Sample records for recognizing conserved regions

  1. The stability region of the Streptomyces lividans plasmid pIJ101 encodes a DNA-binding protein recognizing a highly conserved short palindromic sequence motif.

    PubMed

    Thoma, Lina; Sepulveda, Edgardo; Latus, Annette; Muth, Günther

    2014-01-01

    Conjugation is a driving force in the evolution and shaping of bacterial genomes. In antibiotic producing streptomycetes even small plasmids replicating via the rolling-circle mechanism are conjugative. Although they encode only genes involved in replication and transfer, the molecular function of most plasmid encoded proteins is unknown. In this work we show that the conjugative plasmid pIJ101 encodes an overlooked protein, SpdA2. We show that SpdA2 is a DNA binding protein which specifically recognizes a palindromic DNA sequence (sps). sps is localized within the spdA2 coding region and highly conserved in many Streptomyces plasmids. Elimination of the palindrome or deletion of spdA2 in plasmid pIJ303 did not interfere with conjugative plasmid transfer or pock formation, but affected segregational stability. PMID:25295034

  2. Conservation Regional Conservation SavingsRegional Conservation Savings

    E-print Network

    1 Northwest Power and Conservation Council Regional Conservation SavingsRegional Conservation the Plan''s Targets?s Targets? March 14, 2008 slide 2 Northwest Power and Conservation Council 55thth Plan Conservation ResourcePlan Conservation Resource Acquisition TargetsAcquisition Targets 20052005 ­­ 2009 = 700 a

  3. Monoclonal Antibodies with Broad Specificity for Hepatitis C Virus Hypervariable Region 1 Variants Can Recognize Viral Particles1

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Antonella Cerino; Annalisa Meola; Laura Segagni; Milena Furione; Sabrina Marciano; Miriam Triyatni; T. Jake Liang; Alfredo Nicosia; Mario U. Mondelli

    2001-01-01

    The hypervariable region 1 (HVR1) of the E2 protein of hepatitis C virus (HCV) is a highly heterogeneous sequence that is promiscuously recognized by human sera via binding to amino acid residues with conserved physicochemical properties. We generated a panel of mAbs from mice immunized with HVR1 surrogate peptides (mimotopes) affinity-selected with sera from HCV-infected patients from a phage display

  4. Crystal structure reveals conservation of amyloid-? conformation recognized by 3D6 following humanization to bapineuzumab

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Immunotherapy targeting amyloid-? peptide is under active clinical investigation for treatment of Alzheimer’s disease (AD). Among the hypotheses being investigated for impact on clinical outcome are the preferred epitope or conformation of amyloid-? to target for treatment, and the mechanism of action underlying immunotherapy. Bapineuzumab (humanized 3D6), a neo-epitope specific antibody recognizing amyloid-?1-5 with strong preference for an exposed Asp residue at the N-terminus of the peptide, has undergone advanced clinical testing for treatment of AD. Methods To gain further insight into the epitope conformation, we interrogated structural details of amino-terminal epitopes in amyloid-? using x-ray crystallography of 3D6Fab:amyloid-? complexes. Humanization of 3D6 was carried out using standard procedures integrating recombinant methods, sequence informatics, and homology modeling predictions to identify important mouse framework residues for retention in the finished humanized product. Results Here we report the crystal structure of a recombinant Fab fragment of 3D6 in complex with amyloid-?1-7 solved at 2.0 Å resolution. The N-terminus of amyloid-? is bound to 3D6 as a 310 helix. The amino-terminal Asp residue is buried deepest in the antibody binding pocket, with the C? atom of residue 6 visible at the entrance to the binding pocket near the surface of the antibody. We further evaluate homology model based predictions used to guide humanization of 3D6 to bapineuzumab, with actual structure of the Fab. The structure of the Fab:amyloid-? complex validates design of the humanized antibody, and confirms the amyloid-? epitope recognized by 3D6 as previously mapped by ELISA. Conclusions The conformation of amyloid-? antigen recognized by 3D6 is novel and distinct from other antibodies recognizing N-terminal epitopes. Our result provides the first report demonstrating structural conservation of antigen contact residues, and conformation of antigen recognized, between the parent murine antibody and its humanized version. PMID:25024748

  5. Phyllogenetically conserved epitopes of the keratin 8 polypeptide recognized by a novel set of monoclonal antibodies.

    PubMed

    Stasková, Z; Vojt?sek, B; Lukás, J; Pavlovská, R; Kamenická, T; Kovarík, J; Bártek, J

    1991-01-01

    In an attempt to raise a set of monoclonal antibody (MAb) probes for the study of biology and diagnostic value of human keratin No. 8, a series of hybridomas was prepared and their characteristics investigated by immunohistochemistry and immunoblotting. The polypeptide specificities of individual MAbs ranged from monospecificity for keratin No. 8 (MAbs C-15, C-23, C-36, C-43, C-47, C-51, and C-61) up to the "pan-keratin" MAbs C-11 and C-66 recognizing a broad range of keratins. The target epitopes of the remaining 4 MAbs (C-10, C-22, C-50, C-69) appear to be shared by various pairs of keratin polypeptides. The immunohistochemical investigation of tissues and/or cultured cells from 10 animal species revealed considerable variability of the interspecies crossreactivity of individual MAbs. The target epitopes of 5 MAbs appear to be phyllogenetically conserved from man to Xenopus, 6 of 12 MAbs tested show reactivity with several mammalian species (but not chicken or Xenopus) and the MAb C-15 reacts with human and sheep keratin only. The data obtained demonstrate that at least 9, and possibly as many as 12, nonidentical epitopes of the human keratin 8 polypeptide can be distinguished by this set of antibodies. The results of the present study suggest that our MAbs represent a significant contribution to the list of reagents applicable in both research of intermediate filament (IF) biology and diagnostic histopathology. PMID:1726587

  6. Conservation Focus: Priorities for Policy-Relevant Conservation Research: a View from SCB Regional Sections

    E-print Network

    Conservation Focus: Priorities for Policy-Relevant Conservation Research: a View from SCB Regional Sections Gaining Traction: Retreading the Wheels of Marine Conservation PHAEDRA DOUKAKIS, E. C. M. PARSONS Conservation Science, School of Marine and Atmospheric Sciences, Stony Brook University, Stony Brook, NY 11794

  7. Accomplishments of the Alaska Region's Habitat Conservation Division

    E-print Network

    and Game; Alaska Department of Natural Resources; Alaska Department of Transportation and Public FacilitiesAccomplishments of the Alaska Region's Habitat Conservation Division in Fiscal Year 2006 This report provides highlights of Habitat Conservation Division (HCD) activities in support

  8. The Habitat Conservation Division, Northeast Region is working to protect, conserve and restore habitats of our

    E-print Network

    The Habitat Conservation Division, Northeast Region is working to protect, conserve and restore habitats of our living marine resources. Primary Activities The Habitat Conservation Division collaborates with regional fishery management councils to: Identify and describe Essential Fish Habitat (EFH) for each

  9. A monoclonal antibody recognizing a conserved epitope in a group of phospholipases A2.

    PubMed

    Mollier, P; Chwetzoff, S; Ménez, A

    1990-01-01

    Notexin and nigexine are monomeric phospholipases A2(PLA2s) from the venoms of Notechis scutatus scutatus and Naja nigricollis, respectively. Polyclonal antibodies raised in mice against these antigenic proteins displayed non-reciprocal cross-reactivity; anti-notexin antibodies recognized notexin but not nigexine, whereas anti-nigexine antibodies recognized both antigens. Polyclonal antibodies raised by successive immunization with nigexine and notexin contained cross-reacting antibodies with affinities for both antigens that differed from those of antibodies present in anti-nigexine antiserum. A monoclonal antibody has been obtained from a mouse immunized with both PLA2s. This monoclonal antibody, called MN1, recognized notexin and nigexine with comparable high affinity (Kd = 10(-9) M). It also recognized most purified PLA2s from elapid snake venoms and all PLA2-containing venoms from cobras and sea-snakes. This offers the first demonstration that most PLA2s from cobras and sea-snakes share a fine structure which is not restricted to the common catalytic site. PMID:1690350

  10. Cytauxzoon felis infections are present in bobcats ( Lynx rufus) in a region where cytauxzoonosis is not recognized in domestic cats

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Adam J. Birkenheuer; Henry S. Marr; Camille Warren; Anne E. Acton; Eric M. Mucker; Jan G. Humphreys; Melissa D. Tucker

    2008-01-01

    This study was performed to determine the prevalence of Cytauxzoon felis (C. felis) infections in bobcats (Lynx rufus) from a region where C. felis is recognized in domestic cats, North Carolina (NC), and a region where C. felis is not recognized in domestic cats, Pennsylvania (PA). Samples from NC (n=32) were obtained post-mortem via cardiac puncture from legally trapped bobcats.

  11. PLANNING FOR WATER CONSERVATION Greater Vancouver Regional District

    E-print Network

    PLANNING FOR WATER CONSERVATION Greater Vancouver Regional District by Andrew K. Doi B. A (BMPs) for water conservation are used as evaluative criteria. These BMPs were drawn from California's urban water conservation system. This researched examines 4 case study municipalities from the GVRD

  12. Epitope mapping reveals conserved regions of an auxin-binding protein.

    PubMed

    Napier, R M; Venis, M A

    1992-06-15

    There is now good evidence that maize (Zea mays) auxin-binding protein (ABP) functions as a receptor. We have synthesized sequential overlapping hexapeptides to map the epitopes recognized by a number of antisera to ABP. Only a few regions of the protein are recognized, and these are shown to be exposed on the surface. Three epitopes predominate, and these are clustered around, but do not include, the glycosylation site. A comparison is made between these maps of sera against purified ABP, maps of sera raised against recombinant maize ABP expressed in Escherichia coli and computer antigenicity predictions. Our anti-(maize ABP) serum recognizes ABP counterparts in other plant species. We have used immunoblotting to affinity-purify the immunoglobulins which cross-react from the antiserum. Epitope mapping of these immunoglobulins suggests that two of the three predominant epitopes may be conserved in both monocotyledonous and dicotyledonous plants. The possible functional significance of these conserved epitopes is discussed. PMID:1377914

  13. A CACGTG Motif of the Antirrhinum majus Chalcone Synthase Promoter is Recognized by an Evolutionarily Conserved Nuclear Protein

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Dorothee Staiger; Hildegard Kaulen; Jeff Schell

    1989-01-01

    In the chalcone synthase gene of Antirrhinum majus (snapdragon), 150 base pairs of the 5' flanking region contain cis-acting signals for UV light-induced expression. A nuclear factor, designated CG-1, specifically recognizes a hexameric motif with internal dyad symmetry, CACGTG, located within this light-responsive sequence. Binding of CG-1 is influenced by C-methylation of the CpG dinucleotide in the recognition sequence. CG-1

  14. Conserved epitopes on HIV-1, FIV and SIV p24 proteins are recognized by HIV-1 infected subjects.

    PubMed

    Roff, Shannon R; Sanou, Missa P; Rathore, Mobeen H; Levy, Jay A; Yamamoto, Janet K

    2015-06-01

    Cross-reactive peptides on HIV-1 and FIV p24 protein sequences were studied using peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) from untreated HIV-1-infected long-term survivors (LTS; >10 y of infection without antiretroviral therapy, ART), short-term HIV-1 infected subjects not on ART, and ART-treated HIV-1 infected subjects. IFN?-ELISpot and CFSE-proliferation analyses were performed with PBMC using overlapping HIV-1 and FIV p24 peptides. Over half of the HIV-1 infected subjects tested (22/31 or 71%) responded to one or more FIV p24 peptide pools by either IFN? or T-cell proliferation analysis. PBMC and T cells from infected subjects in all 3 HIV(+) groups predominantly recognized one FIV p24 peptide pool (Fp14) by IFN? production and one additional FIV p24 peptide pool (Fp9) by T-cell proliferation analysis. Furthermore, evaluation of overlapping SIV p24 peptide sequences identified conserved epitope(s) on the Fp14/Hp15-counterpart of SIV, Sp14, but none on Fp9-counterpart of SIV, Sp9. The responses to these FIV peptide pools were highly reproducible and persisted throughout 2-4 y of monitoring. Intracellular staining analysis for cytotoxins and phenotyping for CD107a determined that peptide epitopes from Fp9 and Fp14 pools induced cytotoxic T lymphocyte-associated molecules including perforin, granzyme B, granzyme A, and/or expression of CD107a. Selected FIV and corresponding SIV epitopes recognized by HIV-1 infected patients indicate that these protein sequences are evolutionarily conserved on both SIV and HIV-1 (e.g., Hp15:Fp14:Sp14). These studies demonstrate that comparative immunogenicity analysis of HIV-1, FIV, and SIV can identify evolutionarily-conserved T cell-associated lentiviral epitopes, which could be used as a vaccine for prophylaxis or immunotherapy. PMID:25844718

  15. The murine DSCR1-like (Down Syndrome Candidate Region 1) gene family: conserved synteny with the human orthologous genes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Pierluigi Strippoli; Massimiliano Petrini; Luca Lenzi; Paolo Carinci; Maria Zannotti

    2000-01-01

    A recently recognized gene family, conserved from yeast to humans, includes Down syndrome candidate region 1 gene (DSCR1), Adapt78 (recognized as the hamster ortholog of the DSCR1 isoform 4), ZAKI-4 (renamed DSCR1-like 1, DSCR1L1) and DSCR1L2 (a novel gene on human chromosome 1), along with yeast and C. elegans single members (Strippoli P., Lenzi L., Petrini M., Carinci P., Zannotti

  16. Suitability for conservation as a criterion in regional conservation network selection

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hope C. Humphries; Patrick S. Bourgeron; Keith M. Reynolds

    2008-01-01

    The process of selecting candidate areas for inclusion in a regional conservation network should include not only delineating\\u000a appropriate land units for selection and defining targets for representing features of interest, but also determining the\\u000a suitability of land units for conservation purposes. We developed an explicit rating of conservation suitability by applying\\u000a fuzzy-logic functions in a knowledge base to ecological

  17. South West Woodland Renaissance Helping to conserve the region's woodlands

    E-print Network

    South West Woodland Renaissance Helping to conserve the region's woodlands objectives South West Woodland Renaissance is a wide-ranging three- year project inspiring investment in woodlands, timber West Woodland Renaissance Facilitator to bridge the gap between industry and potential funders from

  18. CD4+ T Lymphocytes from Anaplasma marginale Major Surface Protein 2 (MSP2) Vaccinees Recognize Naturally Processed Epitopes Conserved in MSP3

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Wendy C.; Palmer, Guy H.; Brayton, Kelly A.; Meeus, Patrick F. M.; Barbet, Anthony F.; Kegerreis, Kimberly A.; McGuire, Travis C.

    2004-01-01

    Major surface protein 2 (MSP2) and MSP3 of the persistent bovine ehrlichial pathogen Anaplasma marginale are immunodominant proteins that undergo antigenic variation. The recently completed sequence of MSP3 revealed blocks of amino acids in the N and C termini that are conserved with MSP2. This study tested the hypothesis that CD4+ T cells specific for MSP2 recognize naturally processed epitopes conserved in MSP3. At least one epitope in the N terminus and two in the C terminus of MSP2 were also processed from MSP3 and presented to CD4+ T lymphocytes from MSP2-immunized cattle. This T-lymphocyte response to conserved and partially conserved epitopes may contribute to the immunodominance of MSP2 and MSP3. PMID:15155686

  19. The relevance of the Mediterranean Region to colonial waterbird conservation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Erwin, R.M.

    1996-01-01

    The Mediterranean Sea is the largest partially enclosed sea in the world and provides habitat to more than 100 species of waterbirds from the Palearctic-North African-Middle Eastern regions. Even though the Mediterranean suffers from pollution, has little tidal influence, and is oligotrophic, more than half of the western Palearctic populations of numerous waterfowl species winter in the region. Thirty-three species of colonial waterbirds breed along the 46,000 km Mediterranean coastline with nine species considered threatened or endangered, mostly because of wetland loss and degradation. The long history of human activity and scientific investigations in the region has taught some valuable lessons. In the area of colonial waterbird biology and conservation, we have learned important lessons about the value of long-term monitoring and research on selected populations. From marking studies of Greater Flamingos (Phoenicopterus ruber roseus) and Little Egrets (Egretta garzetta) results have been used to derive useful information about metapopulation dynamics. Involvement of both African and European biologists allowed year-round Studies of these species that yielded valuable spin-offs for training in avian and wetland conservation. We have also learned the value of man-made wetlands as feeding and nesting sites for some colonial waterbirds. Careful evaluations of the habitat quality of different types of wetlands are required, as in contaminant levels such as lead shot and pesticides. Wetland conservationists have also learned from some instructive mistakes. Dam construction and agricultural incentive programs sponsored by the European Community, the World Bank, and others from the past have largely ignored impacts on wetlands and wildlife. In some areas, economic ventures such as aquaculture operations and salt mining have not involved waterbird habitat needs in their planning. Research and conservation needs include: (1) establishing regional monitoring programs and data banks for seabirds, wading birds, ducks, and geese; (2) implementing a wetland inventory for many Countries with little quantitative data on wetlands; (3) improving habitat quality assessments; (4) improving relationships with industry, the private citizenry, and government officials to further an appreciation for the value of wetlands and waterbirds; (5) enhancing training efforts, especially in underdeveloped Countries; (6) evaluating the effects of hunting and other disturbances to nesting and feeding waterbirds in different regions; (7) setting up 'sister-reserve' (twinned) sites in Europe and Africa to foster international linkages and training; and (8) fostering local-regional conservation programs to preserve reed beds, wet woodlots, and other key habitats.

  20. A broad bean mitochondrial atp6 gene with an unusually simple, non-conserved 5? region

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jane L. Macfarlane; Jill A. Wahleithner; David R. Wolstenholme

    1990-01-01

    A nucleotide sequence of broad bean mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) that contains an atp6 gene of 876 ntp is presented. Relative to other plant atp6 genes, this broad bean gene comprises a 90 ntp non-conserved 5' region, a 759 ntp highly conserved central region and a 27 ntp non-conserved 3' region. The non-conserved, 5' region of the broad bean atp6 gene

  1. Cytauxzoon felis infections are present in bobcats (Lynx rufus) in a region where cytauxzoonosis is not recognized in domestic cats.

    PubMed

    Birkenheuer, Adam J; Marr, Henry S; Warren, Camille; Acton, Anne E; Mucker, Eric M; Humphreys, Jan G; Tucker, Melissa D

    2008-05-01

    This study was performed to determine the prevalence of Cytauxzoon felis (C. felis) infections in bobcats (Lynx rufus) from a region where C. felis is recognized in domestic cats, North Carolina (NC), and a region where C. felis is not recognized in domestic cats, Pennsylvania (PA). Samples from NC (n=32) were obtained post-mortem via cardiac puncture from legally trapped bobcats. Samples from PA (n=70) were collected post-mortem onto Nobuto blood collecting strips by the PA Game Commission. Each sample was tested using a C. felis specific PCR assay as well as a PCR assay targeting host DNA to rule out the presence of PCR inhibitors. Three samples were excluded due to the presence of PCR inhibitors. Thirty-three percent (10/30) of the samples from NC and 7% (5/69) of the samples from PA tested positive for the presence of C. felis. The proportion of C. felis positive bobcats from NC was significantly different than that from PA (P<0.005). Despite the lower prevalence of C. felis infections in bobcats from PA this finding is unique and indicates the potential for C. felis infections in domestic cats in the northeastern USA if the appropriate tick vectors are present. Veterinary practitioners in PA should be on alert for cytauxzoonosis in domestic cats. Further studies about the epidemiology and transmission of C. felis infections among both domestic cats and bobcats are needed. PMID:18295403

  2. Water Conservation Policy in an Arid Metropolitan Region: A Historical and Geographical Assessment of Phoenix, Arizona

    E-print Network

    Hall, Sharon J.

    Water Conservation Policy in an Arid Metropolitan Region: A Historical and Geographical Assessment and geographical methods is used to examine water conservation policy trends in the ten most populous municipalities in the greater Phoenix region. Residential water conservation policies and programs across

  3. Regional Variation in Non-Timber Forest Product Harvest Strategies, Trade, and Ecological Impacts: the Case of Black Dammar (Canarium strictum Roxb.) Use and Conservation in the Nilgiri Biosphere Reserve, India

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Anita Varghese; Tamara Ticktin

    2008-01-01

    Millions of people worldwide depend on the harvest of non-timber forest products (NTFP) for their livelihoods, and the importance of understanding the complex relationships between NTFP harvest and conservation is increasingly recognized. This study employs a cross-disciplinary, regional approach to identify some of the links between patterns of harvest, trade, and conservation of one of South India's most heavily harvested

  4. CD4+ T cells recognize unique and conserved 2009 H1N1 influenza hemagglutinin epitopes after natural infection and vaccination

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Influenza A/California/4/2009 (H1N1/09) is a recently emerged influenza virus capable of causing serious illness or death in otherwise healthy individuals. Serious outcomes were most common in young adults and children, suggesting that pre-existing heterologous immunity may influence the severity of infection. Using tetramers, we identified CD4+ T-cell epitopes within H1N1/09 hemagglutinin (HA) that share extensive homology with seasonal influenza and epitopes that are unique to H1N1/09 HA. Ex vivo tetramer staining revealed that T cells specific for conserved epitopes were detectable within the memory compartment, whereas T cells specific for unique epitopes were naive and infrequent prior to infection or vaccination. Following infection, the frequencies of T cells specific for unique epitopes were 11-fold higher, reaching levels comparable to those of T cells specific for immunodominant epitopes. In contrast, the frequencies of T cells specific for conserved epitopes were only 2- to 3-fold higher following infection. In general, H1HA-reactive T cells exhibited a memory phenotype, expressed CXCR3 and secreted IFN-?, indicating a predominantly Th1-polarized response. A similar Th1 response was seen in vaccinated subjects, but the expansion of T cells specific for HA epitopes was comparatively modest after vaccination. Our findings indicate that CD4+ T cells recognize both strain-specific and conserved epitopes within the influenza HA protein and suggest that naive T cells specific for HA epitopes undergo significant expansion, whereas memory T cells specific for the conserved epitopes undergo more restrained expansion. PMID:23524391

  5. A Syntenic Region Conserved from Fish to Mammalian X Chromosome

    PubMed Central

    Guan, Guijun; Yi, Meisheng; Kobayashi, Tohru; Hong, Yunhan; Nagahama, Yoshitaka

    2014-01-01

    Sex chromosomes bearing the sex-determining gene initiate development along the male or female pathway, no matter which sex is determined by XY male or ZW female heterogamety. Sex chromosomes originate from ancient autosomes but evolved rapidly after the acquisition of sex-determining factors which are highly divergent between species. In the heterogametic male system (XY system), the X chromosome is relatively evolutionary silent and maintains most of its ancestral genes, in contrast to its Y counterpart that has evolved rapidly and degenerated. Sex in a teleost fish, the Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus), is determined genetically via an XY system, in which an unpaired region is present in the largest chromosome pair. We defined the differences in DNA contents present in this chromosome with a two-color comparative genomic hybridization (CGH) and the random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) approach in XY males. We further identified a syntenic segment within this region that is well conserved in several teleosts. Through comparative genome analysis, this syntenic segment was also shown to be present in mammalian X chromosomes, suggesting a common ancestral origin of vertebrate sex chromosomes. PMID:25506037

  6. A syntenic region conserved from fish to Mammalian x chromosome.

    PubMed

    Guan, Guijun; Yi, Meisheng; Kobayashi, Tohru; Hong, Yunhan; Nagahama, Yoshitaka

    2014-01-01

    Sex chromosomes bearing the sex-determining gene initiate development along the male or female pathway, no matter which sex is determined by XY male or ZW female heterogamety. Sex chromosomes originate from ancient autosomes but evolved rapidly after the acquisition of sex-determining factors which are highly divergent between species. In the heterogametic male system (XY system), the X chromosome is relatively evolutionary silent and maintains most of its ancestral genes, in contrast to its Y counterpart that has evolved rapidly and degenerated. Sex in a teleost fish, the Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus), is determined genetically via an XY system, in which an unpaired region is present in the largest chromosome pair. We defined the differences in DNA contents present in this chromosome with a two-color comparative genomic hybridization (CGH) and the random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) approach in XY males. We further identified a syntenic segment within this region that is well conserved in several teleosts. Through comparative genome analysis, this syntenic segment was also shown to be present in mammalian X chromosomes, suggesting a common ancestral origin of vertebrate sex chromosomes. PMID:25506037

  7. Human autoantibody-reactive epitopes of SS-B/La are highly conserved in comparison with epitopes recognized by murine monoclonal antibodies

    PubMed Central

    1987-01-01

    SS-B/La, an ubiquitous nuclear protein of 46-48 kD, is a target antigen of autoantibodies in SLE and Sjogren's syndrome and is involved in the maturation of RNA polymerase III transcripts such as 5S RNA and tRNAs. We have previously shown (14, 15) that SS-B consists of two protease- resistant domains of 23 and 28 kD, with the latter containing the RNA binding site. The epitopes of SS-B/La reactive with human autoantibodies are conserved among several mammalian species examined. BALB/c mice immunized with affinity-purified calf thymus SS-B produce IgG anti-SS-B/La antibodies, which reacted with bovine, human, and rabbit SS-B but not with mouse SS-B/La. The spleen of a mouse with the highest antibody titer was selected for fusion with P3 myeloma. Five IgG1k mAbs (A1-5) were selected by ELISA and immunoblotting. All except A3 reacted with the 28-kD domain. A1, A2, and A3 were capable of immuno- precipitating the 48-kD SS-B protein and its associated RNAs. A1, A2, and A3 also gave fine nuclear speckled staining on human, monkey, bovine, and rabbit cells that was similar in appearance to that with human autoantibodies, but in contrast to staining with human autoantibodies, they did not stain cells from rat, mouse, or rat kangaroo. It appears that human autoantibodies target highly conserved epitopes that can be distinguished from epitopes recognized by immunization-induced murine mAbs. Taken together with other data, it appears that human autoantibodies may be recognizing epitopes that are active or catalytic sites of molecules subserving important cellular functions. PMID:2445893

  8. Identification of Functionally Conserved Regions in the Structure of the Chaperone/CenH3/H4Complex

    PubMed Central

    Hong, Jingjun; Feng, Hanqiao; Zhou, Zheng; Ghirlando, Rodolfo; Bai, Yawen

    2012-01-01

    In eukaryotes, a variant of conventional histone H3 termed CenH3 epigenetically marks the centromere. The conserved CenH3 chaperone specifically recognizes CenH3 and is required for CenH3 deposition at the centromere. Recently, the structures of the chaperone/CenH3/H4 complexes have been determined for H. sapiens (Hs) and the budding yeasts S. cerevisiae (Sc) and K. lactis (Kl). Surprisingly, the three structures are very different, leading to different proposed structural bases for chaperone function. The question of which structural region of CenH3 provides the specificity determinant for the chaperone recognition is not fully answered. Here, we investigated these issues using solution NMR and site-directed mutagenesis. We discovered that, in contrast to previous findings, the structures of the Kl and Sc chaperone/CenH3/H4 complexes are actually very similar. This new finding reveals that both budding yeast and human chaperones use a similar structural region to block DNA from binding to the histones. Our mutational analyses further indicate that the N-terminal region of the CenH3 ?2 helix is sufficient for specific recognition by the chaperone for both budding yeast and human. Thus, our studies have identified conserved structural bases of how the chaperones recognize CenH3 and perform the chaperone function. PMID:23178171

  9. MAPPING SPATIAL ATTRIBUTES FOR CONSERVATION AND TOURISM PLANNING, OTWAYS REGION VICTORIA

    E-print Network

    Brown, Gregory G.

    MAPPING SPATIAL ATTRIBUTES FOR CONSERVATION AND TOURISM PLANNING, OTWAYS REGION VICTORIA SURVEY-in-Publication Brown, Greg. Mapping spatial attributes for conservation and tourism planning, Otways region, Victoria University of Queensland Editor-in-Chief Prof Terry De Lacy Sustainable Tourism CRC Chief Executive Prof Leo

  10. Accomplishments of the Alaska Region's Habitat Conservation Division

    E-print Network

    and conservation of Essential Fish Habitat (EFH) through fishery management, and environmental review of non, Alaska Invasive Species Working Group, and a variety of industry and conservation groups. #12;Essential Service to study potential effects to fish and marine mammals from oil and gas developments. The Minerals

  11. Regional Geograhpic Network Partnerships Supporting Sustainable Landscapes - An Example: The North Atlantic Landscape Conservation Cooperative

    EPA Science Inventory

    Natural resource management agencies, conservation organizations and other stakeholders are facing increasingly complex environmental challenges that require coordinated management actions at regional and landscape levels. To address these challenges, integrated multi-disciplina...

  12. INTEGRATING GRASSLAND AND SHRUBLAND BIRD CONSERVATION WITH THE NORTHERN BOBWHITE CONSERVATION INITIATIVE FOR THE CENTRAL HARDWOODS BIRD CONSERVATION REGION

    Microsoft Academic Search

    JAMES J. GIOCOMO; DAVID A. BUEHLER; JANE FITZGERALD

    Much attention has focused on management options to increase Northern Bobwhite (Colinus virginianus) habitat availability including the organization of the Southeast Quail Study Group Technical Committee and the creation of the Northern Bobwhite Conservation Initiative (NBCI). As the NBCI moves from the planning stages to implementation, there is a need to understand how management options for Northern Bobwhite populations will

  13. Recognizing Energy

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    William C. Robertson, Ph.D.

    2002-01-01

    Energy is such a common notion. We talk about it all the time. Should you buy energy-efficient windows? The country needs an energy policy. That little kid at the store who screaming at the top of his lungs sure has a lot of energy. This chapter deals with recognizing and defining energy. This free selection from Stop Faking It! Finally Understanding Science So You Can Teach It: Energy includes the Table of Contents and Preface.

  14. The status of chondrichthyan conservation in the Indo-Australasian region.

    PubMed

    White, W T; Kyne, P M

    2010-06-01

    The status of chondrichthyan (sharks, batoids and chimaeras) conservation in the Indo-Australasian region is examined, and issues relevant to the conservation of this fauna at the subregional level [Australia, Indonesia (excluding West Papua), New Guinea (West Papua and Papua New Guinea), New Caledonia and New Zealand] are discussed. According to the 2009 IUCN Red List of Threatened Species, c. 21% of Indo-Australasian chondrichthyans are classified as threatened (critically endangered, endangered and vulnerable) and c. 40% are of conservation concern (threatened and near threatened). The proportion of threatened species is highest in New Guinea (c. 39%) and Indonesia (c. 35%) and least in New Zealand (c. 11%). In New Guinea, three quarters of the species are of conservation concern; in Indonesia, nearly two thirds are of conservation concern. Within the region, the proportion of threatened batoids (c. 29%) is higher than threatened sharks (c. 17%), while there are no threatened chimaeras. Conservation status is discussed at the order (for sharks), suborder (for batoids) and family level. Issues relating to the conservation status of chondrichthyans vary greatly between each subregion, but they mostly relate to targeted or incidental capture in fisheries. A handful of sharks and batoids are protected within Australian waters, while one species is protected in New Zealand. Both Australia and New Zealand have developed National Plans of Action for the Conservation and Management of Sharks (NPOA-Sharks), but these are lacking elsewhere. Development and implementation of NPOA-Sharks are a priority in order to drive the conservation of the regional fauna. Sustainable fisheries management (including by-catch), confronting the challenge of illegal, unreported and unregulated fishing, species protection where appropriate and marine protected areas (MPA) are all likely to prove vital in ensuring the long-term conservation of Indo-Australasian sharks, batoids and chimaeras. PMID:20557656

  15. Structural Constraints Imposed by the Conserved Fusion Peptide on the HIV-1 gp41 Epitope Recognized by the Broadly Neutralizing Antibody 2F5

    E-print Network

    Pompeu Fabra, Universitat

    constraints existing in the cognate gp41 native structure recognized by the antibody are presently unknown and confers protection to viral infection when passively transferred to primate models.10,11 The bNAb 2F5

  16. The Texas Aggie Bonfire: A Conservative Reading of Regional Narratives, Traditional Practices, and a Paradoxical Place

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jonathan M. Smith

    2007-01-01

    Concepts of place, narrative, tradition, and identity are employed in a conservative reading of the Texas A&M Bonfire. Texas A&M embodied regional narratives of a dual Southern commitment to economic and technological development and conservation of traditional cultural. Institutionalized at Texas A&M in the late nineteenth century, these narratives made a paradoxical place. Bonfire expressed and obscured this paradox. In

  17. ECRbase: Database of Evolutionary Conserved Regions, Promoters, and Transcription Factor Binding Sites in Vertebrate Genomes

    DOE Data Explorer

    Loots, Gabriela G. [LLNL; Ovcharenko, I. [LLNL

    Evolutionary conservation of DNA sequences provides a tool for the identification of functional elements in genomes. This database of evolutionary conserved regions (ECRs) in vertebrate genomes features a database of syntenic blocks that recapitulate the evolution of rearrangements in vertebrates and a comprehensive collection of promoters in all vertebrate genomes generated using multiple sources of gene annotation. The database also contains a collection of annotated transcription factor binding sites (TFBSs) in evolutionary conserved and promoter elements. ECRbase currently includes human, rhesus macaque, dog, opossum, rat, mouse, chicken, frog, zebrafish, and fugu genomes. (taken from paper in Journal: Bioinformatics, November 7, 2006, pp. 122-124

  18. Regions of evolutionary conservation between the rat and human prohibitin-encoding genes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michael S. Altus; Carla M. Wood; David A. Stewart; A. Jane I. Roskams; Varda Friedman; Toni Henderson; Garrison A. Owens; David B. Danner; Eldon R. Jupe; Robert T. Dell'Orco; J. Keith McClung

    1995-01-01

    We have analyzed and compared the 5? promoter region, the intron structure and the exon-intron flanking sequences in the rat and human prohibitin-encoding genes (PHB). Comparative analysis of a 350-nt region immediately 5? to and including the first exon identifies eight highly conserved regions, four of which correspond to binding sites for known transcriptional control proteins (CCAAT box, ‘SV40’ site

  19. Analysis of the interindividual conservation of T cell receptor alpha- and beta-chain variable regions gene in the peripheral blood of patients with systemic lupus erythematosus.

    PubMed

    Luo, W; Ma, L; Wen, Q; Wang, N; Zhou, M-Q; Wang, X-N

    2008-12-01

    The aim of this study was to find conserved motifs in specific T cell receptor (TCR) alpha- and beta-chains, and to analyse the association between complementarity determining region 3 (CDR3) spectratype and systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) activity. TCR alpha-and beta-chain CDR3 spectratypes were analysed in 20 SLE patients. The CDR3 spectratypes of three patients were monitored over time, and the CDR3 regions of clonally expanded T cells were sequenced. CDR3 spectratype analysis showed prominent usage of TCR AV8, AV14, AV23, AV30, AV31, BV2, BV8, BV11, BV14, BV16, BV19 and BV24 families in SLE patients. The CDR3 spectratype showed dynamic change correlating with SLE activity. The sequence of the CDR3 region in clonally expanded T cells suggested a conserved GGX amino acid motif in both alpha- and beta-chains. The Ja34 and Jb2s1 region genes were found in high frequency. Both TCR Valpha and Vbeta gene usage is highly restricted in SLE, suggesting that the TCRs recognize a limited number of antigenic epitopes. The conserved motifs and limited use of joining region genes may indicate the recognition of similar antigenic epitopes in multiple individuals. PMID:18811695

  20. Analysis of the interindividual conservation of T cell receptor ?- and ?-chain variable regions gene in the peripheral blood of patients with systemic lupus erythematosus

    PubMed Central

    Luo, W; Ma, L; Wen, Q; Wang, N; Zhou, M-Q; Wang, X-N

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this study was to find conserved motifs in specific T cell receptor (TCR) ?- and ?-chains, and to analyse the association between complementarity determining region 3 (CDR3) spectratype and systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) activity. TCR ?- and ?-chain CDR3 spectratypes were analysed in 20 SLE patients. The CDR3 spectratypes of three patients were monitored over time, and the CDR3 regions of clonally expanded T cells were sequenced. CDR3 spectratype analysis showed prominent usage of TCR AV8, AV14, AV23, AV30, AV31, BV2, BV8, BV11, BV14, BV16, BV19 and BV24 families in SLE patients. The CDR3 spectratype showed dynamic change correlating with SLE activity. The sequence of the CDR3 region in clonally expanded T cells suggested a conserved GGX amino acid motif in both ?- and ?-chains. The Ja34 and Jb2s1 region genes were found in high frequency. Both TCR V? and V? gene usage is highly restricted in SLE, suggesting that the TCRs recognize a limited number of antigenic epitopes. The conserved motifs and limited use of joining region genes may indicate the recognition of similar antigenic epitopes in multiple individuals. PMID:18811695

  1. A Novel Universal Neutralizing Monoclonal Antibody against Enterovirus 71 That Targets the Highly Conserved “Knob” Region of VP3 Protein

    PubMed Central

    Meng, Tao; Chow, Vincent Tak Kwong; Kwang, Jimmy

    2014-01-01

    Hand, foot and mouth disease caused by enterovirus 71(EV71) leads to the majority of neurological complications and death in young children. While putative inactivated vaccines are only now undergoing clinical trials, no specific treatment options exist yet. Ideally, EV71 specific intravenous immunoglobulins could be developed for targeted treatment of severe cases. To date, only a single universally neutralizing monoclonal antibody against a conserved linear epitope of VP1 has been identified. Other enteroviruses have been shown to possess major conformational neutralizing epitopes on both the VP2 and VP3 capsid proteins. Hence, we attempted to isolate such neutralizing antibodies against conformational epitopes for their potential in the treatment of infection as well as differential diagnosis and vaccine optimization. Here we describe a universal neutralizing monoclonal antibody that recognizes a conserved conformational epitope of EV71 which was mapped using escape mutants. Eight escape mutants from different subgenogroups (A, B2, B4, C2, C4) were rescued; they harbored three essential mutations either at amino acid positions 59, 62 or 67 of the VP3 protein which are all situated in the “knob” region. The escape mutant phenotype could be mimicked by incorporating these mutations into reverse genetically engineered viruses showing that P59L, A62D, A62P and E67D abolish both monoclonal antibody binding and neutralization activity. This is the first conformational neutralization epitope mapped on VP3 for EV71. PMID:24875055

  2. Achieving conservation when opportunity costs are high: optimizing reserve design in Alberta's oil sands region.

    PubMed

    Schneider, Richard R; Hauer, Grant; Farr, Dan; Adamowicz, W L; Boutin, Stan

    2011-01-01

    Recent studies have shown that conservation gains can be achieved when the spatial distributions of biological benefits and economic costs are incorporated in the conservation planning process. Using Alberta, Canada, as a case study we apply these techniques in the context of coarse-filter reserve design. Because targets for ecosystem representation and other coarse-filter design elements are difficult to define objectively we use a trade-off analysis to systematically explore the relationship between conservation targets and economic opportunity costs. We use the Marxan conservation planning software to generate reserve designs at each level of conservation target to ensure that our quantification of conservation and economic outcomes represents the optimal allocation of resources in each case. Opportunity cost is most affected by the ecological representation target and this relationship is nonlinear. Although petroleum resources are present throughout most of Alberta, and include highly valuable oil sands deposits, our analysis indicates that over 30% of public lands could be protected while maintaining access to more than 97% of the value of the region's resources. Our case study demonstrates that optimal resource allocation can be usefully employed to support strategic decision making in the context of land-use planning, even when conservation targets are not well defined. PMID:21858046

  3. Achieving Conservation when Opportunity Costs Are High: Optimizing Reserve Design in Alberta's Oil Sands Region

    PubMed Central

    Schneider, Richard R.; Hauer, Grant; Farr, Dan; Adamowicz, W. L.; Boutin, Stan

    2011-01-01

    Recent studies have shown that conservation gains can be achieved when the spatial distributions of biological benefits and economic costs are incorporated in the conservation planning process. Using Alberta, Canada, as a case study we apply these techniques in the context of coarse-filter reserve design. Because targets for ecosystem representation and other coarse-filter design elements are difficult to define objectively we use a trade-off analysis to systematically explore the relationship between conservation targets and economic opportunity costs. We use the Marxan conservation planning software to generate reserve designs at each level of conservation target to ensure that our quantification of conservation and economic outcomes represents the optimal allocation of resources in each case. Opportunity cost is most affected by the ecological representation target and this relationship is nonlinear. Although petroleum resources are present throughout most of Alberta, and include highly valuable oil sands deposits, our analysis indicates that over 30% of public lands could be protected while maintaining access to more than 97% of the value of the region's resources. Our case study demonstrates that optimal resource allocation can be usefully employed to support strategic decision making in the context of land-use planning, even when conservation targets are not well defined. PMID:21858046

  4. Effects of regional -scale conservation planning at the local level: Chachi (Cayapa) and Afro-Ecuadorian communities' utilization of the endangered coastal forests of the Ecuadorian Chocó and their understanding of sustainable development and biodiversity conservation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nathalie Walker

    Conservation planning by international conservation organizations is targeting large areas (designated hotspots or ecoregions) of high biodiversity and at great threat, that cross political boundaries and share environmental and biological characteristics. The large-scale approach to biodiversity conservation has been recognized as necessary in order to ensure that large- scale ecological processes and viable populations of species are preserved and to

  5. Spruce budworm elastase precipitates Bacillus thuringiensis delta-endotoxin by specifically recognizing the C-terminal region.

    PubMed

    Milne, R; Wright, T; Kaplan, H; Dean, D

    1998-12-01

    A gut juice protein from Choristoneura fumiferana (spruce budworm) larvae that precipitates certain delta-endotoxins shows a unique specificity for the C-terminal amino acid sequence. Using homolog scanning mutants, we have identified a contiguous region of the Cry1Aa toxin which interacts with the 75-kDa toxin precipitating protein (TPP-75)' resulting in precipitation. The contiguous region from Cry1Aa can be transferred to Cry1Ac and results in an identical precipitation reaction. The precipitation reaction occurs rapidly and is unique in that the ratio of precipitating protein to toxin is low (estimated at 0.01), unlike antibody-antigen reactions which exhibit mole ratios close to 1. TPP-75 has been characterized as an elastase-like serine protease. We have taken advantage of this serine protease character and incorporated a radiolabel using an irreversible inhibitor. The radiolabel has allowed us to show the coincidence of the catalytically-inhibited TPP-75 with the toxin in a blotting assay and to follow the degradation of TPP-75 during storage. TPP-75 represents the first evidence that gut juice proteins may selectively attenuate the activity of delta-endotoxins, prior to binding to putative receptors on susceptible cells. TPP-75 should be evaluated as a possible resistance mechanism for those larvae that do not exhibit a receptor-based resistance. PMID:9887517

  6. Characterization of a monoclonal antibody B1 that recognizes phosphorylated Ser-158 in the activation peptide region of human coagulation factor IX.

    PubMed

    Atoda, Hideko; Yokota, Emi; Morita, Takashi

    2006-04-01

    Blood coagulation factor IX (FIX) undergoes various post-translational modifications such as gamma-carboxylation and glycosylation. Non-phosphorylated recombinant FIX has been reported to rapidly disappear from plasma, indicating that phosphorylation of FIX plays an important role in the physiological activity of this coagulation factor. In this study, we characterized the human FIX activation peptide (AP) using a monoclonal antibody that recognizes phosphorylated Ser-158 in the AP region. Murine monoclonal antibody B1 against human FIX recognized FIX with an apparent K(d) value of 5 nm in the presence of Ca(2+) (EC(50) = 0.58 mm). B1 bound to the isolated AP of FIX and retained the Ca(2+) dependence of binding to the isolated AP. The deglycosylation of AP did not affect the binding of B1 to AP, while B1 failed to bind to recombinant AP expressed in Escherichia coli. MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry showed that the m/z of plasma-derived deglycosylated AP is 82.54 Da greater than that of recombinant AP. The binding ability of B1 to AP was lost by the dephosphorylation of plasma-derived AP. B1 bound to synthetic peptide AP-(5-19), including phosphoserine-13, but not to the non-phosphorylated AP-(5-19) in the presence of Ca(2+). These data provide direct evidence that Ser-13 of the plasma-derived FIX AP region (Ser-158 of FIX) is phosphorylated and that B1 recognizes the epitope, which includes Ca(2+)-bound phosphoserine-158. B1 should be useful in the quality control of biologically active recombinant FIX containing phosphoserine-158. PMID:16467297

  7. Conservation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Audubon Society, New York, NY.

    This set of teaching aids consists of seven Audubon Nature Bulletins, providing the teacher and student with informational reading on various topics in conservation. The bulletins have these titles: Plants as Makers of Soil, Water Pollution Control, The Ground Water Table, Conservation--To Keep This Earth Habitable, Our Threatened Air Supply,…

  8. Conservation of crop diversity for sustainable landscape development in the mountains of the Indian Himalayan region

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sunil Nautiyal; Harald Kaechele

    2007-01-01

    Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to emphasize the conservation and management of crop diversity in traditional agro-ecosystems as a crucial component for sustainable landscape development in the mountains of the Indian Himalayan region. The results indicate that mountain farming has the potential to produce good output from a low input system where farmers still use local resources

  9. Terrestrial Carbon Dynamics in Prairie Remnants and Conservation Reserve Program Lands of the Palouse Region

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Y. Sánchez-de León; J. Johnson-Maynard

    2007-01-01

    Conversion of marginal agricultural lands to perennial grassland vegetation has been proposed as a way to enhance terrestrial carbon sequestration. The Conservation Reserve Program (CRP) has facilitated this transition and promoted carbon sequestration in highly erodible agricultural lands of the Palouse Region of northern Idaho and eastern Washington. Currently little is known about the potential of these lands to act

  10. Habitat Conservation Division Protection of Deep Sea Corals in the Greater Atlantic Region

    E-print Network

    Habitat Conservation Division Protection of Deep Sea Corals in the Greater Atlantic Region Unlike the tropical corals that we are most familiar with that grow and form reefs in shallow, warm, sunlit waters, deepsea corals grow in deep, cold water where there is no sunlight. Some species

  11. Conservation of Madrean Archipelago and Regional Forest Development Proj ects in Mexico

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Luis A. Boj; L. A. Pena; C. Alvarez; Ivan Azuara; M. Alquicira; A. Ramirez

    The Madrean Archipelago is a priority for conservation of biodiversity in Northwestern Mexico. Also, the Chihuahua and Durango Forestry Development Project was proposed to manage the forest of those two Mexican states to modify current deforestation rates. An environmental baseline study was performed to provide baseline data for the protection of the biodiversity in the region and to comply with

  12. The Development of the Relationship between Coastal Fisheries and Marine Conservation in the Oder Estuary Region

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lars Michaelsen

    In this article the conflicts and common interests of the coastal fishing industry and marine conservation in the Oder estuary region are analysed. The background is the author's diploma thesis about this topic in the year 2005 and a small, recently conducted survey. The 2005 survey showed that there exist many points of contact between the areas of fishery and

  13. Associations between avian functional guild response and regional landscape properties for conservation planning

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Joseph A. Bishop; Wayne L. Myers

    2005-01-01

    This project facilitates a regional approach to conservation planning in Pennsylvania based on avian breeding habitat selection. The objectives were to: (1) determine the sensitivity of spatial pattern in avian diversity to changing thresholds of intra-guild species richness and (2) relate change of spatial pattern in avian diversity with landscape characteristics of bird Atlas blocks. Two state-wide spatial data layers,

  14. Land use change in a Mediterranean metropolitan region and its periphery: assessment of conservation policies through

    E-print Network

    Bravo de la Parra, Rafael

    Land use change in a Mediterranean metropolitan region and its periphery: assessment biodiversity which is linked in part to traditional land use practices and which is currently threatened by global change. The effectiveness of one-decade conservation policies against land use changes

  15. Conservation networks, integrated and sustainable land use in a tropical frontier — the Cape York Peninsula region, Australia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Andreas E. Hohl; Clem A. Tisdell

    1994-01-01

    After discussing methods for and the difficulties of determining optimal land use, particularly in relation to conservation and sustainability issues, prospects for establishing conservation networks so as to preserve the wildemess characteristics of the Cape York Peninsula area are considered. According to a number of international studies, nature conservation in this region should be given a high priority. While Cape

  16. Rapid Profiling of the Antigen Regions Recognized by Serum Antibodies Using Massively Parallel Sequencing of Antigen-Specific Libraries

    PubMed Central

    Domina, Maria; Lanza Cariccio, Veronica; Benfatto, Salvatore; D'Aliberti, Deborah; Venza, Mario; Borgogni, Erica; Castellino, Flora; Biondo, Carmelo; D'Andrea, Daniel; Grassi, Luigi; Tramontano, Anna; Teti, Giuseppe; Felici, Franco; Beninati, Concetta

    2014-01-01

    There is a need for techniques capable of identifying the antigenic epitopes targeted by polyclonal antibody responses during deliberate or natural immunization. Although successful, traditional phage library screening is laborious and can map only some of the epitopes. To accelerate and improve epitope identification, we have employed massive sequencing of phage-displayed antigen-specific libraries using the Illumina MiSeq platform. This enabled us to precisely identify the regions of a model antigen, the meningococcal NadA virulence factor, targeted by serum antibodies in vaccinated individuals and to rank hundreds of antigenic fragments according to their immunoreactivity. We found that next generation sequencing can significantly empower the analysis of antigen-specific libraries by allowing simultaneous processing of dozens of library/serum combinations in less than two days, including the time required for antibody-mediated library selection. Moreover, compared with traditional plaque picking, the new technology (named Phage-based Representation OF Immuno-Ligand Epitope Repertoire or PROFILER) provides superior resolution in epitope identification. PROFILER seems ideally suited to streamline and guide rational antigen design, adjuvant selection, and quality control of newly produced vaccines. Furthermore, this method is also susceptible to find important applications in other fields covered by traditional quantitative serology. PMID:25473968

  17. Conserved Regions of Protein Disulfide Isomerase are Targeted by Natural IgA Antibodies in Humans

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Bob Meek; Jaap Willem Back; Vincent N. A. Klaren; Dave Speijer; R. Peek

    2002-01-01

    Secretory IgA (sIgA) antibodies in human tears and milk were found to recognize protein disulfide isomerase (PDI) on a Toxoplasma gondii lysate immunoblot (IB). These antibodies were already detectable in tears of infants. To determine the epitope containing-regions on PDI, we generated truncated versions of recombinant PDI that differ by 8-10 amino acids in length. By IB, it was found

  18. Assessing and Prioritizing Ecological Communities for Monitoring in a Regional Habitat Conservation Plan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hierl, Lauren A.; Franklin, Janet; Deutschman, Douglas H.; Regan, Helen M.; Johnson, Brenda S.

    2008-07-01

    In nature reserves and habitat conservation areas, monitoring is required to determine if reserves are meeting their goals for preserving species, ecological communities, and ecosystems. Increasingly, reserves are established to protect multiple species and communities, each with their own conservation goals and objectives. As resources are always inadequate to monitor all components, criteria must be applied to prioritize both species and communities for monitoring and management. While methods for prioritizing species based on endangerment or risk have been established, approaches to prioritizing ecological communities for monitoring are not well developed, despite a long-standing emphasis on communities as target elements in reserve design. We established guidelines based on four criteria derived from basic principles of conservation and landscape ecology—extent, representativeness, fragmentation, and endangerment—to prioritize communities in the San Diego Multiple Species Conservation Plan (MSCP). The MSCP was one of the first multiple-species habitat conservation areas established in California, USA, and it has a complex spatial configuration because of the patterns of surrounding land use, which are largely urbanized. In this case study, high priority communities for monitoring include coastal sage scrub (high endangerment, underrepresented within the reserve relative to the region, and moderately fragmented), freshwater wetlands, and coastal habitats (both have high fragmentation, moderate endangerment and representativeness, and low areal extent). This framework may be useful to other conservation planners and land managers for prioritizing the most significant and at-risk communities for monitoring.

  19. Fast discovery and visualization of conserved regions in DNA sequences using quasi-alignment

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Next Generation Sequencing techniques are producing enormous amounts of biological sequence data and analysis becomes a major computational problem. Currently, most analysis, especially the identification of conserved regions, relies heavily on Multiple Sequence Alignment and its various heuristics such as progressive alignment, whose run time grows with the square of the number and the length of the aligned sequences and requires significant computational resources. In this work, we present a method to efficiently discover regions of high similarity across multiple sequences without performing expensive sequence alignment. The method is based on approximating edit distance between segments of sequences using p-mer frequency counts. Then, efficient high-throughput data stream clustering is used to group highly similar segments into so called quasi-alignments. Quasi-alignments have numerous applications such as identifying species and their taxonomic class from sequences, comparing sequences for similarities, and, as in this paper, discovering conserved regions across related sequences. Results In this paper, we show that quasi-alignments can be used to discover highly similar segments across multiple sequences from related or different genomes efficiently and accurately. Experiments on a large number of unaligned 16S rRNA sequences obtained from the Greengenes database show that the method is able to identify conserved regions which agree with known hypervariable regions in 16S rRNA. Furthermore, the experiments show that the proposed method scales well for large data sets with a run time that grows only linearly with the number and length of sequences, whereas for existing multiple sequence alignment heuristics the run time grows super-linearly. Conclusion Quasi-alignment-based algorithms can detect highly similar regions and conserved areas across multiple sequences. Since the run time is linear and the sequences are converted into a compact clustering model, we are able to identify conserved regions fast or even interactively using a standard PC. Our method has many potential applications such as finding characteristic signature sequences for families of organisms and studying conserved and variable regions in, for example, 16S rRNA. PMID:24564200

  20. Inhibition of Dengue Virus 2 Replication by Artificial MicroRNAs Targeting the Conserved Regions

    PubMed Central

    Xie, Pei-wen; Xie, Yu; Zhang, Xiu-juan; Huang, Hai; He, Li-na

    2013-01-01

    Dengue virus (DENV), a mosquito-borne flavivirus, causes serious diseases and threatens public health in tropical and subtropical areas worldwide. RNA interference (RNAi) is a prevailing strategy for antiviral therapy. In this paper, 6 single artificial microRNAs (amiRNAs) targeting the highly conserved regions of the DENV-2 genome were identified and inhibited virus replication efficiently. Then, effective tandem amiRNAs targeting 2 different DENV-2 genome regions were constructed and expressed simultaneously from a single microRNA-like polycistron to avoid virus variation or mutation escape. Finally, the most high-performance tandem amiRNA was embedded in a lenti-viral vector and inhibited DENV-2 virus replication stably and dose-dependently. Overall, these results indicated that RNAi based on multiple amiRNAs targeting viral conserved regions was an effective approach for improvements of nucleic acid inhibitors of DENV and provided a new therapeutic strategy for DENV infection in humans. PMID:23651254

  1. Complementary functions of E1a conserved region 1 cooperate with conserved region 3 to activate adenovirus serotype 5 early promoters.

    PubMed Central

    Wong, H K; Ziff, E B

    1994-01-01

    The amino-terminal region of the adenovirus type 5 E1a protein including conserved regions (CRs) 1 and 2 binds the 105-kDa retinoblastoma protein and a second, 300-kDa, cellular protein. We show that mutant viruses with deletions of CR1 which release the binding of either p105 or p300 still activate early promoters and infect cells productively. However, mutations which disrupt binding of both proteins disrupt early promoter activity and block the viral life cycle. Ela CR3, which has an established role in early promoter activation, can act in trans to the amino-terminal functions. This suggests that the amino terminus provides distinct, redundant functions related to p300 and Rb binding that synergize with CR3 to transactivate early genes. Images PMID:8035489

  2. Effects of Conservation Policies on Forest Cover Change in Giant Panda Habitat Regions, China

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yu; Viña, Andrés; Yang, Wu; Chen, Xiaodong; Zhang, Jindong; Ouyang, Zhiyun; Liang, Zai; Liu, Jianguo

    2014-01-01

    After long periods of deforestation, forest transition has occurred globally, but the causes of forest transition in different countries are highly variable. Conservation policies may play important roles in facilitating forest transition around the world, including China. To restore forests and protect the remaining natural forests, the Chinese government initiated two nationwide conservation policies in the late 1990s -- the Natural Forest Conservation Program (NFCP) and the Grain-To-Green Program (GTGP). While some studies have discussed the environmental and socioeconomic effects of each of these policies independently and others have attributed forest recovery to both policies without rigorous and quantitative analysis, it is necessary to rigorously quantify the outcomes of these two conservation policies simultaneously because the two policies have been implemented at the same time. To fill the knowledge gap, this study quantitatively evaluated the effects of the two conservation policies on forest cover change between 2001 and 2008 in 108 townships located in two important giant panda habitat regions -- the Qinling Mountains region in Shaanxi Province and the Sichuan Giant Panda Sanctuary in Sichuan Province. Forest cover change was evaluated using a land-cover product (MCD12Q1) derived from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS). This product proved to be highly accurate in the study region (overall accuracy was ca. 87%, using 425 ground truth points collected in the field), thus suitable for the forest change analysis performed. Results showed that within the timeframe evaluated, most townships in both regions exhibited either increases or no changes in forest cover. After accounting for a variety of socioeconomic and biophysical attributes, an Ordinary Least Square (OLS) regression model suggests that the two policies had statistically significant positive effects on forest cover change after seven years of implementation, while population density, percent agricultural population, road density, and initial forest cover (i.e. in 2001) had significant negative effects. The methods and results from this study will be useful for continuing the implementation of these conservation policies, for the development of future giant panda habitat conservation projects, and for achieving forest sustainability in China and elsewhere. PMID:26146431

  3. A Forty-Year Retrospective 1950-1990: The Metropolitan Toronto and Region Conservation Authority's Conservation Education Programmes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carr, Allen Terry

    1996-01-01

    Recounts the growth of Conservation Authorities in Ontario from the first partnerships between schools and conservation in the 1950s, to the opening of a pioneer village, flood control dam, nature trails, and residential conservation education centers through the 1960s and 1970s. Increased public environmental concern sparked more growth in the…

  4. Rewilding the tropics, and other conservation translocations strategies in the tropical Asia-Pacific region.

    PubMed

    Louys, Julien; Corlett, Richard T; Price, Gilbert J; Hawkins, Stuart; Piper, Philip J

    2014-11-01

    Alarm over the prospects for survival of species in a rapidly changing world has encouraged discussion of translocation conservation strategies that move beyond the focus of 'at-risk' species. These approaches consider larger spatial and temporal scales than customary, with the aim of recreating functioning ecosystems through a combination of large-scale ecological restoration and species introductions. The term 'rewilding' has come to apply to this large-scale ecosystem restoration program. While reintroductions of species within their historical ranges have become standard conservation tools, introductions within known paleontological ranges-but outside historical ranges-are more controversial, as is the use of taxon substitutions for extinct species. Here, we consider possible conservation translocations for nine large-bodied taxa in tropical Asia-Pacific. We consider the entire spectrum of conservation translocation strategies as defined by the IUCN in addition to rewilding. The taxa considered are spread across diverse taxonomic and ecological spectra and all are listed as 'endangered' or 'critically endangered' by the IUCN in our region of study. They all have a written and fossil record that is sufficient to assess past changes in range, as well as ecological and environmental preferences, and the reasons for their decline, and they have all suffered massive range restrictions since the late Pleistocene. General principles, problems, and benefits of translocation strategies are reviewed as case studies. These allowed us to develop a conservation translocation matrix, with taxa scored for risk, benefit, and feasibility. Comparisons between taxa across this matrix indicated that orangutans, tapirs, Tasmanian devils, and perhaps tortoises are the most viable taxa for translocations. However, overall the case studies revealed a need for more data and research for all taxa, and their ecological and environmental needs. Rewilding the Asian-Pacific tropics remains a controversial conservation strategy, and would be difficult in what is largely a highly fragmented area geographically. PMID:25540698

  5. Conserving Prairie Pothole Region wetlands and surrounding grasslands: evaluating effects on amphibians

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mushet, David M.; Neau, Jordan L.

    2014-01-01

    The maintenance of viable and genetically diverse populations of amphibians in the Prairie Pothole Region of the United States depends on upland as well as wetland over-wintering and landscape level habitat features. Prairie pothole wetlands provide important amphibian breeding habitat while grasslands surrounding these wetlands provide foraging habitat for adults, overwintering habitat for some species, and important connectivity among breeding wetlands. Grasslands surrounding wetlands were found to be especially important for wood frogs and northern leopard frogs, while croplands dominated habitat utilized by Great Plains toads and Woodhouse’s toads. Habitat suitability mapping highlighted (1) the influence of deep-water overwintering wetlands on suitable habitat for four of five anuran species encountered; (2) the lack of overlap between areas of core habitat for both the northern leopard frog and wood frog compared to the core habitat for both toad species; and (3) the importance of conservation programs in providing grassland components of northern leopard frog and wood frog habitat. Currently, there are approximately 7.2 million acres (2.9 million hectares, ha) of habitat in the PPR identified as suitable for amphibians. WRP and CRP wetland and grassland habitats accounted for approximately 1.9 million acres (0.75 million ha) or 26 percent of this total area. Continued loss of amphibian habitat resulting from an ongoing trend of returning PPR conservation lands to crop production, will likely have significant negative effects on the region’s ability to maintain amphibian biodiversity. Conversely, increases in conservation wetlands and surrounding grasslands on the PPR landscape have great potential to positively influence the region’s amphibian populations.

  6. The juxtamembrane regions of human receptor tyrosine kinases exhibit conserved interaction sites with anionic lipids.

    PubMed

    Hedger, George; Sansom, Mark S P; Koldsø, Heidi

    2015-01-01

    Receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs) play a critical role in diverse cellular processes and their activity is regulated by lipids in the surrounding membrane, including PIP2 (phosphatidylinositol-4,5-bisphosphate) in the inner leaflet, and GM3 (monosialodihexosylganglioside) in the outer leaflet. However, the precise details of the interactions at the molecular level remain to be fully characterised. Using a multiscale molecular dynamics simulation approach, we comprehensively characterise anionic lipid interactions with all 58 known human RTKs. Our results demonstrate that the juxtamembrane (JM) regions of RTKs are critical for inducing clustering of anionic lipids, including PIP2, both in simple asymmetric bilayers, and in more complex mixed membranes. Clustering is predominantly driven by interactions between a conserved cluster of basic residues within the first five positions of the JM region, and negatively charged lipid headgroups. This highlights a conserved interaction pattern shared across the human RTK family. In particular predominantly the N-terminal residues of the JM region are involved in the interactions with PIP2, whilst residues within the distal JM region exhibit comparatively less lipid specificity. Our results suggest that JM-lipid interactions play a key role in RTK structure and function, and more generally in the nanoscale organisation of receptor-containing cell membranes. PMID:25779975

  7. Conserved regulatory elements in the promoter region of the N-CAM gene

    SciTech Connect

    Colwell, G.; Li, B.; Forrest, D.; Brackenbury, R. (Univ. of Cincinnati Medical Center, OH (United States))

    1992-12-01

    Genomic clones containing 5[prime]-flanking sequences, the first exon, and the entire first intron from the chicken N-CAM gene were characterized by restriction mapping and DNA sequencing. A > 600-bp segment that includes the first exon is very G + C-rich and contains a large proportion of CpG dinucleotides, suggesting that it represents a CpG island. SP-1 and AP-1 consensus elements are present, but no TATA- or CCAAT-like elements were found within 300 bp upstream of the first exon. Comparison of the chicken promoter region sequence with similar regions of the human, rat, and mouse N-CAM genes revealed that some potential regulatory elements including a [open quotes]purine box[close quotes] seen in mouse and rat N-CAM genes, one of two homeodomain binding regions seen in mammalian N-CAM genes, and several potential SP-1 sites are not conserved within this region. In contrast, high CpG content, a homeodomain binding sequence, an SP-1 element, an octomer element, and an AP-1 element are conserved in all four genes. The first intron of the chicken gene is 38 kb, substantially smaller than the corresponding intron from mammalian N-CAM genes. Together with previous studies, this work completes the cloning of the chicken N-CAM gene, which contains at least 26 exons distributed over 85 kb. 49 refs., 5 figs.

  8. Evolutionarily conserved regions of the human c-myc protein can be uncoupled from transforming activity

    SciTech Connect

    Sarid, J.; Halazonetis, T.D.; Murphy, W.; Leder, P.

    1987-01-01

    The myc family of oncogenes contains coding sequences that have been preserved in different species for over 400 million years. This conservation (which implies functional selection) is broadly represented throughout the C-terminal portion of the human c-myc protein but is largely restricted to three cluster of amino acid sequences in the N-terminal region. The authors have examined the role that the latter three regions of the c-myc protein might play in the transforming function of the c-myc gene. Several mutations, deletions and frameshifts, were introduced into the c-myc gene, and these mutant genes were tested for their ability to collaborate with the EJ-ras oncogene to transform rat embryo fibroblasts. Complete elimination of the first two N-terminal conserved segments abolished transforming activity. In contrast, genes altered in a portion of the second or the entire third conserved segment retained their transforming activity. Thus, the latter two segments are not required for the transformation process, suggesting that they serve another function related only to the normal expression of the c-myc gene.

  9. Flexibility Correlation between Active Site Regions Is Conserved across Four AmpC ?-Lactamase Enzymes

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Jenna R.; Livesay, Dennis R.

    2015-01-01

    ?-lactamases are bacterial enzymes that confer resistance to ?-lactam antibiotics, such as penicillins and cephalosporins. There are four classes of ?-lactamase enzymes, each with characteristic sequence and structure properties. Enzymes from class A are the most common and have been well characterized across the family; however, less is known about how physicochemical properties vary across the C and D families. In this report, we compare the dynamical properties of four AmpC (class C) ?-lactamases using our distance constraint model (DCM). The DCM reliably predicts thermodynamic and mechanical properties in an integrated way. As a consequence, quantitative stability/flexibility relationships (QSFR) can be determined and compared across the whole family. The DCM calculates a large number of QSFR metrics. Perhaps the most useful is the flexibility index (FI), which quantifies flexibility along the enzyme backbone. As typically observed in other systems, FI is well conserved across the four AmpC enzymes. Cooperativity correlation (CC), which quantifies intramolecular couplings within structure, is rarely conserved across protein families; however, it is in AmpC. In particular, the bulk of each structure is composed of a large rigid cluster, punctuated by three flexibly correlated regions located at the active site. These regions include several catalytic residues and the ?-loop. This evolutionary conservation combined with active their site location strongly suggests that these coupled dynamical modes are important for proper functioning of the enzyme. PMID:26018804

  10. An atlas of over 90,000 conserved noncoding sequences provides insight into crucifer regulatory regions.

    PubMed

    Haudry, Annabelle; Platts, Adrian E; Vello, Emilio; Hoen, Douglas R; Leclercq, Mickael; Williamson, Robert J; Forczek, Ewa; Joly-Lopez, Zoé; Steffen, Joshua G; Hazzouri, Khaled M; Dewar, Ken; Stinchcombe, John R; Schoen, Daniel J; Wang, Xiaowu; Schmutz, Jeremy; Town, Christopher D; Edger, Patrick P; Pires, J Chris; Schumaker, Karen S; Jarvis, David E; Mandáková, Terezie; Lysak, Martin A; van den Bergh, Erik; Schranz, M Eric; Harrison, Paul M; Moses, Alan M; Bureau, Thomas E; Wright, Stephen I; Blanchette, Mathieu

    2013-08-01

    Despite the central importance of noncoding DNA to gene regulation and evolution, understanding of the extent of selection on plant noncoding DNA remains limited compared to that of other organisms. Here we report sequencing of genomes from three Brassicaceae species (Leavenworthia alabamica, Sisymbrium irio and Aethionema arabicum) and their joint analysis with six previously sequenced crucifer genomes. Conservation across orthologous bases suggests that at least 17% of the Arabidopsis thaliana genome is under selection, with nearly one-quarter of the sequence under selection lying outside of coding regions. Much of this sequence can be localized to approximately 90,000 conserved noncoding sequences (CNSs) that show evidence of transcriptional and post-transcriptional regulation. Population genomics analyses of two crucifer species, A. thaliana and Capsella grandiflora, confirm that most of the identified CNSs are evolving under medium to strong purifying selection. Overall, these CNSs highlight both similarities and several key differences between the regulatory DNA of plants and other species. PMID:23817568

  11. Beyond biology: understanding regional, multi-species habitat conservation plans from an ecological, economic, and sociopolitical perspective 

    E-print Network

    Schmidt, Jennifer

    2013-02-22

    The following thesis is a politically and socially relevant product of the controversy surrounding the reauthorization of the Endangered Species Act and the highly debated role that regional, multi-species habitat conservation plans will play...

  12. A-to-I RNA editing alters less-conserved residues of highly conserved coding regions: Implications for dual functions in evolution

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Yun; Lv, Jianning; Gui, Bin; Yin, Heng; Wu, Xiaojie; Zhang, Yaozhou; Jin, Yongfeng

    2008-01-01

    The molecular mechanism and physiological function of recoding by A-to-I RNA editing is well known, but its evolutionary significance remains a mystery. We analyzed the RNA editing of the Kv2 K+ channel from different insects spanning more than 300 million years of evolution: Drosophila melanogaster, Culex pipiens (Diptera), Pulex irritans (Siphonaptera), Bombyx mori (Lepidoptera), Tribolium castaneum (Coleoptera), Apis mellifera (Hymenoptera), Pediculus humanus (Phthiraptera), and Myzus persicae (Homoptera). RNA editing was detected across all Kv2 orthologs, representing the most highly conserved RNA editing event yet reported in invertebrates. Surprisingly, five of these editing sites were conserved in squid (Mollusca) and were possibly of independent origin, suggesting phylogenetic conservation of editing between mollusks and insects. Based on this result, we predicted and experimentally verified two novel A-to-I editing sites in squid synaptotagmin I transcript. In addition, comparative analysis indicated that RNA editing usually occurred within highly conserved coding regions, but mostly altered less-conserved coding positions of these regions. Moreover, more than half of these edited amino acids are genomically encoded in the orthologs of other species; an example of a conversion model of the nonconservative edited site is addressed. Therefore, these data imply that RNA editing might play dual roles in evolution by extending protein diversity and maintaining phylogenetic conservation. PMID:18567816

  13. A Conserved Stem Loop Motif in the 5?Untranslated Region Regulates Transforming Growth Factor-?1 Translation

    PubMed Central

    Jenkins, Robert H.; Bennagi, Rasha; Martin, John; Phillips, Aled O.; Redman, James E.; Fraser, Donald J.

    2010-01-01

    Transforming growth factor-?1 (TGF-?1) regulates cellular proliferation, differentiation, migration, and survival. The human TGF-?1 transcript is inherently poorly translated, and translational activation has been documented in relation to several stimuli. In this paper, we have sought to identify in cis regulatory elements within the TGF-?1 5?Untranslated Region (5?UTR). In silico analysis predicted formation of stable secondary structure in a G/C-rich element between nucleotides +77 to +106, and demonstrated that this element is highly conserved across species. Circular dichroism spectroscopy confirmed the presence of secondary structure in this region. The proximal 5?UTR was inhibitory to translation in reporter gene experiments, and mutation of the secondary structure motif increased translational efficiency. Translational regulation of TGF-?1 mRNA is linked to altered binding of YB-1 protein to its 5?UTR. Immunoprecipitation-RT-qPCR demonstrated a high basal association of YB-1 with TGF-?1 mRNA. However, mutation of the secondary structure motif did not prevent interaction of YB-1 with the 5?UTR, suggesting that YB-1 binds to this region due to its G/C-rich composition, rather than a specific, sequence-dependent, binding site. These data identify a highly conserved element within the TGF-?1 5?UTR that forms stable secondary structure, and is responsible for the inherent low translation efficiency of this cytokine. PMID:20865036

  14. Conservation Regional ConservationRegional Conservation

    E-print Network

    Ahead ­­ Are We In for AnotherAre We In for Another ""Mister ToadMister Toad''s Wild Ride?s Wild Ride & ResourcesAlso Helped Balance Loads & Resources Creating Mr. ToadCreating Mr. Toad''s Wild Ride for the PNWs

  15. Cytoplasmic protein binding to highly conserved sequences in the 3' untranslated region of mouse protamine 2 mRNA, a translationally regulated transcript of male germ cells

    SciTech Connect

    Kwon, Y.K.; Hecht, N.B. (Tufts Univ., Medford, MA (USA))

    1991-05-01

    The expression of the protamines, the predominant nuclear proteins of mammalian spermatozoa, is regulated translationally during male germ-cell development. The 3' untranslated region (UTR) of protamine 1 mRNA has been reported to control its time of translation. To understand the mechanisms controlling translation of the protamine mRNAs, we have sought to identify cis elements of the 3' UTR of protamine 2 mRNA that are recognized by cytoplasmic factors. From gel retardation assays, two sequence elements are shown to form specific RNA-protein complexes. Protein binding sites of the two complexes were determined by RNase T1 mapping, by blocking the putative binding sites with antisense oligonucleotides, and by competition assays. The sequences of these elements, located between nucleotides + 537 and + 572 in protamine 2 mRNA, are highly conserved among postmeiotic translationally regulated nuclear proteins of the mammalian testis. Two closely linked protein binding sites were detected. UV-crosslinking studies revealed that a protein of about 18 kDa binds to one of the conserved sequences. These data demonstrate specific protein binding to a highly conserved 3' UTR of translationally regulated testicular mRNA.

  16. The Association Between Biological Subtype and Isolated Regional Nodal Failure After Breast-Conserving Therapy

    SciTech Connect

    Wo, Jennifer Y. [Harvard Radiation Oncology Program, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA (United States); Taghian, Alphonse G. [Massachusetts General Hospital, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA (United States); Nguyen, Paul L. [Harvard Radiation Oncology Program, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA (United States); Raad, Rita Abi [Massachusetts General Hospital, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA (United States); Sreedhara, Meera B.A.; Bellon, Jennifer R.; Wong, Julia S. [Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA (United States); Gadd, Michele A.; Smith, Barbara L. [Massachusetts General Hospital, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA (United States); Harris, Jay R., E-mail: jharris@lroc.harvard.ed [Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA (United States)

    2010-05-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the risk of isolated regional nodal failure (RNF) among women with invasive breast cancer treated with breast-conserving surgery (BCS) and radiation therapy (RT) and to determine factors, including biological subtype, associated with RNF. Methods and Materials: We retrospectively studied 1,000 consecutive women with invasive breast cancer who received breast-conserving surgery and RT from 1997 through 2002. Ninety percent of patients received adjuvant systemic therapy; none received trastuzumab. Sentinel lymph node biopsy was done in 617 patients (62%). Of patients with one to three positive nodes, 34% received regional nodal irradiation (RNI). Biological subtype classification into luminal A, luminal B, HER-2, and basal subtypes was based on estrogen receptor status-, progesterone receptor status-, and HER-2-status of the primary tumor. Results: Median follow-up was 77 months. Isolated RNF occurred in 6 patients (0.6%). On univariate analysis, biological subtype (p = 0.0002), lymph node involvement (p = 0.008), lymphovascular invasion (p = 0.02), and Grade 3 histology (p = 0.01) were associated with significantly higher RNF rates. Compared with luminal A, the HER-2 (p = 0.01) and basal (p = 0.08) subtypes were associated with higher RNF rates. The 5-year RNF rate among patients with one to three positive nodes treated with tangents alone was 2.4%; we could not identify a subset of these patients with a substantial risk of RNF. Conclusions: Isolated RNF is a rare occurrence after breast-conserving therapy. Patients with the HER-2 (not treated with trastuzumab) and basal subtypes appear to be at higher risk of developing RNF although this risk is not high enough to justify the addition of RNI. Low rates of RNF in patients with one to three positive nodes suggest that tangential RT without RNI is reasonable in most patients.

  17. A conserved amphipathic ligand binding region influences k-path-dependent activity of cytochrome C oxidase.

    PubMed

    Hiser, Carrie; Buhrow, Leann; Liu, Jian; Kuhn, Leslie; Ferguson-Miller, Shelagh

    2013-02-26

    A conserved, crystallographically defined bile acid binding site was originally identified in the membrane domain of mammalian and bacterial cytochrome c oxidase (CcO). Current studies show other amphipathic molecules including detergents, fatty acids, steroids, and porphyrins bind to this site and affect the already 50% inhibited activity of the E101A mutant of Rhodobacter sphaeroides CcO as well as altering the activity of wild-type and bovine enzymes. Dodecyl maltoside, Triton X100, C12E8, lysophophatidylcholine, and CHOBIMALT detergents further inhibit RsCcO E101A, with lesser inhibition observed in wild-type. The detergent inhibition is overcome in the presence of micromolar concentrations of steroids and porphyrin analogues including deoxycholate, cholesteryl hemisuccinate, bilirubin, and protoporphyrin IX. In addition to alleviating detergent inhibition, amphipathic carboxylates including arachidonic, docosahexanoic, and phytanic acids stimulate the activity of E101A to wild-type levels by providing the missing carboxyl group. Computational modeling of dodecyl maltoside, bilirubin, and protoporphyrin IX into the conserved steroid site shows energetically favorable binding modes for these ligands and suggests that a groove at the interface of subunit I and II, including the entrance to the K-path and helix VIII of subunit I, mediates the observed competitive ligand interactions involving two overlapping sites. Spectral analysis indicates that ligand binding to this region affects CcO activity by altering the K-path-dependent electron transfer equilibrium between heme a and heme a(3). The high affinity and specificity of a number of compounds for this region, and its conservation and impact on CcO activity, support its physiological significance. PMID:23351100

  18. Interactions between the Conserved Hydrophobic Region of the Prion Protein and Dodecylphosphocholine Micelles*

    PubMed Central

    Sauvé, Simon; Buijs, Daniel; Gingras, Geneviève; Aubin, Yves

    2012-01-01

    The three-dimensional structure of PrP110–136, a peptide encompassing the conserved hydrophobic region of the human prion protein, has been determined at high resolution in dodecylphosphocholine micelles by NMR. The results support the conclusion that the CtmPrP, a transmembrane form of the prion protein, adopts a different conformation than the reported structures of the normal prion protein determined in solution. Paramagnetic relaxation enhancement studies with gadolinium-diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid indicated that the conserved hydrophobic region peptide is not inserted symmetrically in the micelle, thus suggesting the presence of a guanidium-phosphate ion pair involving the side chain of the terminal arginine and the detergent headgroup. Titration of dodecylphosphocholine into a solution of PrP110–136 revealed the presence of a surface-bound species. In addition, paramagnetic probes located the surface-bound peptide somewhere below the micelle-water interface when using the inserted helix as a positional reference. This localization of the unknown population would allow a similar ion pair interaction. PMID:22128151

  19. Spatial genetic structure and regional demography in the southern torrent salamander: Implications for conservation and management

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Miller, Mark P.; Haig, Susan M.; Wagner, R.S.

    2006-01-01

    The Southern torrent salamander (Rhyacotriton variegatus) was recently found not warranted for listing under the US Endangered Species Act due to lack of information regarding population fragmentation and gene flow. Found in small-order streams associated with late-successional coniferous forests of the US Pacific Northwest, threats to their persistence include disturbance related to timber harvest activities. We conducted a study of genetic diversity throughout this species' range to 1) identify major phylogenetic lineages and phylogeographic barriers and 2) elucidate regional patterns of population genetic and spatial phylogeographic structure. Cytochrome b sequence variation was examined for 189 individuals from 72 localities. We identified 3 major lineages corresponding to nonoverlapping geographic regions: a northern California clade, a central Oregon clade, and a northern Oregon clade. The Yaquina River may be a phylogeographic barrier between the northern Oregon and central Oregon clades, whereas the Smith River in northern California appears to correspond to the discontinuity between the central Oregon and northern California clades. Spatial analyses of genetic variation within regions encompassing major clades indicated that the extent of genetic structure is comparable among regions. We discuss our results in the context of conservation efforts for Southern torrent salamanders.

  20. Conserved charged amino acid residues in the extracellular region of sodium\\/iodide symporter are critical for iodide transport activity

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Chia-Cheng Li; Tin-Yun Ho; Chia-Hung Kao; Shih-Lu Wu; Ji-An Liang; Chien-Yun Hsiang

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Sodium\\/iodide symporter (NIS) mediates the active transport and accumulation of iodide from the blood into the thyroid gland. His-226 located in the extracellular region of NIS has been demonstrated to be critical for iodide transport in our previous study. The conserved charged amino acid residues in the extracellular region of NIS were therefore characterized in this study. METHODS: Fourteen

  1. Conserved Regions of Gonococcal TbpB Are Critical for Surface Exposure and Transferrin Iron Utilization

    PubMed Central

    Ostberg, Karen L.; DeRocco, Amanda J.; Mistry, Shreni D.; Dickinson, Mary Kathryne

    2013-01-01

    The transferrin-binding proteins TbpA and TbpB enable Neisseria gonorrhoeae to obtain iron from human transferrin. The lipoprotein TbpB facilitates, but is not strictly required for, TbpA-mediated iron acquisition. The goal of the current study was to determine the contribution of two conserved regions within TbpB to the function of this protein. Using site-directed mutagenesis, the first mutation we constructed replaced the lipobox (LSAC) of TbpB with a signal I peptidase cleavage site (LAAA), while the second mutation deleted a conserved stretch of glycine residues immediately downstream of the lipobox. We then evaluated the resulting mutants for effects on TbpB expression, surface exposure, and transferrin iron utilization. Western blot analysis and palmitate labeling indicated that the lipobox, but not the glycine-rich motif, is required for lipidation of TbpB and tethering to the outer membrane. TbpB was released into the supernatant by the mutant that produces TbpB LSAC. Neither mutation disrupted the transport of TbpB across the bacterial cell envelope. When these mutant TbpB proteins were produced in a strain expressing a form of TbpA that requires TbpB for iron acquisition, growth on transferrin was either abrogated or dramatically diminished. We conclude that surface tethering of TbpB is required for optimal performance of the transferrin iron acquisition system, while the presence of the polyglycine stretch near the amino terminus of TbpB contributes significantly to transferrin iron transport function. Overall, these results provide important insights into the functional roles of two conserved motifs of TbpB, enhancing our understanding of this critical iron uptake system. PMID:23836816

  2. Identification of Biodiversity Conservation Priorities using Predictive Modeling: An Application for the Equatorial Pacific Region of South America

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Manuel Peralvo; Rodrigo Sierra; Kenneth R. Young; Carmen Ulloa-Ulloa

    2007-01-01

    We used predictive modeling of species distributions to identify conservation priority areas in the equatorial Pacific region\\u000a of western Ecuador and northwestern Peru. Museum and herbarium data and predictive models of species distributions are increasingly\\u000a being used to assess the conservation status of individual species. In this study, we assembled occurrence data for 28 species\\u000a of vascular plants, birds, and

  3. Conserving Madagascar's Freshwater Biodiversity

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    JONATHAN P. BENSTEAD, PATRICK H. DE RHAM, JEAN-LUC GATTOLLIAT, FRANÃ?OIS-MARIE GIBON, PAUL V. LOISELLE, MICHEL SARTORI, JOHN S. SPARKS, and MELANIE L. J. STIASSNY (; )

    2003-11-01

    This peer-reviewed article from BioScience is about conserving freshwater diversity in Madagascar. The island nation of Madagascar, an international conservation priority, is now also recognized as a global hotspot for freshwater biodiversity. Three emerging characteristics of Madagascar's threatened freshwater biota deserve increased attention from the scientific and conservation communities. First, species richness is not low, as was once assumed for both the freshwater fishes and the invertebrates. Second, many species are restricted to a specific region or even to single river basins. Often these species are also limited to streams or rivers draining primary forest habitat. Finally, many of the island's freshwater fishes are basal taxa, having diverged earlier than any other extant members of their clade. As such, these taxa assume disproportional phylogenetic importance. In the face of ongoing environmental threats, links among microendemism, forest stream specialization, and basal phylogenetic position highlight the importance and vulnerability of these species and provide a powerful incentive for immediate conservation action.

  4. A Highly Conserved Region within H2B Is Important for FACT To Act on Nucleosomes

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Suting; Crickard, J. Brooks; Srikanth, Abhinaya

    2014-01-01

    Histone N-terminal tails play crucial roles in chromatin-related processes. The tails of histones H3 and H4 are highly conserved and well characterized, but much less is known about the functions of the tails of histones H2A and H2B and their sequences are more divergent among eukaryotes. Here we characterized the function of the only highly conserved region in the H2B tail, the H2B repression (HBR) domain. Once thought to play a role only in repression, it also has an uncharacterized function in gene activation and DNA damage responses. We report that deletion of the HBR domain impairs the eviction of nucleosomes at the promoters and open reading frames of genes. A closer examination of the HBR domain mutants revealed that they displayed phenotypes similar to those of histone chaperone complex FACT mutants, including an increase in intragenic transcription and the accumulation of free histones in cells. Biochemical characterization of recombinant nucleosomes indicates that deletion of the HBR domain impairs FACT-dependent removal of H2A-H2B from nucleosomes, suggesting that the HBR domain plays an important role in allowing FACT to disrupt dimer-DNA interactions. We have uncovered a previously unappreciated role for the HBR domain in regulating chromatin structure and have provided insight into how FACT acts on nucleosomes. PMID:24248595

  5. How to Maximally Support Local and Regional Biodiversity in Applied Conservation? Insights from Pond Management

    PubMed Central

    Lemmens, Pieter; Mergeay, Joachim; De Bie, Tom; Van Wichelen, Jeroen; De Meester, Luc; Declerck, Steven A. J.

    2013-01-01

    Biodiversity and nature values in anthropogenic landscapes often depend on land use practices and management. Evaluations of the association between management and biodiversity remain, however, comparatively scarce, especially in aquatic systems. Furthermore, studies also tend to focus on a limited set of organism groups at the local scale, whereas a multi-group approach at the landscape scale is to be preferred. This study aims to investigate the effect of pond management on the diversity of multiple aquatic organism groups (e.g. phytoplankton, zooplankton, several groups of macro-invertebrates, submerged and emergent macrophytes) at local and regional spatial scales. For this purpose, we performed a field study of 39 shallow man-made ponds representing five different management types. Our results indicate that fish stock management and periodic pond drainage are crucial drivers of pond biodiversity. Furthermore, this study provides insight in how the management of eutrophied ponds can contribute to aquatic biodiversity. A combination of regular draining of ponds with efforts to keep ponds free of fish seems to be highly beneficial for the biodiversity of many groups of aquatic organisms at local and regional scales. Regular draining combined with a stocking of fish at low biomass is also preferable to infrequent draining and lack of fish stock control. These insights are essential for the development of conservation programs that aim long-term maintenance of regional biodiversity in pond areas across Europe. PMID:23951328

  6. Marmoset phylogenetics, conservation perspectives, and evolution of the mtDNA control region.

    PubMed

    Tagliaro, C H; Schneider, M P; Schneider, H; Sampaio, I C; Stanhope, M J

    1997-06-01

    Marmosets (genus Callithrix) are a diverse group of platyrrhine primates with 13-15 purported taxa, many of them considered endangered. Morphological analyses constitute most of the basis for recognition of these forms as distinct taxa. The purpose of this study was to provide a molecular view, based on mitochondrial control region sequences, of the evolutionary history of the marmosets, concomitant with a molecular phylogenetic perspective on species diversity within the group. An additional purpose was to provide the first comparative examination of a complete New World monkey control region sequence with those of other mammals. The phylogenetic analyses provide convincing support for a split between the Atlantic forest and Amazonian marmosets, with the inclusion of the pygmy marmoset (Cebuella pygmaea) at the base of the Amazonian clade. The earliest branch of the Atlantic forest group was C. aurita. In the Amazonian group, the analyses do not support the recognition of C. humeralifer and the recently described C mauesi as distinct taxa. They do, however, support a clear distinction between C. argentata and a strongly supported mixed clade of C. humeralifer and C. mauesi. In the Atlantic forest group, the phylogenetic tree suggests mixing between C. penicillata, C. kuhli, and possibly C. jacchus. Most of the sequence features characteristic of other mammal control regions were also evident in marmosets, with the exception that conserved sequence blocks (CSBs) 2 and 3 were not clearly identifiable. Tandem repeat units often associated with heteroplasmy in a variety of other mammals were not evident in the marmoset sequences. PMID:9190069

  7. Characterization of class 1 integrons with unusual 3' conserved region from Salmonella enterica isolates.

    PubMed

    Chuanchuen, Rungtip; Koowatananukul, Chailai; Khemtong, Sirintip

    2008-05-01

    The unusual 3' conserved sequence region of class 1 integrons was characterized in seven Salmonella isolates from swine and poultry. Three types of gene cassette arrays, aadA2-cmlA1-aadA1, sat-psp-aadA2-cm1A1-aadA1 and drfA12-orf-aadA2-cmlA1-aadA1, were found to be linked to a genetic organization qacH-IS440-sul3. All class 1 integrons were located on a conjugative plasmid that could be transferred to Escherichia coli. The results support the notion that the use of an antibiotic can select for resistance not only to that specific agent, but also to other unrelated antimicrobials including those that are no longer approved for use in food animal production. PMID:18564680

  8. Bovine papillomavirus-like particles presenting conserved epitopes from membrane-proximal external region of HIV-1 gp41 induced mucosal and systemic antibodies

    PubMed Central

    Zhai, Yougang; Zhong, Zhenyu; Zariffard, Mohammadreza; Spear, Gregory T.; Qiao, Liang

    2013-01-01

    Two conserved epitopes, located in the membrane-proximal external region (MPER) of the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) gp41, are recognized by two HIV-1 broadly neutralizing antibodies 2F5 and 4E10, and are promising targets for vaccine design in efforts to elicit anti-HIV-1 broadly neutralizing antibodies. Since most HIV-1 infections initiate at mucosal surfaces, induction of mucosal neutralizing antibodies is necessary and of utmost importance to counteract HIV-1 infection. Here, we utilized a mucosal vaccine vector, bovine papillomavirus (BPV) virus-like particles (VLPs), as a platform to present HIV-1 neutralizing epitopes by inserting the extended 2F5 or 4E10 epitope or the MPER domain into D-E loop of BPV L1 respectively. The chimeric VLPs presenting MPER domain resembled the HIV-1 natural epitopes better than the chimeric VLPs presenting single epitopes. Oral immunization of mice with the chimeric VLPs displaying the 2F5 epitope or MPER domain elicited epitope-specific serum IgGs and mucosal secretory IgAs. The induced antibodies specifically recognized the native conformation of MPER in the context of HIV-1 envelope protein. The antibodies induced by chimeric VLPs presenting MPER domain are able to partially neutralize HIV-1 viruses from clade B and clade C. PMID:24055348

  9. Our Vision: To be recognized

    E-print Network

    Barrash, Warren

    -of-the-art technology to enhance teaching and learning · Advocate for improved facilities that support teachingOur Vision: To be recognized nationally for excellent academic programs and research in English Studies Department of English Strategic Plan 2008­2013 Respond to the Educational Needs of the Region

  10. Association between adjuvant regional radiotherapy and cognitive function in breast cancer patients treated with conservation therapy.

    PubMed

    Shibayama, Osamu; Yoshiuchi, Kazuhiro; Inagaki, Masatoshi; Matsuoka, Yutaka; Yoshikawa, Eisho; Sugawara, Yuriko; Akechi, Tatsuo; Wada, Noriaki; Imoto, Shigeru; Murakami, Koji; Ogawa, Asao; Akabayashi, Akira; Uchitomi, Yosuke

    2014-06-01

    Although protracted cognitive impairment has been reported to occur after radiotherapy even when such therapy is not directed to brain areas, the mechanism remains unclear. This study investigated whether breast cancer patients exposed to local radiotherapy showed lower cognitive function mediated by higher plasma interleukin (IL)-6 levels than those unexposed. We performed the Wechsler Memory Scale-Revised (WMS-R) and measured plasma IL-6 levels for 105 breast cancer surgical patients within 1 year after the initial therapy. The group differences in each of the indices of WMS-R were investigated between cancer patients exposed to adjuvant regional radiotherapy (n = 51) and those unexposed (n = 54) using analysis of covariance. We further investigated a mediation effect by plasma IL-6 levels on the relationship between radiotherapy and the indices of WMS-R using the bootstrapping method. The radiotherapy group showed significantly lower Immediate Verbal Memory Index and Delayed Recall Index (P = 0.001, P = 0.008, respectively). Radiotherapy exerted an indirect effect on the lower Delayed Recall Index of WMS-R through elevation of plasma IL-6 levels (bootstrap 95% confidence interval = -2.6626 to -0.0402). This study showed that breast cancer patients exposed to adjuvant regional radiotherapy in conservation therapy might have cognitive impairment even several months after their treatment. The relationship between the therapy and the cognitive impairment could be partially mediated by elevation of plasma IL-6 levels. PMID:24756915

  11. Duck nest success on Conservation Reserve Program land in the prairie pothole region

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kantrud, H.A.

    1993-01-01

    Habitat fragmentation from intensified farming has concentrated nesting waterfowl and their predators in the remaining, relatively small untitled habitats of the prairie pothole region in the United States. The areas of land that have been enrolled in the Conservation Reserve Program (CRP) in this area could help disperse these concentrations and reduce losses to predators. The presence of CRP land may influence decisions about intensive management of public lands devoted to waterfowl production. During 1989-1991, waterfowl nest success on CRP fields in areas of high wetland density in the prairie pothole region was 23.1 percent compared to 8.2 percent on similar covers on federal waterfowl production areas. CRP fields thus provided more secure nesting cover for upland-nesting ducks than waterfowl production areas. However, nest success and use of the fields by ducks varied greatly. CRP fields are abundant and of a wide variety of age classes and sizes. These characteristics make CRP fields well suited as study sites for determining the effects of cover area, distance to water, and cover age on nest success of ducks.

  12. Association between adjuvant regional radiotherapy and cognitive function in breast cancer patients treated with conservation therapy

    PubMed Central

    Shibayama, Osamu; Yoshiuchi, Kazuhiro; Inagaki, Masatoshi; Matsuoka, Yutaka; Yoshikawa, Eisho; Sugawara, Yuriko; Akechi, Tatsuo; Wada, Noriaki; Imoto, Shigeru; Murakami, Koji; Ogawa, Asao; Akabayashi, Akira; Uchitomi, Yosuke

    2014-01-01

    Although protracted cognitive impairment has been reported to occur after radiotherapy even when such therapy is not directed to brain areas, the mechanism remains unclear. This study investigated whether breast cancer patients exposed to local radiotherapy showed lower cognitive function mediated by higher plasma interleukin (IL)-6 levels than those unexposed. We performed the Wechsler Memory Scale-Revised (WMS-R) and measured plasma IL-6 levels for 105 breast cancer surgical patients within 1 year after the initial therapy. The group differences in each of the indices of WMS-R were investigated between cancer patients exposed to adjuvant regional radiotherapy (n = 51) and those unexposed (n = 54) using analysis of covariance. We further investigated a mediation effect by plasma IL-6 levels on the relationship between radiotherapy and the indices of WMS-R using the bootstrapping method. The radiotherapy group showed significantly lower Immediate Verbal Memory Index and Delayed Recall Index (P = 0.001, P = 0.008, respectively). Radiotherapy exerted an indirect effect on the lower Delayed Recall Index of WMS-R through elevation of plasma IL-6 levels (bootstrap 95% confidence interval = ?2.6626 to ?0.0402). This study showed that breast cancer patients exposed to adjuvant regional radiotherapy in conservation therapy might have cognitive impairment even several months after their treatment. The relationship between the therapy and the cognitive impairment could be partially mediated by elevation of plasma IL-6 levels. PMID:24756915

  13. Effects of genetic diversity on conservation and restoration potential at individual, population, and regional scales

    E-print Network

    Neel, Maile

    strategy, and plant height, a conservative phalanx strategy, were negatively associated, as were average of a changing world on the conservation and restoration potential of at-risk populations. Ó 2014 Elsevier LtdEffects of genetic diversity on conservation and restoration potential at individual, population

  14. Waterfowl conservation in the US Prairie Pothole Region: confronting the complexities of climate change.

    PubMed

    Niemuth, Neal D; Fleming, Kathleen K; Reynolds, Ronald E

    2014-01-01

    The Prairie Pothole Region (PPR) is the most important waterfowl production area in North America. However, waterfowl populations there are predicted to decline because of climate-related drying of wetlands. Consequently, changes in the geographic focus of PPR waterfowl conservation have been recommended, which could have long-lasting and costly impacts. We used a 40-year dataset of pond counts collected in the PPR to test hypotheses about climate-related drying. We assessed May (1974-2013) and July (1974-2003) pond numbers in 20 waterfowl survey strata to determine if trends in pond numbers were consistent with predictions of drying. We also assessed trends in precipitation and temperature for the 20 strata and developed models describing May pond numbers from 1974 through 2010 as a function of precipitation, temperature, the previous year's pond numbers, and location. None of the 20 strata showed significant declines in May pond numbers, although seven strata showed increases over time. July pond numbers declined significantly in one stratum, and increased in seven strata. An index to hydroperiod showed significant increasing trends in three strata, and no strata had decreasing trends. Precipitation increased significantly in two strata and decreased in two from 1974 to 2010; no strata showed significant changes in temperature. The best linear model described pond numbers within all strata as a function of precipitation, temperature, the previous year's pond numbers, and the latitude and longitude of the stratum, and explained 62% of annual variation in pond numbers. We hypothesize that direct effects of climate change on prairie pothole wetlands and waterfowl may be overshadowed by indirect effects such as intensified land use and increased pressure to drain wetlands. We recommend that an adaptive, data-driven approach be used to resolve uncertainties regarding direct and indirect effects of climate change on prairie wetlands and waterfowl, and guide future conservation efforts. PMID:24937641

  15. Terrestrial Carbon Dynamics in Prairie Remnants and Conservation Reserve Program Lands of the Palouse Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sánchez-de León, Y.; Johnson-Maynard, J.

    2007-12-01

    Conversion of marginal agricultural lands to perennial grassland vegetation has been proposed as a way to enhance terrestrial carbon sequestration. The Conservation Reserve Program (CRP) has facilitated this transition and promoted carbon sequestration in highly erodible agricultural lands of the Palouse Region of northern Idaho and eastern Washington. Currently little is known about the potential of these lands to act as a carbon sinks in this region. We studied terrestrial carbon dynamics in CRP set asides planted with exotic grasses and in native prairie remnants of the Palouse Region. To study plant decomposition, the species Festuca idahoensis and Symphoricarpos albus were used as representatives of the native prairie community and Bromus inermis was used for CRP sites. Above- and belowground net primary productivity (from 170.9 to 216.0 g m-2 yr-1) and litter fall (from 15.6 to 31.0 g m-2 yr-1) were similar between grassland types. However, root biomass, soil macroaggregates and soil carbon were higher in prairie remnants. Decomposition rates of leaf litter were not different among plant species, however root decomposition was slower in S. albus (k = 0.28 yr-1) than in F. idahoensis (k = 0.56 yr-1) or B. inermis (k = 0.64 yr-1). These results demonstrate that aboveground processes and carbon inputs in CRP sites have reached similar levels to native prairies. However, belowground carbon pools (i.e. root biomass and soil carbon) are still higher in prairie remnants. Belowground decomposition rates were related to root chemical composition as S. albus roots had the highest lignin to nitrogen ratio. The results of this study suggest that efforts to promote carbon sequestration in CRP grasslands of the Palouse should be focused on belowground pools and processes. Management practices that could increase the amount of carbon sequestered in these CRP sites include increasing the amount of root biomass production through fertilization and increasing the density of plants with recalcitrant litter inputs.

  16. Simulation of water-use conservation scenarios for the Mississippi Delta using an existing regional groundwater flow model

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Barlow, Jeannie R.B.; Clark, Brian R.

    2011-01-01

    The Mississippi River alluvial plain in northwestern Mississippi (referred to as the Delta), once a floodplain to the Mississippi River covered with hardwoods and marshland, is now a highly productive agricultural region of large economic importance to Mississippi. Water for irrigation is supplied primarily by the Mississippi River Valley alluvial aquifer, and although the alluvial aquifer has a large reserve, there is evidence that the current rate of water use from the alluvial aquifer is not sustainable. Using an existing regional groundwater flow model, conservation scenarios were developed for the alluvial aquifer underlying the Delta region in northwestern Mississippi to assess where the implementation of water-use conservation efforts would have the greatest effect on future water availability-either uniformly throughout the Delta, or focused on a cone of depression in the alluvial aquifer underlying the central part of the Delta. Five scenarios were simulated with the Mississippi Embayment Regional Aquifer Study groundwater flow model: (1) a base scenario in which water use remained constant at 2007 rates throughout the entire simulation; (2) a 5-percent 'Delta-wide' conservation scenario in which water use across the Delta was decreased by 5 percent; (3) a 5-percent 'cone-equivalent' conservation scenario in which water use within the area of the cone of depression was decreased by 11 percent (a volume equivalent to the 5-percent Delta-wide conservation scenario); (4) a 25-percent Delta-wide conservation scenario in which water use across the Delta was decreased by 25 percent; and (5) a 25-percent cone-equivalent conservation scenario in which water use within the area of the cone of depression was decreased by 55 percent (a volume equivalent to the 25-percent Delta-wide conservation scenario). The Delta-wide scenarios result in greater average water-level improvements (relative to the base scenario) for the entire Delta area than the cone-equivalent scenarios; however, the cone-equivalent scenarios result in greater average water-level improvements within the area of the cone of depression because of focused conservation efforts within that area. Regardless of where conservation is located, the greatest average improvements in water level occur within the area of the cone of depression because of the corresponding large area of unsaturated aquifer material within the area of the cone of depression and the hydraulic gradient, which slopes from the periphery of the Delta towards the area of the cone of depression. Of the four conservation scenarios, the 25-percent cone-equivalent scenario resulted in the greatest increase in storage relative to the base scenario with a 32-percent improvement over the base scenario across the entire Delta and a 60-percent improvement within the area of the cone of depression. Overall, the results indicate that focusing conservation efforts within the area of the cone of depression, rather than distributing conservation efforts uniformly across the Delta, results in greater improvements in the amount of storage within the alluvial aquifer. Additionally, as the total amount of conservation increases (that is, from 5 to 25 percent), the difference in storage improvement between the Delta-wide and cone-equivalent scenarios also increases, resulting in greater gains in storage in the cone-equivalent scenario than in the Delta-wide scenario for the same amount of conservation.

  17. The non-conserved region of cucumopine-type Agrobacterium rhizogenes T-DNA is responsible for hairy root induction

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. C. Failla; F. Maimone; A. De Paolis; P. Costantino; M. Cardarelli

    1990-01-01

    The T-DNA regions of three strains of Ri plasmids 1855, 8196, 2659 (agropine, mannopine and cucumopine type respectively) share two highly conserved regions flanking a non-homologous central part [1,2]. We have cloned segments of the cucumopine Ri plasmid 2659 T-DNA in the binary vector system Bin 19 and infected carrot discs with recombinant Agrobacterium strains. We show here that the

  18. Gravel–sand mulch for soil and water conservation in the semiarid loess region of northwest China

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Xiao-Yan Li

    2003-01-01

    In the semiarid loess region of northwest China, the use of gravel and sand as mulch has been an indigenous farming technique for crop production for over 300 years. However, systematic studies concerning the effects of surface gravel–sand (mixed gravel and sand) covers on soil and water conservation are scarce. Based on previous studies, this study investigates the effects of

  19. Membrane order conservation in raft and non-raft regions of hepatocyte plasma membranes from thermally acclimated rainbow trout

    Microsoft Academic Search

    John K Zehmer; Jeffrey R Hazel

    2004-01-01

    Homeoviscous adaptation (HVA), the thermal conservation of membrane fluidity\\/order at different body temperatures, has been observed to varying degrees in different membranes. However, HVA has not been studied in raft and non-raft regions of the plasma membrane (PM) separately. Rafts are ordered PM microdomains implicated in signal transduction, membrane traffic and cholesterol homeostasis. Using infrared spectroscopy, we measured order in

  20. Economic efficiency and cost implications of habitat conservation: An example in the context of the Edwards Aquifer region

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Dhazn Gillig; Bruce A. McCarl; Lonnie L. Jones; Frederick Boadu

    2004-01-01

    Groundwater management in the Edwards Aquifer in Texas is in the process of moving away from a traditional right of capture economic regime toward a more environmentally sensitive scheme designed to preserve endangered species habitats. This study explores economic and environmental implications of proposed groundwater management and water development strategies under a proposed regional Habitat Conservation Plan. Results show that

  1. The conserved structures of the 5? nontranslated region of Citrus tristeza virus are involved in replication and virion assembly

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Siddarame Gowda; Tatineni Satyanarayana; María A. Ayllón; Pedro Moreno; Ricardo Flores; William O. Dawsona

    2003-01-01

    The genomic RNA of different isolates of Citrus tristeza virus (CTV) reveals an unusual pattern of sequence diversity: the 3? halves are highly conserved (homology >90%), while the 5? halves show much more dissimilarity, with the 5? nontranslated region (NTR) containing the highest diversity (homology as low as 42%). Yet, positive-sense sequences of the 5? NTR were predicted to fold

  2. Mapping the minimal murine T cell and B cell epitopes within a peptide vaccine candidate from the conserved region of the M protein of group A streptococcus

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Wendy A. Hayman; Evelyn R. Brandt; Wendy A. Relf; Juan Cooper; Allan Saul; Michael F. Good

    1997-01-01

    The highly conserved C-terminus of the M protein of group A streptococcus (GAS) is a promising vaccine candidate. An epitope within the conserved C-terminus of the M protein, peptide 145 (a 20-mer with the sequence: LRRDLDASREAKKQVEKALE), has been defined which is the target of opsonic antibodies in both humans and mice, and is recognized by the sera of most adults

  3. Performance of 12 DIR algorithms in low-contrast regions for mass and density conserving deformation

    SciTech Connect

    Yeo, U. J.; Supple, J. R.; Franich, R. D. [School of Applied Sciences and Health Innovations Research Institute, RMIT University, Melbourne 3000 (Australia)] [School of Applied Sciences and Health Innovations Research Institute, RMIT University, Melbourne 3000 (Australia); Taylor, M. L. [School of Applied Sciences and Health Innovations Research Institute, RMIT University, Melbourne 3000 (Australia) [School of Applied Sciences and Health Innovations Research Institute, RMIT University, Melbourne 3000 (Australia); Physical Sciences, Peter MacCallum Cancer Centre, East Melbourne 3002 (Australia); Medical Physics, William Buckland Radiotherapy Centre, The Alfred Hospital, Melbourne 3004 (Australia); Smith, R. [School of Applied Sciences and Health Innovations Research Institute, RMIT University, Melbourne 3000, Australia and Medical Physics, William Buckland Radiotherapy Centre, The Alfred Hospital, Melbourne 3004 (Australia)] [School of Applied Sciences and Health Innovations Research Institute, RMIT University, Melbourne 3000, Australia and Medical Physics, William Buckland Radiotherapy Centre, The Alfred Hospital, Melbourne 3004 (Australia); Kron, T. [School of Applied Sciences and Health Innovations Research Institute, RMIT University, Melbourne 3000, Australia and Physical Sciences, Peter MacCallum Cancer Centre, East Melbourne 3002 (Australia)] [School of Applied Sciences and Health Innovations Research Institute, RMIT University, Melbourne 3000, Australia and Physical Sciences, Peter MacCallum Cancer Centre, East Melbourne 3002 (Australia)

    2013-10-15

    Purpose: Deformable image registration (DIR) has become a key tool for adaptive radiotherapy to account for inter- and intrafraction organ deformation. Of contemporary interest, the application to deformable dose accumulation requires accurate deformation even in low contrast regions where dose gradients may exist within near-uniform tissues. One expects high-contrast features to generally be deformed more accurately by DIR algorithms. The authors systematically assess the accuracy of 12 DIR algorithms and quantitatively examine, in particular, low-contrast regions, where accuracy has not previously been established.Methods: This work investigates DIR algorithms in three dimensions using deformable gel (DEFGEL) [U. J. Yeo, M. L. Taylor, L. Dunn, R. L. Smith, T. Kron, and R. D. Franich, “A novel methodology for 3D deformable dosimetry,” Med. Phys. 39, 2203–2213 (2012)], for application to mass- and density-conserving deformations. CT images of DEFGEL phantoms with 16 fiducial markers (FMs) implanted were acquired in deformed and undeformed states for three different representative deformation geometries. Nonrigid image registration was performed using 12 common algorithms in the public domain. The optimum parameter setup was identified for each algorithm and each was tested for deformation accuracy in three scenarios: (I) original images of the DEFGEL with 16 FMs; (II) images with eight of the FMs mathematically erased; and (III) images with all FMs mathematically erased. The deformation vector fields obtained for scenarios II and III were then applied to the original images containing all 16 FMs. The locations of the FMs estimated by the algorithms were compared to actual locations determined by CT imaging. The accuracy of the algorithms was assessed by evaluation of three-dimensional vectors between true marker locations and predicted marker locations.Results: The mean magnitude of 16 error vectors per sample ranged from 0.3 to 3.7, 1.0 to 6.3, and 1.3 to 7.5 mm across algorithms for scenarios I to III, respectively. The greatest accuracy was exhibited by the original Horn and Schunck optical flow algorithm. In this case, for scenario III (erased FMs not contributing to driving the DIR calculation), the mean error was half that of the modified demons algorithm (which exhibited the greatest error), across all deformations. Some algorithms failed to reproduce the geometry at all, while others accurately deformed high contrast features but not low-contrast regions—indicating poor interpolation between landmarks.Conclusions: The accuracy of DIR algorithms was quantitatively evaluated using a tissue equivalent, mass, and density conserving DEFGEL phantom. For the model studied, optical flow algorithms performed better than demons algorithms, with the original Horn and Schunck performing best. The degree of error is influenced more by the magnitude of displacement than the geometric complexity of the deformation. As might be expected, deformation is estimated less accurately for low-contrast regions than for high-contrast features, and the method presented here allows quantitative analysis of the differences. The evaluation of registration accuracy through observation of the same high contrast features that drive the DIR calculation is shown to be circular and hence misleading.

  4. Regional Nodal Recurrence After Breast Conservation Treatment With Radiotherapy for Women With Early-Stage Breast Carcinoma

    SciTech Connect

    Lukens, J. Nicholas [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA (United States)], E-mail: nick.lukens@uphs.upenn.edu; Vapiwala, Neha [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA (United States); Hwang, W.-T. [Department of Biostatistics and Epidemiology, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA (United States); Solin, Lawrence J. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA (United States)

    2009-04-01

    Purpose: To report the long-term outcomes for women presenting with regional lymph node recurrence after breast conservation treatment with radiotherapy for Stage I and II invasive breast carcinoma. Methods and Materials: Of the women with pathologic Stage I and II invasive breast carcinoma treated with breast conservation treatment at University of Pennsylvania, 29 developed regional nodal recurrence as their first site of failure. An analysis of the patterns of regional nodal recurrence and their prognosis after recurrence was undertaken. The median follow-up from regional nodal recurrence was 5.4 years. Results: The pattern of regional nodal recurrence was as follows: 14 (48%) with simultaneous local and axillary recurrence, 7 (24%) with recurrence in the axilla only, 5 (17%) with recurrence in the supraclavicular region only, and 3 (10%) with multiple nodal sites of recurrence. For the entire study group, the 5-, 10-, and 15-year overall survival rate was 70%, 37%, and 28%, respectively. The 10-year overall survival rate for patients with locoregional recurrence was 32% compared with 45% for patients with regional-only recurrence (p = 0.50). The 10-year overall survival rate for patients with axillary recurrence discovered on pathologic examination of the mastectomy specimen was 31% compared with 42% for patients with palpable regional lymphadenopathy (p = 0.83). Conclusion: Patients with regional nodal recurrence after breast conservation treatment with radiotherapy for early-stage breast carcinoma are potentially salvageable. The prognosis after regional nodal recurrence was not significantly different when stratified by the presence or absence of simultaneous in-breast recurrence or the method of detection.

  5. Hundreds of conserved non-coding genomic regions are independently lost in mammals.

    PubMed

    Hiller, Michael; Schaar, Bruce T; Bejerano, Gill

    2012-12-01

    Conserved non-protein-coding DNA elements (CNEs) often encode cis-regulatory elements and are rarely lost during evolution. However, CNE losses that do occur can be associated with phenotypic changes, exemplified by pelvic spine loss in sticklebacks. Using a computational strategy to detect complete loss of CNEs in mammalian genomes while strictly controlling for artifacts, we find >600 CNEs that are independently lost in at least two mammalian lineages, including a spinal cord enhancer near GDF11. We observed several genomic regions where multiple independent CNE loss events happened; the most extreme is the DIAPH2 locus. We show that CNE losses often involve deletions and that CNE loss frequencies are non-uniform. Similar to less pleiotropic enhancers, we find that independently lost CNEs are shorter, slightly less constrained and evolutionarily younger than CNEs without detected losses. This suggests that independently lost CNEs are less pleiotropic and that pleiotropic constraints contribute to non-uniform CNE loss frequencies. We also detected 35 CNEs that are independently lost in the human lineage and in other mammals. Our study uncovers an interesting aspect of the evolution of functional DNA in mammalian genomes. Experiments are necessary to test if these independently lost CNEs are associated with parallel phenotype changes in mammals. PMID:23042682

  6. Prey preferences of the snow leopard (Panthera uncia): regional diet specificity holds global significance for conservation.

    PubMed

    Lyngdoh, Salvador; Shrotriya, Shivam; Goyal, Surendra P; Clements, Hayley; Hayward, Matthew W; Habib, Bilal

    2014-01-01

    The endangered snow leopard is a large felid that is distributed over 1.83 million km(2) globally. Throughout its range it relies on a limited number of prey species in some of the most inhospitable landscapes on the planet where high rates of human persecution exist for both predator and prey. We reviewed 14 published and 11 unpublished studies pertaining to snow leopard diet throughout its range. We calculated prey consumption in terms of frequency of occurrence and biomass consumed based on 1696 analysed scats from throughout the snow leopard's range. Prey biomass consumed was calculated based on the Ackerman's linear correction factor. We identified four distinct physiographic and snow leopard prey type zones, using cluster analysis that had unique prey assemblages and had key prey characteristics which supported snow leopard occurrence there. Levin's index showed the snow leopard had a specialized dietary niche breadth. The main prey of the snow leopard were Siberian ibex (Capra sibrica), blue sheep (Pseudois nayaur), Himalayan tahr (Hemitragus jemlahicus), argali (Ovis ammon) and marmots (Marmota spp). The significantly preferred prey species of snow leopard weighed 55±5 kg, while the preferred prey weight range of snow leopard was 36-76 kg with a significant preference for Siberian ibex and blue sheep. Our meta-analysis identified critical dietary resources for snow leopards throughout their distribution and illustrates the importance of understanding regional variation in species ecology; particularly prey species that have global implications for conservation. PMID:24533080

  7. Conclusions and recommendations of the Latin America and Caribbean Regional Energy Conservation Seminar, Alajuela, Costa Rica, January 14-17, 1985

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1985-03-29

    Reports were given on active energy-conservation projects in the region (Barbados, Jamaica, Central American region and Panama, Peru, Ecuador, the Dominican Republic, and Costa Rica). In addition, there were presentations on energy auditing, fuel substitution, and financing energy conservation. Although the seminar concentrated on the industrial sector, it also explored opportunities for energy-efficiency improvements in the building and transportation sectors.

  8. Threats, conservation strategies, and prognosis for suckers (Catostomidae) in North America: insights from regional

    E-print Network

    Cooke, Steven J.

    Review Threats, conservation strategies, and prognosis for suckers (Catostomidae) in North America factors have retarded sucker conservation including widespread inabilities of field workers to distinguish, and the misconception that suckers are tolerant of degraded conditions and are of little social or ecological value

  9. DisoMCS: Accurately Predicting Protein Intrinsically Disordered Regions Using a Multi-Class Conservative Score Approach

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Zhiheng; Yang, Qianqian; Li, Tonghua; Cong, Peisheng

    2015-01-01

    The precise prediction of protein intrinsically disordered regions, which play a crucial role in biological procedures, is a necessary prerequisite to further the understanding of the principles and mechanisms of protein function. Here, we propose a novel predictor, DisoMCS, which is a more accurate predictor of protein intrinsically disordered regions. The DisoMCS bases on an original multi-class conservative score (MCS) obtained by sequence-order/disorder alignment. Initially, near-disorder regions are defined on fragments located at both the terminus of an ordered region connecting a disordered region. Then the multi-class conservative score is generated by sequence alignment against a known structure database and represented as order, near-disorder and disorder conservative scores. The MCS of each amino acid has three elements: order, near-disorder and disorder profiles. Finally, the MCS is exploited as features to identify disordered regions in sequences. DisoMCS utilizes a non-redundant data set as the training set, MCS and predicted secondary structure as features, and a conditional random field as the classification algorithm. In predicted near-disorder regions a residue is determined as an order or a disorder according to the optimized decision threshold. DisoMCS was evaluated by cross-validation, large-scale prediction, independent tests and CASP (Critical Assessment of Techniques for Protein Structure Prediction) tests. All results confirmed that DisoMCS was very competitive in terms of accuracy of prediction when compared with well-established publicly available disordered region predictors. It also indicated our approach was more accurate when a query has higher homologous with the knowledge database. Availability The DisoMCS is available at http://cal.tongji.edu.cn/disorder/. PMID:26090958

  10. Prediction of conserved regulatory elements in promoter regions of the cattle genome

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cross-species DNA sequence comparison is the primary approach to discover regulatory elements by identifying highly conserved sequences due to evolutionary constraints. Previously, we reported that a systematic approach, combining position-specific weight matrixes (JASPAR) and phylogenetic footprint...

  11. Many voices, one wilderness : collaborative conservation in the greater Chicago region

    E-print Network

    Bates, Justin (Justin Timothy)

    2012-01-01

    There has been a growing recognition in the conservation community that landscape-scale networks of preserves and habitat corridors are needed to adequately protect native biodiversity. While most of the efforts to protect ...

  12. USE OF POPULATION VIABILITY ANALYSIS AND RESERVE SELECTION ALGORITHMS IN REGIONAL CONSERVATION PLANS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Current reserve selection algorithms have difficulty evaluating connectivity and other factors necessary to conserve wide-ranging species in developing landscapes. Conversely, population viability analyses may incorporate detailed demographic data but often lack sufficient spa...

  13. Duck Nest Success on Conservation Reserve Program Land in the Prairie Pothole Region

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Kantrud, Harold A.

    The Northern Prairie Wildlife Research Center (NPWRC) continues to place scientific/ management resources online for general viewing. This resource, by H.A. Kantrud was originally published in 1993 in the Journal of Soil and Water Conservation [48(3):238-242] and examines nest success of dabbling ducks on Conservation Reserve Program (CRP) land. It may be browsed online or downloaded as a .zip file.

  14. A landscape approach to conserving wetland bird habitat in the prairie pothole region of eastern South Dakota

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David E. Naugle; Rex R. Johnson; Michael E. Estey; Kenneth F. Higgins

    2001-01-01

    Resource managers confronted with preserving ecosystems for prairie wetland birds in fragmented landscapes require landscape\\u000a studies that direct conservation efforts over broad geographic regions. We investigated the role of local and landscape factors\\u000a affecting habitat suitability by integrating remotely sensed wetland and land-cover data with wetland bird habitat models.\\u000a We linked habitat models with locations of easement and fee-title wetlands

  15. A landscape approach to conserving wetland bird habitat in the Prairie Pothole Region of eastern South Dakota

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David E. Naugle; Rex R. Johnson; Michael E. Estey; Kenneth F. Higgins

    2000-01-01

    Resource managers confronted with preserving ecosystems for prairie wetland birds in fragmented landscapes require landscape\\u000a studies that direct conservation efforts over broad geographic regions. We investigated the role of local and landscape factors\\u000a affecting habitat suitability by integrating remotely sensed wetland and land-cover data with wetland bird habitat models.\\u000a We linked habitat models with locations of easement and fee-title wetlands

  16. Is the conserved mammalian region of ZNF804A locus associated with schizophrenia? A population-based genetics analysis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rui Zhang; Robert K. Valenzuela; Shemin Lu; Liesu Meng; Tingwei Guo; Xiaoyun Du; Wanhu Kang; Jie Ma

    Recently, several genome-wide association studies (GWASs) have reproduced the significant association of the single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) rs1344706 (located in intron 2 of the zinc finger protein 804A (ZNF804A) on chromosome 2q32.1) with schizophrenia. Bioinformatic analysis of the chromosome segment around rs1344706 suggests that a short conserved mammalian region exists approximately 3kb downstream of rs1344706. In the present work, we

  17. Is the conserved mammalian region of ZNF804A locus associated with schizophrenia? A population-based genetics analysis.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Rui; Valenzuela, Robert K; Lu, Shemin; Meng, Liesu; Guo, Tingwei; Du, Xiaoyun; Kang, Wanhu; Ma, Jie

    2011-12-01

    Recently, several genome-wide association studies (GWASs) have reproduced the significant association of the single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) rs1344706 (located in intron 2 of the zinc finger protein 804A (ZNF804A) on chromosome 2q32.1) with schizophrenia. Bioinformatic analysis of the chromosome segment around rs1344706 suggests that a short conserved mammalian region exists approximately 3kb downstream of rs1344706. In the present work, we studied all SNPs in this conserved mammalian region and performed genetic analyses on samples from Chinese schizophrenia patients (n = 516) and compared control subjects (n = 520). Significant association between an allele of rs13423388 and schizophrenia was found (P = 0.0012). Haplotype analysis of the three SNPs rs4666998, rs13423388, and rs56280129 showed significant associations with schizophrenia (global P = 0.00001). Furthermore, we performed a four-SNP haplotype analysis which included the SNPs from the three-SNP haplotype analysis and rs1344706 (global P = 0.0005), and found that haplotype GCCG was associated with schizophrenia (P = 0.003). In summary, the present study adds new evidence for an association between the conserved mammalian region of the ZNF804A gene and schizophrenia. Further research is needed to clarify the transcriptional regulation of ZNF804A gene and to relate this to the pathophysiology of schizophrenia. PMID:21993378

  18. Picking up the pieces: conserving remnant natural areas in the post-industrial landscape of the Calumet Region

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Labus, Paul; Whitman, Richard L.; Nevers, Meredith Becker

    1999-01-01

    The Calumet Region was shaped by geologic forces, succession, and interacting biomes converging on a unique natural landscape. Over the past 4500 years, a strand plain has formed to the north of a geologic area called Toleston Beach. Sequential and differential primary succession of dune and swale communities in this region allowed species from different biomes to interact freely. In the mid-nineteenth century, commerce and settlement drastically changed the area, and natural areas were fragmented, manipulated, and degraded by cultural intrusions and industrialization. Despite the near obliteration of dune and swale habitat, small fragments of natural land escaped destruction. These native fragments maintained some semblance of the landscape that once covered the region. Currently, these native fragments are threatened by the lingering intrusion of historic contamination and the continuing presence of industry and commerce. Restoration and conservation of these remnants will need to be a process of integrating biological diversity goals into the landscape of the industrialized region through planning and design. We outline here the natural history of the region, the philosophical rationale for conservation, and possible approaches for integrating and maintaining these valuable remnant resources and processes.

  19. Identification of evolutionarily conserved, functional noncoding elements in the promoter region of the sodium channel gene SCN8A

    PubMed Central

    Drews, Valerie L.; Shi, Kehui; de Haan, Georgius

    2007-01-01

    SCN8A is a major neuronal sodium channel gene expressed throughout the central and peripheral nervous systems. Mutations of SCN8A result in movement disorders and impaired cognition. To investigate the basis for the tissue-specific expression of SCN8A, we located conserved, potentially regulatory sequences in the human, mouse, chicken, and fish genes by 5? RACE of brain RNA and genomic sequence comparison. A highly conserved 5? noncoding exon, exon 1c, is present in vertebrates from fish to mammals and appears to define the ancestral promoter region. The distance from exon 1c to the first coding exon increased tenfold during vertebrate evolution, largely by insertion of repetitive elements. The mammalian gene acquired three novel, mutually exclusive noncoding exons that are not represented in the lower vertebrates. Within the shared exon 1c, we identified four short sequence elements of 10-20 bp with an unusually high level of evolutionary conservation. The conserved elements are most similar to consensus sites for the transcription factors Pou6f1/Brn5, YY1, and REST/NRSF. Introduction of mutations into the predicted Pou6f1 and REST sites reduced promoter activity in transfected neuronal cells. A 470-bp promoter fragment containing all of the conserved elements directed brain-specific expression of the LacZ reporter in transgenic mice. Transgene expression was highest in hippocampal neurons and cerebellar Purkinje cells, consistent with the expression of the endogenous gene. The compact cluster of conserved regulatory elements in SCN8A provides a useful target for molecular analysis of neuronal gene expression. Electronic supplementary material The online version of this article (doi:10.1007/s00335-007-9059-8) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users. PMID:17924165

  20. Human antibodies recognize multiple distinct type-specific and cross-reactive regions of the minor capsid proteins of human papillomavirus types 6 and 11.

    PubMed Central

    Yaegashi, N; Jenison, S A; Batra, M; Galloway, D A

    1992-01-01

    Human serum samples derived from a case-control study of patients with cervical carcinoma (n = 174) or condyloma acuminatum (n = 25) were tested for the presence of immunoglobulin G antibodies to human papillomavirus type 6 (HPV6) L2 and HPV11 L2 recombinant proteins in a Western immunoblot assay. Thirty-six samples (18%) were positive for HPV6 L2 antibodies alone, 25 (13%) were positive for HPV11 L2 antibodies alone, and 34 (17%) were positive for both HPV6 L2 and HPV11 L2 antibodies. Thirty samples that were positive for both antibodies were tested for the presence of HPV6-HPV11 L2 cross-reactive antibodies. Fifteen (50%) serum samples contained HPV6-HPV11 L2 cross-reactive antibodies, and 15 (50%) contained independent, type-specific HPV6 L2 and HPV11 L2 antibodies. Altogether, 82% of the HPV6 L2 and HPV11 L2 antibody reactivities were type specific and 18% were HPV6-HPV11 cross-reactive. There was no significant difference in the prevalence of antibody reactivities between samples from patients with cervical carcinoma and those with condyloma acuminatum. Deletion mapping identified five HPV6 L2 regions that reacted with HPV6 type-specific antibodies: 6U1 (amino acids [aa] 152 to 173), 6U2 (aa 175 to 191), 6U3 (aa 187 to 199), 6U4 (aa 201 to 217), and 6U5 (aa 351 to 367). Five HPV11 L2 regions that reacted with HPV11 type-specific antibodies were identified: 11U1 (aa 49 to 84), 11U2 (aa 147 to 162), 11U3 (aa 179 to 188), 11U4 (aa 180 to 200), and 11U5 (aa 355 to 367). Two HPV6-HPV11 cross-reactive regions were identified: 6CR1 (HPV6 L2 aa 106 to 128)/11CR1 (HPV11 L2 aa 103 to 127) and 6CR2 (HPV6 L2 aa 187 to 199)/11CR2 (HPV11 L2 aa 180 to 200). Images PMID:1312618

  1. Accomplishments of the Alaska Region's Habitat Conservation Division in Fiscal Year 2004

    E-print Network

    Environmental Impact Statement NOAA Fisheries and the Council continued work in FY04 to develop an Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) to reexamine the identification of EFH in Alaska and the measures needed Conservation and Management Act, Fish and Wildlife Coordination Act, National Environmental Policy Act, Federal

  2. Resources, Conservation and Recycling 51 (2007) 847869 Modeling obsolete computer stock under regional

    E-print Network

    Illinois at Chicago, University of

    2007-01-01

    Resources, Conservation and Recycling 51 (2007) 847­869 Modeling obsolete computer stock under and recycling systems using GIS, and demonstrate the potential economic benefits from diverting electronic buildings. © 2007 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved. Keywords: Computer recycling; Product inventory

  3. Aligning Local Incentives to Regional Goals: Water Conservation in the Upper Tigris-Euphrates River System

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hasan Tekguc

    2011-01-01

    Instead of international agreement between Syria, Iraq, and Turkey, the best hope for sustainable water conservation in the Euphrates-Tigris river basin lies with policies that can be justified on individual and local grounds within Turkey: reducing water run-off and accompanied pollution; reducing soil salinity; developing drought resistant strains of crops; and storing water as an insurance against future droughts that

  4. Recognizing Chemical Hazards Module

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    The Center for the Advancement of Process Technology presents this free sample module on recognizing chemical hazards. It focuses on chemical hazards specific to process industries, and their impact on safety, health and the environment. The material also introduces the purpose and components of an MSDS.

  5. Recognizing and Helping

    E-print Network

    Firestone, Jeremy

    &HelpStudDistressBklt 10/14/11 3:05 PM Page 3 #12;Helping a student who is: Anxious Demanding SIGNS Stress, panicRecognizing and Helping Students in Distress A Guide for Faculty and Staff THE STUDENT BEHAVIOR CONSULTATION TEAM Rec&HelpStudDistressBklt 10/14/11 3:05 PM Page 1 #12;The Student Behavior Consultation Team

  6. Burnout: Recognize and Reverse.

    PubMed

    Anne, Samantha

    2014-05-13

    Physician burnout may be underrecognized and can cause significant detrimental effects on personal health and job satisfaction. Burnout has been associated with medical errors, alcohol and drug abuse, and neglect and abandonment of career goals. With self-awareness, development of coping mechanisms, and the adoption of a strong social and professional support network, burnout can be combated. This article focuses on recognizing characteristics of burnout and providing strategies to cope to avoid reaching a high degree of burnout. PMID:24825874

  7. REPRODUCTIVE ECOLOGY OF AMERICAN OYSTERCATCHERS IN THE CAPE ROMAIN REGION OF SOUTH CAROLINA: IMPLICATIONS FOR CONSERVATION

    E-print Network

    Jodice, Patrick

    REPRODUCTIVE ECOLOGY OF AMERICAN OYSTERCATCHERS IN THE CAPE ROMAIN REGION OF SOUTH CAROLINA;ii ABSTRACT The Cape Romain Region (CRR) is located along the coast of South Carolina and supports project on the coast of South Carolina and his guidance and support during my time here at Clemson

  8. Immunoglobulin (Ig)G purified from human sera mirrors intravenous Ig human leucocyte antigen (HLA) reactivity and recognizes one's own HLA types, but may be masked by Fab complementarity-determining region peptide in the native sera.

    PubMed

    Ravindranath, M H; Terasaki, P I; Maehara, C Y; Jucaud, V; Kawakita, S; Pham, T; Yamashita, W

    2015-02-01

    Intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIg) reacted with a wide array of human leucocyte antigen (HLA) alleles, in contrast to normal sera, due possibly to the purification of IgG from the pooled plasma. The reactivity of IgG purified from normal sera was compared with that of native sera to determine whether any serum factors mask the HLA reactivity of anti-HLA IgG and whether IgG purified from sera can recognize the HLA types of the corresponding donors. The purified IgG, unlike native sera, mirrored IVIg reactivity to a wide array of HLA-I/-II alleles, indicating that anti-HLA IgG may be masked in normal sera - either by peptides derived from soluble HLA or by those from antibodies. A region (CDR) of the Fab region of IgG (but not the HLA peptides) masked HLA recognition by the purified IgG. Most importantly, some of the anti-HLA IgG purified from normal sera - and serum IgG from a few donors - indeed recognized the HLA types of the corresponding donors, confirming the presence of auto-HLA antibodies. Comparison of HLA types with the profile of HLA antibodies showed auto-HLA IgG to the donors' HLA antigens in this order of frequency: DPA (80%), DQA (71%), DRB345 (67%), DQB (57%), Cw (50%), DBP (43%), DRB1 (21%), A (14%) and B (7%). The auto-HLA antibodies, when unmasked in vivo, may perform immunoregulatory functions similar to those of therapeutic preparations of IVIg. PMID:25196542

  9. A national geographic framework for guiding conservation on a landscape scale

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Millard, Michael J.; Czarnecki, Craig A.; Morton, John M.; Brandt, Laura A.; Briggs, Jennifer S.; Shipley, Frank S.; Sayre, Roger; Sponholtz, Pamela J.; Perkins, David; Simpkins, Darin G.; Taylor, Janith

    2012-01-01

    The U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, along with the global conservation community, has recognized that the conservation challenges of the 21st century far exceed the responsibilities and footprint of any individual agency or program. The ecological effects of climate change and other anthropogenic stressors do not recognize geopolitical boundaries and, as such, demand a national geographic framework to provide structure for cross-jurisdictional and landscape-scale conservation strategies. In 2009, a new map of ecologically based conservation regions in which to organize capacity and implement strategic habitat conservation was developed using rapid prototyping and expert elicitation by an interagency team of U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service and U.S. Geological Survey scientists and conservation professionals. Incorporating Bird Conservation Regions, Freshwater Ecoregions, and U.S. Geological Survey hydrologic unit codes, the new geographic framework provides a spatial template for building conservation capacity and focusing biological planning and conservation design efforts. The Department of Interior's Landscape Conservation Cooperatives are being organized in these new conservation regions as multi-stakeholder collaborations for improved conservation science and management.

  10. Yeast calmodulin and a conserved nuclear protein participate in the in vivo binding of a matrix association region.

    PubMed Central

    Fishel, B R; Sperry, A O; Garrard, W T

    1993-01-01

    Chromatin becomes reorganized during mitosis each cell cycle. To identify genes potentially involved in these supramolecular events, we have used a colony-color assay to screen temperature-sensitive mutants of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. When a sequence that mediates attachment to the nuclear matrix in vitro was inserted into the GAL1 promoter of a lacZ fusion gene, beta-galactosidase synthesis was inhibited. This observation permitted screening for temperature-sensitive-inducible mutants on 5-bromo-4-chloro-3-indolyl beta-D-galactoside plates. Only 1 of 20 complementation groups of newly isolated mutants exhibited temperature-sensitive inducibility for the matrix association region but not for control CEN3 or STE6 inserts--a cmd1 mutant in which the last 7 amino acids of calmodulin were truncated by an ochre termination codon. Another mutant (smi1) exhibited a rare phenotype at the nonpermissive condition, which included S phase and budding arrest. We cloned and sequenced the SMI1 gene, which encodes a 57-kDa polypeptide with evolutionarily conserved epitope(s) found in mammalian cell nuclei. Thus, we provide evidence for involvement of calmodulin and another conserved protein in the in vivo binding of a matrix association region. Images Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 PMID:8516310

  11. Conservation of Socioculturally Important Local Crop Biodiversity in the Oromia Region of Ethiopia: A Case Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balemie, Kebu; Singh, Ranjay K.

    2012-09-01

    In this study, we surveyed diversity in a range of local crops in the Lume and Gimbichu districts of Ethiopia, together with the knowledge of local people regarding crop uses, socio-economic importance, conservation, management and existing threats. Data were collected using semistructured interviews and participant observation. The study identified 28 farmers' varieties of 12 crop species. Among these, wheat ( Triticum turgidum) and tef ( Eragrostis tef) have high intra-specific diversity, with 9 and 6 varieties respectively. Self-seed supply or seed saving was the main (80 %) source of seeds for replanting. Agronomic performance (yield and pest resistance), market demand, nutritional and use diversity attributes of the crop varieties were highlighted as important criteria for making decisions regarding planting and maintenance. Over 74 % of the informants grow a combination of "improved" and farmers' varieties. Of the farmers' varieties, the most obvious decline and/or loss was reported for wheat varieties. Introduction of improved wheat varieties, pest infestation, shortage of land, low yield performance and climate variability were identified as the principal factors contributing to this loss or decline. Appropriate interventions for future conservation and sustainable use of farmers' varieties were suggested.

  12. Recognizing multiple personality disorder.

    PubMed

    Curtin, S L

    1993-02-01

    1. It currently takes an average of 5 to 7 years and repeated hospitalizations for a person with multiple personality disorder (MPD) to be accurately diagnosed. 2. Reasons for misdiagnosis include the assumption that MPD is rare, the complex polysymptomatic presentation of the disorder, and failure of standard psychiatric histories to elicit pertinent diagnostic information. 3. Nurses are often the first to observe the behavioral, clinical, and physiological symptoms associated with MPD. 4. It is important to include questions that will elicit pertinent diagnostic information in the nursing history and assessment. As nurses become more adept at recognizing this disorder, individuals with MPD will receive more prompt and appropriate treatment. PMID:8437140

  13. Conservation Focus and Executive

    E-print Network

    Northwest Power and Conservation Council Focus and Executive Summary Background Power Committee Walla Walla May 12, 2009 #12;Northwest Power and Conservation Council Conditions Facing the Region and Conservation Council Resource Alternatives · Increased cost-effective efficiency potential ­ Technological

  14. Computational Design of Proteins Targeting the Conserved Stem Region of Influenza Hemagglutinin

    SciTech Connect

    Fleishman, Sarel J.; Whitehead, Timothy A.; Ekiert, Damian C.; Dreyfus, Cyrille; Corn, Jacob E.; Strauch, Eva-Maria; Wilson, Ian A.; Baker, David (UWASH); (Scripps)

    2011-09-28

    We describe a general computational method for designing proteins that bind a surface patch of interest on a target macromolecule. Favorable interactions between disembodied amino acid residues and the target surface are identified and used to anchor de novo designed interfaces. The method was used to design proteins that bind a conserved surface patch on the stem of the influenza hemagglutinin (HA) from the 1918 H1N1 pandemic virus. After affinity maturation, two of the designed proteins, HB36 and HB80, bind H1 and H5 HAs with low nanomolar affinity. Further, HB80 inhibits the HA fusogenic conformational changes induced at low pH. The crystal structure of HB36 in complex with 1918/H1 HA revealed that the actual binding interface is nearly identical to that in the computational design model. Such designed binding proteins may be useful for both diagnostics and therapeutics.

  15. Sequence conservation at human and mouse orthologous common fragile regions, FRA3B/FHIT and Fra14A2/Fhit.

    PubMed

    Shiraishi, T; Druck, T; Mimori, K; Flomenberg, J; Berk, L; Alder, H; Miller, W; Huebner, K; Croce, C M

    2001-05-01

    It has been suggested that delayed DNA replication underlies fragility at common human fragile sites, but specific sequences responsible for expression of these inducible fragile sites have not been identified. One approach to identify such cis-acting sequences within the large nonexonic regions of fragile sites would be to identify conserved functional elements within orthologous fragile sites by interspecies sequence comparison. This study describes a comparison of orthologous fragile regions, the human FRA3B/FHIT and the murine Fra14A2/Fhit locus. We sequenced over 600 kbp of the mouse Fra14A2, covering the region orthologous to the fragile epicenter of FRA3B, and determined the Fhit deletion break points in a mouse kidney cancer cell line (RENCA). The murine Fra14A2 locus, like the human FRA3B, was characterized by a high AT content. Alignment of the two sequences showed that this fragile region was stable in evolution despite its susceptibility to mitotic recombination on inhibition of DNA replication. There were also several unusual highly conserved regions (HCRs). The positions of predicted matrix attachment regions (MARs), possibly related to replication origins, were not conserved. Of known fragile region landmarks, five cancer cell break points, one viral integration site, and one aphidicolin break cluster were located within or near HCRs. Thus, comparison of orthologous fragile regions has identified highly conserved sequences with possible functional roles in maintenance of fragility. PMID:11320209

  16. Ecology of the entomopathogenic fungi Beauveria bassiana and Metarhizium anisopliae in temperate agroecosystems: Potential for conservation biological control

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nicolai V. Meyling; Jørgen Eilenberg

    2007-01-01

    It is increasingly recognized that the biodiversity in agroecosystems deliver significant ecosystem services to agricultural production such as biological control of pests. Entomopathogenic fungi, specifically the anamorphic taxa Beauveria bassiana and Metarhizium anisopliae, Hypocreales (Ascomycota), are among the natural enemies of pests in agroecosystems and the fungi are candidates for future conservation biological control in temperate regions. Conservation biological control

  17. Prevalence, conservation and functional analysis of Yersinia and Escherichia CRISPR regions in clinical Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolates

    PubMed Central

    Cady, K. C.; White, A. S.; Hammond, J. H.; Abendroth, M. D.; Karthikeyan, R. S. G.; Lalitha, P.; Zegans, M. E.; O'Toole, G. A.

    2011-01-01

    Here, we report the characterization of 122 Pseudomonas aeruginosa clinical isolates from three distinct geographical locations: Dartmouth Hitchcock Medical Center in New Hampshire, USA, the Charles T. Campbell Eye Microbiology Lab at the University of Pittsburgh Medical Center, USA, and the Aravind Eye Hospital in Madurai, India. We identified and located clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR) in 45/122 clinical isolates and sequenced these CRISPR, finding that Yersinia subtype CRISPR regions (33?%) were more prevalent than the Escherichia CRISPR region subtype (6?%) in these P. aeruginosa clinical isolates. Further, we observed 132 unique spacers from these 45 CRISPR that are 100?% identical to prophages or sequenced temperate bacteriophage capable of becoming prophages. Most intriguingly, all of these 132 viral spacers matched to temperate bacteriophage/prophages capable of inserting into the host chromosome, but not to extrachromosomally replicating lytic P. aeruginosa bacteriophage. We next assessed the ability of the more prevalent Yersinia subtype CRISPR regions to mediate resistance to bacteriophage infection or lysogeny by deleting the entire CRISPR region from sequenced strain UCBPP-PA14 and six clinical isolates. We found no change in CRISPR-mediated resistance to bacteriophage infection or lysogeny rate even for CRISPR with spacers 100?% identical to a region of the infecting bacteriophage. Lastly, to show these CRISPR and cas genes were expressed and functional, we demonstrated production of small CRISPR RNAs. This work provides both the first examination to our knowledge of CRISPR regions within clinical P. aeruginosa isolates and a collection of defined CRISPR-positive and -negative strains for further CRISPR and cas gene studies. PMID:21081758

  18. METADATA FOR RESOURCE CONSERVATION RECOVERY ACT INFORMATION SYSTEM LOCATIONS - REGION 8

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Region 8 data are located in the ARC/INFO coverage, R8RCR_PTS, which was derived from the Envirofacts point shapefile layer in the National Shapefile Repository. This Repository provides locations of EPA-regulated facilities from the Oracle table LRT_EF_COVERAGE_SRC, which is...

  19. The compact Brachypodium genome conserves centromeric regions of a common ancestor with wheat and rice

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The evolution of five chromosomes of Brachypodium distachyon from a 12-chromosome ancestor of all grasses by dysploidy raises an interesting question about the fate of redundant centromeres. Three independent but complementary approaches were pursued to study centromeric region homologies among the ...

  20. A Successful Water Conservation Program in a Semiarid Region of Nebraska

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Donald D. Adelman

    2003-01-01

    Ground water irrigation pumpage of the High Plains Aquifer is controlled at the state level in Texas and Oklahoma but at the regional level in Kansas and Nebraska. Critical declines in the aquifer that threatened the reliability of local public water supply wells prompted Nebraska's Upper Republican Natural Resources District (URNRD) to mandate water restrictions in 1978. Under current regulations,

  1. Cotton production potential and water conservation impact using the regional irrigation demand model of northern Texas

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Thomas Marek; Dana Porter; Terry Howell; Prasanna Gowda; Paul Colaizzi

    Revised irrigation demands are calculated for the 21 northernmost counties in Texas, identified as Region A, using the TAMA (Texas A&M-Amarillo) agricultural water use demand estimation model. Year 2000 demands are presented using the existing mixture of crops, average evapotranspiration values and actual irrigation application practice values. Current demand values are expected to exceed the allowable water supply in several,

  2. Method for evaluating regional water supply and conservation alternatives for power generation. Final report

    Microsoft Academic Search

    1984-01-01

    National studies of water-energy conflicts have concluded that in several regions of the US, electric utilities may be unable to acquire enough water to support evaporative cooling in new power plants. Yet such studies cannot provide definitive findings, because data on nontraditional water supplies, such as rights transfers and groundwater, are unavailable on a national scale. The purpose of this

  3. Marmoset Phylogenetics, Conservation Perspectives, and Evolution of the mtDNA Control Region

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Claudia H. Tagliaro; Maria Paula; C. Schneider; Horatio Schneider; Iracilda C. Sampaio; Michael J. Stanhope

    Marmosets (genus Cullithrix) are a diverse group of platyrrhine primates with 13-15 purported taxa, many of them considered endangered. Morphological analyses constitute most of the basis for recognition of these forms as distinct taxa. The purpose of this study was to provide a molecular view, based on mitochondrial control region sequences, of the evolutionary history of the marmosets, concomitant with

  4. Expanded conserved linkage group between human 16p13 and the Scid region of the mouse chromosome 16

    SciTech Connect

    Deng, Z.M.; Siciliano, M.J. [Univ. of Texas M.D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX (United States); Davisson, M.T. [Jackson Lab., Bar Harbor, ME (United States)] [and others

    1994-09-01

    Knowledge of homologies between human and mouse chromosomes is essential for understanding chromosomal evolution and the development of experimental models for human disease. We have reported the identification of a conserved linkage group between human 16p13 and the centromeric portion of the mouse 16. Defining the extent of this linkage conservation has significant biomedical implications since that region of mouse genome contains the Scid mutation and the human 16p13 contains genes that are involved in DNA repair and certain types of human leukemia as well as other diseases such as Rubinstein-Taybi Syndrome. Here, this conserved linkage group has been defined and expanded. It now contains 5 genetic loci and spans more than 3 Mb in human and 23 cM in mouse. The 5 loci are PRM1,2 (protamine 1 and 2), NOP3 (a subclone of D16S237), GSPT1 (a gene involved in the regulation of G1 to S phase transition), MYH11 (a human smooth muscle myosin heavy chain gene) and MRP (multi-drug resistant-associated protein gene). Using a panel of human-rodent hybrids that are informative for different portions of human 16, we have established the following order on human 16p: telomere-NOP3-PRM1,2-GSPT1-(MYH11,MRP)-centromere. The genes were assigned to the mouse chromosome 16 by a mouse-Chinese hamster somatic cell hybrid panel informative for mouse chromosomes. Linkage analysis using backcross mice informative for the Scid mutation indicated the following order and genetic distance (in cM) in mouse: centromere-Nop3-11.7-Prm1-1.4-Gspt1-8.2-(Myh11,Mrp)-1.4-Scid-telomere.

  5. A gene from the human sex-determining region encodes a protein with homology to a conserved DNA-binding motif

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Andrew H. Sinclair; Philippe Berta; Mark S. Palmer; J. Ross Hawkins; Beatrice L. Griffiths; Matthijs J. Smith; Jamie W. Foster; Anna-Maria Frischauf; Robin Lovell-Badge; Peter N. Goodfellow

    1990-01-01

    A search of a 35-kilobase region of the human Y chromosome necessary for male sex determination has resulted in the identification of a new gene. This gene is conserved and Y-specific among a wide range of mammals, and encodes a testis-specific transcript. It shares homology with the mating-type protein, Mc, from the fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe and a conserved DNA-binding

  6. cDNA sequence, genomic organization, and evolutionary conservation of a novel gene from the WAGR region

    SciTech Connect

    Schwartz, F.; Eisenman, R.; Knoll, J.; Bruns, G. [Children`s Hospital and Department of Pediatrics, Boston, MA (United States)

    1995-09-20

    A new gene (239FB) with predominant and differential expression in fetal brain has recently been isolated from a chromosome 11p13-p14 boundary area near FSHB. The corresponding mRNA has an open reading frame of 294 amino acids, a 3` untranslated region of 1247 nucleotides, and a highly GC-rich 5` untranslated region. The coding and 3` UT sequence is specified by 6 exons within nearly 87 kb of isolated genomic locus. The 5` end region of the transcript maps adjacent to the only genomically defined CpG island in a chromosomal subregion that may be associated with part of the mental retardation of some WAGR (Wilms tumor, aniridia, genitourinary anomalies, and mental retardation) syndrome patients. In addition to nucleotide and amino acid similarity to an EST from a normalized infant brain cDNA library, the predicted protein has extensive similarity to Caenorhbditis elegans polypeptides of, as yet, unknown function. The 239FB locus is, therefore, likely part of a family of genes with two members expressed in human brain. The extensive conservation of the predicted protein suggests a fundamental function of the gene product and will enable evaluation of the role of the 239FB gene in neurogenesis in model organisms. 48 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  7. Conservation and implications of eukaryote transcriptional regulatory regions across multiple species

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lin Wan; Dayong Li; Donglei Zhang; Xue Liu; Wenjiang J Fu; Lihuang Zhu; Minghua Deng; Fengzhu Sun; Minping Qian

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Increasing evidence shows that whole genomes of eukaryotes are almost entirely transcribed into both protein coding genes and an enormous number of non-protein-coding RNAs (ncRNAs). Therefore, revealing the underlying regulatory mechanisms of transcripts becomes imperative. However, for a complete understanding of transcriptional regulatory mechanisms, we need to identify the regions in which they are found. We will call these

  8. Recognizing and Treating Eye Injuries

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Eye Health News Consumer Alerts Recognizing and Treating Eye Injuries Tweet When an eye injury does occur, ... serious eye injury yourself. How to recognize an eye injury If you notice any of these signs ...

  9. Systematic Analysis of a Conserved Region of the Aminoglycoside 6?-N-Acetyltransferase Type Ib

    PubMed Central

    Shmara, Ali; Weinsetel, Natalia; Dery, Ken J.; Chavideh, Ramona; Tolmasky, Marcelo E.

    2001-01-01

    Alanine-scanning mutagenesis was applied to the aminoglycoside 6?-N-acetyltransferase type Ib conserved motif B, and the effects of the substitutions were analyzed by measuring the MICs of kanamycin (KAN) and its semisynthetic derivative, amikacin (AMK). Several substitutions resulted in no major change in MICs. E167A and F171A resulted in derivatives that lost the ability to confer resistance to KAN and AMK. P155A, P157A, N159A, L160A, I163A, K168A, and G170A conferred intermediate levels of resistance. Y166A resulted in an enzyme derivative with a modified specificity; it conferred a high level of resistance to KAN but lost the ability to confer resistance to AMK. Although not as pronounced, the resistance profiles conferred by substitutions N159A and G170A were related to that conferred by Y166A. These phenotypes, taken together with previous results indicating that mutant F171L could not catalyze acetylation of AMK when the assays were carried out at 42°C (D. Panaite and M. Tolmasky, Plasmid 39:123–133, 1998), suggest that some motif B amino acids play a direct or indirect role in acceptor substrate specificity. MICs of AMK and KAN for cells harboring the substitution C165A were high, suggesting that the active form of the enzyme may not be a dimer formed through a disulfide bond. Furthermore, this result indicated that the acetylation reaction occurs through a direct mechanism rather than a ping-pong mechanism that includes a transient transfer of the acetyl group to a cysteine residue. Deletion of fragments at the C terminus demonstrated that up to 10 amino acids could be deleted without a loss of activity. PMID:11709299

  10. Covalent Protein Modification with ISG15 via a Conserved Cysteine in the Hinge Region

    PubMed Central

    Bade, Veronika N.; Nickels, Jochen; Keusekotten, Kirstin; Praefcke, Gerrit J. K.

    2012-01-01

    The ubiquitin-like protein ISG15 (interferon-stimulated gene of 15 kDa) is strongly induced by type I interferons and displays antiviral activity. As other ubiquitin-like proteins (Ubls), ISG15 is post-translationally conjugated to substrate proteins by an isopeptide bond between the C-terminal glycine of ISG15 and the side chains of lysine residues in the substrates (ISGylation). ISG15 consists of two ubiquitin-like domains that are separated by a hinge region. In many orthologs, this region contains a single highly reactive cysteine residue. Several hundred potential substrates for ISGylation have been identified but only a few of them have been rigorously verified. In order to investigate the modification of several ISG15 substrates, we have purified ISG15 conjugates from cell extracts by metal-chelate affinity purification and immunoprecipitations. We found that the levels of proteins modified by human ISG15 can be decreased by the addition of reducing agents. With the help of thiol blocking reagents, a mutational analysis and miRNA mediated knock-down of ISG15 expression, we revealed that this modification occurs in living cells via a disulphide bridge between the substrates and Cys78 in the hinge region of ISG15. While the ISG15 activating enzyme UBE1L is conjugated by ISG15 in the classical way, we show that the ubiquitin conjugating enzyme Ubc13 can either be classically conjugated by ISG15 or can form a disulphide bridge with ISG15 at the active site cysteine 87. The latter modification would interfere with its function as ubiquitin conjugating enzyme. However, we found no evidence for an ISG15 modification of the dynamin-like GTPases MxA and hGBP1. These findings indicate that the analysis of potential substrates for ISG15 conjugation must be performed with great care to distinguish between the two types of modification since many assays such as immunoprecipitation or metal-chelate affinity purification are performed with little or no reducing agent present. PMID:22693631

  11. 7 CFR 636.21 - Environmental services credits for conservation improvements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... Environmental services credits for conservation improvements. 636.21 Section...Agriculture (Continued) NATURAL RESOURCES CONSERVATION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE... Environmental services credits for conservation improvements. USDA recognizes...

  12. 7 CFR 636.21 - Environmental services credits for conservation improvements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Environmental services credits for conservation improvements. 636.21 Section...Agriculture (Continued) NATURAL RESOURCES CONSERVATION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE... Environmental services credits for conservation improvements. USDA recognizes...

  13. 7 CFR 636.21 - Environmental services credits for conservation improvements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... Environmental services credits for conservation improvements. 636.21 Section...Agriculture (Continued) NATURAL RESOURCES CONSERVATION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE... Environmental services credits for conservation improvements. USDA recognizes...

  14. 7 CFR 636.21 - Environmental services credits for conservation improvements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Environmental services credits for conservation improvements. 636.21 Section...Agriculture (Continued) NATURAL RESOURCES CONSERVATION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE... Environmental services credits for conservation improvements. USDA recognizes...

  15. 7 CFR 636.21 - Environmental services credits for conservation improvements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... Environmental services credits for conservation improvements. 636.21 Section...Agriculture (Continued) NATURAL RESOURCES CONSERVATION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE... Environmental services credits for conservation improvements. USDA recognizes...

  16. Evolutionary conservation of mechanisms for neural regionalization, proliferation and interconnection in brain development

    PubMed Central

    Reichert, Heinrich

    2008-01-01

    Comparative studies of brain development in vertebrate and invertebrate model systems demonstrate remarkable similarities in expression and action of developmental control genes during embryonic patterning, neural proliferation and circuit formation in the brain. Thus, comparable sets of developmental control genes are involved in specifying the early brain primordium as well as in regionalized patterning along its anteroposterior and dorsoventral axes. Furthermore, similar cellular and molecular mechanisms underlie the formation and proliferation of neural stem cell-like progenitors that generate the neurons in the central nervous systems. Finally, neural identity and some complex circuit interconnections in specific brain domains appear to be comparable in vertebrates and invertebrates and may depend on similar developmental control genes. PMID:18755655

  17. Projecting regional potentials for cost-effective energy conservation and renewable resource applications: a feasibility study

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-01-01

    The feasibility is discussed of preparing an instruction manual that would enable a modeler in a particular region to set up a calculation method for predicting energy use. Such a manual would concern itself primarily with the three energy-consuming sectors most relevant to utilities' demand projections. Data requriements for each of the three sectors (residential, commercial, and industrial) are described and some initial guidance is provided as to how these needs can be filled. The methods for separate calculations of energy consumed by each end use in each sector are described. Each end use is discussed separately for the residential sector, but only in aggregate for the commercial and industrial sectors. (MCW)

  18. Desalination as Groundwater Conservation: The Cost of Protecting Cultural and Environmental Resources in Chile's Region II

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Edwards, E. C.; Cristi, O.; Libecap, G. D.

    2012-12-01

    There is a substantial body of evidence that groundwater overdraft is occurring worldwide. Economists argue that the cause of this overdraft is the open-access nature of the resource, which results in a "tragedy of the commons." Sustainable water management requires that some institution control the resource to limit this overdraft by reducing water extraction. This reduction creates scarcity and requires a method of rationing. The economically efficient outcome occurs when the lowest value uses of water are eliminated. This allocation, though, may have undesirable social consequences, such as the loss of small-scale farming, and political ramifications that make such an allocation unpopular to implement. This paper explores the economic cost of leaving water in low-value uses. The policy we explore is a moratorium on voluntary water sales to mining firms to protect the groundwater resource in northern Chile. This policy has accelerated the use of expensive desalinated water, whose cost is primarily driven by its heavy use of carbon-based electricity. Chile has a strong system of water property rights that economists argue ration water in a way that leads to the efficient allocation through water markets. This paper first explores the potential inefficiency of a water market when groundwater and surface water are linked, as well as when different users vary in their intensity of use. This theoretical background provides a framework for determining the economically efficient allocation of water and the losses associated with the moratorium in northern Chile. The policy does protect some environmental and cultural public goods, which potentially offset some or all of this cost. We provide a perspective on the magnitude of these public goods but do not attempt to value them explicitly. Instead, we demonstrate what their value must be so that the moratorium policy has a cost-to-benefit ratio of one. While the estimate of lost income from inefficiency is the main focus of the empirical work, the theoretical development provides an important perspective into groundwater management and the important role of understanding the physical system in water marketing. Worldwide, subsidized and scarce water is allocated to farmers for social and political reasons. The losses from this type of allocation are often ignored or marginalized. The Chilean case demonstrates that the losses due to economically inefficient allocation are real, because the alternative is greater consumption of other resources (fossil fuels in this case), not conservation. The Chilean case also demonstrates the difficulty of adequately defining water rights for efficient markets due to the physical properties of hydrologic systems. Because groundwater and surface water systems are linked and water is partially recycled, water markets may over allocate water to consumptive users or those with preferable extraction locations. This paper provides a theoretical exposition of how water rights that fail incorporate important properties of the physical system may lead to inefficient water markets.

  19. Fibrillin genes map to regions of conserved mouse/human synteny on mouse chromosomes 2 and 18.

    PubMed

    Li, X; Pereira, L; Zhang, H; Sanguineti, C; Ramirez, F; Bonadio, J; Francke, U

    1993-12-01

    Fibrillin proteins are major structural components of the 10-nm microfibrils found in elastic and nonelastic connective tissues. Previous studies have mapped the human genes for two fibrillins to chromosome bands 15q21 (FBN1) and 5q23-q31 (FBN2) and have demonstrated that FBN1 mutations are associated with Marfan syndrome, while FBN2 is linked to the gene for congenital contractural arachnodactyly. Here, we report the isolation of genomic clones of the corresponding mouse fibrillin genes (Fbn-1 and Fbn-2). By analyzing a mapping panel of mouse x rodent somatic hybrid cell lines, we have assigned the Fbn-1 gene to mouse chromosome 2 and the Fbn-2 gene to mouse chromosome 18. We then sublocalized the fibrillin genes to bands 2F (Fbn-1) and 18D-E1 (Fbn-2) by fluorescence in situ hybridization. These regions are known to exhibit conserved synteny with the regions on human chromosomes 15 and 5 that carry the homologous human fibrillin genes. In addition, the Fbn-1 gene maps in the vicinity of the gene for a connective tissue disorder on mouse chromosome 2 called Tight-skin (Tsk). PMID:8307578

  20. The C-Terminal Domain from S. cerevisiae Pat1 Displays Two Conserved Regions Involved in Decapping Factor Recruitment

    PubMed Central

    Back, Régis; Keller, Jenny; Charenton, Clément; Taverniti, Valerio; Plesse, Claudine Gaudon; Lazar, Noureddine; Durand, Dominique; van Tilbeurgh, Herman; Séraphin, Bertrand; Graille, Marc

    2014-01-01

    Eukaryotic mRNA decay is a highly regulated process allowing cells to rapidly modulate protein production in response to internal and environmental cues. Mature translatable eukaryotic mRNAs are protected from fast and uncontrolled degradation in the cytoplasm by two cis-acting stability determinants: a methylguanosine (m7G) cap and a poly(A) tail at their 5? and 3? extremities, respectively. The hydrolysis of the m7G cap structure, known as decapping, is performed by the complex composed of the Dcp2 catalytic subunit and its partner Dcp1. The Dcp1-Dcp2 decapping complex has a low intrinsic activity and requires accessory factors to be fully active. Among these factors, Pat1 is considered to be a central scaffolding protein involved in Dcp2 activation but also in inhibition of translation initiation. Here, we present the structural and functional study of the C-terminal domain from S. cerevisiae Pat1 protein. We have identified two conserved and functionally important regions located at both extremities of the domain. The first region is involved in binding to Lsm1-7 complex. The second patch is specific for fungal proteins and is responsible for Pat1 interaction with Edc3. These observations support the plasticity of the protein interaction network involved in mRNA decay and show that evolution has extended the C-terminal alpha-helical domain from fungal Pat1 proteins to generate a new binding platform for protein partners. PMID:24830408

  1. How many kilowatts are in a negawatt? Verifying ex post estimates of utility conservation impacts at the regional level

    SciTech Connect

    Parfomak, P.W.; Lave, L.B. [Carnegie Mellon Univ., Pittsburgh, PA (United States)

    1996-12-31

    Restructuring of utilities raises questions about the future of conservation programs. One of the greatest obstacles has been the persistent uncertainity among utility planners regarding true resource effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of conservation relative to conventional generation. The authors use econometric techniques to examine the aggregate commercial and industrial conservation impacts reported. The paper shows that utility conservation programs have been effective in reducing electric loads and that utilities have reported accurately. 44 refs., 3 tabs.

  2. Use of a storm water retention system for conservation of regionally endangered fishes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schaeffer, Jeffrey S.; Bland, James K.; Janssen, John

    2012-01-01

    Maintaining aquatic biodiversity in urban or suburban areas can be problematic because urban landscapes can be nearly devoid of aquatic habitats other than engineered basins for storm water management. These areas are usually of questionable value for fish, but we examined a case study in which five regionally imperiled fish species were reintroduced into an artificial storm water detention pond and subsequently thrived. Although not a formal experiment, postintroduction survey data suggested that three of the five species maintained high population densities for 10 years after initial stocking, and two persisted in lower numbers. Success was likely due to a combination of unique design features and prior habitat preparation that resulted in clear water conditions that supported dense vegetation. Stocked fish persisted despite occasional bouts of low dissolved oxygen and increased chloride levels resulting from road salt application within the watershed. Transplanted fish served as a source population for both research and further reintroduction experiments. We suggest that, for some fish species, habitat preservation has a middle ground between natural habitats and completely artificial environments that require constant husbandry and that storm water systems could be used to create engineered sanctuaries within the human landscape that have many potential benefits for both humans and fish.

  3. A Successful Water Conservation Program in a Semiarid Region of Nebraska

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adelman, Donald D.

    2003-10-01

    Ground water irrigation pumpage of the High Plains Aquifer is controlled at the state level in Texas and Oklahoma but at the regional level in Kansas and Nebraska. Critical declines in the aquifer that threatened the reliability of local public water supply wells prompted Nebraska's Upper Republican Natural Resources District (URNRD) to mandate water restrictions in 1978. Under current regulations, irrigators may not extract more than 1,842 millimeters of water per certified hectare (ha) in any fiveyear period. Meter monitoring ensures that irrigators comply with restrictions. Farmers now incorporate irrigation scheduling into their cropping practices in order to meet URNRD controls. This study examines whether irrigators are using ground water efficiently while complying with pumpage limits. Crop irrigation requirements (CIR) from 1986 to 1999 were derived from a water balance approach incorporating Penman-Monteith evapotranspiration (ET) calculations from weather data supplied by the High Plains Climate Center automated weather station network. A ratio of average water pumped per well to the CIR was developed to verify irrigation efficiency. Results indicate that irrigation applications were less than CIR during most irrigation seasons. Irrigation efficiency increases can be attributed to crop rotations, favorable growing season precipitation, use of ET estimates to schedule irrigation, and water allocations limited to less than all certified hectares.

  4. Characterization of conservative somatic instability of the CAG repeat region in Huntington`s disease

    SciTech Connect

    Schaefer, F.V.; Calikoglu, A.S.; Whetsell, L.H. [H.A. Chapman Research Institute of Medical Genetics, Tulsa, OK (United States)

    1994-09-01

    Instability and enlargement of a CAG repeat region at the beginning of the huntingtin gene (IT-15) has been linked with Huntington`s disease. The CAG repeat size shows a highly significant correlation with age-of-onset of clinicial features in individuals with 40 or more repeats who have Huntington disease. The clinical status of nonsymptomatic individuals with 30 to 39 CAG repeats is considered ambiguous. In order to define more carefully the nature of the HD expansion instability, we examined patients in our HD population using a discriminating fluorescence-based PCR approach. The degree of somatic mutation increases with both earlier age of onset and the size of the inherited allele. A single prominent band one repeat larger than the index peak was typical in individuals with 40-41 CAG repeats. Three to four larger bands are typically discerned in individuals with 50 or more repeats. In an extreme example, an individual with approximately 95 repeats had at least 8 prominent bands. Plotting the degree of somatic mutation relative to the size of the HD allele shows somatic mutation activity increases with size. By this approach 40-60% of the alleles in a 40-41 CAG repeat HD loci is represented in the primary allele. In contrast, the primary allele represents a relatively minor proportion of the total alleles for expansions greater than 50 CAG repeats (10-20%). The limited range of somatic mutation suggest that the instability is restricted to very early stages of embryogenesis before tissue development diverges or that persistent somatic instability occurs at a slow rate. Therefore, the properties of somatic instability in Huntington`s disease have aspects that are both in common but also different from that found in other trinucleotide repeat expanding diseases such as myotonic muscular dystrophy and fragile X syndrome.

  5. Regional nodal recurrence in breast cancer patients treated with conservative surgery and radiation therapy (BCS+RT)

    SciTech Connect

    Pejavar, Sunanda [Department of Therapeutic Radiology, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, CT (United States); Wilson, Lynn D. [Department of Therapeutic Radiology, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, CT (United States); Haffty, Bruce G. [Department of Radiation Oncology, UMDNJ-Robert Wood Johnson Medical School and Cancer Institute of New Jersey, New Brunswick, NJ (United States)]. E-mail: hafftybg@umdnj.edu

    2006-12-01

    Purpose: To review regional nodal (RN) management and identify predictors of RN relapse in patients treated with breast conserving surgery and radiation therapy (BCS+RT). Methods and Materials: Patients with Stage I and II breast cancer (N = 1920) underwent BCS+RT from 1973 to 2003. Patients undergoing RN were treated with a median dose of 46 Gy. Patients undergoing axillary dissection (AXD, N = 1330) were treated to the breast alone if node-negative (N = 984), and to the breast and supraclavicular fossa if node-positive (N = 346). Patients who did not undergo AXD (N = 590) were treated with RT to the supraclavicular fossa and axilla. Sentinel node biopsy (SNB) was performed on 126 patients. SN-negative patients (N = 110) were treated with tangents only. There were 16 SN-positive patients who did not undergo complete AXD and were treated with RT. Results: As of September 2005, there have been 36 RN relapses for an actuarial nodal control rate (NCR) of 98% at 10 years. There was no difference in NCR between those undergoing AXD (NCR = 97.4%) and those receiving RT without AXD (NCR = 97.9%). In multivariate analysis, young age, non-Caucasian race, and pathologic nodal status correlated with increased risk of nodal relapse. Of the 126 patients undergoing SNB, there was only 1 nodal recurrence. None of the 16 SN-positive patients treated with RT without AXD had nodal failure. Conclusions: In patients undergoing BCS+RT, both regional nodal irradiation and AXD (including SNB) resulted in equally high rates of regional nodal control. Nodal RT may also be an effective treatment for SN-positive patients.

  6. Examples of geodiversity - biodiversity relationships from Brabant's sand regions, in nature conservation and restoration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van den Ancker, Hanneke; Heskes, Erik; Jungerius, Pieter Dirk; Maes, Bert; Harthoorn, Jaap

    2014-05-01

    The Dutch province of Noord-Brabant is dominated by sand landscapes of aeolian and riverine origin dating from Pleistocene and Holocene times. Brabant's geological history is governed by its position on the fringe of a geological basin with re-activated faults and a Weichselian polar dune desert, a history that makes the region unique in Europe. Some areas have assemblages of geomorphology and soils that have remained relatively untouched up to the present day. In these more pristine areas, the morphological, geological and soil development is a governing factor for the small-scale vegetation differences and biodiversity. Examples of these relationships will be shown, such as loam forests, wetlands caused by 'wijst' - a feature that is special for Brabant, in which the higher grounds are wetter than the lower grounds - active drift sands, and dry and wet heathlands with 'vennen' - small ponds in different gradations of paludization. Many of these areas are Natura-2000 habitats. The geodiversity-biodiversity relationships will be part of the proposal for a European Geopark in Brabant. Measures to restore biodiversity are only sustainable if geodiversity is part of the nature restoration plan e.g. the history of the local landscape, geology, geomorphology and soils. Even if the areas have undergone a drastic transformation. Two examples will be given of nature restoration projects based on geodiversity-biodiversity relationships. The first example is the restoration of an active drift sand, such as still occur in The Netherlands but are extremely rare in the rest of Europe. Over the last decades they have also stabilized in The Netherlands due to high nitrogen deposition. The other example concerns a nature restoration project in a stream valley. These stream valleys originally had a high and small-scale geodiversity that was completely destroyed by stream regulation for agriculture production. This was the first project to study the former and present-day geo-dynamics and use these to restore the stream habitats and optimize geo-biodiversity relationships.

  7. Global conservation strategy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Talbot

    1981-01-01

    The World Conservation Strategy, prepared by the United Nations and other international groups, recognizes that conservation and development are related. This relationship was incorporated into the goals, priorities, and the framework for action set out in the strategy to optimize the management and use of world resources. A review of the results since the strategy was launched in world capitals

  8. Conservation status of the White-Bellied Sea-Eagle Haliaeetus leucogaster in Australia determined using mtDNA control region sequence data

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jill M. Shephard; Jane M. Hughes; Carla P. Catterall; Penny D. Olsen

    2005-01-01

    Considered to have a declining world population, concern has been expressed in recent years over the conservation status of the White-bellied Sea-Eagle Haliaeetus leucogaster (Gmelin, 1788) within Australia. We used mitochondrial (mtDNA) control region sequence data to investigate the current distribution of genetic variation in this species at the continental level and within and between specified regional units. We were

  9. The Impact of Local and Regional Recurrence on Distant Metastasis and Survival in Patients Treated with Breast Conservation Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Jong Seok; Kim, Seung Il; Park, Hyung Seok; Lee, Jun Sang; Park, Seho

    2011-01-01

    Purpose We evaluated the effect of local recurrence (LR) and regional recurrence (RR) on distant metastasis and survival in patients treated with breast conservation therapy (BCT). Methods We analyzed 907 patients who were treated for invasive breast cancer between 1993 and 2006. With 53 months of follow-up, 28 patients (3.1%) developed LR in the breast and 12 patients (1.3%) developed RR before distant metastasis. LR and RR were separated into four patterns to determine the prognostic relevance of recurrence site and time to recurrence: LR within 3 years (early LR), LR after 3 years (late LR), RR within 3 years (early RR), and RR after 3 years (late RR). Results Early LR (hazard ratio [HR], 4.76; p=0.003) and early RR (HR, 18.16; p<0.001) were independent predictors of distant metastasis. In terms of overall survival, early LR (HR, 5.24; p=0.002), and early RR (HR, 18.80; p<0.001) were significantly related with poor survival. Patients with late LR/RR had a similar favorable prognosis compared with patients who never experienced LR/RR. Conclusion The result suggests that time to LR/RR following BCT is a significant predictor developing a distant metastasis and surviving. PMID:22031800

  10. The Rhizobium etli ?70 (SigA) factor recognizes a lax consensus promoter

    PubMed Central

    Ramírez-Romero, Miguel A.; Masulis, Irina; Cevallos, Miguel A.; González, Víctor; Dávila, Guillermo

    2006-01-01

    A collection of Rhizobium etli promoters was isolated from a genomic DNA library constructed in the promoter-trap vector pBBMCS53, by their ability to drive the expression of a gusA reporter gene. Thirty-seven clones were selected, and their transcriptional start-sites were determined. The upstream sequence of these 37 start-sites, and the sequences of seven previously identified promoters were compared. On the basis of sequence conservation and mutational analysis, a consensus sequence CTTGACN16–23TATNNT was obtained. In this consensus sequence, nine on of twelve bases are identical to the canonical Escherichia coli ?70 promoter, however the R.etli promoters only contain 6.4 conserved bases on average. We show that the R.etli sigma factor SigA recognizes all R.etli promoters studied in this work, and that E.coli RpoD is incapable of recognizing them. The comparison of the predicted structure of SigA with the known structure of RpoD indicated that regions 2.4 and 4.2, responsible for promoter recognition, are different only by a single amino acid, whereas the region 1 of SigA contains 72 extra residues, suggesting that the differences contained in this region could be related to the lax promoter recognition of SigA. PMID:16528104

  11. A 230kb cosmid walk in the Duchenne muscular dystrophy gene: detection of a conserved sequence and of a possible deletion prone region.

    PubMed

    Heilig, R; Lemaire, C; Mandel, J L

    1987-11-25

    A 230 kb genomic region from the Duchenne muscular dystrophy gene has been cloned in a cosmid walk, using an improved vector and by screening the same unamplified library for all steps. The region cloned surrounds the translocation breakpoint characterized by Worton et al and Ray et al, and overlaps by 70 kb the Pert region cloned by Monaco et al. We have identified a region of strong sequence conservation in mammals and chicken, and comparison of the homologous sequences in chicken and man has indicated the presence of two putative protein coding exons. Comparison with the sequence recently published by Koenig et al shows that only one is present in the Duchenne cDNA, and this raises the question of the functional significance of the other conserved sequence. Single copy probes and whole cosmids generated during this work have been used to analyse the corresponding region in Duchenne patients. Of five independant patients shown to be deleted for a probe 30 kb in 3' of the translocation breakpoint, three have the 5' endpoint of the deletion within a region of less than 20 kb, 100 kb away from the probe used to ascertain the deletion. This might suggest the presence of a region where deletions occur preferentially. PMID:2825128

  12. Regional Extinctions and Quaternary Shifts in the Geographic Range of Lestodelphys halli, the Southernmost Living Marsupial: Clues for Its Conservation

    PubMed Central

    Formoso, Anahí E.; Martin, Gabriel M.; Teta, Pablo; Carbajo, Aníbal E.; Sauthier, Daniel E. Udrizar; Pardiñas, Ulyses F. J.

    2015-01-01

    The Patagonian opossum (Lestodelphys halli), the southernmost living marsupial, inhabits dry and open environments, mainly in the Patagonian steppe (between ~32°S and ~49°S). Its rich fossil record shows its occurrence further north in Central Argentina during the Quaternary. The paleoenvironmental meaning of the past distribution of L. halli has been mostly addressed in a subjective framework without an explicit connection with the climatic “space” currently occupied by this animal. Here, we assessed the potential distribution of this species and the changes occurred in its geographic range during late Pleistocene-Holocene times and linked the results obtained with conservation issues. To this end, we generated three potential distribution models with fossil records and three with current ones, using MaxEnt software. These models showed a decrease in the suitable habitat conditions for the species, highlighting a range shift from Central-Eastern to South-Western Argentina. Our results support that the presence of L. halli in the Pampean region during the Pleistocene-Holocene can be related to precipitation and temperature variables and that its current presence in Patagonia is more related to temperature and dominant soils. The models obtained suggest that the species has been experiencing a reduction in its geographic range since the middle Holocene, a process that is in accordance with a general increase in moisture and temperature in Central Argentina. Considering the findings of our work and the future scenario of global warming projected for Patagonia, we might expect a harsh impact on the distribution range of this opossum in the near future. PMID:26203650

  13. A virtual vocabulary speech recognizer

    E-print Network

    Pathe, Peter D

    1983-01-01

    A system for the automatic recognition of human speech is described. A commercially available speech recognizer sees its recognition vocabulary increased through the use of virtual memory management techniques. central to ...

  14. Recognizing actions using embodiment & empathy

    E-print Network

    McIntyre, Robert Louis

    2014-01-01

    Here I demonstrate the power of using embodied artificial intelligence to attack the action recognition problem, which is the challenge of recognizing actions performed by a creature given limited data about the creature's ...

  15. Regional estimates of ecological services derived from U.S. Department of Agriculture conservation programs in the Mississippi Alluvial Valley

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Faulkner, Stephen P.; Baldwin, Michael J.; Barrow, Wylie C.; Waddle, Hardin; Keeland, Bobby D.; Walls, Susan; James, Dale; Moorman, Tom

    2010-01-01

    The degree to which these conservation practices can restore ecosystem functions and services is not well known. This project was initiated to quantify existing ecological services derived from USDA conservation practices in the MAV as part of the USDA Conservation Effects Assessment Project, Wetlands Component (CEAP-Wetlands). The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in collaboration with the USDA Natural Resources Conservation Service, the USDA Farm Service Agency, the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, and Ducks Unlimited, collected data on soils, vegetation, nitrogen cycling, migratory birds, and amphibians from 88 different sites between 2006 and 2008. Results from restored WRP sites were compared to baseline data from active agricultural cropland (AG) to evaluate changes in ecosystem services.

  16. Investigation of the factors affecting catabolism of antibodies raised against a vaccine candidate based on the conserved region of the M-protein

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Manisha Pandey; Michael F. Good; Michael R. Batzloff

    2006-01-01

    A non-host reactive, conformationally constrained, minimal B-cell epitope from the conserved region of M-protein has been identified as a GAS vaccine candidate. The immunogenic potential of this chimeric peptide J8 conjugated to diphtheria toxoid (DT) has been demonstrated previously and the protection is believed to be mediated by J8-specific IgG. To expand further on these studies, we are interested in

  17. Red states, blue states, and divorce: understanding the impact of conservative Protestantism on regional variation in divorce rates.

    PubMed

    Glass, Jennifer; Levchak, Philip

    2014-01-01

    Why do states with larger proportions of religious conservatives have higher divorce rates than states with lower proportions of religious conservatives? This project examines whether earlier transitions to marriage and parenthood among conservative Protestants (known risk factors for divorce) contribute to this paradox while attending to other plausible explanations. County-level demographic information from all 50 states is combined from a variety of public data sources and merged with individual records from the National Surveys of Family Growth to estimate both aggregated county and multilevel individual models of divorce. Results show that individual religious conservatism is positively related to individual divorce risk, solely through the earlier transitions to adulthood and lower incomes of conservative Protestants. However, the proportion of conservative Protestants in a county is also independently and positively associated with both the divorce rate in that county and an individual's likelihood of divorcing. The earlier family formation and lower levels of educational attainment and income in counties with a higher proportion of conservative Protestants can explain a substantial portion of this association. Little support is found for alternative explanations of the association between religious conservatism and divorce rates, including the relative popularity of marriage versus cohabitation across counties. PMID:25032268

  18. Ecosystem Services Derived from Wetland Conservation Practices in the United States Prairie Pothole Region with an Emphasis on the U.S. Department of Agriculture Conservation Reserve and Wetlands Reserve Programs

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gleason, Robert A.; Laubhan, Murray K.; Euliss, Ned H.

    2008-01-01

    Implementation of the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) Conservation Reserve Program (CRP) and Wetlands Reserve Program (WRP) has resulted in the restoration of approximately 2,200,000 ha (5,436,200 acres) of wetland and grassland habitats in the Prairie Pothole Region. These restored habitats are known to provide various ecosystem services; however, little work has been conducted to quantify and verify benefits on program lands (lands enrolled in the CRP and WRP) in agriculturally dominated landscapes of the Prairie Pothole Region. To address this need, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in collaboration with the USDA Farm Service Agency and Natural Resources Conservation Service, initiated a study to develop and apply approaches to quantify changes in ecosystem services resulting from wetland restoration activities funded by the USDA. To accomplish this goal, the USGS conducted a comprehensive, stratified survey of 204 catchments (wetland and surrounding uplands contributing runoff to the wetland) in 1997 and 270 catchments in 2004 to gather data necessary for estimating various ecosystem services. In 1997 and 2004, the surveys included catchments with seasonal and semipermanent wetlands that were restored as part of USDA conservation programs, as well as nonprogram catchments in native prairie. Additionally, in 2004 data collection was expanded to include temporary wetlands for all treatments and nonprogram cropped catchments for all wetland classes: temporary, seasonal, and semipermanent. A key element in the sample design is that catchments span an alteration gradient ranging from highly altered, such as cropland, to minimally altered, such as native prairie. Therefore, we evaluated restoration programs by comparing changes in program (restored) catchments to nonprogram (cropland and native prairie) catchments. Information collected during both surveys included easily measured soil, vegetation, and morphological variables that were used to estimate the following ecosystem services: plant community quality and richness, carbon sequestration, floodwater storage, sediment and nutrient reduction, and potential wildlife habitat suitability. In this report, we evaluate the extent that these ecosystem services changed in restored wetlands relative to cropland and native prairie baselines. In most cases, our results indicate restoration activities funded by the USDA have positively influenced ecosystem services in comparison to a cropped wetland baseline; however, most benefits were only considered at a site-specific scale, and better quantification of off-site benefits associated with conservation programs will require detailed spatial data on all land areas enrolled in conservation programs.

  19. INTRODUCTION Recognizing species of echolocating

    E-print Network

    Nathan, Ran

    INTRODUCTION Recognizing species of echolocating bats by their calls has been valuable in assessing by their echolocation calls, reflecting diagnostic pat- terns of frequency change over time and species-specific frequencies in calls. The feasibility of detecting and identifying a bat by its echolocation calls is a direct

  20. Recognizing Animals Using Motion Parts

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Changming Kong; Andrew Calway; Majid Mirmehdi

    We describe a method for automatically recognizing animals in image se- quences based on their distinctive locomotive movement patterns. The 2-D motion field associated with the animal is represented using a 'configuration of motion parts' model, the characteristics of which are learned from train- ing data. We adopt an unsupervised approach to learning model parameters, based on minimal a priori

  1. Recognizing Action at a Distance

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Alexei A. Efros; Alexander C. Berg; Greg Mori; Jitendra Malik

    2003-01-01

    Our goal is to recognize human actions at a distance, at resolutions where a whole person may be, say, 30 pix- els tall. We introduce a novel motion descriptor based on optical flow measurements in a spatio-temporal volume for each stabilized human figure, and an associated similarity measure to be used in a nearest-neighbor framework. Mak- ing use of noisy

  2. Conservation Overview of Draft

    E-print Network

    1 Northwest Power and Conservation Council Overview of Draft Sixth Power Plan Power Committee Web Conference May 19, 2009 Northwest Power and Conservation Council Conditions Facing the Region · Slower demand of variable resources · Uncertain, but likely, carbon control policies #12;2 Northwest Power and Conservation

  3. Uncovering the spatial dynamics of wild rice lakes, harvesters and management across Great Lakes landscapes for shared regional conservation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Annette D. Drewes; Janet Silbernagel

    Sustainable conservation and management of valued resources and ecosystem services relies on understanding the dynamics of the socio-ecological system. In the case of wild rice, a cherished food resource of Northern Great Lakes landscapes, the dynamics involve (a) a changing distribution of wild rice lakes, (b) changing harvester population and demographics, and (c) different management overlays. Together these factors influence

  4. Beyond biology: understanding regional, multi-species habitat conservation plans from an ecological, economic, and sociopolitical perspective

    E-print Network

    Schmidt, Jennifer

    2013-02-22

    gnatcatcher (Polioptila californica californi ca), peregrine falcon (Falco pereg ri nus), Riverside fairy shrimp (Strptocephalus woottoni), southwestern arroyo toad (Bufo mi croscaphus californicus), least Bell's vireo (Vireo belfli pusillus), southwestern... leucocephalus), Conservancy fairy shrimp (Branchinecta conservarl o), vernal pool fairy shrimp (Branchinecta lynchi), valley elderberry longhorn beetle (Desmocerus californicus dimorphus), vernal pool tadpole shrimp (Lepi durus packardi), giant garter snake...

  5. Developing Spatially Explicit Habitat Models for Grassland Bird Conservation Planning in the Prairie Pothole Region of North Dakota1

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Neal D. Niemuth; Michael E. Estey; Charles R. Loesch

    Conservation planning for birds is increasingly focused on landscapes. However, little spatially explicit infor- mation is available to guide landscape-level conserva- tion planning for many species of birds. We used geo- referenced 1995 Breeding Bird Survey (BBS) data in conjunction with land-cover information to develop a spatially explicit habitat model predicting the occurrence of Northern Harrier (Circus cyaneus) in the

  6. Conservation Conservation ResourcesConservation Resources

    E-print Network

    Northwest Power and Conservation Council Conservation ResourcesConservation Resources in thein the Draft 5Draft 5thth Northwest Power PlanNorthwest Power Plan Tom EckmanTom Eckman Manager, Conservation ResourcesManager, Conservation Resources Northwest Power and Conservation CouncilNorthwest Power

  7. Invariant natural killer T cells recognize glycolipids from pathogenic Gram-positive bacteria

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yuki Kinjo; Petr Illarionov; José Luis Vela; Bo Pei; Enrico Girardi; Xiangming Li; Yali Li; Masakazu Imamura; Yukihiro Kaneko; Akiko Okawara; Yoshitsugu Miyazaki; Anaximandro Gómez-Velasco; Paul Rogers; Samira Dahesh; Satoshi Uchiyama; Archana Khurana; Kazuyoshi Kawahara; Hasan Yesilkaya; Peter W Andrew; Chi-Huey Wong; Kazuyoshi Kawakami; Victor Nizet; Gurdyal S Besra; Moriya Tsuji; Dirk M Zajonc; Mitchell Kronenberg

    2011-01-01

    Natural killer T cells (NKT cells) recognize glycolipid antigens presented by CD1d. These cells express an evolutionarily conserved, invariant T cell antigen receptor (TCR), but the forces that drive TCR conservation have remained uncertain. Here we show that NKT cells recognized diacylglycerol-containing glycolipids from Streptococcus pneumoniae, the leading cause of community-acquired pneumonia, and group B Streptococcus, which causes neonatal sepsis

  8. Preventing and Recognizing Prescription Drug Abuse

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Abuse » Preventing and recognizing prescription drug abuse Prescription Drug Abuse Email Facebook Twitter Preventing and recognizing prescription drug abuse To ensure proper medical care, patients should discuss ...

  9. Recognizing and Handling Calving Problems

    E-print Network

    Beverly, John R.

    2003-05-28

    . Repeat every 6 to 7 seconds until the calf starts breathing, or until his heart stops beating. It is important to remember that the baby calf?s lungs are considerably smaller than a human?s and care should be 10 Figure 18. Front view of the pelvic bone...Recognizing and Handling Calving Problems B-1203 5-03 CONTENTS Necessary Equipment............................................3 The Calving Process ..............................................4 Examining the Cow...

  10. Systematic conservation planning

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. R. Margules; R. L. Pressey

    2000-01-01

    The realization of conservation goals requires strategies for managing whole landscapes including areas allocated to both production and protection. Reserves alone are not adequate for nature conservation but they are the cornerstone on which regional strategies are built. Reserves have two main roles. They should sample or represent the biodiversity of each region and they should separate this biodiversity from

  11. The impact of the number of excised axillary nodes and of the percentage of involved nodes on regional nodal failure in patients treated by breast-conserving surgery with or without regional irradiation

    SciTech Connect

    Fortin, Andre [Department of Radiation Oncology, L'Hotel-Dieu de Quebec, Quebec City, Quebec (Canada)]. E-mail: afortin@videotron.ca; Dagnault, Anne [Department of Radiation Oncology, L'Hotel-Dieu de Quebec, Quebec City, Quebec (Canada); Blondeau, Lucie [Department of Radiation Oncology, L'Hotel-Dieu de Quebec, Quebec City, Quebec (Canada); Thi Trinh Thuc Vu [Department of Radiation Oncology, L'Hotel-Dieu de Quebec, Quebec City, Quebec (Canada); Larochelle, Marie [Department of Radiation Oncology, L'Hotel-Dieu de Quebec, Quebec City, Quebec (Canada)

    2006-05-01

    Purpose: After breast-conserving surgery, recommendations for regional nodal radiotherapy are usually based on the number of positive nodes. This number is dependent on the number of nodes removed during the axillary dissection. This study examines whether the percentage of positive nodes may help to select patients for regional radiotherapy. Methods and Materials: A retrospective study was conducted on 1,372 T1-T2 node-positive breast cancer patients treated at L'Hotel-Dieu de Quebec Hospital between 1972 and 1997. Results: Among the patients who did not receive regional radiotherapy, the percentage of involved nodes was significantly associated with axillary failure. Ten-year axillary control rates were 97% and 91% when the percentage of involved nodes was <50% and {>=}50%, respectively (p = 0.007). In addition, regional radiotherapy is always significantly associated with a decrease in overall regional failure (axillary and/or supraclavicular), regardless of the percentage of involved nodes. However, regional radiotherapy reduced the axillary failure rate (2% vs. 9%, p = 0.007) only when more than a specific percentage of nodes was involved ({>=}40% if N1-3 and {>=}50% if N>3 nodes). Conclusions: The percentage of involved nodes should be taken into consideration in selecting patients for regional radiotherapy. Irradiation of the axilla should be reserved for patients with a specific ratio: >40% involved nodes if N1-3 and {>=}50% involved nodes if N>3 nodes.

  12. Scale and conservation planning in the real world

    PubMed Central

    Erasmus, B. F. N.; Freitag, S.; Gaston, K. J.; Erasmus, B. H.; Jaarsveld, A. S. van

    1999-01-01

    Conservation planning is carried out on a variety of geopolitical and biogeographical scales. Whereas considerable consensus is emerging about the most appropriate procedures for identifying conservation areas, the spatial implications of conducting conservation planning at divergent scales have received little attention. Here we explore the consequences of planning at different geopolitical scales, using a database of the mammalian fauna from the Northern Provinces of South Africa. The conservation network resulting from treating the region as one unit is compared with networks generated separately for the provinces nested in that region. These outcomes are evaluated in terms of (i) their land use efficiencies, (ii) their spatial overlap, and (iii) the impact of algorithm attributes. Although land use efficiencies are greater on broader scales, on average the spatial congruence between the broad-scale regional network and fine-scale provincial networks was less than 14%. Algorithms using different selection rules fail to improve this disturbing outcome. Consequently, scale has an overwhelming influence on areas identified as conservation networks in geopolitical units. This should be recognized in conservation planning.

  13. Conservation potential of agricultural water conservation subsidies

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ray Huffaker

    2008-01-01

    A current policy subsidizes farmers to invest in improved on-farm irrigation efficiency, expecting water to be conserved off farm. Contrary to expectation, water has been increasingly depleted in some regions after such improvements. This paper investigates the policy's failure to conserve water consistently by (1) formulating an economic model of irrigated crop production to determine a profit-maximizing irrigator's range of

  14. Analysis of highly conserved regions of the 3'UTR of MECP2 gene in patients with clinical diagnosis of Rett syndrome and other disorders associated with mental retardation.

    PubMed

    Santos, Mónica; Yan, Jin; Temudo, Teresa; Oliveira, Guiomar; Vieira, José Pedro; Fen, Jinong; Sommer, Steve; Maciel, Patrícia

    2008-01-01

    In this work we explored the role of the 3'UTR of the MECP2 gene in patients with clinical diagnosis of RTT and mental retardation; focusing on regions of the 3'UTR with almost 100% conservation at the nucleotide level among mouse and human. By mutation scanning (DOVAM-S technique) the MECP2 3'UTR of a total of 66 affected females were studied. Five 3'UTR variants in the MECP2 were found (c.1461+9G>A, c.1461+98insA, c.2595G>A, c.9961C>G and c.9964delC) in our group of patients. None of the variants found is located in putative protein-binding sites nor predicted to have a pathogenic role. Our data suggest that mutations in this region do not account for a large proportion of the RTT cases without a genetic explanation. PMID:18688080

  15. Characterization of an Egyptian Spodoptera littoralis nucleopolyhedrovirus and a possible use of a highly conserved region from polyhedrin gene for nucleopolyhedrovirus detection

    PubMed Central

    Seufi, AlaaEddeen M

    2008-01-01

    An Egyptian isolate of Spodoptera littoralis nucleopolyhedrovirus (SpliNPV) was tested for its potential as biocontrol agent in comparison to Autographa californica multiple nucleopolyhedrovirus (AcMNPV). Comparative assays of SpliNPV and AcMNPV against 2nd instar larvae of Spodoptera littoralis revealed 4-fold greater susceptibility of S. littoralis to AcMNPV than to SpliNPV based on LC50 values for the two viruses. The LT50s determined for SpliNPV and AcMNPV using LC50 of the virus against 2nd instar larvae were 4.2 and 5.8 days, respectively. A DNA segment of 405 bp containing highly conserved region from polyhedrin gene of SpliNPV (Polh-cr) was successfully amplified by PCR. Subsequently, this DNA segment was cloned and sequenced. Nucleotide sequence and its deduced amino acid sequence were compared to all available sequences in GenBank. Sequence alignment results revealed that Polh-cr showed significant similarities with 91 different baculovirus isolates. The percentage of homology ranged from 78% for Plusia orichalcea NPV to 99% for SpliNPV. This highly conserved region provides a candidate that could be used in easy, fast and economic prospective systems for virus detection as well as in biological control strategies. PMID:18215282

  16. Results of the global conservation assessment of the freshwater crabs (Brachyura, Pseudothelphusidae and Trichodactylidae): The Neotropical region, with an update on diversity.

    PubMed

    Cumberlidge, Neil; Alvarez, Fernando; Villalobos, Jose-Luis

    2014-01-01

    The freshwater crabs of the Neotropics comprise 311 species in two families (Pseudothelphusidae and Trichodactylidae) and one or both of these families are found in all of the countries in the Neotropical region (except for Chile and some of the Caribbean islands). Colombia (102 species, 81% endemic) and Mexico (67 species, 95% endemic) are the biodiversity hotspots of freshwater crab species richness and country-level endemism for this region. The results of the IUCN Red List conservation assessments show that 34% of pseudothelphusids and 10% of trichodactylids have an elevated risk of extinction, 29% of pseudothelphusids and 75% of trichodactylids are not at-risk (Least Concern), and although none are actually extinct, 56% of pseudothelphusids and 17% of trichodactylids are too poorly known to assess (Data Deficient). Colombia (14 species), Venezuela (7 species), Mexico (6 species), and Ecuador (5 species) are the countries with the highest number of threatened species of Neotropical freshwater crabs. The majority of threatened species are restricted-range semiterrestrial endemics living in habitats subjected to deforestation, alteration of drainage patterns, and pollution. This underlines the need to prioritize and develop conservation measures before species decline to levels from which they cannot recover. These results represent a baseline that can be used to design strategies to save threatened Neotropical species of freshwater crabs. PMID:25561834

  17. Conservation Strategy for Sable Island

    E-print Network

    Jones, Ian L.

    Towards a Conservation Strategy for Sable Island Environment Canada, Canadian Wildlife Service, Atlantic Region #12;SABLE ISLAND CONSERVATION STRATEGY page - i March, 1998 A CONSERVATION STRATEGY FOR SABLE ISLAND PREPARED BY This Conservation Strategy for Sable Island was prepared for Environment Canada

  18. Movement patterns of Antillean manatees in Chetumal Bay (Mexico) and coastal Belize: A challenge for regional conservation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Castelblanco-Martínez, Delma Nataly; Padilla-Saldivar, J.; Hernández-Arana, Héctor Abuid; Slone, D.H.; Reid, J.P.; Morales-Vela, B.

    2013-01-01

    Information from 15 satellite-tracked Antillean manatees (Trichechus manatus manatus) was analyzed in order to assess individual movements, home ranges, and high-use areas for conservation decisions. Manatees were captured in Chetumal Bay, Mexico, and tagged with Argos-monitored satellite transmitters. Location of the manatees and physical characteristics were assessed to describe habitat properties. Most manatees traveled to freshwater sources. The Maximum Area Size (MAS) for each manatee was determined using the observation-area method. Additional kernel densities of 95% home range and 50% Center of Activity (COA) were also calculated, with manatees having 1–3 COAs. Manatees exhibited two different movement patterns: remaining in Chetumal Bay, and long-distance (up to 240 km in 89 d). The residence time in Chetumal Bay was higher for females (89.6% of time) than for males (72.0%), but the daily travel rate (0.4–0.5 km/d) was similar for both sexes. Most of the COAs fell within Natural Protected Areas (NPA). However, manatees also travel for long distances into unprotected areas, where they face uncontrolled boat traffic, fishing activities, and habitat loss. Conservation of movement corridors may promote long-distance movements and facilitate genetic exchange.

  19. Rice pseudomolecule-anchored cross-species DNA sequence alignments indicate regional genomic variation in expressed sequence conservation

    PubMed Central

    Armstead, Ian; Huang, Lin; King, Julie; Ougham, Helen; Thomas, Howard; King, Ian

    2007-01-01

    Background Various methods have been developed to explore inter-genomic relationships among plant species. Here, we present a sequence similarity analysis based upon comparison of transcript-assembly and methylation-filtered databases from five plant species and physically anchored rice coding sequences. Results A comparison of the frequency of sequence alignments, determined by MegaBLAST, between rice coding sequences in TIGR pseudomolecules and annotations vs 4.0 and comprehensive transcript-assembly and methylation-filtered databases from Lolium perenne (ryegrass), Zea mays (maize), Hordeum vulgare (barley), Glycine max (soybean) and Arabidopsis thaliana (thale cress) was undertaken. Each rice pseudomolecule was divided into 10 segments, each containing 10% of the functionally annotated, expressed genes. This indicated a correlation between relative segment position in the rice genome and numbers of alignments with all the queried monocot and dicot plant databases. Colour-coded moving windows of 100 functionally annotated, expressed genes along each pseudomolecule were used to generate 'heat-maps'. These revealed consistent intra- and inter-pseudomolecule variation in the relative concentrations of significant alignments with the tested plant databases. Analysis of the annotations and derived putative expression patterns of rice genes from 'hot-spots' and 'cold-spots' within the heat maps indicated possible functional differences. A similar comparison relating to ancestral duplications of the rice genome indicated that duplications were often associated with 'hot-spots'. Conclusion Physical positions of expressed genes in the rice genome are correlated with the degree of conservation of similar sequences in the transcriptomes of other plant species. This relative conservation is associated with the distribution of different sized gene families and segmentally duplicated loci and may have functional and evolutionary implications. PMID:17708759

  20. Mapping of ATP binding regions in poly(A) polymerases by photoaffinity labeling and by mutational analysis identifies a domain conserved in many nucleotidyltransferases.

    PubMed Central

    Martin, G.; Jenö, P.; Keller, W.

    1999-01-01

    We have identified regions in poly(A) polymerases that interact with ATP. Conditions were established for efficient cross-linking of recombinant bovine and yeast poly(A) polymerases to 8-azido-ATP. Mn2+ strongly stimulated this reaction due to a 50-fold lower Ki for 8-azido-ATP in the presence of Mn2+. Mutations of the highly conserved Asp residues 113, 115, and 167, critical for metal binding in the catalytic domain of bovine poly(A) polymerase, led to a strong reduction of cross-linking efficiency, and Mn2+ no longer stimulated the reaction. Sites of 8-azido-ATP cross-linking were mapped in different poly(A) polymerases by CNBr-cleavage and analysis of tryptic peptides by mass spectroscopy. The main cross-link in Schizosaccharomyces pombe poly(A) polymerase could be assigned to the peptide DLELSDNNLLK (amino acids 167-177). Database searches with sequences surrounding the cross-link site detected significant homologies to other nucleotidyltransferase families, suggesting a conservation of the nucleotide-binding fold among these families of enzymes. Mutations in the region of the "helical turn motif" (a domain binding the triphosphate moiety of the nucleotide) and in the suspected nucleotide-binding helix of bovine poly(A) polymerase impaired ATP binding and catalysis. The results indicate that ATP is bound in part by the helical turn motif and in part by a region that may be a structural analog to the fingers domain found in many polymerases. PMID:10595540

  1. Mapping of ATP binding regions in poly(A) polymerases by photoaffinity labeling and by mutational analysis identifies a domain conserved in many nucleotidyltransferases.

    PubMed

    Martin, G; Jenö, P; Keller, W

    1999-11-01

    We have identified regions in poly(A) polymerases that interact with ATP. Conditions were established for efficient cross-linking of recombinant bovine and yeast poly(A) polymerases to 8-azido-ATP. Mn2+ strongly stimulated this reaction due to a 50-fold lower Ki for 8-azido-ATP in the presence of Mn2+. Mutations of the highly conserved Asp residues 113, 115, and 167, critical for metal binding in the catalytic domain of bovine poly(A) polymerase, led to a strong reduction of cross-linking efficiency, and Mn2+ no longer stimulated the reaction. Sites of 8-azido-ATP cross-linking were mapped in different poly(A) polymerases by CNBr-cleavage and analysis of tryptic peptides by mass spectroscopy. The main cross-link in Schizosaccharomyces pombe poly(A) polymerase could be assigned to the peptide DLELSDNNLLK (amino acids 167-177). Database searches with sequences surrounding the cross-link site detected significant homologies to other nucleotidyltransferase families, suggesting a conservation of the nucleotide-binding fold among these families of enzymes. Mutations in the region of the "helical turn motif" (a domain binding the triphosphate moiety of the nucleotide) and in the suspected nucleotide-binding helix of bovine poly(A) polymerase impaired ATP binding and catalysis. The results indicate that ATP is bound in part by the helical turn motif and in part by a region that may be a structural analog to the fingers domain found in many polymerases. PMID:10595540

  2. Monoclonal Antibodies Recognize Gly-Leu-Phe-Gly Repeat of Nucleoporin Nup98 of Tetrahymena, Yeasts, and Humans

    PubMed Central

    Iwamoto, Masaaki; Asakawa, Haruhiko; Ohtsuki, Chizuru; Osakada, Hiroko; Koujin, Takako; Hiraoka, Yasushi

    2013-01-01

    Nucleoporin Nup98, an essential component of the nuclear pore complex, has multifunctional roles in nuclear functions including transcriptional regulation and nucleocytoplasmic transport. These functions mostly depend on a Gly-Leu-Phe-Gly (GLFG) sequence appearing repetitively in the N-terminal region of Nup98. As the GLFG sequence is well conserved among Nup98s from a wide variety of species including humans, yeasts, and ciliates such as Tetrahymena thermophila, a specific antibody that recognizes the GLFG sequence is expected to detect various Nup98s from a wide-range of species. To generate monoclonal antibodies specific to the GLFG repeat of Nup98, we used two synthetic polypeptides derived from the macronuclear Nup98 of T. thermophila as an antigen. We obtained two monoclonal antibodies (MAbs), 13C2 and 21A10, that recognize Nup98s in indirect immunofluorescence staining and Western blot analysis of T. thermophila. Peptide array analysis of these monoclonal antibodies located the position of their epitopes at or near GLFG residues: the epitope recognized by the 13C2 MAb is FGxxN (x being any amino acid), and the epitope recognized by the 21A10 MAb is GLF. As expected by their epitopes, these monoclonal antibodies also recognize Nup98 homologs expressed by human cells and the yeasts Schizosaccharomyces pombe and Saccharomyces cerevisiae, indicating that 13C2 and 21A10 MAbs recognize Nup98 epitopes common to phylogenetically distinct organisms. Thus, these MAbs are useful in studying a wide variety of biological phenomena that involve Nup98, ranging from ciliate nuclear dimorphism to NUP98-related human leukemia. PMID:23607342

  3. Monoclonal antibodies recognize gly-leu-phe-gly repeat of nucleoporin nup98 of tetrahymena, yeasts, and humans.

    PubMed

    Iwamoto, Masaaki; Asakawa, Haruhiko; Ohtsuki, Chizuru; Osakada, Hiroko; Koujin, Takako; Hiraoka, Yasushi; Haraguchi, Tokuko

    2013-04-01

    Nucleoporin Nup98, an essential component of the nuclear pore complex, has multifunctional roles in nuclear functions including transcriptional regulation and nucleocytoplasmic transport. These functions mostly depend on a Gly-Leu-Phe-Gly (GLFG) sequence appearing repetitively in the N-terminal region of Nup98. As the GLFG sequence is well conserved among Nup98s from a wide variety of species including humans, yeasts, and ciliates such as Tetrahymena thermophila, a specific antibody that recognizes the GLFG sequence is expected to detect various Nup98s from a wide-range of species. To generate monoclonal antibodies specific to the GLFG repeat of Nup98, we used two synthetic polypeptides derived from the macronuclear Nup98 of T. thermophila as an antigen. We obtained two monoclonal antibodies (MAbs), 13C2 and 21A10, that recognize Nup98s in indirect immunofluorescence staining and Western blot analysis of T. thermophila. Peptide array analysis of these monoclonal antibodies located the position of their epitopes at or near GLFG residues: the epitope recognized by the 13C2 MAb is FGxxN (x being any amino acid), and the epitope recognized by the 21A10 MAb is GLF. As expected by their epitopes, these monoclonal antibodies also recognize Nup98 homologs expressed by human cells and the yeasts Schizosaccharomyces pombe and Saccharomyces cerevisiae, indicating that 13C2 and 21A10 MAbs recognize Nup98 epitopes common to phylogenetically distinct organisms. Thus, these MAbs are useful in studying a wide variety of biological phenomena that involve Nup98, ranging from ciliate nuclear dimorphism to NUP98-related human leukemia. PMID:23607342

  4. Interactive effects of climate change with nutrients, mercury, and freshwater acidification on key taxa in the North Atlantic Landscape Conservation Cooperative region.

    PubMed

    Pinkney, Alfred E; Driscoll, Charles T; Evers, David C; Hooper, Michael J; Horan, Jeffrey; Jones, Jess W; Lazarus, Rebecca S; Marshall, Harold G; Milliken, Andrew; Rattner, Barnett A; Schmerfeld, John; Sparling, Donald W

    2015-07-01

    The North Atlantic Landscape Conservation Cooperative LCC (NA LCC) is a public-private partnership that provides information to support conservation decisions that may be affected by global climate change (GCC) and other threats. The NA LCC region extends from southeast Virginia to the Canadian Maritime Provinces. Within this region, the US National Climate Assessment documented increases in air temperature, total precipitation, frequency of heavy precipitation events, and rising sea level, and predicted more drastic changes. Here, we synthesize literature on the effects of GCC interacting with selected contaminant, nutrient, and environmental processes to adversely affect natural resources within this region. Using a case study approach, we focused on 3 stressors with sufficient NA LCC region-specific information for an informed discussion. We describe GCC interactions with a contaminant (Hg) and 2 complex environmental phenomena-freshwater acidification and eutrophication. We also prepared taxa case studies on GCC- and GCC-contaminant/nutrient/process effects on amphibians and freshwater mussels. Several avian species of high conservation concern have blood Hg concentrations that have been associated with reduced nesting success. Freshwater acidification has adversely affected terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems in the Adirondacks and other areas of the region that are slowly recovering due to decreased emissions of N and sulfur oxides. Eutrophication in many estuaries within the region is projected to increase from greater storm runoff and less denitrification in riparian wetlands. Estuarine hypoxia may be exacerbated by increased stratification. Elevated water temperature favors algal species that produce harmful algal blooms (HABs). In several of the region's estuaries, HABs have been associated with bird die-offs. In the NA LCC region, amphibian populations appear to be declining. Some species may be adversely affected by GCC through higher temperatures and more frequent droughts. GCC may affect freshwater mussel populations via altered stream temperatures and increased sediment loading during heavy storms. Freshwater mussels are sensitive to un-ionized ammonia that more toxic at higher temperatures. We recommend studying the interactive effects of GCC on generation and bioavailability of methylmercury and how GCC-driven shifts in bird species distributions will affect avian exposure to methylmercury. Research is needed on how decreases in acid deposition concurrent with GCC will alter the structure and function of sensitive watersheds and surface waters. Studies are needed to determine how GCC will affect HABs and avian disease, and how more severe and extensive hypoxia will affect fish and shellfish populations. Regarding amphibians, we suggest research on 1) thermal tolerance and moisture requirements of species of concern, 2) effects of multiple stressors (temperature, desiccation, contaminants, nutrients), and 3) approaches to mitigate impacts of increased temperature and seasonal drought. We recommend studies to assess which mussel species and populations are vulnerable and which are resilient to rising stream temperatures, hydrological shifts, and ionic pollutants, all of which are influenced by GCC. Integr Environ Assess Manag 2015;11:355-369. © 2015 SETAC. PMID:25556986

  5. Pub1p C-Terminal RRM Domain Interacts with Tif4631p through a Conserved Region Neighbouring the Pab1p Binding Site

    PubMed Central

    Rico-Lastres, Palma; Pérez-Cañadillas, José Manuel

    2011-01-01

    Pub1p, a highly abundant poly(A)+ mRNA binding protein in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, influences the stability and translational control of many cellular transcripts, particularly under some types of environmental stresses. We have studied the structure, RNA and protein recognition modes of different Pub1p constructs by NMR spectroscopy. The structure of the C-terminal RRM domain (RRM3) shows a non-canonical N-terminal helix that packs against the canonical RRM fold in an original fashion. This structural trait is conserved in Pub1p metazoan homologues, the TIA-1 family, defining a new class of RRM-type domains that we propose to name TRRM (TIA-1 C-terminal domain-like RRM). Pub1p TRRM and the N-terminal RRM1-RRM2 tandem bind RNA with high selectivity for U-rich sequences, with TRRM showing additional preference for UA-rich ones. RNA-mediated chemical shift changes map to ?-sheet and protein loops in the three RRMs. Additionally, NMR titration and biochemical in vitro cross-linking experiments determined that Pub1p TRRM interacts specifically with the N-terminal region (1–402) of yeast eIF4G1 (Tif4631p), very likely through the conserved Box1, a short sequence motif neighbouring the Pab1p binding site in Tif4631p. The interaction involves conserved residues of Pub1p TRRM, which define a protein interface that mirrors the Pab1p-Tif4631p binding mode. Neither protein nor RNA recognition involves the novel N-terminal helix, whose functional role remains unclear. By integrating these new results with the current knowledge about Pub1p, we proposed different mechanisms of Pub1p recruitment to the mRNPs and Pub1p-mediated mRNA stabilization in which the Pub1p/Tif4631p interaction would play an important role. PMID:21931728

  6. Biodiversity funds and conservation needs in the EU under climate change

    PubMed Central

    Lung, Tobias; Meller, Laura; van Teeffelen, Astrid J.A.; Thuiller, Wilfried; Cabeza, Mar

    2014-01-01

    Despite ambitious biodiversity policy goals, less than a fifth of the European Union’s (EU) legally protected species and habitats show a favorable conservation status. The recent EU biodiversity strategy recognizes that climate change adds to the challenge of halting biodiversity loss, and that an optimal distribution of financial resources is needed. Here, we analyze recent EU biodiversity funding from a climate change perspective. We compare the allocation of funds to the distribution of both current conservation priorities (within and beyond Natura 2000) and future conservation needs at the level of NUTS-2 regions, using modelled bird distributions as indicators of conservation value. We find that funding is reasonably well aligned with current conservation efforts but poorly fit with future needs under climate change, indicating obstacles for implementing adaptation measures. We suggest revising EU biodiversity funding instruments for the 2014-2020 budget period to better account for potential climate change impacts on biodiversity. PMID:25264456

  7. Hepatocyte permissiveness to Plasmodium infection is conveyed by a short and structurally conserved region of the CD81 large extracellular domain.

    PubMed

    Yalaoui, Samir; Zougbédé, Sergine; Charrin, Stéphanie; Silvie, Olivier; Arduise, Cécile; Farhati, Khemais; Boucheix, Claude; Mazier, Dominique; Rubinstein, Eric; Froissard, Patrick

    2008-02-01

    Invasion of hepatocytes by Plasmodium sporozoites is a prerequisite for establishment of a malaria infection, and thus represents an attractive target for anti-malarial interventions. Still, the molecular mechanisms underlying sporozoite invasion are largely unknown. We have previously reported that the tetraspanin CD81, a known receptor for the hepatitis C virus (HCV), is required on hepatocytes for infection by sporozoites of several Plasmodium species. Here we have characterized CD81 molecular determinants required for infection of hepatocytic cells by P. yoelii sporozoites. Using CD9/CD81 chimeras, we have identified in CD81 a 21 amino acid stretch located in a domain structurally conserved in the large extracellular loop of tetraspanins, which is sufficient in an otherwise CD9 background to confer susceptibility to P. yoelii infection. By site-directed mutagenesis, we have demonstrated the key role of a solvent-exposed region around residue D137 within this domain. A mAb that requires this region for optimal binding did not block infection, in contrast to other CD81 mAbs. This study has uncovered a new functionally important region of CD81, independent of HCV E2 envelope protein binding domain, and further suggests that CD81 may not interact directly with a parasite ligand during Plasmodium infection, but instead may regulate the function of a yet unknown partner protein. PMID:18389082

  8. Understanding the Distribution of Marine Megafauna in the English Channel Region: Identifying Key Habitats for Conservation within the Busiest Seaway on Earth

    PubMed Central

    McClellan, Catherine M.; Brereton, Tom; Dell'Amico, Florence; Johns, David G.; Cucknell, Anna-C.; Patrick, Samantha C.; Penrose, Rod; Ridoux, Vincent; Solandt, Jean-Luc; Stephan, Eric; Votier, Stephen C.; Williams, Ruth; Godley, Brendan J.

    2014-01-01

    The temperate waters of the North-Eastern Atlantic have a long history of maritime resource richness and, as a result, the European Union is endeavouring to maintain regional productivity and biodiversity. At the intersection of these aims lies potential conflict, signalling the need for integrated, cross-border management approaches. This paper focuses on the marine megafauna of the region. This guild of consumers was formerly abundant, but is now depleted and protected under various national and international legislative structures. We present a meta-analysis of available megafauna datasets using presence-only distribution models to characterise suitable habitat and identify spatially-important regions within the English Channel and southern bight of the North Sea. The integration of studies from dedicated and opportunistic observer programmes in the United Kingdom and France provide a valuable perspective on the spatial and seasonal distribution of various taxonomic groups, including large pelagic fishes and sharks, marine mammals, seabirds and marine turtles. The Western English Channel emerged as a hotspot of biodiversity for megafauna, while species richness was low in the Eastern English Channel. Spatial conservation planning is complicated by the highly mobile nature of marine megafauna, however they are important components of the marine environment and understanding their distribution is a first crucial step toward their inclusion into marine ecosystem management. PMID:24586985

  9. Hepatocyte Permissiveness to Plasmodium Infection Is Conveyed by a Short and Structurally Conserved Region of the CD81 Large Extracellular Domain

    PubMed Central

    Yalaoui, Samir; Zougbédé, Sergine; Charrin, Stéphanie; Silvie, Olivier; Arduise, Cécile; Farhati, Khemais; Boucheix, Claude; Mazier, Dominique

    2008-01-01

    Invasion of hepatocytes by Plasmodium sporozoites is a prerequisite for establishment of a malaria infection, and thus represents an attractive target for anti-malarial interventions. Still, the molecular mechanisms underlying sporozoite invasion are largely unknown. We have previously reported that the tetraspanin CD81, a known receptor for the hepatitis C virus (HCV), is required on hepatocytes for infection by sporozoites of several Plasmodium species. Here we have characterized CD81 molecular determinants required for infection of hepatocytic cells by P. yoelii sporozoites. Using CD9/CD81 chimeras, we have identified in CD81 a 21 amino acid stretch located in a domain structurally conserved in the large extracellular loop of tetraspanins, which is sufficient in an otherwise CD9 background to confer susceptibility to P. yoelii infection. By site-directed mutagenesis, we have demonstrated the key role of a solvent-exposed region around residue D137 within this domain. A mAb that requires this region for optimal binding did not block infection, in contrast to other CD81 mAbs. This study has uncovered a new functionally important region of CD81, independent of HCV E2 envelope protein binding domain, and further suggests that CD81 may not interact directly with a parasite ligand during Plasmodium infection, but instead may regulate the function of a yet unknown partner protein. PMID:18389082

  10. Dissemination of sul3-containing elements linked to class 1 integrons with an unusual 3' conserved sequence region among Salmonella isolates.

    PubMed

    Antunes, Patrícia; Machado, Jorge; Peixe, Luísa

    2007-04-01

    A sul3 domain (IS440-sul3-orf1-IS26) was found linked to an unusual 3' conserved sequence region (qacH) of class 1 integrons and detected among nontyphoid Salmonella isolates (n=47) from different sources. Three types of integrons differing in the gene cassette array (dfrA12-orfF-aadA2-cmlA1-aadA1, dfrA12-orfF-aadA2/1, and estX-psp-aadA2-cmlA1-aadA1) were found associated with this sul3 domain. They were associated with particular clones and specific high-molecular-weight plasmids. PMID:17283193

  11. Dissemination of sul3-Containing Elements Linked to Class 1 Integrons with an Unusual 3? Conserved Sequence Region among Salmonella Isolates?

    PubMed Central

    Antunes, Patrícia; Machado, Jorge; Peixe, Luísa

    2007-01-01

    A sul3 domain (IS440-sul3-orf1-IS26) was found linked to an unusual 3? conserved sequence region (qacH) of class 1 integrons and detected among nontyphoid Salmonella isolates (n = 47) from different sources. Three types of integrons differing in the gene cassette array (dfrA12-orfF-aadA2-cmlA1-aadA1, dfrA12-orfF-aadA2/1, and estX-psp-aadA2-cmlA1-aadA1) were found associated with this sul3 domain. They were associated with particular clones and specific high-molecular-weight plasmids. PMID:17283193

  12. The PxDLLCxE sequence in conserved region 2 of human papilloma virus 18 protein E7 is required for E7 binding to centromere protein C.

    PubMed

    Yaginuma, Yuji; Eguchi, Ayami; Yoshimoto, Masafumi; Ogawa, Katsuhiro

    2012-01-01

    High-risk human papillomaviruses (HPVs) are etiologically linked to human cervical and oral cancers. HPV infection leads to aneuploidy, a numerical chromosomal aberration caused by dysregulation of chromosomal segregation. We found that high-risk HPV18 and HPV58 E7 proteins bind to centromere protein C (CENP-C), a component of the kinetochore that is essential for proper chromosomal segregation. Low-risk HPV4, HPV6, and HPV11 E7s do not bind to CENP-C. The PxDLLCxE sequence in conserved region 2 (CR2) of HPV18 E7 is required for E7 binding to CENP-C. Our results indicate that differences in the ability of high- and low-risk HPV E7s to bind to CENP-C reflect the different oncogenic potentials of high- and low-risk type HPVs. PMID:22890155

  13. ROCC, a conserved region in cohesin's Mcd1 subunit, is essential for the proper regulation of the maintenance of cohesion and establishment of condensation

    PubMed Central

    Eng, Thomas; Guacci, Vincent; Koshland, Doug

    2014-01-01

    Cohesin helps orchestrate higher-order chromosome structure, thereby promoting sister chromatid cohesion, chromosome condensation, DNA repair, and transcriptional regulation. To elucidate how cohesin facilitates these diverse processes, we mutagenized Mcd1p, the kleisin regulatory subunit of budding yeast cohesin. In the linker region of Mcd1p, we identified a novel evolutionarily conserved 10–amino acid cluster, termed the regulation of cohesion and condensation (ROCC) box. We show that ROCC promotes cohesion maintenance by protecting a second activity of cohesin that is distinct from its stable binding to chromosomes. The existence of this second activity is incompatible with the simple embrace mechanism of cohesion. In addition, we show that the ROCC box is required for the establishment of condensation. We provide evidence that ROCC controls cohesion maintenance and condensation establishment through differential functional interactions with Pds5p and Wpl1p. PMID:24966169

  14. The conserved upstream region of lscB/C determines expression of different levansucrase genes in plant pathogen Pseudomonas syringae

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Pseudomonas syringae pv. glycinea PG4180 is an opportunistic plant pathogen which causes bacterial blight of soybean plants. It produces the exopolysaccharide levan by the enzyme levansucrase. Levansucrase has three gene copies in PG4180, two of which, lscB and lscC, are expressed while the third, lscA, is cryptic. Previously, nucleotide sequence alignments of lscB/C variants in various P. syringae showed that a ~450-bp phage-associated promoter element (PAPE) including the first 48 nucleotides of the ORF is absent in lscA. Results Herein, we tested whether this upstream region is responsible for the expression of lscB/C and lscA. Initially, the transcriptional start site for lscB/C was determined. A fusion of the PAPE with the ORF of lscA (lscB UpN A) was generated and introduced to a levan-negative mutant of PG4180. Additionally, fusions comprising of the non-coding part of the upstream region of lscB with lscA (lscB Up A) or the upstream region of lscA with lscB (lscA Up B) were generated. Transformants harboring the lscB UpN A or the lscB Up A fusion, respectively, showed levan formation while the transformant carrying lscA Up B did not. qRT-PCR and Western blot analyses showed that lscB UpN A had an expression similar to lscB while lscB Up A had a lower expression. Accuracy of protein fusions was confirmed by MALDI-TOF peptide fingerprinting. Conclusions Our data suggested that the upstream sequence of lscB is essential for expression of levansucrase while the N-terminus of LscB mediates an enhanced expression. In contrast, the upstream region of lscA does not lead to expression of lscB. We propose that lscA might be an ancestral levansucrase variant upstream of which the PAPE got inserted by potentially phage-mediated transposition events leading to expression of levansucrase in P. syringae. PMID:24670199

  15. RECOGNIZING HUMAN MOTION USING PARAMETERIZED MODELS OF OPTICAL FLOW

    E-print Network

    Black, Michael J.

    , teleoperations, an­ imation, and human­computer interaction to name a few. The study of human motion has a long if localized in space and time. Moreover, they showed that the motion of one body region (for ex­ ampleRECOGNIZING HUMAN MOTION USING PARAMETERIZED MODELS OF OPTICAL FLOW MICHAEL J. BLACK Xerox Palo

  16. 77 FR 15352 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Expanding Incentives for Voluntary Conservation...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-15

    ...Expanding Incentives for Voluntary Conservation Actions Under the Endangered Species...landowners and others to take voluntary conservation actions to benefit species that may...that the benefits of such voluntary conservation actions will be recognized as...

  17. Structurally defined epitopes of Haemophilus ducreyi lipooligosaccharides recognized by monoclonal antibodies.

    PubMed Central

    Ahmed, H J; Frisk, A; Månsson, J E; Schweda, E K; Lagergård, T

    1997-01-01

    By use of enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and immunoblotting techniques, the migration patterns and binding epitopes of lipooligosaccharides (LOS) from 10 Haemophilus ducreyi strains were investigated with two monoclonal antibodies (MAbs), MAHD6 and MAHD7, raised against LOS from H. ducreyi ITM 2665. Closely related LOS, with defined structures, from Haemophilus influenzae, Bordetella pertussis, Aeromonas spp., and synthetic glycoproteins were also included in the analyses. The MAbs bound to conserved epitopes of LOS exposed on the surface of H. ducreyi. The MAb MAHD6 reacted with 8 of the 10 LOS from H. ducreyi but with none of the other Haemophilus or Bordetella spp. with structurally defined LOS. It is suggested that MAb MAHD6 binds to a LOS epitope (-DD-Hepp-1-->6-beta-D-Glcp-). This LOS epitope is not present in the hexasaccharide structure of LOS from H. ducreyi ITM 4747 (E. K. H. Schweda, A. C. Sundström, L. M. Eriksson, J. A. Jonasson, and A. A. Lindberg, J. Biol. Chem. 269:12040-12048, 1994). Because MAb MAHD6 reacts with the epitope mentioned above, it also discriminates between the two LOS structures, the hexasaccharide group and the nonasaccharide group, of H. ducreyi strains. MAb MAHD7 recognizes the common conserved inner core region of the LOS because it reacts with all H. ducreyi strains and with LOS with minor components in the inner core epitope structure. Rabbit polyclonal sera raised against the LOS from strains CCUG 4438 and CCUG 7470 were tested with the 10 LOS from the H. ducreyi strains. The antiserum to CCUG 7470 reacted with all H. ducreyi strains as did MAb MAHD7, whereas the antiserum to CCUG 4438 reacted with only its homologous strain and strain ITM 4747. Also, the LOSs of our reference strains CCUG 4438 and CCUG 7470 were structurally analyzed by use of sugar analyses and electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry. The hexasaccharide and nonasaccharide structures obtained from LOS of strains CCUG 4438 and CCUG 7470 were identical to the described LOS structures from H. ducreyi ITM 4747 and ITM 2665, respectively. In conclusion, the MAb MAHD6 recognizes an epitope present in the nonasaccharide LOS group, whereas the MAb MAHD7 recognizes a conserved epitope on LOS of H. ducreyi, which is present in all strains of H. ducreyi tested. Two major groups of oligosaccharides were distinguished by their LOS structures and the reactivity of monoclonal as well as polyclonal antibodies. The majority of H. ducreyi strains possess a nonasaccharide structure of LOS. PMID:9234768

  18. CONSERVATION TILLAGE FOR IMPROVING DRYLAND CROP YIELDS

    Microsoft Academic Search

    PW UNGER

    2002-01-01

    Water conservation is essential for successful dryland crop production in semiarid regions. Improved water (also soil) conservation has been achieved in many cases by using conservation tillage, including no-tillage, which is the ultimate type of conservation tillage. The purpose of this article is to review and discuss the principles and practices of conservation tillage and the results of some studies

  19. Prioritizing global conservation efforts.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Kerrie A; McBride, Marissa F; Bode, Michael; Possingham, Hugh P

    2006-03-16

    One of the most pressing issues facing the global conservation community is how to distribute limited resources between regions identified as priorities for biodiversity conservation. Approaches such as biodiversity hotspots, endemic bird areas and ecoregions are used by international organizations to prioritize conservation efforts globally. Although identifying priority regions is an important first step in solving this problem, it does not indicate how limited resources should be allocated between regions. Here we formulate how to allocate optimally conservation resources between regions identified as priorities for conservation--the 'conservation resource allocation problem'. Stochastic dynamic programming is used to find the optimal schedule of resource allocation for small problems but is intractable for large problems owing to the "curse of dimensionality". We identify two easy-to-use and easy-to-interpret heuristics that closely approximate the optimal solution. We also show the importance of both correctly formulating the problem and using information on how investment returns change through time. Our conservation resource allocation approach can be applied at any spatial scale. We demonstrate the approach with an example of optimal resource allocation among five priority regions in Wallacea and Sundaland, the transition zone between Asia and Australasia. PMID:16541073

  20. Conserving Energy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ember, Lois R.

    1979-01-01

    A report on a recent Technology for Energy Conservation meeting. Topics of the meeting were the need for conservation measures, legistated economic incentives to encourage conservation, and the technology to accomplish this. (BB)

  1. The Structure of the Hantavirus Zinc Finger Domain is Conserved and Represents the Only Natively Folded Region of the Gn Cytoplasmic Tail

    PubMed Central

    Estrada, D. Fernando; Conner, Michael; Jeor, Stephen C.; Guzman, Roberto N. De

    2011-01-01

    Hantaviruses, of the family Bunyaviridae, are present throughout the world and cause a variety of infections ranging from the asymptomatic to mild and severe hemorrhagic fevers. Hantaviruses are enveloped anti-sense RNA viruses that contain three genomic segments that encode for a nucleocapsid protein, two membrane glycoproteins (Gn and Gc), and an RNA polymerase. Recently, the pathogenicity of hantaviruses has been mapped to the carboxyl end of the 150 residue Gn cytoplasmic tail. The Gn tail has also been shown to play a role in binding the ribonucleoprotein (RNP), a step critical for virus assembly. In this study, we use NMR spectroscopy to compare the structure of a Gn tail zinc finger domain of both a pathogenic (Andes) and a non-pathogenic (Prospect Hill) hantavirus. We demonstrate that despite a stark difference in the virulence of both of these viruses, the structure of the Gn core zinc finger domain is largely conserved in both strains. We also use NMR backbone relaxation studies to demonstrate that the regions of the Andes virus Gn tail immediately outside the zinc finger domain, sites known to bind the RNP, are disordered and flexible, thus intimating that the zinc finger domain is the only structured region of the Gn tail. These structural observations provide further insight into the role of the Gn tail during viral assembly as well as its role in pathogenesis. PMID:22203819

  2. The Conserved N-Terminal Region of the Mitotic Checkpoint Protein BUBR1: A Putative TPR Motif of High Surface Activity

    PubMed Central

    Bolanos-Garcia, V. M.; Beaufils, S.; Renault, A.; Grossmann, J. G.; Brewerton, S.; Lee, M.; Venkitaraman, A.; Blundell, T. L.

    2005-01-01

    BUBR1, a key component of the mitotic spindle checkpoint, is a multidomain protein kinase that is activated in response to kinetochore tension. Although BUB1 and BUBR1 play an important role in cell division, very little is known about their structural characteristics. We show that the conserved N-terminal region of BUBR1, comprising residues 1–204, is a globular domain of high ?-helical content (?60%), stable in the pH range 4–9 and probably organized as a tetratricopeptide motif repeat (TPR), most closely resembling residues 16–181 of protein phosphatase 5. Because the latter presents a continuous amphipathic groove and is regulated by binding certain fatty acids, we compared the properties of BUBR1(1–204) and TPR-PP5(16–181) at air/water interfaces and found that both proteins exhibited a similar surface activity and formed stable, rigid monolayers. The deletion of a region that probably comprises several ?-helices of BUBR1 indicates that long-range interactions are essential for the stability of the N-terminal domain. The presence of the putative TPR motif strongly suggests that the N-terminal domain of BUBR1 is involved in direct protein-protein interactions and/or protein-lipid interactions. PMID:16040755

  3. THE THREATENED AND THE IRREPLACEABLE: IDENTIFYING AREAS FOR THE CONSERVATION OF FAUNAL SPECIES DIVERSITY IN THE MIDDLE-ATLANTIC REGION OF THE UNITED STATES

    EPA Science Inventory

    One fundamental step in conservation planning involves determining where to concentrate efforts to protect conservation targets. Here we demonstrate an approach to prioritizing areas based on both species composition and potential threats facing the species. First, we determine...

  4. A Conservation Practices for Conserving

    E-print Network

    Kaye, Jason P.

    A Conservation Catalog Practices for Conserving Pennsylvania's Natural Resources #12;#12;A Conservation Catalog 1 Introduction P ennsylvania is a land of great natural resources and Pennsylvania. The Pennsylvania Conservation Catalog is a cooperative effort of the Pennsylvania Conservation Partnership which

  5. Delta-associated molluscan life and death assemblages in the northern Adriatic Sea: Implications for paleoecology, regional diversity and conservation

    PubMed Central

    Weber, Kristina; Zuschin, Martin

    2013-01-01

    Life–death (LD) studies of shelly macrofauna are important to evaluate how well a fossil assemblage can reflect the original living community, but can also serve as a proxy for recent ecological shifts in marine habitats and in practice this has to be distinguished using taphonomic preservation pattern and estimates of time-averaging. It remains to be rigorously evaluated, however, how to distinguish between sources of LD disagreement. In addition, death assemblages (DAs) also preserve important information on regional diversity which is not available from single censuses of the life assemblages (LAs). The northern Adriatic Sea is an ecosystem under anthropogenic pressure, and we studied the distribution and abundance of living and dead bivalve and gastropod species in the physically stressful environments (tidal flat and shallow sublittoral soft bottoms) associated with the delta of the Isonzo River (Gulf of Trieste). Specifically we evaluated the fidelity of richness, evenness, abundance, habitat discrimination and beta diversity. A total of 10,740 molluscs from fifteen tidal flat and fourteen sublittoral sites were analyzed for species composition and distribution of living and dead molluscs. Of 78 recorded species, only eleven were numerically abundant. There were many more dead than living individuals and rarefied species richness in the DA was higher at all spatial scales, but the differences are lower in habitats and in the region than at individual stations. Evenness was always higher in death assemblages, and probably due to temporally more variable LAs the differences are stronger in the sublittoral habitats. Distinct assemblages characterized intertidal and sublittoral habitats, and the distribution and abundance of empty shells generally corresponded to that of the living species. Death assemblages have lower beta diversity than life assemblages, but empty shells capture compositional differences between habitats to a higher degree than living shells. More samples would be necessary to account for the diversity of living molluscs in the study area, which is, however, well recorded in the death assemblages. There is no indication of a major environmental change over the last decades in this area, but due to the long history of anthropogenic pressure here, such a potential impact might be preserved in historical layers of the deeper sedimentary record. PMID:23407873

  6. Willingness To Pay For Systematic Management Of Community Forests For Conservation Of Non-Timber Forest Products In Nigeria’s Rainforest Region

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nnaemeka A. Chukwuone; Chukwuemeka E. Okorji

    Despite the importance of non-timber forest products (NTFP) in sustaining livelihood and poverty smoothening in rural communities,\\u000a they are highly depleted and poorly conserved. Besides, conservation initiatives in Nigeria to date are rarely participatory.\\u000a Even community forests, the main source of NTFP, are poorly conserved. Therefore, to enhance participatory conservation initiatives,\\u000a this study determines the willingness of households in forest

  7. Conserved residues within the putative S4-S5 region serve distinct functions among thermosensitive vanilloid transient receptor potential (TRPV) channels.

    PubMed

    Boukalova, Stepana; Marsakova, Lenka; Teisinger, Jan; Vlachova, Viktorie

    2010-12-31

    The vanilloid transient receptor potential channel TRPV1 is a tetrameric six-transmembrane segment (S1-S6) channel that can be synergistically activated by various proalgesic agents such as capsaicin, protons, heat, or highly depolarizing voltages, and also by 2-aminoethoxydiphenyl borate (2-APB), a common activator of the related thermally gated vanilloid TRP channels TRPV1, TRPV2, and TRPV3. In these channels, the conserved charged residues in the intracellular S4-S5 region have been proposed to constitute part of a voltage sensor that acts in concert with other stimuli to regulate channel activation. The molecular basis of this gating event is poorly understood. We mutated charged residues all along the S4 and the S4-S5 linker of TRPV1 and identified four potential voltage-sensing residues (Arg(557), Glu(570), Asp(576), and Arg(579)) that, when specifically mutated, altered the functionality of the channel with respect to voltage, capsaicin, heat, 2-APB, and/or their interactions in different ways. The nonfunctional charge-reversing mutations R557E and R579E were partially rescued by the charge-swapping mutations R557E/E570R and D576R/R579E, indicating that electrostatic interactions contribute to allosteric coupling between the voltage-, temperature- and capsaicin-dependent activation mechanisms. The mutant K571E was normal in all aspects of TRPV1 activation except for 2-APB, revealing the specific role of Lys(571) in chemical sensitivity. Surprisingly, substitutions at homologous residues in TRPV2 or TRPV3 had no effect on temperature- and 2-APB-induced activity. Thus, the charged residues in S4 and the S4-S5 linker contribute to voltage sensing in TRPV1 and, despite their highly conserved nature, regulate the temperature and chemical gating in the various TRPV channels in different ways. PMID:21044960

  8. Two families of Xenopus tropicalis skeletal genes display well-conserved expression patterns with mammals in spite of their highly divergent regulatory regions.

    PubMed

    Espinoza, Javier; Sanchez, Mario; Sanchez, Andrea; Hanna, Patricia; Torrejon, Marcela; Buisine, Nicolas; Sachs, Laurent; Marcellini, Sylvain

    2010-01-01

    The origin of bone and cartilage, and their subsequent diversification in specific vertebrate lineages, is intimately linked to the precise transcriptional control of genes involved in matrix mineralization. It is not yet clear, however, to which extent the osteoblasts, osteocytes, and chondrocytes of each of the major vertebrate groups express similar sets of genes. In this study we have focused on the evolution of two independent families of genes that code for extracellular matrix components of the skeleton and that include secreted protein, acidic, cysteine-rich (SPARC), bone sialoprotein (BSP) and dentin matrix protein 1 (DMP1) paralogues, and the osteocalcin (OC) and matrix gla protein (MGP) paralogues. Analyzing developing Xenopus tropicalis skeletal elements, we show that the expression patterns of these genes are well conserved with mammals. The fact that only a few osteoblasts express DMP1, while only some osteocytes express SPARC and BSP, reveals a significant degree of molecular heterogeneity for these two populations of X. tropicalis cells, similarly to what has been described in mouse. Although the cis-regulatory modules (CRM) of the mammalian OC, DMP1, and BSP orthologs have been functionally characterized, we found no evidence of sequence similarity between these regions and the X. tropicalis genome. Furthermore, these regulatory elements evolve rapidly, as they are only poorly conserved between human and rodents. Therefore, the SPARC/DMP1/BSP and the OC/MGP families provide a good paradigm to study how transcriptional output can be maintained in skeletal cells despite extensive sequence divergence of CRM. PMID:21040421

  9. Sensitive detection of Tomato ringspot virus by real-time TaqMan RT-PCR targeting the highly conserved 3'-UTR region.

    PubMed

    Tang, Joe; Khan, Subuhi; Delmiglio, Catia; Ward, Lisa I

    2014-06-01

    A real-time TaqMan RT-PCR assay was developed for the rapid and sensitive detection of Tomato ringspot virus (ToRSV), an important plant virus which infects a wide range of fruit and ornamental crops. Primers and a probe were designed based on the highly conserved 3'-untranslated region (UTR) sequences of ToRSV, to amplify a 182bp fragment of this region of RNA-1 and RNA-2. The assay was demonstrated to reliably amplify all ToRSV isolates tested. The detection limit was estimated to be about 12 copies of the ToRSV target region. No amplification was observed from the RNA of other nepoviruses or healthy host species. A comparison with a published conventional RT-PCR and a SYBR-based qRT-PCR indicated that both of the published assays lacked reliability and sensitivity, as neither were able to amplify all ToRSV isolates tested, and both were approximately 1000 times less sensitive than the novel TaqMan real-time assay. This TaqMan real-time assay was tested using four different reagent kits and was shown to be robust and stable, with no significant differences in sensitivity between kits. It is expected that the implementation of this TaqMan real-time RT-PCR assay will facilitate efficient phytosanitary certification of nursery stock requiring testing for ToRSV by regulatory agencies, and will also have wider uses for the general detection of ToRSV in a range of hosts. PMID:24566000

  10. Phospholipase C-gamma1 interacts with conserved phosphotyrosyl residues in the linker region of Syk and is a substrate for Syk.

    PubMed Central

    Law, C L; Chandran, K A; Sidorenko, S P; Clark, E A

    1996-01-01

    Antigen receptor ligation on lymphocytes activates protein tyrosine kinases and phospholipase C-gamma (PLC-gamma) isoforms. Glutathione S-transferase fusion proteins containing the C-terminal Src-homology 2 [SH2(C)] domain of PLC-gamma1 bound to tyrosyl phosphorylated Syk. Syk isolated from antigen receptor-activated B cells phosphorylated PLC-gamma1 on Tyr-771 and the key regulatory residue Tyr-783 in vitro, whereas Lyn from the same B cells phosphorylated PLC-gamma1 only on Tyr-771. The ability of Syk to phosphorylate PLC-gamma1 required antigen receptor ligation, while Lyn was constitutively active. An mCD8-Syk cDNA construct could be expressed as a tyrosyl-phosphorylated chimeric protein tyrosine kinase in COS cells, was recognized by PLC-gamma1 SH2(C) in vitro, and induced tyrosyl phosphorylation of endogenous PLC-gamma1 in vivo. Substitution of Tyr-525 and Tyr-526 at the autophosphorylation site of Syk in mCD8-Syk substantially reduced the kinase activity and the binding of this variant chimera to PLC-gamma1 SH2(C) in vitro; it also failed to induce tyrosyl phosphorylation of PLC-gamma1 in vivo. In contrast, substitution of Tyr-348 and Tyr-352 in the linker region of Syk in mCD8-Syk did not affect the kinase activity of this variant chimera but almost completely eliminated its binding to PLC-gamma1 SH(C) and completely eliminated its ability to induce tyrosyl phosphorylation of PLC-gamma1 in vivo. Thus, an optimal kinase activity of Syk and an interaction between the linker region of Syk with PLC-gamma1 are required for the tyrosyl phosphorylation of PLC-gamma1. PMID:8657103

  11. Invariant natural killer T cells recognize glycolipids from pathogenic Gram-positive bacteria.

    PubMed

    Kinjo, Yuki; Illarionov, Petr; Vela, José Luis; Pei, Bo; Girardi, Enrico; Li, Xiangming; Li, Yali; Imamura, Masakazu; Kaneko, Yukihiro; Okawara, Akiko; Miyazaki, Yoshitsugu; Gómez-Velasco, Anaximandro; Rogers, Paul; Dahesh, Samira; Uchiyama, Satoshi; Khurana, Archana; Kawahara, Kazuyoshi; Yesilkaya, Hasan; Andrew, Peter W; Wong, Chi-Huey; Kawakami, Kazuyoshi; Nizet, Victor; Besra, Gurdyal S; Tsuji, Moriya; Zajonc, Dirk M; Kronenberg, Mitchell

    2011-10-01

    Natural killer T cells (NKT cells) recognize glycolipid antigens presented by CD1d. These cells express an evolutionarily conserved, invariant T cell antigen receptor (TCR), but the forces that drive TCR conservation have remained uncertain. Here we show that NKT cells recognized diacylglycerol-containing glycolipids from Streptococcus pneumoniae, the leading cause of community-acquired pneumonia, and group B Streptococcus, which causes neonatal sepsis and meningitis. Furthermore, CD1d-dependent responses by NKT cells were required for activation and host protection. The glycolipid response was dependent on vaccenic acid, which is present in low concentrations in mammalian cells. Our results show how microbial lipids position the sugar for recognition by the invariant TCR and, most notably, extend the range of microbes recognized by this conserved TCR to several clinically important bacteria. PMID:21892173

  12. Newly Recognized Herpesvirus Causing Malignant Catarrhal Fever in White-Tailed Deer (Odocoileus virginianus)

    PubMed Central

    Li, Hong; Dyer, Neil; Keller, Janice; Crawford, Timothy B.

    2000-01-01

    Malignant catarrhal fever (MCF) was diagnosed by clinical signs and lesions in five out of six white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) in a North American zoo. The clinical signs and histopathological lesions in these deer were typical of MCF. Antibody to an epitope conserved among the MCF viruses was detected in the sera collected from the deer. PCR failed to amplify viral sequences from DNA extracted from peripheral blood leukocytes (PBL) and/or spleens of the deer with primers specific for ovine herpesvirus 2 (OHV-2) or specific for alcelaphine herpesvirus 1 (AHV-1). By using degenerate primers targeting a conserved region of a herpesviral DNA polymerase gene, a DNA fragment was amplified from the PBL or spleens of all six deer and sequenced. Alignment of the sequences demonstrated that the virus in the deer belongs to the Gammaherpesvirinae subfamily, exhibiting 82% identity to OHV-2, 71% to AHV-1, and 60% to a newly identified bovine lymphotropic herpesvirus. This virus, which causes classical MCF in white-tailed deer, is a newly recognized agent belonging to the MCF group of gammaherpesviruses. It is the third reported pathogenic MCF virus, genetically distinct but closely related to OHV-2 and AHV-1. The reservoir for the virus has not been identified. PMID:10747100

  13. Long peptides induce polyfunctional T cells against conserved regions of HIV-1 with superior breadth to single-gene vaccines in macaques.

    PubMed

    Rosario, Maximillian; Bridgeman, Anne; Quakkelaar, Esther D; Quigley, Maire F; Hill, Brenna J; Knudsen, Maria L; Ammendola, Virginia; Ljungberg, Karl; Borthwick, Nicola; Im, Eung-Jun; McMichael, Andrew J; Drijfhout, Jan W; Greenaway, Hui Yee; Venturi, Vanessa; Douek, Daniel C; Colloca, Stefano; Liljeström, Peter; Nicosia, Alfredo; Price, David A; Melief, Cornelis J M; Hanke, Tomás

    2010-07-01

    A novel T-cell vaccine strategy designed to deal with the enormity of HIV-1 variation is described and tested for the first time in macaques to inform and complement approaching clinical trials. T-cell immunogen HIVconsv, which directs vaccine-induced responses to the most conserved regions of the HIV-1, proteome and thus both targets diverse clades in the population and reduces the chance of escape in infected individuals, was delivered using six different vaccine modalities: plasmid DNA (D), attenuated human (A) and chimpanzee (C) adenoviruses, modified vaccinia virus Ankara (M), synthetic long peptides, and Semliki Forest virus replicons. We confirmed that the initial DDDAM regimen, which mimics one of the clinical schedules (DDDCM), is highly immunogenic in macaques. Furthermore, adjuvanted synthetic long peptides divided into sub-pools and delivered into anatomically separate sites induced T-cell responses that were markedly broader than those elicited by traditional single-open-reading-frame genetic vaccines and increased by 30% the overall response magnitude compared with DDDAM. Thus, by improving both the HIV-1-derived immunogen and vector regimen/delivery, this approach could induce stronger, broader, and theoretically more protective T-cell responses than vaccines previously used in humans. PMID:20468055

  14. Improved method for the routine identification of toxigenic Escherichia coli by DNA amplification of a conserved region of the heat-labile toxin A subunit.

    PubMed Central

    Victor, T; du Toit, R; van Zyl, J; Bester, A J; van Helden, P D

    1991-01-01

    This report describes a DNA amplification procedure for routine identification of heat-labile-toxin-producing Escherichia coli. Two oligonucleotide primers were used in a polymerase chain reaction procedure to amplify a highly conserved region of the A subunit of the heat-labile enterotoxin gene. Amplifications were done directly on E. coli colonies from plates when Salmonella, Shigella, or parasite infections were excluded as agents of the severe diarrhea in the patients. The conditions for the polymerase chain reaction method were empirically determined, and the procedure is inexpensive, sensitive, and specific. Positive results can be obtained over a wide variation in bacterial numbers, with no inhibition of Thermus aquaticus DNA polymerase. Detection of the amplified product can be done by agarose gel electrophoresis, which is specific and sensitive enough for routine diagnosis of this pathogen in clinical isolates. If greater sensitivity and specificity are required, hybridization with 32P- or alkaline phosphatase-labeled oligonucleotide probes can be used. Our results suggest that heat-labile-toxin-producing E. coli is responsible for about 9% of nondiagnosed diarrhea cases in Tygerberg Hospital, Tygerberg, Republic of South Africa. Images PMID:1993750

  15. Residues in three conserved regions of the small subunit of ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase are required for quaternary structure

    SciTech Connect

    Fitchen, J.H.; McIntosh, L. (Michigan State Univ., East Lansing (USA)); Knight, S.; Andersson, I.; Branden, C.I. (Uppsala Biomedical Center (Sweden))

    1990-08-01

    To explore the role of individual residues in the small subunit of ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase, small subunits with single amino acid substitutions in three regions of relative sequence conservation were produced by directed mutagenesis of the rbcS gene from Anabaena 7120. These altered small subunits were cosythesized with large subunits (from an expressed Anabaena rbcL gene) in Escherichia coli. Mutants were analyzed for effects on quaternary structure and catalytic activity. Changing Glu-13S (numbering used is that of the spinach enzyme) to Val, Trp-67S to Arg, Pro-73S to His, or Tyr-98S to Asn prevented accumulation of stable holoenzyme. Interpretation of these results using a model for the three-dimensional structure of the spinach enzyme based on x-ray crystallographic data suggests that our small subunit mutants containing substitutions at positions 13S and 67S probably do not assemble because of mispairing or nonpairing of charged residues on the interfacing surfaces of the large and small subunits. The failure of small subunits substituted at positions 73S or 98S to assemble correctly may result from disruption of intersubunit or intrasubunit hydrophobic pockets, respectively.

  16. Recognizing Multiple Billboard Advertisements in Videos

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Naoyuki Ichimura

    2006-01-01

    The sponsors for events such as motor sports can install bill- board advertisements at event sites in return for investments. Checking how ads appear in a broadcast is important to confirm the effectiveness of investments and recognizing ads in videos is required to make the check automatic. This paper presents a method for recognizing multi- ple ads. After obtaining point

  17. Teaching Students to Recognize Irony

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Milner, Joseph O.; Hawkins, Robin H.; Milner, Lucy M.

    2014-01-01

    This article exposes the problem of using declarative rather than procedural knowledge to help K--12 students recognize irony in stories. It offers commonplace procedures drawn from students' everyday language experience together with more abstract irony clues to help students recognize irony in stories and increase their story comprehension.…

  18. Higher-Order Neural Networks Recognize Patterns

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reid, Max B.; Spirkovska, Lilly; Ochoa, Ellen

    1996-01-01

    Networks of higher order have enhanced capabilities to distinguish between different two-dimensional patterns and to recognize those patterns. Also enhanced capabilities to "learn" patterns to be recognized: "trained" with far fewer examples and, therefore, in less time than necessary to train comparable first-order neural networks.

  19. Conservation strategy: Making it conserve

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Frank Fisher

    1984-01-01

    Australian governments are currently developing conservation strategy. This paper seeks to raise critical awareness to the process. It suggests: 1. even the most diligent efforts (Victorian Government) treat conservation as a mechanical problem2. for conservation strategy to conserve it must recognise that our ways of life require fundamental change3. we might begin by using General Systems Theory to promote a

  20. Covariant Conservation Laws in General Relativity

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Arthur Komar

    1959-01-01

    A set of covariant conservation laws is constructed in the general theory of relativity. Their relationship to the generators of infinitesimal coordinate transformations is indicated. In a given coordinate system certain of these quantities may be naturally identified as energy and momentum. We can continue to recognize these conserved quantities in all coordinate systems due to the covariant character of

  1. Identification of conserved regulatory elements in upstream promoter regions of mammals at relaxed thresholds by comparative genomics - a case study using PEPCK

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Background Comparative genomics is the primary method to discover regulatory elements by identifying conserved sequences due to evolutionary constraints by cross-species genome comparison. Except for the most conserved and prominent transcription factor binding sites (TFBS), there is a general lack ...

  2. Identification of autoantigens recognized by the 2F5 and 4E10 broadly neutralizing HIV-1 antibodies

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Guang; Holl, T. Matt; Liu, Yang; Li, Yi; Lu, Xiaozhi; Nicely, Nathan I.; Kepler, Thomas B.; Alam, S. Munir; Liao, Hua-Xin; Cain, Derek W.; Spicer, Leonard; VandeBerg, John L.; Haynes, Barton F.

    2013-01-01

    Many human monoclonal antibodies that neutralize multiple clades of HIV-1 are polyreactive and bind avidly to mammalian autoantigens. Indeed, the generation of neutralizing antibodies to the 2F5 and 4E10 epitopes of HIV-1 gp41 in man may be proscribed by immune tolerance because mice expressing the VH and VL regions of 2F5 have a block in B cell development that is characteristic of central tolerance. This developmental blockade implies the presence of tolerizing autoantigens that are mimicked by the membrane-proximal external region of HIV-1 gp41. We identify human kynureninase (KYNU) and splicing factor 3b subunit 3 (SF3B3) as the primary conserved, vertebrate self-antigens recognized by the 2F5 and 4E10 antibodies, respectively. 2F5 binds the H4 domain of KYNU which contains the complete 2F5 linear epitope (ELDKWA). 4E10 recognizes an epitope of SF3B3 that is strongly dependent on hydrophobic interactions. Opossums carry a rare KYNU H4 domain that abolishes 2F5 binding, but they retain the SF3B3 4E10 epitope. Immunization of opossums with HIV-1 gp140 induced extraordinary titers of serum antibody to the 2F5 ELDKWA epitope but little or nothing to the 4E10 determinant. Identification of structural motifs shared by vertebrates and HIV-1 provides direct evidence that immunological tolerance can impair humoral responses to HIV-1. PMID:23359068

  3. Conservation of wading birds

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kushlan, J.A.

    1996-01-01

    The conservation and management of wading birds has received considerable attention over the past twenty years, through research, population monitoring, habitat protection, and through activities of specialist groups devoted to all three groups, the herons, ibises and allies, and flamingos. While populations are best known in North America, greatest advances in knowledge may have come in Australasia. The status of most species and many populations is now sufficiently known to allow assessment of risk. Conservation and management techniques allow creation of global and regional action plans for conservation of many species. Global action plans are being developed, but few regional plans have been undertaken. Management of nesting sites is now particularly well appreciated. Although known in broad stroke, much remains to be learned about managing feeding habitat. Problems related to disturbance, conflict with humans, habitat loss, contaminants and other environmental stresses remain for some species and many populations. New challenges lie in creating conservation action that account for genetic stocks.

  4. Conservative logic

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Edward Fredkin; Tommaso Toffoli

    1982-01-01

    Conservative logic is a comprehensive model of computation which explicitly reflects a number of fundamental principles of physics, such as the reversibility of the dynamical laws and the conservation of certainadditive quantities (among which energy plays a distinguished role). Because it more closely mirrors physics than traditional models of computation, conservative logic is in a better position to provide indications

  5. PipelinePipelineMay 2010 Volume 2, Issue 4 Everyone appreciates being recognized

    E-print Network

    Webb, Peter

    conservation program's expansion to include recycling. Items were donated to environmentally responsible,000 pounds of recycling on first day The U's recycling program collected 6,190 pounds of used books, 5 recognized me immediately, but It All Adds Up Recycling Launched on Beautiful U Day Collects more than 10

  6. Broadly neutralizing human antibody that recognizes the receptor-binding pocket of influenza

    E-print Network

    Harrison, Stephen C.

    Broadly neutralizing human antibody that recognizes the receptor-binding pocket of influenza virus conserved and variable epitopes, but neutralizing antibodies against the latter dominate the response antibodies with limited cross-neutralization of drifted strains. We describe a human mono- clonal antibody

  7. Broadly neutralizing human antibody that recognizes the receptor-binding pocket of in uenza

    E-print Network

    Harrison, Stephen C.

    Broadly neutralizing human antibody that recognizes the receptor-binding pocket of in uenza virus conserved and variable epitopes, but neutralizing antibodies against the latter dominate the response antibodies with limited cross-neutralization of drifted strains. We describe a human mono- clonal antibody

  8. Global versus Local Conservation Focus of U.S. State Agency Endangered Bird Species Lists

    PubMed Central

    Wells, Jeffrey V.; Robertson, Bruce; Rosenberg, Kenneth V.; Mehlman, David W.

    2010-01-01

    The development of species priorities for conservation at local or regional scales (for example, within a state or province) poses an interesting paradox. One the one hand, locally or regionally-derived species priorities may lead to greater interest in and resources directed to biodiversity conservation by local or regional institutions. On the other hand, locally or regionally-derived species priorities could overlook national or global priorities. We assessed U.S. state government agency endangered-threatened bird lists to determine the comparative representation of species of global versus local conservation significance on them. State lists tended to be represented primarily by species of low global risk-low global responsibility (range: 15–100%; mean 51%) and high global risk-high global responsibility (range: 0–73%; mean 35%). In 25 states, more than half of the species on the state lists were in the low global risk-low global responsibility category. Most U.S. state agency lists represent a combined strategy of highlighting species of both local and global conservation significance. Even with this combined local-global strategy, most state lists were predominated by species that represent local but not global conservation significance. Such a strategy could have profound negative consequences for many species that are not formally recognized under national endangered species protections but that are also left off of state-level endangered species lists. PMID:20062538

  9. Islamic Headdress Influences How Emotion is Recognized from the Eyes

    PubMed Central

    Kret, Mariska Esther; de Gelder, Beatrice

    2012-01-01

    Previous research has shown a negative bias in the perception of whole facial expressions from out-group members. Whether or not emotion recognition from the eyes is already sensitive to contextual information is presently a matter of debate. In three experiments we tested whether emotions can be recognized when just the eyes are visible and whether this recognition is affected by context cues, such as various Islamic headdresses vs. a cap or a scarf. Our results indicate that fear is still well recognized from a briefly flashed (100?ms) image of a women wearing a burqa with less than 20% transparency of the eye region. Moreover, the type of headdress influences how emotions are recognized. In a group of participants from non-Islamic background, fear was recognized better from women wearing a niq?b than from women wearing a cap and a shawl, whereas the opposite was observed for happy and sad expressions. The response patterns showed that fearful and anger labels were more often attributed to women with a niq?b vs. a cap and a shawl and again, an opposite pattern was observed for the happy response. However, there was no general response bias: both correct and incorrect responses were influenced by the facial expression as well. Anxiety levels and/or explicit negative associations with the Islam as measured via questionnaires did not mediate the effects. Consistent with the face literature, we conclude that the recognition of emotions from the eyes is also influenced by context. PMID:22557983

  10. Pollution prevention efforts recognized April 17, 2012

    E-print Network

    is great for our environment. At the same time, it helps us because conserving resources and cutting down erosion from minimizing soil disturbance, and used the expertise of trained wildland firefighters during Program, which honors DOE sites that make purchases that help save energy, conserve water, and reduce

  11. Highly Conserved Protective Epitopes on Influenza B Viruses

    PubMed Central

    Dreyfus, Cyrille; Laursen, Nick S.; Kwaks, Ted; Zuijdgeest, David; Khayat, Reza; Ekiert, Damian C.; Lee, Jeong Hyun; Metlagel, Zoltan; Bujny, Miriam V.; Jongeneelen, Mandy; van der Vlugt, Remko; Lamrani, Mohammed; Korse, Hans J.W.M.; Geelen, Eric; Sahin, Özcan; Sieuwerts, Martijn; Brakenhoff, Just P.J.; Vogels, Ronald; Li, Olive T.W.; Poon, Leo L. M.; Peiris, Malik; Koudstaal, Wouter; Ward, Andrew B.; Wilson, Ian A.; Goudsmit, Jaap; Friesen, Robert H.E.

    2012-01-01

    Identification of broadly neutralizing antibodies against influenza A viruses has raised hopes for the development of monoclonal antibody-based immunotherapy and ‘universal’ vaccines for influenza. However, a significant part of the annual flu burden is caused by two cocirculating, antigenically distinct lineages of influenza B viruses. Here we report human monoclonal antibodies, CR8033, CR8071 and CR9114, which protect mice against lethal challenge from both lineages. Antibodies CR8033 and CR8071 recognize distinct conserved epitopes in the head region of the influenza B hemagglutinin (HA), whereas CR9114 binds a conserved epitope in the HA stem and protects against lethal challenge with influenza A and B viruses. These antibodies may inform on development of monoclonal antibody-based treatments and a universal flu vaccine for all influenza A and B viruses. PMID:22878502

  12. Synthetic long peptide booster immunization in rhesus macaques primed with replication-competent NYVAC-C-KC induces a balanced CD4/CD8 T-cell and antibody response against the conserved regions of HIV-1

    E-print Network

    Mooij, Petra; Koopman, Gerrit; Drijfhout, Jan Wouter; Nieuwenhuis, Ivonne G.; Beenhakker, Niels; Koestler, Josef; Bogers, Willy M.J.M.; Wagner, Ralf; Esteban, Mariano; Pantaleo, Giuseppe; Heeney, Jonathan L.; Jacobs, Bertram L.; Melief, Cornelis J.M.

    2015-02-09

    Journal of General Virology Synthetic long peptide booster immunization in rhesus macaques primed with replication competent NYVAC-C-KC induces a balanced CD4/CD8 T-cell and antibody response against the conserved regions of HIV-1 --Manuscript... . Jacobs h , Cornelis 8 J.M. Melief b,i 9 10 a Department ?of ?Virology, ?Biomedical ?Primate ?Research ?Centre, ?Lange ?Kleiweg ?161, ?11 2288 ?GJ ?Rijswijk, ?The ?Netherlands; ? b Department ?of ? Immunohematology ? and ?Blood ?12 Transfusion...

  13. Design Alternatives for Evaluating the Impact of Conservation Projects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Margoluis, Richard; Stem, Caroline; Salafsky, Nick; Brown, Marcia

    2009-01-01

    Historically, examples of project evaluation in conservation were rare. In recent years, however, conservation professionals have begun to recognize the importance of evaluation both for accountability and for improving project interventions. Even with this growing interest in evaluation, the conservation community has paid little attention to…

  14. Federally-Recognized Tribes of the Columbia-Snake Basin.

    SciTech Connect

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration

    1997-11-01

    This is an omnibus publication about the federally-recognized Indian tribes of the Columbia-Snake river basin, as presented by themselves. It showcases several figurative and literal snapshots of each tribe, bits and pieces of each tribe`s story. Each individual tribe or tribal confederation either submitted its own section to this publication, or developed its own section with the assistance of the writer-editor. A federally-recognized tribe is an individual Indian group, or confederation of Indian groups, officially acknowledged by the US government for purposes of legislation, consultation and benefits. This publication is designed to be used both as a resource and as an introduction to the tribes. Taken together, the sections present a rich picture of regional indian culture and history, as told by the tribes.

  15. Conservation businesses and conservation planning in a biological diversity hotspot.

    PubMed

    Di Minin, Enrico; Macmillan, Douglas Craig; Goodman, Peter Styan; Escott, Boyd; Slotow, Rob; Moilanen, Atte

    2013-08-01

    The allocation of land to biological diversity conservation competes with other land uses and the needs of society for development, food, and extraction of natural resources. Trade-offs between biological diversity conservation and alternative land uses are unavoidable, given the realities of limited conservation resources and the competing demands of society. We developed a conservation-planning assessment for the South African province of KwaZulu-Natal, which forms the central component of the Maputaland-Pondoland-Albany biological diversity hotspot. Our objective was to enhance biological diversity protection while promoting sustainable development and providing spatial guidance in the resolution of potential policy conflicts over priority areas for conservation at risk of transformation. The conservation-planning assessment combined spatial-distribution models for 646 conservation features, spatial economic-return models for 28 alternative land uses, and spatial maps for 4 threats. Nature-based tourism businesses were competitive with other land uses and could provide revenues of >US$60 million/year to local stakeholders and simultaneously help meeting conservation goals for almost half the conservation features in the planning region. Accounting for opportunity costs substantially decreased conflicts between biological diversity, agricultural use, commercial forestry, and mining. Accounting for economic benefits arising from conservation and reducing potential policy conflicts with alternative plans for development can provide opportunities for successful strategies that combine conservation and sustainable development and facilitate conservation action. PMID:23565917

  16. C. elegans RNA-binding protein GLD-1 recognizes its multiple targets using sequence, context, and structural information to repress translation

    PubMed Central

    Doh, Jung H; Jung, Yuchae; Reinke, Valerie; Lee, Min-Ho

    2013-01-01

    Caenorhabditis elegans GLD-1, a maxi-KH motif containing RNA-binding protein, has various functions mainly during female germ cell development, suggesting that it likely controls the expression of a selective group of maternal mRNAs. To gain an insight into how GLD-1 specifically recognizes these mRNA targets, we identified 38 biochemically proven GLD-1 binding regions from multiple mRNA targets that are among over 100 putative targets co-immunoprecipitated with GLD-1. The sequence information of these regions revealed three over-represented and phylogenetically conserved sequence motifs. We found that two of the motifs, one of which is novel, are important for GLD-1 binding in several GLD-1 binding regions but not in other regions. Further analyses indicate that the importance of one of the sequence motifs is dependent on two aspects: (1) surrounding sequence information, likely acting as an accessory feature for GLD-1 to efficiently select the sequence motif and (2) RNA secondary structural environment where the sequence motif resides, which likely provides “binding-site accessibility” for GLD-1 to effectively recognize its targets. Our data suggest some mRNAs recruit GLD-1 by a distinct mechanism, which involves more than one sequence motif that needs to be embedded in the correct context and structural environment. PMID:24744981

  17. Conservation Biology Institute

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    The Conservation Biology Institute (CBI), a non-profit organization founded in 1997, is active in three primary areas related to conservation biology - applied research, education, and professional services. Through its research - alone or in collaboration with others - CBI actively seeks to develop new conservation tools, techniques, and analyses that can be used to better address a wide range of ecological concerns from endangered species protection to regional conservation planning. Based on a combination of field-based biology and computer mapping technologies (i.e., remote sensing and geographic information systems), CBIs primary research areas include: forest, aquatic, and watershed assessments, local and regional conservation planning, endangered species research and management, ecosystem monitoring, and carnivore conservation. Their formal education program, still in development, currently consists of five basic subdivisions (or program areas) including internships/ fellowships, education materials, college courses, short courses, and workshops/guest lectures. CBIs professional services are conducted alone or in collaboration with outside organizations and include: biological surveys and consulting, geographical information system (GIS) mapping services, as well as scientific reviews and white papers.

  18. Conservation Online

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Started as a germ of an idea back in 1987 (on a real, live bulletin board, as opposed to an electronic one), Conservation Online (CoOL) has been providing online resources for conservation professionals since 1993. As its website announces, it is a "full text library of conservation information," covering a wide array of topics ranging from digital imaging to reprographics, and quite a bit of material in between. By clicking on any given topic, visitors will receive a brief overview of the subject, its terminology, and then a list of general online resources for consideration. Another nice feature of the site is the mailing list archive, which contain the archives of various queries submitted to different professional conservation groups, such as the Association of Moving Image Archivists, the Textiles Conservation Discussion List, and the Conservation Framer's Mailing List. The site is rounded out by a timeline that traces the CoOL's history from the summer of 1987 to July 2003.

  19. Children's ability to recognize other children's faces.

    PubMed

    Feinman, S; Entwisle, D R

    1976-06-01

    Facial recognition ability was studied with 288 children from 4 grades--first, second, third, and sixth--who also varied by sex race, and school type, the last being segregated or integrated. Children judged whether each of 40 pictures of children's faces had been present in a set of 20 pictures viewed earlier. Facial recognition ability increased significantly with each grade but leveled off between ages 8 and 11. Blacks' performance is significantly better than whites', and blacks are better at recognizing faces of whites than whites are at recognizing blacks. Children from an integrated school show smaller differences recognizing black or white faces than children from segregated schools, but the effect appears only for children of the integrated school who also live in mixed-race neighborhoods. PMID:1269316

  20. Probing the evolutionary conserved regions within functional site of drug-resistant target proteins of Staphylococcus aureus: In silico phylogenetic motif profiling approach.

    PubMed

    Kahlon, Amandeep Kaur; Darokar, Mahendra P; Sharma, Ashok

    2012-12-01

    Staphylococcus aureus is one of the major causes of clinical infections and increasing mortality due to multi-drug resistance. In this study, eight drug-resistant genes, beta-lactamase, metallo-beta-lactamase, vanB, mecA, norA, qacA, qacB and qacC of S. aureus strain Mu50 (vancomycin resistant) were studied to predict the evolutionary conserved functional site residues in their protein sequences. It was found that in beta-lactamase, Tyr, Gly, Thr, Asn and in metallo-beta-lactamase, Thr, His, Gly, Leu, Arg and Asp residues were highly conserved. In vanB, Gly, His and Asp residues were highly conserved. Whereas in mecA, His, Val, Phe, Gln, Lys and in norA, Ser, Leu and Ala residues showed conservedness at moderate level. In the multi-drug efflux pump (corresponding to qacA, qacB and qacC), Gly residue was found to be highly conserved. The homology clustering of target proteins through SCI-PHY algorithm and homologues identified through PSI-BLAST were compared to identify the degree of conservation of functional residues. The phylogenetic motifs identified using homologues of target proteins were validated through domain search to locate their site and functionality in the protein sequences. Interactome analysis was performed to understand the possible mode of interaction of target proteins with their functional partners. PMID:23350279

  1. 50 CFR 622.179 - Conservation measures for protected resources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Conservation measures for protected resources... Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC...South Atlantic Region § 622.179 Conservation measures for protected...

  2. 50 CFR 665.208 - Protected species conservation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...2014-10-01 false Protected species conservation. 665.208 Section 665...Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC...665.208 Protected species conservation. The Regional...

  3. 50 CFR 665.208 - Protected species conservation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...2010-10-01 false Protected species conservation. 665.208 Section 665...Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC...665.208 Protected species conservation. The Regional...

  4. 50 CFR 622.179 - Conservation measures for protected resources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Conservation measures for protected resources... Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC...South Atlantic Region § 622.179 Conservation measures for protected...

  5. 50 CFR 665.208 - Protected species conservation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...2013-10-01 false Protected species conservation. 665.208 Section 665...Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC...665.208 Protected species conservation. The Regional...

  6. Great Apes' Capacities to Recognize Relational Similarity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haun, Daniel B. M.; Call, Josep

    2009-01-01

    Recognizing relational similarity relies on the ability to understand that defining object properties might not lie in the objects individually, but in the relations of the properties of various object to each other. This aptitude is highly relevant for many important human skills such as language, reasoning, categorization and understanding…

  7. Simon 1.0 Pattern Recognizer

    E-print Network

    Petta, Jason

    Simon 1.0 ­ Pattern Recognizer Synthetic Biology 1.0 Princeton University Jiwon Lee, Aditi -plasmids · Simon 1.0 -Objective -Rules of the game -Black box Design -Fundamental Design -The JAS toggle way to introduce genes to the cell, and are much more easy to manipulate then the chromosome #12;Simon

  8. Microsoft Windows highly intelligent speech recognizer: Whisper

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Xuedong Huang; Alex Acero; Fil Alleva; Mei-Yuh Hwang; Li Jiang; Milind Mahajan

    1995-01-01

    Since January 1993, the authors have been working to refine and extend Sphinx-II technologies in order to develop practical speech recognition at Microsoft. The result of that work has been the Whisper (Windows Highly Intelligent Speech Recognizer). Whisper represents significantly improved recognition efficiency, usability, and accuracy, when compared with the Sphinx-II system. In addition Whisper offers speech input capabilities for

  9. HOW TO RECOGNIZE AND USE CALENDAR DATES

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A frequent concern of beginning SAS programmers is how to make a SAS program recognize calendar dates in various formats. For example, Sept., SEP, 9, 09, /9, /09, and even $9 are all valid representations for the month of September. Although a program may currently read a date correctly, a new chall...

  10. How Should a Speech Recognizer Work?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scharenborg, Odette; Norris, Dennis; ten Bosch, Louis; McQueen, James M.

    2005-01-01

    Although researchers studying human speech recognition (HSR) and automatic speech recognition (ASR) share a common interest in how information processing systems (human or machine) recognize spoken language, there is little communication between the two disciplines. We suggest that this lack of communication follows largely from the fact that…

  11. Learning to Recognize Volcanoes on Venus

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michael C. Burl; Lars Asker; Padhraic Smyth; Usama M. Fayyad; Pietro Perona; Larry Crumpler; Jayne Aubele

    1998-01-01

    .Dramatic improvements in sensor and image acquisition technology have createda demand for automated tools that can aid in the analysis of large image databases.We describe the development of JARtool, a trainable software system that learnsto recognize volcanoes in a large data set of Venusian imagery. A machine learningapproach is used because it is much easier for geologists to identify examples

  12. FRATERNITY AND SORORITY SYSTEM UNIVERSITY RECOGNIZED CHAPTERS

    E-print Network

    Massachusetts at Amherst, University of

    Union Building Phi Beta Sigma(=) c/o 314 Student Union Building Alpha Epsilon Pi (#) c/o 314 SunsetFRATERNITY AND SORORITY SYSTEM UNIVERSITY RECOGNIZED CHAPTERS Alpha Chi Omega (*) c/o 314 Student Union Building Omega Psi Phi (=) c/o 314 Student Union Building Alpha Delta Phi (#) c/o 314 Student

  13. Recognizing Action Units for Facial Expression Analysis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ying-li Tian; Takeo Kanade; Jeffrey F. Cohn

    2001-01-01

    Most automatic expression analysis systems attempt to recognize a small set of prototypic expressions, such as happiness, anger, surprise, and fear. Such pro- totypic expressions, however, occur rather infrequently. Human emotions and intentions are more often communicated by changes in one or a few discrete facial features. In this paper, we develop an Automatic Face Analysis (AFA) system to analyze

  14. Recognizing Suicide Lethality Factors: Who Is Competent?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steward, Robbie J.; Austin, Kevin P.

    Suicide and the threat of suicide are important mental health issues for health service providers. Who a potential victim turns to for help initially and how capable that person is in recognizing the signs of potential suicide are critical issues not fully addressed by research. A study was conducted to examine the ability of various service…

  15. Energy Conservation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Canadian Education Association, Toronto (Ontario).

    A questionnaire distributed in March 1977 to 71 Canadian school systems sought information on any energy conservation programs that the school boards might have undertaken. Based on the 43 replies received, a 60 percent response rate, the findings are reported and some suggestions are offered. The first section on energy conservation at the board…

  16. Energy Conservation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    ERIC Clearinghouse on Educational Management, Eugene, OR.

    This chapter of "The Best of the Best of ERIC" contains 14 annotations of documents and journal articles on energy conservation, all of which are indexed in the ERIC system. Materials on teaching energy conservation to students, the energy crisis and its impact on school finances, building heating and cooling, and other topics are annotated. (DS)

  17. Conservation in Conflict

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Wildlife Conservation Society

    What happens when war occurs in areas where there is war? Ecologist Peter Zahler who has worked in Afghanistan since 2002, talks about how conserving biodiversity may bring peace to the war-torn region. You can read more about Zahler's work in the article Nurturing Wildlife in War-Torn Afghanistan that appeared in the New Yorker Times in December, 2011.

  18. Analysis of Potato virus Y Coat Protein Epitopes Recognized by Three Commercial Monoclonal Antibodies

    PubMed Central

    Lankinen, Hilkka; Valkonen, Jari P. T.

    2014-01-01

    Background Potato virus Y (PVY, genus Potyvirus) causes substantial economic losses in solanaceous plants. Routine screening for PVY is an essential part of seed potato certification, and serological assays are often used. The commercial, commonly used monoclonal antibodies, MAb1128, MAb1129, and MAb1130, recognize the viral coat protein (CP) of PVY and distinguish PVYN strains from PVYO and PVYC strains, or detect all PVY strains, respectively. However, the minimal epitopes recognized by these antibodies have not been identified. Methodology/Principal Findings SPOT peptide array was used to map the epitopes in CP recognized by MAb1128, MAb1129, and MAb1130. Then alanine replacement as well as N- and C-terminal deletion analysis of the identified peptide epitopes was done to determine critical amino acids for antibody recognition and the respective minimal epitopes. The epitopes of all antibodies were located within the 30 N-terminal-most residues. The minimal epitope of MAb1128 was 25NLNKEK30. Replacement of 25N or 27N with alanine weakened the recognition by MAb1128, and replacement of 26L, 29E, or 30K nearly precluded recognition. The minimal epitope for MAb1129 was 16RPEQGSIQSNP26 and the most critical residues for recognition were 22I and 23Q. The epitope of MAb1130 was defined by residues 5IDAGGS10. Mutation of residue 6D abrogated and mutation of 9G strongly reduced recognition of the peptide by MAb1130. Amino acid sequence alignment demonstrated that these epitopes are relatively conserved among PVY strains. Finally, recombinant CPs were produced to demonstrate that mutations in the variable positions of the epitope regions can affect detection with the MAbs. Conclusions/Significance The epitope data acquired can be compared with data on PVY CP-encoding sequences produced by laboratories worldwide and utilized to monitor how widely the new variants of PVY can be detected with current seed potato certification schemes or during the inspection of imported seed potatoes as conducted with these MAbs. PMID:25542005

  19. Predicting the conservation status of data-deficient species.

    PubMed

    Bland, Lucie M; Collen, Ben; Orme, C David L; Bielby, Jon

    2015-02-01

    There is little appreciation of the level of extinction risk faced by one-sixth of the over 65,000 species assessed by the International Union for Conservation of Nature. Determining the status of these data-deficient (DD) species is essential to developing an accurate picture of global biodiversity and identifying potentially threatened DD species. To address this knowledge gap, we used predictive models incorporating species' life history, geography, and threat information to predict the conservation status of DD terrestrial mammals. We constructed the models with 7 machine learning (ML) tools trained on species of known status. The resultant models showed very high species classification accuracy (up to 92%) and ability to correctly identify centers of threatened species richness. Applying the best model to DD species, we predicted 313 of 493 DD species (64%) to be at risk of extinction, which increases the estimated proportion of threatened terrestrial mammals from 22% to 27%. Regions predicted to contain large numbers of threatened DD species are already conservation priorities, but species in these areas show considerably higher levels of risk than previously recognized. We conclude that unless directly targeted for monitoring, species classified as DD are likely to go extinct without notice. Taking into account information on DD species may therefore help alleviate data gaps in biodiversity indicators and conserve poorly known biodiversity. PMID:25124400

  20. The supply of land for conservation uses: evidence from the conservation reserve program

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Andrew J Plantinga; Ralph Alig; Hsiang-tai Cheng

    2001-01-01

    From 1987 to 1990, the Conservation Reserve Program (CRP) operated similarly to a competitive market for conservation lands. Using CRP data on counties from this period, we estimate supply functions for conservation lands for nine US regions. The results allow regions to be grouped according to low (Mountain, North Plains), moderate (Cornbelt, Lake States, South Plains), and high (Appalachian, Delta

  1. CTL from EIAV carrier horses with diverse MHC class I alleles recognize epitope clusters in Gag matrix and capsid proteins

    PubMed Central

    Chung, Chungwon; Mealey, Robert H.; McGuire, Travis C.

    2012-01-01

    Cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTL) are important for controlling equine infectious anemia virus (EIAV). Because Gag matrix (MA) and capsid (CA) are the most frequently recognized proteins, the hypothesis that CTL from EIAV-infected horses with diverse MHC class I alleles recognize epitope clusters (EC) in these proteins was tested. Four EC were identified by CTL from 15 horses and 8 of these horses had diverse MHC class I alleles. Two of the eight had CTL to EC1, six to EC2, five to EC3, and four to EC4. Because EC2–4 were recognized by CTL from >50% of horses with diverse alleles, the hypothesis was accepted. EC1 and EC3 were the most conserved EC and these more conserved broadly recognized EC may be most useful for CTL induction, helping overcome MHC class I polymorphism and antigenic variation. PMID:15327905

  2. Virus-neutralizing monoclonal antibody to a conserved epitope on the duck hepatitis B virus pre-S protein.

    PubMed Central

    Lambert, V; Fernholz, D; Sprengel, R; Fourel, I; Deléage, G; Wildner, G; Peyret, C; Trépo, C; Cova, L; Will, H

    1990-01-01

    In this study we used duck hepatitis B virus (DHBV)-infected Pekin ducks and heron hepatitis B virus (HHBV)-infected heron tissue to search for epitopes responsible for virus neutralization on pre-S proteins. Monoclonal antibodies were produced by immunizing mice with purified DHBV particles. Of 10 anti-DHBV specific hybridomas obtained, 1 was selected for this study. This monoclonal antibody recognized in both DHBV-infected livers and viremic sera a major (36-kilodalton) protein and several minor pre-S proteins in all seven virus strains used. In contrast, pre-S proteins of HHBV-infected tissue or viremic sera did not react. Thus, the monoclonal antibody recognizes a highly conserved DHBV pre-S epitope. For mapping of the epitope, polypeptides from different regions of the DHBV pre-S/S gene were expressed in Escherichia coli and used as the substrate for immunoblotting. The epitope was delimited to a sequence of approximately 23 amino acids within the pre-S region, which is highly conserved in four cloned DHBV isolates and coincides with the main antigenic domain as predicted by computer algorithms. In in vitro neutralization assays performed with primary duck hepatocyte cultures, the antibody reduced DHBV infectivity by approximately 75%. These data demonstrate a conserved epitope of the DHBV pre-S protein which is located on the surface of the viral envelope and is recognized by virus-neutralizing antibodies. Images PMID:1689393

  3. Conservation Outcomes and Social Relations: A Comparative Study of Private Ranchland

    E-print Network

    Sayre, Nathan

    Conservation Outcomes and Social Relations: A Comparative Study of Private Ranchland Conservation­Berkeley, Berkeley, California, USA Conservation easements have increased dramatically but their social structure on easement design and conservation outcomes, we compared two regions where land trusts hold

  4. The tetrasaccharide L-alpha-D-heptose1-->2-L-alpha-D-heptose1--> 3-L-alpha-D-heptose1-->(3-deoxy-D-manno-octulosonic acid) and phosphate in lipid A define the conserved epitope in Haemophilus lipopolysaccharides recognized by a monoclonal antibody.

    PubMed Central

    Borrelli, S; Hegedus, O; Shaw, D H; Jansson, P E; Lindberg, A A

    1995-01-01

    A murine monoclonal antibody, MAHI 3 (immunoglobulin G2b), that is broadly reactive with Haemophilus influenzae lipopolysaccharides (LPSs) but nonreactive with all enterobacterial LPSs tested was generated by fusing mouse myeloma cells with spleen cells of BALB/c mice immunized with azide-killed H. influenzae RM.7004. MAHI 3 bound to all H. influenzae, all other human Haemophilus spp., all Bordetella pertussis and Bordetella parapertussis, and all Aeromonas spp. tested but not to any Neisseria or Moraxella catarrhalis strains, as determined by enzyme immunoassay, colony dot immunoblotting, and immunoblotting. In an inhibition enzyme immunoassay, MAHI 3 reacted with all 45 H. influenzae LPSs tested but not with the LPS from the rough mutant I69 Rd-/b+, which has only 3-deoxy-D-manno-octulosonic acid (P) [Kdo(P)] and lipid A. The antibody was not inhibited by H. influenzae lipid A or lipid-free polysaccharide isolated after mild acid hydrolysis. Only native LPSs show positive inhibitory activity, indicating that part of lipid A is involved in the binding of MAHI 3. From the results, it is indicated that the structural element recognized by MAHI 3 is Hep alpha 1-->2Hep alpha 1-->3Hep alpha 1-->Kdo together with part of lipid A, including the phosphate. PMID:7543887

  5. Water Conservation

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This activity was developed to get students thinking about the many ways that people use freshwater and how we can conserve this precious and fundamental natural resource. Students will watch a short documentary describing issues related to clean water availability, analyze water-use data and start to think about how they consume and can conserve water. This background knowledge will lead to students collecting data about their own water use and finding areas in their lives to conserve water. This activity uses the 5E instructional model and is part of the "Survivor Earth" series of one-hour lessons.

  6. A new recognizing method for planar objects

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Dong-Liang Peng

    2003-01-01

    On the basis of the generalized image enhancement algorithm using fuzzy sets and improved labeling method, a new recognizing method for planar objects is proposed in this paper. Firstly, a generalized iterative fuzzy enhancement algorithm is proposed which consists of a three-stage procedure, i.e., image filtering, fuzzy enhancement and gray-level transformation. A canonical form of membership function in the stage

  7. Complete Currarino Syndrome Recognized in Adulthood

    PubMed Central

    Akay, Sinan; Battal, Bilal; Karaman, Bulent; Bozkurt, Yalcin

    2015-01-01

    Currarino syndrome is a hereditary pathology that is characterized by sacrococcygeal bone defect, presacral mass, and anorectal malformation. Sacrococcygeal bone defect is almost always a part of the syndrome. The complete form of this entity displays all three abnormalities and is very uncommon. In this report, we present the magnetic resonance imaging findings of a case with complete form of Currarino syndrome recognized in adulthood. PMID:25861544

  8. Great apes' capacities to recognize relational similarity.

    PubMed

    Haun, Daniel B M; Call, Josep

    2009-02-01

    Recognizing relational similarity relies on the ability to understand that defining object properties might not lie in the objects individually, but in the relations of the properties of various object to each other. This aptitude is highly relevant for many important human skills such as language, reasoning, categorization and understanding analogy and metaphor. In the current study, we investigated the ability to recognize relational similarities by testing five species of great apes, including human children in a spatial task. We found that all species performed better if related elements are connected by logico-causal as opposed to non-causal relations. Further, we find that only children above 4 years of age, bonobos and chimpanzees, unlike younger children, gorillas and orangutans display some mastery of reasoning by non-causal relational similarity. We conclude that recognizing relational similarity is not in its entirety unique to the human species. The lack of a capability for language does not prohibit recognition of simple relational similarities. The data are discussed in the light of the phylogenetic tree of relatedness of the great apes. PMID:19111286

  9. Recognizing specialized terminology presented through different modes.

    PubMed

    Commons-Miller, Lucas Alexander Hayleigh; Commons, Michael Lamport

    2003-11-01

    In the present study, the authors examined how previous experience and modes of presenting information affect the recognition of terms in new, specialized terminologies. The specialized terminology used was related to orienteering. Orienteering concepts representing features found in the woods may be communicated verbally (as definitions or words) or symbolically. There were 225 participants (101 reported no orienteering experience and 122 reported varying amounts of orienteering experience; 2 did not respond to that question) who tried to identify which of 5 entities was an orienteering definition, word, or symbol. Those with orienteering experience found that recognizing the specialized terminology was significantly easier than for those without experience. Recognizing symbols was significantly more difficult than recognizing definitions or words, particularly for non-orienteers. Performance of the orienteers was similar for the three modes. Within the orienteering group, the number of years of experience and usual course difficulty attempted were significant predictors of overall test success. Applications to training of both low-level specialized terminology (e.g., used in algebra), and higher level terminology (e.g., used in computer science) are discussed. PMID:14992351

  10. Eelgrass ( Zostera marina L.) in the Chesapeake Bay Region of Mid-Atlantic Coast of the USA: Challenges in Conservation and Restoration

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Robert J. Orth; Scott R. Marion; Kenneth A. Moore; David J. Wilcox

    2010-01-01

    Decreases in seagrass abundance reported from numerous locations around the world suggest that seagrass are facing a global\\u000a crisis. Declining water quality has been identified as the leading cause for most losses. Increased public awareness is leading\\u000a to expanded efforts for conservation and restoration. Here, we report on abundance patterns and environmental issues facing\\u000a eelgrass (Zostera marina), the dominant seagrass

  11. The Evolutionarily Conserved N-terminal Region of Cbl Is Sufficient to Enhance Down-regulation of the Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nancy L. Lill; Patrice Douillard; Rana A. Awwad; Satoshi Ota; Mark L. Lupher; Nichole Meissner-Lula; Victor W. Hsu; Hamid Band

    2000-01-01

    The mammalian proto-oncoprotein Cbl and its homo- logues in Caenorhabditis elegans and Drosophila are evolutionarily conserved negative regulators of the epi- dermal growth factor receptor (EGF-R). Overexpression of wild-type Cbl enhances down-regulation of activated EGF-R from the cell surface. We report that the Cbl tyrosine kinase-binding (TKB) domain is essential for this activity. Whereas wild-type Cbl enhanced ligand-de- pendent EGF-R

  12. PRECISION CONSERVATION

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Precision conservation utilizes a set of technologies and procedures that link mapped variables with analytical capabilities to appropriate management actions. It requires the integration of spatial technologies of global positioning systems, remote sensing and geographic information systems with t...

  13. Conservation Presentation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Friday, Gerald

    2001-01-01

    Introduces a project in which students teach about the importance of recycling and conservation by presenting demonstrations. Includes demonstrations on water, plastic, and other recycling products such as steel. (YDS)

  14. Energy Conservation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abelson, Philip H.

    1972-01-01

    Comments on The Potential for Energy Conservation,'' a study by the Office of Emergency Preparedness, emphasizing the coming dependence on foreign oil, and presses for government influence to encourage development of more efficient cars. (AL)

  15. Utility Conservation Programs: A Regulatory and Design Framework 

    E-print Network

    Norland, D. L.; Wolf, J. L.

    1986-01-01

    that necessitate the utility offering less than the theoretical maximum amount of a financial incentive under the applicable regulatory policy need to be recognized. Finally, a methodology to assess the induced impacts of the conservation program is necessary...

  16. Modeling opportunity costs of conservation in transitional landscapes.

    PubMed

    Naidoo, Robin; Adamowicz, Wiktor L

    2006-04-01

    Conservation scientists recognize the urgency of incorporating opportunity costs into conservation planning. Despite this, applications to date have been limited, perhaps partly because of the difficulty in determining costs in regions with limited data on land prices and ownership. We present methods for estimating opportunity costs of land preservation in landscapes or ecoregions that are a changing mix of agriculture and natural habitat. Our approach derives from the literature on estimating land values as opportunity costs of alternate land uses and takes advantage of general availability of necessary data, even in relatively data-poor regions. The methods integrate probabilities of habitat conversion with region-wide estimates of economic benefits from agricultural land uses and estimate land values with a discount rate to convert annual values into net present values. We applied our method in a landscape undergoing agricultural conversion in Paraguay. Our model of opportunity costs predicted an independent data set of land values and was consistent with implicit discount rates of 15-25%. Model-generated land values were strongly correlated with actual land values even after correcting for the effect of property size and proportion of property that was forested. We used the model to produce a map of opportunity costs and to estimate the costs of conserving forest within two proposed corridors in the landscape. This method can be applied to conservation planning in situations where natural habitat is currently being converted to market-oriented land uses. Incorporating not only biological attributes but also socioeconomic data can help in the design of efficient networks of protected areas that represent biodiversity at minimum costs. PMID:16903110

  17. Emerging evidence that molecules expressed by mammalian tissue grafts are recognized by the innate immune system

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Annette Fox-Marsh; Leonard C. Harrison

    The innate immune system existed prior to the emergence of adaptive immunity in sharks and higher vertebrates. Homologues of many mammalian innate immune-system elements such as the toll-like receptors exist in species as distant as Drosophila. Selective pressure has led to the development of highly conserved, soluble, and cell-surface receptors that recognize functionally essential molecules shared by microbial pathogens. It

  18. Multi-Season Regional Analysis of Multi-Species Occupancy: Implications for Bird Conservation in Agricultural Lands in East-Central Argentina

    PubMed Central

    Goijman, Andrea Paula; Conroy, Michael. J.; Bernardos, Jaime Nicolás; Zaccagnini, María Elena

    2015-01-01

    Rapid expansion and intensification of agriculture create challenges for the conservation of biodiversity and associated ecosystem services. In Argentina, the total row crop planted area has increased in recent decades with the expansion of soybean cultivation, homogenizing the landscape. In 2003 we started the first long-term, large-scale bird monitoring program in agroecosystems of central Argentina, in portions of the Pampas and Espinal ecoregions. Using data from this program, we evaluated the effect of land use and cover extent on birds between 2003-2012, accounting for imperfect detection probabilities using a Bayesian hierarchical, multi-species and multi-season occupancy model. We tested predictions that species diversity is positively related to habitat heterogeneity, which in intensified agroecosystems is thought to be mediated by food availability; thus the extent of land use and cover is predicted to affect foraging guilds differently. We also infer about ecosystem services provisioning and inform management recommendations for conservation of birds. Overall our results support the predictions. Although many species within each guild responded differently to land use and native forest cover, we identified generalities for most trophic guilds. For example, granivorous gleaners, ground insectivores and omnivores responded negatively to high proportions of soybean, while insectivore gleaners and aerial foragers seemed more tolerant. Habitat heterogeneity would likely benefit most species in an intensified agroecosystem, and can be achieved with a diversity of crops, pastures, and natural areas within the landscape. Although most studied species are insectivores, potentially beneficial for pest control, some guilds such as ground insectivores are poorly represented, suggesting that agricultural intensification reduces ecological functions, which may be recovered through management. Continuation of the bird monitoring program will allow us to continue to inform for conservation of birds in agroecosystems, identify research needed to reduce key uncertainties, and anticipate the effects of changes in agriculture in central Argentina. PMID:26086250

  19. Multi-Season Regional Analysis of Multi-Species Occupancy: Implications for Bird Conservation in Agricultural Lands in East-Central Argentina.

    PubMed

    Goijman, Andrea Paula; Conroy, Michael J; Bernardos, Jaime Nicolás; Zaccagnini, María Elena

    2015-01-01

    Rapid expansion and intensification of agriculture create challenges for the conservation of biodiversity and associated ecosystem services. In Argentina, the total row crop planted area has increased in recent decades with the expansion of soybean cultivation, homogenizing the landscape. In 2003 we started the first long-term, large-scale bird monitoring program in agroecosystems of central Argentina, in portions of the Pampas and Espinal ecoregions. Using data from this program, we evaluated the effect of land use and cover extent on birds between 2003-2012, accounting for imperfect detection probabilities using a Bayesian hierarchical, multi-species and multi-season occupancy model. We tested predictions that species diversity is positively related to habitat heterogeneity, which in intensified agroecosystems is thought to be mediated by food availability; thus the extent of land use and cover is predicted to affect foraging guilds differently. We also infer about ecosystem services provisioning and inform management recommendations for conservation of birds. Overall our results support the predictions. Although many species within each guild responded differently to land use and native forest cover, we identified generalities for most trophic guilds. For example, granivorous gleaners, ground insectivores and omnivores responded negatively to high proportions of soybean, while insectivore gleaners and aerial foragers seemed more tolerant. Habitat heterogeneity would likely benefit most species in an intensified agroecosystem, and can be achieved with a diversity of crops, pastures, and natural areas within the landscape. Although most studied species are insectivores, potentially beneficial for pest control, some guilds such as ground insectivores are poorly represented, suggesting that agricultural intensification reduces ecological functions, which may be recovered through management. Continuation of the bird monitoring program will allow us to continue to inform for conservation of birds in agroecosystems, identify research needed to reduce key uncertainties, and anticipate the effects of changes in agriculture in central Argentina. PMID:26086250

  20. Setting practical conservation priorities for birds in the Western Andes of Colombia.

    PubMed

    Ocampo-Peñuela, Natalia; Pimm, Stuart L

    2014-10-01

    We aspired to set conservation priorities in ways that lead to direct conservation actions. Very large-scale strategic mapping leads to familiar conservation priorities exemplified by biodiversity hotspots. In contrast, tactical conservation actions unfold on much smaller geographical extents and they need to reflect the habitat loss and fragmentation that have sharply restricted where species now live. Our aspirations for direct, practical actions were demanding. First, we identified the global, strategic conservation priorities and then downscaled to practical local actions within the selected priorities. In doing this, we recognized the limitations of incomplete information. We started such a process in Colombia and used the results presented here to implement reforestation of degraded land to prevent the isolation of a large area of cloud forest. We used existing range maps of 171 bird species to identify priority conservation areas that would conserve the greatest number of species at risk in Colombia. By at risk species, we mean those that are endemic and have small ranges. The Western Andes had the highest concentrations of such species-100 in total-but the lowest densities of national parks. We then adjusted the priorities for this region by refining these species ranges by selecting only areas of suitable elevation and remaining habitat. The estimated ranges of these species shrank by 18-100% after accounting for habitat and suitable elevation. Setting conservation priorities on the basis of currently available range maps excluded priority areas in the Western Andes and, by extension, likely elsewhere and for other taxa. By incorporating detailed maps of remaining natural habitats, we made practical recommendations for conservation actions. One recommendation was to restore forest connections to a patch of cloud forest about to become isolated from the main Andes. PMID:25065287

  1. The Cost of Conserved Carbon: Weighing the Monetary, Social, and Climactic Implications of Regional-, National-, and Global-Scale Carbon Abatement Strategies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kantner, J. W.; Hoffman, I.; Johnston, J. L.; Kammen, D. M.; Levin, J. E.; Komiyama, R.; Motschenbacher, A.; Gimon, E.

    2008-05-01

    Previous schema for analyzing carbon mitigation methods often have lacked realistic costs, comprehensive accounting of trade-offs, and methodological transparency. We offer a dynamic model for evaluating diverse carbon mitigation scenarios based on economics, policy traction, and interplay with climate, society and ecosystems. The model will test the impacts of policy changes across more than two dozen strategies for conserving or avoiding carbon emissions. Users will be able to access the model at rael-c3.berkeley.edu and change underlying assumptions as desired.

  2. Genes encoding conserved hypothetical proteins localized in the conjugative transfer region of plasmid pRet42a from Rhizobium etli CFN42 participate in modulating transfer and affect conjugation from different donors

    PubMed Central

    López-Fuentes, Eunice; Torres-Tejerizo, Gonzalo; Cervantes, Laura; Brom, Susana

    2015-01-01

    Among sequenced genomes, it is common to find a high proportion of genes encoding proteins that cannot be assigned a known function. In bacterial genomes, genes related to a similar function are often located in contiguous regions. The presence of genes encoding conserved hypothetical proteins (chp) in such a region may suggest that they are related to that particular function. Plasmid pRet42a from Rhizobium etli CFN42 is a conjugative plasmid containing a segment of approximately 30 Kb encoding genes involved in conjugative transfer. In addition to genes responsible for Dtr (DNA transfer and replication), Mpf (Mating pair formation) and regulation, it has two chp-encoding genes (RHE_PA00163 and RHE_PA00164) and a transcriptional regulator (RHE_PA00165). RHE_PA00163 encodes an uncharacterized protein conserved in bacteria that presents a COG4634 conserved domain, and RHE_PA00164 encodes an uncharacterized conserved protein with a DUF433 domain of unknown function. RHE_PA00165 presents a HTH_XRE domain, characteristic of DNA-binding proteins belonging to the xenobiotic response element family of transcriptional regulators. Interestingly, genes similar to these are also present in transfer regions of plasmids from other bacteria. To determine if these genes participate in conjugative transfer, we mutagenized them and analyzed their conjugative phenotype. A mutant in RHE_PA00163 showed a slight (10 times) but reproducible increase in transfer frequency from Rhizobium donors, while mutants in RHE_PA00164 and RHE_PA00165 lost their ability to transfer the plasmid from some Agrobacterium donors. Our results indicate that the chp-encoding genes located among conjugation genes are indeed related to this function. However, the participation of RHE_PA00164 and RHE_PA00165 is only revealed under very specific circumstances, and is not perceived when the plasmid is transferred from the original host. RHE_PA00163 seems to be a fine-tuning modulator for conjugative transfer. PMID:25642223

  3. Protein Conservation: an View into Proteomics

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Molecular Literacy Project

    Students review aspects of protein structure and folding and then move to 3D molecules, evaluating the consequences of both conservative and non-conservative substitutions in protein sequences. The activity culminates in a comparison of human, rat and bacterial enzymes; students discuss why it is be important for some regions to be conserved. Students will be able to:Explain the basic forces at work in protein folding; differentiate conservative and non-conservative substitutions in mutations; compare human, rat and bacterial enzymes and discuss why it is be important for some to be conserved.

  4. The origin of conserved protein domains and amino acid repeats via adaptive competition for control over amino acid residues.

    PubMed

    Rorick, Mary M; Wagner, Günter P

    2010-01-01

    Some proteins, such as homeodomain transcription factors, contain highly conserved regions of sequence. It has recently been suggested that multiple functional domains overlap in the homeodomain, together explaining this high conservation. However, the question remains why so many functional domains cluster together in one relatively small and constrained region of the protein. Here we have modeled an evolutionary mechanism that can produce this kind of clustering: conserved functional domains are displaced from the parts of the molecule that are undergoing adaptive evolution because novel functions generally out-compete conserved functions for control over the identity of amino acid residues. We call this model COAA, for Competition Over Amino Acids. We also studied the evolution of amino acid repeats (a.k.a. homopeptides), which are especially prevalent in transcription factors. Repeats that are encoded by non-homogenous mixtures of synonymous codons cannot be explained by replication slippage alone. Our model provides two explanations for their origin, maintenance, and over-representation in highly conserved proteins. We demonstrate that either competition between multiple functional domains for space within a sequence, or reuse of a sequence for many functions over time, can cause the evolution of amino acid repeats. Both of these processes are characteristic of multifunctional proteins such as homeodomain transcription factors. We conclude that the COAA model can explain two widely recognized features of transcription factor proteins: conserved domains and a tendency to accumulate homopeptides. PMID:20024539

  5. Mutational analysis of conserved regions harboring catalytic triad residues of the levansucrase protein encoded by the lsc-3 gene (lsc3) of Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato DC3000.

    PubMed

    Mardo, Karin; Visnapuu, Triinu; Vija, Heiki; Elmi, Triin; Alamäe, Tiina

    2014-01-01

    Levansucrase encoded by the lsc-3 (lsc3) gene at genomic locus PSPTOA0032 of Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato DC3000 was mutationally analyzed. Altogether, 18 single-amino-acid mutants of 13 positions of Lsc3 were studied for catalytic properties, including production of fructooligosaccharides (FOS). Asp62, Asp219, and Glu303 were proved as members of the catalytic triad. Respective alanine replacement mutants were practically inactive with their kcat values reduced up to ?130,000 times. Additionally, the requirements of Trp61, Gln301, and Arg304, located in conserved sequence blocks around the catalytic triad positions for the catalysis were shown. The catalytic significance of the position equivalent to Arg304 was shown for levansucrases for the first time. Replacement of Gln301 specifically affected the polymerizing ability of Lsc3. The Gln301Ala mutant was largely hydrolytic and produced 31 times less FOS than the wild type. Despite high conservation grades, Leu66, Pro220, Asp225, and His306 tolerated replacement well. Quantification of produced FOS showed a high biotechnological potential of Lsc3. Using 1 mg of Lsc3 protein, 15.4 g of FOS with a degree of polymerization from 3 to 7 can be synthesized in a 20 H reaction with 1,200 mM sucrose. Our expression system allowed us to produce up to 30 mg of Lsc3 protein from 1 L of induced culture of recombinant Escherichia coli. PMID:23725335

  6. Stereoscopic Offset Makes Objects Easier to Recognize

    PubMed Central

    Caziot, Baptiste; Backus, Benjamin T.

    2015-01-01

    Binocular vision is obviously useful for depth perception, but it might also enhance other components of visual processing, such as image segmentation. We used naturalistic images to determine whether giving an object a stereoscopic offset of 15-120 arcmin of crossed disparity relative to its background would make the object easier to recognize in briefly presented (33-133 ms), temporally masked displays. Disparity had a beneficial effect across a wide range of disparities and display durations. Most of this benefit occurred whether or not the stereoscopic contour agreed with the object’s luminance contour. We attribute this benefit to an orienting of spatial attention that selected the object and its local background for enhanced 2D pattern processing. At longer display durations, contour agreement provided an additional benefit, and a separate experiment using random-dot stimuli confirmed that stereoscopic contours plausibly contributed to recognition at the longer display durations in our experiment. We conclude that in real-world situations binocular vision confers an advantage not only for depth perception, but also for recognizing objects from their luminance patterns and bounding contours. PMID:26079788

  7. Moving around objects and recognizing them.

    PubMed

    Giusberti, F; Iachini, T; Pavani, F

    1998-02-01

    This research concerned the use of mental rotation in recognizing rotated objects. Instead of the classic Shepard's paradigm in which subjects were still while observing rotated objects, here subjects had to move (or imagine moving) around stationary three-dimensional objects put in the middle of the trajectory. Thus, depending on the viewing positions, such objects were seen under six different perspectives (from 30 degrees to 180 degrees). The latter task has been thought to be closer to everyday life in which we obtain information regarding objects from their spatial properties. The results do not follow the classic rules of mental rotation of an object predicting a linear increase of the time needed to recognize distorted objects as a function of their angular displacement. They also differ from data in the literature about spatial imagery showing that access to spatial information is facilitated more when people actually move through a path than when they imagine moving. A probable explanation of this difference from the literature is discussed in relation to the particular involvement of the body in the experimental task. PMID:9530747

  8. Conservation of the Conformation and Positive Charges of Hepatitis C Virus E2 Envelope Glycoprotein Hypervariable Region 1 Points to a Role in Cell Attachment

    Microsoft Academic Search

    FRANCOIS PENIN; CHRISTOPHE COMBET; GEORGIOS GERMANIDIS; PIERRE-OLIVIER FRAINAIS; GILBERT DELEAGE; JEAN-MICHEL PAWLOTSKY

    2001-01-01

    Chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is a major cause of liver disease. The HCV polyprotein contains a hypervariable region (HVR1) located at the N terminus of the second envelope glycoprotein E2. The strong variability of this 27-amino-acid region is due to its apparent tolerance of amino acid substitutions together with strong selection pressures exerted by anti-HCV immune responses. No

  9. Water Conservation

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2005-01-01

    In this lesson, students study the availability of water on Earth and discuss methods that can be used to purify and conserve this critical resource. Using multimedia interactives, video, and classroom activities, they will identify sources of fresh water available for consumption, understand the need for water conservation, and compare the benefits and drawbacks of different water management techniques. They will also assess how much water they and their families typically use, and think about ways to reduce their water usage. Finally, students explore different techniques being employed for water management around the world, including the use of dams to create reservoirs.

  10. Colorful Conservation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Skophammer, Karen

    2011-01-01

    Some people only think about conservation on Earth Day. Being in the "art business" however, this author is always conscious of the many products she thinks get wasted when they could be reused, recycled, and restored--especially in a school building and art room. In this article, she describes an art lesson that allows students to paint…

  11. [Conservation Units.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Texas Education Agency, Austin.

    Each of the six instructional units deals with one aspect of conservation: forests, water, rangeland, minerals (petroleum), and soil. The area of the elementary school curriculum with which each correlates is indicated. Lists of general and specific objectives are followed by suggested teaching procedures, including ideas for introducing the…

  12. WWF: Ecoregion Conservation Plan for the Alps

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    As part of an effort to curtail the loss of global biodiversity, WWF recognized the Alps as one of more than 200 significant ecoregions in the world. Building on this recognition, the WWF European Alpine Programme recently published the _Ecoregion Conservation Plan for the Alps_. In addition to a description of the Alps ecoregion, the 62-page pdf document includes specific sections on The Root Causes of Biodiversity Loss, Threats, Ecoregion Conservation, Policy Framework, and Priority Conservation Areas. The document also provides an overview of the WWF European Alpine Programme, and a description of the WWF Ecoregion Action Plan.

  13. Conservative front tracking and level set algorithms

    PubMed Central

    Glimm, James; Li, Xiao Lin; Liu, Yingjie; Zhao, Ning

    2001-01-01

    Hyperbolic conservation laws are foundational for many branches of continuum physics. Discontinuities in the solutions of these partial differential equations are widely recognized as a primary difficulty for numerical simulation, especially for thermal and shear discontinuities and fluid–fluid internal boundaries. We propose numerical algorithms that will (i) track these discontinuities as sharp internal boundaries, (ii) fully conserve the conserved quantities at a discrete level, even at the discontinuities, and (iii) display one order of numerical accuracy higher globally (at the discontinuity) than algorithms in common use. A significant improvement in simulation capabilities is anticipated through use of the proposed algorithms. PMID:11717403

  14. Position, rotation, and intensity invariant recognizing method

    DOEpatents

    Ochoa, Ellen (Pleasanton, CA); Schils, George F. (San Ramon, CA); Sweeney, Donald W. (Alamo, CA)

    1989-01-01

    A method for recognizing the presence of a particular target in a field of view which is target position, rotation, and intensity invariant includes the preparing of a target-specific invariant filter from a combination of all eigen-modes of a pattern of the particular target. Coherent radiation from the field of view is then imaged into an optical correlator in which the invariant filter is located. The invariant filter is rotated in the frequency plane of the optical correlator in order to produce a constant-amplitude rotational response in a correlation output plane when the particular target is present in the field of view. Any constant response is thus detected in the output The U.S. Government has rights in this invention pursuant to Contract No. DE-AC04-76DP00789 between the U.S. Department of Energy and AT&T Technologies, Inc.

  15. Neural Circuitry for Recognizing Interspike Interval Sequences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abarbanel, Henry D. I.; Talathi, Sachin S.

    2006-04-01

    Sensory systems present environmental information to central nervous system as sequences of action potentials or spikes. How do animals recognize these sequences carrying information about their world? We present a biologically inspired neural circuit designed to enable spike pattern recognition. This circuit is capable of training itself on a given interspike interval (ISI) sequence and is then able to respond to presentations of the same sequence. The essential ingredients of the recognition circuit are (a) a tunable time delay circuit, (b) a spike selection unit, and (c) a tuning mechanism using spike timing dependent plasticity of inhibitory synapses. We have investigated this circuit using Hodgkin-Huxley neuron models connected by realistic excitatory and inhibitory synapses. It is robust in the presence of noise represented as jitter in the spike times of the ISI sequence.

  16. Recognizing familial myeloid leukemia in adults

    PubMed Central

    Nickels, Eric M.; Soodalter, Jesse; Churpek, Jane E.

    2013-01-01

    Germline testing for familial cases of myeloid leukemia in adults is becoming more common with the recognition of multiple genetic syndromes predisposing people to bone marrow disease. Currently, Clinical Laboratory Improvement Amendments approved testing exists for several myeloid leukemia predisposition syndromes: familial platelet disorder with propensity to acute myeloid leukemia (FPD/AML), caused by mutations in RUNX1; familial AML with mutated CEBPA; familial myelodysplastic syndrome and acute leukemia with mutated GATA2; and the inherited bone marrow failure syndromes, including dyskeratosis congenita, a disease of abnormal telomere maintenance. With the recognition of additional families with a genetic component to their leukemia, new predisposition alleles will likely be identified. We highlight how to recognize and manage these cases as well as outline the characteristics of the major known syndromes. We look forward to future research increasing our understanding of the scope of inherited myeloid leukemia syndromes. PMID:23926458

  17. Neural nets for radio Morse code recognizing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fu, Hsin-Chia; Lin, Y. Y.; Pao, Hsiao-Tien

    1993-09-01

    This paper proposes a neural network recognition system for hand keying Radio Morse codes. The system has been trained and tested on real world data recorded from amateur radio Morse codes. The overall recognizing process can be partitioned into 3 major parts, the preprocessing, the feature extracting, and the character decoding. The whole operation is able to be performed in real-time on a PC/486 system. Self-Organizing Maps are used intensively in the recognition system to adaptively learn the variation of the Morse code signal. The average performance of the recognition system has been achieved about 96.4% with a rejection rate of 6.5%. It is hoped that many of the techniques would be applicable to a wide range of DSP and recognition tasks.

  18. How can we recognize continuous quality improvement?

    PubMed Central

    Rubenstein, Lisa; Khodyakov, Dmitry; Hempel, Susanne; Danz, Margie; Salem-Schatz, Susanne; Foy, Robbie; O'Neill, Sean; Dalal, Siddhartha; Shekelle, Paul

    2014-01-01

    Objective Continuous quality improvement (CQI) methods are foundational approaches to improving healthcare delivery. Publications using the term CQI, however, are methodologically heterogeneous, and labels other than CQI are used to signify relevant approaches. Standards for identifying the use of CQI based on its key methodological features could enable more effective learning across quality improvement (QI) efforts. The objective was to identify essential methodological features for recognizing CQI. Design Previous work with a 12-member international expert panel identified reliably abstracted CQI methodological features. We tested which features met rigorous a priori standards as essential features of CQI using a three-phase online modified-Delphi process. Setting Primarily United States and Canada. Participants 119 QI experts randomly assigned into four on-line panels. Intervention(s) Participants rated CQI features and discussed their answers using online, anonymous and asynchronous discussion boards. We analyzed ratings quantitatively and discussion threads qualitatively. Main outcome measure(s) Panel consensus on definitional CQI features. Results Seventy-nine (66%) panelists completed the process. Thirty-three completers self-identified as QI researchers, 18 as QI practitioners and 28 as both equally. The features ‘systematic data guided activities,’ ‘designing with local conditions in mind’ and ‘iterative development and testing’ met a priori standards as essential CQI features. Qualitative analyses showed cross-cutting themes focused on differences between QI and CQI. Conclusions We found consensus among a broad group of CQI researchers and practitioners on three features as essential for identifying QI work more specifically as ‘CQI.’ All three features are needed as a minimum standard for recognizing CQI methods. PMID:24311732

  19. The role of religion in conservation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. M. Boyd

    1984-01-01

    Summary The World Conservation Strategy is essentially a mancentred technical document which carries a great and largely unstated moral issue of restraint for the long-term common good in the face of exploitation of natural resources for short-term gain by a privileged few. Yet no effort has been made to have the Strategy recognized and adopted by the world religions. Without

  20. A Conserved Family of Prolyl4-Hydroxylases That Modify HIF

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Richard K. Bruick; Steven L. McKnight

    2001-01-01

    Mammalian cells respond to changes in oxygen availability through a conserved pathway that is regulated by the hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF). The alpha subunit of HIF is targeted for degradation under normoxic conditions by a ubiquitin-ligase complex that recognizes a hydroxylated proline residue in HIF. We identified a conserved family of HIF prolyl hydoxylase (HPH) enzymes that appear to be responsible

  1. Glyphosate resistant palmer amaranth - a threat to conservation tillage

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Since the mid 1980’s, conservation tillage has been recognized as a beneficial alternative to conventional tillage practices. With definite advantages over traditional tillage practices, conservation tillage adoption remained sluggish through the 80’s and mid 90’s due, in large part, to poor weed c...

  2. Conflict between energy conservation and water pollution control standards

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lamb

    1980-01-01

    The potential conflict in national needs for both energy conservation and water pollution control is indicated. Meeting broader obligations in reconciling these apparent differences has failed. Major contributions to energy conservation efforts needed today could be made without giving up any important pollution control goals. Hopefully, state and Federal regulatory agencies soon will recognize their obligations in this respect and

  3. Wet and Wonderful: The World's Largest Wetlands Are Conservation Priorities

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Paul Keddy (Southeastern Louisiana University; Dept of Biological Sciences)

    2009-01-01

    Wetlands perform many essential ecosystem servicesâ??carbon storage, flood control, maintenance of biodiversity, fish production, and aquifer recharge, among othersâ??services that have increasingly important global consequences. Like biodiversity hotspots and frontier forests, the world's largest wetlands are now mapped and described by an international team of scientists, highlighting their conservation importance at the global scale. We explore current understanding of some ecosystem services wetlands provide. We selected four of these wetlands (the largest peatland, West Siberian Lowland; the largest floodplain, Amazon River Basin; the least-known wetland, Congo River Basin; and the most heavily developed wetland, Mississippi River Basin), and we illustrate their diversity, emphasizing values and lessons for thinking big in terms of conservation goals. Recognizing the global significance of these wetlands is an important first step toward forging global conservation solutions. Each of the world's largest wetlands requires a basinwide sustainable management strategy built on new institutional frameworksâ??at international, national, and regional levelsâ??to ensure provision of their vital services.

  4. New Zealand Plant Conservation Network

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    The New Zealand Plant Conservation Network (NZPCN) provides information about native plants and their conservation, focusing primarily on nationally threatened plants and plant communities that require conservation management for their continued survival. The NZPCN web site features a database and search tool for locating information on nationally threatened plant species and lists of species that are regionally uncommon. Users may search for threatened plants, bryophytes, fungi, naturalized (introduced) plants, or animal pests by common name, taxonomic name, conservation status, or family. The information includes taxonomic nomenclature, common name, geographic distribution and habitat, a description, images, conservation status, cultural use or importance, and other data. Other materials at the site include information on New Zealand native plants and threats to native plant life, an archive and bibliography of publications, event announcements and news articles, and information on the organization's membership.

  5. Impact assessment of changes in land use\\/conservation practices on soil erosion in the Penedès–Anoia vineyard region (NE Spain)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    José A Mart??nez-Casasnovas; Inés Sánchez-Bosch

    2000-01-01

    Soil erosion by water is one of the most important land degradation processes in the Mediterranean basin. In comparison with other typical crops in this region, vineyards are the agricultural land use that cause the highest soil losses. The changes in land use types and management that have involved the intensification of agriculture from the 1950s have contributed to the

  6. Conservation Acquisition Strategies In chapter 7, the Council proposes to engage the region on the development of a strategic plan for

    E-print Network

    of Savings (Percent) Residential Compact Fluorescent Lights 530 1.7 2.3 19 Residential Heat Pump Water in the residential, commercial, irrigation and industrial sectors that the region should consider in the development percent of the total, is in the non-aluminum industrial sector. The remaining large sources of potential

  7. Identification of highly conserved regions in L-segment of Crimean–Congo hemorrhagic fever virus and immunoinformatic prediction about potential novel vaccine

    PubMed Central

    Oany, Arafat Rahman; Ahmad, Shah Adil Ishtiyaq; Hossain, Mohammad Uzzal; Jyoti, Tahmina Pervin

    2015-01-01

    Crimean–Congo hemorrhagic fever (CCHF) is a tick-borne zoonotic viral disease with a disease fatality rate between 15% and 70%. Despite the wide range of distribution, the virus (CCHFV) is basically endemic in Africa, Asia, eastern Europe, and the Middle East. Acute febrile illness associated with petechiae, disseminated intravascular coagulation, and multiple-organ failure are the main symptoms of the disease. With all these fatal effects, CCHFV is considered a huge threat as no successful therapeutic approach is currently available for the treatment of this disease. In the present study, we have used the immunoinformatics approach to design a potential epitope-based vaccine against the RNA-dependent RNA polymerase-L of CCHFV. Both the T-cell and B-cell epitopes were assessed, and the epitope “DCSSTPPDR” was found to be the most potential one, with 100% conservancy among all the strains of CCHFV. The epitope was also found to interact with both type I and II major histocompatibility complex molecules and is considered nonallergenic as well. In vivo study of our proposed peptide is advised for novel universal vaccine production, which might be an effective path to prevent CCHF disease. PMID:25609983

  8. Animal conservation, carbon and sustainability.

    PubMed

    Leader-Williams, N

    2002-08-15

    International conventions to reduce carbon dioxide levels focus on ecosystems and do not specifically recognize the need to conserve species. However, species are the building blocks of ecosystems, they are more widely understood among the public, and they provide means of capturing market values from ecosystems. Achieving successful conservation globally will require ensuring that the systems under which species and ecosystems are conserved are more inclusive than statutory protected areas. Equal emphasis needs to be placed on including effective regimes that also encompass private and communal ownership through incentive-based approaches. Nevertheless, if globalized industries such as nature-based tourism or consumptive use are to provide meaningful incentives locally, a key requirement is to reduce leakage of revenue that is earned as a result of conserving species, such that local development concerns are addressed. However, current biodiversity conventions that address these needs are largely aspirational, while globalized industries such as tourism mainly promote their green credentials only through voluntary codes of conduct. Greatly improved linkages are needed between international conservation concerns and ensuring effective solutions to sustainability, which inevitably rest at national and sub-national levels, through systems of rights, tenure, benefits and incentives. PMID:12460498

  9. A conserved African swine fever virus right variable region gene, l11L, is non-essential for growth in vitro and virulence in domestic swine

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. B. Kleiboeker; G. F. Kutish; J. G. Neilan; Z. Lu; L. Zsak; D. L. Rock

    The right variable region of the African swine fever virus (ASFV) genome is known to contain genes with functions involving virus virulence and host range in swine. A novel open reading frame, ORF l11L, which was absent in the non-pathogenic, cell culture- adapted European isolate BA71V, was identified in the pathogenic African isolate Malawi Lil-20\\/1. The location of l11L in

  10. The Nitrogen-Fixation Island Insertion Site Is Conserved in Diazotrophic Pseudomonas stutzeri and Pseudomonas sp. Isolated from Distal and Close Geographical Regions

    PubMed Central

    Venieraki, Anastasia; Dimou, Maria; Vezyri, Eleni; Vamvakas, Alexandros; Katinaki, Pagona-Artemis; Chatzipavlidis, Iordanis; Tampakaki, Anastasia; Katinakis, Panagiotis

    2014-01-01

    The presence of nitrogen fixers within the genus Pseudomonas has been established and so far most isolated strains are phylogenetically affiliated to Pseudomonas stutzeri. A gene ortholog neighborhood analysis of the nitrogen fixation island (NFI) in four diazotrophic P. stutzeri strains and Pseudomonas azotifigens revealed that all are flanked by genes coding for cobalamin synthase (cobS) and glutathione peroxidise (gshP). The putative NFIs lack all the features characterizing a mobilizable genomic island. Nevertheless, bioinformatic analysis P. stutzeri DSM 4166 NFI demonstrated the presence of short inverted and/or direct repeats within both flanking regions. The other P. stutzeri strains carry only one set of repeats. The genetic diversity of eleven diazotrophic Pseudomonas isolates was also investigated. Multilocus sequence typing grouped nine isolates along with P. stutzeri and two isolates are grouped in a separate clade. A Rep-PCR fingerprinting analysis grouped the eleven isolates into four distinct genotypes. We also provided evidence that the putative NFI in our diazotrophic Pseudomonas isolates is flanked by cobS and gshP genes. Furthermore, we demonstrated that the putative NFI of Pseudomonas sp. Gr65 is flanked by inverted repeats identical to those found in P. stutzeri DSM 4166 and while the other P. stutzeri isolates harbor the repeats located in the intergenic region between cobS and glutaredoxin genes as in the case of P. stutzeri A1501. Taken together these data suggest that all putative NFIs of diazotrophic Pseudomonas isolates are anchored in an intergenic region between cobS and gshP genes and their flanking regions are designated by distinct repeats patterns. Moreover, the presence of almost identical NFIs in diazotrophic Pseudomonas strains isolated from distal geographical locations around the world suggested that this horizontal gene transfer event may have taken place early in the evolution. PMID:25251496

  11. Populations of Lobaria pulmonaria (L.) Hoffm. in the Cansiglio Regional Forest (Veneto, Pre-Alps, north-east Italy): Distribution, diversity and conservation issues

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. Nascimbene; G. Caniglia; M. Nicli; M. Dalle Vedove

    2006-01-01

    The distribution of the epiphytic macrolichen Lobaria pulmonaria (L.) Hoffm. was surveyed in the Regional Forest of Cansiglio, extending over 3,500 ha in the eastern part of the Veneto Pre-Alps (north-east Italy). Data on the main characteristics of the forest sites and on Lobaria trees were collected with the aim to evaluate the main ecological factors, related to forest composition

  12. Surface Expression of the Conserved C Repeat Region of Streptococcal M6 Protein within the Pip Bacteriophage Receptor of Lactococcus lactis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    BRUCE L. GELLER; NADINE WADE; THOMAS D. GILBERTS; DENNIS E. HRUBY; RYAN JOHANSON; LJUBISA TOPISIROVIC

    2001-01-01

    The C repeat region of the M6 protein (M6c) from Streptococcus pyogenes was expressed within the Pip bacteriophage receptor on the surface of Lactococcus lactis. M6c was also detected in the culture medium. The pip-emm6c allele was integrated into the chromosome and stably expressed without antibiotic selection. The level of cell-associated surface expression of PipM6c was 0.015% of total cellular

  13. Recognizing human activities from accelerometer and physiological sensors

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sung-Ihk Yang; Sung-Bae Cho

    2008-01-01

    Recently the interest about the services in the ubiquitous environment has increased. These kinds of services are focusing on the context of the userpsilas activities, location or environment. There were many studies about recognizing these contexts using various sensory resources. To recognize human activity, many of them used an accelerometer, which shows good accuracy to recognize the userpsilas activities of

  14. Recognizing hesitation phenomena in continuous, spontaneous speech

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oshaughnessy, Douglas

    Spontaneous speech differs from read speech in speaking rate and hesitation. In natural, spontaneous speech, people often start talking and then think along the way; at times, this causes the speech to have hesitation pauses (both filled and unfilled) and restarts. Results are reported on all types of pauses in a widely-used speech database, for both hesitation pauses and semi-intentional pauses. A distinction is made between grammatical pauses (at major syntactic boundaries) and ungrammatical ones. Different types of unfilled pauses cannot be reliably separated based on silence duration, although grammatical pauses tend to be longer. In the prepausal word before ungrammatical pauses, there were few continuation rises in pitch, whereas 80 percent of the grammatical pauses were accompanied by a prior fundamental frequency rise of 10-40 kHz. Identifying the syntactic function of such hesitation phenomena can improve recognition performance by eliminating from consideration some of the hypotheses proposed by an acoustic recognizer. Results presented allow simple identification of filled pauses (such as uhh, umm) and their syntactic function.

  15. Artificial Immune System for Recognizing Patterns

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huntsberger, Terrance

    2005-01-01

    A method of recognizing or classifying patterns is based on an artificial immune system (AIS), which includes an algorithm and a computational model of nonlinear dynamics inspired by the behavior of a biological immune system. The method has been proposed as the theoretical basis of the computational portion of a star-tracking system aboard a spacecraft. In that system, a newly acquired star image would be treated as an antigen that would be matched by an appropriate antibody (an entry in a star catalog). The method would enable rapid convergence, would afford robustness in the face of noise in the star sensors, would enable recognition of star images acquired in any sensor or spacecraft orientation, and would not make an excessive demand on the computational resources of a typical spacecraft. Going beyond the star-tracking application, the AIS-based pattern-recognition method is potentially applicable to pattern- recognition and -classification processes for diverse purposes -- for example, reconnaissance, detecting intruders, and mining data.

  16. Recognizing disguised faces: human and machine evaluation.

    PubMed

    Dhamecha, Tejas Indulal; Singh, Richa; Vatsa, Mayank; Kumar, Ajay

    2014-01-01

    Face verification, though an easy task for humans, is a long-standing open research area. This is largely due to the challenging covariates, such as disguise and aging, which make it very hard to accurately verify the identity of a person. This paper investigates human and machine performance for recognizing/verifying disguised faces. Performance is also evaluated under familiarity and match/mismatch with the ethnicity of observers. The findings of this study are used to develop an automated algorithm to verify the faces presented under disguise variations. We use automatically localized feature descriptors which can identify disguised face patches and account for this information to achieve improved matching accuracy. The performance of the proposed algorithm is evaluated on the IIIT-Delhi Disguise database that contains images pertaining to 75 subjects with different kinds of disguise variations. The experiments suggest that the proposed algorithm can outperform a popular commercial system and evaluates them against humans in matching disguised face images. PMID:25029188

  17. Recognizing scientific artifacts in biomedical literature.

    PubMed

    Groza, Tudor; Hassanzadeh, Hamed; Hunter, Jane

    2013-01-01

    Today's search engines and digital libraries offer little or no support for discovering those scientific artifacts (hypotheses, supporting/contradicting statements, or findings) that form the core of scientific written communication. Consequently, we currently have no means of identifying central themes within a domain or to detect gaps between accepted knowledge and newly emerging knowledge as a means for tracking the evolution of hypotheses from incipient phases to maturity or decline. We present a hybrid Machine Learning approach using an ensemble of four classifiers, for recognizing scientific artifacts (ie, hypotheses, background, motivation, objectives, and findings) within biomedical research publications, as a precursory step to the general goal of automatically creating argumentative discourse networks that span across multiple publications. The performance achieved by the classifiers ranges from 15.30% to 78.39%, subject to the target class. The set of features used for classification has led to promising results. Furthermore, their use strictly in a local, publication scope, ie, without aggregating corpus-wide statistics, increases the versatility of the ensemble of classifiers and enables its direct applicability without the necessity of re-training. PMID:23645987

  18. Water Conservation and Water Storage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Narayanan, M.

    2014-12-01

    Water storage can be a viable part of the solution to water conservation. This means that we should include reservoirs. Regardless, one should evaluate all aspects of water conservation principles. Recent drought in California indicates that there is an urgent need to re-visit the techniques used to maintain the water supply-chain mechanism in the entire state. We all recognize the fact that fish and wildlife depend on the streams, rivers and wetlands for survival. It is a well-known fact that there is an immediate need to provide solid protection to all these resources. Laws and regulations should help meet the needs of natural systems. Farmers may be forced to drilling wells deeper than ever. But, they will be eventually depleting groundwater reserves. Needless to say that birds, fish and wildlife cannot access these groundwater table. California is talking a lot about conservation. Unfortunately, the conservation efforts have not established a strong visible hold. The Environmental Protection Agency has a plan called E2PLAN (Narayanan, 2012). It is EPA's plan for achieving energy and environmental performance, leadership, accountability, and carbon neutrality. In June 2011, the EPA published a comprehensive, multi-year planning document called Strategic Sustainability Performance Plan. The author has previously reported these in detail at the 2012 AGU fall meeting. References: Ziegler, Jay (15 JUNE 2014). The Conversation: Water conservation efforts aren't taking hold, but there are encouraging signs. THE SACRAMENTO BEE. California. Narayanan, Mysore. (2012). The Importance of Water Conservation in the 21st Century. 72nd AGU International Conference. Eos Transactions: American Geophysical Union, Vol. 92, No. 56, Fall Meeting Supplement, 2012. H31I - 1255.http://www.sacbee.com/2014/06/15/6479862/jay-ziegler-water-conservation.html#storylink=cpy

  19. December 18, 2008 Conservation

    E-print Network

    1 December 18, 2008 Northwest Power and Conservation Council Northwest Power and Conservation Council Sixth Northwest Conservation & Electric Power Plan Wind Resource Assessment Jeff King Northwest Power and Conservation Council Generating Resources Advisory Committee Portland, OR December 18, 2008

  20. December 18, 2008 Conservation

    E-print Network

    1 December 18, 2008 Northwest Power and Conservation Council Northwest Power and Conservation Council Sixth Northwest Conservation & Electric Power Plan Resource Assessment Status and Remaining Work Jeff King Northwest Power and Conservation Council Generating Resources Advisory Committee Portland

  1. Superior Control of HIV-1 Replication by CD8+ T Cells Targeting Conserved Epitopes: Implications for HIV Vaccine Design

    PubMed Central

    Kunwar, Pratima; Hawkins, Natalie; Dinges, Warren L.; Liu, Yi; Gabriel, Erin E.; Swan, David A.; Stevens, Claire E.; Maenza, Janine; Collier, Ann C.; Mullins, James I.; Hertz, Tomer; Yu, Xuesong; Horton, Helen

    2013-01-01

    A successful HIV vaccine will likely induce both humoral and cell-mediated immunity, however, the enormous diversity of HIV has hampered the development of a vaccine that effectively elicits both arms of the adaptive immune response. To tackle the problem of viral diversity, T cell-based vaccine approaches have focused on two main strategies (i) increasing the breadth of vaccine-induced responses or (ii) increasing vaccine-induced responses targeting only conserved regions of the virus. The relative extent to which set-point viremia is impacted by epitope-conservation of CD8+ T cell responses elicited during early HIV-infection is unknown but has important implications for vaccine design. To address this question, we comprehensively mapped HIV-1 CD8+ T cell epitope-specificities in 23 ART-naïve individuals during early infection and computed their conservation score (CS) by three different methods (prevalence, entropy and conseq) on clade-B and group-M sequence alignments. The majority of CD8+ T cell responses were directed against variable epitopes (p<0.01). Interestingly, increasing breadth of CD8+ T cell responses specifically recognizing conserved epitopes was associated with lower set-point viremia (r?=?- 0.65, p?=?0.009). Moreover, subjects possessing CD8+ T cells recognizing at least one conserved epitope had 1.4 log10 lower set-point viremia compared to those recognizing only variable epitopes (p?=?0.021). The association between viral control and the breadth of conserved CD8+ T cell responses may be influenced by the method of CS definition and sequences used to determine conservation levels. Strikingly, targeting variable versus conserved epitopes was independent of HLA type (p?=?0.215). The associations with viral control were independent of functional avidity of CD8+ T cell responses elicited during early infection. Taken together, these data suggest that the next-generation of T-cell based HIV-1 vaccines should focus on strategies that can elicit CD8+ T cell responses to multiple conserved epitopes of HIV-1. PMID:23741326

  2. EXECUTIVE SUMMARY A Review of Water Conservation Planning for the

    E-print Network

    EXECUTIVE SUMMARY A Review of Water Conservation Planning for the Atlanta, Georgia Region (August asked the Pacific Institute to review the region's water conservation plans, including potential water that the Metropolitan North Georgia Water Planning Dis- trict's Water Supply and Water Conservation Plan may

  3. Adaptive Zones Based on Phenotypic Data for a Newly Recognized Subspecies of Bottlebrush Squirreltail

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Bottlebrush squirreltail (Elymus elymoides) is a highly ecotypic cool-season grass species that is prized for restoration applications in the Intermountain Region of the western U.S. Three major subspecies (elymoides, californicus, and brevifolius) have traditionally been recognized in this species...

  4. Cloning of a highly conserved human protein Serine-Threonine phosphatase gene from the glioma candidate region on chromosome 19q13.3

    SciTech Connect

    Yong, W.H.; Ueki, K.; Chou, D.; Reeves, S.A. [Massachusetts General Hopsital and Harvard Medical School, Charlestown, MA (United States)] [and others

    1995-09-20

    Allelic loss studies have suggested that a glioma tumor suppressor gene resides in a 425-kb region of chromosome 19q, telomeric to D19S219 and centromeric to D19S112. Exon amplification of a cosmid contig spanning this region yielded for exons with high homology to a rat protein serine-threonine phosphate from a cosmid approximately 100 kb telomeric to D19S219. Isolation of a near full-length cDNA from a human fetal brain cDNA library revealed a protein serine-threonine phosphate with a tetratricopeptide motif, almost identical to human PPP5C (PP5) and highly homologous to rat PPT. Northern blotting demonstrated expression in most human tissues, including brain. Primary and cultured gliomas were studied for genetic alterations in this gene using pulsed-field gel electrophoresis, routine Southern blots, and genomic DNA and RNA-based single strand conformation polymorphism analysis. Genomic alterations were not detected in any of the gliomas, and all studied gliomas expressed the gene, suggesting that this phosphatase is not the putative chromosome 19q glioma tumor supressor gene. 19 refs., 2 figs.

  5. Formation and structure of a NAIP5-NLRC4 inflammasome induced by direct interactions with conserved N- and C-terminal regions of flagellin.

    PubMed

    Halff, Els F; Diebolder, Christoph A; Versteeg, Marian; Schouten, Arie; Brondijk, T Harma C; Huizinga, Eric G

    2012-11-01

    The NOD-like receptors NAIP5 and NLRC4 play an essential role in the innate immune response to the bacterial tail protein flagellin. Upon flagellin detection, NAIP5 and NLRC4 form a hetero-oligomeric inflammasome that induces caspase-1-dependent cell death. So far, both the mechanism of formation of the NAIP5-NLRC4 inflammasome and its structure are poorly understood. In this study we combine inflammasome reconstitution in HEK293 cells, purification of inflammasome components, and negative stain electron microscopy to address these issues. We find that a Salmonella typhimurium flagellin fragment comprising the D0 domain and the neighboring spoke region is able to co-precipitate NAIP5 and induce formation of the NAIP5-NLRC4 inflammasome. Comparison with smaller fragments indicates that flagellin recognition is mediated by its C-terminal residues as well as the spoke region. We reconstitute the inflammasome from purified flagellin, NAIP5, and NLRC4, thus proving that no other cellular components are required for its formation. Electron micrographs of the purified inflammasome provide unprecedented insight into its architecture, revealing disk-like complexes consisting of 11 or 12 protomers in which NAIP5 and NLRC4 appear to occupy equivalent positions. On the basis of our data, we propose a model for inflammasome formation wherein direct interaction of flagellin with a single NAIP5 induces the recruitment and progressive incorporation of NLRC4, resulting in the formation of a hetero-oligomeric inflammasome. PMID:23012363

  6. Estado del conocimiento de humedales del norte patagónico (Argentina): aspectos relevantes e importancia para la conservación de la biodiversidad regional State of the knowledge of north Patagonian wetlands (Argentina): major aspects and importance for regional biodiversity conservation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    MARÍA G. PEROTTI; MARÍA C. DIÉGUEZ; FABIÁN G. JARA

    Almost 5 % of the lansdscape of Patagonia is occupied by wetlands. In the extra-andean region and the patagonian desert, wetlands are essential for sustaining biodiversity and wildlife. Besides, North patagonian wetlands present complex aquatic communities and provide habitat for threatened species of fishes and amphibians. These ecosystems have complex dynamics mostly driven by climatic fluctuations which make them vulnerable

  7. Keeping the lead: How to strengthen shark conservation and management policies in Canada

    E-print Network

    Myers, Ransom A.

    Keeping the lead: How to strengthen shark conservation and management policies in Canada Aurelie: Biodiversity conservation Bycatch Canada Fisheries management Sharks Threatened species a b s t r a c t Internationally, shark conservation is now being recognized as a major environmental challenge, but management

  8. Linkage mapping in sheep and deer identifies a conserved pecora ruminant linkage group orthologous to two regions of HSA16 and a portion of HSA7Q

    SciTech Connect

    Broom, J.E.; Tate, M.L. [Univ. of Otago, Dunedin (New Zealand)] [Univ. of Otago, Dunedin (New Zealand); Dodds, K.G. [AgResearch, Mosgiel (New Zealand)] [AgResearch, Mosgiel (New Zealand)

    1996-05-01

    Two orthologous linkage groups have been mapped in sheep and deer. Seven loci have been mapped in deer, and 12 in sheep. The sheep linkage group is assigned of ovine chromosome 24. The linkage groups consist of loci from the short arm of human chromosome 16, spanning the region containing the human Batten disease locus, and from human chromosome 7. One locus from the long arm of human chromosome 16 is also present, demonstrating a previously unknown rearrangement between human and ruminant chromosomes. There is no significant difference in marker order and distances between the two linkage groups, implying that this linkage pattern was present in the genome of the common ancestor of the pecora ruminants. 35 refs., 1 fig., 2 tabs.

  9. Conservative groupoids recognize only regular languages Martin Beaudry1 Danny Dub2 Maxime Dub2

    E-print Network

    Latendresse, Mario

    de Sherbrooke". Buses from Sherbrooke to other cities (Montreal, Quebec City, Ottawa etc.) You need to see schedule and fares. To go to Quebec City: Student fares: one way ticket: 33,43$; return ticket: 60

  10. The Fellowship of the RING: The RING–B-Box Linker Region Interacts with the RING in TRIM21\\/Ro52, Contains a Native Autoantigenic Epitope in Sjögren Syndrome, and is an Integral and Conserved Region in TRIM Proteins

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Janosch Hennig; Anders Bresell; Martina Sandberg; Klaus D. M. Hennig; Marie Wahren-Herlenius; Bengt Persson; Maria Sunnerhagen

    2008-01-01

    Ro52 is a major autoantigen that is targeted in the autoimmune disease Sjögren syndrome and belongs to the tripartite motif (TRIM) protein family. Disease-related antigenic epitopes are mainly found in the coiled-coil domain of Ro52, but one such epitope is located in the Zn2+-binding region, which comprises an N-terminal RING followed by a B-box, separated by a ?40-residue linker peptide.

  11. Turning population trend monitoring into active conservation: Can we save the cascades frog (Rang cascadae) in the Lassen Region of California?

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fellers, G.M.; Pope, K.L.; Stead, J.E.; Koo, M.S.; Welsh, W.H., Jr.

    2008-01-01

    Monitoring the distribution, population size, and trends of declining species is necessary to evaluate their vulnerability to extinction. It is the responsibility of scientists to alert management professionals of the need for preemptive action if a species approaches imminent, regional extirpation. This is the case with Rana cascadae (Cascades Frog) populations near Lassen Peak From 1993 to 2007, we conducted 1,873 amphibian surveys at 856 sites within Lassen Volcanic National Park and Lassen National Forest, California, USA. These surveys encompassed all R. cascadae habitats: ponds, lakes, meadows, and streams on those lands. We found frogs at only six sites during 14 years of surveys, and obtained one report of a single frog at one additional locality. These sites represented 12 years. Causes for the decline remain unclear, but introduced trout, disease, and pesticides are likely factors. We recommend that (1) additional protection for R. cascadae within 50 km of Lassen Peak; (2) investigation of the genetics of R. cascadae in California; (3) research into the role of possible causative factors in these declines; and (4) implementation of a feasibility study to captive breed and reintroduce R. cascadae in the Lassen area. Copyright ?? 2008. Gary Fellers. All rights reserved.

  12. A highly sensitive heminested RT-PCR assay for the detection of citrus psorosis virus targeted to a conserved region of the genome.

    PubMed

    Legarreta, G G; Garciá, M L; Costa, N; Grau, O

    2000-01-01

    Psorosis is a widespread and damaging disease of citrus in many parts of the world. The causal agent is a multipartite virus with RNA genome present in very low concentration in infected citrus tissue. Diagnosis is made by biological indexing on indicator citrus seedlings, but it is a slow and costly procedure and therefore it is not used generally. No sensitive wide-spectrum assay for Citrus Psorosis virus (CPsV) has been reported based on RT-PCR. A highly sensitive heminested RT-PCR assay is described for the detection of CPsV. Fragments of 313 bp amplified from RNA 1 of different isolates were cloned and sequenced. Very high homology was found among six isolates from the citrus producing region of Argentina: 96.6-100% in nucleotide sequence. The consensus sequence obtained was used for the design of the primers for heminested PCR assay. It has been tested on different Argentine isolates, employing various methods for RNA extraction from infected tissue. This test is able to detect CPsV in dilutions of 10(10) of the original sample. PMID:10644083

  13. NMR structure determination of the Escherichia coli DnaJ molecular chaperone: secondary structure and backbone fold of the N-terminal region (residues 2-108) containing the highly conserved J domain.

    PubMed Central

    Szyperski, T; Pellecchia, M; Wall, D; Georgopoulos, C; Wüthrich, K

    1994-01-01

    DnaJ from Escherichia coli is a 376-amino acid protein that functions in conjunction with DnaK and GrpE as a chaperone machine. The N-terminal fragment of residues 2-108, DnaJ-(2-108), retains many of the activities of the full-length protein and contains a structural motif, the J domain of residues 2-72, which is highly conserved in a superfamily of proteins. In this paper, NMR spectroscopy was used to determine the secondary structure and the three-dimensional polypeptide backbone fold of DnaJ-(2-108). By using 13C/15N doubly labeled DnaJ-(2-108), nearly complete sequence-specific assignments were obtained for 1H, 15N, 13C alpha, and 13C beta, and about 40% of the peripheral aliphatic carbon resonances were also assigned. Four alpha-helices in polypeptide segments of residues 6-11, 18-31, 41-55, and 61-68 in the J domain were identified by sequential and medium-range nuclear Overhauser effects. For the J domain, the three-dimensional structure was calculated with the program DIANA from an input of 536 nuclear Overhauser effect upper-distance constraints and 52 spin-spin coupling constants. The polypeptide backbone fold is characterized by the formation of an antiparallel bundle of two long helices, residues 18-31 and 41-55, which is stabilized by a hydrophobic core of side chains that are highly conserved in homologous J domain sequences. The Gly/Phe-rich region from residues 77 to 108 is flexibly disordered in solution. Images PMID:7972061

  14. Molluscan life and death assemblages of a sheltered lagoon in the northern Red Sea: Implications for paleoecology, regional diversity and conservation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zuschin, Martin; Gützer, Claudia

    2014-05-01

    Life-death (LD) studies of shelly macrofauna are important to evaluate how well a fossil assemblage can reflect the original living community, but can also serve as a proxy for recent ecological shifts in marine habitats. In addition, death assemblages (DAs) also preserve important information on regional diversity which is not available from single censuses of the life assemblages (LAs). Most case studies on LD agreement were performed in temperate environments. We studied the distribution and abundance of living and dead bivalve and gastropod species in the physically stressful environments (tidal flat and shallow sublittoral soft bottoms) of a sheltered lagoon in the northern Red Sea, which is under increasing anthropogenic pressure from tourism. A total of 3,566 molluscs from nine tidal flat and nine sublittoral stations were analyzed for species composition and distribution of living and dead molluscs. Of 97 recorded species, one potamidid gastropod dominated strongly and another 4 species were numerically abundant. There were many more dead (70.3%) than living individuals, with large differences between gastropods (57.5% dead) and bivalves (95.5% dead), and between the intertidal (49.3% dead) and the subtidal (96.2% dead). The mean number of species per sample is lower in the intertidal than in the subtidal, and this difference is much higher in the death assemblage than in the life assemblage. Distinct assemblages characterized intertidal and sublittoral habitats, however, and the distribution and abundance of empty shells generally corresponded to that of the living species. More samples would be necessary to account for the diversity of living molluscs in the study area, which is, however, well recorded in the death assemblages. There is no indication of a major environmental change over the last decades in this area.

  15. Genome-wide DNA microarray analysis of Francisella tularensis strains demonstrates extensive genetic conservation within the species but identifies regions that are unique to the highly virulent F. tularensis subsp. tularensis.

    PubMed

    Broekhuijsen, Martien; Larsson, Pär; Johansson, Anders; Byström, Mona; Eriksson, Ulla; Larsson, Eva; Prior, Richard G; Sjöstedt, Anders; Titball, Richard W; Forsman, Mats

    2003-07-01

    Francisella tularensis is a potent pathogen and a possible bioterrorism agent. Little is known, however, to explain the molecular basis for its virulence and the distinct differences in virulence found between the four recognized subspecies, F. tularensis subsp. tularensis, F. tularensis subsp. mediasiatica, F. tularensis subsp. holarctica, and F. tularensis subsp. novicida. We developed a DNA microarray based on 1,832 clones from a shotgun library used for sequencing of the highly virulent strain F. tularensis subsp. tularensis Schu S4. This allowed a genome-wide analysis of 27 strains representing all four subspecies. Overall, the microarray analysis confirmed a limited genetic variation within the species F. tularensis, and when the strains were compared, at most 3.7% of the probes showed differential hybridization. Cluster analysis of the hybridization data revealed that the causative agents of type A and type B tularemia, i.e., F. tularensis subsp. tularensis and F. tularensis subsp. holarctica, respectively, formed distinct clusters. Despite marked differences in their virulence and geographical origin, a high degree of genomic similarity between strains of F. tularensis subsp. tularensis and F. tularensis subsp. mediasiatica was apparent. Strains from Japan clustered separately, as did strains of F. tularensis subsp. novicida. Eight regions of difference (RD) 0.6 to 11.5 kb in size, altogether comprising 21 open reading frames, were identified that distinguished strains of the moderately virulent subspecies F. tularensis subsp. holarctica and the highly virulent subspecies F. tularensis subsp. tularensis. One of these regions, RD1, allowed for the first time the development of an F. tularensis-specific PCR assay that discriminates each of the four subspecies. PMID:12843022

  16. Recognizing Objects in Smart Homes Based on Human Interaction

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Chen Wu; Hamid K. Aghajan

    2010-01-01

    \\u000a We propose a system to recognize objects with a camera network in a smart home. Recognizing objects in a home environment\\u000a from images is challenging, due to the variation in object appearances such as chairs, as well as the clutters in the scene.\\u000a Therefore, we propose to recognize objects through user interactions. A hierarchical activity analysis is first performed\\u000a in

  17. A network approach for identifying and delimiting biogeographical regions.

    PubMed

    Vilhena, Daril A; Antonelli, Alexandre

    2015-01-01

    Biogeographical regions (geographically distinct assemblages of species and communities) constitute a cornerstone for ecology, biogeography, evolution and conservation biology. Species turnover measures are often used to quantify spatial biodiversity patterns, but algorithms based on similarity can be sensitive to common sampling biases in species distribution data. Here we apply a community detection approach from network theory that incorporates complex, higher-order presence-absence patterns. We demonstrate the performance of the method by applying it to all amphibian species in the world (c. 6,100 species), all vascular plant species of the USA (c. 17,600) and a hypothetical data set containing a zone of biotic transition. In comparison with current methods, our approach tackles the challenges posed by transition zones and succeeds in retrieving a larger number of commonly recognized biogeographical regions. This method can be applied to generate objective, data-derived identification and delimitation of the world's biogeographical regions. PMID:25907961

  18. Teaching for a World Conservation Strategy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kirk, John J.

    1982-01-01

    The World Conservation Strategy calls upon international, national, and regional efforts to balance development with conservation of the world's living resources (e.g., forests, water, farmland, coastal resources). Environmental educators must inform themselves, establish adequate teacher training programs, and develop curriculum materials to…

  19. The Conservation Status of Northeast Atlantic Chondrichthyans

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Claudine Gibson; Sarah V. Valenti; Sarah L. Fowler; Sonja V. Fordham

    This report describes the results of a regional Red List Workshop held at the Joint Nature Conservation Committee (JNCC), Peterborough, UK, in 2006, as a contribution towards the IUCN Species Survival Commission's Shark Specialist Group's 'Global Shark Red List Assessment'. The purpose of the workshop was to assess the conservation status of the chondrichthyan fishes (sharks, rays and chimaeras) of

  20. Quantifying tillage translocation and deposition rates due to moldboard plowing in the Palouse region of the Pacific Northwest, USA 1 Paper presented at International Symposium on Tillage Translocation and Tillage Erosion held in conjunction with the 52nd Annual Conference of the Soil and Water Conservation Society, Toronto, Canada, 24–25 July 1997 1

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. A Montgomery; D. K McCool; A. J Busacca; B. E Frazier

    1999-01-01

    Most of the erosion research in the Palouse region of eastern Washington State, USA has focused on quantifying the rates and patterns of water erosion for purposes of conservation planing. Tillage translocation, however, has largely been overlooked as a significant geomorphic process on Palouse hillslopes. Tillage translocation and tillage deposition together have resulted in severe soil degradation in many steep

  1. Assessing riparian conservation land management practice impacts on gully erosion in Iowa.

    PubMed

    Zaimes, George N; Schultz, Richard C

    2012-05-01

    Well-established perennial vegetation in riparian areas of agricultural lands can stabilize the end points of gullies and reduce their overall erosion. The objective of this study was to investigate the impacts of riparian land management on gully erosion. A field survey documented the number of gullies and cattle access points in riparian forest buffers, grass filters, annual row-cropped fields, pastures in which the cattle were fenced out of the stream, and continuously, rotationally and intensive rotationally grazed pastures in three regions of Iowa. Gully lengths, depths and severely eroding bank areas were measured. Gullies exhibited few significant differences among riparian management practices. The most significant differences were exhibited between conservation and agricultural management practices, an indication that conservation practices could reduce gully erosion. Changes in pasture management from continuous to rotational or intensive rotational grazing showed no reductions in gully erosion. It is important to recognize that more significant differences among riparian management practices were not exhibited because the conservation and alternative grazing practices had recently been established. As gully formation is more impacted by upland than riparian management, gully stabilization might require additional upland conservation practices. The existence of numerous cattle access points in pastures where cattle have full access to the stream also indicates that these could be substantial sources of sediment for streams. Finally, the gully banks were less important sediment contributors to streams than the streambanks. The severely eroding bank areas in streams were six times greater than those in the gullies in the monitored reaches. PMID:22419397

  2. Antibody Recognition of a Highly Conserved Influenza Virus Epitope

    SciTech Connect

    Ekiert, Damian C.; Bhabha, Gira; Elsliger, Marc-André; Friesen, Robert H.E.; Jongeneelen, Mandy; Throsby, Mark; Goudsmit, Jaap; Wilson, Ian A.; Scripps; Crucell

    2009-05-21

    Influenza virus presents an important and persistent threat to public health worldwide, and current vaccines provide immunity to viral isolates similar to the vaccine strain. High-affinity antibodies against a conserved epitope could provide immunity to the diverse influenza subtypes and protection against future pandemic viruses. Cocrystal structures were determined at 2.2 and 2.7 angstrom resolutions for broadly neutralizing human antibody CR6261 Fab in complexes with the major surface antigen (hemagglutinin, HA) from viruses responsible for the 1918 H1N1 influenza pandemic and a recent lethal case of H5N1 avian influenza. In contrast to other structurally characterized influenza antibodies, CR6261 recognizes a highly conserved helical region in the membrane-proximal stem of HA1 and HA2. The antibody neutralizes the virus by blocking conformational rearrangements associated with membrane fusion. The CR6261 epitope identified here should accelerate the design and implementation of improved vaccines that can elicit CR6261-like antibodies, as well as antibody-based therapies for the treatment of influenza.

  3. MODEL CONSERVATION STANDARD INTRODUCTION

    E-print Network

    MODEL CONSERVATION STANDARD INTRODUCTION As directed by the Northwest Power Act, the Council has designed model conservation standards to produce all electricity savings that are cost believes the measures used to achieve the model conservation standards should provide reliable savings

  4. Conserved salt bridge between the N- and C-terminal heptad repeat regions of the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 gp41 core structure is critical for virus entry and inhibition.

    PubMed

    He, Yuxian; Liu, Shuwen; Li, Jingjing; Lu, Hong; Qi, Zhi; Liu, Zhonghua; Debnath, Asim K; Jiang, Shibo

    2008-11-01

    The fusogenic human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) gp41 core structure is a stable six-helix bundle formed by its N- and C-terminal heptad repeat sequences. Notably, the negatively charged residue Asp(632) located at the pocket-binding motif in the C-terminal heptad repeat interacts with the positively charged residue Lys(574) in the pocket formation region of the N-terminal heptad repeat to form a salt bridge. We previously demonstrated that the residue Lys(574) plays an essential role in six-helix bundle formation and virus infectivity and is a key determinant of the target for anti-HIV fusion inhibitors. In this study, the functionality of residue Asp(632) has been specifically characterized by mutational analysis and biophysical approaches. We show that Asp(632) substitutions with positively charged residues (D632K and D632R) or a hydrophobic residue (D632V) could completely abolish Env-mediated viral entry, while a protein with a conserved substitution (D632E) retained its activity. Similar to the Lys(574) mutations, nonconserved substitutions of Asp(632) also severely impaired the alpha-helicity, stability, and conformation of six-helix bundles as shown by N36 and C34 peptides as a model system. Furthermore, nonconserved substitutions of Asp(632) significantly reduced the potency of C34 to sequestrate six-helix bundle formation and to inhibit HIV-1-mediated cell-cell fusion and infection, suggesting its importance for designing antiviral fusion inhibitors. Taken together, these data suggest that the salt bridge between the N- and C-terminal heptad repeat regions of the fusion-active HIV-1 gp41 core structure is critical for viral entry and inhibition. PMID:18768964

  5. A maximum entropy method to recognize disease named phrase

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Xiaobai Cai; Xiaozhong Fan

    2009-01-01

    It is useful to recognize disease named phrases from medical literatures and clinic records for extracting medical information. Since manually annotated domain data is rarely available, it is restricted to apply machine learning approaches in the work. We propose a method based on maximum entropy model for recognizing the phrase, in which domain knowledge is integrated into the statistical method

  6. Understanding how bloggers feel: recognizing affect in blog posts

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gilly Leshed; Joseph'Jofish' Kaye

    2006-01-01

    One of the goals of affective computing is to recognize human emotions. We present a system that learns to recognize emotions based on textual resources and test it on a large number of blog entries tagged with moods by their authors. We show how a machine-learning approach can be used to gain insight into the way writers convey and interpret

  7. A Joint Syntactic-Semantic Representation for Recognizing Textual Relatedness

    E-print Network

    Neumann, Günter

    in the Recognizing Textual Entailment challenge (RTE-5) in the Text Analysis Conference (TAC 2009). Following the two Introduction Recent research on recognizing textual entailment (RTE ­ Dagan et al., 2006; Giampiccolo et al), common approaches 1 http://nlp.stanford.edu/RTE3-pilot/ and http://www.nist.gov/tac/tracks/2008/rte/rte

  8. Interspecies cross-reactive determinants of thyroglobulin recognized by autoantibodies.

    PubMed

    Kohno, Y; Nakajima, H; Tarutani, O

    1985-07-01

    In this study, we have attempted to characterize the epitopes of thyroglobulin (Tg) recognized by autoantibodies. Anti-autologous Tg from the serum reacted with other Tg from whales, pigs, cows, chickens and rats as well as with human Tg, thereby indicating that human Tg share epitopes recognized by autoantibodies with Tg from various animal species. PMID:2412739

  9. Prospective Teacher Learning: Recognizing Evidence of Conceptual Understanding

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bartell, Tonya Gau; Webel, Corey; Bowen, Brian; Dyson, Nancy

    2013-01-01

    This study examined prospective teachers' (PSTs) ability to recognize evidence of children's conceptual understanding of mathematics in three content areas before and after an instructional intervention designed to support this ability. It also investigates the role PSTs' content knowledge plays in their ability to recognize children's…

  10. Water conservation programs

    SciTech Connect

    Darilek, A. [New Mexico State Engineer Office, Santa Fe, NM (United States). Water Conservation Program; Witherspoon, J. [City of Albuquerque, NM (United States). Public Works Dept.; Hutchinson, D.L. [Intel Corp., Rio Rancho, NM (United States)

    1995-12-31

    The paper discusses three water conservation programs: statewide water conservation efforts, a 5-point program of the City of Albuquerque, and the program for recycling wastewater by the Intel Corporation. Water conservation programs depend largely on public education programs. Albuquerque`s program, for example, includes development of a K-12th grade curriculum on water conservation, live theater performances promoting conservation for elementary school children, and collaboration with existing community organizations to promote water conservation.

  11. HIV-1 p24gag Derived Conserved Element DNA Vaccine Increases the Breadth of Immune Response in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Kulkarni, Viraj; Rosati, Margherita; Valentin, Antonio; Ganneru, Brunda; Singh, Ashish K.; Yan, Jian; Rolland, Morgane; Alicea, Candido; Beach, Rachel Kelly; Zhang, Gen-Mu; Le Gall, Sylvie; Broderick, Kate E.; Sardesai, Niranjan Y.; Heckerman, David; Mothe, Beatriz; Brander, Christian; Weiner, David B.; Mullins, James I.; Pavlakis, George N.; Felber, Barbara K.

    2013-01-01

    Viral diversity is considered a major impediment to the development of an effective HIV-1 vaccine. Despite this diversity, certain protein segments are nearly invariant across the known HIV-1 Group M sequences. We developed immunogens based on the highly conserved elements from the p24gag region according to two principles: the immunogen must (i) include strictly conserved elements of the virus that cannot mutate readily, and (ii) exclude both HIV regions capable of mutating without limiting virus viability, and also immunodominant epitopes located in variable regions. We engineered two HIV-1 p24gag DNA immunogens that express 7 highly Conserved Elements (CE) of 12–24 amino acids in length and differ by only 1 amino acid in each CE (‘toggle site’), together covering >99% of the HIV-1 Group M sequences. Altering intracellular trafficking of the immunogens changed protein localization, stability, and also the nature of elicited immune responses. Immunization of C57BL/6 mice with p55gag DNA induced poor, CD4+ mediated cellular responses, to only 2 of the 7 CE; in contrast, vaccination with p24CE DNA induced cross-clade reactive, robust T cell responses to 4 of the 7 CE. The responses were multifunctional and composed of both CD4+ and CD8+ T cells with mature cytotoxic phenotype. These findings provide a method to increase immune response to universally conserved Gag epitopes, using the p24CE immunogen. p24CE DNA vaccination induced humoral immune responses similar in magnitude to those induced by p55gag, which recognize the virus encoded p24gag protein. The inclusion of DNA immunogens composed of conserved elements is a promising vaccine strategy to induce broader immunity by CD4+ and CD8+ T cells to additional regions of Gag compared to vaccination with p55gag DNA, achieving maximal cross-clade reactive cellular and humoral responses. PMID:23555935

  12. The human G1m1 allotype associates with CD4+ T-cell responsiveness to a highly conserved IgG1 constant region peptide and confers an asparaginyl endopeptidase cleavage site

    PubMed Central

    Stickler, M M; Reddy, A; Xiong, J M; Hinton, P R; DuBridge, R; Harding, F A

    2011-01-01

    The human G1m1 allotype comprises two amino acids, D12 and L14, in the CH3 domain of IGHG1. Although the G1m1 allotype is prevalent in human populations, ?40% of Caucasiods are homozygous for the nG1m1 allotype corresponding to E12 and M14. Peptides derived from the G1m1 region were tested for their ability to induce CD4+ T-cell proliferative responses in vitro. A peptide immediately downstream from the G1m1 sequence was recognized by CD4+ T cells in a large percentage of donors (peptide CH315?29). CD4+ T-cell proliferative responses to CH315?29 were found at an increased frequency in nG1m1 homozygous donors. Homozygous nG1m1 donors possessing the HLA-DRB1*07 allele displayed the highest magnitudes of proliferation. CD4+ T cells from donors homozygous for nG1m1 proliferated to G1m1-carrying Fc-fragment proteins, whereas CD4+ T cells from G1m1 homozygous donors did not. The G1m1 sequence creates an enzymatic cleavage site for asparaginyl endopeptidase in vitro. Proteolytic activity at D12 may allow the presentation of the CH315?29 peptide, which in turn may result in the establishment of tolerance to this peptide in G1m1-positive donors. Homozygous nG1m1 patients may be more likely to develop CD4+ T-cell-mediated immune responses to therapeutic antibodies carrying the G1m1 allotype. PMID:21326320

  13. Non-random escape pathways from a broadly neutralizing human monoclonal antibody map to a highly conserved region on the hepatitis C virus E2 glycoprotein encompassing amino acids 412-423.

    PubMed

    Keck, Zhen-yong; Angus, Allan G N; Wang, Wenyan; Lau, Patrick; Wang, Yong; Gatherer, Derek; Patel, Arvind H; Foung, Steven K H

    2014-08-01

    A challenge for hepatitis C virus (HCV) vaccine development is to define epitopes that are able to elicit protective antibodies against this highly diverse virus. The E2 glycoprotein region located at residues 412-423 is conserved and antibodies to 412-423 have broadly neutralizing activities. However, an adaptive mutation, N417S, is associated with a glycan shift in a variant that cannot be neutralized by a murine but by human monoclonal antibodies (HMAbs) against 412-423. To determine whether HCV escapes from these antibodies, we analyzed variants that emerged when cell culture infectious HCV virions (HCVcc) were passaged under increasing concentrations of a specific HMAb, HC33.1. Multiple nonrandom escape pathways were identified. Two pathways occurred in the context of an N-glycan shift mutation at N417T. At low antibody concentrations, substitutions of two residues outside of the epitope, N434D and K610R, led to variants having improved in vitro viral fitness and reduced sensitivity to HC33.1 binding and neutralization. At moderate concentrations, a S419N mutation occurred within 412-423 in escape variants that have greatly reduced sensitivity to HC33.1 but compromised viral fitness. Importantly, the variants generated from these pathways differed in their stability. N434D and K610R-associated variants were stable and became dominant as the virions were passaged. The S419N mutation reverted back to N419S when immune pressure was reduced by removing HC33.1. At high antibody concentrations, a mutation at L413I was observed in variants that were resistant to HC33.1 neutralization. Collectively, the combination of multiple escape pathways enabled the virus to persist under a wide range of antibody concentrations. Moreover, these findings pose a different challenge to vaccine development beyond the identification of highly conserved epitopes. It will be necessary for a vaccine to induce high potency antibodies that prevent the formation of escape variants, which can co-exist with lower potency or levels of neutralizing activities. PMID:25122476

  14. Non-random Escape Pathways from a Broadly Neutralizing Human Monoclonal Antibody Map to a Highly Conserved Region on the Hepatitis C Virus E2 Glycoprotein Encompassing Amino Acids 412–423

    PubMed Central

    Keck, Zhen-yong; Angus, Allan G. N.; Wang, Wenyan; Lau, Patrick; Wang, Yong; Gatherer, Derek; Patel, Arvind H.; Foung, Steven K. H.

    2014-01-01

    A challenge for hepatitis C virus (HCV) vaccine development is to define epitopes that are able to elicit protective antibodies against this highly diverse virus. The E2 glycoprotein region located at residues 412–423 is conserved and antibodies to 412–423 have broadly neutralizing activities. However, an adaptive mutation, N417S, is associated with a glycan shift in a variant that cannot be neutralized by a murine but by human monoclonal antibodies (HMAbs) against 412–423. To determine whether HCV escapes from these antibodies, we analyzed variants that emerged when cell culture infectious HCV virions (HCVcc) were passaged under increasing concentrations of a specific HMAb, HC33.1. Multiple nonrandom escape pathways were identified. Two pathways occurred in the context of an N-glycan shift mutation at N417T. At low antibody concentrations, substitutions of two residues outside of the epitope, N434D and K610R, led to variants having improved in vitro viral fitness and reduced sensitivity to HC33.1 binding and neutralization. At moderate concentrations, a S419N mutation occurred within 412–423 in escape variants that have greatly reduced sensitivity to HC33.1 but compromised viral fitness. Importantly, the variants generated from these pathways differed in their stability. N434D and K610R-associated variants were stable and became dominant as the virions were passaged. The S419N mutation reverted back to N419S when immune pressure was reduced by removing HC33.1. At high antibody concentrations, a mutation at L413I was observed in variants that were resistant to HC33.1 neutralization. Collectively, the combination of multiple escape pathways enabled the virus to persist under a wide range of antibody concentrations. Moreover, these findings pose a different challenge to vaccine development beyond the identification of highly conserved epitopes. It will be necessary for a vaccine to induce high potency antibodies that prevent the formation of escape variants, which can co-exist with lower potency or levels of neutralizing activities. PMID:25122476

  15. ORIGINAL PAPER Evolutionarily conserved and divergent regions

    E-print Network

    Utrecht, Universiteit

    primarily in subsets of MTEC and thymic dendritic cells, although in very low amounts in other tissues / Published online: 23 January 2008 # Springer-Verlag 2007 Abstract During T cell differentiation, medullary thymic epithelial cells (MTEC) expose developing T cells to tissue- specific antigens. MTEC expression

  16. Conserved regions frequently represent structural similarity

    E-print Network

    Gordon, Geoffrey J.

    ;http://www.nature.com/nbt/journal/v22/n11/pdf/nbt1104- 1457.pdf RNA folding http://www.nature.com/focus/rnai/animations/animation/ui_ main.swf (video on RNAi) http://www.nature.com/focus/rnai/index.html (general miRNA/RNAi reading) http

  17. eBLOCKs: enumerating conserved protein blocks to achieve maximal sensitivity and specificity

    PubMed Central

    Su, Qiaojuan Jane; Lu, Lin; Saxonov, Serge; Brutlag, Douglas L.

    2005-01-01

    Classifying proteins into families and superfamilies allows identification of functionally important conserved domains. The motifs and scoring matrices derived from such conserved regions provide computational tools that recognize similar patterns in novel sequences, and thus enable the prediction of protein function for genomes. The eBLOCKs database enumerates a cascade of protein blocks with varied conservation levels for each functional domain. A biologically important region is most stringently conserved among a smaller family of highly similar proteins. The same region is often found in a larger group of more remotely related proteins with a reduced stringency. Through enumeration, highly specific signatures can be generated from blocks with more columns and fewer family members, while highly sensitive signatures can be derived from blocks with fewer columns and more members as in a superfamily. By applying PSI-BLAST and a modified K-means clustering algorithm, eBLOCKs automatically groups protein sequences according to different levels of similarity. Multiple sequence alignments are made and trimmed into a series of ungapped blocks. Motifs and position-specific scoring matrices were derived from eBLOCKs and made available for sequence search and annotation. The eBLOCKs database provides a tool for high-throughput genome annotation with maximal specificity and sensitivity. The eBLOCKs database is freely available on the World Wide Web at http://motif.stanford.edu/eblocks/ to all users for online usage. Academic and not-for-profit institutions wishing copies of the program may contact Douglas L. Brutlag (brutlag@stanford.edu). Commercial firms wishing copies of the program for internal installation may contact Jacqueline Tay at the Stanford Office of Technology Licensing (jacqueline.tay@stanford.edu; http://otl.stanford.edu/). PMID:15608172

  18. eBLOCKs: enumerating conserved protein blocks to achieve maximal sensitivity and specificity.

    PubMed

    Su, Qiaojuan Jane; Lu, Lin; Saxonov, Serge; Brutlag, Douglas L

    2005-01-01

    Classifying proteins into families and superfamilies allows identification of functionally important conserved domains. The motifs and scoring matrices derived from such conserved regions provide computational tools that recognize similar patterns in novel sequences, and thus enable the prediction of protein function for genomes. The eBLOCKs database enumerates a cascade of protein blocks with varied conservation levels for each functional domain. A biologically important region is most stringently conserved among a smaller family of highly similar proteins. The same region is often found in a larger group of more remotely related proteins with a reduced stringency. Through enumeration, highly specific signatures can be generated from blocks with more columns and fewer family members, while highly sensitive signatures can be derived from blocks with fewer columns and more members as in a superfamily. By applying PSI-BLAST and a modified K-means clustering algorithm, eBLOCKs automatically groups protein sequences according to different levels of similarity. Multiple sequence alignments are made and trimmed into a series of ungapped blocks. Motifs and position-specific scoring matrices were derived from eBLOCKs and made available for sequence search and annotation. The eBLOCKs database provides a tool for high-throughput genome annotation with maximal specificity and sensitivity. The eBLOCKs database is freely available on the World Wide Web at http://motif.stanford.edu/eblocks/ to all users for online usage. Academic and not-for-profit institutions wishing copies of the program may contact Douglas L. Brutlag (brutlag@stanford.edu). Commercial firms wishing copies of the program for internal installation may contact Jacqueline Tay at the Stanford Office of Technology Licensing (jacqueline.tay@stanford.edu; http://otl.stanford.edu/). PMID:15608172

  19. PREVENTIVE CONSERVATION: A CONCEPT SUITED TO THE CONSERVATION OF EARTHEN

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    PREVENTIVE CONSERVATION: A CONCEPT SUITED TO THE CONSERVATION OF EARTHEN ARCHITECTURAL HERITAGE and Construction Key words: Preventive conservation, traditional conservation practices, risk reduction, heritage management Abstract The concept of "preventive conservation" is relatively old as it has already been

  20. Industrial energy conservation technology

    Microsoft Academic Search

    1983-01-01

    This book presents the papers given at a conference which examined energy conservation in industrial plants. Topics considered at the conference included the economics of cogeneration, energy conservation techniques, heat recovery systems, energy retrofits, energy management systems in buildings, energy conservation in the textile industry, energy conservation in the telecommunications industry, alternative energy sources, efficient techniques for heating and cooling

  1. December 9, 2008 Conservation

    E-print Network

    1 December 9, 2008 Northwest Power and Conservation Council Northwest Power and Conservation Council Sixth Northwest Conservation & Electric Power Plan Rankine-cycle Coal-fired Power Plant Resource Assessment Jeff King Northwest Power and Conservation Council Generating Resources Advisory Committee

  2. LAND & WATER CONSERVATION PROGRAM

    E-print Network

    New Hampshire, University of

    and resources in a geographic area Promote conservation of these natural features and resources Guide ________________________________________________________________________ Preparing a Conservation Plan INTRODUCTION Conservation of land, water and other natural features and resources is a priority for many New Hampshire communities. In order to implement conservation projects

  3. 40 CFR 105.15 - How are award winners recognized?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false How are award winners recognized? 105.15 Section 105...AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS RECOGNITION AWARDS UNDER THE CLEAN WATER ACT Awards Recognition § 105.15 How are award...

  4. 3-minute diagnosis: Researchers develop new method to recognize pathogens

    ScienceCinema

    Beer, Reg

    2014-05-30

    Imagine knowing precisely why you feel sick ... before the doctor's exam is over. Lawrence Livermore researcher Reg Beer and his engineering colleagues have developed a new method to recognize disease-causing pathogens quicker than ever before.

  5. Recognizing deviations from normalcy for brain tumor segmentation

    E-print Network

    Gering, David T. (David Thomas), 1971-

    2003-01-01

    A framework is proposed for the segmentation of brain tumors from MRI. Instead of training on pathology, the proposed method trains exclusively on healthy tissue. The algorithm attempts to recognize deviations from normalcy ...

  6. ADEQUACY OF DISINFECTION FOR CONTROL OF NEWLY RECOGNIZED WATERBORNE PATHOGENS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Agents recently recognized as causes or potential causes of waterborne outbreaks include pathogenic bacteria (Campylobacter jejuni, Yersinia enterocoliticia), viruses (rotavirus, Norwalk virus and other poorly defined viral agents) and Giardia lamblia, a protozoan agent. Although...

  7. IDeixis : image-based deixis for recognizing locations

    E-print Network

    Yeh, Pei-Hsiu, 1978-

    2004-01-01

    In this thesis, we describe an approach to recognizing location from camera-equipped mobile devices using image-based web search. This is an image-based deixis capable of pointing at a distant location away from the user's ...

  8. 46 CFR 160.047-7 - Recognized laboratory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...CONSTRUCTION, AND MATERIALS: SPECIFICATIONS AND APPROVAL LIFESAVING EQUIPMENT Specification for a Buoyant Vest, Kapok or Fibrous Glass, Adult and Child § 160.047-7 Recognized laboratory. (a) A manufacturer seeking Coast Guard approval of...

  9. 46 CFR 160.047-7 - Recognized laboratory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...CONSTRUCTION, AND MATERIALS: SPECIFICATIONS AND APPROVAL LIFESAVING EQUIPMENT Specification for a Buoyant Vest, Kapok or Fibrous Glass, Adult and Child § 160.047-7 Recognized laboratory. (a) A manufacturer seeking Coast Guard approval of...

  10. Expression of a single siRNA against a conserved region of NP gene strongly inhibits in vitro replication of different Influenza A virus strains of avian and swine origin.

    PubMed

    Stoppani, Elena; Bassi, Ivan; Dotti, Silvia; Lizier, Michela; Ferrari, Maura; Lucchini, Franco

    2015-08-01

    Influenza A virus is the principal agent responsible of the respiratory tract's infections in humans. Every year, highly pathogenic and infectious strains with new antigenic assets appear, making ineffective vaccines so far developed. The discovery of RNA interference (RNAi) opened the way to the progress of new promising drugs against Influenza A virus and also to the introduction of disease resistance traits in genetically modified animals. In this paper, we show that Madin-Darby Canine Kidney (MDCK) cell line expressing short hairpin RNAs (shRNAs) cassette, designed on a specific conserved region of the nucleoprotein (NP) viral genome, can strongly inhibit the viral replication of four viral strains sharing the target sequence, reducing the viral mRNA respectively to 2.5×10(-4), 7.5×10(-5), 1.7×10(-3), 1.9×10(-4) compared to the control, as assessed by real-time PCR. Moreover, we demonstrate that during the challenge with a viral strain bearing a single mismatch on the target sequence, although a weaker inhibition is observed, viral mRNA is still lowered down to 1.2×10(-3) folds in the shRNA-expressing clone compared to the control, indicating a broad potential use of this approach. In addition, we developed a highly predictive and fast screening test of siRNA sequences based on dual-luciferase assay, useful for the in vitro prediction of the potential effect of viral inhibition. In conclusion, these findings reveal new siRNA sequences able to inhibit Influenza A virus replication and provide a basis for the development of siRNAs as prophylaxis and therapy for influenza infection both in humans and animals. PMID:25986248

  11. Conservation and drought management

    E-print Network

    Finch, Calvin

    2012-01-01

    Fall 2012 tx H2O 5 Column by Dr. Calvin Finch, Water Conservation and Technology Center director Conservation and Drought Management WAT E R CONSERVATION & TECHNOLOGY CENTER Securing Our Water Future Water conservation and drought... management are related, but they are not the same. Water conservation is a long-term e#27;ort to reduce the amount of water it takes to manufacture goods, manage households and care for landscapes. Drought management is water-use rules initiated to deal...

  12. Conservation and drought management 

    E-print Network

    Finch, Calvin

    2012-01-01

    Fall 2012 tx H2O 5 Column by Dr. Calvin Finch, Water Conservation and Technology Center director Conservation and Drought Management WAT E R CONSERVATION & TECHNOLOGY CENTER Securing Our Water Future Water conservation and drought... management are related, but they are not the same. Water conservation is a long-term e#27;ort to reduce the amount of water it takes to manufacture goods, manage households and care for landscapes. Drought management is water-use rules initiated to deal...

  13. Seeing People in Social Context: Recognizing People and Social Relationships

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Andrew Gallagher; David Forsyth; Jiebo Luo

    2010-01-01

    The people in an image are generally not strangers, but instead often share social relationships such as husband-wife, siblings, grandparent-child, father-child, or mother-child. Further, the social re- lationship between a pair of people in?uences the relative position and appearance of the people in the image. This paper explores using familial social relationships as context for recognizing people and for recognizing

  14. Experimental Evaluation of a Trainable Scribble Recognizer for Calligraphic Interfaces

    Microsoft Academic Search

    César F. Pimentel; Manuel J. da Fonseca; Joaquim A. Jorge

    2001-01-01

    This paper describes a trainable recognizer for hand-drawn sketches using geometric features. We compare three different training algorithms and select the best approach in terms of cost-performance ratio. The algorithms employ classic machine-learning techniques using a clustering approach. Experimental results show competing performance (95.1%) with the non- trainable recognizer (95.8%) previously developed, with obvious gains in flexibility and expandability. In

  15. Nonstereotyped Lymphoma B-cell Receptors Recognize Vimentin as a Shared Autoantigen

    PubMed Central

    Cha, Soung-Chul; Qin, Hong; Kannan, Shibichakravarthy; Rawal, Seema; Watkins, Leticia S.; Baio, Flavio E.; Wu, Weiguo; Ong, Juliana; Wei, Jinsong; Kwak, Benjamin; Kim, Sang; Popescu, Michael S.; Paick, Daniel S.; Kim, Kunhwa; Luong, Amber; Davis, Richard E; Schroeder, Harry W.; Kwak, Larry W.; Neelapu, Sattva S.

    2013-01-01

    Antigen activation of the B-cell receptor (BCR) may play a role in the pathogenesis of human follicular lymphoma (FL) and other B-cell malignancies. However, the nature of the antigen(s) recognized by tumor BCRs has not been well studied. Here, we used unbiased approaches to demonstrate that 42 (19.35%) of 217 tested FL immunoglobulins (Igs) recognized vimentin as a shared autoantigen. The epitope was localized to the N-terminal region of vimentin for all vimentin-reactive tumor Igs. We confirmed specific binding to vimentin by using recombinant vimentin and by performing competitive inhibition studies. Furthermore, using indirect immunofluorescence staining, we showed that the vimentin-reactive tumor Igs colocalized with an anti-vimentin monoclonal antibody in HEp-2 cells. The reactivity to N-terminal vimentin of IgG FL Igs was significantly higher than that of IgM FL Igs (30.4% vs. 10%; P=0.0022). However, vimentin-reactive FL Igs did not share complimentarity determining region 3 motifs and were not homologous. Vimentin was expressed in the T-cell rich regions of FL, suggesting that vimentin is available for binding with tumor BCRs within the tumor microenvironment. Vimentin was also frequently recognized by mantle cell lymphoma and multiple myeloma Igs. Our results demonstrate that vimentin is a shared autoantigen recognized by nonstereotyped FL BCRs and by the Igs of mantle cell lymphoma and multiple myeloma and suggest that vimentin may play a role in the pathogenesis of multiple B-cell malignancies. These findings may lead to better understanding of the biology and natural history of FL and other B cell malignancies. PMID:23536634

  16. Industrial Energy Conservation in Central America and Panama 

    E-print Network

    Oven, M. J.; Pashkevich, P. A.

    1985-01-01

    The Regional Industrial Energy Efficiency Project (RIEEP) is the largest and most comprehensive energy conservation effort in Central America and Panama. This paper describes the regional economic and energy situation leading up to the project...

  17. Multiresolution schemes for conservation laws

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Wolfgang Dahmen; Siegfried Müller

    2001-01-01

    Summary.   In recent years a variety of high–order schemes for the numerical solution of conservation laws has been developed. In general,\\u000a these numerical methods involve expensive flux evaluations in order to resolve discontinuities accurately. But in large parts\\u000a of the flow domain the solution is smooth. Hence in these regions an unexpensive finite difference scheme suffices. In order\\u000a to reduce

  18. Agricultural Water Conservation A Global Perspective

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Paul W. Unger; Terry A. Howell

    2000-01-01

    Water for agriculture generally is adequate in humid regions, but water conservation often is needed in subhumid and semiarid regions for good crop production, even with irrigation because of limited supplies. Increasingly, urban, industrial, environmental, and recreational users compete for agricultural water supplies. Although temporally and spatially variable, annual total supplies are relatively constant. The increasing competition, therefore, makes it

  19. Ephemeral regions versus pseudo ephemeral regions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Martin, S. F.; Livi, S. H. B.; Wang, J.; Shi, Z.

    1985-01-01

    New studies of the quiet Sun reveal that ephemeral active regions constitute minority rather than a majority of all the short lived, small scale bipolar features on the Sun. In contrast to the recognized patterns of growth and decay of ephemeral regions, various examples of the creation of other temporary bipoles nicknamed pseudo ephemeral regions are illustrated. The pseudo ephemeral regions are the consequence of combinations of small scale dynamic processes of the quiet Sun including: (1) fragmentation of network magnetic fields, (2) the separation of opposite polarity halves of ephemeral regions as they grow and evolve, and (3) the coalescence of weak network or intranetwork magnetic fields. New observations offer the possibility of resolving the discrepancies that have arisen in the association of ephemeral regions with X-ray bright points. Many X-ray bright points may be related to those pseudo ephemeral regions which have begun to exhibit magnetic flux loss.

  20. Waterbird Conservation for the Americas : The North American Waterbird Conservation Plan, Version 1

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kushlan, J.A.; Steinkamp, M.J.; Parsons, K.C.; Capp, J.; Cruz, M.A.; Coulter, M.; Davidson, I.J.; Dickson, L.; Edelson, N.; Elliot, R.; Erwin, R.M.; Hatch, S.; Kress, S.; Milko, R.; Miller, S.; Mills, K.; Paul, R.; Phillips, R.; Saliva, J.E.; Syderman, B.; Trapp, J.L.; Wheeler, J.; Wohl, K.

    2002-01-01

    This Plan provides an overarching framework and guide for conserving waterbirds. It sets forth goals and priorities for waterbirds in all habitats from the Canadian Arctic to the offshore islands of Venezuela, from Bermuda to the U.S. Pacific Islands, at nesting sites, during annual migrations and during nonbreeding periods. It advocates continent-wide monitoring; provides an impetus for regional conservation planning; proposes national, provincial, state, and other local conservation planning and action; and creates a larger context within which local habitat conservation can nest. Taken together, we hope that these activities will assure healthy populations and habitats for the waterbirds of the Americas.

  1. WATER CONSERVATION POLICY ALTERNATIVES FOR THE TEXAS SOUTHERN HIGH PLAINS

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jeff Johnson; Phillip Johnson; Eduardo Segarra; David Willis

    This study examined the regional impact of alternative groundwater conservation policies on the Ogallala Aquifer of the Southern High Plains of Texas. Nonlinear optimization models were developed to analyze three scenarios involving impos- ing production fees, restricting annual pumpage, and restricting the decline in saturated thickness of the aquifer for the pur- pose of conserving regional water resources. The three

  2. The African Conservation Foundation

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Terry Harnwell

    2001-08-15

    This portal provides in-depth information about conservation issues and initiatives in Africa. The online searchable databases and forums showcase, promote and provide background information on almost 300 conservation organisations and protected area institutions across the continent. The African Conservation Foundation (ACF) is primarily concerned with education and capacity building in Africa in the areas of environment and conservation. Its mission is to support and link African conservation initiatives, groups and NGOs, with the aim of strengthening their capacity, building partnerships and promoting effective communication and co-ordination of conservation efforts.

  3. Asymptotic stability of Riemann waves for conservation laws

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, G.-Q.; Frid, H.; Marta

    We are concerned with the asymptotic behavior of entropy solutions of conservation laws. A new notion about the asymptotic stability of Riemann solutions is introduced, and corresponding analytical frameworks are developed. The correlation between the asymptotic problem and many important topics in conservation laws and nonlinear analysis is recognized and analyzed, such as zero dissipation limits, uniqueness of entropy solutions, entropy analysis, and divergence-measure fields in L? . Then this theory is applied to understanding the asymptotic behavior of entropy solutions for many important systems of conservation laws.

  4. In situ conservation of crop wild relatives: status and trends

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Brien A. Meilleur; Toby Hodgkin

    2004-01-01

    Recognized as a priority three decades ago, in situ conservation of crop wild relatives has developed theoretical and methodological focus and achieved significant on-the-ground progress in the last 10 years, most notably under the impetus of the plant genetic resources community. Literature and Internet searches and interviews with experts were undertaken as a basis for reviewing the current status and

  5. Tillage methods for conserving soil water-Then and now

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The importance of conserving water for producing crop has long been recognized and has become increasingly important because greater food production is needed for the world's increasing population and because of increasing competition for fresh water among agricultural, urban, industrial, and recrea...

  6. The Magnuson-Stevens Fishery Conservation and Management Act

    E-print Network

    and anadromous species beyond the EEZ, except when they are found within a foreign nation's territorial sea or fishery conservation zone (or equivalent), to the extent that such sea or zone is recognized by the United. The Secretary may prepare FMPs in the Atlantic and Gulf of Mexico for highly migratory species. The Atlantic HMS

  7. Natural Resources Conservation Service: Backyard Conservation

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    The Natural Resources Conservation Service, a division of the U.S. Department of Agriculture, has a feature on their website on backyard conservation. Conservation practices used on agricultural land throughout the country have been adapted for the smaller scale of backyards. Not only can visitors download and print out a 28-page booklet in English or Spanish, but they can also download and print out eight tip sheets on backyard conservation. Information on how to order the free above-mentioned material, through the mail, is also provided. Using the link in the middle of the page, "See More Tips and Topics on Backyard Conservation", visitors can read over 30 archived tips and topics, including "Invite a Toad to Dinner", "Selecting the Right Tree", and "Dream Yard". For teachers, the link "Backyard Conservation Lesson Plans" in the middle of the page provides a variety of lesson plans. Some of the lessons included are "Team Flight", which is about birds; "Growing Native", which is about native plant communities; and "Backyard Conservation and Local Laws", which is about how community laws may help or hinder backyard conservation efforts. A mock city council hearing is the final activity of the lesson.

  8. Conservation Education for Advancing Natural Resources Knowledge and Building Capacity for Volunteerism

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Heather A. Van Den Berg; Shawn J. Riley; Shari L. Dann

    2011-01-01

    Natural resource agencies increasingly need to engage nontraditional stakeholders for public support and financial resources, especially considering a decline in traditional activities such as hunting and fishing. Conservation educators recognized this need, and they are creating new networks of outreach and service programs. The Michigan Conservation Stewards Program (CSP) was designed to reach new stakeholders for natural resource management as

  9. Conservation Education: Strategic Plan To Advance Environmental Literacy. 2007-2012. FS-879

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    US Department of Agriculture, 2007

    2007-01-01

    Since its establishment in 1905, the Forest Service has recognized a role and responsibility to educate people about management and conservation of American forests and grasslands. The Forest Service provides expertise in science, land management, and outdoor experiences as the foundation for environmental literacy efforts. Many conservation

  10. Keeping the lead: How to strengthen shark conservation and management policies in Canada

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Aurelie Cosandey Godin; Boris Worm

    2010-01-01

    Internationally, shark conservation is now being recognized as a major environmental challenge, but management efforts to halt the overexploitation of sharks have lagged behind. This review examines the state of knowledge for shark species in Canadian waters and analyzes the role of existing management and legislation in ensuring shark conservation. Despite Canada's early leadership, the present management framework reveals major

  11. Callous-unemotional traits are associated with deficits in recognizing complex emotions in preadolescent children.

    PubMed

    Sharp, Carla; Vanwoerden, Salome; Van Baardewijk, Y; Tackett, J L; Stegge, H

    2015-06-01

    The aims of the current study were to show that the affective component of psychopathy (callous-unemotional traits) is related to deficits in recognizing emotions over and above other psychopathy dimensions and to show that this relationship is driven by a specific deficit in recognizing complex emotions more so than basic emotions. The authors administered the Child Eyes Test to assess emotion recognition in a community sample of preadolescent children between the ages of 10 and 12 (N = 417; 53.6% boys). The task required children to identify a broad array of emotions from photographic stimuli depicting the eye region of the face. Stimuli were then divided into complex or basic emotions. Results demonstrated a unique association between callous-unemotional traits and complex emotions, with weaker associations with basic emotion recognition, over and above other dimensions of psychopathy. PMID:25248014

  12. Subdominant Outer Membrane Antigens in Anaplasma marginale: Conservation, Antigenicity, and Protective Capacity Using Recombinant Protein

    PubMed Central

    Ducken, Deirdre R.; Brown, Wendy C.; Alperin, Debra C.; Brayton, Kelly A.; Reif, Kathryn E.; Turse, Joshua E.; Palmer, Guy H.; Noh, Susan M.

    2015-01-01

    Anaplasma marginale is a tick-borne rickettsial pathogen of cattle with a worldwide distribution. Currently a safe and efficacious vaccine is unavailable. Outer membrane protein (OMP) extracts or a defined surface protein complex reproducibly induce protective immunity. However, there are several knowledge gaps limiting progress in vaccine development. First, are these OMPs conserved among the diversity of A. marginale strains circulating in endemic regions? Second, are the most highly conserved outer membrane proteins in the immunogens recognized by immunized and protected animals? Lastly, can this subset of OMPs recognized by antibody from protected vaccinates and conserved among strains recapitulate the protection of outer membrane vaccines? To address the first goal, genes encoding OMPs AM202, AM368, AM854, AM936, AM1041, and AM1096, major subdominant components of the outer membrane, were cloned and sequenced from geographically diverse strains and isolates. AM202, AM936, AM854, and AM1096 share 99.9 to 100% amino acid identity. AM1041 has 97.1 to 100% and AM368 has 98.3 to 99.9% amino acid identity. While all four of the most highly conserved OMPs were recognized by IgG from animals immunized with outer membranes, linked surface protein complexes, or unlinked surface protein complexes and shown to be protected from challenge, the highest titers and consistent recognition among vaccinates were to AM854 and AM936. Consequently, animals were immunized with recombinant AM854 and AM936 and challenged. Recombinant vaccinates and purified outer membrane vaccinates had similar IgG and IgG2 responses to both proteins. However, the recombinant vaccinates developed higher bacteremia after challenge as compared to adjuvant-only controls and outer membrane vaccinates. These results provide the first evidence that vaccination with specific antigens may exacerbate disease. Progressing from the protective capacity of outer membrane formulations to recombinant vaccines requires testing of additional antigens, optimization of the vaccine formulation and a better understanding of the protective immune response. PMID:26079491

  13. Subdominant Outer Membrane Antigens in Anaplasma marginale: Conservation, Antigenicity, and Protective Capacity Using Recombinant Protein.

    PubMed

    Ducken, Deirdre R; Brown, Wendy C; Alperin, Debra C; Brayton, Kelly A; Reif, Kathryn E; Turse, Joshua E; Palmer, Guy H; Noh, Susan M

    2015-01-01

    Anaplasma marginale is a tick-borne rickettsial pathogen of cattle with a worldwide distribution. Currently a safe and efficacious vaccine is unavailable. Outer membrane protein (OMP) extracts or a defined surface protein complex reproducibly induce protective immunity. However, there are several knowledge gaps limiting progress in vaccine development. First, are these OMPs conserved among the diversity of A. marginale strains circulating in endemic regions? Second, are the most highly conserved outer membrane proteins in the immunogens recognized by immunized and protected animals? Lastly, can this subset of OMPs recognized by antibody from protected vaccinates and conserved among strains recapitulate the protection of outer membrane vaccines? To address the first goal, genes encoding OMPs AM202, AM368, AM854, AM936, AM1041, and AM1096, major subdominant components of the outer membrane, were cloned and sequenced from geographically diverse strains and isolates. AM202, AM936, AM854, and AM1096 share 99.9 to 100% amino acid identity. AM1041 has 97.1 to 100% and AM368 has 98.3 to 99.9% amino acid identity. While all four of the most highly conserved OMPs were recognized by IgG from animals immunized with outer membranes, linked surface protein complexes, or unlinked surface protein complexes and shown to be protected from challenge, the highest titers and consistent recognition among vaccinates were to AM854 and AM936. Consequently, animals were immunized with recombinant AM854 and AM936 and challenged. Recombinant vaccinates and purified outer membrane vaccinates had similar IgG and IgG2 responses to both proteins. However, the recombinant vaccinates developed higher bacteremia after challenge as compared to adjuvant-only controls and outer membrane vaccinates. These results provide the first evidence that vaccination with specific antigens may exacerbate disease. Progressing from the protective capacity of outer membrane formulations to recombinant vaccines requires testing of additional antigens, optimization of the vaccine formulation and a better understanding of the protective immune response. PMID:26079491

  14. A conserved interaction that is essential for the biogenesis of histone locus bodies.

    PubMed

    Yang, Xiao-cui; Sabath, Ivan; Kunduru, Lalitha; van Wijnen, Andre J; Marzluff, William F; Dominski, Zbigniew

    2014-12-01

    Nuclear protein, ataxia-telangiectasia locus (NPAT) and FLICE-associated huge protein (FLASH) are two major components of discrete nuclear structures called histone locus bodies (HLBs). NPAT is a key co-activator of histone gene transcription, whereas FLASH through its N-terminal region functions in 3' end processing of histone primary transcripts. The C-terminal region of FLASH contains a highly conserved domain that is also present at the end of Yin Yang 1-associated protein-related protein (YARP) and its Drosophila homologue, Mute, previously shown to localize to HLBs in Drosophila cells. Here, we show that the C-terminal domain of human FLASH and YARP interacts with the C-terminal region of NPAT and that this interaction is essential and sufficient to drive FLASH and YARP to HLBs in HeLa cells. Strikingly, only the last 16 amino acids of NPAT are sufficient for the interaction. We also show that the C-terminal domain of Mute interacts with a short region at the end of the Drosophila NPAT orthologue, multi sex combs (Mxc). Altogether, our data indicate that the conserved C-terminal domain shared by FLASH, YARP, and Mute recognizes the C-terminal sequence of NPAT orthologues, thus acting as a signal targeting proteins to HLBs. Finally, we demonstrate that the C-terminal domain of human FLASH can be directly joined with its N-terminal region through alternative splicing. The resulting 190-amino acid MiniFLASH, despite lacking 90% of full-length FLASH, contains all regions necessary for 3' end processing of histone pre-mRNA in vitro and accumulates in HLBs. PMID:25339177

  15. The Conservator's Studio

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Seattle Art Museum

    Produced by the Seattle Art Museum, this online resource explores the Art Conservator's profession, showing you 4 paintings through a conservator's eyes. The exhibit begins with an overview of the profession.

  16. Conservation March 23, 2009

    E-print Network

    program information, technical sources, market information, and case studies on industrial energy Northwest Power Conservation Council and M a March 23, 2009 System ................................................................................................................................8 #12;March 23, 2009 Page 1 of 8 Introduction The Northwest Power and Conservation Council

  17. A Potent and Broad Neutralizing Antibody Recognizes and Penetrates the HIV Glycan Shield

    SciTech Connect

    Pejchal, Robert; Doores, Katie J.; Walker, Laura M.; Khayat, Reza; Huang, Po-Ssu; Wang, Sheng-Kai; Stanfield, Robyn L.; Julien, Jean-Philippe; Ramos, Alejandra; Crispin, Max; Depetris, Rafael; Katpally, Umesh; Marozsan, Andre; Cupo, Albert; Maloveste, Sebastien; Liu, Yan; McBride, Ryan; Ito, Yukishige; Sanders, Rogier W.; Ogohara, Cassandra; Paulson, James C.; Feizi, Ten; Scanlan, Christopher N.; Wong, Chi-Huey; Moore, John P.; Olson, William C.; Ward, Andrew B.; Poignard, Pascal; Schief, William R.; Burton, Dennis R.; Wilson, Ian A. (Progenics); (JSTA); (UWASH); (Scripps); (NIH); (Weill); (Oxford); (ICL)

    2011-12-05

    The HIV envelope (Env) protein gp120 is protected from antibody recognition by a dense glycan shield. However, several of the recently identified PGT broadly neutralizing antibodies appear to interact directly with the HIV glycan coat. Crystal structures of antigen-binding fragments (Fabs) PGT 127 and 128 with Man{sub 9} at 1.65 and 1.29 angstrom resolution, respectively, and glycan binding data delineate a specific high mannose-binding site. Fab PGT 128 complexed with a fully glycosylated gp120 outer domain at 3.25 angstroms reveals that the antibody penetrates the glycan shield and recognizes two conserved glycans as well as a short {beta}-strand segment of the gp120 V3 loop, accounting for its high binding affinity and broad specificify. Furthermore, our data suggest that the high neutralization potency of PGT 127 and 128 immunoglobulin Gs may be mediated by cross-linking Env trimers on the viral surface.

  18. A potent and broad neutralizing antibody recognizes and penetrates the HIV glycan shield.

    PubMed

    Pejchal, Robert; Doores, Katie J; Walker, Laura M; Khayat, Reza; Huang, Po-Ssu; Wang, Sheng-Kai; Stanfield, Robyn L; Julien, Jean-Philippe; Ramos, Alejandra; Crispin, Max; Depetris, Rafael; Katpally, Umesh; Marozsan, Andre; Cupo, Albert; Maloveste, Sebastien; Liu, Yan; McBride, Ryan; Ito, Yukishige; Sanders, Rogier W; Ogohara, Cassandra; Paulson, James C; Feizi, Ten; Scanlan, Christopher N; Wong, Chi-Huey; Moore, John P; Olson, William C; Ward, Andrew B; Poignard, Pascal; Schief, William R; Burton, Dennis R; Wilson, Ian A

    2011-11-25

    The HIV envelope (Env) protein gp120 is protected from antibody recognition by a dense glycan shield. However, several of the recently identified PGT broadly neutralizing antibodies appear to interact directly with the HIV glycan coat. Crystal structures of antigen-binding fragments (Fabs) PGT 127 and 128 with Man(9) at 1.65 and 1.29 angstrom resolution, respectively, and glycan binding data delineate a specific high mannose-binding site. Fab PGT 128 complexed with a fully glycosylated gp120 outer domain at 3.25 angstroms reveals that the antibody penetrates the glycan shield and recognizes two conserved glycans as well as a short ?-strand segment of the gp120 V3 loop, accounting for its high binding affinity and broad specificity. Furthermore, our data suggest that the high neutralization potency of PGT 127 and 128 immunoglobulin Gs may be mediated by cross-linking Env trimers on the viral surface. PMID:21998254

  19. A potent and broad neutralizing antibody recognizes and penetrates the HIV glycan shield

    PubMed Central

    Pejchal, Robert; Doores, Katie J.; Walker, Laura M.; Khayat, Reza; Huang, Po-Ssu; Wang, Sheng-Kai; Stanfield, Robyn L.; Julien, Jean-Philippe; Ramos, Alejandra; Crispin, Max; Depetris, Rafael; Katpally, Umesh; Marozsan, Andre; Cupo, Albert; Maloveste, Sebastien; Liu, Yan; McBride, Ryan; Ito, Yukishige; Sanders, Rogier W.; Ogohara, Cassandra; Paulson, James C.; Feizi, Ten; Scanlan, Christopher N.; Wong, Chi-Huey; Moore, John P.; Olson, William C.; Ward, Andrew B.; Poignard, Pascal; Schief, William R.; Burton, Dennis R.; Wilson, Ian A.

    2012-01-01

    The HIV envelope (Env) protein gp120 is protected from antibody recognition by a dense glycan shield. However, several of the recently identified PGT broadly neutralizing antibodies appear to interact directly with the HIV glycan coat. Crystal structures of Fabs PGT 127 and 128 with Man9 at 1.65 and 1.29 Å resolution, respectively, and glycan binding data delineate a specific high mannose binding site. Fab PGT 128 complexed with a fully-glycosylated gp120 outer domain at 3.25 Å reveals that the antibody penetrates the glycan shield and recognizes two conserved glycans as well as a short ?-strand segment of the gp120 V3 loop, accounting for its high binding affinity and broad specificify. Furthermore, our data suggest that the high neutralization potency of PGT 127 and 128 IgGs may be mediated by cross-linking Env trimers on the viral surface. PMID:21998254

  20. Safety and Tolerability of Conserved Region Vaccines Vectored by Plasmid DNA, Simian Adenovirus and Modified Vaccinia Virus Ankara Administered to Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1-Uninfected Adults in a Randomized, Single-Blind Phase I Trial

    PubMed Central

    Hayton, Emma-Jo; Rose, Annie; Ibrahimsa, Umar; Del Sorbo, Mariarosaria; Capone, Stefania; Crook, Alison; Black, Antony P.; Dorrell, Lucy; Hanke, Tomáš

    2014-01-01

    Trial Design HIV-1 vaccine development has advanced slowly due to viral antigenic diversity, poor immunogenicity and recently, safety concerns associated with human adenovirus serotype-5 vectors. To tackle HIV-1 variation, we designed a unique T-cell immunogen HIVconsv from functionally conserved regions of the HIV-1 proteome, which were presented to the immune system using a heterologous prime-boost combination of plasmid DNA, a non-replicating simian (chimpanzee) adenovirus ChAdV-63 and a non-replicating poxvirus, modified vaccinia virus Ankara. A block-randomized, single-blind, placebo-controlled phase I trial HIV-CORE 002 administered for the first time candidate HIV-1- vaccines or placebo to 32 healthy HIV-1/2-uninfected adults in Oxford, UK and elicited high frequencies of HIV-1-specific T cells capable of inhibiting HIV-1 replication in vitro. Here, detail safety and tolerability of these vaccines are reported. Methods Local and systemic reactogenicity data were collected using structured interviews and study-specific diary cards. Data on all other adverse events were collected using open questions. Serum neutralizing antibody titres to ChAdV-63 were determined before and after vaccination. Results Two volunteers withdrew for vaccine-unrelated reasons. No vaccine-related serious adverse events or reactions occurred during 190 person-months of follow-up. Local and systemic events after vaccination occurred in 27/32 individuals and most were mild (severity grade 1) and predominantly transient (<48 hours). Myalgia and flu-like symptoms were more strongly associated with MVA than ChAdV63 or DNA vectors and more common in vaccine recipients than in placebo. There were no intercurrent HIV-1 infections during follow-up. 2/24 volunteers had low ChAdV-63-neutralizing titres at baseline and 7 increased their titres to over 200 with a median (range) of 633 (231-1533) post-vaccination, which is of no safety concern. Conclusions These data demonstrate safety and good tolerability of the pSG2.HIVconsv DNA, ChAdV63.HIVconsv and MVA.HIVconsv vaccines and together with their high immunogenicity support their further development towards efficacy studies. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01151319 PMID:25007091

  1. Tracking and Recognizing Rigid and Non-Rigid Facial Motions Using Local Parametric Models of Image Motion

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michael J. Black; Yaser Yacoob

    1995-01-01

    This paper explores the use of local parametrized mod- els of image motion for recovering and recognizing the non-rigid and articulated morion of human faces. Parametricjow models for example afine) are popu- lar for estimating motion in rigid scenes. We observe that within local regions in space and time, such mod- els not only accurately model non-rigid facial motions but

  2. CVPR 2008 Submission #2670. CONFIDENTIAL REVIEW COPY. DO NOT DISTRIBUTE. Multi-Image Graph Cut Clothing Segmentation for Recognizing People

    E-print Network

    Chen, Tsuhan

    COPY. DO NOT DISTRIBUTE. Multi-Image Graph Cut Clothing Segmentation for Recognizing People Anonymous CVPR submission Paper ID 2670 Abstract Reseachers have verified that clothing provides informa- tion about the identity of the individual. To extract features from the clothing, the clothing region first

  3. The Ocean Conservancy

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Learn about the Ocean Conservancy's conservation projects, the latest news in marine conservation, how to get involved, and more. Read over the current issues the Ocean Conservancy is working on, such as by catch, invasive species, and overfishing. Explore the "Fish and Wildlife" link for pictures and information on threatened and endangered animals; and read past and current issues of Blue Planet Magazine, OC's quarterly publication.

  4. Technology in water conservation

    E-print Network

    Finch, Dr. Calvin

    2013-01-01

    2 tx H2O Summer 2013 Column by Dr. Calvin Finch, Water Conservation and Technology Center director WAT E R CONSERVATION & TECHNOLOGY CENTER Securing Our Water Future It is not unusual for individuals to describe water conservation as a... through water conservation, introduction of new technology does not automati- cally result in water savings. #27;e new evapotrans- piration-based irrigation controllers illustrate the point. A lawn?s need for water is dependent on the weather...

  5. Conservation Reserve Program: Environmental Benefits Update

    Microsoft Academic Search

    LeRoy T. Hansen

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents the methodology, assumptions, and data used to generate regional and national environmental benefit estimates of the USDA’s Conservation Reserve Program (CRP). It’s assumed that, without the program, production and conservation practices on CRP lands would be the same as those used on surrounding lands. When range and forest lands are (are not) included as land-use options, 54

  6. A checklist for ecological management of landscapes for conservation.

    PubMed

    Lindenmayer, David; Hobbs, Richard J; Montague-Drake, Rebecca; Alexandra, Jason; Bennett, Andrew; Burgman, Mark; Cale, Peter; Calhoun, Aram; Cramer, Viki; Cullen, Peter; Driscoll, Don; Fahrig, Lenore; Fischer, Joern; Franklin, Jerry; Haila, Yrjo; Hunter, Malcolm; Gibbons, Philip; Lake, Sam; Luck, Gary; MacGregor, Chris; McIntyre, Sue; Nally, Ralph Mac; Manning, Adrian; Miller, James; Mooney, Hal; Noss, Reed; Possingham, Hugh; Saunders, Denis; Schmiegelow, Fiona; Scott, Michael; Simberloff, Dan; Sisk, Tom; Tabor, Gary; Walker, Brian; Wiens, John; Woinarski, John; Zavaleta, Erika

    2008-01-01

    The management of landscapes for biological conservation and ecologically sustainable natural resource use are crucial global issues. Research for over two decades has resulted in a large literature, yet there is little consensus on the applicability or even the existence of general principles or broad considerations that could guide landscape conservation. We assess six major themes in the ecology and conservation of landscapes. We identify 13 important issues that need to be considered in developing approaches to landscape conservation. They include recognizing the importance of landscape mosaics (including the integration of terrestrial and aquatic areas), recognizing interactions between vegetation cover and vegetation configuration, using an appropriate landscape conceptual model, maintaining the capacity to recover from disturbance and managing landscapes in an adaptive framework. These considerations are influenced by landscape context, species assemblages and management goals and do not translate directly into on-the-ground management guidelines but they should be recognized by researchers and resource managers when developing guidelines for specific cases. Two crucial overarching issues are: (i) a clearly articulated vision for landscape conservation and (ii) quantifiable objectives that offer unambiguous signposts for measuring progress. PMID:17927771

  7. Multispecies Conservation Planning

    E-print Network

    CHAPTER 3 Multispecies Conservation Planning on U.S. Federal Lands Barry R. Noon, Kevin S. McKelvey, and Brett G. Dickson Numerous laws directly, or indirectly, mandate the conservation of all species that govern the use of these same lands that are in conflict with a goal of maximizing the conservation

  8. Introduction to Conservation Genetics

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. Frankham; J. D. Ballou; D. A. Briscoe; Alec R. Lindsay

    2002-01-01

    Introduction to Conservation Genetics written by R. Frankham, J.D. Ballou, and D.A. Briscoe, is a comprehensive introductory text that provides an enlightening synthesis of data and theory from ecology, population genetics, evolution, and conservation biology. The book focuses on the science of conservation genetics and is appealing in its general lack of overt advocacy, while the final section provides meaningful

  9. Biodiversity and Conservation Research

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    The Center for Biodiversity and Conservation (CBC) at the American Museum of Natural History aims to "integrate scientific research, education, and outreach so that people, themselves major catalysts in the rapid loss of biodiversity, will become participants in its conservation." The CBC currently conducts biodiversity conservation research in the Bahamas, Bolivia, Madagascar, Vietnam, and in metropolitan New York.

  10. Energy Conservation Renewable Energy

    E-print Network

    Delgado, Mauricio

    Energy Conservation Renewable Energy The Future at Rutgers University Facilities & Capital Planning Operations & Services Utilities Operations 6 Berrue Circle Piscataway, NJ 08854 #12;Energy Conservation Wh C ti ? R bl EWhy Conservation? Renewable Energy · Climate control reduces green house gases · Reduces

  11. Conservation in Physics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Finkel, Edward

    1991-01-01

    Discussed is the physical concept of conservation as it is framed within the laws of conservation of mass, of momentum, and of energy. The derivation of Ohm's Law as a generalization of the relationship between the observed measurements of voltage and current serves as the exemplar of how conservation theories are formed. (JJK)

  12. Natural Resources Conservation Service: Backyard Conservation

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    The Natural Resources Conservation Service, a division of the U.S. Department of Agriculture, has a feature on their website on backyard conservation. Conservation practices used on agricultural land throughout the country have been adapted for the smaller scale of backyards. Not only can visitors download and print out a 28-page booklet in English or Spanish, but they can also download and print out eight tip sheets on backyard conversation. Information on how to order the free above-mentioned material, through the mail, is also provided. Using the link in the middle of the page, "See More Tips and Topics on Backyard Conservation", visitors can read over 30 archived tips and topics, including "Invite a Toad to Dinner", "Selecting the Right Tree", and "Dream Yard". For teachers, the link "Backyard Conservation Lesson Plans" in the middle of the page provides a variety of lesson plans. Some of the lessons included are "Team Flight", which is about birds; "Growing Native", which is about native plant communities; and "Backyard Conservation and Local Laws", which is about how community laws may help or hinder backyard conservation efforts. A mock city council hearing is the final activity of the lesson.

  13. 7 CFR 12.23 - Conservation plans and conservation systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Conservation plans and conservation systems. 12.23 Section 12.23 Agriculture...Agriculture HIGHLY ERODIBLE LAND AND WETLAND CONSERVATION Highly Erodible Land Conservation §...

  14. 7 CFR 12.23 - Conservation plans and conservation systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Conservation plans and conservation systems. 12.23 Section 12.23 Agriculture...Agriculture HIGHLY ERODIBLE LAND AND WETLAND CONSERVATION Highly Erodible Land Conservation §...

  15. 7 CFR 12.23 - Conservation plans and conservation systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Conservation plans and conservation systems. 12.23 Section 12.23 Agriculture...Agriculture HIGHLY ERODIBLE LAND AND WETLAND CONSERVATION Highly Erodible Land Conservation §...

  16. 7 CFR 12.23 - Conservation plans and conservation systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Conservation plans and conservation systems. 12.23 Section 12.23 Agriculture...Agriculture HIGHLY ERODIBLE LAND AND WETLAND CONSERVATION Highly Erodible Land Conservation §...

  17. 7 CFR 12.23 - Conservation plans and conservation systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Conservation plans and conservation systems. 12.23 Section 12.23 Agriculture...Agriculture HIGHLY ERODIBLE LAND AND WETLAND CONSERVATION Highly Erodible Land Conservation §...

  18. Meningococcal group A lipooligosaccharides (LOS): preliminary structural studies and characterization of serotype-associated and conserved LOS epitopes.

    PubMed Central

    Kim, J J; Phillips, N J; Gibson, B W; Griffiss, J M; Yamasaki, R

    1994-01-01

    Structural studies indicate that the neisserial lipooligosaccharides (LOS) are composed of an oligosaccharide (OS) portion with a phosphorylated diheptose (Hep) core attached to the toxic lipid A moiety. A conserved meningococcal LOS epitope, defined by monoclonal antibody (MAb) D6A, is expressed on group A and many group B and C meningococci of different LOS serotypes (J. J. Kim, R. E. Mandrell, H. Zhen, M. A. Apicella, J. T. Poolman, and J. M. Griffiss, Infect. Immun. 56:2631-2638, 1988). This MAb-defined D6A epitope is immunogenic in humans (M. M. Estabrook, R. E. Mandrell, M. A. Apicella, and J. M. Griffiss, Infect. Immun. 58:2204-2213, 1990; M. M. Estabrook, C. J. Baker, and J. M. Griffiss, J. Infect. Dis. 197:966-970, 1993). In this study, we characterize this important MAb-defined LOS epitope. Serotype L10 and L11 group A meningococal LOS were chemically modified and used to investigate what portion of the LOS molecule is important for expression of the conserved (D6A) epitope and serotype-associated LOS epitopes by use of immunoblotting techniques and selected MAbs as probes. Preliminary structural characterization of the LOS was also accomplished by electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry. Our results indicate the following. (i) Antibodies that recognize the serotype-associated or conserved LOS epitopes recognize the OS portion of the LOS. (ii) The phosphorylated diheptose core region of the OS is essential for expression of the conserved D6A epitope. (iii) The lipid portion of the molecule is important for optimum expression of the LOS epitopes. (iv) The proposed compositions of the O-deacylated LOS are consistent with the presence of a phosphorylated diheptose core and are as follows: for O-deacylated L10 LOS, 3Hex (hexose), 1HexNAc (N-acetylhexosamine), 2KDO (2-keto-3-deoxy-D-manno-octulosonic acid), 2Hep (heptose), 1PEA or 2PEA (phosphoethanolamine), and O-deacylated lipid A; and for O-deacylated L11 LOS, 2Hex, 1HexNAc, 2KDO, 2Hep, 2PEA, and O-deacylated lipid A. Because the phosphorylated diheptose core region of the LOS is essential for the formation of a conserved LOS epitope (D6A) that is immunogenic in humans, care should be taken to maintain stereochemical requirements for the expression of this conserved epitope in the design of effective, nontoxic LOS vaccines. Images PMID:7513302

  19. Exactly conservative integrators

    SciTech Connect

    Shadwick, B.A.; Bowman, J.C.; Morrison, P.J.

    1995-07-19

    Traditional numerical discretizations of conservative systems generically yield an artificial secular drift of any nonlinear invariants. In this work we present an explicit nontraditional algorithm that exactly conserves invariants. We illustrate the general method by applying it to the Three-Wave truncation of the Euler equations, the Volterra-Lotka predator-prey model, and the Kepler problem. We discuss our method in the context of symplectic (phase space conserving) integration methods as well as nonsymplectic conservative methods. We comment on the application of our method to general conservative systems.

  20. Conservation: Toward firmer ground

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    The following aspects of energy conservation were reviewed in order to place the problems in proper perspective: history and goals, conservation accounting-criteria, and a method to overcome obstacles. The effect of changing prices and available supplies of energy sources and their causes on consumption levels during the last few decades were described. Some examples of attainable conservation goals were listed and justified. A number of specific criteria applicable to conservation accounting were given. Finally, a discussion was presented to relate together the following aspects of energy conservation: widespread impact, involvement of government, industry, politics, moral and ethical aspects, urgency and time element.

  1. An HMM-MLP Hybrid System to Recognize Handwritten Dates

    E-print Network

    Suen, Ching Y.

    on Brazilian bank cheques. The system first segments implicitly a date image into sub-fields through is proposed to recognize the three obligatory date sub-fields (day, month and year) using different can consist of the follow- ing sub-fields: city name, separator1 (Sep1), day, separator2 (Sep2), month

  2. Recognizing human motions from surrounding viewpoints employing hierarchical eigenspaces

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. M. Ashik Eftakhar; Joo Kooi Tan; Hyoungseop Kim; Seiji Ishikawa

    2010-01-01

    The development of an automatic human motion recognition system leads to the solution to the problems concerning the video-based applications in recognizing human activities. Such a system is to be investigated in the context of human motion analysis. Although there were a large number of researches in this area for a long time, there was little attention given to the

  3. Algorithms for Recognizing Contour-Traced Handprinted Characters

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. T. Toussaint; R. W. Donaldson

    1970-01-01

    A contour-tracing technique originally devised by Clemens and Mason was modified and used with several different classifiers to recognize upper case handprinted characters. Recognition accuracies obtained compare favorably with other published results, particularly when additional simple tests are performed to differentiate commonly confused characters. One suboptimum classifier, in addition to yielding near optimum performance when tested on training data, uses

  4. How can we recognize potentially 0 subsets of the plane?

    E-print Network

    Boyer, Edmond

    . These sets are called potentially 0 . We give a Hurewicz-like test to recognize potentially 0 sets. 2000([X, ]Ã?[Y, ]). This notion is a natural invariant for B: if E is pot() and E B E, then E is pot(). Using

  5. Knowledge transfer in learning to recognize visual objects classes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Li Fei-Fei

    Learning to recognize of object classes is one of the most important functionalities of vision. It is estimat ed that humans are able to learn tens of thousands of visual categories in their life. Given the photometric and geometric variabilities displayed by objects as well as the high degree of intra-class variabilities, we hypothesize that humans achieve such a feat

  6. Analysis of Dynamical Recognizers Alan D. Blair & Jordan B. Pollack

    E-print Network

    Pollack, Jordan B.

    Analysis of Dynamical Recognizers Alan D. Blair & Jordan B. Pollack Dept. of Computer Science Volen Center for Complex Systems Brandeis University Waltham, MA 02254­9110 blair@cs.brandeis.edu pollack@cs.brandeis.edu September 7, 1995 (revised June 14, 1996) Abstract Pollack (1991) demonstrated that second­order recurrent

  7. ORIGINAL ARTICLE Recognizing multi-modal sensor signals using evolutionary

    E-print Network

    Cho, Sung-Bae

    , gyroscopes, physiological sensors, and data gloves. The system used probabilistic models to handleORIGINAL ARTICLE Recognizing multi-modal sensor signals using evolutionary learning of dynamic the uncertain and noisy time-series sensor data. In order to construct the efficient probabilistic models

  8. Multisource Information Adaptive Fuzzy Logic Correlator for Recognized Maritime Picture

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Eric Lefebvre; Christopher Helleur

    The Recognized Maritime Picture (RMP) is defined as a composite picture of activity over a maritime area of interest. In simplistic terms, building an RMP comes down to finding if something is there or not, and determining what it is, what it is doing, and whether some type of follow -up action is required. The process of data fusion is

  9. Recognizing and developing adaptive expertise within outdoor and expedition leaders

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mark Tozer; Ioan Fazey; John Fazey

    2007-01-01

    Adaptive expertise, an individual's ability to perform flexibly and innovatively in novel and unstructured situations, could have particular relevance for expedition and outdoor leaders. This element may be recognized in leadership practitioners who are able to act more effectively when problem-solving in complex, ambiguous and unpredictable environments. The authors present a number of perspectives intended to assist individuals in making

  10. Recognizing Sloppy Speech CMU-LTI-05-190

    E-print Network

    Eskenazi, Maxine

    of pronunciation modeling, and introduce flexible tying to better model reductions in sloppy speech. We findRecognizing Sloppy Speech Hua Yu CMU-LTI-05-190 Language Technology Institute School of Computer Hua Yu #12;#12;Abstract As speech recognition moves from labs into the real world, the sloppy speech

  11. Lessons from Tiananmen Square: Recognizing Bias in News Reporting.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Braun, Joseph A., Jr.

    1990-01-01

    Recommends teaching students to recognize bias in news reports and how personal preferences infringe on objective judgment. Provides two class activities designed to help students understand this concept. Uses the Cinderella story from three cultures and group discussion to illustrate this technique. (NL)

  12. NASA's John C. Stennis Space Center was recognized Nov.

    E-print Network

    , the committee report estimates NASA needs an extra $3 billion a year, beginning in 2014, if humans are to travel, NASA has focused on a space exploration vision presented by then-President George W. Bush followingNASA's John C. Stennis Space Center was recognized Nov. 6 as the first site to earn certification

  13. Wavelet Moments for Recognizing Human Body Posture from 3D

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Naoufel Werghi; Yijun Xiao

    2002-01-01

    This paper addresses the problem of recognizing a human body (HB) posture from a cloud of 3D points acquired by a human body scanner It suggests the wavelet transform coefficients (WTC) as 3D shape descriptors of the HB posture. The WTC showed to have a high discrimination power between posture classes. Integrated within a Bayesian classification framework and compared with

  14. Recognizing and Tracking Human Action Josephine Sullivan and Stefan Carlsson

    E-print Network

    Carlsson, Stefan

    .kth.se Abstract. Human activity can be described as a sequence of 3D body postures. The traditional approach as an input to a human body location tracker with the ultimate goal of 3D reanimation in mind. We demonstrate that specific human actions can be detected from single frame postures in a video sequence. By recognizing

  15. Our Local Story SU Food Services recognizes the positive environmental

    E-print Network

    Mather, Patrick T.

    Our Local Story SU Food Services recognizes the positive environmental and economic impact of purchasing food from local suppliers and farms, and therefore continues to expand its connections throughout Central NewYork to buy lo- cal whenever possible. Buying locally produced food can also mean fresher

  16. Recognizing Gestures by Learning Local Motion Signatures of HOG Descriptors

    E-print Network

    Boyer, Edmond

    Recognizing Gestures by Learning Local Motion Signatures of HOG Descriptors Mohamed-B´echa Ka a new gesture recognition framework based on learning local motion signatures (LMSs) of HOG descriptors individual by tracking Histograms of Oriented Gradient (HOG) [2] descriptor, we learn a code-book of video

  17. Computer Program Recognizes Patterns in Time-Series Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hand, Charles

    2003-01-01

    A computer program recognizes selected patterns in time-series data like digitized samples of seismic or electrophysiological signals. The program implements an artificial neural network (ANN) and a set of N clocks for the purpose of determining whether N or more instances of a certain waveform, W, occur within a given time interval, T. The ANN must be trained to recognize W in the incoming stream of data. The first time the ANN recognizes W, it sets clock 1 to count down from T to zero; the second time it recognizes W, it sets clock 2 to count down from T to zero, and so forth through the Nth instance. On the N + 1st instance, the cycle is repeated, starting with clock 1. If any clock has not reached zero when it is reset, then N instances of W have been detected within time T, and the program so indicates. The program can readily be encoded in a field-programmable gate array or an application-specific integrated circuit that could be used, for example, to detect electroencephalographic or electrocardiographic waveforms indicative of epileptic seizures or heart attacks, respectively.

  18. How to recognize ''double-porosity'' systems from well tests

    SciTech Connect

    Gringarten, A.C.

    1987-06-01

    Double-porosity systems can be identified from well test data, and the best method is to use pressure derivatives. Note, however, that although it is possible to recognize the type of double porosity behavior exhibited by the system, it is usually difficult to decide whether the reservoir is naturally fissured or multilayered. This requires additional information from sources other than well testing.

  19. A performance evaluation of a connected digit recognizer

    Microsoft Academic Search

    L. R. Rabiner; J. G. Wilpon; B. H. Juang

    1987-01-01

    In this paper we discuss a system for automatically recognizing fluently spoken digit strings based on whole word reference units. The system that we will describe can use either hidden Markov model (HMM) technology or template-based technology. The training procedure derives the digit reference patterns (either templates or statistical models) from connected digit strings. To evaluate the performance of the

  20. The Temperament Trap: Recognizing and Accommodating Children's Personalities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Culpepper, Susan; And Others

    1996-01-01

    Goodness of fit is the compatibility between a child's temperament and his or her environment. When temperament is recognized, respected, and accommodated by creating complementary classroom environments and situations, healthy social and personality development occurs. Compatibility between the child and the demands and expectations of teachers…

  1. Recognizing Advanced Heart Failure and Knowing Your Options

    MedlinePLUS

    Recognizing Advanced Heart Failure and Knowing Your Options Updated:Jun 1,2015 Understanding the Medical Situation Having advanced heart failure does ... need in the future. Treatment Options for Advanced Heart Failure Major Interventions Open-heart surgery: For patients ...

  2. Evaluation of the Recognizing and Responding to Suicide Risk Training

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacobson, Jodi Michelle; Osteen, Philip; Jones, Andrea; Berman, Alan

    2012-01-01

    Changes in attitudes, confidence, and practice behaviors were assessed among 452 clinicians who completed the training, Recognizing and Responding to Suicide Risk, and who work with clients at risk for suicide. Data were collected at three time points. Scores on measures of attitudes toward suicide prevention and confidence to work with clients at…

  3. Recognize the Signs: Reading Young Adult Literature to Address Bullying

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pytash, Kristine E.; Morgan, Denise N.; Batchelor, Katherine E.

    2013-01-01

    This article summarizes preservice teachers' experiences in a book club that read young adult literature focused on issues related to bullying. Preservice teachers learned to recognize various incidents of bullying in the books. They also began to consider how they might handle incidents of bullying in their future classrooms. (Contains 2 figures.)

  4. Manufacturing Feature Instances: Which Ones to Recognize? Satyandra K. Gupta

    E-print Network

    Nau, Dana S.

    Manufacturing Feature Instances: Which Ones to Recognize? Satyandra K. Gupta Mechanical Engineering@src.umd.edu William C. Regliy National Institute of Standards and Technology Manufacturing Systems Integration-81. Abstract Manufacturing features and feature-based representations have become an integral part of research

  5. Recognizing Risk-of-Failure in Communication Design Projects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yee, Joyce; Lievesley, Matthew; Taylor, Louise

    2009-01-01

    The pace of commercial graphic design practice presents very few opportunities to conduct user research after a project's launch. This makes the design team's ability to anticipate and address risks during the design development phase even more important, recognized in the astute observation from Tim Brown, CEO of leading international design…

  6. Role of Color Recogn ition An drew Yip

    E-print Network

    Poggio, Tomaso

    shape from shading processes, which are believed to be largely 'color­blind' (Cavanagh and Leclerc, 1987Role of Color in Face Recogn ition An drew Yip an d Pawan Sin ha AI Memo 2001­035 December 2001 of different cues to face identification. In this study, we focus on the role of color cues. Although color

  7. Recognizing Emotions on Static and Animated Avatar Faces

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sylvie Noël; Sarah Dumoulin; Thomas Whalen; John Stewart

    2006-01-01

    Participants were shown static or animated versions of a FACS-compliant avatar face in the work of P. Ekman and W.V. Friesen (1978), and asked to identify the emotion that the face was displaying. In the first version of the face, happiness, sadness, and surprise were all recognized at high rates (80% or more) whatever the stimulus type, while anger and

  8. Open Badges: Novel Means to Motivate, Scaffold and Recognize Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jovanovic, Jelena; Devedzic, Vladan

    2015-01-01

    This report is centered on the emerging concept and technology of Open Badges (OBs) that are offering novel means and practices of motivating, scaffolding, recognizing, and credentialing learning. OBs are closely associated with values such as openness and learners' agency, participatory learning and peer-learning communities. This report points…

  9. Recognizing, Modeling, and Responding to Users' Affective States

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Helmut Prendinger; Junichiro Mori; Mitsuru Ishizuka

    2005-01-01

    We describe a system that recognizes physiological data of users in real-time, interprets this information as affective states, and re- sponds to affect by employing an animated agent. The agent assumes the role of an Empathic Companion in a virtual job interview scenario where it accompanies a human interviewee. While previously obtained re- sults with the companion with were not

  10. Generally recognized as safe (GRAS): history and description

    Microsoft Academic Search

    George A Burdock; Ioana G Carabin

    2004-01-01

    Generally recognized as safe (GRAS), a system for review and approval of ingredients for addition to food, was conceived at a time when the need for a less doctrinaire review of food ingredients was critical. The GRAS approval process for a food ingredient relies on the judgment of “… experts qualified by scientific training and experience to evaluate its safety

  11. Plagiarism as Literacy Practice: Recognizing and Rethinking Ethical Binaries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Valentine, Kathryn

    2006-01-01

    In this article, I assert that plagiarism is a literacy practice that involves social relationships, attitudes, and values as much as it involves rules of citation and students' texts. In addition, I show how plagiarism is complicated by a discourse about academic dishonesty, and I consider the implications that recognizing such complexity has for…

  12. Climate change, wine, and conservation.

    PubMed

    Hannah, Lee; Roehrdanz, Patrick R; Ikegami, Makihiko; Shepard, Anderson V; Shaw, M Rebecca; Tabor, Gary; Zhi, Lu; Marquet, Pablo A; Hijmans, Robert J

    2013-04-23

    Climate change is expected to impact ecosystems directly, such as through shifting climatic controls on species ranges, and indirectly, for example through changes in human land use that may result in habitat loss. Shifting patterns of agricultural production in response to climate change have received little attention as a potential impact pathway for ecosystems. Wine grape production provides a good test case for measuring indirect impacts mediated by changes in agriculture, because viticulture is sensitive to climate and is concentrated in Mediterranean climate regions that are global biodiversity hotspots. Here we demonstrate that, on a global scale, the impacts of climate change on viticultural suitability are substantial, leading to possible conservation conflicts in land use and freshwater ecosystems. Area suitable for viticulture decreases 25% to 73% in major wine producing regions by 2050 in the higher RCP 8.5 concentration pathway and 19% to 62% in the lower RCP 4.5. Climate change may cause establishment of vineyards at higher elevations that will increase impacts on upland ecosystems and may lead to conversion of natural vegetation as production shifts to higher latitudes in areas such as western North America. Attempts to maintain wine grape productivity and quality in the face of warming may be associated with increased water use for irrigation and to cool grapes through misting or sprinkling, creating potential for freshwater conservation impacts. Agricultural adaptation and conservation efforts are needed that anticipate these multiple possible indirect effects. PMID:23569231

  13. Climate change, wine, and conservation

    PubMed Central

    Hannah, Lee; Roehrdanz, Patrick R.; Ikegami, Makihiko; Shepard, Anderson V.; Shaw, M. Rebecca; Tabor, Gary; Zhi, Lu; Marquet, Pablo A.; Hijmans, Robert J.

    2013-01-01

    Climate change is expected to impact ecosystems directly, such as through shifting climatic controls on species ranges, and indirectly, for example through changes in human land use that may result in habitat loss. Shifting patterns of agricultural production in response to climate change have received little attention as a potential impact pathway for ecosystems. Wine grape production provides a good test case for measuring indirect impacts mediated by changes in agriculture, because viticulture is sensitive to climate and is concentrated in Mediterranean climate regions that are global biodiversity hotspots. Here we demonstrate that, on a global scale, the impacts of climate change on viticultural suitability are substantial, leading to possible conservation conflicts in land use and freshwater ecosystems. Area suitable for viticulture decreases 25% to 73% in major wine producing regions by 2050 in the higher RCP 8.5 concentration pathway and 19% to 62% in the lower RCP 4.5. Climate change may cause establishment of vineyards at higher elevations that will increase impacts on upland ecosystems and may lead to conversion of natural vegetation as production shifts to higher latitudes in areas such as western North America. Attempts to maintain wine grape productivity and quality in the face of warming may be associated with increased water use for irrigation and to cool grapes through misting or sprinkling, creating potential for freshwater conservation impacts. Agricultural adaptation and conservation efforts are needed that anticipate these multiple possible indirect effects. PMID:23569231

  14. NATURAL RESOURCES CONSERVATION Fisheries Ecology & Conservation

    E-print Network

    Schweik, Charles M.

    -ECON elective (SB) 4e NRC 390E Evolution & Conserv. 3f Physical Science elective 3g Total Credits 16 17 Junior credits to complete all university requirements and the requirements for Fish Biologists (GS-482 series

  15. American Bird Conservancy

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    The American Bird Conservancy (ABC) is a nonprofit organization working to "conserve wild birds and their habitats throughout the Americas." The ABC website provides informative and useful features such as the Bird Conservation Directory, a searchable directory of contact information for professionals engaged in bird conservation throughout the Americas, and the downloadable Birdwatcher's Guide to Global Warming (last mentioned in the June 28, 2002 NSDL Scout Report for the Life Sciences). The site also provides information about ABC membership and a variety of conservation programs such as Partners in Flight, Cats Indoors, The North American Bird Conservation Initiative, and the Pesticides and Birds Campaign. Site visitors may also view past copies of the ABC newsletter; and sign up for free email bulletins containing conservation action alerts, information, and news.

  16. Impending conservation crisis for Southeast Asian amphibians

    PubMed Central

    Rowley, Jodi; Brown, Rafe; Bain, Raoul; Kusrini, Mirza; Inger, Robert; Stuart, Bryan; Wogan, Guin; Thy, Neang; Chan-ard, Tanya; Trung, Cao Tien; Diesmos, Arvin; Iskandar, Djoko T.; Lau, Michael; Ming, Leong Tzi; Makchai, Sunchai; Truong, Nguyen Quang; Phimmachak, Somphouthone

    2010-01-01

    With an understudied amphibian fauna, the highest deforestation rate on the planet and high harvesting pressures, Southeast Asian amphibians are facing a conservation crisis. Owing to the overriding threat of habitat loss, the most critical conservation action required is the identification and strict protection of habitat assessed as having high amphibian species diversity and/or representing distinctive regional amphibian faunas. Long-term population monitoring, enhanced survey efforts, collection of basic biological and ecological information, continued taxonomic research and evaluation of the impact of commercial trade for food, medicine and pets are also needed. Strong involvement of regional stakeholders, students and professionals is essential to accomplish these actions. PMID:20007165

  17. 29 CFR 779.368 - Printing and engraving establishments not recognized as retail.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Printing and engraving establishments not recognized...Commercial Stationers § 779.368 Printing and engraving establishments not recognized...An establishment which is engaged in printing and engraving is not recognized...

  18. 29 CFR 779.368 - Printing and engraving establishments not recognized as retail.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Printing and engraving establishments not recognized...Commercial Stationers § 779.368 Printing and engraving establishments not recognized...An establishment which is engaged in printing and engraving is not recognized...

  19. 29 CFR 779.368 - Printing and engraving establishments not recognized as retail.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Printing and engraving establishments not recognized...Commercial Stationers § 779.368 Printing and engraving establishments not recognized...An establishment which is engaged in printing and engraving is not recognized...

  20. A Probabilistic Framework For Recognizing and Affecting Emotions Cristina Conati, Xiaoming Zhou

    E-print Network

    Conati, Cristina

    A Probabilistic Framework For Recognizing and Affecting Emotions Cristina Conati, Xiaoming Zhou involved in recognizing a variety of user emotions by relying un Dynamic Bayesian Network. We summarize how emotionally intelligent interactive systems is recognizing user emotional states. How detailed

  1. Identities and Archaeological Heritage Preservation at the Crossroads: Understanding the Challenges of Economic Development at Tengzug, Upper East Region, Ghana

    PubMed Central

    Kankpeyeng, Benjamin W.; Insoll, Timothy; MacLean, Rachel

    2011-01-01

    It is evident that both tangible and intangible elements constitute heritage and this needs to be recognized by researchers, heritage professionals and government bodies charged with implementing development policies. However, the relationship between traditional beliefs, worldview, heritage conservation, and archaeological investigation is a complex one. This is considered with reference to the conflict that can occur between government policy and indigenous beliefs in relation to architecture, and with reference to perceptions of landscape amongst the Talensi communities of Tengzug in Upper East Region, Ghana. PMID:22003263

  2. Successful conservation of a threatened Maculinea butterfly.

    PubMed

    Thomas, J A; Simcox, D J; Clarke, R T

    2009-07-01

    Globally threatened butterflies have prompted research-based approaches to insect conservation. Here, we describe the reversal of the decline of Maculinea arion (Large Blue), a charismatic specialist whose larvae parasitize Myrmica ant societies. M. arion larvae were more specialized than had previously been recognized, being adapted to a single host-ant species that inhabits a narrow niche in grassland. Inconspicuous changes in grazing and vegetation structure caused host ants to be replaced by similar but unsuitable congeners, explaining the extinction of European Maculinea populations. Once this problem was identified, UK ecosystems were perturbed appropriately, validating models predicting the recovery and subsequent dynamics of the butterfly and ants at 78 sites. The successful identification and reversal of the problem provides a paradigm for other insect conservation projects. PMID:19541953

  3. Afrotherian Conservation 6 (GDACEL) to classify the Bronberg Ridge as a Class 2 Ridge

    E-print Network

    . Environmental change occurs against a backdrop of other human-created stresses on biodiversity. Foremost among tools in conservation management for endangered species as small isolated populations resulting from occupancy, endemism, taxonomic distinctiveness and vulnerability: prioritizing regional conservation actions

  4. Conservation: Toward firmer ground

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    The following aspects of energy conservation were discussed: conservation history and goals, conservation modes, conservation accounting-criteria, and a method to overcome obstacles. The conservation modes tested fall into one of the following categories: reduced energy consumption, increased efficiency of energy utilization, or substitution of one or more forms of energy for another which is in shorter supply or in some sense thought to be of more value. The conservation accounting criteria include net energy reduction, economic, and technical criteria. A method to overcome obstacles includes (approaches such as: direct personal impact (life style, income, security, aspiration), an element of crisis, large scale involvement of environmental, safety, and health issues, connections to big government, big business, big politics, involvement of known and speculative science and technology, appeal to moral and ethical standards, the transient nature of opportunities to correct the system.

  5. Automatic target recognizer (ATR) system - A Hughes perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pretzer, Donavon D.

    1987-01-01

    While automatic target recognizers (ATRs) offer great potential for improving the lethality and survivability of next-generation weapons systems, proprietary experience indicates that they will complement rather than replace tactical decisionmakers and allow more effective operation of single-seat aircraft and two-crewmember tanks. The ultimate utility of ATRs is presently suggested to fundamentally depend on coordinated development efforts aimed at specific missions that are defined by realistic performance requirements and data bases.

  6. Recognizing and treating depression in patients with diabetes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Richard R. Rubin; Paul Ciechanowski; Leonard E. Egede; Elizabeth H. B. Lin; Patrick J. Lustman

    2004-01-01

    Diabetes doubles the risk for depression, which in turn may interfere with effective diabetes self-management, and is associated\\u000a with hyperglycemia and with increased risk for diabetes complications. Despite its relevance to the course of diabetes and\\u000a its chronic character, depression is recognized and treated appropriately in fewer than 25% of depressed diabetic patients.\\u000a The authors discuss the use of screening

  7. Recognizing wide-area and process-type activities

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Raymond D. Rimey; William Hoff; Jae Young Lee

    2007-01-01

    New methods are presented to model, visualize and automatically recognize wide-area activities, which essentially are activities that span large areas (such as a facility or urban neighborhood) and that usually span long time intervals (such as hours and weeks). We introduce the no-go topology method and the chokepoint-observation interaction method, and then show how new algorithms can be built on

  8. Experiments with the Tangora 20,000 word speech recognizer

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Averbuch; L. Bahl; R. Bakis; P. Brown; G. Daggett; S. Das; K. Davies; S. De Gennaro; P. de Souza; E. Epstein; D. Fraleigh; F. Jelinek; B. Lewis; R. Mercer; J. Moorhead; A. Nadas; D. Nahamoo; M. Picheny; G. Shichman; P. Spinelli; D. Van Compernolle; H. Wilkens

    1987-01-01

    The Speech Recognition Group at IBM Research in Yorktown Heights has developed a real-time, isolated-utterance speech recognizer for natural language based on the IBM Personal Computer AT and IBM Signal Processors. The system has recently been enhanced by expanding the vocabulary from 5,000 words to 20,000 words and by the addition of a speech workstation to support usability studies on

  9. Global distribution and conservation of marine mammals

    PubMed Central

    Pompa, Sandra; Ehrlich, Paul R.; Ceballos, Gerardo

    2011-01-01

    We identified 20 global key conservation sites for all marine (123) and freshwater (6) mammal species based on their geographic ranges. We created geographic range maps for all 129 species and a Geographic Information System database for a 46,184 1° x 1° grid-cells, ?10,000-km2. Patterns of species richness, endemism, and risk were variable among all species and species groups. Interestingly, marine mammal species richness was correlated strongly with areas of human impact across the oceans. Key conservation sites in the global geographic grid were determined either by their species richness or by their irreplaceability or uniqueness, because of the presence of endemic species. Nine key conservation sites, comprising the 2.5% of the grid cells with the highest species richness, were found, mostly in temperate latitudes, and hold 84% of marine mammal species. In addition, we identified 11 irreplaceable key conservation sites, six of which were found in freshwater bodies and five in marine regions. These key conservation sites represent critical areas of conservation value at a global level and can serve as a first step for adopting global strategies with explicit geographic conservation targets for Marine Protected Areas. PMID:21808012

  10. Tulane virus recognizes sialic acids as cellular receptors

    PubMed Central

    Tan, Ming; Wei, Chao; Huang, Pengwei; Fan, Qiang; Quigley, Christina; Xia, Ming; Fang, Hao; Zhang, Xufu; Zhong, Weiming; Klassen, John S.; Jiang, Xi

    2015-01-01

    The recent discovery that human noroviruses (huNoVs) recognize sialic acids (SAs) in addition to histo-blood group antigens (HBGAs) pointed to a new direction in studying virus-host interactions during calicivirus infection. HuNoVs remain difficult to study due to the lack of an effective cell culture model. In this study, we demonstrated that Tulane virus (TV), a cultivable primate calicivirus, also recognizes SAs in addition to the previously known TV-HBGA interactions. Evidence supporting this discovery includes that TV virions bound synthetic sialoglycoconjugates (SGCs) and that treatment of TV permissive LLC-MK2 cells with either neuraminidases or SA-binding lectins inhibited TV infectivity. In addition, we found that Maackia amurensis leukoagglutinin (MAL), a lectin that recognizes the ?-2,3 linked SAs, bound LLC-MK2 cells, as well as TV, by which MAL promoted TV infectivity in cell culture. Our findings further highlight TV as a valuable surrogate for huNoVs, particularly in studying virus-host interactions that may involve two host carbohydrate receptors or co-receptors for infection. PMID:26146020

  11. Recognizing surgeon's actions during suture operations from video sequences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Ye; Ohya, Jun; Chiba, Toshio; Xu, Rong; Yamashita, Hiromasa

    2014-03-01

    Because of the shortage of nurses in the world, the realization of a robotic nurse that can support surgeries autonomously is very important. More specifically, the robotic nurse should be able to autonomously recognize different situations of surgeries so that the robotic nurse can pass necessary surgical tools to the medical doctors in a timely manner. This paper proposes and explores methods that can classify suture and tying actions during suture operations from the video sequence that observes the surgery scene that includes the surgeon's hands. First, the proposed method uses skin pixel detection and foreground extraction to detect the hand area. Then, interest points are randomly chosen from the hand area so that their 3D SIFT descriptors are computed. A word vocabulary is built by applying hierarchical K-means to these descriptors, and the words' frequency histogram, which corresponds to the feature space, is computed. Finally, to classify the actions, either SVM (Support Vector Machine), Nearest Neighbor rule (NN) for the feature space or a method that combines "sliding window" with NN is performed. We collect 53 suture videos and 53 tying videos to build the training set and to test the proposed method experimentally. It turns out that the NN gives higher than 90% accuracies, which are better recognition than SVM. Negative actions, which are different from either suture or tying action, are recognized with quite good accuracies, while "Sliding window" did not show significant improvements for suture and tying and cannot recognize negative actions.

  12. Smart responsive microcapsules capable of recognizing heavy metal ions.

    PubMed

    Pi, Shuo-Wei; Ju, Xiao-Jie; Wu, Han-Guang; Xie, Rui; Chu, Liang-Yin

    2010-09-15

    Smart responsive microcapsules capable of recognizing heavy metal ions are successfully prepared with oil-in-water-in-oil double emulsions as templates for polymerization in this study. The microcapsules are featured with thin poly(N-isopropylacrylamide-co-benzo-18-crown-6-acrylamide) (P(NIPAM-co-BCAm)) membranes, and they can selectively recognize special heavy metal ions such as barium(II) or lead(II) ions very well due to the "host-guest" complexation between the BCAm receptors and barium(II) or lead(II) ions. The stable BCAm/Ba(2+) or BCAm/Pb(2+) complexes in the P(NIPAM-co-BCAm) membrane cause a positive shift of the volume phase transition temperature of the crosslinked P(NIPAM-co-BCAm) hydrogel to a higher temperature, and the repulsion among the charged BCAm/Ba(2+) or BCAm/Pb(2+) complexes and the osmotic pressure within the P(NIPAM-co-BCAm) membranes result in the swelling of microcapsules. Induced by recognizing barium(II) or lead(II) ions, the prepared microcapsules with P(NIPAM-co-BCAm) membranes exhibit isothermal and significant swelling not only in outer and inner diameters but also in the membrane thickness. The proposed microcapsules in this study are highly attractive for developing smart sensors and/or carriers for detection and/or elimination of heavy metal ions. PMID:20656104

  13. Geographic bias in citation rates of conservation research.

    PubMed

    Meijaard, Erik; Cardillo, Marcel; Meijaard, Emily M; Possingham, Hugh P

    2015-06-01

    We investigated whether the impact of conservation science is greater for research conducted in countries with more pressing conservation problems. We quantified research impact for 231 countries based on 2 citation metrics (mean cites per paper and h index) and fitted models predicting research impact based on number of threatened bird and mammal species (as a measure of conservation importance of a country) and a range of demographic variables. Citation rates of conservation research increased as a country's conservation need increased and as human population, quality of governance, and wealth increased. Even after accounting for these factors, citation rates among regions and countries within regions varied significantly. The conservation research community needs to consider ways to begin addressing the entrenched disadvantages some countries have when it comes to initiating projects and producing high-quality research. PMID:25817796

  14. Differential hormonal modulation of brain antigens recognized by the AB-2 monoclonal antibody.

    PubMed

    Tobet, S A; Whorf, R C; Schwarting, G A; Fischer, I; Fox, T O

    1991-09-19

    The expression of monoclonal antibody AB-2 immunoreactivity is age- and sex-dependent in radial glia of developing rat hypothalamus and is regulated by prenatal exposure to gonadal steroids. In the present study, several proteins were recognized by AB-2 and were distributed selectively in subcellular fractions from neonatal hypothalamus (HYP), remaining forebrain (FB), and brainstem regions. Immunoblots revealed polypeptide bands in 3 major molecular weight classes: one at approximately 195 kDa in the cytosolic compartment; and two doublets at 220 kDa and 340 kDa in both microsomal and crude mitochondrial membrane fractions. The 220 kDa and 340 kDa doublets were also Triton-insoluble, suggesting a cytoskeletal association. The 195 kDa-AB-2-immunoreactive band was present in both Triton-soluble and insoluble fractions. AB-2 also recognized several acidic glycolipids extracted from postnatal rat brain regions on immunoblots following high performance thin layer chromatography. One of the bands from postnatal rat brain extracts migrated similarly to purified bovine brain sulfatide, which was also immunoreactive with AB-2. AB-2 immunoreactivity with proteins, polar lipids, and sulfatide suggests that the epitope is a carbohydrate present in multiple cellular compartments. AB-2 recognized the same molecular bands in males and females. Testosterone treatment selectively decreased the level of the 195 kDa AB-2-immunoreactive polypeptide. The 195 kDa AB-2-immunoreactive polypeptide possibly acts in radial glia in the determination of sexually dimorphic neurons in the preoptic area/hypothalamus. PMID:1760875

  15. Society for Conservation Biology

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Founded in 1985, the "Society for Conservation Biology (SCB) is an international professional organization dedicated to promoting the scientific study of phenomena that affect the maintenance, loss, and restoration of biological diversity." Online services provided by SCB include a great conservation jobs database; a bulletin board for conservation-related postings; listings for educational resources, and academic programs in the field of Conservation Biology. Site visitors can also peruse SCB annual reports, archived online newsletters, and information about local chapters, committees, membership, and meetings.

  16. Comprehensive mapping of common immunodominant epitopes in the eastern equine encephalitis virus E2 protein recognized by avian antibody responses.

    PubMed

    Sun, Encheng; Zhao, Jing; Sun, Liang; Xu, Qingyuan; Yang, Tao; Qin, Yongli; Wang, Wenshi; Wei, Peng; Sun, Jing; Wu, Donglai

    2013-01-01

    Eastern equine encephalitis virus (EEEV) is a mosquito-borne virus that can cause both human and equine encephalitis with high case fatality rates. EEEV can also be widespread among birds, including pheasants, ostriches, emu, turkeys, whooping cranes and chickens. The E2 protein of EEEV and other Alphaviruses is an important immunogenic protein that elicits antibodies of diagnostic value. While many therapeutic and diagnostic applications of E2 protein-specific antibodies have been reported, the specific epitopes on E2 protein recognized by the antibody responses of different susceptible hosts, including avian species, remain poorly defined. In the present study, the avian E2-reactive polyclonal antibody (PAb) response was mapped to linear peptide epitopes using PAbs elicited in chickens and ducks following immunization with recombinant EEEV E2 protein and a series of 42 partially overlapping peptides covering the entire EEEV E2 protein. We identified 12 and 13 peptides recognized by the chicken and duck PAb response, respectively. Six of these linear peptides were commonly recognized by PAbs elicited in both avian species. Among them five epitopes recognized by both avian, the epitopes located at amino acids 211-226 and 331-352 were conserved among the EEEV antigenic complex, but not other associated alphaviruses, whereas the epitopes at amino acids 11-26, 30-45 and 151-166 were specific to EEEV subtype I. The five common peptide epitopes were not recognized by avian PAbs against Avian Influenza Virus (AIV) and Duck Plague Virus (DPV). The identification and characterization of EEEV E2 antibody epitopes may be aid the development of diagnostic tools and facilitate the design of epitope-based vaccines for EEEV. These results also offer information with which to study the structure of EEEV E2 protein. PMID:23922704

  17. Improving the Effectiveness of Artificial MicroRNA (amiR)-Mediated Resistance against Turnip Mosaic Virus by Combining Two amiRs or by Targeting Highly Conserved Viral Genomic Regions

    PubMed Central

    Lafforgue, Guillaume; Martínez, Fernando; Niu, Qi-Wen; Chua, Nam-Hai; Daròs, José-Antonio

    2013-01-01

    A drawback of recent antiviral therapies based on the transgenic expression of artificial microRNAs (amiRs) is the ease with which viruses generate escape mutations. Here, we show two alternative strategies for improving the effectiveness of resistance in plants. First, we expressed two amiRs complementary to independent targets in the viral genome, and second, we designed amiRs complementary to highly conserved RNA motifs in the viral genome. PMID:23698292

  18. Improving the effectiveness of artificial microRNA (amiR)-mediated resistance against Turnip mosaic virus by combining two amiRs or by targeting highly conserved viral genomic regions.

    PubMed

    Lafforgue, Guillaume; Martínez, Fernando; Niu, Qi-Wen; Chua, Nam-Hai; Daròs, José-Antonio; Elena, Santiago F

    2013-07-01

    A drawback of recent antiviral therapies based on the transgenic expression of artificial microRNAs (amiRs) is the ease with which viruses generate escape mutations. Here, we show two alternative strategies for improving the effectiveness of resistance in plants. First, we expressed two amiRs complementary to independent targets in the viral genome, and second, we designed amiRs complementary to highly conserved RNA motifs in the viral genome. PMID:23698292

  19. Hyperglycosylated Stable Core Immunogens Designed To Present the CD4 Binding Site Are Preferentially Recognized by Broadly Neutralizing Antibodies

    PubMed Central

    Ingale, Jidnyasa; Tran, Karen; Kong, Leopold; Dey, Barna; McKee, Krisha; Schief, William; Kwong, Peter D.; Mascola, John R.

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT The HIV-1 surface envelope glycoprotein (Env) trimer mediates entry into CD4+ CCR5+ host cells. Env possesses conserved antigenic determinants, such as the gp120 primary receptor CD4 binding site (CD4bs), a known neutralization target. Env also contains variable regions and protein surfaces occluded within the trimer that elicit nonneutralizing antibodies. Here we engineered additional N-linked glycans onto a cysteine-stabilized gp120 core (0G) deleted of its major variable regions to preferentially expose the conformationally fixed CD4bs. Three, 6, 7, and 10 new NXT/S glycan (G) motifs were engineered into 0G to encode 3G, 6G, 7G, and 10G cores. Following purification, most glycoproteins, except for 10G, were recognized by broadly neutralizing CD4bs-directed antibodies. Gel and glycan mass spectrometry confirmed that additional N-glycans were posttranslationally added to the redesigned cores. Binding kinetics revealed high-affinity recognition by seven broadly neutralizing CD4bs-directed antibodies and low to no binding by non-broadly neutralizing CD4bs-directed antibodies. Rabbits inoculated with the hyperglycosylated cores elicited IgM and IgG responses to each given protein that were similar in their neutralization characteristics to those elicited by parental 0G. Site-specific glycan masking effects were detected in the elicited sera, and the antisera competed with b12 for CD4bs-directed binding specificity. However, the core-elicited sera showed limited neutralization activity. Trimer priming or boosting of the core immunogens elicited tier 1-level neutralization that mapped to both the CD4bs and V3 and appeared to be trimer dependent. Fine mapping at the CD4bs indicated that conformational stabilization of the cores and addition of N-glycans altered the molecular surface of Env sites of vulnerability to neutralizing antibody, suggesting an explanation for why the elicited neutralization was not improved by this rational design strategy. IMPORTANCE Major obstacles to developing an effective HIV-1 vaccine include the variability of the envelope surface glycoproteins and its high-density glycan shield, generated by incorporation of host (human) glycosylation. HIV-1 does harbor highly conserved sites on the exposed envelope protein surface of gp120, one of which is the virus receptor (CD4) binding site. Several broadly neutralizing antibodies elicited from HIV patients do target this gp120 CD4 binding site (CD4bs); however, gp120 immunogens do not elicit broadly neutralizing antibodies. In this study, we targeted the CD4bs by conformational stabilization and additional glycan masking. We used the atomic-level structure to reengineer gp120 cores to preferentially present the cysteine-stabilized CD4bs and to mask (by glycan) nonneutralizing determinants. Importantly, glycan masking did successfully focus antibody responses to the CD4bs; however, the elicited CD4bs-directed antibodies did not neutralize HIV or bind to unmodified gp120, presumably due to the structure-guided modifications of the modified gp120 core. PMID:25253346

  20. Importance of uncharged polar residues and proline in the proximal two-thirds (Pro107–Ser128) of the highly conserved region of mouse ileal Na+-dependent bile acid transporter, Slc10a2, in transport activity and cellular expression

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background SLC10A2-mediated reabsorption of bile acids at the distal end of the ileum is the first step in enterohepatic circulation. Because bile acids act not only as detergents but also as signaling molecules in lipid metabolism and energy production, SLC10A2 is important as the key transporter for understanding the in vivo kinetics of bile acids. SLC10A family members and the homologous genes of various species share a highly conserved region corresponding to Gly104–Pro142 of SLC10A2. The functional importance of this region has not been fully elucidated. Results To elucidate the functional importance of this region, we previously performed mutational analysis of the uncharged polar residues and proline in the distal one-third (Thr130–Pro142) of the highly conserved region in mouse Slc10a2. In this study, proline and uncharged polar residues in the remaining two-thirds of this region in mouse Slc10a2 were subjected to mutational analysis, and taurocholic acid uptake and cell surface localization were examined. Cell surface localization of Slc10a2 is necessary for bile acid absorption. Mutants in which Asp or Leu were substituted for Pro107 (P107N or P107L) were abundantly expressed, but their cell surface localization was impaired. The S126A mutant was completely impaired in cellular expression. The T110A and S128A mutants exhibited remarkably enhanced membrane expression. The S112A mutant was properly expressed at the cell surface but transport activity was completely lost. Replacement of Tyr117 with various amino acids resulted in reduced transport activity. The degree of reduction roughly depended on the van der Waals volume of the side chains. Conclusions The functional importance of proline and uncharged polar residues in the highly conserved region of mouse Slc10a2 was determined. This information will contribute to the design of bile acid-conjugated prodrugs for efficient drug delivery or SLC10A2 inhibitors for hypercholesterolemia treatment. PMID:23374508