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1

Vaccine-elicited human T cells recognizing conserved protein regions inhibit HIV-1  

PubMed Central

Virus diversity and escape from immune responses are the biggest challenges to the development of an effective vaccine against HIV-1. We hypothesized that T-cell vaccines targeting the most conserved regions of the HIV-1 proteome, which are common to most variants and bear fitness costs when mutated, will generate effectors that efficiently recognize and kill virus-infected cells early enough after transmission to potentially impact on HIV-1 replication and will do so more efficiently than whole protein-based T-cell vaccines. Here, we describe the first-ever administration of conserved immunogen vaccines vectored using prime-boost regimens of DNA, simian adenovirus and modified vaccinia virus Ankara to uninfected UK volunteers. The vaccine induced high levels of effector T cells that recognized virus-infected autologous CD4+ cells and inhibited HIV-1 replication by up to 5.79 log10. The virus inhibition was mediated by both Gag- and Pol- specific effector CD8+ T cells targeting epitopes that are typically subdominant in natural infection. These results provide proof of concept for using a vaccine to target T cells at conserved epitopes, showing that these T cells can control HIV-1 replication in vitro. PMID:24166483

Hayes, Peter; Rose, Annie; Ebrahimsa, Umar; Hayton, Emma-Jo; Black, Antony; Bridgeman, Anne; Rosario, Maximillian; Hill, Adrian V.S.; Berrie, Eleanor; Moyle, Sarah; Frahm, Nicole; Cox, Josephine; Colloca, Stefano; Nicosia, Alfredo; Gilmour, Jill; McMichael, Andrew J.; Dorrell, Lucy; Hanke, Tomas

2013-01-01

2

The stability region of the Streptomyces lividans plasmid pIJ101 encodes a DNA-binding protein recognizing a highly conserved short palindromic sequence motif  

PubMed Central

Conjugation is a driving force in the evolution and shaping of bacterial genomes. In antibiotic producing streptomycetes even small plasmids replicating via the rolling-circle mechanism are conjugative. Although they encode only genes involved in replication and transfer, the molecular function of most plasmid encoded proteins is unknown. In this work we show that the conjugative plasmid pIJ101 encodes an overlooked protein, SpdA2. We show that SpdA2 is a DNA binding protein which specifically recognizes a palindromic DNA sequence (sps). sps is localized within the spdA2 coding region and highly conserved in many Streptomyces plasmids. Elimination of the palindrome or deletion of spdA2 in plasmid pIJ303 did not interfere with conjugative plasmid transfer or pock formation, but affected segregational stability. PMID:25295034

Thoma, Lina; Sepulveda, Edgardo; Latus, Annette; Muth, Gunther

2014-01-01

3

Monoclonal antibodies PG-B6a and PG-B6p recognize, respectively, a highly conserved and a formol-resistant epitope on the human BCL-6 protein amino-terminal region.  

PubMed Central

The human BCL-6 gene, which is rearranged in approximately 30% of diffuse large B cell lymphomas, encodes a 706-amino-acid nuclear protein of the Kruppel-type zinc finger transcription factors mainly expressed in normal germinal center B cells and related lymphomas. Four monoclonal antibodies (PG-B6, PG-B6a, PG-B6p, and PG-B6m), specifically directed against the human BCL-6 protein, were generated by immunizing BALB/c mice with a recombinant protein corresponding to the BCL-6 amino-terminal region (amino acids 3 to 484). The PG-B6 monoclonal antibody reacted with a BCL-6 epitope sensitive to fixatives and preserved in all mammalian species. PG-B6a (a is for avian) recognized the most evolutionarily conserved BCL-6 epitope (expressed in all animal species including avian). PG-B6p (p is for paraffin) recognized a fixative-resistant epitope of BCL-6 that was detectable on paraffin sections after microwave heating in 1 mmol/L EDTA buffer. PG-B6m (m is for mantle) was the least specific monoclonal antibody as, in addition to BCL-6, it reacted with a yet undefined antigen selectively located in the cytoplasm of mantle and marginal zone B cells. All monoclonal antibodies detected strong nuclear expression of BCL-6 in follicular lymphomas, diffuse large B cell lymphomas, Burkitt's lymphomas, and nodular, lymphocyte-predominance Hodgkin's disease. In diffuse large B cell lymphomas, BCL-6 expression was independent of BCL-6 gene rearrangements and did not correlate with expression of other markers or the proliferation index. BCL-6 was not expressed in B-CLL, hairy cell leukemia, mantle-cell- and marginal-zone-derived lymphomas. Labeling of paraffin sections with PG-B6p proved useful for differentiating proliferation centers in B-CLL (BCl-2+/BCL-6-) from trapped germinal centers in mantle cell lymphomas (BCL-2-/BCL-6+) and for identifying neoplastic cells in cases of nodular, lymphocyte-predominance Hodgkin's disease. Because of their high specificity, wide reactivity in humans and animal species including avians (PG-B6a), and suitability for labeling routine paraffin sections (PG-B6p), the reagents described in this paper should prove valuable in both research and diagnostics. Images Figure 2 Figure 1 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 PMID:8623923

Flenghi, L.; Bigerna, B.; Fizzotti, M.; Venturi, S.; Pasqualucci, L.; Pileri, S.; Ye, B. H.; Gambacorta, M.; Pacini, R.; Baroni, C. D.; Pescarmona, E.; Anagnostopoulos, I.; Stein, H.; Asdrubali, G.; Martelli, M. F.; Pelicci, P. G.; Dalla-Favera, R.; Falini, B.

1996-01-01

4

Conservation Regional Conservation SavingsRegional Conservation Savings  

E-print Network

the Plan''s Targets?s Targets? March 14, 2008 slide 2 Northwest Power and Conservation Council 55thth Plan Conservation ResourcePlan Conservation Resource Acquisition TargetsAcquisition Targets 20052005 ­­ 2009 = 700 aSavings(MWa) 5th Plan Target Non-Programatic Market Effects Bonneville Funded Conservation (Carry Over) Alliance

5

Anschutz Library receives plaque recognizing outstanding efforts in energy conservation and sustainability  

E-print Network

12/5/13 Anschutz Library recognized for outstanding efforts in conservation and sustainability www.lib.ku.edu/news/anschutz.conservation.plaque.shtml 1/1 Contact Us KU Libraries Lawrence, Kansas 66045 (785) 864-8983 AT THE CROSSROADS OF PEOPLE... to recognize outstanding efforts in energy conservation and sustainability. Building operations manager Robert Szabo and Libraries sustainability ambassador Amalia Monroe will accept on behalf of KU Libraries. The presentation will take place at 10 am in Watson...

2009-01-01

6

Identification and Characterization of a Conserved, Stage-Specific Gene Product of Plasmodium falciparum Recognized by Parasite Growth Inhibitory Antibodies  

PubMed Central

We have identified a novel conserved protein of Plasmodium falciparum, designated D13, that is stage-specifically expressed in asexual blood stages of the parasite. The predicted open reading frame (ORF) D13 contains 863 amino acids with a calculated molecular mass of 99.7 kDa and displays a repeat region composed of pentapeptide motives. Northern blot analysis with lysates of synchronized blood stage parasites showed that D13 is highly expressed at the mRNA level during schizogony. The first N?-terminal 138 amino acids of D13 were expressed in Escherichia coli and the purified protein was used to generate anti-D13 monoclonal antibodies (MAbs). Using total lysates of blood stage parasites and Western blot analysis, these MAbs stained one single band of ?100 kDa, corresponding to the predicted molecular mass of ORF D13. Western blot analysis demonstrated further that D13 is expressed during schizogony, declines rapidly in early ring stages and is undetectable in trophozoites. D13 protein is localized in individual merozoites in a distinct area, as demonstrated by indirect immunofluorescence analysis. After subcellular fractionation, D13 was confined to the pelleted fraction of the parasite lysate and its extraction by alkaline carbonate buffer treatment indicated that D13 is not a membrane-integral protein. Inclusion of certain anti-D13 MAbs into in vitro cultures of blood stage parasites resulted in considerable reduction in parasite growth. The N?-terminal domain encompassing 158 amino acids is 94 and 95%, respectively, identical at the amino acid level between Plasmodium knowlesi, Plasmodium yoelii, and P. falciparum. In summary, we describe a novel stage-specifically expressed, highly conserved gene product of P. falciparum that is recognized by parasite growth inhibitory antibodies. PMID:12654839

Daubenberger, Claudia A.; Diaz, Diana; Curcic, Marija; Mueller, Markus S.; Spielmann, Tobias; Certa, Ulrich; Lipp, Joachim; Pluschke, Gerd

2003-01-01

7

5 CFR 5501.103 - Gifts from federally recognized Indian tribes or Alaska Native villages or regional or village...  

...federally recognized Indian tribes or Alaska Native villages or regional or village...federally recognized Indian tribes or Alaska Native villages or regional or village corporations. (a) Tribal or Alaska Native gifts. In addition...

2014-01-01

8

5 CFR 5501.103 - Gifts from federally recognized Indian tribes or Alaska Native villages or regional or village...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...federally recognized Indian tribes or Alaska Native villages or regional or village...federally recognized Indian tribes or Alaska Native villages or regional or village corporations. (a) Tribal or Alaska Native gifts. In addition...

2013-01-01

9

5 CFR 5501.103 - Gifts from federally recognized Indian tribes or Alaska Native villages or regional or village...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...federally recognized Indian tribes or Alaska Native villages or regional or village...federally recognized Indian tribes or Alaska Native villages or regional or village corporations. (a) Tribal or Alaska Native gifts. In addition...

2010-01-01

10

5 CFR 5501.103 - Gifts from federally recognized Indian tribes or Alaska Native villages or regional or village...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...federally recognized Indian tribes or Alaska Native villages or regional or village...federally recognized Indian tribes or Alaska Native villages or regional or village corporations. (a) Tribal or Alaska Native gifts. In addition...

2012-01-01

11

5 CFR 5501.103 - Gifts from federally recognized Indian tribes or Alaska Native villages or regional or village...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...federally recognized Indian tribes or Alaska Native villages or regional or village...federally recognized Indian tribes or Alaska Native villages or regional or village corporations. (a) Tribal or Alaska Native gifts. In addition...

2011-01-01

12

Conservative groupoids recognize only regular languages Martin Beaudry1 Danny Dub2 Maxime Dub2  

E-print Network

Mario Latendresse Pascal Tesson2 1University of Sherbrooke 2Laval University (Quebec City) Pascal Tesson of Sherbrooke 2Laval University (Quebec City) Pascal Tesson (U. Laval) Conservative groupoids 06/03/12 2 / 35

Latendresse, Mario

13

When Morality Opposes Justice: Conservatives Have Moral Intuitions that Liberals may not Recognize  

Microsoft Academic Search

Researchers in moral psychology and social justice have agreed that morality is about matters of harm, rights, and justice.\\u000a On this definition of morality, conservative opposition to social justice programs appears to be immoral, and has been explained\\u000a as a product of various non-moral processes such as system justification or social dominance orientation. In this article\\u000a we argue that, from

Jonathan Haidt; Jesse Graham

2007-01-01

14

Conservation Focus: Priorities for Policy-Relevant Conservation Research: a View from SCB Regional Sections  

E-print Network

Conservation Focus: Priorities for Policy-Relevant Conservation Research: a View from SCB Regional. The Society for Conservation Biology (SCB) can contribute to increased effectiveness of CITES for marine conservation. Foremost, the SCB community could foster dialogue on creating a broad vision of how CITES should

15

Conservation Focus: Priorities for Policy-Relevant Conservation Research: a View from SCB Regional Sections  

E-print Network

Conservation Focus: Priorities for Policy-Relevant Conservation Research: a View from SCB Regional, NY 13617, U.S.A. Abstract: The Society for Conservation Biology (SCB) can enhance conservation Section of SCB is establishing partnerships with other professional organizations in order to speak more

Gross, Mart

16

Cytauxzoon felis infections are present in bobcats ( Lynx rufus) in a region where cytauxzoonosis is not recognized in domestic cats  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study was performed to determine the prevalence of Cytauxzoon felis (C. felis) infections in bobcats (Lynx rufus) from a region where C. felis is recognized in domestic cats, North Carolina (NC), and a region where C. felis is not recognized in domestic cats, Pennsylvania (PA). Samples from NC (n=32) were obtained post-mortem via cardiac puncture from legally trapped bobcats.

Adam J. Birkenheuer; Henry S. Marr; Camille Warren; Anne E. Acton; Eric M. Mucker; Jan G. Humphreys; Melissa D. Tucker

2008-01-01

17

PLANNING FOR WATER CONSERVATION Greater Vancouver Regional District  

E-print Network

PLANNING FOR WATER CONSERVATION Greater Vancouver Regional District by Andrew K. Doi B. A (BMPs) for water conservation are used as evaluative criteria. These BMPs were drawn from California's urban water conservation system. This researched examines 4 case study municipalities from the GVRD

18

Introduction to systematic conservation planning in the Cape Floristic Region  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper provides an introduction and overview for the special issue on systematic conservation planning in the species-rich and highly vulnerable Cape Floristic Region. Firstly, we outline the three major problems that created the need for a systematic conservation plan and implementation programme in the region, namely an existing reserve system that is not representative of biodiversity patterns and processes,

R. L Pressey

2003-01-01

19

Developments in conservation tillage in rainfed regions of North China  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dryland regions in northern China account for over 50% of the nation's total area, where farming development is constrained by adverse weather, topography and water resource conditions, low fertility soils, and poor soil management. Conservation tillage research and application in dryland regions of northern China has been developed since the 1970s. Demonstration and extension of conservation tillage practices is actively

X. B. Wang; D. X. Cai; W. B. Hoogmoed; O. Oenema; U. D. Perdok

2007-01-01

20

76 FR 28060 - Regional Habitat Conservation Plan, Hays County, TX  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...statement, final Hays County regional habitat conservation...SUMMARY: We, the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service...EIS), the final Hays County regional habitat conservation...INFORMATION: We, the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service...availability of the Hays County final environmental...

2011-05-13

21

Maximizing species conservation in continental Ecuador: a case of systematic conservation planning for biodiverse regions  

PubMed Central

Ecuador has the largest number of species by area worldwide, but also a low representation of species within its protected areas. Here, we applied systematic conservation planning to identify potential areas for conservation in continental Ecuador, with the aim of increasing the representation of terrestrial species diversity in the protected area network. We selected 809 terrestrial species (amphibians, birds, mammals, and plants), for which distributions were estimated via species distribution models (SDMs), using Maxent. For each species we established conservation goals based on conservation priorities, and estimated new potential protected areas using Marxan conservation planning software. For each selected area, we determined their conservation priority and feasibility of establishment, two important aspects in the decision-making processes. We found that according to our conservation goals, the current protected area network contains large conservation gaps. Potential areas for conservation almost double the surface area of currently protected areas. Most of the newly proposed areas are located in the Coast, a region with large conservation gaps and irreversible changes in land use. The most feasible areas for conservation were found in the Amazon and Andes regions, which encompass more undisturbed habitats, and already harbor most of the current reserves. Our study allows defining a viable strategy for preserving Ecuador's biodiversity, by combining SDMs, GIS-based decision-support software, and priority and feasibility assessments of the selected areas. This approach is useful for complementing protected area networks in countries with great biodiversity, insufficient biological information, and limited resources for conservation. PMID:25360277

Lessmann, Janeth; Munoz, Jesus; Bonaccorso, Elisa

2014-01-01

22

Maximizing species conservation in continental Ecuador: a case of systematic conservation planning for biodiverse regions.  

PubMed

Ecuador has the largest number of species by area worldwide, but also a low representation of species within its protected areas. Here, we applied systematic conservation planning to identify potential areas for conservation in continental Ecuador, with the aim of increasing the representation of terrestrial species diversity in the protected area network. We selected 809 terrestrial species (amphibians, birds, mammals, and plants), for which distributions were estimated via species distribution models (SDMs), using Maxent. For each species we established conservation goals based on conservation priorities, and estimated new potential protected areas using Marxan conservation planning software. For each selected area, we determined their conservation priority and feasibility of establishment, two important aspects in the decision-making processes. We found that according to our conservation goals, the current protected area network contains large conservation gaps. Potential areas for conservation almost double the surface area of currently protected areas. Most of the newly proposed areas are located in the Coast, a region with large conservation gaps and irreversible changes in land use. The most feasible areas for conservation were found in the Amazon and Andes regions, which encompass more undisturbed habitats, and already harbor most of the current reserves. Our study allows defining a viable strategy for preserving Ecuador's biodiversity, by combining SDMs, GIS-based decision-support software, and priority and feasibility assessments of the selected areas. This approach is useful for complementing protected area networks in countries with great biodiversity, insufficient biological information, and limited resources for conservation. PMID:25360277

Lessmann, Janeth; Muoz, Jess; Bonaccorso, Elisa

2014-06-01

23

The Structure of the Staphylococcus aureus Sortase-Substrate Complex Reveals How the Universally Conserved LPXTG Sorting Signal Is Recognized*  

PubMed Central

In Gram-positive bacteria, sortase enzymes assemble surface proteins and pili in the cell wall envelope. Sortases catalyze a transpeptidation reaction that joins a highly conserved LPXTG sorting signal within their polypeptide substrate to the cell wall or to other pilin subunits. The molecular basis of transpeptidation and sorting signal recognition are not well understood, because the intermediates of catalysis are short lived. We have overcome this problem by synthesizing an analog of the LPXTG signal whose stable covalent complex with the enzyme mimics a key thioacyl catalytic intermediate. Here we report the solution structure and dynamics of its covalent complex with the Staphylococcus aureus SrtA sortase. In marked contrast to a previously reported crystal structure, we show that SrtA adaptively recognizes the LPXTG sorting signal by closing and immobilizing an active site loop. We have also used chemical shift mapping experiments to localize the binding site for the triglycine portion of lipid II, the second substrate to which surface proteins are attached. We propose a unified model of the transpeptidation reaction that explains the functions of key active site residues. Since the sortase-catalyzed anchoring reaction is required for the virulence of a number of bacterial pathogens, the results presented here may facilitate the development of new anti-infective agents. PMID:19592495

Suree, Nuttee; Liew, Chu Kong; Villareal, Valerie A.; Thieu, William; Fadeev, Evgeny A.; Clemens, Jeremy J.; Jung, Michael E.; Clubb, Robert T.

2009-01-01

24

Aquaporins: Are regions of the protein conserved?  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The osmotic controlled passage of polar water through fundamentally nonpolar biologic lipid bilayers (membranes) wasn't understood until the work of Peter Agre and Roderick MacKinnon on aquaporins resulting in the Nobel prize in Chemistry in 2003. We decided to examine conservation in aquaporins. A Google search provided us with both the PDB id (1h6i) of the human aquaporin A chain from RBCs, and a clearer understanding that the aquaprorins represent a related group of proteins present in multiple species. At http://www.rcsb.org/pdb/ we conducted an initial investigation of the structure of 1h6i. At consurf (http://consurf.tau.ac.il/) we were able to obtain the protein sequences for the best 20 matches in nearly FASTA form. After text editing we ran Clustalw and retrieved both rooted and unrooted trees. In the trees, it is easy to see the families of aquaporins (type 1, 2 etc; see tree.doc below).

Jerry Hall (Lane Community College;); Kathleen Morrison-Graham (Lane Community College;); Gary Mort (Lane Community College;)

2004-10-24

25

A new myocyte-specific enhancer-binding factor that recognizes a conserved element associated with multiple muscle-specific genes.  

PubMed Central

Exposure of skeletal myoblasts to growth factor-deficient medium results in transcriptional activation of muscle-specific genes, including the muscle creatine kinase gene (mck). Tissue specificity, developmental regulation, and high-level expression of mck are conferred primarily by a muscle-specific enhancer located between base pairs (bp) -1350 and -1048 relative to the transcription initiation site (E. A. Sternberg, G. Spizz, W. M. Perry, D. Vizard, T. Weil, and E. N. Olson, Mol. Cell. Biol. 8:2896-2909, 1988). To begin to define the regulatory mechanisms that mediate the selective activation of the mck enhancer in differentiating muscle cells, we have further delimited the boundaries of this enhancer and analyzed its interactions with nuclear factors from a variety of myogenic and nonmyogenic cell types. Deletion mutagenesis showed that the region between 1,204 and 1,095 bp upstream of mck functions as a weak muscle-specific enhancer that is dependent on an adjacent enhancer element for strong activity. This adjacent activating element does not exhibit enhancer activity in single copy but acts as a strong enhancer when multimerized. Gel retardation assays combined with DNase I footprinting and diethyl pyrocarbonate interference showed that a nuclear factor from differentiated C2 myotubes and BC3H1 myocytes recognized a conserved A + T-rich sequence within the peripheral activating region. This myocyte-specific enhancer-binding factor, designated MEF-2, was undetectable in nuclear extracts from C2 or BC3H1 myoblasts or several nonmyogenic cell lines. MEF-2 was first detectable within 2 h after exposure of myoblasts to mitogen-deficient medium and increased in abundance for 24 to 48 h thereafter. The appearance of MEF-2 required ongoing protein synthesis and was prevented by fibroblast growth factor and type beta transforming growth factor, which block the induction of muscle-specific genes. A myoblast-specific factor that is down regulated within 4 h after removal of growth factors was also found to bind to the MEF-2 recognition site. A 10-bp sequence, which was shown by DNase I footprinting and diethyl pyrocarbonate interference to interact directly with MEF-2, was identified within the rat and human mck enhancers, the rat myosin light-chain (mlc)-1/3 enhancer, and the chicken cardiac mlc-2A promoter. Oligomers corresponding to the region of the mlc-1/3 enhancer, which encompasses this conserved sequence, bound MEF-2 and competed for its binding to the mck enhancer. These results thus provide evidence for a novel myocyte-specific enhancer-binding factor, MEF-2, that is expressed early in the differentiation program and is suppressed by specific polypeptide growth factors. The ability of MEF-2 to recognize conserved activating elements associated with multiple-specific genes suggests that this factor may participate in the coordinate regulation of genes during myogenesis. Images PMID:2601707

Gossett, L A; Kelvin, D J; Sternberg, E A; Olson, E N

1989-01-01

26

Regional transportation energy conservation data book. Edition 1  

Microsoft Academic Search

This document seeks to highlight regional differences in characteristics affecting transportation energy conservation in the US. The basic energy use data are presented in five modal chapters: highway, air, rail, marine, and pipeline. Each chapter contains information on stock of vehicles, transport networks, vehicle use, fuel use, and related data. Within modal chapters, data are presented at three levels of

D. L. Greene; T. P. OConnor; P. D. Patterson; A. B. Rose; D. B. Shonka

1978-01-01

27

Toll-like receptor 5 recognizes a conserved site on flagellin required for protofilament formation and bacterial motility  

Microsoft Academic Search

Toll-like receptor 5 (TLR5) recognizes bacterial flagellin and activates host inflammatory responses. In this study, we examine the nature of the TLR5-flagellin interaction. With deletional, insertional and alanine-scanning mutagenesis, we precisely mapped the TLR5 recognition site on flagellin to a cluster of 13 amino acid residues that participate in intermolecular interactions within flagellar protofilaments and that are required for bacterial

Erica Andersen-Nissen; Fumitaka Hayashi; Katie Strobe; Molly A Bergman; Sara L Rassoulian Barrett; Brad T Cookson; Alan Aderem; Kelly D Smith

2003-01-01

28

Informing the Development of a Regional Water Conservation Plan for the Roaring Fork Watershed.  

E-print Network

??Regional planning efforts have become increasingly prevalent in resource management initiatives, particularly in water conservation planning. This report informs the development of a water conservation (more)

Jameson, Charlotte

2014-01-01

29

SWR-C and INO80 chromatin remodelers recognize nucleosome-free regions near +1 nucleosomes.  

PubMed

SWR-C/SWR1 and INO80 are multisubunit complexes that catalyze the deposition and removal, respectively, of histone variant H2A.Z from the first nucleosome at the start of genes. How they target and engage these +1 nucleosomes is unclear. Using ChIP-exo, we identified the subnucleosomal placement of 20 of their subunits across the yeast genome. The Swc2 subunit of SWR-C bound a narrowly defined region in the adjacent nucleosome-free region (NFR), where it positioned the Swr1 subunit over one of two sites of H2A.Z deposition at +1. The genomic binding maps suggest that many subunits have a rather plastic organization that allows subunits to exchange between the two complexes. One outcome of promoting H2A/H2A.Z exchange was an enhanced turnover of entire nucleosomes, thereby creating dynamic chromatin at the start of genes. Our findings provide unifying concepts on how these two opposing chromatin remodeling complexes function selectively at the +1 nucleosome of nearly all genes. PMID:24034248

Yen, Kuangyu; Vinayachandran, Vinesh; Pugh, B Franklin

2013-09-12

30

Cytauxzoon felis infections are present in bobcats (Lynx rufus) in a region where cytauxzoonosis is not recognized in domestic cats.  

PubMed

This study was performed to determine the prevalence of Cytauxzoon felis (C. felis) infections in bobcats (Lynx rufus) from a region where C. felis is recognized in domestic cats, North Carolina (NC), and a region where C. felis is not recognized in domestic cats, Pennsylvania (PA). Samples from NC (n=32) were obtained post-mortem via cardiac puncture from legally trapped bobcats. Samples from PA (n=70) were collected post-mortem onto Nobuto blood collecting strips by the PA Game Commission. Each sample was tested using a C. felis specific PCR assay as well as a PCR assay targeting host DNA to rule out the presence of PCR inhibitors. Three samples were excluded due to the presence of PCR inhibitors. Thirty-three percent (10/30) of the samples from NC and 7% (5/69) of the samples from PA tested positive for the presence of C. felis. The proportion of C. felis positive bobcats from NC was significantly different than that from PA (P<0.005). Despite the lower prevalence of C. felis infections in bobcats from PA this finding is unique and indicates the potential for C. felis infections in domestic cats in the northeastern USA if the appropriate tick vectors are present. Veterinary practitioners in PA should be on alert for cytauxzoonosis in domestic cats. Further studies about the epidemiology and transmission of C. felis infections among both domestic cats and bobcats are needed. PMID:18295403

Birkenheuer, Adam J; Marr, Henry S; Warren, Camille; Acton, Anne E; Mucker, Eric M; Humphreys, Jan G; Tucker, Melissa D

2008-05-01

31

A broad bean mitochondrial atp6 gene with an unusually simple, non-conserved 5? region  

Microsoft Academic Search

A nucleotide sequence of broad bean mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) that contains an atp6 gene of 876 ntp is presented. Relative to other plant atp6 genes, this broad bean gene comprises a 90 ntp non-conserved 5' region, a 759 ntp highly conserved central region and a 27 ntp non-conserved 3' region. The non-conserved, 5' region of the broad bean atp6 gene

Jane L. Macfarlane; Jill A. Wahleithner; David R. Wolstenholme

1990-01-01

32

Water Conservation Policy in an Arid Metropolitan Region: A Historical and Geographical Assessment of Phoenix, Arizona  

E-print Network

Water Conservation Policy in an Arid Metropolitan Region: A Historical and Geographical Assessment and geographical methods is used to examine water conservation policy trends in the ten most populous municipalities in the greater Phoenix region. Residential water conservation policies and programs across

Hall, Sharon J.

33

Water Conservation: Half-Empty or Half-Full? Regional Webinar Series  

E-print Network

Water Conservation: Half-Empty or Half-Full? Regional Webinar Series All webinars will be held from Engineering Sciences, University of Florida Additional information about the series is available at http://www.fred.ifas.ufl.edu/conservation-webinars

34

[Neuraxial hematoma after combined regional anesthesia: conservative resolution].  

PubMed

Epidural hematoma is a rare but serious neurological complication of neuraxial anesthesia. We report the case of a woman in whom this complication presented after knee replacement surgery under combined neuraxial anesthesia. No adverse events occurred during surgery. In the early postoperative period thromboembolic prophylaxis and continuous perfusion of ropivacaine were started through the epidural catheter. Lumbar pain along with sensorimotor alterations in the lower limbs developed on the first day after surgery. Epidural hematoma was suspected and the perfusion of local anesthetic was suspended. A computed tomography scan confirmed the presence of a hematoma with poorly defined margins. The patient was transferred to another hospital for dorsolumbar magnetic resonance, which revealed an extensive hematoma. Surgery was ruled out in favor of conservative treatment. Neurological symptoms resolved slowly over the following days and the patient was discharged partially recovered 51 days after surgery and recovery was complete within 6 postoperative months. We discuss the prevalence, etiology, and treatment of neuraxial hematoma related to local or regional anesthesia. PMID:16200925

Martn, S; Smaranda, A; Archilla, J; Gmez de Orellana, J; Ramasco, F; Muoz, B; Colmenero, A; Simn, F; Tabatabaian, A

2005-01-01

35

A conservation plan for a global biodiversity hotspotthe Cape Floristic Region, South Africa  

Microsoft Academic Search

We produced a conservation plan that achieved conservation targets for biodiversity pattern and process in the species- and endemic-rich Cape Floristic Region of South Africa. Features given quantitative conservation targets were land classes, localities of Proteaceae and selected vertebrate (freshwater fish, amphibians and reptiles) species, population sizes for medium- and large-sized mammals, and six types of spatial surrogates for ecological

R. m. Cowling; R. l. Pressey; M. Rouget; A. t. Lombard

2003-01-01

36

Accomplishments of the Alaska Region's Habitat Conservation Division  

E-print Network

and conservation of Essential Fish Habitat (EFH) through fishery management, and environmental review of non, Alaska Invasive Species Working Group, and a variety of industry and conservation groups. #12;Essential Service to study potential effects to fish and marine mammals from oil and gas developments. The Minerals

37

Cysteine-poor region-specific EpCAM monoclonal antibody recognizing native tumor cells with high sensitivity.  

PubMed

EpCAM is a ?40?kDa transmembrane glycoprotein. EpCAM overexpression is a popular trait of almost all carcinomas and is considered as a targeted cancer immunotherapy as well as a practical marker for circulating tumor cells (CTC). Its extracellular part (EpEx) consists of an N-terminal EGF-like (EGF) domain, a TY-like (TY) domain, and an uncharacterized cysteine-poor (CP) region. Most commercially available murine monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) to EpCAM, such as HEA 125 and VU-1D9, bind to the small EGF domain. In a previous study, we introduced iCeap (intact CTC enumeration and analysis procedure), keeping cellular integrity during the whole process. Unlike the CellSearch() CTC Test, iCeap enables downstream molecular analysis from detected CTC. Use of two EpCAM MAbs, one for immunomagnetic enrichment of rare CTC from blood samples and the other for labeling, is a concept of iCeap while an ideal MAb pair has not been found. In order to obtain a better MAb that recognizes a part of EpEx as different from EGF domain, we established a mouse hybridoma clone producing a new EpCAM MAb, KIJY2. Fluorophore-conjugated KIJY2 and HEA 125-FITC can concomitantly stain the tumor cell line LNCaP within indistinguishable cellular compartments (i.e., the cell surface). Epitope mapping reveals that KIJY2 binds to the CP region. The epitope for KIJY2 is sensitive to paraformaldehyde fixation, but native cells including MCF-7 (EpCAM high-expressing cell line) and PC-3 (EpCAM low and heterogeneously expressing cell line) are detected by KIJY2. In particular, KIJY2 detects all PC-3 cells regardless of their EpCAM expression levels. Therefore, KIJY2 and an EGF domain-directed MAb are a promising pair to form the EpCAM sandwich in iCeap. We demonstrate that KIJY2 incorporated into iCeap yielded favorable results in spike-in experiments of MCF-7 and PC-3. PMID:23607341

Takao, Masashi; Nagai, Yutaka; Torii, Tokiji

2013-04-01

38

Accomplishments of the Alaska Region's Habitat Conservation Division in Fiscal Year 2004  

E-print Network

Accomplishments of the Alaska Region's Habitat Conservation Division in Fiscal Year 2004 Fisheries' statutory responsibilities for habitat conservation in Alaska under the Magnuson-Stevens Fishery in the Alaska Regional Office in Juneau and a field office in Anchorage. HCD coordinates extensively with other

39

Recognizing Energy  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Energy is such a common notion. We talk about it all the time. Should you buy energy-efficient windows? The country needs an energy policy. That little kid at the store who screaming at the top of his lungs sure has a lot of energy. This chapter deals with recognizing and defining energy. This free selection from Stop Faking It! Finally Understanding Science So You Can Teach It: Energy includes the Table of Contents and Preface.

Robertson, William C.

2002-01-01

40

INTEGRATING GRASSLAND AND SHRUBLAND BIRD CONSERVATION WITH THE NORTHERN BOBWHITE CONSERVATION INITIATIVE FOR THE CENTRAL HARDWOODS BIRD CONSERVATION REGION  

Microsoft Academic Search

Much attention has focused on management options to increase Northern Bobwhite (Colinus virginianus) habitat availability including the organization of the Southeast Quail Study Group Technical Committee and the creation of the Northern Bobwhite Conservation Initiative (NBCI). As the NBCI moves from the planning stages to implementation, there is a need to understand how management options for Northern Bobwhite populations will

JAMES J. GIOCOMO; DAVID A. BUEHLER; JANE FITZGERALD

41

Accomplishments of the Alaska Region's Habitat Conservation Division  

E-print Network

Fisheries' Habitat Assessment Improvement Plan, the Alaska Fisheries Science Center's science plan, and strengthen the science behind our decision-making. To facilitate habitat conservation, HCD works closely with our Science Centers, numerous NOAA line offices, the North Pacific Fishery Management Council, other

42

USE OF POPULATION VIABILITY ANALYSIS AND RESERVE SELECTION ALGORITHMS IN REGIONAL CONSERVATION PLANS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract. Current reserve selection algorithms,have,difficulty evaluating,connectivity and,other factors necessary,to conserve,wide-ranging,species in developing,landscapes. Conversely, population viability analyses may incorporate detailed demographic data, but often lack sufficient spatial detail or are limited to too few,taxa to be relevant to regional conservation,plans. We developed,a regional conservation,plan for mammalian,carnivores in the Rocky,Mountain,region,using,both a reserve,selection algorithm,(SITES) and,a spatially explicit population,model,(PATCH). The spatially explicit population,model,in- formed,reserve,selection

Carlos Carroll; Reed F. Noss; Paul C. Paquet; Nathan H. Schumaker

2003-01-01

43

Accomplishments of the Alaska Region's Habitat Conservation Division in Fiscal Year 2005  

E-print Network

Accomplishments of the Alaska Region's Habitat Conservation Division in Fiscal Year 2005 Fisheries' statutory responsibilities for habitat conservation in Alaska under the Magnuson-Stevens Fishery restoration projects in conjunction with the NOAA Restoration Center. HCD has staff located in the Alaska

44

The conservation value of suburban golf courses in a rapidly urbanising region of Australia  

Microsoft Academic Search

The conservation value of suburban golf courses was assessed in southeast Queensland, Australia, by investigating their capacity to support urban-threatened birds, mammals, reptiles and frogs. Terrestrial vertebrate assemblages were compared between golf courses and nearby eucalypt fragments and with suburban bird assemblages. Biotic diversity varied among golf courses. While some had conservation value (supporting high densities of regionally threatened vertebrates),

S. C. Hodgkison; J.-M. Hero; J. Warnken

2007-01-01

45

South West Woodland Renaissance Helping to conserve the region's woodlands  

E-print Network

of the industry to the regional economy, society and environment. · To increase economic, technical, business in the region, designed for both the industry and consumers (www.woodland-directory- sw.org.uk). · Independent. The Woodland Renaissance Partnership has become a major deli

46

Conserving migrating shorebirds in the Yellow Sea region  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Yellow Sea Region lies between North and South Korea to the east and China to the west, and covers an area of 458 000 sq km. Biodiversity in the inter-tidal zone of the Yellow Sea Region is high: excellent feeding and roosting areas accom- modate many different species of waterbirds, and preliminary records indicate that the coastal zone of

C. Kelin; X. Qiang

47

Regional Geograhpic Network Partnerships Supporting Sustainable Landscapes - An Example: The North Atlantic Landscape Conservation Cooperative  

EPA Science Inventory

Natural resource management agencies, conservation organizations and other stakeholders are facing increasingly complex environmental challenges that require coordinated management actions at regional and landscape levels. To address these challenges, integrated multi-disciplina...

48

Recognizing Cars  

Microsoft Academic Search

License Plate Recognition (LPR) is a fairly well explored problem and is already a component of several commer- cially operational systems. Many of these systems, however, require sophisticated video capture hardware possibly com- bined with infrared strobe lights or exploit the large size of license plates in certain geographical regions and the (ar- tificially) high discriminability of characters. In this

Louka Dlagnekov; Serge Belongie; Andr Justus

49

Repeat region of Brugia malayi sheath protein (Shp-1) carries Dominant B epitopes recognized in filarial endemic population.  

PubMed

Transmission of lymphatic filariasis is mediated through microfilariae (L1 stage of the parasite) which is encased in an eggshell called sheath. The sheath protein Shp-1 stabilizes the structure due to the unique repeat region with Met-Pro-Pro-Gln-Gly sequences. Microfilarial proteins could be used as transmission blocking vaccines. Since the repeat region of Shp-1 was predicted to carry putative B epitopes, this region was used to analyze its reactivity with clinical samples towards construction of peptide vaccine. In silico analysis of Shp-1 showed the presence of B epitopes in the region 49-107. The polypeptide epitopic region Shp-149-107 was cloned and expressed in Escherichia coli. Antibody reactivity of the Shp-149-107 construct was evaluated in filarial endemic population by ELISA. Putatively immune endemic normals (EN) showed significantly high reactivity (P < 0.05) when compared to all the other categories. Antibody reactivity of Shp-1 repeat region was similar to that of whole protein proving that this region carries B epitopes responsible for its humoral response in humans. Thus this can be employed for inducing anti-microfilarial immunity in the infected population that may lead to reduction in transmission intensity and also it could be used along with other epitopes from different stages of the parasite in order to manage the disease effectively. PMID:25119360

Jawaharlal, Jeya Prita Parasurama; Madhumathi, Jayaprakasam; Prince, Rajaiah Prabhu; Kaliraj, Perumal

2014-09-01

50

Conservation of an immunoglobulin variable-region gene family indicates a specific, noncoding function.  

PubMed Central

Blot-hybridization and DNA sequence analyses reveal the particular evolutionary conservation of a group of immunoglobulin heavy-chain variable-region (VH) genes in all mammalian species examined. These particular genes are group III genes--the VH7183 family in the mouse and the homologous VH III family in human. This conservation is localized to sequences encoding framework regions 1 and 3 of the antibody variable region and is exerted at the nucleotide level. Because selection acting at the amino acid level alone cannot explain the conservation of these sequences, these sequences must have a noncoding function. The preferential rearrangement of VH7183 and VH III genes, together with the similarity of the conserved sequences to elements implicated in recombination in other systems, suggest that these sequences function to target the series of rearrangements that assemble complete immunoglobulin genes. Images PMID:2798416

Tutter, A; Riblet, R

1989-01-01

51

Education and Outreach Efforts in Support of Wolf Conservation in the Great Lakes Region  

Microsoft Academic Search

A key component to the recovery of gray wolves ( Canis lupus ) in the Great Lakes region has been educational efforts about wolves done within the region. All four US Wolf Recovery Plans include recommendations to use public education to promote wolf conservation (Fritts et al. 2003) . The importance of education also surfaced as a key component of

Pamela S. Troxell; Karlyn Atkinson Berg; Holly Jaycox; Andrea Lorek Strauss; Peggy Struhsacker; Peggy Callahan

52

Formulating conservation targets for biodiversity pattern and process in the Cape Floristic Region, South Africa  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Cape Floristic Region of South Africa is a global biodiversity hotspot. In 1998, a process of conservation planning began in the region that required quantitative targets for biodiversity. We combined new information and previously available data sets on biodiversity pattern and process to formulate targets for five groups of features: 102 broad habitat units (land types); locality records for

R. L. Pressey; R. M. Cowling; M. Rouget

2003-01-01

53

Strategy for Sea Turtle Conservation in the WIO Region (J. A. Mortimer) --page 1 A Strategy to Conserve and Manage the Sea Turtle Resources  

E-print Network

imbricata, and the leatherback, Dermochelys imbricata), or "Endangered" (i.e., the green turtle, CheloniaStrategy for Sea Turtle Conservation in the WIO Region (J. A. Mortimer) -- page 1 A Strategy to Conserve and Manage the Sea Turtle Resources of the Western Indian Ocean Region A report produced for IUCN

Prestwich, Ken

54

The Texas Aggie Bonfire: A Conservative Reading of Regional Narratives, Traditional Practices, and a Paradoxical Place  

Microsoft Academic Search

Concepts of place, narrative, tradition, and identity are employed in a conservative reading of the Texas A&M Bonfire. Texas A&M embodied regional narratives of a dual Southern commitment to economic and technological development and conservation of traditional cultural. Institutionalized at Texas A&M in the late nineteenth century, these narratives made a paradoxical place. Bonfire expressed and obscured this paradox. In

Jonathan M. Smith

2007-01-01

55

Optimal portfolio design to reduce climate-related conservation uncertainty in the Prairie Pothole Region.  

PubMed

Climate change is likely to alter the spatial distributions of species and habitat types but the nature of such change is uncertain. Thus, climate change makes it difficult to implement standard conservation planning paradigms. Previous work has suggested some approaches to cope with such uncertainty but has not harnessed all of the benefits of risk diversification. We adapt Modern Portfolio Theory (MPT) to optimal spatial targeting of conservation activity, using wetland habitat conservation in the Prairie Pothole Region (PPR) as an example. This approach finds the allocations of conservation activity among subregions of the planning area that maximize the expected conservation returns for a given level of uncertainty or minimize uncertainty for a given expected level of returns. We find that using MPT instead of simple diversification in the PPR can achieve a value of the conservation objective per dollar spent that is 15% higher for the same level of risk. MPT-based portfolios can also have 21% less uncertainty over benefits or 6% greater expected benefits than the current portfolio of PPR conservation. Total benefits from conservation investment are higher if returns are defined in terms of benefit-cost ratios rather than benefits alone. MPT-guided diversification can work to reduce the climate-change-induced uncertainty of future ecosystem-service benefits from many land policy and investment initiatives, especially when outcomes are negatively correlated between subregions of a planning area. PMID:22451914

Ando, Amy W; Mallory, Mindy L

2012-04-24

56

Achieving Conservation when Opportunity Costs Are High: Optimizing Reserve Design in Alberta's Oil Sands Region  

PubMed Central

Recent studies have shown that conservation gains can be achieved when the spatial distributions of biological benefits and economic costs are incorporated in the conservation planning process. Using Alberta, Canada, as a case study we apply these techniques in the context of coarse-filter reserve design. Because targets for ecosystem representation and other coarse-filter design elements are difficult to define objectively we use a trade-off analysis to systematically explore the relationship between conservation targets and economic opportunity costs. We use the Marxan conservation planning software to generate reserve designs at each level of conservation target to ensure that our quantification of conservation and economic outcomes represents the optimal allocation of resources in each case. Opportunity cost is most affected by the ecological representation target and this relationship is nonlinear. Although petroleum resources are present throughout most of Alberta, and include highly valuable oil sands deposits, our analysis indicates that over 30% of public lands could be protected while maintaining access to more than 97% of the value of the region's resources. Our case study demonstrates that optimal resource allocation can be usefully employed to support strategic decision making in the context of land-use planning, even when conservation targets are not well defined. PMID:21858046

Schneider, Richard R.; Hauer, Grant; Farr, Dan; Adamowicz, W. L.; Boutin, Stan

2011-01-01

57

Achieving conservation when opportunity costs are high: optimizing reserve design in Alberta's oil sands region.  

PubMed

Recent studies have shown that conservation gains can be achieved when the spatial distributions of biological benefits and economic costs are incorporated in the conservation planning process. Using Alberta, Canada, as a case study we apply these techniques in the context of coarse-filter reserve design. Because targets for ecosystem representation and other coarse-filter design elements are difficult to define objectively we use a trade-off analysis to systematically explore the relationship between conservation targets and economic opportunity costs. We use the Marxan conservation planning software to generate reserve designs at each level of conservation target to ensure that our quantification of conservation and economic outcomes represents the optimal allocation of resources in each case. Opportunity cost is most affected by the ecological representation target and this relationship is nonlinear. Although petroleum resources are present throughout most of Alberta, and include highly valuable oil sands deposits, our analysis indicates that over 30% of public lands could be protected while maintaining access to more than 97% of the value of the region's resources. Our case study demonstrates that optimal resource allocation can be usefully employed to support strategic decision making in the context of land-use planning, even when conservation targets are not well defined. PMID:21858046

Schneider, Richard R; Hauer, Grant; Farr, Dan; Adamowicz, W L; Boutin, Stan

2011-01-01

58

Evolution and structural conservation of the control region of insect mitochondrial DNA.  

PubMed

The control regions of mitochondrial DNA of two insects, Schistocerca gregaria and Chorthippus parallelus, have been isolated and sequenced. Their sizes are 752 bp and 1,512 bp, respectively, with the presence of a tandem repeat in C. parallelus. (The sequences of the two repeats are highly conserved, having a homology of 97.5%.) Comparison of their nucleotide sequences revealed the presence of several conserved sequence blocks dispersed through the whole control region, showing a different evolutionary pattern of this region in these insects as compared to that in Drosophila. A highly conserved secondary structure, located in the 3' region near the small rRNA gene, has been identified. Sequences immediately flanking this hairpin structure rather than the sequences of this structure themselves are conserved between S. gregaria/C. parallelus and Drosophila, having a sequence consensus of "TATA" at 5' and "GAA(A)T" at 3'. The motif "G(A)nT" is also present in the 3' flanking sequences of mammalian, amphibian, and fish mitochondrial L-strand replication origins and a potential plant mitochondrial second-strand-replication origin, indicating its universal conservation and functional importance related to replication origins. The stem-and-loop structure in S. gregaria/C. parallelus appears to be closely related to that found in Drosophila despite occupying a different position, and may be potentially associated with a second-strand-replication origin. This in turn suggests that such a secondary structure might be widely conserved across invertebrates while their location in the control region may be variable. We have looked for such a conserved structure in the control regions of two other insects, G. firmus and A. mellifera, whose DNA sequences have been published, and their possible presence is discussed. Mitochondrial control regions characterized to date in five different insect taxa (Drosophila, G. firmus, A. mellifera, S. gregaria, and C. parallelus) may be classed into two distinct groups having different evolutionary patterns. It is observed that tandem repetition of regions containing a probable replication origin occurred in some species from disjunct lineages in both groups, which would be the result of convergent evolution. We also discuss the possibility of a mechanism of "parahomologous recombination by unequal crossing-over" in mitochondria, which can explain the generation of such tandemly repeated sequences (especially the first critical repetition) in the control region of mtDNA, and also their convergent evolution in disjunct biological lineages during evolution. PMID:7769615

Zhang, D X; Szymura, J M; Hewitt, G M

1995-04-01

59

Use of North American Breeding Bird Survey data to estimate population change for bird conservation regions  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Conservation planning requires information at a variety of geographic scales, and it is often unclear whether surveys designed for other purposes will provide appropriate information for management at various scales. We evaluated the use of the North American Breeding Bird Survey (BBS) to meet information needs for conservation planning in Bird Conservation Regions (BCRs). The BBS originally was developed to provide regional estimates for states, provinces, physiographic regions, and larger areas. Many analyses have used physiographic regions within states/provinces as strata. We evaluated potential consequences of using BCRs instead of the BBS physiographic regions, testing for spatial differences in sample intensity within states and provinces. We reclassified the BBS survey routes to BCRs and conducted route regression trend (interval-specific population change) analyses for a variety of regions and time intervals. Our results were similar to those based on traditional BBS regions and suggest minimal consequences of the reclassification for the BBS sample. We summarized population change within BCRs and assessed the efficiency of the BBS in estimating population change for 421 species surveyed. As would be expected from an omnibus survey, many species appeared to be poorly monitored by the BBS, with 42% of species encountered at <1 bird per route from the survey, and 28% of trend estimates too imprecise to detect a 3% per year change over 35 years. Our results indicated that the quality of the survey for estimation of population change varied among BCRs. Population trends of species were heterogeneous over space and time, varying among BCRs for 76% of species and over time for 39% of species. Regional heterogeneity also existed in trends of species groups from the BBS. While 49% of all species in the survey had increasing populations, grassland breeding birds showed consistent declines, with only 18% of species having positive trend estimates. Bird Conservation Regions appear to provide reasonable strata for summary of BBS data.

Sauer, J.R.; Fallon, J.E.; Johnson, R.

2003-01-01

60

A Novel Universal Neutralizing Monoclonal Antibody against Enterovirus 71 That Targets the Highly Conserved "Knob" Region of VP3 Protein  

PubMed Central

Hand, foot and mouth disease caused by enterovirus 71(EV71) leads to the majority of neurological complications and death in young children. While putative inactivated vaccines are only now undergoing clinical trials, no specific treatment options exist yet. Ideally, EV71 specific intravenous immunoglobulins could be developed for targeted treatment of severe cases. To date, only a single universally neutralizing monoclonal antibody against a conserved linear epitope of VP1 has been identified. Other enteroviruses have been shown to possess major conformational neutralizing epitopes on both the VP2 and VP3 capsid proteins. Hence, we attempted to isolate such neutralizing antibodies against conformational epitopes for their potential in the treatment of infection as well as differential diagnosis and vaccine optimization. Here we describe a universal neutralizing monoclonal antibody that recognizes a conserved conformational epitope of EV71 which was mapped using escape mutants. Eight escape mutants from different subgenogroups (A, B2, B4, C2, C4) were rescued; they harbored three essential mutations either at amino acid positions 59, 62 or 67 of the VP3 protein which are all situated in the knob region. The escape mutant phenotype could be mimicked by incorporating these mutations into reverse genetically engineered viruses showing that P59L, A62D, A62P and E67D abolish both monoclonal antibody binding and neutralization activity. This is the first conformational neutralization epitope mapped on VP3 for EV71. PMID:24875055

Meng, Tao; Chow, Vincent Tak Kwong; Kwang, Jimmy

2014-01-01

61

Identification of receptor-interacting regions of vitellogenin within evolutionarily conserved ?-sheet structures by using a peptide array.  

PubMed

Vitellogenesis, a key process in oviparous animals, is characterized by enhanced synthesis of the lipoprotein vitellogenin, which serves as the major yolk-protein precursor. In most oviparous animals, and specifically in crustaceans, vitellogenin is mainly synthesized in the hepatopancreas, secreted to the hemolymph, and taken up into the ovary by receptor-mediated endocytosis. In the present study, localization of the vitellogenin receptor and its interaction with vitellogenin were investigated in the freshwater prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii. The receptor was immuno-histochemically localized to the cell periphery and around yolk vesicles. A receptor blot assay revealed that the vitellogenin receptor interacts with most known vitellogenin subunits, the most prominent being the 79 kDa subunit. The receptor was, moreover, able to interact with trypsin-digested vitellogenin peptides. By combining a novel peptide-array approach with tandem mass spectrometry, eleven vitellogenin-derived peptides that interacted with the receptor were identified. A 3D model of vitellogenin indicated that four of the identified peptides are N-terminally localized. One of the peptides is homologous to the receptor-recognized site of vertebrate vitellogenin, and assumes a conserved ?-sheet structure. These findings suggest that this specific ?-sheet region in the vitellogenin N-terminal lipoprotein domain is the receptor-interacting site, with the rest of the protein serving to enhance affinity for the receptor. The conservation of the receptor recognition site in invertebrate and vertebrate vitellogenin might have vast implications for oviparous species reproduction, development, immunity, and pest management. PMID:23733483

Roth, Ziv; Weil, Simy; Aflalo, Eliahu D; Manor, Rivka; Sagi, Amir; Khalaila, Isam

2013-06-17

62

A novel universal neutralizing monoclonal antibody against enterovirus 71 that targets the highly conserved "knob" region of VP3 protein.  

PubMed

Hand, foot and mouth disease caused by enterovirus 71(EV71) leads to the majority of neurological complications and death in young children. While putative inactivated vaccines are only now undergoing clinical trials, no specific treatment options exist yet. Ideally, EV71 specific intravenous immunoglobulins could be developed for targeted treatment of severe cases. To date, only a single universally neutralizing monoclonal antibody against a conserved linear epitope of VP1 has been identified. Other enteroviruses have been shown to possess major conformational neutralizing epitopes on both the VP2 and VP3 capsid proteins. Hence, we attempted to isolate such neutralizing antibodies against conformational epitopes for their potential in the treatment of infection as well as differential diagnosis and vaccine optimization. Here we describe a universal neutralizing monoclonal antibody that recognizes a conserved conformational epitope of EV71 which was mapped using escape mutants. Eight escape mutants from different subgenogroups (A, B2, B4, C2, C4) were rescued; they harbored three essential mutations either at amino acid positions 59, 62 or 67 of the VP3 protein which are all situated in the "knob" region. The escape mutant phenotype could be mimicked by incorporating these mutations into reverse genetically engineered viruses showing that P59L, A62D, A62P and E67D abolish both monoclonal antibody binding and neutralization activity. This is the first conformational neutralization epitope mapped on VP3 for EV71. PMID:24875055

Kiener, Tanja K; Jia, Qiang; Meng, Tao; Chow, Vincent Tak Kwong; Kwang, Jimmy

2014-05-01

63

Effectiveness of land classes as surrogates for species in conservation planning for the Cape Floristic Region  

Microsoft Academic Search

Land classes are often used in conservation planning as surrogates for species. The relationship between these surrogates and the distribution of species is usually assumed but rarely tested. Using broad habitat units (BHUs) to represent biodiversity pattern in the Cape Floristic Region, together with point locality data for species (proteas and selected vertebrates), we calculated the effectiveness of BHUs as

Amanda T Lombard; Richard M Cowling; Robert L Pressey; Anthony G Rebelo

2003-01-01

64

The practical value of modelling relative abundance of species for regional conservation planning: a case study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Statistical modelling of species presence\\/absence data in relation to mapped environmental predictors has been widely used to predict distributions of species for use in regional conservation planning. This paper evaluates the extent to which predictive mapping of habitat suitability might be refined by modelling relative abundance or density of a species instead of presence\\/absence. We use data collected at field

Jennie Pearce; Simon Ferrier

2001-01-01

65

Carnivores as Focal Species for Conservation Planning in the Rocky Mountain Region  

Microsoft Academic Search

Viability analysis of well-selected focal species can complement ecosystem- level conservation planning by revealing thresholds in habitat area and landscape connec- tivity. Mammalian carnivores are good candidates for focal species because their distri- butional patterns often strongly reflect regional-scale population processes. We incorporated focal species analysis of four carnivore species, fisher (Martes pennanti), lynx (Lynx can- adensis), wolverine (Gulo gulo),

Carlos Carroll; Reed F. Noss; Paul C. Paquet

2001-01-01

66

The Development of the Relationship between Coastal Fisheries and Marine Conservation in the Oder Estuary Region  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this article the conflicts and common interests of the coastal fishing industry and marine conservation in the Oder estuary region are analysed. The background is the author's diploma thesis about this topic in the year 2005 and a small, recently conducted survey. The 2005 survey showed that there exist many points of contact between the areas of fishery and

Lars Michaelsen

67

Designing monitoring programs in an adaptive management context for regional multiple species conservation plans  

USGS Publications Warehouse

critical management uncertainties; and 3) implementing long-term monitoring and adaptive management. Ultimately, the success of regional conservation planning depends on the ability of monitoring programs to confront the challenges of adaptively managing and monitoring complex ecosystems and diverse arrays of sensitive species.

Atkinson, A. J.; Trenham, P. C.; Fisher, R. N.; Hathaway, S. A.; Johnson, B. S.; Torres, S. G.; Moore, Y. C.

2004-01-01

68

Intergenic regions of Borrelia plasmids contain phylogenetically conserved RNA secondary structure motifs  

PubMed Central

Background Borrelia species are unusual in that they contain a large number of linear and circular plasmids. Many of these plasmids have long intergenic regions. These regions have many fragmented genes, repeated sequences and appear to be in a state of flux, but they may serve as reservoirs for evolutionary change and/or maintain stable motifs such as small RNA genes. Results In an in silico study, intergenic regions of Borrelia plasmids were scanned for phylogenetically conserved stem loop structures that may represent functional units at the RNA level. Five repeat sequences were found that could fold into stable RNA-type stem loop structures, three of which are closely linked to protein genes, one of which is a member of the Borrelia lipoprotein_1 super family genes and another is the complement regulator-acquiring surface protein_1 (CRASP-1) family. Modeled secondary structures of repeat sequences display numerous base-pair compensatory changes in stem regions, including C-G?A-U transversions when orthologous sequences are compared. Base-pair compensatory changes constitute strong evidence for phylogenetic conservation of secondary structure. Conclusion Intergenic regions of Borrelia species carry evolutionarily stable RNA secondary structure motifs. Of major interest is that some motifs are associated with protein genes that show large sequence variability. The cell may conserve these RNA motifs whereas allow a large flux in amino acid sequence, possibly to create new virulence factors but with associated RNA motifs intact. PMID:19267927

Delihas, Nicholas

2009-01-01

69

Inhibition of Dengue Virus 2 Replication by Artificial MicroRNAs Targeting the Conserved Regions  

PubMed Central

Dengue virus (DENV), a mosquito-borne flavivirus, causes serious diseases and threatens public health in tropical and subtropical areas worldwide. RNA interference (RNAi) is a prevailing strategy for antiviral therapy. In this paper, 6 single artificial microRNAs (amiRNAs) targeting the highly conserved regions of the DENV-2 genome were identified and inhibited virus replication efficiently. Then, effective tandem amiRNAs targeting 2 different DENV-2 genome regions were constructed and expressed simultaneously from a single microRNA-like polycistron to avoid virus variation or mutation escape. Finally, the most high-performance tandem amiRNA was embedded in a lenti-viral vector and inhibited DENV-2 virus replication stably and dose-dependently. Overall, these results indicated that RNAi based on multiple amiRNAs targeting viral conserved regions was an effective approach for improvements of nucleic acid inhibitors of DENV and provided a new therapeutic strategy for DENV infection in humans. PMID:23651254

Xie, Pei-wen; Xie, Yu; Zhang, Xiu-juan; Huang, Hai; He, Li-na

2013-01-01

70

Novel Bacterial Lipoprotein Structures Conserved in Low-GC Content Gram-positive Bacteria Are Recognized by Toll-like Receptor 2*  

PubMed Central

Bacterial lipoproteins/lipopeptides inducing host innate immune responses are sensed by mammalian Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2). These bacterial lipoproteins are structurally divided into two groups, diacylated or triacylated lipoproteins, by the absence or presence of an amide-linked fatty acid. The presence of diacylated lipoproteins has been predicted in low-GC content Gram-positive bacteria and mycoplasmas based on the absence of one modification enzyme in their genomes; however, we recently determined triacylated structures in low-GC Gram-positive Staphylococcus aureus, raising questions about the actual lipoprotein structure in other low-GC content Gram-positive bacteria. Here, through intensive MS analyses, we identified a novel and unique bacterial lipoprotein structure containing an N-acyl-S-monoacyl-glyceryl-cysteine (named the lyso structure) from low-GC Gram-positive Enterococcus faecalis, Bacillus cereus, Streptococcus sanguinis, and Lactobacillus bulgaricus. Two of the purified native lyso-form lipoproteins induced proinflammatory cytokine production from mice macrophages in a TLR2-dependent and TLR1-independent manner but with a different dependence on TLR6. Additionally, two other new lipoprotein structures were identified. One is the N-acetyl lipoprotein structure containing N-acetyl-S-diacyl-glyceryl-cysteine, which was found in five Gram-positive bacteria, including Bacillus subtilis. The N-acetyl lipoproteins induced the proinflammatory cytokines through the TLR2/6 heterodimer. The other was identified in a mycoplasma strain and is an unusual diacyl lipoprotein structure containing two amino acids before the lipid-modified cysteine residue. Taken together, our results suggest the existence of novel TLR2-stimulating lyso and N-acetyl forms of lipoproteins that are conserved in low-GC content Gram-positive bacteria and provide clear evidence for the presence of yet to be identified key enzymes involved in the bacterial lipoprotein biosynthesis. PMID:22303020

Kurokawa, Kenji; Ryu, Kyoung-Hwa; Ichikawa, Rie; Masuda, Akiko; Kim, Min-Su; Lee, Hanna; Chae, Jun-Ho; Shimizu, Takashi; Saitoh, Tatsuya; Kuwano, Koichi; Akira, Shizuo; Dohmae, Naoshi; Nakayama, Hiroshi; Lee, Bok Luel

2012-01-01

71

RapA2 is a calcium-binding lectin composed of two highly conserved cadherin-like domains that specifically recognize Rhizobium leguminosarum acidic exopolysaccharides.  

PubMed

In silico analyses have revealed a conserved protein domain (CHDL) widely present in bacteria that has significant structural similarity to eukaryotic cadherins. A CHDL domain was shown to be present in RapA, a protein that is involved in autoaggregation of Rhizobium cells, biofilm formation, and adhesion to plant roots as shown by us and others. Structural similarity to cadherins suggested calcium-dependent oligomerization of CHDL domains as a mechanistic basis for RapA action. Here we show by circular dichroism spectroscopy, light scattering, isothermal titration calorimetry, and other methods that RapA2 from Rhizobium leguminosarum indeed exhibits a cadherin-like ?-sheet conformation and that its proper folding and stability are dependent on the binding of one calcium ion per protein molecule. By further in silico analysis we also reveal that RapA2 consists of two CHDL domains and expand the range of CHDL-containing proteins in bacteria and archaea. However, light scattering assays at various concentrations of added calcium revealed that RapA2 formed neither homo-oligomers nor hetero-oligomers with RapB (a distinct CHDL protein), indicating that RapA2 does not mediate cellular interactions through a cadherin-like mechanism. Instead, we demonstrate that RapA2 interacts specifically with the acidic exopolysaccharides (EPSs) produced by R. leguminosarum in a calcium-dependent manner, sustaining a role of these proteins in the development of the biofilm matrix made of EPS. Because EPS binding by RapA2 can only be attributed to its two CHDL domains, we propose that RapA2 is a calcium-dependent lectin and that CHDL domains in various bacterial and archaeal proteins confer carbohydrate binding activity to these proteins. PMID:23235153

Abdian, Patricia L; Caramelo, Julio J; Ausmees, Nora; Zorreguieta, Angeles

2013-01-25

72

RapA2 Is a Calcium-binding Lectin Composed of Two Highly Conserved Cadherin-like Domains That Specifically Recognize Rhizobium leguminosarum Acidic Exopolysaccharides*  

PubMed Central

In silico analyses have revealed a conserved protein domain (CHDL) widely present in bacteria that has significant structural similarity to eukaryotic cadherins. A CHDL domain was shown to be present in RapA, a protein that is involved in autoaggregation of Rhizobium cells, biofilm formation, and adhesion to plant roots as shown by us and others. Structural similarity to cadherins suggested calcium-dependent oligomerization of CHDL domains as a mechanistic basis for RapA action. Here we show by circular dichroism spectroscopy, light scattering, isothermal titration calorimetry, and other methods that RapA2 from Rhizobium leguminosarum indeed exhibits a cadherin-like ?-sheet conformation and that its proper folding and stability are dependent on the binding of one calcium ion per protein molecule. By further in silico analysis we also reveal that RapA2 consists of two CHDL domains and expand the range of CHDL-containing proteins in bacteria and archaea. However, light scattering assays at various concentrations of added calcium revealed that RapA2 formed neither homo-oligomers nor hetero-oligomers with RapB (a distinct CHDL protein), indicating that RapA2 does not mediate cellular interactions through a cadherin-like mechanism. Instead, we demonstrate that RapA2 interacts specifically with the acidic exopolysaccharides (EPSs) produced by R. leguminosarum in a calcium-dependent manner, sustaining a role of these proteins in the development of the biofilm matrix made of EPS. Because EPS binding by RapA2 can only be attributed to its two CHDL domains, we propose that RapA2 is a calcium-dependent lectin and that CHDL domains in various bacterial and archaeal proteins confer carbohydrate binding activity to these proteins. PMID:23235153

Abdian, Patricia L.; Caramelo, Julio J.; Ausmees, Nora; Zorreguieta, Angeles

2013-01-01

73

Influence of targets and assessment region size on perceived conservation priorities.  

PubMed

We used an existing conservation opportunity area (OA) data layer for four contiguous ecological subsections within the Ozark Highlands to quantitatively evaluate the influence of conservation targets and assessment region size on conservation priorities. OAs are natural and seminatural land-cover patches that are away from roads and away from patch edges. To evaluate the influence of targets, we assigned a priority score to each OA polygon for each of five different conservation targets, including land-cover patch size, landform representation, target vertebrate richness, target breeding bird richness, and target land cover. The top-scoring OAs for each target were added to an OA selection set for that target until 50% of the study area was chosen. These five OA selection sets were overlain to quantify overlap in priorities. Only 1.6% of the study area, or 2.1% of all OA polygons, was selected by all five targets. To evaluate the influence of assessment region size, we compared results of priority ranking of OAs relative to the entire study area against a merged set of priority rankings established separately relative to each of the four subsections within the study area. When high-priority OAs were added until 25% of the region was within the selection set for each of the five targets, the sets based on the whole study area versus each subsection evaluated separately overlapped from 45.4% to 81.9%. Thus, perceived priorities of conservation assessments are strongly influenced both by the targets that are evaluated and by the size of the assessment region. PMID:15902452

Diamond, David D; True, C Diane; Gordon, Taisia M; Sowa, Scott P; Foster, Walter E; Jones, K Bruce

2005-02-01

74

A Forty-Year Retrospective 1950-1990: The Metropolitan Toronto and Region Conservation Authority's Conservation Education Programmes.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Recounts the growth of Conservation Authorities in Ontario from the first partnerships between schools and conservation in the 1950s, to the opening of a pioneer village, flood control dam, nature trails, and residential conservation education centers through the 1960s and 1970s. Increased public environmental concern sparked more growth in the

Carr, Allen Terry

1996-01-01

75

Options for the conservation of large and medium-sized mammals in the Cape Floristic Region hotspot, South Africa  

Microsoft Academic Search

We assessed options for conserving the large- and medium-sized mammals indigenous to the Cape Floristic Region, South Africa, using systematic conservation planning, the first such attempt for an entire ecoregion. The potential distributions and abundances of the 41 extant species for the entire region prior to anthropogenic transformation of habitats were estimated. This was particularly useful as it obviated any

Graham I. H Kerley; Robert L Pressey; Richard M Cowling; Andr F Boshoff; Rebecca Sims-Castley

2003-01-01

76

Evidence for widespread positive and negative selection in coding and conserved noncoding regions of Capsella grandiflora.  

PubMed

The extent that both positive and negative selection vary across different portions of plant genomes remains poorly understood. Here, we sequence whole genomes of 13 Capsella grandiflora individuals and quantify the amount of selection across the genome. Using an estimate of the distribution of fitness effects, we show that selection is strong in coding regions, but weak in most noncoding regions, with the exception of 5' and 3' untranslated regions (UTRs). However, estimates of selection on noncoding regions conserved across the Brassicaceae family show strong signals of selection. Additionally, we see reductions in neutral diversity around functional substitutions in both coding and conserved noncoding regions, indicating recent selective sweeps at these sites. Finally, using expression data from leaf tissue we show that genes that are more highly expressed experience stronger negative selection but comparable levels of positive selection to lowly expressed genes. Overall, we observe widespread positive and negative selection in coding and regulatory regions, but our results also suggest that both positive and negative selection on plant noncoding sequence are considerably rarer than in animal genomes. PMID:25255320

Williamson, Robert J; Josephs, Emily B; Platts, Adrian E; Hazzouri, Khaled M; Haudry, Annabelle; Blanchette, Mathieu; Wright, Stephen I

2014-09-01

77

Evidence for Widespread Positive and Negative Selection in Coding and Conserved Noncoding Regions of Capsella grandiflora  

PubMed Central

The extent that both positive and negative selection vary across different portions of plant genomes remains poorly understood. Here, we sequence whole genomes of 13 Capsella grandiflora individuals and quantify the amount of selection across the genome. Using an estimate of the distribution of fitness effects, we show that selection is strong in coding regions, but weak in most noncoding regions, with the exception of 5? and 3? untranslated regions (UTRs). However, estimates of selection on noncoding regions conserved across the Brassicaceae family show strong signals of selection. Additionally, we see reductions in neutral diversity around functional substitutions in both coding and conserved noncoding regions, indicating recent selective sweeps at these sites. Finally, using expression data from leaf tissue we show that genes that are more highly expressed experience stronger negative selection but comparable levels of positive selection to lowly expressed genes. Overall, we observe widespread positive and negative selection in coding and regulatory regions, but our results also suggest that both positive and negative selection on plant noncoding sequence are considerably rarer than in animal genomes. PMID:25255320

Platts, Adrian E.; Hazzouri, Khaled M.; Haudry, Annabelle; Blanchette, Mathieu; Wright, Stephen I.

2014-01-01

78

Conservation of a Symbiotic DNA Region in Soybean Root Nodule Bacteria  

PubMed Central

Bradyrhizobium japonicum USDA 3I1b110 contains a DNA region in which symbiotic genes and many repeated sequences are closely linked. Hybridization analysis revealed that this region was highly conserved in some B. japonicum strains (USDA 24, USDA 122, USDA 123, ATCC 10324, 61A24) but not in others (USDA 76, 61A76, 61A101). The genomic presence of multiple copies of one of the repeated sequences (RS?) appeared to be specifically characteristic for soybean root nodule bacteria, including the fast-growing Rhizobium fredii, which carries most of these RS? copies on the symbiotic plasmid. Images PMID:16347446

Hahn, Matthias; Hennecke, Hauke

1987-01-01

79

The BPI/LBP family of proteins: a structural analysis of conserved regions.  

PubMed Central

Two related mammalian proteins, bactericidal/permeability-increasing protein (BPI) and lipopolysaccharide-binding protein (LBP), share high-affinity binding to lipopolysaccharide (LPS), a glycolipid found in the outer membrane of gram-negative bacteria. The recently determined crystal structure of human BPI permits a structure/function analysis, presented here, of the conserved regions of these two proteins sequences. In the seven known sequences of BPI and LBP, 102 residues are completely conserved and may be classified in terms of location, side-chain chemistry, and interactions with other residues. We find that the most highly conserved regions lie at the interfaces between the tertiary structural elements that help create two apolar lipid-binding pockets. Most of the conserved polar and charged residues appear to be involved in inter-residue interactions such as H-bonding. However, in both BPI and LBP a subset of conserved residues with positive charge (lysines 42, 48, 92, 95, and 99 of BPI) have no apparent structural role. These residues cluster at the tip of the NH2-terminal domain, and several coincide with residues known to affect LPS binding; thus, it seems likely that these residues make electrostatic interactions with negatively charged groups of LPS. Overall differences in charge and electrostatic potential between BPI and LBP suggest that BPI's bactericidal activity is related to the high positive charge of its NH2-terminal domain. A model of human LBP derived from the BPI structure provides a rational basis for future experiments, such as site-directed mutagenesis and inhibitor design. PMID:9568897

Beamer, L. J.; Carroll, S. F.; Eisenberg, D.

1998-01-01

80

Conservation in metropolitan regions: assessing trends and threats of urban development and climate change  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Two global challenges to successful conservation are urban expansion and climate change. Rapid urban growth threatens biodiversity and associated ecosystem services, while climate change may make currently protected areas unsuitable for species that exist within them. We examined three measures of landscape change for 8800 km2 of the San Francisco Bay metropolitan region over 80 years past and future: urban growth, protected area establishment, and natural vegetation type extents. The Bay Area is a good test bed for conservation assessment of the impacts of temporal and spatial of urban growth and land cover change. The region is geographically rather small, with over 40% of its lands already dedicated to protected park and open space lands, they are well-documented, and, the area has had extensive population growth in the past and is projected to continue to grow. The ten-county region within which our study area is a subset has grown from 1.78 million people in 1930, to 6.97 million in 2000 and is estimated to grow to 10.94 million by 2050. With such an influx of people into a small geographic area, it is imperative to both examine the past urban expansion and estimate how the future population will be accommodated into the landscape. We quantify these trends to assess conservation 'success' through time. We used historical and current landcover maps to assess trend, and a GIS-based urban modeling (UPlan) to assess future urban growth impacts in the region, under three policy scenarios- business as usual, smart growth, and urban redevelopment. Impacts are measured by the amount of open space targeted by conservation planners in the region that will be urbanized under each urban growth policy. Impacts are also measured by estimates of the energy consumption projected for each of the scenarios on household and business unit level. The 'business as usual' and 'smart growth' scenarios differed little in their impacts to targeted conservation lands, because so little open space remains to accommodate the expected population growth. Redevelopment conserved more naturally vegetated open space. The redevelopment scenario also permits the lowest increase in energy demand because buildings taken out in the process are reconfigured to higher levels of energy efficiency. However, redevelopment requires substantial increases in residential densities to confine the spatial footprint of the expected future urban growth. These three urban growth scenario footprints differ in their impact to natural vegetation and open space. To incorporate the influence of climate change on remaining natural ecosystems in this urbanizing landscape, we projected the stability of existing, mapped, vegetation types in the region under future climates by examining where projected ranges of the dominant plant species comprising each California Wildlife Habitat Relationship type will all remain together, and where they will begin to dis-associate due to biogeographic response to changing climate. This permits identification of stable and unstable zones of vegetation. The combination of climate stable, high conservation priority and likelihood of urban development provides a way to prioritize conservation land acquisitions.

Thorne, J. H.; Santos, M. J.; Bjorkman, J.

2011-12-01

81

Conserving Prairie Pothole Region wetlands and surrounding grasslands: evaluating effects on amphibians  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The maintenance of viable and genetically diverse populations of amphibians in the Prairie Pothole Region of the United States depends on upland as well as wetland over-wintering and landscape level habitat features. Prairie pothole wetlands provide important amphibian breeding habitat while grasslands surrounding these wetlands provide foraging habitat for adults, overwintering habitat for some species, and important connectivity among breeding wetlands. Grasslands surrounding wetlands were found to be especially important for wood frogs and northern leopard frogs, while croplands dominated habitat utilized by Great Plains toads and Woodhouses toads. Habitat suitability mapping highlighted (1) the influence of deep-water overwintering wetlands on suitable habitat for four of five anuran species encountered; (2) the lack of overlap between areas of core habitat for both the northern leopard frog and wood frog compared to the core habitat for both toad species; and (3) the importance of conservation programs in providing grassland components of northern leopard frog and wood frog habitat. Currently, there are approximately 7.2 million acres (2.9 million hectares, ha) of habitat in the PPR identified as suitable for amphibians. WRP and CRP wetland and grassland habitats accounted for approximately 1.9 million acres (0.75 million ha) or 26 percent of this total area. Continued loss of amphibian habitat resulting from an ongoing trend of returning PPR conservation lands to crop production, will likely have significant negative effects on the regions ability to maintain amphibian biodiversity. Conversely, increases in conservation wetlands and surrounding grasslands on the PPR landscape have great potential to positively influence the regions amphibian populations.

Mushet, David M.; Neau, Jordan L.

2014-01-01

82

In Embryonic Stem Cells, ZFP57/KAP1 Recognize a Methylated Hexanucleotide to Affect Chromatin and DNA Methylation of Imprinting Control Regions  

PubMed Central

Summary The maintenance of H3K9 and DNA methylation at imprinting control regions (ICRs) during early embryogenesis is key to the regulation of imprinted genes. Here, we reveal that ZFP57, its cofactor KAP1, and associated effectors bind selectively to the H3K9me3-bearing, DNA-methylated allele of ICRs in ES cells. KAP1 deletion induces a loss of heterochromatin marks at ICRs, whereas deleting ZFP57 or DNMTs leads to ICR DNA demethylation. Accordingly, we find that ZFP57 and KAP1 associated with DNMTs and hemimethylated DNA-binding NP95. Finally, we identify the methylated TGCCGC hexanucleotide as the motif that is recognized by ZFP57 in all ICRs and in several tens of additional loci, several of which are at least ZFP57-dependently methylated in ES cells. These results significantly advance our understanding of imprinting and suggest a general mechanism for the protection of specific loci against the wave of DNA demethylation that affects the mammalian genome during early embryogenesis. PMID:22055183

Quenneville, Simon; Verde, Gaetano; Corsinotti, Andrea; Kapopoulou, Adamandia; Jakobsson, Johan; Offner, Sandra; Baglivo, Ilaria; Pedone, Paolo V.; Grimaldi, Giovanna; Riccio, Andrea; Trono, Didier

2011-01-01

83

Energy Conservation: An Examination of Energy Conservation Mechanisms As They Relate to School Districts in Region XI.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report attempts to supply information on energy conservation mechanisms that can be employed in schools to the public schools of Minnesota. The report begins by presenting guidelines for developing an energy conservation plan. The two models include the concept of Total Educational Energy Management as developed by the Colorado Department of

Kerns, Marilyn

84

Conserved 3'-untranslated region sequences direct subcellular localization of chaperone protein mRNAs in neurons.  

PubMed

mRNA localization provides polarized cells with a locally renewable source of proteins. In neurons, mRNA translation can occur at millimeters to centimeters from the cell body, giving the dendritic and axonal processes a means to autonomously respond to their environment. Despite that hundreds of mRNAs have been detected in neuronal processes, there are no reliable means to predict mRNA localization elements. Here, we have asked what RNA elements are needed for localization of transcripts encoding endoplasmic reticulum chaperone proteins in neurons. The 3'-untranslated regions (UTRs) of calreticulin and Grp78/BiP mRNAs show no homology to one another, but each shows extensive regions of high sequence identity to their 3'UTRs in mammalian orthologs. These conserved regions are sufficient for subcellular localization of reporter mRNAs in neurons. The 3'UTR of calreticulin has two conserved regions, and either of these is sufficient for axonal and dendritic targeting. However, only nucleotides 1315-1412 show ligand responsiveness to neurotrophin 3 (NT3) and myelin-associated glycoprotein (MAG). This NT3- and MAG-dependent axonal mRNA transport requires activation of JNK, both for calreticulin mRNA and for other mRNAs whose axonal levels are commonly regulated by NT3 and MAG. PMID:20308067

Vuppalanchi, Deepika; Coleman, Jennifer; Yoo, Soonmoon; Merianda, Tanuja T; Yadhati, Akshay G; Hossain, Jobayer; Blesch, Armin; Willis, Dianna E; Twiss, Jeffery L

2010-06-01

85

Monoclonal Antibody 667 Recognizes the Variable Region A Motif of the Ecotropic Retrovirus CasBrE Envelope Glycoprotein and Inhibits Env Binding to the Viral Receptor  

PubMed Central

Monoclonal antibody (MAb) 667 is a neutralizing mouse monoclonal antibody recognizing the envelope glycoprotein (Env) of the ecotropic neurotropic murine retrovirus CasBrE but not that of other murine retroviruses. Since 667 can be used for preclinical studies of antiviral gene therapy as well as for studying the early events of retroviral infection, we have cloned its cDNAs and molecularly characterized it in detail. Spot technique-based experiments showed that 667 recognizes a linear epitope of 12 amino acids located in the variable region A of the receptor binding domain. Alanine scanning experiments showed that six amino acids within the epitope are critical for MAb binding. One of them, D57, is not present in any other murine retroviral Env, which suggests a critical role for this residue in the selectivity of 667. MAb 667 heavy- and light-chain cDNAs were functionally characterized by transient transfection into Cos-7 cells. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays and Biacore studies showed that the specificities as well as the antigen-binding thermodynamic and kinetic properties of the recombinant 667 MAb (r667) produced by Cos-7 cells and those of the parental hybridoma-produced MAb (h667) were similar. However, h667 was shown to contain contaminating retroviral and/or retrovirus-like particles which interfere with both viral binding and neutralization experiments. These contaminants could successfully be removed by a stringent purification protocol. Importantly, this purified 667 could completely prevent retrovirus binding to target cells and was as efficient as the r667 MAb produced by transfected Cos-7 cells in neutralization assays. In conclusion, this study shows that the primary mechanism of virus neutralization by MAb 667 is the blocking of the retroviral receptor binding domain of CasBrE Env. In addition, the findings of this study constitute a warning against the direct use of hybridoma cell culture supernatants for studying the initial events of retroviral cell infection as well as for carrying out in vivo neutralization experiments and suggest that either recombinant antibodies or highly purified antibodies are preferable for these purposes. PMID:14512547

Dreja, Hanna; Gros, Laurent; Villard, Sylvie; Bachrach, Estanislao; Oates, Anna; Granier, Claude; Chardes, Thierry; Mani, Jean-Claude; Piechaczyk, Marc; Pelegrin, Mireia

2003-01-01

86

Conservation across species identifies several transcriptional enhancers in the HEX genomic region.  

PubMed

The HEX gene encodes for a homeodomain-containing transcription factor that controls various phases of vertebrate development. During development, as well as in adult, HEX is expressed in several different tissues including thyroid, liver, lung, mammary gland, haematopoietic progenitors, and endothelial cells, suggesting that this gene is subjected to a complex transcriptional regulation. In this study, we have evaluated the presence of different enhancers in the HEX gene region by using a phylogenetic approach. Several non-coding sequences, conserved between human and mouse, were selected. Four conserved sequences showed enhancer activity in MCF-7 cells. Two of these enhancers (located in the first and third intron, respectively) have been previously identified by other experimental approaches. These elements, as well as one among the new identified enhancers (located 2 kb 3' to the HEX gene), are able to activate the HEX minimal promoter "in trans." The activity of the 3' enhancer was strongly reduced by overexpression of HDAC3. PMID:19554426

D'Elia, Angela Valentina; Bregant, Elisa; Passon, Nadia; Puppin, Cinzia; Meneghel, Alessia; Damante, Giuseppe

2009-12-01

87

ECRbase: Database of Evolutionary Conserved Regions, Promoters, and Transcription Factor Binding Sites in Vertebrate Genomes  

SciTech Connect

Evolutionary conservation of DNA sequences provides a tool for the identification of functional elements in genomes. We have created a database of evolutionary conserved regions (ECRs) in vertebrate genomes entitled ECRbase that is constructed from a collection of pairwise vertebrate genome alignments produced by the ECR Browser database. ECRbase features a database of syntenic blocks that recapitulate the evolution of rearrangements in vertebrates and a collection of promoters in all vertebrate genomes presented in the database. The database also contains a collection of annotated transcription factor binding sites (TFBS) in all ECRs and promoter elements. ECRbase currently includes human, rhesus macaque, dog, opossum, rat, mouse, chicken, frog, zebrafish, and two pufferfish genomes. It is freely accessible at http://ECRbase.dcode.org.

Loots, G; Ovcharenko, I

2006-08-08

88

A-to-I RNA editing alters less-conserved residues of highly conserved coding regions: Implications for dual functions in evolution  

PubMed Central

The molecular mechanism and physiological function of recoding by A-to-I RNA editing is well known, but its evolutionary significance remains a mystery. We analyzed the RNA editing of the Kv2 K+ channel from different insects spanning more than 300 million years of evolution: Drosophila melanogaster, Culex pipiens (Diptera), Pulex irritans (Siphonaptera), Bombyx mori (Lepidoptera), Tribolium castaneum (Coleoptera), Apis mellifera (Hymenoptera), Pediculus humanus (Phthiraptera), and Myzus persicae (Homoptera). RNA editing was detected across all Kv2 orthologs, representing the most highly conserved RNA editing event yet reported in invertebrates. Surprisingly, five of these editing sites were conserved in squid (Mollusca) and were possibly of independent origin, suggesting phylogenetic conservation of editing between mollusks and insects. Based on this result, we predicted and experimentally verified two novel A-to-I editing sites in squid synaptotagmin I transcript. In addition, comparative analysis indicated that RNA editing usually occurred within highly conserved coding regions, but mostly altered less-conserved coding positions of these regions. Moreover, more than half of these edited amino acids are genomically encoded in the orthologs of other species; an example of a conversion model of the nonconservative edited site is addressed. Therefore, these data imply that RNA editing might play dual roles in evolution by extending protein diversity and maintaining phylogenetic conservation. PMID:18567816

Yang, Yun; Lv, Jianning; Gui, Bin; Yin, Heng; Wu, Xiaojie; Zhang, Yaozhou; Jin, Yongfeng

2008-01-01

89

Water Use Conservation Scenarios for the Mississippi Delta Using an Existing Regional Groundwater Flow Model  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The alluvial plain in northwestern Mississippi, locally referred to as the Delta, is a major agricultural area, which contributes significantly to the economy of Mississippi. Land use in this area can be greater than 90 percent agriculture, primarily for growing catfish, corn, cotton, rice, and soybean. Irrigation is needed to smooth out the vagaries of climate and is necessary for the cultivation of rice and for the optimization of corn and soybean. The Mississippi River Valley alluvial (MRVA) aquifer, which underlies the Delta, is the sole source of water for irrigation, and over use of the aquifer has led to water-level declines, particularly in the central region. The Yazoo-Mississippi-Delta Joint Water Management District (YMD), which is responsible for water issues in the 17-county area that makes up the Delta, is directing resources to reduce the use of water through conservation efforts. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) recently completed a regional groundwater flow model of the entire Mississippi embayment, including the Mississippi Delta region, to further our understanding of water availability within the embayment system. This model is being used by the USGS to assist YMD in optimizing their conservation efforts by applying various water-use reduction scenarios, either uniformly throughout the Delta, or in focused areas where there have been large groundwater declines in the MRVA aquifer.

Barlow, J. R.; Clark, B. R.

2010-12-01

90

Criteria for protected areas and other conservation measures in the Antarctic region  

SciTech Connect

The Antarctic region is threatened by three major anthropogenic influences: climatic change brought about by increases in atmospheric carbon dioxide, the effects of persistent pollutants carried into the region via atmosphere and ocean, and the increase in Man's activities. These include radioactive wastes, organochlorides, freons, PCBs and heavy metals. Vulnerable ecosystems can be considered as those which are under direct pressure from Man's activities, whereas fragile ecosystems are the more likely to suffer irreversible change when perturbed, but are not necessarily threatened at present. Three of the main habitat types, terrestrial, inland waters, and islands, are likely to be fragile. However, all these can be conserved reasonably adequately with a system of protected and managed areas, so long as the area covered is adequate and representative. The fourth habitat type, the oceanic ecosystem, contains few fragile elements because it is dominated by the highly dynamic physical oceanic processes. Elements of the ecosystem are vulnerable to further exploitation, and although only the whales and some of the fish stocks can be regarded as fragile, there is considerably uncertainty as what synergistic effect exploitation of apparently key elements of the ecosystem, such as the krill, will have on other important components of the communities. The highly dynamic structure of oceanic environments renders the concept of conservation based on limited protected areas developed for terrestrial environments ineffective in the majority of marine environments. Instead the whole marine environment of the Antarctic region must be considered to be a single entity and managed as such.

Angel, M.V.

1987-01-01

91

Autoantibody germ-line gene segment encodes VH and VL regions of a human anti-streptococcal monoclonal antibody recognizing streptococcal M protein and human cardiac myosin epitopes.  

PubMed

Cross-reactivity of anti-streptococcal Abs with human cardiac myosin may result in sequelae following group A streptococcal infections. Molecular mimicry between group A streptococcal M protein and cardiac myosin may be the basis for the immunologic cross-reactivity. In this study, a cross-reactive human anti-streptococcal/anti-myosin mAb (10.2.3) was characterized, and the myosin epitopes were recognized by the Ab identified. mAb 10.2.3 reacted with four peptides from the light meromyosin (LMM) tail fragment of human cardiac myosin, including LMM-10 (1411-1428), LMM-23 (1580-1597), LMM-27 (1632-1649), and LMM-30 (1671-1687). Only LMM-30 inhibited binding of mAb 10.2.3 to streptococcal M protein and human cardiac myosin. Human mAb 10.2.3 labeled cytoskeletal structures within rat heart cells in indirect immunofluorescence, and reacted with group A streptococci expressing various M protein serotypes, PepM5, and recombinant M protein. The nucleotide sequence of gene segments encoding the Ig heavy and light chain V region of mAb 10.2.3 was determined. The light chain V segment was encoded by a V kappa 1 gene segment that was 98.5% identical with germ-line gene humig kappa Vi5. The V segment of the heavy chain was encoded by a VH3a gene segment that differed from the VH26 germ-line gene by a single base change. VH26 is expressed preferentially in early development and encodes autoantibodies with anti-DNA and rheumatoid factor specificities. Anti-streptococcal mAb 10.2.3 is an autoantibody encoded by VH and VL genes, with little or no somatic mutation. PMID:7706755

Quinn, A; Adderson, E E; Shackelford, P G; Carroll, W L; Cunningham, M W

1995-04-15

92

Conservative therapy for Complex Regional Pain Syndrome Type I in a paediatric patient: a case study  

PubMed Central

Complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS) is a term that describes a variety of chronic pain conditions that are believed to result from dysfunction in the central or peripheral nervous systems. Typical features include dramatic changes in the colour and temperature of the skin over the affected limb or body part, accompanied by an intense pain which is out of proportion to the injury thought responsible. Skin sensitivity, sweating, and swelling are also commonly involved. This case study presents subjective reports of changes in pain and extremity weight bearing capacity in an 8 year-old child with Chronic Region Pain Syndrome Type I. The changes reported occurred over a 12 week conservative course of treatment which included manipulation, nutritional supplementation and rehabilitation. The patient was able to regain full control of her legs and full weight bearing after 3 weeks of treatment. PMID:19506699

Beck, Randy W.

2009-01-01

93

Rearrangement of sapA homologs with conserved and variable regions in Campylobacter fetus.  

PubMed Central

The Campylobacter fetus surface-layer (S-layer) proteins mediate both complement resistance and antigenic variation in mammalian hosts. Wild-type strain 23D possesses the sapA gene, which encodes a 97-kDa S-layer protein, and several sapA homologs are present in both wild-type and mutant strains. Here we report that a cloned silent gene (sapA1) in C. fetus can express a functional full-length S-layer protein in Escherichia coli. Analysis of sapA and sapA1 and partial analysis of sapA2 indicate that a block of approximately 600 bp beginning upstream and continuing into the open reading frames is completely conserved, and then the sequences diverge completely, but immediately downstream of each gene is another conserved 50-bp sequence. Conservation of sapA1 among strains, the presence of a putative Chi (RecBCD recognition) site upstream of sapA, sapA1, and sapA2, and the sequence identities of the sapA genes suggest a system for homologous recombination. Comparison of the wild-type strain (23D) with a phenotypic variant (23D-11) indicates that variation is associated with removal of the divergent region of sapA from the expression locus and exchange with a corresponding region from a sapA homolog. We propose that site-specific reciprocal recombination between sapA homologs leads to expression of divergent S-layer proteins as one of the mechanisms that C. fetus uses for antigenic variation. Images Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 PMID:8346244

Tummuru, M K; Blaser, M J

1993-01-01

94

Identification and Analysis of Conserved cis-Regulatory Regions of the MEIS1 Gene  

PubMed Central

Meis1, a conserved transcription factor of the TALE-homeodomain class, is expressed in a wide variety of tissues during development. Its complex expression pattern is likely to be controlled by an equally complex regulatory landscape. Here we have scanned the Meis1 locus for regulatory elements and found 13 non-coding regions, highly conserved between humans and teleost fishes, that have enhancer activity in stable transgenic zebrafish lines. All these regions are syntenic in most vertebrates. The composite expression of all these enhancer elements recapitulate most of Meis1 expression during early embryogenesis, indicating they comprise a basic set of regulatory elements of the Meis1 gene. Using bioinformatic tools, we identify a number of potential binding sites for transcription factors that are compatible with the regulation of these enhancers. Specifically, HHc2:066650, which is expressed in the developing retina and optic tectum, harbors several predicted Pax6 sites. Biochemical, functional and transgenic assays indicate that pax6 genes directly regulate HHc2:066650 activity. PMID:22448256

Royo, Jose Luis; Bessa, Jose; Hidalgo, Carmen; Fernandez-Minan, Ana; Tena, Juan J.; Roncero, Yolanda; Gomez-Skarmeta, Jose Luis; Casares, Fernando

2012-01-01

95

Spatial genetic structure and regional demography in the southern torrent salamander: Implications for conservation and management  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Southern torrent salamander (Rhyacotriton variegatus) was recently found not warranted for listing under the US Endangered Species Act due to lack of information regarding population fragmentation and gene flow. Found in small-order streams associated with late-successional coniferous forests of the US Pacific Northwest, threats to their persistence include disturbance related to timber harvest activities. We conducted a study of genetic diversity throughout this species' range to 1) identify major phylogenetic lineages and phylogeographic barriers and 2) elucidate regional patterns of population genetic and spatial phylogeographic structure. Cytochrome b sequence variation was examined for 189 individuals from 72 localities. We identified 3 major lineages corresponding to nonoverlapping geographic regions: a northern California clade, a central Oregon clade, and a northern Oregon clade. The Yaquina River may be a phylogeographic barrier between the northern Oregon and central Oregon clades, whereas the Smith River in northern California appears to correspond to the discontinuity between the central Oregon and northern California clades. Spatial analyses of genetic variation within regions encompassing major clades indicated that the extent of genetic structure is comparable among regions. We discuss our results in the context of conservation efforts for Southern torrent salamanders.

Miller, Mark P.; Haig, Susan M.; Wagner, R.S.

2006-01-01

96

Underreplicated Regions in Drosophila melanogaster Are Enriched with Fast-Evolving Genes and Highly Conserved Noncoding Sequences  

PubMed Central

Many late replicating regions are underreplicated in polytene chromosomes of Drosophila melanogaster. These regions contain silenced chromatin and overlap long syntenic blocks of conserved gene order in drosophilids. In this report we show that in D. melanogaster the underreplicated regions are enriched with fast-evolving genes lacking homologs in distant species such as mosquito or human, indicating that the phylogenetic conservation of genes correlates with replication timing and chromatin status. Drosophila genes without human homologs located in the underreplicated regions have higher nonsynonymous substitution rate and tend to encode shorter proteins when compared with those in the adjacent regions. At the same time, the underreplicated regions are enriched with ultraconserved elements and highly conserved noncoding sequences, especially in introns of very long genes indicating the presence of an extensive regulatory network that may be responsible for the conservation of gene order in these regions. The regions have a modest preference for long noncoding RNAs but are depleted for small nucleolar RNAs, microRNAs, and transfer RNAs. Our results demonstrate that the underreplicated regions have a specific genic composition and distinct pattern of evolution. PMID:25062918

Makunin, Igor V.; Kolesnikova, Tatyana D.; Andreyenkova, Natalya G.

2014-01-01

97

Northwest Climate Science Center: Integrating Regional Research, Conservation and Natural Resource Management  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Northwest Climate Science Center (NW CSC) was established in 2010, among the first three of eight regional Climate Science Centers created by the Department of the Interior (DOI). The NW CSC is supported by an academic consortium (Oregon State University, University of Idaho, and the University of Washington), which has the capacity to generate and coordinate decision-relevant science related to climate, thus serving stakeholders across the Pacific Northwest region. The NW CSC has overlapping boundaries with three Landscape Conservation Cooperatives (LCCs): the Great Northern, the Great Basin, and the North Pacific. Collaboration between the NW CSC and these three LCCs addresses the highest priority regional climate science needs of Northwest natural and cultural resource managers. Early in 2012, the NW CSC released its first Strategic Plan for the period 2012-2015. The plan offers a practical blueprint for operation and describes five core services that the NW CSC provides to the Northwest community. These core services emphasize (a) bringing together the regional resource management and science communities to calibrate priorities and ensure efficient integration of climate science resources and tools when addressing practical issues of regional significance; (b) developing and implementing a stakeholder-driven science agenda which highlights the NW CSC's regional leadership in generating scenarios of the future environment of the NW; (c) supporting and training graduate students at the three consortium universities, including through an annual 'Climate science boot camp'; (d) providing a platform for effective climate-change-related communication among scientists, resource managers, and the general public; and (e) national leadership in data management and climate scenario development.

Mote, P.; Bisbal, G.

2012-12-01

98

Conserved Regions of Gonococcal TbpB Are Critical for Surface Exposure and Transferrin Iron Utilization  

PubMed Central

The transferrin-binding proteins TbpA and TbpB enable Neisseria gonorrhoeae to obtain iron from human transferrin. The lipoprotein TbpB facilitates, but is not strictly required for, TbpA-mediated iron acquisition. The goal of the current study was to determine the contribution of two conserved regions within TbpB to the function of this protein. Using site-directed mutagenesis, the first mutation we constructed replaced the lipobox (LSAC) of TbpB with a signal I peptidase cleavage site (LAAA), while the second mutation deleted a conserved stretch of glycine residues immediately downstream of the lipobox. We then evaluated the resulting mutants for effects on TbpB expression, surface exposure, and transferrin iron utilization. Western blot analysis and palmitate labeling indicated that the lipobox, but not the glycine-rich motif, is required for lipidation of TbpB and tethering to the outer membrane. TbpB was released into the supernatant by the mutant that produces TbpB LSAC. Neither mutation disrupted the transport of TbpB across the bacterial cell envelope. When these mutant TbpB proteins were produced in a strain expressing a form of TbpA that requires TbpB for iron acquisition, growth on transferrin was either abrogated or dramatically diminished. We conclude that surface tethering of TbpB is required for optimal performance of the transferrin iron acquisition system, while the presence of the polyglycine stretch near the amino terminus of TbpB contributes significantly to transferrin iron transport function. Overall, these results provide important insights into the functional roles of two conserved motifs of TbpB, enhancing our understanding of this critical iron uptake system. PMID:23836816

Ostberg, Karen L.; DeRocco, Amanda J.; Mistry, Shreni D.; Dickinson, Mary Kathryne

2013-01-01

99

Caraparu virus (group C Orthobunyavirus): sequencing and phylogenetic analysis based on the conserved region 3 of the RNA polymerase gene.  

PubMed

Here, for the first time, we report the nucleotide sequence of Caraparu virus (CARV) L segment and the analysis of the RNA polymerase region 3 encoded by this segment. The 1,404 bp nucleotide sequence shares the highest identity with Bunyamwera, La Crosse, Oropouche, and Akabane virus sequences. The amino acid sequence was deduced and aligned with sequences from members of the Bunyaviridae family and used for phylogenetic analysis. The CARV clustered in the Orthobunyavirus genus. The premotif A and motifs A-E are present in the region 3 of the Bunyaviridae family, were also conserved in CARV L protein, as well as other conserved regions among Orthobunyavirus genus. PMID:17705031

de Brito Magalhes, Cintia Lopes; Quinan, Brbara Resende; Novaes, Renata Franco Vianna; dos Santos, Joo Rodrigues; Kroon, Erna Geessien; Bonjardim, Cludio Antnio; Ferreira, Paulo Csar Peregrino

2007-12-01

100

How to Maximally Support Local and Regional Biodiversity in Applied Conservation? Insights from Pond Management  

PubMed Central

Biodiversity and nature values in anthropogenic landscapes often depend on land use practices and management. Evaluations of the association between management and biodiversity remain, however, comparatively scarce, especially in aquatic systems. Furthermore, studies also tend to focus on a limited set of organism groups at the local scale, whereas a multi-group approach at the landscape scale is to be preferred. This study aims to investigate the effect of pond management on the diversity of multiple aquatic organism groups (e.g. phytoplankton, zooplankton, several groups of macro-invertebrates, submerged and emergent macrophytes) at local and regional spatial scales. For this purpose, we performed a field study of 39 shallow man-made ponds representing five different management types. Our results indicate that fish stock management and periodic pond drainage are crucial drivers of pond biodiversity. Furthermore, this study provides insight in how the management of eutrophied ponds can contribute to aquatic biodiversity. A combination of regular draining of ponds with efforts to keep ponds free of fish seems to be highly beneficial for the biodiversity of many groups of aquatic organisms at local and regional scales. Regular draining combined with a stocking of fish at low biomass is also preferable to infrequent draining and lack of fish stock control. These insights are essential for the development of conservation programs that aim long-term maintenance of regional biodiversity in pond areas across Europe. PMID:23951328

Lemmens, Pieter; Mergeay, Joachim; De Bie, Tom; Van Wichelen, Jeroen; De Meester, Luc; Declerck, Steven A. J.

2013-01-01

101

Ancient conserved regions in new gene sequences and the protein databases  

SciTech Connect

Sets of new gene sequences from human, nematode, and yeast were compared with each other and with a set of Escherichia coli genes in order to detect ancient evolutionarily conserved regions (ACRs) in the encoded proteins. Nearly all of the ACRs so identified were found to be homologous to sequences in the protein databases. This suggests that currently known proteins may already include representatives of most ACRs and that new sequences not similar to any database sequence are unlikely to contain ACRs. Preliminary analyses indicate that moderately expressed genes may be more likely to contain ACRs than rarely expressed genes. It is estimated that there are fewer than 900 ACRs in all. 20 refs., 2 figs., 4 tabs.

Green, P.; Hillier, L.; Waterston, R. (Washington Univ., St Louis, MO (United States)); Lipman, D.; States, D.; Claverie, J.M. (National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD (United States))

1993-03-19

102

Mutagenesis of apyrase conserved region 1 alters the nucleotide substrate specificity  

PubMed Central

Two apyrases having different substrate specificity, MP67 and MpAPY2, are present in Mimosa pudica. The substrate specificity of MP67 is quite high against ADP, and is distinct from any other apyrase. This might be attributed to the nucleotide binding motif (DXG) in apyrase conserved region 1. We performed a single amino acid substitution at position X in the motif. The ratio of the velocity of ATP/ADP hydrolysis was higher (approximately 1) for the S63A-MP67 mutant than for wild type-MP67 (0.19). Binding affinity for ADP of A75S-MpAPY2 mutant was increased to a level higher than that of the wild type MpAPY2. Thus, the residue at position X in the DXG motif plays an important role in determining nucleotide preference. PMID:23470725

Okuhata, Riku; Otsuka, Yuki; Tsuchiya, Takahide; Kanzawa, Nobuyuki

2013-01-01

103

A new region of conservation is defined between human and mouse X chromosomes  

SciTech Connect

Comparative mapping of the X chromosome in eutherian mammals have revealed distinct regions of conservation as well as evolutionary rearrangements between human and mouse. Recently, we and others mapped the murine homologue of CLCN4 (Chloride channel 4) to band F4 of the X chromosome in Mus spretus but to chromosome 7 in laboratory strains. We now report the mapping of the murine homologues of APXL (Apical protein Xenopus laevis-like) and OA1 (Ocular albinism type I), two genes that are located on the human X chromosome at band p22.3 and in close proximity to CLCN4. Interestingly, Oa1 and Apxl map to bands F2-F3 in both M. spretus and the laboratory strain C57BL/6J, defining a new rearrangement between human and mouse X chromosomes. 17 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

Dinulos, M.B.; Disteche, C.M. [Univ. of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States)] [Univ. of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States); Bassi, M.T. [Univ. of Siena (Italy)] [and others] [Univ. of Siena (Italy); and others

1996-07-01

104

Identification of Biodiversity Conservation Priorities using Predictive Modeling: An Application for the Equatorial Pacific Region of South America  

Microsoft Academic Search

We used predictive modeling of species distributions to identify conservation priority areas in the equatorial Pacific region\\u000a of western Ecuador and northwestern Peru. Museum and herbarium data and predictive models of species distributions are increasingly\\u000a being used to assess the conservation status of individual species. In this study, we assembled occurrence data for 28 species\\u000a of vascular plants, birds, and

Manuel Peralvo; Rodrigo Sierra; Kenneth R. Young; Carmen Ulloa-Ulloa

2007-01-01

105

Conservation value of a native forest fragment in a region of extensive agriculture.  

PubMed

A survey of mammals and birds was carried out in a semi-deciduous forest fragment of 150 ha located in a zone of intensive agriculture in Ribeiro Preto, State of So Paulo, south-eastern Brazil. Line transect sampling was used to census mammals and birds during six days, totalling 27.8 km of trails and 27.8 hours of observation. Twenty mammal species were confirmed in the area (except bats and small mammals), including rare or endangered species, such as the mountain lion (Puma concolor), the maned wolf (Chrysocyon brachyurus), and the ocelot (Leopardus pardalis). The brown capuchin monkey (Cebus apella) and the black-tufted-ear marmoset (Callithrix penicillata) were found frequently, suggesting high population density in the fragment. Regarding the avifauna, 49 bird species were recorded, most of them typical of open areas or forest edges. Some confirmed species, however, are becoming increasingly rare in the region, as for example the muscovy duck (Cairina moschata) and the toco toucan (Ramphastos toco). The results demonstrate that forest fragment of this size are refuges for native fauna in a region dominated almost exclusively by sugar-cane plantations. Besides faunal aspects, the conservation of these fragments is of great importance for the establishment of studies related to species preservation in the long term, including reintroduction and translocation projects, as well as studies related to genetic health of isolated populations. PMID:10959107

Chiarello

2000-05-01

106

Duck nest success on Conservation Reserve Program land in the prairie pothole region  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Habitat fragmentation from intensified farming has concentrated nesting waterfowl and their predators in the remaining, relatively small untitled habitats of the prairie pothole region in the United States. The areas of land that have been enrolled in the Conservation Reserve Program (CRP) in this area could help disperse these concentrations and reduce losses to predators. The presence of CRP land may influence decisions about intensive management of public lands devoted to waterfowl production. During 1989-1991, waterfowl nest success on CRP fields in areas of high wetland density in the prairie pothole region was 23.1 percent compared to 8.2 percent on similar covers on federal waterfowl production areas. CRP fields thus provided more secure nesting cover for upland-nesting ducks than waterfowl production areas. However, nest success and use of the fields by ducks varied greatly. CRP fields are abundant and of a wide variety of age classes and sizes. These characteristics make CRP fields well suited as study sites for determining the effects of cover area, distance to water, and cover age on nest success of ducks.

Kantrud, H.A.

1993-01-01

107

Waterfowl Conservation in the US Prairie Pothole Region: Confronting the Complexities of Climate Change  

PubMed Central

The Prairie Pothole Region (PPR) is the most important waterfowl production area in North America. However, waterfowl populations there are predicted to decline because of climate-related drying of wetlands. Consequently, changes in the geographic focus of PPR waterfowl conservation have been recommended, which could have long-lasting and costly impacts. We used a 40-year dataset of pond counts collected in the PPR to test hypotheses about climate-related drying. We assessed May (19742013) and July (19742003) pond numbers in 20 waterfowl survey strata to determine if trends in pond numbers were consistent with predictions of drying. We also assessed trends in precipitation and temperature for the 20 strata and developed models describing May pond numbers from 1974 through 2010 as a function of precipitation, temperature, the previous years pond numbers, and location. None of the 20 strata showed significant declines in May pond numbers, although seven strata showed increases over time. July pond numbers declined significantly in one stratum, and increased in seven strata. An index to hydroperiod showed significant increasing trends in three strata, and no strata had decreasing trends. Precipitation increased significantly in two strata and decreased in two from 1974 to 2010; no strata showed significant changes in temperature. The best linear model described pond numbers within all strata as a function of precipitation, temperature, the previous years pond numbers, and the latitude and longitude of the stratum, and explained 62% of annual variation in pond numbers. We hypothesize that direct effects of climate change on prairie pothole wetlands and waterfowl may be overshadowed by indirect effects such as intensified land use and increased pressure to drain wetlands. We recommend that an adaptive, data-driven approach be used to resolve uncertainties regarding direct and indirect effects of climate change on prairie wetlands and waterfowl, and guide future conservation efforts. PMID:24937641

Niemuth, Neal D.; Fleming, Kathleen K.; Reynolds, Ronald E.

2014-01-01

108

Waterfowl conservation in the US Prairie Pothole Region: confronting the complexities of climate change.  

PubMed

The Prairie Pothole Region (PPR) is the most important waterfowl production area in North America. However, waterfowl populations there are predicted to decline because of climate-related drying of wetlands. Consequently, changes in the geographic focus of PPR waterfowl conservation have been recommended, which could have long-lasting and costly impacts. We used a 40-year dataset of pond counts collected in the PPR to test hypotheses about climate-related drying. We assessed May (1974-2013) and July (1974-2003) pond numbers in 20 waterfowl survey strata to determine if trends in pond numbers were consistent with predictions of drying. We also assessed trends in precipitation and temperature for the 20 strata and developed models describing May pond numbers from 1974 through 2010 as a function of precipitation, temperature, the previous year's pond numbers, and location. None of the 20 strata showed significant declines in May pond numbers, although seven strata showed increases over time. July pond numbers declined significantly in one stratum, and increased in seven strata. An index to hydroperiod showed significant increasing trends in three strata, and no strata had decreasing trends. Precipitation increased significantly in two strata and decreased in two from 1974 to 2010; no strata showed significant changes in temperature. The best linear model described pond numbers within all strata as a function of precipitation, temperature, the previous year's pond numbers, and the latitude and longitude of the stratum, and explained 62% of annual variation in pond numbers. We hypothesize that direct effects of climate change on prairie pothole wetlands and waterfowl may be overshadowed by indirect effects such as intensified land use and increased pressure to drain wetlands. We recommend that an adaptive, data-driven approach be used to resolve uncertainties regarding direct and indirect effects of climate change on prairie wetlands and waterfowl, and guide future conservation efforts. PMID:24937641

Niemuth, Neal D; Fleming, Kathleen K; Reynolds, Ronald E

2014-01-01

109

Neutralizing activities of caprine antibodies towards conserved regions of the HCV envelope glycoprotein E2  

PubMed Central

Anti HCV vaccine is not currently available and the present antiviral therapies fail to cure approximately half of the treated HCV patients. This study was designed to assess the immunogenic properties of genetically conserved peptides derived from the C-terminal region of HVR-1 and test their neutralizing activities in a step towards developing therapeutic and/or prophylactic immunogens against HCV infection. Antibodies were generated by vaccination of goats with synthetic peptides derived from HCV E2. Viral neutralizing capacity of the generated anti E2 antibodies was tested using in vitro assays. Goats immunized with E2 synthetic peptides termed p412 [a.a 412-419], p430 [a.a 430-447] and p517 [a.a 517-531] generated high titers of antibody responses 2 to 4.5 fold higher than comparable titers of antibodies to the same epitopes in chronic HCV patients. In post infection experiments of native HCV into cultured Huh7.5 cells anti p412 and anti p 517 were proven to be neutralizing to HCV genotype 4a from patients' sera (87.5% and 75% respectively). On the contrary anti p430 exhibited weak viral neutralization capacity on the same samples (31.25%). Furthermore Ab mixes containing anti p430 exhibited reduced viral neutralization properties. From these experiments one could predict that neutralization by Abs towards different E2-epitopes varies considerably and success in the enrichment of neutralization epitope-specific antibodies may be accompanied by favorable results in combating HCV infection. Also, E2 conserved peptides p517 and p412 represent potential components of a candidate peptide vaccine against HCV infection. PMID:21819575

2011-01-01

110

Terrestrial Carbon Dynamics in Prairie Remnants and Conservation Reserve Program Lands of the Palouse Region  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Conversion of marginal agricultural lands to perennial grassland vegetation has been proposed as a way to enhance terrestrial carbon sequestration. The Conservation Reserve Program (CRP) has facilitated this transition and promoted carbon sequestration in highly erodible agricultural lands of the Palouse Region of northern Idaho and eastern Washington. Currently little is known about the potential of these lands to act as a carbon sinks in this region. We studied terrestrial carbon dynamics in CRP set asides planted with exotic grasses and in native prairie remnants of the Palouse Region. To study plant decomposition, the species Festuca idahoensis and Symphoricarpos albus were used as representatives of the native prairie community and Bromus inermis was used for CRP sites. Above- and belowground net primary productivity (from 170.9 to 216.0 g m-2 yr-1) and litter fall (from 15.6 to 31.0 g m-2 yr-1) were similar between grassland types. However, root biomass, soil macroaggregates and soil carbon were higher in prairie remnants. Decomposition rates of leaf litter were not different among plant species, however root decomposition was slower in S. albus (k = 0.28 yr-1) than in F. idahoensis (k = 0.56 yr-1) or B. inermis (k = 0.64 yr-1). These results demonstrate that aboveground processes and carbon inputs in CRP sites have reached similar levels to native prairies. However, belowground carbon pools (i.e. root biomass and soil carbon) are still higher in prairie remnants. Belowground decomposition rates were related to root chemical composition as S. albus roots had the highest lignin to nitrogen ratio. The results of this study suggest that efforts to promote carbon sequestration in CRP grasslands of the Palouse should be focused on belowground pools and processes. Management practices that could increase the amount of carbon sequestered in these CRP sites include increasing the amount of root biomass production through fertilization and increasing the density of plants with recalcitrant litter inputs.

Snchez-de Len, Y.; Johnson-Maynard, J.

2007-12-01

111

Evaluating Partners in Flight Partnership Lands in the Mid-Atlantic Region: Converting Conservation Plans into Conservation Actions1  

Microsoft Academic Search

Within the mid-Atlantic Coastal Plain, lands owned or controlled by government agencies and organizations within the Partners in Flight (PIF) program are highly fragmented. These lands represent tens of thousands of habitat patches that are managed by hundreds of individu- als responding to a diversity of directives. Moving this patchwork of lands forward to achieve regional conserva- tion goals will

Bryan D. Watts; Dana S. Bradshaw

112

Automatic Identification of Highly Conserved Family Regions and Relationships in Genome Wide Datasets Including Remote Protein Sequences  

PubMed Central

Identifying shared sequence segments along amino acid sequences generally requires a collection of closely related proteins, most often curated manually from the sequence datasets to suit the purpose at hand. Currently developed statistical methods are strained, however, when the collection contains remote sequences with poor alignment to the rest, or sequences containing multiple domains. In this paper, we propose a completely unsupervised and automated method to identify the shared sequence segments observed in a diverse collection of protein sequences including those present in a smaller fraction of the sequences in the collection, using a combination of sequence alignment, residue conservation scoring and graph-theoretical approaches. Since shared sequence fragments often imply conserved functional or structural attributes, the method produces a table of associations between the sequences and the identified conserved regions that can reveal previously unknown protein families as well as new members to existing ones. We evaluated the biological relevance of the method by clustering the proteins in gold standard datasets and assessing the clustering performance in comparison with previous methods from the literature. We have then applied the proposed method to a genome wide dataset of 17793 human proteins and generated a global association map to each of the 4753 identified conserved regions. Investigations on the major conserved regions revealed that they corresponded strongly to annotated structural domains. This suggests that the method can be useful in predicting novel domains on protein sequences. PMID:24069417

Dogan, Tunca; Karacal?, Bilge

2013-01-01

113

Performance of 12 DIR algorithms in low-contrast regions for mass and density conserving deformation  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: Deformable image registration (DIR) has become a key tool for adaptive radiotherapy to account for inter- and intrafraction organ deformation. Of contemporary interest, the application to deformable dose accumulation requires accurate deformation even in low contrast regions where dose gradients may exist within near-uniform tissues. One expects high-contrast features to generally be deformed more accurately by DIR algorithms. The authors systematically assess the accuracy of 12 DIR algorithms and quantitatively examine, in particular, low-contrast regions, where accuracy has not previously been established.Methods: This work investigates DIR algorithms in three dimensions using deformable gel (DEFGEL) [U. J. Yeo, M. L. Taylor, L. Dunn, R. L. Smith, T. Kron, and R. D. Franich, A novel methodology for 3D deformable dosimetry, Med. Phys. 39, 22032213 (2012)], for application to mass- and density-conserving deformations. CT images of DEFGEL phantoms with 16 fiducial markers (FMs) implanted were acquired in deformed and undeformed states for three different representative deformation geometries. Nonrigid image registration was performed using 12 common algorithms in the public domain. The optimum parameter setup was identified for each algorithm and each was tested for deformation accuracy in three scenarios: (I) original images of the DEFGEL with 16 FMs; (II) images with eight of the FMs mathematically erased; and (III) images with all FMs mathematically erased. The deformation vector fields obtained for scenarios II and III were then applied to the original images containing all 16 FMs. The locations of the FMs estimated by the algorithms were compared to actual locations determined by CT imaging. The accuracy of the algorithms was assessed by evaluation of three-dimensional vectors between true marker locations and predicted marker locations.Results: The mean magnitude of 16 error vectors per sample ranged from 0.3 to 3.7, 1.0 to 6.3, and 1.3 to 7.5 mm across algorithms for scenarios I to III, respectively. The greatest accuracy was exhibited by the original Horn and Schunck optical flow algorithm. In this case, for scenario III (erased FMs not contributing to driving the DIR calculation), the mean error was half that of the modified demons algorithm (which exhibited the greatest error), across all deformations. Some algorithms failed to reproduce the geometry at all, while others accurately deformed high contrast features but not low-contrast regionsindicating poor interpolation between landmarks.Conclusions: The accuracy of DIR algorithms was quantitatively evaluated using a tissue equivalent, mass, and density conserving DEFGEL phantom. For the model studied, optical flow algorithms performed better than demons algorithms, with the original Horn and Schunck performing best. The degree of error is influenced more by the magnitude of displacement than the geometric complexity of the deformation. As might be expected, deformation is estimated less accurately for low-contrast regions than for high-contrast features, and the method presented here allows quantitative analysis of the differences. The evaluation of registration accuracy through observation of the same high contrast features that drive the DIR calculation is shown to be circular and hence misleading.

Yeo, U. J.; Supple, J. R.; Franich, R. D. [School of Applied Sciences and Health Innovations Research Institute, RMIT University, Melbourne 3000 (Australia)] [School of Applied Sciences and Health Innovations Research Institute, RMIT University, Melbourne 3000 (Australia); Taylor, M. L. [School of Applied Sciences and Health Innovations Research Institute, RMIT University, Melbourne 3000 (Australia) [School of Applied Sciences and Health Innovations Research Institute, RMIT University, Melbourne 3000 (Australia); Physical Sciences, Peter MacCallum Cancer Centre, East Melbourne 3002 (Australia); Medical Physics, William Buckland Radiotherapy Centre, The Alfred Hospital, Melbourne 3004 (Australia); Smith, R. [School of Applied Sciences and Health Innovations Research Institute, RMIT University, Melbourne 3000, Australia and Medical Physics, William Buckland Radiotherapy Centre, The Alfred Hospital, Melbourne 3004 (Australia)] [School of Applied Sciences and Health Innovations Research Institute, RMIT University, Melbourne 3000, Australia and Medical Physics, William Buckland Radiotherapy Centre, The Alfred Hospital, Melbourne 3004 (Australia); Kron, T. [School of Applied Sciences and Health Innovations Research Institute, RMIT University, Melbourne 3000, Australia and Physical Sciences, Peter MacCallum Cancer Centre, East Melbourne 3002 (Australia)] [School of Applied Sciences and Health Innovations Research Institute, RMIT University, Melbourne 3000, Australia and Physical Sciences, Peter MacCallum Cancer Centre, East Melbourne 3002 (Australia)

2013-10-15

114

A water quality model for regional stream assessment and conservation strategy development.  

PubMed

Non-point-source (NPS) pollution remains the primary source of stream impairment in the United States. Many problems such as eutrophication, sedimentation, and hypoxia are linked with NPS pollution which reduces the water quality for aquatic and terrestrial organisms. Increasingly, NPS pollution models have been used for landscape-scale pollution assessment and conservation strategy development. Our modeling approach functions at a scale between simple landscape-level assessments and complex, data-intensive modeling by providing a rapid, landscape-scale geographic information system (GIS) model with minimal data requirements and widespread applicability. Our model relies on curve numbers, literature-derived pollution concentrations, and land status to evaluate total phosphorus (TP), total nitrogen (TN), and suspended solids (SS) at the reach scale. Model testing in the Chesapeake Bay watershed indicated that predicted distributions of water quality classes were realistic at the reach scale, but precise estimates of pollution concentrations at the local scale can have errors. Application of our model in the tributary watersheds along Lake Ontario suggested that it is useful to managers in watershed planning by rapidly providing important information about NPS pollution conditions in areas where large data gaps exist, comparisons among stream reaches across numerous watersheds are required, or regional assessments are sought. PMID:20195599

Meixler, Marcia S; Bain, Mark B

2010-04-01

115

A Water Quality Model for Regional Stream Assessment and Conservation Strategy Development  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Non-point-source (NPS) pollution remains the primary source of stream impairment in the United States. Many problems such as eutrophication, sedimentation, and hypoxia are linked with NPS pollution which reduces the water quality for aquatic and terrestrial organisms. Increasingly, NPS pollution models have been used for landscape-scale pollution assessment and conservation strategy development. Our modeling approach functions at a scale between simple landscape-level assessments and complex, data-intensive modeling by providing a rapid, landscape-scale geographic information system (GIS) model with minimal data requirements and widespread applicability. Our model relies on curve numbers, literature-derived pollution concentrations, and land status to evaluate total phosphorus (TP), total nitrogen (TN), and suspended solids (SS) at the reach scale. Model testing in the Chesapeake Bay watershed indicated that predicted distributions of water quality classes were realistic at the reach scale, but precise estimates of pollution concentrations at the local scale can have errors. Application of our model in the tributary watersheds along Lake Ontario suggested that it is useful to managers in watershed planning by rapidly providing important information about NPS pollution conditions in areas where large data gaps exist, comparisons among stream reaches across numerous watersheds are required, or regional assessments are sought.

Meixler, Marcia S.; Bain, Mark B.

2010-04-01

116

Conservation and Diversity Among the Three-dimensional Folds of the Dicistroviridae Intergenic Region IRESes  

PubMed Central

Internal ribosome entry site (IRES) RNAs are necessary for successful infection of many pathogenic viruses, but the details of the RNA structure-based mechanism used to bind and manipulate the ribosome remain poorly understood. The IRES RNAs from the Dicistroviridae intergenic region (IGR) are an excellent model system to understand the fundamental tenets of IRES function, requiring no protein factors to manipulate the ribosome and initiate translation. Here, we explore the architecture of four members of the IGR IRESes, representative of the two divergent classes of these IRES RNAs. Using biochemical and structural probing methods, we show that despite sequence variability they contain a common three-dimensional fold. The three-dimensional architecture of the ribosome binding domain from these IRESes is organized around a core helical scaffold, around which the rest of the RNA molecule folds. However, subtle variation in the folds of these IRESes and the presence of an additional secondary structure element suggest differences in the details of their manipulation of the large ribosomal subunit. Overall, the results demonstrate how a conserved three-dimensional RNA fold governs ribosome binding and manipulation. PMID:17544444

Pfingsten, Jennifer S.; Costantino, David A.; Kieft, Jeffrey S.

2007-01-01

117

Fire mosaics and reptile conservation in a fire-prone region.  

PubMed

Fire influences the distribution of fauna in terrestrial biomes throughout the world. Use of fire to achieve a mosaic of vegetation in different stages of succession after burning (i.e., patch-mosaic burning) is a dominant conservation practice in many regions. Despite this, knowledge of how the spatial attributes of vegetation mosaics created by fire affect fauna is extremely scarce, and it is unclear what kind of mosaic land managers should aim to achieve. We selected 28 landscapes (each 12.6 km(2) ) that varied in the spatial extent and diversity of vegetation succession after fire in a 104,000 km(2) area in the semiarid region of southeastern Australia. We surveyed for reptiles at 280 sites nested within the 28 landscapes. The landscape-level occurrence of 9 of the 22 species modeled was associated with the spatial extent of vegetation age classes created by fire. Biogeographic context and the extent of a vegetation type influenced 7 and 4 species, respectively. No species were associated with the diversity of vegetation ages within a landscape. Negative relations between reptile occurrence and both extent of recently burned vegetation (?10 years postfire, n = 6) and long unburned vegetation (>35 years postfire, n = 4) suggested that a coarse-grained mosaic of areas (e.g. >1000 ha) of midsuccessional vegetation (11-35 years postfire) may support the fire-sensitive reptile species we modeled. This age class coincides with a peak in spinifex cover, a keystone structure for reptiles in semiarid and arid Australia. Maintaining over the long term a coarse-grained mosaic of large areas of midsuccessional vegetation in mallee ecosystems will need to be balanced against the short-term negative effects of large fires on many reptile species and a documented preference by species from other taxonomic groups, particularly birds, for older vegetation. PMID:23163245

Nimmo, D G; Kelly, L T; Spence-Bailey, L M; Watson, S J; Taylor, R S; Clarke, M F; Bennett, A F

2013-04-01

118

Gravelsand mulch for soil and water conservation in the semiarid loess region of northwest China  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the semiarid loess region of northwest China, the use of gravel and sand as mulch has been an indigenous farming technique for crop production for over 300 years. However, systematic studies concerning the effects of surface gravelsand (mixed gravel and sand) covers on soil and water conservation are scarce. Based on previous studies, this study investigates the effects of

Xiao-Yan Li

2003-01-01

119

Measuring conservation value at fine and broad scales: implications for a diverse and fragmented region, the Agulhas Plain  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study explores the implications of spatial scale for conservation planning in the Agulhas Plain, South Africa. Regional planning relies on broad-scale data but fine-scale data are usually required for implementation at local level. This study addresses the implications of broad-scale planning for fine-scale implementation. Two original systems of notional reserves were developed for this region using C-plan, a decision

Mathieu Rouget

2003-01-01

120

Identifying regional landscapes for conservation planning: a case study from KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa  

Microsoft Academic Search

The application of landscape ecology in conservation biology has rarely occurred in the context of defined landscapes. Conservation planning has focussed on representation of species diversity patterns and assumed that ecosystems, landscapes and their associated processes will be equally protected. The long-term persistence of biodiversity in the face of land transformations and global change requires the representation and retention of

Dean H. K. Fairbanks; Grant A. Benn

2000-01-01

121

Supplementary Materials Proximity of kinase mutations to regions of sequence conservation.  

E-print Network

of which are neutral SNPs (positions 49 and 228) (Figure S5). Visual inspection reveals that to some extent with the structurally conserved positions. Visual inspection of the image suggests that although not properly clustered. The analysis of the conservation evaluated in terms of variability using AL2CO (Pei and Grishin, 2001) reveals

Martin, Andrew C.R.

122

Protein engineering of selected residues from conserved sequence regions of a novel Anoxybacillus ?-amylase.  

PubMed

The ?-amylases from Anoxybacillus species (ASKA and ADTA), Bacillus aquimaris (BaqA) and Geobacillus thermoleovorans (GTA, Pizzo and GtamyII) were proposed as a novel group of the ?-amylase family GH13. An ASKA yielding a high percentage of maltose upon its reaction on starch was chosen as a model to study the residues responsible for the biochemical properties. Four residues from conserved sequence regions (CSRs) were thus selected, and the mutants F113V (CSR-I), Y187F and L189I (CSR-II) and A161D (CSR-V) were characterised. Few changes in the optimum reaction temperature and pH were observed for all mutants. Whereas the Y187F (t1/2 43?h) and L189I (t1/2 36?h) mutants had a lower thermostability at 65C than the native ASKA (t1/2 48?h), the mutants F113V and A161D exhibited an improved t1/2 of 51?h and 53?h, respectively. Among the mutants, only the A161D had a specific activity, k(cat) and k(cat)/K(m) higher (1.23-, 1.17- and 2.88-times, respectively) than the values determined for the ASKA. The replacement of the Ala-161 in the CSR-V with an aspartic acid also caused a significant reduction in the ratio of maltose formed. This finding suggests the Ala-161 may contribute to the high maltose production of the ASKA. PMID:25069018

Ranjani, Velayudhan; Jane?ek, Stefan; Chai, Kian Piaw; Shahir, Shafinaz; Abdul Rahman, Raja Noor Zaliha Raja; Chan, Kok-Gan; Goh, Kian Mau

2014-01-01

123

Recognizing and Helping  

E-print Network

&HelpStudDistressBklt 10/14/11 3:05 PM Page 4 #12;Abusing substances A victim of assault or abuse SIGNS Coming to class an active process of threat assessment and behavioral intervention. Representatives from Student Life Page 2 #12;Recognizing and Helping Students in Distress Are you concerned about a student's physical

Firestone, Jeremy

124

Many voices, one wilderness : collaborative conservation in the greater Chicago region  

E-print Network

There has been a growing recognition in the conservation community that landscape-scale networks of preserves and habitat corridors are needed to adequately protect native biodiversity. While most of the efforts to protect ...

Bates, Justin (Justin Timothy)

2012-01-01

125

USE OF POPULATION VIABILITY ANALYSIS AND RESERVE SELECTION ALGORITHMS IN REGIONAL CONSERVATION PLANS  

EPA Science Inventory

Current reserve selection algorithms have difficulty evaluating connectivity and other factors necessary to conserve wide-ranging species in developing landscapes. Conversely, population viability analyses may incorporate detailed demographic data but often lack sufficient spa...

126

Duck Nest Success on Conservation Reserve Program Land in the Prairie Pothole Region  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Northern Prairie Wildlife Research Center (NPWRC) continues to place scientific/ management resources online for general viewing. This resource, by H.A. Kantrud was originally published in 1993 in the Journal of Soil and Water Conservation [48(3):238-242] and examines nest success of dabbling ducks on Conservation Reserve Program (CRP) land. It may be browsed online or downloaded as a .zip file.

Kantrud, Harold A.

1993-01-01

127

Conservation genomics of Atlantic salmon: variation in gene expression between and within regions of the Bay of Fundy.  

PubMed

Due to difficulties in identifying important within-species biodiversity for effective species management and conservation, the use of multiple complementary sources of information is required to identify and assess the designation of conservation units based on the degree of variation among populations within a species. In this study, we combined estimates of microsatellite and transcriptomic variation to assess the population structure and potential for adaptive variation of threatened Atlantic salmon, Salmo salar, among rivers in the Bay of Fundy. In general, population structure identified by genetic differentiation was consistent with the patterns of variation in gene expression, although there was not a strong correlation between neutral genetic variation and variation in gene expression. Both data sets provided clear indication of strong regional differentiation between rivers located within the inner Bay of Fundy relative to rivers located within the outer Bay of Fundy or the Southern Upland region, and there was also support for more refined population structure. Both data sets indicated that Atlantic salmon populations from the inner and outer Bay of Fundy reflect unique genetic lineages, with some evidence of population differentiation between regions of the inner Bay of Fundy, and between individual rivers within a region. Consistency of the microarray data across 2 years helped to validate the use of this technique as a useful tool in assessment of variation among wild populations for species conservation. PMID:20529070

Vandersteen Tymchuk, Wendy; O'Reilly, Patrick; Bittman, Jesse; Macdonald, Danielle; Schulte, Patricia

2010-05-01

128

Conclusions and recommendations of the Latin America and Caribbean Regional Energy Conservation Seminar, Alajuela, Costa Rica, January 14-17, 1985  

SciTech Connect

Reports were given on active energy-conservation projects in the region (Barbados, Jamaica, Central American region and Panama, Peru, Ecuador, the Dominican Republic, and Costa Rica). In addition, there were presentations on energy auditing, fuel substitution, and financing energy conservation. Although the seminar concentrated on the industrial sector, it also explored opportunities for energy-efficiency improvements in the building and transportation sectors.

Not Available

1985-03-29

129

Human antibodies recognize multiple distinct type-specific and cross-reactive regions of the minor capsid proteins of human papillomavirus types 6 and 11.  

PubMed Central

Human serum samples derived from a case-control study of patients with cervical carcinoma (n = 174) or condyloma acuminatum (n = 25) were tested for the presence of immunoglobulin G antibodies to human papillomavirus type 6 (HPV6) L2 and HPV11 L2 recombinant proteins in a Western immunoblot assay. Thirty-six samples (18%) were positive for HPV6 L2 antibodies alone, 25 (13%) were positive for HPV11 L2 antibodies alone, and 34 (17%) were positive for both HPV6 L2 and HPV11 L2 antibodies. Thirty samples that were positive for both antibodies were tested for the presence of HPV6-HPV11 L2 cross-reactive antibodies. Fifteen (50%) serum samples contained HPV6-HPV11 L2 cross-reactive antibodies, and 15 (50%) contained independent, type-specific HPV6 L2 and HPV11 L2 antibodies. Altogether, 82% of the HPV6 L2 and HPV11 L2 antibody reactivities were type specific and 18% were HPV6-HPV11 cross-reactive. There was no significant difference in the prevalence of antibody reactivities between samples from patients with cervical carcinoma and those with condyloma acuminatum. Deletion mapping identified five HPV6 L2 regions that reacted with HPV6 type-specific antibodies: 6U1 (amino acids [aa] 152 to 173), 6U2 (aa 175 to 191), 6U3 (aa 187 to 199), 6U4 (aa 201 to 217), and 6U5 (aa 351 to 367). Five HPV11 L2 regions that reacted with HPV11 type-specific antibodies were identified: 11U1 (aa 49 to 84), 11U2 (aa 147 to 162), 11U3 (aa 179 to 188), 11U4 (aa 180 to 200), and 11U5 (aa 355 to 367). Two HPV6-HPV11 cross-reactive regions were identified: 6CR1 (HPV6 L2 aa 106 to 128)/11CR1 (HPV11 L2 aa 103 to 127) and 6CR2 (HPV6 L2 aa 187 to 199)/11CR2 (HPV11 L2 aa 180 to 200). Images PMID:1312618

Yaegashi, N; Jenison, S A; Batra, M; Galloway, D A

1992-01-01

130

AlignMiner: a Web-based tool for detection of divergent regions in multiple sequence alignments of conserved sequences  

PubMed Central

Background Multiple sequence alignments are used to study gene or protein function, phylogenetic relations, genome evolution hypotheses and even gene polymorphisms. Virtually without exception, all available tools focus on conserved segments or residues. Small divergent regions, however, are biologically important for specific quantitative polymerase chain reaction, genotyping, molecular markers and preparation of specific antibodies, and yet have received little attention. As a consequence, they must be selected empirically by the researcher. AlignMiner has been developed to fill this gap in bioinformatic analyses. Results AlignMiner is a Web-based application for detection of conserved and divergent regions in alignments of conserved sequences, focusing particularly on divergence. It accepts alignments (protein or nucleic acid) obtained using any of a variety of algorithms, which does not appear to have a significant impact on the final results. AlignMiner uses different scoring methods for assessing conserved/divergent regions, Entropy being the method that provides the highest number of regions with the greatest length, and Weighted being the most restrictive. Conserved/divergent regions can be generated either with respect to the consensus sequence or to one master sequence. The resulting data are presented in a graphical interface developed in AJAX, which provides remarkable user interaction capabilities. Users do not need to wait until execution is complete and can.even inspect their results on a different computer. Data can be downloaded onto a user disk, in standard formats. In silico and experimental proof-of-concept cases have shown that AlignMiner can be successfully used to designing specific polymerase chain reaction primers as well as potential epitopes for antibodies. Primer design is assisted by a module that deploys several oligonucleotide parameters for designing primers "on the fly". Conclusions AlignMiner can be used to reliably detect divergent regions via several scoring methods that provide different levels of selectivity. Its predictions have been verified by experimental means. Hence, it is expected that its usage will save researchers' time and ensure an objective selection of the best-possible divergent region when closely related sequences are analysed. AlignMiner is freely available at http://www.scbi.uma.es/alignminer. PMID:20525162

2010-01-01

131

75 FR 59143 - Magnuson-Stevens Fishery Conservation and Management Act; Regional Fishery Management Councils...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...the entities are involved in regional fisheries under the jurisdiction...subject matter should include innovations in fisheries science in addition...10, the definition for ``Regional Administrator'' has been...the previous title of ``Regional Director'', as this...

2010-09-27

132

Geographical patterns in openland cover and hayfield mowing in the Upper Great Lakes region: implications for grassland bird conservation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Populations of many grassland bird species such as Grasshopper Sparrow (Ammodramus savannarum), Henslows Sparrow (A. henslowii), and Bobolink (Dolichonyx oryzivorus) have experienced considerable declines over the last century. To foster multi-species grassland bird conservation in the\\u000a Upper Great Lakes (UGL) states of Michigan, Minnesota, and Wisconsin, we quantified geographic patterns within three sub-regional\\u000a zones (e.g., North, Central, and South) of

R. Gregory Corace; David J. Flaspohler; Lindsey M. Shartell

2009-01-01

133

A conservative region of the mercuric reductase gene (mera) as a molecular marker of bacterial mercury resistance  

PubMed Central

The most common bacterial mercury resistance mechanism is based on the reduction of Hg(II) to Hg0, which is dependent of the mercuric reductase enzyme (MerA) activity. The use of a 431 bp fragment of a conservative region of the mercuric reductase (merA) gene was applied as a molecular marker of this mechanism, allowing the identification of mercury resistant bacterial strains. PMID:24031221

Sotero-Martins, Adriana; de Jesus, Michele Silva; Lacerda, Michele; Moreira, Josino Costa; Filgueiras, Ana Luzia Lauria; Barrocas, Paulo Rubens Guimaraes

2008-01-01

134

Characterization of intracellular localization of PrP(Sc) in prion-infected cells using a mAb that recognizes the region consisting of aa 119-127 of mouse PrP.  

PubMed

Generation of an abnormal isoform of the prion protein (PrP(Sc)) is a key aspect of the propagation of prions. Elucidation of the intracellular localization of PrP(Sc) in prion-infected cells facilitates the understanding of the cellular mechanism of prion propagation. However, technical improvement in PrP(Sc)-specific detection is required for precise analysis. Here, we show that the mAb 132, which recognizes the region adjacent to the most amyloidogenic region of PrP, is useful for PrP(Sc)-specific detection by immunofluorescence assay in cells pre-treated with guanidine thiocyanate. Extensive analysis of the intracellular localization of PrP(Sc) in prion-infected cells using mAb 132 revealed the presence of PrP(Sc) throughout endocytic compartments. In particular, some of the granular PrP(Sc) signals that were clustered at peri-nuclear regions appeared to be localized in an endocytic recycling compartment through which exogenously loaded transferrin, shiga and cholera toxin B subunits were transported. The granular PrP(Sc) signals at peri-nuclear regions were dispersed to the peripheral regions including the plasma membrane during incubation at 20 C, at which temperature transport from the plasma membrane to peri-nuclear regions was impaired. Conversely, dispersed PrP(Sc) signals appeared to return to peri-nuclear regions within 30 min during subsequent incubation at 37 C, following which PrP(Sc) at peri-nuclear regions appeared to redisperse again to peripheral regions over the next 30 min incubation. These results suggest that PrP(Sc) is dynamically transported along with the membrane trafficking machinery of cells and that at least some PrP(Sc) circulates between peri-nuclear and peripheral regions including the plasma membrane via an endocytic recycling pathway. PMID:22090211

Yamasaki, Takeshi; Suzuki, Akio; Shimizu, Takeshi; Watarai, Masahisa; Hasebe, Rie; Horiuchi, Motohiro

2012-03-01

135

Picking up the pieces: conserving remnant natural areas in the post-industrial landscape of the Calumet Region  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Calumet Region was shaped by geologic forces, succession, and interacting biomes converging on a unique natural landscape. Over the past 4500 years, a strand plain has formed to the north of a geologic area called Toleston Beach. Sequential and differential primary succession of dune and swale communities in this region allowed species from different biomes to interact freely. In the mid-nineteenth century, commerce and settlement drastically changed the area, and natural areas were fragmented, manipulated, and degraded by cultural intrusions and industrialization. Despite the near obliteration of dune and swale habitat, small fragments of natural land escaped destruction. These native fragments maintained some semblance of the landscape that once covered the region. Currently, these native fragments are threatened by the lingering intrusion of historic contamination and the continuing presence of industry and commerce. Restoration and conservation of these remnants will need to be a process of integrating biological diversity goals into the landscape of the industrialized region through planning and design. We outline here the natural history of the region, the philosophical rationale for conservation, and possible approaches for integrating and maintaining these valuable remnant resources and processes.

Labus, Paul; Whitman, Richard L.; Nevers, Meredith Becker

1999-01-01

136

A conserved region in the sea urchin U1 snRNA promoter interacts with a developmentally regulated factor.  

PubMed Central

The expression of the sea urchin L. variegatus U1 snRNA gene is temporally regulated during embryogenesis. Using a microinjection assay we show that a region between 203 and 345 nts 5' of the gene is required for expression. There are four conserved regions between two sea urchin species in the 345 nts 5' to the U1 gene. One region, located at about -300, binds a protein factor which is present in blastula but not gastrula nuclei. Three other potential protein binding sites within the first 200 nts 5' to the gene have been identified using a mobility shift assay and/or DNase I footprinting. Two of these regions bind factors which are not developmentally regulated and one binds a factor which is developmentally regulated. It is likely that the factor which binds at -300 is involved in expression and developmental regulation of the sea urchin U1 snRNA gene. Images PMID:1741261

Stevenson, K A; Yu, J C; Marzluff, W F

1992-01-01

137

Aligning Local Incentives to Regional Goals: Water Conservation in the Upper Tigris-Euphrates River System  

Microsoft Academic Search

Instead of international agreement between Syria, Iraq, and Turkey, the best hope for sustainable water conservation in the Euphrates-Tigris river basin lies with policies that can be justified on individual and local grounds within Turkey: reducing water run-off and accompanied pollution; reducing soil salinity; developing drought resistant strains of crops; and storing water as an insurance against future droughts that

Hasan Tekguc

2011-01-01

138

Nature Conservancy of Canada (NCC)--Manitoba Region's Environmental Education Program  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Nature Conservancy of Canada (NCC) is excited and proud to offer its first ever in-class education programs on the Tall Grass Prairie Ecosystem. These curriculum-based programs are offered to students from Kindergarten through to Grade 12. This experience gives many students who may never have the opportunity to visit a real live prairie to

Shaluk, Cathy

2007-01-01

139

Structure-sequence based analysis for identification of conserved regions in proteins  

DOEpatents

Disclosed are computational methods, and associated hardware and software products for scoring conservation in a protein structure based on a computationally identified family or cluster of protein structures. A method of computationally identifying a family or cluster of protein structures in also disclosed herein.

Zemla, Adam T; Zhou, Carol E; Lam, Marisa W; Smith, Jason R; Pardes, Elizabeth

2013-05-28

140

Recognizing battered wife syndrome.  

PubMed

Battered wife syndrome is difficult to detect because the women usually do not volunteer the diagnosis. They often present with vague somatic complaints such as headache, lower back pain, abdominal pain, pelvic pain and dyspareunia. Four case histories demonstrate the difficulty in recognizing the cause of these complaints. The diagnosis was often missed because straight-forward, non-threatening, open-ended questions were not asked initially. The family physician's primary role is to identify the syndrome and initiate psychotherapy. Psychotherapy is centred on reversing "learned helplessness" and developing a new self-concept. This can be enhanced by an interval or transition house. PMID:21274067

Swanson, R W

1985-04-01

141

Recognizing Battered Wife Syndrome  

PubMed Central

Battered wife syndrome is difficult to detect because the women usually do not volunteer the diagnosis. They often present with vague somatic complaints such as headache, lower back pain, abdominal pain, pelvic pain and dyspareunia. Four case histories demonstrate the difficulty in recognizing the cause of these complaints. The diagnosis was often missed because straight-forward, non-threatening, open-ended questions were not asked initially. The family physician's primary role is to identify the syndrome and initiate psychotherapy. Psychotherapy is centred on reversing learned helplessness and developing a new self-concept. This can be enhanced by an interval or transition house. PMID:21274067

Swanson, Richard W.

1985-01-01

142

MFSPSSMpred: identifying short disorder-to-order binding regions in disordered proteins based on contextual local evolutionary conservation  

PubMed Central

Background Molecular recognition features (MoRFs) are short binding regions located in longer intrinsically disordered protein regions. Although these short regions lack a stable structure in the natural state, they readily undergo disorder-to-order transitions upon binding to their partner molecules. MoRFs play critical roles in the molecular interaction network of a cell, and are associated with many human genetic diseases. Therefore, identification of MoRFs is an important step in understanding functional aspects of these proteins and in finding applications in drug design. Results Here, we propose a novel method for identifying MoRFs, named as MFSPSSMpred (Masked, Filtered and Smoothed Position-Specific Scoring Matrix-based Predictor). Firstly, a masking method is used to calculate the average local conservation scores of residues within a masking-window length in the position-specific scoring matrix (PSSM). Then, the scores below the average are filtered out. Finally, a smoothing method is used to incorporate the features of flanking regions for each residue to prepare the feature sets for prediction. Our method employs no predicted results from other classifiers as input, i.e., all features used in this method are extracted from the PSSM of sequence only. Experimental results show that, comparing with other methods tested on the same datasets, our method achieves the best performance: achieving 0.004~0.079 higher AUC than other methods when tested on TEST419, and achieving 0.045~0.212 higher AUC than other methods when tested on TEST2012. In addition, when tested on an independent membrane proteins-related dataset, MFSPSSMpred significantly outperformed the existing predictor MoRFpred. Conclusions This study suggests that: 1) amino acid composition and physicochemical properties in the flanking regions of MoRFs are very different from those in the general non-MoRF regions; 2) MoRFs contain both highly conserved residues and highly variable residues and, on the whole, are highly locally conserved; and 3) combining contextual information with local conservation information of residues facilitates the prediction of MoRFs. PMID:24093637

2013-01-01

143

Regional Lake quality patterns: Their relationship to lake conservation and management decisions  

SciTech Connect

Understanding regional lake quality patterns is important to lake restoration. It puts specific lake conditions into perspective, provides a basis for establishing lake quality goals, identifies lakes most likely to benefit from restoration and forms a framework for assessing restoration success. Two techniques used to characterize regional lake quality patterns are discussed. Combining the two approaches provides an effective means to describe lake regions management goals and restoration success. Case examples illustrate the significant of regional lake quality to specific lake restoration projects.

Peterson, S.A.; Hughes, R.M.; Larsen, D.P.; Paulsen, S.G.; Omernik, J.M.

1996-05-01

144

Molecular characterization of a newly recognized mouse parvovirus.  

PubMed Central

Mouse parvovirus (MPV), formerly known as orphan parvovirus, is a newly recognized rodent parvovirus distinct from both serotypes of minute virus of mice (MVM). Restriction analysis of the MPV genome indicated that many restriction sites in the capsid region were different from those of MVM, but most sites in the nonstructural (NS) region of the genome were conserved. MPV resembled MVM in genome size, replication intermediates, and NS proteins. Replication intermediates in infected cells were the same for MPV and MVM, including packaging of the 5-kb minus (V) strand. Furthermore, the MPV NS proteins were the same size as and present at the same ratio as the MVM(i) proteins in infected cells. Cloning and sequencing of the MPV genome revealed a genome organization closely resembling that of MVM, with conservation of open reading frames, promoter sequences, and splice sites. The left terminal hairpin was identical to that of MVM(i), but the right terminus was not conserved. Also, the MPV genome was unique in that it contained 1.8 copies of the terminal repeat sequence rather than the 1 or 2 copies found in other parvoviruses. The predicted amino acid sequence of the NS proteins of MPV and MVM(i) were nearly identical. In contrast, the predicted amino acid sequence of the capsid proteins of MPV was different from sequences of other parvoviruses. These results confirm that MPV is a distinct murine parvovirus and account for the antigenic differences between MPV and MVM. Images PMID:8083985

Ball-Goodrich, L J; Johnson, E

1994-01-01

145

Potential conservation opportunities from the use of improved irrigation scheduling in the Pacific Northwest region  

SciTech Connect

This report documents research to identify the potential energy savings and the costs per kWh saved from using systematic rather than traditional irrigation scheduling to reduce water usage in the irrigated agricultural sector of the Pacific Northwest. This research is part of an overall project aimed at developing a computer model and data base that will allow for estimation of the potential energy savings and cost effectiveness of a number of conservation technologies that are available for use in irrigated agriculture.

Harrer, B J; Lezberg, A J

1985-03-01

146

Insertion of Horizontally Transferred Genes within Conserved Syntenic Regions of Yeast Genomes  

PubMed Central

Horizontal gene transfer has been occasionally mentioned in eukaryotic genomes, but such events appear much less numerous than in prokaryotes, where they play important functional and evolutionary roles. In yeasts, few independent cases have been described, some of which corresponding to major metabolic functions, but no systematic screening of horizontally transferred genes has been attempted so far. Taking advantage of the synteny conservation among five newly sequenced and annotated genomes of Saccharomycetaceae, we carried out a systematic search for HGT candidates amidst genes present in only one species within conserved synteny blocks. Out of 255 species-specific genes, we discovered 11 candidates for HGT, based on their similarity with bacterial proteins and on reconstructed phylogenies. This corresponds to a minimum of six transfer events because some horizontally acquired genes appear to rapidly duplicate in yeast genomes (e.g. YwqG genes in Kluyveromyces thermotolerans and serine recombinase genes of the IS607 family in Saccharomyces kluyveri). We show that the resulting copies are submitted to a strong functional selective pressure. The mechanisms of DNA transfer and integration are discussed, in relation with the generally small size of HGT candidates. Our results on a limited set of species expand by 50% the number of previously published HGT cases in hemiascomycetous yeasts, suggesting that this type of event is more frequent than usually thought. Our restrictive method does not exclude the possibility that additional HGT events exist. Actually, ancestral events common to several yeast species must have been overlooked, and the absence of homologs in present databases leaves open the question of the origin of the 244 remaining species-specific genes inserted within conserved synteny blocks. PMID:19654869

Rolland, Thomas; Neuveglise, Cecile; Sacerdot, Christine; Dujon, Bernard

2009-01-01

147

Human chromosome 19 and related regions in mouse: conservative and lineage-specific evolution.  

PubMed

To illuminate the function and evolutionary history of both genomes, we sequenced mouse DNA related to human chromosome 19. Comparative sequence alignments yielded confirmatory evidence for hypothetical genes and identified exons, regulatory elements, and candidate genes that were missed by other predictive methods. Chromosome-wide comparisons revealed a difference between single-copy HSA19 genes, which are overwhelmingly conserved in mouse, and genes residing in tandem familial clusters, which differ extensively in number, coding capacity, and organization between the two species. Finally, we sequenced breakpoints of all 15 evolutionary rearrangements, providing a view of the forces that drive chromosome evolution in mammals. PMID:11441184

Dehal, P; Predki, P; Olsen, A S; Kobayashi, A; Folta, P; Lucas, S; Land, M; Terry, A; Ecale Zhou, C L; Rash, S; Zhang, Q; Gordon, L; Kim, J; Elkin, C; Pollard, M J; Richardson, P; Rokhsar, D; Uberbacher, E; Hawkins, T; Branscomb, E; Stubbs, L

2001-07-01

148

The distribution and conservation of bats in the dry regions of Madagascar  

Microsoft Academic Search

We carried out extensive field surveys in the dry forest portions of Madagascar to document the species of bats occurring in these regions. These data combined with information in the literature and museum specimen records indicate that 28 species of Chiroptera occur in this region of the island, of which we documented 27 during our inventories. The community composition at

Steven M. Goodman; Daudet Andriafidison; Radosoa Andrianaivoarivelo; Scott G. Cardiff; Edina Ifticene; Richard K. B. Jenkins; Amyot Kofoky; Tsibara Mbohoahy; Daniel Rakotondravony; Julie Razafimanahaka; Fanja Ratrimomanarivo; Paul A. Racey

2005-01-01

149

Conservation of Socioculturally Important Local Crop Biodiversity in the Oromia Region of Ethiopia: A Case Study  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this study, we surveyed diversity in a range of local crops in the Lume and Gimbichu districts of Ethiopia, together with the knowledge of local people regarding crop uses, socio-economic importance, conservation, management and existing threats. Data were collected using semistructured interviews and participant observation. The study identified 28 farmers' varieties of 12 crop species. Among these, wheat ( Triticum turgidum) and tef ( Eragrostis tef) have high intra-specific diversity, with 9 and 6 varieties respectively. Self-seed supply or seed saving was the main (80 %) source of seeds for replanting. Agronomic performance (yield and pest resistance), market demand, nutritional and use diversity attributes of the crop varieties were highlighted as important criteria for making decisions regarding planting and maintenance. Over 74 % of the informants grow a combination of "improved" and farmers' varieties. Of the farmers' varieties, the most obvious decline and/or loss was reported for wheat varieties. Introduction of improved wheat varieties, pest infestation, shortage of land, low yield performance and climate variability were identified as the principal factors contributing to this loss or decline. Appropriate interventions for future conservation and sustainable use of farmers' varieties were suggested.

Balemie, Kebu; Singh, Ranjay K.

2012-09-01

150

Conservation of socioculturally important local crop biodiversity in the Oromia region of Ethiopia: a case study.  

PubMed

In this study, we surveyed diversity in a range of local crops in the Lume and Gimbichu districts of Ethiopia, together with the knowledge of local people regarding crop uses, socio-economic importance, conservation, management and existing threats. Data were collected using semistructured interviews and participant observation. The study identified 28 farmers' varieties of 12 crop species. Among these, wheat (Triticum turgidum) and tef (Eragrostis tef) have high intra-specific diversity, with 9 and 6 varieties respectively. Self-seed supply or seed saving was the main (80 %) source of seeds for replanting. Agronomic performance (yield and pest resistance), market demand, nutritional and use diversity attributes of the crop varieties were highlighted as important criteria for making decisions regarding planting and maintenance. Over 74 % of the informants grow a combination of "improved" and farmers' varieties. Of the farmers' varieties, the most obvious decline and/or loss was reported for wheat varieties. Introduction of improved wheat varieties, pest infestation, shortage of land, low yield performance and climate variability were identified as the principal factors contributing to this loss or decline. Appropriate interventions for future conservation and sustainable use of farmers' varieties were suggested. PMID:22729809

Balemie, Kebu; Singh, Ranjay K

2012-09-01

151

Implementation Study of Energy Conservation Recommendations in the Upper Midwest Region  

E-print Network

The South Dakota State University (SDSU) Industrial Energy Optimization Program (IEOP) and Energy Analysis and Diagnostic Center (EADC) program perform energy audits for industrial companies in the Upper Midwest region of the United States. Each...

Heisinger, K. P.; Bassett, K.; Twedt, M. P.

152

Computational Design of Proteins Targeting the Conserved Stem Region of Influenza Hemagglutinin  

SciTech Connect

We describe a general computational method for designing proteins that bind a surface patch of interest on a target macromolecule. Favorable interactions between disembodied amino acid residues and the target surface are identified and used to anchor de novo designed interfaces. The method was used to design proteins that bind a conserved surface patch on the stem of the influenza hemagglutinin (HA) from the 1918 H1N1 pandemic virus. After affinity maturation, two of the designed proteins, HB36 and HB80, bind H1 and H5 HAs with low nanomolar affinity. Further, HB80 inhibits the HA fusogenic conformational changes induced at low pH. The crystal structure of HB36 in complex with 1918/H1 HA revealed that the actual binding interface is nearly identical to that in the computational design model. Such designed binding proteins may be useful for both diagnostics and therapeutics.

Fleishman, Sarel J.; Whitehead, Timothy A.; Ekiert, Damian C.; Dreyfus, Cyrille; Corn, Jacob E.; Strauch, Eva-Maria; Wilson, Ian A.; Baker, David (UWASH); (Scripps)

2011-09-28

153

Intelligent irrigation performance: evaluation and quantifying its ability for conserving water in arid region  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Intelligent irrigation technologies have been developed in recent years to apply irrigation to turf and landscape plants. These technologies are an evapotranspiration (ET)-based irrigation controller, which calculates ET for local microclimate. Then, the controller creates a program for loading and communicating automatically with drip or sprinkler system controllers. The main objective of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of the new ET sensors in ability to irrigate agricultural crops and to conserve water use for crop in arid climatic conditions. This paper presents the case for water conservation using intelligent irrigation system (IIS) application technology. The IIS for automating irrigation scheduling was implemented and tested with sprinkle and drip irrigation systems to irrigate wheat and tomato crops. Another irrigation scheduling system was also installed and operated as another treatment, which is based on weather data that retrieved from an automatic weather station. This irrigation control system was running in parallel to the former system (IIS) to be control experiments for comparison purposes. However, this article discusses the implementation of IIS, its installation, testing and calibration of various components. The experiments conducted for one growing season 2009-2010 and the results were represented and discussed herein. Data from all plots were analyzed, which were including soil water status, water consumption, and crop yield. The initial results indicate that up to 25% water saving by intelligent irrigation compared to control method, while maintaining competing yield. Results show that the crop evapotranspiration values for control experiments were higher than that of ET-System in consistent trend during whole growth season. The analysis points out that the values of the two treatments were somewhat close to each other's only in the initial development stages. Generally, the ET-System, with some modification was precise in controlling irrigation water and has been proven to be a good mean to determine the water requirements for crops and to schedule irrigation automatically.

Al-Ghobari, Hussein M.; Mohammad, Fawzi S.

2011-12-01

154

Genetic structure of Barbus spp. populations in the Marches Region of central Italy and its relevance to conservation actions.  

PubMed

A genetic survey of Barbus spp. populations in the Marches Region (Adriatic River basins), central Italy, was carried out using mitochondrial and nuclear markers (partial D-loop, cyt b sequences and microsatellite loci) in order to ascertain their systematic position and to address their genetic structure which is key to conservation action planning. Analyses were conducted on sequences obtained from 91 individuals collected from eight sampling sites in five different rivers, from two specimens provided by the Ichthyological Centre of Rome and mitochondrial sequences of Barbus spp. retrieved from GenBank. Presumptive classification based on external morphological characters was not confirmed by genetic analysis, by means of which all specimens collected in the Marches Region were ascribed to Barbus plebejus. Genetic diversity values (h and ?) of sampling groups were all different from 0 except the one sample collected from the upper reaches of the River Tenna, above a hydroelectric dam. Population connectivity and colonization patterns of the studied area were inferred from an analysis of molecular variance distribution and evolutionary relationships among haplotypes. The results point to different levels of isolation among sampling groups due to ecological and anthropogenic factors and the effect of an artificial barrier on genetic variability and conservation status of the population. Finally, this study confirms the uncertainty associated with systematic classification of Barbus spp. based on morphological characters due to the phenotypic plasticity of the species. PMID:23464545

Livi, S; de Innocentiis, S; Longobardi, A; Cataudella, S; Tancioni, L; Rampacci, M; Marino, G

2013-03-01

155

Recognizing and Treating Eye Injuries  

MedlinePLUS

... Eye Health News Consumer Alerts Recognizing and Treating Eye Injuries Tweet When an eye injury does occur, ... serious eye injury yourself. How to recognize an eye injury If you notice any of these signs ...

156

Prevalence, conservation and functional analysis of Yersinia and Escherichia CRISPR regions in clinical Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolates  

PubMed Central

Here, we report the characterization of 122 Pseudomonas aeruginosa clinical isolates from three distinct geographical locations: Dartmouth Hitchcock Medical Center in New Hampshire, USA, the Charles T. Campbell Eye Microbiology Lab at the University of Pittsburgh Medical Center, USA, and the Aravind Eye Hospital in Madurai, India. We identified and located clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR) in 45/122 clinical isolates and sequenced these CRISPR, finding that Yersinia subtype CRISPR regions (33?%) were more prevalent than the Escherichia CRISPR region subtype (6?%) in these P. aeruginosa clinical isolates. Further, we observed 132 unique spacers from these 45 CRISPR that are 100?% identical to prophages or sequenced temperate bacteriophage capable of becoming prophages. Most intriguingly, all of these 132 viral spacers matched to temperate bacteriophage/prophages capable of inserting into the host chromosome, but not to extrachromosomally replicating lytic P. aeruginosa bacteriophage. We next assessed the ability of the more prevalent Yersinia subtype CRISPR regions to mediate resistance to bacteriophage infection or lysogeny by deleting the entire CRISPR region from sequenced strain UCBPP-PA14 and six clinical isolates. We found no change in CRISPR-mediated resistance to bacteriophage infection or lysogeny rate even for CRISPR with spacers 100?% identical to a region of the infecting bacteriophage. Lastly, to show these CRISPR and cas genes were expressed and functional, we demonstrated production of small CRISPR RNAs. This work provides both the first examination to our knowledge of CRISPR regions within clinical P. aeruginosa isolates and a collection of defined CRISPR-positive and -negative strains for further CRISPR and cas gene studies. PMID:21081758

Cady, K. C.; White, A. S.; Hammond, J. H.; Abendroth, M. D.; Karthikeyan, R. S. G.; Lalitha, P.; Zegans, M. E.; O'Toole, G. A.

2011-01-01

157

Conservation Assessment for the Big Bend-Ro Bravo Region 19 Aquatic and  

E-print Network

for the Big Bend-Río Bravo Region 21 The Rio Grande corridor between Redford, Texas, and Amistad Reservoir- sidio, Texas, and Ojinaga, Chihuahua. Dams and diver- sions throughout the basin, in addition and includes multi-threaded segments, and where water, sediment and nutrients are actively exchanged between

Pasternack, Gregory B.

158

Cotton production potential and water conservation impact using the regional irrigation demand model of northern Texas  

Microsoft Academic Search

Revised irrigation demands are calculated for the 21 northernmost counties in Texas, identified as Region A, using the TAMA (Texas A&M-Amarillo) agricultural water use demand estimation model. Year 2000 demands are presented using the existing mixture of crops, average evapotranspiration values and actual irrigation application practice values. Current demand values are expected to exceed the allowable water supply in several,

Thomas Marek; Dana Porter; Terry Howell; Prasanna Gowda; Paul Colaizzi

159

Method for evaluating regional water supply and conservation alternatives for power generation. Final report  

Microsoft Academic Search

National studies of water-energy conflicts have concluded that in several regions of the US, electric utilities may be unable to acquire enough water to support evaporative cooling in new power plants. Yet such studies cannot provide definitive findings, because data on nontraditional water supplies, such as rights transfers and groundwater, are unavailable on a national scale. The purpose of this

1984-01-01

160

METADATA FOR RESOURCE CONSERVATION RECOVERY ACT INFORMATION SYSTEM LOCATIONS - REGION 8  

EPA Science Inventory

The Region 8 data are located in the ARC/INFO coverage, R8RCR_PTS, which was derived from the Envirofacts point shapefile layer in the National Shapefile Repository. This Repository provides locations of EPA-regulated facilities from the Oracle table LRT_EF_COVERAGE_SRC, which is...

161

Interfacial partitioning of a loop hinge residue contributes to diacylglycerol affinity of conserved region 1 domains.  

PubMed

Conventional and novel isoenzymes of PKC are activated by the membrane-embedded second messenger diacylglycerol (DAG) through its interactions with the C1 regulatory domain. The affinity of C1 domains to DAG varies considerably among PKCs. To gain insight into the origin of differential DAG affinities, we conducted high-resolution NMR studies of C1B domain from PKC? (C1B?) and its W252Y variant. The W252Y mutation was previously shown to render C1B? less responsive to DAG (Dries, D. R., Gallegos, L. L., and Newton, A. C. (2007) A single residue in the C1 domain sensitizes novel protein kinase C isoforms to cellular diacylglycerol production. J. Biol. Chem. 282, 826-830) and thereby emulate the behavior of C1B domains from conventional PKCs that have a conserved Tyr at the equivalent position. Our data revealed that W252Y mutation did not perturb the conformation of C1B? in solution but significantly reduced its propensity to partition into a membrane-mimicking environment in the absence of DAG. Using detergent micelles doped with a paramagnetic lipid, we determined that both the residue identity at position 252 and complexation with diacylglycerol influence the geometry of C1B?-micelle interactions. In addition, we identified the C-terminal helix ?1 of C1B? as an interaction site with the head groups of phosphatidylserine, a known activator of PKC?. Taken together, our studies (i) reveal the identities of C1B? residues involved in interactions with membrane-mimicking environment, DAG, and phosphatidylserine, as well as the affinities associated with each event and (ii) suggest that the initial ligand-independent membrane recruitment of C1B domains, which is greatly facilitated by the interfacial partitioning of Trp-252, is responsible, at least in part, for the differential DAG affinities. PMID:25124034

Stewart, Mikaela D; Cole, Taylor R; Igumenova, Tatyana I

2014-10-01

162

Use of empirically derived source-destination models to map regional conservation corridors.  

PubMed

The ability of populations to be connected across large landscapes via dispersal is critical to long-term viability for many species. One means to mitigate population isolation is the protection of movement corridors among habitat patches. Nevertheless, the utility of small, narrow, linear features as habitat corridors has been hotly debated. Here, we argue that analysis of movement across continuously resistant landscapes allows a shift to a broader consideration of how landscape patterns influence connectivity at scales relevant to conservation. We further argue that this change in scale and definition of the connectivity problem improves one's ability to find solutions and may help resolve long-standing disputes regarding scale and definition of movement corridors and their importance to population connectivity. We used a new method that combines empirically derived landscape-resistance maps and least-cost path analysis between multiple source and destination locations to assess habitat isolation and identify corridors and barriers to organism movement. Specifically, we used a genetically based landscape resistance model for American black bears (Ursus americanus) to identify major movement corridors and barriers to population connectivity between Yellowstone National Park and the Canadian border. Even though western Montana and northern Idaho contain abundant public lands and the largest wilderness areas in the contiguous United States, moving from the Canadian border to Yellowstone Park along those paths indicated by modeled gene flow required bears to cross at least 6 potential barriers. Our methods are generic and can be applied to virtually any species for which reliable maps of landscape resistance can be developed. PMID:19016821

Cushman, Samuel A; McKelvey, Kevin S; Schwartz, Michael K

2009-04-01

163

Expanded conserved linkage group between human 16p13 and the Scid region of the mouse chromosome 16  

SciTech Connect

Knowledge of homologies between human and mouse chromosomes is essential for understanding chromosomal evolution and the development of experimental models for human disease. We have reported the identification of a conserved linkage group between human 16p13 and the centromeric portion of the mouse 16. Defining the extent of this linkage conservation has significant biomedical implications since that region of mouse genome contains the Scid mutation and the human 16p13 contains genes that are involved in DNA repair and certain types of human leukemia as well as other diseases such as Rubinstein-Taybi Syndrome. Here, this conserved linkage group has been defined and expanded. It now contains 5 genetic loci and spans more than 3 Mb in human and 23 cM in mouse. The 5 loci are PRM1,2 (protamine 1 and 2), NOP3 (a subclone of D16S237), GSPT1 (a gene involved in the regulation of G1 to S phase transition), MYH11 (a human smooth muscle myosin heavy chain gene) and MRP (multi-drug resistant-associated protein gene). Using a panel of human-rodent hybrids that are informative for different portions of human 16, we have established the following order on human 16p: telomere-NOP3-PRM1,2-GSPT1-(MYH11,MRP)-centromere. The genes were assigned to the mouse chromosome 16 by a mouse-Chinese hamster somatic cell hybrid panel informative for mouse chromosomes. Linkage analysis using backcross mice informative for the Scid mutation indicated the following order and genetic distance (in cM) in mouse: centromere-Nop3-11.7-Prm1-1.4-Gspt1-8.2-(Myh11,Mrp)-1.4-Scid-telomere.

Deng, Z.M.; Siciliano, M.J. [Univ. of Texas M.D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX (United States); Davisson, M.T. [Jackson Lab., Bar Harbor, ME (United States)] [and others

1994-09-01

164

Conserved regions of the DMD 3' UTR regulate translation and mRNA abundance in cultured myotubes.  

PubMed

Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD), a severe muscle-wasting disease, is caused by mutations in the DMD gene, which encodes for the protein dystrophin. Its regulation is of therapeutic interest as even small changes in expression of functional dystrophin can significantly impact the severity of DMD. While tissue-specific distribution and transcriptional regulation of several DMD mRNA isoforms has been well characterized, the post-transcriptional regulation of dystrophin synthesis is not well understood. Here, we utilize qRTPCR and a quantitative dual-luciferase reporter assay to examine the effects of isoform specific DMD 5' UTRs and the highly conserved DMD 3' UTR on mRNA abundance and translational control of gene expression in C2C12 cells. The 5' UTRs were shown to initiate translation with low efficiency in both myoblasts and myotubes. Whereas, two large highly conserved elements in the 3' UTR, which overlap the previously described Lemaire A and D regions, increase mRNA levels and enhance translation upon differentiation of myoblasts into myotubes. The results presented here implicate an important role for DMD UTRs in dystrophin expression and delineate the cis-acting elements required for the myotube-specific regulation of steady-state mRNA levels and translational enhancer activity found in the DMD 3' UTR. PMID:24928536

Larsen, C Aaron; Howard, Michael T

2014-08-01

165

Molecular Phylogeny of OVOL Genes Illustrates a Conserved C2H2 Zinc Finger Domain Coupled by Hypervariable Unstructured Regions  

PubMed Central

OVO-like proteins (OVOL) are members of the zinc finger protein family and serve as transcription factors to regulate gene expression in various differentiation processes. Recent studies have shown that OVOL genes are involved in epithelial development and differentiation in a wide variety of organisms; yet there is a lack of comprehensive studies that describe OVOL proteins from an evolutionary perspective. Using comparative genomic analysis, we traced three different OVOL genes (OVOL1-3) in vertebrates. One gene, OVOL3, was duplicated during a whole-genome-duplication event in fish, but only the copy (OVOL3b) was retained. From early-branching metazoa to humans, we found that a core domain, comprising a tetrad of C2H2 zinc fingers, is conserved. By domain comparison of the OVOL proteins, we found that they evolved in different metazoan lineages by attaching intrinsically-disordered (ID) segments of N/C-terminal extensions of 100 to 1000 amino acids to this conserved core. These ID regions originated independently across different animal lineages giving rise to different types of OVOL genes over the course of metazoan evolution. We illustrated the molecular evolution of metazoan OVOL genes over a period of 700 million years (MY). This study both extends our current understanding of the structure/function relationship of metazoan OVOL genes, and assembles a good platform for further characterization of OVOL genes from diverged organisms. PMID:22737237

Sinha, Rahul; Sardar, Puspendu; Sushma, Miss.; Goyal, Pankaj; Goswami, Chandan; Grapputo, Alessandro

2012-01-01

166

Structure of the Mitochondrial Control Region of the Eurasian Otter (Lutra lutra; Carnivora, Mustelidae): Patterns of Genetic Heterogeneity and Implications for Conservation of the Species in Italy  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study we determined the complete sequence of the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) control region of the Eurasian otter (Lutra lutra). We then compared these new sequences with orthologues of nine carnivores belonging to six families (Mustelidae, Mephitidae, Canidae, Hyaenidae, Ursidae, and Felidae). The comparative analyses identified all the conserved regions previously found in mammals. The Eurasian otter and seven

V. Ketmaier; C. BERNARDINI

2005-01-01

167

Useful plants of the semi-arid northeastern region of Brazil--a look at their conservation and sustainable use.  

PubMed

The use of native plants was examined in three rural communities in the semi-arid of the state of Pernambuco, in northeastern Brazil. The techniques employed in the present study combined a number of different techniques of data-gathering, including semi-structured interviews, guided tour, key-informants, and participating observation, and sampling of the vegetation to evaluate the biodiversity of useful plants. A total of 61 woody species were cataloged, mostly used for construction purposes or fuel. Among the species that stood out for their local importance and multiplicity of uses were: Myracrodruon urundeuva (Engl.) Fr. All., Schinopsis brasiliensis Engl., and Anadenanthera colubrina (Vell.) Brenan. The first two species are included in Brazilian lists of threatened species. Arguments are presented for strategies of management and conservation of plant resources in the semi-arid region that seek alternatives to the use of timber species and the development of alternative non-timber resources. PMID:17219240

Lucena, Reinaldo F P; Albuquerque, Ulysses P; Monteiro, Jlio M; Almeida, Ceclia De Ftima C B R; Florentino, Alissandra T N; Ferraz, Jos Serafim Feitosa

2007-02-01

168

Population evaluation in crop wild relatives for in situ conservation: a case study for raspberry Rubus idaeus L. in the Leningrad region, Russia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many crop wild relatives are usually widely distributed species, and in this relation a question arises about selecting populations\\u000a of special importance for conservation. Using Rubus idaeus as an example, we propose a compound selection of wild populations for in situ conservation. Twelve raspberry populations\\u000a in the Leningrad region have been evaluated from the point of view of their significance

Daria Ryabova

2007-01-01

169

Quantifying landscape linkages among giant panda subpopulations in regional scale conservation.  

PubMed

Understanding habitat requirements and identifying landscape linkages are essential for the survival of isolated populations of endangered species. Currently, some of the giant panda populations are isolated, which threatens their long-term survival, particularly in the Xiaoxiangling mountains. In the present study, we quantified niche requirements and then identified potential linkages of giant panda subpopulations in the most isolated region, using ecological niche factor analysis and a least-cost path model. Giant pandas preferred habitat with conifer forest and gentle slopes (>20 to ?30). Based on spatial distribution of suitable habitat, linkages were identified for the Yele subpopulation to 4 other subpopulations (Liziping, Matou, Xinmin and Wanba). Their lengths ranged from 15 to 54 km. The accumulated cost ranged from 693 to 3166 and conifer forest covered over 31%. However, a variety of features (e.g. major roads, human settlements and large unforested areas) might act as barriers along the linkages for giant panda dispersal. Our analysis quantified giant panda subpopulation connectivity to ensure long-term survival. PMID:22691200

Qi, Dunwu; Hu, Yibo; Gu, Xiaodong; Yang, Xuyi; Yang, Guang; Wei, Fuwen

2012-06-01

170

Characterization of conservative somatic instability of the CAG repeat region in Huntington`s disease  

SciTech Connect

Instability and enlargement of a CAG repeat region at the beginning of the huntingtin gene (IT-15) has been linked with Huntington`s disease. The CAG repeat size shows a highly significant correlation with age-of-onset of clinicial features in individuals with 40 or more repeats who have Huntington disease. The clinical status of nonsymptomatic individuals with 30 to 39 CAG repeats is considered ambiguous. In order to define more carefully the nature of the HD expansion instability, we examined patients in our HD population using a discriminating fluorescence-based PCR approach. The degree of somatic mutation increases with both earlier age of onset and the size of the inherited allele. A single prominent band one repeat larger than the index peak was typical in individuals with 40-41 CAG repeats. Three to four larger bands are typically discerned in individuals with 50 or more repeats. In an extreme example, an individual with approximately 95 repeats had at least 8 prominent bands. Plotting the degree of somatic mutation relative to the size of the HD allele shows somatic mutation activity increases with size. By this approach 40-60% of the alleles in a 40-41 CAG repeat HD loci is represented in the primary allele. In contrast, the primary allele represents a relatively minor proportion of the total alleles for expansions greater than 50 CAG repeats (10-20%). The limited range of somatic mutation suggest that the instability is restricted to very early stages of embryogenesis before tissue development diverges or that persistent somatic instability occurs at a slow rate. Therefore, the properties of somatic instability in Huntington`s disease have aspects that are both in common but also different from that found in other trinucleotide repeat expanding diseases such as myotonic muscular dystrophy and fragile X syndrome.

Schaefer, F.V.; Calikoglu, A.S.; Whetsell, L.H. [H.A. Chapman Research Institute of Medical Genetics, Tulsa, OK (United States)

1994-09-01

171

How many kilowatts are in a negawatt? Verifying ex post estimates of utility conservation impacts at the regional level  

SciTech Connect

Restructuring of utilities raises questions about the future of conservation programs. One of the greatest obstacles has been the persistent uncertainity among utility planners regarding true resource effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of conservation relative to conventional generation. The authors use econometric techniques to examine the aggregate commercial and industrial conservation impacts reported. The paper shows that utility conservation programs have been effective in reducing electric loads and that utilities have reported accurately. 44 refs., 3 tabs.

Parfomak, P.W.; Lave, L.B. [Carnegie Mellon Univ., Pittsburgh, PA (United States)

1996-12-31

172

Fibrillin genes map to regions of conserved mouse/human synteny on mouse chromosomes 2 and 18.  

PubMed

Fibrillin proteins are major structural components of the 10-nm microfibrils found in elastic and nonelastic connective tissues. Previous studies have mapped the human genes for two fibrillins to chromosome bands 15q21 (FBN1) and 5q23-q31 (FBN2) and have demonstrated that FBN1 mutations are associated with Marfan syndrome, while FBN2 is linked to the gene for congenital contractural arachnodactyly. Here, we report the isolation of genomic clones of the corresponding mouse fibrillin genes (Fbn-1 and Fbn-2). By analyzing a mapping panel of mouse x rodent somatic hybrid cell lines, we have assigned the Fbn-1 gene to mouse chromosome 2 and the Fbn-2 gene to mouse chromosome 18. We then sublocalized the fibrillin genes to bands 2F (Fbn-1) and 18D-E1 (Fbn-2) by fluorescence in situ hybridization. These regions are known to exhibit conserved synteny with the regions on human chromosomes 15 and 5 that carry the homologous human fibrillin genes. In addition, the Fbn-1 gene maps in the vicinity of the gene for a connective tissue disorder on mouse chromosome 2 called Tight-skin (Tsk). PMID:8307578

Li, X; Pereira, L; Zhang, H; Sanguineti, C; Ramirez, F; Bonadio, J; Francke, U

1993-12-01

173

Quantifying the Effects of Conservation Practices on Soil, Water, and Nutrients in the Loess Mesa Ravine Region of the Loess Plateau, China  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A large number of soil and water conservation programs have been implemented on the Loess Plateau of China since the 1950s. To comprehensively assess the merits and demerits of the conservation practices is of great importance in further supervising the conservation strategy for the Loess Plateau. This study calculates the impact factors of conservation practices on soil, water, and nutrients during the period 1954-2004 in the Nanxiaohegou Catchment, a representative catchment in the Loess Mesa Ravine Region of the Loess Plateau, China. Brief conclusions could be drawn as follows: (1) Soil erosion and nutrient loss had been greatly mitigated through various conservation practices. About half of the total transported water and 94.8 % of the total transported soil and nutrients, had been locally retained in the selected catchment. The soil retained from small watersheds do not only form large-scale fertile farmland but also safeguard the Yellow River against overflow. (2) Check dam was the most appropriate conservation practice on the Loess Plateau. In the selected catchment, more than 90 % of the retained soil and water were accomplished by the dam farmland, although the dam farmland occupied only 2.3 % of the total area of all conservation measures. Retention abilities of the characteristic conservation practices were in the following order: dam farmland > terrace farmland > forest land and grassland. (3) The conservation practices were more powerful in retaining sediment than in reducing runoff from the Loess Plateau, and the negative effects of the conservation practices on reducing water to the Yellow River were relatively slight.

Xu, Xiang-Zhou; Li, Mei-Juan; Liu, Bin; Kuang, Shang-Fu; Xu, Shi-Guo

2012-05-01

174

Evidence on How a Conserved Glycine in the Hinge Region of HapR Regulates Its DNA Binding Ability  

PubMed Central

HapR has been recognized as a quorum-sensing master regulator in Vibrio cholerae. Because it controls a plethora of disparate cellular events, the absence of a functional HapR affects the physiology of V. cholerae to a great extent. In the current study, we pursued an understanding of an observation of a natural protease-deficient non-O1, non-O139 variant V. cholerae strain V2. Intriguingly, a nonfunctional HapR (henceforth designated as HapRV2) harboring a substitution of glycine to aspartate at position 39 of the N-terminal hinge region has been identified. An in vitro gel shift assay clearly suggested the inability of HapRV2 to interact with various cognate promoters. Reinstatement of glycine at position 39 restores DNA binding ability of HapRV2 (HapRV2G), thereby rescuing the protease-negative phenotype of this strain. The elution profile of HapRV2 and HapRV2G proteins in size-exclusion chromatography and their circular dichroism spectra did not reflect any significant differences to explain the functional discrepancies between the two proteins. To gain insight into the structure-function relationship of these two proteins, we acquired small/wide angle x-ray scattering data from samples of the native and G39D mutant. Although Guinier analysis and indirect Fourier transformation of scattering indicated only a slight difference in the shape parameters, structure reconstruction using dummy amino acids concluded that although HapR adopts a Y shape similar to its crystal structure, the G39D mutation in hinge drastically altered the DNA binding domains by bringing them in close proximity. This altered spatial orientation of the helix-turn-helix domains in this natural variant provides the first structural evidence on the functional role of the hinge region in quorum sensing-related DNA-binding regulatory proteins of Vibrio spp. PMID:21383015

Dongre, Mitesh; Singh, Naorem Santa; Dureja, Chetna; Peddada, Nagesh; Solanki, Ashish K.; Ashish; Raychaudhuri, Saumya

2011-01-01

175

Autoantibody germ-line gene segment encodes V{sub H} and V{sub L} regions of a human anti-streptococcal monoclonal antibody recognizing streptococcal M protein and human cardiac myosin epitopes  

SciTech Connect

Cross-reactivity of anti-streptococcal Abs with human cardiac myosin may result in sequelae following group A streptococcal infections. Molecular mimicry between group A streptococcal M protein and cardiac myosin may be the basis for the immunologic cross-reactivity. In this study, a cross-reactive human anti-streptococcal/antimyosin mAb (10.2.3) was characterized, and the myosin epitopes were recognized by the Ab identified. mAb 10.2.3 reacted with four peptides from the light meromyosin (LMM) tail fragment of human cardiac myosin, including LMM-10 (1411-1428), LMM-23 (1580-1597), LMM-27 (1632-1649), and LMM-30 (1671-1687). Only LMM-30 inhibited binding of mAb 10.2.3 to streptococcal M protein and human cardiac myosin. Human mAb 10.2.3 labeled cytoskeletal structures within rat heart cells in indirect immunofluorescence, and reacted with group A streptococci expressing various M protein serotypes, PepM5, and recombinant M protein. The nucleotide sequence of gene segments encoding the Ig heavy and light chain V region of mAb 10.2.3 was determined. The light chain V segment was encoded by a VK1 gene segment that was 98.5% identical with germ-line gene humig{sub K}Vi5. The V segment of the heavy chain was encoded by a V{sub H}3a gene segment that differed from the V{sub H}26 germ-line gene by a single base change. V{sub H}26 is expressed preferentially in early development and encodes autoantibodies with anti-DNA and rheumatoid factor specificities. Anti-streptococcal mAb 10.2.3 is an autoantibody encoded by V{sub H} and V{sub L} genes, with little or no somatic mutation. 63 refs., 11 figs.

Quinn, A.; Cunningham, M.W. [Univ. of Oklahoma Health Sciences Center, Oklahoma City, OK (United States); Adderson, E.E. [Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States)] [and others

1995-04-15

176

Characterizing stopover sites of migrating passerine birds in the lower Chesapeake Bay region for conservation: an integrated radar-habitat study  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Many conservation organizations and initiatives including Partners-in-Flight and the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service's regional Joint Ventures have identified migratory songbird stopover habitat as a priority conservation target. However, the spatial and temporal variability inherent in migration presents a number of challenges to both identifying and characterizing stopover habitat. Scarce conservation resources further demand that stopover sites be classified on a scale of priority so that conservation action can proceed according to ecological value. We are applying weather surveillance radar data collected from the National Weather Service WSR-88D at Wakefield, VA, and NASA's Doppler radar, NPOL, in Oyster, VA, to identify passerine stopover sites in the lower Chesapeake Bay region and develop spatial models to characterize these sites based on relative migrant abundance and consistency of use between and within seasons. We are using the stopover patterns to generate hypotheses regarding the habitat, geographic, and stochastic factors contributing to the distribution of migrants at a regional scale. We are testing these hypotheses with detailed habitat data and ground surveys of migrating birds with the goal of creating a generalized prioritization system for stopover site conservation.

Mabey, S.; Watts, B.; Paxton, B.; Smith, F.; Truitt, B.; Dawson, D.

2005-01-01

177

A virtual vocabulary speech recognizer  

E-print Network

A system for the automatic recognition of human speech is described. A commercially available speech recognizer sees its recognition vocabulary increased through the use of virtual memory management techniques. central to ...

Pathe, Peter D

1983-01-01

178

NIH Recognizes 2015 FARE Winners  

Cancer.gov

The NIH Fellows Award for Research Excellence (FARE) recognizes scientific research by intramural postdoctoral fellows and by predoctoral fellows conducting their doctoral dissertation research at NIH. Winners receive a $1,000 travel stipend to attend

179

Recognizing actions using embodiment & empathy  

E-print Network

Here I demonstrate the power of using embodied artificial intelligence to attack the action recognition problem, which is the challenge of recognizing actions performed by a creature given limited data about the creature's ...

McIntyre, Robert Louis

2014-01-01

180

[Topsoil phosphorus forms and availability of different soil and water conservation plantations in typical black soil region, northeast China].  

PubMed

Aiming to understand soil phosphorus status of plantations in typical black soil region of Northeast China, the topsoil (0-10 cm) phosphorus fractionations and its availability were examined in four soil and water conservation plantations dominantly composed of Larix gmelini, Fraxinus mandshurica, Pinus sylvestris var. mongolica and Populus nigra var. italica x P. cathayan, respectively. The results showed that total P, Olsen-P and the concentration of different P fractionations in F. mandshurica and P. nigra var. italica x P. cathayan plantations were significantly higher than that of the other two coniferous plantations. Organic P was the major fractionation in the four plantations' topsoil, and sodium hydroxide extractable organic P (NaOH-Po ) representing moderately labile organic phosphorus was predominant, which accounted for 58.9% of total P. The contents of H2O-Pi and NaHCO3-P which were more labile to plant were lower, only accounting for 1.2% and 6.6% of total P, respectively. Except for NaHCO3-Po, all the other P fractions of four plantations correlated with each other, and they also had significant correlations with soil organic matter, total P, Olsen-P. Compared with the coniferous plantations, the broadleaf plantations presented higher availability of phosphorus. PMID:25223007

Yang, Xiao-Yan; Fan, Rui-Ying; Wang, En-Heng; Xia, Xiang-You; Chen, Xiang-Wei

2014-06-01

181

Regional Management Units for Marine Turtles: A Novel Framework for Prioritizing Conservation and Research across Multiple Scales  

PubMed Central

Background Resolving threats to widely distributed marine megafauna requires definition of the geographic distributions of both the threats as well as the population unit(s) of interest. In turn, because individual threats can operate on varying spatial scales, their impacts can affect different segments of a population of the same species. Therefore, integration of multiple tools and techniques including site-based monitoring, genetic analyses, mark-recapture studies and telemetry can facilitate robust definitions of population segments at multiple biological and spatial scales to address different management and research challenges. Methodology/Principal Findings To address these issues for marine turtles, we collated all available studies on marine turtle biogeography, including nesting sites, population abundances and trends, population genetics, and satellite telemetry. We georeferenced this information to generate separate layers for nesting sites, genetic stocks, and core distributions of population segments of all marine turtle species. We then spatially integrated this information from fine- to coarse-spatial scales to develop nested envelope models, or Regional Management Units (RMUs), for marine turtles globally. Conclusions/Significance The RMU framework is a solution to the challenge of how to organize marine turtles into units of protection above the level of nesting populations, but below the level of species, within regional entities that might be on independent evolutionary trajectories. Among many potential applications, RMUs provide a framework for identifying data gaps, assessing high diversity areas for multiple species and genetic stocks, and evaluating conservation status of marine turtles. Furthermore, RMUs allow for identification of geographic barriers to gene flow, and can provide valuable guidance to marine spatial planning initiatives that integrate spatial distributions of protected species and human activities. In addition, the RMU framework including maps and supporting metadata will be an iterative, user-driven tool made publicly available in an online application for comments, improvements, download and analysis. PMID:21253007

Wallace, Bryan P.; DiMatteo, Andrew D.; Hurley, Brendan J.; Finkbeiner, Elena M.; Bolten, Alan B.; Chaloupka, Milani Y.; Hutchinson, Brian J.; Abreu-Grobois, F. Alberto; Amorocho, Diego; Bjorndal, Karen A.; Bourjea, Jerome; Bowen, Brian W.; Duenas, Raquel Briseno; Casale, Paolo; Choudhury, B. C.; Costa, Alice; Dutton, Peter H.; Fallabrino, Alejandro; Girard, Alexandre; Girondot, Marc; Godfrey, Matthew H.; Hamann, Mark; Lopez-Mendilaharsu, Milagros; Marcovaldi, Maria Angela; Mortimer, Jeanne A.; Musick, John A.; Nel, Ronel; Pilcher, Nicolas J.; Seminoff, Jeffrey A.; Troeng, Sebastian; Witherington, Blair; Mast, Roderic B.

2010-01-01

182

The Isolation of Conserved DNA Sequences Related the Human Sex-Determining Region Y Gene from the Lesser Black-Backed Gull (Larus fuscus)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The sex-determining region gene (SRY) is a recently discovered candidate for the mammalian testis determining factor (TDF). The gene appears to form part of a family with several autosomal representatives. I have investigated the occurrence of SRY-related sequences in birds. The polymerase chain reaction was used to isolate six homologues of the conserved motif of the SRY gene from the

Richard Griffiths

1991-01-01

183

Modelling the benefits of soil water conservation using the PARCH modela case study from a semi-arid region of Kenya  

Microsoft Academic Search

Field experiments in the semi-arid regions of Kenya have shown that soil water conservation techniques can result in increased maize grain yields. The degree of benefit in a particular season is dependant on the rainfall amount and distribution. However, the results of field experiments are limited to a few years of observations at specific locations and it is therefore difficult

William Stephens; T. M. Hess

1999-01-01

184

Conservation status of the White-Bellied Sea-Eagle Haliaeetus leucogaster in Australia determined using mtDNA control region sequence data  

Microsoft Academic Search

Considered to have a declining world population, concern has been expressed in recent years over the conservation status of the White-bellied Sea-Eagle Haliaeetus leucogaster (Gmelin, 1788) within Australia. We used mitochondrial (mtDNA) control region sequence data to investigate the current distribution of genetic variation in this species at the continental level and within and between specified regional units. We were

Jill M. Shephard; Jane M. Hughes; Carla P. Catterall; Penny D. Olsen

2005-01-01

185

Conservation of the Endemic Fern Lineage Diellia (Aspleniaceae) on the Hawaiian Islands: Can Population Structure Indicate Regional Dynamics and Endangering Factors?  

Microsoft Academic Search

We aimed to understand the regional population dynamics of the endemic fern lineage Diellia (D. erecta, D. erecta f. alexandri, D. falcata, D. mannii, D. pallida, and D. unisora) in mesic forests on the Hawaiian Islands. In particular, we were interested in whether studying life-stage structure would\\u000a contribute to setting conservation management priorities and understanding regional dynamics. A repeated field

Ruth Aguraiuja; Martin Zobel; Kristjan Zobel; Mari Moora

2008-01-01

186

Genomic sequence analysis of Fugu rubripes CFTR and flanking genes in a 60 kb region conserving synteny with 800 kb of human chromosome 7.  

PubMed

To define control elements that regulate tissue-specific expression of the cystic fibrosis transmembrane regulator (CFTR), we have sequenced 60 kb of genomic DNA from the puffer fish Fugu rubripes (Fugu) that includes the CFTR gene. This region of the Fugu genome shows conservation of synteny with 800-kb sequence of the human genome encompassing the WNT2, CFTR, Z43555, and CBP90 genes. Additionally, the genomic structure of each gene is conserved. In a multiple sequence alignment of human, mouse, and Fugu, the putative WNT2 promoter sequence is shown to contain highly conserved elements that may be transcription factor or other regulatory binding sites. We have found two putative ankyrin repeat-containing genes that flank the CFTR gene. Overall sequence analysis suggests conservation of intron/exon boundaries between Fugu and human CFTR and revealed extensive homology between functional protein domains. However, the immediate 5' regions of human and Fugu CFTR are highly divergent with few conserved sequences apart from those resembling diminished cAMP response elements (CRE) and CAAT box elements. Interestingly, the polymorphic polyT tract located upstream of exon 9 is present in human and Fugu but absent in mouse. Similarly, an intron 1 and intron 9 element common to human and Fugu is absent in mouse. The euryhaline killifish CFTR coding sequence is highly homologous to the Fugu sequence, suggesting that upregulation of CFTR in that species in response to salinity may be regulated transcriptionally. PMID:10958637

Davidson, H; Taylor, M S; Doherty, A; Boyd, A C; Porteous, D J

2000-08-01

187

Conserved basic residues in the C-type lectin and short complement repeat domains of the G3 region of proteoglycans.  

PubMed Central

Aggrecan is the major proteoglycan of the extracellular matrix in cartilage. It contains two N-terminal globular regions, G1 and G2, and one C-terminal globular region, G3. G3 is implicated in the intracellular processing of aggrecan and contains a C-type lectin carbohydrate recognition domain (CRD), frequent occurrences of a C-terminal short complement repeat (SCR) domain, and occasionally an N-terminal epidermal growth factor domain. The CRD and SCR domains in 13 G3 sequences were each subjected to structural analysis. Alignment of 131 sequences from all seven groups in the CRD superfamily defined a consensus length of 136 residues, in which 32% of residues were conserved. Although the G3 CRD sequences agreed with this consensus, they also contained five fully conserved basic residues that are atypical of the CRD superfamily. Homology modelling showed that four of these residues are located on a surface region on the CRD that is separate from the Ca2+-binding residues involved in carbohydrate interactions. One conserved basic residue is identical in position with that of a conserved basic residue that mediates hyaluronate binding in the structurally related proteoglycan tandem repeat (PTR) domain in G1 and in link protein. The alignment of 13 G3 SCR sequences with 101 sequences in the SCR superfamily showed good agreement with conserved residues in the SCR superfamily. There are also five conserved basic residues in the G3 SCR that are atypical of the SCR superfamily, and homology modelling showed that all five were located on one surface of the SCR. It is concluded that both the CRD and SCR domains in G3 possess basic residues that are atypical of their superfamilies and might be related to function, and that the G3 CRD domain shows an evolutionary relationship to the PTR domain in G1. PMID:9425127

Brissett, N C; Perkins, S J

1998-01-01

188

[Analysis of soil respiration and influence factors in wheat farmland under conservation tillage in southwest hilly region].  

PubMed

In order to investigate the effect of conservation tillage on soil respiration in dry cropping farmland in southwest purple hilly region, the LI6400-09 respiratory chamber was adopted in the experiment conducted in the experimental field in Southwest University in Beibei, Chongqing. The respiration and the hydrothermal and biotic factors of soil were measured and analyzed during the growth period of wheat in the triple intercropping system of wheat/maize/soybean. There were four treatments including T (traditional tillage), R (ridge tillage), TS (traditional tillage + straw mulching) and RS (ridge tillage + straw mulching), which were all in triplicates. The results indicated that the soil respiration rate changed in the range of 1.100-2.508 micromol x (m2 x s)(-1) during the reproductive growth stage of wheat. There were significant differences in soil respiration rate among different treatments, which could be ranked as RS > R > TS > T. The soil temperature in the 10cm layer was ranked as T > R > TS > RS. The relationship between soil respiration and soil temperature fitted well with an exponential function, in which the Q10 values were 1.25, 1.20, 1.31 and 1.26, respectively. The soil moisture in the 5cm layer was ranked as TS > RS > T > R. The best fitting model between soil moisture and soil respiration was a parabolic curve, indicating the presence of soil moisture with the strongest soil respiration. The response threshold of wheat to soil moisture was 14.80%-17.47% during the reproductive stage. The dominant groups of soil animals were Collembola and Acarina, which were correlated with soil respiration to some extent. The correlation was high in the treatments T and R, ranged from 0.669-0.921, whereas there was no remarkable correlation in the other treatments. PMID:24028018

Zhang, Sai; Zhang, Xiao-Yu; Wang, Long-Chang; Luo, Hai-Xiu; Zhou, Hang-Fei; Ma, Zhong-Lian; Zhang, Cui-Wei

2013-07-01

189

Impact of the Conservation Reserve Program on duck recruitment in the U.S. Prairie Pothole Region  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA)'s Conservation Reserve Program (CRP) resulted in the conversion of about 1.9 million ha of cropland to perennial grass cover in the Prairie Pothole Region of North Dakota, South Dakota, and northeastern Montana by 1992. Many wildlife managers believed this cover would provide benefits to wildlife, including upland nesting ducks. During 1992-1995, we evaluated success of 5 duck species nesting in CRP fields and nearby Waterfowl Production Areas (WPA) throughout the region. We examined relationships between daily survival rates (DSR) of duck nests in CRP cover and landscape-level habitat and population parameters. We computed DSR of duck nests in other major cover types in our study area from data collected during 1980-1984 (pre-CRP) and 1990-1994 (CRP) periods. We then applied recruitment models to estimate duck production in our study area during peak CRP years (1992-1997) and compared these results with those that simulated the scenario in which cropland was in place of CRP cover (i.e., the CRP had not occurred). DSR were higher in all habitats combined during the CRP period compared to the pre-CRP period. Regressions of DSR in CRP cover on the percent of each study plot in perennial cover and geographic location were significant (P < 0.01) for 4 of 5 duck (Anas spp.) species. Estimated nest success and recruitment rates for the 5 species combined during 1992-1997 were 46% and 30% higher, respectively, with CRP cover on the landscape compared to a scenario where we simulated cropland in place of CRP. Our model estimated an additional 12.4 million recruits from our study area to the fall flight as a consequence of the CRP during 1992-1997. Our results document benefits to 5 duck species in the northern plains associated with a farm program that provided financial incentives to landowners for planting undisturbed grass cover as an alternative to annual crops.

Reynolds, R. E.; Shaffer, T. L.; Renner, R. W.; Newton, W. E.; Batt, B. D. J.

2001-01-01

190

Recognizing Wetlands An Informational Pamphlet  

E-print Network

Recognizing Wetlands An Informational Pamphlet What is a Wetland? The US Army Corps of Engineers(Corps) and the US Environmental Protection Agency define wetlands as follows: Those areas that are inundated conditions. Wetlands generally include swamps, marshes, bogs, and similar areas. Wetlands are areas

US Army Corps of Engineers

191

Welcome!....................................1 Recognizing Excellence..............2  

E-print Network

1 Welcome!....................................1 Recognizing Excellence..............2 SACS: Top 10 assessment in the Division of Student Life relates to the "bigger picture": SACS accreditation Full-time staff to address student issues and answer questions o Annual Parent Calendar #12;3 SACS: Top

Tennessee, University of

192

Beyond biology: understanding regional, multi-species habitat conservation plans from an ecological, economic, and sociopolitical perspective  

E-print Network

(Thamnophis gigas), and 49 unlisted species; Purpose ? urban development and agriculture; Permit holder ? Sacramento Co. 16 Tulare As ation of Governments H bitat Conservation Plan ULR: Status? abandoned; Location ? western Tulare Co. , CA; Duration ? 20... (Thamnophis gigas), and 49 unlisted species; Purpose ? urban development and agriculture; Permit holder ? Sacramento Co. 16 Tulare As ation of Governments H bitat Conservation Plan ULR: Status? abandoned; Location ? western Tulare Co. , CA; Duration ? 20...

Schmidt, Jennifer

2013-02-22

193

Red states, blue states, and divorce: understanding the impact of conservative Protestantism on regional variation in divorce rates.  

PubMed

Why do states with larger proportions of religious conservatives have higher divorce rates than states with lower proportions of religious conservatives? This project examines whether earlier transitions to marriage and parenthood among conservative Protestants (known risk factors for divorce) contribute to this paradox while attending to other plausible explanations. County-level demographic information from all 50 states is combined from a variety of public data sources and merged with individual records from the National Surveys of Family Growth to estimate both aggregated county and multilevel individual models of divorce. Results show that individual religious conservatism is positively related to individual divorce risk, solely through the earlier transitions to adulthood and lower incomes of conservative Protestants. However, the proportion of conservative Protestants in a county is also independently and positively associated with both the divorce rate in that county and an individual's likelihood of divorcing. The earlier family formation and lower levels of educational attainment and income in counties with a higher proportion of conservative Protestants can explain a substantial portion of this association. Little support is found for alternative explanations of the association between religious conservatism and divorce rates, including the relative popularity of marriage versus cohabitation across counties. PMID:25032268

Glass, Jennifer; Levchak, Philip

2014-01-01

194

Dogs Vaccinated with Common Lyme Disease Vaccines Do Not Respond to IR6, the Conserved Immunodominant Region of the VlsE Surface Protein of Borrelia burgdorferi  

Microsoft Academic Search

A 25-amino-acid synthetic peptide (C6 peptide) derived from an immunodominant conserved region (des- ignated IR6) of the VlsE protein of Borrelia burgdorferi has been identified and used to construct immunoen- zyme-based diagnostic procedures. These procedures have excellent sensitivity and specificity. Previous reports have demonstrated the usefulness of the C6 peptide as an antigen for the serodiagnosis of human and canine

Thomas P. O'Connor; Kathy J. Esty; Jancy L. Hanscom; Paulette Shields; Mario T. Philipp

2004-01-01

195

Sensitive and Specific Serodiagnosis of Lyme Disease by Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay with a Peptide Based on an Immunodominant Conserved Region of Borrelia burgdorferi VlsE  

Microsoft Academic Search

VlsE, the variable surface antigen of Borrelia burgdorferi, contains an immunodominant conserved region named IR6. In the present study, the diagnostic performance of a peptide enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) based on a 26-mer synthetic peptide (C6) with the IR6 sequence was explored. Sensitivity was assessed with serum samples (n 5 210) collected from patients with clinically defined Lyme disease at

FANG TING LIANG; ALLEN C. STEERE; ADRIANA R. MARQUES; BARBARA J. B. JOHNSON; JAMES N. MILLER; MARIO T. PHILIPP

1999-01-01

196

Phylogenetic analysis of a highly conserved region of the polymerase gene from 11 coronaviruses and development of a consensus polymerase chain reaction assay  

Microsoft Academic Search

Viruses in the genus Coronavirus are currently placed in three groups based on antigenic cross-reactivity and sequence analysis of structural protein genes. Consensus polymerase chain reaction (PCR) primers were used to obtain cDNA, then cloned and sequenced a highly conserved 922 nucleotide region in open reading frame (ORF) 1b of the polymerase (pol) gene from eight coronaviruses. These sequences were

Charles B. Stephensen; Donald B. Casebolt; Nupur N. Gangopadhyay

1999-01-01

197

Conserving forest biodiversity across multiple land ownerships: Lessons from the Northwest Forest Plan and the Southeast Queensland regional forests agreement (Australia)  

Microsoft Academic Search

As the area of the worlds forests shrinks, the management of production forests is becoming increasingly paramount for biodiversity conservation. In the United States and Australia, public debate and controversy about the management of production forests during the later decades of the 20th century resulted in governments adopting sweeping top-down changes to forest policy, with regional forest plans a cornerstone

C. A. McAlpine; T. A. Spies; P. Norman; A. Peterson

2007-01-01

198

A Single SNP in an Evolutionary Conserved Region within Intron 86 of the HERC2 Gene Determines Human Blue-Brown Eye Color  

PubMed Central

We have previously demonstrated that haplotypes of three single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) within the first intron of the OCA2 gene are extremely strongly associated with variation in human eye color. In the present work, we describe additional fine association mapping of eye color SNPs in the intergenic region upstream of OCA2 and within the neighboring HERC2 (hect domain and RLD2) gene. We screened an additional 92 SNPs in 3003000 European individuals and found that a single SNP in intron 86 of HERC2, rs12913832, predicted eye color significantly better (ordinal logistic regression R2 = 0.68, association LOD = 444) than our previous best OCA2 haplotype. Comparison of sequence alignments of multiple species showed that this SNP lies in the center of a short highly conserved sequence and that the blue-eye-associated allele (frequency 78%) breaks up this conserved sequence, part of which forms a consensus binding site for the helicase-like transcription factor (HLTF). We were also able to demonstrate the OCA2 R419Q, rs1800407, coding SNP acts as a penetrance modifier of this new HERC2 SNP for eye color, and somewhat independently, of melanoma risk. We conclude that the conserved region around rs12913832 represents a regulatory region controlling constitutive expression of OCA2 and that the C allele at rs12913832 leads to decreased expression of OCA2, particularly within iris melanocytes, which we postulate to be the ultimate cause of blue eye color. PMID:18252222

Sturm, Richard A.; Duffy, David L.; Zhao, Zhen Zhen; Leite, Fabio P.N.; Stark, Mitchell S.; Hayward, Nicholas K.; Martin, Nicholas G.; Montgomery, Grant W.

2008-01-01

199

A single SNP in an evolutionary conserved region within intron 86 of the HERC2 gene determines human blue-brown eye color.  

PubMed

We have previously demonstrated that haplotypes of three single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) within the first intron of the OCA2 gene are extremely strongly associated with variation in human eye color. In the present work, we describe additional fine association mapping of eye color SNPs in the intergenic region upstream of OCA2 and within the neighboring HERC2 (hect domain and RLD2) gene. We screened an additional 92 SNPs in 300-3000 European individuals and found that a single SNP in intron 86 of HERC2, rs12913832, predicted eye color significantly better (ordinal logistic regression R(2) = 0.68, association LOD = 444) than our previous best OCA2 haplotype. Comparison of sequence alignments of multiple species showed that this SNP lies in the center of a short highly conserved sequence and that the blue-eye-associated allele (frequency 78%) breaks up this conserved sequence, part of which forms a consensus binding site for the helicase-like transcription factor (HLTF). We were also able to demonstrate the OCA2 R419Q, rs1800407, coding SNP acts as a penetrance modifier of this new HERC2 SNP for eye color, and somewhat independently, of melanoma risk. We conclude that the conserved region around rs12913832 represents a regulatory region controlling constitutive expression of OCA2 and that the C allele at rs12913832 leads to decreased expression of OCA2, particularly within iris melanocytes, which we postulate to be the ultimate cause of blue eye color. PMID:18252222

Sturm, Richard A; Duffy, David L; Zhao, Zhen Zhen; Leite, Fabio P N; Stark, Mitchell S; Hayward, Nicholas K; Martin, Nicholas G; Montgomery, Grant W

2008-02-01

200

Genomic Sequence Analysis of Fugu rubripes CFTR and Flanking Genes in a 60 kb Region Conserving Synteny with 800 kb of Human Chromosome 7  

PubMed Central

To define control elements that regulate tissue-specific expression of the cystic fibrosis transmembrane regulator (CFTR), we have sequenced 60 kb of genomic DNA from the puffer fish Fugu rubripes (Fugu) that includes the CFTR gene. This region of the Fugu genome shows conservation of synteny with 800-kb sequence of the human genome encompassing the WNT2, CFTR, Z43555, and CBP90 genes. Additionally, the genomic structure of each gene is conserved. In a multiple sequence alignment of human, mouse, and Fugu, the putative WNT2 promoter sequence is shown to contain highly conserved elements that may be transcription factor or other regulatory binding sites. We have found two putative ankyrin repeat-containing genes that flank the CFTR gene. Overall sequence analysis suggests conservation of intron/exon boundaries between Fugu and human CFTR and revealed extensive homology between functional protein domains. However, the immediate 5? regions of human and Fugu CFTR are highly divergent with few conserved sequences apart from those resembling diminished cAMP response elements (CRE) and CAAT box elements. Interestingly, the polymorphic polyT tract located upstream of exon 9 is present in human and Fugu but absent in mouse. Similarly, an intron 1 and intron 9 element common to human and Fugu is absent in mouse. The euryhaline killifish CFTR coding sequence is highly homologous to the Fugu sequence, suggesting that upregulation of CFTR in that species in response to salinity may be regulated transcriptionally. [The sequence data described in this paper have been submitted to the GenBank data library under accession no. AJ271361, for the combined cosmids 159C9, 146H13, 6M15, and 145M20.] PMID:10958637

Davidson, Heather; Taylor, Martin S.; Doherty, Ann; Boyd, A. Christopher; Porteous, David J.

2000-01-01

201

Biotelemetry and biologging in endangered species research and animal conservation: relevance to regional, national, and IUCN Red List threat assessments  

Microsoft Academic Search

The current biodiversity crisis is characterized by the decline and extinction of numer- ous animal populations and species world-wide. To aid in understanding the threats and causes of population decline and the assessment of endangerment status of a species, conservation scientists and practitioners are increasingly relying on remote assessments using biotelemetry (radio telemetry, acoustic telemetry, satellite tracking) and biologging (archival

Steven J. Cooke

2008-01-01

202

Developing Spatially Explicit Habitat Models for Grassland Bird Conservation Planning in the Prairie Pothole Region of North Dakota1  

Microsoft Academic Search

Conservation planning for birds is increasingly focused on landscapes. However, little spatially explicit infor- mation is available to guide landscape-level conserva- tion planning for many species of birds. We used geo- referenced 1995 Breeding Bird Survey (BBS) data in conjunction with land-cover information to develop a spatially explicit habitat model predicting the occurrence of Northern Harrier (Circus cyaneus) in the

Neal D. Niemuth; Michael E. Estey; Charles R. Loesch

203

Preventing and Recognizing Prescription Drug Abuse  

MedlinePLUS

... Abuse Preventing and recognizing prescription drug abuse Prescription Drug Abuse Email Facebook Twitter Preventing and recognizing prescription drug abuse To ensure proper medical care, patients should discuss ...

204

Building an optical pattern recognizer  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The present portable solid-optics correlator for real-time pattern recognition uses pixelated spatial light modulators and phase-only filters, and will operate on sensor information extracted from any sensor system. Prospective operations of such a rugged and portable optical pattern recognizer include smart weapon midcourse guidance and navigation, target recognition, aim-point selection, and precise terminal homing. An account is given of the testing procedure being used by the U.S. Army missile command for a missile-guidance appligation of this optical correlator.

Lindberg, Perry C.; Gregory, Don A.

1991-08-01

205

Recognizing new medical knowledge computationally.  

PubMed Central

Can new medical knowledge be recognized computationally? We know knowledge is changing, and our knowledge-based systems will need to accommodate that change in knowledge on a regular basis if they are to stay successful. Computational recognition of these changes seems desirable. It is unlikely that low level objects in the computational universe, bits and characters, will change much over time, higher level objects of language, where meaning begins to emerge, may show change. An analysis of ten arbitrarily selected paragraphs from the Medical Knowledge Self-Assessment Program of the American College of Physicians was used as a test bed for nominal phrase recognition. While there were words not known to Meta-1.2, only 8 of the 32 concepts new to the primary author were pointed to by new words. Use of a barrier word method was successful in identifying 23 of the 32 new concepts. Use of co-occurrence (in sentences) of putative nominal phrases may reduce the amount of human effort involved in recognizing the emergence of new relationships. PMID:8130505

Nelson, S. J.; Cole, W. G.; Tuttle, M. S.; Olson, N. E.; Sherertz, D. D.

1993-01-01

206

Comparative analysis of the ATRX promoter and 5' regulatory region reveals conserved regulatory elements which are linked to roles in neurodevelopment, alpha-globin regulation and testicular function  

PubMed Central

Background ATRX is a tightly-regulated multifunctional protein with crucial roles in mammalian development. Mutations in the ATRX gene cause ATR-X syndrome, an X-linked recessive developmental disorder resulting in severe mental retardation and mild alpha-thalassemia with facial, skeletal and genital abnormalities. Although ubiquitously expressed the clinical features of the syndrome indicate that ATRX is not likely to be a global regulator of gene expression but involved in regulating specific target genes. The regulation of ATRX expression is not well understood and this is reflected by the current lack of identified upstream regulators. The availability of genomic data from a range of species and the very highly conserved 5' regulatory regions of the ATRX gene has allowed us to investigate putative transcription factor binding sites (TFBSs) in evolutionarily conserved regions of the mammalian ATRX promoter. Results We identified 12 highly conserved TFBSs of key gene regulators involved in biologically relevant processes such as neural and testis development and alpha-globin regulation. Conclusions Our results reveal potentially important regulatory elements in the ATRX gene which may lead to the identification of upstream regulators of ATRX and aid in the understanding of the molecular mechanisms that underlie ATR-X syndrome. PMID:21676266

2011-01-01

207

Functional Analysis of Conserved Non-Coding Regions Around the Short Stature hox Gene (shox) in Whole Zebrafish Embryos  

PubMed Central

Background Mutations in the SHOX gene are responsible for Leri-Weill Dyschondrosteosis, a disorder characterised by mesomelic limb shortening. Recent investigations into regulatory elements surrounding SHOX have shown that deletions of conserved non-coding elements (CNEs) downstream of the SHOX gene produce a phenotype indistinguishable from Leri-Weill Dyschondrosteosis. As this gene is not found in rodents, we used zebrafish as a model to characterise the expression pattern of the shox gene across the whole embryo and characterise the enhancer domains of different CNEs associated with this gene. Methodology/Principal Findings Expression of the shox gene in zebrafish was identified using in situ hybridization, with embryos showing expression in the blood, putative heart, hatching gland, brain pharyngeal arch, olfactory epithelium, and fin bud apical ectodermal ridge. By identifying sequences showing 65% identity over at least 40 nucleotides between Fugu, human, dog and opossum we uncovered 35 CNEs around the shox gene. These CNEs were compared with CNEs previously discovered by Sabherwal et al., resulting in the identification of smaller more deeply conserved sub-sequence. Sabherwal et al.'s CNEs were assayed for regulatory function in whole zebrafish embryos resulting in the identification of additional tissues under the regulatory control of these CNEs. Conclusion/Significance Our results using whole zebrafish embryos have provided a more comprehensive picture of the expression pattern of the shox gene, and a better understanding of its regulation via deeply conserved noncoding elements. In particular, we identify additional tissues under the regulatory control of previously identified SHOX CNEs. We also demonstrate the importance of these CNEs in evolution by identifying duplicated shox CNEs and more deeply conserved sub-sequences within already identified CNEs. PMID:21731768

Kenyon, Emma J.; McEwen, Gayle K.; Callaway, Heather; Elgar, Greg

2011-01-01

208

Regions.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Includes "From School to Jobs: Africa's Dilemma" (Moulin-Acevedo); "Helping Change in Eastern Europe"; "Recognizing the Dignity of Indigenous Peoples"; "An Employment Plan for Pakistan"; and "Around the Continents." (JOW)

Moulin-Acevedo, Madeleine; And Others

1993-01-01

209

Recognizing, Determining, and Addressing Entrepreneurial Innovations by Superintendents of Emerging or Established Educational Service Agencies  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This dissertation describes how entrepreneurial superintendents of educational service agencies (ESAs) recognize, determine and address common and distinct innovative characteristics within emerging or established regional educational environments. Because internal and external factors assist in recognizing innovative practices, this study

Arfstrom, Kari M.

2009-01-01

210

Global Conservation Priorities for Marine Turtles  

PubMed Central

Where conservation resources are limited and conservation targets are diverse, robust yet flexible priority-setting frameworks are vital. Priority-setting is especially important for geographically widespread species with distinct populations subject to multiple threats that operate on different spatial and temporal scales. Marine turtles are widely distributed and exhibit intra-specific variations in population sizes and trends, as well as reproduction and morphology. However, current global extinction risk assessment frameworks do not assess conservation status of spatially and biologically distinct marine turtle Regional Management Units (RMUs), and thus do not capture variations in population trends, impacts of threats, or necessary conservation actions across individual populations. To address this issue, we developed a new assessment framework that allowed us to evaluate, compare and organize marine turtle RMUs according to status and threats criteria. Because conservation priorities can vary widely (i.e. from avoiding imminent extinction to maintaining long-term monitoring efforts) we developed a conservation priorities portfolio system using categories of paired risk and threats scores for all RMUs (n?=?58). We performed these assessments and rankings globally, by species, by ocean basin, and by recognized geopolitical bodies to identify patterns in risk, threats, and data gaps at different scales. This process resulted in characterization of risk and threats to all marine turtle RMUs, including identification of the world's 11 most endangered marine turtle RMUs based on highest risk and threats scores. This system also highlighted important gaps in available information that is crucial for accurate conservation assessments. Overall, this priority-setting framework can provide guidance for research and conservation priorities at multiple relevant scales, and should serve as a model for conservation status assessments and priority-setting for widespread, long-lived taxa. PMID:21969858

Wallace, Bryan P.; DiMatteo, Andrew D.; Bolten, Alan B.; Chaloupka, Milani Y.; Hutchinson, Brian J.; Abreu-Grobois, F. Alberto; Mortimer, Jeanne A.; Seminoff, Jeffrey A.; Amorocho, Diego; Bjorndal, Karen A.; Bourjea, Jerome; Bowen, Brian W.; Briseno Duenas, Raquel; Casale, Paolo; Choudhury, B. C.; Costa, Alice; Dutton, Peter H.; Fallabrino, Alejandro; Finkbeiner, Elena M.; Girard, Alexandre; Girondot, Marc; Hamann, Mark; Hurley, Brendan J.; Lopez-Mendilaharsu, Milagros; Marcovaldi, Maria Angela; Musick, John A.; Nel, Ronel; Pilcher, Nicolas J.; Troeng, Sebastian; Witherington, Blair; Mast, Roderic B.

2011-01-01

211

Invariant natural killer T cells recognize glycolipids from pathogenic Gram-positive bacteria  

Microsoft Academic Search

Natural killer T cells (NKT cells) recognize glycolipid antigens presented by CD1d. These cells express an evolutionarily conserved, invariant T cell antigen receptor (TCR), but the forces that drive TCR conservation have remained uncertain. Here we show that NKT cells recognized diacylglycerol-containing glycolipids from Streptococcus pneumoniae, the leading cause of community-acquired pneumonia, and group B Streptococcus, which causes neonatal sepsis

Yuki Kinjo; Petr Illarionov; Jos Luis Vela; Bo Pei; Enrico Girardi; Xiangming Li; Yali Li; Masakazu Imamura; Yukihiro Kaneko; Akiko Okawara; Yoshitsugu Miyazaki; Anaximandro Gmez-Velasco; Paul Rogers; Samira Dahesh; Satoshi Uchiyama; Archana Khurana; Kazuyoshi Kawahara; Hasan Yesilkaya; Peter W Andrew; Chi-Huey Wong; Kazuyoshi Kawakami; Victor Nizet; Gurdyal S Besra; Moriya Tsuji; Dirk M Zajonc; Mitchell Kronenberg

2011-01-01

212

Systematic conservation planning  

Microsoft Academic Search

The realization of conservation goals requires strategies for managing whole landscapes including areas allocated to both production and protection. Reserves alone are not adequate for nature conservation but they are the cornerstone on which regional strategies are built. Reserves have two main roles. They should sample or represent the biodiversity of each region and they should separate this biodiversity from

C. R. Margules; R. L. Pressey

2000-01-01

213

Movement patterns of Antillean manatees in Chetumal Bay (Mexico) and coastal Belize: A challenge for regional conservation  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Information from 15 satellite-tracked Antillean manatees (Trichechus manatus manatus) was analyzed in order to assess individual movements, home ranges, and high-use areas for conservation decisions. Manatees were captured in Chetumal Bay, Mexico, and tagged with Argos-monitored satellite transmitters. Location of the manatees and physical characteristics were assessed to describe habitat properties. Most manatees traveled to freshwater sources. The Maximum Area Size (MAS) for each manatee was determined using the observation-area method. Additional kernel densities of 95% home range and 50% Center of Activity (COA) were also calculated, with manatees having 13 COAs. Manatees exhibited two different movement patterns: remaining in Chetumal Bay, and long-distance (up to 240 km in 89 d). The residence time in Chetumal Bay was higher for females (89.6% of time) than for males (72.0%), but the daily travel rate (0.40.5 km/d) was similar for both sexes. Most of the COAs fell within Natural Protected Areas (NPA). However, manatees also travel for long distances into unprotected areas, where they face uncontrolled boat traffic, fishing activities, and habitat loss. Conservation of movement corridors may promote long-distance movements and facilitate genetic exchange.

Castelblanco-Martnez, D.N.; Padilla-Saldivar, J.; Hernndez-Arana, H.A.; Slone, D.H.; Reid, J.P.; Morales-Vela, B.

2013-01-01

214

Animal conservation, carbon and sustainability  

Microsoft Academic Search

International conventions to reduce carbon dioxide levels focus on ecosystems and do not specifically recognize the need to conserve species. However, species are the build- ing blocks of ecosystems, they are more widely understood among the public, and they provide means of capturing market values from ecosystems. Achieving successful conservation globally will require ensuring that the systems under which species

N. Leader-Williams

2002-01-01

215

Clothing cosegmentation for recognizing people  

Microsoft Academic Search

Reseachers have verified that clothing provides informa- tion about the identity of the individual. To extract featur es from the clothing, the clothing region first must be localize d or segmented in the image. At the same time, given multi- ple images of the same person wearing the same clothing, we expect to improve the effectiveness of clothing segmen- tation.

Andrew C. Gallagher; Tsuhan Chen

2008-01-01

216

Position and sequence conservation in Amniota of polymorphic enhancer HS1.2 within the palindrome of IgH 3'Regulatory Region  

PubMed Central

Background The Immunoglobulin heavy chain (IgH) 3' Regulatory Region (3'RR), located at the 3' of the constant alpha gene, plays a crucial role in immunoglobulin production. In humans, there are 2 copies of the 3'RR, each composed of 4 main elements: 3 enhancers and a 20 bp tandem repeat. The single mouse 3'RR differs from the two human ones for the presence of 4 more regulative elements with the double copy of one enhancer at the border of a palindromic region. Results We compared the 3'RR organization in genomes of vertebrates to depict the evolutionary history of the region and highlight its shared features. We found that in the 8 species in which the whole region was included in a fully assembled contig (mouse, rat, dog, rabbit, panda, orangutan, chimpanzee, and human), the shared elements showed synteny and a highly conserved sequence, thus suggesting a strong evolutionary constraint. In these species, the wide 3'RR (~30 kb in human) bears a large palindromic sequence, consisting in two ~3 kb complementary branches spaced by a ~3 kb sequence always including the HS1.2 enhancer. In mouse and rat, HS3 is involved by the palindrome so that one copy of the enhancer is present on each side. A second relevant feature of our present work concerns human polymorphism of the HS1.2 enhancer, associated to immune diseases in our species. We detected a similar polymorphism in all the studied Catarrhini (a primate parvorder). The polymorphism consists of multiple copies of a 40 bp element up to 12 in chimpanzees, 8 in baboons, 6 in macaque, 5 in gibbons, 4 in humans and orangutan, separated by stretches of Cytosine. We show specific binding of this element to nuclear factors. Conclusions The nucleotide sequence of the palindrome is not conserved among evolutionary distant species, suggesting pressures for the maintenance of two self-matching regions driving a three-dimensional structure despite of the inter-specific divergence at sequence level. The information about the conservation of the palindromic structure and the settling in primates of the polymorphic feature of HS1.2 show the relevance of these structures in the control and modulation of the Ig production through the formation of possible three-dimensional structures. PMID:21406099

2011-01-01

217

Assignment of the hypoxia-inducible factor 1{alpha} gene to a region of conserved synteny on mouse chromosome 12 and human chromosome 14q  

SciTech Connect

Hypoxia-inducible factor 1 (HIF-1) is a basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor that mediates homeostatic responses to hypoxia. HIF-1 is a heterodimer consisting of HIF-1{alpha} which is encoded by the HIF1A gene, complexes with HIF-1{beta}, which is encoded by the ARNT gene. In this paper we report the assignment of Hif1a and HIF1A to mouse chromosome 12 and human chromosome 14, respectively. HIF1A was assigned to human chromosome 14q21-q24 by analysis of somatic cell hybrids and by fluorescence in situ hybridization. Hif1a was localized by interspecific backcross analysis within a region of mouse chromosome 12 encompassing >30 cM that demonstrates conservation of synteny with a region of human chromosome 14 extending from PAX9 at 14q12-q13 to IGHC at 14q32.33. 12 refs., 2 figs.

Semenza, G.L.; Rue, E.A.; Iyer, N.V. [Johns Hopkins Univ. School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD (United States)] [and others] [Johns Hopkins Univ. School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD (United States); and others

1996-06-15

218

Analysis of oropouche virus L protein amino acid sequence showed the presence of an additional conserved region that could harbour an important role for the polymerase activity.  

PubMed

We described here the complete nucleotide sequence of the L RNA segment of Oropouche virus (genus Orthobunyavirus, family Bunyaviridae). We found the L RNA segment is 6846 nucleotides long and encodes a putative RNA polymerase of 2250 amino acids. Phylogenetic analysis showed that ORO virus cluster to the Orthobunyavirus genus confirming the serological classification. It also showed that Bunyamwera and California viruses, from the Orthobunyavirus genus, are more closely related to each other than to ORO virus. Sequence comparisons performed between the L proteins of 15 bunyaviruses and the PB1 proteins of 3 influenza viruses revealed that ORO L protein contains the 3 regions characteristic of arenaviruses and bunyaviruses. These comparisons also showed the existence of an additional fourth conserved region in the L protein of bunyaviruses that contains at least two active sites. PMID:12536293

Aquino, V H; Moreli, M L; Moraes Figueiredo, L T

2003-01-01

219

Conserved microstructure of the Brassica B Genome of Brassica nigra in relation to homologous regions of Arabidopsis thaliana, B. rapa and B. oleracea  

PubMed Central

Background The Brassica B genome is known to carry several important traits, yet there has been limited analyses of its underlying genome structure, especially in comparison to the closely related A and C genomes. A bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) library of Brassica nigra was developed and screened with 17 genes from a 222kb region of A. thaliana that had been well characterised in both the Brassica A and C genomes. Results Fingerprinting of 483 apparently non-redundant clones defined physical contigs for the corresponding regions in B. nigra. The target region is duplicated in A. thaliana and six homologous contigs were found in B. nigra resulting from the whole genome triplication event shared by the Brassiceae tribe. BACs representative of each region were sequenced to elucidate the level of microscale rearrangements across the Brassica species divide. Conclusions Although the B genome species separated from the A/C lineage some 6 Mya, comparisons between the three paleopolyploid Brassica genomes revealed extensive conservation of gene content and sequence identity. The level of fractionation or gene loss varied across genomes and genomic regions; however, the greatest loss of genes was observed to be common to all three genomes. One large-scale chromosomal rearrangement differentiated the B genome suggesting such events could contribute to the lack of recombination observed between B genome species and those of the closely related A/C lineage. PMID:23586706

2013-01-01

220

The Role of DNA Barcodes in Understanding and Conservation of Mammal Diversity in Southeast Asia  

PubMed Central

Background Southeast Asia is recognized as a region of very high biodiversity, much of which is currently at risk due to habitat loss and other threats. However, many aspects of this diversity, even for relatively well-known groups such as mammals, are poorly known, limiting ability to develop conservation plans. This study examines the value of DNA barcodes, sequences of the mitochondrial COI gene, to enhance understanding of mammalian diversity in the region and hence to aid conservation planning. Methodology and Principal Findings DNA barcodes were obtained from nearly 1900 specimens representing 165 recognized species of bats. All morphologically or acoustically distinct species, based on classical taxonomy, could be discriminated with DNA barcodes except four closely allied species pairs. Many currently recognized species contained multiple barcode lineages, often with deep divergence suggesting unrecognized species. In addition, most widespread species showed substantial genetic differentiation across their distributions. Our results suggest that mammal species richness within the region may be underestimated by at least 50%, and there are higher levels of endemism and greater intra-specific population structure than previously recognized. Conclusions DNA barcodes can aid conservation and research by assisting field workers in identifying species, by helping taxonomists determine species groups needing more detailed analysis, and by facilitating the recognition of the appropriate units and scales for conservation planning. PMID:20838635

Francis, Charles M.; Borisenko, Alex V.; Ivanova, Natalia V.; Eger, Judith L.; Lim, Burton K.; Guillen-Servent, Antonio; Kruskop, Sergei V.; Mackie, Iain; Hebert, Paul D. N.

2010-01-01

221

Sixth Northwest Conservation and Electric Power Plan Appendix F: Model Conservation Standards  

E-print Network

Sixth Northwest Conservation and Electric Power Plan Appendix F: Model Conservation Standards: Model Conservation Standards Sixth Power Plan F-2 to the Council's forecast of future regional power..................................................................................................................................... 1 The Model Conservation Standards For New Electronically Heated Residential and Commercial

222

The impact of the number of excised axillary nodes and of the percentage of involved nodes on regional nodal failure in patients treated by breast-conserving surgery with or without regional irradiation  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: After breast-conserving surgery, recommendations for regional nodal radiotherapy are usually based on the number of positive nodes. This number is dependent on the number of nodes removed during the axillary dissection. This study examines whether the percentage of positive nodes may help to select patients for regional radiotherapy. Methods and Materials: A retrospective study was conducted on 1,372 T1-T2 node-positive breast cancer patients treated at L'Hotel-Dieu de Quebec Hospital between 1972 and 1997. Results: Among the patients who did not receive regional radiotherapy, the percentage of involved nodes was significantly associated with axillary failure. Ten-year axillary control rates were 97% and 91% when the percentage of involved nodes was <50% and {>=}50%, respectively (p = 0.007). In addition, regional radiotherapy is always significantly associated with a decrease in overall regional failure (axillary and/or supraclavicular), regardless of the percentage of involved nodes. However, regional radiotherapy reduced the axillary failure rate (2% vs. 9%, p = 0.007) only when more than a specific percentage of nodes was involved ({>=}40% if N1-3 and {>=}50% if N>3 nodes). Conclusions: The percentage of involved nodes should be taken into consideration in selecting patients for regional radiotherapy. Irradiation of the axilla should be reserved for patients with a specific ratio: >40% involved nodes if N1-3 and {>=}50% involved nodes if N>3 nodes.

Fortin, Andre [Department of Radiation Oncology, L'Hotel-Dieu de Quebec, Quebec City, Quebec (Canada)]. E-mail: afortin@videotron.ca; Dagnault, Anne [Department of Radiation Oncology, L'Hotel-Dieu de Quebec, Quebec City, Quebec (Canada); Blondeau, Lucie [Department of Radiation Oncology, L'Hotel-Dieu de Quebec, Quebec City, Quebec (Canada); Thi Trinh Thuc Vu [Department of Radiation Oncology, L'Hotel-Dieu de Quebec, Quebec City, Quebec (Canada); Larochelle, Marie [Department of Radiation Oncology, L'Hotel-Dieu de Quebec, Quebec City, Quebec (Canada)

2006-05-01

223

Producing and Recognizing Analogical Relations  

PubMed Central

Analogical reasoning is an important component of intelligent behavior, and a key test of any approach to human language and cognition. Only a limited amount of empirical work has been conducted from a behavior analytic point of view, most of that within Relational Frame Theory (RFT), which views analogy as a matter of deriving relations among relations. The present series of four studies expands previous work by exploring the applicability of this model of analogy to topography-based rather than merely selection-based responses and by extending the work into additional relations, including nonsymmetrical ones. In each of the four studies participants pretrained in contextual control over nonarbitrary stimulus relations of sameness and opposition, or of sameness, smaller than, and larger than, learned arbitrary stimulus relations in the presence of these relational cues and derived analogies involving directly trained relations and derived relations of mutual and combinatorial entailment, measured using a variety of productive and selection-based measures. In Experiment 1 participants successfully recognized analogies among stimulus networks containing same and opposite relations; in Experiment 2 analogy was successfully used to extend derived relations to pairs of novel stimuli; in Experiment 3 the procedure used in Experiment 1 was extended to nonsymmetrical comparative relations; in Experiment 4 the procedure used in Experiment 2 was extended to nonsymmetrical comparative relations. Although not every participant showed the effects predicted, overall the procedures occasioned relational responses consistent with an RFT account that have not yet been demonstrated in a behavior-analytic laboratory setting, including productive responding on the basis of analogies. PMID:19230515

Lipkens, Regina; Hayes, Steven C

2009-01-01

224

Rice pseudomolecule-anchored cross-species DNA sequence alignments indicate regional genomic variation in expressed sequence conservation  

PubMed Central

Background Various methods have been developed to explore inter-genomic relationships among plant species. Here, we present a sequence similarity analysis based upon comparison of transcript-assembly and methylation-filtered databases from five plant species and physically anchored rice coding sequences. Results A comparison of the frequency of sequence alignments, determined by MegaBLAST, between rice coding sequences in TIGR pseudomolecules and annotations vs 4.0 and comprehensive transcript-assembly and methylation-filtered databases from Lolium perenne (ryegrass), Zea mays (maize), Hordeum vulgare (barley), Glycine max (soybean) and Arabidopsis thaliana (thale cress) was undertaken. Each rice pseudomolecule was divided into 10 segments, each containing 10% of the functionally annotated, expressed genes. This indicated a correlation between relative segment position in the rice genome and numbers of alignments with all the queried monocot and dicot plant databases. Colour-coded moving windows of 100 functionally annotated, expressed genes along each pseudomolecule were used to generate 'heat-maps'. These revealed consistent intra- and inter-pseudomolecule variation in the relative concentrations of significant alignments with the tested plant databases. Analysis of the annotations and derived putative expression patterns of rice genes from 'hot-spots' and 'cold-spots' within the heat maps indicated possible functional differences. A similar comparison relating to ancestral duplications of the rice genome indicated that duplications were often associated with 'hot-spots'. Conclusion Physical positions of expressed genes in the rice genome are correlated with the degree of conservation of similar sequences in the transcriptomes of other plant species. This relative conservation is associated with the distribution of different sized gene families and segmentally duplicated loci and may have functional and evolutionary implications. PMID:17708759

Armstead, Ian; Huang, Lin; King, Julie; Ougham, Helen; Thomas, Howard; King, Ian

2007-01-01

225

The Capsid Gene of Feline Calicivirus Contains Linear B-Cell Epitopes in both Variable and Conserved Regions  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to map linear B-cell (LBC) epitopes in the major capsid protein of feline calicivirus (FCV), an expression library containing random, short (100- to 200-bp) fragments of the FCV F9 capsid gene was constructed. Analysis of this library showed it to be representative of the region of the capsid gene that encodes the mature capsid protein. The library was

ALAN D. RADFORD; KIM WILLOUGHBY; SUSAN DAWSON; CHRISTINA MCCRACKEN; ROSALIND M. GASKELL

1999-01-01

226

The role of integrated landscape design in energy conservation in detached dwellings in the Arabian Gulf region  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents an overview of the landscape design considerations, rationale for the selection of specific hard and soft landscape elements and initial observations of their influence in controlling the microclimate in detached residential buildings in the Arabian Gulf region. This experiment is part of a wider research programme in the field of passive solar cooling strategies at the King

Mohammad Maqsood Bajwa

1995-01-01

227

CUSP: an algorithm to distinguish structurally conserved and unconserved regions in protein domain alignments and its application in the study of large length variations  

PubMed Central

Background Distantly related proteins adopt and retain similar structural scaffolds despite length variations that could be as much as two-fold in some protein superfamilies. In this paper, we describe an analysis of indel regions that accommodate length variations amongst related proteins. We have developed an algorithm CUSP, to examine multi-membered PASS2 superfamily alignments to identify indel regions in an automated manner. Further, we have used the method to characterize the length, structural type and biochemical features of indels in related protein domains. Results CUSP, examines protein domain structural alignments to distinguish regions of conserved structure common to related proteins from structurally unconserved regions that vary in length and type of structure. On a non-redundant dataset of 353 domain superfamily alignments from PASS2, we find that 'length- deviant' protein superfamilies show > 30% length variation from their average domain length. 60% of additional lengths that occur in indels are short-length structures (< 5 residues) while 6% of indels are > 15 residues in length. Structural types in indels also show class-specific trends. Conclusion The extent of length variation varies across different superfamilies and indels show class-specific trends for preferred lengths and structural types. Such indels of different lengths even within a single protein domain superfamily could have structural and functional consequences that drive their selection, underlying their importance in similarity detection and computational modelling. The availability of systematic algorithms, like CUSP, should enable decision making in a domain superfamily-specific manner. PMID:18513436

Sandhya, Sankaran; Pankaj, Barah; Govind, Madabosse Kande; Offmann, Bernard; Srinivasan, Narayanaswamy; Sowdhamini, Ramanathan

2008-01-01

228

Arabic word recognizer for mobile applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

When traveling in a region where the local language is not written using a "Roman alphabet," translating written text (e.g., documents, road signs, or placards) is a particularly difficult problem since the text cannot be easily entered into a translation device or searched using a dictionary. To address this problem, we are developing the "Rosetta Phone," a handheld device (e.g., PDA or mobile telephone) capable of acquiring an image of the text, locating the region (word) of interest within the image, and producing both an audio and a visual English interpretation of the text. This paper presents a system targeted for interpreting words written in Arabic script. The goal of this work is to develop an autonomous, segmentation-free Arabic phrase recognizer, with computational complexity low enough to deploy on a mobile device. A prototype of the proposed system has been deployed on an iPhone with a suitable user interface. The system was tested on a number of noisy images, in addition to the images acquired from the iPhone's camera. It identifies Arabic words or phrases by extracting appropriate features and assigning "codewords" to each word or phrase. On a dictionary of 5,000 words, the system uniquely mapped (word-image to codeword) 99.9% of the words. The system has a 82% recognition accuracy on images of words captured using the iPhone's built-in camera.

Khanna, Nitin; Abdollahian, Golnaz; Brame, Ben; Boutin, Mireille; Delp, Edward J.

2011-03-01

229

Pub1p C-terminal RRM domain interacts with Tif4631p through a conserved region neighbouring the Pab1p binding site.  

PubMed

Pub1p, a highly abundant poly(A)+ mRNA binding protein in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, influences the stability and translational control of many cellular transcripts, particularly under some types of environmental stresses. We have studied the structure, RNA and protein recognition modes of different Pub1p constructs by NMR spectroscopy. The structure of the C-terminal RRM domain (RRM3) shows a non-canonical N-terminal helix that packs against the canonical RRM fold in an original fashion. This structural trait is conserved in Pub1p metazoan homologues, the TIA-1 family, defining a new class of RRM-type domains that we propose to name TRRM (TIA-1 C-terminal domain-like RRM). Pub1p TRRM and the N-terminal RRM1-RRM2 tandem bind RNA with high selectivity for U-rich sequences, with TRRM showing additional preference for UA-rich ones. RNA-mediated chemical shift changes map to ?-sheet and protein loops in the three RRMs. Additionally, NMR titration and biochemical in vitro cross-linking experiments determined that Pub1p TRRM interacts specifically with the N-terminal region (1-402) of yeast eIF4G1 (Tif4631p), very likely through the conserved Box1, a short sequence motif neighbouring the Pab1p binding site in Tif4631p. The interaction involves conserved residues of Pub1p TRRM, which define a protein interface that mirrors the Pab1p-Tif4631p binding mode. Neither protein nor RNA recognition involves the novel N-terminal helix, whose functional role remains unclear. By integrating these new results with the current knowledge about Pub1p, we proposed different mechanisms of Pub1p recruitment to the mRNPs and Pub1p-mediated mRNA stabilization in which the Pub1p/Tif4631p interaction would play an important role. PMID:21931728

Santiveri, Clara M; Mirassou, Yasmina; Rico-Lastres, Palma; Martnez-Lumbreras, Santiago; Prez-Caadillas, Jos Manuel

2011-01-01

230

Pub1p C-Terminal RRM Domain Interacts with Tif4631p through a Conserved Region Neighbouring the Pab1p Binding Site  

PubMed Central

Pub1p, a highly abundant poly(A)+ mRNA binding protein in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, influences the stability and translational control of many cellular transcripts, particularly under some types of environmental stresses. We have studied the structure, RNA and protein recognition modes of different Pub1p constructs by NMR spectroscopy. The structure of the C-terminal RRM domain (RRM3) shows a non-canonical N-terminal helix that packs against the canonical RRM fold in an original fashion. This structural trait is conserved in Pub1p metazoan homologues, the TIA-1 family, defining a new class of RRM-type domains that we propose to name TRRM (TIA-1 C-terminal domain-like RRM). Pub1p TRRM and the N-terminal RRM1-RRM2 tandem bind RNA with high selectivity for U-rich sequences, with TRRM showing additional preference for UA-rich ones. RNA-mediated chemical shift changes map to ?-sheet and protein loops in the three RRMs. Additionally, NMR titration and biochemical in vitro cross-linking experiments determined that Pub1p TRRM interacts specifically with the N-terminal region (1402) of yeast eIF4G1 (Tif4631p), very likely through the conserved Box1, a short sequence motif neighbouring the Pab1p binding site in Tif4631p. The interaction involves conserved residues of Pub1p TRRM, which define a protein interface that mirrors the Pab1p-Tif4631p binding mode. Neither protein nor RNA recognition involves the novel N-terminal helix, whose functional role remains unclear. By integrating these new results with the current knowledge about Pub1p, we proposed different mechanisms of Pub1p recruitment to the mRNPs and Pub1p-mediated mRNA stabilization in which the Pub1p/Tif4631p interaction would play an important role. PMID:21931728

Rico-Lastres, Palma; Perez-Canadillas, Jose Manuel

2011-01-01

231

The TAF9 C-Terminal Conserved Region Domain Is Required for SAGA and TFIID Promoter Occupancy To Promote Transcriptional Activation  

PubMed Central

A common function of the TFIID and SAGA complexes, which are recruited by transcriptional activators, is to deliver TBP to promoters to stimulate transcription. Neither the relative contributions of the five shared TBP-associated factor (TAF) subunits in TFIID and SAGA nor the requirement for different domains in shared TAFs for transcriptional activation is well understood. In this study, we uncovered the essential requirement for the highly conserved C-terminal region (CRD) of Taf9, a shared TAF, for transcriptional activation in yeast. Transcriptome profiling performed under Gcn4-activating conditions showed that the Taf9 CRD is required for induced expression of ?9% of the yeast genome. The CRD was not essential for the Taf9-Taf6 interaction, TFIID or SAGA integrity, or Gcn4 interaction with SAGA in cell extracts. Microarray profiling of a SAGA mutant (spt20?) yielded a common set of genes induced by Spt20 and the Taf9 CRD. Chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) assays showed that, although the Taf9 CRD mutation did not impair Gcn4 occupancy, the occupancies of TFIID, SAGA, and the preinitiation complex were severely impaired at several promoters. These results suggest a crucial role for the Taf9 CRD in genome-wide transcription and highlight the importance of conserved domains, other than histone fold domains, as a common determinant for TFIID and SAGA functions. PMID:24550006

Saint, Malika; Sawhney, Sonal; Sinha, Ishani; Singh, Rana Pratap; Dahiya, Rashmi; Thakur, Anushikha; Siddharthan, Rahul

2014-01-01

232

Conserved cis-regulatory regions in a large genomic landscape control SHH and BMP-regulated Gremlin1 expression in mouse limb buds  

PubMed Central

Background Mouse limb bud is a prime model to study the regulatory interactions that control vertebrate organogenesis. Major aspects of limb bud development are controlled by feedback loops that define a self-regulatory signalling system. The SHH/GREM1/AER-FGF feedback loop forms the core of this signalling system that operates between the posterior mesenchymal organiser and the ectodermal signalling centre. The BMP antagonist Gremlin1 (GREM1) is a critical node in this system, whose dynamic expression is controlled by BMP, SHH, and FGF signalling and key to normal progression of limb bud development. Previous analysis identified a distant cis-regulatory landscape within the neighbouring Formin1 (Fmn1) locus that is required for Grem1 expression, reminiscent of the genomic landscapes controlling HoxD and Shh expression in limb buds. Results Three highly conserved regions (HMCO1-3) were identified within the previously defined critical genomic region and tested for their ability to regulate Grem1 expression in mouse limb buds. Using a combination of BAC and conventional transgenic approaches, a 9?kb region located ~70?kb downstream of the Grem1 transcription unit was identified. This region, termed Grem1 Regulatory Sequence 1 (GRS1), is able to recapitulate major aspects of Grem1 expression, as it drives expression of a LacZ reporter into the posterior and, to a lesser extent, in the distal-anterior mesenchyme. Crossing the GRS1 transgene into embryos with alterations in the SHH and BMP pathways established that GRS1 depends on SHH and is modulated by BMP signalling, i.e. integrates inputs from these pathways. Chromatin immunoprecipitation revealed interaction of endogenous GLI3 proteins with the core cis-regulatory elements in the GRS1 region. As GLI3 is a mediator of SHH signal transduction, these results indicated that SHH directly controls Grem1 expression through the GRS1 region. Finally, all cis-regulatory regions within the Grem1 genomic landscape locate to the DNAse I hypersensitive sites identified in this genomic region by the ENCODE consortium. Conclusions This study establishes that distant cis-regulatory regions scattered through a larger genomic landscape control the highly dynamic expression of Grem1, which is key to normal progression of mouse limb bud development. PMID:22888807

2012-01-01

233

Conserved proline-rich region of Ebola virus matrix protein VP40 is essential for plasma membrane targeting and virus-like particle release.  

PubMed

The matrix protein VP40 is essential for Ebola virus (EBOV) and Marburg virus assembly and budding at the plasma membrane. In this study we have investigated the effect of single amino acid substitutions in a conserved proline-rich region of the EBOV VP40 located in the carboxy-terminal part of the protein. We demonstrate that substitutions within this region result in an alteration of intracellular VP40 localization and also cause a reduction or a complete block of virus-like particle budding, a benchmark of VP40 function. Furthermore, some mutated VP40s revealed an enhanced binding with cellular Sec24C, a part of the coat protein complex II (COPII) vesicular transport system. Analysis of the 3-dimensional structure of VP40 revealed the spatial proximity of the proline-rich region and an earlier identified site of interaction with Sec24C, thus allowing us to hypothesize that the altered intracellular localization of the VP40 mutants is a consequence of defects in their interaction with COPII-mediated vesicular transport. PMID:21987765

Reynard, Olivier; Nemirov, Kirill; Page, Audrey; Mateo, Mathieu; Raoul, Herv; Weissenhorn, Winfried; Volchkov, Viktor E

2011-11-01

234

Understanding the Distribution of Marine Megafauna in the English Channel Region: Identifying Key Habitats for Conservation within the Busiest Seaway on Earth  

PubMed Central

The temperate waters of the North-Eastern Atlantic have a long history of maritime resource richness and, as a result, the European Union is endeavouring to maintain regional productivity and biodiversity. At the intersection of these aims lies potential conflict, signalling the need for integrated, cross-border management approaches. This paper focuses on the marine megafauna of the region. This guild of consumers was formerly abundant, but is now depleted and protected under various national and international legislative structures. We present a meta-analysis of available megafauna datasets using presence-only distribution models to characterise suitable habitat and identify spatially-important regions within the English Channel and southern bight of the North Sea. The integration of studies from dedicated and opportunistic observer programmes in the United Kingdom and France provide a valuable perspective on the spatial and seasonal distribution of various taxonomic groups, including large pelagic fishes and sharks, marine mammals, seabirds and marine turtles. The Western English Channel emerged as a hotspot of biodiversity for megafauna, while species richness was low in the Eastern English Channel. Spatial conservation planning is complicated by the highly mobile nature of marine megafauna, however they are important components of the marine environment and understanding their distribution is a first crucial step toward their inclusion into marine ecosystem management. PMID:24586985

McClellan, Catherine M.; Brereton, Tom; Dell'Amico, Florence; Johns, David G.; Cucknell, Anna-C.; Patrick, Samantha C.; Penrose, Rod; Ridoux, Vincent; Solandt, Jean-Luc; Stephan, Eric; Votier, Stephen C.; Williams, Ruth; Godley, Brendan J.

2014-01-01

235

A conserved proline residue in the leucine zipper region of AtbZIP34 and AtbZIP61 in Arabidopsis thaliana interferes with the formation of homodimer  

SciTech Connect

Two putative Arabidopsis E group bZIP transcript factors, AtbZIP34 and AtbZIP61, are nuclear-localized and their transcriptional activation domain is in their N-terminal region. By searching GenBank, we found other eight plant homologues of AtbZIP34 and AtbZIP61. All of them have a proline residue in the third heptad of zipper region. Yeast two-hybrid assay and EMSA showed that AtbZIP34 and AtbZIP61 could not form homodimer while their mutant forms, AtbZIP34m and AtbZIP61m, which the proline residue was replaced by an alanine residue in the zipper region, could form homodimer and bind G-box element. These results suggest that the conserved proline residue interferes with the homodimer formation. However, both AtbZIP34 and AtbZIP61 could form heterodimers with members of I group and S group transcription factors in which some members involved in vascular development. So we speculate that AtbZIP34 and AtbZIP61 may participate in plant development via interacting with other group bZIP transcription factors.

Shen Huaishun [College of Life Sciences, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875 (China); State Key Laboratory of Genetic Engineering, Department of Biochemistry, School of Life Sciences, Fudan University, Shanghai 200433 (China); Cao Kaiming [State Key Laboratory of Genetic Engineering, Department of Biochemistry, School of Life Sciences, Fudan University, Shanghai 200433 (China); Wang Xiping [College of Life Sciences, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875 (China); State Key Laboratory of Genetic Engineering, Department of Biochemistry, School of Life Sciences, Fudan University, Shanghai 200433 (China)], E-mail: xipingwang@hotmail.com

2007-10-19

236

ROCC, a conserved region in cohesin's Mcd1 subunit, is essential for the proper regulation of the maintenance of cohesion and establishment of condensation  

PubMed Central

Cohesin helps orchestrate higher-order chromosome structure, thereby promoting sister chromatid cohesion, chromosome condensation, DNA repair, and transcriptional regulation. To elucidate how cohesin facilitates these diverse processes, we mutagenized Mcd1p, the kleisin regulatory subunit of budding yeast cohesin. In the linker region of Mcd1p, we identified a novel evolutionarily conserved 10amino acid cluster, termed the regulation of cohesion and condensation (ROCC) box. We show that ROCC promotes cohesion maintenance by protecting a second activity of cohesin that is distinct from its stable binding to chromosomes. The existence of this second activity is incompatible with the simple embrace mechanism of cohesion. In addition, we show that the ROCC box is required for the establishment of condensation. We provide evidence that ROCC controls cohesion maintenance and condensation establishment through differential functional interactions with Pds5p and Wpl1p. PMID:24966169

Eng, Thomas; Guacci, Vincent; Koshland, Doug

2014-01-01

237

The isolation of conserved DNA sequences related to the human sex-determining region Y gene from the lesser black-backed gull (Larus fuscus).  

PubMed

The sex-determining region gene (SRY) is a recently discovered candidate for the mammalian testis determining factor (TDF). The gene appears to form part of a family with several autosomal representatives. I have investigated the occurrence of SRY-related sequences in birds. The polymerase chain reaction was used to isolate six homologues of the conserved motif of the SRY gene from the lesser black-backed gull (Larus fuscus). Female unique copies of the motif are apparently absent. Sequence similarity and phylogenetic parsimony methods suggest that, irrespective of avian or mammalian origin, SRY-type sequences fall into two subfamilies. This is consistent with the presence of two archetypal genes in an ancestor common to both taxonomic classes. PMID:1679546

Griffiths, R

1991-05-22

238

Bat assemblages in conservation areas of a metropolitan region in Southeastern Brazil, including an important karst habitat.  

PubMed

Species richness and abundance of bats were studied in four nature reserves, including a karst area which has many potential rocky shelters for bats, such as caves and rock crevices. The reserves were located in the greater Belo Horizonte metropolitan area, one of the most populated regions of Brazil, within the Atlantic Forest, and Cerrado (Brazilian savanna) ecological domains. Bats were sampled using mist-nets and, in the karst area, also by active searches in shelters. A total of 1,599 bats were captured representing 30 species belonging to four families. There was little similarity among the four chiropteran faunas. The greatest species richness was found in the karst area with 22 species recorded whereas richness estimates in the other areas indicated the need for further studies. Two hundred and sixty-five individuals of 14 species were captured from 56 shelters. Most of the shelters were frequently used for diurnal roosts, and all the bats found belonged to the Phyllostomidae, with the exception of Myotis nigricans (Vespertilionidae), Nyctinomops laticaudatus (Molossidae) and Peropteryx macrotis (Emballonuridae). The sanguinivorous Desmodus rotundus was the most common species in the shelters. The results of this study demonstrate the importance of maintaining multiple protected areas to ensure a representative fauna of bats in a region characterized by a vegetation transition zone and with intense economic activity and high environmental impact. This study also demonstrates the importance of rock shelters for maintaining local bat richness and the importance of active searches for bats in their diurnal roosts for a more thorough sampling of the bat fauna at a given locality. PMID:23917558

Talamoni, S A; Coelho, D A; Dias-Silva, L H; Amaral, A S

2013-05-01

239

Squiggle - A Glyph Recognizer for Gesture Input  

E-print Network

Squiggle is a template-based glyph recognizer in the lineage of `$1 Recognizer' and `Protractor'. It seeks a good fit linear affine mapping between the input and template glyphs which are represented as a list of milestone points along the glyph path. The algorithm can recognize input glyphs invariant of rotation, scaling, skew, and reflection symmetries. In practice the algorithm is fast and robust enough to recognize user-generated glyphs as they are being drawn in real time, and to project `shadows' of the matching templates as feedback.

Lee, Jeremy

2011-01-01

240

Delta-associated molluscan life and death assemblages in the northern Adriatic Sea: Implications for paleoecology, regional diversity and conservation  

PubMed Central

Lifedeath (LD) studies of shelly macrofauna are important to evaluate how well a fossil assemblage can reflect the original living community, but can also serve as a proxy for recent ecological shifts in marine habitats and in practice this has to be distinguished using taphonomic preservation pattern and estimates of time-averaging. It remains to be rigorously evaluated, however, how to distinguish between sources of LD disagreement. In addition, death assemblages (DAs) also preserve important information on regional diversity which is not available from single censuses of the life assemblages (LAs). The northern Adriatic Sea is an ecosystem under anthropogenic pressure, and we studied the distribution and abundance of living and dead bivalve and gastropod species in the physically stressful environments (tidal flat and shallow sublittoral soft bottoms) associated with the delta of the Isonzo River (Gulf of Trieste). Specifically we evaluated the fidelity of richness, evenness, abundance, habitat discrimination and beta diversity. A total of 10,740 molluscs from fifteen tidal flat and fourteen sublittoral sites were analyzed for species composition and distribution of living and dead molluscs. Of 78 recorded species, only eleven were numerically abundant. There were many more dead than living individuals and rarefied species richness in the DA was higher at all spatial scales, but the differences are lower in habitats and in the region than at individual stations. Evenness was always higher in death assemblages, and probably due to temporally more variable LAs the differences are stronger in the sublittoral habitats. Distinct assemblages characterized intertidal and sublittoral habitats, and the distribution and abundance of empty shells generally corresponded to that of the living species. Death assemblages have lower beta diversity than life assemblages, but empty shells capture compositional differences between habitats to a higher degree than living shells. More samples would be necessary to account for the diversity of living molluscs in the study area, which is, however, well recorded in the death assemblages. There is no indication of a major environmental change over the last decades in this area, but due to the long history of anthropogenic pressure here, such a potential impact might be preserved in historical layers of the deeper sedimentary record. PMID:23407873

Weber, Kristina; Zuschin, Martin

2013-01-01

241

The Phylogeographical Pattern and Conservation of the Chinese Cobra (Naja atra) across Its Range Based on Mitochondrial Control Region Sequences  

PubMed Central

The vulnerable Chinese cobra (Naja atra) ranges from southeastern China south of the Yangtze River to northern Vietnam and Laos. Large mountain ranges and water bodies may influence the pattern of genetic diversity of this species. We sequenced the mitochondrial DNA control region (1029 bp) using 285 individuals collected from 23 localities across the species' range and obtained 18 sequences unique to Taiwan from GenBank for phylogenetic and population analysis. Two distinct clades were identified, one including haplotypes from the two westernmost localities (Hekou and Miyi) and the other including haplotypes from all sampling sites except Miyi. A strong population structure was found (?st?=?0.76, P<0.0001) with high haplotype diversity (h?=?1.00) and low nucleotide diversity (??=?0.0049). The Luoxiao and Nanling Mountains act as historical geographical barriers limiting gene exchange. In the haplotype network there were two star clusters. Haplotypes from populations east of the Luoxiao Mountains were represented within one cluster and haplotypes from populations west of the mountain range within the other, with haplotypes from populations south of the Nanling Mountains in between. Lineage sorting between mainland and island populations is incomplete. It remains unknown as to how much adaptive differentiation there is between population groups or within each group. We caution against long-distance transfers within any group, especially when environmental differences are apparent. PMID:25184236

Lin, Long-Hui; Hua, Lei; Qu, Yan-Fu; Gao, Jian-Fang; Ji, Xiang

2014-01-01

242

Mechanism by which a LINE protein recognizes its 3? tail RNA  

PubMed Central

LINEs mobilize their own copies via retrotransposition. LINEs can be divided into two types. One is a stringent type, which constitutes a majority of LINEs. The other is a relaxed type. To elucidate the molecular mechanism of retrotransposition, we used here two different zebrafish LINEs belonging to the stringent type. By using retrotransposition assays, we demonstrated that proteins (ORF2) encoded by an individual LINE recognize the cognate 3? tail sequence of the LINE RNA strictly. By conducting in vitro binding assays with a variety of ORF2 proteins, we demonstrated that the region between the endonuclease and reverse transcriptase domains in ORF2 is the site at which the proteins bind the stem-loop structure of the 3? tail RNA, showing that the strict recognition of the stem-loop structure by the cognate ORF2 protein is an important step in retrotransposition. This recognition can be bipartite, involving the general recognition of the stem by cTBR (conserved tail-binding region) of ORF2 and the specific recognition of the loop by vTBR (variable tail-binding region). This is the first report that clearly characterized the RNA-binding region in ORF2, providing the generality for the recognition mechanism of the RNA tail by the ORF2 protein encoded by LINEs. PMID:25143533

Hayashi, Yoshinori; Kajikawa, Masaki; Matsumoto, Takuma; Okada, Norihiro

2014-01-01

243

THE THREATENED AND THE IRREPLACEABLE: IDENTIFYING AREAS FOR THE CONSERVATION OF FAUNAL SPECIES DIVERSITY IN THE MIDDLE-ATLANTIC REGION OF THE UNITED STATES  

EPA Science Inventory

One fundamental step in conservation planning involves determining where to concentrate efforts to protect conservation targets. Here we demonstrate an approach to prioritizing areas based on both species composition and potential threats facing the species. First, we determine...

244

Willingness To Pay For Systematic Management Of Community Forests For Conservation Of Non-Timber Forest Products In Nigerias Rainforest Region  

Microsoft Academic Search

Despite the importance of non-timber forest products (NTFP) in sustaining livelihood and poverty smoothening in rural communities,\\u000a they are highly depleted and poorly conserved. Besides, conservation initiatives in Nigeria to date are rarely participatory.\\u000a Even community forests, the main source of NTFP, are poorly conserved. Therefore, to enhance participatory conservation initiatives,\\u000a this study determines the willingness of households in forest

Nnaemeka A. Chukwuone; Chukwuemeka E. Okorji

245

The Structure of the Hantavirus Zinc Finger Domain is Conserved and Represents the Only Natively Folded Region of the Gn Cytoplasmic Tail  

PubMed Central

Hantaviruses, of the family Bunyaviridae, are present throughout the world and cause a variety of infections ranging from the asymptomatic to mild and severe hemorrhagic fevers. Hantaviruses are enveloped anti-sense RNA viruses that contain three genomic segments that encode for a nucleocapsid protein, two membrane glycoproteins (Gn and Gc), and an RNA polymerase. Recently, the pathogenicity of hantaviruses has been mapped to the carboxyl end of the 150 residue Gn cytoplasmic tail. The Gn tail has also been shown to play a role in binding the ribonucleoprotein (RNP), a step critical for virus assembly. In this study, we use NMR spectroscopy to compare the structure of a Gn tail zinc finger domain of both a pathogenic (Andes) and a non-pathogenic (Prospect Hill) hantavirus. We demonstrate that despite a stark difference in the virulence of both of these viruses, the structure of the Gn core zinc finger domain is largely conserved in both strains. We also use NMR backbone relaxation studies to demonstrate that the regions of the Andes virus Gn tail immediately outside the zinc finger domain, sites known to bind the RNP, are disordered and flexible, thus intimating that the zinc finger domain is the only structured region of the Gn tail. These structural observations provide further insight into the role of the Gn tail during viral assembly as well as its role in pathogenesis. PMID:22203819

Estrada, D. Fernando; Conner, Michael; Jeor, Stephen C.; Guzman, Roberto N. De

2011-01-01

246

The Developmental Dimensions of Recognizing Racist Thoughts  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study focuses on understanding the developmental process that occurs when racist ideas are recognized as a part of college students' thought processes. Longitudinal data were collected from 29 Latino/a college students in order to illustrate how these students made meaning of racist thoughts when they began to recognize it. The framework of

Torres, Vasti

2009-01-01

247

Teaching Students to RecognizeIrony  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article exposes the problem of using declarative rather than procedural knowledge to help K--12 students recognize irony in stories. It offers commonplace procedures drawn from students' everyday language experience together with more abstract irony clues to help students recognize irony in stories and increase their story comprehension.

Milner, Joseph O.; Hawkins, Robin H.; Milner, Lucy M.

2014-01-01

248

Celebrating a Life by Recognizing Realities  

Microsoft Academic Search

This special issue on nonhuman primate behavior and welfare, the proceedings of a special Animal Behavior Society session, celebrates the life of Dr. Sylvia Taylor (1963-2005). Sylvia's premature death reminded her friends to recognize the reality that life is short, but one can make the most of it. Many individuals and organizations have also recognized the reality that an educational

V. Wensley Koch

2007-01-01

249

A Conservation Practices for Conserving  

E-print Network

to water resources. The Catalog also describes conservation practices that provide other benefits to soilA Conservation Catalog Practices for Conserving Pennsylvania's Natural Resources #12;#12;A Conservation Catalog 1 Introduction P ennsylvania is a land of great natural resources and Pennsylvania

Kaye, Jason P.

250

Hepatocyte Nuclear Factor 1 Regulates the Expression of the Organic Cation Transporter 1 via Binding to an Evolutionary Conserved Region in Intron 1 of the OCT1 Gene  

PubMed Central

The organic cation transporter 1 (OCT1), also known as solute carrier family 22 member 1, is strongly and specifically expressed in the human liver. Here we show that the hepatocyte nuclear factor 1 (HNF1) regulates OCT1 transcription and contributes to the strong, liver-specific expression of OCT1. Bioinformatic analyses revealed strong conservation of HNF1 binding motifs in an evolutionary conserved region (ECR) in intron 1 of the OCT1 gene. Electrophoretic mobility shift and chromatin immunoprecipitation assays confirmed the specific binding of HNF1 to the intron 1 ECR. In reporter gene assays performed in HepG2 cells, the intron 1 ECR increased SV40 promoter activity by 22-fold and OCT1 promoter activity by 13-fold. The increase was reversed when the HNF1 binding sites in the intron 1 ECR were mutated or the endogenous HNF1? expression was downregulated with small interfering RNA. Following HNF1? overexpression in Huh7 cells, the intron 1 ECR increased SV40 promoter activity by 11-fold and OCT1 promoter activity by 6-fold. Without HNF1? overexpression, the increases were only 3- and 2-fold, respectively. Finally, in human liver samples, high HNF1 expression was significantly correlated with high OCT1 expression (r = 0.48, P = 0.002, n = 40). In conclusion, HNF1 is a strong regulator of OCT1 expression. It remains to be determined whether genetic variants, disease conditions, or drugs that affect HNF1 activity may affect the pharmacokinetics and efficacy of OCT1-transported drugs such as morphine, tropisetron, ondansetron, tramadol, and metformin. Beyond OCT1, this study demonstrates the validity and usefulness of interspecies comparisons in the discovery of functionally relevant genomic sequences. PMID:23922447

O'Brien, Valerie P.; Bokelmann, Kristin; Ramirez, Jacqueline; Jobst, Karoline; Ratain, Mark J.; Brockmoller, Jurgen

2013-01-01

251

Biodiversity funds and conservation needs in the EU under climate change  

PubMed Central

Despite ambitious biodiversity policy goals, less than a fifth of the European Unions (EU) legally protected species and habitats show a favorable conservation status. The recent EU biodiversity strategy recognizes that climate change adds to the challenge of halting biodiversity loss, and that an optimal distribution of financial resources is needed. Here, we analyze recent EU biodiversity funding from a climate change perspective. We compare the allocation of funds to the distribution of both current conservation priorities (within and beyond Natura 2000) and future conservation needs at the level of NUTS-2 regions, using modelled bird distributions as indicators of conservation value. We find that funding is reasonably well aligned with current conservation efforts but poorly fit with future needs under climate change, indicating obstacles for implementing adaptation measures. We suggest revising EU biodiversity funding instruments for the 2014-2020 budget period to better account for potential climate change impacts on biodiversity.

Lung, Tobias; Meller, Laura; van Teeffelen, Astrid J.A.; Thuiller, Wilfried; Cabeza, Mar

2014-01-01

252

A conserved hairpin motif in the R-U5 region of the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 RNA genome is essential for replication.  

PubMed Central

The untranslated leader region of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) RNA genome contains multiple hairpin motifs. The repeat region of the leader, which is reiterated at the 3' end of the RNA molecule, encodes the well-known TAR hairpin and a second hairpin structure with the polyadenylation signal AAUAAA in the single-stranded loop [the poly(A) hairpin]. The fact that this poly(A) stem-loop structure and its thermodynamic stability are well conserved among HIV and simian immunodeficiency virus isolates, despite considerable divergence in sequence, suggests a biological function for this RNA motif in viral replication. Consistent with this idea, we demonstrate that mutations that alter the stability of the stem region or delete the upper part of the hairpin do severely inhibit replication of HIV type 1. Whereas destabilizing mutations in either the left- or right-hand side of the base-paired stem interfere with virus replication, the double mutant, which allows the formation of new base pairs, replicates more rapidly than the two individual virus mutants. Upon prolonged culturing of viruses with an altered hairpin stability, revertant viruses were obtained with additional mutations that restore the thermodynamic stability of the poly(A) hairpin. Transient transfection experiments demonstrated that transcription of the proviral genomes, translation of the viral mRNAs, and reverse transcription of the genomic RNAs are not affected by mutation of the 5' poly(A) hairpin. We show that the genomic RNA content of the virions is reduced by destabilization of this poly(A) hairpin but not by stabilization or truncation of this structure. These results suggest that the formation of the poly(A) hairpin structure at the 5' end of the genomic RNA molecule is necessary for packaging of viral genomes into virions and/or stability of the virion RNA. PMID:9032371

Das, A T; Klaver, B; Klasens, B I; van Wamel, J L; Berkhout, B

1997-01-01

253

Newly Recognized Herpesvirus Causing Malignant Catarrhal Fever in White-Tailed Deer (Odocoileus virginianus)  

PubMed Central

Malignant catarrhal fever (MCF) was diagnosed by clinical signs and lesions in five out of six white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) in a North American zoo. The clinical signs and histopathological lesions in these deer were typical of MCF. Antibody to an epitope conserved among the MCF viruses was detected in the sera collected from the deer. PCR failed to amplify viral sequences from DNA extracted from peripheral blood leukocytes (PBL) and/or spleens of the deer with primers specific for ovine herpesvirus 2 (OHV-2) or specific for alcelaphine herpesvirus 1 (AHV-1). By using degenerate primers targeting a conserved region of a herpesviral DNA polymerase gene, a DNA fragment was amplified from the PBL or spleens of all six deer and sequenced. Alignment of the sequences demonstrated that the virus in the deer belongs to the Gammaherpesvirinae subfamily, exhibiting 82% identity to OHV-2, 71% to AHV-1, and 60% to a newly identified bovine lymphotropic herpesvirus. This virus, which causes classical MCF in white-tailed deer, is a newly recognized agent belonging to the MCF group of gammaherpesviruses. It is the third reported pathogenic MCF virus, genetically distinct but closely related to OHV-2 and AHV-1. The reservoir for the virus has not been identified. PMID:10747100

Li, Hong; Dyer, Neil; Keller, Janice; Crawford, Timothy B.

2000-01-01

254

Characterization of a discontinuous human immunodeficiency virus type 1 gp120 epitope recognized by a broadly reactive neutralizing human monoclonal antibody.  

PubMed Central

While one hypervariable, linear neutralizing determinant on the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) gp120 envelope glycoprotein has been well characterized, little is known about the conserved, discontinuous gp120 epitopes recognized by neutralizing antibodies in infected individuals. Here, the epitope recognized by a broadly reactive neutralizing monoclonal antibody (F105) derived from an HIV-1-infected patient was characterized by examining the effects of changes in conserved gp120 amino acids on antibody reactivity. The F105 epitope was disrupted by changes in gp120 amino acids 256 and 257, 368 to 370, 421, and 470 to 484, which is consistent with the discontinuous nature of the epitope. Three of these regions are proximal to those previously shown to be important for CD4 binding, which is consistent with the ability of the F105 antibody to block gp120-CD4 interaction. Since F105 recognition was more sensitive to amino acid changes in each of the four identified gp120 regions than was envelope glycoprotein function, replication-competent mutant viruses that escaped neutralization by the F105 antibody were identified. These studies identify a conserved, functional HIV-1 gp120 epitope that is immunogenic in man and may serve as a target for therapeutic or prophylactic intervention. PMID:1717717

Thali, M; Olshevsky, U; Furman, C; Gabuzda, D; Posner, M; Sodroski, J

1991-01-01

255

Collections Conservation.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Collections conservation is an approach to the preservation treatment of books and book-like materials that is conceptualized and organized in terms of large groups of materials. This guide is intended to enable a library to evaluate its current collections conservation activities. The introduction describes collections conservation and gives

DeCandido, Robert

256

Only one of four possible secondary structures of the central conserved region of potato spindle tuber viroid is a substrate for processing in a potato nuclear extract.  

PubMed Central

The influence of RNA secondary structure on the substrate activity of a longer-than-unit length transcript for processing to circular viroids was studied in a nuclear extract from potato suspension cells. The nuclear extract was prepared according to a modified procedure for a plant transcription extract. The transcript of the potato spindle tuber viroid (PSTVd) consists of a monomeric molecule with 17 additional nucleotides, thus doubling most of the central conserved region of viroids of the PSTVd-class. The transcript can assume four different secondary structures, which either co-exist as conformers in solution or can be kept as metastable structures after different treatments by temperature and/or ionic strength. The structures were analysed by thermodynamic calculations and temperature-gradient gel electrophoresis and were confirmed by oligonucleotide mapping. Only the so-called extended middle structure was processed to exact viroid circles. In this structure the 5'- and 3'-ends are branching out from the rod-like viroid structure at the loop starting with nucleotide 87. The other structures were processed only if they could be rearranged into the active structure. Images PMID:7501442

Baumstark, T; Riesner, D

1995-01-01

257

A Conserved Tryptophan-Rich Motif in the Membrane-Proximal Region of the Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 gp41 Ectodomain Is Important for Env-Mediated Fusion and Virus Infectivity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mutations were introduced into the ectodomain of the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) transmembrane envelope glycoprotein, gp41, within a region immediately adjacent to the membrane-spanning domain. This region, which is predicted to form an a-helix, contains highly conserved hydrophobic residues and is unusually rich in tryptophan residues. In addition, this domain overlaps the epitope of a neutralizing monoclonal antibody,

KARL SALZWEDEL; JOHN T. WEST; ERIC HUNTER

1999-01-01

258

Conservation of wading birds  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The conservation and management of wading birds has received considerable attention over the past twenty years, through research, population monitoring, habitat protection, and through activities of specialist groups devoted to all three groups, the herons, ibises and allies, and flamingos. While populations are best known in North America, greatest advances in knowledge may have come in Australasia. The status of most species and many populations is now sufficiently known to allow assessment of risk. Conservation and management techniques allow creation of global and regional action plans for conservation of many species. Global action plans are being developed, but few regional plans have been undertaken. Management of nesting sites is now particularly well appreciated. Although known in broad stroke, much remains to be learned about managing feeding habitat. Problems related to disturbance, conflict with humans, habitat loss, contaminants and other environmental stresses remain for some species and many populations. New challenges lie in creating conservation action that account for genetic stocks.

Kushlan, J.A.

1996-01-01

259

Shrubland Lepidoptera of southern New England and southeastern New York: ecology, conservation, and management  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sandplain and ridgetop pitch pine (Pinus rigida)scrub oak (Quercus ilicifolia) barrens and other shrub-dominated natural communities (e.g., heathlands and maritime shrublands) are important habitats for rare Lepidoptera (moths and butterflies) in southern New England and southeastern New York. Fifty-six species of conservation concern representing 11 families of Lepidoptera are recognized as dependent on shrubland habitats in this region, including 23%

David L. Wagner; Michael W. Nelson; Dale F. Schweitzer

2003-01-01

260

Conserving the Himalayan forests: approaches and implications of different conservation regimes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The conservation of Himalayan forests is big concern in view of global agenda. Many studies in this endeavor reported that\\u000a the rate of forests degradation is posing a severe threat to the landscape and existing biodiversity in the Himalayas. Currently\\u000a there many conservation approaches exists and of them four are widely recognized (1) Conservation through traditional religious\\u000a beliefs traditional conserved

Sunil Nautiyal; Harald Kaechele

2007-01-01

261

Sensitive and Specific Serodiagnosis of Lyme Disease by Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay with a Peptide Based on an Immunodominant Conserved Region of Borrelia burgdorferi VlsE  

PubMed Central

VlsE, the variable surface antigen of Borrelia burgdorferi, contains an immunodominant conserved region named IR6. In the present study, the diagnostic performance of a peptide enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) based on a 26-mer synthetic peptide (C6) with the IR6 sequence was explored. Sensitivity was assessed with serum samples (n = 210) collected from patients with clinically defined Lyme disease at the acute (early localized or early disseminated disease), convalescent, or late disease phase. The sensitivities for acute-, convalescent-, and late-phase specimens were 74% (29 of 39), 85 to 90% (34 of 40 to 35 of 39), and 100% (59 of 59), respectively. Serum specimens from early neuroborreliosis patients were 95% positive (19 of 20), and those from an additional group of patients with posttreatment Lyme disease syndrome yielded a sensitivity of 62% (8 of 13). To assess the specificity of the peptide ELISA, 77 serum samples from patients with other spirochetal or chronic infections, autoimmune diseases, or neurologic diseases and 99 serum specimens from hospitalized patients in an area where Lyme disease is not endemic were examined. Only two potential false positives from the hospitalized patients were found, and the overall specificity was 99% (174 of 176). Precision, which was assessed with a panel of positive and negative serum specimens arranged in blinded duplicates, was 100%. Four serum samples with very high anti-OspA antibody titers obtained from four monkeys given the OspA vaccine did not react with the C6 peptide. This simple, sensitive, specific, and precise ELISA may contribute to alleviate some of the remaining problems in Lyme disease serodiagnosis. Because of its synthetic peptide base, it will be inexpensive to manufacture. It also will be applicable to serum specimens from OspA-vaccinated subjects. PMID:10565920

Liang, Fang Ting; Steere, Allen C.; Marques, Adriana R.; Johnson, Barbara J. B.; Miller, James N.; Philipp, Mario T.

1999-01-01

262

Spliceosomal introns in the 5? untranslated region of plant BTL RING-H2 ubiquitin ligases are evolutionary conserved and required for gene expression  

PubMed Central

Background Introns located close to the 5? end of a gene or in the 5? untranslated region often exert positive effects on gene expression. This effect, known as intron-mediated enhancement (IME), has been observed in diverse eukaryotic organisms, including plants. The sequences involved in IME seem to be spread across the intron and function in an additive manner. The IMEter algorithm was developed to predict plant introns that may enhance gene expression. We have identified several plant members of the BTL class of E3s, which may have orthologs across eukaryotes, that contain a 5?UTR intron. The RING finger E3 ligases are key enzymes of the ubiquitination system that mediate the transfer of ubiquitin to substrates. Results In this study, we retrieved BTL sequences from several angiosperm species and found that 5?UTR introns showing a strong IMEter score were predicted, suggesting that they may be conserved by lineage. Promoter-GUS fusion lines were used to confirm the IME effect of these 5?UTR introns on gene expression. IMEter scores of BTLs were compared with the 5?UTR introns of two gene families MHX and polyubiquitin genes. Conclusions Analysis performed in two Arabidopsis BTL E3 ligases genes indicated that the 5?UTR introns were essential for gene expression in all the tissues tested. Comparison of the average 5?UTR intron size on three gene families in ten angiosperm species suggests that a prevalent size for a 5?UTR intron is in the range of 600 nucleotides, and that the overall IMEter score within a gene family is preserved across several angiosperms. Our results indicated that gene expression dependent on a 5?UTR intron is an efficient regulatory mechanism in BTL E3 ligases that has been preserved throughout plant evolution. PMID:24228887

2013-01-01

263

Conservation Online  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Started as a germ of an idea back in 1987 (on a real, live bulletin board, as opposed to an electronic one), Conservation Online (CoOL) has been providing online resources for conservation professionals since 1993. As its website announces, it is a "full text library of conservation information," covering a wide array of topics ranging from digital imaging to reprographics, and quite a bit of material in between. By clicking on any given topic, visitors will receive a brief overview of the subject, its terminology, and then a list of general online resources for consideration. Another nice feature of the site is the mailing list archive, which contain the archives of various queries submitted to different professional conservation groups, such as the Association of Moving Image Archivists, the Textiles Conservation Discussion List, and the Conservation Framer's Mailing List. The site is rounded out by a timeline that traces the CoOL's history from the summer of 1987 to July 2003.

264

Degradation and rehabilitation of wetlands in the Alligator Rivers Region of northern Australia  

Microsoft Academic Search

The wetlands of the Alligator Rivers Region of northern Australia have been recognized as having high national and international conservation value. The diversity and productivity of these habitats is, however, under current and future threat from invasive feral animals (Asian water buffalo and pigs) and naturalized alien plants (mimosa, salvinia and para grass) and also from climate change and sea

C. M. Finlayson; M. J. Storrs; G. Lindner

1997-01-01

265

Recently recognized chromosomal defects of clinical importance.  

PubMed Central

We review those conditions which have recently been recognized to be associated with small, sometimes difficult to detect, chromosomal abnormalities. These include the Prader-Willi syndrome and X-linked mental retardation. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 PMID:3540928

Pembrey, M.; Baraitser, M.

1986-01-01

266

Recognizing and Responding to a Suicide Crisis.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Data from therapists who were treating 26 patients when they committed suicide were utilized to identify warning signs. Problems in communication between patient and therapist were identified as factors interfering with crisis recognition. Evaluation of the identified affects and behaviors may help therapists recognize a suicide crisis. (BF)

Hendin, Herbert; Maltsberger, John T.; Lipschitz, Alan; Haas, Ann Pollinger; Kyle, Jennifer

2001-01-01

267

Automatic Target Recognizer Working Group (ATRWG)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper describes the Automatic Target Recognizer Working Group. Included are a brief history of the organization, its goals, and progress to date. Information on the organization and meetings is included. Five committees are described--data base, evaluation, applications, artificial intelligence, and security.

Jones, Terry L.

1987-09-01

268

Recognizing Suicide Lethality Factors: Who Is Competent?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Suicide and the threat of suicide are important mental health issues for health service providers. Who a potential victim turns to for help initially and how capable that person is in recognizing the signs of potential suicide are critical issues not fully addressed by research. A study was conducted to examine the ability of various service

Steward, Robbie J.; Austin, Kevin P.

269

Recognizing Hand-Raising Gestures using HMM  

Microsoft Academic Search

Automatic attention-seeking gesture recognition is an enabling element of synchronous distance learning. Rec- ognizing attention seeking gestures is complicated by the temporal nature of the signal that must be recognized and by the similarty between attention seeking gestures and non-attention seeking gestures. Here we describe two ap- proaches to the recognition problem that utilize HMMs to learn the class of

Monowar Hossain; Michael R. M. Jenkin

2005-01-01

270

Recognizing 3-D Objects Using Surface Descriptions  

Microsoft Academic Search

The authors provide a complete method for describing and recognizing 3-D objects, using surface information. Their system takes as input dense range date and automatically produces a symbolic description of the objects in the scene in terms of their visible surface patches. This segmented representation may be viewed as a graph whose nodes capture information about the individual surface patches

Ting-jun Fan; Grard G. Medioni; Ramakant Nevatia

1989-01-01

271

Recognizing creative thinking talent in the classroom  

Microsoft Academic Search

The goals of this study were to find some simple activities which could be set up in regular class periods to encourage creative talent to emerge and to help teachers recognize it. Over 600 grade?7 children were tested both on two intelligence measures and on the Torrance Tests of Creative Thinking (TTCT). The top 3% on the TTCT, 24 subjects,

John Carroll; Noel Howieson

1991-01-01

272

Recognizing Digressive Questions During Interactive Generation  

Microsoft Academic Search

In expository discourse, people sometimes ask ques- tions that digress from the purpose of the discussion. A system that provides interactive explanations and advice must be able to distinguish pertinent questions from questions that digress. It must also be able .to recognize questions that are incoherent. These types of questions require different treatment. Pertinent ques- tions must be answered to

Susan M. Hailer

273

Recognizing and Responding to Adolescent Depression.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Depression is increasingly recognized as a problem affecting adolescents as well as adults. Adolescents are underserved with regard to treatment facilities. One solution is the comprehensive health care clinic providing a holistic approach to assessment and intervention. Policy recommendations, which include a role for the school system, are made.

King, Stephen R.

1991-01-01

274

Federally-Recognized Tribes of the Columbia-Snake Basin.  

SciTech Connect

This is an omnibus publication about the federally-recognized Indian tribes of the Columbia-Snake river basin, as presented by themselves. It showcases several figurative and literal snapshots of each tribe, bits and pieces of each tribe`s story. Each individual tribe or tribal confederation either submitted its own section to this publication, or developed its own section with the assistance of the writer-editor. A federally-recognized tribe is an individual Indian group, or confederation of Indian groups, officially acknowledged by the US government for purposes of legislation, consultation and benefits. This publication is designed to be used both as a resource and as an introduction to the tribes. Taken together, the sections present a rich picture of regional indian culture and history, as told by the tribes.

United States. Bonneville Power Administration

1997-11-01

275

Conservation Biology Institute  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Conservation Biology Institute (CBI), a non-profit organization founded in 1997, is active in three primary areas related to conservation biology - applied research, education, and professional services. Through its research - alone or in collaboration with others - CBI actively seeks to develop new conservation tools, techniques, and analyses that can be used to better address a wide range of ecological concerns from endangered species protection to regional conservation planning. Based on a combination of field-based biology and computer mapping technologies (i.e., remote sensing and geographic information systems), CBIs primary research areas include: forest, aquatic, and watershed assessments, local and regional conservation planning, endangered species research and management, ecosystem monitoring, and carnivore conservation. Their formal education program, still in development, currently consists of five basic subdivisions (or program areas) including internships/ fellowships, education materials, college courses, short courses, and workshops/guest lectures. CBIs professional services are conducted alone or in collaboration with outside organizations and include: biological surveys and consulting, geographical information system (GIS) mapping services, as well as scientific reviews and white papers.

2008-05-12

276

Recognizing Human Actions by Their Pose  

Microsoft Academic Search

The topic of human action recognition from image sequences gained increasing interest throughout the last years. Interestingly,\\u000a the majority of approaches are restricted to dynamic motion features and therefore not universally applicable. In this paper,\\u000a we propose to recognize human actions by evaluating a distribution over a set of predefined static poses which we refer to\\u000a as pose primitives. We

Christian Thurau; Vclav Hlav?

277

Water Conservation  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This activity was developed to get students thinking about the many ways that people use freshwater and how we can conserve this precious and fundamental natural resource. Students will watch a short documentary describing issues related to clean water availability, analyze water-use data and start to think about how they consume and can conserve water. This background knowledge will lead to students collecting data about their own water use and finding areas in their lives to conserve water. This activity uses the 5E instructional model and is part of the "Survivor Earth" series of one-hour lessons.

278

Conservation Ecology  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Conservation Ecology is a new, exclusively electronic, peer-reviewed scientific journal of the Resilience Alliance, with content ranging from the applied to the theoretical. Topics covered by the journal include: "the conservation of ecosystems, landscapes, species, populations, and genetic diversity; the restoration of ecosystems and habitats; and the management of resources." This site includes the full text version of the articles (including past issues), as well as instructions on how to submit papers and how to subscribe. Subscriptions to Conservation Ecology are free of charge and all materials are available for browsing without cost. Edited by ecosystem ecology expert, Dr. C. S. Holling, Conservation Ecology breaks new ground in an important, emerging science.

1997-01-01

279

Conservation in Conflict  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

What happens when war occurs in areas where there is war? Ecologist Peter Zahler who has worked in Afghanistan since 2002, talks about how conserving biodiversity may bring peace to the war-torn region. You can read more about Zahler's work in the article Nurturing Wildlife in War-Torn Afghanistan that appeared in the New Yorker Times in December, 2011.

Society, Wildlife C.

280

40 CFR 262.86 - Provisions relating to recognized traders.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 false Provisions relating to recognized traders. 262.86 Section 262.86 Protection of...262.86 Provisions relating to recognized traders. (a) A recognized trader who takes physical custody of a waste...

2010-07-01

281

Global versus Local Conservation Focus of U.S. State Agency Endangered Bird Species Lists  

PubMed Central

The development of species priorities for conservation at local or regional scales (for example, within a state or province) poses an interesting paradox. One the one hand, locally or regionally-derived species priorities may lead to greater interest in and resources directed to biodiversity conservation by local or regional institutions. On the other hand, locally or regionally-derived species priorities could overlook national or global priorities. We assessed U.S. state government agency endangered-threatened bird lists to determine the comparative representation of species of global versus local conservation significance on them. State lists tended to be represented primarily by species of low global risk-low global responsibility (range: 15100%; mean 51%) and high global risk-high global responsibility (range: 073%; mean 35%). In 25 states, more than half of the species on the state lists were in the low global risk-low global responsibility category. Most U.S. state agency lists represent a combined strategy of highlighting species of both local and global conservation significance. Even with this combined local-global strategy, most state lists were predominated by species that represent local but not global conservation significance. Such a strategy could have profound negative consequences for many species that are not formally recognized under national endangered species protections but that are also left off of state-level endangered species lists. PMID:20062538

Wells, Jeffrey V.; Robertson, Bruce; Rosenberg, Kenneth V.; Mehlman, David W.

2010-01-01

282

Portland Energy Conservation Project. City energy plan: choices for saving energy in the government sector. [City of Portland and the metropolitan region  

Microsoft Academic Search

Energy use by state government is identified for city vehicles, city buildings, sewer and water systems, street lighting, traffic lights, park lighting, public schools, office buildings, and solid-waste systems. Energy conservation choices in these systems are identified. Impacts of price increases and supply cutbacks are discussed. An appendix contains additional data on Portland employment and total energy use. (MCW)

D. F. Mazziotti; G. M. Crandall

1977-01-01

283

Modelling the benefits of soil water conservation using the PARCH model---a case study from a semi-arid region of Kenya  

E-print Network

This paper uses the Machakos area of Kenya as a case study to investigate the effect of water conservation and runoff harvesting on the yield of maize grown at two population densities in the short and the long rainy seasons of nine years chosen to represent average, wet and dry conditions

William Stephens Hess; William Stephens; T. M. Hess

284

Recognizing different types of stochastic processes  

E-print Network

We propose a new cross-correlation method that can recognize independent realizations of the same type of stochastic processes and can be used as a new kind of pattern recognition tool in biometrics, sensing, forensic, security and image processing applications. The method, which we call bispectrum correlation coefficient method, makes use of the cross-correlation of the bispectra. Three kinds of cross-correlation coefficients are introduced. To demonstrate the new method, six different random telegraph signals are tested, where four of them have the same power density spectrum. It is shown that the three coefficients can map the different stochastic processes to specific sub-volumes in a cube.

Kim, J U; Kim, Jong U.; Kish, Laszlo B.

2005-01-01

285

Home hazards: can children recognize the dangers?  

PubMed

To have effective injury prevention programs for children, solid education must be provided. Initially, the parental responsibility includes protecting and instructing the child about dangerous situations. However, when children can recognize a hazard for themselves, this becomes the basis for behavior change according to the health belief model. For trauma centers providing injury prevention services, knowing what a child perceives as a safety issue can be instrumental in correctly targeting curriculum. The following is a compilation of responses of 90 children who participated in a 2008 Home Hazard Recognition Station at a local Safe Kids event. PMID:18820562

Schooley, Carolyn B; Kelly, Amanda R

2008-01-01

286

Recognizing and responding to a suicide crisis.  

PubMed

Data from therapists who were treating 26 patients when they committed suicide were utilized to identify signs that warned of a suicide crisis. Three factors were identified as markers of the suicide crisis: a precipitating event; one or more intense affective stats other than depression; and at least one of three behavioral patterns: speech or actions suggesting suicide, deterioration in social or occupational functioning, and increased substance abuse. Problems in communication between patient and therapist, often originating in therapeutic anxiety over the patient's possible suicide, were identified as factors interfering with crisis recognition. Evaluation of the identified affects and behaviors may help therapists recognize a suicide crisis. PMID:11411185

Hendin, H; Maltsberger, J T; Lipschitz, A; Haas, A P; Kyle, J

2001-04-01

287

BIODIVERSITY Conservation biogeography of freshwater  

E-print Network

BIODIVERSITY RESEARCH Conservation biogeography of freshwater fishes: recent progress and future implications of their distributions are far reaching (Darwin, 1839; Wallace, 1876). Freshwater fishes exemplify. These factors underlie an interesting observation: at regional to global scales, most freshwater fishes occupy

García-Berthou, Emili

288

Mutations in Conserved Regions of the Predicted RAG2 Kelch Repeats Block Initiation of V(D)J Recombination and Result in Primary Immunodeficiencies  

Microsoft Academic Search

The V(D)J recombination reaction is composed of multiple nucleolytic processing steps mediated by the recombination-activating proteins RAG1 and RAG2. Sequence analysis has suggested that RAG2 contains six kelch repeat motifs that are predicted to form a six-bladed b-propeller structure, with the second b-strand of each repeat demonstrating marked conservation both within and between kelch repeat-containing proteins. Here we demonstrate that

CARLOS A. GOMEZ; LEON M. PTASZEK; ANNA VILLA; FABIO BOZZI; CRISTINA SOBACCHI; EDWARD G. BROOKS; LUIGI D. NOTARANGELO; EUGENIA SPANOPOULOU; Z. Q. Pan; PAOLO VEZZONI; PATRICIA CORTES; SANDRO SANTAGATA

2000-01-01

289

The novel function of a short region K 253 X R XXX D 259 conserved in the exonuclease domain of hyperthermostable DNA polymerase I from Pyrococcus horikoshii  

Microsoft Academic Search

The DNA polymerase gene of the hyperthermophile Pyrococcus horikoshii was successfully overexpressed after removing an intein. The importance of an amino acid sequence around a highly conserved Asp was studied by site-directed mutagenesis. The results indicated that Lys253, Arg255, and Asp259 form a novel functional motif, K253XRXXXD259 (outside known motifs Exo I, II, and III), that is important not only

Rong Zheng; Eriko Matsui; Yulong Shen; Krishnasastry V. Musti; Yan Feng; Sophie Darnis; Yutaka Kawarabayasi; Hisasi Kikuchi; Kazuaki Harata; Ikuo Matsui

2001-01-01

290

Recognizing familial myeloid leukemia in adults  

PubMed Central

Germline testing for familial cases of myeloid leukemia in adults is becoming more common with the recognition of multiple genetic syndromes predisposing people to bone marrow disease. Currently, Clinical Laboratory Improvement Amendments approved testing exists for several myeloid leukemia predisposition syndromes: familial platelet disorder with propensity to acute myeloid leukemia (FPD/AML), caused by mutations in RUNX1; familial AML with mutated CEBPA; familial myelodysplastic syndrome and acute leukemia with mutated GATA2; and the inherited bone marrow failure syndromes, including dyskeratosis congenita, a disease of abnormal telomere maintenance. With the recognition of additional families with a genetic component to their leukemia, new predisposition alleles will likely be identified. We highlight how to recognize and manage these cases as well as outline the characteristics of the major known syndromes. We look forward to future research increasing our understanding of the scope of inherited myeloid leukemia syndromes. PMID:23926458

Nickels, Eric M.; Soodalter, Jesse; Churpek, Jane E.

2013-01-01

291

Neural Circuitry for Recognizing Interspike Interval Sequences  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Sensory systems present environmental information to central nervous system as sequences of action potentials or spikes. How do animals recognize these sequences carrying information about their world? We present a biologically inspired neural circuit designed to enable spike pattern recognition. This circuit is capable of training itself on a given interspike interval (ISI) sequence and is then able to respond to presentations of the same sequence. The essential ingredients of the recognition circuit are (a) a tunable time delay circuit, (b) a spike selection unit, and (c) a tuning mechanism using spike timing dependent plasticity of inhibitory synapses. We have investigated this circuit using Hodgkin-Huxley neuron models connected by realistic excitatory and inhibitory synapses. It is robust in the presence of noise represented as jitter in the spike times of the ISI sequence.

Abarbanel, Henry D. I.; Talathi, Sachin S.

2006-04-01

292

Recognizing asthma mimics and asthma complications.  

PubMed

Asthma is a chronic inflammatory disorder of the airways characterized by airflow obstruction, bronchial hyperreactivity, and underlying inflammation. Two common reasons asthmatics fail standard therapy are incorrect diagnosis and failure to recognize underlying contributing factors. A correct diagnosis of asthma is of great importance to military practitioners since misdiagnosis or uncontrolled asthma affects an individual's operational readiness or determines whether one can receive a medical waiver to enlist in military service. This article presents four cases of patients with dyspnea that have conditions which mimic asthma or complicate asthma management: vocal cord dysfunction misdiagnosed as asthma, respiratory bronchiolitis interstitial lung disease mistaken as asthma, difficult-to-control asthma because of bronchiectasis and allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis, and difficult and fatal asthma. Asthma is contrasted to other respiratory disorders, and an outlined approach to asthma diagnosis and management is presented using the Global Initiative for Asthma guidelines. PMID:22128653

Amundson, Dennis; Seda, Gilbert; Daheshia, Massoud

2011-10-01

293

How can we recognize continuous quality improvement?  

PubMed Central

Objective Continuous quality improvement (CQI) methods are foundational approaches to improving healthcare delivery. Publications using the term CQI, however, are methodologically heterogeneous, and labels other than CQI are used to signify relevant approaches. Standards for identifying the use of CQI based on its key methodological features could enable more effective learning across quality improvement (QI) efforts. The objective was to identify essential methodological features for recognizing CQI. Design Previous work with a 12-member international expert panel identified reliably abstracted CQI methodological features. We tested which features met rigorous a priori standards as essential features of CQI using a three-phase online modified-Delphi process. Setting Primarily United States and Canada. Participants 119 QI experts randomly assigned into four on-line panels. Intervention(s) Participants rated CQI features and discussed their answers using online, anonymous and asynchronous discussion boards. We analyzed ratings quantitatively and discussion threads qualitatively. Main outcome measure(s) Panel consensus on definitional CQI features. Results Seventy-nine (66%) panelists completed the process. Thirty-three completers self-identified as QI researchers, 18 as QI practitioners and 28 as both equally. The features systematic data guided activities, designing with local conditions in mind and iterative development and testing met a priori standards as essential CQI features. Qualitative analyses showed cross-cutting themes focused on differences between QI and CQI. Conclusions We found consensus among a broad group of CQI researchers and practitioners on three features as essential for identifying QI work more specifically as CQI. All three features are needed as a minimum standard for recognizing CQI methods. PMID:24311732

Rubenstein, Lisa; Khodyakov, Dmitry; Hempel, Susanne; Danz, Margie; Salem-Schatz, Susanne; Foy, Robbie; O'Neill, Sean; Dalal, Siddhartha; Shekelle, Paul

2014-01-01

294

WATER CONSERVATION  

E-print Network

distribution is unlimited. MIL-HDBK-1165 Water conservation, maximizing the efficient use of water resources, is rapidly becoming a critical part of many military operations as more and more demands are placed upon existing water supplies. In order to remain a good neighbor and preserve the environment in which we live, engineers throughout the Department of Defense are frequently called upon to review the beneficial use of their water resources. This military handbook provides numerous methods to increase water efficiency and details the requirements of Executive Order 12902 as it relates to water conservation within the Department of Defense. In addition, this handbook also includes, in its appendices, procedures for submitting water conservation projects for central funding programs. ii MIL-HDBK-1165 FOREWORD This handbook is designed to provide guidance to the installation energy or facilities manager and project designers in the area of water conservation. This handbook is intended to assist installations in reducing their water consumption and thereby assist in complying with the provisions of Executive Order 12902. Recommendations for improvement are encouraged from within the Navy, other government agencies, and the private sector and should be furnished on the DD Form 1426 provided inside the back

Distribution Statement

1997-01-01

295

[Conservation Units.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Each of the six instructional units deals with one aspect of conservation: forests, water, rangeland, minerals (petroleum), and soil. The area of the elementary school curriculum with which each correlates is indicated. Lists of general and specific objectives are followed by suggested teaching procedures, including ideas for introducing the

Texas Education Agency, Austin.

296

Lighting Conservation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

With the energy crisis has come an awareness of wasteful consumption practices. One area where research is being done is in lighting conservation. Information in this article is concerned with finding more effective and efficient lighting designs which include daylight utilization, task-oriented lighting, and lighting controls. (MA)

Arnold, Frank D.

1975-01-01

297

Identification of conserved antigens from staphylococcal and streptococcal pathogens.  

PubMed

The design of vaccines containing epitopes shared between different human pathogens may lead to cross-species protection. In order to identify potentially conserved bacterial antigens, bacteriophage expression libraries of genomic DNA from Streptococcus agalactiae, Streptococcus pneumoniae and Streptococcus pyogenes were probed with human sera from Staphylococcus aureus-infected and healthy individuals. By comparison with previous screening data from Staphylococcus epidermidis and Staph. aureus, putative antigenic, conserved domains across the genera were identified. In particular, three potentially antigenic conserved regions were identified based on the N-terminal domain of SACOL0609 (SdrD), the C-terminal domain of SACOL0723 (ScaB) and the C-terminus of SACOL1140 (IsdA) from Staph. aureus. The three domains were overexpressed, recombinant proteins were purified and polyclonal antisera raised against them recognized cell surface-located proteins from both staphylococcal and streptococcal species. The antisera were also able to opsonize both Staph. aureus and Strep. agalactiae thereby increasing their phagocytic uptake by human neutrophils. The conserved antigenic domains therefore represent potential cross-protective vaccine candidates. PMID:22345598

Stapleton, Melanie R; Wright, Lynda; Clarke, Simon R; Moseby, Hilde; Tarkowski, Andrej; Vendrengh, Margareta; Foster, Simon J

2012-06-01

298

The Cost of Conserved Carbon: Weighing the Monetary, Social, and Climactic Implications of Regional-, National-, and Global-Scale Carbon Abatement Strategies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Previous schema for analyzing carbon mitigation methods often have lacked realistic costs, comprehensive accounting of trade-offs, and methodological transparency. We offer a dynamic model for evaluating diverse carbon mitigation scenarios based on economics, policy traction, and interplay with climate, society and ecosystems. The model will test the impacts of policy changes across more than two dozen strategies for conserving or avoiding carbon emissions. Users will be able to access the model at rael-c3.berkeley.edu and change underlying assumptions as desired.

Kantner, J. W.; Hoffman, I.; Johnston, J. L.; Kammen, D. M.; Levin, J. E.; Komiyama, R.; Motschenbacher, A.; Gimon, E.

2008-05-01

299

Local Responses to Participatory Conservation in Annapurna Conservation Area, Nepal  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Biodiversity conservation has undergone a profound change in philosophy, policies and management approaches over the last forty years. The traditional top-down approach to nature protection has been widely criticized for failing to include critical social elements in management practices, and is being gradually replaced by a slew of participatory strategies under the rubric of bottom-up conservation. The new approach recognizes local communities as key partners in wildlife management and seeks their participation in social development and biodiversity conservation. However, every social context is different in its structure and functions, and in the way social groups respond to calls for participation. In order to gain a better understanding of the approach and the barriers encountered in its implementation, a questionnaire survey of 188 households was employed in the communities of the Upper Mustang extension of Annapurna Conservation Area (ACA) in Nepal. The study provides a comparative analysis of community participation and its barriers between Non-Tourist (NT) and Tourist (TV) villages. The results revealed important differences between the two groups in terms of their participation in community programs, barriers to participation, and perception of benefits from participation. Owing to their distinct spatial, demographic and attitudinal differences, the two village groups have their own sets of needs, values and motivation factors which cannot be generalized and treated as such. The research clearly identifies the need for the conservation agency to be creative in devising strategies and initiatives appropriate to specific social groups so as to optimize their input in participatory conservation.

Khadka, Damodar; Nepal, Sanjay K.

2010-02-01

300

Homeodomain Proteins: What Governs Their Ability to Recognize Specific DNA Sequences?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Deformed (Dfd) and Ultrabithorax (Ubx) are homeodomain proteins fromDrosophila melanogasterthat exert regulatory effects on gene expression by binding to specific target sites in the fly genome using a helix-turn-helix (HTH) motif. The recognition helices of these two proteins are almost identical and the DNA sequences they recognize are similar, containing a conserved TAAT core sequence flanked by a somewhat variable

Alexandra Draganescu; Judith R. Levin; Thomas D. Tullius

1995-01-01

301

Mutational analysis of conserved regions harboring catalytic triad residues of the levansucrase protein encoded by the lsc-3 gene (lsc3) of Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato DC3000.  

PubMed

Levansucrase encoded by the lsc-3 (lsc3) gene at genomic locus PSPTOA0032 of Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato DC3000 was mutationally analyzed. Altogether, 18 single-amino-acid mutants of 13 positions of Lsc3 were studied for catalytic properties, including production of fructooligosaccharides (FOS). Asp62, Asp219, and Glu303 were proved as members of the catalytic triad. Respective alanine replacement mutants were practically inactive with their kcat values reduced up to ?130,000 times. Additionally, the requirements of Trp61, Gln301, and Arg304, located in conserved sequence blocks around the catalytic triad positions for the catalysis were shown. The catalytic significance of the position equivalent to Arg304 was shown for levansucrases for the first time. Replacement of Gln301 specifically affected the polymerizing ability of Lsc3. The Gln301Ala mutant was largely hydrolytic and produced 31 times less FOS than the wild type. Despite high conservation grades, Leu66, Pro220, Asp225, and His306 tolerated replacement well. Quantification of produced FOS showed a high biotechnological potential of Lsc3. Using 1 mg of Lsc3 protein, 15.4 g of FOS with a degree of polymerization from 3 to 7 can be synthesized in a 20 H reaction with 1,200 mM sucrose. Our expression system allowed us to produce up to 30mg of Lsc3 protein from 1L of induced culture of recombinant Escherichia coli. PMID:23725335

Mardo, Karin; Visnapuu, Triinu; Vija, Heiki; Elmi, Triin; Alame, Tiina

2014-01-01

302

Recognizing Scientific Artifacts in Biomedical Literature  

PubMed Central

Todays search engines and digital libraries offer little or no support for discovering those scientific artifacts (hypotheses, supporting/contradicting statements, or findings) that form the core of scientific written communication. Consequently, we currently have no means of identifying central themes within a domain or to detect gaps between accepted knowledge and newly emerging knowledge as a means for tracking the evolution of hypotheses from incipient phases to maturity or decline. We present a hybrid Machine Learning approach using an ensemble of four classifiers, for recognizing scientific artifacts (ie, hypotheses, background, motivation, objectives, and findings) within biomedical research publications, as a precursory step to the general goal of automatically creating argumentative discourse networks that span across multiple publications. The performance achieved by the classifiers ranges from 15.30% to 78.39%, subject to the target class. The set of features used for classification has led to promising results. Furthermore, their use strictly in a local, publication scope, ie, without aggregating corpus-wide statistics, increases the versatility of the ensemble of classifiers and enables its direct applicability without the necessity of re-training. PMID:23645987

Groza, Tudor; Hassanzadeh, Hamed; Hunter, Jane

2013-01-01

303

Artificial Immune System for Recognizing Patterns  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A method of recognizing or classifying patterns is based on an artificial immune system (AIS), which includes an algorithm and a computational model of nonlinear dynamics inspired by the behavior of a biological immune system. The method has been proposed as the theoretical basis of the computational portion of a star-tracking system aboard a spacecraft. In that system, a newly acquired star image would be treated as an antigen that would be matched by an appropriate antibody (an entry in a star catalog). The method would enable rapid convergence, would afford robustness in the face of noise in the star sensors, would enable recognition of star images acquired in any sensor or spacecraft orientation, and would not make an excessive demand on the computational resources of a typical spacecraft. Going beyond the star-tracking application, the AIS-based pattern-recognition method is potentially applicable to pattern- recognition and -classification processes for diverse purposes -- for example, reconnaissance, detecting intruders, and mining data.

Huntsberger, Terrance

2005-01-01

304

Overview: recognizing the problem of magnesium deficiency  

SciTech Connect

The magnesium content of the usual American diet is less than the recommended dietary allowance. Excesses of some macro- and micro-nutrients interact with Mg, increasing its requirements. Marginal deficiency of Mg is not associated with hypomagnesemia, is not characterized by typical manifestations, as is thus difficult to diagnose. Serum or plasma Mg levels are held within narrow limits unless tissue levels are very low, or renal function is poor. Vulnerability to Mg deficiency increases during growth and development, pregnancy, when under physical or psychological stress, and during illness or its treatment that interferes with absorption or causes loss of Mg. Evidence of biochemical changes of early Mg deficiency is rarely sought, although the roles of Mg in many enzyme systems are recognized. The effects of Mg deficiency on metabolism, even in disorders caused by vitamin dependencies in which Mg is a co-factor, are largely unexplored. Deficiency of Mg is diagnosed confidently when the laboratory reports hypomagnesemia in patients with convulsions or arrhythmias. Without these signs, Mg levels are not often ordered, even in the presence of neuromuscular irritability such as respond to Mg repletion. Because Mg supplementation or Mg-sparing drugs protect against premature or ectopic heart beats and sudden death, to which diuretic-treated hypertensive patients are at risk, it is increasingly being advised that their Mg status be determined.

Seelig, M.S.

1988-01-01

305

Soil erosion and conservation  

SciTech Connect

This is a review of worldwide land degradation problems. Four themes are emphasized: delineating and estimating the magnitude of soil erosion, quantifying erosion and sedimentation impacts on land productivity, establishing quantitative values for erosion-causing parameters, and implementing global and regional soil and water conservation programs. Papers deal with both developing and developed countries and illustrate how erosion control techniques used in developed countries can or cannot be applied in developing countries.

El-Swaify, S.A.; Moldenhauer, W.C.; Lo, A.

1985-01-01

306

Modeling effects of climatological variability and management practices on conservation of groundwater from the Mississippi River Valley Shallow Alluvial Aquifer in the Mississippi Delta region  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ninety-eight percent of water taken from the Mississippi River Shallow Alluvial Aquifer, hereafter referred to as "the aquifer" or "MRVA," is used by the agricultural industry for irrigation. Mississippi Delta agriculture is increasingly using more water from the MRVA and the aquifer has been losing about 300,000 acre-feet per year. This research expands on previous work in which a model was developed that simulates the effects of climatic variability, crop acreage changes, and specific irrigation methods on consequent variations in the water volume of the MRVA. This study corrects an identified problem by replacing total growing season precipitation with an irrigation demand driver based on evaporation and crop coefficients and changing the time scale from the entire growing season to a daily resolution. The calculated irrigation demand, as a climatological driver for the model, captures effective precipitation more precisely than the initial growing season precipitation driver. Predictive equations resulting from regression analyses of measured versus calculated irrigation water use showed R2 and correlations of 0.33 and 0.57, 0.77 and 0.88, 0.71 and 0.84, and 0.68 and 0.82 for cotton, corn, soybeans and rice, respectively. Ninety-five percent of the predicted values fall within a range of + or - about 23,000 acre-feet, an error of about 10-percent. The study also adds an additional conservation strategy through the use of surface water from on-farm reservoirs in lieu of groundwater. Analyses show that climate could provide the entire water need of the plants in 70-percent of the years for corn, 65-percent of the years for soybeans and cotton, and even 5-percent of the years for rice. Storing precipitation in on-farm structures is an effective way to reduce reliance of Delta producers on groundwater. If producers adopted, at a minimum, the 97.5:2.5 ratio suggested management practice, this minimal management strategy could potentially conserve 48-percent, 35-percent and 42-percent of groundwater for cotton, corn and soybeans, respectively. Even in extreme drought years such as 2007, cotton, corn and soybeans produced under the 97.5:2.5 management strategy could conserve 32-percent, 46-percent and 38-percent of groundwater, respectively.

Thornton, Robert Frank

307

Conservation of the Conformation and Positive Charges of Hepatitis C Virus E2 Envelope Glycoprotein Hypervariable Region 1 Points to a Role in Cell Attachment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is a major cause of liver disease. The HCV polyprotein contains a hypervariable region (HVR1) located at the N terminus of the second envelope glycoprotein E2. The strong variability of this 27-amino-acid region is due to its apparent tolerance of amino acid substitutions together with strong selection pressures exerted by anti-HCV immune responses. No

FRANCOIS PENIN; CHRISTOPHE COMBET; GEORGIOS GERMANIDIS; PIERRE-OLIVIER FRAINAIS; GILBERT DELEAGE; JEAN-MICHEL PAWLOTSKY

2001-01-01

308

Optimal Conservation of Migratory Species  

PubMed Central

Background Migratory animals comprise a significant portion of biodiversity worldwide with annual investment for their conservation exceeding several billion dollars. Designing effective conservation plans presents enormous challenges. Migratory species are influenced by multiple events across land and searegions that are often separated by thousands of kilometres and span international borders. To date, conservation strategies for migratory species fail to take into account how migratory animals are spatially connected between different periods of the annual cycle (i.e. migratory connectivity) bringing into question the utility and efficiency of current conservation efforts. Methodology/Principal Findings Here, we report the first framework for determining an optimal conservation strategy for a migratory species. Employing a decision theoretic approach using dynamic optimization, we address the problem of how to allocate resources for habitat conservation for a Neotropical-Nearctic migratory bird, the American redstart Setophaga ruticilla, whose winter habitat is under threat. Our first conservation strategy used the acquisition of winter habitat based on land cost, relative bird density, and the rate of habitat loss to maximize the abundance of birds on the wintering grounds. Our second strategy maximized bird abundance across the entire range of the species by adding the constraint of maintaining a minimum percentage of birds within each breeding region in North America using information on migratory connectivity as estimated from stable-hydrogen isotopes in feathers. We show that failure to take into account migratory connectivity may doom some regional populations to extinction, whereas including information on migratory connectivity results in the protection of the species across its entire range. Conclusions/Significance We demonstrate that conservation strategies for migratory animals depend critically upon two factors: knowledge of migratory connectivity and the correct statement of the conservation problem. Our framework can be used to identify efficient conservation strategies for migratory taxa worldwide, including insects, birds, mammals, and marine organisms. PMID:17710150

Martin, Tara G.; Chades, Iadine; Arcese, Peter; Marra, Peter P.; Possingham, Hugh P.; Norris, D. Ryan

2007-01-01

309

Protein Conservation: an View into Proteomics  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students review aspects of protein structure and folding and then move to 3D molecules, evaluating the consequences of both conservative and non-conservative substitutions in protein sequences. The activity culminates in a comparison of human, rat and bacterial enzymes; students discuss why it is be important for some regions to be conserved. Students will be able to:Explain the basic forces at work in protein folding; differentiate conservative and non-conservative substitutions in mutations; compare human, rat and bacterial enzymes and discuss why it is be important for some to be conserved.

Project, Molecular L.

310

Building Collections: Recognizing and Appreciating Differences  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A huge world exists outside the family. When youngsters enter school, they meet children from diverse and unfamiliar backgrounds--regional, ethnic, religious, and racial. Often there is confusion, mistrust, and apprehension. In the eyes of a child, being different is not always a good thing. Parents and teachers bear the burden of discussing

Krapp, Joanna Vergona

2004-01-01

311

Oak Openings and Conservation EEES 4750: Conservation Biology  

E-print Network

: Dr. Tim Fisher, UT #12;Source: Dr. Tim Fisher, UT #12;#12;#12;Prevailing wind Lack of Lake Effect #12 and formation · Roles in the Great Lakes Region · Plant Communities · Plants · Animals · Conservation #12 to the Great Lakes Region. The OO has the largest population in Ohio. #12;Orange Fringed-orchid (Platanthera

Gottgens, Hans

312

Conservative estimation of whole-body-averaged SARs in infants with a homogeneous and simple-shaped phantom in the GHz region  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We calculated the whole-body-averaged specific absorption rates (WBSARs) in a Japanese 9-month-old infant model and its corresponding homogeneous spheroidal and ellipsoidal models with 2/3 muscle tissue for 1-6 GHz far-field exposure. As a result, we found that in comparison with the WBSAR in the infant model, the ellipsoidal model with the same frontally projected area as that of the infant model provides an underestimate, whereas the ellipsoidal model with the same surface area yields an overestimate. In addition, the WBSARs in the homogenous infant models were found to be strongly affected by the electrical constant of tissue, and to be larger in the order of 2/3 muscle, skin and muscle tissues, regardless of the model shapes or polarization of incident waves. These findings suggest that the ellipsoidal model having the same surface area as that of the infant model and electrical constants of muscle tissue provides a conservative WBSAR over wide frequency bands. To confirm this idea, based on the Kaup index for Japanese 9-month-old infants, which is often used to represent the obesity of infants, we developed linearly reduced 9-month-old infant models and the corresponding muscle ellipsoidals and re-calculated their whole-body-averaged SARs with respect to body shapes. Our results reveal that the ellipsoidal model with the same surface area as that of a 9-month-old infant model gives a conservative WBSAR for different infant models, whose variability due to the model shape reaches 15%.

Hirata, Akimasa; Ito, Naoki; Fujiwara, Osamu; Nagaoka, Tomoaki; Watanabe, Soichi

2008-12-01

313

Analysis of the Conservation of T Cell Receptor Alpha and Beta Chain Variable Regions Gene in pp65 Peptide-Specific HLA-A*0201-Restricted CD8+ T Cells  

PubMed Central

Many viral epitope specific T cell receptors (TCRs) in MHC-matched individuals have been demonstrated to involve conserved amino acid motifs in ? chain complementarity-determining region 3 (CDR3). However, it is not sure whether the conserved motifs can also be found in TCR ? chain. In previous studies, we developed a modified method to enlarge the percentage of cytomegalovirus (CMV) pp65 peptide-specific CD8+ T cells in PBMC by continuous peptide stimulation in vitro, which provides sufficient number of specific T cells for detection. In this study, we further analyzed the restrictive usage of TCR V? and V? gene families and investigated the CDR3 gene sequence of pp65 peptide-specific CD8+ T cells. Analysis of CDR3 spectratypes suggested a restricted usage of TCR ? chain AV8, AV12, AV21, AV31 families and TCR ? chain BV3, BV14, BV21, BV23, BV11 families in donor CD8+ T cells stimulated by pp65 peptide. The sequences of these T cells involved similar sequence (TX) G (X) A in CDR3 region of TCR ? chain and L (XT) G (X) A in TCR ? chain. PMID:19403059

Luo, Wei; Ma, Li; Wen, Qian; Zhou, Mingqian; Wang, Xiaoning

2009-01-01

314

Modeling opportunity costs of conservation in transitional landscapes.  

PubMed

Conservation scientists recognize the urgency of incorporating opportunity costs into conservation planning. Despite this, applications to date have been limited, perhaps partly because of the difficulty in determining costs in regions with limited data on land prices and ownership. We present methods for estimating opportunity costs of land preservation in landscapes or ecoregions that are a changing mix of agriculture and natural habitat. Our approach derives from the literature on estimating land values as opportunity costs of alternate land uses and takes advantage of general availability of necessary data, even in relatively data-poor regions. The methods integrate probabilities of habitat conversion with region-wide estimates of economic benefits from agricultural land uses and estimate land values with a discount rate to convert annual values into net present values. We applied our method in a landscape undergoing agricultural conversion in Paraguay. Our model of opportunity costs predicted an independent data set of land values and was consistent with implicit discount rates of 15-25%. Model-generated land values were strongly correlated with actual land values even after correcting for the effect of property size and proportion of property that was forested. We used the model to produce a map of opportunity costs and to estimate the costs of conserving forest within two proposed corridors in the landscape. This method can be applied to conservation planning in situations where natural habitat is currently being converted to market-oriented land uses. Incorporating not only biological attributes but also socioeconomic data can help in the design of efficient networks of protected areas that represent biodiversity at minimum costs. PMID:16903110

Naidoo, Robin; Adamowicz, Wiktor L

2006-04-01

315

76 FR 10500 - Nationally Recognized Testing Laboratories Fees  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Nationally Recognized Testing Laboratories Fees AGENCY: Occupational Safety and Health...the approach it uses for calculating the fees the Agency charges Nationally Recognized...and also is requiring prepayment of these fees. This adjustment increases the...

2011-02-25

316

Interaction between the Conserved Region in the C-terminal Domain of GRK2 and Rhodopsin Is Necessary for GRK2 to  

E-print Network

Sciences, Shanghai 200031, People's Republic of China The C-terminal domain of G protein-coupled receptor decrease in its sensitivity to re- ceptor-mediated phosphorylation of a peptide sub- strate of the peptide substrate. Furthermore, the con- served region as well as the C-terminal domain could directly

Tian, Weidong

317

WWF: Ecoregion Conservation Plan for the Alps  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

As part of an effort to curtail the loss of global biodiversity, WWF recognized the Alps as one of more than 200 significant ecoregions in the world. Building on this recognition, the WWF European Alpine Programme recently published the _Ecoregion Conservation Plan for the Alps_. In addition to a description of the Alps ecoregion, the 62-page pdf document includes specific sections on The Root Causes of Biodiversity Loss, Threats, Ecoregion Conservation, Policy Framework, and Priority Conservation Areas. The document also provides an overview of the WWF European Alpine Programme, and a description of the WWF Ecoregion Action Plan.

318

Setting practical conservation priorities for birds in the Western andes of Colombia.  

PubMed

We aspired to set conservation priorities in ways that lead to direct conservation actions. Very large-scale strategic mapping leads to familiar conservation priorities exemplified by biodiversity hotspots. In contrast, tactical conservation actions unfold on much smaller geographical extents and they need to reflect the habitat loss and fragmentation that have sharply restricted where species now live. Our aspirations for direct, practical actions were demanding. First, we identified the global, strategic conservation priorities and then downscaled to practical local actions within the selected priorities. In doing this, we recognized the limitations of incomplete information. We started such a process in Colombia and used the results presented here to implement reforestation of degraded land to prevent the isolation of a large area of cloud forest. We used existing range maps of 171 bird species to identify priority conservation areas that would conserve the greatest number of species at risk in Colombia. By at risk species, we mean those that are endemic and have small ranges. The Western Andes had the highest concentrations of such species-100 in total-but the lowest densities of national parks. We then adjusted the priorities for this region by refining these species ranges by selecting only areas of suitable elevation and remaining habitat. The estimated ranges of these species shrank by 18-100% after accounting for habitat and suitable elevation. Setting conservation priorities on the basis of currently available range maps excluded priority areas in the Western Andes and, by extension, likely elsewhere and for other taxa. By incorporating detailed maps of remaining natural habitats, we made practical recommendations for conservation actions. One recommendation was to restore forest connections to a patch of cloud forest about to become isolated from the main Andes. Establecimiento de Prioridades Prcticas para la Conservacin de Aves en los Andes Occidentales de Colombia. PMID:25065287

Ocampo-Peuela, Natalia; Pimm, Stuart L

2014-10-01

319

Phylogeography and conservation of impala and greater kudu.  

PubMed

The phylogeography of the bush habituated African bovid species impala (Aepyceros melampus) and greater kudu (Tragelaphus strepsiceros) is investigated using mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) markers. Combined analysis of individual lineages, relationships and population genetics suggest a colonization process from Southern Africa toward Eastern regions in the greater kudu. Results are less clear for the impala, although remaining consistent with a similar pattern of historical dispersion. The study reveals a similar pattern, that is a marked divergence of lineages from South-western Africa relative to other regions. This pattern is opposed to previously published findings in other African bovid species. In the impala, the genetically isolated region is consistent with morphology because it is recognized as the subspecies A. m. petersi, the black-faced impala. In contrast, the similar split of South-western mitochondrial lineages was not expected in the greater kudu on the basis of morphology. Both species show a significant population genetic differentiation. Beyond their phylogeographical value, our results should raise conservation concerns about South-western populations of both species. The black-faced impala is categorized as vulnerable and our data show indications of hybridization with common impala A. m. melampus. The previously unrecognized genetic status of the South-western kudus could also imply conservation regulations. PMID:11298982

Nersting, L G; Arctander, P

2001-03-01

320

Genome Trees from Conservation Profiles  

PubMed Central

The concept of the genome tree depends on the potential evolutionary significance in the clustering of species according to similarities in the gene content of their genomes. In this respect, genome trees have often been identified with species trees. With the rapid expansion of genome sequence data it becomes of increasing importance to develop accurate methods for grasping global trends for the phylogenetic signals that mutually link the various genomes. We therefore derive here the methodological concept of genome trees based on protein conservation profiles in multiple species. The basic idea in this derivation is that the multi-component presence-absence protein conservation profiles permit tracking of common evolutionary histories of genes across multiple genomes. We show that a significant reduction in informational redundancy is achieved by considering only the subset of distinct conservation profiles. Beyond these basic ideas, we point out various pitfalls and limitations associated with the data handling, paving the way for further improvements. As an illustration for the methods, we analyze a genome tree based on the above principles, along with a series of other trees derived from the same data and based on pair-wise comparisons (ancestral duplication-conservation and shared orthologs). In all trees we observe a sharp discrimination between the three primary domains of life: Bacteria, Archaea, and Eukarya. The new genome tree, based on conservation profiles, displays a significant correspondence with classically recognized taxonomical groupings, along with a series of departures from such conventional clusterings. PMID:16362074

Tekaia, Fredj; Yeramian, Edouard

2005-01-01

321

InterB multigenic family, a gene repertoire associated with subterminal chromosome regions of Encephalitozoon cuniculi and conserved in several human-infecting microsporidian species  

Microsoft Academic Search

Microsporidia are fungi-related obligate intracellular parasites that infect numerous animals, including man. Encephalitozoon cuniculi harbours a very small genome (2.9Mbp) with about 2,000 coding sequences (CDSs). Most repeated CDSs are of unknown function\\u000a and are distributed in subterminal regions that mark the transitions between subtelomeric rDNA units and chromosome cores.\\u000a A potential multigenic family (interB) encoding proteins within a size

Ndongo Dia; Laurence Lavie; Guy Mtnier; Bhen S. Toguebaye; Christian P. Vivars; Emmanuel Cornillot

2007-01-01

322

The Nitrogen-Fixation Island Insertion Site Is Conserved in Diazotrophic Pseudomonas stutzeri and Pseudomonas sp. Isolated from Distal and Close Geographical Regions  

PubMed Central

The presence of nitrogen fixers within the genus Pseudomonas has been established and so far most isolated strains are phylogenetically affiliated to Pseudomonas stutzeri. A gene ortholog neighborhood analysis of the nitrogen fixation island (NFI) in four diazotrophic P. stutzeri strains and Pseudomonas azotifigens revealed that all are flanked by genes coding for cobalamin synthase (cobS) and glutathione peroxidise (gshP). The putative NFIs lack all the features characterizing a mobilizable genomic island. Nevertheless, bioinformatic analysis P. stutzeri DSM 4166 NFI demonstrated the presence of short inverted and/or direct repeats within both flanking regions. The other P. stutzeri strains carry only one set of repeats. The genetic diversity of eleven diazotrophic Pseudomonas isolates was also investigated. Multilocus sequence typing grouped nine isolates along with P. stutzeri and two isolates are grouped in a separate clade. A Rep-PCR fingerprinting analysis grouped the eleven isolates into four distinct genotypes. We also provided evidence that the putative NFI in our diazotrophic Pseudomonas isolates is flanked by cobS and gshP genes. Furthermore, we demonstrated that the putative NFI of Pseudomonas sp. Gr65 is flanked by inverted repeats identical to those found in P. stutzeri DSM 4166 and while the other P. stutzeri isolates harbor the repeats located in the intergenic region between cobS and glutaredoxin genes as in the case of P. stutzeri A1501. Taken together these data suggest that all putative NFIs of diazotrophic Pseudomonas isolates are anchored in an intergenic region between cobS and gshP genes and their flanking regions are designated by distinct repeats patterns. Moreover, the presence of almost identical NFIs in diazotrophic Pseudomonas strains isolated from distal geographical locations around the world suggested that this horizontal gene transfer event may have taken place early in the evolution. PMID:25251496

Venieraki, Anastasia; Dimou, Maria; Vezyri, Eleni; Vamvakas, Alexandros; Katinaki, Pagona-Artemis; Chatzipavlidis, Iordanis; Tampakaki, Anastasia; Katinakis, Panagiotis

2014-01-01

323

A phylogenetically conserved sequence within viral 3' untranslated RNA pseudoknots regulates translation.  

PubMed Central

Both the 68-base 5' leader (omega) and the 205-base 3' untranslated region (UTR) of tobacco mosaic virus (TMV) promote efficient translation. A 35-base region within omega is necessary and sufficient for the regulation. Within the 3' UTR, a 52-base region, composed of two RNA pseudoknots, is required for regulation. These pseudoknots are phylogenetically conserved among seven viruses from two different viral groups and one satellite virus. The pseudoknots contained significant conservation at the secondary and tertiary levels and at several positions at the primary sequence level. Mutational analysis of the sequences determined that the primary sequence in several conserved positions, particularly within the third pseudoknot, was essential for function. The higher-order structure of the pseudoknots was also required. Both the leader and the pseudoknot region were specifically recognized by, and competed for, the same proteins in extracts made from carrot cell suspension cells and wheat germ. Binding of the proteins is much stronger to omega than the pseudoknot region. Synergism was observed between the TMV 3' UTR and the cap and to a lesser extent between omega and the 3' UTR. The functional synergism and the protein binding data suggest that the cap, TMV 5' leader, and 3' UTR interact to establish an efficient level of translation. Images PMID:8355685

Leathers, V; Tanguay, R; Kobayashi, M; Gallie, D R

1993-01-01

324

A highly conserved amino-terminal region of sonic hedgehog is required for the formation of its freely diffusible multimeric form.  

PubMed

Although members of the Hedgehog (Hh) family were initially described as morphogens, many of these early conclusions were based on experiments that used non-physiologically relevant forms of Hh. Native Hh is modified by cholesterol (HhNp) and palmitate. These hydrophobic modifications are responsible for the ability of Hh to associate with cellular membranes, a property that initially appeared inconsistent with its ability to act far from its site of synthesis. Although it is now clear that Hh family members are capable of acting directly in long-range signaling, the form of Hh capable of this activity remains controversial. We have previously provided evidence for a freely diffusible multimeric form of Sonic Hedgehog (Shh) termed s-ShhNp, which is capable of accumulating in a gradient fashion through a morphogenic field. Here, we provide further evidence that s-ShhNp is the physiologically relevant form of Shh. We show that the biological activity of freely diffusible ShhNp resides in its multimeric form and that this multimeric form is exceedingly stable, even to high concentrations of salt and detergent. Furthermore, we now validate the Shh-Shh interactions previously observed in the crystal structure of human Shh, showing that a highly conserved amino-terminal domain of Shh is important for the formation of s-ShhNp. We also conclusively show that palmitoylation is required for s-ShhNp formation. Thus, our results identify both protein-protein and protein-lipid interactions that are required for s-ShhNp formation, and provide the first structural analyses supporting the existence of Shh multimers. PMID:16339763

Goetz, John A; Singh, Samer; Suber, Liza M; Kull, F Jon; Robbins, David J

2006-02-17

325

Calculations of the integral invariant coordinates I and L* in the magnetosphere and mapping of the regions where I is conserved  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The integral invariant coordinate I and Roederer's L or L* are proxies for the second and third adiabatic invariants respectively, that characterize charged particle motion in a magnetic field. Their usefulness lies in the fact that they are expressed in more instructive ways than their counterparts: I is equivalent to the path length of the particle motion between two mirror points, whereas L*, although dimensionless, is roughly equivalent to the distance from the center of the Earth to the equatorial point of a given field line, in units of Earth radii, in the simplified case of a dipole magnetic field. However, care should be taken when calculating the above invariants, as the assumption of their adiabaticity is not valid everywhere in the Earth's magnetosphere. This is not clearly stated in state-of-the-art models that are widely used for the calculation of these invariants. In this paper, we compare the values of I and L* as calculated using LANLstar, an artificial neural network developed at the Los Alamos National Laboratory, SPENVIS, a space environment related online tool, IRBEM, a source code library dedicated to radiation belt modelling, and a 3-D particle tracing code that was developed for this purpose. We then attempt to quantify the variations between the calculations of I and L* of those models. The deviation between the results given by the models depends on particle starting position geocentric distance, pitch angle and magnetospheric conditions. Using the 3-D tracer we attempt to map the areas in the Earth's magnetosphere where I and L* can be assumed to be conserved by monitoring the constancy of I for energetic proton propagating forwards and backwards in time. These areas are found to be centered on the noon area and their size also depends on particle starting position geocentric distance, pitch angle and magnetospheric conditions.

Konstantinidis, K.; Sarris, T.

2014-09-01

326

Allocating Conservation Resources under the Endangered Species Act  

Microsoft Academic Search

The necessity to develop a priority system to guide the allocation of resources to the conservation of endangered species is widely recognized. The economic theory of biodiversity has established a framework to do so, and has identified priority criteria that should be considered when making conservation decisions. This paper uses a random effects ordered probit model of endangered species recovery

Christian Langpap; Joe Kerkvliet

2007-01-01

327

Helping behavior and racial discrimination among liberals and conservatives  

Microsoft Academic Search

Conducted 2 field studies examining the likelihood of black and of white victims eliciting altruistic behavior from New York Liberal and Conservative Party members. When it was reasonable to assume Ss could recognize that their help was needed, black victims elicited relatively less help than white victims from conservatives than from liberals. Liberals terminated the encounter prior to the request

Samuel L. Gaertner

1973-01-01

328

Attenuated Salmonella choleraesuis-mediated RNAi targeted to conserved regions against foot-and-mouth disease virus in guinea pigs and swine  

PubMed Central

In this study, specific sequences within three genes (3D, VP4 and 2B) of the foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) genome were determined to be effective RNAi targets. These sequences are highly conserved among different serotype viruses based on sequence analysis. Small interfering RNA (siRNA)-expressing plasmids (p3D-NT19, p3D-NT56, pVP4-NT19, pVP4-NT65 and p2B-NT25) were constructed to express siRNA targeting 3D, VP4 and 2B, respectively. The antiviral potential of these siRNA for various FMDV isolates was investigated in baby hamster kidney (BHK-21) cells and suckling mice. The results show that these siRNA inhibited virus yield 10- to 300-fold for different FMDV isolates of serotype O and serotype Asia I at 48h post infection in BHK-21 cells compared to control cells. In suckling mice, p3D-NT56 and p2B-NT25 delayed the death of mice. Twenty percent to 40% of the animals that received a single siRNA dose survived 5 days post infection with serotype O or serotype Asia I. We used an attenuated Salmonella choleraesuis (C500) vaccine strain, to carry the plasmid that expresses siRNA directed against the polymerase gene 3D (p3D-NT56) of FMDV. We used guinea pigs to evaluate the inhibitory effects of recombinant S. cho (p3D-NT56/S. cho) on FMDV infection. The results show that 80% of guinea pigs inoculated with 109CFU of p3D-NT56/S. cho and challenged 36h later with 50 ID50 of homologous FMDV were protected. We also measured the antiviral activity of p3D-NT56/S. cho in swine. The results indicate that 100% of the animals treated with 5נ109CFU of p3D-NT56/S. cho were protected in 9 days. PMID:20167192

Cong, Wei; Jin, Hong; Jiang, Chengda; Yan, Weiyao; Liu, Mingqiu; Chen, Jiulian; Zuo, Xiaoping; Zheng, Zhaoxin

2010-01-01

329

Wet and Wonderful: The World's Largest Wetlands Are Conservation Priorities  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Wetlands perform many essential ecosystem servicesâcarbon storage, flood control, maintenance of biodiversity, fish production, and aquifer recharge, among othersâservices that have increasingly important global consequences. Like biodiversity hotspots and frontier forests, the world's largest wetlands are now mapped and described by an international team of scientists, highlighting their conservation importance at the global scale. We explore current understanding of some ecosystem services wetlands provide. We selected four of these wetlands (the largest peatland, West Siberian Lowland; the largest floodplain, Amazon River Basin; the least-known wetland, Congo River Basin; and the most heavily developed wetland, Mississippi River Basin), and we illustrate their diversity, emphasizing values and lessons for thinking big in terms of conservation goals. Recognizing the global significance of these wetlands is an important first step toward forging global conservation solutions. Each of the world's largest wetlands requires a basinwide sustainable management strategy built on new institutional frameworksâat international, national, and regional levelsâto ensure provision of their vital services.

Paul Keddy (Southeastern Louisiana University;Dept of Biological Sciences)

2009-01-01

330

Cloning of a highly conserved human protein Serine-Threonine phosphatase gene from the glioma candidate region on chromosome 19q13.3  

SciTech Connect

Allelic loss studies have suggested that a glioma tumor suppressor gene resides in a 425-kb region of chromosome 19q, telomeric to D19S219 and centromeric to D19S112. Exon amplification of a cosmid contig spanning this region yielded for exons with high homology to a rat protein serine-threonine phosphate from a cosmid approximately 100 kb telomeric to D19S219. Isolation of a near full-length cDNA from a human fetal brain cDNA library revealed a protein serine-threonine phosphate with a tetratricopeptide motif, almost identical to human PPP5C (PP5) and highly homologous to rat PPT. Northern blotting demonstrated expression in most human tissues, including brain. Primary and cultured gliomas were studied for genetic alterations in this gene using pulsed-field gel electrophoresis, routine Southern blots, and genomic DNA and RNA-based single strand conformation polymorphism analysis. Genomic alterations were not detected in any of the gliomas, and all studied gliomas expressed the gene, suggesting that this phosphatase is not the putative chromosome 19q glioma tumor supressor gene. 19 refs., 2 figs.

Yong, W.H.; Ueki, K.; Chou, D.; Reeves, S.A. [Massachusetts General Hopsital and Harvard Medical School, Charlestown, MA (United States)] [and others

1995-09-20

331

Formation and structure of a NAIP5-NLRC4 inflammasome induced by direct interactions with conserved N- and C-terminal regions of flagellin.  

PubMed

The NOD-like receptors NAIP5 and NLRC4 play an essential role in the innate immune response to the bacterial tail protein flagellin. Upon flagellin detection, NAIP5 and NLRC4 form a hetero-oligomeric inflammasome that induces caspase-1-dependent cell death. So far, both the mechanism of formation of the NAIP5-NLRC4 inflammasome and its structure are poorly understood. In this study we combine inflammasome reconstitution in HEK293 cells, purification of inflammasome components, and negative stain electron microscopy to address these issues. We find that a Salmonella typhimurium flagellin fragment comprising the D0 domain and the neighboring spoke region is able to co-precipitate NAIP5 and induce formation of the NAIP5-NLRC4 inflammasome. Comparison with smaller fragments indicates that flagellin recognition is mediated by its C-terminal residues as well as the spoke region. We reconstitute the inflammasome from purified flagellin, NAIP5, and NLRC4, thus proving that no other cellular components are required for its formation. Electron micrographs of the purified inflammasome provide unprecedented insight into its architecture, revealing disk-like complexes consisting of 11 or 12 protomers in which NAIP5 and NLRC4 appear to occupy equivalent positions. On the basis of our data, we propose a model for inflammasome formation wherein direct interaction of flagellin with a single NAIP5 induces the recruitment and progressive incorporation of NLRC4, resulting in the formation of a hetero-oligomeric inflammasome. PMID:23012363

Halff, Els F; Diebolder, Christoph A; Versteeg, Marian; Schouten, Arie; Brondijk, T Harma C; Huizinga, Eric G

2012-11-01

332

Structural Diversity in Conserved Regions Like the DRY-Motif among Viral 7TM Receptors--A Consequence of Evolutionary Pressure?  

PubMed Central

Several herpes- and poxviruses have captured chemokine receptors from their hosts and modified these to their own benefit. The human and viral chemokine receptors belong to class A 7 transmembrane (TM) receptors which are characterized by several structural motifs like the DRY-motif in TM3 and the C-terminal tail. In the DRY-motif, the arginine residue serves important purposes by being directly involved in G protein coupling. Interestingly, among the viral receptors there is a greater diversity in the DRY-motif compared to their endogenous receptor homologous. The C-terminal receptor tail constitutes another regulatory region that through a number of phosphorylation sites is involved in signaling, desensitization, and internalization. Also this region is more variable among virus-encoded 7TM receptors compared to human class A receptors. In this review we will focus on these two structural motifs and discuss their role in viral 7TM receptor signaling compared to their endogenous counterparts. PMID:22899926

Jensen, Ann-Sofie M?lleskov; Sparre-Ulrich, Alexander Hovard; Davis-Poynter, Nicholas; Rosenkilde, Mette Marie

2012-01-01

333

Conservation successes at micro-, meso- and macroscales.  

PubMed

Although large-scale biodiversity declines are ongoing, certain conservation actions have made a positive difference. Rates of extinction and endangerment of vertebrate species, for instance, have probably been reduced via conservation interventions. Such conservation actions operate at different spatial scales. Habitat preservation and endangered species recovery are examples of conservation successes at microscales. Mesoscale conservation includes regional cooperation among neighboring countries that has arrested population declines of endangered species, such as mountain gorillas. At macroscales, public pressure on multinational corporations has sometimes resulted in their abandoning environmentally damaging practices or suppliers with poor environmental records. Overall, conservation projects such as these need more long-term funding and greater political and popular support, and must also include provisions to evaluate and document their outcomes. As we discuss here, a focus on conservation successes achieved at different scales can help to promote these aims and guide future conservation victories. PMID:21824677

Sodhi, Navjot S; Butler, Rhett; Laurance, William F; Gibson, Luke

2011-11-01

334

Recognizing the importance of tropical forests in limiting rainfall-induced debris flows  

EPA Science Inventory

Worldwide concern for continuing loss of montane forest cover in the tropics usually focuses on adverse ecological consequences. Less recognized, but equally important to inhabitants of these affected regions, is an increasing susceptibility to rainfall-induced debris flows and t...

335

Documenting Biogeographical Patterns of African Timber Species Using Herbarium Records: A Conservation Perspective Based on Native Trees from Angola  

PubMed Central

In many tropical regions the development of informed conservation strategies is hindered by a dearth of biodiversity information. Biological collections can help to overcome this problem, by providing baseline information to guide research and conservation efforts. This study focuses on the timber trees of Angola, combining herbarium (2670 records) and bibliographic data to identify the main timber species, document biogeographic patterns and identify conservation priorities. The study recognized 18 key species, most of which are threatened or near-threatened globally, or lack formal conservation assessments. Biogeographical analysis reveals three groups of species associated with the enclave of Cabinda and northwest Angola, which occur primarily in Guineo-Congolian rainforests, and evergreen forests and woodlands. The fourth group is widespread across the country, and is mostly associated with dry forests. There is little correspondence between the spatial pattern of species groups and the ecoregions adopted by WWF, suggesting that these may not provide an adequate basis for conservation planning for Angolan timber trees. Eight of the species evaluated should be given high conservation priority since they are of global conservation concern, they have very restricted distributions in Angola, their historical collection localities are largely outside protected areas and they may be under increasing logging pressure. High conservation priority was also attributed to another three species that have a large proportion of their global range concentrated in Angola and that occur in dry forests where deforestation rates are high. Our results suggest that timber tree species in Angola may be under increasing risk, thus calling for efforts to promote their conservation and sustainable exploitation. The study also highlights the importance of studying historic herbarium collections in poorly explored regions of the tropics, though new field surveys remain a priority to update historical information. PMID:25061858

Romeiras, Maria M.; Figueira, Rui; Duarte, Maria Cristina; Beja, Pedro; Darbyshire, Iain

2014-01-01

336

Sniffing behaviour, or recognizing a lily by smell, but not recognizing a sock on sight.  

PubMed

We report a 65-year-old man with a post-anoxic encephalopathy who showed compulsive sniffing at available objects. This stereotyped environment-driven behaviour has not been previously described. Other compulsive environment-driven responses, such as manipulation and utilization of tools and hyperlexia, were also present. The disorder shared several features with the Klver-Bucy syndrome where mouthing of objects, rather than smelling them, is common. The patient had a severe dementia, with amnesia, anomia, apraxia, and visual agnosia. Whereas he could not recognize very familiar objects on sight, he could in contrast correctly identify several familiar odours. Although sniffing was a compulsive and purposeless environment-driven behaviour, the question may be asked whether a relatively preserved olfactory recognition, in the presence of a severe disorder of visual recognition and knowledge, could have favoured a stereotyped exploration of objects by smelling. PMID:9339337

Vuilleumier, P; Staub, F; Assal, G

1997-09-01

337

46 CFR 160.077-9 - Recognized laboratory.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) EQUIPMENT, CONSTRUCTION, AND MATERIALS: SPECIFICATIONS AND APPROVAL LIFESAVING EQUIPMENT Hybrid Inflatable Personal Flotation Devices 160.077-9 Recognized laboratory. (a) A manufacturer seeking...

2011-10-01

338

Molluscan life and death assemblages of a sheltered lagoon in the northern Red Sea: Implications for paleoecology, regional diversity and conservation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Life-death (LD) studies of shelly macrofauna are important to evaluate how well a fossil assemblage can reflect the original living community, but can also serve as a proxy for recent ecological shifts in marine habitats. In addition, death assemblages (DAs) also preserve important information on regional diversity which is not available from single censuses of the life assemblages (LAs). Most case studies on LD agreement were performed in temperate environments. We studied the distribution and abundance of living and dead bivalve and gastropod species in the physically stressful environments (tidal flat and shallow sublittoral soft bottoms) of a sheltered lagoon in the northern Red Sea, which is under increasing anthropogenic pressure from tourism. A total of 3,566 molluscs from nine tidal flat and nine sublittoral stations were analyzed for species composition and distribution of living and dead molluscs. Of 97 recorded species, one potamidid gastropod dominated strongly and another 4 species were numerically abundant. There were many more dead (70.3%) than living individuals, with large differences between gastropods (57.5% dead) and bivalves (95.5% dead), and between the intertidal (49.3% dead) and the subtidal (96.2% dead). The mean number of species per sample is lower in the intertidal than in the subtidal, and this difference is much higher in the death assemblage than in the life assemblage. Distinct assemblages characterized intertidal and sublittoral habitats, however, and the distribution and abundance of empty shells generally corresponded to that of the living species. More samples would be necessary to account for the diversity of living molluscs in the study area, which is, however, well recorded in the death assemblages. There is no indication of a major environmental change over the last decades in this area.

Zuschin, Martin; Gtzer, Claudia

2014-05-01

339

Recognizing sights, smells, and sounds with gnostic fields.  

PubMed

Mammals rely on vision, audition, and olfaction to remotely sense stimuli in their environment. Determining how the mammalian brain uses this sensory information to recognize objects has been one of the major goals of psychology and neuroscience. Likewise, researchers in computer vision, machine audition, and machine olfaction have endeavored to discover good algorithms for stimulus classification. Almost 50 years ago, the neuroscientist Jerzy Konorski proposed a theoretical model in his final monograph in which competing sets of "gnostic" neurons sitting atop sensory processing hierarchies enabled stimuli to be robustly categorized, despite variations in their presentation. Much of what Konorski hypothesized has been remarkably accurate, and neurons with gnostic-like properties have been discovered in visual, aural, and olfactory brain regions. Surprisingly, there have not been any attempts to directly transform his theoretical model into a computational one. Here, I describe the first computational implementation of Konorski's theory. The model is not domain specific, and it surpasses the best machine learning algorithms on challenging image, music, and olfactory classification tasks, while also being simpler. My results suggest that criticisms of exemplar-based models of object recognition as being computationally intractable due to limited neural resources are unfounded. PMID:23365648

Kanan, Christopher

2013-01-01

340

Comparative Analysis of the Mitochondrial Genomes of Callitettixini Spittlebugs (Hemiptera: Cercopidae) Confirms the Overall High Evolutionary Speed of the AT-Rich Region but Reveals the Presence of Short Conservative Elements at the Tribal Level  

PubMed Central

The present study compares the mitochondrial genomes of five species of the spittlebug tribe Callitettixini (Hemiptera: Cercopoidea: Cercopidae) from eastern Asia. All genomes of the five species sequenced are circular double-stranded DNA molecules and range from 15,222 to 15,637 bp in length. They contain 22 tRNA genes, 13 protein coding genes (PCGs) and 2 rRNA genes and share the putative ancestral gene arrangement of insects. The PCGs show an extreme bias of nucleotide and amino acid composition. Significant differences of the substitution rates among the different genes as well as the different codon position of each PCG are revealed by the comparative evolutionary analyses. The substitution speeds of the first and second codon position of different PCGs are negatively correlated with their GC content. Among the five species, the AT-rich region features great differences in length and pattern and generally shows a 25 times higher substitution rate than the fastest PCG in the mitochondrial genome, atp8. Despite the significant variability in length, short conservative segments were identified in the AT-rich region within Callitettixini, although absent from the other groups of the spittlebug superfamily Cercopoidea. PMID:25285442

Liu, Jie; Bu, Cuiping; Wipfler, Benjamin; Liang, Aiping

2014-01-01

341

WSU's conservation program is primarily driven by the desire to minimize impacts on water resources, namely the regional aquifer, and to meet regulatory requirements. The official goal is to  

E-print Network

WSU's conservation program is primarily driven by the desire to minimize impacts on water resources. As recorded in Table 4-4 of the WSU water system plan, the projected water demand with conservation is (in conservation measures that were incorporated into the project. A new East Campus Chilled Water Facility

Collins, Gary S.

342

DIVISION S-6SOIL & WATER MANAGEMENT & CONSERVATION Conservation Tillage Systems for Cotton in the Tennessee Valley  

Microsoft Academic Search

Yield reductions from no-tillage cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) jeopardized adoption of conservation systems in the Tennessee Valley region of north Alabama in the early 1990s. We conducted a study from 1995 to 1999 on a Decatur silt loam (fine, kaolinitic, thermic Rhodic Paleudults) to develop a practical conservation tillage system with competitive yields for the region. Treatments included a factorial

E. B. Schwab; D. W. Reeves; C. H. Burmester; R. L. Raper

343

When Do Infants Begin Recognizing Familiar Words in Sentences?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Previous studies have shown that by 11 but not by 10 months infants recognize words that have become familiar from everyday life independently of the experimental setting. This study explored the ability of 10-, 11-, and 12- month-old infants to recognize familiar words in sentential context, without experimental training. The headturn preference

DePaolis, Rory A.; Vihman, Marilyn M.; Keren-Portnoy, Tamar

2014-01-01

344

The Methodology of Officially Recognized International Sports Rating Systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

A comprehensive comparative survey is presented, covering official rating systems as published by internationally recognized sports federations. Mind sports and physical sports are both included. As of November 2010, competitions in 159 international sports are organized by sports federations recognized by the IOC, Sport Accord and by Wikipedia identified under “List of International Sport Federations. Of the 159 sports, 18

Ray Stefani

2011-01-01

345

Recognizing the infrared airport runway and choosing aimpoint  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, we will discuss the issue of recognizing the runway target in IR images and choosing the aimpoint. At first, we detect out the target from complicated background, Then we use tow characteristics to recognize it and choose the optimal aimpoint. Some results are presented. From the experiment, our method operates successfully.

Yang, Weiping; Li, Zhiyong; Shen, Zhenkang

1997-10-01

346

Recognizing Strokes in Tennis Videos using Hidden Markov Models  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper addresses content-based video retrieval with an emphasis on recognizing events in tennis game videos. In particular, we aim at recognizing different classes of tennis strokes using automatic learning capability of Hidden Markov Models. Driven by our domain knowledge, a robust player segmentation algorithm is developed for real video data. Further, we introduce a number of novel features to

Milan Petkovic; Willem Jonker; Z. Zivkovic

2001-01-01

347

Globally Trained Handwritten Word Recognizer using Spatial Representation,  

E-print Network

­ tated image'' from the normalized pen trajectory; a replicated convolutional neural network that spotsGlobally Trained Handwritten Word Recognizer using Spatial Representation, Convolutional Neural and curvature. The recognizer is a convolution network which can be spatially replicated. From the network

LeCun, Yann

348

Energy Conservation Curriculum for Secondary and Post-Secondary Students. Module 5: Lighting Conservation Opportunities.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This module is the fifth in a series of eleven modules in an energy conservation curriculum for secondary and postsecondary vocational students. It is designed for use by itself or part of a sequence of four modules on understanding utilities (see also modules 3, 6, and 7). The objective of this module is to train students to recognize

Navarro Coll., Corsicana, TX.

349

Conservation International: Biodiversity Hotspots  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

From Conservation International, this Biodiversity Hotspots site (first reported on in the October 18, 2002 NSDL Scout Report for Life Sciences) "was re-launched in 2005 with completely updated information as presented in the new book _Hotspots Revisited_." The updated Hotspots website features profiles of more than 30 ecologically important areas of the world. Hotspots are categorized under five world regions including South America, Africa, North and Central America, Europe and Central Asia, and Asia-Pacific. Site visitors will find profiles about such Hotspots as the Himalaya, Mediterranean Basin, Horn of Africa, Tropical Andes, Madrean Pine-Oak Woodlands, Sundaland, and more. In addition to regional profiles, the site offers a number of helpful resources such as a Terrestrial Vertebrate Species Database, a Glossary, Maps, and related References.

350

MPhil Textile Conservation MPhil Textile Conservation  

E-print Network

MPhil Textile Conservation #12;MPhil Textile Conservation Textile conservation is a multi-disciplinary field combining scientific analysis and a knowledge of textile history and techniques with the practical-solving and hands-on work as well as the chance to develop knowledge of our rich textile heritage and to contribute

Guo, Zaoyang

351

LAND & WATER CONSERVATION PROGRAM  

E-print Network

LAND & WATER CONSERVATION PROGRAM ________________________________________________________________________ Preparing a Conservation Plan INTRODUCTION Conservation of land, water and other natural features. Examples of goals might include protecting the water resources of a town, maintaining or improving local

New Hampshire, University of

352

Water conservation programs  

SciTech Connect

The paper discusses three water conservation programs: statewide water conservation efforts, a 5-point program of the City of Albuquerque, and the program for recycling wastewater by the Intel Corporation. Water conservation programs depend largely on public education programs. Albuquerque`s program, for example, includes development of a K-12th grade curriculum on water conservation, live theater performances promoting conservation for elementary school children, and collaboration with existing community organizations to promote water conservation.

Darilek, A. [New Mexico State Engineer Office, Santa Fe, NM (United States). Water Conservation Program; Witherspoon, J. [City of Albuquerque, NM (United States). Public Works Dept.; Hutchinson, D.L. [Intel Corp., Rio Rancho, NM (United States)

1995-12-31

353

Discretization of Conservation Laws  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many of the basic equations in atmospheric modeling are based on conservation laws. Conservation of mass constitutes the continuity\\u000a equation, and conservation of momentum establishes the momentum equations. When conservation properties are present in the\\u000a continuous equations, the numerical (discrete) counterparts should also have conservative properties. Examples for numerical\\u000a conservation of vorticity or other state variables can be found in

Jrn Behrens

354

A conserved tryptophan-rich motif in the membrane-proximal region of the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 gp41 ectodomain is important for Env-mediated fusion and virus infectivity.  

PubMed

Mutations were introduced into the ectodomain of the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) transmembrane envelope glycoprotein, gp41, within a region immediately adjacent to the membrane-spanning domain. This region, which is predicted to form an alpha-helix, contains highly conserved hydrophobic residues and is unusually rich in tryptophan residues. In addition, this domain overlaps the epitope of a neutralizing monoclonal antibody, 2F5, as well as the sequence corresponding to a peptide, DP-178, shown to potently neutralize virus. Site-directed mutagenesis was used to create deletions, substitutions, and insertions centered around a stretch of 17 hydrophobic and uncharged amino acids (residues 666 to 682 of the HXB2 strain of HIV-1) in order to determine the role of this region in the maturation and function of the envelope glycoprotein. Deletion of the entire stretch of 17 amino acids abrogated the ability of the envelope glycoprotein to mediate both cell-cell fusion and virus entry without affecting the normal maturation, transport, or CD4-binding ability of the protein. This phenotype was also demonstrated by substituting alanine residues for three of the five tryptophan residues within this sequence. Smaller deletions, as well as multiple amino acid substitutions, were also found to inhibit but not block cell-cell fusion. These results demonstrate the crucial role of a tryptophan-rich motif in gp41 during a post-CD4-binding step of glycoprotein-mediated fusion. The basis for the invariant nature of the tryptophans, however, appears to be at the level of glycoprotein incorporation into virions. Even the substitution of phenylalanine for a single tryptophan residue was sufficient to reduce Env incorporation and drop the efficiency of virus entry approximately 10-fold, despite the fact that the same mutation had no significant effect on syncytium formation. PMID:9971832

Salzwedel, K; West, J T; Hunter, E

1999-03-01

355

Wetland Loss and Biodiversity Conservation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Most species of wetland-dependent organisms live in multiple local populations sustained through occasional migration. Retention of minimum wetland densities in human-dominated landscapes is funda- mental to conserving these organisms. An analysis of wetland mosaics was performed for two regions of the northeastern United States to assess the degree to which historical wetland loss alters the metrics of wetland mosaics and

James P. Gibbs

2000-01-01

356

HIV-1 Conserved Elements p24CE DNA Vaccine Induces Humoral Immune Responses with Broad Epitope Recognition in Macaques  

PubMed Central

To target immune responses towards invariable regions of the virus, we engineered DNA-based immunogens encoding conserved elements (CE) of HIV-1 p24gag. This conserved element vaccine is designed to avoid decoy epitopes by focusing responses to critical viral elements. We previously reported that vaccination of macaques with p24CE DNA induced robust cellular immune responses to CE that were not elicited upon wild type p55gag DNA vaccination. p24CE DNA priming followed by p55gag DNA boost provided a novel strategy to increase the magnitude and breadth of the cellular immune responses to HIV-1 Gag, including the induction of strong, multifunctional T-cell responses targeting epitopes within CE. Here, we examined the humoral responses induced upon p24CE DNA or p55gag DNA vaccination in macaques and found that although both vaccines induced robust p24gag binding antibody responses, the responses induced by p24CE DNA showed a unique broad range of linear epitope recognition. In contrast, antibodies elicited by p55gag DNA vaccine failed to recognize p24CE protein and did not recognize linear epitopes spanning the CE. Interestingly, boosting of p24CE DNA primed animals with p55gag DNA resulted in augmentation of antibodies able to recognize p24gag as well as the p24CE proteins, thereby inducing broadest immunity. Our results indicate that an effectively directed vaccine strategy that includes priming with the conserved element vaccine followed by boost with the complete immunogen induces broad cellular and humoral immunity focused on the conserved regions of the virus. This novel and effective strategy to broaden responses could be applied against other antigens of highly diverse pathogens. PMID:25338098

Kulkarni, Viraj; Valentin, Antonio; Rosati, Margherita; Rolland, Morgane; Mullins, James I.; Pavlakis, George N.; Felber, Barbara K.

2014-01-01

357

Genome-Wide DNA Microarray Analysis of Francisella tularensis Strains Demonstrates Extensive Genetic Conservation within the Species but Identifies Regions That Are Unique to the Highly Virulent F. tularensis subsp. tularensis  

PubMed Central

Francisella tularensis is a potent pathogen and a possible bioterrorism agent. Little is known, however, to explain the molecular basis for its virulence and the distinct differences in virulence found between the four recognized subspecies, F. tularensis subsp. tularensis, F. tularensis subsp. mediasiatica, F. tularensis subsp. holarctica, and F. tularensis subsp. novicida. We developed a DNA microarray based on 1,832 clones from a shotgun library used for sequencing of the highly virulent strain F. tularensis subsp. tularensis Schu S4. This allowed a genome-wide analysis of 27 strains representing all four subspecies. Overall, the microarray analysis confirmed a limited genetic variation within the species F. tularensis, and when the strains were compared, at most 3.7% of the probes showed differential hybridization. Cluster analysis of the hybridization data revealed that the causative agents of type A and type B tularemia, i.e., F. tularensis subsp. tularensis and F. tularensis subsp. holarctica, respectively, formed distinct clusters. Despite marked differences in their virulence and geographical origin, a high degree of genomic similarity between strains of F. tularensis subsp. tularensis and F. tularensis subsp. mediasiatica was apparent. Strains from Japan clustered separately, as did strains of F. tularensis subsp. novicida. Eight regions of difference (RD) 0.6 to 11.5 kb in size, altogether comprising 21 open reading frames, were identified that distinguished strains of the moderately virulent subspecies F. tularensis subsp. holarctica and the highly virulent subspecies F. tularensis subsp. tularensis. One of these regions, RD1, allowed for the first time the development of an F. tularensis-specific PCR assay that discriminates each of the four subspecies. PMID:12843022

Broekhuijsen, Martien; Larsson, Par; Johansson, Anders; Bystrom, Mona; Eriksson, Ulla; Larsson, Eva; Prior, Richard G.; Sjostedt, Anders; Titball, Richard W.; Forsman, Mats

2003-01-01

358

Superior Control of HIV-1 Replication by CD8+ T Cells Targeting Conserved Epitopes: Implications for HIV Vaccine Design  

PubMed Central

A successful HIV vaccine will likely induce both humoral and cell-mediated immunity, however, the enormous diversity of HIV has hampered the development of a vaccine that effectively elicits both arms of the adaptive immune response. To tackle the problem of viral diversity, T cell-based vaccine approaches have focused on two main strategies (i) increasing the breadth of vaccine-induced responses or (ii) increasing vaccine-induced responses targeting only conserved regions of the virus. The relative extent to which set-point viremia is impacted by epitope-conservation of CD8+ T cell responses elicited during early HIV-infection is unknown but has important implications for vaccine design. To address this question, we comprehensively mapped HIV-1 CD8+ T cell epitope-specificities in 23 ART-nave individuals during early infection and computed their conservation score (CS) by three different methods (prevalence, entropy and conseq) on clade-B and group-M sequence alignments. The majority of CD8+ T cell responses were directed against variable epitopes (p<0.01). Interestingly, increasing breadth of CD8+ T cell responses specifically recognizing conserved epitopes was associated with lower set-point viremia (r?=?- 0.65, p?=?0.009). Moreover, subjects possessing CD8+ T cells recognizing at least one conserved epitope had 1.4 log10 lower set-point viremia compared to those recognizing only variable epitopes (p?=?0.021). The association between viral control and the breadth of conserved CD8+ T cell responses may be influenced by the method of CS definition and sequences used to determine conservation levels. Strikingly, targeting variable versus conserved epitopes was independent of HLA type (p?=?0.215). The associations with viral control were independent of functional avidity of CD8+ T cell responses elicited during early infection. Taken together, these data suggest that the next-generation of T-cell based HIV-1 vaccines should focus on strategies that can elicit CD8+ T cell responses to multiple conserved epitopes of HIV-1. PMID:23741326

Kunwar, Pratima; Hawkins, Natalie; Dinges, Warren L.; Liu, Yi; Gabriel, Erin E.; Swan, David A.; Stevens, Claire E.; Maenza, Janine; Collier, Ann C.; Mullins, James I.; Hertz, Tomer; Yu, Xuesong; Horton, Helen

2013-01-01

359

Superior control of HIV-1 replication by CD8+ T cells targeting conserved epitopes: implications for HIV vaccine design.  

PubMed

A successful HIV vaccine will likely induce both humoral and cell-mediated immunity, however, the enormous diversity of HIV has hampered the development of a vaccine that effectively elicits both arms of the adaptive immune response. To tackle the problem of viral diversity, T cell-based vaccine approaches have focused on two main strategies (i) increasing the breadth of vaccine-induced responses or (ii) increasing vaccine-induced responses targeting only conserved regions of the virus. The relative extent to which set-point viremia is impacted by epitope-conservation of CD8(+) T cell responses elicited during early HIV-infection is unknown but has important implications for vaccine design. To address this question, we comprehensively mapped HIV-1 CD8(+) T cell epitope-specificities in 23 ART-nave individuals during early infection and computed their conservation score (CS) by three different methods (prevalence, entropy and conseq) on clade-B and group-M sequence alignments. The majority of CD8(+) T cell responses were directed against variable epitopes (p<0.01). Interestingly, increasing breadth of CD8(+) T cell responses specifically recognizing conserved epitopes was associated with lower set-point viremia (r?=?- 0.65, p?=?0.009). Moreover, subjects possessing CD8(+) T cells recognizing at least one conserved epitope had 1.4 log10 lower set-point viremia compared to those recognizing only variable epitopes (p?=?0.021). The association between viral control and the breadth of conserved CD8(+) T cell responses may be influenced by the method of CS definition and sequences used to determine conservation levels. Strikingly, targeting variable versus conserved epitopes was independent of HLA type (p?=?0.215). The associations with viral control were independent of functional avidity of CD8(+) T cell responses elicited during early infection. Taken together, these data suggest that the next-generation of T-cell based HIV-1 vaccines should focus on strategies that can elicit CD8(+) T cell responses to multiple conserved epitopes of HIV-1. PMID:23741326

Kunwar, Pratima; Hawkins, Natalie; Dinges, Warren L; Liu, Yi; Gabriel, Erin E; Swan, David A; Stevens, Claire E; Maenza, Janine; Collier, Ann C; Mullins, James I; Hertz, Tomer; Yu, Xuesong; Horton, Helen

2013-01-01

360

50 CFR 665.208 - Protected species conservation.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE (CONTINUED) FISHERIES IN THE WESTERN PACIFIC Hawaii Fisheries 665.208 Protected species conservation. The Regional Administrator may change the...

2013-10-01

361

7 CFR 1466.27 - Conservation Innovation Grants (CIG).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-01-01 false Conservation Innovation Grants (CIG). 1466...1466.27 Conservation Innovation Grants (CIG). (a) Definitions...Resource Assessment, one Regional Assistant Chief, and one...approaches demonstrates clear innovation. The burden falls on...

2011-01-01

362

7 CFR 1466.27 - Conservation Innovation Grants (CIG).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-01-01 false Conservation Innovation Grants (CIG). 1466...1466.27 Conservation Innovation Grants (CIG). (a) Definitions...Resource Assessment, one Regional Assistant Chief, and one...approaches demonstrates clear innovation. The burden falls on...

2010-01-01

363

Patients With T1 to T2 Breast Cancer With One to Three Positive Nodes Have Higher Local and Regional Recurrence Risks Compared With Node-Negative Patients After Breast-Conserving Surgery and Whole-Breast Radiotherapy  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: To evaluate locoregional recurrence according to nodal status in women with T1 to T2 breast cancer and zero to three positive nodes (0-3N+) treated with breast-conserving surgery (BCS). Methods and Materials: The study subjects comprised 5,688 women referred to the British Columbia Cancer Agency between 1989 and 1999 with pT1 to T2, 0-3N+, M0 breast cancer, who underwent breast-conserving surgery with clear margins and radiotherapy (RT) of the whole breast. The 10-year Kaplan-Meier local, regional, and locoregional recurrence (LR, RR, and LRR, respectively) were compared between the N0 (n = 4,433) and 1-3N+ (n = 1,255) cohorts. The LRR was also examined in patients with one to three positive nodes (1-3N+) treated with and without nodal RT. Multivariate analysis was performed using Cox regression modeling. Results: Median follow-up was 8.6 years. Systemic therapy was used in 97% of 1-3N+ and 41% of N0 patients. Nodal RT was used in 35% of 1-3N+ patients. The 10-year recurrence rates in N0 and 1-3N+ cohorts were as follows: LR 5.1% vs. 5.8% (p = 0.04); RR 2.3% vs. 6.1% (p < 0.001), and LRR 6.7% vs. 10.1% (p < 0.001). Among 817 1-3N+ patients treated without nodal RT, 10-year LRR were 13.8% with age <50 years, 20.3% with Grade III, and 23.4% with estrogen receptor (ER)-negative disease. On multivariate analysis, 1-3N+ status was associated with significantly higher LRR (hazard ratio [HR], 1.85; 95% confidence interval, 1.34-2.55, p < 0.001), whereas nodal RT significantly reduced LRR (HR, 0.59; 95% confidence interval, 0.38-0.92, p = 0.02). Conclusion: Patients with 1-3N+ and young age, Grade III, or ER-negative disease have high LRR risks approximating 15% to 20% despite BCS, whole-breast RT and systemic therapy. These patients may benefit with more comprehensive RT volume encompassing the regional nodes.

Truong, Pauline T. [Radiation Therapy Program, British Columbia Cancer Agency, Vancouver Island Centre, University of British Columbia, Victoria, BC (Canada); Breast Cancer Outcomes Unit, British Columbia Cancer Agency, Vancouver Island Centre, University of British Columbia, Victoria, BC (Canada)], E-mail: ptruong@bccancer.bc.ca; Jones, Stuart O.; Kader, Hosam A. [Radiation Therapy Program, British Columbia Cancer Agency, Vancouver Island Centre, University of British Columbia, Victoria, BC (Canada); Wai, Elaine S. [Radiation Therapy Program, British Columbia Cancer Agency, Vancouver Island Centre, University of British Columbia, Victoria, BC (Canada); Breast Cancer Outcomes Unit, British Columbia Cancer Agency, Vancouver Island Centre, University of British Columbia, Victoria, BC (Canada); Speers, Caroline H. [Breast Cancer Outcomes Unit, British Columbia Cancer Agency, Vancouver Island Centre, University of British Columbia, Victoria, BC (Canada); Alexander, Abraham S. [Radiation Therapy Program, British Columbia Cancer Agency, Vancouver Island Centre, University of British Columbia, Victoria, BC (Canada); Olivotto, Ivo A. [Radiation Therapy Program, British Columbia Cancer Agency, Vancouver Island Centre, University of British Columbia, Victoria, BC (Canada); Breast Cancer Outcomes Unit, British Columbia Cancer Agency, Vancouver Island Centre, University of British Columbia, Victoria, BC (Canada)

2009-02-01

364

THz spectroscopy for art conservation science  

Microsoft Academic Search

The scientific analysis is an important process in art conservation for collecting information of materials used in original work as well as in previous conservation processes. Recently terahertz spectroscopy has progressed rapidly and it is expected that its spectra are more material specific compared with those of mid-infrared regions, so that it can give useful information to identify materials used

Kaori Fukunaga; Iwao Hosako; Yuichi Ogawa; S. Hayashi

2007-01-01

365

Future battlegrounds for conservation under global change  

PubMed Central

Global biodiversity is under significant threat from the combined effects of human-induced climate and land-use change. Covering 12% of the Earth's terrestrial surface, protected areas are crucial for conserving biodiversity and supporting ecological processes beneficial to human well-being, but their selection and design are usually uninformed about future global change. Here, we quantify the exposure of the global reserve network to projected climate and land-use change according to the Millennium Ecosystem Assessment and set these threats in relation to the conservation value and capacity of biogeographic and geopolitical regions. We find that geographical patterns of past human impact on the land cover only poorly predict those of forecasted change, thus revealing the inadequacy of existing global conservation prioritization templates. Projected conservation risk, measured as regional levels of land-cover change in relation to area protected, is the greatest at high latitudes (due to climate change) and tropics/subtropics (due to land-use change). Only some high-latitude nations prone to high conservation risk are also of high conservation value, but their high relative wealth may facilitate additional conservation efforts. In contrast, most low-latitude nations tend to be of high conservation value, but they often have limited capacity for conservation which may exacerbate the global biodiversity extinction crisis. While our approach will clearly benefit from improved land-cover projections and a thorough understanding of how species range will shift under climate change, our results provide a first global quantitative demonstration of the urgent need to consider future environmental change in reserve-based conservation planning. They further highlight the pressing need for new reserves in target regions and support a much extended northsouth transfer of conservation resources that maximizes biodiversity conservation while mitigating global climate change. PMID:18302999

Lee, Tien Ming; Jetz, Walter

2008-01-01

366

Multispecies Conservation Planning  

E-print Network

CHAPTER 3 Multispecies Conservation Planning on U.S. Federal Lands Barry R. Noon, Kevin S. Mc of that propose guidelines for multispe- cies conservation planning ultimately default to surrogate conservation planning. We are encouraged by recent attempts to extend conservation planning from single

367

Compensation and Conservation.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Although the idea that conservation can occur without compensation was rejected by Piaget, direct and indirect evidence from developmental studies and conservation training research indicates that conservation can and does develop without compensation. Nevertheless, adults' conservation concepts include the compensation principle and influence

Silverman, Irwin W.; Rose, Arthur P.

1982-01-01

368

A new point mutation in the nuclear gene of yeast mitochondrial RNA polymerase, RPO41, identifies a functionally important amino-acid residue in a protein region conserved among mitochondrial core enzymes.  

PubMed

The core enzyme of mitochondrial RNA polymerase in yeast is homologous to those of bacteriophages T3, T7 and SP6. In previous studies the identification of the first conditional yeast mutant for this enzyme helped to identify the corresponding specificity factor and to elucidate their interaction inside mitochondria. In the present study we report the identification of a second nuclear mutation located in the gene for mitochondrial RNA polymerase. A comparison of the two temperature-sensitive mutants demonstrates that the new mutant has a phenotype distinct from the first one and characterizes a new important domain of the enzyme. Two different suppressor genes which both rescue the first mutant do not abolish the defect of the second one and, in addition, an extremely high instability of mitochondrial genomes is observed in the new mutant. The enzymatic defect is caused by a single nucleotide exchange which results in the replacement of the serine938 residue by phenylalanine. This amino acid is located in the middle part of the protein in an as yet poorly characterized region that is not highly conserved between mitochondrial core enzymes and bacteriophage-type RNA polymerases. However, the affected amino acid and the respective protein domain are specific for mitochondrial RNA polymerase core enzymes and may help to define enzymatic functions specific for the mitochondrial transcription apparatus. PMID:8929390

Lisowsky, T; Stein, T; Michaelis, G; Guan, M X; Chen, X J; Clark-Walker, G D

1996-11-01

369

Recognizing deviations from normalcy for brain tumor segmentation  

E-print Network

A framework is proposed for the segmentation of brain tumors from MRI. Instead of training on pathology, the proposed method trains exclusively on healthy tissue. The algorithm attempts to recognize deviations from normalcy ...

Gering, David T. (David Thomas), 1971-

2003-01-01

370

46 CFR 160.060-9 - Recognized laboratory.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...CONSTRUCTION, AND MATERIALS: SPECIFICATIONS AND APPROVAL LIFESAVING EQUIPMENT Specification for a Buoyant Vest, Unicellular Polyethylene Foam, Adult and Child 160.060-9 Recognized laboratory. (a) A manufacturer seeking Coast Guard...

2011-10-01

371

46 CFR 160.060-9 - Recognized laboratory.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...CONSTRUCTION, AND MATERIALS: SPECIFICATIONS AND APPROVAL LIFESAVING EQUIPMENT Specification for a Buoyant Vest, Unicellular Polyethylene Foam, Adult and Child 160.060-9 Recognized laboratory. (a) A manufacturer seeking Coast Guard...

2010-10-01

372

For Chloroplasts Cytidine-to-Uridine Recognizing Editor  

E-print Network

For Chloroplasts Cytidine-to-Uridine Recognizing Editor for Chloroplasts A Chloroplasts C-to-U RNA CURE-Chloroplast Contents 1 Introduction..........................................................................................3 2 Using online CURE-Chloroplast service......................................3 2.1 The main

Gu, Jin

373

3-minute diagnosis: Researchers develop new method to recognize pathogens  

ScienceCinema

Imagine knowing precisely why you feel sick ... before the doctor's exam is over. Lawrence Livermore researcher Reg Beer and his engineering colleagues have developed a new method to recognize disease-causing pathogens quicker than ever before.

Beer, Reg

2014-05-30

374

Consumers Learning To Recognize High-Value Health Care Providers  

MedlinePLUS

... salud para t Newsletters Events Newsroom Navigating the Health Care System Advice Columns from Dr. Carolyn Clancy Former ... 3 2012 Consumers Learning To Recognize High-Value Health Care Providers By Carolyn M. Clancy, M.D. As ...

375

The human G1m1 allotype associates with CD4+ T-cell responsiveness to a highly conserved IgG1 constant region peptide and confers an asparaginyl endopeptidase cleavage site.  

PubMed

The human G1m1 allotype comprises two amino acids, D12 and L14, in the CH3 domain of IGHG1. Although the G1m1 allotype is prevalent in human populations, ~40% of Caucasiods are homozygous for the nG1m1 allotype corresponding to E12 and M14. Peptides derived from the G1m1 region were tested for their ability to induce CD4+ T-cell proliferative responses in vitro. A peptide immediately downstream from the G1m1 sequence was recognized by CD4+ T cells in a large percentage of donors (peptide CH3??-??). CD4+ T-cell proliferative responses to CH3??-?? were found at an increased frequency in nG1m1 homozygous donors. Homozygous nG1m1 donors possessing the HLA-DRB1*07 allele displayed the highest magnitudes of proliferation. CD4+ T cells from donors homozygous for nG1m1 proliferated to G1m1-carrying Fc-fragment proteins, whereas CD4+ T cells from G1m1 homozygous donors did not. The G1m1 sequence creates an enzymatic cleavage site for asparaginyl endopeptidase in vitro. Proteolytic activity at D12 may allow the presentation of the CH3??-?? peptide, which in turn may result in the establishment of tolerance to this peptide in G1m1-positive donors. Homozygous nG1m1 patients may be more likely to develop CD4+ T-cell-mediated immune responses to therapeutic antibodies carrying the G1m1 allotype. PMID:21326320

Stickler, M M; Reddy, A; Xiong, J M; Hinton, P R; DuBridge, R; Harding, F A

2011-04-01

376

Non-random Escape Pathways from a Broadly Neutralizing Human Monoclonal Antibody Map to a Highly Conserved Region on the Hepatitis C Virus E2 Glycoprotein Encompassing Amino Acids 412-423  

PubMed Central

A challenge for hepatitis C virus (HCV) vaccine development is to define epitopes that are able to elicit protective antibodies against this highly diverse virus. The E2 glycoprotein region located at residues 412423 is conserved and antibodies to 412423 have broadly neutralizing activities. However, an adaptive mutation, N417S, is associated with a glycan shift in a variant that cannot be neutralized by a murine but by human monoclonal antibodies (HMAbs) against 412423. To determine whether HCV escapes from these antibodies, we analyzed variants that emerged when cell culture infectious HCV virions (HCVcc) were passaged under increasing concentrations of a specific HMAb, HC33.1. Multiple nonrandom escape pathways were identified. Two pathways occurred in the context of an N-glycan shift mutation at N417T. At low antibody concentrations, substitutions of two residues outside of the epitope, N434D and K610R, led to variants having improved in vitro viral fitness and reduced sensitivity to HC33.1 binding and neutralization. At moderate concentrations, a S419N mutation occurred within 412423 in escape variants that have greatly reduced sensitivity to HC33.1 but compromised viral fitness. Importantly, the variants generated from these pathways differed in their stability. N434D and K610R-associated variants were stable and became dominant as the virions were passaged. The S419N mutation reverted back to N419S when immune pressure was reduced by removing HC33.1. At high antibody concentrations, a mutation at L413I was observed in variants that were resistant to HC33.1 neutralization. Collectively, the combination of multiple escape pathways enabled the virus to persist under a wide range of antibody concentrations. Moreover, these findings pose a different challenge to vaccine development beyond the identification of highly conserved epitopes. It will be necessary for a vaccine to induce high potency antibodies that prevent the formation of escape variants, which can co-exist with lower potency or levels of neutralizing activities. PMID:25122476

Keck, Zhen-yong; Angus, Allan G. N.; Wang, Wenyan; Lau, Patrick; Wang, Yong; Gatherer, Derek; Patel, Arvind H.; Foung, Steven K. H.

2014-01-01

377

Mutational analysis of the conserved region 2 site of adenovirus E1A and its effect on binding to the retinoblastoma gene product: use of the "double-tagging" assay.  

PubMed Central

We have explored the feasibility of using a "double-tagging" assay for assessing which amino acids of a protein are responsible for its binding to another protein. We have chosen the adenovirus E1A-retinoblastoma gene product (pRB) proteins for a model system, and we focused on the high-affinity conserved region 2 of adenovirus E1A (CR2). We used site-specific mutagenesis to generate a mutant E1A gene with a lysine instead of an aspartic acid at position 121 within the CR2 site. We demonstrated that this mutant exhibited little binding to pRB by the double-tagging assay. We also have shown that this lack of binding is not due to any significant decrease in the level of expression of the beta-galactosidase-E1A fusion protein. We then created a "library" of phage expressing beta-galactosidase-E1A fusion proteins with a variety of different mutations within CR2. This library of E1A mutations was used in a double-tagging screening to identify mutant clones that bound to pRB. Three classes of phage were identified: the vast majority of clones were negative and exhibited no binding to pRB. Approximately 1 in 10,000 bound to pRB but not to E1A ("true positives"). A variable number of clones appeared to bind equally well to both pRB and E1A ("false positives"). The DNA sequence of 10 true positive clones yielded the following consensus sequence: DLTCXEX, where X = any amino acid. The recovery of positive clones with only one of several allowed amino acids at each position suggests that most, if not all, of the conserved residues play an important role in binding to pRB. On the other hand, the DNA sequence of the negative clones appeared random. These results are consistent with those obtained from other sources. These data suggest that a double-tagging assay can be employed for determining which amino acids of a protein are important for specifying its interaction with another protein if the complex forms within bacteria. This assay is rapid and up to 1 x 10(6) mutations can be screened at one time. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 PMID:7753854

Wang, Z X; Germino, F J

1995-01-01

378

Mutational analysis of the conserved region 2 site of adenovirus E1A and its effect on binding to the retinoblastoma gene product: use of the "double-tagging" assay.  

PubMed

We have explored the feasibility of using a "double-tagging" assay for assessing which amino acids of a protein are responsible for its binding to another protein. We have chosen the adenovirus E1A-retinoblastoma gene product (pRB) proteins for a model system, and we focused on the high-affinity conserved region 2 of adenovirus E1A (CR2). We used site-specific mutagenesis to generate a mutant E1A gene with a lysine instead of an aspartic acid at position 121 within the CR2 site. We demonstrated that this mutant exhibited little binding to pRB by the double-tagging assay. We also have shown that this lack of binding is not due to any significant decrease in the level of expression of the beta-galactosidase-E1A fusion protein. We then created a "library" of phage expressing beta-galactosidase-E1A fusion proteins with a variety of different mutations within CR2. This library of E1A mutations was used in a double-tagging screening to identify mutant clones that bound to pRB. Three classes of phage were identified: the vast majority of clones were negative and exhibited no binding to pRB. Approximately 1 in 10,000 bound to pRB but not to E1A ("true positives"). A variable number of clones appeared to bind equally well to both pRB and E1A ("false positives"). The DNA sequence of 10 true positive clones yielded the following consensus sequence: DLTCXEX, where X = any amino acid. The recovery of positive clones with only one of several allowed amino acids at each position suggests that most, if not all, of the conserved residues play an important role in binding to pRB. On the other hand, the DNA sequence of the negative clones appeared random. These results are consistent with those obtained from other sources. These data suggest that a double-tagging assay can be employed for determining which amino acids of a protein are important for specifying its interaction with another protein if the complex forms within bacteria. This assay is rapid and up to 1 x 10(6) mutations can be screened at one time. PMID:7753854

Wang, Z X; Germino, F J

1995-05-01

379

Conservation of position-specific gene expression in axolotl limb skin.  

PubMed

Urodele amphibians can regenerate their limbs after amputation. After amputation, undifferentiated cells appear on the amputation plane and form regeneration blastema. A limb blastema recreates a complete replica of the original limb. It is well known that disturbance of the location of limb tissues prior to amputation perturbs limb patterning, suggesting that different intact limb tissues carry different location information despite their identical appearance. The cause of such differences in intact tissues remains unknown. In this study, we found that Lmx1b, Tbx2, and Tbx3 genes, which are expressed in developing limb in a region specific manner, remained detectable in a mature axolotl limb. Furthermore, those position-specific gene expression patterns were conserved in mature limbs. Treatment with retinoic acid (RA), which is known to have ventralizing activity, changed Lmx1b expression in intact dorsal skin and dorsal character to ventral, indicating that conserved Lmx1b expression was due to the dorsal character and not leaky gene expression. Furthermore, we found that such conserved gene expression was rewritable in regeneration blastemas. These results suggest that axolotl limb cells can recognize their locations and maintain limbness via conserved expression profiles of developmental genes. PMID:24410490

Satoh, Akira; Makanae, Aki

2014-01-01

380

Natural Resources Conservation Service: Backyard Conservation  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Natural Resources Conservation Service, a division of the U.S. Department of Agriculture, has a feature on their website on backyard conservation. Conservation practices used on agricultural land throughout the country have been adapted for the smaller scale of backyards. Not only can visitors download and print out a 28-page booklet in English or Spanish, but they can also download and print out eight tip sheets on backyard conservation. Information on how to order the free above-mentioned material, through the mail, is also provided. Using the link in the middle of the page, "See More Tips and Topics on Backyard Conservation", visitors can read over 30 archived tips and topics, including "Invite a Toad to Dinner", "Selecting the Right Tree", and "Dream Yard". For teachers, the link "Backyard Conservation Lesson Plans" in the middle of the page provides a variety of lesson plans. Some of the lessons included are "Team Flight", which is about birds; "Growing Native", which is about native plant communities; and "Backyard Conservation and Local Laws", which is about how community laws may help or hinder backyard conservation efforts. A mock city council hearing is the final activity of the lesson.

2009-07-15

381

Nonstereotyped Lymphoma B-cell Receptors Recognize Vimentin as a Shared Autoantigen  

PubMed Central

Antigen activation of the B-cell receptor (BCR) may play a role in the pathogenesis of human follicular lymphoma (FL) and other B-cell malignancies. However, the nature of the antigen(s) recognized by tumor BCRs has not been well studied. Here, we used unbiased approaches to demonstrate that 42 (19.35%) of 217 tested FL immunoglobulins (Igs) recognized vimentin as a shared autoantigen. The epitope was localized to the N-terminal region of vimentin for all vimentin-reactive tumor Igs. We confirmed specific binding to vimentin by using recombinant vimentin and by performing competitive inhibition studies. Furthermore, using indirect immunofluorescence staining, we showed that the vimentin-reactive tumor Igs colocalized with an anti-vimentin monoclonal antibody in HEp-2 cells. The reactivity to N-terminal vimentin of IgG FL Igs was significantly higher than that of IgM FL Igs (30.4% vs. 10%; P=0.0022). However, vimentin-reactive FL Igs did not share complimentarity determining region 3 motifs and were not homologous. Vimentin was expressed in the T-cell rich regions of FL, suggesting that vimentin is available for binding with tumor BCRs within the tumor microenvironment. Vimentin was also frequently recognized by mantle cell lymphoma and multiple myeloma Igs. Our results demonstrate that vimentin is a shared autoantigen recognized by nonstereotyped FL BCRs and by the Igs of mantle cell lymphoma and multiple myeloma and suggest that vimentin may play a role in the pathogenesis of multiple B-cell malignancies. These findings may lead to better understanding of the biology and natural history of FL and other B cell malignancies. PMID:23536634

Cha, Soung-Chul; Qin, Hong; Kannan, Shibichakravarthy; Rawal, Seema; Watkins, Leticia S.; Baio, Flavio E.; Wu, Weiguo; Ong, Juliana; Wei, Jinsong; Kwak, Benjamin; Kim, Sang; Popescu, Michael S.; Paick, Daniel S.; Kim, Kunhwa; Luong, Amber; Davis, Richard E; Schroeder, Harry W.; Kwak, Larry W.; Neelapu, Sattva S.

2013-01-01

382

When do infants begin recognizing familiar words in sentences?  

PubMed

Previous studies have shown that by 11 but not by 10 months infants recognize words that have become familiar from everyday life independently of the experimental setting. This study explored the ability of 10-, 11-, and 12-month-old infants to recognize familiar words in sentential context, without experimental training. The headturn preference procedure was used to contrast passages containing words likely to be familiar to the infants with passages containing words unlikely to have been previously heard. Two stimulus words were inserted near the beginning and end of each of a set of simple sentence frames. The ability to recognize the familiar words within sentences emerged only at 12 months of age. The contrast between segmentation abilities as they emerge as a result of everyday exposure to language, as assessed here, and those abilities as measured in studies in which words are experimentally trained is discussed in terms of memory-based mechanisms. PMID:23253168

Depaolis, Rory A; Vihman, Marilyn M; Keren-Portnoy, Tamar

2014-01-01

383

Northwest Power and Conservation Council Fifth Northwest Power Plan  

E-print Network

Northwest Power and Conservation Council Fifth Northwest Power Plan Statement of Basis and Purpose is required by the Pacific Northwest Electric Power Planning and Conservation Act of 1980 (Section 4.(d)(1)) to develop a regional conservation and electric power plan and to review it not less frequently than every

384

Farm and Forest Land Preservation with Conservation Easements  

E-print Network

of the Southern Regional Water Program. #12;2 Farm and Forest Land Preservation with Conservation Easements I of the conservation easement and the landowner's specific circumstances. What happens on the land affects both waterFarm and Forest Land Preservation with Conservation Easements by Christopher D. Clark1 Larry

385

The role of taxonomy in species conservation.  

PubMed Central

Taxonomy and species conservation are often assumed to be completely interdependent activities. However, a shortage of taxonomic information and skills, and confusion over where the limits to 'species' should be set, both cause problems for conservationists. There is no simple solution because species lists used for conservation planning (e.g. threatened species, species richness estimates, species covered by legislation) are often also used to determine which units should be the focus of conservation actions; this despite the fact that the two processes have such different goals and information needs. Species conservation needs two kinds of taxonomic solution: (i) a set of practical rules to standardize the species units included on lists; and (ii) an approach to the units chosen for conservation recovery planning which recognizes the dynamic nature of natural systems and the differences from the units in listing processes that result. These solutions are well within our grasp but require a new kind of collaboration among conservation biologists, taxonomists and legislators, as well as an increased resource of taxonomists with relevant and high-quality skills. PMID:15253356

Mace, Georgina M

2004-01-01

386

Production of antibodies which recognize opiate receptors on murine leukocytes  

SciTech Connect

An antibody has been developed which recognizes opiate receptors on cells of the immune system. This antibody blocks specific binding of the radiolabeled opiate receptor ligand, /sup 3/H-dihydromorphine, to receptors on murine splenocytes. Additionally, the anti-receptor antibody competes with ..beta..-endorphin, meta-enkephalin, and naloxone for the same binding site on the leukocytes. Moreover, the anti-receptor antibody possesses agonist activity similar to ..beta..-endorphin in suppressing cAMP production by lymphocytes. These results suggest the development of an antibody which recognizes classical opiate receptors on cells of the immune system.

Carr, D.J.J.; Bost, K.L.; Blalock, J.E.

1988-01-01

387

The art of conservation  

Microsoft Academic Search

As the World Wide Fund for Nature (WWF) turns 50, Henry Nicholls traces how the evolution of conservation practice has been echoed in the various incarnations of WWF's iconic pandas, and other conservation logos.

Henry Nicholls

2011-01-01

388

PREVENTIVE CONSERVATION: A CONCEPT SUITED TO THE CONSERVATION OF EARTHEN  

E-print Network

and Construction Key words: Preventive conservation, traditional conservation practices, risk reduction, heritage and Archaeology Restorers with University Education (ARAAFU) or the International Institute for the Conservation

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

389

Comparative Analysis Of River Conservation In The United States And South Africa  

EPA Science Inventory

Both the United States and South Africa are recognized for their strong and innovative approaches to the conservation of river ecosystems. These national programs possess similar driving legislation and ecoregional classification schemes supported by comprehensive monitoring prog...

390

Technology in water conservation  

E-print Network

2 tx H2O Summer 2013 Column by Dr. Calvin Finch, Water Conservation and Technology Center director WAT E R CONSERVATION & TECHNOLOGY CENTER Securing Our Water Future It is not unusual for individuals to describe water conservation as a... through water conservation, introduction of new technology does not automati- cally result in water savings. #27;e new evapotrans- piration-based irrigation controllers illustrate the point. A lawn?s need for water is dependent on the weather...

Finch, Dr. Calvin

2013-01-01

391

The Ocean Conservancy  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Learn about the Ocean Conservancy's conservation projects, the latest news in marine conservation, how to get involved, and more. Read over the current issues the Ocean Conservancy is working on, such as by catch, invasive species, and overfishing. Explore the "Fish and Wildlife" link for pictures and information on threatened and endangered animals; and read past and current issues of Blue Planet Magazine, OC's quarterly publication.

2012-05-03

392

Incorporating climate change into systematic conservation planning  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The principles of systematic conservation planning are now widely used by governments and non-government organizations alike to develop biodiversity conservation plans for countries, states, regions, and ecoregions. Many of the species and ecosystems these plans were designed to conserve are now being affected by climate change, and there is a critical need to incorporate new and complementary approaches into these plans that will aid species and ecosystems in adjusting to potential climate change impacts. We propose five approaches to climate change adaptation that can be integrated into existing or new biodiversity conservation plans: (1) conserving the geophysical stage, (2) protecting climatic refugia, (3) enhancing regional connectivity, (4) sustaining ecosystem process and function, and (5) capitalizing on opportunities emerging in response to climate change. We discuss both key assumptions behind each approach and the trade-offs involved in using the approach for conservation planning. We also summarize additional data beyond those typically used in systematic conservation plans required to implement these approaches. A major strength of these approaches is that they are largely robust to the uncertainty in how climate impacts may manifest in any given region.

Groves, Craig R.; Game, Edward T.; Anderson, Mark G.; Cross, Molly; Enquist, Carolyn; Ferdana, Zach; Girvetz, Evan; Gondor, Anne; Hall, Kimberly R.; Higgins, Jonathan; Marshall, Rob; Popper, Ken; Schill, Steve; Shafer, Sarah L.

2012-01-01

393

BNL's environmental performance in 2007 continued to be a success, and that per-formance is key in enabling us to accomplish our scientific goals. We were recognized  

E-print Network

in enabling us to accomplish our scientific goals. We were recognized with eight national or regional by the auditors. In addition, our nationally recognized Pollution Prevention Program continued to save the Laboratory money and helped reduce or reuse millions of pounds of waste. As we address the remaining legacy

394

Energy Conservation Renewable Energy  

E-print Network

Conservation High Temperature Hot Water Line ReplacementHigh Temperature Hot Water Line ReplacementEnergy Conservation Renewable Energy The Future at Rutgers University Facilities & Capital Planning Operations & Services Utilities Operations 6 Berrue Circle Piscataway, NJ 08854 #12;Energy Conservation Wh C

Delgado, Mauricio

395

Water & Energy Conservation Plan  

E-print Network

Water & Energy Conservation Plan View of PGI construction and retention pond, Sitapura Industrial that India and the college both face. Within, plans are made for the conservation of water and energy of water and energy consumption on PGC's campuses and makes recommendations for increased conservation

Illinois at Chicago, University of

396

Biodiversity and Conservation Research  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Center for Biodiversity and Conservation (CBC) at the American Museum of Natural History aims to "integrate scientific research, education, and outreach so that people, themselves major catalysts in the rapid loss of biodiversity, will become participants in its conservation." The CBC currently conducts biodiversity conservation research in the Bahamas, Bolivia, Madagascar, Vietnam, and in metropolitan New York.

2001-01-01

397

Empathy Conditioned Conservation: \\  

Microsoft Academic Search

Since the destruction and despair caused by the dust bowl of the 1930s, Americans and their government have taken a keen interest in natural resource conservation policy on agricultural land. The Soil Conservation and Domestic Allotment Act of 1936 was the first farm bill to include provisions that provided payments to farmers willing to employ soil conservation measures (Cain and

Robert Sheeder; Gary D. Lynne

2009-01-01

398

Conservation des Textiles  

E-print Network

Conservation des Textiles Les 22 et 23 mai 2013 Soit 2 jours - 14 heures OBJECTIFS DE LA FORMATION essentielles dans la gestion de collections textiles, depuis leur identification jusqu'à leur conservation conservation d'éléments et de collections textiles, et toutes personnes travaillant dans le domaine du

Brest, Université de

399

Conservation Action Handbook.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Conservation problems are identified, with some suggestions for action. General areas covered are: Wildlife Conservation, Soil Conservation, Clean Water, Air Pollution Action, and Outdoor Recreation Action. Appendices list private organizations or agencies concerned with natural resource use and/or management, congressional committees considering

National Rifle Association, Washington, DC.

400

Conservation in Physics.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discussed is the physical concept of conservation as it is framed within the laws of conservation of mass, of momentum, and of energy. The derivation of Ohm's Law as a generalization of the relationship between the observed measurements of voltage and current serves as the exemplar of how conservation theories are formed. (JJK)

Finkel, Edward

1991-01-01

401

Novel member of the zinc finger superfamily: A C2-HC finger that recognizes a glia-specific gene.  

PubMed Central

A novel member of the zinc finger superfamily was cloned by virtue of its binding to cis-regulatory elements of a glia-specific gene, the myelin proteolipid protein (PLP) gene. Named MyTI (myelin transcription factor I), this gene is most highly transcribed in the developing nervous system, where expression precedes induction of its presumptive target, PLP. Low levels of MyTI transcripts can be detected in nonneural tissues only by polymerase chain reaction analysis. Zinc is a necessary cofactor for DNA binding of MyTI, as the zinc-chelating agent 1,10-orthophenanthroline eliminates binding activity. Zinc may stabilize the DNA-binding domain of MyTI by coordinating three cysteine and one histidine residue in a Cys-X5-Cys-X12-His-X4-Cys (C2-HC) arrangement. The MyTI protein has six fingers of the C2-HC class arranged in two widely separated clusters. These two domains of DNA binding can function independently and recognize the same DNA sequence, suggesting that MyTI may contribute to the higher-order structure of a target promoter by simultaneously binding both proximal and distal sites. The six fingers are highly conserved, suggesting that they arose from successive duplication events, while the linker regions diverge in size and sequence. Both amino acid sequence comparisons and secondary-structure predictions indicate that the C2-HC fingers of MyTI do not resemble the zinc-mediated loops of C2-H2 fingers, C2-C2 fingers, or Cx clusters. MyTI may therefore be the prototype of a new structural family of zinc-stabilized DNA binding proteins. Images PMID:1280325

Kim, J G; Hudson, L D

1992-01-01

402

A state-based national network for effective wildlife conservation  

USGS Publications Warehouse

State wildlife conservation programs provide a strong foundation for biodiversity conservation in the United States, building on state wildlife action plans. However, states may miss the species that are at the most risk at rangewide scales, and threats such as novel diseases and climate change increasingly act at regional and national levels. Regional collaborations among states and their partners have had impressive successes, and several federal programs now incorporate state priorities. However, regional collaborations are uneven across the country, and no national counterpart exists to support efforts at that scale. A national conservation-support program could fill this gap and could work across the conservation community to identify large-scale conservation needs and support efforts to meet them. By providing important information-sharing and capacity-building services, such a program would advance collaborative conservation among the states and their partners, thus increasing both the effectiveness and the efficiency of conservation in the United States.

Meretsky, Vicky J.; Maguire, Lynn A.; Davis, Frank W.; Stoms, David M.; Scott, J. Michael; Figg, Dennis; Goble, Dale D.; Griffith, Brad; Henke, Scott E.; Vaughn, Jacqueline; Yaffee, Steven L.

2012-01-01

403

Infants Recognize Similar Goals across Dissimilar Actions Involving Object Manipulation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We investigated infants' ability to recognize the similarity between observed and implied goals when actions differed in surface-level motion details. In two experiments, 10- to 12-month-olds were habituated to an actor manipulating an object and then shown test actions in which the actor contacted the object with a novel hand configuration that

Olofson, Eric L.; Baldwin, Dare

2011-01-01

404

InSight: Recognizing Humans without Face Recognition Duke University  

E-print Network

Wearable cameras and displays, such as the Google Glass, are around the corner. This paper explores, such as the Google Glass. This paper intends to recognize a human by looking at him or her from any angle, even when and see the names of each individual ­ like a virtual badge ­ suitably overlaid on her Google Glass

Nelakuditi, Srihari

405

New Ambassador Award Recognizes Outreach and Societal Impact  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

AGU has created a new award that honors members whose achievements extend beyond those recognized by traditional scientific discipline awards. The award furthers AGU's strategic goals to promote collaboration and innovation, inform society about Earth and space science, and build the global talent pool.

McKenzie, Judith Ann

2013-10-01

406

Dissociation: An Insufficiently Recognized Major Feature of Complex PTSD  

Microsoft Academic Search

The role of dissociation in (complex) PTSD has been insufficiently recognized for at least two reasons: the view that dissociation is a peripheral, not a central feature of PTSD, and existing confusion regarding the nature of dissociation. This conceptual paper addresses both issues by postulating that traumatization essentially involves some degree of division or dissociation of psychobiological systems that constitute

Onno van der Hart; Kathy Steele

407

Young children's ability to recognize advertisements in web page designs.  

PubMed

Identifying what is, and what is not an advertisement is the first step in realizing that an advertisement is a marketing message. Children can distinguish television advertisements from programmes by about 5 years of age. Although previous researchers have investigated television advertising, little attention has been given to advertisements in other media, even though other media, especially the Internet, have become important channels of marketing to children. We showed children printed copies of invented web pages that included advertisements, half of which had price information, and asked the children to point to whatever they thought was an advertisement. In two experiments we tested a total of 401 children, aged 6, 8, 10 and 12 years of age, from the United Kingdom and Indonesia. Six-year-olds recognized a quarter of the advertisements, 8-year-olds recognized half the advertisements, and the 10- and 12-year-olds recognized about three-quarters. Only the 10- and 12-year-olds were more likely to identify an advertisement when it included a price. We contrast our findings with previous results about the identification of television advertising, and discuss why children were poorer at recognizing web page advertisements. The performance of the children has implications for theories about how children develop an understanding of advertising. PMID:19972663

Ali, Moondore; Blades, Mark; Oates, Caroline; Blumberg, Fran

2009-03-01

408

WHY MAJOR IN MATHEMATICS? Mathematics has commonly been recognized  

E-print Network

WHY MAJOR IN MATHEMATICS? Mathematics has commonly been recognized as the queen of science. But more than its role as a mere language and foundation of scientific studies and computing, Mathematics to medicine and from government to psychology. An undergraduate degree in Mathematics will open the way

409

Revised 11/09/2010 RECOGNIZED STUDENT CLUBS AND ORGANIZATIONS  

E-print Network

Revised 11/09/2010 RECOGNIZED STUDENT CLUBS AND ORGANIZATIONS WITH AN ASI AGENCY ACCOUNT GUIDE account and an ASI account. A one-time exception per academic year will be allowed per Agency account per academic year. Subsequent credit card slips will not be reimbursed. - Reimbursement for payment

de Lijser, Peter

410

Recognizing Diversity: A Need for a Paradigm Shift.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Contends that accepting a paradigm shift by universities means learning to respect culturally diverse students and recognizing cognitive style differences. Argues for systematic change in colleges and universities to redefine themselves as culturally plural. Contends educators must develop cross-cultural communicative competence for effective

Cheng, Li-Rong Lilly

1990-01-01

411

Recognizing, Assessing, and Intervening With Problems of Professional Competence  

Microsoft Academic Search

Working collaboratively, psychologist educators and trainers at the doctoral, internship, and postdoctoral levels; credentialers; practitioners; and students offer 8 proposals for psychologists to consider in recognizing, assessing, and intervening with problems of professional competence in students and practicing professionals. In the proposals, the authors address the following topics: definitions and categories; preparing the system; self-assessment; remediation; diversity; communication across various

Nadine J. Kaslow; Nancy J. Rubin; Linda Forrest; Nancy S. Elman; Barbara A. Van Horne; Sue C. Jacobs; Steven K. Huprich; Sherry A. Benton; Victor F. Pantesco; Stephen J. Dollinger; Catherine L. Grus; Stephen H. Behnke; David S. Shen Miller; Craig N. Shealy; Laurie B. Mintz; Rebecca Schwartz-Mette; Kristi Van Sickle; Beverly E. Thorn

2007-01-01

412

Development Of Software To Recognize Parts Of Plants  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Report describes first phase in development of digital image-processing subsystem recognizing parts of plants. Subsystem part of robotic system tending and harvesting plants in automated plant-growth chamber. Initial focus on image-processing software that distinguishes among seed heads, stems, and leaves of wheat plants and further distinguishes between these parts and background. Software adaptable to other types of plants.

Despain, Ronald R.; Tharpe, Roy, Jr.; Davis, Leon; Hauss, Sharon; Shawaga, Larry; Biro, Ron

1993-01-01

413

Can you recognize victims of human trafficking among the  

E-print Network

Can you recognize victims of human trafficking among the patients you see daily? As a frontline health provider, you can help liberate victims of human trafficking. Health Problems Common in Victims of Human Trafficking Victims of trafficking may suffer from several physical and psychological problems

Kay, Mark A.

414

Can you recognize victims of human trafficking among the  

E-print Network

Can you recognize victims of human trafficking among the people you help everyday? As a social service provider, you can help liberate victims of human trafficking. Understanding Victims of Human Trafficking Understanding the mindset of human trafficking victims is important to helping them restore

Kay, Mark A.

415

Progress Towards Recognizing and Classifying Beautiful Music with Computers  

E-print Network

plan to investigate how such metrics may be used in various areas such as music education, music significantly to areas such as music education, music therapy, music recognition by computers, and computerProgress Towards Recognizing and Classifying Beautiful Music with Computers MIDI­Encoded Music

Manaris, Bill

416

Recognize the Signs: Reading Young Adult Literature to Address Bullying  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article summarizes preservice teachers' experiences in a book club that read young adult literature focused on issues related to bullying. Preservice teachers learned to recognize various incidents of bullying in the books. They also began to consider how they might handle incidents of bullying in their future classrooms. (Contains 2 figures.)

Pytash, Kristine E.; Morgan, Denise N.; Batchelor, Katherine E.

2013-01-01

417

Automatically Recognizing Intended Messages in Grouped Bar Charts  

E-print Network

Automatically Recognizing Intended Messages in Grouped Bar Charts Richard Burns1 , Sandra Carberry1 17551 USA elzer@cs.millersville.edu Abstract. Information graphics (bar charts, line graphs, grouped bar charts, etc.) often appear in popular media such as newspapers and mag- azines. In most cases

Carberry, Sandra

418

Recognizing and Fostering Creativity in Technological Design Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The importance of creativity in technological design education is now clearly recognized, both in everyday understanding and also in formal curriculum guidelines. Design offers special opportunities for creativity because of the "openness" of problems (ill-defined problems, the existence of a variety of pathways to the solution, the absence of

Cropley, David; Cropley, Arthur

2010-01-01

419

NASA's John C. Stennis Space Center was recognized Nov.  

E-print Network

of the mismatch of goals and funds. "Either additional funds need to be made available, or a far more mod- est, the committee report estimates NASA needs an extra $3 billion a year, beginning in 2014, if humans are to travelNASA's John C. Stennis Space Center was recognized Nov. 6 as the first site to earn certification

420

Recognizing hand-raising gestures using HMM Monowar Hossain  

E-print Network

Automatic attention-seeking gesture recognition is an enabling element of synchronous distance learning. Rec- ognizing attention seeking gestures is complicated by the temporal nature of the signal that must be recognized and by the similarty between attention seeking gestures and non-attention seeking gestures. Here

Jenkin, Michael R. M.

421

The Civic (and Pedagogical) Virtue of Recognizing Reasonable Disagreement  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper argues for civic education that helps students recognize that reasonable people will disagree about the best ways to live, and that this recognition should frequently impel us toward compromise and accommodation in the public square. Fostering this virtue of reasonable disagreement will require a concerted curricular effort toward

Kunzman, Robert

2006-01-01

422

Recognizing daily activities with RFID-based sensors  

Microsoft Academic Search

We explore a dense sensing approach that uses RFID sensor network technology to recognize human activities. In our setting, everyday objects are instrumented with UHF RFID tags called WISPs that are equipped with accelerometers. RFID readersdetect when the objects are used by examining this sensor data, and daily activities are then inferred from the traces of object use via a

Michael Buettner; Richa Prasad; Matthai Philipose; David Wetherall

2009-01-01

423

Recognizing Daily Activities with RFID-Based Sensors Michael Buettner  

E-print Network

approach that uses RFID sensor network technology to recognize human activities. In our setting, everyday% recall in the same study. We conclude that RFID sensor networks are a promising approach for indoor activity monitoring. Author Keywords Activity Detection, RFID, Sensor Networks, WISP ACM Classification

Philipose, Matthai

424

Recognizing Textual Parallelisms with Edit Distance and Similarity Degree  

Microsoft Academic Search

Detection of discourse structure is crucial in many text-based applications. This pa- per presents an original framework for de- scribing textual parallelism which allows us to generalize various discourse phe- nomena and to propose a unique method to recognize them. With this prospect, we discuss several methods in order to iden- tify the most appropriate one for the prob- lem,

Marie Gugan; Nicolas Hernandez

2006-01-01

425

Recognizing End-User Transactions in Performance Management  

Microsoft Academic Search

Providing good quality of service (e.g., low response times) in distributed computer systems requires measuring end- user perceptions of performance. Unfortunately, such mea- sures are often expensive or impossible to obtain. Herein, we propose a machine-learning approach to recognizing end- user transactions consisting of sequences of remote proce- dure calls (RPCs) received at a server. Two problems are addressed. The

Joseph L. Hellerstein; T. S. Jayram; Irina Rish

2000-01-01

426

A New Method for Recognizing Pulse Repetition Interval Modulation  

Microsoft Academic Search

In a dense modern electronic warfare environment, there are a lot of radar signals. The identification of these radar signals is the main task of the electronic support measures systems. Pulse repetition intervals of signals received from radars can have various PRI modulations and levels. In this paper, a new method of recognizing PRI modulation type and its levels is

Moein Ahmadi; Kamal Mohamedpour

2009-01-01

427

Recognizing and mapping faults using lidar and field data  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, students create a geologic map and cross-section of the Fish Springs cinder cone and surrounding area in the Owens Valley, CA, using a high-resolution DEM developed from airborne lidar data as a base map. The primary features that students learn to recognize and map are normal faults, alluvial fans of different ages, and the cinder cone itself.

Egger, Anne

428

OIn recognItIon 2012 Vice-Chancellor  

E-print Network

OIn recognItIon 2012 thank y u #12;Vice-Chancellor Paul Johnson If your plan is for one year plant rice. If your plan is for ten years plant trees. If your plan is for 1OO years educate children. confuc Top 100 University status in time for our Centenary has provided yet another reason to feel proud

Tobar, Michael

429

Novel Moment Features Extraction for Recognizing Handwritten Arabic Letters  

Microsoft Academic Search

Problem statement: Offline recognition of handwritten Arabic text awa its accurate recognition solutions. Most of the Arabic letters h ave secondary components that are important in recognizing these letters. However these components have large writing variations. We targeted enhancing the feature extraction stage in recognizi ng handwritten Arabic text. Approach: In this study, we proposed a novel feature extraction appro

Gheith Abandah; Nasser Anssari

2009-01-01

430

A Personal Touch -Recognizing Users Based on Touch Screen Behavior  

E-print Network

with a precision of about 80%, based on just a few touch events. Keywords behavioral biometrics, touch input, largeA Personal Touch - Recognizing Users Based on Touch Screen Behavior Sarah Martina Kolly Computer a large scale study to research the users' touch screen behavior on standard UI elements. To do so we

431

Recognizing Sloppy Speech CMU-LTI-05-190  

E-print Network

Recognizing Sloppy Speech Hua Yu CMU-LTI-05-190 Language Technology Institute School of Computer Science Carnegie Mellon University Pittsburgh, PA 15213 www.lti.cs.cmu.edu Thesis Committee: Alex Waibel of the requirements for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy In Language and Information Technologies Copyright c 2004

Eskenazi, Maxine