. RESULTS From a total of 30 samples of skin lesions, 19 (63%) had positive culture for S. aureus. The following resistance patterns of S. aureus were observed: penicillin, 95%; tetracycline, 32%; erythromycin, 21%; gentamicin, 16%; cefoxitin, 11%; oxacillin, 11%; trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, 11%; chloramphenicol, 11%; clindamycin, 5% ; and ciprofloxacin, 0%. One of the identified MRSA was obtained from a patient without risk factors for its acquisition, and was resistant, beyond to the beta-lactams, only to tetracycline. CONCLUSIONS With regard to the resistance patterns of S. aureus, resistances to tetracycline, erythromycin and gentamicin were the highest. It was documented, for the first time in Pernambuco, a case of skin infection caused by community-associated MRSA. PMID:23197204

  5. Constraints of costal aquifer functioning in a deeply antropized area through a multi-isotope fingerprinting (Recife, Brazil)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petelet-Giraud, Emmanuelle; Cary, Lise; Bertrand, Guillaume; Hirata, Ricardo; Martins, Veridiana; Montenegro, Suzana; Pauwels, Hélène; Kloppmann, Wolfram; Aquilina, Luc

    2014-05-01

    The Metropolitan Region of Recife (RMR) went through large changes of water and land uses over the last decades due to an increasing demographic pressure (1.5 M of inhabitants). These evolutions gave rise to numerous environmental consequences, such as a dramatic decline of the water levels, groundwater salinization and contamination. This degradation of natural resources is linked to the increase of water demand that is also punctually amplified by drought periods, inducing the construction of thousands of private wells. Recife city was built on an estuarine area, at the geological limits of the two sedimentary basins of Pernambuco (north of the city) and Paraíba (south of the city) separated by a famous shear zone (the Pernambuco lineament). Tectonic and sedimentary events involved in the genesis and evolution of these basins were mainly controlled by the opening of the Atlantic Ocean leading to the deposition of cretaceous sediments which now constitute the two main exploited aquifers, the Beberibe and Cabo aquifers. These two deep aquiferous formations are topped by the unconfined Boa Viagem aquifer of quaternary sediments. It is the most directly exposed to contamination, since it is connected to mangroves, rivers, estuaries and highly urbanized areas. Both the Beberibe and Cabo aquifers contain large clay levels and are separated by a rather continuous clayed formation which seems to play a consistent role of screen and to interfere in the hydraulic connections between the three aquifers. Previous isotopic studies have shown that recharge processes are similar in the aquifers, suggesting that exchanges may occur and may be modified or amplified by overexploitation. This very complex aquifer system is studied through more than 60 water samples, including some surface water samples from the main rivers. A methodology based on multi-isotopes fingerprinting is applied, including stable isotopes of the water molecule, strontium isotopes, boron isotopes, sulfur

  6. Groundwater contamination in coastal urban areas: Anthropogenic pressure and natural attenuation processes. Example of Recife (PE State, NE Brazil)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bertrand, G.; Hirata, R.; Pauwels, H.; Cary, L.; Petelet-Giraud, E.; Chatton, E.; Aquilina, L.; Labasque, T.; Martins, V.; Montenegro, S.; Batista, J.; Aurouet, A.; Santos, J.; Bertolo, R.; Picot, G.; Franzen, M.; Hochreutener, R.; Braibant, G.

    2016-09-01

    In a context of increasing land use pressure (over-exploitation, surface-water contamination) and repeated droughts, identifying the processes affecting groundwater quality in coastal megacities of the tropical and arid countries will condition their long-term social and environmental sustainability. The present study focuses on the Brazilian Recife Metropolitan Region (RMR), which is a highly urbanized area (3,743,854 inhabitants in 2010) on the Atlantic coast located next to an estuarial zone and overlying a multi-layered sedimentary system featured by a variable sediment texture and organic content. It investigates the contamination and redox status patterns conditioning potential attenuation within the shallow aquifers that constitute the interface between the city and the strategic deeper semi-confined aquifers. These latter are increasingly exploited, leading to high drawdown in potenciometric levels of 20-30 m and up to 70 m in some high well density places, and potentially connected to the surface through leakage. From a multi-tracer approach (major ions, major gases, δ11B, δ18O-SO4, δ34S-SO4) carried out during two field campaigns in September 2012 and March 2013 (sampling of 19 wells and 3 surface waters), it has been possible to assess the contamination sources and the redox processes. The increasing trend for mineralization from inland to coastal and estuarial wells (from 119 to around 10,000 μS/cm) is at first attributed to water-rock interactions combined with natural and human-induced potentiometric gradients. Secondly, along with this trend, one finds an environmental pressure gradient related to sewage and/or surface-channel network impacts (typically depleted δ11B within the range of 10-15‰) that are purveyors of chloride, nitrate, ammonium and sulfate. Nitrate, ammonium and sulfate (ranging from 0 to 1.70 mmol/L, from 0 to 0,65 mmol/L, from 0.03 to 3.91 mmol/L respectively are also potentially produced or consumed through various redox

  7. Groundwater contamination in coastal urban areas: Anthropogenic pressure and natural attenuation processes. Example of Recife (PE State, NE Brazil).

    PubMed

    Bertrand, G; Hirata, R; Pauwels, H; Cary, L; Petelet-Giraud, E; Chatton, E; Aquilina, L; Labasque, T; Martins, V; Montenegro, S; Batista, J; Aurouet, A; Santos, J; Bertolo, R; Picot, G; Franzen, M; Hochreutener, R; Braibant, G

    2016-09-01

    In a context of increasing land use pressure (over-exploitation, surface-water contamination) and repeated droughts, identifying the processes affecting groundwater quality in coastal megacities of the tropical and arid countries will condition their long-term social and environmental sustainability. The present study focuses on the Brazilian Recife Metropolitan Region (RMR), which is a highly urbanized area (3,743,854 inhabitants in 2010) on the Atlantic coast located next to an estuarial zone and overlying a multi-layered sedimentary system featured by a variable sediment texture and organic content. It investigates the contamination and redox status patterns conditioning potential attenuation within the shallow aquifers that constitute the interface between the city and the strategic deeper semi-confined aquifers. These latter are increasingly exploited, leading to high drawdown in potenciometric levels of 20-30m and up to 70m in some high well density places, and potentially connected to the surface through leakage. From a multi-tracer approach (major ions, major gases, δ(11)B, δ(18)O-SO4, δ(34)S-SO4) carried out during two field campaigns in September 2012 and March 2013 (sampling of 19 wells and 3 surface waters), it has been possible to assess the contamination sources and the redox processes. The increasing trend for mineralization from inland to coastal and estuarial wells (from 119 to around 10,000μS/cm) is at first attributed to water-rock interactions combined with natural and human-induced potentiometric gradients. Secondly, along with this trend, one finds an environmental pressure gradient related to sewage and/or surface-channel network impacts (typically depleted δ(11)B within the range of 10-15‰) that are purveyors of chloride, nitrate, ammonium and sulfate. Nitrate, ammonium and sulfate (ranging from 0 to 1.70mmol/L, from 0 to 0,65mmol/L, from 0.03 to 3.91mmol/L respectively are also potentially produced or consumed through various redox

  8. Assessment of natural dynamics and anthropogenic impacts on residence times in the urban aquifers of Recife (Brazil) using a multi-tracer approach (noble gases, CFCs, SF6, 14C)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chatton, Eliot; Labasque, Thierry; Aquilina, Luc; Petelet-Giraud, Emmanuelle; Cary, Lise; Bertrand, Guillaume; Hochreutener, Rébecca

    2015-04-01

    The Metropolitan Region of Recife (RMR) is an urban area of the northeastern coast of Brazil located in an estuary zone and overlying a complex multi-layered sedimentary set. Over the last decades, population growth and recurrent droughts have been increasing the pressures on the aquifers of the region (over-exploitation, contamination and salinization). Through a multi-tracer approach (major and noble gases, CFCs, SF6, 14C) and the implementation of an inverse model to infer recharge conditions, the study aims to investigate the past natural dynamics of the aquifer system and to assess the impacts of the increasing withdrawals on the residence times in the aquifers. Noble gas results were implemented in an inverse model allowing the assessment the recharge conditions of the coastal aquifers of Recife. The results allowed to discriminate two types of recharge in terms of temperature and excess air. The overexploited surficial aquifer records recharge characteristics of the modern wet seasons. However, groundwaters sampled in the two underlying aquifers (Cabo and Beberibe) showed recharge temperatures below the regional minima. According to the radiocarbon dating performed in this study and previous paleotemperature studies in tropical Brazil (Stute et al., 1995), it appears that the major component of the current water supply of Recife originates from recharges dating back more than 10,000 years. Furthermore, the analysis of atmospheric tracers (CFCs, SF6) show that the exploitation of these old groundwaters has lead to a mixing with a more recent component (<50 years old) making these aquifers vulnerable to contamination and salinization.

  9. Educational Performance of the Poor: Lessons from Rural Northeast Brazil.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harbison, Ralph W.; Hanushek, Eric A.

    An 8-year study of academic achievement, student performance, and education costs in rural northeastern Brazil investigated the presumption that students automatically perform better when more school resources are provided. Two main topics were examined: the success of EDURURAL, an educational intervention project in rural Brazil sponsored by the…

  10. New gentotypes of Toxoplasma gondii obtained from farm animals in Northeast Brazil.

    PubMed

    Clementino Andrade, M M; Pinheiro, B V; Cunha, M M; Carneiro, A C A V; Andrade Neto, V F; Vitor, R W A

    2013-06-01

    Genotyping of Toxoplasma gondii in different regions of Brazil has shown high diversity and high frequency of virulent genotypes among Brazilian animals. The aim of the study was to characterize samples of T. gondii isolates obtained from naturally infected sheep, goats, pigs and free-range chickens slaughtered for human consumption in Rio Grande do Norte, Northeast Brazil. Nineteen T. gondii samples (isolated from 1 goat, 5 pigs and 13 free-range chickens) were genotyped. Six different genotypes were identified, including two novel genotypes. The archetype genotypes, i.e., types I, II and III, were not found. In mice, seventeen isolates (89.5%) were classified as virulent, and only two (10.5%) were classified as avirulent. This study displays the genotypic variability of the parasite in Northeast Brazil. PMID:23395253

  11. ["Raw and charred flesh": the experience of burned women in Northeast Brazil].

    PubMed

    Arruda, Cristiani Nobre de; Braide, Andrea Stopglia Guedes; Nations, Marilyn

    2014-10-01

    In Northeast Brazil, death from burns is a widespread, pervasive threat to poor women. This anthropological study describes the experience of personal suffering among female burn patients. In 2009, six "information-rich" cases were investigated at the Burn Center in Fortaleza, Ceará State, Brazil. Open ethnographic interviews with key informants, narratives of lived experiences, and participant observation at the clinic and patients' home were conducted. The methods included content analysis, systems of signs, meanings, and actions, and contextualized semantic interpretation. The emerging metaphors are embued with the cultural meaning of "monstrosity" and gender violence by fire - inscribed mercilessly in the woman's body. "Accidents" caused by flammable liquids (alcohol) hide the cruel reality of "raw and charred flesh". The scars can disfigure the victims as "non-persons", destroying their moral reputation and leading to social rejection. In the Brazilian Northeast, the social vulnerability caused by sequelae from burns demands a policy for humanized care. PMID:25388309

  12. Biodiversity of freshwater sponges (Porifera: Spongillina) from northeast Brazil: new species and notes on systematics.

    PubMed

    Nicacio, Gilberto; Pinheiro, Ulisses

    2015-01-01

    Systematics and distribution of freshwater sponges is still poorly understood worldwide. This may be due to the scarcity of records, and the limited information about morphological traits used for taxonomy. Brazil has reportedly high species richness in the Neotropical Region; however, this diversity is likely to be significantly underestimated given that there are still many unexplored and poorly sampled areas, mainly in the north and northeast regions. We present here new locality records and taxonomic notes on three families and ten species of freshwater Porifera from northeast Brazil: Metaniidae (1), Potamolepidae (2) and Spongillidae (7). A new species of freshwater sponge is described here (Ephydatia caatingae sp.nov.). Additional notes on the systematics and biogeography of most of these species are also presented. PMID:26249990

  13. Hydrodynamic characterization of soils within a representative watershed in northeast Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sales, E. G.; Almeida, C. D. N.; Farias, A. S.; Coelho, V. H. R.

    2014-09-01

    Studies about the infiltration of water in the soil, based on hydraulic conductivity and retention curve, are important to simulate hydrological processes and pollution fluxes. This paper aims to present the hydrodynamic soil behaviour of the Gramame watershed, located in northeast Brazil. This basin is representative of several other watersheds located on the coastal region of northeast Brazil, where sugarcane crops constitute the main land use. For this study, three different land uses and land covers were considered: sugarcane crops, pineapple crops and Atlantic Forest, which is the native forest of this region. The Beerkan method and the BEST program were used in order to get retention and hydraulic conductivity curves. The results show that the highest values of hydraulic conductivity were obtained at points located in native vegetation and deforestation impacts the soil hydrodynamic characteristics.

  14. Forecasting Temporal Dynamics of Cutaneous Leishmaniasis in Northeast Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Lewnard, Joseph A.; Jirmanus, Lara; Júnior, Nivison Nery; Machado, Paulo R.; Glesby, Marshall J.; Ko, Albert I.; Carvalho, Edgar M.; Schriefer, Albert; Weinberger, Daniel M.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) is a vector-borne disease of increasing importance in northeastern Brazil. It is known that sandflies, which spread the causative parasites, have weather-dependent population dynamics. Routinely-gathered weather data may be useful for anticipating disease risk and planning interventions. Methodology/Principal Findings We fit time series models using meteorological covariates to predict CL cases in a rural region of Bahía, Brazil from 1994 to 2004. We used the models to forecast CL cases for the period 2005 to 2008. Models accounting for meteorological predictors reduced mean squared error in one, two, and three month-ahead forecasts by up to 16% relative to forecasts from a null model accounting only for temporal autocorrelation. Significance These outcomes suggest CL risk in northeastern Brazil might be partially dependent on weather. Responses to forecasted CL epidemics may include bolstering clinical capacity and disease surveillance in at-risk areas. Ecological mechanisms by which weather influences CL risk merit future research attention as public health intervention targets. PMID:25356734

  15. Perkinsus sp. infecting the oyster Crassostrea rhizophorae from estuaries of the septentrional Northeast, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Dantas-Neto, M P; Sabry, R C; Ferreira, L P; Romão, L S; Maggioni, R

    2015-11-01

    The mangrove oyster Crassostrea rhizophorae is an estuarine resource exploited by riverside communities in Northeast Brazil. Despite its socioeconomic importance, studies on the health status of this bivalve are scanty in this region. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the presence of the protozoan Perkinsus sp. in C. rhizophorae collected in August and September 2011 in three estuaries of the septentrional Northeast, Brazil: Jaguaribe (Ceará), Camurupim (Piauí) and Carnaubeiras (Maranhão) (n= 150 specimens/site). The samples were submitted to Ray's fluid thioglycollate medium (RFTM), PCR and histology assays. The RFTM assay revealed spherical, blue or bluish-black hypnospores of the genus Perkinsus in 50 specimens (Jaguaribe= 17.3%, Camurupim= 5.3%, Carnaubeiras= 10.6%). The intensity of the infection ranged from very light (1-10 cells per slide) to severe (more than 40 cells in each of 10 fields of the slide) for Jaguaribe; very light for Camurupim and very light to moderate (at least 40 cells observed in each of 10 fields of the slide) for Carnaubeiras. When submitted to confirmatory PCR analysis, 6 cases were confirmed (Jaguaribe=3, Camurupim=1, Carnaubeiras=2). The histology confirmed 21 cases of infection in specimens from the three estuaries. Although local collectors have reported no mortality in oyster populations that might be attributed to infection by Perkinsus, health surveillance of oyster populations in the septentrional region of Northeast Brazil is advisable. PMID:26675922

  16. Food flora in 17th century northeast region of Brazil in Historia Naturalis Brasiliae

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background This article reports historical ethnobotany research conducted from a study of the work Historia Naturalis Brasiliae (Natural History of Brazil), authored by Piso and Marcgrave and published in 1648, with main focus on Caatinga of northeast region of Brazil. Methods Focusing the content analysis on the section dedicated to plant species with multiple uses, Marcgrave's contribution to the aforementioned work, this research had the following objectives: the retrieval of 17th century knowledge about the food uses of the flora in the northeast region of Brazil, including the taxonomic classifications; the identification of plant parts, their modes of consumption and the ethnic group of consumers; and the verification of the use of these species over time. Results The use of 80 food species at the time of the publication of the work is indicated, some of which are endemic to the Caatinga, such as “umbu” (Spondias tuberosa Arruda), “mandacaru” (Cereus jamacaru DC.) and “carnauba” (Copernicia cerifera Mart.). It is noticeable that among the species listed by Marcgrave, some species still lack current studies indicating their real nutritional value. The present study is an unprecedented work because it introduces, in a systematic way, the food plants described in a study of 17th century Brazil. Conclusions Finally, this study makes information about plants consumed in the past accessible, aiming to provide material for studies that could develop new food products today. PMID:24965737

  17. Dead-baby dreams, transfiguration and recovery from infant death trauma in northeast Brazil.

    PubMed

    Nations, Marilyn

    2013-10-01

    Maternal reactions to infant death in Northeast Brazil have been at the epicenter of anthropological debate since the 1980s. This ethnographic study of 45 death narratives by bereaved mothers collected from 1979-1989 in Pacatuba, Ceará, Brazil, refutes existing claims of mothers' "selective neglect" and "indifference" towards sick babies and emotionally empty grief response. I argue that through dead-baby dreams--and their imaginary transfiguration-grieving mothers alleviate infant death trauma. Feelings of hopelessness, helplessness, definitive loss, and personal guilt-the social seeds of depression--are reframed to deny death's finality and exonerate mothers from crippling self-blame. By transfiguring lingering mental images of the tiny cold corpse, mothers remold the irreversibility and definitiveness of death, gaining a sense of control over its unpredictable "jolt." In the politically oppressive Northeast Brazil--where social justice remains "an illusion"--mothers dream to preserve their own mental sanity and to recover from death's cruel aftermath. Any interpretation of mourning behavior must be contextualized within the local moral world and its "assumed structure of reality" to avoid demoralizing grieving Brazilian mothers and compounding their suffering. "You see, the only thing a poor woman truly owns that no one can borrow, cheat, steal or rob from her … is her imagination!" (Dona Chiquinha grieving death of her 10 children, Pacatuba, Ceará, Brazil). PMID:23988325

  18. [Health services accessibility in a city of Northeast Brazil].

    PubMed

    Cunha, Alcione Brasileiro Oliveira; Vieira-da-Silva, Ligia Maria

    2010-04-01

    In order to analyze the implementation of measures targeting accessibility to primary health care in a municipality (county) in the State of Bahia, Brazil, a single case study was performed with two levels of analysis: system and services organization. The data were obtained from semi-structured interviews, observation of routine care, and document analysis. Of the four health units analyzed, three showed intermediate-level implementation of measures targeting accessibility. The Family Health Units showed better performance, due to measures for patient reception and referral to specialized services, but they revealed problems with scheduling of appointments. Despite having defined primary care as the portal of entry into the system and the implementation of a help desk for setting appointments with specialists, there are persistent organizational barriers in the municipality. A specific policy is recommended to improve accessibility, aimed at organization of the services supply in order to change the health care model. PMID:20512213

  19. [Access to medicines prescribed for acute health conditions in adults in South and Northeast Brazil].

    PubMed

    Paniz, Vera Maria Vieira; Cechin, Isabel Carolina Coelho Flores; Fassa, Anaclaudia Gastal; Piccini, Roberto Xavier; Tomasi, Elaine; Thumé, Elaine; Silveira, Denise Silva da; Facchini, Luiz Augusto

    2016-01-01

    This was a cross-sectional study within Brazil's Project for the Expansion and Consolidation of Family Health, 2005, with the objective of universal and free access to the medication prescribed in the last medical appointment for acute health problems and to estimate the degree to which access may have improved with inclusion of the medicines in prevailing policies and programs. The sample included 4,060 adults living in the area of primary health care units in 41 municipalities in South and Northeast Brazil. Access was greater in the South (83.2%) than in the Northeast (71%), and free access was similar (37%), with a greater share by the Family Health Program (FHP) when compared to the traditional model, especially in the Northeast. Some 60% of prescribed medicines and 50% of those on the National List of Essential Medicines (RENAME) were paid for. No variation was observed in the proportion of medicines present on the prevailing RENAME list and access. However, 40% of the medicines that were paid for can currently be obtained through the Popular Pharmacy Program. The latter program appears to emerge as a new way to guarantee access to medicines prescribed in the health system. PMID:27096295

  20. Following in Soper's footsteps: northeast Brazil 63 years after eradication of Anopheles gambiae.

    PubMed

    Killeen, Gerry F

    2003-10-01

    Sub-Saharan Africa has long suffered under the yoke of the Anopheles gambiae mosquito, but for northeast Brazil (figure 1) its arrival over 60 years ago was a new and horrifying experience. This African mosquito is an exceptionally effective malaria vector because it is well adapted to feeding upon people and to exploiting aquatic habitats associated with our daily activities. Anopheles gambiae sensu lato probably accounts for most of the world's malaria deaths and socioeconomic burden. Fortunately, the Brazilian experience had a happy ending. The prospect of A gambiae spreading across much of the Americas motivated a ruthlessly effective response that deserves a special and heroic place in the annals of public health. Building on the successes and infrastructure of the Yellow Fever Service for Aedes aegypti elimination, the Rockefeller Foundation and Brazilian government collaborated to form a new Malaria Service of the Northeast. This new entity rolled the invader back into oblivion with an aggressive eradication campaign, focusing primarily upon larviciding of all potential habitats. The driving force of this endeavour was an enigmatic man called Fred Soper whose sheer will and determination was a key element in this success, and a source of inspiration today (see Killeen GF, et al. Eradication of Anopheles gambiae from Brazil: lessons for malaria control in Africa? Lancet Infect Dis 2002; 2: 618-27). I recently took an opportunity to fulfil a long-held dream and follow in some of Soper's footsteps. Tired of gazing at yellowing maps like figure 1, I went to see the northeast of Brazil for myself. PMID:14522266

  1. On Frontal Zone Analysis in the Tropical Region of the Northeast Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fedorova, Natalia; Levit, Vladimir; da Cruz, Cezar Duarte

    2016-04-01

    A frontal structure in the tropical region is different than in the extratropical region and traditional methods of frontal identification are not accurate. The use of a horizontal distribution of the equivalent potential temperature and its advection is the new aspect in frontal identification and will support forecasters in their daily operational practice. Six fronts over 3 years were identified by the method used in operational practice. Twenty fronts were registered by cloud bands together with the equivalent potential temperature and its advection maps. A cold front separated from the cyclone's center and affected weather on the Northeast Brazil.

  2. ["Prisms of Perception": multiple readings of mass media health messages in Northeast Brazil].

    PubMed

    Diógenes, Kátia Castelo Branco Machado; Nations, Marilyn

    2011-12-01

    This anthropological study from February 2009 to November 2010 revealed the comprehension and cultural critique of three mass media health campaigns in Northeast Brazil. Twenty-four ethnographic interviews were conducted, exploring the iconographic and semantic content of the campaigns in the Dendê community in Fortaleza, Ceará State, Brazil. The authors used Content Analysis; Systems of Signs, Significance, and Actions; and Contextualized Semantic Interpretation. There is a gap between the elaboration and reception of messages. Multiple interpretations occur (proximal reading, kaleidoscope of comprehension, and distant reading), depending on the reader's cognitive proximity to (or detachment from) the message. This "perceptual plasticity" arises from the creativity of popular imagination. Health professionals who hear rather than dismiss the "recipient's" subjective voice, which re-signifies authoritative messages, can penetrate the perception of the recipient's "visual world". In the context of poverty, this re-framing is essential for people to comprehend and proactively defend their own health. PMID:22218589

  3. [Personal experiences with induced abortions in private clinics in Northeast Brazil].

    PubMed

    Silveira, Paloma; McCallum, Cecilia; Menezes, Greice

    2016-01-01

    Based on a qualitative study conducted in 2012, the article analyzes middle-class individuals' experiences with induced abortions performed in private clinics. Thirty-four stories of induced abortions were narrated by 19 women and five men living in two state capitals in Northeast Brazil. Thematic analysis revealed differences in types of clinics and care provided by the physicians. The article shows that abortion in private clinics fails to guarantee safe or humane care. The narratives furnish descriptions of diverse situations and practices, ranging from flaws such as lack of information on medicines to others involving severe abuses like procedures performed without anesthesia. The article concludes that criminalization of abortion in Brazil allows clinics to operate with no state regulation; it does not prevent women from having abortions, but exposes them to total vulnerability and violation of human rights. PMID:26958817

  4. Soil bacterial diversity in degraded and restored lands of Northeast Brazil.

    PubMed

    Araújo, Ademir Sérgio Ferreira; Borges, Clovis Daniel; Tsai, Siu Mui; Cesarz, Simone; Eisenhauer, Nico

    2014-11-01

    Land degradation deteriorates biological productivity and affects environmental, social, and economic sustainability, particularly so in the semi-arid region of Northeast Brazil. Although some studies exist reporting gross measures of soil microbial parameters and processes, limited information is available on how land degradation and restoration strategies influence the diversity and composition of soil microbial communities. In this study we compare the structure and diversity of bacterial communities in degraded and restored lands in Northeast Brazil and determine the soil biological and chemical properties influencing bacterial communities. We found that land degradation decreased the diversity of soil bacteria as indicated by both reduced operational taxonomic unit (OTU) richness and Shannon index. Soils under native vegetation and restoration had significantly higher bacterial richness and diversity than degraded soils. Redundancy analysis revealed that low soil bacterial diversity correlated with a high respiratory quotient, indicating stressed microbial communities. By contrast, soil bacterial communities in restored land positively correlated with high soil P levels. Importantly, however, we found significant differences in the soil bacterial community composition under native vegetation and in restored land, which may indicate differences in their functioning despite equal levels of bacterial diversity. PMID:25119246

  5. Infant death and interpretive violence in Northeast Brazil: taking bereaved Cearense mothers' narratives to heart.

    PubMed

    Nations, Marilyn K

    2008-10-01

    This study investigates bereaved mothers' ethnoetiologies of avoidable infant deaths in Northeast Brazil. It critically examines the anthropological debate concerning "selective maternal negligence" as a relevant explanation for high infant mortality, based on an analysis of preexisting data. From 2003 to 2006, 316 ethnographic interviews collected by the author from 1979 to 1989 in six communities in Ceará State were retrieved. Forty-five narratives of fatal illness and death of 56 children < 5 years of age were identified for in-depth analysis. Despite their low income and schooling, grieving mothers constructed their own explanations for early death. The most common causes were infectious-contagious diseases (37.9%) and dehumanized care by the attending health professional (24.1%). No mother reported maternal carelessness, detachment, or negligence. If there is any "disregard" in the context of poverty, it is by the unjust economic, political, and social system and inhumane public health practice which violates their rights as citizens. To characterize a bereaved mother as "negligent", or worse, as accomplices in her child's death, is an act of interpretive violence, unfairly blaming and demoraling mother-caregivers in Northeast Brazil. PMID:18949226

  6. Determination of Aflatoxins in Peanut Products in the Northeast Region of São Paulo, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Oliveira, Carlos A. F.; Gonçalves, Natália B.; Rosim, Roice E.; Fernandes, Andrezza M.

    2009-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to determine aflatoxin levels in peanut products traded in the Northeast region of São Paulo, Brazil. To this end, 240 samples of peanut products traded in the cities of Araras, Leme, Pirassununga and Porto Ferreira were collected from June 2006 to May 2007. The samples were analyzed for aflatoxins (AF) B1, B2, G1 and G2 by high performance liquid chromatography. Results showed 44.2% samples positive for AF at levels of 0.5 to 103.8 μg·kg−1. Nine of the positive samples (3.7% of the analysed samples) had total aflatoxin concentrations (B1+B2+G1+G2) higher than the limit established by Brazilian regulations (20 μg·kg−1). Based on the above data, the probable mean daily intake (PDIM) of aflatoxins from peanut products in the Northeast region of São Paulo was estimated to be 0.23 ng kg b.w. day−1. Although this PDIM value was relatively low, results indicate that aflatoxin contamination of peanut products may be a public health concern in Brazil, when considering the potential exposure of highly susceptible consumers. For example, it should be emphasized that children are potentially exposed to aflatoxins, since they consume large quantities of peanut candies, and these products had the highest number of samples positive for AFB1. PMID:19333440

  7. FFT analysis on NDVI annual cycle and climatic regionality in Northeast Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Negrón Juárez, Robinson I.; Liu, William T.

    2001-11-01

    By considering that the climate of Northeast Brazil (NEB) has distinct wet and dry seasons, the mixed radix fast Fourier transform (mrFFT) algorithm, developed at the National Aerospace Centre of the Netherlands, was applied to a monthly Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) time series from July 1981 to June 1993, to generate phase, amplitude and mean NDVI data using a 1-year frequency in order to improve the analysis of its spatial variation.The NDVI mean values varied from >0.7, which occurred in northwest and southeast regions, to <0.3 in the northeast and 0.4 in the southwest regions of the NEB. The 90° phase month at its maximum amplitude occurred in August and was observed in both southeastern and northwestern coasts, located at 10.5°S-37.5°W and 4°S-46°W, respectively. It changed rapidly from August, June to May, moved inland and changed gradually from May through to April and from March to February, then moved towards the centre Dry Polygon area. Then it changed gradually from February to January and ended up in December, and moved further southwards. The annual cycle amplitude varied from <0.075 in northwest and southeast regions to >0.25 in the northeast region. By using spatial variations of phase, amplitude and mean NDVI values, 15 climate types were delineated for the NEB.The spatial distribution of climate types in the NEB delineated by the NDVI FFT analysis agreed mostly with the climatic types presented by Hargreaves (Precipitation dependability and potentials for agricultural production in Northeast Brazil. Empresa Brasileira de Pesquisa Agropecuária-EMBRAPA, Brazil, 1974), except regions with higher spatial variability and limited surface meteorological data. Among the three components: phase, amplitude and mean NDVI, the phase image, informing the initiation and duration of rainy season, was the most important component for climate-type delineation. Nevertheless, while the extreme values of amplitude, inferring a high wet

  8. Poisoning due to Philodryas olfersii (Lichtenstein, 1823) attended at Restauração Hospital in Recife, State of Pernambuco, Brazil: case report.

    PubMed

    Correia, Juliana Mendes; Santana Neto, Pedro de Lima; Pinho, Milena Sardou Sabino; Silva, José Afrânio da; Amorim, Maria Lucineide Porto; Escobar, José Arturo Costa

    2010-01-01

    Few papers have been published on snake bites caused by Philodryas olfersii. We report here the first case identified at the Centro de Assistência Toxicológica do Hospital da Restauração, Recife, State of Pernambuco. This case was described based on medical protocols, interviewing the patient and identifying the animal that caused the bite. The patient presented pain, heat, erythema, edema and ecchymosis, without other laboratory abnormalities or coagulation disorders. The treatment consisted of administration of eight ampoules of antibothropic serum, and post-administration allergenic reactions were observed. The importance of bites by opistoglyph snakes needs to be reconsidered in research and at specialized treatment centers. PMID:20563508

  9. Choices on contraceptive methods in post-abortion family planning clinic in the northeast Brazil

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background In Brazil, a Ministry of Health report revealed women who underwent an abortion were predominantly in the use of contraceptive methods, but mentioned inconsistent or erroneously contraceptive use. Promoting the use of contraceptive methods to prevent unwanted pregnancies is one of the most effective strategies to reduce abortion rates and maternal morbidity and mortality. Therefore, providing post-abortion family planning services that include structured contraceptive counseling with free and easy access to contraceptive methods can be suitable. So the objective of this study is to determine the acceptance and selection of contraceptive methods followed by a post-abortion family planning counseling. Methods A cross-sectional study was carried out from July to October 2008, enrolling 150 low income women to receive post-abortion care at a family planning clinic in a public hospital located in Recife, Brazil. The subjects were invited to take part of the study before receiving hospital leave from five different public maternities. An appointment was made for them at a family planning clinic at IMIP from the 8th to the 15th day after they had undergone an abortion. Every woman received information on contraceptive methods, side effects and fertility. Counseling was individualized and addressed them about feelings, expectations and motivations regarding contraception as well as pregnancy intention. Results Of all women enrolled in this study, 97.4% accepted at least one contraceptive method. Most of them (73.4%) had no previous abortion history. Forty of the women who had undergone a previous abortion, 47.5% reported undergoing unsafe abortion. Slightly more than half of the pregnancies (52%) were unwanted. All women had knowledge of the use of condoms, oral contraceptives and injectables. The most chosen method was injectables, followed by oral contraceptives and condoms. Only one woman chose an intrauterine device. Conclusion The acceptance rate of post

  10. Crustal structure and tectonic evolution of the Potiguar basin - Northeast Brazil

    SciTech Connect

    Matos, R.M.D. )

    1991-03-01

    The combined analysis of potential field and seismic reflection data suggest that the Potiguar basin of northeast Brazil developed as a consequence of northwest-southeast extension, resolved in the upper crust by hanging-wall block rotation along a system of linked faults. This extension developed during the Early Cretaceous rifting associated with the separation of South America and Africa. The basic basin architecture includes two main parallel northeast-trending half-grabens (Umbuzeiro and Boa Vista) separated by intervening basement highs and northwest-trending transfer faults. A three-dimensional crustal-scale model of the basin was generated by combining deep and shallow seismic reflection data, borehole and outcrop information, and potential field data. The deep seismic profiles reveal a highly reflective crust underlain by a high-amplitude reflection Moho around 10 seconds (roughly 30 km depth). Moreover, it seems that the basin-bounding normal faults terminate at a mid-crustal detachment surface, suggesting that the basin architecture is mainly controlled by two parallel listric normal fault ones that follow pre-existing upepr crustal weaknesses, partially reactived during the main rift episode (Neocomian). Whereas the pre-existing northeast-trending planar fabrics within the basement (schistosities, gneissosity, and shear zones) apparently controlled the main normal faults, internal conjugate and synthetic transfer faults are probably related to major discontinuities in basement rock fabrics. Seismic reflection data together with gravity and magnetic modeling, show that the basin architecture is directly related to a linked system of northeast-trending listric normal faults and a mid-crustal detachment surface.

  11. A different molecular pattern of beta-thalassemia mutations in northeast Brazil.

    PubMed

    Araújo, Aderson S; Silva, l Wilson A Júnior; Leão, Silvana A C; Bandeira, Flavia C G M; Petrou, Mary; Modell, Bernadette; Zago, Marco A

    2003-11-01

    The main hereditary hemoglobin (Hb) disorders of clinical significance in Brazil are sickle cell disease and beta-thalassemia (thal). The sickle gene was introduced by the slave trade, whereas beta-thal was introduced later, due to a massive immigration (mostly by Italians) between 1870 and 1953, mainly to the southeast region of Brazil. Molecular studies performed in the southeast of the country showed a marked prevalence of the nonsense mutation at codon 39 (C --> T) (47-54%), leading to severe forms of beta0-thal. However, the northeast region of the country has a different demographic history, characterized by the absence of the massive Italian immigration. Owing to this and since the majority of cases of beta-thal in Pernambuco, a state located in the northeast of the country, have mild or intermediate clinical and laboratory features, we would predict a different spectrum of beta-thal mutations in this region. We examined 60 unrelated patients (86 beta-thal chromosomes) under regular clinical follow-up in Pernambuco: 6 were regularly transfused beta-thal major subjects, 20 had beta-thal intermedia, 20 had Hb S/beta-thal and 14 were beta-thal trait individuals. The following mutations were found: IVS-I-6 (T --> C) 62.8%, IVS-I-1 (G -->A) 15.1%, IVS-I-5 (G --> C) 9.3%, IVS-I-110 (G --> A) 8.2%, codon 39 (C --> T) 3.5%, and codon 30 (AGG --> AGC) 1.1%. These data show different patterns of beta-thal mutations in two regions of Brazil, demonstrating a thus far unrevealed heterogeneity of the disease in the country. PMID:14649311

  12. Leprosy as a neglected disease and its stigma in the northeast of Brazil.

    PubMed

    Silva, C A B; Albuquerque, V L M; Antunes, M F R

    2014-01-01

    Hansen's disease is an infectious and degenerative chronic disease with a high potential for incapacitation. Due to the explosive epidemic of leprosy cases worldwide (especially in Brazil), the social difficulties faced by these patients are an important subject for research. This work aimed to identify the stigma experienced by these patients. The qualitative research for this study was completed at the National Reference Centre in Dermatology in Fortaleza. The study took place in northeast Brazil from September 2010 to November 2012. The research subjects included 20 people with Hansen's disease of both sexes between 20 and 70 years old. The data collection consisted of a semi-structured interview. From the discourse analysis of the participants, several changes experienced by persons affected by leprosy were noted from the empiric categories emerged. Changes occurred in the family, the receptiveness of neighbours and co-workers and the patients' social lives were experienced by the persons affected after the diagnosis of Hansen's disease. From the data obtained, it was concluded that the patients are stigmatised. Sometimes they are forced to hide from relatives, friends, neighbours and co-workers. Despite their social exclusion, they believe their isolation is justified. Leprosy is a chronic, degenerative and curable infectious illness that continues to be a serious public health problem, mainly in the poorest region of Brazil. PMID:25591279

  13. Prospectus of waste stabilization ponds in Ceará, Northeast Brazil.

    PubMed

    da Silva, F J A; de Souza, R O; de Castro, F J F; Araújo, A L C

    2011-01-01

    WSP technology has been used in Ceará, Northeast Brazil, since middle 1970s. There are presently 96 ponds plants and most of them are comprised by single cells (40%) and series of 3 ponds (35%). They were under loaded due to incomplete house connections to the sewerage network and low per capita wastewater contributions. Highest removal rates of organic material, ammonia and faecal coliform were found in 3 pond series. Faecal coliform removal was in accordance with the literature and series of ponds reached numbers ≤10(5) cells/100 ml. In series with 4 and 5 ponds FC was below 10(3) cells/100 ml. Ammonia removal varied from 30 to 80% and total phosphorus the removal was not significant. An increase in the number of maturation ponds enhances nutrient and coliform removal. Up-grading schemes should be investigated as well as effluent reuse potential. PMID:21436566

  14. Infant mortality and infant care: cultural and economic constraints on nurturing in northeast Brazil.

    PubMed

    Scheper-Hughes, N

    1984-01-01

    The Brazilian 'Economic Miracle' has had an adverse effect on infant and childhood mortality which has been steadily rising throughout Brazil since the late 1960s. An analysis of the reproductive histories of 72 marginally employed residents of a Northeast Brazilian rural shantytown explores the economic and cultural context that inhibits these mother's abilities to rear healthy, living children and which forces them to devise 'ethnoeugenic' childrearing strategies that prejudice the life chances of those offspring judged 'less fit' for survival under the pernicious conditions of life on the Alto. it is suggested that the selective neglect of children is a direct consequence of the selective neglect of their mothers who have been excluded from participating in the national economy. The links between economic exploitation and maternal deprivation are further discussed with reference to the social causes of the 'insufficient breastmilk syndrome' and the commercial powdered milk dependency of these women. PMID:6484639

  15. A study of the larvicidal and molluscicidal activities of some medicinal plants from northeast Brazil.

    PubMed

    de S Luna, J; dos Santos, A F; de Lima, M R F; de Omena, M C; de Mendonça, F A C; Bieber, L W; Sant'Ana, A E G

    2005-02-28

    In a search for natural products that could be used to control the vectors of tropical diseases, 23 extracts of medicinal plants from the northeast of Brazil have been tested for molluscicidal activity against egg masses and adults of the snail Biomphalaria glabrata, for larvicidal activity against the larvae of the mosquito Aedes aegypti, and for general toxicity against the larvae of the brine shrimp Artemia salina. Of these extracts, two were active against the adult snail, one against snail egg masses, eight against the larvae of the mosquito, and 16 showed toxicity towards the brine shrimp. Chemical tests indicated that a wide variety of natural product classes were present in those extracts that showed significant activities in the bioassays. PMID:15707752

  16. Paradigms and Public Policies on Drought in Northeast Brazil: A Historical Perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Campos, José Nilson B.

    2015-05-01

    This paper describes the evolution of drought-related public policies in Northeast Brazil (NEB). Using a historical approach, we show that the evolution of public policy has not been characterized by abrupt shifts, but has instead been shaped through debates between renowned intellectuals. The resulting public policies formed a hydrological infrastructure that delivers clean water needed for robust economic activity. However, outcomes of the 2012-2013 drought show that populations that depend on rain fed agriculture are as vulnerable to drought as they were at the start of the 20th century. Although government, social, and emergency programs have aided drought victims, drought analysts agree that rain fed agriculture has remained vulnerable since drought policies were first formulated. Drought policies formulate integrated water resources management (IWRM) strategies that are geared toward supplying safe drinking water, and debates surrounding the IWRM paradigm have been affected by outcomes of major international events such as the World Water Forum.

  17. Characterization of sub-daily rainfall properties in three raingauges located in northeast Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coutinho, J. V.; Almeida, C. D. N.; Leal, A. M. F.; Barbosa, L. R.

    2014-09-01

    This paper aims to evaluate the characteristics of rainfall events of three experimental basins located in northeast Brazil. The study areas are located, one in Ceará State and two in Paraíba State. Thus, the definition of rainfall events was based on two characteristics: minimum inter-event time and minimum event depth. Then, they were classified according to the shape of the hyetograph: to the left rectangular, triangular, and triangular with peak, and to the right, bimodal and unshaped. Evaluation of the percentages of each type of hyetograph and the main characteristics of rainfall events (peak, duration and intensity) was carried out. The results shows that the two experimental basins located in the semi-arid region have similar characteristics, and shapeless events have significant accumulated rainfall.

  18. Large-scale circulation departures related to wet episodes in north-east Brazil

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sikdar, Dhirendra N.; Elsner, James B.

    1987-01-01

    Large scale circulation features are presented as related to wet spells over northeast Brazil (Nordeste) during the rainy season (March and April) of 1979. The rainy season is divided into dry and wet periods; the FGGE and geostationary satellite data was averaged; and mean and departure fields of basic variables and cloudiness were studied. Analysis of seasonal mean circulation features show: lowest sea level easterlies beneath upper level westerlies; weak meridional winds; high relative humidity over the Amazon basin and relatively dry conditions over the South Atlantic Ocean. A fluctuation was found in the large scale circulation features on time scales of a few weeks or so over Nordeste and the South Atlantic sector. Even the subtropical High SLPs have large departures during wet episodes, implying a short period oscillation in the Southern Hemisphere Hadley circulation.

  19. Large-scale circulation departures related to wet episodes in northeast Brazil

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sikdar, D. N.; Elsner, J. B.

    1985-01-01

    Large scale circulation features are presented as related to wet spells over northeast Brazil (Nordeste) during the rainy season (March and April) of 1979. The rainy season season is devided into dry and wet periods, the FGGE and geostationary satellite data was averaged and mean and departure fields of basic variables and cloudiness were studied. Analysis of seasonal mean circulation features show: lowest sea level easterlies beneath upper level westerlies; weak meridional winds; high relative humidity over the Amazon basin and relatively dry conditions over the South Atlantic Ocean. A fluctuation was found in the large scale circulation features on time scales of a few weeks or so over Nordeste and the South Atlantic sector. Even the subtropical High SLP's have large departures during wet episodes, implying a short period oscillation in the Southern Hemisphere Hadley circulation.

  20. Distribution of prokaryotic organisms in a tropical estuary influenced by sugar cane agriculture in northeast Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Wolf, Lars; Schwalger, Berit; Knoppers, Bastiaan A.; da Silva, Luiz Antonio Ferreira; Medeiros, Paulo Ricardo Petter; Pollehne, Falk

    2010-01-01

    In a joint Brazilian-German case study, distribution patterns of microorganisms were compared with environmental variables in the tropical coastal Manguaba lagoon in northeast Brazil, which is situated downstream of several sugar cane processing plants . 16S rDNA and 16S rRNA single strand conformation polymorphism (SSCP) gene fingerprinting were used to follow the composition and distribution of microorganisms throughout the salinity gradient of the lagoon. Potentially abundant microorganisms were identified by sequencing representative SSCP bands. It could be demonstrated that the distribution of microbes was in close relation to the physico-chemical environmental settings and followed a common scheme. In the in- and outlet areas of the lagoon rather transient microbial communities were found, whereas in the central part a stable, diverse community was encountered, that due to the long residence time of the water, had ample time for development and adaptation. PMID:24031568

  1. Assessing Adaptation with Asymmetric Climate Information: evidence from water bargaining field experiments in Northeast Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pfaff, A.; Velez, M.; Taddei, R.; Broad, K.

    2011-12-01

    We assess how asymmetric climate information affects bargaining -- an adaptation institution. As often observed in the field, some actors lack information. This yields vulnerability, despite participation. We examine the loss for a participant from being uncertain about water quantity when bargaining with a fully informed participant in an ultimatum game in Northeast Brazil. When all are fully informed, our field populations in the capital city and an agricultural valley produce a typical 60-40 split between those initiating and responding in one-shot bargaining. With asymmetric information, when initiators know the water quantity is low they get 80%. Thus even within bargaining, i.e. given strong participation, better integrating climate science into water management via greater effort to communicate relevant information to all involved can help to avoid inequities that could arise despite all of the stakeholders being 'at the table', as may well occur within future water allocation along a large new canal in the case we study.

  2. Transient convection over the Amazon-Bolivia region and the dynamics of drought over Northeast Brazil

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buchmann, J.; Leitedasilvadias, P.; Moura, A. D.

    1985-01-01

    A two layer, nonlinear, equatorial beta-plane model, in p-coordinates is used to study the atmospheric response to a large scale prescribed heat source varying in time. The heat source is meant to represent a convective burst with total duration of approximately 48 hours over the Amazon/Bolivia region. The boundary conditions used are meridional velocity zero at 60 deg S, omega w = 0 at the top and zero geometric velocity at the lower boundary. Sensitivity study was done which includes initial state at rest, compared with realistic initial flow. The scale of the heat source is 1500 km in latitude and longitude and it is centered at 10 deg S. Special attention is paid to the distribution and intensity of the induced vertical motion. The model is integrated for two days and the preliminary results show agreement with the observed 200 mb flow. Of interest is the establishment of a trough and descending motion to the northeast of the heat source. A conjucture is thus made that the Amazon heat source and its fluctuations bear some relationship with the drought problem over Northeast Brazil.

  3. Mycobacterium bovis infection in goats from the Northeast region of Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Higino, Severino Silvano dos Santos; Pinheiro, Sônia Regina; de Souza, Gisele Oliveira; Dib, Cristina Corsi; do Rosário, Tatiana Reis; Melville, Priscilla Anne; Alves, Clebert José; de Azevedo, Sérgio Santos

    2011-01-01

    A total of 8,058 male and female mixed-breed goats and 1–4 years of age were slaughtered over a period of 7 months at the public slaughterhouse of Patos city, Paraíba state, in the Northeast region of Brazil; 822 animals were inspected for gross lesions of tuberculosis, and 12 (1.46%) had lesions suggestive of tuberculosis in the mammary gland, lungs, liver and mediastinal, mesenteric, submandibular, parotid and prescapular lymph nodes. Presence of granulomatous lesions was confirmed in the submandibular lymph node of one (8.3%) goat at the histopathological examination and at the mycobacterium culture the same sample was confirmed positive. Isolate was confirmed as belonging to the M. tuberculosis complex by PCR restriction enzyme analysis (PRA). Spoligotyping identified the isolate into spoligotype SB0295 on the M. bovis Spoligotype Database website (www.mbovis.org), and it was classified as M. bovis. The occurrence of M. bovis in goats in this study suggests that this species may be a potential source of infection for humans and should be regarded as a possible problem in the advancement of control and eradication program for bovine tuberculosis in Brazil. PMID:24031775

  4. Parasites infecting the cultured oyster Crassostrea gasar (Adanson, 1757) in Northeast Brazil.

    PubMed

    Queiroga, Fernando Ramos; Vianna, Rogério Tubino; Vieira, Cairé Barreto; Farias, Natanael Dantas; Da Silva, Patricia Mirella

    2015-05-01

    The oyster Crassostrea gasar is a species widely used as food and a source of income for the local population of the estuaries of Northeast Brazil. Perkinsus marinus and Perkinsus olseni are deleterious parasites for oyster farming and were recently detected in Brazil. In this study, a histopathologic survey of the oyster C. gasar cultured in the estuary of the River Mamanguape (Paraíba State) was performed. Adult oysters were collected in December 2011 and March, May, August and October 2012 and processed for histology and Perkinsus sp. identification by molecular analyses. Histopathological analysis revealed the presence of parasitic organisms including viral gametocytic hypertrophy, prokaryote-like colonies, protozoans (Perkinsus sp. and Nematopsis sp.) and metazoans (Tylocephalum sp. and cestodes). Other commensal organisms were also detected (the protozoan Ancistrocoma sp. and the turbellarian Urastoma sp.). The protozoan parasite Perkinsus sp. had the highest overall prevalence among the symbiotic organisms studied (48.9%), followed by Nematopsis sp. (36.3%). The other organisms were only sporadically observed. Only the protozoan Perkinsus sp. caused alterations in the oysters' infected organs. Molecular analyses confirmed the presence of P. marinus, P. olseni and Perkinsus beihaiensis infecting the oyster C. gasar. This is the first report of P. beihaiensis in this oyster species. PMID:25553815

  5. The Female Predominance of a Vocational and Scientific Education Programme for High School Students in Rio de Janeiro and Recife, Brazil

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Sousa, Isabela Cabral Felix; Braga, Cristiane Nogueira; Frutuoso, Telma de Mello; Ferreira, Cristina Araripe; Vargas, Diego da Silva

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this research is to understand how students view their volunteer choices to take part in a specific scientific education programme while they attend high school. This programme is called (Provoc) located at Oswaldo Cruz Foundation (Fiocruz), Brazil. Historically, this programme has been characterised by a significant predominance of…

  6. Risk factors for inadequate prenatal care use in the metropolitan area of Aracaju, Northeast Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Ribeiro, Eleonora RO; Guimarães, Alzira Maria DN; Bettiol, Heloísa; Lima, Danilo DF; Almeida, Maria Luiza D; de Souza, Luiz; Silva, Antônio Augusto M; Gurgel, Ricardo Q

    2009-01-01

    Background The aim of prenatal care is to promote good maternal and foetal health and to identify risk factors for adverse pregnancy outcomes in an attempt to promptly manage and solve them. Although high prenatal care attendance is reported in most areas in Brazil, perinatal and neonatal mortalities are disproportionally high, raising doubts about the quality and performance of the care provided. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the adequacy of prenatal care use and the risk factors involved in inadequate prenatal care utilization in the metropolitan area of Aracaju, Northeast Brazil. Methods A survey was carried out with puerperal women who delivered singleton liveborns in all four maternity hospitals of Aracaju. A total of 4552 singleton liveborns were studied. The Adequacy of Prenatal Care Utilization Index, modified according to the guidelines of the Prenatal Care and Birth Humanization Programme, was applied. Socioeconomic, demographic, biological, life style and health service factors were evaluated by multiple logistic regression. Results: Prenatal care coverage in Aracaju was high (98.3%), with a mean number of 6.24 visits. Prenatal care was considered to be adequate or intensive in 66.1% of cases, while 33.9% were considered to have inadequate usage. Age < 18 to 34 years at delivery, low maternal schooling, low family income, two or more previous deliveries, maternal smoking during pregnancy, having no partner and prenatal care obtained outside Aracaju were associated with inadequate prenatal care use. In contrast, private service attendance protected from inadequate prenatal care use. Conclusion Prenatal care coverage was high. However, a significant number of women still had inadequate prenatal care use. Socioeconomic inequalities, demographic factors and behavioural risk factors are still important factors associated with inadequate prenatal care use. PMID:19622174

  7. "Tooth worms", poverty tattoos and dental care conflicts in Northeast Brazil.

    PubMed

    Nations, Marilyn K; Nuto, Sharmêniade de Araújo Soares

    2002-01-01

    While medical anthropologists have studied doctor-patient clinical conflicts during the last 25-30 years, dentist-patient communication clashes have received scant attention to date. Besides structural barriers and power inequities, such conceptual differences further dehumanize dental care and lower service quality. Potential for dentist-patient discordance is greater in developing regions--such as Northeast Brazil--where there exists a wider socio-economic gap between professionals and laypersons. A critical anthropological evaluation of oral health services quality is undertaken in two rural communities in Ceará, Brazil where the PAHO-inspired Local Oral Health Inversion of Attention Program was implemented in 1994. This 6-month qualitative field study utilized ethnographic interviews with key informants, participant-observation and projective techniques to probe professionals' and patients' explanatory models (EMs) of oral health. Despite the recent expansion of services into rural regions, the authors conclude that the quality of dental care remains problematic. Patients' culturally constructed EMs of teeth rotted (estraga) by "tooth worms" (lagartas) differ substantively from dentists' model of dental decay by Streptococcus mutans. "Exploding chins" (queixo estourado), "spoiled, rotting teeth" (dente pĵdi) and "false plates" or teeth (chapas) tattoo and stigmatize the poor, reinforcing gross class inequities. Dentists' dominant discourse largely ignores lay logic, ridicules popular practices and de-legitimates, even castigates, popular healers despite their pivotal role in primary oral health care. Poor parents are not only barred from clinics but are blamed for children's rotten teeth. In sum, universal access to dental care is more a myth (even nightmare) than a reality. Dentists all too often "avert"--not "invert"--attention from poor Brazilian patients. In order to improve oral health in this setting, both "societal decay" and bacteria-laden plaque

  8. Meiobenthic and Macrobenthic Community Structure in Carbonate Sediments of Rocas Atoll (North-east, Brazil)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Netto, S. A.; Warwick, R. M.; Attrill, M. J.

    1999-01-01

    Rocas is the only atoll of the South Atlantic and it is built almost exclusively by coralline red algae, vermetid gastropods and encrusting foraminiferans. Patterns in the community structure of meiofauna and macrofauna, particularly nematodes and polychaetes, at Rocas Atoll, north-east Brazil, are determined and compared for different habitats: sublittoral, tidal flat, reef pools and lagoon. Nematodes and copepods were the most abundant meiofaunal taxa. In all studied habitats at Rocas Atoll, oligochaetes, nematodes and polychaetes numerically dominate the macrofauna. Univariate and multivariate analyses reveal clear differences in community structure between the habitats of the atoll, especially between the sublittoral and the inner habitats. The number of species, total density, diversity (H') and trophic structure vary significantly between the habitats, but the differences are dependent on which faunistic category (meiobenthic or macrobenthic) is analysed. Nematodes belonging to the Epsilonematidae and Draconematidae, together with a diverse community of meiobenthic polychaetes, characterize the sublittoral habitat of Rocas Atoll. Both meiofauna and macrofauna are depressed in the tidal flat, and the local sediment instability particularly affects the polychaete abundance. Reef pools and lagoons support a very dense aggregation of invertebrates, particularly the macrofauna, when compared with other carbonate reef sediments. However, differences in the structure of meiofauna and macrofauna communities between reef pools and lagoons are not significant. Changes in meiobenthic and macrobenthic community structure are related to the gradation in the physical environment of the atoll.

  9. Evaluation of anthropogenic contamination using sterol markers in a tropical estuarine system of northeast Brazil.

    PubMed

    Frena, Morgana; Souza, Michel R R; Damasceno, Flaviana C; Madureira, Luiz A S; Alexandre, Marcelo R

    2016-08-15

    The São Francisco River estuarine system, located in the Northeast coast of Brazil, has great economic, tourist and social importance. Its waters are used for activities such as agriculture, aquaculture, navigation and fishery, which supplies the surrounding communities. In this study, sterols markers were determined in twenty-eight sediment samples from São Francisco River estuary by gas chromatography - mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Sterol analysis was useful to distinguish between anthropogenic and biogenic organic matter (OM) sources in the studied area. Six sterols were quantified, suggesting different sources. Concentrations of fecal sterol (coprostanol) were lower than 500ngg(-1), suggesting no indicative of severe sewage contamination.However, two stations showed concentrations around 100ngg(-1) and the values for the coprostanol/(coprostanol+cholestanol) and coprostanol/cholesterol ratios indicates sewage contamination. The results in this study may be considered as baseline concentrations to be used as future reference for monitoring programs to prevent anthropogenic impacts. PMID:27207024

  10. Climatology and trend analysis of extreme precipitation in subregions of Northeast Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oliveira, P. T.; Santos e Silva, C. M.; Lima, K. C.

    2016-07-01

    The present paper aims of computing climatology and trend analysis of occurrence and intensity of extreme events of precipitation in subregions of Northeast Brazil (NEB). We used daily rainfall data of 148 rain gauges collected from the hydrometeorological network managed by the National Water Agency during 1972 to 2002 and used quantiles technique in order to select rainfall events. Defining heavy rainfall events as those when at least one rain gauge recorded rainfall above the 95th percentile, normal rainfall was between the 45th and 55th percentiles, and weak rainfall events were under the 5th percentile. The Mann-Kendall nonparametric test was used to calculate the linear trend of the quantity and intensity of rainfall events. The NEB was divided in five subregions using the cluster analysis based on Euclidean distance and Ward's method: Northern coast, Northern semiarid, Northwest, Southern semiarid, and Southern coast. The results suggest that the subregions are less influenced by El Niño and La Niña, and dry areas have higher variability, with the greatest number of intense events.

  11. Phylogeographic implications for release of critically endangered manatee calves rescued in Northeast Brazil

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Luna, Fábia O.; Bonde, Robert K.; Attademo, Fernanda L.N.; Saunders, Jonathan W.; Meigs-Friend, Gaia; Passavante, José Zanon O.; Hunter, Margaret E.

    2012-01-01

    Since 1989 the calves have been rescued (N=67), rehabilitated, and released (N=25) to supplement the small wild manatee population. The rescued calves, and those born in captivity, are typically, not released to their rescue location, mainly for logistical reasons. Therefore, phylogeographic analyses can help to identify related populations and appropriate release sites. 3. Here, mitochondrial DNA analyses identified low haplotype (h=0.08) and nucleotide (π=0.0026) genetic diversity in three closely related haplotypes. All three haplotypes (M01, M03, and a previously unidentified haplotype, M04) were found in the northern portion of the region, while only a single haplotype (M01) was represented in the south. This suggests the presence of two genetic groups with a central mixing zone. Release of rehabilitated calves to unrelated populations may result in genetic swamping of locally adapted alleles or genotypes, limiting the evolutionary potential of the population. 4. The small population size coupled with low genetic diversity indicates that the Northeast Brazil manatee population is susceptible to inbreeding depression and possible local extinction. Further conservation measures incorporating genetic information could be beneficial to the critically endangered Brazilian manatee population.

  12. Seroprevalence and risk factors associated with ovine toxoplasmosis in Northeast Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Andrade, Milena M. Clementino; Carneiro, Mariangela; Medeiros, Andrea D.; Neto, Valter Andrade; Vitor, Ricardo W.A.

    2013-01-01

    Serum samples of 930 sheep were tested by ELISA to assess the prevalence of anti-Toxoplasma gondii antibodies and to identify risk factors associated with the presence of toxoplasmosis in two regions of Rio Grande do Norte (Northeast Brazil), with different climatic conditions. The overall estimated prevalence was 22.1%, with 26.3% and 17.8% positive sheep in Leste Potiguar and Central Potiguar regions, respectively. Among the positive sheep, 18.1% had low-avidity IgG antibodies, suggesting the occurrence of recent toxoplasmosis. The risk factors for toxoplasmosis in sheep were: presence of cats (odds ratio (OR) = 1.55; confidence interval (CI) 95% = 1.11–2.16), age of the animals, with adults presenting a greater chance of infection (OR = 2.44; CI 95% = 1.58–3.75), and the use of running water (OR = 1.61; CI 95% = 1.25–2.09), characterizing the existence of transmission by sporulated oocysts of T. gondii in the environment. PMID:23707895

  13. Antibiotic Resistance of Salmonella spp. Isolated from Shrimp Farming Freshwater Environment in Northeast Region of Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Carvalho, Fátima C. T.; Sousa, Oscarina V.; Carvalho, Edirsana M. R.; Hofer, Ernesto; Vieira, Regine H. S. F.

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated the presence and antibiotic resistance of Salmonella spp. in a shrimp farming environment in Northeast Region of Brazil. Samples of water and sediments from two farms rearing freshwater-acclimated Litopenaeus vannamei were examined for the presence of Salmonella. Afterwards, Salmonella isolates were serotyped, the antimicrobial resistance was determined by a disk diffusion method, and the plasmid curing was performed for resistant isolates. A total of 30 (16.12%) of the 186 isolates were confirmed to be Salmonella spp., belonging to five serovars: S. serovar Saintpaul, S. serovar Infantis, S. serovar Panama, S. serovar Madelia, and S. serovar Braenderup, along with 2 subspecies: S. enterica serovar houtenae and S. enterica serovar enterica. About twenty-three percent of the isolates were resistant to at least one antibiotic, and twenty percent were resistant to at least two antibiotics. Three strains isolated from water samples (pond and inlet canal) exhibited multiresistance to ampicillin, tetracycline, oxytetracycline, and nitrofurantoin. One of them had a plasmid with genes conferring resistance to nitrofurantoin and ampicillin. The incidence of bacteria pathogenic to humans in a shrimp farming environment, as well as their drug-resistance pattern revealed in this study, emphasizes the need for a more rigorous attention to this area. PMID:24455280

  14. Synoptic environment associated with heavy rainfall events on the coastland of Northeast Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oliveira, P. T.; Lima, K. C.; Silva, C. M. Santos e.

    2013-07-01

    Northeast Brazil (NEB) has an extensive coastal area, often hit by natural disasters that bring many social and economic losses. The objective of this work was to study the synoptic environment associated with a heavy rainfall event (HRE) on the coastland of NEB. We used daily rainfall data for coastal area of NEB between the states of Rio Grande do Norte and Bahia, divided into two subregions: north and south coastland. This data was obtained from the hydrometeorological network managed by the Agência Nacional de Águas and the daily data reanalysis from the ERAInterim. For the selection of HRE the technique of quantiles was used, thus defined HRE where at least one rain gauge recorded rainfall above 95th percentile. The interannual distribution of events showed occurrence maximum in La Niña years and minimal in El Niño years. The results suggest that the HRE were formed mainly due to the action of upper-level cyclonic vortex, in hight levels, and due to the action to South Atlantic convergence zone, in low levels.

  15. Antibiotic Resistance of Salmonella spp. Isolated from Shrimp Farming Freshwater Environment in Northeast Region of Brazil.

    PubMed

    Carvalho, Fátima C T; Sousa, Oscarina V; Carvalho, Edirsana M R; Hofer, Ernesto; Vieira, Regine H S F

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated the presence and antibiotic resistance of Salmonella spp. in a shrimp farming environment in Northeast Region of Brazil. Samples of water and sediments from two farms rearing freshwater-acclimated Litopenaeus vannamei were examined for the presence of Salmonella. Afterwards, Salmonella isolates were serotyped, the antimicrobial resistance was determined by a disk diffusion method, and the plasmid curing was performed for resistant isolates. A total of 30 (16.12%) of the 186 isolates were confirmed to be Salmonella spp., belonging to five serovars: S. serovar Saintpaul, S. serovar Infantis, S. serovar Panama, S. serovar Madelia, and S. serovar Braenderup, along with 2 subspecies: S. enterica serovar houtenae and S. enterica serovar enterica. About twenty-three percent of the isolates were resistant to at least one antibiotic, and twenty percent were resistant to at least two antibiotics. Three strains isolated from water samples (pond and inlet canal) exhibited multiresistance to ampicillin, tetracycline, oxytetracycline, and nitrofurantoin. One of them had a plasmid with genes conferring resistance to nitrofurantoin and ampicillin. The incidence of bacteria pathogenic to humans in a shrimp farming environment, as well as their drug-resistance pattern revealed in this study, emphasizes the need for a more rigorous attention to this area. PMID:24455280

  16. Body weight and food consumption scores in adolescents from northeast Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Barreto, Augusto Cesar; de Andrade, Maria Izabel Siqueira; Lima, Vera Lúcia de Menezes; Diniz, Alcides da Silva

    2015-01-01

    Objective: The aim of the present study was to determine the prevalence of excess weight and analyze eating habits in relation to cardiovascular disease in adolescents from the city of Vitória de Santo Antão, state of Pernambuco, northeast Brazil. Methods: A cross-sectional study was carried out with male and female students (10-19 years old) enrolled at public and private schools in Vitória de Santo Antão. Sociodemographic, anthropometric and lifestyle variables were collected. Food consumption was evaluated using a Food Frequency Questionnaire and subsequently converted to monthly intake pattern scores, obtaining the intake distribution for a group of foods associated with the risk of developing cardiovascular disease and for a group of protective foods. The significance level for the statistical tests was set at 5.0%. Results: The sample consisted of 2866 students. The female gender accounted for 54.2% of the sample, and median age was 14 years (interquartile range: 12-16 years). The food intake scores showed greater dispersion in the group of protective foods (51.1%). Higher median scores for consumption of risk foods were found among adolescents whose mothers had more than 9 years of schooling (p<0.001). Conclusions: Excess weight was prevalent among the students analyzed. The consumption of risk foods was only associated with maternal schooling, which shows the need for nutritional interventions directed at families, regardless of socioeconomic status. PMID:26113308

  17. Inbreeding levels in Northeast Brazil: Strategies for the prospecting of new genetic disorders

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    A new autosomal recessive genetic condition, the SPOAN syndrome (an acronym for spastic paraplegia, optic atrophy and neuropathy syndrome), was recently discovered in an isolated region of the State of Rio Grande do Norte in Northeast Brazil, in a population that was identified by the IBGE (Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics) as belonging to the Brazilian communities with the highest rates of “deficiencies” (Neri, 2003), a term used to describe diseases, malformations, and handicaps in general. This prompted us to conduct a study of consanguinity levels in five of its municipal districts by directly interviewing their inhabitants. Information on 7,639 couples (corresponding to about 40% of the whole population of the studied districts) was obtained. The research disclosed the existence of very high frequencies of consanguineous marriages, which varied from about 9% to 32%, suggesting the presence of a direct association between genetic diseases such as the SPOAN syndrome, genetic drift and inbreeding levels. This fact calls for the introduction of educational programs for the local populations, as well as for further studies aiming to identify and characterize other genetic conditions. Epidemiological strategies developed to collect inbreeding data, with the collaboration of health systems available in the region, might be very successful in the prospecting of genetic disorders. PMID:21637472

  18. Inbreeding levels in Northeast Brazil: Strategies for the prospecting of new genetic disorders.

    PubMed

    Santos, Silvana; Kok, Fernando; Weller, Mathias; de Paiva, Francisco Rennan Lopes; Otto, Paulo A

    2010-04-01

    A new autosomal recessive genetic condition, the SPOAN syndrome (an acronym for spastic paraplegia, optic atrophy and neuropathy syndrome), was recently discovered in an isolated region of the State of Rio Grande do Norte in Northeast Brazil, in a population that was identified by the IBGE (Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics) as belonging to the Brazilian communities with the highest rates of "deficiencies" (Neri, 2003), a term used to describe diseases, malformations, and handicaps in general. This prompted us to conduct a study of consanguinity levels in five of its municipal districts by directly interviewing their inhabitants. Information on 7,639 couples (corresponding to about 40% of the whole population of the studied districts) was obtained. The research disclosed the existence of very high frequencies of consanguineous marriages, which varied from about 9% to 32%, suggesting the presence of a direct association between genetic diseases such as the SPOAN syndrome, genetic drift and inbreeding levels. This fact calls for the introduction of educational programs for the local populations, as well as for further studies aiming to identify and characterize other genetic conditions. Epidemiological strategies developed to collect inbreeding data, with the collaboration of health systems available in the region, might be very successful in the prospecting of genetic disorders. PMID:21637472

  19. The Importance of Wild Canids in the Epidemiology of Rabies in Northeast Brazil: A Retrospective Study.

    PubMed

    Cordeiro, R de A; Duarte, N F H; Rolim, B N; Soares Júnior, F A; Franco, I C F; Ferrer, L L; Almeida, C P; Duarte, B H; de Araújo, D B; Rocha, M F G; Brilhante, R S N; Favoretto, S R; Sidrim, J J C

    2016-09-01

    Rabies is an endemic disease in Brazil, where it is considered a serious public health problem. Although the number of human and dog-transmitted cases has declined in recent decades, rabies in wildlife has emerged considerably. Among the sylvatic animals, wild canids have been considered important hosts of the rabies virus. We performed a retrospective study of reported cases of rabies in wild canids and human victims in Ceará state (Northeast Brazil) during 2003 to 2013. Information was provided by governmental laboratories involved in rabies detection and by the Ministry of Health. From January 2003 to December 2013, a total of 11 931 animal samples were examined for rabies. Positivity were detected in 438 samples (3.67%), of which 229 (52.28%) were domestic animals, 105 (23.97%) wild canids and 104 (23.74%) other wild animals (bats, marmosets and raccoons). Approximately 33% of wild canids surveyed (n = 317) were positive for rabies. During the studied period, a total of 1923 attacks on humans by wild canids were registered. Males (n = 1405) were more affected than females (n = 520; 72.98% versus 27.01%), and the median age of all cases was 36.5 years. Injuries to individuals up to 19 years old corresponded to approximately 30% (n = 565) of all cases. Most of the victims lived in rural areas (72.46%; n = 1395), and the majority showed bites (81.13%; n = 1677) or scratches (12.23%; n = 253). Injuries were considered profound (52.1%; n = 1003), superficial (40.91; n = 788) or multiple with severe laceration (6.98%; n = 134). Only 1300 (67.53%) victims were enrolled for the complete rabies post-exposure prophylaxis scheme. Data from the present study confirm that wild canids are important hosts of rabies virus in northeastern Brazil and jeopardize rabies control in this area. Local authorities should focus their efforts in education of health professionals. In addition, strategies should be formulated to preserve wildlife. PMID:26815766

  20. Sexually transmitted infections associated syndromes assisted in the primary health care in Northeast, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The lack of information on the care for sexually transmitted infections (STI) associated syndromes may contribute for its non-inclusion as prevention and control strategy for STI in Brazil. This study aims to analyze the cases of STI – Associated Syndromes assisted in primary health care center in a city in Northeast Brazil associating them with socio-demographic and behavioral variables. Methods This is a retrospective study that analyzed 5148 consultation forms and medical records of patients assisted in a primary health care center who presented at least one genital syndrome from 1999 to 2008. Was considered as dependent variables the genital syndromes and serologies for syphilis and HIV and as independent variables the socio-demographic and behavioral aspects. It was used Pearson’s chi-square test to analyze the differences between the categorical variables, with a significance level of 5%. It was performed a multivariate analysis through the multivariate logistic regression model with the variables with p <0.05. We used odds ratio with a confidence interval of 95%. Results The most frequent syndromes were vaginal discharge and/or cervicitis (44%) and genital wart (42.2%). Most people were between 20 and 39 years old (70%) and women (74.2%). Genital ulcer was most prevalent among men (OR = 2.67; CI 95% 1.99-3.58) and people who studied more than eight years (OR = 1.33; CI 95% 1.00-1.75) and wart prevailed among men (OR = 3.92; IC 95% 3.36-4.57), people under 29 years old (OR = 1.81; CI 95% 1.59-2.07) and who studied more than eight years (OR = 1.75; CI 95% 1.54-1.99). The Venereal Disease Research Laboratory (VDRL) was positive in 7.3% of men and in 7.1% of women and the Anti-HIV in 3.1% of men and 0.7% of women. Conclusion Vaginal discharge was the most frequent syndrome assisted in primary health care, followed by genital wart. The high prevalence of genital wart justifies the greater effort for the proper follow-up of these

  1. Seasonal changes of water quality in a tropical shallow and eutrophic reservoir in the metropolitan region of Recife (Pernambuco-Brazil).

    PubMed

    De Oliveira, Fábio H P C; Ara, André L S Capela E; Moreira, Cesar H P; Lira, Osman O; Padilha, Maria Do Rosário F; Shinohara, Neide K S

    2014-12-01

    This study investigated the water quality in an urban eutrophic reservoir in Northeastern Brazil, considering the influence of seasonality. Monthly, samples were collected in the sub-surface reservoir. The following abiotic variables were analyzed: temperature, pH, dissolved oxygen, apparent color, turbidity, conductivity, fluoride, total nitrogen, chlorides, total dissolved solids, total hardness, iron, copper, manganese, aluminum, chlorophyll-a and phaeophytin. Total and thermotolerant coliforms were analyzed according to APHA (2012). Cyanobacteria density was quantified through its biomass. The data were analyzed using one- way ANOVA and Pearson correlation test. Higher values mean phytoplankton biomass (26.3mm3.L-1) occurred in the dry season, especially Planktothrix agardhii and Geiterinema amphibium, which occurred in 100% of samples. High trophic state index was detected throughout the year. Seasonality exerted some influence on both biotic and abiotc variables, leading to changes in water quality of the reservoir. PMID:25590722

  2. Seasonal changes of water quality in a tropical shallow and eutrophic reservoir in the metropolitan region of Recife (Pernambuco-Brazil).

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Fábio H P C DE; Ara, André L S Capela E; Moreira, Cesar H P; Lira, Osman O; Padilha, Maria DO Rosário F; Shinohara, Neide K S

    2014-10-14

    This study investigated the water quality in an urban eutrophic reservoir in Northeastern Brazil, considering the influence of seasonality. Monthly, samples were collected in the sub-surface reservoir. The following abiotic variables were analyzed: temperature, pH, dissolved oxygen, apparent color, turbidity, conductivity, fluoride, total nitrogen, chlorides, total dissolved solids, total hardness, iron, copper, manganese, aluminum, chlorophyll-a and phaeophytin. Total and thermotolerant coliforms were analyzed according to APHA (2012). Cyanobacteria density was quantified through its biomass. The data were analyzed using one- way ANOVA and Pearson correlation test. Higher values mean phytoplankton biomass (26.3mm3.L-1) occurred in the dry season, especially Planktothrix agardhii and Geiterinema amphibium, which occurred in 100% of samples. High trophic state index was detected throughout the year. Seasonality exerted some influence on both biotic and abiotc variables, leading to changes in water quality of the reservoir. PMID:25317729

  3. Seroepidemiological Survey of Canine Leishmania Infections from Peripheral Areas in Natal, Northeast Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Barbosa, Isabelle Ribeiro; Carlota, Francisco Canindé; de Andrade-Neto, Valter Ferreira

    2015-01-01

    Background and Objective: Human visceral leishmaniasis is endemic in Natal, northeast of Brazil, where the domestic dog is an important parasite reservoir in the infectious cycle of Leishmania spp. In this study, was evaluated the antileishmanial IgG antibody and epidemiological factors related to canine visceral leishmaniasis (CVL). Methods: Sera samples obtained by venipuncture of 1,426 dogs living in areas of human visceral leishmaniasis occurrence were tested for detection of IgG anti-leishmania antibodies with Immunofluorescence Antibody Assay (IFA) and Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA). Chi-square (x2) and Odds Ratio (OR) were calculated. Differences were considered statistically significant at p≤0.05. RESULTS: The overall seroprevalence was 10.30% (147/1,426); prevalence increased when the samples were found to be positive at least for one technique ([417/1,426] 29.3%). The high percentage of seroprevalence was observed in Nova República (15.35%), Nova Natal I (12.7%) and Lagoa Azul (11.4%) neighborhoods. In the Planalto, Soledade and Brasil Novo, the infection rates ranged from 7.5 at 8.06%. (p=0.00051). There was neither statistically significant difference between leishmanial infection nor clinical signs of disease (p=0.84; OR=1.0 [0.41; 2.3]), sex (p=0.78, OR=0.94 [0.66; 1.28]); and breed (p=0.92; OR=1.0 [0.65; 1.54]) were observed. Conclusion: The RESULTS suggest that CVL is widely distributed in Natal, may be increasingly urbanizing and will spread through neighborhoods but not endemic, resulting in a serious public health problem, emphasizing the need for epidemiological studies to a greater understanding of the distribution of canine leishmaniasis in these specific areas and contribute proactively to the public health policies. PMID:26668661

  4. Satellite chlorophyll-a annual bloom characterization in Northeast Brazil, western tropical Atlantic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kampel, Milton; Rudorff, Natalia M.; Dall Cortivo, Fabio; Freitas, Lucas B.; Valerio, Larissa P.

    2014-11-01

    Time series of satellite-derived sea surface chlorophyll concentration (SSC) from 2002 to 2012 were used to investigate the phenology of phytoplankton bloom in the Sergipe-Alagoas Basin, located in Northeast Brazil, Western Tropical Atlantic. The seasonal phytoplankton cycle is the dominant mode of temporal variability. The use of a Gaussian function to fit the temporal variability of SSC allowed the characterization of the timing and magnitude of the annual phytoplankton bloom in the slope and continental shelf areas. Modeled SSC showed a few differences in relation to mean MODIS-derived temporal curves. The maximum error was 0.14 mg.m-3 in September on the shelf and 0.006 mg.m- 3 in February on the slope. In both areas, SSC data showed that the maximum surface bloom occurs in June, having initiated in March. This cycle is typical of tropical waters of low latitudes where bloom is initiated at lower vertical stability of the water column allowing nutrients from deeper layers to fertilize usually poor and warm waters of the mixed layer. High rainfall increases the continental drainage into the shelf in autumn-winter, which may affect the timing of bloom. However, the flow regulation of the most important river in the region (Sao Francisco River) decreases the potential impact of river inflow in the coastal region. As the shelf and slope showed very similar patterns, it is likely that the processes of wind mixing and water heating/cooling are the most determining factors for the annual cycle of phytoplankton bloom in this region.

  5. Exposure of small mammals to ticks and rickettsiae in Atlantic Forest patches in the metropolitan area of Recife, North-eastern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Dantas-Torres, Filipe; Aléssio, Filipe Martins; Siqueira, Daniel Barreto; Mauffrey, Jean-François; Marvulo, Maria Fernanda V; Martins, Thiago F; Moraes-Filho, Jonas; Camargo, Maria Cecília G O; D'Auria, Sandra Regina Nicoletti; Labruna, Marcelo B; Silva, Jean Carlos Ramos

    2012-01-01

    Between December 2007 and March 2009, small mammals were captured in 6 Atlantic Forest patches in Brazil. We assessed tick-host associations and whether they differ among forest strata, sites, seasons, and host age classes or between sexes. Moreover, we assessed the exposure of animals to Rickettsia spp. In total, 432 animals were captured and 808 ticks were found on 32·9% of them. Significant differences were found among host species, collection sites, and forest strata; microhabitat preference was a strong risk factor for tick infestation. The highest tick density rates were recorded in forest fragments settled in rural areas; 91·3% of the ticks were collected from animals trapped in these forest fragments. A high prevalence (68·8%) of antibodies to Rickettsia spp. was detected among animals. This study suggests that disturbed Atlantic Forest fragments provide an environment for ticks and small mammals, which are highly exposed to rickettsiae. It also indicates that forest patches settled in rural areas are usually associated with higher small mammal diversity as well as with higher tick density rates. PMID:22217620

  6. [The coast of Northeast Brazil as a Darwinian scientific object: the explorations of John Casper Branner, 1899-1911].

    PubMed

    de Oliveira, Almir Leal

    2014-01-01

    John Casper Branner, a US geologist, had a long history of research in Brazil. The article analyzes his exploration of the geology of the coast of Northeast Brazil during the Branner-Agassiz (1899) and Stanford (1911) expeditions. In the findings from both voyages, Branner characterized the geomorphology of sedimentary basins, sandstone reefs, and coral reefs from a Darwinian evolutionary perspective, blending natural history's model of field research with the practices of modern biology and dynamic geology. He based his interpretation of the evolution of the geological formation on physical and chemical factors. Zoological studies identified the place of evolutionary variation and adaptations of isolated marine species as an auxiliary factor in natural selection. PMID:25338034

  7. Paulo Freire: The Man from Recife. Counterpoints: Studies in the Postmodern Theory of Education. Volume 385

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kirylo, James D.

    2011-01-01

    The unfolding of Paulo Freire's philosophy, uniqueness, and the lens through which he viewed the world, which ultimately brought this gentle spirit of a man onto the world stage, began at a young age in his hometown of Recife, Brazil. Remarkably grounded in the wisdom of humility, yet gifted with a determined strength, deep insight, and perceptive…

  8. The Relationships between Tropical Pacific and Atlantic SST and Northeast Brazil Monthly Precipitation.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bertacchi Uvo, Cintia; Repelli, Carlos A.; Zebiak, Stephen E.; Kushnir, Yochanan

    1998-04-01

    The monthly patterns of northeast Brazil (NEB) precipitation are analyzed in relation to sea surface temperature (SST) in the tropical Pacific and Atlantic Oceans, using singular value decomposition. It is found that the relationships between precipitation and SST in both basins vary considerably throughout the rainy season (February-May). In January, equatorial Pacific SST is weakly correlated with precipitation in small areas of southern NEB, but Atlantic SST shows no significant correlation with regional precipitation. In February, Pacific SST is not well related to precipitation, but south equatorial Atlantic SST is positively correlated with precipitation over the northern Nordeste, the latter most likely reflecting an anomalously early (or late) southward migration of the ITCZ precipitation zone. During March, equatorial Pacific SST is negatively correlated with Nordeste precipitation, but no consistent relationship between precipitation and Atlantic SST is found. Atlantic SST-precipitation correlations for April and May are the strongest found among all months or either ocean. Precipitation in the Nordeste is positively correlated with SST in the south tropical Atlantic and negatively correlated with SST in the north tropical Atlantic. These relationships are strong enough to determine the structure of the seasonal mean SST-precipitation correlations, even though the corresponding patterns for the earlier months of the season are quite different. Pacific SST-precipitation correlations for April and May are similar to those for March. Extreme wet (dry) years for the Nordeste occur when both Pacific and Atlantic SST patterns for April and May occur simultaneously. A separate analysis reinforces previous findings in showing that SST in the tropical Pacific and the northern tropical Atlantic are positively correlated and that tropical Pacific-south Atlantic correlations are negligible.Time-lagged analyses show the potential for forecasting either seasonal mean

  9. Seed Dispersal by Ants in the Semi-arid Caatinga of North-east Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Leal, Inara R.; Wirth, Rainer; Tabarelli, Marcelo

    2007-01-01

    Background and Aims Myrmecochory is a conspicuous feature of several sclerophyll ecosystems around the world but it has received little attention in the semi-arid areas of South America. This study addresses the importance of seed dispersal by ants in a 2500-km2 area of the Caatinga ecosystem (north-east Brazil) and investigates ant-derived benefits to the plant through myrmecochory. Methods Seed manipulation and dispersal by ants was investigated during a 3-year period in the Xingó region. Both plant and ant assemblages involved in seed dispersal were described and ant behaviour was characterized. True myrmecochorous seeds of seven Euphorbiaceae species (i.e. elaiosome-bearing seeds) were used in experiments designed to: (1) quantify the rates of seed cleaning/removal and the influence of both seed size and elaiosome presence on seed removal; (2) identify the fate of seeds dispersed by ants; and (3) document the benefits of seed dispersal by ants in terms of seed germination and seedling growth. Key Results Seed dispersal by ants involved one-quarter of the woody flora inhabiting the Xingó region, but true myrmecochory was restricted to 12·8 % of the woody plant species. Myrmecochorous seeds manipulated by ants faced high levels of seed removal (38–84 %) and 83 % of removed seeds were discarded on ant nests. Moreover, seed removal positively correlated with the presence of elaiosome, and elaiosome removal increased germination success by at least 30 %. Finally, some Euphorbiaceae species presented both increased germination and seedling growth on ant-nest soils. Conclusions Myrmecochory is a relevant seed dispersal mode in the Caatinga ecosystem, and is particularly frequent among Euphorbiaceae trees and shrubs. The fact that seeds reach micro-sites suitable for establishment (ant nests) supports the directed dispersal hypothesis as a possible force favouring myrmecochory in this ecosystem. Ecosystems with a high frequency of myrmecochorous plants appear not

  10. Mycobacterium leprae in six-banded (Euphractus sexcinctus) and nine-banded armadillos (Dasypus novemcinctus) in Northeast Brazil.

    PubMed

    Frota, Cristiane Cunha; Lima, Luana Nepomuceno Costa; Rocha, Adalgiza da Silva; Suffys, Philip Noel; Rolim, Benedito Neilson; Rodrigues, Laura Cunha; Barreto, Maurício Lima; Kendall, Carl; Kerr, Ligia Regina Sansigolo

    2012-12-01

    Human beings are the main reservoir of the causative agent of leprosy, Mycobacterium leprae. In the Americas, nine-banded armadillos (Dasypus novemcinctus) also act as a reservoir for the bacillus. In the state of Ceará (CE), which is located in Northeast Brazil and is an endemic area of leprosy, there are several species of armadillos, including D. novemcinctus and Euphractus sexcinctus (six-banded armadillo). Contact between humans and armadillos occur mainly through hunting, cleaning, preparing, cooking and eating. This study identified M. leprae DNA in the two main species of armadillos found in Northeast Brazil. A total of 29 wild armadillos (27 D. novemcinctus and 2 E. sexcinctus) were captured in different environments of CE countryside. Samples from the ear, nose, liver and spleen from each of these animals were tested by a nested M. leprae-specific repetitive element polymerase chain reaction assay. The samples that tested positive were confirmed by DNA sequencing. M. leprae was detected in 21% (6/29) of the animals, including five D. novemcinctus and one E. sexcinctus. This is the first Brazilian study to identify the presence of a biomarker of M. leprae in wild armadillos (D. novemcinctus and E. sexcinctus) in a leprosy hyperendemic area where there is continuous contact between humans and armadillos. PMID:23283473

  11. Detection of Brucella ovis in ovine from Paraíba State, in the Northeast region of Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Alves, Clebert José; de Figueiredo, Salomão Moreira; de Azevedo, Sérgio Santos; Clementino, Inácio José; Keid, Lara Borges; Vasconcellos, Sílvio Arruda; de Sousa Américo Batista, Carolina; Rocha, Vivianne Cambuí Mesquita; Higino, Severino Silvano

    2010-01-01

    To determine the presence of Brucella ovis in ovine from Paraíba State, in the Northeast region of Brazil, 80 animals slaughtered in the public slaughterhouse of Patos city were used. Before slaughter, blood samples were collected by jugular venopuncture from each animal, and after slaughter, testicles, epidydimus and uterus were aseptically collected. For the serological diagnosis of B. ovis and B. abortus infections, the agar gel immunodiffusion (AGID) and Rose Bengal (RBT) tests were carried out, respectively. In addition, microbiological culture and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) were performed on testicle, epidydimus and uterus samples. Six animals (7.5%) tested positive for the presence of B. ovis antibodies and all animals tested negative for the presence of B. abortus antibodies. One AGID-positive animal tested positive at uterine swab culture. PCR was able to amplify DNA of Brucella spp. from the pool of testicle, epidydimus and uterus samples from AGID-positive animals. This is the first report of isolation and detection of B. ovis DNA by PCR in ovine from the Northeast region of Brazil. PMID:24031505

  12. Reducing child mortality: the contribution of Ceará state, northeast of Brazil, on achieving the Millennium Development Goal 4 in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Cavalcante e Silva, Anamaria; Correia, Luciano Lima; Campos, Jocileide Sales; Andrade, Francisca Maria de Oliveira; Silveira, Dirlene Mafalda Ildefonso da; Leite, Álvaro Jorge Madeiro; Rocha, Hermano A L; Machado, Márcia Maria Tavares; Cunha, Antonio Jose Ledo Alves da

    2015-04-01

    To describe the experience of Ceará, Northeast of Brazil, state on improving child survival, over a 20 year period, and discuss its contribution to Brazil's progress toward the achievement of MDG 4. Five population-based, statewide household surveys, with children <3 years of age, known as PESMIC (Mother and Child Health Survey of Ceará), were conducted in 1987, 1990, 1994, 2001 and 2007. They aimed to investigate levels and causes of mortality and access to child health services. The cluster sampling of 8,000 households identified 2,000 children on average. They used the same methodological approach and indicators. Important changes occurred in demographic and health indicators in the 20 year period, including 81 % reduction in the infant mortality rate, 43 % increase in breastfeeding rate and the achievement of a 95 % immunization rate. The prevalence of chronic malnutrition declined from 28 to 13 % and acute malnutrition from 13 to 5 %. Diarrheal diseases contributed with 36.6 % to the infant mortality in 1986 and 3.9 % in 2007. The major improvements in child health contributed substantially to the progress on MDG 4 in Brazil. Results of the 5 surveys produced reliable information for planning and evaluation that contributed to the remarkable progress made by the state. PMID:25095765

  13. Using the Method of Paulo Freire in Nutrition Education: An Experimental Plan for Community Action in Northeast Brazil. Cornell International Nutrition Monograph Series, Number 3 (1975).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Drummon, Therese; Lotham, Michael C., Ed.

    This monograph provides an interpretation of the work and ideas of Paulo Freire and describes an attempt to use his methods in a preliminary trial of a small scale nutrition program in four villages in Maranhao State, Northeast Brazil. The introductory chapter indicates the seriousness of the nutritional problems of the rural poor as well as the…

  14. Large-scale hydrological modelling in the semi-arid north-east of Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Güntner, Andreas

    2002-07-01

    Semi-arid areas are, due to their climatic setting, characterized by small water resources. An increasing water demand as a consequence of population growth and economic development as well as a decreasing water availability in the course of possible climate change may aggravate water scarcity in future, which often exists already for present-day conditions in these areas. Understanding the mechanisms and feedbacks of complex natural and human systems, together with the quantitative assessment of future changes in volume, timing and quality of water resources are a prerequisite for the development of sustainable measures of water management to enhance the adaptive capacity of these regions. For this task, dynamic integrated models, containing a hydrological model as one component, are indispensable tools. The main objective of this study is to develop a hydrological model for the quantification of water availability in view of environmental change over a large geographic domain of semi-arid environments. The study area is the Federal State of Ceará (150 000 km2) in the semi-arid north-east of Brazil. Mean annual precipitation in this area is 850 mm, falling in a rainy season with duration of about five months. Being mainly characterized by crystalline bedrock and shallow soils, surface water provides the largest part of the water supply. The area has recurrently been affected by droughts which caused serious economic losses and social impacts like migration from the rural regions. The hydrological model Wasa (Model of Water Availability in Semi-Arid Environments) developed in this study is a deterministic, spatially distributed model being composed of conceptual, process-based approaches. Water availability (river discharge, storage volumes in reservoirs, soil moisture) is determined with daily resolution. Sub-basins, grid cells or administrative units (municipalities) can be chosen as spatial target units. The administrative units enable the coupling of Wasa in

  15. On characteristics of the Pre-Wet Season and the Wet Season on the Northern Northeast Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vasconcelos Junior, F. D.; Gandu, A. W.; Costa, A. A.; Sales, D. C.

    2013-12-01

    The aim of this work was to investigate the timing characteristics of the Pre-Wet Season (PWS) and the Wet Season (WES) on the Northern Northeast Brazil (NNB), furthermore to determine the mean circulation in upper and lower levels during PWS, WES and in the transition phase between them. Using precipitation gauge data from 1979 to 2010 over that region, we calculated 5-day, spatial and non-overlapping means. The method to determine the onset (demise) of the season was based on when pentad rainfall was greater (less) than climatological annual mean value during 3 pentads for PWS and 5 pentads for WES. It was required that the demise of PWS must be at least two pentads before the onset of WES, ensuring the Transition phase (TRNS) between PWS and WES. The zonal and meridional circulations at 200 and 850-hPa from Era-Interim Reanalysis were used to calculate the climatological fields for PWS, TRNS and WES. On the timing characteristics, we were not able to define PWS in three years, 1985, 2004 and 2007. On average, the PWS onset was found on 21/Dec and its demise on 04/Feb; the WES onset and demise occurred on 16/Feb and 11/May, respectively, these results are different from climatological values found in the literature. The PWS onset did not show correlation with the WES onset and demise. The interannual variability of the onset and demise of WES showed periodicity between 4 and 6 years, according to well-known ENSO variability. Although the PWS show more complex variability, its onset and demise date are connected to Southern Annular Mode (SAM) index in Oct-Nov-Dec-Jan-Feb mean, presenting correlation of 0.25 and 0.29, respectively. Regarding the dynamical characteristics, in the PWS at the upper level the results showed that the Northeast's trough was shifted from its climatological position in austral summer, placed over the Tropical South Atlantic region. At low levels a remarkable convergence of the zonal wind located between central and southeastern Brazil

  16. Performance of the local health system and contingent influences in Northeast-Brazil: breaking vicious and virtuous circles.

    PubMed

    Medeiros, Regianne Leila Rolim; Atkinson, Sarah

    2013-11-01

    Organizational theory has long emphasized the importance of contingent, environmental influences on organizational performance. Similarly, research has demonstrated the importance of local political culture and informal management on the performance of the local health system, establishing vicious and virtuous circles of influence that contribute to increasing inequalities in performance among decentralized local health systems. A longitudinal ethnography studied the relationship between these elements in the same rural municipality in Northeast Brazil after a four-year interval. The second study found the local health system performance much improved. Two main factors appear to have interacted to bring this about: leadership vision and power to implement of one individual; professionalization of the local health system by hiring a significant number of senior health staff. The origins of these influences combine initiatives at local, state and federal levels. PMID:24196907

  17. A new genus and two new species of Luzarinae cricket from the Atlantic Forest of Northeast Brazil (Orthoptera, Grylloidea).

    PubMed

    Souza-Dias, Pedro G B; Desutter-Grandcolas, Laure

    2014-01-01

    A new genus and two new species of Luzarinae crickets (Grylloidea, Phalangopsidae) are described from the Atlantic Forest of Northeast Brazil. Marcgraviella muriciensis Souza-Dias n. gen., n. sp. and M. christianae Desutter-Grandcolas & Souza-Dias n. gen., n. sp. are described using characters of morphology and male genitalia. The new genus is characterized by male genitalia singularities, presenting elongated and inflatable pseudepiphallic parameres, which lies in vertical or almost vertical position, and long and tubular pseudepiphallic arms associated to phallic glands. We provide a discussion about the morphology of male genitalia and the function of the phallic glands and pseudepiphallic arms in Marcgraviella n. gen. and related taxa. An identification key for Marcgraviella n. gen. and related genera is proposed. These genera, which bear phallic glands, are placed in the newly named group, the Aracambiae. PMID:25544098

  18. Habitat use by Centropomus undecimalis in a rocky area of estuarine beach in north-east Brazil.

    PubMed

    Dantas, D V; Barletta, M

    2016-07-01

    The influence of habitat, diel period, tidal phase and moon phase on the spatial distribution of Centropomus undecimalis was investigated at the mouth of the Timbo estuary, north-east Brazil. Underwater visual censuses were conducted in three areas comprising a mix of mud, sand and beach rock substrata; with one of the areas having additional structural complexity in the form of unused wooden debris. The area with debris housed significantly higher densities of juvenile and adult C. undecimalis whereas sub-adults were more abundant in an area lacking the wooden debris. Juvenile abundance was greatest during the day, whereas sub-adult and adults were more abundant at night. There were significant interactions between habitat, diel period, tidal phase and moon phase for all ages of C. undecimalis. These results emphasize the need to account for a range of environmental factors when planning for the conservation of estuarine and coastal habitats. PMID:27221331

  19. Performance of the local health system and contingent influences in Northeast-Brazil: breaking vicious and virtuous circles

    PubMed Central

    Medeiros, Regianne Leila Rolim; Atkinson, Sarah

    2015-01-01

    Organizational theory has long emphasized the importance of contingent, environmental influences on organizational performance. Similarly, research has demonstrated the importance of local political culture and informal management on the performance of the local health system, establishing vicious and virtuous circles of influence that contribute to increasing inequalities in performance among decentralized local health systems. A longitudinal ethnography studied the relationship between these elements in the same rural municipality in Northeast Brazil after a four-year interval. The second study found the local health system performance much improved. Two main factors appear to have interacted to bring this about: leadership vision and power to implement of one individual; professionalization of the local health system by hiring a significant number of senior health staff. The origins of these influences combine initiatives at local, state and federal levels. PMID:24196907

  20. On the dynamics of droughts in northeast Brazil - Observations, theory and numerical experiments with a general circulation model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moura, A. D.; Shukla, J.

    1981-01-01

    The establishment of a thermally direct local circulation which has its ascending branch at about 10 deg N and its descending branch over northeast Brazil and the adjoining oceanic region is proposed as a possible mechanism for the occurrence of severe droughts over this Brazilian region. The driving for this anomalous circulation is provided by enhanced moist convection due to the effect of warmer sea surface anomalies over the northern tropical Atlantic and cooling associated with colder sea surface temperature anomalies in the southern tropical Atlantic. A simple primitive equation model is used to calculate the frictionally-controlled and thermally-driven circulation due to a prescribed heating function in a resting atmosphere, and a series of numerical experiments are carried out to test the sensitivity of the Goddard Laboratory's model to prescribed sea surface temperature anomalies over the tropical Atlantic.

  1. Detection of Rickettsia bellii and Rickettsia amblyommii in Amblyomma longirostre (Acari: Ixodidae) from Bahia state, Northeast Brazil.

    PubMed

    McIntosh, Douglas; Bezerra, Rodrigo Alves; Luz, Hermes Ribeiro; Faccini, João Luiz Horacio; Gaiotto, Fernanda Amato; Giné, Gastón Andrés Fernandez; Albuquerque, George Rego

    2015-01-01

    Studies investigating rickettsial infections in ticks parasitizing wild animals in the Northeast region of Brazil have been confined to the detection of Rickettsia amblyommii in immature stages of Amblyomma longirostre collected from birds in the state of Bahia, and in immatures and females of Amblyomma auricularium collected from the striped hog-nosed skunk (Conepatus semistriatus) and armadillos (Euphractus sexcinctus) in the state of Pernambuco. The current study extends the distribution of R. amblyommii (strain Aranha), which was detected in A. longirostre collected from the thin-spined porcupine Chaetomys subspinosus and the hairy dwarf porcupine Coendou insidiosus. In addition, we report the first detection of Rickettsia bellii in adults of A. longirostre collected from C. insidiosus in the state of Bahia. PMID:26413074

  2. Detection of Rickettsia bellii and Rickettsia amblyommii in Amblyomma longirostre (Acari: Ixodidae) from Bahia state, Northeast Brazil

    PubMed Central

    McIntosh, Douglas; Bezerra, Rodrigo Alves; Luz, Hermes Ribeiro; Faccini, João Luiz Horacio; Gaiotto, Fernanda Amato; Giné, Gastón Andrés Fernandez; Albuquerque, George Rego

    2015-01-01

    Studies investigating rickettsial infections in ticks parasitizing wild animals in the Northeast region of Brazil have been confined to the detection of Rickettsia amblyommii in immature stages of Amblyomma longirostre collected from birds in the state of Bahia, and in immatures and females of Amblyomma auriculariumcollected from the striped hog-nosed skunk (Conepatus semistriatus) and armadillos (Euphractus sexcinctus) in the state of Pernambuco. The current study extends the distribution of R. amblyommii (strain Aranha), which was detected in A. longirostre collected from the thin-spined porcupine Chaetomys subspinosus and the hairy dwarf porcupine Coendou insidiosus. In addition, we report the first detection of Rickettsia bellii in adults of A. longirostre collected from C. insidiosus in the state of Bahia. PMID:26413074

  3. Evaluation of the IPCC Models (AR4 and AR5) in the Precipitation Simulation in the Northeast of Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alves, José; Vasconcelos Junior, Francisco; Chaves, Rosane; Silva, Emerson; Servain, Jacques; Costa, Alexandre; Sombra, Sérgio; Barbosa, Augusto; Dos Santos, Antonio

    2016-04-01

    With the simulations of the models used in the latest reports from the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), comparative studies are necessary between observations and the so-called historical run (C20) and future projections of the AR4 (A2) and AR5 (RCP8.5) experiments, in order to assess whether the AR5 models had a better performance in the representation of physical processes. This article compares the sensitivity of IPCC models (AR4 and AR5) in representing the anuall average and seasonal rainfall variation (summer and autumn) in three regions of the Northeast of Brazil between 1979 and 2000, using the CMAP - CPC (Merged Analysis of Precipitation) data as reference. The projections made by these models for the period 2040-2070 were also analyzed.

  4. Design and prospective evaluation of a risk-based surveillance system for shrimp grow-out farms in northeast Brazil.

    PubMed

    Marques, Ana Rita; Pereira, Marcelo; Ferreira Neto, Jose Soares; Ferreira, Fernando

    2015-12-01

    The farming of Pacific white shrimp Litopennaeus vannamei in northeast Brazil, has proven to be a promising sector. However, the farming of Pacific white shrimp in Brazil has been affected negatively by the occurrence of viral diseases, threatening this sector's expansion and sustainability. For this reason, the drafting of a surveillance system for early detection and definition of freedom from viral diseases, whose occurrence could result in high economic loses, is of the utmost importance. The stochastic model AquaVigil was implemented to prospectively evaluate different surveillance strategies to determine freedom from disease and identify the strategy with the lowest sampling efforts, making the best use of available resources through risk-based surveillance. The worked example presented was designed for regional application for the state of Ceará and can easily be applied to other Brazilian states. The AquaVigil model can analyse any risk-based surveillance system that considers a similar outline to the strategy here presented. PMID:26596650

  5. Using Case Studies to Teach About Global Issues, The Urban Poor in Northeast Brazil

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Desmond, Kathleen

    1974-01-01

    The city of Salvador, Brazil, is growing rapidly; yet 100,000 people still live in the slums and unemployment is high. This article examines the lifestyle of one of these slum dwellers and his family focusing on their poverty. Discussion questions and activities are provided. (DE)

  6. Tosta Evans, 1953 (Lepidoptera: Hesperiidae): a new species from northeast Brazil, first description of the female of Tosta tosta Evans, 1953, and placement of the genus within Achlyodini.

    PubMed

    Siewert, Ricardo Russo; Mielke, Olaf Hermann Hendrik; Casagrande, Mirna Martins

    2015-01-01

    A new species of Tosta Evans, 1953 from northeast Brazil is described: T. pseudospeculum Siewert, Mielke & Casagrande, sp. nov. Additionally, the female of Tosta tosta Evans, 1953, the type species of the genus, is described for the first time. Illustrations of adults and male and female genitalia for all studied species are provided, as well as a discussion of the placement of the genus within the tribe Achlyodini. PMID:26623589

  7. Groundwater Quality and Quantity in a Coastal Aquifer Under High Human Pressure: Understand the Aquifer Functioning and the Social Perception of Water Use for a Better Water Management. Example of Recife (PE, Brazil)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petelet-Giraud, E.; Cary, L.; Bertrand, G.; Alves, L. M.; Cary, P.; Giglio-Jacquemot, A.; Aquilina, L.; Hirata, R.; Montenegro, S.; Aurouet, A.; Franzen, M.; Chatton, E.

    2015-12-01

    The Recife Metropolitan Region is a typical "hot spot" illustrating the problems of southern countries on water issues inducing high pressures on water resources both on quantity and quality in the context of global social and environmental changes. This study is based on an interdisciplinary approach, coupling "hard" geosciences together with "soft" social sciences with the aim to study the human impact on coastal aquifers in a context of overexploitation to improve the existing water management tools. By revisiting the geological and hydrogeological conceptual models, field campaigns of groundwater and surface water sampling and analysis, and of interviews of different actors on the theme of water supply and management in Recife Metropolitan Region, the main results can be summarized as follows: (1) The recharge of the deep strategic confined aquifers is very limited resulting in water level decrease (up to -90m in 25y) due to overexploitation. (2) Groundwater residence time in these deep aquifers is over 10,000 years. (3) The natural upward flux of these confined aquifers is observed inland, but is reversed in the heavily populated areas along the coast leading to mixing with modern groundwater coming from the shallow aquifers. (4) Groundwater salinization is inherited from the Pleistocene marine transgression, only partly diluted by the recharge through the mangroves during the subsequent regression phase. Today, leakage from surficial aquifers induces local salinization. (5) Local climatic scenarios predict a reduction of rainfall volume of 20% together with an increase of sea level (18-59cm by 2100). (5) The Public authorities tend to deny the difficulties that people, especially those in precarious situation, are confronted with regarding water, especially in times of drought. The COQUEIRAL research project is financially supported by ANR (ANR-11-CEPL-012); FACEPE (APQ-0077-3.07/11); FAPESP (2011/50553-0

  8. Epidemiological, Clinical and Antiretroviral Susceptibility Characterization of Human Immunodeficiency Virus Subtypes B and Non-B in Pernambuco, Northeast Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Lima, Kledoaldo; de Souza Leal, Élcio; Cavalcanti, Ana Maria Salustiano; Salustiano, Daniela Medeiros; de Medeiros, Luzidalva Barbosa; da Silva, Sirleide Pereira; Lacerda, Heloísa Ramos

    2016-01-01

    Background HIV-1 diversity causes important differences in the virus’ biological properties and their interactions with hosts, such as cell tropism, responses to antiretroviral therapy, drug-resistance, and disease progression. Objectives We evaluated the interrelationship of phylogenetic inference with epidemiological and laboratory data for HIV-1 isolates circulating in Pernambuco, Northeast Region—Brazil. Study design A total of 168 HIV-1 pol sequences were analysed, 64 were obtained from 2002–2003, and 104, from 2007–2009. Socio-demographic, clinical, and behavioural data were obtained from medical records. Laboratory testing enabled the determination of recent HIV-1 infections and co-infections with HBV, HCV, HTLV, or syphilis. Surveillance drug-resistance mutation analysis and antiretroviral susceptibility profiling were performed using HIV Drug-Resistance Database. Results HIV-1 non-B was associated with female, lower education, lower viral loads, and higher T cell counts mean. Frequencies of co-infection HIV-HBV, HIV-HCV, and HIV-syphilis were 27.8% (95% CI: 19.8–37.7), 1.04% (95% CI: 0.05–5.00) and 14.7% (95% CI: 8.6–23.0), respectively. Drug-resistant mutations rate was 2.98% (95% CI: 1.10–6.47). HIV-HBV subtype B co-infection was associated with men who have sex with men (MSM), higher education, higher viral loads and males. HIV-syphilis subtype non-B co-infection was associated with MSM status, lower T cell counts and males. Conclusions Data showed the importance of molecular characterisations of the HIV-1 epidemic and its relation with epidemiological and clinical characteristics of the population, as well as its association with other infectious diseases, so they can effort to improve preventive measures for health services and more information about the progress and effects of the epidemic in Northeastern–Brazil. PMID:27218259

  9. Mortality in the first 24h of very low birth weight preterm infants in the Northeast of Brazil

    PubMed Central

    de Castro, Eveline Campos Monteiro; Leite, Álvaro Jorge Madeiro; Guinsburg, Ruth

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Objective: To evaluate factors associated with neonatal death within 24 hours after birth in very low birth weight preterm newborns. Methods: Prospective cohort of live births with gestational age of 230/7–316/7 weeks, birth weight of 500–1499g without malformations, in 19 public maternity hospitals in nine capitals in northeastern Brazil from July to December 2007. The 19 hospitals were assessed in relation to physical resources, equipment, human resources and aiming at quality in care initiatives. Hospital, maternal and neonatal characteristics, neonatal morbidity, neonatal procedures and interventions were compared between preterm newborns that died or survived up to 24 hours of life. The variables associated with death within 24 hours after birth were determined by logistic regression. Results: Of the 627 newborns enrolled in the study, 179 (29%) died within 168 hours after birth, of which 59 (33%) up to 24 hours and 97 (54%) up to 48 hours after birth. The variables associated with death <24h were: weight <1000g (2.94; 1.32–6.53), 5th minute Apgar <7 (7.17; 3.46–14.88), male gender (2.99; 1.39–6.47). A better hospital structure was a protective factor for early neonatal death (odds ratio: 0.34; 95% confidence interval: 0.17–0.71). Conclusions: The high neonatal mortality on the first day of life in capital cities of Northeast Brazil is associated with biological variables such as weight and gender of the newborn, as well as low vitality at birth and a worse infrastructure of the hospital where the birth occurred. PMID:26726002

  10. Human perceptions of landscape change: The case of a monodominant forest of Attalea speciosa Mart ex. Spreng (Northeast Brazil).

    PubMed

    de Almeida, Gabriela M A; Ramos, Marcelo A; Araújo, Elcida L; Baldauf, Cristina; Albuquerque, Ulysses Paulino

    2016-05-01

    From the perception of human populations, we can assess the changes occurring in certain landscapes and the factors that cause those changes. Such studies have proven helpful in increasing the knowledge of the history of a landscape, recognizing past formations and projecting its future. Our research objective was to determine how a landscape dominated by the palm tree Attalea speciosa, a species of ecological, economic, and cultural importance, has been changing over time by synthesizing and comparing historical documents and local perceptions. This study was conducted in Araripe Environmental Protection Area, Northeast Region, Brazil. To understand local landscape change, we interviewed active harvesters in four communities in which A. speciosa use has been documented. Historical documents were evaluated as a complement to the interview data. According to local informants, areas previously used for cultivation and animal husbandry that were abandoned or decimated by droughts in the region may have fostered the expansion of a monodominant A. speciosa forest. Furthermore, other forms of landscape management resulting from human population growth may also have affected the current and past distribution of this forest. PMID:26743910

  11. Thermo-tolerant coliform bacteria decay rates in a full scale waste stabilization pond system in northeast Brazil.

    PubMed

    Macedo, S L; Araújo, A L C; Pearson, H W

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents the results for thermo-tolerant coliform (TTC) decay rates (K(b)) in a full scale WSP system located in Natal-RN, northeast Brazil. The series comprises a primary facultative pond (2 m deep), followed by two maturation ponds (1.5 m deep) giving a total area of 11 ha. The influent sewage and the pond effluents were monitored weekly during a seven month period. The results showed that the K(b) values predicted by the Marais equation assuming a hydraulic regime of complete mixing overestimated TTC die-off rates. The K(b) value adopted in the project design was 6.20 d(-1) but the mean value found for the WSP system during the monitoring programme was only 0.85 d(-1). This value is low compared to the values cited in the literature for shallow ponds (<1.25 m deep) but similar to values for deeper ponds. The sub optimal TTC removal rate in this WSP system may be caused by the adoption of too high a K(b) value at the design stage and the negative influence of high wind conditions on the mixing regime in the water columns of the ponds. Thus values for K(b) adopted at the design stage of WSP systems should be coherent with the hydraulic flow model, the type of pond, pond depth, and with the surface organic loading. PMID:21436574

  12. Abundance and instantaneous transport of Petrolisthes armatus (Gibbes, 1850) planktonic larvae in the Catuama inlet, Northeast Brazil.

    PubMed

    Melo Júnior, Mauro de; Schwamborn, Ralf; Neumann-Leitão, Sigrid; Paranaguá, Maryse N

    2012-03-01

    The influence of tidal and diel changes on the exchange of Petrolisthes armatus planktonic larvae was studied at the Catuama inlet, which represents an intermediate system of marine and estuarine environments in the Northeast Brazil. To characterize the larval abundance and vertical distribution, samplings were carried out in August 2001 at neap tide and 3 stations, with 3 hours interval over 24 hours. Samples were taken at three or two depths at each station, with a plankton pump coupled to a 300 µm mesh size net. Petrolisthes armatus zoea I and II showed a mean of 26.3 ± 83.6 and 12 ± 38.8 ind m-3, respectively. During flood tides, the larvae were more concentrated in the midwater and surface, which avoided the transport to internal regions. In contrast, during ebb tides when the larvae were distributed in the three layers, the higher concentrations were found in the bottom, which avoided a major exportation. The diel dynamic of the larval fluxes was characterized by vertical migration behavior associated to the tidal regime, which suggested that the development of this decapod apparently occurs in the inner shelf (instead of the outer shelf) off this peculiar ecosystem. PMID:22441598

  13. Oral mucosal lesions in Indians from Northeast Brazil: cross-sectional study of prevalence and risk indicators.

    PubMed

    Cury, Patricia Ramos; Porto, Lia Pontes Arruda; dos Santos, Jean Nunes; Figueiredo e Ribeiro, Livia Silva; de Aquino Xavier, Flavia Caló; Figueiredo, Andreia Leal; Ramalho, Luciana Maria Pedreira

    2014-12-01

    The aim of this cross-sectional study was to evaluate the prevalence of oral mucosal lesions, and their risk indicators in adult Kiriri Indians from Northeast Brazil. Clinical oral examination was performed on a representative sample of 223 Indians (age ≥ 19 years). A systematic evaluation of lips, labial mucosa and sulcus, commissures, buccal mucosa and sulcus, gingiva and alveolar ridge, tongue, floor of the mouth, and soft and hard palate was performed. Bivariate analysis was conducted to assess associations between mucosal conditions and age, gender, income, educational level, diabetic status, and smoking status. Mucosal lesions were found in 50 participants (22.4%). The most prevalent lesions were fistulae (6.2%) and traumatic ulcers (4.48%). Oral mucosal was associated with higher age (≥ 35 years; odds ratio [OR] = 1.99, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.05-3.76, P = 0.03) and lower education level (<9 years; OR = 2.13, 95% CI: 0.96-4.71, P = 0.06). Mucosal conditions are prevalent in Kiriri Indians and the presence of mucosal lesions is associated with advanced age and lower education. A public health program aimed at preventing and treating mucosal lesions and targeted toward the high-risk group is vital to improve the oral health status of this population. PMID:25501053

  14. Lesions associated with Halocercus brasiliensis Lins de Almeida, 1933 in the lungs of dolphins stranded in the Northeast of Brazil.

    PubMed

    Guimarães, J P; Febronio, A M B; Vergara-Parente, J E; Werneck, M R

    2015-04-01

    The parasitic fauna of cetaceans is an important tool for ecological studies, including analyses on the causes of death. Halocercus brasiliensis is a nematode frequently found in the bronchi and bronchioles of some cetaceans, and it is commonly associated with focal inflammation of the respiratory tract leading to bacterial pneumonia and septicemia and, sometimes, to death. The objective of this study was to report infections by H. brasiliensis in the respiratory tract of Delphinidae stranded on the northern seaside of Bahia, Sergipe, and south of Alagoas, all states in the northeast region of Brazil. A total of 30 individuals, 1 Feresa attenuate (pygmy killer whale), 9 Stenella clymene (Clymene dolphin), and 20 Sotalia guianensis (Guiana dolphin) were studied. In 16 of them, the presence of H. brasiliensis was observed with a mean intensity of 3.5 ± 0.6 (range 1-9) in the hosts. Macroscopically, parasitic calcified nodules, lung congestion, edema, and emphysema were observed. Histopathological examination showed interstitial and granulomatous pneumonia with multifocal infiltrates, discrete to moderate edema, congestion, diffuse hemorrhage, and foci of calcification. We conclude that parasitic pneumonia in the sampled individuals may have directly contributed to stranding and death of the animals. PMID:25171594

  15. Menopausal Status and Physical Performance in Middle Aged Women: A Cross-Sectional Community-Based Study in Northeast Brazil

    PubMed Central

    da Câmara, Saionara M. A.; Zunzunegui, Maria Victoria; Pirkle, Catherine; Moreira, Mayle A.; Maciel, Álvaro C. C.

    2015-01-01

    Objective To examine associations between menopausal status and physical performance in middle-aged women from the Northeast region of Brazil. Methods Cross-sectional study of women between 40 to 65 years old living in Parnamirim. Women were recruited by advertisements in primary care neighborhood centers across the city. Physical performance was assessed by grip strength, gait speed and chair stands. Menopausal status was determined using the Stages of Reproductive Aging Workshop classification and women were classified in: premenopausal, perimenopausal or postmenopausal. Multiple linear regression analyses were performed to model the effect of menopausal status on each physical performance measure, adjusting for covariates (age, family income, education, body mass index, parity and age at first birth). Results The premenopausal women were significantly stronger and performed better in chair stands than perimenopausal and postmenopausal women. Gait speed did not vary significantly by menopausal status. In multivariate analyses, menopausal status remained statistically significant only for grip strength. In fully adjusted analyses, premenopausal women had grip strength mean of 2.226 Kgf (95% CI: 0.361 – 4.091) higher than the postmenopausal group. Conclusions This study provides further evidence for the associations between menopause and physical performance in middle-aged women, since grip strength is weaker in peri and postmenopausal women compared to premenopausal, even adjusted for age and other covariates. PMID:25822526

  16. Back to basics: does decentralization improve health system performance? Evidence from Ceara in north-east Brazil.

    PubMed Central

    Atkinson, Sarah; Haran, Dave

    2004-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To examine whether decentralization has improved health system performance in the State of Ceara, north-east Brazil. METHODS: Ceara is strongly committed to decentralization. A survey across 45 local (municipio) health systems collected data on performance and formal organization, including decentralization, informal management and local political culture. The indicators for informal management and local political culture were based on prior ethnographic research. Data were analysed using analysis of variance, Duncan's post-hoc test and multiple regression. FINDINGS: Decentralization was associated with improved performance, but only for 5 of our 22 performance indicators. Moreover, in the multiple regression, decentralization explained the variance in only one performance indicator; indicators for informal management and political culture appeared to be more important influences. However, some indicators for informal management were themselves associated with decentralization but not any of the political culture indicators. CONCLUSION: Good management practices in the study led to decentralized local health systems rather than vice versa. Any apparent association between decentralization and performance seems to be an artefact of the informal management, and the wider political culture in which a local health system is embedded strongly influences the performance of local health systems. PMID:15640917

  17. Distribution and conservation of three important bird groups of the Atlantic Forest in north-east Brazil.

    PubMed

    Pereira, G A; Araújo, H F P; Azevedo-Júnior, S M

    2016-06-27

    The Pernambuco Endemism Center in north-east Brazil has the most fragmented forest cover and the largest number of threatened birds of the whole Atlantic Forest. We analyzed the distribution of three groups of bird species: forest-dependent, endemic and/or threatened using the interpolation method of Inverse Distance Weighting. We also checked the concentration of these birds in protected and unprotected areas, suggesting new sites that need to be protected. The richness concentration of forest-dependent, endemic and/or threatened birds in 123 sites were analysed. There was a greater concentration of the three groups in north Alagoas, south and north Pernambuco, and north and west Paraíba. The distribution of the three groups was almost regular in different vegetation types, although a lower concentration was found in the pioneer formation. There was a greater concentration of birds from all three groups between Pernambuco and Alagoas, and this must be due to the presence of more forest fragments with better structure and vegetation heterogeneity. The protected and unprotected areas hosted important records of endemic and/or threatened birds. We suggested some important places for implementation of new protected areas due to the larger concentrations of the target birds and because they are located within the boundaries of the Important Bird Areas. PMID:27355983

  18. Antibiotic resistance and molecular analysis of Staphylococcus aureus isolated from cow's milk and dairy products in northeast Brazil.

    PubMed

    Silveira-Filho, Vladimir M; Luz, Isabelle S; Campos, Ana Paula F; Silva, Wellington M; Barros, Maria Paloma S; Medeiros, Elizabeth S; Freitas, Manuela F L; Mota, Rinaldo A; Sena, Maria J; Leal-Balbino, Tereza C

    2014-04-01

    This work aimed to assess the clonal distribution among 94 strains of Staphylococcus aureus isolated from cow's milk, raw cheese, and a milking machine in 12 dairy farms in northeast Brazil, by analyzing different typing methods and detecting resistance and toxigenic profiles. For the first time, isolates of this region were assessed simultaneously by the polymorphism of the 3'-end coa gene and 16S-23S rDNA, pulsed-field gel electrophoresis, antibiotic resistance phenotyping, and toxigenic arsenal. Although pulsed-field gel electrophoresis patterns showed a wider variation (discriminatory index 0.83) than the PCR-based methods, the internal transcribed spacer-PCR proved to be a useful and inexpensive procedure for conducting epidemiological surveys of S. aureus on a regional scale. Each dairy farm had its own resistance profile, and in two herds, 63% of the strains were multiresistant, probably due to the indiscriminate use of antibiotics in bovine mastitis treatment. No methicillin-resistant S. aureus strains were detected in this study; however, 93.6% of S. aureus strains harbored variable profiles of staphylococcal enterotoxin genes seg, seh, sei, and sej. Transcriptional analysis revealed that 53.3% of staphylococcal enterotoxin genes actually transcribed, pointing out the food poisoning risk of these dairy products to consumers in the region. Based on the detection of the most prevalent clones in a herd or region, appropriate antibiotic therapy and specific immunization can be used for the treatment and control of staphylococcal mastitis. PMID:24680069

  19. Babassu nut residues: potential for bioenergy use in the North and Northeast of Brazil.

    PubMed

    de Paula Protásio, Thiago; Fernando Trugilho, Paulo; da Silva César, Antônia Amanda; Napoli, Alfredo; Alves de Melo, Isabel Cristina Nogueira; Gomes da Silva, Marcela

    2014-01-01

    Babassu is considered the largest native oil resource worldwide and occurs naturally in Brazil. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the potential of babassu nut residues (epicarp, mesocarp and endocarp) for bioenergy use, especially for direct combustion and charcoal production. The material was collected in the rural area of the municipality of Sítio Novo do Tocantins, in the state of Tocantins, Brazil. Analyses were performed considering jointly the three layers that make up the babassu nut shell. The following chemical characterizations were performed: molecular (lignin, total extractives and holocellulose), elemental (C, H, N, S and O), immediate (fixed carbon, volatiles and ash), energy (higher heating value and lower heating value), physical (basic density and energy density) and thermal (thermogravimetry and differential thermal analysis), besides the morphological characterization by scanning electron microscopy. Babassu nut residues showed a high bioenergy potential, mainly due to their high energy density. The use of this biomass as a bioenergy source can be highly feasible, given their chemical and thermal characteristics, combined with a low ash content. Babassu nut shell showed a high basic density and a suitable lignin content for the sustainable production of bioenergy and charcoal, capable of replacing coke in Brazilian steel plants. PMID:24741469

  20. Association between physical activity level and consumption of fruit and vegetables among adolescents in northeast Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Silva, Diego Augusto Santos; Silva, Roberto Jerônimo dos Santos

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine the association between low levels of physical activity and consumption of fruits and vegetables among adolescents. METHODS: This cross-sectional study included 2,057 adolescents aged 13 to 18 years from the city of Aracaju, Northeastern Brazil. We analyzed the level of physical activity, consumption of fruits and vegetables by standardized and validated questionnaires. The control variables were sex, age, socioeconomic status, maternal education, alcohol consumption and smoking. For data analysis, univariate and multivariate logistic regression were used, with a significance level of 5%. RESULTS: The prevalence of low levels of physical activity was 81.9%; the inadequate consumption of fruits ocurred in 79.1% and the inadequate consumption of vegetables in 90.6%. Adolescents who consumed few fruits daily had an increase in 40% of chance of being insufficiently active and, for those who consumed few vegetable's the likelihood of being insufficiently active was 50% higher, compared to those who had adequate intake of these foods. CONCLUSIONS: Low levels of physical activity were associated with inadequate fruit and vegetable intake among adolescents in a city in northeastern Brazil. These findings suggest that insufficiently active adolescents have other unhealthy behaviors that may increase the risk of chronic diseases in adulthood. PMID:25887930

  1. Serologic survey of brucellosis in captive neotropical wild carnivores in northeast Brazil.

    PubMed

    Oliveira-Filho, Edmilson F; Pinheiro, José W Junior; Souza, Marcília M A; Santana, Vânia L A; Silva, Jean C R; Mota, Rinaldo A; Sá, Fabricio B

    2012-06-01

    Abstract. This study reports the detection of antibodies against Brucella abortus and B. canis in wild neotropical carnivores kept in captivity in three zoos in northeastern Brazil. A total of 42 serum samples were examined, 17 from coatis (Nasua nasua), eight from crab-eating raccoons (Procyon cancrivorus), three from crab-eating foxes (Cerdocyon thous), three from hoary foxes (Lycalopex vetulus), two from little spotted cats (Leopardus tigrinus), five from tayras (Eira barbara), two from greater grisons (Galictis vittata), and two from neotropical river otters (Lontra longicaudis). The Rose-Bengal test and complement fixation test (CFT) were performed to detect anti-Brucella spp. antibodies, whereas the agar gel immunodiffusion test (AGID) was employed to detect anti-B. canis antibodies. The overall seroprevalence varied by species and by test; in addition, CFT and AGID seemed better able to detect antibodies against B. abortus and B. canis, respectively. This is the first study on the presence of anti-Brucella spp. antibodies in captive carnivores from Brazil, as well as the first report of antibodies to Brucella spp. in coatis, crab-eating raccoons, hoary foxes, little spotted cats, tayras, and greater grisons. PMID:22779245

  2. EPIDEMIOLOGICAL PROFILE OF SNAKEBITE ACCIDENTS IN A METROPOLITAN AREA OF NORTHEAST BRAZIL

    PubMed Central

    Albuquerque, Polianna L.M.M.; Silva, Geraldo B.; Jacinto, Camilla N.; Lima, Caroline B.; Lima, Juliana B.; Veras, Maria do Socorro B.; Daher, Elizabeth F.

    2013-01-01

    SUMMARY The aim of this study was to describe the epidemiological profile of snakebite accidents reported by the toxicological assistance center in Fortaleza, Ceará, Brazil. Database information on snakebite accidents was analyzed regarding the period from January 2003 to December 2011. A total of 1063 cases were found. The accidents occurred during the rainy months (March, April and May), in urban areas (52.3%), affecting individuals younger than 50 years and predominantly among males (70.7%). The lower limbs were the most frequently affected body area (33.7%). Most accidents involved non-venomous snakes (76.1%). The genus Bothrops was the main one involved in venomous accidents (83%). It is expected that this study can be used as the substrate to improve healthcare surveillance and implementing better measures for the treatment of this population. PMID:24037290

  3. Epidemiological profile of snakebite accidents in a metropolitan area of northeast Brazil.

    PubMed

    Albuquerque, Polianna L M M; Silva Junior, Geraldo B; Jacinto, Camilla N; Lima, Caroline B; Lima, Juliana B; Veras, Maria do Socorro B; Daher, Elizabeth F

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to describe the epidemiological profile of snakebite accidents reported by the toxicological assistance center in Fortaleza, Ceará, Brazil. Database information on snakebite accidents was analyzed regarding the period from January 2003 to December 2011. A total of 1063 cases were found. The accidents occurred during the rainy months (March, April and May), in urban areas (52.3%), affecting individuals younger than 50 years and predominantly among males (70.7%). The lower limbs were the most frequently affected body area (33.7%). Most accidents involved non-venomous snakes (76.1%). The genus Bothrops was the main one involved in venomous accidents (83%). It is expected that this study can be used as the substrate to improve healthcare surveillance and implementing better measures for the treatment of this population. PMID:24037290

  4. [A Street Clinic in a state capital in Northeast Brazil from the perspective of homeless people].

    PubMed

    Ferreira, Cíntia Priscila da Silva; Rozendo, Célia Alves; Melo, Givânya Bezerra de

    2016-08-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the Street Clinic strategy in Maceió, Alagoas State, Brazil, from the perspective of its users. This was a qualitative study in coverage areas of the Street Clinic in Maceió. Research subjects were 18 homeless individuals assisted by the clinic (10 men and 8 women), ranging from 20 to 40 years of age. Data were collected from September 2014 to February 2015 using a semi-structured interview. Content analysis was applied to the data and identified two categories: the first, the Street Clinic as such, revealed the strategy's critical points, challenges, and potentialities; the second showed the Street Clinic as social support, affect, and hope for change for the homeless. The strategy was rated positively by users, providing social support on health problems and other daily issues. PMID:27509548

  5. An approach to the coastal water circulation in the Piratuba Lake Biological Reservation, Northeast of Amapa State, Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takiyama, L. R.; Silveira, O. M.

    2007-05-01

    This study shows the pioneer results of the water quality characterization of a lake region, including the Piratuba lake (within the limits of the Piratuba Lake Biological Reservation) and the Sucuriju river, localized at the northeast portion of the Amapa State, Brazil, and left margin of the Amazon River mouth. Due to the influence of the Amazon river and another important river, the Araguari river, the northeast coast of Amapa State receive little impact of salty water from the Atlantic ocean. The highest salinity values detected on this coastal area is 20 psu. The Piratuba Lake region which can be described as an unique wetland system formed by recent geological processes (Quaternary), it constitutes a very fragile environment and possesses a number of shallow water lakes distributed into a mixed mangrove and "varzea" type of vegetation and it is considered very important looking at the biological point of view. The borderline between this lake system with the coastal waters is a narrow portion of mangrove containing species of Rizhophora and Avicennia parallel to the coast line. A preliminary water circulation could be accessed through the detection of variation in water quality parameters throughout three field studies conducted on March, 2004, June 2005 and November 2005. Surface water sampling points spatially distributed on the study area with distances less than 2 km were set, covering almost 800 square kilometers. Among the parameters studied (pH, electrical conductivity, turbidity, concentration of suspended solids, depth, temperature, chloride, dissolved oxygen, nitrate, nitrite and phosphate) the turbidity, electrical conductivity and pH were the most important for identifying the entering of coastal waters into the lake region. Mainly, three points of direct contact were identified; one of them is a manmade illegal entrance to the Biological Reservation. The seasonal variation was also very important factor and as expected, during the dry season

  6. Agrarian Social Movements and the Making of Agrodiesel Moral Territories in Northeast Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manzi, Maya

    In response to widespread concerns about the socio-ecological impacts of agrofuel production and development, particularly for food security, efforts have been made internationally to implement more sustainable forms of producing agrofuels. Brazil's National Program for the Production and Use of Agrodiesel (PNPB), launched in 2004, is one such attempt. Promoted as a socially and environmentally responsible program, the PNPB was made possible through unprecedented alliances between the 'postneoliberal' Brazilian state, the agribusiness sector, and social movements such as the Rural Trade Union's Movement (MSTTR) and the Landless Rural Workers' Movement (MST). In this research, I critically analyze the unexpected engagement of social movements in the making of agrodiesel territories in semi-arid Bahia, Northeastern Brazil by examining the territorial and moral processes and practices that underlie the production of castor bean (mamona) for agrodiesel. The methodology adopted comprised participant observation, informal and semi-structured interviews (n=74) with leaders and members of the MST and the MSTTR in the territories of the Chapada Diamantina and Irece, in central Bahia. Interviews were also conducted with representatives of family farming cooperatives, government institutions, and agrodiesel companies (Petrobras) in the two study areas and in Salvador, capital of Bahia. Research methods also included the collection and critical discourse analysis of archival and other secondary data sources from public and private institutions. Drawing mainly from cultural geography and political ecology literatures, I argue that social movement leaders enable the making of agrodiesel territories mainly through their role as 'agrodiesel gatekeepers'---as legal interveners, managers, and caregivers. Family farmers tend to enable agrodiesel territorial expansion and to disrupt agrodiesel territorial management by not complying with moral prescriptions of loyalty. I see farmers

  7. Polyacrylamide effect on hydraulic conductivity of hardsetting soils in Northeast of Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silva, Laércio; Almeida, Brivaldo; Melo, Diego; Marques, Karina; Almeida, Ceres

    2013-04-01

    Among soil hydro-physical properties, hydraulic conductivity is more sensitive to changes in soil structure. Hydraulic conductivity describes the ease with which a fluid (usually water) can move through pore spaces or fractures. It depends on the intrinsic permeability of the material and on the degree of saturation, and on the density and viscosity of the fluid. Hardsetting soils present very low hydraulic conductivity values. When dry, these soils show high penetration resistance and consistency extremely hard, but change to friable when moist. In this condition are poorly structured, slaking when moist, limit agricultural machinery use and it may reduce the growth of the root system. In Brazil, these soils occur throughout of coastal zone in flat areas called "coastal tableland". Chemical ameliorant, such as polymers based on anionic polyacrylamide (PAM), improve hydraulic conductivity of soil in hardsetting soils. The primary functions of polyacrylamide soil conditioners are to increase soil tilth, aeration, and porosity and reduce compaction and water run-off. PAM effect is attributed to its ability to expand when placed in water, storing it in soil pore space, releasing it gradually to the plants. This process occurs by reducing the water flow through the pores of the soil, due to water molecules can be absorbed by PAM, providing water gradually. Thus, this study tested the hypothesis that PAM reduces the soil hardsetting character. The area is located in coastal zone in Goiana city, Pernambuco, northeastern of Brazil. This soil is typical hardsetting soil. Intact soil cores were collected from four horizons until 70cm depth. In the laboratory, the soil cores were saturated with different PAM concentrations (0.01, 0.005, 0.00125%) and H2O (control). Saturated hydraulic conductivity (Ksat) was determined using a constant head method, according to Klute and Dirksen (1986). Four replicates were used for each horizon and Tukey test at 5% probability was used by

  8. Occurrence of antibodies to Neospora caninum and Toxoplasma gondii in dogs from Pernambuco, Northeast Brazil.

    PubMed

    Figueredo, Luciana Aguiar; Dantas-Torres, Filipe; de Faria, Eduardo Bento; Gondim, Luis Fernando Pita; Simões-Mattos, Lucilene; Brandão-Filho, Sinval Pinto; Mota, Rinaldo Aparecido

    2008-10-20

    A serological survey was carried out to assess the occurrence of anti-Neospora caninum antibodies in dogs from the State of Pernambuco. A total of 625 serum samples of dogs (289 from Paulista, 168 from Amaraji and 168 from Garanhuns) were tested by an immunofluorescence antibody assay for the detection of anti-N. caninum antibodies. A total of 177 (28.3%; IC 95%, 24.9-32.1) samples were positive. The seropositivity rates found in Paulista, Amaraji and Garanhuns were 26% (IC 95%, 21-31.4), 26.2% (IC 95%, 19.7-33.5) and 34.5% (IC 95%, 27.4-42.2), respectively. Of the 177 serum samples positive to anti-N. caninum antibodies, 170 were additionally tested for the presence of anti-Toxoplasma gondii antibodies and out of these 57.6% (IC 95%, 49.8-65.2) were positive. The results indicate that dogs from Amaraji, Paulista and Garanhuns are exposed to both N. caninum and T. gondii infections. The presence of dogs infected by N. caninum in Pernambuco represents a potential risk factor for the occurrence of outbreaks of abortion in cattle and small ruminants in this state. This study is the largest serological survey on the presence of anti-N. caninum antibodies in dogs carried out in Brazil and reports for the first time the exposure to N. caninum and T. gondii in dogs from Pernambuco. PMID:18723288

  9. Impact of a Virtual Clinic in a Paediatric Cardiology Network on Northeast Brazil.

    PubMed

    de Araújo, Juliana Sousa Soares; Dias Filho, Adalberto Vieira; Silva Gomes, Renata Grigório; Regis, Cláudio Teixeira; Rodrigues, Klecida Nunes; Siqueira, Nicoly Negreiros; Albuquerque, Fernanda Cruz de Lira; Mourato, Felipe Alves; Mattos, Sandra da Silva

    2015-01-01

    Introduction. Congenital heart diseases (CHD) affect approximately 1% of live births and is an important cause of neonatal morbidity and mortality. Despite that, there is a shortage of paediatric cardiologists in Brazil, mainly in the northern and northeastern regions. In this context, the implementation of virtual outpatient clinics with the aid of different telemedicine resources may help in the care of children with heart defects. Methods. Patients under 18 years of age treated in virtual outpatient clinics between January 2013 and May 2014 were selected. They were divided into 2 groups: those who had and those who had not undergone a screening process for CHD in the neonatal period. Clinical and demographic characteristics were collected for further statistical analysis. Results. A total of 653 children and teenagers were treated in the virtual outpatient clinics. From these, 229 had undergone a neonatal screening process. Fewer abnormalities were observed on the physical examination of the screened patients. Conclusion. The implementation of pediatric cardiology virtual outpatient clinics can have a positive impact in the care provided to people in areas with lack of skilled professionals. PMID:26265913

  10. Impact of a Virtual Clinic in a Paediatric Cardiology Network on Northeast Brazil

    PubMed Central

    de Araújo, Juliana Sousa Soares; Dias Filho, Adalberto Vieira; Silva Gomes, Renata Grigório; Regis, Cláudio Teixeira; Rodrigues, Klecida Nunes; Siqueira, Nicoly Negreiros; Albuquerque, Fernanda Cruz de Lira; Mourato, Felipe Alves; Mattos, Sandra da Silva

    2015-01-01

    Introduction. Congenital heart diseases (CHD) affect approximately 1% of live births and is an important cause of neonatal morbidity and mortality. Despite that, there is a shortage of paediatric cardiologists in Brazil, mainly in the northern and northeastern regions. In this context, the implementation of virtual outpatient clinics with the aid of different telemedicine resources may help in the care of children with heart defects. Methods. Patients under 18 years of age treated in virtual outpatient clinics between January 2013 and May 2014 were selected. They were divided into 2 groups: those who had and those who had not undergone a screening process for CHD in the neonatal period. Clinical and demographic characteristics were collected for further statistical analysis. Results. A total of 653 children and teenagers were treated in the virtual outpatient clinics. From these, 229 had undergone a neonatal screening process. Fewer abnormalities were observed on the physical examination of the screened patients. Conclusion. The implementation of pediatric cardiology virtual outpatient clinics can have a positive impact in the care provided to people in areas with lack of skilled professionals. PMID:26265913

  11. Ecological analysis of acari recovered from coprolites from archaeological site of northeast Brazil.

    PubMed

    de Candanedo Guerra, Rita de Maria Seabra Nogueira; Gazêta, Gilberto Salles; Amorim, Marinete; Duarte, Antonio Nascimento; Serra-Freire, Nicolau Maués

    2003-01-01

    Coprolite samples of human and animal origin from the excavations performed at the archaeological site of Furna do Estrago, at Brejo da Madre de Deus in the state of Pernambuco, Brazil and sent to the Paleoparasitology Laboratory at Escola Nacional de Saúde Pública-Fiocruz, Rio de Janeiro, were analyzed for mites. After rehydratation and sedimentation of the coprolites, the alimentary contents and the sediments were examined and the mites collected and prepared in definitive whole mounts, using Hoyer's medium. Mites of the following suborders and orders were recovered: suborder Acaridia; order Gamasida; order Ixodida with the familiy Ixodidae (Ixodes sp. and Amblyomma sp. larvae, scutum, idiosoma, gnathosoma); order Oribatida (Aphelacarus sp., Apolohmannia sp., Eophypochthonius sp., Cosmochthonius sp., Pterobates sp., Poronoticae with pteromorphae not auriculate); order Astigmata with the families Atopomelidae (Chirodiscoides caviae), Anoetidae hypopus, Acaridae (Suidasia pontifica), Glycyphagidae (Blomia tropicalis), Pyroglyphidae (Hirstia passericola); order Actinedida with the family Tarsonemidae (Iponemus radiatae). The present work discusses the possibility of the preservation of the mite groups found up to the present day. We also discuss their relationship with the environment and their importance to present populations. PMID:12687780

  12. Breeding period in the mangrove crab Goniopsis cruentata (Decapoda: Grapsidae) in Northeast Brazil.

    PubMed

    de Lira, José Jonathas Pereira Rodrigues; Calado, Tereza Cristina dos Santos; de Araújo, Marina de Sá Leitão Câmara

    2013-03-01

    The brachyuran crabs are iteroparous species which present a high diversification of reproduction patterns, which may have evolved as a species-specific response to environmental conditions. Tropical species commonly present a year-round reproduction due to stable environment conditions. Goniopsis cruentata is a crab species widely distributed along the Western Atlantic, inhabiting practically every microhabitat in the mangrove ecosystem. The aim of the present study is to determine the breeding period of the crab Goniopsis cruentata in Northeastern Brazil and also to evaluate the influence of water salinity, rainfall and air and water temperature on it. A total of 71 ovigerous females, captured from August-2007 to July-2008, were used to assess the breeding period of this species. It was analyzed by the monthly proportion of ovigerous females. A correlation was applied to verify the influence of the abiotic factors on the breeding period. The present population bred seasonal-continuously with peaks in the dry period, which was not associated with monthly variations of salinity, rainfall and air and water temperatures. Therefore, according to statistical analyses, our hypothesis was refuted. However, breeding was intensified in the dry period, when salinity and temperatures were higher and rainfall was lower. We conclude that, even though breeding is not related to monthly variation of environmental factors, it occurs in periods of higher salinity and temperatures and lower rainfall. PMID:23894961

  13. Factors Associated with Gastrointestinal Parasitic Infections among Young Population in Northeast Brazil.

    PubMed

    da Silva, Juliana Vasconcelos Lyra; Fontes, Gilberto; Dos Santos, Célia Dias; Dos Santos, Rafael Vital; da Rocha, Eliana Maria Mauricio

    2016-01-01

    Background. Intestinal parasitic infections constitute a major public health problem that is frequently associated with poverty, inadequate sanitation, and the nutritional status of the population. Objective. The aim of the present study is to investigate the possible association of parasitic infections, sanitary conditions, hygiene practices, and the nutritional and socioeconomic status of a poor youth population. Methods. A cross-sectional study was conducted with 367 children and adolescents inhabiting a substandard settlement in the urban area of Maceió (Alagoas State, Brazil). Data collection included socioeconomic status, anthropometric measurements, fecal sample examinations, and laboratory blood analysis. The identification of factors associated with gastrointestinal parasitic infections was undertaken through bi- and multivariate analyses. Results. Stool sample analysis obtained from 300 individuals revealed that 204 (68%) were infected with at least one parasite species and of these 130 (63.7%) were polyparasitized. No significant associations were identified between low height for age (stunted), parasitic infections, and polyparasitism. There was also no association between family income and parasitosis. However, low socioeconomic status proved to be a potential risk factor for parasitic infections. Conclusion. Actions must be taken to improve sanitation, housing, and environmental conditions in order to eliminate the risk factors for parasitic infections, and thereby guarantee a better quality of life for this population. PMID:27528878

  14. Factors Associated with Gastrointestinal Parasitic Infections among Young Population in Northeast Brazil

    PubMed Central

    da Silva, Juliana Vasconcelos Lyra; Fontes, Gilberto; dos Santos, Célia Dias; dos Santos, Rafael Vital

    2016-01-01

    Background. Intestinal parasitic infections constitute a major public health problem that is frequently associated with poverty, inadequate sanitation, and the nutritional status of the population. Objective. The aim of the present study is to investigate the possible association of parasitic infections, sanitary conditions, hygiene practices, and the nutritional and socioeconomic status of a poor youth population. Methods. A cross-sectional study was conducted with 367 children and adolescents inhabiting a substandard settlement in the urban area of Maceió (Alagoas State, Brazil). Data collection included socioeconomic status, anthropometric measurements, fecal sample examinations, and laboratory blood analysis. The identification of factors associated with gastrointestinal parasitic infections was undertaken through bi- and multivariate analyses. Results. Stool sample analysis obtained from 300 individuals revealed that 204 (68%) were infected with at least one parasite species and of these 130 (63.7%) were polyparasitized. No significant associations were identified between low height for age (stunted), parasitic infections, and polyparasitism. There was also no association between family income and parasitosis. However, low socioeconomic status proved to be a potential risk factor for parasitic infections. Conclusion. Actions must be taken to improve sanitation, housing, and environmental conditions in order to eliminate the risk factors for parasitic infections, and thereby guarantee a better quality of life for this population. PMID:27528878

  15. [Poisoning with household cleaning products in a city in Northeast Brazil].

    PubMed

    Fook, Sayonara Maria Lia; Azevedo, Esthefanye Fernandes de; Costa, Monalisa Maciel; Feitosa, Itavielly Layany França; Bragagnoli, Gerson; Mariz, Saulo Rios

    2013-05-01

    This study analyzes toxic exposures to household cleaning products based on data from the Center for Notification and Treatment of Poisoning (CEATOX) in Campina Grande, Paraíba State, Brazil, from 2007 to 2010. The data were collected from the reporting forms from the Information System on Notifiable Diseases (SINAN), analyzed with SPSS (Version 17). Chemical identification was performed in urine samples using high-resolution chromatography techniques (GC-MS and HPLC-UV). Six hundred and sixty cases of poisoning were reported, with pesticides as the principal causal agents (42.2%). Poisoning with household cleaning products occurred mainly in children (30.1%) and/or females (55.21%) who were exposed to the product accidentally (55.4%) by the oral route (82%). These data indicate that poisoning with household cleaning products in Campina Grande should be treated with specific prevention and control measures, including evaluation of ease of access to pesticides, in order to reach the goals set by the Brazilian National Health Plan for 2012-2015. PMID:23703009

  16. Morphological analysis of lymph nodes in Odontocetes from north and northeast coast of Brazil.

    PubMed

    De Oliveira e Silva, Fernanda Menezes; Guimarães, Juliana Plácido; Vergara-Parente, Jociery Einhardt; Carvalho, Vitor Luz; De Meirelles, Ana Carolina Oliveira; Marmontel, Miriam; Ferrão, Juliana Shimara Pires; Miglino, Maria Angelica

    2014-05-01

    The morphology and location of lymph nodes from seven species of Odontocetes, of both sexes and different age groups, were described. All animals were derived from stranding events along the North and Northeastern coasts of Brazil. After the identification of lymph nodes in situ, tissue samples were analyzed for light and electron microscopy. Vascular volume density (VVD) and vascular length density (VLD) were evaluated in the mesenteric lymph nodes. Lymph nodes occurred as solitary nodules or in groups, varying in shape and size. In addition to using the nomenclature recommended by Nomina Anatomica Veterinaria, new nomenclatures were suggested based on the lymph nodes topography. Lymph nodes were covered by a highly vascularized and innervated capsule of dense connective tissue, below which muscle fibers were observed, inconsistently, in all studied species. There was no difference in VLD among different age groups. However, VVD was higher in adults. Lymph nodes parenchyma was divided into an outer cortex, containing lymph nodules and germinal centers; a paracortical region, transition zone with dense lymphoid tissue; and an inner medulla, composed of small irregular cords of lymphatic tissue, blood vessels, and diffuse lymphoid tissue. Abundant collagen fibers were observed around arteries and arterioles. Germinal centers were more evident and developed in calves and young animals, being more discrete and sparse in adults. The morphology of lymph nodes in Odontocetes was typical of that observed in other terrestrial mammals. However, new groups of lymph nodes were described for seven species occurring in the Brazilian coast. PMID:24449600

  17. Diversity of leaf endophytic fungi in mangrove plants of northeast Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Wanderley Costa, Isabella P. M.; Maia, Leonor Costa; Cavalcanti, Maria Auxiliadora

    2012-01-01

    With the aim of increasing the knowledge about endophytic fungi, a group of microorganisms with high biotechnological potential and a valuable source of useful metabolites, a survey in leaves of mangrove plants (Avicennia schaueriana, Laguncularia racemosa, and Rhizophora mangle) was performed at the Itamaracá Island, PE, Brazil. Leaves were collected, during two seasons, dry and rainy, superficially sterilized and fragments maintained in Petri dishes with Potato dextrose agar (PDA) at 28o ± 2o C until isolation of the fungi. Fourty taxa were isolated: 25 species representing 19 genera and 15 morphotypes determined as Mycelia sterilia. Leaves of L. racemosa hosted the highest number of colony forming units (CFU) and taxa. Guignardia sp. and Colletotrichum gloeosporioides were the most frequently isolated, while Glomerella cingulata was the only species found in association with the three host plants. The proportional importance of each fungus differed among hosts. The similarity of fungi species between the two seasons reached only 4.2%, and that between the hosts was also low, with the maximum (A. schaueriana x L. racemosa) reaching 24.2%. Sphaerosporium, as well as Chloridium virescens var. virescens, Microsphaeropsis arundinis, Penicillium pinophilum, Periconia cambrensis, Phoma herbarum, P. diachenii, P. obscurans, Sordaria prolifica and Torula elisii are reported for the first time as endophytic in tropical regions. PMID:24031941

  18. Biological aspects of sharks caught off the Coast of Pernambuco, Northeast Brazil.

    PubMed

    Fischer, A F; Hazin, F H V; Carvalho, F; Viana, D L; Rêgo, M G; Wor, C

    2009-11-01

    One hundred seventeen specimens of sharks were caught along the coast of Pernambuco State, Northern Brazil, between May 2004 and May 2007, among which 86 were blacknose sharks, Carcharhinus acronotus, enabling a more detailed study of the species. Blacknose sharks were caught in the 2 study areas along the Boa Viagem/Piedade and Paiva beaches, accounting for the highest relative abundance among the species caught (73.5% of total). Potentially dangerous sharks, tiger and bull sharks, were also caught in the same areas, whereas hammerhead and blacktip sharks were only captured off Boa Viagem/Piedade. Concerning the blacknose shark, the total length (TL) ranged from 39.0 to 180.0 cm. Among the 38 females analysed, 32 were juveniles, 11 were maturing, 2 were pre-ovulatory and 21 were pregnant. Sexing was possible for 75 of the 83 embryos, 38 of which were males and 37 were females, with a sex proportion of 1:0.9 and total length ranging between 6.4 and 63.5 cm. Ovarian fecundity ranged from 5 to 10 and uterine fecundity from 1 to 3, with an estimated gestational period of 9 months. Among the 48 males, 6 were juveniles and 42 were adults. Both males and females seem to reach sexual maturity at about 105.0 cm TL. Among the 86 stomachs analysed, only 22.1% had contents, with teleosts as the most frequent item. PMID:19967190

  19. Improved cognitive and motor development in a community-based intervention of psychosocial stimulation in northeast Brazil.

    PubMed

    Eickmann, Sophie H; Lima, Ana C V; Guerra, Miriam Q; Lima, Marilia C; Lira, Pedro I C; Huttly, Sharon R A; Ashworth, Ann

    2003-08-01

    The aim of the study was to compare the development of children with and without a programme of psychosocial stimulation in 'control' and 'intervention' sites in a poorly resourced area of northeast Brazil. The sample (n = 156, born 1998) was from a larger cohort. The cohort was tested at 12 months (baseline) with the Bayley Scales of Infant Development. All children in the intervention site with a mental development index (MDI) and/or psychomotor development index (PDI) < or = 100 were enrolled. Each time such a child was enrolled, the next child tested in that site of the same sex and with an index of 101 to 115 was also enrolled, and the next two children matched for sex and scores of < or = 100 and 101 to 115 in the control sites were recruited in parallel. The intervention comprised 14 contacts between 13 and 17 months of age. All children were tested again at age 18 months. The intervention and control groups were similar at baseline for a range of socioeconomic, demographic, environmental, and biological variables, and their MDI and PDI were also similar. At 18 months, the mean differences between the intervention and control groups were + 9.4 points for MDI and + 8.2 points for PDI (p < 0.001 in each case). For children with an initial score of < or = 100, the mean difference between the intervened and control groups was + 11.2 points for MDI (p < 0.001), and + 10.8 points for PDI (p = 0.001). The intervention was thus associated with significant improvements in cognitive and motor development. PMID:12882532

  20. Biosurfactant-and-Bioemulsifier Produced by a Promising Cunninghamella echinulata Isolated from Caatinga Soil in the Northeast of Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Silva, Nadielly R. Andrade; Luna, Marcos A. C.; Santiago, André L. C. M. A.; Franco, Luciana O.; Silva, Grayce K. B.; de Souza, Patrícia M.; Okada, Kaoru; Albuquerque, Clarissa D. C.; da Silva, Carlos A. Alves; Campos-Takaki, Galba M.

    2014-01-01

    A Mucoralean fungus was isolated from Caatinga soil of Pernambuco, Northeast of Brazil, and was identified as Cunninghamella echinulata by morphological, physiological, and biochemical tests. This strain was evaluated for biosurfactant/bioemulsifier production using soybean oil waste (SOW) and corn steep liquor (CSL) as substrates, added to basic saline solution, by measuring surface tension and emulsifier index and activity. The best results showed the surface water tension was reduced from 72 to 36 mN/m, and an emulsification index (E24) of 80% was obtained using engine oil and burnt engine oil, respectively. A new molecule of biosurfactant showed an anionic charge and a polymeric chemical composition consisting of lipids (40.0% w/w), carbohydrates (35.2% w/w) and protein (20.3% w/w). In addition, the biosurfactant solution (1%) demonstrated its ability for an oil displacement area (ODA) of 37.36 cm2, which is quite similar to that for Triton X-100 (38.46 cm2). The stability of the reduction in the surface water tension as well as of the emulsifier index proved to be stable over a wide range of temperatures, in pH, and in salt concentration (4%–6% w/v). The biosurfactant showed an ability to reduce and increase the viscosity of hydrophobic substrates and their molecules, suggesting that it is a suitable candidate for mediated enhanced oil recovery. At the same time, these studies indicate that renewable, relatively inexpensive and easily available resources can be used for important biotechnological processes. PMID:25257520

  1. Ethnotaxonomical considerations and usage of ichthyofauna in a fishing community in Ceará State, Northeast Brazil

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Artisanal fishery is one of the most important economic activities for human populations living in coastal areas. The traditional knowledge that fishermen have of fishes is of utmost importance for the establishment of conservation strategies for many species. This study aimed to analyse the knowledge of and utilization of fishes by the artisanal fishermen in a fishing community on the coast of Ceará State (Northeast Brazil). Methods In 2011, a number of semi-structured interviews were performed with fishermen with more than 20 years of fishery experience. The interviews were about fisheries (collecting spots, artefacts, etc.) and fish use. The fishes cited by the fishermen were identified scientifically and ethnotaxonomically. Results Considered masters of fishery, they cited 162 vernacular names of fishes, which corresponded to 290 different species, also including other animals such as dolphins, porpoises, whales and manatees. The criteria for the classification of the fishes were well known and utilised by the fishermen, and they were based on morphology, behaviour, habitat and the importance of commercial and fishing activities. Four hierarchical categories were identified in their classification system: kingdom, life-form, generic and specific. The fish nomenclature created by the fishermen was mostly composed of generic and monotypic names. The main uses of fish were for food and commercial purposes. Conclusions The results stress the richness and complexity of the knowledge of the artisanal fishermen of Redonda Beach, and they provide support for the possibility of future studies and for the development of management plans and the management of wildlife resources. PMID:23497491

  2. A telemedicine network for remote paediatric cardiology services in north-east Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Hazin, Sheila Maria Vieira; Regis, Cláudio Teixeira; Soares de Araújo, Juliana Sousa; Albuquerque, Fernanda Cruz de Lira; Moser, Lúcia Roberta Didier Nunes; Hatem, Thamine de Paula; Gomes de Freitas, Carolina Paim; Mourato, Felipe Alves; Tavares, Thiago Ribeiro; Gomes, Renata Grigório Silva; Severi, Rossana; Santos, Cícera Rocha; Ferreira da Silva, Jailson; Rezende, Juliana Landim; Vieira, Paulo Coelho; Filho, José Luiz de Lima

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Problem Providing health care for children with congenital heart diseases remains a major challenge in low- and middle-income countries. Approach In October 2011, the Government of Paraíba, Brazil, established a paediatric cardiology network in partnership with the nongovernmental organization Círculo do Coração. A cardiology team supervised all network activities, using the Internet to keep in contact with remote health facilities. The network developed protocols for screening heart defects. Echocardiograms were performed by physicians under direct online supervision of a cardiologist; alternatively, a video recording of the examination was subsequently reviewed by a cardiologist. Cardiovascular surgeons came to a paediatric hospital in the state capital once a week to perform heart surgeries. Local setting Until 2011, the State of Paraíba had no structured programme to care for children with heart disease. This often resulted in missed or late diagnosis, with adverse health consequences for the children. Relevant changes From 2012 to 2014, 73 751 babies were screened for heart defects and 857 abnormalities were identified. Detection of congenital heart diseases increased from 4.09 to 11.62 per 1000 live births (P < 0.001). Over 6000 consultations and echocardiograms were supervised via the Internet. Time to diagnosis, transfers and hospital stays were greatly reduced. A total of 330 operations were carried out with 6.7% (22/330) mortality. Lessons learnt Access to an echocardiography machine with remote supervision by a cardiologist improves the detection of congenital heart disease by neonatologists; virtual outpatient clinics facilitate clinical management; the use of Internet technology with simple screening techniques allows resources to be allocated more efficiently. PMID:26668441

  3. Changes in seed rain across Atlantic Forest fragments in Northeast Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Freitas, Cíntia Gomes; Dambros, Cristian; Camargo, José Luís Campana

    2013-11-01

    The objectives of this study were to characterize the distribution of seeds in remnant fragments of the Atlantic Coastal Forest and to determine whether the species diversity, seed weight, and species composition of plant communities are altered by forest fragmentation. A transect of 100 m was established in the core of each of nine fragments of Atlantic Coastal Forest in a private sugarcane plantation in the state of Alagoas, NE Brazil, and ten seed-traps were distributed at intervals of 10 m each along the transects. For 12 consecutive months seeds were collected, dried, counted, weighed, and identified to species. Seeds were assigned to categories according to their size, dispersal mode, and shade tolerance. Multiple regression models and Mantel correlation tests were used to detect the effects of fragment size, percent forest cover nearby, distance from the source area, and distance from the nearest fragment on species diversity, mean seed weight, and species similarity. Analyses were carried out for all species and for subsets corresponding to each seed category. A total of 21,985 diaspores of 190 species were collected. Most seeds were small, shade-intolerant, and zoochoric, which corroborates other studies of fragmented forest landscapes and reflects the high disturbance levels in isolated forest remnants. Our data indicate that fragmentation processes such as habitat loss can alter species diversity and species composition by reducing habitat availability and increasing fragment isolation. We also found that large-seeded species are more affected by fragment isolation, possibly because their seed dispersers rarely cross non-forested areas between fragments, while zoochoric species are more strongly affected by fragment size and apparently more strongly associated with local edaphic conditions than with distance from seed sources.

  4. Toxoplasma gondii and Neospora caninum in slaughtered pigs from Northeast, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Feitosa, Thais Ferreira; Vilela, Vinícius Longo Ribeiro; de Melo, Lídio Ricardo Bezerra; de Almeida Neto, João Leite; Souto, Diego Vagner de Oliveira; de Morais, Dayana Firmino; Athayde, Ana Célia Rodrigues; Azevedo, Sérgio Santos; Pena, Hilda Fátima de Jesus

    2014-05-28

    The aims of this study were to evaluate the presence of anti-Toxoplasma gondii and anti-Neospora caninum antibodies, to identify associated risk factors and to isolate T. gondii from slaughtered pigs in Paraíba State, Brazil. A total of 190 pigs from public slaughterhouses were used in the study. An indirect immunofluorescence test was used to detect antibodies, and the isolation of T. gondii was performed with a bioassay in mice based on tissues from seropositive animals. A total of 50 g of brain, heart and tongue tissue from 37 positive pigs with titres ≥ 1:64 was ground, digested with acidic pepsin and inoculated into mice. The prevalence of anti-T. gondii antibodies was 19.5% (95% CI: 14.1%; 25.8%) (37/190), with titres ranging from 1:64 to 1:2048. Viable T. gondii parasites were isolated from 13 of the 37 (35.1%; 95% CI: 20.2%; 52.5%) seropositive pigs. We found that the virulence of the isolates varied; three of these isolates were able to kill all of the inoculated mice. The risk factors for infection were extensive husbandry and feeding with leftovers. The prevalence of antibodies to N. caninum in pigs was 3.2% (95% CI: 1.2%; 6.7%) (6/190), with titres ranging from 1:100 to 1:3200. None of the variables studied were considered to be risk factors for N. caninum. These results show that the prevalence of anti-T. gondii antibodies in swine is high in Paraíba State, that the percentage of viable T. gondii parasites recovered from these animals is also high and that infection by this parasite is closely related to the management of swine. Despite the low prevalence of N. caninum in pigs, further studies are necessary to determine the importance of this parasite for the species. PMID:24703253

  5. Deep seismic refraction experiment in northeast Brazil: New constraints for Borborema province evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lima, Marcus Vinicius A. G. de; Berrocal, Jesus; Soares, José E. P.; Fuck, Reinhardt A.

    2015-03-01

    The Borborema Province of northeastern Brazil is a major Proterozoic crustal province that, until now, has never been explored using deep crustal seismic methods. Here are reported the first results obtained from a high-quality seismic refraction/wide-angle reflection profile that has defined the internal seismic velocity structure and thickness of the crust in this region. Almost 400 recording stations were deployed in the Deep Seismic Refraction (DSR) experiment through an NW-SE ca. 900 km linear array and 19 shots were exploded at every 50 km along the line. Data from the 10 southeastern most shots of the seismic profile were processed in this work. The main features and geological structures crossed by the studied portion of the profile belong to the so-called Central Sub-province of the Borborema tectonic province. The crustal model obtained is compatible with a typical structure of extended crust. The model was essentially divided into three layers: upper crust, lower crust, and a half-space represented by the shallower portion of the mantle. The Moho is an irregular interface with depth ranging between 31.7 and 34.5 km, and beneath the Central Sub-province it varies from 31.5 to 33 km depth, where its limits are related to major crustal discontinuities. The distribution of velocities within the crust is heterogeneous, varying vertically from 5.7 to 6.3 km/s in the upper crust and from 6.45 to 6.9 km/s in the lower crust. From the average crustal velocity distribution it is evident that the Central Sub-province has seismic characteristics different from neighboring domains. The crust is relatively thin and crustal thickness variations in the profile are subtle due to stretching that occurred in the Cretaceous, during the fragmentation of Pangaea, opening of the South Atlantic Ocean and separation of South America from Africa.

  6. Prevalence of human herpesvirus 8 infection in people living with HIV/AIDS in Pernambuco, Brazil.

    PubMed

    de Oliveira Mendes Cahú, Georgea Gertrudes; Morais, Viviane Martha Santos; Lopes, Thaisa Regina Rocha; da Silva, Dayvson Maurício; Tozetto-Mendoza, Tania Regina; Pannuti, Claudio Sergio; Cunha Duarte Coêlho, Maria Rosângela

    2016-11-01

    This cross-sectional study aimed to estimate the seroprevalence and risk factors for Human herpesvirus 8 (HHV-8) infection among people living with HIV/AIDS in Recife, Pernambuco, Brazil. A total of 500 individuals were tested for antibodies against HHV-8 using the whole-virus ELISA. The prevalence of anti-HHV-8 was 28.6% and the frequency among 140 men who have sex with men (MSM) was 38.6%. In the univariate model, there were significant associations with male gender, detectable HIV load, travel abroad, bissexual, and homossexual orientation. The first HHV-8 seroepidemiologic study, in northeast Brazil, documents a highly prevalent HHV-8 infection among MSM living with HIV/AIDS. J. Med. Virol. 88:2016-2020, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:27089548

  7. Impact of the Family Health Program on gastroenteritis in children in Bahia, Northeast Brazil: an analysis of primary care-sensitive conditions.

    PubMed

    Monahan, Laura J; Calip, Gregory S; Novo, Patricia M; Sherstinsky, Mark; Casiano, Mildred; Mota, Eduardo; Dourado, Inês

    2013-09-01

    In seeking to provide universal health care through its primary care-oriented Family Health Program, Brazil has attempted to reduce hospitalization rates for preventable illnesses such as childhood gastroenteritis. We measured rates of Primary Care-sensitive Hospitalizations and evaluated the impact of the Family Health Program on pediatric gastroenteritis trends in high-poverty Northeast Brazil. We analyzed aggregated municipal-level data in time-series between years 1999-2007 from the Brazilian health system payer database and performed qualitative, in-depth key informant interviews with public health experts in municipalities in Bahia. Data were sampled for Bahia's Salvador microregion, a population of approximately 14 million. Gastroenteritis hospitalization rates among children aged less than 5 years were evaluated. Declining hospitalization rates were associated with increasing coverage by the PSF (P = 0.02). After multivariate adjustment for garbage collection, sanitation, and water supply, evidence of this association was no longer significant (P = 0.28). Qualitative analysis confirmed these findings with a framework of health determinants, proximal causes, and health system effects. The PSF, with other public health efforts, was associated with decreasing gastroenteritis hospitalizations in children. Incentives for providers and more patient-centered health delivery may contribute to strengthening the PSF's role in improving primary health care outcomes in Brazil. PMID:23932060

  8. Prevalence of Human Papillomavirus Variants and Genetic Diversity in the L1 Gene and Long Control Region of HPV16, HPV31, and HPV58 Found in North-East Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Gurgel, Ana Pavla Almeida Diniz; Chagas, Bárbara Simas; do Amaral, Carolina Medeiros; Nascimento, Kamylla Conceição Gomes; Leal, Lígia Rosa Sales; Silva Neto, Jacinto da Costa; Cartaxo Muniz, Maria Tereza; de Freitas, Antonio Carlos

    2015-01-01

    This study showed the prevalence of human papillomavirus (HPV) variants as well as nucleotide changes within L1 gene and LCR of the HPV16, HPV31, and HPV58 found in cervical lesions of women from North-East Brazil. PMID:25793187

  9. [A study on the construct validity of the Parent-Child Conflict Tactics Scale (CTSPC) in an urban population in Northeast Brazil].

    PubMed

    Bonfim, Camila Barreto; Santos, Darci Neves; Menezes, Igor Gomes; Reichenheim, Michael Eduardo; Barreto, Mauricio Lima

    2011-11-01

    The Parent-Child Conflict Tactics Scale (CTSPC) is one of the most widely used instruments in the world for investigating domestic violence against children, but targeted use has proven inadequate given the phenomenon's complexity. This study focused on the factor structure of CTSPC scales in an urban population in Northeast Brazil. We conducted a cross-sectional study in a cohort of 1,370 children in Salvador, Bahia State. Factor analysis with promax oblique rotation was performed, and the Kuder-Richardson coefficient was calculated. Factor analysis showed a different distribution of items in the factors as compared to the original instrument. Violence showed a gradual profile in each factor. The Kuder-Richardson coefficient was 0.63 for factor 1, 0.59 for factor 2, and 0.42 for factor 3. The items behaved differently from the original instrument, corroborating international studies. These findings support proposing a resizing of the CTSPC. PMID:22124499

  10. "Stuck in the muck": an eco-idiom of distress from childhood respiratory diseases in an urban mangrove in Northeast Brazil.

    PubMed

    Nations, Marilyn; Gondim, Ana Paula Soares

    2013-02-01

    Situated in neo-democratic globalizing Northeast Brazil, this anthropological study probes the role of ecological context in framing, experiencing, and expressing human distress. Ethnographic interviews, narratives, and "contextualized semantic analysis" reveal the lived experience of childhood respiratory diseases among 22 urban mangrove dwellers. Informants speak an "eco-idiom of respiratory distress" based on a popular "eco-logic", reflecting the harsh reality of "living in dampness". "Higher-up" residents legitimize their feelings of superiority by stigmatizing "lowlanders" as taboo, diseased (with porcine cysticercosis, swine flu) "filthy pigs, stuck in the muck" (atolados na lama). Animalizing inhabitants' identities demotes them to nonpersons. Besides infections, children suffer social stigma, ostracism, and barriers for accessing care. Promoting a "favorable environment" requires reducing ecological risk, challenging class-based prejudice, and restoring human dignity. PMID:23459816

  11. Behaviour of heavy metals in the estuarine area of the Capibaribe River in the Northeast of Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brayner, F. M. M.; Freitas Barbosa, A. M.; Phillipini da Silva, H. K.; Vieira de Melo, L.

    2003-05-01

    The Capibaribe river estuary extends more than 15 km, mostly within urban areas in the city of Recife, capital of the state of Pernambuco, with a high population density and many heavy industries dealing with metal including platting. For this reason the river receives many different forms of pollution such as wastewater, litter or industrial effluents without treatments as well as sediments derived fron the degradation of its borders or from hills erosion located around the city. To study the behaviour of the heavy metal along the Capibaribe river estuarv, sixteen sediment samples were collected in different waterlogged areas: eight from the right border of the river and eight from the left, each one in front of the other. Sediment superficial samples were collected with a plastic manual sampler and submitted to granulometric analyse to determine the distribution of the soil fractions, x-ray diffractomety to determine the mineral composition of the clay fraction and lithium metaborate fusion to determine the total metal concentration using ICP-AES method. Eight metallic elements were studied (Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Mn, Ni, Pb and Zn) in 16 (sixteen) sediment samples collected. The results indicated that the concentration of total heavy metal along the Capibaribe estuary was influenced by sediment granulometric composition. with a trend to high total heavy metal concentration in samples with high percentage of clay. On the other hand, onty the determination of the granulometric composition wasn't sufficient to analyse this behaviour because some points with high percentage of sand presented high concentration of total heavy metals what can be due to other factor like predominat kind of clay mineral, amont of humic substances, hidrodinamic regime, among others.

  12. [Access to the school food program and nutritional status of schoolchildren in Northeast and Southeast Brazil, 1997].

    PubMed

    Burlandy, Luciene; dos Anjos, Luiz Antonio

    2007-05-01

    Access by schoolchildren (7-10 years of age) to the School Food Program was investigated in a probabilistic sample of the Brazilian population living in the Northeast and Southeast regions in 1996-97. Among children enrolled in public schools, 87.4% had lunch at school: 77.9% in the Northeast, 93.7% in the Southeast, and 77.9% and 90.7% in the rural and urban areas, respectively. Stunting was observed in 13.2% of children (13.8% of boys and 12.6% of girls) and was most prevalent in the rural Northeast (22%) and least in the urban Southeast (8.5%). Stunting was more prevalent in children out of school (27.9%) or enrolled in schools that did not supply lunch (17.9%). Prevalence of overweight was relatively high (9.6%) and similar between boys and girls, but was more prevalent in children who had lunch at school (9.8%) as compared to children attending schools without lunch programs (5.5%). These data suggest inadequate geographic, economic, and biological criteria in the School Food Program. PMID:17486243

  13. [Influenza-related respiratory illnesses and associated causes among the elderly in a city in Northeast Brazil].

    PubMed

    Gomes, Aline de Andrade; Nunes, Marco Antônio Prado; Oliveira, Cristiane Costa da Cunha; Lima, Sônia Oliveira

    2013-01-01

    Nationwide influenza vaccination campaigns are held annually in Brazil during the same time of the year. This study aimed to analyze deaths from respiratory illnesses and influenza-related causes among the elderly in the city of Aracaju, capital of Sergipe State, Brazil. Data were analyzed from the following databases: Information System on Influenza Epidemiological Surveillance (SIVEP_GRIPE), Hospital Information System (SIH), Mortality Information System (SIM), and Health Informatics Department (DATASUS), from 1998 to 2007, Sergipe State Central Laboratory (LACEN-SE), and rainfall data from the National Meteorology Institute (INMET). The year 2007 showed the highest mortality rate from influenza and related causes in elderly individuals. From 1998 to 2007, mortality rates from influenza-related respiratory illnesses and associated causes in Aracaju city were higher than in the States of Brazil, indicating the need to reformulate the influenza vaccination schedule in elderly residents of this city. PMID:23370031

  14. A Preliminary Study of Genetic Variation in Populations of Monstera adansonii var. klotzschiana (Araceae) from North-East Brazil, Estimated with AFLP Molecular Markers

    PubMed Central

    Andrade, I. M.; Mayo, S. J.; van den Berg, C.; Fay, M. F.; Chester, M.; Lexer, C.; Kirkup, D.

    2007-01-01

    Background and Aims This study sought genetic evidence of long-term isolation in populations of Monstera adansonii var. klotzschiana (Araceae), a herbaceous, probably outbreeding, humid forest hemi-epiphyte, in the brejo forests of Ceará (north-east Brazil), and clarification of their relationships with populations in Amazonia and the Atlantic forest of Brazil. Methods Within-population genetic diversity and between-population dissimilarity were estimated using AFLP molecular markers in 75 individuals from eight populations located in Ceará, the Brazilian Atlantic Forest and Amazonia. Key Results The populations showed a clinal pattern of weak genetic differentiation over a large geographical region (FST = 0·1896). A strong correlation between genetic and geographical distance (Mantel test: r = 0·6903, P = 0·002) suggests a historical pattern of isolation by distance. Genetic structure analysis revealed at least two distinct gene pools in the data. The two isolated Ceará populations are significantly different from each other (pairwise ΦPT = 0·137, P = 0·003) and as diverse (Nei's gene diversity, average He = 0·1832, 0·1706) as those in the Atlantic and Amazon forest regions. The population in southern Brazil is less diverse (Nei's gene diversity, average He = 0·127) than the rest. The Ceará populations are related to those of the Atlantic forest rather than those from Amazonia (AMOVA, among-groups variation = 11·95 %, P = 0·037). Conclusions The gene pools detected within an overall pattern of clinal variation suggest distinct episodes of gene flow, possibly correlated with past humid forest expansions. The Ceará populations show no evidence of erosion of genetic diversity, although this was expected because of their isolation. Their genetic differentiation and relatively high diversity reinforce the importance of conserving the endangered brejo forests. PMID:17823112

  15. A 7-year survey of superficial and cutaneous mycoses in a public hospital in Natal, Northeast Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Calado, Nicácia Barbosa; de Sousa Júnior, Francisco Canindé; Diniz, Mariana Guimarães; Fernandes, Ana Cristina Santos; Cardoso, Fernando José Ramos; Zaror, Luiz Conrado; Ferreira, Maria Ângela Fernandes; Milan, Eveline Pipolo

    2011-01-01

    In the present study, we determined the frequency of superficial and cutaneous mycoses and their etiologic agents during a 7-year period (2002–2008) in Natal, Brazil. A total of 1,717 specimens of skin, nail, and hair were collected from 1,382 patients with suspected mycoses lesions and were then subjected to direct microscopy and culture. PMID:24031755

  16. Quality control of food products purchased by the National School-Feeding Programme in Pernambuco, northeast Brazil, from 1985 to 1988.

    PubMed

    Guerra, N B; Pires, E M; Martins, G de C; Lima Filho, J B; Guerra, G N; Borges, L B; Tavares, M O; Cavalcante, M L; de Melo Filho, A B; de Oliveira, A R

    1992-12-01

    The effectiveness of the Quality Control System (QCS) implemented by the Fundação de Assistência ao Escolar (FAE) for quality control of food products from different types and origins purchased by the National School-Feeding Programme (NSFP) in Pernambuco, Northeast Brazil, was evaluated. Physicochemical, microbiological, microscopical and organopetical analyses were performed in 4,860 food samples and the main causes of alterations were detected. Perishability was the characteristic used for distribution of food items into 3 main groups: A, B, and C. In accordance with 972 Quality Certificates between 1985 and 1988, 31.89 of the samples were rejected. The main reasons for rejection were innacuracies of net weight and drained weight and high moisture contents. Group B presented the smallest number of altered samples (27%); for Groups A and C these values were 33% and 44%, respectively. Our data lead to the conclusion that the QCS implemented by FAE is of paramount importance for an adequate quality control of foods provided to beneficiaries and for a good cost effectiveness of the school-feeding programme. PMID:1342181

  17. [Profile of the elderly population in two poor municipalities in North and Northeast Brazil: the results of a cross-sectional population-based survey].

    PubMed

    Cesar, Juraci A; Oliveira-Filho, Joel A; Bess, Grasiele; Cegielka, Rafael; Machado, Joel; Gonçalves, Tatiane S; Neumann, Nelson A

    2008-08-01

    This study aimed to determine the profile of the elderly population (>or= 60 years) in two poor municipalities in North and Northeast Brazil in 2005. Using a cross-sectional survey with a systematic sample, previously trained interviewers applied a standard household questionnaire on demographic characteristics, socioeconomic status, household conditions, physical activity, immunization status, health problems, and expenditures on medicines. Of the total sample (n = 1,013), 528 lived in Caracol, Piauí State, and 478 in Garrafão do Norte, Pará State. 56% were 60-69 years old, 10% lived alone, 69% were illiterate, 8% had a family income less than the minimum wage, 24% of the households had a flush toilet, 60% had a radio, television, and refrigerator, 88% reported at least one chronic disease, 47% had to purchase all their medicines out-of-pocket, 84% had received influenza vaccination, and 90% were able to perform normal activities of daily living. Elderly people included in this study showed poor household conditions, inadequate access to health care, and high levels of morbidity. PMID:18709224

  18. A mitochondrial DNA phylogeny indicates close relationships between populations of Lutzomyia whitmani (Diptera: Psychodidae, Phlebotominae) from the rain-forest regions of Amazônia and northeast Brazil.

    PubMed

    Ishikawa, E A; Ready, P D; de Souza, A A; Day, J C; Rangel, E F; Davies, C R; Shaw, J J

    1999-01-01

    Phylogenetic analysis of all 31 described mitochondrial (cytochrome b) haplotypes of Lutzomyia whitmani demonstrated that new material from the State of Rondônia, in southwest Amazônia, forms a clade within a lineage found only in the rain-forest regions of Brazil. This rain-forest lineage also contains two other clades of haplotypes, one from eastern Amazônia and one from the Atlantic forest zone of northeast Brazil (including the type locality of the species in Ilhéus, State of Bahia). These findings do not favour recognizing two allopatric cryptic species of L. whitmani, one associated with the silvatic transmission of Leishmania shawi in southeast Amazônia and the other with the peridomestic transmission of Le. braziliensis in northeast Brazil. Instead, they suggest that there is (or has been in the recent past) a continuum of inter-breeding populations of L. whitmani in the rain-forest regions of Brazil. PMID:10419383

  19. [Intestinal parasite infections in a semiarid area of Northeast Brazil: preliminary findings differ from expected prevalence rates].

    PubMed

    Alves, Jair Rodrigues; Macedo, Heloísa Werneck; Ramos, Alberto Novaes; Ferreira, Luiz Fernando; Gonçalves, Marcelo Luiz Carvalho; Araújo, Adauto

    2003-01-01

    We report on intestinal parasite infection prevalence in a population sample from S o Raimundo Nonato, Southeast Piau State, Brazil, aimed at comparison with previous studies on Trichuris trichiura and Ascaris lumbricoides infection. A total of 265 stool specimens were collected and examined by spontaneous sedimentation. Approximately 57% of specimens were infected with at least one parasite species. Entamoeba coli (35.8%), Endolimax nana (13.6%), Hymenolepis nana (9.4%), and hookworm (9.4%) were the most frequently observed parasites. Two cases of roundworm infection were detected, probably acquired outside the region. T. trichiura eggs were not found. Interestingly, neither A. lumbricoides nor T. trichiura has been found in local prehistoric human coprolites. Nevertheless, hookworm infection has been present in the region for at least 7,000 years. PMID:12764483

  20. Correction of vital statistics based on a proactive search of deaths and live births: evidence from a study of the North and Northeast regions of Brazil

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background In the last 20 years, Brazil has undergone dramatic changes in terms of socioeconomic development and health care. In the first decade of the 2000s, the Ministry of Health (MoH) developed a series of programs focused on reducing infant mortality, including the Family Health Program as a national policy for primary care. In this paper, we propose a method to correct underreporting of deaths and live births. After vital statistics are corrected, infant mortality trends are analyzed for the period 2000–2010 by macro-geographical region. Methods A proactive search of live births and deaths was carried out in the Amazon and Northeast regions in 2010 to find vital events that occurred in 2008 and were not reported to the Ministry of Health. The probabilistic sample of 133 municipalities was stratified by adequacy of vital information reporting. For each municipality, the adequacy analysis was based on the reported age-standardized mortality rate per 1,000 population and the ratio between reported and estimated live births. Correction factors were estimated by strata based on additional vital events found in the proactive search. The procedure was generalized to correct municipal vital statistics for the period 2000–2010. Results In the proactive search, 35% of non-reported deaths were found within the health system (hospitals and other health establishments), but 28% were found in non-official sources, like illegal cemeteries. In areas of extreme poverty and unreliable vital information, the estimated completeness of infant death reporting was only 33%. After correction of vital information, the estimated infant mortality rate decreased from 26.1 in 2000 to 16.0 in 2010, with an annual rate of decrease of 4.7%, greater than the required rate to achieve the Millennium Development Goal. Among Brazilian regions, the Northeast showed the largest decrease, from 38.4 to 20.1 per 1,000 live births. Conclusions The proactive search for vital events was shown to

  1. Risky sexual practices among men who have sex with men in Northeast Brazil: results from four sequential surveys.

    PubMed

    Gondim, Rogério Costa; Kerr, Ligia Regina Franco Sansigolo; Werneck, Guilherme L; Macena, Raimunda Hermelinda Maia; Pontes, Marta Kerr; Kendall, Carl

    2009-06-01

    This paper focuses on recent trends in risky sexual practices for HIV/AIDS among men who have sex with men (MSM) in Fortaleza, Ceará State, Brazil. Four cross-sectional surveys were conducted (1995, 1998, 2002, and 2005) among MSM 14 years or older who reported oral or anal sex in the previous 12 months. Sexual practices were considered risky whenever the respondent reported unprotected receptive or insertive anal intercourse in the six months preceding the interview. Different selection techniques were used to recruit the study population: snowball (1995, 1998, 2002 - 32%); time-space sampling (2002 - 68%); and respondent-driven sampling (2005). Analyses were based on the comparison between proportions. High rates of risky sexual practices were reported in 1995 (49.9%), decreasing in 1998 (32.6%), increasing again in 2002 (51.3%), and showing the lowest level in 2005 (31.4%). Participants with more schooling increased their risky practices from 1998 to 2002, decreasing in 2005. Among individuals with medium or low schooling, risky behavior declined from 2002 to 2005. The article highlights the need for behavioral surveillance to properly address STD/HIV prevention. PMID:19503969

  2. Millenial-scale climatic and vegetation changes in a northern Cerrado (Northeast, Brazil) since the Last Glacial Maximum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ledru, Marie-Pierre; Ceccantini, Gregorio; Gouveia, Susy E. M.; López-Sáez, José Antonio; Pessenda, Luiz C. R.; Ribeiro, Adauto S.

    2006-05-01

    In the Southern Hemisphere, lacustrine sediments started to be deposited with the beginning of the deglaciation at ca 19,000 cal yr BP. At this time the region of Lake Caço was dominated by sparse and shrubby vegetation with dominance of steppic grasses in a poor sandy soil. The landscape did not present any ecological characteristics of a modern Cerrado. However single pollen grains of two Cerrado indicators, Byrsonima and Mimosa, suggest that some Cerrado species were able to survive under the prevailing arid climate, probably as small shrubs. After 15,500 cal yr BP, a sudden increase in the moisture rates is evidenced with the progressive expansion of rainforest showing successive dominance of various associations of taxa. The development of the forest stopped abruptly at the end of the Pleistocene between 12,800 and 11,000 cal yr BP, as attested by strong fires and the expansion of Poaceae. In the early Holocene an open landscape with a relatively high level of water in the lake preceded the progressive expansion of Cerrado species towards a denser forested landscape; fires are recorded from then on, resulting in the physiognomy of the Cerrado we know today. Late Pleistocene paleoenvironmental records from northern Brazil reflect the interplay between insolation forcing of two hemispheres with the local components represented by the interannual shift of the Inter Tropical Convergence Zone and the influence of seasonal equatorwards polar air incursions.

  3. Distribution, feeding behavior and control strategies of the exotic land snail Achatina fulica (Gastropoda: Pulmonata) in the northeast of Brazil.

    PubMed

    Albuquerque, F S; Peso-Aguiar, M C; Assunção-Albuquerque, M J T

    2008-11-01

    The goal of this study was to document the distribution and establishment A. fulica such as their feeding preference and behavior in situ. The study was carried out at the city of Lauro de Freitas, Bahia state, Brazil, between November 2001 and November 2002. We used catch per unit effort methods to determine abundance, distribution, habitat choice and food preferences. The abundance and distribution of A. fulica was most representative in urban area, mainly near to the coastline. Lots and house gardens were the most preferred sites during active hours. The results indicated that A. fulica started their activity at the end of the evening and stopped in mid-morning. Their preferred food were vascular plants such as Hibiscus syriacus, Ricinus communis, Carica papaya, Galinsonga coccinea, Lippia alba, Ixora coccinea, Musa parasidisiaca, Mentha spicata and Cymbopogon citrates. Our results indicate that A. fulica are well adapted and established in this city and modified environments facilitate their establishment and dispersion. However, human perturbation, such as clearance of lots could be limiting for the persistence of A. fulica populations. PMID:19197503

  4. Mercury (Hg) in fish consumed by the local population of the Jaguaribe River lower basin, Northeast Brazil.

    PubMed

    Costa, B G B; Lacerda, L D

    2014-12-01

    The knowledge of Hg concentrations in fish is of considerable interest since these organisms are a major source of protein to coastal human populations and fishing communities. The main source of human exposure to Hg contamination occurs through the consumption of fish. In this paper, we compare Hg concentration in 13 fish species from Jaguaribe River lower basin and an adjacent coastal region in the northeastern coast of Brazil. We sampled fish from three stretches of the river: fluvial, estuarine, and marine regions. We tested the hypothesis that Hg concentration in muscle tissue vary according to species, location, and trophic level. Significant differences were observed among species and trophic level, but these could not be observed among the regions studied. As expected, the highest concentrations were observed in carnivorous fish (5.6-107.5; 26.9 ± 18.8 ng g(-1)). Hg concentrations observed in this study are similar to those observed in regions of low environmental contamination. We estimated Hg intake to vary between 0.02 and 0.22 ng Hg kg body weight(-1) week(-1), for the average body weight of 56.7 kg, which was considered as low exposure and therefore, a low risk to consumers of fish from the regions studied. PMID:25119275

  5. Association of environmental and climatic factors in the epidemiology of American visceral leishmaniasis in northeast Brazil using remote sensing and geographical information system methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thompson, Roland Alexander

    This study associated climatic and environmental factors with the incidence of visceral leishmaniasis (calazar) in Northeast Brazil. Remote sensing (RS) techniques permitted evaluation of spatial and temporal landscape features to stratify the region and define the target population for this vector-borne disease. The Municipality of Caninde, Ceara, Brazil was divided into 873-- 2 x 2 km2 squares centered on coordinates from a Universal Transverse Mercator projection (scale 1:100,000, 1994) and geo-referenced with 2 Landsat T.M. (TM) scenes (September 26, 1976 and July 2, 1996). The assignment of squares into foothills, plains or city strata was based on vegetative categories determined from TM scenes (Bands: 4,5,3) with ERDAS Imagine ISODATA classification procedures. Odds Ratios (OR) with 95% Confidence Intervals (CI) were determined for the juveniles less than age 10 based on 17 years of demographic, calazar incidence and rainfall information supplied by: Fundacao Nacional de Saude, Fundacao Cearense do Metorologia e Recurso Hidricos, and Fundacao Instituto de Planejamento do Ceara. The population and number of calazar cases were determined for each 2 x 2 km 2 square. The odds ratio of calazar for a Caninde juvenile in the foothills relative to the city was OR = 4.11 CI (3.2, 5.3). The calazar odds ratio for juveniles living in years with 3-year rainfall average between 60--90 cm was OR = 3.07 CI (1.3, 7.2), the rainfall average between 40--60 cm had OR = 9.12 CI (4.4, 23.3), and with less than 40 cm OR = 9.23 CI (3.9, 25.2) relative to years with an average greater than 90 cm. The logistic regression model for Ceara comprised an ordinal-incidence-density-response variable, a 5-level region explanatory variable, and a 3-level juvenile proportion variable. The odds ratios for calazar in municipalities located in the interior high plains was OR = 1.94 CI (1.6, 2.4) relative to location in the littoral and for a municipality with less than 26% juvenile population

  6. Population and reproductive biology of the fiddler crab Uca thayeri Rathbun, 1900 (Crustacea: Ocypodidae) in a tropical mangrove from Northeast Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arruda Bezerra, Luis Ernesto; Matthews-Cascon, Helena

    2007-05-01

    Population and reproductive biology of Uca thayeri Rathbun, 1900 were studied for the first time in a tropical mangrove. Absolute density, sex ratio, population structure, handedness, breeding season and fecundity were investigated. Seven transects were delimited in a mangrove area of the Pacoti River, Northeast of Brazil (3° 43' 02″ S/38° 32' 35″ W). On each transect, ten 0.25 m 2 squares were sampled on a monthly basis during low tide periods from September 2003 to August 2004. A total of 483 crabs were obtained, of which 250 were males, 219 non-ovigerous females, and 14 ovigerous females. The U. thayeri population presented bi-modal size frequency distribution, with males and non-ovigerous females not differing significantly size-wise. Ovigerous females were larger than males and non-ovigerous females. The overall sex ratio (1:1.07) did not differ significantly from the expected 1:1 proportion. The major cheliped was the right one in 50% of the males. The observed density was of 8.5 individuals/m 2, with the specimens being found mostly in shaded areas. Ovigerous females were found in 5 months of the year, coinciding with the rainy season, suggesting that the population of U. thayeri presents seasonal reproductive events. Juvenile crabs were more abundant during the dry period, while larger crabs were found mainly during the rainy period. The fecundity of the studied population was much smaller than that of subtropical populations of this species. The regression analysis shows that the number of eggs increases linearly with the increase of carapace width.

  7. [Inadequacy of the content of prenatal care and associated factors in a cohort in the northeast of Brazil].

    PubMed

    Goudard, Marivanda Julia Furtado; Simões, Vanda Maria Ferreira; Batista, Rosângela Fernandes Lucena; Queiroz, Rejane Christine de Souza; Alves, Maria Tereza Seabra Soares de Brito E; Coimbra, Liberata Campos; Martins, Marília da Glória; Barbieri, Marco Antônio; Nathasje, Ian Favero

    2016-04-01

    The scope of this study was to analyze the content of prenatal care in São Luís, Maranhão, Brazil, and the factors associated with its inadequacy. A cross-sectional study was conducted based on data from the birth cohort of São Luís in 2010. The content of prenatal care was defined as inadequate when it did not meet the criteria of the Program for Humanization of Prenatal and Delivery Care, which establishes early initiation of prenatal care, minimum number of medical consultations, basic laboratory tests, tetanus vaccination and obstetric procedures. Poisson regression was used to observe associations of the variables with the outcome. The inadequacy rate was high (60.2%). The variables associated with inadequacy were: class C socioeconomic status (PR = 1.39; CI = 1.26-1.55); class D/E socioeconomic status (PR = 1.60; CI = 1.43-1.79); unqualified/unemployed mother (PR = 1.24; CI = 1.11-1.37); 5-8 years of schooling (PR = 1.12; CI = 1.06-1.19); 0-4 years of schooling (PR = 1.13; CI = 1.01-1.26); not being religious (PR = 1.10; CI = 1.04-1.17); alcohol use during pregnancy (PR = 1.13; CI = 1.06-1.20), and being attended by the public service (PR = 1.75; CI = 1.54-2.00). The results showed inadequacy and inequality of prenatal care, revealing that women of lower socioeconomic status received lower quality care. PMID:27076021

  8. The tectonic evolution of Cenozoic extensional basins, northeast Brazil: Geochronological constraints from continental basalt 40Ar/39Ar ages

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Souza, Zorano Sérgio; Vasconcelos, Paulo Marcos; Knesel, Kurt Michael; da Silveira Dias, Luiz Gustavo; Roesner, Eduardo Henrique; Cordeiro de Farias, Paulo Roberto; de Morais Neto, João Marinho

    2013-12-01

    The Boa Vista and Cubati Basins, Paraíba, Brazil, are NW-SE extension-related intracratonic basins that resulted from tectonic stresses after the opening of the South Atlantic. These basins contain lacustrine fossiliferous sediments, bentonite beds, and basalt flows that preserve Cenozoic continental records. 40Ar/39Ar ages for six whole-rocks from two distinct basaltic flows underlying the sediments in the Boa Vista basin are 27.3 ± 0.8 and 25.4 ± 1.3 Ma, while three grains from a basaltic flow overlying the sediments yield 22.0 ± 0.2 Ma. The sediments at the nearby Cubati Basin are overlain by a basalt flow with ages of ˜25.4 Ma. Three whole-rocks from an NE-SW-trending trachytic dyke cross cutting the sediments at the Boa Vista Basin yield 40Ar/39Ar ages of ˜12.45 ± 0.06, 12.59 ± 0.07, and 12.58 ± 0.07 Ma. Three whole-rocks from a nearby volcanic plug (Chupador) yield an age of 23.4 ± 0.1 Ma. The geochronological results combined with stratigraphic correlations between the two basins allow bracketing the age of the main sedimentary and bentonic units within the Boa Vista and Cubati Basins between 25.5 ± 1.3 and 24.9 ± 0.1 Ma. The ages, combined with field observations reveal that the formation of the Boa Vista and Cubati basins is associated with mantle-derived magmas channelled through reactivated Precambrian shear zones. Our geochronological results suggest that a temporal link with the Fernando de Noronha and Saint Helena hot spots can be excluded as possible sources of the Boa Vista and Cubati magmas. Rather, the extensional tectonics in the 30-20 Ma interval, long after Gondwana break-up, may be associated with the re-activation of continental-scale shear zones that channelled small batches of mantle-derived magmas.

  9. Comparison of the burden of diarrhoeal illness among individuals with and without household cisterns in northeast Brazil

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Lack of access to safe and secure water is an international issue recognized by the United Nations. To address this problem, the One Million Cisterns Project was initiated in 2001 in Brazil’s semi-arid region to provide a sustainable source of water to households. The objectives of this study were to determine the 30-day period prevalence of diarrhoea in individuals with and without cisterns and determine symptomology, duration of illness and type of health care sought among those with diarrhoea. A subgroup analysis was also conducted among children less than five years old. Methods A face-to-face survey was conducted between August 20th and September 20th, 2007 in the Agreste Central Region of Pernambuco State, Brazil. Households with and without a cistern that had at least one child under the age of five years were selected using systematic convenient sampling. Differences in health outcomes between groups were assessed using Pearson’s Chi-squared and two-way t-tests. Demographic variables were tested for univariable associations with diarrhoea using logistic regression with random effects. P-values of 0.05 or less were considered statistically significant. Results A total of 3679 people from 774 households were included in the analysis (1863 people from 377 households with cisterns and 1816 people from 397 households without cisterns). People from households with a cistern had a significantly lower 30-day period prevalence of diarrhoea (prevalence = 11.0%; 95% CI 9.5-12.4) than people from households without a cistern (prevalence = 18.2%; 95% CI 16.4-20.0). This significant difference was also found in a subgroup analysis of children under five years old; those children with a cistern had a 30-day period prevalence of 15.6% (95% CI 12.3-18.9) versus 26.7% (95% CI 22.8-30.6) in children without a cistern. There were no significant differences between those people with and without cisterns in terms of the types of symptoms, duration of

  10. High Frequency of Malignant Transformation of Ovarian Mature Teratoma into Squamous Cell Carcinoma in Young Patients in Northeast Brazil.

    PubMed

    Araujo, Iguaracyra B D O; Pinheiro, Marcos V C; Zanvettor, Paulo H; Studart, Eduardo J B; Filho, Deraldo F; Coupland, Sarah E

    2016-03-01

    The malignant behavior of an ovarian teratoma is related to immaturity, or rarely to the malignant transformation of a somatic component in a mature teratoma (MT). The aim of this work was to review 189 consecutive ovarian teratomas diagnosed between 2006 and 2010 at a public referral center for cancer in Brazil, focusing on cases of MT with malignant transformation. MTs with transformation to squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) were further analyzed by immunohistochemistry for p16 staining. The median age of all patients was 36 yr (mean age, 39.6 yr; SD±4.9). Mature and immature teratomas represented 95.7% (181/189) and 4.2% of the cohort, respectively. Immature teratoma occurred mainly in adolescents under 18 yr. Malignant transformation of the somatic component in MT was observed in 10 of 181 patients (5.5%). SCC was the most common subtype (4/10), followed by differentiated thyroid carcinoma in struma ovarii(3/10), adenosquamous carcinoma (1/10), mucinous intestinal-type adenocarcinoma (1/10), and a well-differentiated neuroendocrine tumor/carcinoid (1/10). Two of 4 SCC cases were strong and diffusely positive for p16, and 2 were negative. In 5 further patients, MT was synchronously observed with other benign and malignant ovarian neoplasms in the ipsilateral ovary (3 mucinous cystadenomas and 1 Brenner tumor) and 1 cystadenocarcinoma in the contralateral ovary. MTs with malignant transformation were larger than those without transformation (P<0.001), but did not demonstrate any association with age. Indeed, our patients with SCC in MT were much younger [median and mean age, 37 and 38 yr (SD±4.9), respectively] than those described previously. As p16 is considered a surrogate marker for HPV infection, the malignant transformation of MT into SSC in young patients raises the possibility of HPV infection as a risk factor in some of these cases. However, molecular studies are needed to clarify the possible role of HPV in the malignant transformation of MT to SCC. PMID

  11. Brazil.

    PubMed

    1985-09-01

    Brazil's population in 1985 was 135 million, with an annual growth rate (1982) of 2.3%. The infant mortality rate (1981) was 92/1000, and life expectancy stood at 62.8 years. 76% of the adult population was literate. Brazil is a federal republic which recognizes 5 political parties. 55% of the population is Portuguese, Italian, German, Japanese, African, or American Indian; 38% is white. Of the work force of 50 million, 35% are engaged in agriculture, 25% work in industry, and 40% are employed in services. Trade union membership totals 6 million. The agricultural sector accounts for 12% of the GDP and 40% of exports. Brazil is largely self-sufficient in terms of food. The GDP was US$218 billion in 1984, with an annual growth rate of 4%. Per capita GDP was US$1645. Brazil's power, transportation, and communications systems have improved greatly in recent years, providing a base for economic development. High inflation rates have been a persistent problem. PMID:12178118

  12. The Anticholinesterase Properties of Plants from the Northeast of Brazil Selected by an Ethnopharmacological Study for Disorders Relating to the Nervous System

    PubMed Central

    de Almeida e Castro, Valerium Thijan Nobre; Sobrinho, Tadeu Jose da Silva Peixoto; Corrêa, Allan Jonathan Chernichiarro; de Sousa Araújo, Thiago Antonio; Da Silva, Terezinha Gonçalves; de Amorim, Elba Lucia Cavalcanti

    2016-01-01

    Background: Various factors may trigger Alzheimer's disease and the cholinergic hypothesis, which is one of the most widely accepted, argues damage to the brain nuclei, may reduce the production of the choline acetyltransferase enzyme, and cause a decline in the synthesis of acetylcholine (ACh). Studies have thus focused on discovering molecules that are capable of inhibiting the action of cholinesterase enzymes that degrade ACh, thereby preventing the evolution of the disease. Objective: The aim of the present study is to assess the anticholinesterase properties of extracts of medicinal plants in a semi-arid region of Northeast of Brazil. Materials and Methods: The species were selected by way of an ethnobotanical study and were collected if there were some indications that they are related to the nervous system. The plant samples were extracted using hexane, ethyl acetate, and methanol. Anticholinesterase activity in vitro was assessed by way of bioautography in thin layer chromatography and microassays in 96-well plates. Results: Twenty-three species of plant were collected, and 75 extracts were analyzed. The bioautography revealed that 26.7% of the samples showed inhibitory activity against the acetylcholinesterase (AChE) enzyme. After the test for false positives, 8% of the samples were found to inhibit AChE. Thirty samples were analyzed by microassay (500 μg/mL), on which 86.7% showed moderate to powerful anticholinesterase activity. Conclusion: Of the extracts tested, Citrus limonum, Ricinus communis, and Senna occidentalis stand out as was the most promising in terms of anticholinesterase activity and may serve as a guide for the discovery and development of new substances for the treatment of AD. SUMMARY The bioautography revealed that 26.7% of the samples showed inhibitory activity against the acetylcholinesterase enzymeSamples were analyzed by microassay (500 μg/mL), upon which 86.7% showed moderate to powerful anticholinesterase activityCitrus limonum

  13. Climate change in the Brazilian northeast

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodrigues, Regina R.; Haarsma, Reindert J.; Hoelzemann, Judith J.

    2012-10-01

    Climate Change, Impacts and Vulnerabilities in Brazil: Preparing the Brazilian Northeast for the Future; Natal, Brazil, 27 May to 01 June 2012 The variability of the semiarid climate of the Brazilian northeast has enormous environmental and social implications. Because most of the population in this area depends on subsistence agriculture, periods of severe drought in the past have caused extreme poverty and subsequent migration to urban centers. From the ecological point of view, frequent and prolonged droughts can lead to the desertification of large areas. Understanding the causes of rainfall variability, in particular periods of severe drought, is crucial for accurate forecasting, mitigation, and adaptation in this important region of Brazil.

  14. Endecous apterus: a new species of cave cricket from northeast Brazil, with comments on the use of subterranean habitats by Luzarinae crickets (Orthoptera: Grylloidea: Phalangopsidae: Luzarinae).

    PubMed

    Souza-Dias, Pedro G B; Bolfarini, Márcio P; Nihei, Silvio S; De Mello, Francisco A G

    2014-01-01

    In this study we describe the first apterous species of Endecous Saussure (1878), collected in two caves at Ituaçu, Bahia State, Brazil. In Brazil, Endecous is the most widespread cricket in hypogean environments and its species can colonize caves and inhabit the entrance and the aphotic zones; Endecous species can also be found in the litter, rock gullies, crevices, burrows, and any natural cavities. The use of subterranean habitat by Endecous crickets and its related genera are discussed. PMID:24872041

  15. Population Genetic Analysis Reveals a High Genetic Diversity in the Brazilian Cryptococcus gattii VGII Population and Shifts the Global Origin from the Amazon Rainforest to the Semi-arid Desert in the Northeast of Brazil.

    PubMed

    Souto, Ana C P; Bonfietti, Lucas X; Ferreira-Paim, Kennio; Trilles, Luciana; Martins, Marilena; Ribeiro-Alves, Marcelo; Pham, Cau D; Martins, Liline; Dos Santos, Wallace; Chang, Marilene; Brito-Santos, Fabio; Santos, Dayane C S; Fortes, Silvana; Lockhart, Shawn R; Wanke, Bodo; Melhem, Márcia S C; Lazéra, Márcia S; Meyer, Wieland

    2016-08-01

    Cryptococcus neoformans and Cryptococcus gattii are responsible globally for almost one million cryptococcosis cases yearly, mostly in immunocompromised patients, such as those living with HIV. Infections due to C. gattii have mainly been described in tropical and subtropical regions, but its adaptation to temperate regions was crucial in the species evolution and highlighted the importance of this pathogenic yeast in the context of disease. Cryptococcus gattii molecular type VGII has come to the forefront in connection with an on-going emergence in the Pacific North West of North America. Taking into account that previous work pointed towards South America as an origin of this species, the present work aimed to assess the genetic diversity within the Brazilian C. gattii VGII population in order to gain new insights into its origin and global dispersal from the South American continent using the ISHAM consensus MLST typing scheme. Our results corroborate the finding that the Brazilian C. gattii VGII population is highly diverse. The diversity is likely due to recombination generated from sexual reproduction, as evidenced by the presence of both mating types in clinical and environmental samples. The data presented herein strongly supports the emergence of highly virulent strains from ancestors in the Northern regions of Brazil, Amazonia and the Northeast. Numerous genotypes represent a link between Brazil and other parts of the world reinforcing South America as the most likely origin of the C. gattii VGII subtypes and their subsequent global spread, including their dispersal into North America, where they caused a major emergence. PMID:27529479

  16. Population Genetic Analysis Reveals a High Genetic Diversity in the Brazilian Cryptococcus gattii VGII Population and Shifts the Global Origin from the Amazon Rainforest to the Semi-arid Desert in the Northeast of Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Ferreira-Paim, Kennio; Trilles, Luciana; Martins, Marilena; Ribeiro-Alves, Marcelo; Pham, Cau D.; Martins, Liline; dos Santos, Wallace; Chang, Marilene; Brito-Santos, Fabio; Santos, Dayane C. S.; Fortes, Silvana; Lockhart, Shawn R.; Wanke, Bodo; Melhem, Márcia S. C.; Lazéra, Márcia S.; Meyer, Wieland

    2016-01-01

    Cryptococcus neoformans and Cryptococcus gattii are responsible globally for almost one million cryptococcosis cases yearly, mostly in immunocompromised patients, such as those living with HIV. Infections due to C. gattii have mainly been described in tropical and subtropical regions, but its adaptation to temperate regions was crucial in the species evolution and highlighted the importance of this pathogenic yeast in the context of disease. Cryptococcus gattii molecular type VGII has come to the forefront in connection with an on-going emergence in the Pacific North West of North America. Taking into account that previous work pointed towards South America as an origin of this species, the present work aimed to assess the genetic diversity within the Brazilian C. gattii VGII population in order to gain new insights into its origin and global dispersal from the South American continent using the ISHAM consensus MLST typing scheme. Our results corroborate the finding that the Brazilian C. gattii VGII population is highly diverse. The diversity is likely due to recombination generated from sexual reproduction, as evidenced by the presence of both mating types in clinical and environmental samples. The data presented herein strongly supports the emergence of highly virulent strains from ancestors in the Northern regions of Brazil, Amazonia and the Northeast. Numerous genotypes represent a link between Brazil and other parts of the world reinforcing South America as the most likely origin of the C. gattii VGII subtypes and their subsequent global spread, including their dispersal into North America, where they caused a major emergence. PMID:27529479

  17. Low rate of transmitted drug resistance may indicate low access to antiretroviral treatment in Maranhão State, northeast Brazil.

    PubMed

    Moura, Maria Edileuza Soares; Reis, Mônica Nogueira da Guarda; Lima, Yanna Andressa Ramos; Eulálio, Kelsen Dantas; Cardoso, Ludimila Paula Vaz; Stefani, Mariane Martins de Araújo

    2015-02-01

    The Brazilian AIDS epidemic is characterized by significant geographic contrasts: a reduction in incidence and mortality in the epicenter (southeast) and an increase in the northeast. HIV-1-transmitted drug resistance (TDR) and genetic diversity were investigated among 106 antiretroviral (ARV)-naive patients from Maranhão State, northeast. The HIV-1 protease (PR) and reverse transcriptase (RT) regions were sequenced; subtypes were assigned by REGA/phylogenetic analysis. TDR to the nucleoside/nonnucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NRTI/NNRTI) and protease inhibitor (PI) was identified by the Calibrated Population Resistance tool (Stanford). The median age was 31 years (range 18-72), with 54.7% women, 78.3% heterosexual transmission, and 17.9% men who have sex with men (MSM). Around 30% had <350 CD4(+) T cells/μl and 47.2% had plasma viral loads ≤10,000 copies/ml. The TDR rate was 3.8% (4/106; CI 95%, 1.2-8.9%) (three males, two of them MSM). Only single class mutations to NRTI (M184V; T215S) or NNRTI (K103S/N) were detected. Subtype B represented 81.1% (86/106), F1 1.9% (2/106), and C 2.8% (3/106); 14.2% were mosaics: 13 BF1 and 2 BC. Surveillance of TDR and HIV-1 genetic diversity is important to improve control strategies regionally. PMID:25411830

  18. A new species of Endecous Saussure, 1878 (Orthoptera, Gryllidae) from northeast Brazil with the first X1X20 chromosomal sex system in Gryllidae.

    PubMed

    Zefa, Edison; Redü, Darlan Rutz; Da Costa, Maria Kátia Matiotti; Fontanetti, Carmem S; Gottschalk, Marco Silva; Padilha, Giovanna Boff; Fernandes e Silva, Anelise; Martins, Luciano De P

    2014-01-01

    In this paper we describe a new species of Luzarinae cricket collected from the cave "Gruta de Ubajara, municipality of Ubajara, State of Ceará, Brazil, highlighting phallic sclerites morphology and chromosome complement as diagnostic characters. We presented meiotic and mitotic characterization in order to define the karyotype with 2n = 12 + X1X2♂/12 + X1X1X2X2♀. This represents the first record of X1X20 chromosomal sex system in Gryllidae. PMID:25112329

  19. Piscinoodinium pillulare (Schäperclaus, 1954) Lom, 1981 (Dinoflagellida) infection in cultivated freshwater fish from the northeast region of Sao Paulo State, Brazil. Parasitological and pathological aspects.

    PubMed

    Martins, M L; Moraes, J R; Andrade, P M; Schalch, S H; Moraes, F R

    2001-11-01

    The Aquaculture Center of Unesp, Jaboticabal, SP, Brazil, received fishes for diagnosis from fish farmers reporting fish crowding at pond edges and in water inlets. Fifty-three out of 194 cases showed round to oval, immobile whitish structures, measuring up to 162 microm diameter, identified as the dinoflagellate Piscinoodinium pillulare. In 34 diagnosed cases the parasites were present in the gills, in 2 on body surface, and 9 in both. Thirty-one out of 53 were tambacu hybrids hosts; 7, Piaractus mesopotamicus; 6, Colossoma macropomum; 5, Leporinus macrocephalus; 3, Oreochromis niloticus; and 1, Prochilodus lineatus. Fish showed increased mucous production on body surface and gills, while ecchymosis in the caudal peduncle and operculum was present. The gills also showed paleness, congestion, and petechiae. Histopathology presented a great number of trophonts situated between secondary lamellae, fixed to or detached from the epithelium. Primary lamellae presented interstitial hemorrhages, severe hyperplasia of the epithelium, goblet cells, and mononuclear infiltrates. The present work is the first report of P pillulare in Brazil and emphasizes the importance of this dinoflagellate which caused significant economic losses from 1995 through 1997. PMID:12071320

  20. Travestis, an unexplored population at risk of HIV in a large metropolis of northeast Brazil: a respondent-driven sampling survey.

    PubMed

    Martins, Telma A; Kerr, Ligia Regina F S; Macena, Raimunda H M; Mota, Rosa S; Carneiro, Kalina L; Gondim, Rogério C; Kendall, Carl

    2013-01-01

    Travestis are highly vulnerable to HIV infection in Brazil. We conducted a survey among 304 travestis using Respondent-Driven Sampling from August to December 2008. Travestis are young (49% <24 years), poorly educated (55% just elementary school), low social class (62% Class C-E), reside with families (49%) or friends/madam (22%), are victims of homophobia (91%) and violence (61%). They report early sexual debut (75% <14), many sexual partners, drug use during sex (43%), and unprotected sex (male partner, 47%, both male and female partners, 50%). Sex work is common (82%, 59% >10 partners last six months) and relatively low cost (median=US$24). A majority report testing for HIV (69%), and report high prevalence (12% disclosed a positive result). Almost all the respondents refused to test in the study. Interventions, targeted to both travestis and to the general community about sexual discrimination, are necessary. PMID:23082818

  1. Study of the snail intermediate hosts for Schistosoma mansoni on Itamaracá Island in northeast Brazil: spatial displacement of Biomphalaria glabrata by Biomphalaria straminea.

    PubMed

    Barbosa, Constança S; Barbosa, Verônica S; Nascimento, Wheverton C; Pieri, Otavio S; Araújo, Karina C G M

    2014-05-01

    In 2012 a malacological survey of the breeding sites of Biomphalaria glabrata and B. straminea , the two intermediate host snails of Schistosoma mansoni , was carried out on Itamaraca Island in Pernambuco, Brazil. This study has now been extended by studying the competition between the two species. Snails were collected and dissected to identify the species and tests were performed to verify S. mansoni infection. Student's t test was used to compare the proportion between the two species and their breeding sites and a parasitological survey was conducted among local residents, using the Kato-Katz method. The spatial distribution of the two snail species was determined using TerraView, while a snail density map was constructed by Kernel estimate. The survey identified two breeding sites for B. glabrata with 17 specimens and 19 breeding sites for B. straminea with 459 snails, all of them negative for S. mansoni infection. The statistical analysis revealed that the proportion of the numbers of specimens and breeding sites of B. straminea (37.84 ± 9.01) were significantly greater than those of B. glabrata (8.50 ± 6.50). Parasitological examinations from 41 residents diagnosed two cases of schistosomiasis with parasite loads of 60 and 84 eggs per 1 g of stool, respectively. This indiction of a competitive process between the two snail species requires monitoring of schistosomiasis in the resident and travelling human populations occupying this environment, which could potentially result in social and economic changes on the island risking its attraction as a centre for eco-tourism. PMID:24893012

  2. Transplacental transmission of bovine tick-borne pathogens: Frequency, co-infections and fatal neonatal anaplasmosis in a region of enzootic stability in the northeast of Brazil.

    PubMed

    Costa, Sonia Carmen Lopo; de Magalhães, Vanessa Carvalho Sampaio; de Oliveira, Uillians Volkart; Carvalho, Fábio Santos; de Almeida, Clebson Pereira; Machado, Rosangela Zacarias; Munhoz, Alexandre Dias

    2016-03-01

    Bovine tick-borne disease (TBD) constitutes a worldwide group of diseases that result in great losses for dairy and beef cattle. With regard to the epidemiological profile of the diseases, the importance of transplacental transmission is still not very well understood. The aim of this study was to determine the transplacental transmission of TBD agents (Anaplasma marginale, Babesia bovis and B. bigemina) in a herd of dairy cattle that had been naturally infected in an area of enzootic stability in northeastern Brazil. Blood for serology of the three agents was collected from cows within 120 days of gestation and serology, haemogram and nPCR assays were performed after birth. Blood was collected from the calves within 3h of birth, and haemogram and nPCR assays were performed in all animals. Pre-colostrum serology was achieved in 34 animals. The Student's t-test was used to compare the haemogram results between animals that were positive and negative for the haemoparasites. The cows were seropositive for all agents in at least one of the examinations. We detected 15 cases of vertical transmission of A. marginale, 4 of B. bovis and 2 of B. bigemina in the 60 cows. In infected animals, co-infection was detected for A. marginale and B. bovis in 1 of 60 calves, and a triple infection was detected in one other calf. Fatal neonatal anaplasmosis was observed in 1 of 15 calves, in which death occurred within 24h of birth. From the results, we concluded that transplacental transmission of TBD agents occurs, including in cases of co- and triple-infection. Such transplacental transmission can cause neonatal death, increasing the importance of this form of epidemiological transmission and suggesting its role as a cause of undiagnosed neonatal death. PMID:26613663

  3. Community of chewing lice (Phthiraptera: Amblycera and Ischnocera) parasites of resident birds at the Archipelago of São Pedro and São Paulo in northeast Brazil.

    PubMed

    Silva, H M; Valim, M P; Gama, R A

    2014-09-01

    The current study describes the chewing lice community associated with seabird populations resident at the São Pedro and São Paulo Archipelago in the Atlantic Ocean in Pernambuco State, Brazil. Adults of three species of seabirds were captured using hand-nets for the collection of biometric data and specimens of ectoparasites. In total, 320 birds were examined (120 Sula leucogaster (Boddaert), Brown Booby; 120 Anous stolidus (L.), --Brown Noddy; and 80 Anous minutus Boie, Black Noddy) of which 95% were infested with 8,625 chewing lice, representing eight species of the genera Actornithophilus, Austromenopon, Eidmanniella, Pectinopygus, Quadraceps, and Saemundssonia. On S. leucogaster, Pectinopygus garbei (Pessôa & Guimarães) was more prevalent and had a mean and median intensity of infestation significantly greater than those recorded for Eidmanniella albescens (Piaget). On the two Noddies, the species of Actornithophilus and Quadraceps were significantly more prevalent and abundant than Austromenopon atrofulvum (Piaget) and Saemundssonia remota Timmermann Most of the louse species had a highly aggregated distribution, with k exponent of the negative binomial distribution ranging from 0.04 to 3.06. A weak but significant correlation was found between the abundance of chewing lice and morphometric variables (body weight, wing, beak, tail, and tarsus lengths). It is possible that high rates of infestation have a negative effect on the morphological characteristics of the hosts, including the health of the plumage. All the lice species collected--except for P. garbei (ex S. leucogaster)--were reported for the first time from Brazilian populations of these seabird species. PMID:25276921

  4. [Factors associated with self-medication for toothache: analysis using pharmacy personnel in the city of Recife, PE].

    PubMed

    Silva, Rafaella Arcoverde; Marques, Flávia Duarte; de Goes, Paulo Sávio Angeiras

    2008-04-01

    This paper aims to describe the factors associated with self-medication related to toothache in the city of Recife, Pernambuco, Brazil. The investigation was designed as a cross-sectional study. The sample was random selected among the pharmacies registered in the Regional Pharmacy Council of Pernambuco and distributed over the Health Districts. The level of knowledge of the pharmacy personnel about self-medication related to toothache was analyzed. One hundred and seventy nine professionals from 120 establishments were interviewed. The data were collected by means of a questionnaire. According to the results, 67.0% of the interviewees had attended individuals relating orofacial pain in the last six months, among them 91.6% relating toothache; 83.7% male and 73.3% female personnel had indicated medications for toothache without prescription; personnel with high-school level indicated more medications without prescription (48.6%) The study concludes that to buy pain relievers without prescription including for toothache is common and reinforces the need of informing the population about the correct use of these medicaments. PMID:21936174

  5. Cancer mortality in Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Barbosa, Isabelle R.; de Souza, Dyego L.B.; Bernal, María M.; Costa, Íris do C.C.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Cancer is currently in the spotlight due to their heavy responsibility as main cause of death in both developed and developing countries. Analysis of the epidemiological situation is required as a support tool for the planning of public health measures for the most vulnerable groups. We analyzed cancer mortality trends in Brazil and geographic regions in the period 1996 to 2010 and calculate mortality predictions for the period 2011 to 2030. This is an epidemiological, demographic-based study that utilized information from the Mortality Information System on all deaths due to cancer in Brazil. Mortality trends were analyzed by the Joinpoint regression, and Nordpred was utilized for the calculation of predictions. Stability was verified for the female (annual percentage change [APC] = 0.4%) and male (APC = 0.5%) sexes. The North and Northeast regions present significant increasing trends for mortality in both sexes. Until 2030, female mortality trends will not present considerable variations, but there will be a decrease in mortality trends for the male sex. There will be increases in mortality rates until 2030 for the North and Northeast regions, whereas reductions will be verified for the remaining geographic regions. This variation will be explained by the demographic structure of regions until 2030. There are pronounced regional and sex differences in cancer mortality in Brazil, and these discrepancies will continue to increase until the year 2030, when the Northeast region will present the highest cancer mortality rates in Brazil. PMID:25906105

  6. First record of Tenuipalpus uvae De Leon, 1962 (Acari: Tenuipalpidae) in Brazil

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This is the first record of Tenuipalpus uvae De Leon (Tenuipalpidae) in Brazil. Specimens were collected from Spondias mombin L. (Anacardiaceae) in the states of Amapa (Northern Brazil) and Pernambuco (northeast)....

  7. Central Brazil

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    This Moderate resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) true-color image was acquired on October 19, 2000, over a region in Brazil large enough to show much of the country's diverse landscape. Spanning some 8.5 million square kilometers (3.2 million square miles), Brazil is by far the largest South American nation--both in terms of land and population. The region known as the Amazon Basin lies to the northwest (upper left) and extends well beyond the northern and western edges of this scene. Typically, from this perspective Amazonia appears as a lush, dark green carpet due to the thick canopy of vegetation growing there. Some of the Amazon Basin is visible in this image, but much is obscured by clouds (bright white pixels), as is the Amazon River. This region is home to countless plant and animal species and some 150,000 native South Americans. The clusters of square and rectangular patterns toward the center of the image (light green or reddish-brown pixels) are where people have cleared away trees and vegetation to make room for development and agriculture. Toward the western side of the scene there is considerable haze and smoke from widespread biomass burning in parts of Brazil and Bolivia, which shares its eastern border with Brazil. Toward the east in this image is the highland, or 'cerrado,' region, which is more sparsely vegetated and has a somewhat drier climate than the Amazon Basin. The capital city, Brasilia, lies within this region just southwest of the Geral de Goias Mountains (orangish pixels running north-south). There are two large water reservoirs visible in this scene--the Sobradinho Reservoir about 800 km (500 miles) northeast of Brasilia, and the Paranaiba about 500 km (300 miles) southwest of Brasilia. MODIS flies aboard NASA's Terra spacecraft. Image courtesy Brian Montgomery, Reto Stockli, and Robert Simmon, based on data from the MODIS Science Team.

  8. NORTHEAST CLIMATE DATA

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Northeast Regional Climate Center (NRCC) database includes a complete collection of historical climate data for the northeastern United States as well as continually updated National Weather Service observations and forecasts. In addition, daily temperature and precipitation ...

  9. Liver Transplantation in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Bittencourt, Paulo Lisboa; Farias, Alberto Queiroz; Couto, Claudia Alves

    2016-09-01

    Over 1700 liver transplantations (LTs) are performed annually in Brazil. In absolute terms, the country performs more LT surgeries than anywhere else in Latin America and is third worldwide. However, due to its increasing population and inadequate donor organ supply, the country averages 5-10 LTs per million population, far lower than required. There is a marked heterogeneity in organ donation and LT activity throughout the country. Access to LT in the underprivileged North, Midwest, and Northeast regions of Brazil is scarce. Major challenges for the future of LT in Brazil will be to increase organ donation and access to LT. The reduction of those geographical disparities in donation, organ procurement, and LT due to political and financial constraints is of utmost importance. Liver Transplantation 22 1254-1258 2016 AASLD. PMID:27228568

  10. [Fulfilling of variables in the declarations of external cause of death of children and adolescents in Recife from 1979 to 1995].

    PubMed

    Barros, M D; Ximenes, R; Lima, M L

    2001-01-01

    This article analyzes the completion of death certificates related to external causes in children and adolescents residing in Recife, Pernambuco State, Brazil, from 1979 to 1995. The analysis focused on the extent to which the following variables were filled in: personal data (occupation, level of schooling, medical care, confirmation of diagnosis by post-mortem, and type of violence) and place (location and municipality of both occurrence and death). Using the chi-squared method, quantitative and/or qualitative flaws were found in most of the variables analyzed. In 1995, the "schooling" and "medical care" variables were recorded in only 5.7% and 17.9% of cases, respectively. Mismatches were observed between data on place of death and medical care, as well as between place of accident and number of accidents. The results suggest a dissociation between the objective of including the variable in the death certificate and its social function. The study provides the public sector with support for improved collecting and critical analysis of data in the mortality information system. PMID:11241929

  11. Meeting Report: Development of Environmental Health Indicators in Brazil and Other Countries in the Americas

    PubMed Central

    Carneiro, Fernando F.; Oliveira, Mara Lúcia C.; Netto, Guilherme F.; Galvão, Luis A.C.; Cancio, Jacira A.; Bonini, Estela M.; Corvalan, Carlos F.

    2006-01-01

    This report summarizes the Brazilian experience on the design and implementation of environmental health, with contributions from Argentina, Canada, and Cuba, presented at the International Symposium on the Development of Indicators for Environmental Health Integrated Management, held in Recife, Pernambuco, Brazil, on 17–18 June 2004. The methodology for the development of environmental health indicators has been used as a reference in the implementation of environmental health surveillance in Brazil. This methodology has provided tools and processes to facilitate the understanding and to measure the determinants of risks to environmental health, to help decision makers control those risks. PMID:16966096

  12. VIEW OF NORTHEAST TOWARD MAINTENANCE SHED AT NORTHEAST CORNER OF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW OF NORTHEAST TOWARD MAINTENANCE SHED AT NORTHEAST CORNER OF PARK - Candler Park Historic District, Roughly bounded by Moreland, Dekalb, McLendon & Harold Avenues, Matthews Street & Clifton Terrace, Atlanta, Fulton County, GA

  13. 5. INTERIOR OF NORTHEAST ROOM AND MEZZANINE, NORTHEAST VIEW OF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. INTERIOR OF NORTHEAST ROOM AND MEZZANINE, NORTHEAST VIEW OF (HOISTS IN CENTER). - Vanadium Corporation of America (VCA) Naturita Mill, Sampling Building & Ore Receiving Platform, 3 miles Northwest of Naturita, between Highway 141 & San Miguel River, Naturita, Montrose County, CO

  14. 52. Ground floor, northeast corner, looking northeast at former delivery ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    52. Ground floor, northeast corner, looking northeast at former delivery entries (archways have since been filled in) - Sheffield Farms Milk Plant, 1075 Webster Avenue (southwest corner of 166th Street), Bronx, Bronx County, NY

  15. Northeast Hellas Landscape

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    MGS MOC Release No. MOC2-446, 8 August 2003

    This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image of pitted terrain northeast of Hellas Basin shows light-toned outcrops of layered, sedimentary rock, and a valley floor covered by large, dark ripples or small dunes. Similar light-toned sedimentary materials are found throughout the region immediately northeast of Hellas, and in the crater, Terby. The area shown is 3 km (1.9 mi) wide and located near 27.5oS, 281.7oW. Sunlight illuminates the scene from the upper left.

  16. Morphometric Variations in the Grasshopper, Chromacris speciosa from Two Localities of Pernambuco in Northeastern Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Cisneiros, Roberta Araújo; de Almeida, Argus Vasconcelos; de Melo, Gabriel Rivas; da Câmara, Cláudio Augusto Gomes

    2012-01-01

    The present study describes morphometric variations in the grasshopper, Chromacris speciosa (Thunberg, 1824) (Orthoptera: Acridoidea: Romaleidae) from two locations in the state of Pernambuco, Brazil. The distance between the sites chosen for collections (Recife and São Lourenço da Mata) is approximately 16 km. The investigation was based on a comparative study of external morphological characteristics of the grasshoppers. Morphometric measurements took into account the different body parts and appendages. Statistical analysis of the measurements revealed significant differences in the size of the specimens between the two locations. Homogeneity tests of the covariance and equality matrices between mean vectors of the results revealed that the grasshopper populations in Recife and São Lourenço da Mata are distinctly different. These findings provide morphological evidence for intraspecific variation in morphological characteristics of the C. speciosa populations from the two locations. PMID:23421530

  17. Zika virus outbreak in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Heukelbach, Jorg; Alencar, Carlos Henrique; Kelvin, Alyson Ann; de Oliveira, Wanderson Kleber; Pamplona de Góes Cavalcanti, Luciano

    2016-02-01

    Zika virus (ZIKV) infection is spreading rapidly within the Americas after originating from an outbreak in Brazil. We describe the current ZIKV infection epidemic in Brazil and the neurological symptoms arising. First cases of an acute exanthematic disease were reported in Brazil's Northeast region at the end of 2014. In March 2015, autochthonous ZIKV was determined to be the causative agent of the exanthematic disease. As cases of neurological syndromes in regions where ZIKV, dengue and/or Chikungunya viruses co-circulate were reported, ZIKV was also identified in the cerebrospinal fluid of patients with acute neurological syndromes and previous exanthematic disease. By the end of September 2015, an increasing number of infants with small head circumference or microcephaly were noted in Brazil's Northeast which was estimated to be 29 cases between August and October. ZIKV was identified in blood and tissue samples of a newborn and in mothers who had given birth to infants with microcephaly and ophthalmological anomalies. In 2015, there were an estimated 440,000 - 1,300,000 Zika cases in Brazil. There have been 4,783 suspected cases of microcephaly, most of them in the Northeast of Brazil associated with 76 deaths. The Ministry of Health is intensifying control measures against the mosquito Aedes aegypti and implemented intensive surveillance actions. Further studies are needed to confirm the suspected association between ZIKV infection and microcephaly; to identify antiviral, immunotherapy, or prophylactic vaccine; to introduce diagnostic ELISA testing. Clinical and epidemiological studies must be performed to describe viral dynamics and expansion of the outbreak. PMID:26927450

  18. Lymphatic filariasis in Brazil: epidemiological situation and outlook for elimination.

    PubMed

    Fontes, Gilberto; Leite, Anderson Brandão; de Lima, Ana Rachel Vasconcelos; Freitas, Helen; Ehrenberg, John Patrick; da Rocha, Eliana Maria Mauricio

    2012-01-01

    Since the World Health Assembly's (Resolution WHA 50.29, 1997) call for the elimination of lymphatic filariasis by the year 2020, most of the endemic countries identified have established programmes to meet this objective. In 1997, a National Lymphatic Filariasis Elimination Plan was drawn up by the Ministry of Health of Brazil, creating local programs for the elimination of Bancroftian filariasis in areas with active transmission. Based on a comprehensive bibliographic search for available studies and reports of filariasis epidemiology in Brazil, current status of this parasitic infection and the outlook for its elimination in the country were analysed. From 1951 to 1958 a nationwide epidemiological study conducted in Brazil confirmed autochthonous transmission of Bancroftian filariasis in 11 cities of the country. Control measures led to a decline in parasite rates, and in the 1980s only the cities of Belém in the Amazonian region (Northern region) and Recife (Northeastern region) were considered to be endemic. In the 1990s, foci of active transmission of LF were also described in the cities of Maceió, Olinda, Jaboatão dos Guararapes, and Paulista, all in the Northeastern coast of Brazil. Data provide evidence for the absence of microfilaremic subjects and infected mosquitoes in Belém, Salvador and Maceió in the past few years, attesting to the effectiveness of the measures adopted in these cities. Currently, lymphatic filariasis is a public health problem in Brazil only in four cities of the metropolitan Recife region (Northeastern coast). Efforts are being concentrated in these areas, with a view to eliminating the disease in the country. PMID:23181663

  19. Lymphatic filariasis in Brazil: epidemiological situation and outlook for elimination

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Since the World Health Assembly’s (Resolution WHA 50.29, 1997) call for the elimination of lymphatic filariasis by the year 2020, most of the endemic countries identified have established programmes to meet this objective. In 1997, a National Lymphatic Filariasis Elimination Plan was drawn up by the Ministry of Health of Brazil, creating local programs for the elimination of Bancroftian filariasis in areas with active transmission. Based on a comprehensive bibliographic search for available studies and reports of filariasis epidemiology in Brazil, current status of this parasitic infection and the outlook for its elimination in the country were analysed. From 1951 to 1958 a nationwide epidemiological study conducted in Brazil confirmed autochthonous transmission of Bancroftian filariasis in 11 cities of the country. Control measures led to a decline in parasite rates, and in the 1980s only the cities of Belém in the Amazonian region (Northern region) and Recife (Northeastern region) were considered to be endemic. In the 1990s, foci of active transmission of LF were also described in the cities of Maceió, Olinda, Jaboatão dos Guararapes, and Paulista, all in the Northeastern coast of Brazil. Data provide evidence for the absence of microfilaremic subjects and infected mosquitoes in Belém, Salvador and Maceió in the past few years, attesting to the effectiveness of the measures adopted in these cities. Currently, lymphatic filariasis is a public health problem in Brazil only in four cities of the metropolitan Recife region (Northeastern coast). Efforts are being concentrated in these areas, with a view to eliminating the disease in the country. PMID:23181663

  20. Northeast Regional Biomass Program

    SciTech Connect

    Lusk, P.D.

    1992-12-01

    The Northeast Regional Biomass Program has been in operation for a period of nine years. During this time, state managed programs and technical programs have been conducted covering a wide range of activities primarily aim at the use and applications of wood as a fuel. These activities include: assessments of available biomass resources; surveys to determine what industries, businesses, institutions, and utility companies use wood and wood waste for fuel; and workshops, seminars, and demonstrations to provide technical assistance. In the Northeast, an estimated 6.2 million tons of wood are used in the commercial and industrial sector, where 12.5 million cords are used for residential heating annually. Of this useage, 1504.7 mw of power has been generated from biomass. The use of wood energy products has had substantial employment and income benefits in the region. Although wood and woodwaste have received primary emphasis in the regional program, the use of municipal solid waste has received increased emphasis as an energy source. The energy contribution of biomass will increase as potentia users become more familiar with existing feedstocks, technologies, and applications. The Northeast Regional Biomass Program is designed to support region-specific to overcome near-term barriers to biomass energy use.

  1. [Analysis of the prevalence of psychic disorders in the metropolitan region of Recife].

    PubMed

    Paixão, Cíntia; Matias, Daniele; Alencar, Izabel; Nunes, Marina; Sales, Patrícia; Veiga, Paulo Henrique Altran

    2009-01-01

    Mental health is a state of well-being, in which the individual is aware of its capacities, capable of coping with the ordinary stress of everyday life, of working productively and of functioning in society. The purpose of the present work is a quantitative analysis of the prevalence of psychic disorders, using references such as sex, age, kind of disorder and care delivered to the carriers. Social assistants of three psychiatric hospitals of the Metropolitan Region of Recife - the Psychiatric Hospital Ulysses Pernambucano, the Nucleus for Psychosocial Care of Pernambuco (NAPPE) and the Hospital Colony Alcides Codeceira - answered an adapted version of the Self Reporting Questionnaire (SRQ-20). The results showed a higher incidence of disorders in women in the age group between 41 and 60 years. Schizophrenia was the most frequently observed kind of mental disorder. Among the different treatments offered were drug therapy and individual and group therapy, the latter showing better results. PMID:19142330

  2. 2. SOUTHWEST VIEW OF NORTH SIDE (NORTHEAST CORNER).. THE NORTHEAST ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. SOUTHWEST VIEW OF NORTH SIDE (NORTHEAST CORNER).. THE NORTHEAST SIDE OF THE MINE OFFICE IS IN THE BACKGROUND. - Juniata Mill Complex, Mill Camp Shed, 22.5 miles Southwest of Hawthorne, between Aurora Crater & Aurora Peak, Hawthorne, Mineral County, NV

  3. 29. Photocopy of photograph. VIEW, LOOKING NORTHEAST, OF NORTHEAST SECTION ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    29. Photocopy of photograph. VIEW, LOOKING NORTHEAST, OF NORTHEAST SECTION OF THE STRUCTURE, SHOWING ORIGINAL WOOD DECK, RAILING AND EARLY 1930'S PACKARD AUTOMOBILE IN BACKGROUND. Photographer unknown, date unknown. (Print in possession of the Washington County Highway Department). - Hegeman-Hill Street Bridge, Spanning Batten Kill, .65 mile West of Greenwich, Easton, Washington County, NY

  4. The Trade in Medicinal Animals in Northeastern Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Ferreira, Felipe Silva; Albuquerque, Ulysses Paulino; Coutinho, Henrique Douglas Melo; Almeida, Waltécio de Oliveira; Alves, Rômulo Romeu da Nóbrega

    2012-01-01

    Over the centuries, a significant part of the Brazilian fauna is widely sold, more specifically in retail stores or street markets. The objective was to characterize the sale of medicinal animals in five large northeast cities. Information about the sale of zootherapeutic items was obtained in the cities of Aracaju-SE, Fortaleza-CE, Maceio-AL, Recife-PE, and Salvador-BA. A total of 68 animal species were sold for medicinal purposes in the cities studied; these are the first results on the use and sale of zootherapeutics in the markets of Aracaju, Fortaleza, and Salvador and first recorded on the medicinal use of the Achatina fulica, Trachycardium muricatum, Philodryas olfersii, Desmodus rotundus, and Leptodactylus vastus. Knowledge of the fauna utilized popular medicine is indispensable for conservation, demonstrating that research on this subject is necessary to determine appropriate practices for the management of the fauna. PMID:22216053

  5. The trade in medicinal animals in northeastern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Ferreira, Felipe Silva; Albuquerque, Ulysses Paulino; Coutinho, Henrique Douglas Melo; Almeida, Waltécio de Oliveira; Alves, Rômulo Romeu da Nóbrega

    2012-01-01

    Over the centuries, a significant part of the Brazilian fauna is widely sold, more specifically in retail stores or street markets. The objective was to characterize the sale of medicinal animals in five large northeast cities. Information about the sale of zootherapeutic items was obtained in the cities of Aracaju-SE, Fortaleza-CE, Maceio-AL, Recife-PE, and Salvador-BA. A total of 68 animal species were sold for medicinal purposes in the cities studied; these are the first results on the use and sale of zootherapeutics in the markets of Aracaju, Fortaleza, and Salvador and first recorded on the medicinal use of the Achatina fulica, Trachycardium muricatum, Philodryas olfersii, Desmodus rotundus, and Leptodactylus vastus. Knowledge of the fauna utilized popular medicine is indispensable for conservation, demonstrating that research on this subject is necessary to determine appropriate practices for the management of the fauna. PMID:22216053

  6. Northeast Pacific flatfish management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trumble, Robert J.

    1998-03-01

    Exploitation of northeast Pacific flatfish effectively began in the late 1800s with the fishery for Pacific halibut. Harvest of other flatfish occurred on a limited, local basis until foreign fishing fleets came to the area in the late 1950s. When US and Canadian fishermen replaced the foreign fleets in the 1970s and 1980s, a conservation-based management system designed to control foreign fishing was applied to the domestic fleet. Flatfish stock assessment is based on scientific surveys, both trawl and longline, and on catch-age models. In Alaskan waters since 1989 and since 1996 in Canadian waters, mandatory observers collect data on species composition, discards of flatfish and other groundfish, and catch and discards of prohibited species. Fishermen pay observer costs. Most biomass and harvest occurs in the Bering Sea-Aleutian Islands area. Many northeast Pacific flatfish are near record-high abundance, an order of magnitude higher than 20 years ago. Exploitation rates based on F35% or F0.1 generate acceptable biological catch of more than 1 million mt, but annual harvest reaches only 300,000 mt. Total groundfish harvest is limited by an optimum yield limit of 2 million mt in the Bering Sea-Aleutian Islands, where the acceptable biological catch is 3 million mt, and by limits on amounts of Pacific halibut and other prohibited species bycatch. Most flatfish are relatively low-value species, and fishermen chose to fish for more valuable species. A large, powerful fleet which developed under open access in the US saw fishing time decline and economic problems increase as catching capacity grew, while Canada stabilized its fleet with limited entry and catch restrictions for individual vessels.

  7. Empirical treatment for TB in HIV: lessons from a cohort study of people living with HIV treated in Recife, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Tuberculosis (TB) is the leading cause of death related to HIV worldwide. This study analyzes the survival of People Living with HIV (PLHIV) reporting cough without bacteriological confirmation of TB and identify factors associated with death. Methods Prospective cohort with a consecutive sample of PLHIV, aged ≥ 18 years. Patient inclusion criteria were complaint of current cough of any duration at the time of the first study interview or during their subsequent routine visits to health services and for whom AFB sputum smear was either negative or not performed during the whole follow-up period. Kaplan-Meier method was used to calculate the probability of survival. We estimated the Hazard Ratio (HR) in bivariate and multivariate Cox regression analyses. Results Mortality was 4.6 per 100 py; 73% were receiving HAART at recruitment. Average time from the first recorded date of cough until empirical treatment for tuberculosis was six months. Mortality was higher when the CD4 count was low (HR = 5.3; CI 95%: 3.2-9.0; p = 0.000), in those with anemia (HR = 3.0; CI 95%: 1.6-5.6; p = 0.001) and with abnormal chest X-rays (HR = 2.4; CI 95%: 1.4-4.0; p = 0.001). Mortality was higher in those receiving empirical TB treatment (HR = 2.4; CI 95%: 1.4-4.0; p = 0.002), but only in those with normal X-rays, no history of tuberculosis and no bacteriology requests. Empirical treatment for TB was more frequent in PLHIV with low CD4 counts, anemia, history of opportunistic infections, weight loss, previous tuberculosis, negative bacteriology test (as opposed to not having a test) and abnormal chest X-ray. Conclusions Higher mortality in PLHIV reporting a current cough without bacteriological confirmation of tuberculosis was identified for those with a CD4 cell count <200, abnormal chest X-ray, anemia and empirical treatment for tuberculosis. Mortality was not significantly higher in those empirically treated for TB, who had three characteristics suggestive of the disease (abnormal chest X-ray, history of TB treatment, AFB sputum smear or M.tb culture testing). Routine cohorts are not an adequate setting to evaluate the impact of empirical treatment for TB on the mortality of PLHIV. PMID:24679187

  8. Incidence and Risk Factors for Tuberculosis in People Living with HIV: Cohort from HIV Referral Health Centers in Recife, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Batista, Joanna d’Arc Lyra; de Albuquerque, Maria de Fátima Pessoa Militão; Maruza, Magda; Ximenes, Ricardo Arraes de Alencar; Santos, Marcela Lopes; Montarroyos, Ulisses Ramos; de Barros Miranda-Filho, Demócrito; Lacerda, Heloisa Ramos; Rodrigues, Laura Cunha

    2013-01-01

    Objective To identify the incidence of and risk factors for tuberculosis in people living with HIV (PLHIV). Design Observational, prospective cohort study. Methods A total of 2069 HIV-infected patients was observed between July 2007 and December 2010. The Kaplan-Meier method was used to estimate the probability of survival free of tuberculosis, and Cox regression analysis to identify risk factors associated with the development of tuberculosis. Results Survival free of tuberculosis (TB) was 91%. The incidence rate of tuberculosis was 2.8 per 100 persons/years. Incidence of tuberculosis was higher when subjects had CD4 cell count <200 cells/mm3; were not on antiretroviral therapy; in those who had, a body mass index <18.5 kg/m2, anemia (or were not tested for it), were illiterate or referred previous tuberculosis treatment at entry into the cohort. Those not treated for latent TB infection had a much higher risk (HR = 7.9) of tuberculosis than those with a negative tuberculin skin test (TST). Having a TST≥5 mm but not being treated for latent TB infection increased the risk of incident tuberculosis even in those with a history of previous tuberculosis. Conclusions Preventive actions to reduce the risk of TB in people living with HIV should include an appropriate HAART and treatment for latent TB infection in those with TST≥5 mm. The actions towards enabling rigorous implementation of treatment of latent TB infection and targeting of PLHIV drug users both at the individual and in public health level can reduce substantially the incidence of TB in PLHIV. PMID:23675515

  9. A review on the patterns of river material fluxes, coastal plume dispersal, shelf sediment facies, and anthropogenic impacts of the Tropical Land-Sea Interface, Sergipe/Alagoas, Northeast Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knoppers, B.; Medeiros, P. R. P.; de Souza, W. F. L.; Oliveira, E. N.; Fontes, L. C. da S.; do Carmo, M. S.; Carvalho, I. S.; Silva, M. C.; Brandini, N.; Carneiro, M. E.

    2012-04-01

    This study couples published and unpublished information on the alterations of continental material fluxes, plume dispersal patterns and coastal erosion induced by natural and human impacts to the distribution of sediment facies and sedimentation rates of the continental shelf of the States of Sergipe and Alagoas, northeastern Brazil (Lats. 8o56,2' and 11o20,0' S, Longs. 35o07,7' and 37o14,2' W). Historical data on river flow and material fluxes of 7 rivers, including the São Francisco river (L = 2850 km, AB = 634000 km2), were obtained from own measurements and from the national data bank of ANA (National Agency of Waters, www.ana.gov.br) with the softwares HIDRO 1.2 and SisCAH 1.0. Historical data on the distribution of sediments and their elemental composition of the shelf from the AKAROA (1965) campaign with 190 sampling stations (scale 1:1.000.000; Kempf, 1972, Summerhayes et al. 1975 & 1976, Coutinho, 1976) were revisited and new digital maps constructed with ArcGIS 9.3. Comparisons are made from new maps from recent campaigns (scale 1:250.000) performed by the consortium GEORIOEMAR/ UFS/ CENPES/ PETROBRÁS (2010). Statistical analyses with all parameters revealed that the shelf harbors 4 major regional sedimentary domains (i.e. A to D), reflecting the interaction between continental inputs and the impact of the oligotrophic South Equatorial Current (SEC) upon the shelf. The domains are: A- The Alagoas shelf. Set north of the São Francisco river with low fluvial input, dominance of SEC, recent organogenetic carbonate sediments with the calcareous algae Lithothamnium sp. and Halimeda sp. B- The São Francisco river alluvial fan and canyon. The river harbors a cascade of dams and after 1995, river flow declined by 40 % and was modulated to a constant flow of 2060 m3s-1, 95 % of the suspended matter load was retained within the reservoirs and nutrients (N,P) were impoverished by 90 % . The estuarine waters are now transparent and oligotrophic and the coastal

  10. Brazil's mental health adventure.

    PubMed

    Weingarten, Richard

    2003-01-01

    This is an account of my trips to Brazil in 2001 where I worked on a series of mental health projects with Brazilian colleagues. I first got interested in Brazil after I graduated from college when I was a Peace Corps volunteer in Northeast Brazil (Bahia state). After I got out of the Peace Corps I moved to Rio de Janeiro and went to work for United Press International (UPI) in their Rio bureau. I was UPI foreign news correspondent for a year and a half. Those years in Brazil were probably the happiest years of my life. Later on, after I became ill in the U.S., my Brazilian connection played an important role in my recovery. Raised in a Victorian family in a small town in the Midwest, and schooled in a traditional boarding school for boys and then at an all men's college, Brazil's lively Latino culture served as a healthy antidote for my tendency to be reserved and often depressed. My contact with Brazilians and Brazilian culture always beckoned me on. I maintained contact with my friends in Brazil and they stuck by me through my illness years. What seemed like my emotional and intellectual "excess" to me, was easily accepted by my Brazilian friends. I felt much more myself interacting with Brazilians and connected to a larger sense of self I developed in Brazil. I traveled to Brazil at every opportunity and made friends with Brazilians I met in the States. I initiated Portuguese classes at John Carroll University in Cleveland, Ohio in the early 1990s and then was invited to teach Brazilian culture to undergraduates. These appointments and my own resilience moved me past one depression and a dysthymia condition and into the wider community. I regained my confidence as a teacher, a role I had before and during the years of my illness. From this position, I organized a club for Brazilian students studying in the Cleveland area. After this teaching stint, I felt ready to pursue full time employment and began a job search that would eventually land me in New Haven at

  11. Rural Poverty Alleviation in Brazil: Toward an Integrated Strategy. World Bank Country Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Valdes, Alberto; Mistiaen, Johan A.

    This report constitutes a step toward designing an integrated strategy for rural poverty reduction in Brazil. The report contains an updated and detailed profile of the rural poor in the northeast and southeast regions of Brazil; identifies key components of rural poverty in those regions; and proposes a five-pronged strategic framework in which…

  12. Headache research and medical practice in Brazil: an historical overview.

    PubMed

    Valença, Marcelo Moraes; da Silva, Amanda Araújo; Bordini, Carlos Alberto

    2015-02-01

    Since the creation of the Brazilian Headache Society in 1978, substantial developments have taken place in both research and clinical practice in the field of headache medicine in Brazil. The Society now has almost 300 members throughout the country, actively working to improve the health of the general population and, in particular, diagnose and treat headache disorders. In addition, in a few large cities, such as São Paulo, Rio de Janeiro, Recife, Ribeirão Preto, Curitiba, and Porto Alegre, headache specialists have come together to promote research projects and increase knowledge in the field through MSc, PhD, and postdoctoral programs. Furthermore, scientific journals have emerged and books have been published to record and disseminate Brazilian scientific production in headache medicine. In this narrative review, we will briefly describe some important aspects of headache medicine in Brazil from prehistoric times to the present day, discuss the origin of headache medicine as a specialty in Brazil, the principal publications dealing with headache disorders, the use of plants and other unconventional forms of treatment used by faith healers, the main training centers, and the research produced to date by Brazilians. In conclusion, in recent years enormous progress has been made in headache medicine in Brazil stimulating us to review and expand our role in an increasingly international scenario. PMID:25659588

  13. Geodynamics map of northeast Asia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Parfenov, Leonid M., (compiler); Khanchuk, Alexander I.; Badarch, Gombosuren; Miller, Robert J.; Naumova, Vera V.; Nokleberg, Warren J.; Ogasawara, Masatsugu; Prokopiev, Andrei V.; Yan, Hongquan

    2013-01-01

    This map portrays the geodynamics of Northeast Asia at a scale of 1:5,000,000 using the concepts of plate tectonics and analysis of terranes and overlap assemblages. The map is the result of a detailed compilation and synthesis at 5 million scale and is part of a major international collaborative study of the mineral resources, metallogenesis, and tectonics of northeast Asia conducted from 1997 through 2002 by geologists from earth science agencies and universities in Russia, Mongolia, northeastern China, South Korea, Japan, and the USA.

  14. Hydrology of the Upper Capibaribe Basin, Pernambuco, Brazil - A reconnaissance in an Area of Crystalline Rocks

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chada Filho, Luiz Goncalves; Dias Pessoa, Mario; Sinclair, William C.

    1966-01-01

    The upper Capibaribe basin is the western three-fourths, approximately, of the valley of the river that empties into the Atlantic Ocean at Recife, the capital of the State of Pernambuco, Brazil. It is the part of the drainage basin that is within the Drought Polygon of northeast Brazil, and it totals about 5,400 square kilometers. It receives relatively abundant precipitation in terms of the annual average, yet is regarded as hot subhumid to semiarid because the precipitation is uneven from year to year and place to place. The dependable water supply, therefore, is small. The basin has water, which could be put to better use than at present, but the opportunities for augmenting the usable supply are not great. The streams are intermittent and therefore cannot be expected to fill surface reservoirs and to keep them filled. The ground-water reservoirs have small capacity--quickly filled and quickly drained. A rough estimate based on the records for 1964 suggests that, of 4,700 million cubic meters of precipitation in the upper Capibaribe basin, 2,700 million cubic meters (57 percent) left the basin as runoff and 2,000 million cubic meters {43 percent) went into underground storage or was evaporated or transpired. The bedrock of the upper Capibaribe basin is composed of granite, gneiss, schist, and other varieties of crystalline rocks, which have only insignificant primary permeability. They are permeable mainly where fractured. The principal fracture zones, fortunately, are in the valleys, where water accumulates and can feed into them, but the volume of fractured rock is small in relation to the basin as a whole. A well in a large water-filled fracture zone may yield up to 20,000 liters per hour, but the average well yields less than one-fourth this amount, and some wells yield none. The saprolite, or weathered rock, is many meters thick at some places especially in the eastern half of the upper Capibaribe basin. It contains water locally, but ordinarily will yield

  15. Northeast Regional Biomass Energy Program

    SciTech Connect

    O'Connell, R.A.

    1992-02-01

    The Northeast Regional Biomass Program (NRBP) is entering its ninth year of operation. The management and the objectives have virtually remained unchanged and are stated as follows. The program conducted by NRBP has three basic features: (1) a state grant component that provides funds (with a 50 percent matching requirement) to each of the states in the region to strengthen and integrate the work of state agencies involved in biomass energy; (2) a series of technical reports and studies in areas that have been identified as being of critical importance to the development of biomass energy in the region; and (3) a continuous long range planning component with heavy private sector involvement that helps to identify activities necessary to spur greater development and use of biomass energy in the Northeast.

  16. The Northeast Climate Science Center

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ratnaswamy, M. J.; Palmer, R. N.; Morelli, T.; Staudinger, M.; Holland, A. R.

    2013-12-01

    The Department of Interior Northeast Climate Science Center (NE CSC) is part of a federal network of eight Climate Science Centers created to provide scientific information, tools, and techniques that managers and other parties interested in land, water, wildlife and cultural resources can use to anticipate, monitor, and adapt to climate change. Recognizing the critical threats, unique climate challenges, and expansive and diverse nature of the northeast region, the University of Massachusetts Amherst, College of Menominee Nation, Columbia University, Marine Biological Laboratory, University of Minnesota, University of Missouri Columbia, and University of Wisconsin-Madison have formed a consortium to host the NE CSC. This partnership with the U.S. Geological Survey climate science center network provides wide-reaching expertise, resources, and established professional collaborations in both climate science and natural and cultural resources management. This interdisciplinary approach is needed for successfully meeting the regional needs for climate impact assessment, adaptive management, education, and stakeholder outreach throughout the northeast region. Thus, the NE CSC conducts research, both through its general funds and its annual competitive award process, that responds to the needs of natural resource management partners that exist, in part or whole, within the NE CSC bounds. This domain includes the North Atlantic, Upper Midwest and Great Lakes, Eastern Tallgrass and Big Rivers, and Appalachian Landscape Conservation Cooperatives (LCCs), among other management stakeholders. For example, researchers are developing techniques to monitor tree range dynamics as affected by natural disturbances which can enable adaptation of projected climate impacts; conducting a Designing Sustainable Landscapes project to assess the capability of current and potential future landscapes in the Northeast to provide integral ecosystems and suitable habitat for a suite of

  17. Preliminary northeast Asia geodynamics map

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Parfenov, Leonid M., (compiler); Khanchuk, Alexander I.; Badarch, Gombosuren; Miller, Robert J.; Naumova, Vera V.; Nokleberg, Warren J.; Ogasawara, Masatsugu; Prokopiev, Andrei V.; Yan, Hongquan

    2003-01-01

    This map portrays the geodynamics of Northeast Asia at a scale of 1:5,000,000 using the concepts of plate tectonics and analysis of terranes and overlap assemblages. The map is the result of a detailed compilation and synthesis at 5 million scale and is part of a major international collaborative study of the Mineral Resources, Metallogenesis, and Tectonics of Northeast Asia conducted from 1997 through 2002 by geologists from earth science agencies and universities in Russia, Mongolia, Northeastern China, South Korea, Japan, and the USA. This map is the result of extensive geologic mapping and associated tectonic studies in Northeast Asia in the last few decades and is the first collaborative compilation of the geology of the region at a scale of 1:5,000,000 by geologists from Russia, Mongolia, Northeastern China, South Korea, Japan, and the USA. The map was compiled by a large group of international geologists using the below concepts and definitions during collaborative workshops over a six-year period. The map is a major new compilation and re-interpretation of pre-existing geologic maps of the region. The map is designed to be used for several purposes, including regional tectonic analyses, mineral resource and metallogenic analysis, petroleum resource analysis, neotectonic analysis, and analysis of seismic hazards and volcanic hazards. The map consists of two sheets. Sheet 1 displays the map at a scale of 1:5,000,000, explanation. Sheet 2 displays the introduction, list of map units, and source references. Detailed descriptions of map units and stratigraphic columns are being published separately. This map is one of a series of publications on the mineral resources, metallogenesis, and geodynamics,of Northeast Asia. Companion studies and other articles and maps , and various detailed reports are: (1) a compilation of major mineral deposit models (Rodionov and Nokleberg, 2000; Rodionov and others, 2000; Obolenskiy and others, in press a); (2) a series of

  18. Pediatric lymphomas in Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Gualco, Gabriela; Klumb, Claudete E; Barber, Glen N; Weiss, Lawrence M; Bacchi, Carlos E

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: This study provides the clinical pathological characteristics of 1301 cases of pediatric/adolescent lymphomas in patients from different geographic regions of Brazil. METHODS: A retrospective analyses of diagnosed pediatric lymphoma cases in a 10‐year period was performed. We believe that it represents the largest series of pediatric lymphomas presented from Brazil. RESULTS: Non‐Hodgkin lymphomas represented 68% of the cases, including those of precursor (36%) and mature (64%) cell origin. Mature cell lymphomas comprised 81% of the B‐cell phenotype and 19% of the T‐cell phenotype. Hodgkin lymphomas represented 32% of all cases, including 87% of the classical type and 13% of nodular lymphocyte predominant type. The geographic distribution showed 38.4% of the cases in the Southeast region, 28.7% in the Northeast, 16.1% in the South, 8.8% in the North, and 8% in the Central‐west region. The distribution by age groups was 15–18 years old, 33%; 11–14 years old, 26%; 6–10 years old, 24%; and 6 years old or younger, 17%. Among mature B‐cell lymphomas, most of the cases were Burkitt lymphomas (65%), followed by diffuse large B‐cell lymphomas (24%). In the mature T‐cell group, anaplastic large cell lymphoma, ALK‐positive was the most prevalent (57%), followed by peripheral T‐cell lymphoma, then not otherwise specified (25%). In the group of classic Hodgkin lymphomas, the main histological subtype was nodular sclerosis (76%). Nodular lymphocyte predominance occurred more frequently than in other series. CONCLUSION: Some of the results found in this study may reflect the heterogeneous socioeconomical status and environmental factors of the Brazilian population in different regions. PMID:21340214

  19. A new species of Lissodendoryx (Anomodoryx) Burton, 1934 (Porifera: Demospongiae: Poecilosclerida) from deeper waters off the Atlantic coast of Brazil.

    PubMed

    Cavalcanti, Thaynã; Santos, George Garcia; Pinheiro, Ulisses

    2014-01-01

    The members of Lissodendoryx Topsent, 1892a are recognized by a spicule combination of ectosomal tylotes or strongyles, isodictyal reticulate architecture, arcuate isochelae and sigmas (Hofman & Van Soest 1995; Van Soest 2002). Five subgenera of Lissodendoryx, are recognized (Van Soest 2002): Lissodendoryx (Acanthodoryx) Lévi, 1961, L. (Anomodoryx) Burton, 1934, L. (Ectyodoryx) Lundbeck, 1909, L. (Lissodendoryx) Topsent, 1892a, and L. (Waldoschmittia) de Laubenfels, 1936. Lissodendoryx (Anomodoryx) is defined by the presence of a single megasclere type (Van Soest 2002). Currently has six recognized species (Van Soest et al. 2014) including two from Brazil (Muricy et al. 2011): L. (A.) recife (Boury-Esnault, 1973) and L. (A.) tylota (Boury-Esnault, 1973). In this paper, a new species of L. (Anomodoryx) is described from the mesophotic zone off Bacia Potiguar (Rio Grande do Norte State, Northeastern Brazil). The specimen was preserved in ethanol 80% and deposited in the Porifera Collection of the Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (UFPEPOR). PMID:25543804

  20. Fungi from a Groundwater-Fed Drinking Water Supply System in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Helena M B; Santos, Cledir; Paterson, R Russell M; Gusmão, Norma B; Lima, Nelson

    2016-01-01

    Filamentous fungi in drinking water distribution systems are known to (a) block water pipes; (b) cause organoleptic biodeterioration; (c) act as pathogens or allergens and (d) cause mycotoxin contamination. Yeasts might also cause problems. This study describes the occurrence of several fungal species in a water distribution system supplied by groundwater in Recife-Pernambuco, Brazil. Water samples were collected from four sampling sites from which fungi were recovered by membrane filtration. The numbers in all sampling sites ranged from 5 to 207 colony forming units (CFU)/100 mL with a mean value of 53 CFU/100 mL. In total, 859 isolates were identified morphologically, with Aspergillus and Penicillium the most representative genera (37% and 25% respectively), followed by Trichoderma and Fusarium (9% each), Curvularia (5%) and finally the species Pestalotiopsis karstenii (2%). Ramichloridium and Leptodontium were isolated and are black yeasts, a group that include emergent pathogens. The drinking water system in Recife may play a role in fungal dissemination, including opportunistic pathogens. PMID:27005653

  1. [Policy analysis: study of public policy of environmental health in a metropolis of northeastern Brazil].

    PubMed

    Lyra, Tereza Maciel; Araújo Júnior, José Luiz do Amaral Correa de

    2014-09-01

    The analysis of health policies has improved in Brazil despite a plethora of different methodological approaches. Based on the model developed by Walt and Gilson in 1994, the Environmental Health Program (EHP) of Recife as a policy based on the Health Promotion principles of the Unified Health System (SUS) and Agenda 21 was analyzed. An attempt was made to understand the context during the development and implementation of the EHP, the drafting process and which actors influenced the EHP agenda content and proposal. A qualitative case study was conducted, with semi-structured interviews with key actors. In terms of context, the findings include the influence of the municipal election, the socio-sanitary characteristics of Recife, the choice of the Secretary of Health and the management teams, acceptance by the technicians and the funding increase. In terms of the process, the acceptance of the managers must be stressed. Regarding the actors, the managers, sector technicians, non-sectorial actors with viability studies stood out. The content of the EHP coincided with the SUS and Health Promotion principles. Implementation was influenced by the dengue fever epidemic (2002), and cultural institutional factors that put pressure on the order of implementation of the planned actions. PMID:25184587

  2. Drought in Northeast Brazil—past, present, and future

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marengo, Jose A.; Torres, Roger Rodrigues; Alves, Lincoln Muniz

    2016-06-01

    This study provides an overview of the drought situation in Northeast Brazil for the past, present, and future. Droughts affect more people than any other natural hazard owing to their large scale and long-lasting nature. They are recurrent in the region and while some measures have been taken by the governments to mitigate their impacts, there is still a perception that residents, mainly in rural areas, are not yet adapted to these hazards. The drought affecting the Northeast from 2012 to 2015, however, has had an intensity and impact not seen in several decades and has already destroyed large swaths of cropland, affecting hundreds of cities and towns across the region, and leaving ranchers struggling to feed and water cattle. Future climate projections for the area show large temperature increases and rainfall reductions, which, together with a tendency for longer periods with consecutive dry days, suggest the occurrence of more frequent/intense dry spells and droughts and a tendency toward aridification in the region. All these conditions lead to an increase in evaporation from reservoirs and lakes, affecting irrigation and agriculture as well as key water uses including hydropower and industry, and thus, the welfare of the residents. Integrating drought monitoring and seasonal forecasting provides efficient means of assessing impacts of climate variability and change, identifying vulnerabilities, and allowing for better adaptation measures not only for medium- and long-term climate change but also for extremes of the interannual climate variability, particularly droughts.

  3. Mortality by Heart Failure and Ischemic Heart Disease in Brazil from 1996 to 2011

    PubMed Central

    Gaui, Eduardo Nagib; de Oliveira, Gláucia Maria Moraes; Klein, Carlos Henrique

    2014-01-01

    Background Circulatory system diseases are the first cause of death in Brazil. Objective To analyze the evolution of mortality caused by heart failure, by ischemic heart diseases and by ill-defined causes, as well as their possible relations, in Brazil and in the geoeconomic regions of the country (North, Northeast, Center-West, South and Southeast), from 1996 to 2011. Methods Data were obtained from DATASUS and death declaration records with codes I20 and I24 for acute ischemic diseases, I25 for chronic ischemic diseases, and I50 for heart failure, and codes in chapter XIII for ill-defined causes, according to geoeconomic regions of Brazil, from 1996 to 2011. Results Mortality rates due to heart failure declined in Brazil and its regions, except for the North and the Northeast. Mortality rates due to acute ischemic heart diseases increased in the North and Northeast regions, especially from 2005 on; they remained stable in the Center-West region; and decreased in the South and in the Southeast. Mortality due to chronic ischemic heart diseases decreased in Brazil and in the Center-West, South and Southeast regions, and had little variation in the North and in the Northeast. The highest mortality rates due to ill-defined causes occurred in the Northeast until 2005. Conclusions Mortality due to heart failure is decreasing in Brazil and in all of its geoeconomic regions. The temporal evolution of mortality caused by ischemic heart diseases was similar to that of heart failure. The decreasing number of deaths due to ill-defined causes may represent the improvement in the quality of information about mortality in Brazil. The evolution of acute ischemic heart diseases ranged according to regions, being possibly confused with the differential evolution of ill-defined causes. PMID:25004417

  4. Lifestyle, Dwelling Conditions and Daily Routine as Qualitative Indicators of Infant Development: A Study of 0-3 Years Old Children from Rural Brazilian Northeast.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rabinovich, Elaine Pedreira

    The developing child and his/her eco-social-cultural context is the focus of study of 28 children ages 0-3 years in the rural area of Cocal, Piaui in Northeast Brazil. Ethnographic methods, naturalistic observations and semi-structured interviews were used to ascertain the physical context (the house and its surroundings), as well as maternal…

  5. 11. Exterior detail view of northeast corner, showing stucco finish ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    11. Exterior detail view of northeast corner, showing stucco finish and woodwork details - American Railway Express Company Freight Building, 1060 Northeast Division Street, Bend, Deschutes County, OR

  6. 3. Perspective view of Express Building looking northeast, with Division ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. Perspective view of Express Building looking northeast, with Division Street in foreground - American Railway Express Company Freight Building, 1060 Northeast Division Street, Bend, Deschutes County, OR

  7. Freak waves statistics measured off Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pinho, Uggo; Babanin, Alexander; Liu, Paul

    2015-04-01

    Freaque wave statistics is analysed based on the data of South East coast of the Brazil. It is shown that such waves can be both due to linear and nonlinear dynamics. The wave climate in this area is very often dominated by a few uncorrelated wave systems and then the superposition of waves from different directions become likely. The available wave data was measured by wave buoys deployed off Rio de Janeiro State coast, where swell coming from the south are usually concomitant with northeast windsea generated by the South Atlantic anticyclone.

  8. Sandstream on the northeast Brazilian shelf

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vianna, Marcio L.; Solewicz, Reynaldo; Cabral, Alexandre P.; Testa, Viviane

    1991-06-01

    A preliminary characterization of seabed morphology and mapping of algal patches within a sandstream on the northeast Brazilian continental shelf off Cape Calcanhar (where the South American coast turns sharply to the west) is presented. The study area (30 km × 30 km) is swept by unidirectional, wind-driven, tidally rectified currents, under the influence of the North Brazil Current. The study was made by use of Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM) data of the seafloor down to 40 m depth, digital bathymetric data from smooth sheets furnished by the Brazilian Navy, echo-sounder profiling and underwater surveying by SCUBA diving. A mesoscale shore-parallel natural zonation of the sandstream was observable on the TM-images: (a) an inner zone dominated by sediment resuspension caused by wave-driven turbulence and tidal currents; (b) an intermediate zone dominated by sand ribbons and other longitudinal bedforms; (c) an outer zone dominated by large-scale sand waves (underwater sand dunes) limited offshore by shore-parallel sandbanks. Image-assisted in situ work, carried out on the latter zone, gave the following results: (1) Morphology and sand composition—the asymmetric sand waves are made of medium quartz sand, with almost straight crests of lengths up to 4 km, heights between 3 and 7 m, and avalanche lee slopes of 30°; on the stoss sides we recorded the presence of ripples and absence of megaripples and benthic ecosystems; on interdune areas, benthic ecosystem patches dominated by foliaceous and calcareous algae were found.(2) Sediment transport—active bedload transport was observable only during the winter season, when the strongest wind-forced currents induce flow separation at the crests and avalanche streams on the lee slope. Within the interdune areas, under the influence of the lee vortices, benthic community data confirms no appreciable abrasion due to sand transport.(3) Biology—species composition and biomass estimates from the algal patches in the first

  9. Northeast Regional Planetary Data Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schultz, Peter H.; Saunders, Stephen (Technical Monitor)

    2005-01-01

    In 1980, the Northeast Planetary Data Center (NEPDC) was established with Tim Mutch as its Director. The Center was originally located in the Sciences Library due to space limitations but moved to the Lincoln Field Building in 1983 where it could serve the Planetary Group and outside visitors more effectively. In 1984 Dr. Peter Schultz moved to Brown University and became its Director after serving in a similar capacity at the Lunar and Planetary Institute since 1976. Debbie Glavin has served as the Data Center Coordinator since 1982. Initially the NEPDC was build around Tim Mutch's research collection of Lunar Orbiter and Mariner 9 images with only partial sets of Apollo and Viking materials. Its collection was broadened and deepened as the Director (PHS) searched for materials to fill in gaps. Two important acquisitions included the transfer of a Viking collection from a previous PI in Tucson and the donation of surplused lunar materials (Apollo) from the USGS/Menlo Park prior to its building being torn down. Later additions included the pipeline of distributed materials such as the Viking photomosaic series and certain Magellan products. Not all materials sent to Brown, however, found their way to the Data Center, e.g., Voyager prints and negatives. In addition to the NEPDC, the planetary research collection is separately maintained in conjunction with past and ongoing mission activities. These materials (e.g., Viking, Magellan, Galileo, MGS mission products) are housed elsewhere and maintained independently from the NEPDC. They are unavailable to other researchers, educators, and general public. Consequently, the NEPDC represents the only generally accessible reference collection for use by researchers, students, faculty, educators, and general public in the Northeast corridor.

  10. Solimoes megashear: Intraplate tectonics in northwestern Brazil

    SciTech Connect

    Caputo, M.V. )

    1991-03-01

    A belt of deformation in the Solimoes basin of northwestern Brazil extends east-northeast from near the Peruvian border for about 1300 km. The belt is characterized by the en echelon arrangement of folds and faults interpreted as the result of right-slip displacements in a transpressive regime. The structures were formed during Late Jurassic time, probably due to collision of South America with allochthonous terranes as the opening of the South Atlantic Ocean began. The Iquitos arch near the western end of the megashear separates the Solimoes basin from Subandean basins. The development of the Iquitos arch is interpreted to be related to orogenic loading along western South America by the Andean mountain belt. In Brazil, folds and faults associated with the Solimoes megashear hold hydrocarbons within Paleozoic strata, and 15 gas and oil fields have so far been discovered.

  11. Northeast Clean Energy Application Center

    SciTech Connect

    Bourgeois, Tom

    2013-09-30

    From October 1, 2009 through September 30, 2013 (“contract period”), the Northeast Clean Energy Application Center (“NE-CEAC”) worked in New York and New England (Connecticut, Rhode Island, Vermont, Massachusetts, New Hampshire, and Maine) to create a more robust market for the deployment of clean energy technologies (CETs) including combined heat and power (CHP), district energy systems (DES), and waste heat recovery (WHR) systems through the provision of technical assistance, education and outreach, and strategic market analysis and support for decision-makers. CHP, DES, and WHR can help reduce greenhouse gas emissions, reduce electrical and thermal energy costs, and provide more reliable energy for users throughout the United States. The NE-CEAC’s efforts in the provision of technical assistance, education and outreach, and strategic market analysis and support for decision-makers helped advance the market for CETs in the Northeast thereby helping the region move towards the following outcomes: • Reduction of greenhouse gas emissions and criteria pollutants • Improvements in energy efficiency resulting in lower costs of doing business • Productivity gains in industry and efficiency gains in buildings • Lower regional energy costs • Strengthened energy security • Enhanced consumer choice • Reduced price risks for end-users • Economic development effects keeping more jobs and more income in our regional economy Over the contract period, NE-CEAC provided technical assistance to approximately 56 different potential end-users that were interested in CHP and other CETs for their facility or facilities. Of these 56 potential end-users, five new CHP projects totaling over 60 MW of install capacity became operational during the contract period. The NE-CEAC helped host numerous target market workshops, trainings, and webinars; and NE-CEAC staff delivered presentations at many other workshops and conferences. In total, over 60 different workshops

  12. Seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii antibodies in captive wild mammals and birds in Brazil.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In this study serum samples of 203 animals from different locations from zoos and breeding facilities from the north and northeast region of Brazil were analyzed for the presence of anti-Toxoplasma gondii antibodies by the modified agglutination test (MAT) with a cutoff of 1:25. Of the sampled anima...

  13. Antimalarial plants of northeast India: An overview

    PubMed Central

    Shankar, Rama; Deb, Sourabh; Sharma, B K

    2012-01-01

    The need for an alternative drug for malaria initiated intensive efforts for developing new antimalarials from indigenous plants. The information from different tribal communities of northeast India along with research papers, including books, journals and documents of different universities and institutes of northeast India was collected for information on botanical therapies and plant species used for malaria. Sixty-eight plant species belonging to 33 families are used by the people of northeast India for the treatment of malaria. Six plant species, namely, Alstonia scholaris, Coptis teeta, Crotolaria occulta, Ocimum sanctum, Polygala persicariaefolia, Vitex peduncularis, have been reported by more than one worker from different parts of northeast India. The species reported to be used for the treatment of malaria were either found around the vicinity of their habitation or in the forest area of northeast India. The most frequently used plant parts were leaves (33%), roots (31%), and bark and whole plant (12%). The present study has compiled and enlisted the antimalarial plants of northeast India, which would help future workers to find out the suitable antimalarial plants by thorough study. PMID:22529674

  14. Semiempirical quantum chemistry model for the lanthanides: RM1 (Recife Model 1) parameters for dysprosium, holmium and erbium.

    PubMed

    Filho, Manoel A M; Dutra, José Diogo L; Rocha, Gerd B; Simas, Alfredo M; Freire, Ricardo O

    2014-01-01

    Complexes of dysprosium, holmium, and erbium find many applications as single-molecule magnets, as contrast agents for magnetic resonance imaging, as anti-cancer agents, in optical telecommunications, etc. Therefore, the development of tools that can be proven helpful to complex design is presently an active area of research. In this article, we advance a major improvement to the semiempirical description of lanthanide complexes: the Recife Model 1, RM1, model for the lanthanides, parameterized for the trications of Dy, Ho, and Er. By representing such lanthanide in the RM1 calculation as a three-electron atom with a set of 5 d, 6 s, and 6 p semiempirical orbitals, the accuracy of the previous sparkle models, mainly concentrated on lanthanide-oxygen and lanthanide-nitrogen distances, is extended to other types of bonds in the trication complexes' coordination polyhedra, such as lanthanide-carbon, lanthanide-chlorine, etc. This is even more important as, for example, lanthanide-carbon atom distances in the coordination polyhedra of the complexes comprise about 30% of all distances for all complexes of Dy, Ho, and Er considered. Our results indicate that the average unsigned mean error for the lanthanide-carbon distances dropped from an average of 0.30 Å, for the sparkle models, to 0.04 Å for the RM1 model for the lanthanides; for a total of 509 such distances for the set of all Dy, Ho, and Er complexes considered. A similar behavior took place for the other distances as well, such as lanthanide-chlorine, lanthanide-bromine, lanthanide, phosphorus and lanthanide-sulfur. Thus, the RM1 model for the lanthanides, being advanced in this article, broadens the range of application of semiempirical models to lanthanide complexes by including comprehensively many other types of bonds not adequately described by the previous models. PMID:24497945

  15. Semiempirical Quantum Chemistry Model for the Lanthanides: RM1 (Recife Model 1) Parameters for Dysprosium, Holmium and Erbium

    PubMed Central

    Filho, Manoel A. M.; Dutra, José Diogo L.; Rocha, Gerd B.; Simas, Alfredo M.; Freire, Ricardo O.

    2014-01-01

    Complexes of dysprosium, holmium, and erbium find many applications as single-molecule magnets, as contrast agents for magnetic resonance imaging, as anti-cancer agents, in optical telecommunications, etc. Therefore, the development of tools that can be proven helpful to complex design is presently an active area of research. In this article, we advance a major improvement to the semiempirical description of lanthanide complexes: the Recife Model 1, RM1, model for the lanthanides, parameterized for the trications of Dy, Ho, and Er. By representing such lanthanide in the RM1 calculation as a three-electron atom with a set of 5 d, 6 s, and 6 p semiempirical orbitals, the accuracy of the previous sparkle models, mainly concentrated on lanthanide-oxygen and lanthanide-nitrogen distances, is extended to other types of bonds in the trication complexes’ coordination polyhedra, such as lanthanide-carbon, lanthanide-chlorine, etc. This is even more important as, for example, lanthanide-carbon atom distances in the coordination polyhedra of the complexes comprise about 30% of all distances for all complexes of Dy, Ho, and Er considered. Our results indicate that the average unsigned mean error for the lanthanide-carbon distances dropped from an average of 0.30 Å, for the sparkle models, to 0.04 Å for the RM1 model for the lanthanides; for a total of 509 such distances for the set of all Dy, Ho, and Er complexes considered. A similar behavior took place for the other distances as well, such as lanthanide-chlorine, lanthanide-bromine, lanthanide, phosphorus and lanthanide-sulfur. Thus, the RM1 model for the lanthanides, being advanced in this article, broadens the range of application of semiempirical models to lanthanide complexes by including comprehensively many other types of bonds not adequately described by the previous models. PMID:24497945

  16. [Environmental mesotheliomas in northeast Corsica].

    PubMed

    Rey, F; Viallat, J R; Boutin, C; Farisse, P; Billon-Galland, M A; Hereng, P; Dumortier, P; De Vuyst, P

    1993-01-01

    Since 1980, we have collected fourteen cases of mesothelioma induced by environmental exposure to asbestos, going back to childhood in patients from north-east Corsica, in a region which was remote from the asbestos mine of Canari. There were eight men and six women with a mean age of 69.5 +/- 4 years. Six patients presented with bilateral calcified pleural plaques as evidence of environmental exposure. The mineral analysis carried out on five patients (four had thoracoscopies and one an alveolar lavage), showed a moderate deposit of chrysotile (0.3 to 3.4 x 10(6) fibres per gram of dry tissue), and elevated level of tremolite (1.4 to 62 x 10(6) fibres/g). The ambient dosage of asbestos has confirmed the existence of environmental pollution by chrysotile fibres and above all by tremolite. In addition, the same type of fibres have been identified in the parietal pleural of animals subjected to the same risk. In this region, the risk is estimated, on the basis of our results, as 10 cases of mesothelioma per 100,000 inhabitants per year. PMID:8235025

  17. The role of CSP in Brazil: A multi-model analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soria, Rafael; Lucena, André F. P.; Tomaschek, Jan; Fichter, Tobias; Haasz, Thomas; Szklo, Alexandre; Schaeffer, Roberto; Rochedo, Pedro; Fahl, Ulrich; Kern, Jürgen; Hoffmann, Susanne

    2016-05-01

    MESSAGE, TIMES and REMIX-CEM are potential tools for modelling a larger penetration of variable renewable energy (VRE) into the Brazilian power system. They also allow devising the opportunities that concentrated solar power (CSP) plants offer to the power system and to the wider energy system. There are different opportunities for CSP in Brazil in the short and medium term, consolidating this technology as a feasible alternative for greenhouse gas (GHG) mitigation in Brazil. This work verified that CSP is a cost-effective option only under very stringent mitigation scenarios (4DS and 2DS) and when carbon capture and storage (CCS) is not available. Still, according to the findings of REMIX-CEM-B, CSP can provide firm energy and dispatchable capacity in the Northeast region of Brazil, optimally complementing wind and PV generation. Moreover, CSP can offer additional flexibility to the Northeast power system, especially during winter and after 2030.

  18. Proceedings of the Annual Conference of the International Group for the Psychology of Mathematics Education (19th, Recife, Brazil, July 22-27, 1995), Volume 3.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meira, Luciano, Ed.; Carraher, David, Ed.

    This proceedings of the annual conference of the International Group for the Psychology of Mathematics Education (PME) includes the following research papers: "Some Aspects of the Construction of the Geometrical Conception of the Phenomenon of the Sun's Shadow" (P. Boero, R. Garuti, E. Lemut, T. Gazzolo, & C. Llado); "Towards the Design of a…

  19. Proceedings of the Annual Conference of the International Group for the Psychology of Mathematics Education (19th, Recife, Brazil, July 22-27, 1995), Volume 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meira, Luciano, Ed.; Carraher, David, Ed.

    This proceedings of the annual conference of the International Group for the Psychology of Mathematics Education (PME) includes the following research papers: "The Impact of Meaning on Students' Ability to Negate Statements" (T. Barnard); "A Study of the Secondary Teaching System about the Concept of Limit" (L. Espinosa & C. Azcarate);…

  20. Scale Insects (Hemiptera: Coccoidea) on Myrciaria dubia (Myrtaceae) in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Wolff, V R S; Kondo, T; Peronti, A L B G; Noronha, A C S

    2016-06-01

    Commercial cultivation of the fruit tree Myrciaria dubia (Myrtaceae) is being developed in Brazil but phytophagous insects, including scale insects (Hemiptera: Coccoidea), can become pests in plantations. The coccids Ceroplastes jamaicensis White, Coccus viridis (Green), Parasaissetia nigra (Nietner), Pseudokermes vitreus (Cockerell) (Coccidae), and the diaspidid Pseudaonidia trilobitiformis (Green) were collected on M. dubia in the municipality of Belém and Tomé-Açu, state of Pará (PA), metropolitan and Northeast Pará mesoregions, Brazil. A key to species of Coccoidea recorded on M. dubia, based on adult females, is provided. Photographs for all scale insects reported on M. dubia are provided. Ceroplastes jamaicensis is recorded for the first time for Brazil and is herein reported for the first time associated with this host. PMID:26957084

  1. Rear (northeast side) of gateway with building 9 on the ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Rear (northeast side) of gateway with building 9 on the left and building 10 on the right - Fitzsimons General Hospital, Entrance Gateway, East Colfax Avenue & Peoria Street, Northeast Corner, Aurora, Adams County, CO

  2. Detail of door and gable treatment, looking northeast at intersection ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Detail of door and gable treatment, looking northeast at intersection of East Wing (Wing 1) and central core - Hospital for Sick Children, 1731 Bunker Hill Road, Northeast, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

  3. 10. Lighthouse boathouse and granite wharf, view north northeast, southwest ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    10. Lighthouse boathouse and granite wharf, view north northeast, southwest and southeast sides of boathouse, west and south sides of dock - Whitehead Light Station, Whitehead Island, East northeast of Tenants Harbor, Spruce Head, Knox County, ME

  4. 53. INTERIOR VIEW LOOKING NORTH NORTHEAST SHOWING THE REMAINS OF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    53. INTERIOR VIEW LOOKING NORTH NORTHEAST SHOWING THE REMAINS OF A WOODEN SETTLING BOX IN THE BACKGROUND RIGHT. AMALGAMATING PANS IN THE FOREGROUND. - Standard Gold Mill, East of Bodie Creek, Northeast of Bodie, Bodie, Mono County, CA

  5. Steam sand dryer in northeast part of sand tower. View ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Steam sand dryer in northeast part of sand tower. View to northeast - Duluth & Iron Range Rail Road Company Shops, Sand Tower, Southwest of downtown Two Harbors, northwest of Agate Bay, Two Harbors, Lake County, MN

  6. 2. General context view of Express Building, looking northeast, with ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. General context view of Express Building, looking northeast, with Division Street in foreground, showing relationship to the Bend Depot - American Railway Express Company Freight Building, 1060 Northeast Division Street, Bend, Deschutes County, OR

  7. 1. HEBRONVILLE MILL COMPLEX ADJACENT TO NORTHEAST CORRIDOR. HEBRONVILLE, BRISTOL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. HEBRONVILLE MILL COMPLEX ADJACENT TO NORTHEAST CORRIDOR. HEBRONVILLE, BRISTOL CO., MA. Sec. 4116, MP 193.75. - Northeast Railroad Corridor, Amtrak Route between RI/MA State Line & South Station, Boston, Suffolk County, MA

  8. 3. DODGEVILLE MILL COMPLEX ADJACENT TO NORTHEAST CORRIDOR DODGEVILLE, BRISTOL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. DODGEVILLE MILL COMPLEX ADJACENT TO NORTHEAST CORRIDOR DODGEVILLE, BRISTOL CO., MA. Sec. 4116, MP 195.55. - Northeast Railroad Corridor, Amtrak Route between RI/MA State Line & South Station, Boston, Suffolk County, MA

  9. 19. GENERAL VIEW, LOOKING SOUTHWEST TO NORTHEAST, SHOWING ENCLOSED OFFICE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    19. GENERAL VIEW, LOOKING SOUTHWEST TO NORTHEAST, SHOWING ENCLOSED OFFICE UNITS FLANKING OVERHEAD PORT AT NORTHEAST END OF BUILDING - Oakland Army Base, Transit Shed, East of Dunkirk Street & South of Burma Road, Oakland, Alameda County, CA

  10. 55. VIEW TO NORTHEAST OF MOTOR AND REDUCTION GEAR NO. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    55. VIEW TO NORTHEAST OF MOTOR AND REDUCTION GEAR NO. 1: View towards the northeast of Motor and Reduction Gear No. 1, installed in 1957. - San Francisco Cable Railway, Washington & Mason Streets, San Francisco, San Francisco County, CA

  11. 3. Light tower and fog signal house, view northeast, west ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. Light tower and fog signal house, view northeast, west and south sides - Great Duck Island Light Station, At southern tip of Great Duck Island southeast of Bass Harbor & northeast of Frenchboro, Frenchboro, Hancock County, ME

  12. 7. Oil house, view northeast, west and south sides ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. Oil house, view northeast, west and south sides - Great Duck Island Light Station, At southern tip of Great Duck Island southeast of Bass Harbor & northeast of Frenchboro, Frenchboro, Hancock County, ME

  13. 19. INTERIOR OF NORTHEAST REAR BEDROOM SHOWING ALUMINUMFRAME SLIDING GLASS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    19. INTERIOR OF NORTHEAST REAR BEDROOM SHOWING ALUMINUM-FRAME SLIDING GLASS WINDOWS. VIEW TO NORTHEAST. - Bishop Creek Hydroelectric System, Plant 4, Worker Cottage, Bishop Creek, Bishop, Inyo County, CA

  14. 20. DETAIL OF OFFICE FURNITURE IN NORTHEAST CORNER OF SECRETARIES' ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    20. DETAIL OF OFFICE FURNITURE IN NORTHEAST CORNER OF SECRETARIES' OFFICE ALONG NORTH SIDE OF FIRST FLOOR. VIEW TO NORTHEAST. - Boise Project, Boise Project Office, 214 Broadway, Boise, Ada County, ID

  15. Interior view of northeast unit master bedroom, looking into sleeping ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Interior view of northeast unit master bedroom, looking into sleeping porch, facing northeast - MacDill Air Force Base, Double Non-Commissioned Officers' Quarters, 7418 Hanger Loop Drive, Tampa, Hillsborough County, FL

  16. 5. ADMINISTRATION BUILDING, RIGHT AND LEFT SIDES, LOOKING NORTHEAST. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. ADMINISTRATION BUILDING, RIGHT AND LEFT SIDES, LOOKING NORTHEAST. - NIKE Missile Base SL-40, Administration Building, East central portion of base, southeast of Mess Hall, northeast of HIPAR Equipment Building, Hecker, Monroe County, IL

  17. 11. DETAIL SHOWING ROLLING ENGINE DECK AND NORTHEAST TRUSS OF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    11. DETAIL SHOWING ROLLING ENGINE DECK AND NORTHEAST TRUSS OF SUPERSTRUCTURE. Looking northeast. - Edwards Air Force Base, Air Force Rocket Propulsion Laboratory, Test Stand 1-A, Test Area 1-120, north end of Jupiter Boulevard, Boron, Kern County, CA

  18. 1. BUILDING 522, SOUTH SIDE, OBLIQUE VIEW, FROM NORTHEAST CORNER ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. BUILDING 522, SOUTH SIDE, OBLIQUE VIEW, FROM NORTHEAST CORNER OF BUILDING 431, LOOKING NORTHEAST. - Oakland Naval Supply Center, Aeronautical Materials Storehouses, Between E & G Streets, between Fourth & Sixth Streets, Oakland, Alameda County, CA

  19. 2. Light tower and keeper's house, view southwest, north northeast ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. Light tower and keeper's house, view southwest, north northeast side of tower, northeast and northwest sides of keeper's house - Wood Island Light Station, East end of Wood Island, at mouth of Soo River, Biddeford Pool, York County, ME

  20. 3. GENERAL VIEW LOOKING NORTHEAST, SHOWING ENTRANCE ROAD TO BONNEVILLE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. GENERAL VIEW LOOKING NORTHEAST, SHOWING ENTRANCE ROAD TO BONNEVILLE PROJECT; AUDITORIUM IS VISIBLE IN CENTER BACKGROUND. - Bonneville Project, Columbia River, 1 mile Northeast of Exit 40, off Interstate 84, Bonneville, Multnomah County, OR

  1. 1. GENERAL EXTERIOR VIEW LOOKING NORTHEAST, SHOWING FRONT FACADE OF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. GENERAL EXTERIOR VIEW LOOKING NORTHEAST, SHOWING FRONT FACADE OF AUDITORIUM; ENTRANCE ROAD TO BONNEVILLE PROJECT IS IN FOREGROUND; FLAGPOLE IS IN CENTER. - Bonneville Project, Auditorium, Columbia River, 1 mile Northeast of Exit 40, Interstate 84, Bonneville, Multnomah County, OR

  2. 2. GENERAL EXTERIOR VIEW LOOKING NORTHEAST, SHOWING LANDSCAPING AROUND ENTRANCE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. GENERAL EXTERIOR VIEW LOOKING NORTHEAST, SHOWING LANDSCAPING AROUND ENTRANCE ROAD TO BONNEVILLE PROJECT; THE AUDITORIUM IS PARTIALLY VISIBLE IN CENTER BACKGROUND. - Bonneville Project, Columbia River, 1 mile Northeast of Exit 40, off Interstate 84, Bonneville, Multnomah County, OR

  3. OVERALL VIEW OF QUARRY, FACING NORTHEAST, SHOWING SOUTHERN SECTION OF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    OVERALL VIEW OF QUARRY, FACING NORTHEAST, SHOWING SOUTHERN SECTION OF QUARRY - Granite Hill Plantation, Quarry No. 2, South side of State Route 16, 1.3 miles northeast east of Sparta, Sparta, Hancock County, GA

  4. Interior view of upstairs loft, north portion; camera facing northeast. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Interior view of upstairs loft, north portion; camera facing northeast. - Mare Island Naval Shipyard, Ordnance Warehouse, Blake Avenue, northeast corner of Blake Avenue & Railroad Avenue, Vallejo, Solano County, CA

  5. 1. TWOSTALL GARAGE. FRONT (SOUTHWEST) SIDE. VIEW TO NORTHEAST. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. TWO-STALL GARAGE. FRONT (SOUTHWEST) SIDE. VIEW TO NORTHEAST. - Rainbow Hydroelectric Facility, Two Stall Garage, On north bank of Missouri River 2 miles Northeast of Great Falls, & end of Rainbow Dam Road, Great Falls, Cascade County, MT

  6. 1. TOOL HOUSE. NORTHEAST AND NORTHWEST SIDES. VIEW TO SOUTHEAST. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. TOOL HOUSE. NORTHEAST AND NORTHWEST SIDES. VIEW TO SOUTHEAST. - Rainbow Hydroelectric Facility, Tool House, On north bank of Missouri River 2 miles Northeast of Great Falls, & end of Rainbow Dam Road, Great Falls, Cascade County, MT

  7. 6. CLUBHOUSE. SOUTHWEST SIDE. VIEW TO NORTHEAST. Rainbow Hydroelectric ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. CLUBHOUSE. SOUTHWEST SIDE. VIEW TO NORTHEAST. - Rainbow Hydroelectric Facility, Clubhouse, On north bank of Missouri River 2 miles Northeast of Great Falls, & end of Rainbow Dam Road, Great Falls, Cascade County, MT

  8. 3. CLUBHOUSE. FRONT (SOUTHEAST) FACADE AND NORTHEAST SIDE. VIEW TO ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. CLUBHOUSE. FRONT (SOUTHEAST) FACADE AND NORTHEAST SIDE. VIEW TO WEST. - Rainbow Hydroelectric Facility, Clubhouse, On north bank of Missouri River 2 miles Northeast of Great Falls, & end of Rainbow Dam Road, Great Falls, Cascade County, MT

  9. 1. THREESTALL GARAGE. SOUTHEAST AND NORTHEAST SIDES. VIEW TO WEST. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. THREE-STALL GARAGE. SOUTHEAST AND NORTHEAST SIDES. VIEW TO WEST. - Rainbow Hydroelectric Facility, Three Stall Garage, On north bank of Missouri River 2 miles Northeast of Great Falls, & end of Rainbow Dam Road, Great Falls, Cascade County, MT

  10. 4. CLUBHOUSE. NORTHEAST SIDE. VIEW TO SOUTHWEST. Rainbow Hydroelectric ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. CLUBHOUSE. NORTHEAST SIDE. VIEW TO SOUTHWEST. - Rainbow Hydroelectric Facility, Clubhouse, On north bank of Missouri River 2 miles Northeast of Great Falls, & end of Rainbow Dam Road, Great Falls, Cascade County, MT

  11. 2. TOOL HOUSE. NORTHEAST AND SOUTHEAST SIDES. VIEW TO WEST. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. TOOL HOUSE. NORTHEAST AND SOUTHEAST SIDES. VIEW TO WEST. - Rainbow Hydroelectric Facility, Tool House, On north bank of Missouri River 2 miles Northeast of Great Falls, & end of Rainbow Dam Road, Great Falls, Cascade County, MT

  12. 2. THREESTALL GARAGE. NORTHEAST SIDE. VIEW TO SOUTHWEST. Rainbow ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. THREE-STALL GARAGE. NORTHEAST SIDE. VIEW TO SOUTHWEST. - Rainbow Hydroelectric Facility, Three Stall Garage, On north bank of Missouri River 2 miles Northeast of Great Falls, & end of Rainbow Dam Road, Great Falls, Cascade County, MT

  13. 4. FOREMAN'S HOUSE. NORTHEAST SIDE. VIEW TO SOUTHWEST. Rainbow ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. FOREMAN'S HOUSE. NORTHEAST SIDE. VIEW TO SOUTHWEST. - Rainbow Hydroelectric Facility, Foreman's House, On north bank of Missouri River 2 miles Northeast of Great Falls, & end of Rainbow Dam Road, Great Falls, Cascade County, MT

  14. 4. HOUSE No. 16. NORTHEAST SIDE. VIEW TO SOUTHWEST. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. HOUSE No. 16. NORTHEAST SIDE. VIEW TO SOUTHWEST. - Rainbow Hydroelectric Facility, House No. 16, On north bank of Missouri River 2 miles Northeast of Great Falls, & end of Rainbow Dam Road, Great Falls, Cascade County, MT

  15. 3. TWOSTALL GARAGE SOUTHEAST AND NORTHEAST SIDES. VIEW TO WEST. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. TWO-STALL GARAGE SOUTHEAST AND NORTHEAST SIDES. VIEW TO WEST. - Rainbow Hydroelectric Facility, Two Stall Garage, On north bank of Missouri River 2 miles Northeast of Great Falls, & end of Rainbow Dam Road, Great Falls, Cascade County, MT

  16. 2. FOREMAN'S HOUSE. SOUTHWEST SIDE. VIEW TO NORTHEAST. Rainbow ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. FOREMAN'S HOUSE. SOUTHWEST SIDE. VIEW TO NORTHEAST. - Rainbow Hydroelectric Facility, Foreman's House, On north bank of Missouri River 2 miles Northeast of Great Falls, & end of Rainbow Dam Road, Great Falls, Cascade County, MT

  17. The onshore northeast Brazilian rift basins: An early Neocomian aborted rift system

    SciTech Connect

    Matos, R. )

    1990-05-01

    Early Cretaceous rift basins of northeastern Brazil illustrate key three-dimensional geometries of intracontinental rift systems, controlled mainly by the basement structures. These basins were formed and then abandoned during the early extension associated with the north-south-propagating separation of South America and Africa. During the early Neocomian, extensional deformation jumped from the easternmost basins (group 1: Sergipe Alagoas and Gabon basins; group 2: Reconcavo, Tucano, and Jatoba basins) to the west, forming a series of northeast-trending intracratonic basins (group 3: Araripe, Rio do Peixe, Iguatu, Malhada Vermelha, Lima Campos, and Potiguar basins). The intracratonic basins of groups 2 and 3 consist of asymmetric half-grabens separated by basement highs, transfer faults, and/or accommodation zones. These basins are typically a few tens of kilometers wide and trend northeast-southwest, roughly perpendicular to the main extension direction during the early Neocomian. Preexisting upper crustal weakness zones, like the dominantly northeast-southwest-trending shear zones of the Brazilian orogeny, controlled the development of intracrustal listric normal faults. Internal transverse structures such as transfer faults (Reconcavo basin and onshore Potiguar basin) and accommodation zones (onshore Potiguar basin and Araripe basin) were also controlled by the local basement structural framework. Transverse megafaults and lithostructural associations controlled the three main rift trends. The megashear zones of Pernanbuco (Brazil)-Ngaundere (Africa) apparently behaved like a huge accommodation zone, balancing extensional deformation along the Reconcavo-Jatoba/Sergipe Alagoas-Gabon trends with simultaneous extension along the Araripe-Potiguar trend. The Sergipe Alagoas-Gabon trend and the Potiguar basin represent the site of continued evolution into a marginal open basin following early Neocomian deformation.

  18. Food-fuel conflicts: the Brazil case

    SciTech Connect

    Rask, N.

    1981-01-01

    Brazil has decided to commit a significant part of its agricultural resources to the production of sugarcane and other crops to be processed into fuel grade alcohol. Concerns are already being raised about potential food-fuel conflicts, especially in the major food-sugarcane producing areas of the state of Sao Paulo and the sugarcane areas of northeast Brazil. The objective of this paper is to explore the dimensions of this emerging food-fuel issue in Brazil. The energy supply and use situation along with a brief description of the alcohol program are presented first. Current land use in relation to food and export crop production is presented next. This is followed by a description of the energy crops to be used for alcohol production. The paper concludes with an investigation of the food-fuel conflicts on a national and regional basis with the identification of some changes in program emphasis that will lessen the impact of the alcohol program on food supplies and prices.

  19. Biochemical Education in Brazil.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vella, F.

    1988-01-01

    Described are discussions held concerning the problems of biochemical education in Brazil at a meeting of the Sociedade Brazileira de Bioquimica in April 1988. Also discussed are other visits that were made to universities in Brazil. Three major recommendations to improve the state of biochemistry education in Brazil are presented. (CW)

  20. NORTHEAST VIEW OF FOUNDRY FROM TOP OF GREY IRON CUPOLA ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    NORTHEAST VIEW OF FOUNDRY FROM TOP OF GREY IRON CUPOLA SHOWING CORE ROOM ROOF DIRECTLY NORTHEAST, GREY IRON FOUNDRY TO THE RIGHT, MALLEABLE IRON CUPOLAS AND FOUNDRY NORTHEAST OF GREY IRON FOUNDRY WITH THE BRASS FOUNDRY IN THE REAR. - Stockham Pipe & Fittings Company, 4000 Tenth Avenue North, Birmingham, Jefferson County, AL

  1. Native medicinal plants commercialized in Brazil - priorities for conservation.

    PubMed

    de Melo, Joabe Gomes; de Amorim, Elba Lúcia Cavalcanti; de Albuquerque, Ulysses Paulino

    2009-09-01

    A majority of the native medicinal plants that are commercialized in Brazil are harvested from natural populations. In addition to this essentially unrestrained collecting, these plants have been heavily impacted by the cutting and the fragmentation of forest formations throughout the country. Considering the limited availability of natural resources, threats to species diversity, and the necessity of conservation efforts in light of the rapid exhaustion of natural ecosystems, it is becoming exceedingly important to establish conservation priorities. The present work sought to identify the native medicinal plants harvested for industrial purposes and to establish conservation priorities for the species of highest commercial value. To that end, a survey of Brazilian industrial products that use medicinal plants was undertaken in 54 shops in the city of Recife (Pernambuco, NE Brazil). The survey noted information concerning the commercial name of the product, its plant composition and pharmaceutical presentation, therapeutic indications, as well as the laboratory that produced it. Only native species were considered. A total of 74 different native species used to produce more than 300 types of products were encountered in the present survey. Twelve species demonstrated significant versatility (Species which had the highest numbers of different therapeutic indications and body systems), and 58.33% of these plants were trees. Destructive collecting predominates (58.11%), greatly affecting taxa collected exclusively from wild populations (86.49%). The intensive use of exclusively wild species and the destructive harvesting techniques employed in gathering them create serious problems that will threaten the availability of these resources to future generations. PMID:18726244

  2. Motivation and Social Capital among prospective blood donors in three large blood centers in Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Gonçalez, Thelma T.; Di Lorenzo Oliveira, Claudia; Carneiro-Proietti, Anna Barbara F.; Moreno, Elizabeth C.; Miranda, Carolina; Larsen, Nina; Wright, David; Leão, Silvana; Loureiro, Paula; de Almeida-Neto, Cesar; Lopes, Maria-Inês; Proietti, Fernando A.; Custer, Brian; Sabino, Ester

    2012-01-01

    Background Studies analyzing motivation factors that lead to blood donation have found altruism to be the primary motivation factor; however social capital has not been analyzed in this context. Our study examines the association between motivation factors (altruism, self-interest and response to direct appeal) and social capital (cognitive and structural) across three large blood centers in Brazil. Study Design and Methods We conducted a cross-sectional survey of 7,635 donor candidates from October 15 through November 20, 2009. Participants completed self-administered questionnaires on demographics, previous blood donation, HIV testing and knowledge, social capital and donor motivations. Enrollment was determined prior to the donor screening process. Results Among participants, 43.5% and 41.7% expressed high levels of altruism and response to direct appeal respectively, while only 26.9% expressed high levels of self-interest. More high self-interest was observed at Hemope-Recife (41.7%). Of participants, 37.4% expressed high levels of cognitive social capital while 19.2% expressed high levels of structural social capital. More high cognitive and structural social capital was observed at Hemope-Recife (47.3% and 21.3%, respectively). High cognitive social capital was associated with high levels of altruism, self-interest and response to direct appeal. Philanthropic and high social altruism was associated with high levels of altruism and response to direct appeal. Conclusion Cognitive and structural social capital and social altruism are associated with altruism and response to direct appeal, while only cognitive social capital is associated with self-interest. Designing marketing campaigns with these aspects in mind may help blood banks attract potential blood donors more efficiently. PMID:22998740

  3. Northeast Regional Exchange, Annual Report, January 1982.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    1982

    The activities of Northeast Regional Exchange, Inc. (NEREX) during its first year of operation are delineated in this report. The newest member of the national network of Research and Development Exchanges (RDx), this service agency was established to promote educational improvement in the seven northeastern states: Connecticut, Maine,…

  4. Northeast Regional Education Planning Project. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Northeast Regional Exchange Steering Committee, Boston, MA.

    Created to facilitate the dissemination of information between researchers and the educational community, the Northeast Regional Exchange steering committee has defined needs, determined agency qualifications, identified priorities, undertaken a series of minigrant projects, and developed plans for the extension of these projects and a study of…

  5. Teacher Morale in Rural Northeast Tennessee

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eggers, Brenda Dishman

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this quantitative study was to investigate the factors that influence the morale levels of teachers in the public school systems of 3 contiguous counties in rural northeast Tennessee. The level of teacher morale was measured using the Purdue Teacher Opinionaire. Data associated with the Tennessee Value-Added Assessment System…

  6. Rise in the frequency of cloud cover in LANDSAT data for the period 1973 to 1981. [Brazil

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parada, N. D. J. (Principal Investigator); Mendonca, F. J.; Neto, G. C.

    1983-01-01

    Percentages of cloud cover in LANDSAT imagery were used to calculate the cloud cover monthly average statistic for each LANDSAT scene in Brazil, during the period of 1973 to 1981. The average monthly cloud cover and the monthly minimum cloud cover were also calculated for the regions of north, northeast, central west, southeast and south, separately.

  7. A new genus and species of cricket from the Chapada Diamantina National Park, northeastern Brazil (Grylloidea: Phalangopsidae; Luzarinae).

    PubMed

    Dias, Pedro G B Souza; Mello, Francisco De Assis Ganeo De; Vieira, Lelisberto Baldo

    2016-01-01

    A new genus and species of Luzarinae cricket (Grylloidea, Phalangopsidae) is described from the Chapada Diamantina National Park, Bahia State, northeast Brazil. Sishiniheia diamantina, n. gen. n. sp. is described based in characters of external morphology and male genitalia and is characterized by the reduced FWs, absence of stridulatory file, thick longitudinal venation and the thin, pointed and curved pseudepiphallic arms. PMID:27395222

  8. Manaus, Brazil

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    The junctions of the Amazon and the Rio Negro Rivers at Manaus, Brazil. The Rio Negro flows 2300 km from Columbia, and is the dark current forming the north side of the river. It gets its color from the high tannin content in the water. The Amazon is sediment laden, appearing brown in this simulated natural color image. Manaus is the capital of Amazonas state, and has a population in excess of one million. The ASTER image covers an area of 60 x 45 km. This image was acquired on July 16, 2000 by the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) on NASA's Terra satellite. With its 14 spectral bands from the visible to the thermal infrared wavelength region, and its high spatial resolution of 15 to 90 meters (about 50 to 300 feet), ASTER will image Earth for the next 6 years to map and monitor the changing surface of our planet.

    ASTER is one of five Earth-observing instruments launched December 18, 1999, on NASA's Terra satellite. The instrument was built by Japan's Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry. A joint U.S./Japan science team is responsible for validation and calibration of the instrument and the data products. Dr. Anne Kahle at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, California, is the U.S. Science team leader; Bjorn Eng of JPL is the project manager. The Terra mission is part of NASA's Earth Science Enterprise, a long-term research and technology program designed to examine Earth's land, oceans, atmosphere, ice and life as a total integrated system.

    The broad spectral coverage and high spectral resolution of ASTER will provide scientists in numerous disciplines with critical information for surface mapping, and monitoring dynamic conditions and temporal change. Example applications are: monitoring glacial advances and retreats; monitoring potentially active volcanoes; identifying crop stress; determining cloud morphology and physical properties; wetlands evaluation; thermal pollution monitoring; coral reef degradation

  9. Socioeconomic and regional differences in active transportation in Brazil

    PubMed Central

    de Sá, Thiago Hérick; Pereira, Rafael Henrique Moraes; Duran, Ana Clara; Monteiro, Carlos Augusto

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To present national estimates regarding walking or cycling for commuting in Brazil and in 10 metropolitan regions. METHODS By using data from the Health section of 2008’s Pesquisa Nacional por Amostra de Domicílio (Brazil’s National Household Sample Survey), we estimated how often employed people walk or cycle to work, disaggregating our results by sex, age range, education level, household monthly income per capita, urban or rural address, metropolitan regions, and macro-regions in Brazil. Furthermore, we estimated the distribution of this same frequency according to quintiles of household monthly income per capita in each metropolitan region of the country. RESULTS A third of the employed men and women walk or cycle from home to work in Brazil. For both sexes, this share decreases as income and education levels rise, and it is higher among younger individuals, especially among those living in rural areas and in the Northeast region of the country. Depending on the metropolitan region, the practice of active transportation is two to five times more frequent among low-income individuals than among high-income individuals. CONCLUSIONS Walking or cycling to work in Brazil is most frequent among low-income individuals and the ones living in less economically developed areas. Active transportation evaluation in Brazil provides important information for public health and urban mobility policy-making PMID:27355465

  10. Evaluation of Operational Rainfall Retrieval Algorithms over Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morales, C.; Machado, L. A. T.; Angelis, C. F.

    2009-04-01

    Over the past 2 years, two rainfall estimation algorithms (Hydroestimator and USProb) have been operational at the Satellite Division of the Brazilian Space Research Institute (INPE). Hydroestimator is an IR technique that was based on the NESDIS Autoestimator algorithm, while USProb is a continental microwave retrieval that was developed for the Amazon Region. Besides these two schemes, another algorithm that makes use of IR and VIS channels and a cloud tracking technique (Fortracc) have been developed. During the conference, two years of rainfall estimation over Brazil will be used to diagnose the performance of such algorithms. These analysis will be concentrated on instantaneous, hourly, daily and monthly statistics in addition to the diurnal cycle representation. As the ground thruth, quality control rain guages and weather radar rain maps are employed over most part of Brazil. Moreover, regional statistics will be employed due to different precipitating systems acting in Brazil, i.e., the nothern part hold most of tropical convection, while northeast show warm cloud systems and the south, southeast and center Brazil have a combination of tropical convection, cold fronts, mesoscale convective systems and localized convection. Finally at the end of the presention, few annoucements will be made on behalf of GPM-Brazil. In that opportunity it will be shown the 2010 calendar activity for the Brazilian Field Campaigns as part of the Precipitation Measuring Mission (PMM) validation program.

  11. Enterovirus meningitis in Brazil, 1998-2003.

    PubMed

    Dos Santos, Gina P L; Skraba, Irene; Oliveira, Denise; Lima, Ana A F; de Melo, Maria Mabel M; Kmetzsch, Claudete I; da Costa, Eliane V; da Silva, Edson E

    2006-01-01

    Acute viral infections of the central nervous system (CNS) such as acute flaccid paralysis, meningitis, and encephalitis, are responsible for a high morbidity, particularly in children. Non-Polio enteroviruses (NPEV) are known to be responsible for over 80% of viral meningitis in which the etiologic agent is identified. In the present study, we show the frequency of enterovirus meningitis in Brazil from December 1998 to December 2003. Enterovirus were isolated from 162 (15.8%), of a total of 1,022 cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) specimens analyzed. Echovirus 30 was identified in 139 of these isolates (139/162-85.2%). Other identified enteroviruses were: Coxsackievirus B5 (3.7%), Echovirus 13 (3.7%), Echovirus 18 (3%), Echovirus 6 (1.2%), Echovirus 25 (1.2%), Echovirus 1 (0.6%), and Echovirus 4 (0.6%). Patients's age ranged from 28 days to 68 years old. The most frequent symptoms were fever (77%), headache (69.5%), vomiting (71.3%), neck stiffness (41.3%), convulsion (7.1%), and diarrhea (3.7%). Although, the majority of the patients recovered without any complication or permanent squeal, five deaths occurred. Throughout the surveillance period, five viral meningitis outbreaks were confirmed: four in the Southern Brazil and one in the Northeast Brazil. Echovirus 30 was responsible for four out of the five outbreaks while Echovirus 13 caused the fifth one. Besides the outbreaks, 734 sporadic cases were also identified during the study period and 59 of these were positive for virus isolation (8%). Echovirus 30 accounted for 70% of the isolates. Our results showed that Echovirus 30 was the most prevalent etiological agent of viral meningitis in Brazil, causing both outbreaks and sporadic cases. PMID:16299728

  12. Hurricane Bonnie, Northeast of Bermuda, Atlantic Ocean

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    Hurricane Bonnie was over the North Atlantic Ocean about 500 miles northeast of Bermuda (39.0N, 56.5W) when this photo was taken. Compare this view with Hurricane Iniki, also photographed on this mission (STS-47-77-058). Bonnie is small but in her prime, having a well defined eye, a tight spiral gyre indicating high wind speeds and numerous thunderheads. Iniki, on the other hand, was decaying when photographed and no longer presented a threat.

  13. Ground-water provinces of Brazil

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schneider, Robert

    1962-01-01

    As part of a study of the status of investigations and development of ground water in Brazil, made under the auspices of the United States International Cooperation Administration and with the cooperation of the Government of Brazil, the country was divided into seven ground-water provinces. The identification and delineation of the provinces were based on the regional distribution of the dominant geologic units which are known or inferred to have distinctive water-bearing characteristics. Three of the provinces, covering most of the country, are underlain by Precambrian crystalline rocks. Three others coincide in part with four extensive sedimentary basins--the Parnaiba or Maranhfio basin and the contiguous Sao Francisco basin in the northeast and east, the Amazon basin in the north and northwest, and the Paranfi basin in the south and southwest. In addition, the narrow, discontinuous coastal plain is considered as a province. the occurrence of ground water is discussed briefly, and pertinent data are given on the more important aquifers, together with information on some existing wells. Because of the widespread distribution of crystalline rocks of low permeability, it is difficult in many areas to develop large or even adequate ground-water supplies. In general, satisfactory supplies of water are available in most of the rest of the country. Some problems include the relative deficiency of rainfall in the northeast together with the occurrence, in parts of this region, of mineralized water in the crystalline rocks. Also, there is a potential problem of excessive lowering of water levels and interference among wells in the intensively developed area of the city of Sao Paulo.

  14. Northeast Regional Carbon Sequestration Partnership Investigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coleman, A. J.; Trautz, R. C.

    2008-12-01

    Geologic carbon storage is a viable option for the electric power industry in the "Northeast" region to meet regional and forthcoming federal CO2 cap-and-trade programs. Capturing CO2 emissions and storing the gas in underground geological formations could significantly reduce the amount of CO2 released to the atmosphere. However, before this can be implemented, site-specific geological research needs to be conducted to determine which formations are potentially capable of storing the quantity of CO2 emitted by power plants in the Northeast region. While the target geosequestration formations in the Northeast may have less storage capacity than those in the Midwest, Southeast or Southwest, the available capacities may be large enough to sequester a significant fraction of the CO2 produced by some regional power plants (which are also smaller, individually and in total, than those in the other regions). The study will also conduct baseline assessments of electric power producer plants and CO2 emission estimates and create first level screening on potential geologic structures for CO2 sequestration. The work will establish a general database of "Other Uses" (current industrial and technological innovations/options), characterize transport issues, both on land and offshore, and, provide general guidance on the physical and land-use constraint factors of "add-on" capture technologies at existing power plants.

  15. Trace metal concentrations in tropical mangrove sediments, NE Brazil.

    PubMed

    Miola, Brígida; Morais, Jáder Onofre de; Pinheiro, Lidriana de Souza

    2016-01-15

    Sediment cores were taken from the mangroves of the Coreaú River estuary off the northeast coast of Brazil. They were analyzed for grain size, CaCO3, organic matter, and trace metal (Cd, Pb, Zn, Cu, Al, and Fe) contents. Mud texture was the predominant texture. Levels of trace metals in surface sediments indicated strong influence of anthropogenic processes, and diagenetic processes controlled the trace metal enrichment of core sediments of this estuary. The positive relationships between trace metals and Al and Fe indicate that Cu, Zn, Pb, and Cd concentrations are associated mainly with Al and Fe oxy-hydroxides and have natural sources. PMID:26608507

  16. Taxonomic guide and historical review of starfishes in northeastern Brazil (Echinodermata, Asteroidea)

    PubMed Central

    Gondim, Anne Isabelley; Christoffersen, Martin Lindsey; Pereira Dias, Thelma Lúcia

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Presently more than 1900 species of sea stars are recognized, of which 77 are recorded for the coast of Brazil. Although the first starfish record in Brazil was published 363 years ago, our knowledge of this fauna remains unsatisfactory from a systematic and ecological point of view, particularly in the north and northeastern regions of the country. This study provides the first annotated list of sea stars from northeastern Brazil. Material described herein is housed at the collections of the Federal University of Paraíba, Federal University of Sergipe, and the Federal University of Bahia, Museum of Zoology of the University of São Paulo and Museu Nacional do Rio de Janeiro. Twenty-one species were identified, belonging to 12 genera, 10 families, and 5 orders. Descriptions of species are provided. Three new occurrences were recorded for northeast Brazil: Astropecten alligator, Luidia ludwigi scotti, and Mithrodia clavigera. Highest diversities of Asteroidea were encountered for the states of Bahia (n = 14 spp), Paraíba (n = 12 spp) and Pernambuco (n = 9 spp). No species were recorded for the states of Maranhão and Sergipe. Sandy substrates and depths below 10 m were the least sampled areas over the continental shelf. Herein we provide a first panorama on the fauna of Asteroidea occurring in the northeast region of Brazil, hopefully to function as a basic reference for biodiversity studies in this poorly studied area. PMID:25408612

  17. Media Monopoly in Brazil.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Amaral, Roberto; Guimaraes, Cesar

    1994-01-01

    Documents the process of broadcasting media development in Brazil, the failure of new technologies to produce democratization, and the barriers to democratization erected by monopolization and "metastasis." (SR)

  18. New species of Histiotus (Chiroptera: Vespertilionidae) from northeastern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Feijó, Anderson; Da Rocha, Patrício Adriano; Althoff, Sergio Luiz

    2015-01-01

    Histiotus are vespertilionid bats endemic to South America, easily recognized by its very long ears. During a twelve-month bat inventory in northeastern Brazil, eleven specimens of Histiotus were collected with a unique combination of characters that did not match those of any known species. In this paper, we describe these specimens as a new species. Histiotus sp. nov is distinguished from its congeners by its pale transparent wings and translucent ears, a triangular-shaped ear with a prominent lobe in the inner border connected by a band (~4 mm) across the forehead; its general golden-brownish body color and well-marked bicolor dorsal hairs. Its geographic distribution is unique among vespertilionids, arranged in a northeast-southwest diagonal across South America, includes the Caatinga and Cerrado of Brazil and Chaco of Bolivia. The available data suggest a seasonal reproductive pattern, with births occurring in the mid to late rainy season. PMID:26624755

  19. Spatiotemporal Patterns of Schistosomiasis-Related Deaths, Brazil, 2000–2011

    PubMed Central

    Martins-Melo, Francisco Rogerlândio; Pinheiro, Marta Cristhiany Cunha; Ramos, Alberto Novaes; Alencar, Carlos Henrique; Bezerra, Fernando Schemelzer de Moraes

    2015-01-01

    We analyzed spatiotemporal patterns of 8,756 schistosomiasis-related deaths in Brazil during 2000–2011 and identified high-risk clusters of deaths, mainly in highly schistosomiasis-endemic areas along the coast of Brazil’s Northeast Region. Schistosomiasis remains a neglected public health problem with a high number of deaths in disease-endemic and emerging focal areas. PMID:26401716

  20. DETAIL VIEW OF SOUTH FRONT DOORS, FACING NORTHEAST. Douglas ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    DETAIL VIEW OF SOUTH FRONT DOORS, FACING NORTHEAST. - Douglas Aircraft Company Long Beach Plant, Aircraft Wing & Fuselage Assembly Building, 3855 Lakewood Boulevard, Long Beach, Los Angeles County, CA

  1. Perspective view from northeast of convalescent pavilion ("A"). National ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Perspective view from northeast of convalescent pavilion ("A"). - National Home for Disabled Volunteer Soldiers, Northwestern Branch, Hospital, 5000 West National Avenue, Milwaukee, Milwaukee County, WI

  2. 3. MAGAZINE P STAIRWAY ENCLOSURE, LOOKING NORTHEAST. NIKE Missile ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. MAGAZINE P STAIRWAY ENCLOSURE, LOOKING NORTHEAST. - NIKE Missile Base C-84, Underground Storage Magazines & Launcher-Loader Assemblies, Easternmost portion of launch area, Barrington, Cook County, IL

  3. 21. Historic American Buildings Survey Stanley Schwartz, Photographer 1971 NORTHEAST ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    21. Historic American Buildings Survey Stanley Schwartz, Photographer 1971 NORTHEAST VIEW OF EXAMINING ROOM, DOCTOR'S OFFICE - Governor John Hubbard House, 52 Winthrop Street, Hallowell, Kennebec County, ME

  4. Perspective view of east entrance from northeast National Home ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Perspective view of east entrance from northeast - National Home for Disabled Volunteer Soldiers, Pacific Branch, Mental Health Building, 11301 Wilshire Boulevard, West Los Angeles, Los Angeles County, CA

  5. View of exterior circumferential path at northeast side of building ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View of exterior circumferential path at northeast side of building beneath trellis, looking southeast - National Zoological Park, Bird House, 3001 Connecticut Avenue NW, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

  6. 10. VIEW, LOOKING NORTHEAST, OF MAIN LOBBY, FIRST FLOOR, SHOWING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    10. VIEW, LOOKING NORTHEAST, OF MAIN LOBBY, FIRST FLOOR, SHOWING PORTALS TO NEW LOBBY - Pennsylvania Railroad, Harrisburg Station & Trainshed, Market & South Fourth Streets, Harrisburg, Dauphin County, PA

  7. 2. VIEW SOUTH SHOWING NORTHEAST ELEVATION; BRICK CORBELLING, BUTTRESSES AND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. VIEW SOUTH SHOWING NORTHEAST ELEVATION; BRICK CORBELLING, BUTTRESSES AND ART DECO STAINED GLASS - Poletown Historic District, St. Michael's Greek Catholic Church, 2390 East Grand Boulevard, Detroit, MI

  8. Looking Northeast Along Hallway between Pellet Plant and Oxide Building, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Looking Northeast Along Hallway between Pellet Plant and Oxide Building, including Virgin Hopper Bins - Hematite Fuel Fabrication Facility, Pellet Plant, 3300 State Road P, Festus, Jefferson County, MO

  9. Perspective view of second floor landing from northeast National ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Perspective view of second floor landing from northeast - National Home for Disabled Volunteer Soldiers, Danville Branch, Directors' House, 1900 and 2000 East Main Street , Danville, Vermilion County, IL

  10. 6. Northeast elevation of single bin. Delaware, Lackawanna & ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. Northeast elevation of single bin. - Delaware, Lackawanna & Western Railroad, Scranton Yards, Scrap Platform, 350 feet South of South Washington Avenue & River Street, Scranton, Lackawanna County, PA

  11. 4. Perspective view of platform, looking northeast. Delaware, Lackawanna ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. Perspective view of platform, looking northeast. - Delaware, Lackawanna & Western Railroad, Scranton Yards, Scrap Platform, 350 feet South of South Washington Avenue & River Street, Scranton, Lackawanna County, PA

  12. 2. View northeast. South elevation Westminster span, link span, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. View northeast. South elevation - Westminster span, link span, Walpole span. - Walpole-Westminster Bridge, Spanning Connecticut River between Walpole, NH & Westminster, VT, Walpole, Cheshire County, NH

  13. 11. VIEW NORTHEAST, DETAIL OF BRIDGE BEARING AT SOUTHEAST CORNER, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    11. VIEW NORTHEAST, DETAIL OF BRIDGE BEARING AT SOUTHEAST CORNER, SHOWING WELDED REINFORCEMENT - Perkins Corner Bridge, Spanning Willimantic River at Flanders & Cider Mill Roads, Coventry, Tolland County, CT

  14. View of main facade (southwest side), camera facing northeast ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View of main facade (southwest side), camera facing northeast - Golden Gate International Exposition, Hall of Transportation, 440 California Avenue, Treasure Island, San Francisco, San Francisco County, CA

  15. EAGLE CREEK BRIDGE, WEST ELEVATION LOOKING 55 DEGREES NORTHEAST ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    EAGLE CREEK BRIDGE, WEST ELEVATION LOOKING 55 DEGREES NORTHEAST - Historic Columbia River Highway, Eagle Creek Bridge, Spanning Eagle Creek on Historic Columbia River Highway, Troutdale, Multnomah County, OR

  16. VIEW OF CENTRAL INTERIOR SPACE, FACING NORTHEAST. Douglas Aircraft ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW OF CENTRAL INTERIOR SPACE, FACING NORTHEAST. - Douglas Aircraft Company Long Beach Plant, Aircraft Parts Shipping & Receiving Building, 3855 Lakewood Boulevard, Long Beach, Los Angeles County, CA

  17. View of south elevation; camera facing northeast. Mare Island ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View of south elevation; camera facing northeast. - Mare Island Naval Shipyard, Hospital Headquarters, Johnson Lane, west side at intersection of Johnson Lane & Cossey Street, Vallejo, Solano County, CA

  18. 36. TURBINE HALL, NEW TURBO GENERATOR, LOOKING NORTHEAST Philadelphia ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    36. TURBINE HALL, NEW TURBO GENERATOR, LOOKING NORTHEAST - Philadelphia Electric Company, Richmond Power Station, Southeast end of Lewis Street along Delaware River, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  19. Northeast and northwest elevations. View to south Flint Creek ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Northeast and northwest elevations. View to south - Flint Creek Hydroelectric Project, Powerhouse, Approximately 3 miles southeast of Porters Corner on Powerhouse Road, Philipsburg, Granite County, MT

  20. 1. Aerial view, looking northeast up Newark Bay, showing entire ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. Aerial view, looking northeast up Newark Bay, showing entire island Charles Wisniewski, photographer, January 1985 - Shooters Island, Ships Graveyard, Newark Bay, Staten Island (subdivision), Richmond County, NY

  1. OVERHILLS GOLF COURSE LOOKING NORTHEAST FROM SPECTATOR SHELTER BACK UP ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    OVERHILLS GOLF COURSE LOOKING NORTHEAST FROM SPECTATOR SHELTER BACK UP FAIRWAY #1 - Overhills, Fort Bragg Military Reservation, Approximately 15 miles NW of Fayetteville, Overhills, Harnett County, NC

  2. Elevation of grove looking northeast toward Washington Monument 1910 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Elevation of grove looking northeast toward Washington Monument - 1910 Japanese Flowering Cherry Trees , East Potomac Golf Course, East Potomac Park, Hains Point vicinity, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

  3. OBLIQUE VIEW, REAR ELEVATION, LOOKING NORTHEAST Mountain Home Air ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    OBLIQUE VIEW, REAR ELEVATION, LOOKING NORTHEAST - Mountain Home Air Force Base 1958 Senior Officers' Housing, General's Residence, Rabeni Street (originally Ivy Street), Mountain Home, Elmore County, ID

  4. Underside from northeast. Waterville Bridge, Spanning Swatara Creek at ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Underside from northeast. - Waterville Bridge, Spanning Swatara Creek at Appalachian Trail (moved from Little Pine Creek at State Route 44, Waterville, Lycoming County), Green Point, Lebanon County, PA

  5. VIEW OF WEST ELEVATION: CAMERA FACING NORTHEAST Mare Island ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW OF WEST ELEVATION: CAMERA FACING NORTHEAST - Mare Island Naval Shipyard, Transportation Building & Gas Station, Third Street, south side between Walnut Avenue & Cedar Avenue, Vallejo, Solano County, CA

  6. Developing a Crustal and Upper Mantle Velocity Model for the Brazilian Northeast

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Julia, J.; Nascimento, R.

    2013-05-01

    Development of 3D models for the earth's crust and upper mantle is important for accurately predicting travel times for regional phases and to improve seismic event location. The Brazilian Northeast is a tectonically active area within stable South America and displays one of the highest levels of seismicity in Brazil, with earthquake swarms containing events up to mb 5.2. Since 2011, seismic activity is routinely monitored through the Rede Sismográfica do Nordeste (RSisNE), a permanent network supported by the national oil company PETROBRAS and consisting of 15 broadband stations with an average spacing of ~200 km. Accurate event locations are required to correctly characterize and identify seismogenic areas in the region and assess seismic hazard. Yet, no 3D model of crustal thickness and crustal and upper mantle velocity variation exists. The first step in developing such models is to refine crustal thickness and depths to major seismic velocity boundaries in the crust and improve on seismic velocity estimates for the upper mantle and crustal layers. We present recent results in crustal and uppermost mantle structure in NE Brazil that will contribute to the development of a 3D model of velocity variation. Our approach has consisted of: (i) computing receiver functions to obtain point estimates of crustal thickness and Vp/Vs ratio and (ii) jointly inverting receiver functions and surface-wave dispersion velocities from an independent tomography study to obtain S-velocity profiles at each station. This approach has been used at all the broadband stations of the monitoring network plus 15 temporary, short-period stations that reduced the inter-station spacing to ~100 km. We expect our contributions will provide the basis to produce full 3D velocity models for the Brazilian Northeast and help determine accurate locations for seismic events in the region.

  7. [Accidents and acts of violence in Brazil: I--Analysis of mortality data].

    PubMed

    Jorge, M H; Gawryszewski, V P; Latorre, M do R

    1997-08-01

    External causes are an important cause of death in almost all countries. They are always the second or third in the mortality ranking, but their distribution according to type varies from country to country. Mortality due to external causes by type, gender and age, for Brazil as a whole and for state capitals specifically, is analysed. Mortality rates and the proportional mortality from 1977 to 1994 were calculated. The results showed that the number of deaths due to external causes has almost doubled from 1977 to 1994 and nowadays this is the second cause of death in Brazil. The mortality rate, in 1991, was 69.8 per 100,000 inhabitants and the highest increase was in the male rates. The male rates are almost 4.5 times greater than the female ones. The first cause of death among people from 5 to 39 years old is external causes, and the majority occur between 15 and 19 years of age (65% of the deaths by external causes). Besides the growth in itself it also seems that a shift of deaths to hower ages is occurring. Both mortality by traffic accidents and that by homicide have increased over the period from 1977 to 1994. Suicides have been stable and "other external causes" have increased slowly, especially due to falls and drowning. The mortality rates for external causes in state capitals are higher than the average for Brazil as a whole, except for some northeastern capitals. The rates for the capitals in the northern region are the highest in Brazil. In the northeastern region, only Recife, Maceió and Salvador have high rates. In the southeast, Vitória, Rio de Janeiro and S. Paulo have the highest rates in the country but Belo Horizonte's rates are declining. In the southern region all the capitals showed a growth in the rates as also in the capitals of the West-central region. The growth of mortality due to external causes type of external cause is different in these capitals. Suicide is not a public health problem in Brazil nor the state capitals. Traffic

  8. The cretaceous opening of the Northeast Atlantic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hanisch, J.

    1984-01-01

    A continuous rift system from the Rockall Trough through the Faeroe-Shetland Channel, and the Møre and Vøring basins up to the Tromsø and Bear Island basins is inferred to have developed during the Cretaceous. Oceanic crust was generated in its southern part but its width presumably decreases toward the northeast and probably ends in the Møre Basin. This rift/spreading system requires a clockwise rotation of Greenland and the Rockall Plateau during the Cretaceous around a rotation pole at its northern end at about 74°N 21°E. North of the pole of rotation crustal shortening must have occurred. This compression is interpreted to have taken place on West Spitsbergen. The orogeny there is reinterpreted as (1) a Cretaceous folding phase, (2) a phase of overthrusting at the Paleocene-Eocene boundary, and (3) an extensional faulting phase during the Oligocene. This plate-tectonic model can resolve a series of problems in the Northeast Atlantic region: the connection of the Caledonian fronts of Scotland and Greenland can be easily established. The northern ends of the West Shetland Basin and the North Sea graben; the unusual depth of the Møre and Vøring basins; the marked obliqueness of structural trends between the Northeast Greenland shelf and the Norwegian shelf; the fact that the western Hammerfest Basin was intersected by a younger north-south trending graben which formed the deep Tromsø Basin—all these enigmatic observations can be explained by the Cretaceous rift system.

  9. Deforestation near Rio Branco, Brazil

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    Settlement and deforestation surrounding the Brazilian town of Rio Branco are seen here in the striking 'herring bone' deforestation patterns that cut through the rainforest. Rio Brancois the capital of the Brazilian state of Acre and is situated near the border with northeastern Bolivia. The town is a center for the distribution of goods, including rubber, metals, medicinal plants, Brazil nuts and timber. Colonization projects in the region are supported by farming, logging activities, and extensive cattle ranching. Much of the surrounding terrain is of a poorly-draining clay hardpan soil, and heavy rainfall periodically converts parts of the forested region to swamp.

    The large overview image was acquired by the Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer's vertical-viewing (nadir) camera on July 28, 2000, and covers an area of 336 kilometers x 333 kilometers. A plume of smoke is visible north of the Rio Branco road, which roughly parallels the slender, twisting Rio Abuna. Most of the major rivers in the image provide reference points for state or international (Bolivia-Brazil) boundaries, and flow northeast to the Rio Madeira (east of the smoke plume). The border between Acre and the Bolivian department of Pando is marked by the Rio Abuna. Pando's southern boundary with the department of Beni is marked by the Rio Madre de Dios, the large river in the lower half of the image.

    The two higher-resolution inset images highlight a settled area north of the town of Rio Branco. These nadir views cover an area of 60 kilometers x 67 kilometers, and were acquired eleven months apart during Terra orbits 3251 and 8144. In the later image, more haze is present, possibly due to smoke from fires on that day. Comparing the two images provides a method of measuring the changes and expansion in the area of cleared land. One newly cleared patch is apparent near the middle of the later image, slightly off to the right. This polygon represents an area of about 16 square kilometers, or

  10. Trends and predictions for gastric cancer mortality in Brazil

    PubMed Central

    de Souza Giusti, Angela Carolina Brandão; de Oliveira Salvador, Pétala Tuani Candido; dos Santos, Juliano; Meira, Karina Cardoso; Camacho, Amanda Rodrigues; Guimarães, Raphael Mendonça; Souza, Dyego L B

    2016-01-01

    AIM: To analyze the effect of age-period and birth cohort on gastric cancer mortality, in Brazil and across its five geographic regions, by sex, in the population over 20 years of age, as well as make projections for the period 2010-2029. METHODS: An ecological study is presented herein, which distributed gastric cancer-related deaths in Brazil and its geographic regions. The effects of age-period and birth cohort were calculated by the Poisson regression model and projections were made with the age-period-cohort model in the statistical program R. RESULTS: Progressive reduction of mortality rates was observed in the 1980’s, and then higher and lower mortality rates were verified in the 2000’s, for both sexes, in Brazil and for the South, Southeast and Midwest regions. A progressive decrease in mortality rates was observed for the Northeast (both sexes) and North (men only) regions within the period 1995-1999, followed by rising rates. CONCLUSION: Regional differences were demonstrated in the mortality rates for gastric cancer in Brazil, and the least developed regions of the country will present increases in projected mortality rates. PMID:27605887

  11. Predominance and characteristics of Burkitt lymphoma among children with non-Hodgkin lymphoma in northeastern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Sandlund, J T; Fonseca, T; Leimig, T; Verissimo, L; Ribeiro, R; Lira, V; Berard, C W; Sixbey, J; Crist, W M; Mao, L; Chen, G; Pui, C H; Heim, M; Pedrosa, F

    1997-05-01

    The purpose of this paper was to define the histologic distribution, clinical features, and treatment response of childhood non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) in northeastern Brazil. We reviewed medical records and histopathologic studies of 98 children treated for NHL from 1980 to 1987 at a major pediatric cancer center in Recife, Brazil. Treatment outcome was evaluated in relation to tumor burden (stage and serum LDH) and type of therapy (LSA2L2 vs other multiagent chemotherapy). There was a striking predominance of the small noncleaved cell (Burkitt) subtype, which occurred in 92 of the 98 children and adolescents diagnosed with NHL. Subsequent analyses focused on these patients. The majority (n = 84) had advanced (stage III/IV) disease at diagnosis. The abdomen was the most common site of disease (84 cases); jaw involvement was rare (three cases). Five-year event-free survival (excluding treatment refusals) was significantly better for patients with limited vs advanced stage disease (75 +/- 14% vs 42 +/- 6%; P < 0.04). Elevated serum LDH (>500 U/l) was associated with a poorer outcome (P = 0.008). The type of chemotherapy did not affect EFS (P = 0.95). Only 39% of patients are long-term survivors, reflecting the high rate of septic deaths (25% of patients) and parental refusal/abandonment of therapy (10%). Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) was detected in tumor cells from eight of the 11 cases studied. In clinical presentation, these cases resemble sporadic Burkitt lymphoma, yet in their apparent responsiveness to LSA2L2 therapy and association with EBV, they do not. Childhood NHL in northeastern Brazil is predominantly of the Burkitt subtype, and is associated with clinical features that appear to distinguish it from the endemic and sporadic forms of this tumor. These cases may represent a third or intermediate subtype of Burkitt lymphoma. PMID:9180301

  12. Northeast Oregon Hatchery Project, Final Siting Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Watson, Montgomery

    1995-03-01

    This report presents the results of site analysis for the Bonneville Power Administration Northeast Oregon Hatchery Project. The purpose of this project is to provide engineering services for the siting and conceptual design of hatchery facilities for the Bonneville Power Administration. The hatchery project consists of artificial production facilities for salmon and steelhead to enhance production in three adjacent tributaries to the Columbia River in northeast Oregon: the Grande Ronde, Walla Walla, and Imnaha River drainage basins. Facilities identified in the master plan include adult capture and holding facilities; spawning incubation, and early rearing facilities; full-term rearing facilities; and direct release or acclimation facilities. The evaluation includes consideration of a main production facility for one or more of the basins or several smaller satellite production facilities to be located within major subbasins. The historic and current distribution of spring and fall chinook salmon and steelhead was summarized for the Columbia River tributaries. Current and future production and release objectives were reviewed. Among the three tributaries, forty seven sites were evaluated and compared to facility requirements for water and space. Site screening was conducted to identify the sites with the most potential for facility development. Alternative sites were selected for conceptual design of each facility type. A proposed program for adult holding facilities, final rearing/acclimation, and direct release facilities was developed.

  13. NASA Northeast Regional Technology Transfer Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dunn, James P.

    2001-01-01

    This report is a summary of the primary activities and metrics for the NASA Northeast Regional Technology Transfer Center, operated by the Center for Technology Commercialization, Inc. (CTC). This report covers the contract period January 1, 2000 - March 31, 2001. This report includes a summary of the overall CTC Metrics, a summary of the Major Outreach Events, an overview of the NASA Business Outreach Program, a summary of the Activities and Results of the Technology into the Zone program, and a Summary of the Major Activities and Initiatives performed by CTC in supporting this contract. Between January 1, 2000 and March 31, 2001, CTC has facilitated 10 license agreements, established 35 partnerships, provided assistance 517 times to companies, and performed 593 outreach activities including participation in 57 outreach events. CTC also assisted Goddard in executing a successful 'Technology into the Zone' program.' CTC is pleased to have performed this contract, and looks forward to continue providing their specialized services in support of the new 5 year RTTC Contract for the Northeast region.

  14. Blood, sweat and semen: The economy of axé and the response of Afro-Brazilian religions to HIV and AIDS in Recife

    PubMed Central

    Rios, Luis Felipe; Oliveira, Cinthia; Garcia, Jonathan; Muñoz-Laboy, Miguel; Murray, Laura; Parker, Richard

    2011-01-01

    This article provides an ethnographic analysis of Afro-Brazilian religious responses to the HIV epidemic in Recife. Drawing on participant observation and in-depth interviews conducted with Afro-Brazilian religious leaders and public health officials, it highlights the importance of the axé – a mystical energy manipulated in religious rituals that is symbolically associated with blood, sweat, and semen. In an analysis of the relationship formed between the state AIDS programme and Afro-Brazilian religious centres, we conclude that the recognition of native categories and their meanings is one of the key elements to a fruitful dialogue between public health programmes and religious leaders that in the case studied, resulted in the re-signification of cultural practices to prevent HIV. Although the Afro-Brazilian religious leaders interviewed tended to be more open about sexuality and condom promotion, stigma towards people living with HIV (PLHIV) was still present within the religious temples, yet appeared to be more centred upon the perception of HIV as negatively affecting followers’ axé than judgment related to how one may have contracted the virus. We discuss the tensions between taking a more liberal and open stance on prevention, while also fostering attitudes that may stigmatise PLHIV, and make suggestions for improving the current Afro-Brazilian response to the epidemic. PMID:21830866

  15. 2. View of blast deflector fences along northeast side of ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. View of blast deflector fences along northeast side of the operational apron. View to northwest. - Offutt Air Force Base, Looking Glass Airborne Command Post, Blast Deflector Fences, Northeast & Southwest sides of Operational Apron, Project Looking Glass Historic District, Bellevue, Sarpy County, NE

  16. 3. NORTHEAST REAR, SHOWING CONCRETE ENCASEMENT FOR STAIRWAY LEADING FROM ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. NORTHEAST REAR, SHOWING CONCRETE ENCASEMENT FOR STAIRWAY LEADING FROM INSTRUMENT ROOM TO UNDERGROUND FIRING CONTROL ROOM. - Edwards Air Force Base, Air Force Rocket Propulsion Laboratory, Firing Control Building, Test Area 1-100, northeast end of Test Area 1-100 Road, Boron, Kern County, CA

  17. 27. LOBBY, LOOKING NORTHEAST FROM SECOND FLOOR. THE STRUCTURE IN ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    27. LOBBY, LOOKING NORTHEAST FROM SECOND FLOOR. THE STRUCTURE IN UPPER LEFT HAND SIDE OF PHOTOGRAPH, A MUSICIANS' PLATFORM CALLED 'THE CROW'S NEST' WAS BUILT IN THE GABLE. - Old Faithful Inn, 900' northeast of Snowlodge & 1050' west of Old Faithful Lodge, Lake, Teton County, WY

  18. 17. Interior detail, pilaster on transverse wall at the northeast ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    17. Interior detail, pilaster on transverse wall at the northeast end of the Machine Shop, Roundhouse Machine Shop Extension, Southern Pacific Railroad Carlin Shops, view to northeast (90mm lens). Note the offset top of the pilaster, a feature common to all interior transverse wall pilasters. - Southern Pacific Railroad, Carlin Shops, Roundhouse Machine Shop Extension, Foot of Sixth Street, Carlin, Elko County, NV

  19. Cell block three and northeast guard tower (center), looking from ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Cell block three and northeast guard tower (center), looking from the central guard tower, facing northeast (note view also includes the baseball field (left), and cell blocks fourteen and eleven (right)) - Eastern State Penitentiary, 2125 Fairmount Avenue, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  20. NORTHEAST LOON STUDY WORKING GROUP PARTNERSHIP TO ASSESS ENVIRONMENTAL RISK

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Northeast Loon Study Working Group (NELSWG) was formed in 1994 to proactively identify threats to one of the Northeast's most popular waterbirds, the common loon, Gavia immer. Seventeen institutions have come together to identify strategy, coordinate the work load, and share ...

  1. 5. VIEW OF FRONT (WEST AND SOUTH SIDES) TO NORTHEAST. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. VIEW OF FRONT (WEST AND SOUTH SIDES) TO NORTHEAST. VIEW TO NORTHEAST. NOTE THAT LARGE TREES PREVENT MORE COMPLETE VIEW FROM BETTER ANGLE. FOR MORE COMPLETE VIEW, SEE PHOTOGRAPHIC COPY OF 1916 PHOTO, NO. ID-17-C-35. - Boise Project, Boise Project Office, 214 Broadway, Boise, Ada County, ID

  2. 1. ROCKET ENGINE TEST STAND, LOCATED IN THE NORTHEAST ¼ ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. ROCKET ENGINE TEST STAND, LOCATED IN THE NORTHEAST ¼ OF THE X-15 ENGINE TEST COMPLEX. Looking northeast. - Edwards Air Force Base, X-15 Engine Test Complex, Rocket Engine & Complete X-15 Vehicle Test Stands, Rogers Dry Lake, east of runway between North Base & South Base, Boron, Kern County, CA

  3. 10. VIEW OF SUBMERGED DRIFT CHUTE IN NORTHEAST CORNER OF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    10. VIEW OF SUBMERGED DRIFT CHUTE IN NORTHEAST CORNER OF UPPER GATE RECESS, LOOKING NORTHEAST. - Ohio Slack Water Dams, Lock & Dam No. 4, East bank of Ohio River at mile point 18.6, along State Route 65, Ambridge, Beaver County, PA

  4. 16. View of northeast corner of East Ward Street and ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    16. View of northeast corner of East Ward Street and North McDonald Avenue, facing northeast. - Gaskin Avenue Neighborhood, Bounded by Dart Street to east, CSX Railroad to south, Pearl & Madison Avenues to west, & Wilson & Gordon Streets to north, Douglas, Coffee County, GA

  5. Credit BG. Northeast and northwest facades of Building 4496 (Security ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Credit BG. Northeast and northwest facades of Building 4496 (Security Facility) as seen when looking south (178°) from entrance to secured area. The Control Tower (Building 4500) appears in background. The Security Facility is part of the secured Building 4505 complex - Edwards Air Force Base, North Base, Security Facility, Northeast of A Street, Boron, Kern County, CA

  6. Understanding Philanthropic Motivations of Northeast State Community College Donors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cook, Heather J.

    2012-01-01

    At Northeast State Community College (NeSCC) nearly 70% of students need some form of financial aid to attend. State support is flattening or decreasing and the gap is filled by private donors' support (Northeast State Community College, 2011). Hundreds of donors have made significant contributions to aid in the education of those in the…

  7. View of parade ground inside fort looking to the northeast ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View of parade ground inside fort looking to the northeast generally so that part of the north wall is visible as well as the first 8 bays of the northeast wall (note: cannon in foreground and shadow of flagpole above gorge wall) - Fort Pulaski, Cockspur Island, Savannah, Chatham County, GA

  8. 4. View to northwest showing southeast and northeast elevations of ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. View to northwest showing southeast and northeast elevations of 1909 SE wing, with 1941 SE wing and porte-cochere (at left), and original front facade (northeast elevation) at right - Portsmouth Naval Hospital, Hospital Building, Rixey Place, bounded by Williamson Drive, Holcomb Road, & The Circle, Portsmouth, Portsmouth, VA

  9. 7 CFR 1001.2 - Northeast marketing area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2014-01-01 2013-01-01 true Northeast marketing area. 1001.2 Section 1001.2 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MILK), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MILK IN THE NORTHEAST MARKETING AREA Order...

  10. 7 CFR 1001.2 - Northeast marketing area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Northeast marketing area. 1001.2 Section 1001.2 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Milk), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MILK IN THE NORTHEAST MARKETING AREA Order...

  11. 7 CFR 1001.2 - Northeast marketing area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Northeast marketing area. 1001.2 Section 1001.2 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Milk), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MILK IN THE NORTHEAST MARKETING AREA Order...

  12. 7 CFR 1001.2 - Northeast marketing area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Northeast marketing area. 1001.2 Section 1001.2 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Milk), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MILK IN THE NORTHEAST MARKETING AREA Order...

  13. 7 CFR 1001.2 - Northeast marketing area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Northeast marketing area. 1001.2 Section 1001.2 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MILK), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MILK IN THE NORTHEAST MARKETING AREA Order...

  14. 72. NORTHEAST SIDE OF NITROGEN EXCHANGERS IN FOREGROUND; FUEL APRON ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    72. NORTHEAST SIDE OF NITROGEN EXCHANGERS IN FOREGROUND; FUEL APRON IN BACKGROUND. NORTHEAST CORNER OF WEST CAMERA TOWER ALSO IN BACKGROUND. - Vandenberg Air Force Base, Space Launch Complex 3, Launch Pad 3 East, Napa & Alden Roads, Lompoc, Santa Barbara County, CA

  15. 3. Northeast rear and northwest end, building no. 528. View ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. Northeast rear and northwest end, building no. 528. View to south. - Offutt Air Force Base, Looking Glass Airborne Command Post, Hydraulic Fluid Buildings, Northeast of Looking Glass Avenue at southwest side of Project Looking Glass Historic District, Bellevue, Sarpy County, NE

  16. 5. Northeast rear and northwest end, building no. 529. View ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. Northeast rear and northwest end, building no. 529. View to south. - Offutt Air Force Base, Looking Glass Airborne Command Post, Hydraulic Fluid Buildings, Northeast of Looking Glass Avenue at southwest side of Project Looking Glass Historic District, Bellevue, Sarpy County, NE

  17. 2. Southeast end and northeast rear, building no. 528. View ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. Southeast end and northeast rear, building no. 528. View to west. - Offutt Air Force Base, Looking Glass Airborne Command Post, Hydraulic Fluid Buildings, Northeast of Looking Glass Avenue at southwest side of Project Looking Glass Historic District, Bellevue, Sarpy County, NE

  18. 1. VIEW NORTHWEST, NORTHEAST SIDE AND SOUTHEAST FRONT OF TOWER ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. VIEW NORTHWEST, NORTHEAST SIDE AND SOUTHEAST FRONT OF TOWER AND ORIGINAL LIGHTHOUSE - Mispillion Lighthouse, Beacon Tower, South bank of Mispillion River at it confluence with Delaware River at northeast end of County Road 203, 7 miles east of Milford, Milford, Sussex County, DE

  19. Uranium deposits of Brazil

    SciTech Connect

    1991-09-01

    Brazil is a country of vast natural resources, including numerous uranium deposits. In support of the country`s nuclear power program, Brazil has developed the most active uranium industry in South America. Brazil has one operating reactor (Angra 1, a 626-MWe PWR), and two under construction. The country`s economic challenges have slowed the progress of its nuclear program. At present, the Pocos de Caldas district is the only active uranium production. In 1990, the Cercado open-pit mine produced approximately 45 metric tons (MT) U{sub 3}O{sub 8} (100 thousand pounds). Brazil`s state-owned uranium production and processing company, Uranio do Brasil, announced it has decided to begin shifting its production from the high-cost and nearly depleted deposits at Pocos de Caldas, to lower-cost reserves at Lagoa Real. Production at Lagoa Real is schedules to begin by 1993. In addition to these two districts, Brazil has many other known uranium deposits, and as a whole, it is estimated that Brazil has over 275,000 MT U{sub 3}O{sub 8} (600 million pounds U{sub 3}O{sub 8}) in reserves.

  20. Tectonic and metallogenic model for northeast Asia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Parfenov, Leonid M.; Nokleberg, Warren J.; Berzin, Nikolai A.; Badarch, Gombosuren; Dril, Sergy I.; Gerel, Ochir; Goryachev, Nikolai A.; Khanchuk, Alexander I.; Kuz'min, Mikhail I., Obolenskiy, Alexander A.; Prokopiev, Andrei V.; Ratkin, Vladimir V.; Rodionov, Sergey M.; Scotese, Christopher R.; Shpikerman, Vladimir I.; Timofeev, Vladimir F.; Tomurtogoo, Onongin; Yan, Hongquan

    2011-01-01

    This document describes the digital files in this report that contains a tectonic and metallogenic model for Northeast Asia. The report also contains background materials. This tectonic and metallogenic model and other materials on this report are derived from (1) an extensive USGS Professional Paper, 1765, on the metallogenesis and tectonics of Northeast Asia that is available on the Internet at http://pubs.usgs.gov/pp/1765/; and (2) the Russian Far East parts of an extensive USGS Professional Paper, 1697, on the metallogenesis and tectonics of the Russian Far East, Alaska, and the Canadian Cordillera that is available on the Internet at http://pubs.usgs.gov/pp/pp1697/. The major purpose of the tectonic and metallogenic model is to provide, in movie format, a colorful summary of the complex geology, tectonics, and metallogenesis of the region. To accomplish this goal four steps were taken: (1) 13 time-stage diagrams, from the late Neoproterozoic (850 Ma) through the present (0 Ma), were adapted, generalized, and transformed into color static time-stage diagrams; (2) the 13 time-stage diagrams were placed in a computer morphing program to produce the model; (3) the model was examined and each diagram was successively adapted to preceding and subsequent diagrams to match the size and surface expression of major geologic units; and (4) the final version of the model was produced in successive iterations of steps 2 and 3. The tectonic and metallogenic model and associated materials in this report are derived from a project on the major mineral deposits, metallogenesis, and tectonics of the Northeast Asia and from a preceding project on the metallogenesis and tectonics of the Russian Far East, Alaska, and the Canadian Cordillera. Both projects provide critical information on bedrock geology and geophysics, tectonics, major metalliferous mineral resources, metallogenic patterns, and crustal origin and evolution of mineralizing systems for this region. The major

  1. Brazil: Xingu River

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2013-04-18

    ... title:  Fire and Deforestation near the Xingu River     View Larger Image Numerous fires occurred near the headwaters of the Xingu River and the Xingu Indigenous Peoples' Reserve in Mato Grosso, Brazil, during ...

  2. Northeast View in 360-degree panorama

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    This view to the Northeast was imaged by the Imager for Mars Pathfinder (IMP) as part of a 360-degree color panorama, taken over sols 8, 9 and 10. A deflated airbag is at the bottom of the image.

    Mars Pathfinder is the second in NASA's Discovery program of low-cost spacecraft with highly focused science goals. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, developed and manages the Mars Pathfinder mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. JPL is a division of the California Institute of Technology (Caltech). The IMP was developed by the University of Arizona Lunar and Planetary Laboratory under contract to JPL. Peter Smith is the Principal Investigator.

  3. Coptotermes gestroi (Isoptera: Rhinotermitidae) in Brazil: possible origins inferred by mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase II gene sequences.

    PubMed

    Martins, C; Fontes, L R; Bueno, O C; Martins, V G

    2010-09-01

    The Asian subterranean termite, Coptotermes gestroi, originally from northeast India through Burma, Thailand, Malaysia, and the Indonesian archipelago, is a major termite pest introduced in several countries around the world, including Brazil. We sequenced the mitochondrial COII gene from individuals representing 23 populations. Phylogenetic analysis of COII gene sequences from this and other studies resulted in two main groups: (1) populations of Cleveland (USA) and four populations of Malaysia and (2) populations of Brazil, four populations of Malaysia, and one population from each of Thailand, Puerto Rico, and Key West (USA). Three new localities are reported here, considerably enlarging the distribution of C. gestroi in Brazil: Campo Grande (state of Mato Grosso do Sul), Itajaí (state of Santa Catarina), and Porto Alegre (state of Rio Grande do Sul). PMID:20924414

  4. Fungi from a Groundwater-Fed Drinking Water Supply System in Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Oliveira, Helena M.B.; Santos, Cledir; Paterson, R. Russell M.; Gusmão, Norma B.; Lima, Nelson

    2016-01-01

    Filamentous fungi in drinking water distribution systems are known to (a) block water pipes; (b) cause organoleptic biodeterioration; (c) act as pathogens or allergens and (d) cause mycotoxin contamination. Yeasts might also cause problems. This study describes the occurrence of several fungal species in a water distribution system supplied by groundwater in Recife—Pernambuco, Brazil. Water samples were collected from four sampling sites from which fungi were recovered by membrane filtration. The numbers in all sampling sites ranged from 5 to 207 colony forming units (CFU)/100 mL with a mean value of 53 CFU/100 mL. In total, 859 isolates were identified morphologically, with Aspergillus and Penicillium the most representative genera (37% and 25% respectively), followed by Trichoderma and Fusarium (9% each), Curvularia (5%) and finally the species Pestalotiopsis karstenii (2%). Ramichloridium and Leptodontium were isolated and are black yeasts, a group that include emergent pathogens. The drinking water system in Recife may play a role in fungal dissemination, including opportunistic pathogens. PMID:27005653

  5. Risk evaluation and exposure control of mineral dust containing free crystalline silica: a study case at a quarry in the Recife Metropolitan Area.

    PubMed

    Lira, Mario; Kohlman Rabbani, E; Barkokébas Junior, Beda; Lago, Eliane

    2012-01-01

    During the production of aggregates at quarry sites, elevated quantities of micro-particulate mineral dust are produced in all stages of the process. This dust contains appreciable amounts of free crystalline silica in a variety of forms which, if maintained suspended in the air in the work environment, expose the workers to the risk of developing occupational silicosis, which causes reduced ability to work and potential shortening of lifespan. This study was conducted to qualitatively and quantitatively evaluate workers' exposure to mineral dust containing free crystalline silica at a midsized quarry in the Recife metropolitan area, in the State of Pernambuco. It involved evaluation of the industrial process, collection and analysis of representative dust samples, and interviews with the management team of the company with the intent to assess the compliance of the company with Regulatory Standard (NR) 22--Occupational safety and health in mining. In order to assist the company in managing risks related to dust exposure, three protocols were developed, implemented and made available, the first based on NR 22, from which the company was also given an economic safety indicator, the second based on the recommendations and requirements of Fundacentro to implement a Respiratory Protection Program and, finally, an assessment protocol with respect to the guidelines of the International Labor Organization to implement a health and safety management system. This study also showed the inadequacy of the formula for calculating tolerance limits in Brazilian legislation when compared with the more strict internationally accepted control parameters. From the laboratory results, unhealthy conditions at the quarry site were confirmed and technical and administrative measures were suggested to reduce and control dust exposure at acceptable levels, such as the implementation of an occupational health and safety management system, integrated with other management systems. From these

  6. Clinical and epidemiological aspects of scorpion stings in the northeast region of Brazil.

    PubMed

    Barros, Rafaella Moreno; Pasquino, Jackeline Araujo; Peixoto, Laisla Rangel; Targino, Isabely Tamarys Gomes; de Sousa, Jorge Alves; Leite, Renner de Souza

    2014-04-01

    Scorpion stings are a serious public health issue in tropical and subtropical countries. This is a descriptive and retrospective study of the clinical-epidemiological characteristics of scorpion sting cases registered in the Health System in the city of Campina Grande, Paraíba state, from 2007 to 2012. Data was collected from the Injury Notification Information System data banks of the Ministry of Health. A total of 2,283 records, provided by the Third Health Sector of Campina Grande, were analyzed. Data revealed that the majority of the victims are female aged between 20 and 29 years, and the highest incidence of stings was in the urban area. Victims were mostly stung on the feet and hand. Serotherapy was not administered in most cases. The majority of the victims received medical assistance within 1 to 3 hours after the sting. The most prevalent clinical manifestations were pain, edema and paresthesias. Most cases were classified as mild, though seven deaths were reported. The high incidence rate suggests that this town may be an endemic area of scorpion stings, supporting the need to develop strategies to control and prevent scorpion stings. PMID:24820610

  7. Trypanocidal and cytotoxic activities of essential oils from medicinal plants of Northeast of Brazil.

    PubMed

    Borges, Andrezza Raposo; Aires, Juliana Ramos de Albuquerque; Higino, Taciana Mirely Maciel; de Medeiros, Maria das Graças Freire; Citó, Antonia Maria das Graças Lopes; Lopes, José Arimatéia Dantas; de Figueiredo, Regina Celia Bressan Queiroz

    2012-10-01

    Chagas disease, caused by Trypanosoma cruzi, is an important cause of mortality and morbidity in Latin America. There are no vaccines available, the chemotherapy used to treat this illness has serious side effects and its efficacy on the chronic phase of disease is still a matter of debate. In a search for alternative treatment for Chagas disease, essential oils extracted from traditional medicinal plants Lippia sidoides, Lippia origanoides, Chenopodium ambrosioides, Ocimum gratissimum, Justicia pectorales and Vitex agnus-castus were investigated in vitro for trypanocidal and cytotoxic activities. Essential Oils were extracted by hydrodistillation and submitted to chemical analysis by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. The concentration of essential oils necessary to inhibit 50% of the epimastigotes or amastigotes growth (IC(50)) and to kill 50% of trypomastigote forms (LC(50)) was estimated. The most prevalent chemical constituents of these essential oils were monoterpenes and sesquiterpenes. All essential oils tested demonstrated an inhibitory effect on the parasite growth and survival. L. sidoides and L. origanoides essential oils were the most effective against trypomastigote and amastigote forms respectively. No significant cytotoxic effects were observed in mouse peritoneal macrophages incubated with essential oils which were more selective against the parasites than mammalian cells. Taken together, our results point towards the use of these essential oils as potential chemotherapeutic agent against T. cruzi. PMID:22771867

  8. [Exposure to violence among adolescents in a low-income community in the northeast of Brazil].

    PubMed

    Moreira, Deborah Pedrosa; Vieira, Luiza Jane Eyre de Souza; Pordeus, Augediva Maria Jucá; Lira, Samira Valentim Gama; Luna, Geisy Lanne Muniz; e Silva, Juliana Guimarães; Machado, Maria de Fátima Antero Sousa

    2013-05-01

    This a cross-sectional study made in Fortaleza, Ceará, 2009, which included 458 teenagers and analyzed their exposure to violence, describing their access to weapons, alcohol abuse, illegal drug use and their self-esteem by investigating their socio-economic, school and family characteristics and exposure to the phenomenon. A questionnaire and/or structured interviews were used for data collection, and analysis involved Pearson's chi-square test, with 95% reliability. Of the 458 participants, 17.7% were considered to be exposed to criminal violence. Significant variables for exposure to violence included: place of birth (p = 0.020), years of schooling (p = 0,009), school absenteeism (p < 0.001), the father as the head of the family (p = 0.026), alcohol-addicted parents (p < 0.001), good/very good family relationships (p = 0.009), and parents' dissatisfaction with their children's friends (p < 0.001). Thus, it is necessary that public policies focus on a support network for care of adolescents and that urban centers organize themselves socially and politically in the quest for understanding the effects of exposure to violence among adolescents in low-income communities. PMID:23670455

  9. TOXOPLASMA GONDII ISOLATES FROM FREE-RANGE CHICKENS FORM THE NORTHEAST REGION OF BRAZIL

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The prevalence of Toxoplasma gondii in free-ranging chickens is a good indicator of the prevalence of T. gondii oocysts in the soil because chickens feed from the ground. The prevalence of T. gondii in 152 free-range chickens (Gallus domesticus) from 22 municipalities in 7 northeastern states (Perna...

  10. A new species of Dicranophora Macquart (Diptera, Stratiomyidae) from Bahia State, Brazil and a key to species of the genus.

    PubMed

    De Godoi, Fabio Siqueira Pitaluga; Rafael, José Albertino

    2013-01-01

    A new species of the Neotropical Dicranophora Macquart is described and illustrated from six males collected in northeast Brazil, Bahia state (Encruzilhada district). Dicranophora femurspiculata sp. nov. is characterized by the specific pattern of spots on the frons, on the legs and on the abdomen, and by a distinct shape of the scutellar process and mid femur A key to the species of the genus and a distribution map are presented. PMID:26287070

  11. 4. VIEW SHOWING UPSTREAM FACE OF DAM, LOOKING NORTHEAST ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. VIEW SHOWING UPSTREAM FACE OF DAM, LOOKING NORTHEAST - High Mountain Dams in Upalco Unit, Kidney Lake Dam, Ashley National Forest, 4.7 miles North of Miners Gulch Campground, Mountain Home, Duchesne County, UT

  12. 4. Light tower and keeper's house, view northeast, southwest side ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. Light tower and keeper's house, view northeast, southwest side - Pumpkin Island Light Station, Pumpkin Island, at northern end of Eggemoggin Beach, off northwest end of Little Deer Island, Eggemoggin, Hancock County, ME

  13. 2. Keeper's house and light tower, view southwest, northeast and ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. Keeper's house and light tower, view southwest, northeast and northwest sides - Pumpkin Island Light Station, Pumpkin Island, at northern end of Eggemoggin Beach, off northwest end of Little Deer Island, Eggemoggin, Hancock County, ME

  14. 3. Keeper's house, view northwest, southeast and northeast sides ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. Keeper's house, view northwest, southeast and northeast sides - Pumpkin Island Light Station, Pumpkin Island, at northern end of Eggemoggin Beach, off northwest end of Little Deer Island, Eggemoggin, Hancock County, ME

  15. 10. Detail of truss located on top the northeast pier, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    10. Detail of truss located on top the northeast pier, looking southwest. - Bridge No. 4800, Spanning Minnesota River on Trunk Highway 4 between Brown & Nicollet Counties, Sleepy Eye, Brown County, MN

  16. 10. NORTHEAST CORNER CONSTRUCTION DETAIL, VIEW OF SIDEWALK. TAMARACK BRIDGE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    10. NORTHEAST CORNER CONSTRUCTION DETAIL, VIEW OF SIDEWALK. TAMARACK BRIDGE IN LEFT REAR. - Cascade Creek Bridge, Spanning Cascade Creek on New Big Oak Flat Road, Yosemite Village, Mariposa County, CA

  17. 8. DETAIL VIEW, LOOKING NORTHEAST, SHOWING OUTRIGGERS FOR LATERAL BRACING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. DETAIL VIEW, LOOKING NORTHEAST, SHOWING OUTRIGGERS FOR LATERAL BRACING FOR TRUSSES AND BOTTOM CHORD CONNECTIONS. - White Bowstring Arch Truss Bridge, Spanning Yellow Creek at Cemetery Drive (Riverside Drive), Poland, Mahoning County, OH

  18. 12. VIEW OF NATURAL BRIDGE OVERLOOK PARKING AREA, FACING NORTHEAST. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    12. VIEW OF NATURAL BRIDGE OVERLOOK PARKING AREA, FACING NORTHEAST. NOTE DETERIORATION OF WALL AND USE OF AESTHETICALLY INTRUSIVE FENCING. - Bryce Canyon National Park Rim Road, State Highway 63 to Rainbow Point, Tropic, Garfield County, UT

  19. Interior detail of counters in second floor room at northeast ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Interior detail of counters in second floor room at northeast corner; camera facing southeast. - Mare Island Naval Shipyard, Old Administrative Offices, Eighth Street, north side between Railroad Avenue & Walnut Avenue, Vallejo, Solano County, CA

  20. 12. DETAIL VIEW OF NORTHEAST CORNER, SHOWING HIP VERTICAL, INCLINED ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    12. DETAIL VIEW OF NORTHEAST CORNER, SHOWING HIP VERTICAL, INCLINED END POST, AND UPPER CHORD - Kennan-Jump River Bridge, Spanning South fork of Jump River on County Highway "N", Kennan, Price County, WI

  1. 57. POWDER MAGAZINE, DETAIL VIEW OF NORTHEAST FRONT ENTRANCE TO ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    57. POWDER MAGAZINE, DETAIL VIEW OF NORTHEAST FRONT ENTRANCE TO ACESS PASSAGE TO MAGAZINES FROM INTERIOR OF MAGAZINE SHOWING VENTILATION WINDOWS (BARRED) FLANKING ENTRANCE DOOR (OPEN). NOTE ACCESS PASSAGE TO ADJOING MAGAZINE. - Fort Monroe, Fortress, Hampton, Hampton, VA

  2. BATHROOM OFF BEDROOM AT NORTHEAST CORNER OF GROUND FLOOR, NORTH ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    BATHROOM OFF BEDROOM AT NORTHEAST CORNER OF GROUND FLOOR, NORTH WING. SHOWERS STAND SEPARATELY FROM BATHTUBS IN FACILITY NO. 299 - Hamilton Field, Base Commander's Quarters, 299 Casa Grande Real, Novato, Marin County, CA

  3. 8. POWERHOUSE FOREMAN'S BUNGALOW. NORTHEAST FACADE. VIEW TO SOUTHWEST. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. POWERHOUSE FOREMAN'S BUNGALOW. NORTHEAST FACADE. VIEW TO SOUTHWEST. - Thompson Falls Hydroelectric Project, Power Foreman's Bungalow, On island between Forebay Channel & ClarkFord River, Thompson Falls, Sanders County, MT

  4. 7. POWERHOUSE FOREMAN'S BUNGALOW. SOUTHWEST FACADE. VIEW TO NORTHEAST. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. POWERHOUSE FOREMAN'S BUNGALOW. SOUTHWEST FACADE. VIEW TO NORTHEAST. - Thompson Falls Hydroelectric Project, Power Foreman's Bungalow, On island between Forebay Channel & ClarkFord River, Thompson Falls, Sanders County, MT

  5. 3. CONTEXT VIEW SHOWING SUSPENSION BRIDGE, NORTHEAST AND NORTHWEST FACADES. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. CONTEXT VIEW SHOWING SUSPENSION BRIDGE, NORTHEAST AND NORTHWEST FACADES. VIEW TO SOUTH. - Thompson Falls Hydroelectric Project, Power Foreman's Bungalow, On island between Forebay Channel & ClarkFord River, Thompson Falls, Sanders County, MT

  6. VIEW OF WEST SIDE AND SOUTH FRONT (PARTIAL), FACING NORTHEAST. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW OF WEST SIDE AND SOUTH FRONT (PARTIAL), FACING NORTHEAST. - Douglas Aircraft Company Long Beach Plant, Aircraft Final Assembly Building, 3855 Lakewood Boulevard, Long Beach, Los Angeles County, CA

  7. 14. INTERIOR VIEW, FIRST FLOOR, EAST PARLOR, NORTHEAST (WINDOW) AND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    14. INTERIOR VIEW, FIRST FLOOR, EAST PARLOR, NORTHEAST (WINDOW) AND SOUTHEAST (FIREPLACE) WALLS, LOOKING EAST (NOTE THE STENCILING ALONG THE CORNICE AND ON THE CEILING) - Clifton Farm, Off Baker Road, Frederick, Frederick County, MD

  8. 8. Interior view of first floor kitchen. View to northeast. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. Interior view of first floor kitchen. View to northeast. - U.S. Customs Service Port of Roosville, Immigration & Naturalization Service Residence, 45 feet southwest of Main Port Building, Eureka, Lincoln County, MT

  9. 13. VIEW LOOKING NORTHEAST, SHOWING SHIPPING ROOMS AND VENEER MILL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    13. VIEW LOOKING NORTHEAST, SHOWING SHIPPING ROOMS AND VENEER MILL (AT RIGHT), AND ENGINE ROOM (AT LEFT) - Ichabod T. Williams & Sons Sawmill & Veneer Plant, Roosevelt Avenue at Carteret Avenue, Carteret, Middlesex County, NJ

  10. 6. VIEW LOOKING NORTHEAST, OFFICE BUILDING AT RIGHT AND WORKSHOP ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. VIEW LOOKING NORTHEAST, OFFICE BUILDING AT RIGHT AND WORKSHOP WITH SAWTOOTH ROOF AT LEFT - Ichabod T. Williams & Sons Sawmill & Veneer Plant, Roosevelt Avenue at Carteret Avenue, Carteret, Middlesex County, NJ

  11. 11. Northeast front, dock no. 493. View to west. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    11. Northeast front, dock no. 493. View to west. - Offutt Air Force Base, Looking Glass Airborne Command Post, Nose Docks, On either side of Hangar Access Apron at Northwest end of Project Looking Glass Historic District, Bellevue, Sarpy County, NE

  12. 2. OBLIQUE VIEW TO NORTHEAST ALONG FRONT OF SANTA ANA ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. OBLIQUE VIEW TO NORTHEAST ALONG FRONT OF SANTA ANA RIVER DIVERSION DAM. NOTE CABLE CAR SUSPENSION CABLE AT GATE ATOP DAM. - Santa Ana River Hydroelectric System, Santa Ana River Diversion Dam, Redlands, San Bernardino County, CA

  13. NORTHEAST FACADE AND ONESTORY WING, VIEW FACING SOUTHSOUTHWEST (with scale ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    NORTHEAST FACADE AND ONE-STORY WING, VIEW FACING SOUTH-SOUTHWEST (with scale stick). - Naval Air Station Barbers Point, Control Tower & Aviation Operations Building, Near intersection of runways between Hangar 110 & Building 115, Ewa, Honolulu County, HI

  14. NORTHEAST FACADE AND ONESTORY WING FROM ENTRY DRIVE, VIEW FACING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    NORTHEAST FACADE AND ONE-STORY WING FROM ENTRY DRIVE, VIEW FACING SOUTHWEST. - Naval Air Station Barbers Point, Control Tower & Aviation Operations Building, Near intersection of runways between Hangar 110 & Building 115, Ewa, Honolulu County, HI

  15. NORTHEAST FACADE AND ONESTORY WING, VIEW FACING SOUTHSOUTHWEST. Naval ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    NORTHEAST FACADE AND ONE-STORY WING, VIEW FACING SOUTH-SOUTHWEST. - Naval Air Station Barbers Point, Control Tower & Aviation Operations Building, Near intersection of runways between Hangar 110 & Building 115, Ewa, Honolulu County, HI

  16. NORTHEAST FACADE AND ONESTORY WING FROM PARKING LOT SIDE, VIEW ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    NORTHEAST FACADE AND ONE-STORY WING FROM PARKING LOT SIDE, VIEW FACING SOUTH-SOUTHEAST. - Naval Air Station Barbers Point, Control Tower & Aviation Operations Building, Near intersection of runways between Hangar 110 & Building 115, Ewa, Honolulu County, HI

  17. SOUTHWEST FACADE AS SEEN FROM FLIGHTLINE, VIEW FACING NORTHEAST ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    SOUTHWEST FACADE AS SEEN FROM FLIGHTLINE, VIEW FACING NORTHEAST - Naval Air Station Barbers Point, Control Tower & Aviation Operations Building, Near intersection of runways between Hangar 110 & Building 115, Ewa, Honolulu County, HI

  18. View of camera station located northeast of Building 70022, facing ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View of camera station located northeast of Building 70022, facing northwest - Naval Ordnance Test Station Inyokern, Randsburg Wash Facility Target Test Towers, Tower Road, China Lake, Kern County, CA

  19. BASEMENT, A view looking northeast that captures the storage lockers ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    BASEMENT, A view looking northeast that captures the storage lockers in the woman's side of the change room (Room 119A) - Department of Energy, Mound Facility, Isolated Building (I Building), One Mound Road, Miamisburg, Montgomery County, OH

  20. View from southwest to northeast of industrial building. Far right ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View from southwest to northeast of industrial building. Far right doors lead to vehicle service and maintenance bays - Stanley R. Mickelsen Safeguard Complex, Industrial Building, One block southwest of Limited Area Sentry Station, Nekoma, Cavalier County, ND

  1. 2. NORTHEAST CORNER OF LARD REFINERY (CONNECTING BUILDING ON THE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. NORTHEAST CORNER OF LARD REFINERY (CONNECTING BUILDING ON THE RIGHT) - Wilson's Oil House, Lard Refinery, & Edible Fats Factory, Lard Refinery, 2801 Southwest Fifteenth Street, Oklahoma City, Oklahoma County, OK

  2. 3. VIEW TO SOUTHWEST (NORTHEAST CORNER OF EDIBLE FATS FACTORY) ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. VIEW TO SOUTHWEST (NORTHEAST CORNER OF EDIBLE FATS FACTORY) - Wilson's Oil House, Lard Refinery, & Edible Fats Factory, Edible Fats Factory, 2801 Southwest Fifteenth Street, Oklahoma City, Oklahoma County, OK

  3. Building 904, oblique view to northeast, 210mm lens Travis ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Building 904, oblique view to northeast, 210mm lens - Travis Air Force Base, Base Spares Warehouse No. 1, Dixon Avenue & W Street, Armed Forces Special Weapons Project Q Area, Fairfield, Solano County, CA

  4. Facility No. 175, exterior oblique view of northeast and northwest ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Facility No. 175, exterior oblique view of northeast and northwest sides, corner of Facility No. 176 is in background - U.S. Naval Base, Pearl Harbor, Landplane Hangar Type, Wasp Boulevard and Gambier Bay Street, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  5. 10. LIGHT TOWER, VIEW NORTHEAST FROM LIGHT PLATFORM, SOUTHWEST SIDE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    10. LIGHT TOWER, VIEW NORTHEAST FROM LIGHT PLATFORM, SOUTHWEST SIDE OF BOAT HOUSE AND KEEPER'S HOUSE, WITH DETAIL OF RAILING IN FOREGROUND - Grindle Point Light Station, Western end of Ferry Road on Grindle Point, Islesboro, Waldo County, ME

  6. 6. Bell tower and storage building, view northeast, west and ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. Bell tower and storage building, view northeast, west and south sides - Doubling Point Light Station, End of Doubling Point Road, off State Highway 127, 1.8 miles south of U.S. Route 1, Arrowsic, Sagadahoc County, ME

  7. Double Mine Building, general view in setting; view northeast ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Double Mine Building, general view in setting; view northeast - Fort McKinley, Double Mine Building, East side of East Side Drive, approximately 125 feet south of Weymouth Way, Great Diamond Island, Portland, Cumberland County, ME

  8. 15. Detail, northeast facade, operator's bow window and tower, showing ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    15. Detail, northeast facade, operator's bow window and tower, showing knee braces carried on stone ancons used to support eaves, view to northwest, 90mm lens. - Southern Pacific Depot, 559 El Camino Real, San Carlos, San Mateo County, CA

  9. FACILITY 89. FRONT OBLIQUE TAKEN FROM DRIVEWAY. VIEW FACING NORTHEAST. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    FACILITY 89. FRONT OBLIQUE TAKEN FROM DRIVEWAY. VIEW FACING NORTHEAST. - U.S. Naval Base, Pearl Harbor, Naval Housing Area Makalapa, Junior Officers' Quarters Type K, Makin Place, & Halawa, Makalapa, & Midway Drives, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  10. Partial Northeast Elevation Mill #5 East & #5 West ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Partial Northeast Elevation - Mill #5 East & #5 West (Part 4), Typical Floor - Partial Plan Mill #5 East & #5 West (Part 4) - Boott Cotton Mills, John Street at Merrimack River, Lowell, Middlesex County, MA

  11. 2. BUILDING 321. VIEW TO NORTHEAST. Rocky Mountain Arsenal, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. BUILDING 321. VIEW TO NORTHEAST. - Rocky Mountain Arsenal, Boiler Plant-Central Gas Heat Plant, 1022 feet South of December Seventh Avenue; 525 feet West of D Street, Commerce City, Adams County, CO

  12. 2. MAGAZINE P, WITH ENTRANCE DOOR IN FOREGROUND, LOOKING NORTHEAST. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. MAGAZINE P, WITH ENTRANCE DOOR IN FOREGROUND, LOOKING NORTHEAST. - NIKE Missile Base C-84, Underground Storage Magazines & Launcher-Loader Assemblies, Easternmost portion of launch area, Barrington, Cook County, IL

  13. 2. EAST ELEVATION OF BRIDGE SEEN FROM THE NORTHEAST, SHOWING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. EAST ELEVATION OF BRIDGE SEEN FROM THE NORTHEAST, SHOWING APPROACH OF CARRS MILL ROAD FROM EAST. - Mitchell's Mill Bridge, Spanning Winter's Run on Carrs Mill Road, west of Bel Air, Bel Air, Harford County, MD

  14. EXTERIOR, A view looking northeast toward the south elevation and ...

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    EXTERIOR, A view looking northeast toward the south elevation and stacks of HH Building - Department of Energy, Mound Facility, Hydrolysis House Building (HH Building), One Mound Road, Miamisburg, Montgomery County, OH

  15. EXTERIOR, A view looking northeast at the south and west ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    EXTERIOR, A view looking northeast at the south and west facades of the building and staircase - Department of Energy, Mound Facility, Hydrolysis House Building (HH Building), One Mound Road, Miamisburg, Montgomery County, OH

  16. 20. DETAIL WITH FIRE HYDRANT, LOOKING NORTHEAST Kodiak Naval ...

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    20. DETAIL WITH FIRE HYDRANT, LOOKING NORTHEAST - Kodiak Naval Operating Base, Aircraft Storehouse, U.S. Coast Guard Station, Albatross Avenue near Cape Spencer Street, Kodiak, Kodiak Island Borough, AK

  17. LOOKING NORTHEAST AT FOUNDRY BUILDING. CLOSED DOORS ON LEFT ARE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    LOOKING NORTHEAST AT FOUNDRY BUILDING. CLOSED DOORS ON LEFT ARE TO MACHINE SHOP, LARGE OPEN DOOR TO THE FOUNDRY, AND THE SMALL OPEN DOOR ON RIGHT TO CORE ROOM. - Knight Foundry, 13 Eureka Street, Sutter Creek, Amador County, CA

  18. 22. LOOKING NORTHEAST AT FOUNDRY BUILDING. CLOSED DOORS ON LEFT ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    22. LOOKING NORTHEAST AT FOUNDRY BUILDING. CLOSED DOORS ON LEFT ARE TO MACHINE SHOP, LARGE OPEN DOOR TO THE FOUNDRY, AND THE SMALL OPEN DOOR ON RIGHT TO CORE ROOM. - Knight Foundry, 13 Eureka Street, Sutter Creek, Amador County, CA

  19. 12. VIEW NORTHEAST, DETAIL OF BRACE ON SOUTH ELEVATION, MILEPOST ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    12. VIEW NORTHEAST, DETAIL OF BRACE ON SOUTH ELEVATION, MILEPOST SIGNBOARD TO LEFT OF BRACE - Meeting House Bridge, Spanning Boston & Maine Railroad 0.1 mile east of Biddleford Road, Arundel, York County, ME

  20. Partial view of the northeast side, taken from Facility No. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Partial view of the northeast side, taken from Facility No. 6 - U.S. Naval Base, Pearl Harbor, Flask Storage, West side of Seventh Street between Facility Nos. 1107 & S1115, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  1. 22. LOOKING NORTHEAST FROM RECEIVING PLATFORM AT THE REAR (EAST ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    22. LOOKING NORTHEAST FROM RECEIVING PLATFORM AT THE REAR (EAST SIDE) OF BUILDING, SHOWING SOUTH SIDE OF NORTH WING AND SOUTH SIDE OF FOOD PRESERVATION AND SANITATION LABORATORY (Harms) - Dairy Industry Building, Iowa State University campus, Ames, Story County, IA

  2. 7. GROUND FLOOR, NORTHEAST PARLOR, LOOKING TOWARD EAST WALL, VIEW ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. GROUND FLOOR, NORTHEAST PARLOR, LOOKING TOWARD EAST WALL, VIEW SHOWING WOODEN FLOORBOARDS, FIREPLACE AND MANTEL, OVERMANTEL, CORNICE AND PILASTER STRIPS AND FURNISHINGS - Clover Fields, Forman's Lodge Road, Wye Mills, Talbot County, MD

  3. 10. VIEW OF THE BADGER STATE MINEYARD, LOOKING NORTHEAST, SHOWING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    10. VIEW OF THE BADGER STATE MINEYARD, LOOKING NORTHEAST, SHOWING THE HOIST HOUSE ON THE LEFT, THE IDLER TOWER, AND A LEG OF THE HEADFRAME ON THE RIGHT - Butte Mineyards, Badger State Mine, Butte, Silver Bow County, MT

  4. 3. Oil House, Southern Pacific Railroad Carlin, northeast elevation, view ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. Oil House, Southern Pacific Railroad Carlin, northeast elevation, view to southwest (135mm lens). - Southern Pacific Railroad, Carlin Shops, Oil House, Foot of Sixth Street, Carlin, Elko County, NV

  5. 90. VIEW NORTHEAST OF BUILDING 98 OIL HOUSE AND STORAGE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    90. VIEW NORTHEAST OF BUILDING 98 OIL HOUSE AND STORAGE TANK; OIL FOR POWER GENERATION WAS UNLOADED FROM TANK CARS AND STORED AT THIS FACILITY - Scovill Brass Works, 59 Mill Street, Waterbury, New Haven County, CT

  6. View of 175 ton hoisthouse from northeast. Hoist operator's cab ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View of 175 ton hoist-house from northeast. Hoist operator's cab is in foreground center. - Marshall Space Flight Center, Saturn V Dynamic Test Facility, East Test Area, Huntsville, Madison County, AL

  7. 6. VIEW NORTHEAST; SOUTHEAST ELEVATION. Naval Undersea Warfare Center, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. VIEW NORTHEAST; SOUTHEAST ELEVATION. - Naval Undersea Warfare Center, Bowditch Hall, 600 feet east of Smith Street & 350 feet south of Columbia Cove, West bank of Thames River, New London, New London County, CT

  8. 5. VIEW NORTHEAST; SOUTH ELEVATION. Naval Undersea Warfare Center, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. VIEW NORTHEAST; SOUTH ELEVATION. - Naval Undersea Warfare Center, Bowditch Hall, 600 feet east of Smith Street & 350 feet south of Columbia Cove, West bank of Thames River, New London, New London County, CT

  9. 2. GENERAL VIEW OF COMPLEX FROM SANDPIT LOOKING NORTHEAST, SAND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. GENERAL VIEW OF COMPLEX FROM SANDPIT LOOKING NORTHEAST, SAND DRAINING & DRYING BUILDING (left) AND SAND-SORTING BUILDING (right) - Mill "C" Complex, South of Dee Bennet Road, near Illinois River, Ottawa, La Salle County, IL

  10. 1. GENERAL VIEW OF COMPLEX FROM SANDPIT LOOKING NORTHEAST, SAND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. GENERAL VIEW OF COMPLEX FROM SANDPIT LOOKING NORTHEAST, SAND DRAINING & DRYING BUILDING (left) AND SAND-SORTING BUILDING (right) - Mill "C" Complex, South of Dee Bennet Road, near Illinois River, Ottawa, La Salle County, IL

  11. Perspective view of east facade from northeast National Home ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Perspective view of east facade from northeast - National Home for Disabled Volunteer Soldiers, Pacific Branch, Main Mental Health Building, 11301 Wilshire Boulevard, West Los Angeles, Los Angeles County, CA

  12. 1. INTAKE CHANNEL LOOKING NORTHEAST; WATER FROM BEAVER BROOK ENTERS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. INTAKE CHANNEL LOOKING NORTHEAST; WATER FROM BEAVER BROOK ENTERS THE INTAKE CHANNEL HERE. - Hondius Water Line, 1.6 miles Northwest of Park headquarters building & 1 mile Northwest of Beaver Meadows entrance station, Estes Park, Larimer County, CO

  13. 2. VIEW NORTHEAST OF CONDENSER WATER INTAKE (LEFT), GENERATING PLANT ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. VIEW NORTHEAST OF CONDENSER WATER INTAKE (LEFT), GENERATING PLANT AND STACK (CENTER), AND VIADUCT (EXTREME RIGHT) - Turners Falls Power & Electric Company, Hampden Station, East bank of Connecticut River, Chicopee, Hampden County, MA

  14. 6. VIEW SHOWING NORTHEAST END OF WHARF REAR FROM LANDSLIDE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. VIEW SHOWING NORTHEAST END OF WHARF REAR FROM LANDSLIDE - U.S. Naval Base, Pearl Harbor, Berthing Wharf S378, Beckoning Point, Southeast of Cowpens Street, Ford Island, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  15. 4. PERSPECTIVE VIEW TO THE NORTHEAST OF THE CREW SHELTER ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. PERSPECTIVE VIEW TO THE NORTHEAST OF THE CREW SHELTER IN AR-8. - Edwards Air Force Base, South Base, Rammed Earth Aircraft Dispersal Revetments, Western Shore of Rogers Dry Lake, Boron, Kern County, CA

  16. VIEW LOOKING NORTHEAST AT EARTH MOUND. NOTE THE RECTANGULAR OPENINGS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW LOOKING NORTHEAST AT EARTH MOUND. NOTE THE RECTANGULAR OPENINGS USED FOR OBSERVATION EQUIPMENT AND PERISCOPE TOPS. - Marshall Space Flight Center, Redstone Rocket (Missile) Test Stand, Dodd Road, Huntsville, Madison County, AL

  17. 8. Southwest side of Building 1040 (chapel), looking northeast ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. Southwest side of Building 1040 (chapel), looking northeast - Naval Air Station Chase Field, Building 1040, Enterprise Street, .37 mile South-Southeast of intersection of Texas State Highway 202 & Independence Street, Beeville, Bee County, TX

  18. 112. REFRIGERANT CONDENSER TANKS AND PRESSURE CONTROLS IN NORTHEAST CORNER ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    112. REFRIGERANT CONDENSER TANKS AND PRESSURE CONTROLS IN NORTHEAST CORNER OF MECHANICAL EQUIPMENT ROOM (201), LSB (BLDG. 751) - Vandenberg Air Force Base, Space Launch Complex 3, Launch Pad 3 East, Napa & Alden Roads, Lompoc, Santa Barbara County, CA

  19. 1. OVERALL VIEW OF MILK LAKE, LOOKING NORTHEAST High ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. OVERALL VIEW OF MILK LAKE, LOOKING NORTHEAST - High Mountain Dams in Upalco Unit, Milk Lake Dam, Ashley National Forest, 9.4 miles Northwest of Swift Creek Campground, Mountain Home, Duchesne County, UT

  20. 5. MESS HALL, RIGHT AND REAR SIDES, LOOKING NORTHEAST. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. MESS HALL, RIGHT AND REAR SIDES, LOOKING NORTHEAST. - NIKE Missile Base SL-40, Mess Hall, East central portion of base, southeast of Barracks No. 2, northwest of Administration Building, Hecker, Monroe County, IL

  1. 36. SECOND FLOOR WEST ROOM LOOKING NORTHEAST. Furnace and fireplace ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    36. SECOND FLOOR WEST ROOM LOOKING NORTHEAST. Furnace and fireplace flues rise within the chimney between the doorways. - Twelfth Street Meeting House, 20 South Twelfth Street, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  2. 1. West portal of Tunnel 17, contextual view to northeast, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. West portal of Tunnel 17, contextual view to northeast, 135mm lens. The tunnel penetrates the toe of Dorris Hill, which rises to the left. - Southern Pacific Railroad Natron Cutoff, Tunnel No. 17, Milepost 408, Dorris, Siskiyou County, CA

  3. 1. CHICKEN HOUSE. SOUTH AND WEST FACADES. VIEW TO NORTHEAST. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. CHICKEN HOUSE. SOUTH AND WEST FACADES. VIEW TO NORTHEAST. - Thompson Falls Hydroelectric Project, Chicken House, On island between Forebay Channel & ClarkFord River, Thompson Falls, Sanders County, MT

  4. 20. GENERAL VIEW OF CONSTRUCTION LOOKING NORTHEAST SHOWING THE CONSTRUCTION ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    20. GENERAL VIEW OF CONSTRUCTION LOOKING NORTHEAST SHOWING THE CONSTRUCTION BRIDGE, GANTRY CRANE AND STRUCTURAL PIERS. - Wilson Dam & Hydroelectric Plant, Spanning Tennessee River at Wilson Dam Road (Route 133), Muscle Shoals, Colbert County, AL

  5. INTERIOR VIEW, WEST WALL OF THE NORTHEAST BED CHAMBER. AN ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    INTERIOR VIEW, WEST WALL OF THE NORTHEAST BED CHAMBER. AN ARCHED BED ALCOVE IS FLANKED BY THE MAIN ROOM DOOR ON THE LEFT AND A CLOSET DOOR ON THE RIGHT - The Woodlands, 4000 Woodlands Avenue, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  6. INTERIOR TOWER ROOM LOOKING NORTHEAST. Oregon Inlet Coast Guard ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    INTERIOR TOWER ROOM LOOKING NORTHEAST. - Oregon Inlet Coast Guard Station, Northern end of Pea Island, East side of State Road 1257, 0.3 mile North of North Carolina Highway 12, Rodanthe, Dare County, NC

  7. LOOKING NORTHEAST TOWARD NORTHERN AVE. SWING BRIDGE. BOSTON TEA PARTY ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    LOOKING NORTHEAST TOWARD NORTHERN AVE. SWING BRIDGE. BOSTON TEA PARTY SHIP AT ANCHOR IN FOREGROUND. - Northern Avenue Swing Bridge, Spanning Fort Point Channel at boundary between Boston & South Boston, Boston, Suffolk County, MA

  8. VIEW LOOKING NORTHEAST SHOWING TIPPLE FOR LOADING COKED COAL INTO ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW LOOKING NORTHEAST SHOWING TIPPLE FOR LOADING COKED COAL INTO RAILROAD CARS (FRONT), COAL STORAGE BIN AND TIPPLE FOR COAL TO BE CHARGED IN FURNACES (BACK) - Alverton Coke Works, State Route 981, Alverton, Westmoreland County, PA

  9. 2. GENERAL VIEW LOOKING NORTHEAST, SHOWING COKE MACHINE (CENTER), INTERMEDIATE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. GENERAL VIEW LOOKING NORTHEAST, SHOWING COKE MACHINE (CENTER), INTERMEDIATE TIPPLE (RIGHT), AND OVENS - Shoaf Mine & Coke Works, East side of Shoaf, off Township Route 472, Shoaf, Fayette County, PA

  10. 8. View toward the northeast at the north end of ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. View toward the northeast at the north end of the eastern segment of the north roundhouse. (Numbers 58, 59, and 60 are visible.) - Central Railroad of New Jersey, Engine Terminal, Jersey City, Hudson County, NJ

  11. 5. View toward the northeast at the inside elevation of ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. View toward the northeast at the inside elevation of the eastern segment of the north roundhouse. Bay numbers for stalls 58 through 66 are evident. - Central Railroad of New Jersey, Engine Terminal, Jersey City, Hudson County, NJ

  12. 6. Oblique view of Cherry Hill lettuce shed looking northeast, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. Oblique view of Cherry Hill lettuce shed looking northeast, with chute building to the right - Richmond Hill Plantation, Cherry Hill Lettuce Shed, East of Richmond Hill on Ford Neck Road, Richmond Hill, Bryan County, GA

  13. 3. VIEW, LOOKING NORTHEAST, SHOWING A SMALL FIELDSTONE DAM (KNOWN ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. VIEW, LOOKING NORTHEAST, SHOWING A SMALL FIELD-STONE DAM (KNOWN LOCALLY AS DAM NO. 2), BUILT BY THE CCC - J. Clark Salyer National Wildlife Refuge Dams, Along Lower Souris River, Kramer, Bottineau County, ND

  14. View from northeast to southwest of PAR site sentry station; ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View from northeast to southwest of PAR site sentry station; formerly the bachelor's enlisted men's quarter (BEQ) - Stanley R. Mickelsen Safeguard Complex, Sentry Station, North of Second Avenue & West of Electrical Switch Station No. 2, Nekoma, Cavalier County, ND

  15. View looking southwest showing northeast corner, with northwest corner of ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View looking southwest showing northeast corner, with northwest corner of building no. 1015 (ice house/storage shed) showing at the left. - McGraw Ranch, Eagle's Nest Cabin, McGraw Ranch Road, Estes Park, Larimer County, CO

  16. 1. GENERAL VIEW SHOWING NORTHEAST END (FRONT) OF TRANSIT SHED, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. GENERAL VIEW SHOWING NORTHEAST END (FRONT) OF TRANSIT SHED, IN CONTEXT WITH LOADING YARD AND DERRICK, LOOKING WEST - Oakland Army Base, Transit Shed, East of Dunkirk Street & South of Burma Road, Oakland, Alameda County, CA

  17. 18. GENERAL VIEW, LOOKING NORTHEAST TO SOUTHWEST, SHOWING RELATIONSHIP TO ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    18. GENERAL VIEW, LOOKING NORTHEAST TO SOUTHWEST, SHOWING RELATIONSHIP TO OFFICE AREA TO STAIRS - Oakland Army Base, Transit Shed, East of Dunkirk Street & South of Burma Road, Oakland, Alameda County, CA

  18. 17. GENERAL VIEW, LOOKING NORTHEAST TO SOUTHWEST, SHOWING RELATIONSHIP OF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    17. GENERAL VIEW, LOOKING NORTHEAST TO SOUTHWEST, SHOWING RELATIONSHIP OF TRUSS TO COLUMNS AND BAYS - Oakland Army Base, Transit Shed, East of Dunkirk Street & South of Burma Road, Oakland, Alameda County, CA

  19. Looking Northeast in Oxide Building at Reactors on Second Floor ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Looking Northeast in Oxide Building at Reactors on Second Floor Including Reactor One (Left) and Reactor Two (Right) - Hematite Fuel Fabrication Facility, Oxide Building & Oxide Loading Dock, 3300 State Road P, Festus, Jefferson County, MO

  20. 4. VIEW TO NORTHEAST, SKINNER SALT ROASTERS, SAMPLING BUILDING, WATER ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. VIEW TO NORTHEAST, SKINNER SALT ROASTERS, SAMPLING BUILDING, WATER TOWER, AND OFFICE BUILDING. - Vanadium Corporation of America (VCA) Naturita Mill, 3 miles Northwest of Naturita, between Highway 141 & San Miguel River, Naturita, Montrose County, CO

  1. 10. LOOKING NORTHEAST AT THE LINDE 400 TONS PER DAY ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    10. LOOKING NORTHEAST AT THE LINDE 400 TONS PER DAY LOW PURITY OXYGEN MAKING PLANT IN THE LOW PURITY BULK OXYGEN BUILDING. - U.S. Steel Duquesne Works, Fuel & Utilities Plant, Along Monongahela River, Duquesne, Allegheny County, PA

  2. General exterior view to northeast (Building 203 in background right) ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    General exterior view to northeast (Building 203 in background right) - Charlestown Navy Yard, Oxygen Plant, Midway along northern boundary of Charlestown Navy Yard, on Little Mystic Channel, near junction of Eighteenth Street & Fourth Avenue, Boston, Suffolk County, MA

  3. Credit BG. Southeast and northeast facades of concrete block structure ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Credit BG. Southeast and northeast facades of concrete block structure built in the late 1960s. It is now used to store miscellaneous equipment - Edwards Air Force Base, North Base, Liquid Oxygen Storage Facility, Second Street, Boron, Kern County, CA

  4. Detail showing connection of trusses to counter weights. View northeast ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Detail showing connection of trusses to counter weights. View northeast - New York, New Haven & Hartford Railroad, Fort Point Channel Rolling Lift Bridge, Spanning Fort Point Channel, Boston, Suffolk County, MA

  5. CORNICE AND WINDOW DETAIL, WEST ELEVATION, LOOKING NORTHEAST (LIGHT AND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    CORNICE AND WINDOW DETAIL, WEST ELEVATION, LOOKING NORTHEAST (LIGHT AND DARK EXPOSURES). - Division Avenue Pumping Station & Filtration Plant, West 45th Street and Division Avenue, Cleveland, Cuyahoga County, OH

  6. 54. VIEW LOOKING NORTHEAST AT DENNIS HOTEL, BLENHEIM HOTEL AND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    54. VIEW LOOKING NORTHEAST AT DENNIS HOTEL, BLENHEIM HOTEL AND MARLBOROUGH HOTEL (LEFT TO RIGHT) - Marlborough, Blenheim & Dennis Hotels (aerial views), Between Park Place, Michigan Avenue & Boardwalk, Atlantic City, Atlantic County, NJ

  7. 6. VIEW LOOKING NORTH TO NORTHEAST OF DENNIS HOTEL, BLENHEIM ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. VIEW LOOKING NORTH TO NORTHEAST OF DENNIS HOTEL, BLENHEIM HOTEL AND MARLBOROUGH HOTEL (LEFT TO RIGHT) IN THE CENTER OF THE PHOTO - Marlborough, Blenheim & Dennis Hotels (aerial views), Between Park Place, Michigan Avenue & Boardwalk, Atlantic City, Atlantic County, NJ

  8. Telephoto detail view of the northeast end, looking southeast toward ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Telephoto detail view of the northeast end, looking southeast toward the Carquinez Straits Bridge - Mare Island Naval Shipyard, Finger Piers 22 & 23, Railroad Avenue near Eighteenth Street, Vallejo, Solano County, CA

  9. Looking northeast over Piers 22 and 23 toward Mare Island ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Looking northeast over Piers 22 and 23 toward Mare Island Strait and the City of Vallejo - Mare Island Naval Shipyard, Finger Piers 22 & 23, Railroad Avenue near Eighteenth Street, Vallejo, Solano County, CA

  10. Northeast end of Pier 22, looking southeast, the partially built ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Northeast end of Pier 22, looking southeast, the partially built towers of the new Carquinez Straits Bridge are visible in the distance - Mare Island Naval Shipyard, Finger Piers 22 & 23, Railroad Avenue near Eighteenth Street, Vallejo, Solano County, CA

  11. 10. Interior view of first floor porch. View to northeast. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    10. Interior view of first floor porch. View to northeast. - U.S. Customs Service Port of Roosville, U.S. Customs Service Residence, 45 feet northwest of Main Port Building, Eureka, Lincoln County, MT

  12. 8. Interior view of first floor kitchen. View to northeast. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. Interior view of first floor kitchen. View to northeast. - U.S. Customs Service Port of Roosville, U.S. Customs Service Residence, 45 feet northwest of Main Port Building, Eureka, Lincoln County, MT

  13. 8. DETAIL OF NORTHEAST ELEVATION SHOWING NEON TWA SIGN AND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. DETAIL OF NORTHEAST ELEVATION SHOWING NEON TWA SIGN AND ROOF MASTS. LOOKING SOUTHWEST. - TWA Maintenance Hangar, South side of Tinicum Island Road, Philadelphia International Airport, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  14. View northeast toward west side of building 68. View partially ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View northeast toward west side of building 68. View partially obscured by automobiles and storage structures. - Naval Air Station North Island, Seaplane Hangars, Roe Street, North Island, San Diego, San Diego County, CA

  15. 3. Exterior, detail view of north elevation, from northeast, showing ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. Exterior, detail view of north elevation, from northeast, showing joint of addition. Sept. 12, 1940. Mixon. - Upper Swedish Log Cabin, Darby Creek vicinity, Clifton Heights (Upper Darby Township), Darby, Delaware County, PA

  16. View from southwest to northeast of PAR site fresh water ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View from southwest to northeast of PAR site fresh water pump house - Stanley R. Mickelsen Safeguard Complex, Fresh Water Pump House, In Limited Access Area, on Patrol Road next to Open Storage Reservoir No. 736, Nekoma, Cavalier County, ND

  17. OBLIQUE VIEW OF THE NORTHEAST SIDE. NOTE THE CANTILEVERED CANOPY ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    OBLIQUE VIEW OF THE NORTHEAST SIDE. NOTE THE CANTILEVERED CANOPY OVER THE FRONT DOOR AND BELT COURSE OF THREE FLARED BANDS. VIEW FACING SOUTHEAST. - Hickam Field, Officers' Housing Type M, 113 Beard Avenue, Honolulu, Honolulu County, HI

  18. VIEW OF THE FRONT AND NORTHEAST SIDE OF BUILDING 823, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW OF THE FRONT AND NORTHEAST SIDE OF BUILDING 823, FACING SOUTH - U.S. Naval Base, Pearl Harbor, Special Hull Treatment Plant, West corner of Third Street & Avenue G, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  19. South (front) and west elevations, looking northeast from corner of ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    South (front) and west elevations, looking northeast from corner of Isaac Hull Avenue and Sicard Street - Navy Yard, Building No. 198, Corner of Sicard Street & Isaac Hull Avenue, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

  20. West and south elevations, looking northeast with the corner of ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    West and south elevations, looking northeast with the corner of Isaac Hull Avenue and Tingey Street in foreground - Navy Yard, Building No. 104, Intersection of Tingey Street & Isaac Hull Avenue, Washington, District of Columbia, DC