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Sample records for recombinant anti-mesothelin immunotoxin

  1. 77 FR 8263 - Prospective Grant of Exclusive License: The Development of Anti-mesothelin Targeted Immunotoxins...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-14

    .... 209(c)(1) and 37 CFR Part 404.7(a)(1)(i), that the National Institutes of Health, Department of Health.../00224 entitled ``Mesothelin Antigen and Methods and Kits for Targeting It'' , U.S. Patent 5,747,654... immunotoxins for the treatment of mesothelin-expressing cancers, wherein the immunotoxins have: (1) A...

  2. Generation of active immunotoxins containing recombinant restrictocin.

    PubMed

    Rathore, D; Batra, J K

    1996-05-01

    Restrictocin, a toxin produced by the fungus Aspergillus restrictus, is a potent inhibitor of eukaryotic protein synthesis. Recombinant restrictocin was made in Escherichia coli and purified to homogeneity in large amounts. The recombinant protein was found to be poorly immunogenic in mice with low toxicity, when injected intraperitoneally. Two immunotoxins were constructed by coupling the recombinant restrictocin to an antibody to the human transferrin receptor, using a cleavable and a stable linkage. The immunotoxins so generated showed specific cytotoxic activity toward receptor bearing cells in tissue culture. Immunotoxin with a cleavable linkage, however, was more active than that containing a stable linkage. Restrictocin appears to be a promising candidate to be developed as a chimeric toxin for targeted therapy. PMID:8630074

  3. Recombinant Immunotoxins Containing Truncated Bacterial Toxins for the Treatment of Hematologic Malignancies

    PubMed Central

    Kreitman, Robert J.

    2009-01-01

    Immunotoxins are molecules that contain a protein toxin and a ligand that is either an antibody or a growth factor. The ligand binds to a target cell antigen, and the target cell internalizes the immunotoxin, allowing the toxin to migrate to the cytoplasm where it can kill the cell. In the case of recombinant immunotoxins, the ligand and toxin are encoded in DNA that is then expressed in bacteria, and the purified immunotoxin contains the ligand and toxin fused together. Among the most active recombinant immunotoxins clinically tested are those that are targeted to hematologic malignancies. One agent, containing human interleukin-2 and truncated diphtheria toxin (denileukin diftitox), has been approved for use in cutaneous T-cell lymphoma, and has shown activity in other hematologic malignancies, including leukemias and lymphomas. Diphtheria toxin has also been targeted by other ligands, including granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor and interleukin-3, to target myelogenous leukemia cells. Single-chain antibodies containing variable heavy and light antibody domains have been fused to truncated Pseudomonas exotoxin to target lymphomas and lymphocytic leukemias. Recombinant immunotoxins anti-Tac(Fv)-PE38 (LMB-2), targeting CD25, and RFB4(dsFv)-PE38 (BL22, CAT-3888), targeting CD22, have each been tested in patients. Major responses have been observed after failure of standard chemotherapy. The most successful application of recombinant immunotoxins today is in hairy cell leukemia, where BL22 has induced complete remissions in most patients who were previously treated with optimal chemotherapy. PMID:19344187

  4. Development of a diphtheria toxin based antiporcine CD3 recombinant immunotoxin.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhirui; Duran-Struuck, Raimon; Crepeau, Rebecca; Matar, Abraham; Hanekamp, Isabel; Srinivasan, Srimathi; Neville, David M; Sachs, David H; Huang, Christene A

    2011-10-19

    Anti-CD3 immunotoxins, which induce profound but transient T-cell depletion in vivo by inhibiting eukaryotic protein synthesis in CD3+ cells, are effective reagents in large animal models of transplantation tolerance and autoimmune disease therapy. A diphtheria toxin based antiporcine CD3 recombinant immunotoxin was constructed by fusing the truncated diphtheria toxin DT390 with two identical tandem single chain variable fragments (scFv) derived from the antiporcine CD3 monoclonal antibody 898H2-6-15. The recombinant immunotoxin was expressed in a diphtheria-toxin resistant yeast Pichia pastoris strain under the control of the alcohol oxidase promoter. The secreted recombinant immunotoxin was purified sequentially with hydrophobic interaction chromatography (Butyl 650 M) followed by strong anion exchange (Poros 50 HQ). The purified antiporcine CD3 immunotoxin was tested in vivo in four animals; peripheral blood CD3+ T-cell numbers were reduced by 80% and lymph node T-cells decreased from 74% CD3+ cells pretreatment to 24% CD3+ cells remaining in the lymph node following 4 days of immunotoxin treatment. No clinical toxicity was observed in any of the experimental swine. We anticipate that this conjugate will provide an important tool for in vivo depletion of T-cells in swine transplantation models. PMID:21866954

  5. Effect of Antigen Shedding on Targeted Delivery of Immunotoxins in Solid Tumors from a Mathematical Model

    PubMed Central

    Pak, Youngshang; Pastan, Ira; Kreitman, Robert J.; Lee, Byungkook

    2014-01-01

    Most cancer-specific antigens used as targets of antibody-drug conjugates and immunotoxins are shed from the cell surface (Zhang & Pastan (2008) Clin. Cancer Res. 14: 7981-7986), although at widely varying rates and by different mechanisms (Dello Sbarba & Rovida (2002) Biol. Chem. 383: 69–83). Why many cancer-specific antigens are shed and how the shedding affects delivery efficiency of antibody-based protein drugs are poorly understood questions at present. Before a detailed numerical study, it was assumed that antigen shedding would reduce the efficacy of antibody-drug conjugates and immunotoxins. However, our previous study using a comprehensive mathematical model showed that antigen shedding can significantly improve the efficacy of the mesothelin-binding immunotoxin, SS1P (anti-mesothelin-Fv-PE38), and suggested that receptor shedding can be a general mechanism for enhancing the effect of inter-cellular signaling molecules. Here, we improved this model and applied it to both SS1P and another recombinant immunotoxin, LMB-2, which targets CD25. We show that the effect of antigen shedding is influenced by a number of factors including the number of antigen molecules on the cell surface and the endocytosis rate. The high shedding rate of mesothelin is beneficial for SS1P, for which the antigen is large in number and endocytosed rapidly. On the other hand, the slow shedding of CD25 is beneficial for LMB-2, for which the antigen is small in number and endocytosed slowly. PMID:25343405

  6. Bortezomib Reduces Preexisting Antibodies to Recombinant Immunotoxins in Mice*

    PubMed Central

    Manning, Michael L.; Mason-Osann, Emily; Onda, Masanori; Pastan, Ira

    2014-01-01

    Recombinant immunotoxin (RIT) therapy is limited in patients by neutralizing antibody responses. Ninety percent of patients with normal immune systems make neutralizing antibodies after one cycle of RIT, preventing repeated dosing. Furthermore, some patients have preexisting antibodies from environmental exposure to Pseudomonas exotoxin, the component of the RIT that elicits the neutralizing antibody response. Bortezomib (B) is an FDA-approved proteasome inhibitor which selectively targets and kills plasma cells which are necessary for the neutralizing antibody response. We hypothesized B may abrogate neutralizing antibody levels, making dosing of RIT possible in mice already immune to RIT. We immunized BALB/c mice with multiple doses of SS1P, a RIT whose antibody portion targets mesothelin. Mice with elevated antibody levels were separated into groups to receive saline, B, the pentostatin/cyclophosphamide (PC) regimen, or the bortezomib/pentostatin/cyclophosphamide (BPC) combination regimen. Four weeks after finishing therapy plasma antibody levels were assayed and bone marrow was harvested. The B and PC regimens both significantly reduced antibody levels, and we observed fewer plasma cells in the bone marrow of B treated mice, but not in PC treated mice. The BPC combination regimen nearly eliminated antibodies and further reduced plasma cells in the bone marrow. The BPC combination regimen is more effective than individual regimens and may reduce antibody levels in patients with preexisting neutralizing antibodies to Pseudomonas exotoxin allowing RIT treatment. PMID:25560410

  7. Development of a recombinant hCG-specific single chain immunotoxin cytotoxic to hCG expressing cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Nand, Kripa N; Gupta, Jagdish C; Panda, A K; Jain, S K

    2015-02-01

    A large number of cancers express human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) or its subunits ectopically. Patients harboring such cancers have poor prognosis and adverse survival. PiPP is a monoclonal antibody of high affinity and specificity for hCGβ/hCG. Work was carried out to develop a PiPP based recombinant immunotoxin for the immunotherapy of hCG expressing cancers. Recombinant PiPP antibody was constructed in scFv format in which gene encoding the VH and VL domains were joined through a linker. This scFv gene was fused to the gene expressing Pseudomonas exotoxin (PE38), and cloned in a Escherichia coli based expression vector under the control of strong bacteriophage T7 promoter. Immunotoxin conjugating scFv(PiPP) and PE38, was expressed in E. coli as recombinant protein. Recombinant PiPP immunotoxin was purified from the bacterial cell lysate and tested for binding and killing of hCGβ expressing lymphoma, T-lymphoblastic leukemia and lung carcinoma cells in vitro. Immunotoxin showed nearly 90% killing on the cells. This is the first ever report on recombinant immunotoxin for binding and cytotoxicity to hCG expressing cancer cells, and thus can be a potential candidate for the immunotherapy of hCG expressing cells. PMID:25448825

  8. In vitro and in vivo effects of a recombinant anti-PSMA immunotoxin in combination with docetaxel against prostate cancer

    PubMed Central

    Michalska, Marta; Schultze-Seemann, Susanne; Bogatyreva, Lioudmila; Hauschke, Dieter; Wetterauer, Ulrich; Wolf, Philipp

    2016-01-01

    Docetaxel (DOC) is used for the first-line treatment of castration resistant prostate cancer (CPRC). However, the therapeutic effects are limited, only about one half of patients respond to the therapy and severe side effects possibly lead to discontinuation of treatment. Therefore, actual research is focused on the development of new DOC-based combination treatments. In this study we investigated the antitumor effects of a recombinant immunotoxin targeting the prostate specific membrane antigen (PSMA) in combination with DOC in vitro and in vivo. The immunotoxin consists of an anti-PSMA single chain antibody fragment (scFv) as binding and a truncated form of Pseudomonas aeruginosa Exotoxin A (PE40) as toxin domain. The immunotoxin induced apoptosis and specifically reduced the viability of androgen-dependent LNCaP and androgen-independent C4-2 prostate cancer cells. A synergistic cytotoxic activity was observed in combination with DOC with IC50 values in the low picomolar or even femtomolar range. Moreover, combination treatment resulted in an enhanced antitumor activity in a C4-2 SCID mouse xenograft model. This highlights the immunotoxin as a promising therapeutic agent for a future DOC-based combination therapy of CPRC. PMID:26968813

  9. Bortezomib reduces pre-existing antibodies to recombinant immunotoxins in mice.

    PubMed

    Manning, Michael L; Mason-Osann, Emily; Onda, Masanori; Pastan, Ira

    2015-02-15

    Recombinant immunotoxin (RIT) therapy is limited in patients by neutralizing Ab responses. Ninety percent of patients with normal immune systems make neutralizing Abs after one cycle of RIT, preventing repeated dosing. Furthermore, some patients have pre-existing Abs from environmental exposure to Pseudomonas exotoxin, the component of the RIT that elicits the neutralizing Ab response. Bortezomib is an U.S. Food and Drug Administration-approved proteasome inhibitor that selectively targets and kills plasma cells that are necessary for the neutralizing Ab response. We hypothesized that bortezomib may abrogate neutralizing Ab levels, making dosing of RIT possible in mice already immune to RIT. We immunized BALB/c mice with multiple doses of SS1P, a RIT whose Ab portion targets mesothelin. Mice with elevated Ab levels were separated into groups to receive saline, bortezomib, the pentostatin/cyclophosphamide (PC) regimen, or the bortezomib/PC (BPC) combination regimen. Four weeks after finishing therapy, plasma Ab levels were assayed, and bone marrow was harvested. The bortezomib and PC regimens significantly reduced Ab levels, and we observed fewer plasma cells in the bone marrow of bortezomib-treated mice but not in PC-treated mice. The BPC combination regimen almost completely eliminated Abs and further reduced plasma cells in the bone marrow. This regimen is more effective than individual regimens and may reduce Ab levels in patients with pre-existing neutralizing Abs to Pseudomonas exotoxin, allowing RIT treatment. PMID:25560410

  10. Lowering the isoelectric point of the Fv portion of recombinant immunotoxins leads to decreased nonspecific animal toxicity without affecting antitumor activity.

    PubMed

    Onda, M; Nagata, S; Tsutsumi, Y; Vincent, J J; Wang, Q; Kreitman, R J; Lee, B; Pastan, I

    2001-07-01

    Recombinant immunotoxins are genetically engineered proteins in which the Fv portion of an antibody is fused to a toxin. Our laboratory uses a 38-kDa form of Pseudomonas exotoxin A termed PE38 for this purpose. Clinical studies with immunotoxins targeting CD25 and CD22 have shown that dose-limiting side effects are attributable to liver damage and other inflammatory toxicities. We recently showed that mutating exposed surface neutral residues to acidic residues in the framework region of the Fv portion of an immunotoxin targeting CD25 [anti-Tac(scFv)-PE38] lowered its isoelectric point (pI) and decreased its toxicity in mice without impairing its cytotoxic or antitumor activities. We have now extended these studies and made mutations that change basic residues to neutral or acidic residues. Initially the pI of the mutant Fv (M1) of anti-Tac(scFv)-PE38 was decreased further. Subsequently, mutations were made in two other immunotoxins, SS1(dsFv)-PE38 targeting ovarian cancer and B3(dsFv)-PE38 targeting colon and breast cancers. We have found that all these mutant molecules fully retained specific target cell cytotoxicity and antitumor activity but were considerably less toxic to mice. Therefore, lowering the pI of the Fv may be a general approach to diminish the nonspecific toxicity of recombinant immunotoxins and other Fv fusion proteins without losing antitumor activity. PMID:11431343

  11. Fusogenics: a recombinant immunotoxin-based screening platform to select internalizing tumor-specific antibody fragments.

    PubMed

    Cizeau, Jeannick; Torres, Marianne G P; Cowling, Sharla G; Stibbard, Stacy; Premsukh, Arjune; Entwistle, Joycelyn; MacDonald, Glen C

    2011-01-01

    Antibody-based therapeutics play a vital role in the treatment of certain cancers; however, despite commercial success, various strategies are being pursued to increase their potency and hence improve patient outcomes. The use of antibodies to deliver a cytotoxic payload offers a promising alternative for more efficacious therapies. Immunotoxins are composed of an internalizing antibody fragment linked to a bacterial or plant toxin. Once internalized, the payload, such as Pseudomonas exotoxin A (PE), blocks protein synthesis and induces apoptosis. Typically, immunotoxins are developed by first isolating a tumor-specific antibody, which is then either chemically linked to a toxin or reengineered as a fusion protein. Here, the authors describe the development of Fusogenics, an immunotoxin-based screening method that selects internalizing tumor-specific antibodies using a functional assay. Selected immune library clones were characterized and shown to be selective against normal tissues and specific to tumor tissues. In summary, the Fusogenics immunotoxin platform represents a unique, single-step selection approach combining specificity and functionality to isolate novel internalizing tumor-specific antibody fragments with potential for direct clinical application in the treatment of cancer. PMID:21131595

  12. Dual B- and T-cell de-immunization of recombinant immunotoxin targeting mesothelin with high cytotoxic activity.

    PubMed

    Mazor, Ronit; Onda, Masanori; Park, Dong; Addissie, Selamawit; Xiang, Laiman; Zhang, Jingli; Hassan, Raffit; Pastan, Ira

    2016-05-24

    Recombinant immunotoxins (RITs) are genetically engineered proteins being developed to treat cancer. They are composed of an Fv that targets a cancer antigen and a portion of a protein toxin. Their clinical success is limited by their immunogenicity. Our goal is to produce a new RIT that targets mesothelin and is non-immunogenic by combining mutations that decrease B- and T-cell epitopes. Starting with an immunotoxin that has B-cell epitopes suppressed, we added mutations step-wise that suppress T-cell epitopes. The final protein (LMB-T14) has greatly reduced antigenicity as assessed by binding to human anti-sera and a greatly decreased ability to activate helper T-cells evaluated in a T-cell activation assay. It is very cytotoxic to mesothelioma cells from patients, and to cancer cell lines. LMB-T14 produces complete remissions of a mesothelin expressing cancer (A431/H9) xenograft. The approach used here can be used to de-immunize other therapeutic foreign proteins. PMID:27167198

  13. Targeted therapy against human lung cancer in nude mice by high-affinity recombinant antimesothelin single-chain Fv immunotoxin.

    PubMed

    Fan, Dominic; Yano, Seiji; Shinohara, Hisashi; Solorzano, Carmen; Van Arsdall, Melissa; Bucana, Corazon D; Pathak, Sen; Kruzel, Ewa; Herbst, Roy S; Onn, Amir; Roach, Jennifer S; Onda, Masanori; Wang, Qing-cheng; Pastan, Ira; Fidler, Isaiah J

    2002-06-01

    Several tumors, including mesothelioma and ovarian cancer, can overexpress mesothelin, a glycosylphosphatidylinositol-linked differentiation glycoprotein. The membrane-bound type of mesothelin is found in the blood of cancer patients at a very low level, which makes mesothelin a good candidate for targeted therapy of certain cancers. An antimesothelin disulfide-linked Fv (SS1 Fv) was fused to a truncated mutant of Pseudomonas exotoxin A to produce the recombinant immunotoxin SS1(dsFv)-PE38, which has a high binding affinity to mesothelin (Kd = 0.7 nM). Our studies in vitro showed that SS1(dsFv)-PE38 is significantly more cytotoxic to the high-mesothelin-producing NCI-H226 human non-small cell lung cancer cells than to human lung adenocarcinoma PC14PE6 cells, which do not express mesothelin. When administered at a nontoxic dose of 500 microg/kg on days 7, 9, and 11 to nude mice injected i.v. with the two human lung cancer cell lines, SS1(dsFv)-PE38 selectively inhibited experimental lung metastases produced by the mesothelin-producing NCI-H226 cells. Our data indicate that mesothelin-producing squamous cell carcinoma of the lung may be a good target for this immunotoxin. PMID:12479219

  14. Recombinant immunotoxin for cancer treatment with low immunogenicity by identification and silencing of human T-cell epitopes.

    PubMed

    Mazor, Ronit; Eberle, Jaime A; Hu, Xiaobo; Vassall, Aaron N; Onda, Masanori; Beers, Richard; Lee, Elizabeth C; Kreitman, Robert J; Lee, Byungkook; Baker, David; King, Chris; Hassan, Raffit; Benhar, Itai; Pastan, Ira

    2014-06-10

    Nonhuman proteins have valuable therapeutic properties, but their efficacy is limited by neutralizing antibodies. Recombinant immunotoxins (RITs) are potent anticancer agents that have produced many complete remissions in leukemia, but immunogenicity limits the number of doses that can be given to patients with normal immune systems. Using human cells, we identified eight helper T-cell epitopes in PE38, a portion of the bacterial protein Pseudomonas exotoxin A which consists of the toxin moiety of the RIT, and used this information to make LMB-T18 in which three epitopes were deleted and five others diminished by point mutations in key residues. LMB-T18 has high cytotoxic and antitumor activity and is very resistant to thermal denaturation. The new immunotoxin has a 93% decrease in T-cell epitopes and should have improved efficacy in patients because more treatment cycles can be given. Furthermore, the deimmunized toxin can be used to make RITs targeting other antigens, and the approach we describe can be used to deimmunize other therapeutically useful nonhuman proteins. PMID:24799704

  15. Recombinant anti-monkey CD3 immunotoxin depletes peripheral lymph node T lymphocytes more effectively than rabbit anti-thymocyte globulin in naïve baboons

    PubMed Central

    Wamala, Isaac; Matar, Abraham J.; Farkash, Evan; Wang, Zhirui; Huang, Christene A.; Sachs, David H.

    2014-01-01

    T cell depletion is an important procedure for both experimental and therapeutic immune modulation. Rabbit anti-thymocyte globulin (ATG), which is a commonly used T cell depletion antibody in clinical organ and cell transplantation protocols, is effective in temporarily depleting peripheral blood T lymphocytes but only moderately effective in depleting peripheral lymph node T cells which comprise the majority of T lymphocytes. A recombinant anti-CD3 immunotoxin, A-dmDT390-scfbDb (C207), has been developed and shown in an initial study to retain the lymph node depleting properties of conjugated CD3 immunotoxin. This agent could potentially be used synergistically with or as a replacement for rabbit ATG in preclinical primate models of transplantation. We directly compared the peripheral blood and lymph node depleting abilities of this recombinant anti-CD3 immunotoxin and rabbit ATG in naïve animals at clinically tolerated doses. Baboons were treated with a full course of either rabbit ATG (n = 2) or CD3 immunotoxin (n = 3). Peripheral blood and lymph node T lymphocytes were measured before and following treatment. Peripheral blood CD3+ cells fell below 100 cells/μL in every animal. In the two animals receiving ATG, CD3+ cells represented 53% and 68% of lymph node cells two days following a full course of rabbit ATG. In contrast, CD3+ cells represented 3%, 5%, and 38% in lymph nodes following a full course of CD3-IT. Thus, recombinant anti-monkey CD3 immunotoxin showed improved peripheral lymph node T lymphocyte depletion to rabbit ATG and spared other immune cells. PMID:24157659

  16. Anticancer Effects of Mesothelin-Targeted Immunotoxin Therapy Are Regulated by Tyrosine Kinase DDR1.

    PubMed

    Ali-Rahmani, Fatima; FitzGerald, David J; Martin, Scott; Patel, Paresma; Prunotto, Marco; Ormanoglu, Pinar; Thomas, Craig; Pastan, Ira

    2016-03-15

    Recombinant immunotoxins (RIT) have been highly successful in cancer therapy due, in part, to the high cancer-specific expression of cell surface antigens such as mesothelin, which is overexpressed in mesothelioma, ovarian, lung, breast, and pancreatic cancers, but is limited in normal cells. RG7787 is a clinically optimized RIT consisting of a humanized anti-mesothelin Fab fused to domain III of Pseudomonas exotoxin A, in which immunogenic B-cell epitopes are silenced. To enhance the therapeutic efficacy of RITs, we conducted a kinome RNAi sensitization screen, which identified discoidin domain receptor 1 (DDR1), a collagen-activated tyrosine kinase, as a potential target. The collagen/DDR1 axis is implicated in tumor-stromal interactions and potentially affects tumor response to therapy. Therefore, we investigated the effects of DDR1 on RIT. Knockdown of DDR1 by siRNA or treatment with inhibitor, 7rh, greatly enhanced the cytotoxic activity of RG7787 in several cancer cell lines. Investigation into the mechanism of action showed DDR1 silencing was associated with decreased expression of several ribosomal proteins and enhanced inhibition of protein synthesis. Conversely, induction of DDR1 expression or collagen-stimulated DDR1 activity protected cancer cells from RG7787 killing. Moreover, the combination of RG7787 and DDR1 inhibitor caused greater shrinkage of tumor xenografts than either agent alone. These data demonstrate that DDR1 is a key modulator of RIT activity and represents a novel therapeutic strategy to improve targeting of mesothelin-expressing cancers. PMID:26719540

  17. Selective killing of Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus lytically infected cells with a recombinant immunotoxin targeting the viral gpK8.1A envelope glycoprotein.

    PubMed

    Chatterjee, Deboeeta; Chandran, Bala; Berger, Edward A

    2012-01-01

    Kaposi sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV, human herpesvirus 8) is etiologically associated with three neoplastic syndromes: Kaposi sarcoma and the uncommon HIV-associated B-cell lymphoproliferative disorders primary effusion lymphoma and multicentric Castleman disease. The incidence of the latter B-cell pathology has been increasing in spite of antiretroviral therapy; its association with lytic virus replication has prompted interest in therapeutic strategies aimed at this phase of the virus life cycle. We designed and expressed a recombinant immunotoxin (2014-PE38) targeting the gpK8.1A viral glycoprotein expressed on the surface of the virion and infected cells. We show that this immunotoxin selectively kills KSHV-infected cells in dose-dependent fashion, resulting in major reductions of infectious virus release. The immunotoxin and ganciclovir, an inhibitor of viral DNA replication, showed marked reciprocal potentiation of antiviral activities. These results suggest that the immunotoxin, alone or in combination, may represent a new approach to treat diseases associated with KSHV lytic replication. PMID:22377676

  18. Resimmune, an anti-CD3ε recombinant immunotoxin, induces durable remissions in patients with cutaneous T-cell lymphoma

    PubMed Central

    Frankel, Arthur E.; Woo, Jung H.; Ahn, Chul; Foss, Francine M.; Duvic, Madeleine; Neville, Paul H.; Neville, David M.

    2015-01-01

    Resimmune is a second-generation recombinant immunotoxin composed of the catalytic and translocation domains of diphtheria toxin fused to two single chain antibody fragments reactive with the extracellular domain of CD3ε. We gave intravenous infusions of Resimmune 2.5 – 11.25 μg/kg over 15 minutes to 30 patients (25 with cutaneous T-cell lymphoma, 3 with peripheral T-cell lymphoma, 1 with T-cell large granular lymphocytic leukemia and 1 with T-cell prolymphocytic leukemia) in an inter-patient dose escalation trial. The most common adverse events were fever, chills, hypotension, edema, hypoalbuminemia, hypophosphatemia, and transaminasemia. Among the 25 patients with cutaneous T-cell lymphoma, there were nine responses for a response rate of 36% (95% CI, 18%–57%) including four complete remissions (16%, 95% CI, 5%–36%). The durations of the complete remissions were 72+, 72+, 60+ and 38+ months. There were five partial remissions lasting 3, 3, 3+, 6+ and 14 months. Of 17 patients with a modified skin weighted assessment tool score <50, 17 patients with stage IB/IIB, and 11 patients with both a score <50 and stage IB/IIB, nine (53%), eight (47%), and eight (73%) had responses, respectively. Further studies of Resimmune in patients with low tumor burden, stage IB-IIB cutaneous T-cell lymphoma are warranted. This trial is registered at clinicaltrials.gov as #NCT00611208. PMID:25795722

  19. A human recombinant autoantibody-based immunotoxin specific for the fetal acetylcholine receptor inhibits rhabdomyosarcoma growth in vitro and in a murine transplantation model.

    PubMed

    Gattenlöhner, S; Jörissen, H; Huhn, M; Vincent, A; Beeson, D; Tzartos, S; Mamalaki, A; Etschmann, B; Muller-Hermelink, H K; Koscielniak, E; Barth, S; Marx, A

    2010-01-01

    Rhabdomyosarcoma (RMS) is the most common malignant soft tissue tumor in children and is highly resistant to all forms of treatment currently available once metastasis or relapse has commenced. As it has recently been determined that the acetylcholine receptor (AChR) gamma-subunit, which defines the fetal AChR (fAChR) isoform, is almost exclusively expressed in RMS post partum, we recombinantly fused a single chain variable fragment (scFv) derived from a fully human anti-fAChR Fab-fragment to Pseudomonas exotoxin A to generate an anti-fAChR immunotoxin (scFv35-ETA). While scFv35-ETA had no damaging effect on fAChR-negative control cell lines, it killed human embryonic and alveolar RMS cell lines in vitro and delayed RMS development in a murine transplantation model. These results indicate that scFv35-ETA may be a valuable new therapeutic tool as well as a relevant step towards the development of a fully human immunotoxin directed against RMS. Moreover, as approximately 20% of metastatic malignant melanomas (MMs) display rhabdoid features including the expression of fAChR, the immunotoxin we developed may also prove to be of significant use in the treatment of these more common and most often fatal neoplasms. PMID:20204062

  20. A Human Recombinant Autoantibody-Based Immunotoxin Specific for the Fetal Acetylcholine Receptor Inhibits Rhabdomyosarcoma Growth In Vitro and in a Murine Transplantation Model

    PubMed Central

    Gattenlöhner, S.; Jörißen, H.; Huhn, M.; Vincent, A.; Beeson, D.; Tzartos, S.; Mamalaki, A.; Etschmann, B.; Muller-Hermelink, H. K.; Koscielniak, E.; Barth, S.; Marx, A.

    2010-01-01

    Rhabdomyosarcoma (RMS) is the most common malignant soft tissue tumor in children and is highly resistant to all forms of treatment currently available once metastasis or relapse has commenced. As it has recently been determined that the acetylcholine receptor (AChR) γ-subunit, which defines the fetal AChR (fAChR) isoform, is almost exclusively expressed in RMS post partum, we recombinantly fused a single chain variable fragment (scFv) derived from a fully human anti-fAChR Fab-fragment to Pseudomonas exotoxin A to generate an anti-fAChR immunotoxin (scFv35-ETA). While scFv35-ETA had no damaging effect on fAChR-negative control cell lines, it killed human embryonic and alveolar RMS cell lines in vitro and delayed RMS development in a murine transplantation model. These results indicate that scFv35-ETA may be a valuable new therapeutic tool as well as a relevant step towards the development of a fully human immunotoxin directed against RMS. Moreover, as approximately 20% of metastatic malignant melanomas (MMs) display rhabdoid features including the expression of fAChR, the immunotoxin we developed may also prove to be of significant use in the treatment of these more common and most often fatal neoplasms. PMID:20204062

  1. Non-invasive tumor detection in small animals using novel functional Pluronic nanomicelles conjugated with anti-mesothelin antibody

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ding, Hong; Yong, Ken-Tye; Law, Wing-Chueng; Roy, Indrajit; Hu, Rui; Wu, Fang; Zhao, Weiwei; Huang, Kun; Erogbogbo, Folarin; Bergey, Earl J.; Prasad, Paras N.

    2011-04-01

    In this study QDs were encapsulated in carboxylated PluronicF127 (F127COOH) triblock polymeric micelles and conjugated with anti-mesothelin antibody for the purpose of alleviating potential toxicity, enhancing the stability and improving targeting efficiency of CdTe/ZnS quantum dots (QDs) in tumors. The amphiphilic triblock polymer of F127COOH contains hydrophilic carboxylated poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO) and hydrophobic poly(propylene oxide) (PPO) units. After encapsulating QDs into carboxylated F127 (F127COOH-QD) micelles, the particles were conjugated with anti-mesothelin antibodies to allow targeting of cancerous areas. The size of the monodispersed spherical QD-containing micelles was determined to be ~120 nm by dynamic light scattering (DLS). The critical micelle concentration (CMC) was estimated to be 4.7 × 10-7 M. In an in vitro study, the anti-methoselin antibody conjugated F127COOH (Me-F127COOH-QD) nanomicelles showed negligible cytotoxicity to pancreatic cancer cells (Panc-1). Confocal microscopy demonstrated that the Me-F127COOH-QD nanomicelles were taken up more efficiently by Panc-1cells, due to antibody mediated targeting. An in vivo imaging study showed that Me-F127COOH-QD nanomicelles accumulated at the pancreatic tumor site 15 min after intravenous injection. In addition, the low in vivo toxicity of the nanomicellar formulation was evaluated by pathological assays. These results suggest that anti-mesothein antibody conjugated carboxylated F127 nanomicelles may serve as a promising nanoscale platform for early human pancreatic cancer detection and targeted drug delivery.

  2. Design, characterization and anti-tumour cytotoxicity of a panel of recombinant, mammalian ribonuclease-based immunotoxins.

    PubMed Central

    Deonarain, M. P.; Epenetos, A. A.

    1998-01-01

    Bovine seminal ribonuclease (BSRNase) is an unusual member of the ribonuclease superfamily, because of its remarkable anti-tumour and immunosuppressive properties. We describe here the construction, expression, purification and characterization of a panel of six immunotoxins based upon this enzyme and show that we can increase its anti-tumour activity by over 2 x 10(4)-fold. This is achieved by improving tumour cell targeting using a single-chain Fv (scFv) directed against the oncofetal antigen placental alkaline phosphatase. As well as the simple scFv-BSRNase fusion protein, we have constructed five other derivatives with additional peptides designed to improve folding and intracellular trafficking and delivery. We find that the molecule most cytotoxic to antigen (PLAP)-positive cells in vitro is one that contains a C-terminal 'KDEL' endoplasmic reticulum retention signal and a peptide sequence derived from diphtheria toxin. All these molecules are produced in Escherichia coli (E. coli) as insoluble inclusion bodies and require extensive in vitro processing to recover antigen binding and ribonuclease activity. Despite incomplete ribonuclease activity and quaternary assembly, these molecules are promising reagents for specific chemotherapy of cancer and are potentially less harmful and immunogenic than current immunotoxins. Images Figure 2 PMID:9484808

  3. Gigantoxin-4-4D5 scFv is a novel recombinant immunotoxin with specific toxicity against HER2/neu-positive ovarian carcinoma cells.

    PubMed

    Lv, Xinxin; Zhang, Jian; Xu, Rui; Dong, Yuguo; Sun, Aiyou; Shen, Yaling; Wei, Dongzhi

    2016-07-01

    Immunotoxins are a new class of antibody-targeted therapy in clinical development. Traditional immunotoxins that are constructed from the toxins of plants or bacteria need to be internalized to the cytoplasm and thus have limited antitumor efficacy. In the present study, we combined a recently reported sea anemone cytolysin Gigantoxin-4 with an anti-HER2/neu single-chain variable fragment 4D5 scFv to construct a novel immunotoxin. We fused a SUMO tag to the N-terminus of Gigantoxin-4-4D5 scFv and it was successfully expressed in Escherichia coli strain BL21 (DE3) in a soluble form. After purification, the purity of Gigantoxin-4-4D5 scFv reached 96 % and the yield was 14.3 mg/L. Our results demonstrated that Gigantoxin-4-4D5 scFv exerted a highly cytotoxic effect on the HER2/neu-positive ovarian carcinoma SK-OV-3 cell line. And the hemolytic activity was weaker, making it safe for normal cells. The results of immunofluorescence analysis showed that this novel immunotoxin could specifically bind to SK-OV-3 cells with no recognition of human embryonic kidney 293 cells. Scanning electron microscope observations and extracellular lactate dehydrogenase activity indicated that it could induce necrosis in SK-OV-3 cells by disrupting the cell membrane. Moreover, it could also mediate apoptosis of SK-OV-3 cells. PMID:27063011

  4. Humanization of immunotoxins.

    PubMed

    Rybak, S M; Hoogenboom, H R; Meade, H M; Raus, J C; Schwartz, D; Youle, R J

    1992-04-15

    The construction and expression of a chimeric gene encoding a mouse/human antibody to the human transferrin receptor fused to the gene for angiogenin, a human homolog of pancreatic RNase, are described. F(ab')2-like antibody-enzyme fusions were prepared by linking the gene for human angiogenin to a chimeric anti-transferrin receptor heavy chain gene. The antibody-enzyme fusion gene was introduced into a transfectoma that secretes the chimeric light chain of the same antibody, and cell lines were cloned that synthesize and secrete the antibody-enzyme fusion protein of the expected size at a concentration of 1-5 ng/ml. Culture supernatants from clones secreting the fusion protein caused inhibition of growth and protein synthesis of K562 cells that express the human transferrin receptor but not toward a non-human-derived cell line that lacks this receptor. Whereas excess antibody to the same receptor did not itself inhibit protein synthesis, it was able to completely prevent the protein synthesis inhibition caused by the fusion protein. These results indicate that the cytotoxicity is due to a transferrin receptor-mediated mechanism involving the angiogenin portion of the fusion protein and demonstrate the feasibility of constructing recombinant antibody-RNase molecules capable of killing tumor cells bearing the transferrin receptor. The significance of the acquired cytotoxicity of a mouse/human chimeric antibody linked to a human protein may bear importantly in human therapeutic strategies that use mouse antibodies linked to toxins from plants or bacteria to target tumor cells. It is expected that the humanization of immunotoxins will lead to less toxicity and immunogenicity than currently available reagents. PMID:1565609

  5. Affinity-matured recombinant immunotoxin targeting gangliosides 3′-isoLM1 and 3′,6'-isoLD1 on malignant gliomas

    PubMed Central

    Piao, Hailan; Kuan, Chien-Tsun; Chandramohan, Vidya; Keir, Stephen T; Pegram, Charles N; Bao, Xuhui; Månsson, Jan-Eric; Pastan, Ira H; Bigner, Darell D

    2013-01-01

    About 60 percent of glioblastomas highly express the gangliosides 3′-isoLM1 and 3′,6′-isoLD1 on the cell surface, providing ideal targets for brain tumor immunotherapy. A novel recombinant immunotoxin, DmAb14m-(scFv)-PE38KDEL (DmAb14m-IT), specific for the gangliosides 3′-isoLM1 and 3′,6′-isoLD1, was constructed with improved affinity and increased cytotoxicity for immunotherapeutic targeting of glioblastoma. We isolated an scFv parental clone from a previously established murine hybridoma, DmAb14, that is specific to both 3′-isoLM1 and 3′,6′-isoLD1. We then performed in vitro affinity maturation by CDR hotspot random mutagenesis. The binding affinity and specificity of affinity-matured DmAb14m-IT were measured by surface-plasmon resonance, flow cytometry, and immunohistochemical analysis. In vitro cytotoxicity of DmAb14m-IT was measured by protein synthesis inhibition and cell death assays in human cell lines expressing gangliosides 3′-isoLM1 and 3′,6′-isoLD1 (D54MG and D336MG) and xenograft-derived cells (D2224MG). As a result, the KD of DmAb14m-IT for gangliosides 3′-isoLM1 and 3′,6′-isoLD1 was 2.6 × 10−9M. Also, DmAb14m-IT showed a significantly higher internalization rate in cells expressing 3′-isoLM1 and 3′,6′-isoLD1. The DmAb14m-IT IC50 was 80 ng/mL (1194 pM) on the D54MG cell line, 5 ng/ml (75 pM) on the D336MG cell line, and 0.5 ng/ml (7.5 pM) on the D2224MG xenograft-derived cells. There was no cytotoxicity on ganglioside-negative HEK293 cells. Immunohistochemical analysis confirmed the specific apparent affinity of DmAb14m-IT with 3′-isoLM1 and 3′,6′-isoLD1. In conclusion, DmAb14m-IT showed specific binding affinity, a significantly high internalization rate, and selective cytotoxicity on glioma cell lines and xenograft-derived cells expressing 3′-isoLM1 and 3′,6′-isoLD1, thereby displaying robust therapeutic potential for testing the antitumor efficacy of DmAb14m-IT at the preclinical level and

  6. In vitro and in vivo targeting imaging of pancreatic cancer using a Fe3O4@SiO2 nanoprobe modified with anti-mesothelin antibody.

    PubMed

    Liu, Fang; Le, Wenjun; Mei, Tianxiao; Wang, Tiegong; Chen, Luguang; Lei, Yi; Cui, Shaobin; Chen, Bingdi; Cui, Zheng; Shao, Chengwei

    2016-01-01

    Pancreatic cancer is a highly malignant disease with a 5-year survival rate <5% mainly due to lack of early diagnosis and effective therapy. In an effort to improve the early diagnostic rate of pancreatic cancer, a nanoprobe Fe3O4@SiO2 modified with anti-mesothelin antibody (A-MFS) was prepared to target cells and tumor tissues highly expressing mesothelin in vitro (human pancreatic cancer cell line SW1990) and in vivo (subcutaneously transplanted tumors) studies. The A-MFS probe was successfully prepared and was spherical and uniform with a hydrodynamic diameter between 110 and 130 nm. Cell Counting Kit-8 testing indicated that A-MFS was nontoxic in vitro and in vivo studies. The in vitro study showed that the A-MFS probe specifically targeted SW1990 cells with high mesothelin expression. The in vivo study was conducted in Siemens 3.0 T magnetic resonance imaging. The average T2-weighted signal values of the xenografts were 966.533±31.56 before injecting A-MFS and 691.133±56.84 before injecting saline solution. After injection of 0.1 mL A-MFS via nude mouse caudal vein for 2.5 hours, the average T2-weighted signal of the xenograft decreased by 342.533±42.6. The signal value decreased by -61.233±33.9 and -58.7±19.4 after injection of the saline and Fe3O4@SiO2. The decrease of tumor signal by A-MFS was much more significant than that by saline and Fe3O4@SiO2 (P<0.05). The results demonstrated the high stability and nontoxicity of A-MFS, which effectively targeted pancreatic cancer in vitro and in vivo. A-MFS is a promising agent for diagnosis of pancreatic cancer. PMID:27274243

  7. In vitro and in vivo targeting imaging of pancreatic cancer using a Fe3O4@SiO2 nanoprobe modified with anti-mesothelin antibody

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Fang; Le, Wenjun; Mei, Tianxiao; Wang, Tiegong; Chen, Luguang; Lei, Yi; Cui, Shaobin; Chen, Bingdi; Cui, Zheng; Shao, Chengwei

    2016-01-01

    Pancreatic cancer is a highly malignant disease with a 5-year survival rate <5% mainly due to lack of early diagnosis and effective therapy. In an effort to improve the early diagnostic rate of pancreatic cancer, a nanoprobe Fe3O4@SiO2 modified with anti-mesothelin antibody (A-MFS) was prepared to target cells and tumor tissues highly expressing mesothelin in vitro (human pancreatic cancer cell line SW1990) and in vivo (subcutaneously transplanted tumors) studies. The A-MFS probe was successfully prepared and was spherical and uniform with a hydrodynamic diameter between 110 and 130 nm. Cell Counting Kit-8 testing indicated that A-MFS was nontoxic in vitro and in vivo studies. The in vitro study showed that the A-MFS probe specifically targeted SW1990 cells with high mesothelin expression. The in vivo study was conducted in Siemens 3.0 T magnetic resonance imaging. The average T2-weighted signal values of the xenografts were 966.533±31.56 before injecting A-MFS and 691.133±56.84 before injecting saline solution. After injection of 0.1 mL A-MFS via nude mouse caudal vein for 2.5 hours, the average T2-weighted signal of the xenograft decreased by 342.533±42.6. The signal value decreased by −61.233±33.9 and −58.7±19.4 after injection of the saline and Fe3O4@SiO2. The decrease of tumor signal by A-MFS was much more significant than that by saline and Fe3O4@SiO2 (P<0.05). The results demonstrated the high stability and nontoxicity of A-MFS, which effectively targeted pancreatic cancer in vitro and in vivo. A-MFS is a promising agent for diagnosis of pancreatic cancer. PMID:27274243

  8. Effective therapy of human lymphoma xenografts with a novel recombinant ribonuclease/anti-CD74 humanized IgG4 antibody immunotoxin.

    PubMed

    Chang, Chien-Hsing; Sapra, Puja; Vanama, Sailaja S; Hansen, Hans J; Horak, Ivan D; Goldenberg, David M

    2005-12-15

    Ranpirnase (Rap) is a cytotoxic ribonuclease (RNase) isolated from frog oocytes. Here we describe high antitumor activity of a novel immunotoxin, 2L-Rap-hLL1-gamma4P, composed of 2 Rap molecules, each fused to the N terminus of the light chain of hLL1, an internalizing anti-CD74 humanized antibody. To reduce unwanted side effects, the constant region of hLL1 was changed from gamma1 to gamma4 and further to gamma4P by replacing serine228 to proline to prevent the formation of a half immunoglobulin G (IgG) common for IgG4. In vitro, 2L-Rap-hLL1-gamma4P retained RNase activity, specific binding to CD74, and was significantly more potent against CD74+ cell lines (Daudi, Raji, and MC/CAR) than naked hLL1. In vivo, the pharmacokinetic profile of 2L-Rap-hLL1-gamma4P was similar to that of naked hLL1. The maximum tolerated dose of 2L-Rap-hLL1-gamma4P in severe combined immunodeficient mice (SCID) or BALB/c mice was 50 microg per mouse. In Raji and Daudi Burkitt lymphoma xenograft models, treatment with a single 5 to 50 microg dose of 2L-Rap-hLL1-gamma4P, given as early or delayed treatment, resulted in cures of most animals. Treatment with 2L-Rap-hLL1-gamma4P was significantly better than all controls, including saline, naked hLL1, and nonspecific immunotoxin. In conclusion, 2L-Rap-hLL1-gamma4P demonstrated excellent in vitro and in vivo efficacy and thus merits further consideration as a therapeutic for CD74+ tumors. PMID:16109781

  9. Immune Depletion to Enhance Immunotoxin Therapy

    Cancer.gov

    Patients with advanced mesothelioma who have not benefited from previous chemotherapy will receive pentostatin and cyclophosphamide to prevent an anti-immunotoxin immune response prior to and in conjunction with SS1P immunotoxin therapy.

  10. Scintigraphic monitoring of immunotoxins using radionuclides and heterobifunctional chelators

    SciTech Connect

    Reardan, D.; Bernhard, S.

    1991-10-22

    This patent describes a method for in vivo radioimmunodetection of cytotoxic immunotoxin. It comprises administering internally to a mammal a radio-labeled immunotoxin, wherein a heterobifunctional chelating agent provides a chemical bridge between a radiolabel and a cytotoxic component bound to the antigen-binding component of the immunotoxin, and detecting externally the distribution of the immunotoxin in the mammal.

  11. Protection of the Furin Cleavage Site in Low-Toxicity Immunotoxins Based on Pseudomonas Exotoxin A

    PubMed Central

    Kaplan, Gilad; Lee, Fred; Onda, Masanori; Kolyvas, Emily; Bhardwaj, Gaurav; Baker, David; Pastan, Ira

    2016-01-01

    Recombinant immunotoxins (RITs) are fusions of an Fv-based targeting moiety and a toxin. Pseudomonas exotoxin A (PE) has been used to make several immunotoxins that have been evaluated in clinical trials. Immunogenicity of the bacterial toxin and off-target toxicity have limited the efficacy of these immunotoxins. To address these issues, we have previously made RITs in which the Fv is connected to domain III (PE24) by a furin cleavage site (FCS), thereby removing unneeded sequences of domain II. However, the PE24 containing RITs do not contain the naturally occurring disulfide bond around the furin cleavage sequence, because it was removed when domain II was deleted. This could potentially allow PE24 containing immunotoxins to be cleaved and inactivated before internalization by cell surface furin or other proteases in the blood stream or tumor microenvironment. Here, we describe five new RITs in which a disulfide bond is engineered to protect the FCS. The most active of these, SS1-Fab-DS3-PE24, shows a longer serum half-life than an RIT without the disulfide bond and has the same anti-tumor activity, despite being less cytotoxic in vitro. These results have significance for the production of de-immunized, low toxicity, PE24-based immunotoxins with a longer serum half-life. PMID:27463727

  12. Immunotoxin Therapies for the Treatment of Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor-Dependent Cancers

    PubMed Central

    Simon, Nathan; FitzGerald, David

    2016-01-01

    Many epithelial cancers rely on enhanced expression of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) to drive proliferation and survival pathways. Development of therapeutics to target EGFR signaling has been of high importance, and multiple examples have been approved for human use. However, many of the current small molecule or antibody-based therapeutics are of limited effectiveness due to the inevitable development of resistance and toxicity to normal tissues. Recombinant immunotoxins are therapeutic molecules consisting of an antibody or receptor ligand joined to a protein cytotoxin, combining the specific targeting of a cancer-expressed receptor with the potent cell killing of cytotoxic enzymes. Over the decades, many bacterial- or plant-based immunotoxins have been developed with the goal of targeting the broad range of cancers reliant upon EGFR overexpression. Many examples demonstrate excellent anti-cancer properties in preclinical development, and several EGFR-targeted immunotoxins have progressed to human trials. This review summarizes much of the past and current work in the development of immunotoxins for targeting EGFR-driven cancers. PMID:27153091

  13. Efficacy of an immunotoxin to folate receptor beta in the intra-articular treatment of antigen-induced arthritis

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Introduction We previously demonstrated that synovial sublining macrophages express folate receptor beta (FRβ). The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of intra-articular administration of a recombinant immunotoxin to FRβ for treating rat antigen-induced arthritis. Methods A monoclonal antibody (mAb) to rat FRβ was produced by immunizing mice with B300-19 cells (murine pre-B cells) transfected with the rat FRβ gene. Recombinant immunotoxin was prepared by conjugating the Fv portion of the anti-rat FRβ mAb heavy chain with a truncated Pseudomonas exotoxin A and the Fv portion of the anti-rat FRβ mAb light chain. Antigen-induced arthritis was induced through intra-articular injection of methylated bovine serum albumin (mBSA) after two subcutaneous injections of mBSA and complete Freund's adjuvant. Immunotoxin was intra-articularly injected into the arthritis joint every other day for seven days after arthritis onset. Joint swelling was measured and histological scores of inflammation, synovial thickness, cartilage, and bone destruction were determined. Immunohistochemistry was performed to detect osteoclast and osteoclast precursor FRβ-expressing macrophages and cathepsin K-positive cells on day 21. Results Intra-articular administration of the immunotoxin attenuated joint swelling (61% suppression; P < 0.01 compared to the control on day 21) and improved histological findings, particularly cartilage and bone destruction (scores of rats treated with control versus the immunotoxin: 2.2 versus 0.5; P < 0.01), by reducing the number of FRβ-expressing macrophages and cathepsin K-positive cells. Conclusions Intra-articular administration of an immunotoxin to FRβ is effective for improving rat antigen-induced arthritis. PMID:22551402

  14. Immunotoxin Therapy for Relapsed Hairy Cell Leukemia

    Cancer.gov

    In this trial, patients with hairy cell leukemia who have relapsed multiple times or not responded to prior chemotherapy will be treated with an experimental immunotoxin called moxetumomab pasudotox given intravenously on days 1, 3, and 5 of 28-day cycles

  15. New Life for Immunotoxin Cancer Therapy.

    PubMed

    Hassan, Raffit; Alewine, Christine; Pastan, Ira

    2016-03-01

    Immunotoxins are targeted anticancer therapeutics that kill cancer cells using a cytotoxic bacterial toxin payload. Their development for use in solid tumor malignancies was delayed due to issues with their immunogenicity and limited therapeutic window. However, new research has rejuvenated the field. Coadministration with a lymphocyte-depleting regimen of pentostatin and cyclophosphamide can delay antidrug antibody formation, increasing the number of treatment cycles that patients can receive and resulting in durable responses in heavily pretreated patients. In addition, a new generation of immunotoxin molecules with reduced immunogenicity and nonspecific toxicity has been developed through protein engineering techniques, and one has recently entered the clinic. In preclinical studies in mouse models, these new agents are effective against many tumor types as single agents, and also produce synergistic antitumor responses in combination with chemotherapy. These new immunotoxins have renewed excitement in the field and may prove a promising addition to the targeted therapy repertoire. Clin Cancer Res; 22(5); 1055-8. ©2015 AACR. PMID:26463707

  16. Antitumor effects of immunotoxins are enhanced by lowering HCK or treatment with SRC kinase inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xiu-Fen; Xiang, Laiman; FitzGerald, David J; Pastan, Ira

    2014-01-01

    Recombinant immunotoxins (RIT) are agents being developed for cancer treatment. They are composed of an Fv that binds to a cancer cell, fused to a 38-kDa fragment of Pseudomonas exotoxin A. SS1P is a RIT that targets mesothelin, a protein expressed on mesothelioma as well as pancreatic, ovarian, lung, and other cancers. Because the protein tyrosine kinase family regulates a variety of cellular processes and pathways, we hypothesized that tyrosine kinases might regulate susceptibility to immunotoxin killing. To investigate their role, we used siRNAs to lower the level of expression of the 88 known tyrosine kinases. We identified five tyrosine kinases, INSR, HCK, SRC, PDGFRβ, and BMX that enhance the activity of SS1P when their level of expression is lowered by siRNAs. We further investigated the Src family member HCK in this study. Knocking down of SRC slightly increased SS1P killing in A431/H9 cells, but knocking down HCK substantially enhanced killing by SS1P. We investigated the mechanism of enhancement and found that HCK knockdown enhanced SS1P cleavage by furin and lowered levels of Mcl-1 and raised Bax. We then found that Src inhibitors mimic the stimulatory effect of HCK knockdown; both SU6656 and SKI-606 (bosutinib) enhanced immunotoxin killing of mesothelin-expressing cells by SS1P and CD22-expressing cells by HA22 (moxetumomab pasudotox). SU6656 also enhanced the antitumor effects of SS1P and HA22 in mouse xenograft tumor models. Our data suggest that the combination of immunotoxin with tyrosine kinase inhibitors may be an effective way to treat some cancers. PMID:24145282

  17. T lymphocyte killing by a xanthine-oxidase-containing immunotoxin.

    PubMed

    Battelli, M G; Abbondanza, A; Tazzari, P L; Bolognesi, A; Lemoli, R M; Stirpe, F

    1992-01-01

    We report on the preparation of an immunotoxin consisting of xanthine oxidase, a free-radical-producing enzyme, covalently linked to an anti-CD3 monoclonal antibody. The immunotoxin retained both enzymic and immunological properties and its toxicity to target cells (a) was greater than that of the free enzyme, (b) was proportional to the enzyme concentration, and (c) was reduced either in the absence of hypoxanthine or by an excess of free anti-CD3 monoclonal antibody. The cytotoxicity and selectivity of the hypoxanthine/conjugated xanthine oxidase system were potentiated by the addition of chelated iron and by washing away the unbound immunotoxin prior to the addition of substrate. The same system was not toxic to bone marrow progenitor cells. A possible use of this immunotoxin for the ex vivo purging of organs to be transplanted from T lymphocytes, to avoid the graft-versus-host reaction, is suggested. PMID:1394345

  18. Comparison of the potency and therapeutic efficacy of the anti-CD7 immunotoxin HB2-saporin constructed with one or two saporin moieties per immunotoxin molecule.

    PubMed Central

    Flavell, D. J.; Boehm, D. A.; Noss, A.; Flavell, S. U.

    1997-01-01

    Immunotoxins that carry two toxin molecules to the target cell should in theory have a greater anti-tumour effect than those that carry just one. We have investigated the therapeutic efficacy of two anti-CD7-saporin immunotoxins constructed with one saporin (HB2-Sap 1-mer) or two saporin molecules (HB2-Sap 2-mer) per immunotoxin molecule. In vitro, the 2-mer immunotoxin was 5.6 times more effective than the 1-mer immunotoxin at inhibiting protein synthesis in the CD7+ human T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (T-ALL) cell line HSB-2 and was also more effective at inhibiting HSB-2 cell proliferation. Flow cytometry revealed that the 2-mer immunotoxin had a reduced binding capacity to HSB-2 cells compared with the 1-mer immunotoxin or native HB2 antibody. In therapy studies in SCID mice with disseminated HSB-2 human leukaemia, the 2-mer immunotoxin performed marginally better than the 1-mer immunotoxin, but log-rank analysis did not reveal any significant differences between the two therapy groups. We therefore conclude that, although the 2-mer immunotoxin performed better than the 1-mer immunotoxin against target HSB-2 cells in vitro, this improved performance was not reflected as an improved in vivo therapeutic outcome in the SCID mouse model. Images Figure 2 PMID:9083340

  19. HER2-targeted immunotoxins with low nonspecific toxicity and immunogenicity.

    PubMed

    Guo, Rui; Cao, Li; Guo, Wenjun; Liu, Hui; Xu, Hua; Fang, Qi; Hong, Zhangyong

    2016-06-17

    Immunotoxins have efficient anti-tumor activity due to their extreme potency. However, dose-limiting off-target toxicity and immunogenicity are the critical barriers for these immunotoxins to be used in a clinical setting. In this study, we designed a Pseudomonas exotoxin A (PE)-based human epidermal growth factor receptor-2 (HER2)-specific immunotoxin HER2-PE25-X7 by deleting most of domain II and introducing seven point mutations into domain III of the PE38 toxin. The anti-cancer activity, off-target toxicity and immunogenicity of this immunotoxin were carefully evaluated in vitro and in vivo. This new construct maintained the therapeutic potency of the original PE38-based immunotoxin HER2-PE38, with a greatly reduced off-target toxicity and immunogenicity. To compare with HER2-PE38, which resulted in the death of most of the mice after a single dose of 1.0 mg/kg, the new construct was completely tolerated at a dose of 10 mg/kg by the mice and almost completely depleted the tumor after treatment with five doses of 5 mg/kg of the immunotoxin. This work demonstrates a potentially attractive therapeutic modality for HER2-specific cancer treatment. PMID:27178207

  20. Targeted introduction of a diphtheria toxin resistant mutation into the chromosomal EF-2 locus of Pichia pastoris and expression of immunotoxin in the EF-2 mutants.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yuan Yi; Woo, Jung Hee; Neville, David M

    2003-08-01

    In an attempt to increase the production of a diphtheria toxin (DT) based immunotoxin by Pichia pastoris, we have created DT-resistant mutants that contain a substitution of arginine for glycine at position 701 in elongation factor 2 (EF-2). To achieve this, we first cloned and characterized the EF-2 gene (PEF1), and then made a construct pBLURA-Delta5'mutEF-2 that efficiently introduces specific mutations into the chromosomal EF-2 gene in P. pastoris by in vivo homologous recombination. pBLURA-Delta5(')mutEF-2 contains a selection marker URA3 and a 5' truncated form of the P. pastoris PEF1 that had been modified in vitro to carry the nucleotide mutations for the Gly(701) to Arg transition. Unlike the non-mutated strains, the EF-2 mutants are resistant to high-level intracellular expression of DT A chain that can catalyze the ADP-ribosylation. When used to express the secreted bivalent anti-T cell immunotoxin, A-dmDT390-bisFv(G4S), the EF-2 mutant strains showed increased viability compared to the non-mutated strains. However, they did not show an advantage over the non-mutated expressing strain in the production of the immunotoxin. Western blotting analysis revealed that although the EF-2 mutants did not increase the accumulation of intact A-dmDT390-bisFv(G4S) in the culture medium, they generated larger amounts of degraded products found in both the medium and cell pellets compared to the non-mutant expressing clone. In addition, double copy expression resulted in greater amounts of intact immunotoxin being retained within cellular compartments as well as degraded products. Based on these findings, we suggest that the secretory capacity may be rate limiting for divalent immunotoxin production in P. pastoris. PMID:12880776

  1. Fusion of an albumin-binding domain extends the half-life of immunotoxins.

    PubMed

    Guo, Rui; Guo, Wenjun; Cao, Li; Liu, Hui; Liu, Jieyu; Xu, Hua; Huang, Weiqiang; Wang, Fengwei; Hong, Zhangyong

    2016-09-10

    Immunotoxins have documented potential as a cancer treatment due to their extreme potency; a single toxin molecule delivered to the cytosol may be sufficient to kill a cell. However, their short half-life in the circulatory system may be one of the key problems associated with the clinical use of immunotoxins and may continue to limit their therapeutic activity. Herein, we genetically fused an albumin-binding domain (ABD) to the human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2)-specific immunotoxin ZHER2-PE38 to extend the circulation time and thus improve the therapeutic outcome of this immunotoxin. Furthermore, the fusion of an ABD to the immunotoxin was found to promote non-covalent interactions between the immunotoxin and serum albumin, which rescue the immunotoxin from lysosomal degradation through a serum albumin-mediated interaction with the neonatal Fc receptor (FcRn). This manuscript reports the construction, purification, and characterization of the ABD-fused HER2-specific immunotoxin, ABD-ZHER2-PE38, both in vitro and in vivo. Compared with non-fused ZHER2-PE38, this new construct exhibits a clearly increased half-life in plasma (330.8 versus 13.5min, approximately 24.4-fold extension) and remarkably improved antitumor effects in an NCI-N87 subcutaneous xenograft model. Therefore, the new construct represents a potentially attractive therapeutic modality, and the proposed strategy may also have useful applications for current immunotoxin designs. PMID:27457423

  2. A comparison of anti-lymphocyte immunotoxins containing different ribosome-inactivating proteins and antibodies.

    PubMed Central

    Bolognesi, A; Tazzari, P L; Tassi, C; Gromo, G; Gobbi, M; Stirpe, F

    1992-01-01

    Immunotoxins were prepared with several single-chain ribosome-inactivating proteins (RIPs type 1) and with the A-chain of ricin linked to the F(ab')2 fragment of sheep anti-mouse IgG. The cytotoxic activity of these conjugates was tested on human lymphocytes pretreated with an anti-CD3 murine MoAb. The immunotoxins inhibited DNA synthesis in phytohaemagglutinin (PHA)-stimulated lymphocytes with IC50S (concentrations causing 50% inhibition) ranging from 8.9 x 10(-13) to 5.7 x 10(-11) M (immunotoxins containing dianthin 32, saporin, pokeweed antiviral protein from seeds (PAP-S), bryodin, momordin, momorcochin, and trichokirin), 1 x 10(-8) M (immunotoxin containing gelonin) and 5 x 10(-9) M (immunotoxin containing ricin A-chain). The immunotoxin containing saporin linked to the anti-mouse IgG F(ab')2 fragment was also highly toxic to human lymphocytes pretreated with anti-CD2, -CD3, -CD5 and -CD45 MoAbs, with IC50S less than or equal to 10(-11) M. Immunotoxins were prepared also with saporin linked to MoAbs against various CD antigens. The immunotoxin prepared with the anti-CD3 antibody had the highest specific cytotoxicity to human lymphocytes. Images Fig. 2 PMID:1516253

  3. Naptumomab estafenatox: targeted immunotherapy with a novel immunotoxin.

    PubMed

    Eisen, Tim; Hedlund, Gunnar; Forsberg, Göran; Hawkins, Robert

    2014-02-01

    Improvement of cancer therapy by introducing new concepts is still urgent even though there have been major advancements lately. Immunotherapy is well on the way to becoming an established tool in the cancer treatment armory. It seems that a combination of (1) activation of immune effector cells and selective targeting of them to tumors and (2) the inhibition of immune suppression often induced by the tumor itself are necessary to achieve the therapeutic goal. The immunotoxin naptumomab estafenatox was developed in an effort to activate and target the patient's own T cells to their tumor, by fusing a superantigen (SAg) variant that activates T lymphocytes to the Fab moiety of a tumor-reactive monoclonal antibody. Naptumomab estafenatox targets the 5T4 tumor antigen, a 72-kDa oncofetal trophoblast protein expressed on many carcinomas, including renal cell carcinoma. The therapeutic effect is associated with activation of SAg-binding T cells. The SAg-binding T lymphocytes expand, differentiate to effector cells, and infiltrate the tumor. The therapeutic efficacy is most likely related to the dual mechanism of tumor cell killing: (1) direct lysis by cytotoxic T lymphocytes of tumor cells expressing the antigen recognized by the antibody moiety of the fusion protein and (2) secretion of cytokines eliminating antigen-negative tumor cell variants. Naptumomab estafenatox has been clinically tested in a range of solid tumors with focus on renal cell carcinoma. This review looks at the clinical experience with the new immunotoxin and its potential. PMID:24445502

  4. Prevention of immunotoxin-mediated vascular leak syndrome in rats with retention of antitumor activity.

    PubMed

    Siegall, C B; Liggitt, D; Chace, D; Tepper, M A; Fell, H P

    1994-09-27

    Immunotoxins are hybrid molecules composed of a cell-surface binding domain and a protein toxin moiety that together target specific cell populations for elimination. These agents represent a promising approach for the treatment of many human diseases, most notably cancer. However, it has recently become clear that many immunotoxins when used in human clinical trials induce vascular leak syndrome (VLS), restricting the administration of doses necessary to achieve good therapeutic responses. The lack of an appropriate animal model has hindered efforts to understand and prevent immunotoxin-induced VLS. We have found that in rats, intravenous administration of the single-chain immunotoxin BR96 sFv-PE40 results in symptoms that closely resemble VLS seen in human immunotoxin trials. A large fluid accumulation in the thoracic cavity was observed, along with an increase in hematocrit and body weight and a decrease in serum albumin. The VLS was apparent within 24 hr after administration of immunotoxin and was seen in both immunocompetent and athymic rats. Similar symptoms were not found in mice even at lethal doses. Prophylactic administration of the corticosteroid dexamethasone resulted in prevention of VLS and survival of rats injected with what would otherwise be lethal doses of BR96 sFv-PE40. Prophylactic treatment with dexamethasone in rats xenografted with human tumors either did not inhibit or minimally inhibited the antitumor activity of BR96 sFv-PE40. The use of prophylactic corticosteroids should be considered for immunotoxin clinical trials, since it may improve therapeutic efficacy by decreasing the dose-limiting toxicity of VLS. PMID:7937798

  5. Preparation of an engineered safer immunotoxin against colon carcinoma based on the ribotoxin hirsutellin A.

    PubMed

    Tomé-Amat, Jaime; Herrero-Galán, Elías; Oñaderra, Mercedes; Martínez-Del-Pozo, Álvaro; Gavilanes, José G; Lacadena, Javier

    2015-06-01

    Immunotoxins are chimeric proteins composed of an antibody domain that specifically directs the action of the toxic domain, resulting in the death of the targeted cells. Over recent years, immunotoxins have been widely studied and the number of different constructions has increased exponentially. Protein engineering has allowed the design of optimized versions of immunotoxins with an improved tumor binding affinity, stability or cytotoxic efficacy, although sometimes this has compromised the safety of the patient in terms of undesirable adverse secondary reactions. A triple mutant at three Trp residues (HtA3ΔW) of the ribotoxin hirsutellin A retains its specific ribonucleolytic activity, although cell internalization capacity is lacking. This toxin variant has been fused to the single chain variable fragment A33 (scFvA33). This immunoconjugate (IMTXA33HtA3ΔW) was produced in the methylotrophic yeast Pichia pastoris and purified using nickel-nitrilotriacetic acid affinity chromatography. Both target and toxic domains were characterized. The immunotoxin showed an exquisite specific binding against GPA33-positive culture cells, which results in the death of the targeted cells because of specific ribonucleolytic activity against ribosomes of the engineered hirsutellin A variant. IMTXA33HtA3ΔW represents a promising structure in the search for an improved immunotoxin without compromising the safety of patients. PMID:25752204

  6. Separation of bivalent anti-T cell immunotoxin from Pichia pastoris glycoproteins by borate anion exchange.

    PubMed

    Woo, Jung Hee; Neville, David M

    2003-08-01

    A major problem encountered in the large-scale purification of the bivalent anti-T cell immunotoxin, A-dmDT390-bisFv(G4S), from Pichia pastoris supernatants was the presence of host glycoproteins exhibiting similar charge, size, and hydrophobicity characteristics. We overcame this problem by employing borate anion exchange chromatography. The borate anion has an affinity for carbohydrates and imparts negative charges to these structures. We found that at a concentration of sodium borate between 50 and 100 mM, the nonglycosylated immunotoxin did not bind to Poros 50 HQ anion exchanger resin, but glycoproteins, including aggregates related to the immunotoxin, did. By using this property of the immunotoxin in the presence of sodium borate, we successfully developed a 3-step purification procedure: (i) Butyl-650M hydrophobic interaction chromatography, (ii) Poros 50 HQ anion exchange chromatography in the presence of borate, and (iii) HiTrap Q anion exchange chromatography. The final preparation exhibited a purity of greater than 98% and a yield of greater than 50% from the supernatant. Previously, boronic acid resins have been used to separate glycoproteins from proteins. However, combining borate anion with conventional anion exchange resins accomplishes the separation of the immunotoxin from glycoproteins and eliminates the need to evaluate nonstandard resins with respect to good manufacturing practice guidelines. PMID:12951782

  7. Depletion of Alloreactive T-Cells by Anti-CD137-Saporin Immunotoxin.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sang C; Seo, Kwang W; Kim, Hye J; Kang, Sang W; Choi, Hye-Jeong; Kim, Ansuk; Kwon, Byoung S; Cho, Hong R; Kwon, Byungsuk

    2015-01-01

    Depletion of alloreactive T-lymphocytes from allogeneic bone marrow transplants may prevent graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) without impairing donor cell engraftment, immunity, and the graft-versus-leukemia (GVL) effect. Alloreactive T-cells may be identified by their expression, upon activation, of CD137, a costimulatory receptor and putative surrogate marker for antigen-specific effector T-cells. In this context, we tested the use of anti-CD137-saporin immunotoxin to selectively deplete mouse and human alloreactive T-cells. Anti-CD137 antibodies were internalized by cells within 4 h of binding to the cell surface CD137, and anti-CD137-saporin immunotoxin effectively killed polyclonally activated T-cells or antigen-stimulated T-cells. Transfer of donor T-cells after allodepletion with anti-CD137-saporin immunotoxin failed to induce any evident expression of GVHD; however, a significant GVL effect was observed. Targeting of CD137 with an immunotoxin was also effective in killing polyclonally activated or alloreactive human T-cells. Our results indicate that anti-CD137-saporin immunotoxin may be used to deplete alloreactive T-cells prior to bone marrow transplantation and thereby prevent GVHD and the relapse of leukemia. PMID:24594433

  8. Protein Kinase Inhibitor H89 Enhances the Activity of Pseudomonas Exotoxin A-Based Immunotoxins.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xiufen; Müller, Fabian; Wayne, Alan S; Pastan, Ira

    2016-05-01

    HA22 (Moxetumomab pasudotox) is a recombinant immunotoxin (RIT), composed of an anti-CD22 Fv fused to a truncated portion of Pseudomonas exotoxin A. HA22 is in clinical trials to treat patients with hairy cell leukemia and acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL). LMB-11 is an improved variant of HA22 with reduced immunogenicity, has a longer half-life in the blood and high activity in vitro and in a Burkitt lymphoma model in vivo Searching for RIT enhancing combination therapies, we found the protein kinase A inhibitor H89 to enhance LMB-11 and HA22 activity 5- to 10-fold on ALL cell lines and on patient-derived ALL samples. In addition, H89 increased the activity of mesothelin-targeting RITs SS1P (38-fold) and RG7787 (7-fold) against the cervical cancer cell line KB31. Unexpectedly we found that the enhancement by H89 was not because of inhibition of protein kinase A; it was partially recapitulated by inhibition of S6K1, which led to inactivation of its downstream targets rpS6 and GSK3β, resulting in a fall in MCL1 levels. H89 increased the rate of ADP-ribosylation of eukaryotic elongation factor 2, enhancing the arrest of protein synthesis and the reduction of MCL1 in synergy with the RIT. In summary, H89 increased RIT activity by enhancing the two key events: ADP-ribosylation of eEF2 and reduction of MCL1 levels. Significant enhancement was seen with both CD22- and mesothelin-targeting RITs, indicating that H89 might be a potent addition to RIT treatment of CD22-positive ALL and mesothelin-expressing solid tumors. Mol Cancer Ther; 15(5); 1053-62. ©2016 AACR. PMID:26939705

  9. Noradrenergic lesioning with an anti-dopamine beta-hydroxylase immunotoxin

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Picklo, M. J.; Wiley, R. G.; Lappi, D. A.; Robertson, D.

    1994-01-01

    Sympathectomy has been achieved by a variety of methods but each has its limitations. These include lack of tissue specificity, incomplete lesioning, and the age range of susceptibility to the lesioning. To circumvent these drawbacks, an immunotoxin was constructed using a monoclonal antibody against the noradrenergic specific enzyme dopamine beta-hydroxylase (D beta H) coupled via a disulfide bond to saporin, a ribosomal inactivating protein. Three days after intravenous injection of the anti-D beta H immunotoxin (50 micrograms) into adult Sprague-Dawley rats, 66% of neurons in the superior cervical ganglia were chromatolytic. Superior cervical ganglia neurons were poisoned in 1 day old and 1 week old (86% of neurons) neonatal rats following subcutaneous injection of 3.75 and 15 micrograms, respectively. The anti-D beta H immunotoxin will be a useful tool in the study of the peripheral noradrenergic system in adult and neonatal animals.

  10. Properties of immunotoxins against a glycolipid antigen associated with Burkitt's lymphoma.

    PubMed

    Wiels, J; Junqua, S; Dujardin, P; Le Pecq, J B; Tursz, T

    1984-01-01

    A monoclonal immunoglobulin M (IgM) antibody (38-13) which recognizes Burkitt's lymphoma (BL) cells, by reacting with the neutral glycolipid Gal alpha 1 leads to 4-Gal beta 1 leads to 4-Glc beta 1 leads to 1-ceramide, was recently characterized. This monoclonal IgM was coupled to either ricin A chain or gelonin. The two different immunotoxins obtained retained the apparent immunological specificity of 38-13 IgM, as shown by flow cytofluorometry analysis and complement-dependent cytotoxicity test. The BL Ramos cells and the apparently irrelevant Epstein-Barr virus-containing lymphoblastoid Priess cells were used as targets in in vitro assays of the cytotoxic properties of the two immunotoxins by measuring the inhibition of protein synthesis. Isolated ricin A chain, gelonin, and 38-13 IgM exhibited very low intrinsic cytotoxicity on both target cells. 38-13 ricin A chain and 38-13 gelonin conjugates exerted toxic effects on both target cells which were about 6000-fold and 3000-fold higher than uncoupled ricin A chain and gelonin, respectively. The toxicity of these conjugates almost reached that of intact ricin. On Ramos BL cells, the kinetics of action of the 38-13 ricin A chain conjugate was almost as fast as that of intact ricin, because 50% protein synthesis inhibition was reached after 3 hr. In contrast, the kinetics of action in the non-BL Priess was much slower (50% protein synthesis inhibition after 10 hr). An obviously irrelevant immunotoxin (anti-trinitrophenol IgM-ricin A chain) had no significant cytotoxic effect on BL Ramos and non-BL Priess cells. An excess of D-galactose was shown previously to inhibit the 38-13 IgM from binding to the reactive glycolipid antigen bearing a terminal galactose. An excess of D-galactose (0.1 M) inhibited the cytotoxic effect of the two 38-13 immunotoxins, whereas it did not prevent the cytotoxic effect of the anti-trinitrophenol immunotoxin on the same trinitrophenol labeled target cells. These data suggest that the

  11. GUCY2C lysosomotropic endocytosis delivers immunotoxin therapy to metastatic colorectal cancer

    PubMed Central

    Marszalowicz, Glen P.; Snook, Adam E.; Magee, Michael S.; Merlino, Dante; Lisa, D. Berman-Booty; Waldman, Scott A.

    2014-01-01

    The emergence of targeted cancer therapy has been limited by the paucity of determinants which are tumor-specific and generally associated with disease, and have cell dynamics which effectively deploy cytotoxic payloads. Guanylyl cyclase C (GUCY2C) may be ideal for targeting because it is normally expressed only in insulated barrier compartments, including intestine and brain, but over-expressed by systemic metastatic colorectal tumors. Here, we reveal that GUCY2C rapidly internalizes from the cell surface to lysosomes in intestinal and colorectal cancer cells. Endocytosis is independent of ligand binding and receptor activation, and is mediated by clathrin. This mechanism suggests a design for immunotoxins comprising a GUCY2C-directed monoclonal antibody conjugated through a reducible disulfide linkage to ricin A chain, which is activated to a potent cytotoxin in lysosomes. Indeed, this immunotoxin specifically killed GUCY2C-expressing colorectal cancer cells in a lysosomal- and clathrin-dependent fashion. Moreover, this immunotoxin reduced pulmonary tumors >80% (p<0.001), and improved survival 25% (p<0.001), in mice with established colorectal cancer metastases. Further, therapeutic efficacy was achieved without histologic evidence of toxicity in normal tissues. These observations support GUCY2C-targeted immunotoxins as novel therapeutics for metastatic tumors originating in the GI tract, including colorectum, stomach, esophagus, and pancreas. PMID:25294806

  12. Anti-Human Endoglin (hCD105) Immunotoxin—Containing Recombinant Single Chain Ribosome-Inactivating Protein Musarmin 1

    PubMed Central

    Barriuso, Begoña; Antolín, Pilar; Arias, F. Javier; Girotti, Alessandra; Jiménez, Pilar; Cordoba-Diaz, Manuel; Cordoba-Diaz, Damián; Girbés, Tomás

    2016-01-01

    Endoglin (CD105) is an accessory component of the TGF-β receptor complex, which is expressed in a number of tissues and over-expressed in the endothelial cells of tumor neovasculature. Targeting endoglin with immunotoxins containing type 2 ribosome-inactivating proteins has proved an effective tool to reduce blood supply to B16 mice tumor xenografts. We prepared anti-endoglin immunotoxin (IT)—containing recombinant musarmin 1 (single chain ribosome-inactivating proteins) linked to the mouse anti-human CD105 44G4 mouse monoclonal antibody via N-succinimidyl 3-(2-pyridyldithio) propionate (SPDP). The immunotoxin specifically killed L929 fibroblast mouse cells transfected with the short form of human endoglin with IC50 values in the range of 5 × 10−10 to 10−9 M. PMID:27294959

  13. Antiviral activity of a single-domain antibody immunotoxin binding to glycoprotein D of herpes simplex virus 2.

    PubMed

    Geoghegan, Eileen M; Zhang, Hong; Desai, Prashant J; Biragyn, Arya; Markham, Richard B

    2015-01-01

    Despite years of research dedicated to preventing the sexual transmission of herpes simplex virus 2 (HSV-2), there is still no protective vaccine or microbicide against one of the most common sexually transmitted infections in the world. Using a phage display library constructed from a llama immunized with recombinant HSV-2 glycoprotein D, we identified a single-domain antibody VHH, R33, which binds to the viral surface glycoprotein D. Although R33 does not demonstrate any HSV-2 neutralization activity in vitro, when expressed with the cytotoxic domain of exotoxin A, the resulting immunotoxin (R33ExoA) specifically and potently kills HSV-2-infected cells, with a 50% neutralizing dilution (IC50) of 6.7 nM. We propose that R33ExoA could be used clinically to prevent transmission of HSV-2 through killing of virus-producing epithelial cells during virus reactivation. R33 could also potentially be used to deliver other cytotoxic effectors to HSV-2-infected cells. PMID:25385102

  14. Antiviral Activity of a Single-Domain Antibody Immunotoxin Binding to Glycoprotein D of Herpes Simplex Virus 2

    PubMed Central

    Geoghegan, Eileen M.; Zhang, Hong; Desai, Prashant J.; Biragyn, Arya

    2014-01-01

    Despite years of research dedicated to preventing the sexual transmission of herpes simplex virus 2 (HSV-2), there is still no protective vaccine or microbicide against one of the most common sexually transmitted infections in the world. Using a phage display library constructed from a llama immunized with recombinant HSV-2 glycoprotein D, we identified a single-domain antibody VHH, R33, which binds to the viral surface glycoprotein D. Although R33 does not demonstrate any HSV-2 neutralization activity in vitro, when expressed with the cytotoxic domain of exotoxin A, the resulting immunotoxin (R33ExoA) specifically and potently kills HSV-2-infected cells, with a 50% neutralizing dilution (IC50) of 6.7 nM. We propose that R33ExoA could be used clinically to prevent transmission of HSV-2 through killing of virus-producing epithelial cells during virus reactivation. R33 could also potentially be used to deliver other cytotoxic effectors to HSV-2-infected cells. PMID:25385102

  15. High in Vitro Anti-Tumor Efficacy of Dimeric Rituximab/Saporin-S6 Immunotoxin

    PubMed Central

    Bortolotti, Massimo; Bolognesi, Andrea; Battelli, Maria Giulia; Polito, Letizia

    2016-01-01

    The anti-CD20 mAb Rituximab has revolutionized lymphoma therapy, in spite of a number of unresponsive or relapsing patients. Immunotoxins, consisting of toxins coupled to antibodies, are being investigated for their potential ability to augment Rituximab efficacy. Here, we compare the anti-tumor effect of high- and low-molecular-weight Rituximab/saporin-S6 immunotoxins, named HMW-IT and LMW-IT, respectively. Saporin-S6 is a potent and stable plant enzyme belonging to ribosome-inactivating proteins that causes protein synthesis arrest and consequent cell death. Saporin-S6 was conjugated to Rituximab through an artificial disulfide bond. The inhibitory activity of HMW-IT and LMW-IT was evaluated on cell-free protein synthesis and in two CD20+ lymphoma cell lines, Raji and D430B. Two different conjugates were separated on the basis of their molecular weight and further characterized. Both HMW-IT (dimeric) and LMW-IT (monomeric) maintained a high level of enzymatic activity in a cell-free system. HMW-IT, thanks to a higher toxin payload and more efficient antigen capping, showed stronger in vitro anti-tumor efficacy than LMW-IT against lymphoma cells. Dimeric HMW-IT can be used for lymphoma therapy at least for ex vivo treatments. The possibility of using HMW-IT augments the yield in immunotoxin preparation and allows the targeting of antigens with low internalization rates. PMID:27338475

  16. High in Vitro Anti-Tumor Efficacy of Dimeric Rituximab/Saporin-S6 Immunotoxin.

    PubMed

    Bortolotti, Massimo; Bolognesi, Andrea; Battelli, Maria Giulia; Polito, Letizia

    2016-01-01

    The anti-CD20 mAb Rituximab has revolutionized lymphoma therapy, in spite of a number of unresponsive or relapsing patients. Immunotoxins, consisting of toxins coupled to antibodies, are being investigated for their potential ability to augment Rituximab efficacy. Here, we compare the anti-tumor effect of high- and low-molecular-weight Rituximab/saporin-S6 immunotoxins, named HMW-IT and LMW-IT, respectively. Saporin-S6 is a potent and stable plant enzyme belonging to ribosome-inactivating proteins that causes protein synthesis arrest and consequent cell death. Saporin-S6 was conjugated to Rituximab through an artificial disulfide bond. The inhibitory activity of HMW-IT and LMW-IT was evaluated on cell-free protein synthesis and in two CD20⁺ lymphoma cell lines, Raji and D430B. Two different conjugates were separated on the basis of their molecular weight and further characterized. Both HMW-IT (dimeric) and LMW-IT (monomeric) maintained a high level of enzymatic activity in a cell-free system. HMW-IT, thanks to a higher toxin payload and more efficient antigen capping, showed stronger in vitro anti-tumor efficacy than LMW-IT against lymphoma cells. Dimeric HMW-IT can be used for lymphoma therapy at least for ex vivo treatments. The possibility of using HMW-IT augments the yield in immunotoxin preparation and allows the targeting of antigens with low internalization rates. PMID:27338475

  17. Anti-dopamine beta-hydroxylase immunotoxin-induced sympathectomy in adult rats

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Picklo, M. J.; Wiley, R. G.; Lonce, S.; Lappi, D. A.; Robertson, D.

    1995-01-01

    Anti-dopamine beta-hydroxylase immunotoxin (DHIT) is an antibody-targeted noradrenergic lesioning tool comprised of a monoclonal antibody against the noradrenergic enzyme, dopamine beta-hydroxylase, conjugated to saporin, a ribosome-inactivating protein. Noradrenergic-neuron specificity and completeness and functionality of sympathectomy were assessed. Adult, male Sprague-Dawley rats were given 28.5, 85.7, 142 or 285 micrograms/kg DHIT i.v. Three days after injection, a 6% to 73% decrease in the neurons was found in the superior cervical ganglia of the animals. No loss of sensory, nodose and dorsal root ganglia, neurons was observed at the highest dose of DHIT. In contrast, the immunotoxin, 192-saporin (142 micrograms/kg), lesioned all three ganglia. To assess the sympathectomy, 2 wk after treatment (285 micrograms/kg), rats were anesthetized with urethane (1 g/kg) and cannulated in the femoral artery and vein. DHIT-treated animals' basal systolic blood pressure and heart rate were significantly lower than controls. Basal plasma norepinephrine levels were 41% lower in DHIT-treated animals than controls. Tyramine-stimulated release of norepinephrine in DHIT-treated rats was 27% of controls. Plasma epinephrine levels of DHIT animals were not reduced. DHIT-treated animals exhibited a 2-fold hypersensitivity to the alpha-adrenergic agonist phenylephrine. We conclude that DHIT selectively delivered saporin to noradrenergic neurons resulting in destruction of these neurons. Anti-dopamine beta-hydroxylase immunotoxin administration produces a rapid, irreversible sympathectomy.

  18. Immunotoxin Against a Donor MHC Class II Molecule Induces Indefinite Survival of Murine Kidney Allografts.

    PubMed

    Brown, K; Nowocin, A K; Meader, L; Edwards, L A; Smith, R A; Wong, W

    2016-04-01

    Rejection of donor organs depends on the trafficking of donor passenger leukocytes to the secondary lymphoid organs of the recipient to elicit an immune response via the direct antigen presentation pathway. Therefore, the depletion of passenger leukocytes may be clinically applicable as a strategy to improve graft survival. Because major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II(+) cells are most efficient at inducing immune responses, selective depletion of this population from donor grafts may dampen the alloimmune response and prolong graft survival. In a fully MHC mismatched mouse kidney allograft model, we describe the synthesis of an immunotoxin, consisting of the F(ab')2 fragment of a monoclonal antibody against the donor MHC class II molecule I-A(k) conjugated with the plant-derived ribosomal inactivating protein gelonin. This anti-I-A(k) gelonin immunotoxin depletes I-A(k) expressing cells specifically in vitro and in vivo. When given to recipients of kidney allografts, it resulted in indefinite graft survival with normal graft function, presence of Foxp3(+) cells within donor grafts, diminished donor-specific antibody formation, and delayed rejection of subsequent donor-type skin grafts. Strategies aimed at the donor arm of the immune system using agents such as immunotoxins may be a useful adjuvant to existing recipient-orientated immunosuppression. PMID:26799449

  19. Immunotoxin Against a Donor MHC Class II Molecule Induces Indefinite Survival of Murine Kidney Allografts

    PubMed Central

    Brown, K.; Nowocin, A. K.; Meader, L.; Edwards, L. A.; Smith, R. A.

    2016-01-01

    Rejection of donor organs depends on the trafficking of donor passenger leukocytes to the secondary lymphoid organs of the recipient to elicit an immune response via the direct antigen presentation pathway. Therefore, the depletion of passenger leukocytes may be clinically applicable as a strategy to improve graft survival. Because major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II+ cells are most efficient at inducing immune responses, selective depletion of this population from donor grafts may dampen the alloimmune response and prolong graft survival. In a fully MHC mismatched mouse kidney allograft model, we describe the synthesis of an immunotoxin, consisting of the F(ab′)2 fragment of a monoclonal antibody against the donor MHC class II molecule I‐Ak conjugated with the plant‐derived ribosomal inactivating protein gelonin. This anti–I‐Ak gelonin immunotoxin depletes I‐Ak expressing cells specifically in vitro and in vivo. When given to recipients of kidney allografts, it resulted in indefinite graft survival with normal graft function, presence of Foxp3+ cells within donor grafts, diminished donor‐specific antibody formation, and delayed rejection of subsequent donor‐type skin grafts. Strategies aimed at the donor arm of the immune system using agents such as immunotoxins may be a useful adjuvant to existing recipient‐orientated immunosuppression. PMID:26799449

  20. A potent immunotoxin targeting fibroblast activation protein for treatment of breast cancer in mice.

    PubMed

    Fang, Jinxu; Xiao, Liang; Joo, Kye-Il; Liu, Yarong; Zhang, Chupei; Liu, Shuanglong; Conti, Peter S; Li, Zibo; Wang, Pin

    2016-02-15

    Fibroblast activation protein (FAP) is highly expressed in the tumor-associated fibroblasts (TAFs) of most human epithelial cancers. FAP plays a critical role in tumorigenesis and cancer progression, which makes it a promising target for novel anticancer therapy. However, mere abrogation of FAP enzymatic activity by small molecules is not very effective in inhibiting tumor growth. In this study, we have evaluated a novel immune-based approach to specifically deplete FAP-expressing TAFs in a mouse 4T1 metastatic breast cancer model. Depletion of FAP-positive stromal cells by FAP-targeting immunotoxin αFAP-PE38 altered levels of various growth factors, cytokines, chemokines and matrix metalloproteinases, decreased the recruitment of tumor-infiltrating immune cells in the tumor microenvironment and suppressed tumor growth. In addition, combined treatment with αFAP-PE38 and paclitaxel potently inhibited tumor growth in vivo. Our findings highlight the potential use of immunotoxin αFAP-PE38 to deplete FAP-expressing TAFs and thus provide a rationale for the use of this immunotoxin in cancer therapy. PMID:26334777

  1. Selective cytotoxic activity of immunotoxins composed of a monoclonal anti-Thy 1.1 antibody and the ribosome-inactivating proteins bryodin and momordin.

    PubMed Central

    Stirpe, F.; Wawrzynczak, E. J.; Brown, A. N.; Knyba, R. E.; Watson, G. J.; Barbieri, L.; Thorpe, P. E.

    1988-01-01

    The ribosome-inactivating proteins, bryodin, from Bryonia dioica, and momordin, from Momordica charantia, were coupled by a disulphide bond to a monoclonal anti-Thy 1.1 antibody (OX7). Both immunotoxins were specifically cytotoxic to the Thy 1.1-expressing mouse lymphoma cell line AKR-A in vitro. The OX7-bryodin immunotoxins were the more powerfully toxic and reduced protein synthesis in AKR-A cells by 50% at a concentration of 1-4 x 10(-11) M as compared with 1 x 10(-9) M for the OX7-momordin immunotoxins. Neither of the immunotoxins was toxic to mouse lymphoma EL4 cells, which lack the Thy 1.1 antigen, at concentrations up to 3 x 10(-8) M. Further, bryodin and momordin immunotoxins made from an antibody (R10) of irrelevant specificity were without effect on AKR-A cells. PMID:3265330

  2. Selective cytotoxic activity of immunotoxins composed of a monoclonal anti-Thy 1.1 antibody and the ribosome-inactivating proteins bryodin and momordin.

    PubMed

    Stirpe, F; Wawrzynczak, E J; Brown, A N; Knyba, R E; Watson, G J; Barbieri, L; Thorpe, P E

    1988-11-01

    The ribosome-inactivating proteins, bryodin, from Bryonia dioica, and momordin, from Momordica charantia, were coupled by a disulphide bond to a monoclonal anti-Thy 1.1 antibody (OX7). Both immunotoxins were specifically cytotoxic to the Thy 1.1-expressing mouse lymphoma cell line AKR-A in vitro. The OX7-bryodin immunotoxins were the more powerfully toxic and reduced protein synthesis in AKR-A cells by 50% at a concentration of 1-4 x 10(-11) M as compared with 1 x 10(-9) M for the OX7-momordin immunotoxins. Neither of the immunotoxins was toxic to mouse lymphoma EL4 cells, which lack the Thy 1.1 antigen, at concentrations up to 3 x 10(-8) M. Further, bryodin and momordin immunotoxins made from an antibody (R10) of irrelevant specificity were without effect on AKR-A cells. PMID:3265330

  3. Efficacy of RG7787, a next-generation mesothelin-targeted immunotoxin, against triple-negative breast and gastric cancers.

    PubMed

    Alewine, Christine; Xiang, Laiman; Yamori, Takao; Niederfellner, Gerhard; Bosslet, Klaus; Pastan, Ira

    2014-11-01

    The RG7787 mesothelin-targeted recombinant immunotoxin (RIT) consists of an antibody fragment targeting mesothelin (MSLN) fused to a 24-kD fragment of Pseudomonas exotoxin A for cell killing. Compared with prior RITs, RG7787 has improved properties for clinical development including decreased nonspecific toxicity and immunogenicity and resistance to degradation by lysosomal proteases. MSLN is a cell surface glycoprotein highly expressed by many solid tumor malignancies. New reports have demonstrated that MSLN is expressed by a significant percentage of triple-negative breast and gastric cancer clinical specimens. Here, panels of triple-negative breast and gastric cancer cell lines were tested for surface MSLN expression, and for sensitivity to RG7787 in vitro and in animal models. RG7787 produced >95% cell killing of the HCC70 and SUM149 breast cancer cell lines in vitro with IC50 < 100 pmol/L. RG7787 was also effective against gastric cancer cell lines MKN28, MKN45, and MKN74 in vitro, with subnanomolar IC50s. In a nude mouse model, RG7787 treatment (2.5 mg/kg i.v. qod ×3-4) resulted in a statistically significant 41% decrease in volumes of HCC70 xenograft tumors (P < 0.0001) and an 18% decrease in MKN28 tumors (P < 0.0001). Pretreatment with paclitaxel (50 mg/kg i.p.) enhanced efficacy, producing 88% and 70% reduction in tumor volumes for HCC70 and MKN28, respectively, a statistically significant improvement over paclitaxel alone (P < 0.0001 for both). RG7787 merits clinical testing for triple-negative breast and gastric cancers. PMID:25239937

  4. Complete suppression of in vivo growth of human leukemia cells by specific immunotoxins: nude mouse models

    SciTech Connect

    Hara, H.; Seon, B.K.

    1987-05-01

    In this study, immunotoxins containing monoclonal anti-human T-cell leukemia antibodies are shown to be capable of completely suppressing the tumor growth of human T-cell leukemia cells in vivo without any overt undersirable toxicity. These immunotoxins were prepared by conjugating ricin A chain (RA) with our monoclonal antibodies, SN1 and SN2, directed specifically to the human T-cell leukemia cell surface antigens TALLA and GP37, respectively. The authors have shown that these monoclonal antibodies are highly specific for human T-cell leukemia cells and do not react with various normal cells including normal T and B cells, thymocytes, and bone marrow cells. Ascitic and solid human T-cell leukemia cell tumors were generated in nude mice. The ascitic tumor was generated by transplanting Ichikawa cells (a human T-cell leukemia cell) i.p. into nude mice, whereas the solid tumor was generated by transplanting s.c. MOLT-4 cells (a human T-cell leukemia cell line) and x-irradiated human fibrosarcoma cells into x-irradiated nude mice. To investigate the efficacy of specific immunotoxins in suppression the in vivo growth of the ascitic tumor, they divided 40 nude mice that were injected with Ichikawa cells into four groups. None of the mice in group 4 that were treated with SN1-RA and SN2-RA showed any signs of a tumor or undesirable toxic effects for the 20 weeks that they were followed after the transplantation. Treatment with SN1-RA plus SN2-RA completely suppressed solid tumor growth in 4 of 10 nude mice carrying solid tumors and partially suppressed the tumor growth in the remaining 6 nude mice. These results strongly suggest that SN1-RA and SN2-RA may be useful for clinical treatment.

  5. B7-1 (CD80) as target for immunotoxin therapy for Hodgkin's disease.

    PubMed Central

    Vooijs, W. C.; Otten, H. G.; van Vliet, M.; van Dijk, A. J.; de Weger, R. A.; de Boer, M.; Bohlen, H.; Bolognesi, A.; Polito, L.; de Gast, G. C.

    1997-01-01

    In this preclinical study, the potential applicability of an anti-B7-1 immunotoxin (IT) for the treatment of Hodgkin's disease (HD) was investigated. Immunohistochemical analysis demonstrated strong expression of B7-1 on Hodgkin and Reed-Sternberg (R-S) cells and clear expression on dendritic cells, macrophages and some B-cells in tissues, but not on other tissue cells. Flow cytometric analysis demonstrated that B7-1 was expressed on a few monocytes, but not on CD34+ cells from bone marrow, resting T- or B-cells from peripheral blood or epithelial and endothelial cell lines. An anti-B7-1 immunotoxin containing the anti-B7-1 monoclonal antibody (MAb) B7-24 and saporin as toxin moiety was constructed and showed an affinity similar to that shown by the native MAb. It exhibited strong cytotoxicity against the B7-1+ B-cell line Raji (IC50 10(-11) M), R-S cell lines HDLM2, KM/H2 and L428 and also against a B7-1-transfected epithelial cell line, A431, whose parental line lacks expression of B7-1. In clonogenic assays with Raji cells or KM/H2 cells, a 3- or 4-log kill, respectively, was observed. No cytotoxicity was found against the B7-1- epithelial and endothelial cell lines or against haematopoietic progenitor cells. In conclusion, an anti-B7-1 immunotoxin was developed that had good cytotoxicity against R-S cell lines and that may be used in the elimination of R-S cells in vivo. A concomitant elimination of activated antigen-presenting cells may avoid development of antitoxin and anti-mouse Ig responses and allow repeated administration. Images Figure 1 PMID:9365164

  6. A novel bispecific immunotoxin delivered by human bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells to target blood vessels and vasculogenic mimicry of malignant gliomas

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yonghong; Sun, Xinlin; Huang, Min; Ke, Yiquan; Wang, Jihui; Liu, Xiao

    2015-01-01

    Background In previous years, immunotoxins have been shown to be a greatly promising therapeutic tool for brain malignancies, such as gliomas. Human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) exhibit tropism to tumor tissue. However, the effect of bispecific immunotoxins in malignant gliomas is still unknown. The aim of this study was to investigate the function of bispecific immunotoxins in human malignant gliomas. Materials and methods In the present study, the bispecific immunotoxin VEGF165-ephrin A1-PE38KDEL was established using deoxyribonucleic acid shuffling and cloning techniques. The VEGF165-ephrin A1-PE38KDEL was delivered by hMSCs to mouse malignant gliomas. The effects of the bispecific immunotoxins on glioma-derived blood vessels and vasculogenic mimicry to elucidate the molecular mechanisms underlying the antitumorigenic effects of immunotoxins were examined in vivo. Results In vitro, transfected hMSCs significantly inhibited the cell viability of gliomas cell lines U87 and U251 in a dose-dependent manner compared with untransfected hMSCs (P<0.01). In vivo, the intratumoral injection of engineered hMSCs was effective at inhibiting tumor growth in a malignant glioma tumor model. Conclusion The bispecific immunotoxin secreted from hMSCs acts as a novel strategy for improving treatment options for malignant gliomas in the clinic. PMID:26089644

  7. Immunotoxins, ligand-toxin conjugates and molecular targeting.

    PubMed

    Soria, M

    1989-01-01

    Biotechnology provides tools for therapeutic exploitation following advances in the elucidation of protein-to-cell and cell-to-cell interactions. Molecular targeting of bacterial and plant toxins to the desired district of action can be achieved through effector molecules like monoclonal antibodies or protein ligands. Biochemical conjugation of these effectors to SO-6, a single-chain Ribosome Inactivating Protein from Saponaria officinalis, yielded powerful cytotoxic agents that are attractive candidates for therapeutic evaluation. Cloning of the gene for this plant toxin has been achieved. Technologies for expression of protein ligands, such as apolipoproteins or several growth factors, are available in recombinant microorganisms, providing adequate partners for the assembly of targeted chimaeras. Domain engineering of structural and functional regions in effector proteins is now possible and will be carried out with the available technologies to improve existing therapy. PMID:2698471

  8. Cell-targeting fusion constructs containing recombinant gelonin.

    PubMed

    Lyu, Mi-Ae; Cao, Yu Joshua; Mohamedali, Khalid A; Rosenblum, Michael G

    2012-01-01

    Therapeutic agents capable of targeting tumor cells present as established tumors and micrometastases have already demonstrated their potential in clinical trials. Immunotoxins targeting hematological malignancies and solid tumors have additionally demonstrated excellent clinical activity. This review focuses on our design and characterization studies of constructs composed of recombinant gelonin toxin fused to either growth factors or single-chain antibodies targeting solid tumor cells, tumor vasculature or hematological malignancies. These agents demonstrate cytotoxicity at nanomolar or sub-nanomolar levels. All of these constructs display impressive selectivity and specificity for antigen-bearing target cells in vitro and in vivo and are excellent clinical trial candidates. PMID:22208986

  9. Immunotoxin BL22 induces apoptosis in mantle cell lymphoma (MCL) cells dependent on Bcl-2 expression.

    PubMed

    Bogner, Christian; Dechow, Tobias; Ringshausen, Ingo; Wagner, Michaela; Oelsner, Madlen; Lutzny, Gloria; Licht, Thomas; Peschel, Christian; Pastan, Ira; Kreitman, Robert J; Decker, Thomas

    2010-01-01

    Mantle cell lymphoma (MCL) is an incurable mature B cell proliferation, combining the unfavourable clinical features of aggressive and indolent lymphomas. The blastic variant of MCL has an even worse prognosis and new treatment options are clearly needed. We analysed the effects of BL22, an immunotoxin composed of the Fv portion of an anti- CD22 antibody fused to a 38-kDa Pseudomonas exotoxin-A fragment on four MCL cell lines as well as on primary cells of four MCL patients. Apoptosis induction by BL22 was much more pronounced in MCL cell lines with low Bcl-2 expression (NCEB-1, JeKo-1 and JVM-2) compared to Granta-519 cells with high Bcl-2 expression. While the expression of the antiapoptotic protein Mcl-1 declined (NCEB-1, Granta-519), Bcl-2 levels remained unchanged in Granta-519 cells. However transfection of BCL2 cDNA into NCEB-1, JeKo-1 and JVM-2 cells significantly reduced BL22-mediated toxicity. Accordingly we examined the effects of Bcl-2 inactivation in Granta-519 cells using siRNA. Indeed, apoptosis induction was strongly enhanced in Granta-519 cells with silenced Bcl-2. Our results were confirmed in freshly isolated MCL-cells from patients with leukaemic MCL. We conclude that Bcl-2 expression is important for mediating resistance against the immunotoxin BL22 in MCL cells. PMID:19821820

  10. The novel immunotoxin HM1.24-ETA′ induces apoptosis in multiple myeloma cells

    PubMed Central

    Staudinger, M; Glorius, P; Burger, R; Kellner, C; Klausz, K; Günther, A; Repp, R; Klapper, W; Gramatzki, M; Peipp, M

    2014-01-01

    Despite new treatment modalities, the clinical outcome in a substantial number of patients with multiple myeloma (MM) has yet to be improved. Antibody-based targeted therapies for myeloma patients could make use of the HM1.24 antigen (CD317), a surface molecule overexpressed on malignant plasma cells and efficiently internalized. Here, a novel immunotoxin, HM1.24-ETA′, is described. HM1.24-ETA′ was generated by genetic fusion of a CD317-specific single-chain Fv (scFv) antibody and a truncated variant of Pseudomonas aeruginosa exotoxin A (ETA′). HM1.24-ETA′ inhibited growth of interleukin 6 (IL-6)-dependent and -independent myeloma cell lines. Half-maximal growth inhibition was observed at concentrations as low as 0.3 nM. Target cell killing occurred via induction of apoptosis and was unaffected in co-culture experiments with bone marrow stromal cells. HM1.24-ETA′ efficiently triggered apoptosis of freshly isolated/cryopreserved cells of patients with plasma cell leukemia and MM and was active in a preclinical severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) mouse xenograft model. Importantly, HM1.24-ETA′ was not cytotoxic against CD317-positive cells from healthy tissue (monocytes, human umbilical vein endothelial cells). These results indicate that CD317 may represent a promising target structure for specific and efficient immunotoxin therapy for patients with plasma cell tumors. PMID:24927408

  11. Development of a GMP Phase III purification process for VB4-845, an immunotoxin expressed in E. coli using high cell density fermentation.

    PubMed

    Premsukh, Arjune; Lavoie, Joelle M; Cizeau, Jeannick; Entwistle, Joycelyn; MacDonald, Glen C

    2011-07-01

    VB4-845 is a recombinant immunotoxin comprised of an anti-epithelial cell adhesion molecule (EpCAM) scFv fused to a truncated form of the bacterial toxin, Pseudomonas exotoxin A. VB4-845, purified from TB fed-batch fermentation, showed clinical efficacy when administered locally to treat non-muscle invasive bladder cancer (NMIBC) and squamous cell carcinomas of the head and neck (SCCHN). Here, we describe the implementation of an Escherichia coli high cell density (HCD) cultivation and purification process for VB4-845. HCD cultivation was a prerequisite for achieving higher yields necessary for Phase III clinical trials and commercialization. Using this process, the VB4-845 titer in the supernatant was increased by 30-fold over the original TB fed-batch cultivation. To obtain clinical grade material, a process involving a five-step column purification procedure was implemented and led to an overall recovery of ∼ 40%. VB4-845 purity of >97% was achieved after the first three columns following the removal of low-molecular weight product-related impurities and aggregates. Endotoxins were effectively separated from VB4-845 on the Q-columns and by washing the Ni-column with a detergent buffer while host cell proteins were removed using ceramic hydroxyapatite. Comparability studies demonstrated that the purified product from the Phase III process was identical to the Phase II reference standard produced using TB fed-batch fermentation. PMID:21421055

  12. Diphtheria-toxin based anti-human CCR4 immunotoxin for targeting human CCR4(+) cells in vivo.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhaohui; Wei, Min; Zhang, Huiping; Chen, Hongyuan; Germana, Sharon; Huang, Christene A; Madsen, Joren C; Sachs, David H; Wang, Zhirui

    2015-08-01

    CC chemokine receptor 4 (CCR4) has attracted much attention as a promising therapeutic drug target for CCR4(+) tumor cells and Tregs. CCR4 is expressed on some tumor cells such as T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL), adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma (ATLL), adult peripheral T cell lymphoma (PTCL) and cutaneous T cell lymphoma (CTCL). CCR4 is also expressed on majority of Tregs, mainly effector Tregs. In this study we have successfully developed three versions of diphtheria-toxin based anti-human CCR4 immunotoxins (monovalent, bivalent and single-chain fold-back diabody). Binding analysis by flow cytometry showed that all three versions of the anti-human CCR4 immunotoxins bound to the human CCR4(+) tumor cell line as well as CCR4(+) human PBMC. The bivalent isoform bound stronger than its monovalent counterpart and the single-chain foldback diabody isoform was the strongest among the three versions. In vitro efficacy analysis demonstrated that the bivalent isoform was 20 fold more potent in inhibiting cellular proliferation and protein synthesis in human CCR4(+) tumor cells compared to the monovalent anti-human CCR4 immunotoxin. The single-chain fold-back diabody isoform was 10 fold more potent than its bivalent counterpart and 200 fold more potent than its monovalent counterpart. The in vivo efficacy was assessed using a human CCR4(+) tumor-bearing mouse model. The immunotoxin significantly prolonged the survival of tumor-bearing NOD/SCID IL-2 receptor γ(-/-) (NSG) mice injected with human CCR4(+) acute lymphoblastic leukemia cells compared with the control group. This novel anti-human CCR4 immunotoxin is a promising drug candidate for targeting human CCR4(+) tumor cells and Tregs in vivo. PMID:25958791

  13. 77 FR 5036 - Prospective Grant of Exclusive License: The Development of Human Anti-Mesothelin Monoclonal...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-01

    ... entitled ``Human Monoclonal Antibody Against Mesothelin'' , Australian patent application AU 2009228361 entitled ''Human Monoclonal Antibody Against Mesothelin'' , Canadian patent application CA 2718321 entitled... ``Human Monoclonal Antibody Against Mesothelin'' , U.S. patent application 12/ 934,060 entitled...

  14. 76 FR 63317 - Prospective Grant of Exclusive License: The Development of Human Anti-Mesothelin Monoclonal...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-12

    ...This is notice, in accordance with 35 U.S.C. 209(c)(1) and 37 CFR part 404.7(a)(1)(i), that the National Institutes of Health, Department of Health and Human Services, is contemplating the grant of an exclusive patent license to practice the inventions embodied in U.S. Patent Application 61/040,005 entitled ``Human Monoclonal Antibodies Specific for Mesothelin'' [HHS Ref. E-079-2008/0-US-01],......

  15. Anti-Mesothelin Monoclonal Antibodies for the Treatment of Cancer | NCI Technology Transfer Center | TTC

    Cancer.gov

    The National Cancer Institute, Laboratory of Molecular Biology is seeking parties interested in collaborative research to further co-develop monoclonal antibodies for the treatment of mesothelin-expressing cancers.

  16. High throughput cytotoxicity screening of anti-HER2 immunotoxins conjugated with antibody fragments from phage-displayed synthetic antibody libraries

    PubMed Central

    Hou, Shin-Chen; Chen, Hong-Sen; Lin, Hung-Wei; Chao, Wei-Ting; Chen, Yao-Sheng; Fu, Chi-Yu; Yu, Chung-Ming; Huang, Kai-Fa; Wang, Andrew H.-J.; Yang, An-Suei

    2016-01-01

    Immunotoxins are an important class of antibody-based therapeutics. The potency of the immunotoxins depends on the antibody fragments as the guiding modules targeting designated molecules on cell surfaces. Phage-displayed synthetic antibody scFv libraries provide abundant antibody fragment candidates as targeting modules for the immunoconjugates, but the discovery of optimally functional immunoconjugates is limited by the scFv-payload conjugation procedure. In this work, cytotoxicity screening of non-covalently assembled immunotoxins was developed in high throughput format to discover highly functional synthetic antibody fragments for delivering toxin payloads. The principles governing the efficiency of the antibodies as targeting modules have been elucidated from large volume of cytotoxicity data: (a) epitope and paratope of the antibody-based targeting module are major determinants for the potency of the immunotoxins; (b) immunotoxins with bivalent antibody-based targeting modules are generally superior in cytotoxic potency to those with corresponding monovalent targeting module; and (c) the potency of the immunotoxins is positively correlated with the densities of the cell surface antigen. These findings suggest that screening against the target cells with a large pool of antibodies from synthetic antibody libraries without the limitations of natural antibody responses can lead to optimal potency and minimal off-target toxicity of the immunoconjugates. PMID:27550798

  17. High throughput cytotoxicity screening of anti-HER2 immunotoxins conjugated with antibody fragments from phage-displayed synthetic antibody libraries.

    PubMed

    Hou, Shin-Chen; Chen, Hong-Sen; Lin, Hung-Wei; Chao, Wei-Ting; Chen, Yao-Sheng; Fu, Chi-Yu; Yu, Chung-Ming; Huang, Kai-Fa; Wang, Andrew H-J; Yang, An-Suei

    2016-01-01

    Immunotoxins are an important class of antibody-based therapeutics. The potency of the immunotoxins depends on the antibody fragments as the guiding modules targeting designated molecules on cell surfaces. Phage-displayed synthetic antibody scFv libraries provide abundant antibody fragment candidates as targeting modules for the immunoconjugates, but the discovery of optimally functional immunoconjugates is limited by the scFv-payload conjugation procedure. In this work, cytotoxicity screening of non-covalently assembled immunotoxins was developed in high throughput format to discover highly functional synthetic antibody fragments for delivering toxin payloads. The principles governing the efficiency of the antibodies as targeting modules have been elucidated from large volume of cytotoxicity data: (a) epitope and paratope of the antibody-based targeting module are major determinants for the potency of the immunotoxins; (b) immunotoxins with bivalent antibody-based targeting modules are generally superior in cytotoxic potency to those with corresponding monovalent targeting module; and (c) the potency of the immunotoxins is positively correlated with the densities of the cell surface antigen. These findings suggest that screening against the target cells with a large pool of antibodies from synthetic antibody libraries without the limitations of natural antibody responses can lead to optimal potency and minimal off-target toxicity of the immunoconjugates. PMID:27550798

  18. GMP production and characterization of the bivalent anti-human T cell immunotoxin, A-dmDT390-bisFv(UCHT1) for phase I/II clinical trials.

    PubMed

    Woo, Jung Hee; Liu, Jen-Sing; Kang, Soo Hyun; Singh, Ravibhushan; Park, Seong Kyu; Su, Yunpeng; Ortiz, Janelle; Neville, David M; Willingham, Mark C; Frankel, Arthur E

    2008-03-01

    The bivalent anti-T cell immunotoxin, A-dmDT390-bisFv(UCHT1), was developed for treatment of T-cell leukemia, autoimmune diseases and tolerance induction for transplantation. To obtain clinical grade bivalent anti-T cell immunotoxin for phase I/II clinical trials, a single batch of 120 L bioreactor culture was performed using the Pichia pastoris mutEF2JC307-8(2) strain expressing the bivalent anti-T cell immunotoxin. After 162 h induction of the culture by methanol, the culture medium was harvested by a 0.1 microm hollow-fiber microfiltration step. The recombinant protein was purified by a 3-step purification procedure (Butyl 650 M capturing step, borate anion exchange step and final Poros anion exchange step). The final material was filter sterilized, aseptically vialed, and stored at -80 degrees C. Expression level was 207 mg/L of culture supernatant and the final production yield was 69.6% or 144.2mg/L of culture supernatant. The final product was characterized by multiple assays. Vialed product was sterile. The drug concentration was 0.8 mg/mL in 150 mM NaCl, 5% glycerol, 1mM EDTA, and 5mM Tris (pH 8.0). Purity by SDS-PAGE was 98%. Aggregates by Superdex 200 HPLC were <1%. Potency revealed a 20 h IC(50) of 17f M on Jurkat cells. Endotoxin level was 0.02 U/mg. Chemical and biologic assays confirmed the purity, composition, and functional activities of the molecule. The drug did not react with tested frozen human tissue sections except for T cells. LD(10) in mice was between 500 and 75 0microg/kg. There was no evidence of loss of solubility, proteolysis, aggregation, or loss of potency over 1.5 year at -80 degrees C. The scalable synthesis of this protein drug should be useful for production for phase I/II clinical trials and can be applicable for other diphtheria toxin fusion drugs for clinical development. PMID:18160309

  19. Non-genotoxic conditioning for hematopoietic stem cell transplantation using a hematopoietic-cell-specific internalizing immunotoxin.

    PubMed

    Palchaudhuri, Rahul; Saez, Borja; Hoggatt, Jonathan; Schajnovitz, Amir; Sykes, David B; Tate, Tiffany A; Czechowicz, Agnieszka; Kfoury, Youmna; Ruchika, Fnu; Rossi, Derrick J; Verdine, Gregory L; Mansour, Michael K; Scadden, David T

    2016-07-01

    Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) offers curative therapy for patients with hemoglobinopathies, congenital immunodeficiencies, and other conditions, possibly including AIDS. Autologous HSCT using genetically corrected cells would avoid the risk of graft-versus-host disease (GVHD), but the genotoxicity of conditioning remains a substantial barrier to the development of this approach. Here we report an internalizing immunotoxin targeting the hematopoietic-cell-restricted CD45 receptor that effectively conditions immunocompetent mice. A single dose of the immunotoxin, CD45-saporin (SAP), enabled efficient (>90%) engraftment of donor cells and full correction of a sickle-cell anemia model. In contrast to irradiation, CD45-SAP completely avoided neutropenia and anemia, spared bone marrow and thymic niches, enabling rapid recovery of T and B cells, preserved anti-fungal immunity, and had minimal overall toxicity. This non-genotoxic conditioning method may provide an attractive alternative to current conditioning regimens for HSCT in the treatment of non-malignant blood diseases. PMID:27272386

  20. Construction of an immunotoxin by linking a monoclonal antibody against the human epidermal growth factor receptor and a hemolytic toxin.

    PubMed

    Avila, Ana D; Calderón, Carlos F; Pérez, Rita M; Pons, Carmen; Pereda, Celia M; Ortiz, Ana R

    2007-01-01

    Hybrid molecules obtained through conjugation of monoclonal antibodies and toxins constitute an approach under exploration to generate potential agents for the treatment of cancer and other diseases. A frequently employed toxic component in the construction of such immunotoxins is ricin, a plant toxin which inhibits protein synthesis at ribosomal level and so requires to be internalized by the cell. A hemolytic toxin isolated from the sea anemone Stichodactyla helianthus, which is active at the cell membrane level, was linked through a disulfide bond to the anti-epidermal growth factor receptor monoclonal antibody ior egf/r3. The resulting immunotoxin did not exhibit hemolytic activity except under reducing conditions. It was toxic for H125 cells that express the human epidermal growth factor receptor, but non-toxic for U1906 cells that do not express this receptor. PMID:18064354

  1. Targeted Delivery of Immunotoxin by Antibody to Ganglioside GD3: A Novel Drug Delivery Route for Tumor Cells

    PubMed Central

    Torres Demichelis, Vanina; Vilcaes, Aldo A.; Iglesias-Bartolomé, Ramiro; Ruggiero, Fernando M.; Daniotti, Jose L.

    2013-01-01

    Gangliosides are sialic acid-containing glycolipids expressed on plasma membranes from nearly all vertebrate cells. The expression of ganglioside GD3, which plays essential roles in normal brain development, decreases in adults but is up regulated in neuroectodermal and epithelial derived cancers. R24 antibody, directed against ganglioside GD3, is a validated tumor target which is specifically endocytosed and accumulated in endosomes. Here, we exploit the internalization feature of the R24 antibody for the selective delivery of saporin, a ribosome-inactivating protein, to GD3-expressing cells [human (SK-Mel-28) and mouse (B16) melanoma cells and Chinese hamster ovary (CHO)-K1 cells]. This immunotoxin showed a specific cytotoxicity on tumor cells grew on 2D monolayers, which was further evident by the lack of any effect on GD3-negative cells. To estimate the potential antitumor activity of R24-saporin complex, we also evaluated the effect of the immunotoxin on the clonogenic growth of SK-Mel-28 and CHO-K1GD3+ cells cultured in attachment-free conditions. A drastic growth inhibition (>80–90%) of the cell colonies was reached after 3 days of immunotoxin treatment. By the contrary, colonies continue to growth at the same concentration of the immuntoxin, but in the absence of R24 antibody, or in the absence of both immunotoxin and R24, undoubtedly indicating the specificity of the effect observed. Thus, the ganglioside GD3 emerge as a novel and attractive class of cell surface molecule for targeted delivery of cytotoxic agents and, therefore, provides a rationale for future therapeutic intervention in cancer. PMID:23383146

  2. Cytotoxic effect of the immunotoxin constructed of the ribosome-inactivating protein curcin and the monoclonal antibody against Her2 receptor on tumor cells.

    PubMed

    Jaramillo-Quintero, Lidia Patricia; Contis Montes de Oca, Arturo; Romero Rojas, Andrés; Rojas-Hernández, Saúl; Campos-Rodríguez, Rafael; Martínez-Ayala, Alma Leticia

    2015-01-01

    The toxicity of the curcin on cancer cells allows to consider this protein as the toxic component of an immunotoxin directed to Her2, which is associated with cancer. Reductive amination was proposed to conjugate curcin and an anti-Her2; the binding was tested using Polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, western blot, and immunocytochemistry. The in vitro cytotoxicity of curcin and the immunotoxin was assessed on breast cancer cell lines SK-BR-3 (Her2(+)) and MDA-MB-231 (Her2(-)). IC50 values for curcin were 15.5 ± 8.3 and 18.6 ± 2.4 μg/mL, respectively, statistically equivalent (p < 0.05). While to the immunotoxin was 2.2 ± 0.08 for SK-BR-3 and 147.6 ± 2.5 μg/mL for MDA-MB-231. These values showed that the immunotoxin was seven times more toxic to the SK-BR-3 than curcin and eight times less toxic to the MDA-MB-231. The immunotoxin composed of curcin and an antibody against Her2 and constructed by reductive amination could be a therapeutic candidate against Her2(+) cancer. PMID:25704287

  3. Facilitation of allogeneic bone marrow transplantation by a T cell-specific immunotoxin containing daunomycin

    SciTech Connect

    Xie, S.S.; Inazawa, M.; Sinha, N.; Sawada, S.; Vergidis, R.; Diener, E.

    1987-12-01

    Daunomycin coupled via an acid-sensitive spacer to monoclonal Thy-1.2-specific antibody was used to purge T lymphocytes from a 1:1 mixture of murine C57BL/6J bone marrow and spleen cells prior to engraftment in fully allogeneic, irradiated BALB/c recipients. Treatment of bone marrow with the immunotoxin at a concentration used for purging had no effect on the viability of committed hematopoietic progenitor or multipotent stem cells. All of the recipients of purged bone marrow were at least 80% chimeric for donor peripheral blood cells and none developed graft-versus-host disease. Out of 50 chimeras, 49 were still alive more than 200 days posttransplantation. The chimeras were shown to be tolerant to donor tissue as tested by mixed lymphocyte reactivity, cell-mediated cytotoxicity, and skin grafting. The same tests revealed full immunocompetence of chimeras to third-party alloantigens. In vivo IgM and IgG antibody responses to sheep red blood cells were similar in magnitude in allogeneically and syngeneically reconstituted mice.

  4. Role of monensin PLGA polymer nanoparticles and liposomes as potentiator of ricin A immunotoxins in vitro.

    PubMed

    Ferdous, A J; Stembridge, N Y; Singh, M

    1998-01-01

    Monensin is a carboxylic ionophore which can potentiate the activity of ricin based immunotoxins (IT) in vitro and in vivo against a variety of human tumours. Monensin was encapsulated into nanoparticles (NP) by using biodegradable poly(DL-lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA, 50:50). The NP were prepared by modified emulsification-solvent evaporation method. High shear homogenization followed by simultaneous stirring and bath sonication were used for preparing NP. The size of NP was determined by photon correlation spectroscopy using a BI 90 particle sizer (Brookhaven Instruments). The average size of NP could be decreased from 567 nm to 163 nm by increasing the concentration of polyvinyl alcohol from 10% to 100% of PLGA. The NP were spherical in shape as observed by Atomic Force Microscopy. The concentration of monensin in the NP was analyzed by HPLC and the entrapment efficiency was found to be more than 12%. The zeta potential of NP was -25.8 (+/- 1.3) mv, which did not change significantly after resuspension of the freeze dried sample. The NP were tested against HL-60 and HT-29 human tumour cell lines in vitro. Monensin NP potentiated the activity of IT by 40 to 50 times against these cell lines. There was however, no difference between the NP and liposomes for their potentiating affect of IT against the two tumour cell lines. PMID:9685874

  5. λ Recombination and Recombineering.

    PubMed

    Murphy, Kenan C

    2016-05-01

    The bacteriophage λ Red homologous recombination system has been studied over the past 50 years as a model system to define the mechanistic details of how organisms exchange DNA segments that share extended regions of homology. The λ Red system proved useful as a system to study because recombinants could be easily generated by co-infection of genetically marked phages. What emerged from these studies was the recognition that replication of phage DNA was required for substantial Red-promoted recombination in vivo, and the critical role that double-stranded DNA ends play in allowing the Red proteins access to the phage DNA chromosomes. In the past 16 years, however, the λ Red recombination system has gained a new notoriety. When expressed independently of other λ functions, the Red system is able to promote recombination of linear DNA containing limited regions of homology (∼50 bp) with the Escherichia coli chromosome, a process known as recombineering. This review explains how the Red system works during a phage infection, and how it is utilized to make chromosomal modifications of E. coli with such efficiency that it changed the nature and number of genetic manipulations possible, leading to advances in bacterial genomics, metabolic engineering, and eukaryotic genetics. PMID:27223821

  6. Inclusion of a furin-sensitive spacer enhances the cytotoxicity of ribotoxin restrictocin containing recombinant single-chain immunotoxins.

    PubMed

    Goyal, A; Batra, J K

    2000-01-15

    Chimaeric toxins have considerable therapeutic potential to treat various malignancies. We have previously used the fungal ribonucleolytic toxin restrictocin to make chimaeric toxins in which the ligand was fused at either the N-terminus or the C-terminus of the toxin. Chimaeric toxins containing ligand at the C-terminus of restrictocin were shown to be more active than those having ligand at the N-terminus of the toxin. Here we describe the further engineering of restrictocin-based chimaeric toxins, anti-TFR(scFv)-restrictocin and restrictocin-anti-TFR(scFv), containing restrictocin and a single chain fragment variable (scFv) of a monoclonal antibody directed at the human transferrin receptor (TFR), to enhance their cell-killing activity. To promote the independent folding of the two proteins in the chimaeric toxin, a linear flexible peptide, Gly-Gly-Gly-Gly-Ser, was inserted between the toxin and the ligand to generate restrictocin-linker-anti-TFR(scFv) and anti-TFR(scFv)-linker-restrictocin. A 12-residue spacer, Thr-Arg-His-Arg-Gln-Pro-Arg-Gly-Trp-Glu-Gln-Leu, containing the recognition site for the protease furin, was incorporated between the toxin and the ligand to generate restrictocin-spacer-anti-TFR(scFv) and anti-TFR(scFv)-spacer-restrictocin. The incorporation of the proteolytically cleavable spacer enhanced the cell-killing activity of both constructs by 2-30-fold depending on the target cell line. However, the introduction of linker improved the cytotoxic activity only for anti-TFR(scFv)-linker-restrictocin. The proteolytically cleavable spacer-containing chimaeric toxins had similar cytotoxic activities irrespective of the location of the ligand on the toxin and they were found to release the restrictocin fragment efficiently on proteolysis in vitro. PMID:10620501

  7. Effectiveness of HB2 (anti-CD7)--saporin immunotoxin in an in vivo model of human T-cell leukaemia developed in severe combined immunodeficient mice.

    PubMed Central

    Morland, B. J.; Barley, J.; Boehm, D.; Flavell, S. U.; Ghaleb, N.; Kohler, J. A.; Okayama, K.; Wilkins, B.; Flavell, D. J.

    1994-01-01

    The transplantation of the human T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (T-ALL) cell line HSB-2 into severe combined immunodeficient (SCID) mice was found to produce a disseminated pattern of leukaemia similar to that seen in man. The intravenous injection of 10(7) HSB-2 cells was associated with a universally fatal leukaemia. Histopathological examination of animals revealed the spread of leukaemia initially from bone marrow to involve all major organs including the meninges. An immunotoxin (HB2-Sap) was constructed by conjugating the anti-CD7 MAb HB2 to the ribosome-inactivating protein saporin. An in vitro protein synthesis inhibition assay revealed specific delivery of HB2-Sap immunotoxin (IT) to CD7+ HSB-2 target cells with an IC50 of 4.5 pM. When SCID mice were injected with 10(6) HSB-2 cells and then treated 8 days later with a single intravenous dose of 10 micrograms of immunotoxin there was a significant therapeutic effect evidenced by the numbers of animals surviving in the therapy group compared with untreated controls (chi 2 = 5.348, P = 0.021). These results demonstrate the useful application of human leukaemia xenografts in SCID mice and the potential therapeutic effect of an anti-CD7 immunotoxin in human T-ALL. Images Figure 1 PMID:7507691

  8. Immunotoxins Constructed with Ribosome-Inactivating Proteins and their Enhancers: A Lethal Cocktail with Tumor Specific Efficacy

    PubMed Central

    Gilabert-Oriol, Roger; Weng, Alexander; von Mallinckrodt, Benedicta; Melzig, Matthias F; Fuchs, Hendrik; Thakur, Mayank

    2014-01-01

    The term ribosome-inactivating protein (RIP) is used to denominate proteins mostly of plant origin, which have N-glycosidase enzymatic activity leading to a complete destruction of the ribosomal function. The discovery of the RIPs was almost a century ago, but their usage has seen transition only in the last four decades. With the advent of antibody therapy, the RIPs have been a subject of extensive research especially in targeted tumor therapies, which is the primary focus of this review. In the present work we enumerate 250 RIPs, which have been identified so far. An attempt has been made to identify all the RIPs that have been used for the construction of immunotoxins, which are conjugates or fusion proteins of an antibody or ligand with a toxin. The data from 1960 onwards is reviewed in this paper and an extensive list of more than 450 immunotoxins is reported. The clinical reach of tumor-targeted toxins has been identified and detailed in the work as well. While there is a lot of potential that RIPs embrace for targeted tumor therapies, the success in preclinical and clinical evaluations has been limited mainly because of their inability to escape the endo/lysosomal degradation. Various strategies that can increase the efficacy and lower the required dose for targeted toxins have been compiled in this article. It is plausible that with the advancements in platform technologies or improved endosomal escape the usage of tumor targeted RIPs would see the daylight of clinical success. PMID:25341935

  9. A multi-antigen vaccine in combination with an immunotoxin targeting tumor-associated fibroblast for treating murine melanoma

    PubMed Central

    Fang, Jinxu; Hu, Biliang; Li, Si; Zhang, Chupei; Liu, Yarong; Wang, Pin

    2016-01-01

    A therapeutically effective cancer vaccine must generate potent antitumor immune responses and be able to overcome tolerance mechanisms mediated by the progressing tumor itself. Previous studies showed that glycoprotein 100 (gp100), tyrosinase-related protein 1 (TRP1), and tyrosinase-related protein 2 (TRP2) are promising immunogens for melanoma immunotherapy. In this study, we administered these three melanoma-associated antigens via lentiviral vectors (termed LV-3Ag) and found that this multi-antigen vaccine strategy markedly increased functional T-cell infiltration into tumors and generated protective and therapeutic antitumor immunity. We also engineered a novel immunotoxin, αFAP-PE38, capable of targeting fibroblast activation protein (FAP)-expressing fibroblasts within the tumor stroma. When combined with αFAP-PE38, LV-3Ag exhibited greatly enhanced antitumor effects on tumor growth in an established B16 melanoma model. The mechanism of action underlying this combination treatment likely modulates the immune suppressive tumor microenvironment and, consequently, activates cytotoxic CD8+ T cells capable of specifically recognizing and destroying tumor cells. Taken together, these results provide a strong rationale for combining an immunotoxin with cancer vaccines for the treatment of patients with advanced cancer. PMID:27119119

  10. The Development and Characterization of a Human Mesothelioma In Vitro 3D Model to Investigate Immunotoxin Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Feng, Mingqian; Nagashima, Kunio; Zhang, Jingli; Broaddus, V. Courtney; Hassan, Raffit; FitzGerald, David; Ho, Mitchell

    2011-01-01

    Background Tumor microenvironments present significant barriers to penetration by antibodies and immunoconjugates. Tumor microenvironments, however, are difficult to study in vitro. Cells cultured as monolayers exhibit less resistance to therapy than those grown in vivo and an alternative research model more representative of the in vivo tumor is more desirable. SS1P is an immunotoxin composed of the Fv portion of a mesothelin-specific antibody fused to a bacterial toxin that is presently undergoing clinical trials in mesothelioma. Methodology/Principal Findings Here, we examined how the tumor microenvironment affects the penetration and killing activity of SS1P in a new three-dimensional (3D) spheroid model cultured in vitro using the human mesothelioma cell line (NCI-H226) and two primary cell lines isolated from the ascites of malignant mesothelioma patients. Mesothelioma cells grown as monolayers or as spheroids expressed comparable levels of mesothelin; however, spheroids were at least 100 times less affected by SS1P. To understand this disparity in cytotoxicity, we made fluorescence-labeled SS1P molecules and used confocal microscopy to examine the time course of SS1P penetration within spheroids. The penetration was limited after 4 hours. Interestingly, we found a significant increase in the number of tight junctions in the core area of spheroids by electron microscopy. Expression of E-Cadherin, a protein involved in the assembly and sealing of tight junctions and highly expressed in malignant mesothelioma, was found significantly increased in spheroids as compared to monolayers. Moreover, we found that siRNA silencing and antibody inhibition targeting E-Cadherin could enhance SS1P immunotoxin therapy in vitro. Conclusion/Significance This work is one of the first to investigate immunotoxins in 3D tumor spheroids in vitro. This initial description of an in vitro tumor model may offer a simple and more representative model of in vivo tumors and will allow for

  11. Use of ribosome-inactivating proteins from Sambucus for the construction of immunotoxins and conjugates for cancer therapy.

    PubMed

    Ferreras, José M; Citores, Lucía; Iglesias, Rosario; Jiménez, Pilar; Girbés, Tomás

    2011-05-01

    The type 2 ribosome-inactivating proteins (RIPs) isolated from some species belonging to the Sambucus genus, have the characteristic that although being even more active than ricin inhibiting protein synthesis in cell-free extracts, they lack the high toxicity of ricin and related type 2 RIPs to intact cells and animals. This is due to the fact that after internalization, they follow a different intracellular pathway that does not allow them to reach the cytosolic ribosomes. The lack of toxicity of type 2 RIPs from Sambucus make them good candidates as toxic moieties in the construction of immunotoxins and conjugates directed against specific targets. Up to now they have been conjugated with either transferrin or anti-CD105 to target either transferrin receptor- or endoglin-overexpressing cells, respectively. PMID:22069717

  12. Purification and characterization of a novel type i ribosome inactivating protein, pachyerosin, from Pachyrhizus erosus seeds, and preparation of its immunotoxin against human hepatoma cells.

    PubMed

    Guo, Jin-Lin; Cheng, Yuan-Liu; Qiu, Yi; Shen, Cai-Hong; Yi, Bin; Peng, Cheng

    2014-07-01

    Pachyrhizus erosus seeds have a high protein content and are used in China due to their cytotoxic effect. Here we report the biological and pharmacological activity of the protein extracts from P. erosus seeds. A novel ribosome-inactivating protein, pachyerosin, from P. erosus seeds was successively purified to homogeneity using ammonium sulfate precipitation, DEAE-sepharose FF, and Sephacryl S-200. Pachyerosin showed to be a type I ribosome-inactivating protein with a molecular mass of 29 kDa and an isoelectric point of 9.19. It strongly inhibited protein synthesis of rabbit reticulocyte lysate with an IC50 of 0.37 ng/mL and showed N-glycosidase activity on rat liver ribosomes with an EC50 of 85.9 pM. The N-terminal 27 amino acids of pachyerosin revealed a 60.71% sequence identity with abrin A from the seeds of Abrus precatorius. With the aim of targeting the delivery of pachyerosin, immunotoxin was prepared by conjugating pachyerosin with anti-human AFP monoclonal antibodies SM0736. The immunotoxin pachyerosin-SM0736 efficiently inhibited the growth of the human hepatoma cell line HuH-7 with an IC50 of 0.050 ± 0.004 nM, 2360 times lower than that of pachyerosin and 430 times lower than that of the immunotoxin against human gastric cancer cell line SGC7901. These results imply that pachyerosin may be used as a new promising anticancer agent. PMID:25029173

  13. Genetic Recombination

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whitehouse, H. L. K.

    1973-01-01

    Discusses the mechanisms of genetic recombination with particular emphasis on the study of the fungus Sordaria brevicollis. The study of recombination is facilitated by the use of mutants of this fungus in which the color of the ascospores is affected. (JR)

  14. Cosmological Recombination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wong, Wan Yan

    2008-11-01

    In this thesis we focus on studying the physics of cosmological recombination and how the details of recombination affect the Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) anisotropies. We present a detailed calculation of the spectral line distortions on the CMB spectrum arising from the Lyman-alpha and the lowest two-photon transitions in the recombination of hydrogen (H), and the corresponding lines from helium (He). The peak of these distortions mainly comes from the Lyman-alpha transition and occurs at about 170 microns, which is the Wien part of the CMB. The major theoretical limitation for extracting cosmological parameters from the CMB sky lies in the precision with which we can calculate the cosmological recombination process. With this motivation, we perform a multi-level calculation of the recombination of H and He with the addition of the spin-forbidden transition for neutral helium (He I), plus the higher order two-photon transitions for H and among singlet states of He I. We find that the inclusion of the spin-forbidden transition results in more than a percent change in the ionization fraction, while the other transitions give much smaller effects. Last we modify RECFAST by introducing one more parameter to reproduce recent numerical results for the speed-up of helium recombination. Together with the existing hydrogen `fudge factor', we vary these two parameters to account for the remaining dominant uncertainties in cosmological recombination. By using a Markov Chain Monte Carlo method with Planck forecast data, we find that we need to determine the parameters to better than 10% for He I and 1% for H, in order to obtain negligible effects on the cosmological parameters.

  15. Spectrum Recombination.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greenslade, Thomas B., Jr.

    1984-01-01

    Describes several methods of executing lecture demonstrations involving the recombination of the spectrum. Groups the techniques into two general classes: bringing selected portions of the spectrum together using lenses or mirrors and blurring the colors by rapid movement or foreshortening. (JM)

  16. Constitutive expression and anticancer potency of a novel immunotoxin onconase-DV3.

    PubMed

    Sun, Miaonan; Tang, Huichun; Gao, Yan; Dai, Xinxuan; Yuan, Yue; Zhang, Chunmei; Sun, Dejun

    2016-04-01

    Onconase is an RNase of the ribonuclease A superfamily that is purified from the Northern leopard frog (Rana pipiens). It targets several types of malignant tumors, digests cytoplasmic transfer RNA (tRNA), and causes tumor cell apoptosis. Onconase has been employed in clinical trials as an antitumor drug, and has revealed its valuable clinical activity in several types of tumors, particularly pleural mesothelioma. However, its inefficiency in targeting tumor cells and its non‑specific toxicity in normal tissues have diminished its clinical benefits. Furthermore, cyclization of the N-terminal glutamine residue (Gln), possesses more RNase activity than the structure of Met ahead of Glu in the N-terminal (99:1), which is more difficult for producing onconase by Pichia pastoris. Under the guidance of α-mating factor-pre (α-MF-pre) secretion signal, the secretion of the recombinant protein can reach a high level. In the present study, we constructed a constitutive expression vector for onconase-(DV3)2 (Onc-DV3) production in yeast Pichia pastoris with the GAP promoter, in which the Onc-DV3 gene is inserted downstream of the truncated Saccharomyces cerevisiae α-mating factor-pre (α-MF-pre) secretion signal. The immuno-RNase Onc-DV3 expressed a high level of production and bioactivity and possessed enhanced capability to deliver the Onc molecule to tumor cell monomeric counterparts. Notably, Onc-DV3 showed strong cytotoxicity to highly metastatic tumor cells, weak cytotoxicity to lowly metastatic tumor cells and no toxicity to normal cells. These results demonstrate that the specific toxicity to highly metastatic tumor cells has made Onc-DV3 a promising antitumor drug by using two copies of DV3 for the targeted delivery of onconase. PMID:26782924

  17. Purification and properties of a new ribosome-inactivating protein with RNA N-glycosidase activity suitable for immunotoxin preparation from the seeds of Momordica cochinchinensis.

    PubMed

    Bolognesi, A; Barbieri, L; Carnicelli, D; Abbondanza, A; Cenini, P; Falasca, A I; Dinota, A; Stirpe, F

    1989-12-01

    A ribosome-inactivating protein similar to those already known (Stirpe and Barbieri (1986) FEBS Lett. 195, 1-8) was purified from the seeds of Momordica cochinchinensis. This protein, for which the name of momorcochin-S is proposed, is a glycoprotein, has an Mr of approx. 30,000, and an alkaline isoelectric point and can be considered as an iso-form of the previously purified momorcochin from the roots of M. cochinchinensis. Momorcochin-S inhibits protein synthesis by a rabbit-reticulocyte lysate and phenylalanine polymerization by isolated ribosomes, and alters rRNA in a similar manner as the A-chain of ricin and related toxins (Endo et al. (1987) J. Biol. Chem. 262, 5908-5912). Momorcochin-S was linked to a monoclonal antibody (8A) against human plasma cells, and the resulting immunotoxin was selectively toxic to target cells. PMID:2597699

  18. Phase II clinical trial of amatuximab, a chimeric anti-mesothelin antibody with pemetrexed and cisplatin in advanced unresectable pleural mesothelioma

    PubMed Central

    Hassan, Raffit; Kindler, Hedy L.; Jahan, Thierry; Bazhenova, Lyudmila; Reck, Martin; Thomas, Anish; Pastan, Ira; Parno, Jeff; O’Shannessy, Daniel J.; Fatato, Penny; Maltzman, Julia D.; Wallin, Bruce A.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Amatuximab is a chimeric monoclonal antibody to mesothelin, a cell surface glycoprotein highly expressed in malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM). Based on its synergy with chemotherapy in pre-clinical studies, we evaluated the antitumor activity of amatuximab plus pemetrexed and cisplatin in patients with unresectable MPM. Experimental Design In a single-arm phase II study, amatuximab 5 mg/kg was administered on days 1 and 8 with pemetrexed, 500 mg/m2 and cisplatin, 75 mg/m2 on day 1 of 21-day cycles for up to 6 cycles. Patients with response or stable disease received amatuximab maintenance until disease progression. Primary endpoint was progression-free survival (PFS) at 6 months. Secondary endpoints were overall survival (OS), response rate and safety. Results Eighty nine patients were enrolled at 26 centers. Median of five cycles (range 1–6) of combination treatment was administered and 56 (63%) patients received amatuximab maintenance. Combination therapy resulted in no overlapping toxicities. Eleven patients (12.4%) had amatuximab-related hypersensitivity reactions. Responses included partial responses in 33 (40%) and stable disease in 42 (51%). Six month-PFS rate was 51% (95% CI: 39.1, 62.3), median PFS 6.1 months (95% CI: 5.8, 6.4) and median OS 14.8 months (95% CI: 12.4, 18.5) with 29 patients alive at data cut-off. Conclusions Amatuximab with pemetrexed and cisplatin was well-tolerated with objective tumor response or stable disease rate of 90% by independent radiological review. Although PFS was not significantly different from historical controls, the median OS was 14.8 months with a third of patients alive and 5 continuing to receive amatuximab at the time of analysis. PMID:25231400

  19. Recombinant protein production technology

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Recombinant protein production is an important technology for antibody production, biochemical activity study, and structural determination during the post-genomic era. Limiting factors in recombinant protein production include low-level protein expression, protein precipitation, and loss of protein...

  20. Therapeutic Recombinant Monoclonal Antibodies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bakhtiar, Ray

    2012-01-01

    During the last two decades, the rapid growth of biotechnology-derived techniques has led to a myriad of therapeutic recombinant monoclonal antibodies with significant clinical benefits. Recombinant monoclonal antibodies can be obtained from a number of natural sources such as animal cell cultures using recombinant DNA engineering. In contrast to…

  1. Recombineering homologous recombination constructs in Drosophila.

    PubMed

    Carreira-Rosario, Arnaldo; Scoggin, Shane; Shalaby, Nevine A; Williams, Nathan David; Hiesinger, P Robin; Buszczak, Michael

    2013-01-01

    The continued development of techniques for fast, large-scale manipulation of endogenous gene loci will broaden the use of Drosophila melanogaster as a genetic model organism for human-disease related research. Recent years have seen technical advancements like homologous recombination and recombineering. However, generating unequivocal null mutations or tagging endogenous proteins remains a substantial effort for most genes. Here, we describe and demonstrate techniques for using recombineering-based cloning methods to generate vectors that can be used to target and manipulate endogenous loci in vivo. Specifically, we have established a combination of three technologies: (1) BAC transgenesis/recombineering, (2) ends-out homologous recombination and (3) Gateway technology to provide a robust, efficient and flexible method for manipulating endogenous genomic loci. In this protocol, we provide step-by-step details about how to (1) design individual vectors, (2) how to clone large fragments of genomic DNA into the homologous recombination vector using gap repair, and (3) how to replace or tag genes of interest within these vectors using a second round of recombineering. Finally, we will also provide a protocol for how to mobilize these cassettes in vivo to generate a knockout, or a tagged gene via knock-in. These methods can easily be adopted for multiple targets in parallel and provide a means for manipulating the Drosophila genome in a timely and efficient manner. PMID:23893070

  2. Photoionization and Recombination

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nahar, Sultana N.

    2000-01-01

    Theoretically self-consistent calculations for photoionization and (e + ion) recombination are described. The same eigenfunction expansion for the ion is employed in coupled channel calculations for both processes, thus ensuring consistency between cross sections and rates. The theoretical treatment of (e + ion) recombination subsumes both the non-resonant recombination ("radiative recombination"), and the resonant recombination ("di-electronic recombination") processes in a unified scheme. In addition to the total, unified recombination rates, level-specific recombination rates and photoionization cross sections are obtained for a large number of atomic levels. Both relativistic Breit-Pauli, and non-relativistic LS coupling, calculations are carried out in the close coupling approximation using the R-matrix method. Although the calculations are computationally intensive, they yield nearly all photoionization and recombination parameters needed for astrophysical photoionization models with higher precision than hitherto possible, estimated at about 10-20% from comparison with experimentally available data (including experimentally derived DR rates). Results are electronically available for over 40 atoms and ions. Photoionization and recombination of He-, and Li-like C and Fe are described for X-ray modeling. The unified method yields total and complete (e+ion) recombination rate coefficients, that can not otherwise be obtained theoretically or experimentally.

  3. Combination of the PI3K inhibitor ZSTK474 with a PSMA-targeted immunotoxin accelerates apoptosis and regression of prostate cancer.

    PubMed

    Baiz, Daniele; Hassan, Sazzad; Choi, Young A; Flores, Anabel; Karpova, Yelena; Yancey, Dana; Pullikuth, Ashok; Sui, Guangchao; Sadelain, Michel; Debinski, Waldemar; Kulik, George

    2013-10-01

    The phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) pathway is activated in most advanced prostate cancers, yet so far treatments with PI3K inhibitors have been at best tumorostatic in preclinical cancer models and do not show significant antitumor efficacy in clinical trials. Results from tissue culture experiments in prostate cancer cells suggest that PI3K inhibitors should be combined with other cytotoxic agents; however, the general toxicity of such combinations prevents translating these experimental data into preclinical and clinical models. We investigated the emerging concept of tumor-targeted synthetic lethality in prostate cancer cells by using the pan-PI3K inhibitor ZSTK474 and the immunotoxin J591PE, a protein chimera between the single-chain variable fragment of the monoclonal antibody J591 against the prostate-specific membrane antigen (PSMA) and the truncated form of the Pseudomonas aeruginosa exotoxin A (PE38QQR). The combination of ZSTK474 and J591PE increased apoptosis within 6 hours and cell death (monitored at 24-48 hours) in the PSMA-expressing cells LNCaP, C4-2, and C4-2Luc but not in control cells that do not express PSMA (PC3 and BT549 cells). Mechanistic analysis suggested that induction of apoptosis requires Bcl-2-associated death promoter (BAD) dephosphorylation and decreased expression of myeloid leukemia cell differentiation protein 1 (MCL-1). A single injection of ZSTK474 and J591PE into engrafted prostate cancer C4-2Luc cells led to consistent and stable reduction of luminescence within 6 days. These results suggest that the combination of a PI3K inhibitor and a PSMA-targeted protein synthesis inhibitor toxin represents a promising novel strategy for advanced prostate cancer therapy that should be further investigated. PMID:24204196

  4. Recombination of cluster ions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnsen, Rainer

    1993-01-01

    Some of our recent work on molecular band emissions from recombination of molecular dimer ions (N4(+) and CO(+) CO) is discussed. Much of the experimental work was done by Y. S. Cao; the results on N4(+) recombination have been published. A brief progress report is given on our ongoing measurements of neutral products of recombination using the flowing-afterglow Langmuir-probe technique in conjunction with laser-induced fluorescence.

  5. Recombination in electron coolers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wolf, A.; Gwinner, G.; Linkemann, J.; Saghiri, A. A.; Schmitt, M.; Schwalm, D.; Grieser, M.; Beutelspacher, M.; Bartsch, T.; Brandau, C.; Hoffknecht, A.; Müller, A.; Schippers, S.; Uwira, O.; Savin, D. W.

    2000-02-01

    An introduction to electron-ion recombination processes is given and recent measurements are described as examples, focusing on low collision energies. Discussed in particular are fine-structure-mediated dielectronic recombination of fluorine-like ions, the moderate recombination enhancement by factors of typically 1.5-4 found for most ion species at relative electron-ion energies below about 10 meV, and the much larger enhancement occurring for specific highly charged ions of complex electronic structure, apparently caused by low-energy dielectronic recombination resonances. Recent experiments revealing dielectronic resonances with very large natural width are also described.

  6. Genetic recombination. [Escherichia coli

    SciTech Connect

    Stahl, F.W.

    1987-02-01

    The molecular pathways of gene recombination are explored and compared in studies of the model organisms, Escherichia coli and phase lambda. In the discussion of data from these studies it seems that recombination varies with the genetic idiosyncrasies of the organism and may also vary within a single organism.

  7. Light-controlled endosomal escape of the novel CD133-targeting immunotoxin AC133-saporin by photochemical internalization - A minimally invasive cancer stem cell-targeting strategy.

    PubMed

    Bostad, Monica; Olsen, Cathrine Elisabeth; Peng, Qian; Berg, Kristian; Høgset, Anders; Selbo, Pål Kristian

    2015-05-28

    The cancer stem cell (CSC) marker CD133 is an attractive target to improve antitumor therapy. We have used photochemical internalization (PCI) for the endosomal escape of the novel CD133-targeting immunotoxin AC133-saporin (PCIAC133-saporin). PCI employs an endocytic vesicle-localizing photosensitizer, which generates reactive oxygen species upon light-activation causing a rupture of the vesicle membranes and endosomal escape of entrapped drugs. Here we show that AC133-saporin co-localizes with the PCI-photosensitizer TPCS2a, which upon light exposure induces cytosolic release of AC133-saporin. PCI of picomolar levels of AC133-saporin in colorectal adenocarcinoma WiDr cells blocked cell proliferation and induced 100% inhibition of cell viability and colony forming ability at the highest light doses, whereas no cytotoxicity was obtained in the absence of light. Efficient PCI-based CD133-targeting was in addition demonstrated in the stem-cell-like, triple negative breast cancer cell line MDA-MB-231 and in the aggressive malignant melanoma cell line FEMX-1, whereas no enhanced targeting was obtained in the CD133-negative breast cancer cell line MCF-7. PCIAC133-saporin induced mainly necrosis and a minimal apoptotic response based on assessing cleavage of caspase-3 and PARP, and the TUNEL assay. PCIAC133-saporin resulted in S phase arrest and reduced LC3-II conversion compared to control treatments. Notably, co-treatment with Bafilomycin A1 and PCIAC133-saporin blocked LC3-II conversion, indicating a termination of the autophagic flux in WiDr cells. For the first time, we demonstrate laser-controlled targeting of CD133 in vivo. After only one systemic injection of AC133-saporin and TPCS2a, a strong anti-tumor response was observed after PCIAC133-saporin. The present PCI-based endosomal escape technology represents a minimally invasive strategy for spatio-temporal, light-controlled targeting of CD133+ cells in localized primary tumors or metastasis. PMID:25758331

  8. Preclinical toxicity evaluation of a novel immunotoxin, D2C7-(scdsFv)-PE38KDEL, administered via intracerebral convection-enhanced delivery in rats.

    PubMed

    Bao, Xuhui; Chandramohan, Vidyalakshmi; Reynolds, Randall P; Norton, John N; Wetsel, William C; Rodriguiz, Ramona M; Aryal, Dipendra K; McLendon, Roger E; Levin, Edward D; Petry, Neil A; Zalutsky, Michael R; Burnett, Bruce K; Kuan, Chien-Tsun; Pastan, Ira H; Bigner, Darell D

    2016-04-01

    D2C7-(scdsFv)-PE38KDEL (D2C7-IT) is a novel immunotoxin that reacts with wild-type epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFRwt) and mutant EGFRvIII proteins overexpressed in glioblastomas. This study assessed the toxicity of intracerebral administration of D2C7-IT to support an initial Food and Drug Administration Investigational New Drug application. After the optimization of the formulation and administration, two cohorts (an acute and chronic cohort necropsied on study days 5 and 34) of Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats (four groups of 5 males and 5 females) were infused with the D2C7-IT formulation at total doses of 0, 0.05, 0.1, 0.4 μg (the acute cohort) and 0, 0.05, 0.1, 0.35 μg (the chronic cohort) for approximately 72 h by intracerebral convection-enhanced delivery using osmotic pumps. Mortality was observed in the 0.40 μg (5/10 rats) and 0.35 μg (4/10 rats) high-dose groups of each cohort. Body weight loss and abnormal behavior were only revealed in the rats treated with high doses of D2C7-IT. No dose-related effects were observed in clinical laboratory tests in either cohort. A gross pathologic examination of systemic tissues from the high-dose and control groups in both cohorts exhibited no dose-related or drug-related pathologic findings. Brain histopathology revealed the frequent occurrence of dose-related encephalomalacia, edema, and demyelination in the high-dose groups of both cohorts. In this study, the maximum tolerated dose of D2C7-IT was determined to be between 0.10 and 0.35 μg, and the no-observed-adverse-effect-level was 0.05 μg in SD rats. Both parameters were utilized to design the Phase I/II D2C7-IT clinical trial. PMID:26728879

  9. [Recombinant antibodies against bioweapons].

    PubMed

    Thullier, Philippe; Pelat, Thibaut; Vidal, Dominique

    2009-12-01

    The threat posed by bioweapons (BW) could lead to the re-emergence of such deadly diseases as plague or smallpox, now eradicated from industrialized countries. The development of recombinant antibodies allows tackling this risk because these recombinant molecules are generally well tolerated in human medicine, may be utilized for prophylaxis and treatment, and because antibodies neutralize many BW. Recombinant antibodies neutralizing the lethal toxin of anthrax, botulinum toxins and the smallpox virus have in particular been isolated recently, with different technologies. Our approach, which uses phage-displayed immune libraries built from non-human primates (M. fascicularis) to obtain recombinant antibodies, which may later be super-humanized (germlinized), has allowed us to obtain such BWs-neutralizing antibodies. PMID:20035695

  10. Activated recombinant adenovirus proteinases

    DOEpatents

    Anderson, C.W.; Mangel, W.F.

    1999-08-10

    This application describes methods and expression constructs for producing activatable recombinant adenovirus proteinases. Purified activatable recombinant adenovirus proteinases and methods of purification are described. Activated adenovirus proteinases and methods for obtaining activated adenovirus proteinases are further included. Isolated peptide cofactors of adenovirus proteinase activity, methods of purifying and identifying peptide cofactors are also described. Antibodies immunoreactive with adenovirus proteinases, immunospecific antibodies, and methods for preparing them are also described. Other related methods and materials are also described. 29 figs.

  11. Activated recombinant adenovirus proteinases

    DOEpatents

    Anderson, Carl W.; Mangel, Walter F.

    1999-08-10

    This application describes methods and expression constructs for producing activatable recombinant adenovirus proteinases. Purified activatable recombinant adenovirus proteinases and methods of purification are described. Activated adenovirus proteinases and methods for obtaining activated adenovirus proteinases are further included. Isolated peptide cofactors of adenovirus proteinase activity, methods of purifying and identifying said peptide cofactors are also described. Antibodies immunoreactive with adenovirus proteinases, immunospecific antibodies, and methods for preparing them are also described. Other related methods and materials are also described.

  12. Regulation of Meiotic Recombination

    SciTech Connect

    Gregory p. Copenhaver

    2011-11-09

    Meiotic recombination results in the heritable rearrangement of DNA, primarily through reciprocal exchange between homologous chromosome or gene conversion. In plants these events are critical for ensuring proper chromosome segregation, facilitating DNA repair and providing a basis for genetic diversity. Understanding this fundamental biological mechanism will directly facilitate trait mapping, conventional plant breeding, and development of genetic engineering techniques that will help support the responsible production and conversion of renewable resources for fuels, chemicals, and the conservation of energy (1-3). Substantial progress has been made in understanding the basal recombination machinery, much of which is conserved in organisms as diverse as yeast, plants and mammals (4, 5). Significantly less is known about the factors that regulate how often and where that basal machinery acts on higher eukaryotic chromosomes. One important mechanism for regulating the frequency and distribution of meiotic recombination is crossover interference - or the ability of one recombination event to influence nearby events. The MUS81 gene is thought to play an important role in regulating the influence of interference on crossing over. The immediate goals of this project are to use reverse genetics to identify mutants in two putative MUS81 homologs in the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana, characterize those mutants and initiate a novel forward genetic screen for additional regulators of meiotic recombination. The long-term goal of the project is to understand how meiotic recombination is regulated in higher eukaryotes with an emphasis on the molecular basis of crossover interference. The ability to monitor recombination in all four meiotic products (tetrad analysis) has been a powerful tool in the arsenal of yeast geneticists. Previously, the qrt mutant of Arabidopsis, which causes the four pollen products of male meiosis to remain attached, was developed as a facile system

  13. Meiotic recombination mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Grelon, Mathilde

    2016-01-01

    Meiosis is a specialized cell division at the origin of the haploid cells that eventually develop into the gametes. It therefore lies at the heart of Mendelian heredity. Recombination and redistribution of the homologous chromosomes arising during meiosis constitute an important source of genetic diversity, conferring to meiosis a particularly important place in the evolution and the diversification of the species. Our understanding of the molecular mechanisms governing meiotic recombination has considerably progressed these last decades, benefiting from complementary approaches led on various model species. An overview of these mechanisms will be provided as well as a discussion on the implications of these recent discoveries. PMID:27180110

  14. Recombinant renewable polyclonal antibodies

    PubMed Central

    Ferrara, Fortunato; D’Angelo, Sara; Gaiotto, Tiziano; Naranjo, Leslie; Tian, Hongzhao; Gräslund, Susanne; Dobrovetsky, Elena; Hraber, Peter; Lund-Johansen, Fridtjof; Saragozza, Silvia; Sblattero, Daniele; Kiss, Csaba; Bradbury, Andrew RM

    2015-01-01

    Only a small fraction of the antibodies in a traditional polyclonal antibody mixture recognize the target of interest, frequently resulting in undesirable polyreactivity. Here, we show that high-quality recombinant polyclonals, in which hundreds of different antibodies are all directed toward a target of interest, can be easily generated in vitro by combining phage and yeast display. We show that, unlike traditional polyclonals, which are limited resources, recombinant polyclonal antibodies can be amplified over one hundred million-fold without losing representation or functionality. Our protocol was tested on 9 different targets to demonstrate how the strategy allows the selective amplification of antibodies directed toward desirable target specific epitopes, such as those found in one protein but not a closely related one, and the elimination of antibodies recognizing common epitopes, without significant loss of diversity. These recombinant renewable polyclonal antibodies are usable in different assays, and can be generated in high throughput. This approach could potentially be used to develop highly specific recombinant renewable antibodies against all human gene products. PMID:25530082

  15. Recombinant DNA for Teachers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duvall, James G., III

    1992-01-01

    A science teacher describes his experience at a workshop to learn to teach the Cold Spring Harbor DNA Science Laboratory Protocols. These protocols lead students through processes for taking E. coli cells and transforming them into a new antibiotic resistant strain. The workshop featured discussions of the role of DNA recombinant technology in…

  16. Recombineering Pseudomonas syringae

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Here we report the identification of functions that promote genomic recombination of linear DNA introduced into Pseudomonas cells by electroporation. The genes encoding these functions were identified in Pseudomonas syringae pv. syringae B728a based on similarity to the lambda Red Exo/Beta and RecE...

  17. Oligonucleotide recombination in bacteria

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Today, there are more than 1,500 completed or draft bacterial genome sequences available for public access. To functionally analyze these genomes and to test the hypotheses that are generated from the sequence information we require new and generically useful tools. Recombineering (genetic engineer...

  18. Genomic homologous recombination in planta.

    PubMed Central

    Gal, S; Pisan, B; Hohn, T; Grimsley, N; Hohn, B

    1991-01-01

    A system for monitoring intrachromosomal homologous recombination in whole plants is described. A multimer of cauliflower mosaic virus (CaMV) sequences, arranged such that CaMV could only be produced by recombination, was integrated into Brassica napus nuclear DNA. This set-up allowed scoring of recombination events by the appearance of viral symptoms. The repeated homologous regions were derived from two different strains of CaMV so that different recombinant viruses (i.e. different recombination events) could be distinguished. In most of the transgenic plants, a single major virus species was detected. About half of the transgenic plants contained viruses of the same type, suggesting a hotspot for recombination. The remainder of the plants contained viruses with cross-over sites distributed throughout the rest of the homologous sequence. Sequence analysis of two recombinant molecules suggest that mismatch repair is linked to the recombination process. Images PMID:2026150

  19. Recombinant vaccines against leptospirosis.

    PubMed

    Dellagostin, Odir A; Grassmann, André A; Hartwig, Daiane D; Félix, Samuel R; da Silva, Éverton F; McBride, Alan J A

    2011-11-01

    Leptospirosis is an important neglected infectious disease that occurs in urban environments, as well as in rural regions worldwide. Rodents, the principal reservoir hosts of pathogenic Leptospira spp., and other infected animals shed the bacteria in their urine. During occupational or even recreational activities, humans that come into direct contact with infected animals or with a contaminated environment, particularly water, are at risk of infection. Prevention of urban leptospirosis is largely dependent on sanitation measures that are often difficult to implement, especially in developing countries. Vaccination with inactivated whole-cell preparations (bacterins) has limited efficacy due to the wide antigenic variation of the pathogen. Intensive efforts towards developing improved recombinant vaccines are ongoing. During the last decade, many reports on the evaluation of recombinant vaccines have been published. Partial success has been obtained with some surface-exposed protein antigens. The combination of protective antigens and new adjuvants or delivery systems may result in the much-needed effective vaccine. PMID:22048111

  20. Recombinant influenza vaccines.

    PubMed

    Sedova, E S; Shcherbinin, D N; Migunov, A I; Smirnov, Iu A; Logunov, D Iu; Shmarov, M M; Tsybalova, L M; Naroditskiĭ, B S; Kiselev, O I; Gintsburg, A L

    2012-10-01

    This review covers the problems encountered in the construction and production of new recombinant influenza vaccines. New approaches to the development of influenza vaccines are investigated; they include reverse genetics methods, production of virus-like particles, and DNA- and viral vector-based vaccines. Such approaches as the delivery of foreign genes by DNA- and viral vector-based vaccines can preserve the native structure of antigens. Adenoviral vectors are a promising gene-delivery platform for a variety of genetic vaccines. Adenoviruses can efficiently penetrate the human organism through mucosal epithelium, thus providing long-term antigen persistence and induction of the innate immune response. This review provides an overview of the practicability of the production of new recombinant influenza cross-protective vaccines on the basis of adenoviral vectors expressing hemagglutinin genes of different influenza strains. PMID:23346377

  1. Site directed recombination

    DOEpatents

    Jurka, Jerzy W.

    1997-01-01

    Enhanced homologous recombination is obtained by employing a consensus sequence which has been found to be associated with integration of repeat sequences, such as Alu and ID. The consensus sequence or sequence having a single transition mutation determines one site of a double break which allows for high efficiency of integration at the site. By introducing single or double stranded DNA having the consensus sequence flanking region joined to a sequence of interest, one can reproducibly direct integration of the sequence of interest at one or a limited number of sites. In this way, specific sites can be identified and homologous recombination achieved at the site by employing a second flanking sequence associated with a sequence proximal to the 3'-nick.

  2. The recombination epoch revisited

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krolik, Julian H.

    1989-01-01

    Previous studies of cosmological recombination have shown that this process produces as a by-product a highly superthermal population of Ly-alpha photons which retard completion of recombination. Cosmological redshifting was thought to determine the frequency distribution of the photons, while two-photon decay of hydrogen's 2s state was thought to control their numbers. It is shown here that frequency diffusion due to photon scattering dominate the cosmological redshift in the frequency range near line center which fixes the ratio of ground state to excited state population, while incoherent scattering into the far-red damping wing effectively destroys Ly-alpha photons as a rate which is competitive with two-photon decay. The former effect tends to hold back recombination, while the latter tends to accelerate it; the net results depends on cosmological parameters, particularly the combination Omega(b) h/sq rt (2q0), where Omega(b) is the fraction of the critical density provided by baryons.

  3. Bacterial Recombineering: Genome Engineering via Phage-Based Homologous Recombination.

    PubMed

    Pines, Gur; Freed, Emily F; Winkler, James D; Gill, Ryan T

    2015-11-20

    The ability to specifically modify bacterial genomes in a precise and efficient manner is highly desired in various fields, ranging from molecular genetics to metabolic engineering and synthetic biology. Much has changed from the initial realization that phage-derived genes may be employed for such tasks to today, where recombineering enables complex genetic edits within a genome or a population. Here, we review the major developments leading to recombineering becoming the method of choice for in situ bacterial genome editing while highlighting the various applications of recombineering in pushing the boundaries of synthetic biology. We also present the current understanding of the mechanism of recombineering. Finally, we discuss in detail issues surrounding recombineering efficiency and future directions for recombineering-based genome editing. PMID:25856528

  4. Dielectronic recombination theory

    SciTech Connect

    LaGattuta, K.J.

    1991-12-31

    A theory now in wide use for the calculation of dielectronic recombination cross sections ({sigma}{sup DR}) and rate coefficients ({alpha}{sup DR}) was one introduced originally by Feshbach for nuclear physics applications, and then later adapted for atomic scattering problems by Hahn. In the following, we briefly review this theory in a very general form, which allows one to account for the effects of overlapping and interacting resonances, as well as continuum-continuum coupling. An extension of our notation will then also allow for the inclusion of the effects of direct radiative recombination, along with a treatment of the interference between radiative and dielectronic recombination. Other approaches to the calculation of {sigma}{sup DR} have been described by Fano and by Seaton. We will not consider those theories here. Calculations of {alpha}{sup DR} have progressed considerably over the last 25 years, since the early work of Burgess. Advances in the reliability of theoretical predictions have also been promoted recently b a variety of direct laboratory measurements of {sigma}{sup DR}. While the measurements of {sigma}{sup DR} for {delta}n {ne} 0 excitations have tended to agree very well with calculations, the case of {delta}n = 0 has been much problematic. However, by invoking a mechanism originally proposed by Jacobs, which takes into account the effect of stray electric fields on high Rydberg states (HRS) participating in the DR process, new calculations have improved the agreement between theory and experiment for these cases. Nevertheless, certain discrepancies still remain.

  5. Recombinant Collagenlike Proteins

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fertala, Andzej

    2007-01-01

    A group of collagenlike recombinant proteins containing high densities of biologically active sites has been invented. The method used to express these proteins is similar to a method of expressing recombinant procollagens and collagens described in U. S. Patent 5,593,859, "Synthesis of human procollagens and collagens in recombinant DNA systems." Customized collagenous proteins are needed for biomedical applications. In particular, fibrillar collagens are attractive for production of matrices needed for tissue engineering and drug delivery. Prior to this invention, there was no way of producing customized collagenous proteins for these and other applications. Heretofore, collagenous proteins have been produced by use of such biological systems as yeasts, bacteria, and transgenic animals and plants. These products are normal collagens that can also be extracted from such sources as tendons, bones, and hides. These products cannot be made to consist only of biologically active, specific amino acid sequences that may be needed for specific applications. Prior to this invention, it had been established that fibrillar collagens consist of domains that are responsible for such processes as interaction with cells, binding of growth factors, and interaction with a number of structural proteins present in the extracellular matrix. A normal collagen consists of a sequence of domains that can be represented by a corresponding sequence of labels, e.g., D1D2D3D4. A collagenlike protein of the present invention contains regions of collagen II that contain multiples of a single domain (e.g., D1D1D1D1 or D4D4D4D4) chosen for its specific biological activity. By virtue of the multiplicity of the chosen domain, the density of sites having that specific biological activity is greater than it is in a normal collagen. A collagenlike protein according to this invention can thus be made to have properties that are necessary for tissue engineering.

  6. Did the universe recombine?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bartlett, James G.; Stebbins, Albert

    1991-01-01

    The Zel'dovich-Sunyaev model-independent arguments for the existence of a neutral hydrogen phase is reviewed in light of new limits on the Compton y parameter from COBE. It is concluded that with baryon densities compatible with standard cosmological nucleosynthesis, the universe could have remained fully ionized throughout its history without producing a detectable spectral distortion. It is argued that it is unlikely that spectral observations of the cosmic microwave background will ever require the universe to have recombined for flat cosmologies.

  7. Expression of Recombinant Antibodies

    PubMed Central

    Frenzel, André; Hust, Michael; Schirrmann, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    Recombinant antibodies are highly specific detection probes in research, diagnostics, and have emerged over the last two decades as the fastest growing class of therapeutic proteins. Antibody generation has been dramatically accelerated by in vitro selection systems, particularly phage display. An increasing variety of recombinant production systems have been developed, ranging from Gram-negative and positive bacteria, yeasts and filamentous fungi, insect cell lines, mammalian cells to transgenic plants and animals. Currently, almost all therapeutic antibodies are still produced in mammalian cell lines in order to reduce the risk of immunogenicity due to altered, non-human glycosylation patterns. However, recent developments of glycosylation-engineered yeast, insect cell lines, and transgenic plants are promising to obtain antibodies with “human-like” post-translational modifications. Furthermore, smaller antibody fragments including bispecific antibodies without any glycosylation are successfully produced in bacteria and have advanced to clinical testing. The first therapeutic antibody products from a non-mammalian source can be expected in coming next years. In this review, we focus on current antibody production systems including their usability for different applications. PMID:23908655

  8. Recombinant factor VIIa.

    PubMed

    Aitken, Michael G

    2004-01-01

    Human coagulation factor (F) VII is a single chain protease that circulates in the blood as a weakly active zymogen at concentrations of approximately 10 nmol/L. When converted to the active 2 chain form (FVIIa), it is a powerful initiator of haemostasis. Recombinant factor VIIa (rFVIIa, eptacog alfa, NovoSeven) is a genetically engineered product that was first introduced in 1988 for the treatment of patients with haemophilia A and B with high inhibitory antibody titres to factors VIII and IX. Recent reports in the form of case studies and series, and early trial data, have suggested a role for rFVIIa across a diverse range of indications including bleeding associated with trauma, surgery, thrombocytopaenia, liver disease and oral anticoagulant toxicity. This review describes the physiology of the coagulation pathway and in particular the role of recombinant factor VIIa. It will also focus on the emerging role of rFVIIa in both trauma and non-trauma bleeding and its potential use in the ED. PMID:15537408

  9. Unraveling recombination rate evolution using ancestral recombination maps

    PubMed Central

    Munch, Kasper; Schierup, Mikkel H; Mailund, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    Recombination maps of ancestral species can be constructed from comparative analyses of genomes from closely related species, exemplified by a recently published map of the human-chimpanzee ancestor. Such maps resolve differences in recombination rate between species into changes along individual branches in the speciation tree, and allow identification of associated changes in the genomic sequences. We describe how coalescent hidden Markov models are able to call individual recombination events in ancestral species through inference of incomplete lineage sorting along a genomic alignment. In the great apes, speciation events are sufficiently close in time that a map can be inferred for the ancestral species at each internal branch - allowing evolution of recombination rate to be tracked over evolutionary time scales from speciation event to speciation event. We see this approach as a way of characterizing the evolution of recombination rate and the genomic properties that influence it. PMID:25043668

  10. Algebraic theory of recombination spaces.

    PubMed

    Stadler, P F; Wagner, G P

    1997-01-01

    A new mathematical representation is proposed for the configuration space structure induced by recombination, which we call "P-structure." It consists of a mapping of pairs of objects to the power set of all objects in the search space. The mapping assigns to each pair of parental "genotypes" the set of all recombinant genotypes obtainable from the parental ones. It is shown that this construction allows a Fourier decomposition of fitness landscapes into a superposition of "elementary landscapes." This decomposition is analogous to the Fourier decomposition of fitness landscapes on mutation spaces. The elementary landscapes are obtained as eigenfunctions of a Laplacian operator defined for P-structures. For binary string recombination, the elementary landscapes are exactly the p-spin functions (Walsh functions), that is, the same as the elementary landscapes of the string point mutation spaces (i.e., the hypercube). This supports the notion of a strong homomorphism between string mutation and recombination spaces. However, the effective nearest neighbor correlations on these elementary landscapes differ between mutation and recombination and among different recombination operators. On average, the nearest neighbor correlation is higher for one-point recombination than for uniform recombination. For one-point recombination, the correlations are higher for elementary landscapes with fewer interacting sites as well as for sites that have closer linkage, confirming the qualitative predictions of the Schema Theorem. We conclude that the algebraic approach to fitness landscape analysis can be extended to recombination spaces and provides an effective way to analyze the relative hardness of a landscape for a given recombination operator. PMID:10021760

  11. Recombinant Human Erythropoietin

    PubMed Central

    Bartels, Claudia; Späte, Kira; Krampe, Henning

    2008-01-01

    Treatment of multiple sclerosis (MS) is still unsatisfactory and essentially non-existing for the progressive course of the disease. Recombinant human erythropoietin (EPO) may be a promising neuroprotective/neuroregenerative treatment of MS. In the nervous system, EPO acts anti-apoptotic, antioxidative, anti-inflammatory, neurotrophic and plasticity-modulating. Beneficial effects have been shown in animal models of various neurological and psychiatric diseases, including different models of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis. EPO is also effective in human brain disease, as shown in double-blind placebo-controlled clinical studies on ischemic stroke and chronic schizophrenia. An exploratory study on chronic progressive MS yielded lasting improvement in motor and cognitive performance upon high-dose long-term EPO treatment. PMID:21180577

  12. Recombinant glucose uptake system

    DOEpatents

    Ingrahm, Lonnie O.; Snoep, Jacob L.; Arfman, Nico

    1997-01-01

    Recombinant organisms are disclosed that contain a pathway for glucose uptake other than the pathway normally utilized by the host cell. In particular, the host cell is one in which glucose transport into the cell normally is coupled to PEP production. This host cell is transformed so that it uses an alternative pathway for glucose transport that is not coupled to PEP production. In a preferred embodiment, the host cell is a bacterium other than Z. mobilis that has been transformed to contain the glf and glk genes of Z. mobilis. By uncoupling glucose transport into the cell from PEP utilization, more PEP is produced for synthesis of products of commercial importance from a given quantity of biomass supplied to the host cells.

  13. The recombination of genetic material

    SciTech Connect

    Low, K.B.

    1988-01-01

    Genetic recombination is the major mechanism by which new arrangements of genetic elements are produced in all living organisms, from the simplest bacterial viruses to humans. This volume presents an overview of the types of recombination found in prokaryotes and eukaryotes.

  14. Coalescent Simulation of Intracodon Recombination

    PubMed Central

    Arenas, Miguel; Posada, David

    2010-01-01

    The coalescent with recombination is a very useful tool in molecular population genetics. Under this framework, genealogies often represent the evolution of the substitution unit, and because of this, the few coalescent algorithms implemented for the simulation of coding sequences force recombination to occur only between codons. However, it is clear that recombination is expected to occur most often within codons. Here we have developed an algorithm that can evolve coding sequences under an ancestral recombination graph that represents the genealogies at each nucleotide site, thereby allowing for intracodon recombination. The algorithm is a modification of Hudson's coalescent in which, in addition to keeping track of events occurring in the ancestral material that reaches the sample, we need to keep track of events occurring in ancestral material that does not reach the sample but that is produced by intracodon recombination. We are able to show that at typical substitution rates the number of nonsynonymous changes induced by intracodon recombination is small and that intracodon recombination does not generally result in inflated estimates of the overall nonsynonymous/synonymous substitution ratio (ω). On the other hand, recombination can bias the estimation of ω at particular codons, resulting in apparent rate variation among sites and in the spurious identification of positively selected sites. Importantly, in this case, allowing for variable synonymous rates across sites greatly reduces the false-positive rate and recovers statistical power. Finally, coalescent simulations with intracodon recombination could be used to better represent the evolution of nuclear coding genes or fast-evolving pathogens such as HIV-1.We have implemented this algorithm in a computer program called NetRecodon, freely available at http://darwin.uvigo.es. PMID:19933876

  15. Delayed recombination and standard rulers

    SciTech Connect

    De Bernardis, Francesco; Melchiorri, Alessandro; Bean, Rachel; Galli, Silvia; Silk, Joseph I.; Verde, Licia

    2009-02-15

    Measurements of baryonic acoustic oscillations (BAOs) in galaxy surveys have been recognized as a powerful tool for constraining dark energy. However, this method relies on the knowledge of the size of the acoustic horizon at recombination derived from cosmic microwave background (CMB) anisotropy measurements. This estimate is typically derived assuming a standard recombination scheme; additional radiation sources can delay recombination altering the cosmic ionization history and the cosmological inferences drawn from CMB and BAO data. In this paper we quantify the effect of delayed recombination on the determination of dark energy parameters from future BAO surveys such as the Baryon Oscillation Spectroscopic Survey and the Wide-Field Multi-Object Spectrograph. We find the impact to be small but still not negligible. In particular, if recombination is nonstandard (to a level still allowed by CMB data), but this is ignored, future surveys may incorrectly suggest the presence of a redshift-dependent dark energy component. On the other hand, in the case of delayed recombination, adding to the analysis one extra parameter describing deviations from standard recombination does not significantly degrade the error bars on dark energy parameters and yields unbiased estimates. This is due to the CMB-BAO complementarity.

  16. A Phase I study of an intravesically administered immunotoxin targeting EpCAM for the treatment of nonmuscle-invasive bladder cancer in BCGrefractory and BCG-intolerant patients

    PubMed Central

    Kowalski, Mark; Entwistle, Joycelyn; Cizeau, Jeannick; Niforos, Demi; Loewen, Shauna; Chapman, Wendy; MacDonald, Glen C

    2010-01-01

    Purpose A Phase I dose-escalation study was performed to determine the maximum tolerated dose (MTD) of the immunotoxin VB4-845 in patients with nonmuscle-invasive bladder cancer (NMIBC) refractory to or intolerant of bacillus Calmette–Guerin (BCG). Secondary objectives included evaluation of the safety, tolerability, pharmacokinetics, immunogenicity, and efficacy of VB4-845. Patients and methods Sixty-four patients with Grade 2 or 3, stage Ta or T1 transitional cell carcinoma or in situ carcinoma, either refractory to or intolerant of BCG therapy, were enrolled. Treatment was administered in ascending dose cohorts ranging from 0.1 to 30.16 mg. After receiving weekly instillations of VB4-845 to the bladder via catheter for 6 consecutive weeks, patients were followed for 4–6 weeks post-therapy and assessed at week 12. Results An MTD was not determined, as a dose-limiting toxicity was not identified over the dose range tested. VB4-845 therapy was safe and well tolerated with most adverse events reported as mild; as a result, no patients were removed from the study in response to toxicity. By the end of the study, the majority of patients had developed antibodies to the exotoxin portion of VB4-845. A complete response was achieved in 39% of patients at the 12-week time point. Conclusions VB4-845 dosed on a weekly basis for 6 weeks was very well tolerated at all dose levels. Although an MTD was not determined at the doses administered, VB4-845 showed evidence of an antitumor effect that warrants further clinical investigation for the treatment of NMIBC in this patient population. PMID:21151619

  17. Expression and characterization of recombinant human eosinophil-derived neurotoxin and eosinophil-derived neurotoxin-anti-transferrin receptor sFv.

    PubMed

    Newton, D L; Nicholls, P J; Rybak, S M; Youle, R J

    1994-10-28

    The gene for the human recombinant eosinophil-derived neurotoxin (rEDN) was synthesized and fused to the gene encoding a single chain antibody (sFv) to the human transferrin receptor (EDNsFv). Both rEDN and EDNsFv were expressed as insoluble proteins in inclusion bodies in Escherichia coli BL21(DE3). Following denaturation and renaturation, EDN and EDNsFv were partially purified by chromatography on heparin-Sepharose. Final purification of EDN was achieved by Sephadex G-100, whereas EDNsFv which contained a 6-histidyl residue carboxyl terminus was highly purified using the metal chelate resin, Ni(2+)-nitriloacetic acid. Whereas the recombinant EDN had ribonuclease activity that was similar to the native protein, the fusion protein had enzymatic activity that was 6-13% that of native EDN. The fusion protein was able to bind to the human transferrin receptor. In contrast to rEDN that had no inherent cytotoxicity to human tumor cells, the EDNsFv fusion protein was cytotoxic to human leukemia cells that express the human transferrin receptor with an IC50, 0.2-1 nM. At 1.3 nM EDNsFv, no cytotoxicity was observed on cells that lack the human transferrin receptor. Free antibody to the human transferrin receptor, E6, inhibited the cytotoxicity of the EDNsFv. Human enzymes may be engineered to acquire cytotoxic properties by fusing them to antibodies. Thus, they may be candidates for the construction of immunofusion proteins that may be less immunogenic than immunotoxins containing bacterial- or plant-derived toxin moieties. PMID:7929408

  18. Three Decades of Recombinant DNA.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Palmer, Jackie

    1985-01-01

    Discusses highlights in the development of genetic engineering, examining techniques with recombinant DNA, legal and ethical issues, GenBank (a national database of nucleic acid sequences), and other topics. (JN)

  19. Controlled Release from Recombinant Polymers

    PubMed Central

    Price, Robert; Poursaid, Azadeh; Ghandehari, Hamidreza

    2014-01-01

    Recombinant polymers provide a high degree of molecular definition for correlating structure with function in controlled release. The wide array of amino acids available as building blocks for these materials lend many advantages including biorecognition, biodegradability, potential biocompatibility, and control over mechanical properties among other attributes. Genetic engineering and DNA manipulation techniques enable the optimization of structure for precise control over spatial and temporal release. Unlike the majority of chemical synthetic strategies used, recombinant DNA technology has allowed for the production of monodisperse polymers with specifically defined sequences. Several classes of recombinant polymers have been used for controlled drug delivery. These include, but are not limited to, elastin-like, silk-like, and silk-elastinlike proteins, as well as emerging cationic polymers for gene delivery. In this article, progress and prospects of recombinant polymers used in controlled release will be reviewed. PMID:24956486

  20. Recombinant DNA means and method

    SciTech Connect

    Alford, B.L.; Mao, J.I.; Moir, D.T.; Taunton-Rigby, A.; Vovis, G.F.

    1987-05-19

    This patent describes a transformed living cell selected from the group consisting of fungi, yeast and bacteria, and containing genetic material derived from recombinant DNA material and coding for bovine rennin.

  1. Stable recombination hotspots in birds.

    PubMed

    Singhal, Sonal; Leffler, Ellen M; Sannareddy, Keerthi; Turner, Isaac; Venn, Oliver; Hooper, Daniel M; Strand, Alva I; Li, Qiye; Raney, Brian; Balakrishnan, Christopher N; Griffith, Simon C; McVean, Gil; Przeworski, Molly

    2015-11-20

    The DNA-binding protein PRDM9 has a critical role in specifying meiotic recombination hotspots in mice and apes, but it appears to be absent from other vertebrate species, including birds. To study the evolution and determinants of recombination in species lacking the gene that encodes PRDM9, we inferred fine-scale genetic maps from population resequencing data for two bird species: the zebra finch, Taeniopygia guttata, and the long-tailed finch, Poephila acuticauda. We found that both species have recombination hotspots, which are enriched near functional genomic elements. Unlike in mice and apes, most hotspots are shared between the two species, and their conservation seems to extend over tens of millions of years. These observations suggest that in the absence of PRDM9, recombination targets functional features that both enable access to the genome and constrain its evolution. PMID:26586757

  2. Recombination device for storage batteries

    DOEpatents

    Kraft, H.; Ledjeff, K.

    1984-01-01

    A recombination device including a gas-tight enclosure connected to receive the discharge gases from a rechargeable storage battery. Catalytic material for the recombination of hydrogen and oxygen to form water is supported within the enclosure. The enclosure is sealed from the atmosphere by a liquid seal including two vertical chambers interconnected with an inverted U-shaped overflow tube. The first chamber is connected at its upper portion to the enclosure and the second chamber communicates at its upper portion with the atmosphere. If the pressure within the enclosure differs as overpressure or vacuum by more than the liquid level, the liquid is forced into one of the two chambers and the overpressure is vented or the vacuum is relieved. The recombination device also includes means for returning recombined liquid to the battery and for absorbing metal hydrides.

  3. Recombination device for storage batteries

    DOEpatents

    Kraft, Helmut; Ledjeff, Konstantin

    1985-01-01

    A recombination device including a gas-tight enclosure connected to receive he discharge gases from a rechargeable storage battery. Catalytic material for the recombination of hydrogen and oxygen to form water is supported within the enclosure. The enclosure is sealed from the atmosphere by a liquid seal including two vertical chambers interconnected with an inverted U-shaped overflow tube. The first chamber is connected at its upper portion to the enclosure and the second chamber communicates at its upper portion with the atmosphere. If the pressure within the enclosure differs as overpressure or vacuum by more than the liquid level, the liquid is forced into one of the two chambers and the overpressure is vented or the vacuum is relieved. The recombination device also includes means for returning recombined liquid to the battery and for absorbing metal hydrides.

  4. [Antithrombotic recombinant antibodies].

    PubMed

    Muzard, Julien; Loyau, Stéphane; Ajzenberg, Nadine; Billiald, Philippe; Jandrot-Perrus, Martine

    2006-01-01

    Coronary syndromes, stroke and other ischaemic arterial diseases are the leading cause of death in the world and will probably remain it at least until 2020. Cardiovascular diseases kill 17 million people each year with an expected increase to 20 million in 2020 and 24 million in 2030. The global impact of recurrence and death during the 6 months following an acute coronary syndrome remains at 8-15% in the present state of medical practice. Acute ischaemic syndromes have a common aetiology that is the formation of a platelet-rich clot at the site of severe coronary stenosis and of eroded atherosclerotic plaques. Therapy consists of medical treatments associating thrombolysis, antiplatelet drugs, and the re-opening of the coronary artery by angioplasty. But these treatments do not prevent morbidity and mortality reaching 15% at 6 months. Finally the treatment of stroke is very limited. There is thus a real clinical need to improve existing treatments and to discover new molecules. Platelet activation is a critical step in ischaemic cardiovascular diseases. This is the reason why antiplatelet drugs are most often prescribed in these cases. Currently, only one recombinant antithrombotic antibody is used in therapy. This is a chimeric Fab, c7E3 or abciximab, which inhibits the final phase of platelet aggregation. Abciximab is prescribed in acute coronary syndromes treated by angioplasty. However, treatment by abciximab can induce severe complications, principally, hemorrages and thrombopenia. Other platelet receptors involved in the earlier steps of platelet activation, such as the phases of contact with and of activation by the subendothelium matrix, have been identified as potential targets for the development of antithrombotic antibodies and are described in this revue. PMID:17652972

  5. Genetic recombination in Streptomyces griseus.

    PubMed Central

    Parag, Y

    1978-01-01

    Low-frequency (10(-6)) genetic recombination was observed in a cephamycin-producing strain of Streptomyces griseus. The recombinants were predominantly heteroclones. Heteroclone analysis was performed involving four heteroclones of one cross. In 100 mutants correlation was found between the type of auxotrophy and the level of antibiotic activity. A cross of this strain with a streptomycin-producing strain of S. griesus is described. PMID:415037

  6. [Vaccine application of recombinant herpesviruses].

    PubMed

    Yokoyama, N; Xuan, X; Mikami, T

    2000-04-01

    Recently, genetic engineering using recombinant DNA techniques has been applied to design new viral vaccines in order to reduce some problems which the present viral vaccines have. Up to now, many viruses have been investigated for development of recombinant attenuated vaccines or live viral vectors for delivery of foreign genes coding immunogenic antigens. In this article, we introduced the new vaccine strategy using genetically engineered herpesviruses. PMID:10774221

  7. Combinatorics in Recombinational Population Genomics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parida, Laxmi

    The work that I will discuss is motivated by the need for understanding, and processing, the manifestations of recombination events in chromosome sequences. In this talk, we focus on two related problems. First, we explore the very general problem of reconstructability of pedigree history. How plausible is it to unravel the history of a complete unit (chromosome) of inheritance? The second problem deals with reconstructing the recombinational history of a collection of chromosomes.

  8. Delayed recombination and cosmic parameters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galli, Silvia; Bean, Rachel; Melchiorri, Alessandro; Silk, Joseph

    2008-09-01

    Current cosmological constraints from cosmic microwave background anisotropies are typically derived assuming a standard recombination scheme, however additional resonance and ionizing radiation sources can delay recombination, altering the cosmic ionization history and the cosmological inferences drawn from the cosmic microwave background data. We show that for recent observations of the cosmic microwave background anisotropy, from the Wilkinson microwave anisotropy probe satellite mission (WMAP) 5-year survey and from the arcminute cosmology bolometer array receiver experiment, additional resonance radiation is nearly degenerate with variations in the spectral index, ns, and has a marked effect on uncertainties in constraints on the Hubble constant, age of the universe, curvature and the upper bound on the neutrino mass. When a modified recombination scheme is considered, the redshift of recombination is constrained to z*=1078±11, with uncertainties in the measurement weaker by 1 order of magnitude than those obtained under the assumption of standard recombination while constraints on the shift parameter are shifted by 1σ to R=1.734±0.028. From the WMAP5 data we obtain the following constraints on the resonance and ionization sources parameters: γα<0.39 and γi<0.058 at 95% c.l.. Although delayed recombination limits the precision of parameter estimation from the WMAP satellite, we demonstrate that this should not be the case for future, smaller angular scales measurements, such as those by the Planck satellite mission.

  9. Ethanol production by recombinant hosts

    DOEpatents

    Ingram, Lonnie O.; Beall, David S.; Burchhardt, Gerhard F. H.; Guimaraes, Walter V.; Ohta, Kazuyoshi; Wood, Brent E.; Shanmugam, Keelnatham T.

    1995-01-01

    Novel plasmids comprising genes which code for the alcohol dehydrogenase and pyruvate decarboxylase are described. Also described are recombinant hosts which have been transformed with genes coding for alcohol dehydrogenase and pyruvate. By virtue of their transformation with these genes, the recombinant hosts are capable of producing significant amounts of ethanol as a fermentation product. Also disclosed are methods for increasing the growth of recombinant hosts and methods for reducing the accumulation of undesirable metabolic products in the growth medium of these hosts. Also disclosed are recombinant host capable of producing significant amounts of ethanol as a fermentation product of oligosaccharides and plasmids comprising genes encoding polysaccharases, in addition to the genes described above which code for the alcohol dehydrogenase and pyruvate decarboxylase. Further, methods are described for producing ethanol from oligomeric feedstock using the recombinant hosts described above. Also provided is a method for enhancing the production of functional proteins in a recombinant host comprising overexpressing an adhB gene in the host. Further provided are process designs for fermenting oligosaccharide-containing biomass to ethanol.

  10. Ethanol production by recombinant hosts

    DOEpatents

    Fowler, David E.; Horton, Philip G.; Ben-Bassat, Arie

    1996-01-01

    Novel plasmids comprising genes which code for the alcohol dehydrogenase and pyruvate decarboxylase are described. Also described are recombinant hosts which have been transformed with genes coding for alcohol dehydrogenase and pyruvate. By virtue of their transformation with these genes, the recombinant hosts are capable of producing significant amounts of ethanol as a fermentation product. Also disclosed are methods for increasing the growth of recombinant hosts and methods for reducing the accumulation of undesirable metabolic products in the growth medium of these hosts. Also disclosed are recombinant host capable of producing significant amounts of ethanol as a fermentation product of oligosaccharides and plasmids comprising genes encoding polysaccharases, in addition to the genes described above which code for the alcohol dehydrogenase and pyruvate decarboxylase. Further, methods are described for producing ethanol from oligomeric feedstock using the recombinant hosts described above. Also provided is a method for enhancing the production of functional proteins in a recombinant host comprising overexpressing an adhB gene in the host. Further provided are process designs for fermenting oligosaccharide-containing biomass to ethanol.

  11. Delayed recombination and cosmic parameters

    SciTech Connect

    Galli, Silvia; Melchiorri, Alessandro; Bean, Rachel; Silk, Joseph

    2008-09-15

    Current cosmological constraints from cosmic microwave background anisotropies are typically derived assuming a standard recombination scheme, however additional resonance and ionizing radiation sources can delay recombination, altering the cosmic ionization history and the cosmological inferences drawn from the cosmic microwave background data. We show that for recent observations of the cosmic microwave background anisotropy, from the Wilkinson microwave anisotropy probe satellite mission (WMAP) 5-year survey and from the arcminute cosmology bolometer array receiver experiment, additional resonance radiation is nearly degenerate with variations in the spectral index, n{sub s}, and has a marked effect on uncertainties in constraints on the Hubble constant, age of the universe, curvature and the upper bound on the neutrino mass. When a modified recombination scheme is considered, the redshift of recombination is constrained to z{sub *}=1078{+-}11, with uncertainties in the measurement weaker by 1 order of magnitude than those obtained under the assumption of standard recombination while constraints on the shift parameter are shifted by 1{sigma} to R=1.734{+-}0.028. From the WMAP5 data we obtain the following constraints on the resonance and ionization sources parameters: {epsilon}{sub {alpha}}<0.39 and {epsilon}{sub i}<0.058 at 95% c.l.. Although delayed recombination limits the precision of parameter estimation from the WMAP satellite, we demonstrate that this should not be the case for future, smaller angular scales measurements, such as those by the Planck satellite mission.

  12. The cytotoxicity of anti-CD22 immunotoxin is enhanced by bryostatin 1 in B-cell lymphomas through CD22 upregulation and PKC-βII depletion

    PubMed Central

    Biberacher, Viola; Decker, Thomas; Oelsner, Madlen; Wagner, Michaela; Bogner, Christian; Schmidt, Burkhard; Kreitman, Robert J.; Peschel, Christian; Pastan, Ira; Meyer zum Büschenfelde, Christian; Ringshausen, Ingo

    2012-01-01

    Background In spite of potent first-line therapies for chronic lymphocytic leukemia, treatment remains palliative and all patients frequently relapse. Treatment options for these patients are more limited. BL22 is a recombinant protein composed of the variable region of a monoclonal antibody that binds to CD22 and of PE38, a truncated Pseudomonas exotoxin. BL22 is a very potent drug already used in patients with hairy cell leukemia, whereas in chronic lymphocytic leukemia its cytotoxicity is limited by a lower expression of CD22. Here we demonstrate that this limitation can be overcome by pre-activation of chronic lymphocytic leukemia cells with bryostatin 1. Design and Methods Primary malignant B cells from chronic lymphocytic leukemia and mantle cell lymphoma patients were used in vitro to assess the therapeutic impact of drug combinations using BL22 and bryostatin 1. Results We demonstrate that bryostatin 1 sensitizes chronic lymphocytic leukemia cells for the cytotoxic effects of BL22 through activation of protein kinase C and subsequently increased CD22 surface expression. Dose and time response analysis reveals that activation of protein kinase C further activates an autocrine feedback loop degrading protein kinase C-βII protein. Depletion of protein kinase C-βII and upregulation of CD22 persist for several days following pre-stimulation with bryostatin 1. Therefore, our data provide a rationale for the sequential administration of BL22 following bryostatin 1 treatment. In addition to primary chronic lymphocytic leukemia cells, bryostatin 1 also sensitizes diffuse large B-cell lymphoma and mantle cell lymphoma cells to BL22 induced apoptosis. Conclusions Our data suggest that the combination of bryostatin 1 with antibodies directed against CD22 is a potent drug combination for the treatment of low- and high-grade B-cell lymphoma. PMID:22180432

  13. Recombination Drives Vertebrate Genome Contraction

    PubMed Central

    Nam, Kiwoong; Ellegren, Hans

    2012-01-01

    Selective and/or neutral processes may govern variation in DNA content and, ultimately, genome size. The observation in several organisms of a negative correlation between recombination rate and intron size could be compatible with a neutral model in which recombination is mutagenic for length changes. We used whole-genome data on small insertions and deletions within transposable elements from chicken and zebra finch to demonstrate clear links between recombination rate and a number of attributes of reduced DNA content. Recombination rate was negatively correlated with the length of introns, transposable elements, and intergenic spacer and with the rate of short insertions. Importantly, it was positively correlated with gene density, the rate of short deletions, the deletion bias, and the net change in sequence length. All these observations point at a pattern of more condensed genome structure in regions of high recombination. Based on the observed rates of small insertions and deletions and assuming that these rates are representative for the whole genome, we estimate that the genome of the most recent common ancestor of birds and lizards has lost nearly 20% of its DNA content up until the present. Expansion of transposable elements can counteract the effect of deletions in an equilibrium mutation model; however, since the activity of transposable elements has been low in the avian lineage, the deletion bias is likely to have had a significant effect on genome size evolution in dinosaurs and birds, contributing to the maintenance of a small genome. We also demonstrate that most of the observed correlations between recombination rate and genome contraction parameters are seen in the human genome, including for segregating indel polymorphisms. Our data are compatible with a neutral model in which recombination drives vertebrate genome size evolution and gives no direct support for a role of natural selection in this process. PMID:22570634

  14. Recombination processes in ionised plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bastin, Robert

    The observational analysis of astrophysical plasmas relies on accurate calculations of the atomic processes involved. The recombination spectra of singly ionised oxygen (O il) and carbon (C il) present excellent tools for investigating regions such as planetary nebulae and H II regions. In this thesis, detailed treatments of the recombination processes of both O II and C II are presented. Using the R-matrix solution to the close coupling equations, I present the results of accurate photoionisation calculations. Bound state energy levels are determined and oscillator strengths calculated for both species. Recombination coefficients were evalu ated for low n and 1, for C II in LS-coupling, and 0 II in intermediate coupling, taking particular care to treat resonances effectively. Sample photoionisation cross-sections are presented for both species, and compared to previous work. A complete radiative-cascade model is treated for both species, in order to determine line emissivities under nebular conditions at a wide range of temperatures and densities. Collisional effects are treated for C II, along with, for the first time, the effects of high temperature dielectronic recombination, allowing the modelling of regions of much higher electron temperature than previous work. The O II calculations were performed under intermediate coupling for the first time, allowing the effects of non-statistical popula tions of the parent ion fine-structure levels and dielectronic recombination onto bound states within this fine-structure to be taken into account in line emissivities. Detailed comparison with previous theoretical work was made for both species. The application of the C II and 0 n recombination spectra to determining tempera ture and densities from the observed spectra of a number of ionised nebulae is considered. The potential for using the new recombination spectra as diagnostic tools to solve some of the key problems in the study of ionised nebulae is demonstrated.

  15. Recombination at the DNA level. Abstracts

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1984-01-01

    Abstracts of papers in the following areas are presented: (1) chromosome mechanics; (2) yeast systems; (3) mammalian homologous recombination; (4) transposons; (5) Mu; (6) plant transposons/T4 recombination; (7) topoisomerase, resolvase, and gyrase; (8) Escherichia coli general recombination; (9) recA; (10) repair; (11) eucaryotic enzymes; (12) integration and excision of bacteriophage; (13) site-specific recombination; and (14) recombination in vitro. (ACR)

  16. PROGENITORS OF RECOMBINING SUPERNOVA REMNANTS

    SciTech Connect

    Moriya, Takashi J.

    2012-05-01

    Usual supernova remnants have either ionizing plasma or plasma in collisional ionization equilibrium, i.e., the ionization temperature is lower than or equal to the electron temperature. However, the existence of recombining supernova remnants, i.e., supernova remnants with ionization temperature higher than the electron temperature, has been recently confirmed. One suggested way to have recombining plasma in a supernova remnant is to have a dense circumstellar medium at the time of the supernova explosion. If the circumstellar medium is dense enough, collisional ionization equilibrium can be established in the early stage of the evolution of the supernova remnant and subsequent adiabatic cooling, which occurs after the shock wave gets out of the dense circumstellar medium, makes the electron temperature lower than the ionization temperature. We study the circumstellar medium around several supernova progenitors and show which supernova progenitors can have a circumstellar medium dense enough to establish collisional ionization equilibrium soon after the explosion. We find that the circumstellar medium around red supergiants (especially massive ones) and the circumstellar medium dense enough to make Type IIn supernovae can establish collisional ionization equilibrium soon after the explosion and can evolve to become recombining supernova remnants. Wolf-Rayet stars and white dwarfs have the possibility to be recombining supernova remnants but the fraction is expected to be very small. As the occurrence rate of the explosions of red supergiants is much higher than that of Type IIn supernovae, the major progenitors of recombining supernova remnants are likely to be red supergiants.

  17. Recombinant allergens for specific immunotherapy.

    PubMed

    Cromwell, Oliver; Häfner, Dietrich; Nandy, Andreas

    2011-04-01

    Recombinant DNA technology provides the means for producing allergens that are equivalent to their natural counterparts and also genetically engineered variants with reduced IgE-binding activity. The proteins are produced as chemically defined molecules with consistent structural and immunologic properties. Several hundred allergens have been cloned and expressed as recombinant proteins, and these provide the means for making a very detailed diagnosis of a patient's sensitization profile. Clinical development programs are now in progress to assess the suitability of recombinant allergens for both subcutaneous and sublingual immunotherapy. Recombinant hypoallergenic variants, which are developed with the aim of increasing the doses that can be administered while at the same time reducing the risks for therapy-associated side effects, are also in clinical trials for subcutaneous immunotherapy. Grass and birch pollen preparations have been shown to be clinically effective, and studies with various other allergens are in progress. Personalized or patient-tailored immunotherapy is still a very distant prospect, but the first recombinant products based on single allergens or defined mixtures could reach the market within the next 5 years. PMID:21377719

  18. Stable recombination hotspots in birds

    PubMed Central

    Singhal, Sonal; Leffler, Ellen M.; Sannareddy, Keerthi; Turner, Isaac; Venn, Oliver; Hooper, Daniel M.; Strand, Alva I.; Li, Qiye; Raney, Brian; Balakrishnan, Christopher N.; Griffith, Simon C.; McVean, Gil; Przeworski, Molly

    2016-01-01

    The DNA-binding protein PRDM9 has a critical role in specifying meiotic recombination hotspots in mice and apes, but appears to be absent from other vertebrate species, including birds. To study the evolution and determinants of recombination in species lacking PRDM9, we inferred fine-scale genetic maps from population resequencing data for two bird species, the zebra finch Taeniopygia guttata and the long-tailed finch Poephila acuticauda. We find that both species have hotspots, which are enriched near functional genomic elements. Unlike in mice and apes, the two species share most hotspots, with conservation seemingly extending over tens of millions of years. These observations suggest that in the absence of PRDM9, recombination targets functional features that both enable access to the genome and constrain its evolution. PMID:26586757

  19. Recombinant snake venom prothrombin activators.

    PubMed

    Lövgren, Ann

    2013-01-01

    Three prothrombin activators; ecarin, which was originally isolated from the venom of the saw-scaled viper Echis carinatus, trocarin from the rough-scaled snake Tropidechis carinatus, and oscutarin from the Taipan snake Oxyuranus scutellatus, were expressed in mammalian cells with the purpose to obtain recombinant prothrombin activators that could be used to convert prothrombin to thrombin. We have previously reported that recombinant ecarin can efficiently generate thrombin without the need for additional cofactors, but does not discriminate non-carboxylated prothrombin from biologically active γ-carboxylated prothrombin. Here we report that recombinant trocarin and oscutarin could not efficiently generate thrombin without additional protein co-factors. We confirm that both trocarin and oscutarin are similar to human coagulation Factor X (FX), explaining the need for additional cofactors. Sequencing of a genomic fragment containing 7 out of the 8 exons coding for oscutarin further confirmed the similarity to human FX. PMID:23111318

  20. The Dissociative Recombination of OH(+)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Guberman, Steven L.

    1995-01-01

    Theoretical quantum chemical calculations of the cross sections and rates for the dissociative recombination of the upsilon = 0 level of the ground state of OH(+) show that recombination occurs primarily along the 2 (2)Pi diabatic route. The products are 0((1)D) and a hot H atom with 6.1 eV kinetic energy. The coupling to the resonances is very small and the indirect recombination mechanism plays only a minor role. The recommended value for the rate coefficient is (6.3 +/- 0.7) x 10(exp -9)x (T(e)/1300)(exp -0.48) cu.cm/s for 10 less than T(e) less than 1000 K.

  1. Current Drive in Recombining Plasma

    SciTech Connect

    P.F. Schmit and N.J. Fisch

    2012-05-15

    The Langevin equations describing the average collisional dynamics of suprathermal particles in nonstationary plasma remarkably admit an exact analytical solution in the case of recombining plasma. The current density produced by arbitrary particle fluxes is derived including the effect of charge recombination. Since recombination has the effect of lowering the charge density of the plasma, thus reducing the charged particle collisional frequencies, the evolution of the current density can be modified substantially compared to plasma with fixed charge density. The current drive efficiency is derived and optimized for discrete and continuous pulses of current, leading to the discovery of a nonzero "residual" current density that persists indefinitely under certain conditions, a feature not present in stationary plasmas.

  2. Selenium incorporation using recombinant techniques

    SciTech Connect

    Walden, Helen

    2010-04-01

    An overview of techniques for recombinant incorporation of selenium and subsequent purification and crystallization of the resulting labelled protein. Using selenomethionine to phase macromolecular structures is common practice in structure determination, along with the use of selenocysteine. Selenium is consequently the most commonly used heavy atom for MAD. In addition to the well established recombinant techniques for the incorporation of selenium in prokaryal expression systems, there have been recent advances in selenium labelling in eukaryal expression, which will be discussed. Tips and things to consider for the purification and crystallization of seleno-labelled proteins are also included.

  3. Classifications and comparisons of multilocus recombination distributions

    PubMed Central

    Karlin, Samuel; Liberman, Uri

    1978-01-01

    Various classifications and representations of multilocus recombination structures are delineated based on generalized notions of linkage values and recombination rates. An important class of recombination distributions (called the count-location chiasma process) is parameterized by a distribution of the number of crossover events and, for each such crossover count, by a conditional distribution of crossover locations. A number of properties of this recombination structure are developed. A multilocus definition of a “natural” recombination range is set forth. Orderings among recombination distributions in the multilocus setting are also discussed. Comparisons are made in terms of complete linkage, free assortment and noninterference schemes serving as standards. PMID:16592601

  4. Improving recombinant protein purification yield

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Production of adequate amounts of recombinant proteins is essential for antibody production, biochemical activity study, and structural determination during the post-genomic era. It’s technologically challenging and a limiting factor for tung oil research because analytical reagents such as high qua...

  5. CRMAGE: CRISPR Optimized MAGE Recombineering

    PubMed Central

    Ronda, Carlotta; Pedersen, Lasse Ebdrup; Sommer, Morten O. A.; Nielsen, Alex Toftgaard

    2016-01-01

    A bottleneck in metabolic engineering and systems biology approaches is the lack of efficient genome engineering technologies. Here, we combine CRISPR/Cas9 and λ Red recombineering based MAGE technology (CRMAGE) to create a highly efficient and fast method for genome engineering of Escherichia coli. Using CRMAGE, the recombineering efficiency was between 96.5% and 99.7% for gene recoding of three genomic targets, compared to between 0.68% and 5.4% using traditional recombineering. For modulation of protein synthesis (small insertion/RBS substitution) the efficiency was increased from 6% to 70%. CRMAGE can be multiplexed and enables introduction of at least two mutations in a single round of recombineering with similar efficiencies. PAM-independent loci were targeted using degenerate codons, thereby making it possible to modify any site in the genome. CRMAGE is based on two plasmids that are assembled by a USER-cloning approach enabling quick and cost efficient gRNA replacement. CRMAGE furthermore utilizes CRISPR/Cas9 for efficient plasmid curing, thereby enabling multiple engineering rounds per day. To facilitate the design process, a web-based tool was developed to predict both the λ Red oligos and the gRNAs. The CRMAGE platform enables highly efficient and fast genome editing and may open up promising prospective for automation of genome-scale engineering. PMID:26797514

  6. Inhomogeneous recombinations during cosmic reionization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sobacchi, Emanuele; Mesinger, Andrei

    2014-05-01

    By depleting the ionizing photon budget available to expand cosmic H II regions, recombining systems (or Lyman limit systems) can have a large impact during (and following) cosmic reionization. Unfortunately, directly resolving such structures in large-scale reionization simulations is computationally impractical. Instead, here we implement a subgrid prescription for tracking inhomogeneous recombinations in the intergalactic medium. Building on previous work parametrizing photoheating feedback on star formation, we present large-scale, seminumeric reionization simulations which self-consistently track the local (subgrid) evolution of both sources and sinks of ionizing photons. Our simple, single-parameter model naturally results in both an extended reionization and a modest, slowly evolving emissivity, consistent with observations. Recombinations are instrumental in slowing the growth of large H II regions, and damping the rapid rise of the ionizing background in the late stages of (and following) reionization. As a result, typical H II regions are smaller by factors of ˜2 to 3 throughout reionization. The large-scale (k ≲ 0.2 Mpc-1) ionization power spectrum is suppressed by factors of ≳2-3 in the second half of reionization. Therefore properly modelling recombinations is important in interpreting virtually all reionization observables, including upcoming interferometry with the redshifted 21cm line. Consistent with previous works, we find the clumping factor of ionized gas to be C H II ˜ 4 at the end of reionization.

  7. Recombinant DNA: History of the Controversy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vigue, Charles L.; Stanziale, William G.

    1979-01-01

    The hazards associated with recombinant DNA research are presented along with some social implications and the development of recombinant DNA research guidelines by the National Institutes of Health. (SA)

  8. Antibacterial activity of recombinant murine beta interferon.

    PubMed Central

    Fujiki, T; Tanaka, A

    1988-01-01

    Recombinant murine beta interferon was protective and therapeutic for mice against Listeria monocytogenes infection in vivo. The recombinant murine beta interferon caused enhanced H2O2 release by macrophages in vivo, but not in vitro. PMID:3343048

  9. [Recombination in Drosophila in space flight].

    PubMed

    Filatova, L P; Vaulina, E N; Lapteva, N Sh; Grozdova, T Ia

    1988-04-01

    An experiment with Drosophila melanogaster males was performed aboard the Artificial Satellite "Kosmos-1667". Mutagenic effects of a 7-day space flight on intergene recombination in chromosome 2 were studied. The space flight factors decreased the frequency of recombination. A model experiment on a laboratory centrifuge demonstrated insignificant increase in recombination frequency caused by acceleration. PMID:3135244

  10. Expression and characterization of recombinant soluble porcine CD3 ectodomain molecules: mapping the epitope of an anti-porcine CD3 monoclonal antibody 898H2-6-15.

    PubMed

    Peraino, Jaclyn Stromp; Hermanrud, Christina E; Springett, Lauren; Zhang, Huiping; Li, Guoying; Srinivasan, Srimathi; Gusha, Ashley; Sachs, David H; Huang, Christene A; Wang, Zhirui

    2012-01-01

    The porcine CD3 specific monoclonal antibody 898H2-6-15 has been used in allo- and xeno-transplantation studies as a porcine CD3 marker and as an effective T cell depletion reagent when conjugated to the diphtheria toxin mutant, CRM9. A recombinant anti-porcine CD3 immuntoxin was recently developed using single-chain variable fragments (scFv) derived from 898H2-6-15. In this study, using published sequence data, we have expressed the porcine CD3 ectodomain molecules in E. coli through inclusion body isolation and in vitro refolding approach. The expressed and refolded porcine CD3 ectodomain molecules include CD3ε, CD3γ, CD3δ, CD3εγ heterodimer, CD3εδ heterodimer, CD3εγ single-chain fusion protein and CD3εδ single-chain fusion protein. These refolded porcine CD3 ectodomain molecules were purified with a strong anion exchange resin Poros 50HQ. ELISA analysis demonstrated that only the porcine CD3εγ ectodomain single-chain fusion protein can bind to the porcine CD3 specific monoclonal antibody 898H2-6-15. The availability of this porcine CD3εγ ectodomain single-chain fusion protein will allow screening for affinity matured variants of scFv derived from 898H2-6-15 to improve the recombinant anti-porcine CD3 immunotoxin. Porcine CD3εγ ectodomain single-chain fusion protein will also be a very useful reagent to study the soluble phase interaction between porcine CD3εγ and porcine CD3 antibodies such as 898H2-6-15. PMID:22672968

  11. Selection of Recombinant Human Antibodies.

    PubMed

    Tomszak, Florian; Weber, Susanne; Zantow, Jonas; Schirrmann, Thomas; Hust, Michael; Frenzel, André

    2016-01-01

    Since the development of therapeutic antibodies the demand of recombinant human antibodies is steadily increasing. Traditionally, therapeutic antibodies were generated by immunization of rat or mice, the generation of hybridoma clones, cloning of the antibody genes and subsequent humanization and engineering of the lead candidates. In the last few years, techniques were developed that use transgenic animals with a human antibody gene repertoire. Here, modern recombinant DNA technologies can be combined with well established immunization and hybridoma technologies to generate already affinity maturated human antibodies. An alternative are in vitro technologies which enabled the generation of fully human antibodies from antibody gene libraries that even exceed the human antibody repertoire. Specific antibodies can be isolated from these libraries in a very short time and therefore reduce the development time of an antibody drug at a very early stage.In this review, we describe different technologies that are currently used for the in vitro and in vivo generation of human antibodies. PMID:27236551

  12. Chemical kinetics of geminal recombination

    SciTech Connect

    Levin, P.P.; Khudyakov, I.V.; Brin, E.F.; Kuz'min, V.A.

    1988-09-01

    The kinetics of geminal recombination of triplet radical pairs formed in photoreduction of benzophenone by p-cresol in glycerin solution was studied by pulsed laser photolysis. The experiments were conducted at several temperatures and in a constant magnetic field of H = 0.34 T. The parameters in six kinetic equations describing geminal recombination were determined with a computer. The values of the sums of the squares of the residual deviations of the approximation were obtained. It was found that the kinetics are best described by the functions proposed by Noyes and Shushin. It was shown that it is necessary to use the mutual diffusion coefficient of the radicals, which is significantly smaller than the sum of the estimations of the experimental values of the radical diffusion coefficients, for describing the kinetics due to the correlations of the molecular motions of the radicals in the cage.

  13. Recombination Catalysts for Hypersonic Fuels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chinitz, W.

    1998-01-01

    The goal of commercially-viable access to space will require technologies that reduce propulsion system weight and complexity, while extracting maximum energy from the products of combustion. This work is directed toward developing effective nozzle recombination catalysts for the supersonic and hypersonic aeropropulsion engines used to provide such access to space. Effective nozzle recombination will significantly reduce rk=le length (hence, propulsion system weight) and reduce fuel requirements, further decreasing the vehicle's gross lift-off weight. Two such catalysts have been identified in this work, barium and antimony compounds, by developing chemical kinetic reaction mechanisms for these materials and determining the engine performance enhancement for a typical flight trajectory. Significant performance improvements are indicated, using only 2% (mole or mass) of these compounds in the combustor product gas.

  14. Surface recombination statistics at traps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Landsberg, P. T.; Abrahams, M. S.

    1983-09-01

    The Shockley-Read-Hall recombination statistics was recently generalised by Dhariwal, Kothari and Jain to include the effect of a finite time of relaxation before the captured carrier settles into its ground state, and by Landsberg to allow for Auger effects and so-called "extra" carriers supplied to the semiconductor from the outside. The combined result of these effects is studied here theoretically, together with the consideration of a simple distribution of trap states. It is found that the surface recombination velocity s has the usual minimum in the near intrinsic state and that s passes through a maximum as a function of excess electron concentration. Both extrema are enhanced if the trap states are distributed over an energy range. Experimental plots of s as a function of excess electron and hole concentrations should yield insight concerning the numerical importance of (a) Auger effects with the participation of traps and (b) relaxation times.

  15. Recombinant Toxins for Cancer Treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pastan, Ira; Fitzgerald, David

    1991-11-01

    Recombinant toxins target cell surface receptors and antigens on tumor cells. They kill by mechanisms different from conventional chemotherapy, so that cross resistance to conventional chemotherapeutic agents should not be a problem. Furthermore, they are not mutagens and should not induce secondary malignancies or accelerate progression of benign malignancies. They can be mass-produced cheaply in bacteria as homogeneous proteins. Either growth factor-toxin fusions or antibody-toxin fusions can be chosen, depending on the cellular target.

  16. Introductory experiments in recombinant DNA.

    PubMed

    Tait, R C

    2000-07-01

    Nine practical exercises demonstrate the basic principles in recombinant DNA. The exercises explain the principles that DNA equals genes and that changes in DNA cause changes in genetic properties. The aim is to provide a teaching resource that can be used to illustrate the theory and applications of molecular biology to highschool students, undergraduate students, medics, dentists, doctors, nurses, life scientists, and anyone learning the basics of DNA technology. PMID:11471559

  17. Recombinant vector and eukaryotic host transformed thereby

    SciTech Connect

    Sugden, W.M.

    1987-08-11

    A recombinant plasmid is described comprising: a segment from a first plasmid which is not a lymphotrophic herpes virus segment and which facilitates the replication of the recombinant plasmid in a prokaryotic host; a segment from a lymphotrophic herpes virus which is linked to the first plasmid segment such that is a capable of assisting in maintaining the recombinant plasmid as a plasmid if the recombinant plasmid is inserted into a eukaryotic host that has been transformed by the lymphotrophic herpes virus; and a foreign eukaryotic gene component linked as part of the recombinant plasmid.

  18. A coalescent model of recombination hotspots.

    PubMed Central

    Wiuf, Carsten; Posada, David

    2003-01-01

    Recent experimental findings suggest that the assumption of a homogeneous recombination rate along the human genome is too naive. These findings point to block-structured recombination rates; certain regions (called hotspots) are more prone than other regions to recombination. In this report a coalescent model incorporating hotspot or block-structured recombination is developed and investigated analytically as well as by simulation. Our main results can be summarized as follows: (1) The expected number of recombination events is much lower in a model with pure hotspot recombination than in a model with pure homogeneous recombination, (2) hotspots give rise to large variation in recombination rates along the genome as well as in the number of historical recombination events, and (3) the size of a (nonrecombining) block in the hotspot model is likely to be overestimated grossly when estimated from SNP data. The results are discussed with reference to the current debate about block-structured recombination and, in addition, the results are compared to genome-wide variation in recombination rates. A number of new analytical results about the model are derived. PMID:12750351

  19. Nondisjunction of chromosome 15: Origin and recombination

    SciTech Connect

    Robinson, W.P.; Bernasconi, F.; Schinzel, A.A.; Mutirangura, A.; Ledbetter, D.H. ); Langlois, S. ); Morris, M.A.; Malcolm, S.

    1993-09-01

    Thirty-two cases of uniparental disomy (UPD), ascertained from Prader-Willi syndrome patients (N=27) and Angelman syndrome patients (N-5), are used to investigate the pattern of recombination associated with nondisjunction of chromosome 15. In addition, the meiotic stage of nondisjunction is inferred by using markers mapping near the centromere. Two basic approaches to the analysis of recombination in specific pairwise intervals along the chromosome. This method shows a significant reduction in recombination for two of five intervals examined. Second, the observed frequency of each recombinant class (i.e., zero, one, two, three, or more observable crossovers) is compared with expected values. This is useful for testing whether the reduction in recombination can be attributed solely to a proportion of cases with no recombination at all (because of asynapsis), with the remaining groups showing normal recombination (or even excess recombination), or whether recombination is uniformly reduced. Analysis of maternal UPD(15) data shows a slight reduction in the multiple-recombinant classes, with a corresponding increase in both the zero- and one-recombinant classes over expected values. The majority, more than 82%, of the extra chromosomes in maternal UPD(15) cases are due to meiotic I nondisjunction events. In contrast, more paternal UPD(15) cases so far examined appear to have a postzygotic origin of the extra paternal chromosome. 33 refs., 1 fig., 7 tabs.

  20. Effect of gamma radiation on retroviral recombination.

    PubMed

    Hu, W S; Temin, H M

    1992-07-01

    To elucidate the mechanism(s) of retroviral recombination, we exposed virions to gamma radiation prior to infecting target cells. By using previously described spleen necrosis virus-based vectors containing multiple markers, recombinant proviruses were studied after a single round of retrovirus replication. The current models of retroviral recombination predict that breaking virion RNA should promote minus-strand recombination (forced copy-choice model), decrease or not affect plus-strand recombination (strand displacement/assimilation model), and shift plus-strand recombination towards the 3' end of the genome. However, we found that while gamma irradiation of virions reduced the amount of recoverable viral RNA, it did not primarily cause breaks. Thus, the frequency of selected recombinants was not significantly altered with greater doses of radiation. In spite of this, the irradiation did decrease the number of recombinants with only one internal template switch. As a result, the average number of additional internal template switches in the recombinant proviruses increased from 0.7 to 1.4 as infectivity decreased to 6%. The unselected internal template switches tended to be 5' of the selected crossover even in the recombinants from irradiated viruses, inconsistent with a plus-strand recombination mechanism. PMID:1602553

  1. Bacteriophage recombination systems and biotechnical applications.

    PubMed

    Nafissi, Nafiseh; Slavcev, Roderick

    2014-04-01

    Bacteriophage recombination systems have been widely used in biotechnology for modifying prokaryotic species, for creating transgenic animals and plants, and more recently, for human cell gene manipulation. In contrast to homologous recombination, which benefits from the endogenous recombination machinery of the cell, site-specific recombination requires an exogenous source of recombinase in mammalian cells. The mechanism of bacteriophage evolution and their coexistence with bacterial cells has become a point of interest ever since bacterial viruses' life cycles were first explored. Phage recombinases have already been exploited as valuable genetic tools and new phage enzymes, and their potential application to genetic engineering and genome manipulation, vectorology, and generation of new transgene delivery vectors, and cell therapy are attractive areas of research that continue to be investigated. The significance and role of phage recombination systems in biotechnology is reviewed in this paper, with specific focus on homologous and site-specific recombination conferred by the coli phages, λ, and N15, the integrase from the Streptomyces phage, ΦC31, the recombination system of phage P1, and the recently characterized recombination functions of Yersinia phage, PY54. Key steps of the molecular mechanisms involving phage recombination functions and their application to molecular engineering, our novel exploitations of the PY54-derived recombination system, and its application to the development of new DNA vectors are discussed. PMID:24442504

  2. Recombinant DNA technology in apple.

    PubMed

    Gessler, Cesare; Patocchi, Andrea

    2007-01-01

    This review summarizes the achievements of almost 20 years of recombinant DNA technology applied to apple, grouping the research results into the sections: developing the technology, insect resistance, fungal disease resistance, self-incompatibility, herbicide resistance, fire blight resistance, fruit ripening, allergens, rooting ability, and acceptance and risk assessment. The diseases fire blight, caused by Erwinia amylovora, and scab, caused by Venturia inaequalis, were and still are the prime targets. Shelf life improvement and rooting ability of rootstocks are also relevant research areas. The tools to create genetically modified apples of added value to producers, consumers, and the environment are now available. PMID:17522823

  3. Recombinant erythropoietin in clinical practice

    PubMed Central

    Ng, T; Marx, G; Littlewood, T; Macdougall, I

    2003-01-01

    The introduction of recombinant human erythropoietin (RHuEPO) has revolutionised the treatment of patients with anaemia of chronic renal disease. Clinical studies have demonstrated that RHuEPO is also useful in various non-uraemic conditions including haematological and oncological disorders, prematurity, HIV infection, and perioperative therapies. Besides highlighting both the historical and functional aspects of RHuEPO, this review discusses the applications of RHuEPO in clinical practice and the potential problems of RHuEPO treatment. PMID:12897214

  4. Specific Immunosuppression by Immunotoxins Containing Daunomycin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Diener, E.; Diner, U. E.; Sinha, A.; Xie, S.; Vergidis, R.

    1986-01-01

    Daunomycin, when conjugated with a targeting antigen by an acid-sensitive spacer, remains inactive at the intravascular pH of 7 but becomes active after cleavage within the acidic lysosomal environment of the target cell. This observation made it possible to construct cytocidal compounds that caused antigen-specific suppression of murine lymphocyte function. When daunomycin was coupled to the hapten conjugate of ovalbumin by an acid-sensitive cis-aconityl group, it caused hapten-specific impairment of immunocompetence in murine B lymphocytes in vitro and in vivo. Furthermore, the response by T lymphocytes to concanavalin A in vitro was selectively eliminated by a conjugate between daunomycin plus the acid-sensitive spacer and a monoclonal antibody specific for T cells.

  5. Annealing Vs. Invasion in Phage λ Recombination

    PubMed Central

    Stahl, M. M.; Thomason, L.; Poteete, A. R.; Tarkowski, T.; Kuzminov, A.; Stahl, F. W.

    1997-01-01

    Genetic recombination catalyzed by λ's Red pathway was studied in rec(+) and recA mutant bacteria by examining both intracellular λ DNA and mature progeny particles. Recombination of nonreplicating phage chromosomes was induced by double-strand breaks delivered at unique sites in vivo. In rec(+) cells, cutting only one chromosome gave nearly maximal stimulation of recombination; the recombinants formed contained relatively short hybrid regions, suggesting strand invasion. In contrast, in recA mutant cells, cutting the two parental chromosomes at non-allelic sites was required for maximal stimulation; the recombinants formed tended to be hybrid over the entire region between the two cuts, implying strand annealing. We conclude that, in the absence of RecA and the presence of non-allelic DNA ends, the Red pathway of λ catalyzes recombination primarily by annealing. PMID:9383045

  6. Recombinant DNA production of spider silk proteins

    PubMed Central

    Tokareva, Olena; Michalczechen-Lacerda, Valquíria A; Rech, Elíbio L; Kaplan, David L

    2013-01-01

    Spider dragline silk is considered to be the toughest biopolymer on Earth due to an extraordinary combination of strength and elasticity. Moreover, silks are biocompatible and biodegradable protein-based materials. Recent advances in genetic engineering make it possible to produce recombinant silks in heterologous hosts, opening up opportunities for large-scale production of recombinant silks for various biomedical and material science applications. We review the current strategies to produce recombinant spider silks. PMID:24119078

  7. Recombinant bacteria for mosquito control.

    PubMed

    Federici, B A; Park, H-W; Bideshi, D K; Wirth, M C; Johnson, J J

    2003-11-01

    Bacterial insecticides have been used for the control of nuisance and vector mosquitoes for more than two decades. Nevertheless, due primarily to their high cost and often only moderate efficacy, these insecticides remain of limited use in tropical countries where mosquito-borne diseases are prevalent. Recently, however, recombinant DNA techniques have been used to improve bacterial insecticide efficacy by markedly increasing the synthesis of mosquitocidal proteins and by enabling new endotoxin combinations from different bacteria to be produced within single strains. These new strains combine mosquitocidal Cry and Cyt proteins of Bacillus thuringiensis with the binary toxin of Bacillus sphaericus, improving efficacy against Culex species by 10-fold and greatly reducing the potential for resistance through the presence of Cyt1A. Moreover, although intensive use of B. sphaericus against Culex populations in the field can result in high levels of resistance, most of this can be suppressed by combining this bacterial species with Cyt1A; the latter enables the binary toxin of this species to enter midgut epithelial cells via the microvillar membrane in the absence of a midgut receptor. The availability of these novel strains and newly discovered mosquitocidal proteins, such as the Mtx toxins of B. sphaericus, offers the potential for constructing a range of recombinant bacterial insecticides for more effective control of the mosquito vectors of filariasis, Dengue fever and malaria. PMID:14506223

  8. Dissociative recombination in planetary ionospheres

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fox, J. L.

    1993-01-01

    Ionization in planetary atmospheres can be produced by solar photoionization, photoelectron impact ionization, and, in auroral regions, by impact of precipitating particles. This ionization is lost mainly in dissociative recombination (DR) of molecular ions. Although atomic ions cannot undergo DR, they can be transformed locally through ion-molecule reactions into molecular ions, or they may be transported vertically or horizontally to regions of the atmosphere where such transformations are possible. Because DR reactions tend to be very exothermic, they can be an important source of kinetically or internally excited fragments. In interplanetary thermospheres, the neutral densities decrease exponentially with altitude. Below the homopause (or turbopause), the atmosphere is assumed to be throughly mixed by convection and/or turbulence. Above the homopause, diffusion is the major transport mechanism, and each species is distributed according to its mass, with the logarithmic derivative of the density with repect to altitude given approximately by -1/H, where H = kT/mg is the scale height. In this expression, T is the neutral temperature, g is the local acceleratiion of gravity, and m is the mass of the species. Thus lighter species become relatively more abundant, and heavier species less abundant, as the altitude increases. This variation of the neutral composition can lead to changes in the ion composition; furthermore, as the neutral densities decrease, dissociative recombination becomes more important relative to ion-neutral reactions as a loss mechanism for molecular ions.

  9. Human Insulin from Recombinant DNA Technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, Irving S.

    1983-02-01

    Human insulin produced by recombinant DNA technology is the first commercial health care product derived from this technology. Work on this product was initiated before there were federal guidelines for large-scale recombinant DNA work or commercial development of recombinant DNA products. The steps taken to facilitate acceptance of large-scale work and proof of the identity and safety of such a product are described. While basic studies in recombinant DNA technology will continue to have a profound impact on research in the life sciences, commercial applications may well be controlled by economic conditions and the availability of investment capital.

  10. Dielectronic recombination of tungsten ions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Bowen; O’Sullivan, Gerry; Dong, Chenzhong; Chen, Ximeng

    2016-08-01

    Ab initio calculations of dielectronic recombination rate coefficients of Ne-, Pd- and Ag-like tungsten have been performed. Energy levels, radiative transition probabilities and autoionization rates were calculated using the Flexible Atomic Code. The contributions from different channels to the total rate coefficients are discussed. The present calculated rate coefficients are compared with other calculations where available. Excellent agreement has been found for Ne-like W while a large discrepancy was found for Pd-like W, which implies that more ab initio calculations and experimental measurements are badly needed. Further calculations demonstrated that the influence of configuration interaction is small while nonresonant radiative stabilizing (NRS) contribution to doubly excited non-autoionizing states are vital. The data obtained are expected to be useful for modeling plasmas for fusion applications, especially for the ITER community, which makes experimental verification even more essential.

  11. Steric effects on geminate recombinations

    SciTech Connect

    Traylor, T.G.; Taube, D.; Jongeward, K.A.; Magde, D. )

    1990-09-12

    Steric effects on the binding of isonitrile ligands to iron(II) porphyrins were investigated by picosecond flash photolysis. Two different types of steric effects were distinguished and characterized: (1) steric restrictions to porphyrin planarity and (2) blocking of the pathway for ligand approach. Heme planarity was restricted by coordinating 1,2-dimethylimidazole trans to the ligand binding site being investigated. Blocking of the binding site was explored by using adamantane heme 6,6-cyclophane, in which the adamantane moiety forms a cap over the binding site. Results of picosecond kinetic measurements demonstrate that the first effect, heme nonplanarity or trans strain, influences the bond-making step, whereas the second effect, ligand blocking, involves a conformational preequilibrium prior to bond making. Relevance of these findings for contact pair recombination, in general, and for heme protein ligation, in particular, are discussed.

  12. Modeling Interference in Genetic Recombination

    PubMed Central

    McPeek, M. S.; Speed, T. P.

    1995-01-01

    In analyzing genetic linkage data it is common to assume that the locations of crossovers along a chromosome follow a Poisson process, whereas it has long been known that this assumption does not fit the data. In many organisms it appears that the presence of a crossover inhibits the formation of another nearby, a phenomenon known as ``interference.'' We discuss several point process models for recombination that incorporate position interference but assume no chromatid interference. Using stochastic simulation, we are able to fit the models to a multilocus Drosophila dataset by the method of maximum likelihood. We find that some biologically inspired point process models incorporating one or two additional parameters provide a dramatically better fit to the data than the usual ``no-interference'' Poisson model. PMID:7713406

  13. Deleterious background selection with recombination

    SciTech Connect

    Hudson, R.R.; Kaplan, N.L.

    1995-12-01

    An analytic expression for the expected nucleotide diversity is obtained for a neutral locus in a region with deleterious mutation and recombination. Our analytic results are used to predict levels of variation for the entire third chromosome of Drosophila melanogaster. The predictions are consistent with the low levels of variation that have been observed at loci near the centromeres of the third chromosome of D. melanogaster. However, the low levels of variation observed near the tips of this chromosome are not predicted using currently available estimates of the deleterious mutation rate and of selection coefficients. If considerably smaller selection coefficients are assumed, the low observed levels of variation at the tips of the third chromosome are consistent with the background selection model. 33 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  14. Recombinant prolylcarboxypeptidase activates plasma prekallikrein.

    PubMed

    Shariat-Madar, Zia; Mahdi, Fakhri; Schmaier, Alvin H

    2004-06-15

    The serine protease prolylcarboxypeptidase (PRCP), isolated from human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs), is a plasma prekallikrein (PK) activator. PRCP cDNA was cloned in pMT/BIP/V5-HIS-C, transfected into Schneider insect (S2) cells, and purified from serum-free media. Full-length recombinant PRCP (rPRCP) activates PK when bound to high-molecular-weight kininogen (HK). Recombinant PRCP is inhibited by leupeptin, angiotensin II, bradykinin, anti-PRCP, diisopropyl-fluorophosphonate (DFP), phenylmethylsulfonyl fluoride (PMSF), and Z-Pro-Proaldehyde-dimethyl acetate, but not by 1 mM EDTA (ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid), bradykinin 1-5, or angiotensin 1-7. Corn trypsin inhibitor binds to prekallikrein to prevent rPRCP activation, but it does not directly inhibit the active site of either enzyme. Unlike factor XIIa, the ability of rPRCP to activate PK is blocked by angiotensin II, not by neutralizing antibody to factor XIIa. PRCP antigen is detected on HUVEC membranes using flow cytometry and laser scanning confocal microscopy. PRCP antigen does not colocalize with LAMP1 on nonpermeabilized HUVECs, but it partially colocalizes in permeabilized cells. PRCP colocalizes with all the HK receptors, gC1qR, uPAR, and cytokeratin 1 antigen, on nonpermeabilized HUVECs. PRCP activity and antigen expression on cultured HUVECs are blocked by a morpholino antisense oligonucleotide. These investigations indicate that rPRCP is functionally identical to isolated HUVEC PRCP and is a major HUVEC membrane-expressed, PK-activating enzyme detected in the intravascular compartment. PMID:14996700

  15. Fundamental Studies of Recombinant Hydrogenases

    SciTech Connect

    Adams, Michael W

    2014-01-25

    This research addressed the long term goals of understanding the assembly and organization of hydrogenase enzymes, of reducing them in size and complexity, of determining structure/function relationships, including energy conservation via charge separation across membranes, and in screening for novel H2 catalysts. A key overall goal of the proposed research was to define and characterize minimal hydrogenases that are produced in high yields and are oxygen-resistant. Remarkably, in spite of decades of research carried out on hydrogenases, it is not possible to readily manipulate or design the enzyme using molecular biology approaches since a recombinant form produced in a suitable host is not available. Such resources are essential if we are to understand what constitutes a “minimal” hydrogenase and design such catalysts with certain properties, such as resistance to oxygen, extreme stability and specificity for a given electron donor. The model system for our studies is Pyrococcus furiosus, a hyperthermophile that grows optimally at 100°C, which contains three different nickel-iron [NiFe-] containing hydrogenases. Hydrogenases I and II are cytoplasmic while the other, MBH, is an integral membrane protein that functions to both evolve H2 and pump protons. Three important breakthroughs were made during the funding period with P. furiosus soluble hydrogenase I (SHI). First, we produced an active recombinant form of SHI in E. coli by the co-expression of sixteen genes using anaerobically-induced promoters. Second, we genetically-engineered P. furiosus to overexpress SHI by an order of magnitude compared to the wild type strain. Third, we generated the first ‘minimal’ form of SHI, one that contained two rather than four subunits. This dimeric form was stable and active, and directly interacted with a pyruvate-oxidizing enzyme with any intermediate electron carrier. The research resulted in five peer-reviewed publications.

  16. RNA recombination in a coronavirus: recombination between viral genomic RNA and transfected RNA fragments.

    PubMed Central

    Liao, C L; Lai, M M

    1992-01-01

    Mouse hepatitis virus (MHV), a coronavirus, has been shown to undergo a high frequency of RNA recombination both in tissue culture and in animal infection. So far, RNA recombination has been demonstrated only between genomic RNAs of two coinfecting viruses. To understand the mechanism of RNA recombination and to further explore the potential of RNA recombination, we studied whether recombination could occur between a replicating MHV RNA and transfected RNA fragments. We first used RNA fragments which represented the 5' end of genomic-sense sequences of MHV RNA for transfection. By using polymerase chain reaction amplification with two specific primers, we were able to detect recombinant RNAs which incorporated the transfected fragment into the 5' end of the viral RNA in the infected cells. Surprisingly, even the anti-genomic-sense RNA fragments complementary to the 5' end of MHV genomic RNA could also recombine with the MHV genomic RNAs. This observation suggests that RNA recombination can occur during both positive- and negative-strand RNA synthesis. Furthermore, the recombinant RNAs could be detected in the virion released from the infected cells even after several passages of virus in tissue culture cells, indicating that these recombinant RNAs represented functional virion RNAs. The crossover sites of these recombinants were detected throughout the transfected RNA fragments. However, when an RNA fragment with a nine-nucleotide (CUUUAUAAA) deletion immediately downstream of a pentanucleotide (UCUAA) repeat sequence in the leader RNA was transfected into MHV-infected cells, most of the recombinants between this RNA and the MHV genome contained crossover sites near this pentanucleotide repeat sequence. In contrast, when exogenous RNAs with the intact nine-nucleotide sequence were used in similar experiments, the crossover sites of recombinants in viral genomic RNA could be detected at more-downstream sites. This study demonstrated that recombination can occur

  17. Recombining without Hotspots: A Comprehensive Evolutionary Portrait of Recombination in Two Closely Related Species of Drosophila

    PubMed Central

    Smukowski Heil, Caiti S.; Ellison, Chris; Dubin, Matthew; Noor, Mohamed A.F.

    2015-01-01

    Meiotic recombination rate varies across the genome within and between individuals, populations, and species in virtually all taxa studied. In almost every species, this variation takes the form of discrete recombination hotspots, determined in some mammals by a protein called PRDM9. Hotspots and their determinants have a profound effect on the genomic landscape, and share certain features that extend across the tree of life. Drosophila, in contrast, are anomalous in their absence of hotspots, PRDM9, and other species-specific differences in the determination of recombination. To better understand the evolution of meiosis and general patterns of recombination across diverse taxa, we present a truly comprehensive portrait of recombination across time, combining recently published cross-based contemporary recombination estimates from each of two sister species with newly obtained linkage-disequilibrium-based historic estimates of recombination from both of these species. Using Drosophila pseudoobscura and Drosophila miranda as a model system, we compare recombination rate between species at multiple scales, and we suggest that Drosophila replicate the pattern seen in human–chimpanzee in which recombination rate is conserved at broad scales. We also find evidence of a species-wide recombination modifier(s), resulting in both a present and historic genome-wide elevation of recombination rates in D. miranda, and identify broad scale effects on recombination from the presence of an inversion. Finally, we reveal an unprecedented view of the distribution of recombination in D. pseudoobscura, illustrating patterns of linked selection and where recombination is taking place. Overall, by combining these estimation approaches, we highlight key similarities and differences in recombination between Drosophila and other organisms. PMID:26430062

  18. Oligo Recombination in Gram Negative Bacteria

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Homologous recombination is important for bacterial survival because it simultaneously provides genomic stability as well as genomic plasticity. Of the mechanistic pathways for homologous recombination, those mediated by RecA are the most thoroughly characterized and are understood to be structural...

  19. Dissociative recombination of highly symmetric polyatomic ions.

    PubMed

    Douguet, Nicolas; Orel, Ann E; Greene, Chris H; Kokoouline, Viatcheslav

    2012-01-13

    A general first-principles theory of dissociative recombination is developed for highly symmetric molecular ions and applied to H(3)O(+) and CH(3)(+), which play an important role in astrophysical, combustion, and laboratory plasma environments. The theoretical cross sections obtained for the dissociative recombination of the two ions are in good agreement with existing experimental data from storage ring experiments. PMID:22324682

  20. High efficiency recombineering in lactic acid bacteria

    PubMed Central

    van Pijkeren, Jan-Peter; Britton, Robert A.

    2012-01-01

    The ability to efficiently generate targeted point mutations in the chromosome without the need for antibiotics, or other means of selection, is a powerful strategy for genome engineering. Although oligonucleotide-mediated recombineering (ssDNA recombineering) has been utilized in Escherichia coli for over a decade, the successful adaptation of ssDNA recombineering to Gram-positive bacteria has not been reported. Here we describe the development and application of ssDNA recombineering in lactic acid bacteria. Mutations were incorporated in the chromosome of Lactobacillus reuteri and Lactococcus lactis without selection at frequencies ranging between 0.4% and 19%. Whole genome sequence analysis showed that ssDNA recombineering is specific and not hypermutagenic. To highlight the utility of ssDNA recombineering we reduced the intrinsic vancomymycin resistance of L. reuteri >100-fold. By creating a single amino acid change in the d-Ala-d-Ala ligase enzyme we reduced the minimum inhibitory concentration for vancomycin from >256 to 1.5 µg/ml, well below the clinically relevant minimum inhibitory concentration. Recombineering thus allows high efficiency mutagenesis in lactobacilli and lactococci, and may be used to further enhance beneficial properties and safety of strains used in medicine and industry. We expect that this work will serve as a blueprint for the adaptation of ssDNA recombineering to other Gram-positive bacteria. PMID:22328729

  1. Oligonucleotide recombination in gram negative bacteria

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This report describes several key aspects of a novel form of RecA-independent homologous recombination. We found that synthetic single stranded DNA oligonucleotides (oligos) introduced into bacteria by transformation can site-specifically recombine with bacterial chromosomes in the absence of any a...

  2. Dielectronic recombination lines of C{sup +}

    SciTech Connect

    Sochi, Taha Storey, Peter J.

    2013-11-15

    The present paper presents atomic data generated to investigate the recombination lines of C II in the spectra of planetary nebulae. These data include energies of bound and autoionizing states, oscillator strengths and radiative transition probabilities, autoionization probabilities, and recombination coefficients. The R-matrix method of electron scattering theory was used to describe the C{sup 2+} plus electron system.

  3. Recombinant Vaccinia Virus: Immunization against Multiple Pathogens

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perkus, Marion E.; Piccini, Antonia; Lipinskas, Bernard R.; Paoletti, Enzo

    1985-09-01

    The coding sequences for the hepatitis B virus surface antigen, the herpes simplex virus glycoprotein D, and the influenza virus hemagglutinin were inserted into a single vaccinia virus genome. Rabbits inoculated intravenously or intradermally with this polyvalent vaccinia virus recombinant produced antibodies reactive to all three authentic foreign antigens. In addition, the feasibility of multiple rounds of vaccination with recombinant vaccinia virus was demonstrated.

  4. Recombinant Swinepox Virus for Veterinary Vaccine Development.

    PubMed

    Fan, Hong-Jie; Lin, Hui-Xing

    2016-01-01

    Poxvirus-vectors have been widely used in vaccine development for several important human and animal diseases; some of these vaccines have been licensed and used extensively. Swinepox virus (SPV) is well suited to develop recombinant vaccines because of its large packaging capacity for recombinant DNA, its host range specificity, and its ability to induce appropriate immune responses. PMID:26458836

  5. Recombinant DNA encoding a desulfurization biocatalyst

    DOEpatents

    Rambosek, J.; Piddington, C.S.; Kovacevich, B.R.; Young, K.D.; Denome, S.A.

    1994-10-18

    This invention relates to a recombinant DNA molecule containing a gene or genes which encode a biocatalyst capable of desulfurizing a fossil fuel which contains organic sulfur molecules. For example, the present invention encompasses a recombinant DNA molecule containing a gene or genes of a strain of Rhodococcus rhodochrous. 13 figs.

  6. Recombinant DNA encoding a desulfurization biocatalyst

    DOEpatents

    Rambosek, John; Piddington, Chris S.; Kovacevich, Brian R.; Young, Kevin D.; Denome, Sylvia A.

    1994-01-01

    This invention relates to a recombinant DNA molecule containing a gene or genes which encode a biocatalyst capable of desulfurizing a fossil fuel which contains organic sulfur molecules. For example, the present invention encompasses a recombinant DNA molecule containing a gene or genes of a strain of Rhodococcus rhodochrous.

  7. V(D)J recombination deficiencies.

    PubMed

    de Villartay, Jean-Pierre

    2009-01-01

    V(D)J recombination not only comprises the molecular mechanism that insures diversity of the immune system but also constitutes a critical checkpoint in the developmental program of B- and T-lymphocytes. The analysis of human patients with Severe Combined Immune Deficiency (SCID) has contributed to the understanding of the biochemistry of the V(D)J recombination reaction. The molecular study V(D)J recombination settings in humans, mice and in cellular mutants has allowed to unravel the process of Non Homologous End Joining (NHEJ), one of the key pathway that insure proper repair of DNA double strand breaks (dsb), whether they occur during V(D)J recombination or secondary to other DNA injuries. Two NHEJ factors, Artemis and Cernunnos, were indeed discovered through the study of human V(D)J recombination defective human SCID patients. PMID:19731800

  8. Biochemistry of Meiotic Recombination: Formation, Processing, and Resolution of Recombination Intermediates

    PubMed Central

    Ehmsen, Kirk T.

    2009-01-01

    Meiotic recombination ensures accurate chromosome segregation during the first meiotic division and provides a mechanism to increase genetic heterogeneity among the meiotic products. Unlike homologous recombination in somatic (vegetative) cells, where sister chromatid interactions prevail and crossover formation is avoided, meiotic recombination is targeted to involve homologs, resulting in crossovers to connect the homologs before anaphase of the first meiotic division. The mechanisms responsible for homolog choice and crossover control are poorly understood, but likely involve meiosis-specific recombination proteins, as well as meiosis-specific chromosome organization and architecture. Much progress has been made to identify and biochemically characterize many of the proteins acting during meiotic recombination. This review will focus on the proteins that generate and process heteroduplex DNA, as well as those that process DNA junctions during meiotic recombination, with particular attention to how recombination activities promote crossover resolution between homologs. PMID:20098639

  9. GENERATION OF RECOMBINANT BACULOVIRUS VIA LIPOSOME MEDIATED TRANSFECTION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Baculovirus expression vectors have become a popular method of producing recombinant proteins. Production of recombinant virus requires the transfection of both the native viral DNA and a transfer plasmid into insect cells where recombination takes place. While several methods of...

  10. Charge recombination and thermoluminescence in photosystem II.

    PubMed

    Rappaport, Fabrice; Cuni, Aude; Xiong, Ling; Sayre, Richard; Lavergne, Jérôme

    2005-03-01

    In the recombination process of Photosystem II (S(2)Q(A)(-)-->S(1)Q(A)) the limiting step is the electron transfer from the reduced primary acceptor pheophytin Ph(-) to the oxidized primary donor P(+) and the rate depends on the equilibrium constant between states S(2)PPhQ(A)(-) and S(1)P(+)Ph(-)Q(A). Accordingly, mutations that affect the midpoint potential of Ph or of P result in a modified recombination rate. A strong correlation is observed between the effects on the recombination rate and on thermoluminescence (TL, the light emission from S(2)Q(A)(-) during a warming ramp): a slower recombination corresponds to a large enhancement and higher temperature of the TL peak. The current theory of TL does not account for these effects, because it is based on the assumption that the rate-limiting step coincides with the radiative process. When implementing the known fact that the radiative pathway represents a minor leak, the modified TL theory readily accounts qualitatively for the observed behavior. However, the peak temperature is still lower than predicted from the temperature-dependence of recombination. We argue that this reflects the heterogeneity of the recombination process combined with the enhanced sensitivity of TL to slower components. The recombination kinetics are accurately fitted as a sum of two exponentials and we show that this is not due to a progressive stabilization of the charge-separated state, but to a pre-existing conformational heterogeneity. PMID:15653722

  11. Electron Recombination in a Dense Hydrogen Plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Jana, M.R.; Johnstone, C.; Kobilarcik, T.; Koizumi, G.M.; Moretti, A.; Popovic, M.; Tollestrup, A.V.; Yonehara, K.; Leonova, M.A.; Schwarz, T.A.; Chung, M.; /Unlisted /IIT, Chicago /Fermilab /MUONS Inc., Batavia /Turin Polytechnic

    2012-05-01

    A high pressure hydrogen gas filled RF cavity was subjected to an intense proton beam to study the evolution of the beam induced plasma inside the cavity. Varying beam intensities, gas pressures and electric fields were tested. Beam induced ionized electrons load the cavity, thereby decreasing the accelerating gradient. The extent and duration of this degradation has been measured. A model of the recombination between ionized electrons and ions is presented, with the intent of producing a baseline for the physics inside such a cavity used in a muon accelerator. Analysis of the data taken during the summer of 2011 shows that self recombination takes place in pure hydrogen gas. The decay of the number of electrons in the cavity once the beam is turned off indicates self recombination rather than attachment to electronegative dopants or impurities. The cross section of electron recombination grows for larger clusters of hydrogen and so at the equilibrium of electron production and recombination in the cavity, processes involving H{sub 5}{sup +} or larger clusters must be taking place. The measured recombination rates during this time match or exceed the analytic predicted values. The accelerating gradient in the cavity recovers fully in time for the next beam pulse of a muon collider. Exactly what the recombination rate is and how much the gradient degrades during the 60 ns muon collider beam pulse will be extrapolated from data taken during the spring of 2012.

  12. Intraspecific variation of recombination rate in maize

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background In sexually reproducing organisms, meiotic crossovers ensure the proper segregation of chromosomes and contribute to genetic diversity by shuffling allelic combinations. Such genetic reassortment is exploited in breeding to combine favorable alleles, and in genetic research to identify genetic factors underlying traits of interest via linkage or association-based approaches. Crossover numbers and distributions along chromosomes vary between species, but little is known about their intraspecies variation. Results Here, we report on the variation of recombination rates between 22 European maize inbred lines that belong to the Dent and Flint gene pools. We genotype 23 doubled-haploid populations derived from crosses between these lines with a 50 k-SNP array and construct high-density genetic maps, showing good correspondence with the maize B73 genome sequence assembly. By aligning each genetic map to the B73 sequence, we obtain the recombination rates along chromosomes specific to each population. We identify significant differences in recombination rates at the genome-wide, chromosome, and intrachromosomal levels between populations, as well as significant variation for genome-wide recombination rates among maize lines. Crossover interference analysis using a two-pathway modeling framework reveals a negative association between recombination rate and interference strength. Conclusions To our knowledge, the present work provides the most comprehensive study on intraspecific variation of recombination rates and crossover interference strength in eukaryotes. Differences found in recombination rates will allow for selection of high or low recombining lines in crossing programs. Our methodology should pave the way for precise identification of genes controlling recombination rates in maize and other organisms. PMID:24050704

  13. Advances in recombinant antibody manufacturing.

    PubMed

    Kunert, Renate; Reinhart, David

    2016-04-01

    Since the first use of Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells for recombinant protein expression, production processes have steadily improved through numerous advances. In this review, we have highlighted several key milestones that have contributed to the success of CHO cells from the beginning of their use for monoclonal antibody (mAb) expression until today. The main factors influencing the yield of a production process are the time to accumulate a desired amount of biomass, the process duration, and the specific productivity. By comparing maximum cell densities and specific growth rates of various expression systems, we have emphasized the limiting parameters of different cellular systems and comprehensively described scientific approaches and techniques to improve host cell lines. Besides the quantitative evaluation of current systems, the quality-determining properties of a host cell line, namely post-translational modifications, were analyzed and compared to naturally occurring polyclonal immunoglobulin fractions from human plasma. In summary, numerous different expression systems for mAbs are available and also under scientific investigation. However, CHO cells are the most frequently investigated cell lines and remain the workhorse for mAb production until today. PMID:26936774

  14. Recombinant protein production and streptomycetes.

    PubMed

    Anné, Jozef; Maldonado, Bárbara; Van Impe, Jan; Van Mellaert, Lieve; Bernaerts, Kristel

    2012-04-30

    The biopharmaceutical market has come a long way since 1982, when the first biopharmaceutical product, recombinant human insulin, was launched. Just over 200 biopharma products have already gained approval. The global market for biopharmaceuticals which is currently valued at over US$99 billion has been growing at an impressive compound annual growth rate over the previous years. To produce these biopharmaceuticals and other industrially important heterologous proteins, different prokaryotic and eukaryotic expression systems are used. All expression systems have some advantages as well as some disadvantages that should be considered in selecting which one to use. Choosing the best one requires evaluating the options--from yield to glycosylation, to proper folding, to economics of scale-up. No host cell from which all the proteins can be universally expressed in large quantities has been found so far. Therefore, it is important to provide a variety of host-vector expression systems in order to increase the opportunities to screen for the most suitable expression conditions or host cell. In this overview, we focus on Streptomyces lividans, a Gram-positive bacterium with a proven excellence in secretion capacity, as host for heterologous protein production. We will discuss its advantages and disadvantages, and how with systems biology approaches strains can be developed to better producing cell factories. PMID:21777629

  15. Dissociative Recombination without a Curve Crossing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Guberman, Steven L.

    1994-01-01

    Ab initio calculations show that a curve crossing is not always needed for a high dissociative- recombination cross section. For HeH(+), in which no neutral states cross the ion potential curve, dissociative recombination is driven by the nuclear kinetic-energy operator on adiabatic potential curves. The kinetic-energy derivative operator allows for capture into repulsive curves that are outside of the classical turning points for the nuclear motion. The dominant dissociative route is the C (2)Sigma(+) state leading to H(n = 2) atoms. An analogous mechanism is proposed for the dissociative recombination of H3(+).

  16. Recombination of N4(+) ions with electrons

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cao, Y. S.; Johnsen, R.

    1991-01-01

    Using a modified high-pressure-afterglow/mass spectrometer apparatus similar to that described by Lee and Johnsen (1989), spectroscopic observations of afterglow helium plasmas, with N2 as a minor additive, were carried out in order to verify the mechanism suggested by Bates (1991) for dissociative recombination of electrons with N4(+) ions. It was found that dissociative recombination of electrons with N4(+) ions results in the formation of N2 molecules in the C 3Pi(u) (v = 0,1) state, with the recombination rate coefficient of (2.6 +/- 0.3) x 10 exp -6 cu cm/sec at 300 K.

  17. Spacecraft thermal energy accommodation from atomic recombination

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carleton, Karen L.; Marinelli, William J.

    1991-01-01

    Measurements of atomic recombination probabilities important in determining energy release to reusable spacecraft thermal protection surfaces during reentry are presented. An experimental apparatus constructed to examine recombination of atomic oxygen from thermal protection and reference materials at reentry temperatures is described. The materials are examined under ultrahigh vacuum conditions to develop and maintain well characterized surface conditions that are free of contamination. When compared with stagnation point heat transfer measurements performed in arc jet facilities, these measurements indicate that a significant fraction of the excess energy available from atom recombination is removed from the surface as metastable O2.

  18. Bacterial genome remodeling through bacteriophage recombination.

    PubMed

    Menouni, Rachid; Hutinet, Geoffrey; Petit, Marie-Agnès; Ansaldi, Mireille

    2015-01-01

    Bacteriophages co-exist and co-evolve with their hosts in natural environments. Virulent phages lyse infected cells through lytic cycles, whereas temperate phages often remain dormant and can undergo lysogenic or lytic cycles. In their lysogenic state, prophages are actually part of the host genome and replicate passively in rhythm with host division. However, prophages are far from being passive residents: they can modify or bring new properties to their host. In this review, we focus on two important phage-encoded recombination mechanisms, i.e. site-specific recombination and homologous recombination, and how they remodel bacterial genomes. PMID:25790500

  19. Mapping Recombination Initiation Sites Using Chromatin Immunoprecipitation.

    PubMed

    He, Yan; Wang, Minghui; Sun, Qi; Pawlowski, Wojciech P

    2016-01-01

    Genome-wide maps of recombination sites provide valuable information not only on the recombination pathway itself but also facilitate the understanding of genome dynamics and evolution. Here, we describe a chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) protocol to map the sites of recombination initiation in plants with maize used as an example. ChIP is a method that allows identification of chromosomal sites occupied by specific proteins. Our protocol utilizes RAD51, a protein involved in repair of double-strand breaks (DSBs) that initiate meiotic recombination, to identify DSB formation hotspots. Chromatin is extracted from meiotic flowers, sheared and enriched in fragments bound to RAD51. Genomic location of the protein is then identified by next-generation sequencing. This protocol can also be used in other species of plants, animals, and fungi. PMID:27511175

  20. Constraints from jet calculus on quark recombination

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, L.M.; Lassila, K.E.; Sukhatme, U.; Willen, D.

    1981-02-01

    Within the quantum-chromodynamic jet-calculus formalism, we deduce an equation describing recombination of quarks and antiquarks into mesons within a quark or gluon jet. This equation relates the recombination function R(x/sub 1/,x/sub 2/,x) used in current literature to the fragmentation function for producing that same meson out of the parton initiating the jet. We submit currently used recombination functions to our consistency test, taking as input mainly the u-quark fragmentation ''data'' into ..pi../sup +/ mesons. The qq-bar..--> pi.. recombination functions popular in the literature are consistent with measured fragmentation functions, but they must be supplemented by other contributions to provide the full D..pi../sup +//sub u/. We also discuss the Q/sup 2/ dependence of the resulting fragmentation functions.

  1. The Kinetics of Nitrogen Atom Recombination

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, G. Ronald; Winkler, C. A.

    1977-01-01

    Describes a study of the kinetics of the recombination of nitrogen atoms in which concentration-time relations are determined directly by utilizing visual observations of emissions to make gas phase titrations of N atoms with NO. (MLH)

  2. Chemical recombination in an expansion tube

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bakos, Robert J.; Morgan, Richard G.

    1994-01-01

    The note describes the theoretical basis of chemical recombination in an expansion tube which simulates energy, Reynolds number, and stream chemistry at near-orbital velocities. Expansion tubes can satisfy ground-based hypersonic propulsion and aerothermal testing requirements.

  3. Recombinant Human Papillomavirus (HPV) Nonavalent Vaccine

    Cancer.gov

    This page contains brief information about recombinant human papillomavirus (HPV) nonavalent vaccine and a collection of links to more information about the use of this vaccine, research results, and ongoing clinical trials.

  4. Recombinant Human Papillomavirus (HPV) Bivalent Vaccine

    Cancer.gov

    This page contains brief information about recombinant human papillomavirus (HPV) bivalent vaccine and a collection of links to more information about the use of this vaccine, research results, and ongoing clinical trials.

  5. Recombinant Human Papillomavirus (HPV) Quadrivalent Vaccine

    Cancer.gov

    This page contains brief information about recombinant human papillomavirus (HPV) quadrivalent vaccine and a collection of links to more information about the use of this vaccine, research results, and ongoing clinical trials.

  6. Fermentations with new recombinant organisms

    SciTech Connect

    Bothast, R.J.; Nichols, N.N.; Dien, B.S.

    1999-10-01

    US fuel ethanol production in 1998 exceeded the record production of 1.4 billion gallons set in 1995. Most of this ethanol was produced from over 550 million bushels of corn. Expanding fuel ethanol production will require developing lower-cost feedstocks, and only lignocellulosic feedstocks are available in sufficient quantities to substitute for corn starch. Major technical hurdles to converting lignocellulose to ethanol include the lack of low-cost efficient enzymes for saccharification of biomass to fermentable sugars and the development of microorganisms for the fermentation of these mixed sugars. To date, the most successful research approaches to develop novel biocatalysts that will efficiently ferment mixed sugar syrups include isolation of novel yeasts that ferment xylose, genetic engineering of Escherichia coli and other gram negative bacteria for ethanol production, and genetic engineering of Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Zymomonas mobilis for pentose utilization. The authors have evaluated the fermentation of corn fiber hydrolyzates by the various strains developed. E. coli K011, E. coli SL40, E. coli FBR3, Zymomonas CP4 (pZB5), and Saccharomyces 1400 (pLNH32) fermented corn fiber hydrolyzates to ethanol in the range of 21--34 g/L with yields ranging from 0.41 to 0.50 g of ethanol per gram of sugar consumed. Progress with new recombinant microorganisms has been rapid and will continue with the eventual development of organisms suitable for commercial ethanol production. Each research approach holds considerable promise, with the possibility existing that different industrially hardened strains may find separate applications in the fermentation of specific feedstocks.

  7. Recombination walking: Genetic selection of clones from pooled libraries of yeast artificial chromosomes by homologous recombination

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, A.M.; Savinelli, E.A.; Couture, S.M.; Hannigan, G.M.; Han, Z.; Selden, R.F.; Treco, D.A. )

    1993-09-01

    Recombination walking is based on the genetic selection of specific human clones from a yeast artificial chromosome (YAC) library by homologous recombination. The desired clone is selected from a pooled (unorderd) YAC library, eliminating labor-intensive steps typically used in organizing and maintaining ordered YAC libraries. Recombination walking represents an efficient approach to library screening and is well suited for chromosome-walking approaches to the isolation of genes associated with common diseases. 29 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  8. Recombination-deficient mutant of Streptococcus faecalis

    SciTech Connect

    Yagi, Y.; Clewell, D.B.

    1980-08-01

    An ultraviolet radiation-sensitive derivative of Streptococcus faecalis strain JH2-2 was isolated and found to be deficient in recombination, using a plasmid-plasmid recombination system. The strain was sensitive to chemical agents which interact with deoxyribonucleic acid and also underwent deoxyribonucleic acid degradation after ultraviolet irradiation. Thus, the mutant has properties similar to those of recA strains of Escherichia coli.

  9. Tunnel surface recombination in optoelectronic device modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ptashchenko, Alexander A.; Ptashchenko, Fedor A.

    1997-08-01

    The rate of tunnel surface recombination (TSR) in a p-n structure has been calculated as a function of the excitation level and temperature in a semiclassical approximation under the assumption that the excess energy of a recombining electron is transferred to phonons or to a photon. The approximating analytical expressions obtained are applied in calculations of the effect of TSR on the characteristics of photodiodes, solar cells, light-emitting diodes and diode lasers.

  10. Co-factor activated recombinant adenovirus proteinases

    DOEpatents

    Anderson, Carl W.; Mangel, Walter F.

    1996-08-06

    This application describes methods and expression constructs for producing activatable recombinant adenovirus proteinases. Purified activatable recombinant adenovirus proteinases and methods of purification are described. Activated adenovirus proteinases and methods for obtaining activated adenovirus proteinases are further included. Isolated peptide cofactors of adenovirus proteinase activity, methods of purifying and identifying said peptide cofactors are also described. Antibodies immunoreactive with adenovirus proteinases, immunospecific antibodies, and methods for preparing them are also described. Other related methods and materials are also described.

  11. Co-factor activated recombinant adenovirus proteinases

    DOEpatents

    Anderson, C.W.; Mangel, W.F.

    1996-08-06

    This application describes methods and expression constructs for producing activatable recombinant adenovirus proteinases. Purified activatable recombinant adenovirus proteinases and methods of purification are described. Activated adenovirus proteinases and methods for obtaining activated adenovirus proteinases are further included. Isolated peptide cofactors of adenovirus proteinase activity, methods of purifying and identifying the peptide cofactors are also described. Antibodies immunoreactive with adenovirus proteinases, immunospecific antibodies, and methods for preparing them are also described. Other related methods and materials are also described. 29 figs.

  12. Recombination-generation currents in degenerate semiconductors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Von Roos, O.

    1978-01-01

    The classical Shockley-Read-Hall theory of free carrier recombination and generation via traps is extended to degenerate semiconductors. A concise and simple expression is found which avoids completely the concept of a Fermi level, a concept which is alien to nonequilibrium situations. Assumptions made in deriving the recombination generation current are carefully delineated and are found to be basically identical to those made in the original theory applicable to nondegenerate semiconductors.

  13. Detecting the cosmological recombination signal from space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Desjacques, Vincent; Chluba, Jens; Silk, Joseph; de Bernardis, Francesco; Doré, Olivier

    2015-08-01

    Spectral distortions of the cosmic microwave background (CMB) have recently experienced an increased interest. One of the inevitable distortion signals of our cosmological concordance model is created by the cosmological recombination process, just a little before photons last scatter at redshift z ≃ 1100. These cosmological recombination lines, emitted by the hydrogen and helium plasma, should still be observable as tiny deviation from the CMB blackbody spectrum in the cm-dm spectral bands. In this paper, we present a forecast for the detectability of the recombination signal with future satellite experiments. We argue that serious consideration for future CMB experiments in space should be given to probing spectral distortions and, in particular, the recombination line signals. The cosmological recombination radiation not only allows determination of standard cosmological parameters, but also provides a direct observational confirmation for one of the key ingredients of our cosmological model: the cosmological recombination history. We show that, with present technology, such experiments are futuristic but feasible. The potential rewards won by opening this new window to the very early universe could be considerable.

  14. Recombination hotspots: Models and tools for detection.

    PubMed

    Paul, Prosenjit; Nag, Debjyoti; Chakraborty, Supriyo

    2016-04-01

    Recombination hotspots are the regions within the genome where the rate, and the frequency of recombination are optimum with a size varying from 1 to 2kb. The recombination event is mediated by the double-stranded break formation, guided by the combined enzymatic action of DNA topoisomerase and Spo 11 endonuclease. These regions are distributed non-uniformly throughout the human genome and cause distortions in the genetic map. Numerous lines of evidence suggest that the number of hotspots known in humans has increased manifold in recent years. A few facts about the hotspot evolutions were also put forward, indicating the differences in the hotspot position between chimpanzees and humans. In mice, recombination hot spots were found to be clustered within the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) region. Several models, that help explain meiotic recombination has been proposed. Moreover, scientists also developed some computational tools to locate the hotspot position and estimate their recombination rate in humans is of great interest to population and medical geneticists. Here we reviewed the molecular mechanisms, models and in silico prediction techniques of hot spot residues. PMID:26991854

  15. Biochemistry of homologous recombination in Escherichia coli.

    PubMed Central

    Kowalczykowski, S C; Dixon, D A; Eggleston, A K; Lauder, S D; Rehrauer, W M

    1994-01-01

    Homologous recombination is a fundamental biological process. Biochemical understanding of this process is most advanced for Escherichia coli. At least 25 gene products are involved in promoting genetic exchange. At present, this includes the RecA, RecBCD (exonuclease V), RecE (exonuclease VIII), RecF, RecG, RecJ, RecN, RecOR, RecQ, RecT, RuvAB, RuvC, SbcCD, and SSB proteins, as well as DNA polymerase I, DNA gyrase, DNA topoisomerase I, DNA ligase, and DNA helicases. The activities displayed by these enzymes include homologous DNA pairing and strand exchange, helicase, branch migration, Holliday junction binding and cleavage, nuclease, ATPase, topoisomerase, DNA binding, ATP binding, polymerase, and ligase, and, collectively, they define biochemical events that are essential for efficient recombination. In addition to these needed proteins, a cis-acting recombination hot spot known as Chi (chi: 5'-GCTGGTGG-3') plays a crucial regulatory function. The biochemical steps that comprise homologous recombination can be formally divided into four parts: (i) processing of DNA molecules into suitable recombination substrates, (ii) homologous pairing of the DNA partners and the exchange of DNA strands, (iii) extension of the nascent DNA heteroduplex; and (iv) resolution of the resulting crossover structure. This review focuses on the biochemical mechanisms underlying these steps, with particular emphases on the activities of the proteins involved and on the integration of these activities into likely biochemical pathways for recombination. Images PMID:7968921

  16. Multiplex PCR Method for Identifying Recombinant Vaccine-Related Polioviruses

    PubMed Central

    Kilpatrick, David R.; Ching, Karen; Iber, Jane; Campagnoli, Ray; Freeman, Christopher J.; Mishrik, Nada; Liu, Hong-Mei; Pallansch, Mark A.; Kew, Olen M.

    2004-01-01

    The recent discovery of recombinant circulating vaccine-derived poliovirus (recombinant cVDPV) has highlighted the need for enhanced global poliovirus surveillance to assure timely detection of any future cVDPV outbreaks. Six pairs of Sabin strain-specific recombinant primers were designed to permit rapid screening for VDPV recombinants by PCR. PMID:15365031

  17. Oligonucleotide recombination enabled site-specific mutagenesis in bacteria

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Recombineering refers to a strategy for engineering DNA sequences using a specialized mode of homologous recombination. This technology can be used for rapidly constructing precise changes in bacterial genome sequences in vivo. Oligo recombination is one type of recombineering that uses ssDNA olig...

  18. The Saccharomyces cerevisiae recombination enhancer biases recombination during interchromosomal mating-type switching but not in interchromosomal homologous recombination.

    PubMed Central

    Houston, Peter; Simon, Peter J; Broach, James R

    2004-01-01

    Haploid Saccharomyces can change mating type through HO-endonuclease cleavage of an expressor locus, MAT, followed by gene conversion using one of two repository loci, HML or HMR, as donor. The mating type of a cell dictates which repository locus is used as donor, with a cells using HML and alpha cells using HMR. This preference is established in part by RE, a locus on the left arm of chromosome III that activates the surrounding region, including HML, for recombination in a cells, an activity suppressed by alpha 2 protein in alpha cells. We have examined the ability of RE to stimulate different forms of interchromosomal recombination. We found that RE exerted an effect on interchromosomal mating-type switching and on intrachromosomal homologous recombination but not on interchromosomal homologous recombination. Also, even in the absence of RE, MAT alpha still influenced donor preference in interchromosomal mating-type switching, supporting a role of alpha 2 in donor preference independent of RE. These results suggest a model in which RE affects competition between productive and nonproductive recombination outcomes. In interchromosome gene conversion, RE enhances both productive and nonproductive pathways, whereas in intrachromosomal gene conversion and mating-type switching, RE enhances only the productive pathway. PMID:15082540

  19. DNA RECOMBINATION IN EUCARYOTIC CELLS BY THE BACTERIOPHAGE PHIC31 RECOMBINATION SYSTEM",

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This invention provides methods for obtaining specific and stable integration of nucleic acids into eukaryotic cells. The invention makes use of site-specific recombination systems that use prokaryotic recombinase polypeptides, such as the ph:C31 integrase, that can mediate recombination between th...

  20. Perinatal induction of Cre recombination with tamoxifen.

    PubMed

    Lizen, Benoit; Claus, Melissa; Jeannotte, Lucie; Rijli, Filippo M; Gofflot, Françoise

    2015-12-01

    Temporal control of site-specific recombination is commonly achieved by using a tamoxifen-inducible form of Cre or Flp recombinases. Although powerful protocols of induction have been developed for gene inactivation at adult stages or during embryonic development, induction of recombination at late gestational or early postnatal stages is still difficult to achieve. In this context, using the ubiquitous CMV-CreER(T2) transgenic mice, we have tested and validated two procedures to achieve recombination just before and just after birth. The efficiency of recombination was evaluated in the brain, which is known to be more problematic to target. For the late gestation treatment with tamoxifen, different protocols of complementary administration of progesterone and estrogen were tested. However, delayed delivery and/or mortality of pups due to difficult delivery were always observed. To circumvent this problem, pups were collected from tamoxifen-treated pregnant dams by caesarian section at E18.5 and given to foster mothers. For postnatal treatment, different dosages of tamoxifen were administered by intragastric injection to the pups during 3 or 4 days after birth. The efficiency of these treatments was analyzed at P7 using a transgenic reporter line. They were also validated with the Hoxa5 conditional allele. In conclusion, we have developed efficient procedures that allow achieving efficient recombination of floxed alleles at perinatal stages. These protocols will allow investigating the late/adult functions of many developmental genes, whose characterization has been so far restricted to embryonic development. PMID:26395370

  1. Human recombinant lysosomal enzymes produced in microorganisms.

    PubMed

    Espejo-Mojica, Ángela J; Alméciga-Díaz, Carlos J; Rodríguez, Alexander; Mosquera, Ángela; Díaz, Dennis; Beltrán, Laura; Díaz, Sergio; Pimentel, Natalia; Moreno, Jefferson; Sánchez, Jhonnathan; Sánchez, Oscar F; Córdoba, Henry; Poutou-Piñales, Raúl A; Barrera, Luis A

    2015-01-01

    Lysosomal storage diseases (LSDs) are caused by accumulation of partially degraded substrates within the lysosome, as a result of a function loss of a lysosomal protein. Recombinant lysosomal proteins are usually produced in mammalian cells, based on their capacity to carry out post-translational modifications similar to those observed in human native proteins. However, during the last years, a growing number of studies have shown the possibility to produce active forms of lysosomal proteins in other expression systems, such as plants and microorganisms. In this paper, we review the production and characterization of human lysosomal proteins, deficient in several LSDs, which have been produced in microorganisms. For this purpose, Escherichia coli, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Pichia pastoris, Yarrowia lipolytica, and Ogataea minuta have been used as expression systems. The recombinant lysosomal proteins expressed in these hosts have shown similar substrate specificities, and temperature and pH stability profiles to those produced in mammalian cells. In addition, pre-clinical results have shown that recombinant lysosomal enzymes produced in microorganisms can be taken-up by cells and reduce the substrate accumulated within the lysosome. Recently, metabolic engineering in yeasts has allowed the production of lysosomal enzymes with tailored N-glycosylations, while progresses in E. coli N-glycosylations offer a potential platform to improve the production of these recombinant lysosomal enzymes. In summary, microorganisms represent convenient platform for the production of recombinant lysosomal proteins for biochemical and physicochemical characterization, as well as for the development of ERT for LSD. PMID:26071627

  2. Graded recombination layers for multijunction photovoltaics.

    PubMed

    Koleilat, Ghada I; Wang, Xihua; Sargent, Edward H

    2012-06-13

    Multijunction devices consist of a stack of semiconductor junctions having bandgaps tuned across a broad spectrum. In solar cells this concept is used to increase the efficiency of photovoltaic harvesting, while light emitters and detectors use it to achieve multicolor and spectrally tunable behavior. In series-connected current-matched multijunction devices, the recombination layers must allow the hole current from one cell to recombine, with high efficiency and low voltage loss, with the electron current from the next cell. We recently reported a tandem solar cell in which the recombination layer was implemented using a progression of n-type oxides whose doping densities and work functions serve to connect, with negligible resistive loss at solar current densities, the constituent cells. Here we present the generalized conditions for design of efficient graded recombination layer solar devices. We report the number of interlayers and the requirements on work function and doping of each interlayer, to bridge an work function difference as high as 1.6 eV. We also find solutions that minimize the doping required of the interlayers in order to minimize optical absorption due to free carriers in the graded recombination layer (GRL). We demonstrate a family of new GRL designs experimentally and highlight the benefits of the progression of dopings and work functions in the interlayers. PMID:22554234

  3. Recombination in Eukaryotic Single Stranded DNA Viruses

    PubMed Central

    Martin, Darren P.; Biagini, Philippe; Lefeuvre, Pierre; Golden, Michael; Roumagnac, Philippe; Varsani, Arvind

    2011-01-01

    Although single stranded (ss) DNA viruses that infect humans and their domesticated animals do not generally cause major diseases, the arthropod borne ssDNA viruses of plants do, and as a result seriously constrain food production in most temperate regions of the world. Besides the well known plant and animal-infecting ssDNA viruses, it has recently become apparent through metagenomic surveys of ssDNA molecules that there also exist large numbers of other diverse ssDNA viruses within almost all terrestrial and aquatic environments. The host ranges of these viruses probably span the tree of life and they are likely to be important components of global ecosystems. Various lines of evidence suggest that a pivotal evolutionary process during the generation of this global ssDNA virus diversity has probably been genetic recombination. High rates of homologous recombination, non-homologous recombination and genome component reassortment are known to occur within and between various different ssDNA virus species and we look here at the various roles that these different types of recombination may play, both in the day-to-day biology, and in the longer term evolution, of these viruses. We specifically focus on the ecological, biochemical and selective factors underlying patterns of genetic exchange detectable amongst the ssDNA viruses and discuss how these should all be considered when assessing the adaptive value of recombination during ssDNA virus evolution. PMID:21994803

  4. Recombination and collisionally excited Balmer lines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raga, A. C.; Castellanos-Ramírez, A.; Esquivel, A.; Rodríguez-González, A.; Velázquez, P. F.

    2015-10-01

    We present a model for the statistical equilibrium of the levels of H, considering recombinations to excited levels, collisional excitations up from the ground state and spontaneous radiative transitions. This problem has a simple "cascade matrix" solution, describing a cascade of downwards spontaneous transitions fed by both recombinations and collisional excitations. The resulting predicted Balmer line ratios show a transition between a low temperature and a high temperature regime (dominated by recombinations and by collisional excitations, respectively), both with only a weak line ratio vs. temperature dependence. This clear characteristic allows a direct observational identification of regions in which the Balmer lines are either recombination or collisionally excited transitions. We find that for a gas in coronal ionization equilibrium the Halpha and Hbeta lines are collisionally excited for all temperatures. In order to have recombination Halpha and Hbeta it is necessary to have higher ionization fractions of H than the ones obtained from coronal equilibrium (e.g., such as the ones found in a photoionized gas).

  5. Meiotic recombination and genome evolution in plants.

    PubMed

    Melamed-Bessudo, Cathy; Shilo, Shay; Levy, Avraham A

    2016-04-01

    Homologous recombination affects genome evolution through crossover, gene conversion and point mutations. Whole genome sequencing together with a detailed epigenome analysis have shed new light on our understanding of how meiotic recombination shapes plant genes and genome structure. Crossover events are associated with DNA sequence motifs, together with an open chromatin signature (hypomethylated CpGs, low nucleosome occupancy or specific histone modifications). The crossover landscape may differ between male and female meiocytes and between species. At the gene level, crossovers occur preferentially in promoter regions in Arabidopsis. In recent years, there is rising support suggesting that biased mismatch repair during meiotic recombination may increase GC content genome-wide and may be responsible for the GC content gradient found in many plant genes. PMID:26939088

  6. Dielectronic recombination of xenonlike tungsten ions

    SciTech Connect

    Schippers, S.; Bernhardt, D.; Mueller, A.; Krantz, C.; Grieser, M.; Repnow, R.; Wolf, A.; Lestinsky, M.; Hahn, M.; Novotny, O.; Savin, D. W.

    2011-01-15

    Dielectronic recombination (DR) of xenonlike W{sup 20+} forming W{sup 19+} has been studied experimentally at a heavy-ion storage ring. A merged-beams method has been employed for obtaining absolute rate coefficients for electron-ion recombination in the collision-energy range 0-140 eV. The measured rate coefficient is dominated by strong DR resonances even at the lowest experimental energies. At plasma temperatures where the fractional abundance of W{sup 20+} is expected to peak in a fusion plasma, the experimentally derived plasma recombination rate coefficient is over a factor of 4 larger than the theoretically calculated rate coefficient which is currently used in fusion plasma modeling. The largest part of this discrepancy stems most probably from the neglect in the theoretical calculations of DR associated with fine-structure excitations of the W{sup 20+}([Kr]4d{sup 10} 4f{sup 8}) ion core.

  7. Transposon-specified site-specific recombination.

    PubMed Central

    Kitts, P; Symington, L; Burke, M; Reed, R; Sherratt, D

    1982-01-01

    Cointegrate DNA molecules containing two copies of a transposable element appear to be intermediates in the transposition process. These structures are resolved by site-specific recombination to yield the normal end products of transposition. The transposable element gamma delta (Tn1000) synthesizes a product interchangeable with the Tn1/3tnpR protein in promoting Tn1/3 site-specific recombination. These data support the hypothesis that cointegrates containing directly repeated copies of Tn1/3 are obligatory intermediates in interreplicon transposition of Tn1/3. In addition, we show here that the reaction is independent of the element-encoded tnpA gene product. Tn501, which specifies mercury resistance, also produces cointegrates as intermediates in interreplicon transposition. The appearance of Tn501-specified recombination activity that can act on these cointegrates requires growth of cells in the presence of Hg2+. Images PMID:6275390

  8. Transcription and Recombination: When RNA Meets DNA

    PubMed Central

    Aguilera, Andrés; Gaillard, Hélène

    2014-01-01

    A particularly relevant phenomenon in cell physiology and proliferation is the fact that spontaneous mitotic recombination is strongly enhanced by transcription. The most accepted view is that transcription increases the occurrence of double-strand breaks and/or single-stranded DNA gaps that are repaired by recombination. Most breaks would arise as a consequence of the impact that transcription has on replication fork progression, provoking its stalling and/or breakage. Here, we discuss the mechanisms responsible for the cross talk between transcription and recombination, with emphasis on (1) the transcription–replication conflicts as the main source of recombinogenic DNA breaks, and (2) the formation of cotranscriptional R-loops as a major cause of such breaks. The new emerging questions and perspectives are discussed on the basis of the interference between transcription and replication, as well as the way RNA influences genome dynamics. PMID:25085910

  9. Recombination and DNA Repair in Helicobacter pylori

    PubMed Central

    Dorer, Marion S.; Sessler, Tate H.; Salama, Nina R.

    2013-01-01

    All organisms have pathways that repair the genome, ensuring their survival and that of their progeny. But these pathways also serve to diversify the genome, causing changes on the level of nucleotide, whole gene, and genome structure. Sequencing of bacteria has revealed wide allelic diversity and differences in gene content within the same species, highlighting the importance of understanding pathways of recombination and DNA repair. The human stomach pathogen Helicobacter pylori is an excellent model system for studying these pathways. H. pylori harbors major recombination and repair pathways and is naturally competent, facilitating its ability to diversify its genome. Elucidation of DNA recombination, repair, and diversification programs in this pathogen will reveal connections between these pathways and their importance to infection. PMID:21682641

  10. Jet fragmentation via recombination of parton showers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Kyong Chol; Fries, Rainer J.; Ko, Che Ming

    2016-04-01

    We propose to model hadronization of parton showers in QCD jets through a hybrid approach involving quark recombination and string fragmentation. This is achieved by allowing gluons at the end of the perturbative shower evolution to undergo a nonperturbative splitting into quark and antiquark pairs, then applying a Monte Carlo version of instantaneous quark recombination, and finally subjecting remnant quarks (those which have not found a recombination partner) to Lund string fragmentation. When applied to parton showers from the pythia Monte Carlo event generator, the final hadron spectra from our calculation compare quite well to pythia jets that have been hadronized with the default Lund string fragmentation. Our new approach opens up the possibility to generalize hadronization to jets embedded in a quark gluon plasma.

  11. CosmoRec: Cosmological Recombination code

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chluba, Jens; Thomas, Rajat Mani

    2013-04-01

    CosmoRec solves the recombination problem including recombinations to highly excited states, corrections to the 2s-1s two-photon channel, HI Lyn-feedback, n>2 two-photon profile corrections, and n≥2 Raman-processes. The code can solve the radiative transfer equation of the Lyman-series photon field to obtain the required modifications to the rate equations of the resolved levels, and handles electron scattering, the effect of HeI intercombination transitions, and absorption of helium photons by hydrogen. It also allows accounting for dark matter annihilation and optionally includes detailed helium radiative transfer effects.

  12. Graph Model of Coalescence with Recombinations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parida, Laxmi

    One of the primary genetic events shaping an autosomal chromosome is recombination. This is a process that occurs during meiosis, in eukaryotes, that results in the offsprings having different combinations of (homologous) genes, or chromosomal segments, of the two parents. The presence of these recombination events in the evolutionary history of each chromosome complicates the genetic landscape of a population, and understanding the manifestations of these genetic exchanges in the chromosome sequences has been a subject of intense curiosity (see [Hud83, Gri99, HSW05] and citations therein).

  13. Recent Theoretical Studies On Excitation and Recombination

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pradhan, Anil K.

    2000-01-01

    New advances in the theoretical treatment of atomic processes in plasmas are described. These enable not only an integrated, unified, and self-consistent treatment of important radiative and collisional processes, but also large-scale computation of atomic data with high accuracy. An extension of the R-matrix work, from excitation and photoionization to electron-ion recombination, includes a unified method that subsumes both the radiative and the di-electronic recombination processes in an ab initio manner. The extensive collisional calculations for iron and iron-peak elements under the Iron Project are also discussed.

  14. Lectin glycoprofiling of recombinant therapeutic interleukin-7.

    PubMed

    Landemarre, Ludovic; Duverger, Eric

    2013-01-01

    Lectins array is a powerfull and complementary method of glycans analysis allowing fast identification of specific motifs on molecules or cells. This technology is of increased interest for the development of therapeutic recombinant glycoproteins and particularly relevant for a first study of lot-to-lot comparison, or detection of unwanted glycans. In this chapter, we describe a lectin array-type method specifically designed for the study of recombinant therapeutic interleukin-7 (rhIL-7). This specific method allows the analysis of the glycans motifs, the distribution of the glycoforms population, and the detection of potential immunogen glycans in rhIL-7 purified CHO-produced batches. PMID:23475723

  15. The mismatch repair system reduces meiotic homeologous recombination and stimulates recombination-dependent chromosome loss.

    PubMed Central

    Chambers, S R; Hunter, N; Louis, E J; Borts, R H

    1996-01-01

    Efficient genetic recombination requires near-perfect homology between participating molecules. Sequence divergence reduces the frequency of recombination, a process that is dependent on the activity of the mismatch repair system. The effects of chromosomal divergence in diploids of Saccharomyces cerevisiae in which one copy of chromosome III is derived from a closely related species, Saccharomyces paradoxus, have been examined. Meiotic recombination between the diverged chromosomes is decreased by 25-fold. Spore viability is reduced with an observable increase in the number of tetrads with only two or three viable spores. Asci with only two viable spores are disomic for chromosome III, consistent with meiosis I nondisjunction of the homeologs. Asci with three viable spores are highly enriched for recombinants relative to tetrads with four viable spores. In 96% of the class with three viable spores, only one spore possesses a recombinant chromosome III, suggesting that the recombination process itself contributes to meiotic death. This phenomenon is dependent on the activities of the mismatch repair genes PMS1 and MSH2. A model of mismatch-stimulated chromosome loss is proposed to account for this observation. As expected, crossing over is increased in pms1 and msh2 mutants. Furthermore, genetic exchange in pms1 msh2 double mutants is affected to a greater extent than in either mutant alone, suggesting that the two proteins act independently to inhibit homeologous recombination. All mismatch repair-deficient strains exhibited reductions in the rate of chromosome III nondisjunction. PMID:8887641

  16. Recombinant microorganisms for increased production of organic acids

    DOEpatents

    Yi, Jian; Kleff, Susanne; Guettler, Michael V.

    2012-02-21

    Disclosed are recombinant microorganisms for producing organic acids. The recombinant microorganisms express a polypeptide that has the enzymatic activity of an enzyme that is utilized in the pentose phosphate cycle. The recombinant microorganism may include recombinant Actinobacillus succinogenes that has been transformed to express a Zwischenferment (Zwf) gene. The recombinant microorganisms may be useful in fermentation processes for producing organic acids such as succinic acid and lactic acid. Also disclosed are novel plasmids that are useful for transforming microorganisms to produce recombinant microorganisms that express enzymes such as Zwf.

  17. Recombinant microorganisms for increased production of organic acids

    DOEpatents

    Yi, Jian; Kleff, Susanne; Guettler, Michael V

    2013-04-30

    Disclosed are recombinant microorganisms for producing organic acids. The recombinant microorganisms express a polypeptide that has the enzymatic activity of an enzyme that is utilized in the pentose phosphate cycle. The recombinant microorganism may include recombinant Actinobacillus succinogenes that has been transformed to express a Zwischenferment (Zwf) gene. The recombinant microorganisms may be useful in fermentation processes for producing organic acids such as succinic acid and lactic acid. Also disclosed are novel plasmids that are useful for transforming microorganisms to produce recombinant microorganisms that express enzymes such as Zwf.

  18. Recombinant Bovine Growth Hormone Criticism Grows.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gaard, Greta

    1995-01-01

    Discusses concerns related to the use of recombinant bovine growth hormone in the United States and other countries. Analyses the issue from the perspectives of animal rights, human health, world hunger, concerns of small and organic farmers, costs to the taxpayer, and environmental questions. A sidebar discusses Canadian review of the hormone.…

  19. Science: The Recombinant DNA Advisory Committee.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wright, Susan

    1979-01-01

    Reports on the status of the Recombinant DNA Advisory Committee (RAC) and attempts to rationalize Suburban Highway Policy. Effective communication among members of the RAC is a current problem facing the committee. A federal transportation priority spending policy is suggested during these times of money and fuel shortages. (MA)

  20. Vaccine development using recombinant DNA technology

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Vaccines induce an immune response in the host that subsequently recognizes infectious agents and helps fight off the disease; vaccines must do this without causing the disease. This paper reviews the development of recombinant DNA technologies as a means of providing new ways for attenuating diseas...

  1. Recombinant protein blends: silk beyond natural design.

    PubMed

    Dinjaski, Nina; Kaplan, David L

    2016-06-01

    Recombinant DNA technology and new material concepts are shaping future directions in biomaterial science for the design and production of the next-generation biomaterial platforms. Aside from conventionally used synthetic polymers, numerous natural biopolymers (e.g., silk, elastin, collagen, gelatin, alginate, cellulose, keratin, chitin, polyhydroxyalkanoates) have been investigated for properties and manipulation via bioengineering. Genetic engineering provides a path to increase structural and functional complexity of these biopolymers, and thereby expand the catalog of available biomaterials beyond that which exists in nature. In addition, the integration of experimental approaches with computational modeling to analyze sequence-structure-function relationships is starting to have an impact in the field by establishing predictive frameworks for determining material properties. Herein, we review advances in recombinant DNA-mediated protein production and functionalization approaches, with a focus on hybrids or combinations of proteins; recombinant protein blends or 'recombinamers'. We highlight the potential biomedical applications of fibrous protein recombinamers, such as Silk-Elastin Like Polypeptides (SELPs) and Silk-Bacterial Collagens (SBCs). We also discuss the possibility for the rationale design of fibrous proteins to build smart, stimuli-responsive biomaterials for diverse applications. We underline current limitations with production systems for these proteins and discuss the main trends in systems/synthetic biology that may improve recombinant fibrous protein design and production. PMID:26686863

  2. CATALYTIC RECOMBINER FOR A NUCLEAR REACTOR

    DOEpatents

    King, L.D.P.

    1960-07-01

    A hydrogen-oxygen recombiner is described for use with water-boiler type reactors. The catalyst used is the wellknown platinized alumina, and the novelty lies in the structural arrangement used to prevent flashback through the gas input system. The recombiner is cylindrical, the gases at the input end being deflected by a baffle plate through a first flashback shield of steel shot into an annular passage adjacent to and extending the full length of the housing. Below the baffle plate the gases flow first through an outer annular array of alumina pellets which serve as a second flashback shield, a means of distributing the flowing gases evenly and as a means of reducing radiation losses to the walls. Thereafter the gases flow inio the centrally disposed catalyst bed where recombination is effected. The steam and uncombined gases flow into a centrally disposed cylindrical passage inside the catalyst bod and thereafter out through the exit port. A high rate of recombination is effected.

  3. Gas recombination assembly for electrochemical cells

    DOEpatents

    Levy, Isaac; Charkey, Allen

    1989-01-01

    An assembly for recombining gases generated in electrochemical cells wherein a catalyst strip is enveloped within a hydrophobic, gas-porous film which, in turn, is encased between gas-porous, metallic layers. The sandwich construction of metallic layers and film is formed into a spiral with a tab for connection to the cell.

  4. Recombinant DNA: Scientific and Social Perspectives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vandegrift, Vaughn

    1979-01-01

    This article is designed to inform chemical educators not engaged in this technology as to the nature and methods used in the technology, the reasons for scientific and social concern, and the attempts made to assuage concerns involving recombinant DNA research. (author/BB)

  5. Recombinant therapeutic proteins: production platforms and challenges.

    PubMed

    Dingermann, Theo

    2008-01-01

    Since the approval of insulin in 1982, more than 120 recombinant drug substances have been approved and become available as extremely valuable therapeutic options. Exact copying of the most common human form is no longer a value per se, as challenges, primarily related to the pharmacokinetics of artificial recombinant drugs, can be overcome by diverging from the original. However, relatively minor changes in manufacturing or packaging may impact safety of therapeutic proteins. A major achievement is the development of recombinant proteins capable of entering a cell. Such drugs open up completely new opportunities by targeting intracellular mechanisms or by substituting intracellularly operating enzymes. Concerns that protein variants would cause an intolerable immune response turned out to be exaggerated. Although most recombinant drugs provoke some immune response, they are still well tolerated. This knowledge might result in a change in attitude towards antibody formation, i.e., neutralizing antibody activity (in vitro) may be overcome by dosing consistently on the basis of antibody titers and not only on body weight. As with other drugs, efficacy and safety of therapeutic proteins have to be demonstrated in clinical studies, and superiority over available products has to be proven instead of just claimed. PMID:18041103

  6. Precise genotyping and recombination detection of Enterovirus

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Enteroviruses (EV) with different genotypes cause diverse infectious diseases in humans and mammals. A correct EV typing result is crucial for effective medical treatment and disease control; however, the emergence of novel viral strains has impaired the performance of available diagnostic tools. Here, we present a web-based tool, named EVIDENCE (EnteroVirus In DEep conception, http://symbiont.iis.sinica.edu.tw/evidence), for EV genotyping and recombination detection. We introduce the idea of using mixed-ranking scores to evaluate the fitness of prototypes based on relatedness and on the genome regions of interest. Using phylogenetic methods, the most possible genotype is determined based on the closest neighbor among the selected references. To detect possible recombination events, EVIDENCE calculates the sequence distance and phylogenetic relationship among sequences of all sliding windows scanning over the whole genome. Detected recombination events are plotted in an interactive figure for viewing of fine details. In addition, all EV sequences available in GenBank were collected and revised using the latest classification and nomenclature of EV in EVIDENCE. These sequences are built into the database and are retrieved in an indexed catalog, or can be searched for by keywords or by sequence similarity. EVIDENCE is the first web-based tool containing pipelines for genotyping and recombination detection, with updated, built-in, and complete reference sequences to improve sensitivity and specificity. The use of EVIDENCE can accelerate genotype identification, aiding clinical diagnosis and enhancing our understanding of EV evolution. PMID:26678286

  7. DNA Sequence Alignment during Homologous Recombination.

    PubMed

    Greene, Eric C

    2016-05-27

    Homologous recombination allows for the regulated exchange of genetic information between two different DNA molecules of identical or nearly identical sequence composition, and is a major pathway for the repair of double-stranded DNA breaks. A key facet of homologous recombination is the ability of recombination proteins to perfectly align the damaged DNA with homologous sequence located elsewhere in the genome. This reaction is referred to as the homology search and is akin to the target searches conducted by many different DNA-binding proteins. Here I briefly highlight early investigations into the homology search mechanism, and then describe more recent research. Based on these studies, I summarize a model that includes a combination of intersegmental transfer, short-distance one-dimensional sliding, and length-specific microhomology recognition to efficiently align DNA sequences during the homology search. I also suggest some future directions to help further our understanding of the homology search. Where appropriate, I direct the reader to other recent reviews describing various issues related to homologous recombination. PMID:27129270

  8. Precise genotyping and recombination detection of Enterovirus.

    PubMed

    Lin, Chieh-Hua; Wang, Yu-Bin; Chen, Shu-Hwa; Hsiung, Chao Agnes; Lin, Chung-Yen

    2015-01-01

    Enteroviruses (EV) with different genotypes cause diverse infectious diseases in humans and mammals. A correct EV typing result is crucial for effective medical treatment and disease control; however, the emergence of novel viral strains has impaired the performance of available diagnostic tools. Here, we present a web-based tool, named EVIDENCE (EnteroVirus In DEep conception, http://symbiont.iis.sinica.edu.tw/evidence), for EV genotyping and recombination detection. We introduce the idea of using mixed-ranking scores to evaluate the fitness of prototypes based on relatedness and on the genome regions of interest. Using phylogenetic methods, the most possible genotype is determined based on the closest neighbor among the selected references. To detect possible recombination events, EVIDENCE calculates the sequence distance and phylogenetic relationship among sequences of all sliding windows scanning over the whole genome. Detected recombination events are plotted in an interactive figure for viewing of fine details. In addition, all EV sequences available in GenBank were collected and revised using the latest classification and nomenclature of EV in EVIDENCE. These sequences are built into the database and are retrieved in an indexed catalog, or can be searched for by keywords or by sequence similarity. EVIDENCE is the first web-based tool containing pipelines for genotyping and recombination detection, with updated, built-in, and complete reference sequences to improve sensitivity and specificity. The use of EVIDENCE can accelerate genotype identification, aiding clinical diagnosis and enhancing our understanding of EV evolution. PMID:26678286

  9. Recombination phenomena in high efficiency silicon solar cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sah, C. T.

    1985-01-01

    The dominant recombination phenomena which limit the highest efficiency attainable in silicon solar cells under terrestrial sunlight are reviewed. The ultimate achievable efficiency is limited by the two intrinsic recombination mechanisms, the interband Auger recombination and interband Radiative recombination, both of which occur in the entire cell body but principally in the base layer. It is suggested that an optimum (26%) cell design is one with lowly doped 50 to 100 micron thick base, a perfect BSF, and zero extrinsic recombination such as the thermal mechanism at recombination centers the Shockley-Read-Hall process (SRH) in the bulk, on the surface and at the interfaces. The importance of recombination at the interfaces of a high-efficiency cell is demonstrated by the ohmic contact on the back surface whose interface recombination velocity is infinite. The importance of surface and interface recombination is demonstrated by representing the auger and radiative recombination losses by effective recombination velocities. It is demonstrated that the three highest efficiency cells may all be limited by the SRH recombination losses at recombination centers in the base layer.

  10. Radiative transfer effects in primordial hydrogen recombination

    SciTech Connect

    Ali-Haiemoud, Yacine; Hirata, Christopher M.; Grin, Daniel

    2010-12-15

    The calculation of a highly accurate cosmological recombination history has been the object of particular attention recently, as it constitutes the major theoretical uncertainty when predicting the angular power spectrum of cosmic microwave background anisotropies. Lyman transitions, in particular the Lyman-{alpha} line, have long been recognized as one of the bottlenecks of recombination, due to their very low escape probabilities. The Sobolev approximation does not describe radiative transfer in the vicinity of Lyman lines to a sufficient degree of accuracy, and several corrections have already been computed in other works. In this paper, we compute the impact of some radiative transfer effects that were previously ignored, or for which previous treatments were incomplete. First, the effect of Thomson scattering in the vicinity of the Lyman-{alpha} line is evaluated, using a full redistribution kernel incorporated into a radiative transfer code. The effect of feedback of distortions generated by the optically thick deuterium Lyman-{alpha} line blueward of the hydrogen line is investigated with an analytic approximation. It is shown that both effects are negligible during cosmological hydrogen recombination. Second, the importance of high-lying, nonoverlapping Lyman transitions is assessed. It is shown that escape from lines above Ly{gamma} and frequency diffusion in Ly{beta} and higher lines can be neglected without loss of accuracy. Third, a formalism generalizing the Sobolev approximation is developed to account for the overlap of the high-lying Lyman lines, which is shown to lead to negligible changes to the recombination history. Finally, the possibility of a cosmological hydrogen recombination maser is investigated. It is shown that there is no such maser in the purely radiative treatment presented here.

  11. Ancestries of a recombining diploid population.

    PubMed

    Sainudiin, R; Thatte, B; Véber, A

    2016-01-01

    We derive the exact one-step transition probabilities of the number of lineages that are ancestral to a random sample from the current generation of a bi-parental population that is evolving under the discrete Wright-Fisher model with n diploid individuals. Our model allows for a per-generation recombination probability of r . When r = 1, our model is equivalent to Chang's (Adv Appl Probab 31:1002-1038, 1999) model for the karyotic pedigree. When r = 0, our model is equivalent to Kingman's (Stoch Process Appl 13:235-248, 1982) discrete coalescent model for the cytoplasmic tree or sub-karyotic tree containing a DNA locus that is free of intra-locus recombination. When 0 < r < 1 our model can be thought to track a sub-karyotic ancestral graph containing a DNA sequence from an autosomal chromosome that has an intra-locus recombination probability r . Thus, our family of models indexed by r ∈ [0, 1] connects Kingman's discrete coalescent to Chang's pedigree in a continuous way as r goes from 0 to 1. For large populations, we also study three properties of the ancestral process corresponding to a given r ∈ (0, 1): the time Tn to a most recent common ancestor (MRCA) of the population, the time Un at which all individuals are either common ancestors of all present day individuals or ancestral to none of them, and the fraction of individuals that are common ancestors at time Un. These results generalize the three main results of Chang's (Adv Appl Probab 31:1002-1038, 1999). When we appropriately rescale time and recombination probability by the population size, our model leads to the continuous time Markov chain called the ancestral recombination graph of Hudson (Theor Popul Biol 23:183-201, 1983) and Griffiths (The two-locus ancestral graph, Institute of Mathematical Statistics 100-117, 1991). PMID:25925241

  12. Extrachromosomal recombination substrates recapitulate beyond 12/23 restricted VDJ recombination in nonlymphoid cells.

    PubMed

    Jung, David; Bassing, Craig H; Fugmann, Sebastian D; Cheng, Hwei-Ling; Schatz, David G; Alt, Frederick W

    2003-01-01

    V(D)J recombination occurs efficiently only between gene segments flanked by recombination signals (RSs) containing 12 and 23 base pair spacers (the 12/23 rule). A further limitation "beyond the 12/23 rule" (B12/23) exists at the TCRbeta locus and ensures Dbeta usage. Herein, we show that extrachromosomal V(D)J recombination substrates recapitulate B12/23 restriction in nonlymphoid cells. We further demonstrate that the Vbeta coding flank, the 12-RS heptamer/nonamer, and the 23-RS spacer each can significantly influence B12/23 restriction. Finally, purified core RAG1 and RAG2 proteins (together with HMG2) also reproduce B12/23 restriction in a cell-free system. Our findings indicate that B12/23 restriction of V(D)J recombination is cemented at the level of interactions between the RAG proteins and TCRbeta RS sequences. PMID:12530976

  13. Bacteriophage T4 DNA Topoisomerase Mediates Illegitimate Recombination in vitro

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ikeda, Hideo

    1986-02-01

    We have found that purified T4 DNA topoisomerase promotes recombination between two phage λ DNA molecules in an in vitro system. In this cross, T4 DNA topoisomerase alone is able to catalyze the recombination and produce a linear monomer recombinant DNA that can be packaged in vitro. ATP is not required for this recombination, while oxolinic acid stimulates it. The recombinant DNA molecules contain duplications or deletions, and the crossovers take place between nonhomologous and nonspecific sequences of λ DNA. Therefore, the recombination mediated by the T4 DNA topoisomerase is an illegitimate recombination that is similar to that mediated by Escherichia coli DNA gyrase. A model was proposed previously in which DNA gyrase molecules that are bound to DNA associate with each other and lead to the exchange of DNA strands through the exchange of DNA gyrase subunits. This model is also applicable to the recombination mediated by T4 DNA topoisomerase.

  14. Serial Recombination during Circulation of Type 1 Wild-Vaccine Recombinant Polioviruses in China

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Hong-Mei; Zheng, Du-Ping; Zhang, Li-Bi; Oberste, M. Steven; Kew, Olen M.; Pallansch, Mark A.

    2003-01-01

    Type 1 wild-vaccine recombinant polioviruses sharing a 367-nucleotide (nt) block of Sabin 1-derived sequence spanning the VP1 and 2A genes circulated widely in China from 1991 to 1993. We surveyed the sequence relationships among 34 wild-vaccine recombinants by comparing six genomic intervals: the conserved 5′-untranslated region (5′-UTR) (nt 186 to 639), the hypervariable portion of the 5′-UTR (nt 640 to 742), the VP4 and partial VP2 genes (nt 743 to 1176), the VP1 gene (nt 2480 to 3385), the 2A gene (nt 3386 to 3832), and the partial 3D gene (nt 6011 to 6544). The 5′-UTR, capsid (VP4-VP2 and VP1), and 2A sequence intervals had similar phylogenies. By contrast, the partial 3D sequences could be distributed into five divergent genetic classes. Most (25 of 34) of the wild-vaccine recombinant isolates showed no evidence of additional recombination beyond the initial wild-Sabin recombination event. Eight isolates from 1992 to 1993, however, appear to be derived from three independent additional recombination events, and one 1993 isolate was derived from two consecutive events. Complete genomic sequences of a representative isolate for each 3D sequence class demonstrated that these exchanges had occurred in the 2B, 2C, and 3D genes. The 3D gene sequences were not closely related to those of the Sabin strains or 53 diverse contemporary wild poliovirus isolates from China, but all were related to the 3D genes of species C enteroviruses. The appearance within approximately 2.5 years of five recombinant classes derived from a single ancestral infection illustrates the rapid emergence of new recombinants among circulating wild polioviruses. PMID:14512548

  15. Production and characterization of recombinant lignin peroxidase isozyme H2 from Phanerochaete chrysosporium using recombinant baculovirus.

    PubMed

    Johnson, T M; Pease, E A; Li, J K; Tien, M

    1992-08-01

    Recombinant Phanerochaete chrysosporium lignin peroxidase isozyme H2 (pI 4.4) was produced in insect cells infected with a genetically engineered baculovirus containing a copy of the cDNA clone lambda ML-6. The recombinant enzyme was purified to near homogeneity and is capable of oxidizing veratryl alcohol, iodide, and, to a lesser extent, guaiacol. The Km of the recombinant enzyme for veratryl alcohol and H2O2 is similar to that of the fungal enzyme. The guaiacol oxidation activity or any other activity is not dependent upon Mn2+. The purified recombinant peroxidase is glycosylated with N-linked carbohydrate(s). The recombinant lignin peroxidase eluted from an anion exchange resin similar to that of native isozyme H1 rather than H2. However, the pI of the recombinant enzymes is different from both H1 and H2 isozymes. Further characterization of native isozymes H1 and H2 from the fungal cultures revealed identical N-terminus residues. This indicates that isozymes H1 and H2 differ in post-translational modification. PMID:1632652

  16. An improved recombineering approach by adding RecA to lambda Red recombination.

    PubMed

    Wang, Junping; Sarov, Mihail; Rientjes, Jeanette; Fu, Jun; Hollak, Heike; Kranz, Harald; Xie, Wei; Stewart, A Francis; Zhang, Youming

    2006-01-01

    Recombineering is the use of homologous recombination in Escherichia coli for DNA engineering. Of several approaches, use of the lambda phage Red operon is emerging as the most reliable and flexible. The Red operon includes three components: Redalpha, a 5' to 3' exonuclease, Redbeta, an annealing protein, and Redgamma, an inhibitor of the major E. coli exonuclease and recombination complex, RecBCD. Most E. coli cloning hosts are recA deficient to eliminate recombination and therefore enhance the stability of cloned DNAs. However, loss of RecA also impairs general cellular integrity. Here we report that transient RecA co-expression enhances the total number of successful recombinations in bacterial artificial chromosomes (BACs), mostly because the E. coli host is more able to survive the stresses of DNA transformation procedures. We combined this practical improvement with the advantages of a temperature-sensitive version of the low copy pSC101 plasmid to develop a protocol that is convenient and more efficient than any recombineering procedure, for use of either double- or single-stranded DNA, published to date. PMID:16382181

  17. Molecular hydrogen in the cosmic recombination epoch

    SciTech Connect

    Alizadeh, Esfandiar; Hirata, Christopher M.

    2011-10-15

    The advent of precise measurements of the CMB anisotropies has motivated correspondingly precise calculations of the cosmic recombination history. Cosmic recombination proceeds far out of equilibrium because of a ''bottleneck'' at the n=2 level of hydrogen: atoms can only reach the ground state via slow processes--two-photon decay or Lyman-{alpha} resonance escape. However, even a small primordial abundance of molecules could have a large effect on the interline opacity in the recombination epoch and lead to an additional route for hydrogen recombination. Therefore, this paper computes the abundance of the H{sub 2} molecule during the cosmic recombination epoch. Hydrogen molecules in the ground electronic levels X{sup 1}{Sigma}{sub g}{sup +} can either form from the excited H{sub 2} electronic levels B{sup 1}{Sigma}{sub u}{sup +} and C{sup 1}{Pi}{sub u} or through the charged particles H{sub 2}{sup +}, HeH{sup +}, and H{sup -}. We follow the transitions among all of these species, resolving the rotational and vibrational sublevels. Since the energies of the X{sup 1}{Sigma}{sub g}{sup +}-B{sup 1}{Sigma}{sub u}{sup +} (Lyman band) and X{sup 1}{Sigma}{sub g}{sup +}-C{sup 1}{Pi}{sub u} (Werner band) transitions are near the Lyman-{alpha} energy, the distortion of the CMB spectrum caused by escaped H Lyman-line photons accelerates both the formation and the destruction of H{sub 2} due to this channel relative to the thermal rates. This causes the populations of H{sub 2} molecules in X{sup 1}{Sigma}{sub g}{sup +} energy levels to deviate from their thermal equilibrium abundances. We find that the resulting H{sub 2} abundance is 10{sup -17} at z=1200 and 10{sup -13} at z=800, which is too small to have any significant influence on the recombination history.

  18. The Unconventional Xer Recombination Machinery of Streptococci/Lactococci

    PubMed Central

    Le Bourgeois, Pascal; Bugarel, Marie; Campo, Nathalie; Daveran-Mingot, Marie-Line; Labonté, Jessica; Lanfranchi, Daniel; Lautier, Thomas; Pagès, Carine; Ritzenthaler, Paul

    2007-01-01

    Homologous recombination between circular sister chromosomes during DNA replication in bacteria can generate chromosome dimers that must be resolved into monomers prior to cell division. In Escherichia coli, dimer resolution is achieved by site-specific recombination, Xer recombination, involving two paralogous tyrosine recombinases, XerC and XerD, and a 28-bp recombination site (dif) located at the junction of the two replication arms. Xer recombination is tightly controlled by the septal protein FtsK. XerCD recombinases and FtsK are found on most sequenced eubacterial genomes, suggesting that the Xer recombination system as described in E. coli is highly conserved among prokaryotes. We show here that Streptococci and Lactococci carry an alternative Xer recombination machinery, organized in a single recombination module. This corresponds to an atypical 31-bp recombination site (difSL) associated with a dedicated tyrosine recombinase (XerS). In contrast to the E. coli Xer system, only a single recombinase is required to recombine difSL, suggesting a different mechanism in the recombination process. Despite this important difference, XerS can only perform efficient recombination when difSL sites are located on chromosome dimers. Moreover, the XerS/difSL recombination requires the streptococcal protein FtsKSL, probably without the need for direct protein-protein interaction, which we demonstrated to be located at the division septum of Lactococcus lactis. Acquisition of the XerS recombination module can be considered as a landmark of the separation of Streptococci/Lactococci from other firmicutes and support the view that Xer recombination is a conserved cellular function in bacteria, but that can be achieved by functional analogs. PMID:17630835

  19. Using Crossover Breakpoints in Recombinant Inbred Lines to Identify Quantitative Trait Loci Controlling the Global Recombination Frequency

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Recombination is a crucial component of evolution and breeding, producing new genetic combinations on which selection can act. Rates of recombination vary tremendously, not only between species but also within species and for specific chromosomal segments. In this study, by examining recombination...

  20. Recombination energy in double white dwarf formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nandez, J. L. A.; Ivanova, N.; Lombardi, J. C.

    2015-06-01

    In this Letter, we investigate the role of recombination energy during a common envelope event. We confirm that taking this energy into account helps to avoid the formation of the circumbinary envelope commonly found in previous studies. For the first time, we can model a complete common envelope event, with a clean compact double white dwarf binary system formed at the end. The resulting binary orbit is almost perfectly circular. In addition to considering recombination energy, we also show that between 1/4 and 1/2 of the released orbital energy is taken away by the ejected material. We apply this new method to the case of the double white dwarf system WD 1101+364, and we find that the progenitor system at the start of the common envelope event consisted of an ˜1.5 M⊙ red giant star in an ˜30 d orbit with a white dwarf companion.

  1. The evolution of sex dimorphism in recombination.

    PubMed Central

    Lenormand, Thomas

    2003-01-01

    Sex dimorphism in recombination is widespread on both sex chromosomes and autosomes. Various hypotheses have been proposed to explain these dimorphisms. Yet no theoretical model has been explored to determine how heterochiasmy--the autosomal dimorphism--could evolve. The model presented here shows three circumstances in which heterochiasmy is likely to evolve: (i) a male-female difference in haploid epistasis, (ii) a male-female difference in cis-epistasis minus trans-epistasis in diploids, or (iii) a difference in epistasis between combinations of genes inherited maternally or paternally. These results hold even if sources of linkage disequilibria besides epistasis, such as migration or Hill-Robertson interference, are considered and shed light on previous verbal models of sex dimorphism in recombination rates. Intriguingly, these results may also explain why imprinted regions on the autosomes of humans or sheep are particularly heterochiasmate. PMID:12618416

  2. Recombinant laccase: I. Enzyme cloning and characterization.

    PubMed

    Nicolini, Claudio; Bruzzese, Debora; Cambria, Maria Teresa; Bragazzi, Nicola Luigi; Pechkova, Eugenia

    2013-03-01

    We obtained structural and functional characterization of a recombinant Laccase from Rigidoporus lignosus (formerly Rigidoporus microporus), a white-rot basidiomycete, by means of circular dichroism (CD) spectra, cyclic voltammetry (CV) and biochemical assays. Here we report the optimization of expression and purification procedures of a recombinant Laccase expressed in supercompetent Escherichia coli cells. We amplified the coding sequence of Laccase using PCR from cDNA and cloned into a bacterial expression system. The resulting expression plasmid, pET-28b, was under a strong T7/Lac promoter induced by IPTG (isopropyl-β-d-thiogalactoipyranoside). We obtained purification by fast protein liquid chromatography (FPLC) method. We recorded the variation of the current of a solution containing purified Laccase with increasing Syringaldazine (SGZ) concentration using a potentiometer as proof of principle, showing its compatibility with the development of a new enzymatic biosensor for medical purposes, as described in Part II. PMID:22991171

  3. Recombination clumping factor during cosmic reionization

    SciTech Connect

    Kaurov, Alexander A.; Gnedin, Nickolay Y. E-mail: gnedin@fnal.gov

    2014-06-01

    We discuss the role of recombinations in the intergalactic medium, and the related concept of the clumping factor, during cosmic reionization. The clumping factor is, in general, a local quantity that depends on both the local overdensity and the scale below which the baryon density field can be assumed smooth. That scale, called the filtering scale, depends on over-density and local thermal history. We present a method for building a self-consistent analytical model of inhomogeneous reionization, assuming the linear growth rate of the density fluctuation, which simultaneously accounts for these effects. We show that taking into account the local clumping factor introduces significant corrections to the total recombination rate, compared to the model with a globally uniform clumping factor.

  4. Recombinant organisms for production of industrial products

    PubMed Central

    Adrio, Jose-Luis

    2010-01-01

    A revolution in industrial microbiology was sparked by the discoveries of ther double-stranded structure of DNA and the development of recombinant DNA technology. Traditional industrial microbiology was merged with molecular biology to yield improved recombinant processes for the industrial production of primary and secondary metabolites, protein biopharmaceuticals and industrial enzymes. Novel genetic techniques such as metabolic engineering, combinatorial biosynthesis and molecular breeding techniques and their modifications are contributing greatly to the development of improved industrial processes. In addition, functional genomics, proteomics and metabolomics are being exploited for the discovery of novel valuable small molecules for medicine as well as enzymes for catalysis. The sequencing of industrial microbal genomes is being carried out which bodes well for future process improvement and discovery of new industrial products. PMID:21326937

  5. Recombineering BAC transgenes for protein tagging.

    PubMed

    Ciotta, Giovanni; Hofemeister, Helmut; Maresca, Marcello; Fu, Jun; Sarov, Mihail; Anastassiadis, Konstantinos; Stewart, A Francis

    2011-02-01

    Protein tagging offers many advantages for proteomic and regulomic research, particularly due to the use of generic and highly sensitive methods that can be applied with reasonable throughput. Ideally, protein tagging is equivalent to having a high affinity antibody for every chosen protein. However, these advantages are compromised if the tagged protein is overexpressed, which is usually the case from cDNA expression vectors. BAC (bacterial artificial chromosome) transgenes present a way to express a chosen protein at physiological levels with all regulatory elements in their native configurations, including cell cycle, alternative splicing and microRNA regulation. Recombineering has become the method of choice for modifying large constructs like BACs. Here, we present a method for protein tagging by recombineering BACs, transfecting cells and evaluating tagged protein expression. PMID:20868752

  6. Hα diagnostic in a recombining plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wenzel, U.; Goto, M.

    2016-05-01

    In fusion devices the hydrogen Balmer lines are used to measure the neutral flux from the walls into the plasma using the atomic physics factor S/XB. This is a standard diagnostic which can be applied in ionizing plasma using {{H}α} , {{H}β} or {{H}γ} without knowledge of the electron density. We will extend this method to a recombining plasma in front of a surface. {{H}α} can be used in an analogous way to measure the plasma flow to this surface which can be e.g. a divertor target. The other Balmer lines are not suitable because the corresponding atomic physics factor R/YB depends on density due to three-body recombination. An application of this diagnostic method is provided.

  7. Dissipative Stern-Gerlach recombination experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Oliveira, Thiago R. de; Caldeira, A. O.

    2006-04-15

    The possibility of obtaining the initial pure state in a usual Stern-Gerlach experiment through the recombination of the two emerging beams is investigated. We have extended the previous work of Englert, Schwinger, and Scully [Found Phys. 18, 1045 (1988)] including the fluctuations of the magnetic field generated by a properly chosen magnet. As a result we obtained an attenuation factor to the possible revival of coherence when the beams are perfectly recombined. When the source of the magnetic field is a superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID) the attenuation factor can be controlled by external circuits and the spin decoherence directly measured. For the proposed SQUID with dimensions in the scale of microns the attenuation factor has been shown unimportant when compared with the interaction time of the spin with the magnet.

  8. Designing recombinant Pseudomonas strains to enhance biodesulfurization.

    PubMed Central

    Gallardo, M E; Ferrández, A; De Lorenzo, V; García, J L; Díaz, E

    1997-01-01

    The dsz biodesulfurization cluster from Rhodococcus erythropolis IGTS8 has been engineered under the control of heterologous broad-host-range regulatory signals to alleviate the mechanism of sulfur repression, and it was stably inserted into the chromosomes of different Pseudomonas strains. The recombinant bacteria were able to desulfurize dibenzothiophene more efficiently than the native host. Furthermore, these new biocatalysts combine relevant industrial and environmental traits, such as production of biosurfactants, with the enhanced biodesulfurization phenotype. PMID:9371464

  9. Recombinant organisms capable of fermenting cellobiose

    DOEpatents

    Ingram, Lonnie O.; Lai, Xiaokuang; Moniruzzaman, Mohammed; York, Sean W.

    2000-01-01

    This invention relates to a recombinant microorganism which expresses pyruvate decarboxylase, alcohol dehydrogenase, Klebsiella phospho-.beta.-glucosidase and Klebsiella (phosphoenolpyruvate-dependent phosphotransferase system) cellobiose-utilizing Enzyme II, wherein said phospho-.beta.-glucosidase and said (phosphoenolpyruvate-dependent phosphotransferase) cellobiose-utilizing Enzyme II are heterologous to said microorganism and wherein said microorganism is capable of utilizing both hemicellulose and cellulose, including cellobiose, in the production of ethanol.

  10. Nonradiative Auger recombination in semiconductor nanocrystals.

    PubMed

    Vaxenburg, Roman; Rodina, Anna; Shabaev, Andrew; Lifshitz, Efrat; Efros, Alexander L

    2015-03-11

    We calculate the rate of nonradiative Auger recombination in negatively charged CdSe nanocrystals (NCs). The rate is nonmonotonic, strongly oscillating with NC size, and sensitive to the NC surface. The oscillations result in nonexponential decay of carriers in NC ensembles. Using a standard single-exponential approximation of the decay dynamics, we determine the apparent size dependence of the Auger rate in an ensemble and derive CdSe surface parameters consistent with the experimental dependence on size. PMID:25693512

  11. Mechanism and regulation of meiotic recombination initiation

    PubMed Central

    Lam, Isabel; Keeney, Scott

    2015-01-01

    Meiotic recombination involves the formation and repair of programmed DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) catalyzed by the conserved Spo11 protein. This review summarizes recent studies pertaining to the formation of meiotic DSBs, including the mechanism of DNA cleavage by Spo11, proteins required for break formation, and mechanisms that control the location, timing, and number of DSBs. Where appropriate, findings in different organisms are discussed to highlight evolutionary conservation or divergence. PMID:25324213

  12. Development of Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae Recombinant Vaccines.

    PubMed

    Marchioro, Silvana Beutinger; Simionatto, Simone; Dellagostin, Odir

    2016-01-01

    Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae is the etiological agent of swine enzootic pneumonia (EP), a disease that affects swine production worldwide. Vaccination is the most cost-effective strategy for the control and prevention of the disease. Research using genome-based approach has the potential to elucidate the biology and pathogenesis of M. hyopneumoniae and contribute to the development of more effective vaccines. Here, we describe the protocol for developing M. hyopneumoniae recombinant vaccines using reverse vaccinology approaches. PMID:27076288

  13. Cultivating Insect Cells To Produce Recombinant Proteins

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spaulding, Glenn; Goodwin, Thomas; Prewett, Tacey; Andrews, Angela; Francis, Karen; O'Connor, Kim

    1996-01-01

    Method of producing recombinant proteins involves growth of insect cells in nutrient solution in cylindrical bioreactor rotating about cylindrical axis, oriented horizontally and infecting cells with viruses into which genes of selected type cloned. Genes in question those encoding production of desired proteins. Horizontal rotating bioreactor preferred for use in method, denoted by acronym "HARV", described in "High-Aspect-Ratio Rotating Cell-Culture Vessel" (MSC-21662).

  14. Three-Body Recombination of Oxygen Atoms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huestis, D. L.; Kalogerakis, K. S.

    2002-05-01

    Dayside photodissociation of O2 and CO2 in the atmospheres of Earth, Venus, and Mars produces oxygen atoms that eventually undergo three-body recombination O + O + M -> O2* + M The variety of electronic states produced is observable as nightglow emissions, which have been the subject of many laboratory and interpretive investigations. Here we review the current understanding of the overall temperature-dependent rate coefficient for three-body recombination of oxygen atoms and describe a strategy for its measurement. The most recent measurement [1] is almost 30 years old. The most comprehensive review [2] is more than 25 years old and shows that the absolute rate coefficients for recombination and the reverse process, collision-induced dissociation, as well as the dependence on temperature and collider, are poorly determined, in spite of the relatively narrow error bars reported in the various studies. The most recent high-temperature dissociation study [3] actually increases the divergence. We plan experiments with a commercial F2 laser, providing roughly 50 mJ of 157 nm radiation in a 3-4 mm beam, to achieve greater than 80% dissociation of molecular oxygen, in the range from 0.5 to 5 torr. In a high-pressure N2 background (30-200 torr) the oxygen atoms will recombine in a time scale from 0.1 to 10 ms, as monitored by 845 nm fluorescence excited by two photons at 226 nm. [1] I. M. Campbell and C. N. Gray, Chem. Phys. Lett. 18, 607 (1973). [2] D. L. Baulch, D. D. Drysdale, J. Duxbury, and S. J. Grant, Evaluated Kinetic Data for High Temperature Reactions Vol. 3 ``Homogeneous Gas Phase Reactions of the O2--O3 System, the CO--O2--H2 System, and of Sulphur-Containing Species," (Butterworths, London, 1976). [3] V. Naudet, S. Abid, and C. E. Paillard, J. Chim. Phys. 96, 1123 (1999).

  15. Ion recombination in aircraft exhaust plumes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sorokin, A.; Mirabel, P.

    In this article, a model which examines the evolution of ion concentrations in a hot aircraft exhaust plume on the ground is proposed. The model includes plume dilution and ion-ion recombination with coefficients which vary with temperature. A comparison of the model is made with the available ground-based experimental data obtained on the ATTAS research aircraft engines. From this comparison, an ion emission index of the order of 8 1016 ions/kg(fuel) inferred.

  16. [Homologous recombination among bacterial genomes: the measurement and identification].

    PubMed

    Xianwei, Yang; Ruifu, Yang; Yujun, Cui

    2016-02-01

    Homologous recombination is one of important sources in shaping the bacterial population diversity, which disrupts the clonal relationship among different lineages through horizontal transferring of DNA-segments. As consequence of blurring the vertical inheritance signals, the homologous recombination raises difficulties in phylogenetic analysis and reconstruction of population structure. Here we discuss the impacts of homologous recombination in inferring phylogenetic relationship among bacterial isolates, and summarize the tools and models separately used in recombination measurement and identification. We also highlight the merits and drawbacks of various approaches, aiming to assist in the practical application for the analysis of homologous recombination in bacterial evolution research. PMID:26907777

  17. RECOMBINATION RATE COEFFICIENTS OF Be-LIKE Si

    SciTech Connect

    Orban, I.; Boehm, S.; Schuch, R.; Loch, S. D.

    2010-10-01

    Recombination of Be-like Si{sup 10+} over the 0-43 eV electron-ion energy range is measured at the CRYRING electron cooler. In addition to radiative and dielectronic recombination, the recombination spectrum also shows strong contributions from trielectronic recombination. Below 100 meV, several very strong resonances associated with a spin-flip of the excited electron dominate the spectrum and also dominate the recombination in the photoionized plasma. The resonant plasma rate coefficients corrected for the experimental field ionization are in good agreement with calculated results by Gu and with AUTOSTRUCTURE calculations. All other calculations significantly underestimate the plasma rate coefficients at low temperatures.

  18. Radiative recombination of hot carriers in narrow-gap semiconductors

    SciTech Connect

    Pavlov, N. V.; Zegrya, G. G.

    2012-01-15

    The mechanism of the radiative recombination of hot carriers in narrow-gap semiconductors is analyzed using the example of indium antimonide. It is shown that the CHCC Auger recombination process may lead to pronounced carrier heating at high excitation levels. The distribution functions and concentrations of hot carriers are determined. The radiative recombination rate of hot carriers and the radiation gain coefficient are calculated in terms of the Kane model. It is demonstrated that the radiative recombination of hot carriers will make a substantial contribution to the total radiative recombination rate at high carrier concentrations.

  19. Recombination between linear double-stranded DNA substrates in vivo

    PubMed Central

    Narayanan, Kumaran; Sim, Edmund Ui-Hang; Ravin, Nikolai V.; Lee, Choon-Weng

    2009-01-01

    Recombineering technology in E. coli enables targeting of linear donor DNA to circular recipient DNA using short shared homology sequences. In this work, we demonstrate that recombineering is also able to support recombination between a pair of linear DNA substrates (linear/linear recombineering) in vivo in E. coli. Linear DNA up to 100 kb is accurately modified and remains intact without undergoing rearrangements after recombination. This system will be valuable for direct in vivo manipulation of large linear DNA including the N15 and PY54 prophages and linear animal viruses, and for assembly of linear constructs as artificial chromosome vectors. PMID:19454252

  20. Recombinant Origin of the Retrovirus XMRV

    PubMed Central

    Paprotka, Tobias; Delviks-Frankenberry, Krista A.; Cingöz, Oya; Martinez, Anthony; Kung, Hsing-Jien; Tepper, Clifford G.; Hu, Wei-Shau; Fivash, Matthew J.; Coffin, John M.; Pathak, Vinay K.

    2012-01-01

    The retrovirus XMRV (xenotropic murine leukemia virus-related virus) has been detected in human prostate tumors and in blood samples from patients with chronic fatigue syndrome, but these findings have not been replicated. We hypothesized that an understanding of when and how XMRV first arose might help explain the discrepant results. We studied human prostate cancer cell lines CWR22Rv1 and CWR-R1, which produce XMRV virtually identical to the viruses recently found in patient samples, as well as their progenitor human prostate tumor xenograft (CWR22) that had been passaged in mice. We detected XMRV infection in the two cell lines and in the later passage xenografts, but not in the early passages. Importantly, we found that the host mice contained two proviruses, PreXMRV-1 and PreXMRV-2, which share 99.92% identity with XMRV over >3.2-kb stretches of their genomes. We conclude that XMRV was not present in the original CWR22 tumor but was generated by recombination of two proviruses during tumor passaging in mice. The probability that an identical recombinant was generated independently is negligible (~10-12); our results suggest that the association of XMRV with human disease is due to contamination of human samples with virus originating from this recombination event. PMID:21628392

  1. Production of recombinant allergens in plants

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    A large percentage of allergenic proteins are of plant origin. Hence, plant-based expression systems are considered ideal for the recombinant production of certain allergens. First attempts to establish production of plant-derived allergens in plants focused on transient expression in Nicotiana benthamiana infected with recombinant viral vectors. Accordingly, allergens from birch and mugwort pollen, as well as from apple have been expressed in plants. Production of house dust mite allergens has been achieved by Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of tobacco plants. Beside the use of plants as production systems, other approaches have focused on the development of edible vaccines expressing allergens or epitopes thereof, which bypasses the need of allergen purification. The potential of this approach has been convincingly demonstrated for transgenic rice seeds expressing seven dominant human T cell epitopes derived from Japanese cedar pollen allergens. Parallel to efforts in developing recombinant-based diagnostic and therapeutic reagents, different gene-silencing approaches have been used to decrease the expression of allergenic proteins in allergen sources. In this way hypoallergenic ryegrass, soybean, rice, apple, and tomato were developed. PMID:21258627

  2. Dissociative recombination of molecular ions with electrons

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnsen, Rainer

    1990-01-01

    An overview is presented for the present state of the art of laboratory measurements of the dissociative recombination of molecular ions with electrons. Most work has focussed on obtaining rates and their temperature dependence, as these are of primary interest for model calculations of ionospheres. A comparison of data obtained using the microwave afterglow method, the flowing afterglow technique, and the merged beam technique shows that generally the agreement is quite good, but there are some serious discrepancies, especially in the case of H(3+) recombination, that need to be resolved. Results of some earlier experimental work need to be reexamined in the light of more recent developments. Such cases are pointed out and a compilation of rate coefficients that have withstood scrutiny is presented. Recent advances in experimental methods, such as the use of laser-in-duced fluorescence, make it possible to identify some neutral products of dissociative recombination. What has been done so far and what results one might expect from future work are briefly reviewed.

  3. Recombinant vaccine for canine parvovirus in dogs.

    PubMed

    López de Turiso, J A; Cortés, E; Martínez, C; Ruiz de Ybáñez, R; Simarro, I; Vela, C; Casal, I

    1992-05-01

    VP2 is the major component of canine parvovirus (CPV) capsids. The VP2-coding gene was engineered to be expressed by a recombinant baculovirus under the control of the polyhedrin promoter. A transfer vector that contains the lacZ gene under the control of the p10 promoter was used in order to facilitate the selection of recombinants. The expressed VP2 was found to be structurally and immunologically indistinguishable from authentic VP2. The recombinant VP2 shows also the capability to self-assemble, forming viruslike particles similar in size and appearance to CPV virions. These viruslike particles have been used to immunize dogs in different doses and combinations of adjuvants, and the anti-CPV responses have been measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, monolayer protection assays, and an assay for the inhibition of hemagglutination. A dose of ca. 10 micrograms of VP2 was able to elicit a good protective response, higher than that obtained with a commercially available, inactivated vaccine. The results indicate that these viruslike particles can be used to protect dogs from CPV infection. PMID:1313899

  4. FASEB Summer Research Conference. Genetic Recombination and Chromosome Rearrangements

    SciTech Connect

    Jinks-Robertson, Sue

    2002-02-01

    The 2001 meeting entitled ''Genetic Recombination and Genome Rearrangements'' was held July 21-26 in Snowmass, Colorado. The goal of the meeting was to bring together scientists using diverse approaches to study all aspects of genetic recombination. This goal was achieved by integrating talks covering the genetics, biochemistry and structural biology of homologous recombination, site-specific recombination, and nonhomologous recombination. The format of the meeting consisted of a keynote address on the opening evening, two formal plenary sessions on each of the four full meeting days, a single afternoon workshop consisting of short talks chosen from among submitted abstracts, and afternoon poster sessions on each of the four full meeting days. The eight plenary session were entitled: (1) Recombination Mechanisms, (2) Prokaryotic Recombination, (3) Repair and Recombination, (4) Site-specific Recombination and Transposition, (5) Eukaryotic Recombination I, (6) Genome Rearrangements, (7) Meiosis, and (8) Eukaryotic Recombination II. Each session included a mix of genetic, biochemical and structural talks; talks were limited to 20 minutes, followed by 10 minutes of very lively, general discussion. Much of the data presented in the plenary sessions was unpublished, thus providing attendees with the most up-to-date knowledge of this rapidly-moving field.

  5. Recombination Pattern Reanalysis of Some HIV-1 Circulating Recombination Forms Suggest the Necessity and Difficulty of Revision

    PubMed Central

    Jia, Lei; Li, Lin; Li, Hanping; Liu, Siyang; Wang, Xiaolin; Bao, Zuoyi; Li, Tianyi; Zhuang, Daomin; Liu, Yongjian; Li, Jingyun

    2014-01-01

    Background Recombination is one of the major mechanisms underlying the generation of HIV-1 variability. Currently 61 circulating recombinant forms of HIV-1 have been identified. With the development of recombination detection techniques and accumulation of HIV-1 reference stains, more accurate mosaic structures of circulating recombinant forms (CRFs), like CRF04 and CRF06, have undergone repeated analysis and upgrades. Such revisions may also be necessary for other CRFs. Unlike previous studies, whose results are based primarily on a single recombination detection program, the current study was based on multiple recombination analysis, which may have produced more impartial results. Methods Representative references of 3 categories of intersubtype recombinants were selected, including BC recombinants (CRF07 and CRF08), BG recombinants (CRF23 and CRF24), and BF recombinants (CRF38 and CRF44). They were reanalyzed in detail using both the jumping profile hidden Markov model and RDP3. Results The results indicate that revisions and upgrades are very necessary and the entire re-analysis suggested 2 types of revision: (i) length of inserted fragments; and (ii) number of inserted fragments. The reanalysis also indicated that determination of small regions of about 200 bases or fewer should be performed with more caution. Conclusion Results indicated that the involvement of multiple recombination detection programs is very necessary. Additionally, results suggested two major challenges, one involving the difficulty of accurately determining the locations of breakpoints and the second involving identification of small regions of about 200 bases or fewer with greater caution. Both indicate the complexity of HIV-1 recombination. The resolution would depend critically on development of a recombination analysis algorithm, accumulation of HIV-1 stains, and a higher sequencing quality. With the changes in recombination pattern, phylogenetic relationships of some CRFs may also

  6. Mechanisms and Factors that Influence High Frequency Retroviral Recombination

    PubMed Central

    Delviks-Frankenberry, Krista; Galli, Andrea; Nikolaitchik, Olga; Mens, Helene; Pathak, Vinay K.; Hu, Wei-Shau

    2011-01-01

    With constantly changing environmental selection pressures, retroviruses rely upon recombination to reassort polymorphisms in their genomes and increase genetic diversity, which improves the chances for the survival of their population. Recombination occurs during DNA synthesis, whereby reverse transcriptase undergoes template switching events between the two copackaged RNAs, resulting in a viral recombinant with portions of the genetic information from each parental RNA. This review summarizes our current understanding of the factors and mechanisms influencing retroviral recombination, fidelity of the recombination process, and evaluates the subsequent viral diversity and fitness of the progeny recombinant. Specifically, the high mutation rates and high recombination frequencies of HIV-1 will be analyzed for their roles in influencing HIV-1 global diversity, as well as HIV-1 diagnosis, drug treatment, and vaccine development. PMID:21994801

  7. Evolution of recombination in eutherian mammals: insights into mechanisms that affect recombination rates and crossover interference

    PubMed Central

    Segura, Joana; Ferretti, Luca; Ramos-Onsins, Sebastián; Capilla, Laia; Farré, Marta; Reis, Fernanda; Oliver-Bonet, Maria; Fernández-Bellón, Hugo; Garcia, Francisca; Garcia-Caldés, Montserrat; Robinson, Terence J.; Ruiz-Herrera, Aurora

    2013-01-01

    Recombination allows faithful chromosomal segregation during meiosis and contributes to the production of new heritable allelic variants that are essential for the maintenance of genetic diversity. Therefore, an appreciation of how this variation is created and maintained is of critical importance to our understanding of biodiversity and evolutionary change. Here, we analysed the recombination features from species representing the major eutherian taxonomic groups Afrotheria, Rodentia, Primates and Carnivora to better understand the dynamics of mammalian recombination. Our results suggest a phylogenetic component in recombination rates (RRs), which appears to be directional, strongly punctuated and subject to selection. Species that diversified earlier in the evolutionary tree have lower RRs than those from more derived phylogenetic branches. Furthermore, chromosome-specific recombination maps in distantly related taxa show that crossover interference is especially weak in the species with highest RRs detected thus far, the tiger. This is the first example of a mammalian species exhibiting such low levels of crossover interference, highlighting the uniqueness of this species and its relevance for the study of the mechanisms controlling crossover formation, distribution and resolution. PMID:24068360

  8. Recombinant pinoresinol/lariciresinol reductase, recombinant dirigent protein, and methods of use

    DOEpatents

    Lewis, Norman G.; Davin, Laurence B.; Dinkova-Kostova, Albena T.; Fujita, Masayuki; Gang, David R.; Sarkanen, Simo; Ford, Joshua D.

    2001-04-03

    Dirigent proteins and pinoresinol/lariciresinol reductases have been isolated, together with cDNAs encoding dirigent proteins and pinoresinol/lariciresinol reductases. Accordingly, isolated DNA sequences are provided which code for the expression of dirigent proteins and pinoresinol/lariciresinol reductases. In other aspects, replicable recombinant cloning vehicles are provided which code for dirigent proteins or pinoresinol/lariciresinol reductases or for a base sequence sufficiently complementary to at least a portion of dirigent protein or pinoresinol/lariciresinol reductase DNA or RNA to enable hybridization therewith. In yet other aspects, modified host cells are provided that have been transformed, transfected, infected and/or injected with a recombinant cloning vehicle and/or DNA sequence encoding dirigent protein or pinoresinol/lariciresinol reductase. Thus, systems and methods are provided for the recombinant expression of dirigent proteins and/or pinoresinol/lariciresinol reductases.

  9. The imperfect ancestral recombination graph reconstruction problem: upper bounds for recombination and homoplasy.

    PubMed

    Lam, Fumei; Tarpine, Ryan; Istrail, Sorin

    2010-06-01

    One of the central problems in computational biology is the reconstruction of evolutionary histories. While models incorporating recombination and homoplasy have been studied separately, a missing component in the theory is a robust and flexible unifying model which incorporates both of these major biological events shaping genetic diversity. In this article, we introduce the first such unifying model and develop algorithms to find the optimal ancestral recombination graph incorporating recombinations and homoplasy events. The power of our framework is the connection between our formulation and the Directed Steiner Arborescence Problem in combinatorial optimization. We implement linear programming techniques as well as heuristics for the Directed Steiner Arborescence Problem, and use our methods to construct evolutionary histories for both simulated and real data sets. PMID:20583925

  10. Late replicating domains are highly recombining in females but have low male recombination rates: implications for isochore evolution.

    PubMed

    Pink, Catherine J; Hurst, Laurence D

    2011-01-01

    In mammals sequences that are either late replicating or highly recombining have high rates of evolution at putatively neutral sites. As early replicating domains and highly recombining domains both tend to be GC rich we a priori expect these two variables to covary. If so, the relative contribution of either of these variables to the local neutral substitution rate might have been wrongly estimated owing to covariance with the other. Against our expectations, we find that sex-averaged recombination rates show little or no correlation with replication timing, suggesting that they are independent determinants of substitution rates. However, this result masks significant sex-specific complexity: late replicating domains tend to have high recombination rates in females but low recombination rates in males. That these trends are antagonistic explains why sex-averaged recombination is not correlated with replication timing. This unexpected result has several important implications. First, although both male and female recombination rates covary significantly with intronic substitution rates, the magnitude of this correlation is moderately underestimated for male recombination and slightly overestimated for female recombination, owing to covariance with replicating timing. Second, the result could explain why male recombination is strongly correlated with GC content but female recombination is not. If to explain the correlation between GC content and replication timing we suppose that late replication forces reduced GC content, then GC promotion by biased gene conversion during female recombination is partly countered by the antagonistic effect of later replicating sequence tending increase AT content. Indeed, the strength of the correlation between female recombination rate and local GC content is more than doubled by control for replication timing. Our results underpin the need to consider sex-specific recombination rates and potential covariates in analysis of GC

  11. Same-period emission and recombination in nonsequential double-recombination high-order-harmonic generation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hansen, Kenneth K.; Madsen, Lars Bojer

    2016-05-01

    Nonsequential double-recombination (NSDR) high-order-harmonic generation (HHG) is studied in a molecular model system. We observe a unique molecular two-electron effect with a characteristic cutoff in the HHG spectrum at higher energies than what was previously seen for NSDR HHG in atoms. The effect is corroborated with a classical model where it is found that the effect is sensitive to the molecular potential and originates from same-period emission and recombination (SPEAR) of two electrons. The effect persists for intermediate nuclear distances of R ≳8.0 a.u.

  12. Live-Cell Imaging of Vaccinia Virus Recombination

    PubMed Central

    Paszkowski, Patrick; Noyce, Ryan S.; Evans, David H.

    2016-01-01

    Recombination between co-infecting poxviruses provides an important mechanism for generating the genetic diversity that underpins evolution. However, poxviruses replicate in membrane-bound cytoplasmic structures known as factories or virosomes. These are enclosed structures that could impede DNA mixing between co-infecting viruses, and mixing would seem to be essential for this process. We hypothesize that virosome fusion events would be a prerequisite for recombination between co-infecting poxviruses, and this requirement could delay or limit viral recombination. We have engineered vaccinia virus (VACV) to express overlapping portions of mCherry fluorescent protein fused to a cro DNA-binding element. In cells also expressing an EGFP-cro fusion protein, this permits live tracking of virus DNA and genetic recombination using confocal microscopy. Our studies show that different types of recombination events exhibit different timing patterns, depending upon the relative locations of the recombining elements. Recombination between partly duplicated sequences is detected soon after post-replicative genes are expressed, as long as the reporter gene sequences are located in cis within an infecting genome. The same kinetics are also observed when the recombining elements are divided between VACV and transfected DNA. In contrast, recombination is delayed when the recombining sequences are located on different co-infecting viruses, and mature recombinants aren’t detected until well after late gene expression is well established. The delay supports the hypothesis that factories impede inter-viral recombination, but even after factories merge there remain further constraints limiting virus DNA mixing and recombinant gene assembly. This delay could be related to the continued presence of ER-derived membranes within the fused virosomes, membranes that may once have wrapped individual factories. PMID:27525721

  13. An introduction to recombination and linkage analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Mcpeek, M.S.

    1996-12-31

    With a garden as his laboratory, Mendel was able to discern basic probabilistic laws of heredity. Although it first appeared as a baffling exception to one of Mendel`s principles, the phenomenon of variable linkage between characters was soon recognized to be a powerful tool in the process of chromosome mapping and location of genes of interest. In this introduction, we first describe Mendel`s work and the subsequent discovery of linkage. Next we describe the apparent cause of variable linkage, namely recombination, and we introduce linkage analysis. 33 refs., 1 fig., 2 tabs.

  14. Cooling and recombination processes in cometary plasma

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wallis, M. K.; Ong, R. S. B.

    1976-01-01

    The ion electron plasma in comets is examined for cooling processes which result from its interactions with the neutral coma. A cometary coma model is formulated that is composed predominantly of H2O and its decomposition products where electrons are cooled in a variety of processes at rates varying with energy. It is shown that solar plasma plus accumulated cometary ions and electrons is affected very strongly as it flows into the coma. The electrons are rapidly cooled and all but some 10% of the ions undergo charge exchange. Photodissociation of H2O is assumed where ion electron recombination is the dominant loss process.

  15. Nanobodies and recombinant binders in cell biology

    PubMed Central

    Helma, Jonas; Cardoso, M. Cristina; Muyldermans, Serge

    2015-01-01

    Antibodies are key reagents to investigate cellular processes. The development of recombinant antibodies and binders derived from natural protein scaffolds has expanded traditional applications, such as immunofluorescence, binding arrays, and immunoprecipitation. In addition, their small size and high stability in ectopic environments have enabled their use in all areas of cell research, including structural biology, advanced microscopy, and intracellular expression. Understanding these novel reagents as genetic modules that can be integrated into cellular pathways opens up a broad experimental spectrum to monitor and manipulate cellular processes. PMID:26056137

  16. Dissociation and recombination in an inhomogeneous gas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuščer, Ivan

    1991-09-01

    The system of Boltzmann equations of Ludwig and Heil for a dissociating gas mixture is reviewed and reformulated in terms of differential cross sections. For the purpose of Monte Carlo simulations, collision models of the type of Borgnakke and Larsen are proposed. In case of short-lived transient flows of molecular gases and at not too high temperatures, simulation of scattering collisions is expected to suffice; the distribution function of the dissociated particles can be evaluated afterwards by integration, and recombination can be ignored.

  17. Engineering thermoacidophilic archaea using linear DNA recombination.

    PubMed

    Maezato, Yukari; Dana, Karl; Blum, Paul

    2011-01-01

    Thermoacidophilic archaea comprise one of the major classes of extremophiles. Most belong to the family Sulfolobales within the phylum Crenarchaeota. They are of applied interest as sources of hyperstable enzymes, for biomining of base and precious metals, and for evolutionary studies because of their use of eukaryotic-like subcellular mechanisms. Genetic methods are available for several species particularly Sulfolobus solfataricus. This organism has a considerable number of methods available for the construction of novel cell lines with unique functions. This chapter presents recent developments in the use of homologous recombination and linear DNA for the engineering of site-specific changes in the genome of S. solfataricus. PMID:21815108

  18. Hydrogen recombiner catalyst test supporting data

    SciTech Connect

    Britton, M.D.

    1995-01-19

    This is a data package supporting the Hydrogen Recombiner Catalyst Performance and Carbon Monoxide Sorption Capacity Test Report, WHC-SD-WM-TRP-211, Rev 0. This report contains 10 appendices which consist of the following: Mass spectrometer analysis reports: HRC samples 93-001 through 93-157; Gas spectrometry analysis reports: HRC samples 93-141 through 93-658; Mass spectrometer procedure PNL-MA-299 ALO-284; Alternate analytical method for ammonia and water vapor; Sample log sheets; Job Safety analysis; Certificate of mixture analysis for feed gases; Flow controller calibration check; Westinghouse Standards Laboratory report on Bois flow calibrator; and Sorption capacity test data, tables, and graphs.

  19. Population inversion in a stationary recombining plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Otsuka, M.

    1980-12-01

    Population inversion, which occurs in a recombining plasma when a stationary He plasma is brought into contact with a neutral gas, is examined. With hydrogen as a contact gas, noticeable inversion between low-lying levels of H as been found. The overpopulation density is of the order of 10/sup 8/ cm/sup -3/, which is much higher then that (approx. =10/sup 5/ cm/sup -3/) obtained previously with He as a contact gas. Relations between these experimental results and the conditions for population inversion are discussed with the CR model.

  20. Patterns of recombination on human chromosome 22

    SciTech Connect

    Schlumpf, K.S.; Kim, D.; Haines, J.L.

    1994-09-01

    Virtually all genetic linkage maps generated to date are gross averages across individuals, ages, and (often) sexes. In addition, although some level of positive interference has been assumed, until recently little evidence to support this in humans has been available. The major stumbling block has been the quality of the data available, since even a few genotypic errors can have drastic effects on both the map length and the number of apparent recombinants. In addition, variation in recombination by factors other than sex have pretty much been ignored. To explore recombination in more detail, we have generated a microsatellite marker map of human chromosome 22. This map includes 32 markers genotyped through 46 sibships of the Venezuelan Reference Pedigree (VRP). Extensive error checking and regenotyping was performed to remove as many genotypic errors as possible, but no genotypes were removed simply because they created unlikely events. The following 1000:1 odds map has been obtained: cen--F8VWFP1--11--S264--3-S311--4--S257--2--TOP1P2--3--S156--1--CRYB2--1--S258--2--S310--6--S193--1--S275--3--S268--1--S280--4--S304--3--S283--2--LiR1--3--IL2RB--3--S299--1--S302--1--S537--2--S270--4--PDGF--8--S274--qter. The female map (91 cM) is twice as long as the male map (46 cM) and the log-likelihood difference in the maps (22.3) is highly significant (P=0.001, df=22) and appears constant across the chromosome. Analysis of recombination with age showed no particular trends for either males or females when chromosomes were grouped into three categories (20, 20-30, 30+) by parental age at birth of child. Positive interference was found in maternally derived chromosomes ({chi}{sup 2}=30.5 (4), p<0.005), but not in paternally derived chromosomes ({chi}{sup 2}=6.24 (3), P=0.10). This contrasts to data from chromosomes 9 and 21 where positive interference was found for both sexes. More detailed analyses are in progress.

  1. Cutaneous allergy to human (recombinant DNA) insulin.

    PubMed

    Grammer, L C; Metzger, B E; Patterson, R

    1984-03-16

    p6 report two cases of cutaneous allergy to human (recombinant DNA) insulin. Each patient had a history of systemic allergic reactions to porcine insulin and was at least as reactive to human as to porcine insulin by end-point cutaneous titration. Both patients' insulin allergy was managed with animal insulins and both have done well. Our experience with these two patients indicates that human insulin (rDNA) should not be expected to be efficacious in all patients with systemic allergy to insulin. PMID:6366262

  2. Metal binding proteins, recombinant host cells and methods

    DOEpatents

    Summers, Anne O.; Caguiat, Jonathan J.

    2004-06-15

    The present disclosure provides artificial heavy metal binding proteins termed chelons by the inventors. These chelons bind cadmium and/or mercuric ions with relatively high affinity. Also disclosed are coding sequences, recombinant DNA molecules and recombinant host cells comprising those recombinant DNA molecules for expression of the chelon proteins. In the recombinant host cells or transgenic plants, the chelons can be used to bind heavy metals taken up from contaminated soil, groundwater or irrigation water and to concentrate and sequester those ions. Recombinant enteric bacteria can be used within the gastrointestinal tracts of animals or humans exposed to toxic metal ions such as mercury and/or cadmium, where the chelon recombinantly expressed in chosen in accordance with the ion to be rededicated. Alternatively, the chelons can be immobilized to solid supports to bind and concentrate heavy metals from a contaminated aqueous medium including biological fluids.

  3. Recombinant DNA products: Insulin, interferon and growth hormone

    SciTech Connect

    Bollon, A.P.

    1984-01-01

    This book provides the discussion of products of biotechnology of recombinant DNA. The contents include: Recombinant DNA techniques; isolation, cloning, and expression of genes; from somatostatin to human insulin; yeast; an alternative organism for foreign protein production; background in human interferon; preclinical assessment of biological properties of recombinant DNA derived human interferons; human clinical trials of bacteria-derived human ..cap alpha.. interferon.f large scale production of human alpha interferon from bacteria; direct expression of human growth hormone in escherichia coli with the lipoprotein promoter; biological actions in humans of recombinant DNA synthesized human growth hormone; NIH guidelines for research involving recombinant DNA molecules; appendix; viral vectors and the NHY guidelines; FDA's role in approval and regulation of recombinant DNA drugs; and index.

  4. The recombination mediator RAD51D promotes geminiviral infection.

    PubMed

    Richter, Kathrin S; Serra, Heϊdi; White, Charles I; Jeske, Holger

    2016-06-01

    To study a possible role for homologous recombination in geminivirus replication, we challenged Arabidopsis recombination gene knockouts by Euphorbia yellow mosaic virus infection. Our results show that the RAD51 paralog RAD51D, rather than RAD51 itself, promotes viral replication at early stages of infection. Blot hybridization analyses of replicative intermediates using one- and two-dimensional gels and deep sequencing point to an unexpected facet of recombination-dependent replication, the repair by single-strand annealing (SSA) during complementary strand replication. A significant decrease of both intramolecular, yielding defective DNAs and intermolecular recombinant molecules between the two geminiviral DNA components (A, B) were observed in the absence of RAD51D. By contrast, DNA A and B reacted differentially with the generation of inversions. A model to implicate single-strand annealing recombination in geminiviral recombination-dependent replication is proposed. PMID:27018825

  5. The Many Landscapes of Recombination in Drosophila melanogaster

    PubMed Central

    Comeron, Josep M.; Ratnappan, Ramesh; Bailin, Samuel

    2012-01-01

    Recombination is a fundamental biological process with profound evolutionary implications. Theory predicts that recombination increases the effectiveness of selection in natural populations. Yet, direct tests of this prediction have been restricted to qualitative trends due to the lack of detailed characterization of recombination rate variation across genomes and within species. The use of imprecise recombination rates can also skew population genetic analyses designed to assess the presence and mode of selection across genomes. Here we report the first integrated high-resolution description of genomic and population variation in recombination, which also distinguishes between the two outcomes of meiotic recombination: crossing over (CO) and gene conversion (GC). We characterized the products of 5,860 female meioses in Drosophila melanogaster by genotyping a total of 139 million informative SNPs and mapped 106,964 recombination events at a resolution down to 2 kilobases. This approach allowed us to generate whole-genome CO and GC maps as well as a detailed description of variation in recombination among individuals of this species. We describe many levels of variation in recombination rates. At a large-scale (100 kb), CO rates exhibit extreme and highly punctuated variation along chromosomes, with hot and coldspots. We also show extensive intra-specific variation in CO landscapes that is associated with hotspots at low frequency in our sample. GC rates are more uniformly distributed across the genome than CO rates and detectable in regions with reduced or absent CO. At a local scale, recombination events are associated with numerous sequence motifs and tend to occur within transcript regions, thus suggesting that chromatin accessibility favors double-strand breaks. All these non-independent layers of variation in recombination across genomes and among individuals need to be taken into account in order to obtain relevant estimates of recombination rates, and should

  6. Dissociative recombination of N2H+

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    dos Santos, S. Fonseca; Ngassam, V.; Orel, A. E.; Larson, Å.

    2016-08-01

    The direct and indirect mechanisms of dissociative recombination of N2H+ are theoretically studied. At low energies, the electron capture is found to be driven by recombination into bound Rydberg states, while at collision energies above 0.1 eV, the direct capture and dissociation along electronic resonant states becomes important. Electron-scattering calculations using the complex Kohn variational method are performed to obtain the scattering matrix as well as energy positions and autoionization widths of resonant states. Potential-energy surfaces of electronic bound states of N2H and N2H+ are computed using structure calculations with the multireference configuration interaction method. The cross section for the indirect mechanism is calculated using a vibrational frame transformation of the elements of the scattering matrix at energies just above the ionization threshold. Here vibrational excitations of the ionic core from v =0 to v =1 and v =2 for all three normal modes are considered and autoionization is neglected. The cross section for the direct dissociation along electronic resonant states is computed with wave-packet calculations using the multiconfiguration time-dependent Hartree method, where all three internal degrees of freedom are considered. The calculated cross sections are compared to measurements.

  7. Photoexcited charge pair escape and recombination

    SciTech Connect

    Braun, C.L.

    1991-11-15

    We report photocurrent transients arising from the pulsed laser excitation of the dipolar first excited singlet sate S{sub 1} of trans 4-dimethyl-amino-4{prime}-nitrostilbene (DMANS) in toluene solution. The currents arise from rotational reorientation of DMANS dipoles with respect to the axis of an applied electric field. The method appears to offer a simple and general approach to the measurement of the change in dipole moment upon electronic excitation of a molecule. In another experiment, durene (1,2,4,5-tetramethylbenzene) dissolved in n-hexane was photoionized by 35 psec pulses at 266 nm. Transient absorption at 1064 nm arising chiefly from geminate electrons was detected and used to monitor the recombination of the electron-cation pairs produced by two-photon ionization. An excellent fit to the recombination kinetics was obtained by assuming that the distribution of initial electron-cation separations was of the form r{sup 2}EXP = r{sup 2}/(2L{sup 3})exp({minus}r/L) with a mean radius 3L = 5.7 nm.

  8. The landscape of recombination in African Americans.

    PubMed

    Hinch, Anjali G; Tandon, Arti; Patterson, Nick; Song, Yunli; Rohland, Nadin; Palmer, Cameron D; Chen, Gary K; Wang, Kai; Buxbaum, Sarah G; Akylbekova, Ermeg L; Aldrich, Melinda C; Ambrosone, Christine B; Amos, Christopher; Bandera, Elisa V; Berndt, Sonja I; Bernstein, Leslie; Blot, William J; Bock, Cathryn H; Boerwinkle, Eric; Cai, Qiuyin; Caporaso, Neil; Casey, Graham; Cupples, L Adrienne; Deming, Sandra L; Diver, W Ryan; Divers, Jasmin; Fornage, Myriam; Gillanders, Elizabeth M; Glessner, Joseph; Harris, Curtis C; Hu, Jennifer J; Ingles, Sue A; Isaacs, William; John, Esther M; Kao, W H Linda; Keating, Brendan; Kittles, Rick A; Kolonel, Laurence N; Larkin, Emma; Le Marchand, Loic; McNeill, Lorna H; Millikan, Robert C; Murphy, Adam; Musani, Solomon; Neslund-Dudas, Christine; Nyante, Sarah; Papanicolaou, George J; Press, Michael F; Psaty, Bruce M; Reiner, Alex P; Rich, Stephen S; Rodriguez-Gil, Jorge L; Rotter, Jerome I; Rybicki, Benjamin A; Schwartz, Ann G; Signorello, Lisa B; Spitz, Margaret; Strom, Sara S; Thun, Michael J; Tucker, Margaret A; Wang, Zhaoming; Wiencke, John K; Witte, John S; Wrensch, Margaret; Wu, Xifeng; Yamamura, Yuko; Zanetti, Krista A; Zheng, Wei; Ziegler, Regina G; Zhu, Xiaofeng; Redline, Susan; Hirschhorn, Joel N; Henderson, Brian E; Taylor, Herman A; Price, Alkes L; Hakonarson, Hakon; Chanock, Stephen J; Haiman, Christopher A; Wilson, James G; Reich, David; Myers, Simon R

    2011-08-11

    Recombination, together with mutation, gives rise to genetic variation in populations. Here we leverage the recent mixture of people of African and European ancestry in the Americas to build a genetic map measuring the probability of crossing over at each position in the genome, based on about 2.1 million crossovers in 30,000 unrelated African Americans. At intervals of more than three megabases it is nearly identical to a map built in Europeans. At finer scales it differs significantly, and we identify about 2,500 recombination hotspots that are active in people of West African ancestry but nearly inactive in Europeans. The probability of a crossover at these hotspots is almost fully controlled by the alleles an individual carries at PRDM9 (P value < 10(-245)). We identify a 17-base-pair DNA sequence motif that is enriched in these hotspots, and is an excellent match to the predicted binding target of PRDM9 alleles common in West Africans and rare in Europeans. Sites of this motif are predicted to be risk loci for disease-causing genomic rearrangements in individuals carrying these alleles. More generally, this map provides a resource for research in human genetic variation and evolution. PMID:21775986

  9. Recombination-aware alignment of diploid individuals

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Traditionally biological similarity search has been studied under the abstraction of a single string to represent each genome. The more realistic representation of diploid genomes, with two strings defining the genome, has so far been largely omitted in this context. With the development of sequencing techniques and better phasing routines through haplotype assembly algorithms, we are not far from the situation when individual diploid genomes could be represented in their full complexity with a pair-wise alignment defining the genome. Results We propose a generalization of global alignment that is designed to measure similarity between phased predictions of individual diploid genomes. This generalization takes into account that individual diploid genomes evolve through a mutation and recombination process, and that predictions may be erroneous in both dimensions. Even though our model is generic, we focus on the case where one wants to measure only the similarity of genome content allowing free recombination. This results into efficient algorithms for direct application in (i) evaluation of variation calling predictions and (ii) progressive multiple alignments based on labeled directed acyclic graphs (DAGs) to represent profiles. The latter may be of more general interest, in connection to covering alignment of DAGs. Extensions of our model and algorithms can be foreseen to have applications in evaluating phasing algorithms, as well as more fundamental role in phasing child genome based on parent genomes. PMID:25572943

  10. Modified Fragmentation Function from Quark Recombination

    SciTech Connect

    Majumder, A.; Wang, Enke; Wang, Xin-Nian

    2005-07-26

    Within the framework of the constituent quark model, it isshown that the single hadron fragmentation function of a parton can beexpressed as a convolution of shower diquark or triquark distributionfunction and quark recombination probability, if the interference betweenamplitudes of quark recombination with different momenta is neglected.Therecombination probability is determined by the hadron's wavefunction inthe constituent quark model. The shower diquark or triquark distributionfunctions of a fragmenting jet are defined in terms of overlappingmatrices of constituent quarks and parton field operators. They aresimilar in form to dihadron or trihadron fragmentation functions in termsof parton operator and hadron states. Extending the formalism to thefield theory at finite temperature, we automatically derive contributionsto the effective single hadron fragmentation function from therecombination of shower and thermal constituent quarks. Suchcontributions involve single or diquark distribution functions which inturn can be related to diquark or triquark distribution functions via sumrules. We also derive QCD evolution equations for quark distributionfunctions that in turn determine the evolution of the effective jetfragmentation functions in a thermal medium.

  11. Lipopolysaccharide induced conversion of recombinant prion protein

    PubMed Central

    Saleem, Fozia; Bjorndahl, Trent C; Ladner, Carol L; Perez-Pineiro, Rolando; Ametaj, Burim N; Wishart, David S

    2014-01-01

    The conformational conversion of the cellular prion protein (PrPC) to the β-rich infectious isoform PrPSc is considered a critical and central feature in prion pathology. Although PrPSc is the critical component of the infectious agent, as proposed in the “protein-only” prion hypothesis, cellular components have been identified as important cofactors in triggering and enhancing the conversion of PrPC to proteinase K resistant PrPSc. A number of in vitro systems using various chemical and/or physical agents such as guanidine hydrochloride, urea, SDS, high temperature, and low pH, have been developed that cause PrPC conversion, their amplification, and amyloid fibril formation often under non-physiological conditions. In our ongoing efforts to look for endogenous and exogenous chemical mediators that might initiate, influence, or result in the natural conversion of PrPC to PrPSc, we discovered that lipopolysaccharide (LPS), a component of gram-negative bacterial membranes interacts with recombinant prion proteins and induces conversion to an isoform richer in β sheet at near physiological conditions as long as the LPS concentration remains above the critical micelle concentration (CMC). More significant was the LPS mediated conversion that was observed even at sub-molar ratios of LPS to recombinant ShPrP (90–232). PMID:24819168

  12. Ethanol precipitation for purification of recombinant antibodies.

    PubMed

    Tscheliessnig, Anne; Satzer, Peter; Hammerschmidt, Nikolaus; Schulz, Henk; Helk, Bernhard; Jungbauer, Alois

    2014-10-20

    Currently, the golden standard for the purification of recombinant humanized antibodies (rhAbs) from CHO cell culture is protein A chromatography. However, due to increasing rhAbs titers alternative methods have come into focus. A new strategy for purification of recombinant human antibodies from CHO cell culture supernatant based on cold ethanol precipitation (CEP) and CaCl2 precipitation has been developed. This method is based on the cold ethanol precipitation, the process used for purification of antibodies and other components from blood plasma. We proof the applicability of the developed process for four different antibodies resulting in similar yield and purity as a protein A chromatography based process. This process can be further improved using an anion-exchange chromatography in flowthrough mode e.g. a monolith as last step so that residual host cell protein is reduced to a minimum. Beside the ethanol based process, our data also suggest that ethanol could be replaced with methanol or isopropanol. The process is suited for continuous operation. PMID:25087738

  13. Recombinant synthesis of hyaluronan by Agrobacterium sp.

    PubMed

    Mao, Zichao; Chen, Rachel Ruizhen

    2007-01-01

    Hyaluronan (HA) is a sugar polymer of a repeating disaccharide, beta1-3 D-N-acetylglucosamine (GlcNAc) beta1-4 D-glucuronic acid (GlcA). It finds applications in numerous biomedical procedures such as ophthalmic surgery and osteoarthritis treatment. Until recently, the only commercial sources were extraction of rooster combs and from fermentation of pathogenic Streptococcus. In this work, we demonstrate that metabolic engineering strategies enable the recombinant synthesis of hyaluronan in a safe microorganism. Agrobacterium sp. ATCC 31749 is a commercial production strain for a food polymer, Curdlan. A broad host range expression vector was successfully developed to express the 3 kb HA synthase gene from Pasteurella multocida, along with a kfiD gene encoding UDP-glucose dehydrogenase from Escherichia coli K5 strain. Coexpression of these two heterologous enzymes enables Agrobacterium to produce HA. Hyaluronan was accumulated up to 0.3 g/L in shaker flask cultivation. The molecular weight of the polymer from various Agrobacterium strains is in the range of 0.7-2 MD. To our knowledge, this is the first successful recombinant hyaluronan synthesis in a Gram-negative bacterium that naturally produces a food product. The ease of genetic modifications provides future opportunities to tailor properties of polymers for specific applications. PMID:17705506

  14. Recombinant viral vaccines for enzootic bovine leucosis.

    PubMed

    Daniel, R C; Gatei, M H; Good, M F; Boyle, D B; Lavin, M F

    1993-10-01

    Recently published studies on the development and use of recombinant vaccinia virus (VV) vaccines incorporating either the complete envelope (env) gene or only a fragment of the env gene consisting of the coding sequence for the env glycoprotein 51 (gp51) and part of gp30 of the bovine leukaemia virus (BLV) are described. It has been reported that vaccination of sheep with recombinant VV vaccines containing the complete env gene appears to protect sheep against challenge infection with BLV. The evidence for this protection is based on the lack of persistence of high titres of anti-gp51 antibodies compared with unvaccinated BLV infected controls, on the enhanced CD4 proliferative responses to specific BLV gp51 synthetic peptides in the vaccinated sheep, and on the inability to detect BLV pro-virus by polymerase chain reaction in the vaccinated sheep after 4 months following challenge infection compared with continual detection in unvaccinated sheep over a 16 month trial period. It has been suggested that cell-mediated immune responses may be an important aspect of protective immunity against BLV infection and it has been reported that large tracts of amino acid sequences within the env and pol genes are highly conserved in different isolates from different countries which is of importance in designing peptide derived vaccines. PMID:8270269

  15. Recombinant protein scaffolds for tissue engineering.

    PubMed

    Werkmeister, Jerome A; Ramshaw, John A M

    2012-02-01

    New biological materials for tissue engineering are now being developed using common genetic engineering capabilities to clone and express a variety of genetic elements that allow cost-effective purification and scaffold fabrication from these recombinant proteins, peptides or from chimeric combinations of these. The field is limitless as long as the gene sequences are known. The utility is dependent on the ease, product yield and adaptability of these protein products to the biomedical field. The development of recombinant proteins as scaffolds, while still an emerging technology with respect to commercial products, is scientifically superior to current use of natural materials or synthetic polymer scaffolds, in terms of designing specific structures with desired degrees of biological complexities and motifs. In the field of tissue engineering, next generation scaffolds will be the key to directing appropriate tissue regeneration. The initial period of biodegradable synthetic scaffolds that provided shape and mechanical integrity, but no biological information, is phasing out. The era of protein scaffolds offers distinct advantages, particularly with the combination of powerful tools of molecular biology. These include, for example, the production of human proteins of uniform quality that are free of infectious agents and the ability to make suitable quantities of proteins that are found in low quantity or are hard to isolate from tissue. For the particular needs of tissue engineering scaffolds, fibrous proteins like collagens, elastin, silks and combinations of these offer further advantages of natural well-defined structural scaffolds as well as endless possibilities of controlling functionality by genetic manipulation. PMID:22262725

  16. Geminate recombination of O2 and hemoglobin.

    PubMed Central

    Chernoff, D A; Hochstrasser, R M; Steele, A W

    1980-01-01

    The photolysis of HbO2 and HbCO has been studied by measuring transient absorption spectra in the Soret region after excitation with picosecond pulses at 530 nm. Dissociation occurred promptly in both cases, followed (for HbO2) by geminate recombination of ca. 40% of the photodissociated O2 with a lifetime of 200 +/- 70 psec (25 degrees C). No recombination of Hb + CO was observed up to 1200 psec after photolysis. The HbO2 and HbCO photoproduct spectra were broader, weaker, and red-shifted in comparison to the spectrum of stable Hb and Gibson's fast-reacting form, Hb. For HbO2 the spectrum was initially much broader to longer wavelengths but relaxed to a constant shape within 90 psec, whereas for HbCO there was no spectral evolution. The photophysics is analyzed by considering the effect of spin constraints as well as spin--orbit coupling and orbital correlation among the various electronic states of liganded and deoxy hemoglobins. The small quantum yield of HbO2 dissociation is not primarily due to rebinding but rather to electronic relaxation to nonreactive states. PMID:6932659

  17. [Telomere Recombination in Normal Mammalian Cells].

    PubMed

    Zhdanova, N S; Rubtsov, N B

    2016-01-01

    Two mechanisms of telomere length maintenance are known to date. The first includes the use of a special enzymatic telomerase complex to solve the problems that arise during the replication of linear DNA in a normal diploid and part of tumor cells. Alternative lengthening of telomeres (ALT), which is based on the homologous recombination of telomere DNA, represents the second mechanism. Until recently, ALT was assumed to be expressed only in 15-20% of tumors lacking active telomerase and, together with telomerase reactivation represented one of two possibilities to overcome the replicative senescence observed in somatic mammalian cells due to aging or during cell culturing in vitro. Previously described sporadic cases of combinations of the two mechanisms of telomere length maintenance in several cell lines in vitro were attributed to the experimental design rather than to a real biological phenomenon, since active cellular division without active telomerase was considered to be the "gold standard" of ALT. The present review describes the morphological and functional reorganizations of mammalian telomeres observed with ALT activation, as well as recently observed,and well-documented cases of combinations between ALT-like and telomerase-dependent mechanisms in mammalian cells. The possible role of telomere recombination in telomerase-dependent cells is discussed. PMID:27183789

  18. The landscape of recombination in African Americans

    PubMed Central

    Hinch, Anjali G.; Tandon, Arti; Patterson, Nick; Song, Yunli; Rohland, Nadin; Palmer, Cameron D.; Chen, Gary K.; Wang, Kai; Buxbaum, Sarah G.; Akylbekova, Meggie; Aldrich, Melinda C.; Ambrosone, Christine B.; Amos, Christopher; Bandera, Elisa V.; Berndt, Sonja I.; Bernstein, Leslie; Blot, William J.; Bock, Cathryn H.; Boerwinkle, Eric; Cai, Qiuyin; Caporaso, Neil; Casey, Graham; Cupples, L. Adrienne; Deming, Sandra L.; Diver, W. Ryan; Divers, Jasmin; Fornage, Myriam; Gillanders, Elizabeth M.; Glessner, Joseph; Harris, Curtis C.; Hu, Jennifer J.; Ingles, Sue A.; Isaacs, Williams; John, Esther M.; Kao, W. H. Linda; Keating, Brendan; Kittles, Rick A.; Kolonel, Laurence N.; Larkin, Emma; Le Marchand, Loic; McNeill, Lorna H.; Millikan, Robert C.; Murphy, Adam; Musani, Solomon; Neslund-Dudas, Christine; Nyante, Sarah; Papanicolaou, George J.; Press, Michael F.; Psaty, Bruce M.; Reiner, Alex P.; Rich, Stephen S.; Rodriguez-Gil, Jorge L.; Rotter, Jerome I.; Rybicki, Benjamin A.; Schwartz, Ann G.; Signorello, Lisa B.; Spitz, Margaret; Strom, Sara S.; Thun, Michael J.; Tucker, Margaret A.; Wang, Zhaoming; Wiencke, John K.; Witte, John S.; Wrensch, Margaret; Wu, Xifeng; Yamamura, Yuko; Zanetti, Krista A.; Zheng, Wei; Ziegler, Regina G.; Zhu, Xiaofeng; Redline, Susan; Hirschhorn, Joel N.; Henderson, Brian E.; Taylor, Herman A.; Price, Alkes L.; Hakonarson, Hakon; Chanock, Stephen J.; Haiman, Christopher A.; Wilson, James G.; Reich, David; Myers, Simon R.

    2011-01-01

    Recombination, together with mutation, is the ultimate source of genetic variation in populations. We leverage the recent mixture of people of African and European ancestry in the Americas to build a genetic map measuring the probability of crossing-over at each position in the genome, based on about 2.1 million crossovers in 30,000 unrelated African Americans. At intervals of more than three megabases it is nearly identical to a map built in Europeans. At finer scales it differs significantly, and we identify about 2,500 recombination hotspots that are active in people of West African ancestry but nearly inactive in Europeans. The probability of a crossover at these hotspots is almost fully controlled by the alleles an individual carries at PRDM9 (P<10−245). We identify a 17 base pair DNA sequence motif that is enriched in these hotspots, and is an excellent match to the predicted binding target of African-enriched alleles of PRDM9. PMID:21775986

  19. Monitoring recombinant human erythropoietin abuse among athletes.

    PubMed

    Citartan, Marimuthu; Gopinath, Subash C B; Chen, Yeng; Lakshmipriya, Thangavel; Tang, Thean-Hock

    2015-01-15

    The illegal administration of recombinant human erythropoietin (rHuEPO) among athletes is largely preferred over blood doping to enhance stamina. The advent of recombinant DNA technology allowed the expression of EPO-encoding genes in several eukaryotic hosts to produce rHuEPO, and today these performance-enhancing drugs are readily available. As a mimetic of endogenous EPO (eEPO), rHuEPO augments the oxygen carrying capacity of blood. Thus, monitoring the illicit use of rHuEPO among athletes is crucial in ensuring an even playing field and maintaining the welfare of athletes. A number of rHuEPO detection methods currently exist, including measurement of hematologic parameters, gene-based detection methods, glycomics, use of peptide markers, electrophoresis, isoelectric focusing (IEF)-double immunoblotting, aptamer/antibody-based methods, and lateral flow tests. This review gleans these different strategies and highlights the leading molecular recognition elements that have potential roles in rHuEPO doping detection. PMID:25058943

  20. Kinetics of radiative recombination in quantum wells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ridley, B. K.

    1990-06-01

    A theory of radiative-recombination kinetics which treats free carriers, excitons, and photon recycling in a quantum-well system is presented. An expression for the temporal decay of excess carriers which encompasses large- and small-signal regimes is derived. When excitons are present the decay can be approximated by two exponentials in general, and in the large-signal regime the photoluminescence time constant is half as long as that associated with photoconductivity. Explicit expressions for the recombination coefficients are given and their magnitudes discussed for nondegenerate and degenerate populations in GaAs. Excitons are shown to enhance the temperature dependence. A simple model of exciton screening is used to illustrate the dependence of radiative time constants on background carrier density, which deviates significantly from the conventional free-carrier dependence. The magnitudes of radiative time constants in real systems depend, in addition to material characteristics, upon the details of exciton screening, the overlap of the electron and hole wave functions in the quantum well, and the probability of photon reabsorption, all of which are specimen specific. It is pointed out that the transition from a degenerate to a nondegenerate population may be misinterpreted in terms of Auger processes.

  1. Expression and purification of recombinant nattokinase in Spodoptera frugiperda cells.

    PubMed

    Li, Xiaoxiang; Wang, Xiaoli; Xiong, Shaoling; Zhang, Jing; Cai, Litao; Yang, Yanyan

    2007-10-01

    A recombinant baculovirus, rv-egfp-NK, containing a reporter gene encoding the enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP), was used to express nattokinase (NK), a fibrinolytic enzyme, in Spodoptera frugiperda (SF-9) cells. The recombinant protein also included a histidine tag for purification using Ni(2+) resins. The recombinant NK, approximately 30 kDa, retained fibrinolytic activity (60 U/ml). The integration of the EGFP expression cassette in the Bac-to-Bac system is thus an effective method for the expression and purification of recombinant NK protein in Spodoptera frugiperda insect cells. PMID:17581705

  2. The evolution of recombination in a heterogeneous environment.

    PubMed Central

    Lenormand, T; Otto, S P

    2000-01-01

    Most models describing the evolution of recombination have focused on the case of a single population, implicitly assuming that all individuals are equally likely to mate and that spatial heterogeneity in selection is absent. In these models, the evolution of recombination is driven by linkage disequilibria generated either by epistatic selection or drift. Models based on epistatic selection show that recombination can be favored if epistasis is negative and weak compared to directional selection and if the recombination modifier locus is tightly linked to the selected loci. In this article, we examine the joint effects of spatial heterogeneity in selection and epistasis on the evolution of recombination. In a model with two patches, each subject to different selection regimes, we consider the cases of mutation-selection and migration-selection balance as well as the spread of beneficial alleles. We find that including spatial heterogeneity extends the range of epistasis over which recombination can be favored. Indeed, recombination can be favored without epistasis, with negative and even with positive epistasis depending on environmental circumstances. The selection pressure acting on recombination-modifier loci is often much stronger with spatial heterogeneity, and even loosely linked modifiers and free linkage may evolve. In each case, predicting whether recombination is favored requires knowledge of both the type of environmental heterogeneity and epistasis, as none of these factors alone is sufficient to predict the outcome. PMID:10978305

  3. Charge recombination in disordered neat polymer films under imbalanced excitation conditions studied using the recombination time of flight technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ravia, Israel; Tessler, Nir

    2012-05-01

    It has recently been suggested that the charge recombination rate in amorphous polymers could be affected by the energy distribution of electrons and holes as well as that of the resulting excitons. To test this hypothesis, we developed a new method for measuring charge recombination under highly imbalanced conditions. We find that if the electron density is higher than that of the holes, increasing the electron density further results in reduction of the recombination coefficient. We attribute this to the very different energy distribution between low and high carrier densities, which is not accounted for in the Langevin recombination model.

  4. Photoionization and electron-ion recombination of Ti I

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nahar, Sultana N.

    2016-07-01

    Study of the inverse processes of photoionization and electron-ion recombination of (Ti I + h ν ⇋ Ti II + e) using the unified method is reported. The method, based on close coupling (CC) approximation and R-matrix method, subsumes both the radiative recombination (RR) and dielectronic recombination (DR) in a unified manner and provides state-specific and total electron-ion recombination rate coefficients which are self-consistent with the state-specific photoionization cross sections. The present results include state-specific electron-ion recombination rates (αRC(i))and partial photoionization cross sections (σPI(i)) leaving the ion in the ground state of 813 bound states with n ≤ 10 and l ≤ 9 of Ti I. Various features of state-specific and total electron-ion recombination with temperature, and the corresponding photoionization cross sections with energies are discussed with illustrations. Due to closely lying excited states near the ground state of the core, photoionization cross sections show presence of narrow Rydberg resonances in low energy region near the ionization threshold. Many excited states also show broad and enhanced Seaton resonances due to PEC (photo-excitation-of-core) which contribute to the high temperature recombination. The total recombination rate coefficient is found to show a low hump around temperature 280 K and a high dielectronic recombination peak at temperature 25,000 K. Total spectrum of recombination cross sections and rates with photoelectron energy are also presented for experimental observation. Calculations were carried out using a CC wave function expansion of 36 states of the core ion Ti II. The large set of data for recombination rates and partial photoionization cross sections with resonances should provide a complete and accurate modelings of plasmas.

  5. Recombination of Globally Circulating Varicella-Zoster Virus

    PubMed Central

    Depledge, Daniel P.; Kundu, Samit; Atkinson, Claire; Brown, Julianne; Haque, Tanzina; Hussaini, Yusuf; MacMahon, Eithne; Molyneaux, Pamela; Papaevangelou, Vassiliki; Sengupta, Nitu; Koay, Evelyn S. C.; Tang, Julian W.; Underhill, Gillian S.; Grahn, Anna; Studahl, Marie; Breuer, Judith; Bergström, Tomas

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Varicella-zoster virus (VZV) is a human herpesvirus, which during primary infection typically causes varicella (chicken pox) and establishes lifelong latency in sensory and autonomic ganglia. Later in life, the virus may reactivate to cause herpes zoster (HZ; also known as shingles). To prevent these diseases, a live-attenuated heterogeneous vaccine preparation, vOka, is used routinely in many countries worldwide. Recent studies of another alphaherpesvirus, infectious laryngotracheitis virus, demonstrate that live-attenuated vaccine strains can recombine in vivo, creating virulent progeny. These findings raised concerns about using attenuated herpesvirus vaccines under conditions that favor recombination. To investigate whether VZV may undergo recombination, which is a prerequisite for VZV vaccination to create such conditions, we here analyzed 115 complete VZV genomes. Our results demonstrate that recombination occurs frequently for VZV. It thus seems that VZV is fully capable of recombination if given the opportunity, which may have important implications for continued VZV vaccination. Although no interclade vaccine-wild-type recombinant strains were found, intraclade recombinants were frequently detected in clade 2, which harbors the vaccine strains, suggesting that the vaccine strains have already been involved in recombination events, either in vivo or in vitro during passages in cell culture. Finally, previous partial and complete genomic studies have described strains that do not cluster phylogenetically to any of the five established clades. The additional VZV strains sequenced here, in combination with those previously published, have enabled us to formally define a novel sixth VZV clade. IMPORTANCE Although genetic recombination has been demonstrated to frequently occur for other human alphaherpesviruses, herpes simplex viruses 1 and 2, only a few ancient and isolated recent recombination events have hitherto been demonstrated for VZV. In the

  6. Visible charge exchange recombination spectroscopy on TFTR

    SciTech Connect

    Stratton, B.C.; Fonck, R.J.; Jaehnig, K.P.; Schechtman, N.; Synakowski, E.J.

    1991-03-01

    Visible charge exchange recombination spectroscopy is routinely used to measure the time evolution of the ion temperature (T{sub i}) and toroidal rotation velocity (v{sub {phi}}) profiles on TFTR. These measurements are made with the CHERS diagnostic, a fiber-optically coupled spectrometer equipped with a two-dimensional photodiode array detector which provides both spectral and spatial resolution. The instrumentation, data analysis techniques, and examples of T{sub i} and v{sub {phi}} measurements are described. Recently, CHERS has been used to perform impurity transport experiments: radial profiles of diffusivities and convective velocities for helium and iron have been deduced from measurements of the time evolutions of He{sup 2+} and Fe{sup 24+} profiles following impurity injection. Examples of these measurements are given. 12 refs., 8 figs.

  7. Recombinant hepatitis B triple antigen vaccine: Hepacare.

    PubMed

    Zuckerman, Jane N; Zuckerman, Arie J

    2002-08-01

    Infection with hepatitis B virus is a public health problem throughout the world. Hepatitis B vaccines are now included in national immunization programmes of infants and/or adolescents in 129 countries. Current single antigen vaccines, that are plasma-derived or produced by recombinant DNA technology are highly effective, but between 5-10% or more of healthy immunocompetent subjects do not mount an antihepatitis B surface antibody protective response and others respond poorly (hyporesponders). The inclusion of pre-S1 and -S2 components of hepatitis B surface antigen in addition to the single antigen (triple antigen) in a novel vaccine, Hepacare, Medeva Pharma Plc, Speke, UK, overcomes nonresponsiveness and hyporesponsiveness in a significant number of individuals. The triple antigen is indicated for vaccination of nonresponders (and hyporesponders) to the current single antigen vaccines and for persons who require rapid protection against hepatitis B infection. PMID:12901552

  8. Recombining overlapping BACs into single large BACs.

    PubMed

    Kotzamanis, George; Kotsinas, Athanassios

    2015-01-01

    BAC clones containing the entire genomic region of a gene including the long-range regulatory elements are very useful for gene functional analysis. However, large genes often span more than the insert of a BAC clone, and single BACs covering the entire region of interest are not available. Here, we describe a general system for linking two or more overlapping BACs into a single clone. Two rounds of homologous recombination are used. In the first, the BAC inserts are subcloned into the pBACLink vectors. In the second, the two BACs are combined together. Multiple BACs in a contig can be combined by alternating use of the pBACLInk vectors, resulting in several BAC clones containing as much of the genomic region of a gene as required. Such BACs can then be used in gene expression studies and/or gene therapy applications. PMID:25239744

  9. Epidemiology, Genetic Recombination, and Pathogenesis of Coronaviruses.

    PubMed

    Su, Shuo; Wong, Gary; Shi, Weifeng; Liu, Jun; Lai, Alexander C K; Zhou, Jiyong; Liu, Wenjun; Bi, Yuhai; Gao, George F

    2016-06-01

    Human coronaviruses (HCoVs) were first described in the 1960s for patients with the common cold. Since then, more HCoVs have been discovered, including those that cause severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) and Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS), two pathogens that, upon infection, can cause fatal respiratory disease in humans. It was recently discovered that dromedary camels in Saudi Arabia harbor three different HCoV species, including a dominant MERS HCoV lineage that was responsible for the outbreaks in the Middle East and South Korea during 2015. In this review we aim to compare and contrast the different HCoVs with regard to epidemiology and pathogenesis, in addition to the virus evolution and recombination events which have, on occasion, resulted in outbreaks amongst humans. PMID:27012512

  10. Integrative mobile elements exploiting Xer recombination.

    PubMed

    Das, Bhabatosh; Martínez, Eriel; Midonet, Caroline; Barre, François-Xavier

    2013-01-01

    Integrative mobile genetic elements directly participate in the rapid response of bacteria to environmental challenges. They generally encode their own dedicated recombination machineries. CTXφ, a filamentous bacteriophage that harbors the genes encoding cholera toxin in Vibrio cholerae provided the first notable exception to this rule: it hijacks XerC and XerD, two chromosome-encoded tyrosine recombinases for lysogenic conversion. XerC and XerD are highly conserved in bacteria because of their role in the topological maintenance of circular chromosomes and, with the advent of high throughput sequencing, numerous other integrative mobile elements exploiting them have been discovered. Here, we review our understanding of the molecular mechanisms of integration of the different integrative mobile elements exploiting Xer (IMEXs) so far described. PMID:23127381

  11. Charge exchange recombination spectroscopy on fusion devices

    SciTech Connect

    Duval, B. P.

    2012-05-25

    For fusion, obtaining reliable measurements of basic plasma parameters like ion and electron densities and temperatures is a primary goal. For theory, measurements are needed as a function of time and space to understand plasma transport and confinement with the ultimate goal of achieving economic nuclear fusion power. Electron profile measurements and plasma spectroscopy for the plasma ions are introduced. With the advent of Neutral Beam auxiliary plasma heating, Charge Exchange Recombination Spectroscopy provides accurate and time resolved measurements of the ions in large volume fusion devices. In acknowledgement of Nicol Peacock's role in the development of these techniques, still at the forefront of plasma fusion research, this paper describes the evolution of this diagnostic method.

  12. Dissociative Recombination Dynamics of the Ozone Cation

    SciTech Connect

    Zhaunerchyk, Vitali; Geppert, W.; sterdahl, F.; Larsson, Mats; Thomas, R. D.; Bahati Musafiri, Eric; Bannister, Mark E; Fogle, Mark R.; Vane, C Randy

    2008-02-01

    The dissociative recombination of the ozone cation has been studied at the heavy-ion storage ring CRYRING. The total cross section and branching fractions have been measured. The cross section from {approx}0eV to 0.2 eV follows a nearly E{sup -1} dependence, which was theoretically predicted to be a characteristic of the direct dissociative recombination mechanism. The thermal rate coefficient has been deduced from the cross section to be 7.37x10{sup -7}(T/300){sup -0.55}cm{sup 3}s{sup -1}. The branching fraction analysis carried out at {approx}0eV interaction energy has shown a strong propensity (94%) to dissociate through the three-body channel. Due to the overwhelming dominance of this channel it has been investigated in more detail. Of the six energetically available three-body pathways only three are significantly populated, such that the production of O(S1) is highly unfavored and all atomic oxygen fragments are predominantly formed in P3 and D1 states. Analysis of the breakup geometries has been performed by means of the Dalitz plot. It is observed that the molecules dissociating through the O(P3)+O(P3)+O(P3) and O(P3)+O(P3)+O(D1) channels have an open linear geometry where the cleavage of two valence bonds occurs preferentially in unison, while the O(P3)+O(D1)+O(D1) breakup might proceed partly through a sequential mechanism.

  13. Functional, Responsive Materials Assembled from Recombinant Oleosin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hammer, Daniel

    Biological cells are surrounded by a plasma membrane made primarily of phospholipids that form a bilayer. This membrane is permselective and compartmentalizes the cell. A simple form of artificial cell is the vesicle, in which a phospholipid bilayer membrane surrounds an aqueous solution. However, there is no a priori reason why a membrane needs to be made of phospholipids. It could be made of any surfactant that forms a bilayer. We have assembled membranes and other structures from the recombinant plant protein oleosin. The ability to assemble from a recombinant protein means that every molecule is identical, we have complete control over the sequence, and hence can build in designer functionality with high fidelity, including adhesion and enzymatic activity. Such incorporation is trivial using the tools of molecular biology. We find that while many variants of oleosin make membranes, others make micelles and sheets. We show how the type of supramolecular structure can be altered by the conditions of solvent, such as ionic strength, and the architecture of the surfactant itself. We show that protease cleavable domains can be incorporated within oleosin, and be engineered to protect other functional domains such as adhesive motifs, to make responsive materials whose activity and shape depend on the action of proteases. We will also present the idea of making ``Franken''-oleosins, where large domains of native oleosin are replaced with domains from other functional proteins, to make hybrids conferred by the donor protein. Thus, we can view oleosin as a template upon which a vast array of designer functionalities can be imparted..

  14. The Landscape of Realized Homologous Recombination in Pathogenic Bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Yahara, Koji; Didelot, Xavier; Jolley, Keith A.; Kobayashi, Ichizo; Maiden, Martin C.J.; Sheppard, Samuel K.; Falush, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    Recombination enhances the adaptive potential of organisms by allowing genetic variants to be tested on multiple genomic backgrounds. Its distribution in the genome can provide insight into the evolutionary forces that underlie traits, such as the emergence of pathogenicity. Here, we examined landscapes of realized homologous recombination of 500 genomes from ten bacterial species and found all species have “hot” regions with elevated rates relative to the genome average. We examined the size, gene content, and chromosomal features associated with these regions and the correlations between closely related species. The recombination landscape is variable and evolves rapidly. For example in Salmonella, only short regions of around 1 kb in length are hot whereas in the closely related species Escherichia coli, some hot regions exceed 100 kb, spanning many genes. Only Streptococcus pyogenes shows evidence for the positive correlation between GC content and recombination that has been reported for several eukaryotes. Genes with function related to the cell surface/membrane are often found in recombination hot regions but E. coli is the only species where genes annotated as “virulence associated” are consistently hotter. There is also evidence that some genes with “housekeeping” functions tend to be overrepresented in cold regions. For example, ribosomal proteins showed low recombination in all of the species. Among specific genes, transferrin-binding proteins are recombination hot in all three of the species in which they were found, and are subject to interspecies recombination. PMID:26516092

  15. Radiative recombination and excited-state photoionization of lithium

    SciTech Connect

    Lahiri, J. ); Manson, S.T. )

    1993-11-01

    The radiative-recombination rate coefficients for electrons impinging on Li[sup +], along with the associated excited-state photoionization cross sections for Li, are calculated in the low-energy region. In addition to the totals, the contribution of the recombination of individual excited states to the total is discussed.

  16. Inference of Ancestral Recombination Graphs through Topological Data Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Cámara, Pablo G.; Levine, Arnold J.; Rabadán, Raúl

    2016-01-01

    The recent explosion of genomic data has underscored the need for interpretable and comprehensive analyses that can capture complex phylogenetic relationships within and across species. Recombination, reassortment and horizontal gene transfer constitute examples of pervasive biological phenomena that cannot be captured by tree-like representations. Starting from hundreds of genomes, we are interested in the reconstruction of potential evolutionary histories leading to the observed data. Ancestral recombination graphs represent potential histories that explicitly accommodate recombination and mutation events across orthologous genomes. However, they are computationally costly to reconstruct, usually being infeasible for more than few tens of genomes. Recently, Topological Data Analysis (TDA) methods have been proposed as robust and scalable methods that can capture the genetic scale and frequency of recombination. We build upon previous TDA developments for detecting and quantifying recombination, and present a novel framework that can be applied to hundreds of genomes and can be interpreted in terms of minimal histories of mutation and recombination events, quantifying the scales and identifying the genomic locations of recombinations. We implement this framework in a software package, called TARGet, and apply it to several examples, including small migration between different populations, human recombination, and horizontal evolution in finches inhabiting the Galápagos Islands. PMID:27532298

  17. Not so fast on recombination analysis of Newcastle disease virus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Regarding the letter published in the Journal of Virology Vol. 82 No. 13 p. 6782 indicating that “powerful evidence” of recombination is a call for caution in the use of Newcastle Disease Virus (NDV) based vaccines, I would like to suggest that evidence for recombination is still weak. The authors ...

  18. Termolecular ionic recombination at high ambient gas density

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bates, D. R.

    1983-01-01

    It is shown that the importance of diffusion relative to drift in ion-ion recombination is a decreasing function of the separation between the ions (contrary to a common supposition). Langevin's formula for the recombination coefficient is obtained very simply using a physical model which allows for both diffusion and drift.

  19. Experimental studies of the dissociative recombination of H3 +

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Larsson, M.

    2000-09-01

    Despite many experimental efforts over several decades, no consensus has bee n reached concerning the rate of dissociative recombination of H3+. We review the current status concerning different experimental appro aches to the measurement of the cross-section, rate coefficient and branching r atios in electron recombination of H3+.

  20. Recombination in viruses: mechanisms, methods of study, and evolutionary consequences.

    PubMed

    Pérez-Losada, Marcos; Arenas, Miguel; Galán, Juan Carlos; Palero, Ferran; González-Candelas, Fernando

    2015-03-01

    Recombination is a pervasive process generating diversity in most viruses. It joins variants that arise independently within the same molecule, creating new opportunities for viruses to overcome selective pressures and to adapt to new environments and hosts. Consequently, the analysis of viral recombination attracts the interest of clinicians, epidemiologists, molecular biologists and evolutionary biologists. In this review we present an overview of three major areas related to viral recombination: (i) the molecular mechanisms that underlie recombination in model viruses, including DNA-viruses (Herpesvirus) and RNA-viruses (Human Influenza Virus and Human Immunodeficiency Virus), (ii) the analytical procedures to detect recombination in viral sequences and to determine the recombination breakpoints, along with the conceptual and methodological tools currently used and a brief overview of the impact of new sequencing technologies on the detection of recombination, and (iii) the major areas in the evolutionary analysis of viral populations on which recombination has an impact. These include the evaluation of selective pressures acting on viral populations, the application of evolutionary reconstructions in the characterization of centralized genes for vaccine design, and the evaluation of linkage disequilibrium and population structure. PMID:25541518

  1. Recombinant HT.sub.m4 gene, protein and assays

    DOEpatents

    Lim, Bing; Adra, Chaker N.; Lelias, Jean-Michel

    1996-01-01

    The invention relates to a recombinant DNA molecule which encodes a HT.sub.m4 protein, a transformed host cell which has been stably transfected with a DNA molecule which encodes a HT.sub.m4 protein and a recombinant HT.sub.m4 protein. The invention also relates to a method for detecting the presence of a hereditary atopy.

  2. Recombination in Avian Gamma-Coronavirus Infectious Bronchitis Virus

    PubMed Central

    Thor, Sharmi W.; Hilt, Deborah A.; Kissinger, Jessica C.; Paterson, Andrew H.; Jackwood, Mark W.

    2011-01-01

    Recombination in the family Coronaviridae has been well documented and is thought to be a contributing factor in the emergence and evolution of different coronaviral genotypes as well as different species of coronavirus. However, there are limited data available on the frequency and extent of recombination in coronaviruses in nature and particularly for the avian gamma-coronaviruses where only recently the emergence of a turkey coronavirus has been attributed solely to recombination. In this study, the full-length genomes of eight avian gamma-coronavirus infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) isolates were sequenced and along with other full-length IBV genomes available from GenBank were analyzed for recombination. Evidence of recombination was found in every sequence analyzed and was distributed throughout the entire genome. Areas that have the highest occurrence of recombination are located in regions of the genome that code for nonstructural proteins 2, 3 and 16, and the structural spike glycoprotein. The extent of the recombination observed, suggests that this may be one of the principal mechanisms for generating genetic and antigenic diversity within IBV. These data indicate that reticulate evolutionary change due to recombination in IBV, likely plays a major role in the origin and adaptation of the virus leading to new genetic types and strains of the virus. PMID:21994806

  3. Oxygen recombination in the sealed nickel-cadmium cell

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zimmerman, Al H.; Barrera, Tom P.

    1991-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine what parameters are most critical for controlling overcharge pressure in a sealed nickel cadmium cell. Topics covered in viewgraph format are: parameters examined; oxygen evolution and recombination; experimental test description; and effect of parameters on recombination rate.

  4. Short communication: A comparative analysis of recombinant chymosins.

    PubMed

    Vallejo, J A; Ageitos, J M; Poza, M; Villa, T G

    2012-02-01

    The first step in cheesemaking is the milk clotting process, in which κ-caseinolytic enzymes contribute to micelle precipitation. The best enzyme for this purpose is chymosin because of its high degree of specificity toward κ-casein. Although recombinant bovine chymosin is the most frequently used chymosin in the industry, new sources of recombinant chymosin, such as goat, camel, or buffalo, are now available. The present work represents a comparative study of 4 different recombinant chymosins (goat and buffalo chymosins expressed in Pichia pastoris, and bovine and camel chymosin expressed in Aspergillus niger). Recombinant goat chymosin exhibited the best catalytic efficiency compared with the buffalo, bovine, or camel recombinant enzymes. Moreover, recombinant goat chymosin exhibited the best specific proteolytic activity, a wider pH range of action, and a lower glycosylation degree than the other 3 enzymes. In conclusion, we propose that recombinant goat chymosin represents a serious alternative to recombinant bovine chymosin for use in the cheesemaking industry. PMID:22281325

  5. Heterogeneity in rates of recombination across the mouse genome

    SciTech Connect

    Nachman, M.W.; Churchill, G.A.

    1996-02-01

    If loci are randomly distributed on a physical map, the density of markers on a genetic map will be inversely proportional to recombination rate. First proposed by Mary Lyon, we have used this idea to estimate recombination rates from the Drosophila melanogaster linkage map. These results were compared with results of two other studies that estimated regional recombination rates in D. melanogaster using both physical and genetic maps. The three methods were largely concordant in identifying large-scale genomic patterns of recombination. The marker density method was then applied to the Mus musculus microsatellite linkage map. The distribution of microsatellites provided evidence for heterogeneity in recombination rates. Centromeric regions for several mouse chromosomes had significantly greater numbers of markers than expected, suggesting that recombination rates were lower in these regions. In contrast, most telomeric regions contained significantly fewer markers than expected. This indicates that recombination rates are elevated at the telomeres of many mouse chromosomes and is consistent with a comparison of the genetic and cytogenetic maps in these regions. The density of markers on a genetic map may provide a generally useful way to estimate regional recombination rates in species for which genetic, but not physical, maps are available. 44 refs., 5 figs., 4 tabs.

  6. A Heritable Recombination system for synthetic Darwinian evolution in yeast.

    PubMed

    Romanini, Dante W; Peralta-Yahya, Pamela; Mondol, Vanessa; Cornish, Virginia W

    2012-12-21

    Genetic recombination is central to the generation of molecular diversity and enhancement of evolutionary fitness in living systems. Methods such as DNA shuffling that recapitulate this diversity mechanism in vitro are powerful tools for engineering biomolecules with useful new functions by directed evolution. Synthetic biology now brings demand for analogous technologies that enable the controlled recombination of beneficial mutations in living cells. Thus, here we create a Heritable Recombination system centered around a library cassette plasmid that enables inducible mutagenesis via homologous recombination and subsequent combination of beneficial mutations through sexual reproduction in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Using repair of nonsense codons in auxotrophic markers as a model, Heritable Recombination was optimized to give mutagenesis efficiencies of up to 6% and to allow successive repair of different markers through two cycles of sexual reproduction and recombination. Finally, Heritable Recombination was employed to change the substrate specificity of a biosynthetic enzyme, with beneficial mutations in three different active site loops crossed over three continuous rounds of mutation and selection to cover a total sequence diversity of 10(13). Heritable Recombination, while at an early stage of development, breaks the transformation barrier to library size and can be immediately applied to combinatorial crossing of beneficial mutations for cell engineering, adding important features to the growing arsenal of next generation molecular biology tools for synthetic biology. PMID:23412545

  7. Procedures for monitoring recombinant erythropoietin and analogs in doping.

    PubMed

    Lamon, Séverine; Robinson, Neil; Saugy, Martial

    2010-03-01

    Hemoglobin concentration is one of the principal factors of aerobic power and, consequently, of performance in many types of physical activities. The use of recombinant human erythropoietin is, therefore, particularly powerful for improving the physical performances of patients, and, more generally, improving their quality of life. This article discusses procedures for monitoring recombinant erythropoietin and its analogues in doping for athletic performance. PMID:20122455

  8. Inference of Ancestral Recombination Graphs through Topological Data Analysis.

    PubMed

    Cámara, Pablo G; Levine, Arnold J; Rabadán, Raúl

    2016-08-01

    The recent explosion of genomic data has underscored the need for interpretable and comprehensive analyses that can capture complex phylogenetic relationships within and across species. Recombination, reassortment and horizontal gene transfer constitute examples of pervasive biological phenomena that cannot be captured by tree-like representations. Starting from hundreds of genomes, we are interested in the reconstruction of potential evolutionary histories leading to the observed data. Ancestral recombination graphs represent potential histories that explicitly accommodate recombination and mutation events across orthologous genomes. However, they are computationally costly to reconstruct, usually being infeasible for more than few tens of genomes. Recently, Topological Data Analysis (TDA) methods have been proposed as robust and scalable methods that can capture the genetic scale and frequency of recombination. We build upon previous TDA developments for detecting and quantifying recombination, and present a novel framework that can be applied to hundreds of genomes and can be interpreted in terms of minimal histories of mutation and recombination events, quantifying the scales and identifying the genomic locations of recombinations. We implement this framework in a software package, called TARGet, and apply it to several examples, including small migration between different populations, human recombination, and horizontal evolution in finches inhabiting the Galápagos Islands. PMID:27532298

  9. Three Recombinant Engineered Antibodies against Recombinant Tags with High Affinity and Specificity

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Hongyu; Shen, Ao; Xiang, Yang K.; Corey, David P.

    2016-01-01

    We describe three recombinant engineered antibodies against three recombinant epitope tags, constructed with divalent binding arms to recognize divalent epitopes and so achieve high affinity and specificity. In two versions, an epitope is inserted in tandem into a protein of interest, and a homodimeric antibody is constructed by fusing a high-affinity epitope-binding domain to a human or mouse Fc domain. In a third, a heterodimeric antibody is constructed by fusing two different epitope-binding domains which target two different binding sites in GFP, to polarized Fc fragments. These antibody/epitope pairs have affinities in the low picomolar range and are useful tools for many antibody-based applications. PMID:26943906

  10. Applications of recombinant DNA technology in the production of glycosylated recombinant human granulocyte colony stimulating factor.

    PubMed

    Holloway, C J

    1994-01-01

    Lenograstim has been developed by recombinant DNA technology and is expressed in large-scale mammalian cell culture. It has been shown that lenograstim is indistinguishable in its physicochemical, structural and biological properties with respect to native granulocyte colony stimulating factor isolated from a human cell line. In particular, both the recombinant and natural proteins have identical amino acid sequences, contain the same intra-polypeptide chain disulphide bridges and exhibit the same posttranslational carbohydrate structures. Lenograstim is manufactured by expanding inoculum from vials of the Manufacturer's Working Cell Bank (from molecular cloning) followed by culture in a large bioreactor. Purification of lenograstim involves a four-step chromatographic process. The active ingredient is monitored by in-process controls at all stages of manufacture and routinely as purified bulk. The finished product is formulated into excipients reflecting conditions close to the natural environment of the protein with respect to pH, osmolarity and the presence of human serum albumin. PMID:7535067

  11. Modulating Mek1 kinase alters outcomes of meiotic recombination and the stringency of the recombination checkpoint response

    PubMed Central

    Hsin-Yen, Wu; Hsuan-Chung, Ho; Burgess, Sean M.

    2010-01-01

    Summary Background During meiosis, recombination between homologous chromosomes promotes their proper segregation. In budding yeast, programmed double-strand breaks (DSBs) promote recombination between homologs versus sister chromatids by dimerizing and activating Mek1, a chromosome axis-associated kinase. Mek1 is also a proposed effector kinase in the recombination checkpoint that arrests exit from pachytene in response to aberrant DNA/axis structures. Elucidating a role for Mek1 in the recombination checkpoint has been difficult since in mek1 loss-of-function mutants DSBs are rapidly repaired using a sister chromatid thereby bypassing formation of checkpoint-activating lesions. Here we tested the hypothesis that a MEK1 gain-of-function allele would enhance interhomolog bias and the recombination checkpoint response. Results When Mek1 activation was artificially maintained through GST-mediated dimerization, there was an enhanced skew toward interhomolog recombination and reduction of intersister events including multi-chromatid joint molecules. Increased interhomolog events were specifically repaired as noncrossovers rather than crossovers. Ectopic Mek1 dimerization was also sufficient to impose interhomolog bias in the absence of recombination checkpoint functions, thereby uncoupling these two processes. Finally, the stringency of the recombination checkpoint was enhanced in weak meiotic recombination mutants by blocking prophase exit in a subset of cells where arrest is not absolute. Conclusions We propose that Mek1 plays dual roles during meiotic prophase I by phosphorylating targets directly involved in the recombination checkpoint as well as targets involved in sister chromatid recombination. We discuss how regulation of pachytene exit by Mek1 or similar kinases could influence checkpoint stringency, which may differ among species and between sexes. PMID:20888230

  12. Recombination in liquid xenon for low-energy recoils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Lu; Mei, Dongming; Cubed Collaboration

    2014-09-01

    Detector response to low-energy recoils in sub-keV region is critical to detection of low-mass dark matter particles-WIMPS (Weakly interacting massive particles). The role of electron-ion recombination is important to the interpretation of the relation between ionization yield and scintillation yield, which are in general anti-correlated. Recent experimental results show that ionization yield increases down to keV range. This phenomenon contradicts general understanding for low energy recoils in the keV range in which direct excitation dominates. The explanation is that recombination becomes much less efficient when the track length is smaller than the thermalization distance of electrons. However, recombination rate is also proportional to ionization density, which is very high for keV recoils. To understand how recombination rate behaves for keV recoils, we calculated both initial recombination rate and volume recombination rate for keV recoils in liquid xenon. In this paper, we show the results of the calculated recombination rate as a function of recoil energy for both electronic recoils and nuclear recoils. Detector response to low-energy recoils in sub-keV region is critical to detection of low-mass dark matter particles-WIMPS (Weakly interacting massive particles). The role of electron-ion recombination is important to the interpretation of the relation between ionization yield and scintillation yield, which are in general anti-correlated. Recent experimental results show that ionization yield increases down to keV range. This phenomenon contradicts general understanding for low energy recoils in the keV range in which direct excitation dominates. The explanation is that recombination becomes much less efficient when the track length is smaller than the thermalization distance of electrons. However, recombination rate is also proportional to ionization density, which is very high for keV recoils. To understand how recombination rate behaves for keV recoils

  13. Two dimensional Langevin recombination in regioregular poly(3-hexylthiophene)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Juška, Gytis; Genevičius, Kristijonas; Nekrašas, Nerijus; Sliaužys, Gytis; Österbacka, Ronald

    2009-07-01

    In this work, it is shown that recombination in regioregular poly(3-hexylthiophene):[6,6]-phenyl-C61-butyric acid methyl ester (RRP3HT:PCBM) bulk-heterojunction solar cells is caused by the two dimensional (2D) Langevin recombination in the lamellar structures of RRP3HT, which are formed after annealing process. Due to 2D Langevin process, bimolecular recombination coefficient is reduced in comparison with three dimensional Langevin case, and bimolecular recombination coefficient depends on the density of charge carriers n1/2. Data obtained from the different experimental techniques (charge extraction with linearly increasing voltage, integral time of flight, double injection current transients and transient absorption spectroscopy) confirms 2D Langevin recombination in RR3PHT.

  14. Charge carrier recombination dynamics in perovskite and polymer solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paulke, Andreas; Stranks, Samuel D.; Kniepert, Juliane; Kurpiers, Jona; Wolff, Christian M.; Schön, Natalie; Snaith, Henry J.; Brenner, Thomas J. K.; Neher, Dieter

    2016-03-01

    Time-delayed collection field experiments are applied to planar organometal halide perovskite (CH3NH3PbI3) based solar cells to investigate charge carrier recombination in a fully working solar cell at the nanosecond to microsecond time scale. Recombination of mobile (extractable) charges is shown to follow second-order recombination dynamics for all fluences and time scales tested. Most importantly, the bimolecular recombination coefficient is found to be time-dependent, with an initial value of ca. 10-9 cm3/s and a progressive reduction within the first tens of nanoseconds. Comparison to the prototypical organic bulk heterojunction device PTB7:PC71BM yields important differences with regard to the mechanism and time scale of free carrier recombination.

  15. Recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein induces bone formation.

    PubMed Central

    Wang, E A; Rosen, V; D'Alessandro, J S; Bauduy, M; Cordes, P; Harada, T; Israel, D I; Hewick, R M; Kerns, K M; LaPan, P

    1990-01-01

    We have purified and characterized active recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) 2A. Implantation of the recombinant protein in rats showed that a single BMP can induce bone formation in vivo. A dose-response and time-course study using the rat ectopic bone formation assay revealed that implantation of 0.5-115 micrograms of partially purified recombinant human BMP-2A resulted in cartilage by day 7 and bone formation by day 14. The time at which bone formation occurred was dependent on the amount of BMP-2A implanted; at high doses bone formation could be observed at 5 days. The cartilage- and bone-inductive activity of the recombinant BMP-2A is histologically indistinguishable from that of bone extracts. Thus, recombinant BMP-2A has therapeutic potential to promote de novo bone formation in humans. Images PMID:2315314

  16. Sex recombination, and reproductive fitness: an experimental study using Paramecium

    SciTech Connect

    Nyberg, D.

    1982-08-01

    The effect of sex and recombination on reproductive fitness are measured using five wild stocks of Paramecium primaurelia. Among the wild stocks there were highly significant differences in growth rates. No hybrid had as low a fitness as the least fit parental stock. Recombination produced genotypes of higher fitness than those of either parent only in the cross between the two stocks of lowest fitness. The increase in variance of fitness as a result of recombination was almost exclusively attributable to the generation lines with low fitness. The fitness consequences of sexuality and mate choice were stock specific; some individuals leaving the most descendants by inbreeding, others by outcrossing. For most crosses the short-term advantage of sex, if any, accrue from the fusion of different gametes (hybrid vigor) and not from recombination. Since the homozygous genotype with the highest fitnes left the most progeny by inbreeding (no recombination), the persistence of conjugation in P. primaurelia is paradoxical. (JMT)

  17. Utilization of Site-Specific Recombination in Biopharmaceutical Production

    PubMed Central

    Ahmadi, Maryam; Damavandi, Narges; Akbari, Mohammad Reza; Davami, Fatemeh

    2016-01-01

    Mammalian expression systems, due to their capacity in post-translational modification, are preferred systems for biopharmaceutical protein production. Several recombinant protein systems have been introduced to the market, most of which are under clinical development. In spite of significant improvements such as cell line engineering, introducing novel expression methods, gene silencing and process development, expression level is unpredictable and unstable because of the random location of integration in the genome. Site-specific recombination techniques are capable of producing stable and high producer clonal cells; therefore, they are gaining more importance in the biopharmaceutical production. Site-specific recombination methods increase the recombinant protein production by specifically inserting a vector at a locus with specific expression trait. The present review focused on the latest developments in site-specific recombination techniques, their specific features and comparisons. PMID:26602035

  18. Production and secretion of recombinant proteins in Dictyostelium discoideum.

    PubMed

    Dittrich, W; Williams, K L; Slade, M B

    1994-06-01

    We have expressed useful amounts of three recombinant proteins in a new eukaryotic host/vector system. The cellular slime mold Dictyostelium discoideum efficiently secreted two recombinant products, a soluble form of the normally cell surface associated D. discoideum glycoprotein (PsA) and the heterologous protein glutathione-S-transferase (GST) from Schistosoma japonicum, while the enzyme beta-glucuronidase (GUS) from Escherichia coli was cell associated. Up to 20mg/l of recombinant PsA and 1mg/l of GST were obtained after purification from a standard, peptone based growth medium. The secretion signal peptide was correctly cleaved from the recombinant GST- and PsA-proteins and the expression of recombinant PsA was shown to be stable for at least one hundred generations in the absence of selection. PMID:7764951

  19. CRISPR-directed mitotic recombination enables genetic mapping without crosses.

    PubMed

    Sadhu, Meru J; Bloom, Joshua S; Day, Laura; Kruglyak, Leonid

    2016-05-27

    Linkage and association studies have mapped thousands of genomic regions that contribute to phenotypic variation, but narrowing these regions to the underlying causal genes and variants has proven much more challenging. Resolution of genetic mapping is limited by the recombination rate. We developed a method that uses CRISPR (clustered, regularly interspaced, short palindromic repeats) to build mapping panels with targeted recombination events. We tested the method by generating a panel with recombination events spaced along a yeast chromosome arm, mapping trait variation, and then targeting a high density of recombination events to the region of interest. Using this approach, we fine-mapped manganese sensitivity to a single polymorphism in the transporter Pmr1. Targeting recombination events to regions of interest allows us to rapidly and systematically identify causal variants underlying trait differences. PMID:27230379

  20. High cell density cultivation of recombinant Escherichia coli for prodrug of recombinant human GLPs production.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Ying; Ma, Xue; Hou, Zheng; Xue, Xiaoyan; Meng, Jingru; Li, Mingkai; Jia, Min; Luo, Xiaoxing

    2012-09-01

    Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1)(2) has been attracting increasing interest on account of its prominent benefits in type 2 diabetes. However, its clinical applications are limited by the short half-life in vivo. To overcome this limitation, a new polymer of GLP-1 was developed by prodrug strategy. In this study a recombinant protein, rhGLPs, was successfully constructed, cloned into plasmid pET30a (+) and expressed in Escherichia coli ArcticExpress(DE3)RP in the form of inclusion body. The recombinant fusion protein productivity could be enhanced by high cell density culture of the recombinant strain. As a result, about 40 g wet weight cells per liter were obtained. The protein was purified by size-exclusion chromatography on a Superdex 75 column and refolded using reverse dilution and dialysis methods. SDS-PAGE, HPLC and MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry were undertaken to determine the purity and molecular weight of rhGLPs. Bioactivity assay revealed that it had glucose-lowering and insulin-releasing action in vivo. PMID:22771632

  1. Recombinational Landscape and Population Genomics of Caenorhabditis elegans

    PubMed Central

    Rockman, Matthew V.; Kruglyak, Leonid

    2009-01-01

    Recombination rate and linkage disequilibrium, the latter a function of population genomic processes, are the critical parameters for mapping by linkage and association, and their patterns in Caenorhabditis elegans are poorly understood. We performed high-density SNP genotyping on a large panel of recombinant inbred advanced intercross lines (RIAILs) of C. elegans to characterize the landscape of recombination and, on a panel of wild strains, to characterize population genomic patterns. We confirmed that C. elegans autosomes exhibit discrete domains of nearly constant recombination rate, and we show, for the first time, that the pattern holds for the X chromosome as well. The terminal domains of each chromosome, spanning about 7% of the genome, exhibit effectively no recombination. The RIAILs exhibit a 5.3-fold expansion of the genetic map. With median marker spacing of 61 kb, they are a powerful resource for mapping quantitative trait loci in C. elegans. Among 125 wild isolates, we identified only 41 distinct haplotypes. The patterns of genotypic similarity suggest that some presumed wild strains are laboratory contaminants. The Hawaiian strain, CB4856, exhibits genetic isolation from the remainder of the global population, whose members exhibit ample evidence of intercrossing and recombining. The population effective recombination rate, estimated from the pattern of linkage disequilibrium, is correlated with the estimated meiotic recombination rate, but its magnitude implies that the effective rate of outcrossing is extremely low, corroborating reports of selection against recombinant genotypes. Despite the low population, effective recombination rate and extensive linkage disequilibrium among chromosomes, which are techniques that account for background levels of genomic similarity, permit association mapping in wild C. elegans strains. PMID:19283065

  2. Genetic recombination of bacterial plasmid DNA: effect of RecF pathway mutations on plasmid recombination in Escherichia coli.

    PubMed Central

    Kolodner, R; Fishel, R A; Howard, M

    1985-01-01

    Tn5 insertion mutations in the recN gene, and in what appears to be a new RecF pathway gene designated recO and mapping at approximately 55.4 min on the standard genetic map, were isolated by screening Tn5 insertion mutations that cotransduced with tyrA. The recO1504::Tn5 mutation decreased the frequency of recombination during Hfr-mediated crosses and increased the susceptibility to killing by UV irradiation and mitomycin C when present in a recB recC sbcB background, but only increased the sensitivity to killing by UV irradiation when present in an otherwise Rec+ background. The effects of these and other RecF pathway mutations on plasmid recombination were tested. Mutations in the recJ, recO, and ssb genes, when present in otherwise Rec+ E. coli strains, decreased the frequency of plasmid recombination, whereas the lexA3, recAo281, recN, and ruv mutations had no effect on plasmid recombination. Tn5 insertion mutations in the lexA gene increased the frequency of plasmid recombination. These data indicate that plasmid recombination events in wild-type Escherichia coli strains are catalyzed by a recombination pathway that is related to the RecF recombination pathway and that some component of this pathway besides the recA gene product is regulated by the lexA gene product. PMID:2993230

  3. Genome Sequence of Complex HIV-1 Unique Recombinant Forms Sharing a Common Recombination Breakpoint Identified in Malaysia

    PubMed Central

    Cheong, Hui Ting; Ng, Kim Tien; Ong, Lai Yee; Takebe, Yutaka; Chan, Kok Gan; Koh, Clayton; Al-Darraji, Haider Abdulrazzaq Abed; Kamarulzaman, Adeeba

    2015-01-01

    Three strains of HIV-1 unique recombinant forms (URFs) descended from subtypes B, B′, and CRF01_AE were identified among people who inject drugs in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. These three URFs shared a common recombination breakpoint in the reverse transcriptase region, indicating frequent linkage within the drug-injecting networks in Malaysia. PMID:26543107

  4. 75 FR 42114 - Office of Biotechnology Activities; Recombinant DNA Research: Proposed Action Under the NIH...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-20

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health Office of Biotechnology Activities; Recombinant DNA Research: Proposed Action Under the NIH Guidelines for Research Involving Recombinant DNA Molecules (NIH... transgenic rodents by recombinant DNA technology must be registered with the Institutional...

  5. Effect of sex, age, and breed on genetic recombination features in cattle

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Meiotic recombination is a fundamental biological process which generates genetic diversity, affects fertility, and influences evolvability. Here we investigate the roles of sex, age, and breed in cattle recombination features, including recombination rate, location and crossover interference. Usin...

  6. Auger recombination as the dominant recombination process in indium nitride at low temperatures during steady-state photoluminescence

    SciTech Connect

    Seetoh, I. P.; Soh, C. B.; Fitzgerald, E. A.; Chua, S. J.

    2013-03-11

    Auger recombination in InN films grown by metal-organic chemical vapor deposition was studied by steady-state photoluminescence at different laser excitation powers and sample temperatures. It was dominant over radiative recombination and Shockley-Read-Hall recombination at low temperatures, contributing to the sub-linear relationship between the integrated photoluminescence intensity and laser excitation power. Auger recombination rates increased gradually with temperature with an activation energy of 10-17 meV, in good agreement with values from transient photoluminescence reported in literature. As the Auger recombination rates were independent of material quality, they may form an upper limit to the luminous efficiency of InN.

  7. Auger recombination as the dominant recombination process in indium nitride at low temperatures during steady-state photoluminescence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seetoh, I. P.; Soh, C. B.; Fitzgerald, E. A.; Chua, S. J.

    2013-03-01

    Auger recombination in InN films grown by metal-organic chemical vapor deposition was studied by steady-state photoluminescence at different laser excitation powers and sample temperatures. It was dominant over radiative recombination and Shockley-Read-Hall recombination at low temperatures, contributing to the sub-linear relationship between the integrated photoluminescence intensity and laser excitation power. Auger recombination rates increased gradually with temperature with an activation energy of 10-17 meV, in good agreement with values from transient photoluminescence reported in literature. As the Auger recombination rates were independent of material quality, they may form an upper limit to the luminous efficiency of InN.

  8. Retroviral Vectors for Analysis of Viral Mutagenesis and Recombination

    PubMed Central

    Rawson, Jonathan M.O.; Mansky, Louis M.

    2014-01-01

    Retrovirus population diversity within infected hosts is commonly high due in part to elevated rates of replication, mutation, and recombination. This high genetic diversity often complicates the development of effective diagnostics, vaccines, and antiviral drugs. This review highlights the diverse vectors and approaches that have been used to examine mutation and recombination in retroviruses. Retroviral vectors for these purposes can broadly be divided into two categories: those that utilize reporter genes as mutation or recombination targets and those that utilize viral genes as targets of mutation or recombination. Reporter gene vectors greatly facilitate the detection, quantification, and characterization of mutants and/or recombinants, but may not fully recapitulate the patterns of mutagenesis or recombination observed in native viral gene sequences. In contrast, the detection of mutations or recombination events directly in viral genes is more biologically relevant but also typically more challenging and inefficient. We will highlight the advantages and disadvantages of the various vectors and approaches used as well as propose ways in which they could be improved. PMID:25254386

  9. Calculations of effective recombination coefficients for nebular astrophysics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fang, Xuan; Liu, Xiaowei; Storey, Pete J.

    2015-08-01

    In the seemingly well established field of nebular astrophysics, there has been a long-standing dichotomy in plasma diagnostics and heavy elemental abundance determinations using the traditional method based on collisionally excited lines on the one hand, and optical recombination lines/continua, on the other. Several mechanisms have been proposed to explain this fundamental problem. Deep spectroscopy and recombination line analysis of emission line nebulae (planetary nebulae and H II regions) in the past decade have pointed to the existence of another previously unknown component of cold, H-deficient material as the culprit. Better constraints are needed on the physical conditions (electron temperature and density), chemical composition, mass, and spatial distribution of the postulated H-deficient inclusions in order to unravel their astrophysical origins. This requires knowledge of the relevant atomic parameters, most importantly the effective recombination coefficients of abundant heavy element ions, such as C II, O II, N II, and Ne II, appropriate for the physical conditions prevailing in those cold inclusions (e.g., electron temperature Te < 1000 K).In this contribution, I will introduce the creation of new effective recombination coefficients for the heavy element optical recombination lines, and review the recent progress in nebular astrophysics since the availability of new and high-quality atomic data. I will also present our new calculations of the effective recombination coefficients for the Ne II recombination line spectrum.

  10. Phylogenetic and Recombination Analysis of Tomato Spotted Wilt Virus

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Jisuk; Kim, Mi-Kyeong; Choi, Hong-Soo; Kim, Kook-Hyung

    2013-01-01

    Tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV) severely damages and reduces the yield of many economically important plants worldwide. In this study, we determined the whole-genome sequences of 10 TSWV isolates recently identified from various regions and hosts in Korea. Phylogenetic analysis of these 10 isolates as well as the three previously sequenced isolates indicated that the 13 Korean TSWV isolates could be divided into two groups reflecting either two different origins or divergences of Korean TSWV isolates. In addition, the complete nucleotide sequences for the 13 Korean TSWV isolates along with previously sequenced TSWV RNA segments from Korea and other countries were subjected to phylogenetic and recombination analysis. The phylogenetic analysis indicated that both the RNA L and RNA M segments of most Korean isolates might have originated in Western Europe and North America but that the RNA S segments for all Korean isolates might have originated in China and Japan. Recombination analysis identified a total of 12 recombination events among all isolates and segments and five recombination events among the 13 Korea isolates; among the five recombinants from Korea, three contained the whole RNA L segment, suggesting reassortment rather than recombination. Our analyses provide evidence that both recombination and reassortment have contributed to the molecular diversity of TSWV. PMID:23696821

  11. The influence of recombination on human genetic diversity.

    PubMed

    Spencer, Chris C A; Deloukas, Panos; Hunt, Sarah; Mullikin, Jim; Myers, Simon; Silverman, Bernard; Donnelly, Peter; Bentley, David; McVean, Gil

    2006-09-22

    In humans, the rate of recombination, as measured on the megabase scale, is positively associated with the level of genetic variation, as measured at the genic scale. Despite considerable debate, it is not clear whether these factors are causally linked or, if they are, whether this is driven by the repeated action of adaptive evolution or molecular processes such as double-strand break formation and mismatch repair. We introduce three innovations to the analysis of recombination and diversity: fine-scale genetic maps estimated from genotype experiments that identify recombination hotspots at the kilobase scale, analysis of an entire human chromosome, and the use of wavelet techniques to identify correlations acting at different scales. We show that recombination influences genetic diversity only at the level of recombination hotspots. Hotspots are also associated with local increases in GC content and the relative frequency of GC-increasing mutations but have no effect on substitution rates. Broad-scale association between recombination and diversity is explained through covariance of both factors with base composition. To our knowledge, these results are the first evidence of a direct and local influence of recombination hotspots on genetic variation and the fate of individual mutations. However, that hotspots have no influence on substitution rates suggests that they are too ephemeral on an evolutionary time scale to have a strong influence on broader scale patterns of base composition and long-term molecular evolution. PMID:17044736

  12. Mechanics and Single-Molecule Interrogation of DNA Recombination.

    PubMed

    Bell, Jason C; Kowalczykowski, Stephen C

    2016-06-01

    The repair of DNA by homologous recombination is an essential, efficient, and high-fidelity process that mends DNA lesions formed during cellular metabolism; these lesions include double-stranded DNA breaks, daughter-strand gaps, and DNA cross-links. Genetic defects in the homologous recombination pathway undermine genomic integrity and cause the accumulation of gross chromosomal abnormalities-including rearrangements, deletions, and aneuploidy-that contribute to cancer formation. Recombination proceeds through the formation of joint DNA molecules-homologously paired but metastable DNA intermediates that are processed by several alternative subpathways-making recombination a versatile and robust mechanism to repair damaged chromosomes. Modern biophysical methods make it possible to visualize, probe, and manipulate the individual molecules participating in the intermediate steps of recombination, revealing new details about the mechanics of genetic recombination. We review and discuss the individual stages of homologous recombination, focusing on common pathways in bacteria, yeast, and humans, and place particular emphasis on the molecular mechanisms illuminated by single-molecule methods. PMID:27088880

  13. Identification and Manipulation of the Molecular Determinants Influencing Poliovirus Recombination

    PubMed Central

    Runckel, Charles; Westesson, Oscar; Andino, Raul; DeRisi, Joseph L.

    2013-01-01

    The control and prevention of communicable disease is directly impacted by the genetic mutability of the underlying etiological agents. In the case of RNA viruses, genetic recombination may impact public health by facilitating the generation of new viral strains with altered phenotypes and by compromising the genetic stability of live attenuated vaccines. The landscape of homologous recombination within a given RNA viral genome is thought to be influenced by several factors; however, a complete understanding of the genetic determinants of recombination is lacking. Here, we utilize gene synthesis and deep sequencing to create a detailed recombination map of the poliovirus 1 coding region. We identified over 50 thousand breakpoints throughout the genome, and we show the majority of breakpoints to be concentrated in a small number of specific “hotspots,” including those associated with known or predicted RNA secondary structures. Nucleotide base composition was also found to be associated with recombination frequency, suggesting that recombination is modulated across the genome by predictable and alterable motifs. We tested the predictive utility of the nucleotide base composition association by generating an artificial hotspot in the poliovirus genome. Our results imply that modification of these motifs could be extended to whole genome re-designs for the development of recombination-deficient, genetically stable live vaccine strains. PMID:23408891

  14. A Glance at Recombination Hotspots in the Domestic Cat.

    PubMed

    Alhaddad, Hasan; Zhang, Chi; Rannala, Bruce; Lyons, Leslie A

    2016-01-01

    Recombination has essential roles in increasing genetic variability within a population and in ensuring successful meiotic events. The objective of this study is to (i) infer the population-scaled recombination rate (ρ), and (ii) identify and characterize regions of increased recombination rate for the domestic cat, Felis silvestris catus. SNPs (n = 701) were genotyped in twenty-two East Asian feral cats (random bred). The SNPs covered ten different chromosomal regions (A1, A2, B3, C2, D1, D2, D4, E2, F2, X) with an average region size of 850 Kb and an average SNP density of 70 SNPs/region. The Bayesian method in the program inferRho was used to infer regional population recombination rates and hotspots localities. The regions exhibited variable population recombination rates and four decisive recombination hotspots were identified on cat chromosome A2, D1, and E2 regions. As a description of the identified hotspots, no correlation was detected between the GC content and the locality of recombination spots, and the hotspots enclosed L2 LINE elements and MIR and tRNA-Lys SINE elements. PMID:26859385

  15. Monte Carlo Simulations of the Inside Intron Recombination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cebrat, Stanisław; PȨKALSKI, Andrzej; Scharf, Fabian

    Biological genomes are divided into coding and non-coding regions. Introns are non-coding parts within genes, while the remaining non-coding parts are intergenic sequences. To study evolutionary significance of the inside intron recombination we have used two models based on the Monte Carlo method. In our computer simulations we have implemented the internal structure of genes by declaring the probability of recombination between exons. One situation when inside intron recombination is advantageous is recovering functional genes by combining proper exons dispersed in the genetic pool of the population after a long period without selection for the function of the gene. Populations have to pass through the bottleneck, then. These events are rather rare and we have expected that there should be other phenomena giving profits from the inside intron recombination. In fact we have found that inside intron recombination is advantageous only in the case when after recombination, besides the recombinant forms, parental haplotypes are available and selection is set already on gametes.

  16. Data Mining for Expressivity of Recombinant Protein Expression

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kira, Satoshi; Isoai, Atsushi; Yamamura, Masayuki

    We analyzed the expressivity of recombinant proteins by using data mining methods. The expression technique of recombinant protein is a key step towards elucidating the functions of genes discovered through genomic sequence projects. We have studied the productive efficiency of recombinant proteins in fission yeast, Schizosaccharomyces pombe (S.pombe), by mining the expression results. We gathered 57 proteins whose expression levels were known roughly in the host. Correlation analysis, principal component analysis and decision tree analysis were applied to these expression data. Analysis featuring codon usage and amino acid composition clarified that the amino acid composition affected to the expression levels of a recombinant protein strongly than the effect of codon usage. Furthermore, analysis of amino acid composition showed that protein solubility and the metabolism cost of amino acids correlated with a protein expressivity. Codon usage was often interesting in the field of recombinant expressions. However, our analysis found the weak correlation codon features with expressivities. These results indicated that ready-made indices of codon bias were irrelevant ones for modeling the expressivities of recombinant proteins. Our data driven approach was an easy and powerful method to improve recombinant protein expression, and this approach should be concentrated attention with the huge amount of expression data accumulating through the post-genome era.

  17. Recombination-mediated genetic engineering of large genomic DNA transgenes.

    PubMed

    Ejsmont, Radoslaw Kamil; Ahlfeld, Peter; Pozniakovsky, Andrei; Stewart, A Francis; Tomancak, Pavel; Sarov, Mihail

    2011-01-01

    Faithful gene activity reporters are a useful tool for evo-devo studies enabling selective introduction of specific loci between species and assaying the activity of large gene regulatory sequences. The use of large genomic constructs such as BACs and fosmids provides an efficient platform for exploration of gene function under endogenous regulatory control. Despite their large size they can be easily engineered using in vivo homologous recombination in Escherichia coli (recombineering). We have previously demonstrated that the efficiency and fidelity of recombineering are sufficient to allow high-throughput transgene engineering in liquid culture, and have successfully applied this approach in several model systems. Here, we present a detailed protocol for recombineering of BAC/fosmid transgenes for expression of fluorescent or affinity tagged proteins in Drosophila under endogenous in vivo regulatory control. The tag coding sequence is seamlessly recombineered into the genomic region contained in the BAC/fosmid clone, which is then integrated into the fly genome using ϕC31 recombination. This protocol can be easily adapted to other recombineering projects. PMID:22065454

  18. A Glance at Recombination Hotspots in the Domestic Cat

    PubMed Central

    Alhaddad, Hasan; Zhang, Chi; Rannala, Bruce; Lyons, Leslie A.

    2016-01-01

    Recombination has essential roles in increasing genetic variability within a population and in ensuring successful meiotic events. The objective of this study is to (i) infer the population-scaled recombination rate (ρ), and (ii) identify and characterize regions of increased recombination rate for the domestic cat, Felis silvestris catus. SNPs (n = 701) were genotyped in twenty-two East Asian feral cats (random bred). The SNPs covered ten different chromosomal regions (A1, A2, B3, C2, D1, D2, D4, E2, F2, X) with an average region size of 850 Kb and an average SNP density of 70 SNPs/region. The Bayesian method in the program inferRho was used to infer regional population recombination rates and hotspots localities. The regions exhibited variable population recombination rates and four decisive recombination hotspots were identified on cat chromosome A2, D1, and E2 regions. As a description of the identified hotspots, no correlation was detected between the GC content and the locality of recombination spots, and the hotspots enclosed L2 LINE elements and MIR and tRNA-Lys SINE elements. PMID:26859385

  19. The Contribution of Genetic Recombination to CRISPR Array Evolution

    PubMed Central

    Kupczok, Anne; Landan, Giddy; Dagan, Tal

    2015-01-01

    CRISPR (clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats) is a microbial immune system against foreign DNA. Recognition sequences (spacers) encoded within the CRISPR array mediate the immune reaction in a sequence-specific manner. The known mechanisms for the evolution of CRISPR arrays include spacer acquisition from foreign DNA elements at the time of invasion and array erosion through spacer deletion. Here, we consider the contribution of genetic recombination between homologous CRISPR arrays to the evolution of spacer repertoire. Acquisition of spacers from exogenic arrays via recombination may confer the recipient with immunity against unencountered antagonists. For this purpose, we develop a novel method for the detection of recombination in CRISPR arrays by modeling the spacer order in arrays from multiple strains from the same species. Because the evolutionary signal of spacer recombination may be similar to that of pervasive spacer deletions or independent spacer acquisition, our method entails a robustness analysis of the recombination inference by a statistical comparison to resampled and perturbed data sets. We analyze CRISPR data sets from four bacterial species: two Gammaproteobacteria species harboring CRISPR type I and two Streptococcus species harboring CRISPR type II loci. We find that CRISPR array evolution in Escherichia coli and Streptococcus agalactiae can be explained solely by vertical inheritance and differential spacer deletion. In Pseudomonas aeruginosa, we find an excess of single spacers potentially incorporated into the CRISPR locus during independent acquisition events. In Streptococcus thermophilus, evidence for spacer acquisition by recombination is present in 5 out of 70 strains. Genetic recombination has been proposed to accelerate adaptation by combining beneficial mutations that arose in independent lineages. However, for most species under study, we find that CRISPR evolution is shaped mainly by spacer acquisition and

  20. Recombinant phage probes for Listeria monocytogenes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carnazza, S.; Gioffrè, G.; Felici, F.; Guglielmino, S.

    2007-10-01

    Monitoring of food and environmental samples for biological threats, such as Listeria monocytogenes, requires probes that specifically bind biological agents and ensure their immediate and efficient detection. There is a need for robust and inexpensive affinity probes as an alternative to antibodies. These probes may be recruited from random peptide libraries displayed on filamentous phage. In this study, we selected from two phage peptide libraries phage clones displaying peptides capable of specific and strong binding to the L. monocytogenes cell surface. The ability of isolated phage clones to interact specifically with L. monocytogenes was demonstrated using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and confirmed by co-precipitation assay. We also assessed the sensitivity of phage-bacteria binding by PCR on phage-captured Listeria cells, which could be detected at a concentration of 104 cells ml-1. In addition, as proof-of-concept, we tested the possibility of immobilizing the affinity-selected phages to a putative biosensor surface. The quality of phage deposition was monitored by ELISA and fluorescent microscopy. Phage-bacterial binding was confirmed by high power optical phase contrast microscopy. Overall, the results of this work validate the concept of affinity-selected recombinant filamentous phages as probes for detecting and monitoring bacterial agents under any conditions that warrant their recognition, including in food products.

  1. Recombinant albumin monolayers on latex particles.

    PubMed

    Sofińska, Kamila; Adamczyk, Zbigniew; Kujda, Marta; Nattich-Rak, Małgorzata

    2014-01-14

    The adsorption of recombinant human serum albumin (rHSA) on negatively charged polystyrene latex micro-particles was studied at pH 3.5 and the NaCl concentration range of 10(-3) to 0.15 M. The electrophoretic mobility of latex monotonically increased with the albumin concentration in the suspension. The coverage of adsorbed albumin was quantitatively determined using the depletion method, where the residual protein concentration was determined by electrokinetic measurements and AFM imaging. It was shown that albumin adsorption was irreversible. Its maximum coverage on latex varied between 0.7 mg m(-2) for 10(-3) M NaCl to 1.3 mg m(-2) for 0.15 M NaCl. The latter value matches the maximum coverage previously determined for human serum albumin on mica using the streaming potential method. The increase in the maximum coverage was interpreted in terms of reduced electrostatic repulsion among adsorbed molecules. These facts confirm that albumin adsorption at pH 3.5 is governed by electrostatic interactions and proceeds analogously to colloid particle deposition. The stability of albumin monolayers was measured in additional experiments where changes in the latex electrophoretic mobility and the concentration of free albumin in solutions were monitored over prolonged time periods. Based on these experimental data, a robust procedure of preparing albumin monolayers on latex particles of well-controlled coverage and molecule distribution was proposed. PMID:24354916

  2. Developing recombinant antibodies for biomarker detection

    SciTech Connect

    Baird, Cheryl L.; Fischer, Christopher J.; Pefaur, Noah B.; Miller, Keith D.; Kagen, Jacob; Srivastava, Sudhir; Rodland, Karin D.

    2010-10-01

    Monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) have an essential role in biomarker validation and diagnostic assays. A barrier to pursuing these applications is the reliance on immunization and hybridomas to produce mAbs, which is time-consuming and may not yield the desired mAb. We recommend a process flow for affinity reagent production that utilizes combinatorial protein display systems (eg, yeast surface display or phage display) rather than hybridomas. These systems link a selectable phenotype-binding conferred by an antibody fragment-with a means for recovering the encoding gene. Recombinant libraries obtained from immunizations can produce high-affinity antibodies (<10 nM) more quickly than other methods. Non-immune libraries provide an alternate route when immunizations are not possible, or when suitable mAbs are not recovered from an immune library. Directed molecular evolution (DME) is an integral part of optimizing mAbs obtained from combinatorial protein display, but can also be used on hybridoma-derived mAbs. Variants can easily be obtained and screened to increase the affinity of the parent mAb (affinity maturation). We discuss examples where DME has been used to tailor affinity reagents to specific applications. Combinatorial protein display also provides an accessible method for identifying antibody pairs, which are necessary for sandwich-type diagnostic assays.

  3. Multivalent Recombinant Protein Vaccine against Coccidioidomycosis

    PubMed Central

    Tarcha, Eric J.; Basrur, Venkatesha; Hung, Chiung-Yu; Gardner, Malcolm J.; Cole, Garry T.

    2006-01-01

    Coccidioidomycosis is a human respiratory disease that is endemic to the southwestern United States and is caused by inhalation of the spores of a desert soilborne fungus. Efforts to develop a vaccine against this disease have focused on identification of T-cell-reactive antigens derived from the parasitic cell wall which can stimulate protective immunity against Coccidioides posadasii infection in mice. We previously described a productive immunoproteomic/bioinformatic approach to the discovery of vaccine candidates which makes use of the translated genome of C. posadasii and a computer-based method of scanning deduced sequences of seroreactive proteins for epitopes that are predicted to bind to human major histocompatibility (MHC) class II-restricted molecules. In this study we identified a set of putative cell wall proteins predicted to contain multiple, promiscuous MHC II binding epitopes. Three of these were expressed by Escherichia coli, combined in a vaccine, and tested for protective efficacy in C57BL/6 mice. Approximately 90% of the mice survived beyond 90 days after intranasal challenge, and the majority cleared the pathogen. We suggest that the multicomponent vaccine stimulates a broader range of T-cell clones than the single recombinant protein vaccines and thereby may be capable of inducing protection in an immunologically heterogeneous human population. PMID:16988258

  4. Dielectronic Recombination In Active Galactic Nuclei

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lukic, D. V.; Schnell, M.; Savin, D. W.; Altun, Z.; Badnell, N.; Brandau, C.; Schmidt, E. W.; Mueller, A.; Schippers, S.; Sprenger, F.; Lestinsky, M.; Wolf, A.

    2006-01-01

    XMM-Newton and Chandra observations of active galactic nuclei (AGN) show rich spectra of X-ray absorption lines. These observations have detected a broad unresolved transition array (UTA) between approx. 15-17 A. This is attributed to inner-shell photoexcitation of M-shell iron ions. Modeling these UTA features is currently limited by uncertainties in the low-temperature dielectronic recombination (DR) data for M-shell iron. In order to resolve this issue, and to provide reliable iron M-shell DR data for plasma modeling, we are carrying out a series of laboratory measurements using the heavy-ion Test Storage Ring (TSR) at the Max-Plank-Institute for Nuclear Physics in Heidelberg, Germany. Currently, laboratory measurements of low temperature DR can only be performed at storage rings. We use the DR data obtained at TSR, to calculate rate coefficients for plasma modeling and to benchmark theoretical DR calculations. Here we report our recent experimental results for DR of Fe XIV forming Fe XIII.

  5. Development of recombinant vaccines for botulinum neurotoxin.

    PubMed

    Smith, L A

    1998-11-01

    Synthetic genes encoding non-toxic, carboxyl-terminal regions (approximately 50 kDa) of botulinum neurotoxin (BoNT) serotypes A and B (referred to as fragment C or HC) were constructed and cloned into the methylotropic yeast, Pichia pastoris. Genes specifying BoNTA(HC) and BoNTB(HC) were expressed as both intracellular and secreted products. Recombinants, expressed intracellularly, yielded products with the expected molecular weight as judged by SDS PAGE and Western blot (immunoblot) analysis, while secreted products were larger due to glycosylation. Gene products were used to vaccinate mice and evaluated for their ability to elicit protective antibody titers in vivo. Mice given three intramuscular vaccinations with yeast supernatant containing glycosylated BoNTA(HC) were protected against an intraperitoneal challenge of 10(6) 50% mouse lethal doses (MLD50) of serotype A neurotoxin, a result not duplicated by its BoNTB(HC) counterpart. Vaccinating mice with cytoplasmically produced BoNTA(HC) and BoNTB(HC) protected animals from a challenge of 10(6) MLD50 of serotype A and B toxins, respectively. Because of the glycosylation encountered with secreted BoNT(HC), our efforts focused on the production and purification of products from intracellular expression. PMID:9792170

  6. HSV Recombinant Vectors for Gene Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Manservigi, Roberto; Argnani, Rafaela; Marconi, Peggy

    2010-01-01

    The very deep knowledge acquired on the genetics and molecular biology of herpes simplex virus (HSV), has allowed the development of potential replication-competent and replication-defective vectors for several applications in human healthcare. These include delivery and expression of human genes to cells of the nervous systems, selective destruction of cancer cells, prophylaxis against infection with HSV or other infectious diseases, and targeted infection to specific tissues or organs. Replication-defective recombinant vectors are non-toxic gene transfer tools that preserve most of the neurotropic features of wild type HSV-1, particularly the ability to express genes after having established latent infections, and are thus proficient candidates for therapeutic gene transfer settings in neurons. A replication-defective HSV vector for the treatment of pain has recently entered in phase 1 clinical trial. Replication-competent (oncolytic) vectors are becoming a suitable and powerful tool to eradicate brain tumours due to their ability to replicate and spread only within the tumour mass, and have reached phase II/III clinical trials in some cases. The progress in understanding the host immune response induced by the vector is also improving the use of HSV as a vaccine vector against both HSV infection and other pathogens. This review briefly summarizes the obstacle encountered in the delivery of HSV vectors and examines the various strategies developed or proposed to overcome such challenges. PMID:20835362

  7. Epigenetic Codes Programing Class Switch Recombination

    PubMed Central

    Vaidyanathan, Bharat; Chaudhuri, Jayanta

    2015-01-01

    Class switch recombination imparts B cells with a fitness-associated adaptive ­advantage during a humoral immune response by using a precision-tailored DNA excision and ligation process to swap the default constant region gene of the antibody with a new one that has unique effector functions. This secondary diversification of the antibody repertoire is a hallmark of the adaptability of B cells when confronted with environmental and pathogenic challenges. Given that the nucleotide sequence of genes during class switching remains unchanged (genetic constraints), it is logical and necessary therefore, to integrate the adaptability of B cells to an epigenetic state, which is dynamic and can be heritably modulated before, after, or even during an antibody-dependent immune response. Epigenetic regulation encompasses heritable changes that affect function (phenotype) without altering the sequence information embedded in a gene, and include histone, DNA and RNA modifications. Here, we review current literature on how B cells use an epigenetic code language as a means to ensure antibody plasticity in light of pathogenic insults. PMID:26441954

  8. Therapeutic Use of Native and Recombinant Enteroviruses.

    PubMed

    Ylä-Pelto, Jani; Tripathi, Lav; Susi, Petri

    2016-03-01

    Research on human enteroviruses has resulted in the identification of more than 100 enterovirus types, which use more than 10 protein receptors and/or attachment factors required in cell binding and initiation of the replication cycle. Many of these "viral" receptors are overexpressed in cancer cells. Receptor binding and the ability to replicate in specific target cells define the tropism and pathogenesis of enterovirus types, because cellular infection often results in cytolytic response, i.e., disruption of the cells. Viral tropism and cytolytic properties thus make native enteroviruses prime candidates for oncolytic virotherapy. Copy DNA cloning and modification of enterovirus genomes have resulted in the generation of enterovirus vectors with properties that are useful in therapy or in vaccine trials where foreign antigenic epitopes are expressed from or on the surface of the vector virus. The small genome size and compact particle structure, however, set limits to enterovirus genome modifications. This review focuses on the therapeutic use of native and recombinant enteroviruses and the methods that have been applied to modify enterovirus genomes for therapy. PMID:26907330

  9. Recombinant Canine Coronaviruses in Dogs, Europe

    PubMed Central

    Mari, Viviana; Elia, Gabriella; Addie, Diane D.; Camero, Michele; Lucente, Maria Stella; Martella, Vito; Buonavoglia, Canio

    2010-01-01

    Coronaviruses of potential recombinant origin with porcine transmissible gastroenteritis virus (TGEV), referred to as a new subtype (IIb) of canine coronavirus (CCoV), were recently identified in dogs in Europe. To assess the distribution of the TGEV-like CCoV subtype, during 2001–2008 we tested fecal samples from dogs with gastroenteritis. Of 1,172 samples, 493 (42.06%) were positive for CCoV. CCoV-II was found in 218 samples, and CCoV-I and CCoV-II genotypes were found in 182. Approximately 20% of the samples with CCoV-II had the TGEV-like subtype; detection rates varied according to geographic origin. The highest and lowest rates of prevalence for CCoV-II infection were found in samples from Hungary and Greece (96.87% and 3.45%, respectively). Sequence and phylogenetic analyses showed that the CCoV-IIb strains were related to prototype TGEV-like strains in the 5′ and the 3′ ends of the spike protein gene. PMID:20031041

  10. Therapeutic Use of Native and Recombinant Enteroviruses

    PubMed Central

    Ylä-Pelto, Jani; Tripathi, Lav; Susi, Petri

    2016-01-01

    Research on human enteroviruses has resulted in the identification of more than 100 enterovirus types, which use more than 10 protein receptors and/or attachment factors required in cell binding and initiation of the replication cycle. Many of these “viral” receptors are overexpressed in cancer cells. Receptor binding and the ability to replicate in specific target cells define the tropism and pathogenesis of enterovirus types, because cellular infection often results in cytolytic response, i.e., disruption of the cells. Viral tropism and cytolytic properties thus make native enteroviruses prime candidates for oncolytic virotherapy. Copy DNA cloning and modification of enterovirus genomes have resulted in the generation of enterovirus vectors with properties that are useful in therapy or in vaccine trials where foreign antigenic epitopes are expressed from or on the surface of the vector virus. The small genome size and compact particle structure, however, set limits to enterovirus genome modifications. This review focuses on the therapeutic use of native and recombinant enteroviruses and the methods that have been applied to modify enterovirus genomes for therapy. PMID:26907330

  11. Recombinant protein vaccines produced in insect cells.

    PubMed

    Cox, Manon M J

    2012-02-27

    The baculovirus-insect cell expression system is a well known tool for the production of complex proteins. The technology is also used for commercial manufacture of various veterinary and human vaccines. This review paper provides an overview of how this technology can be applied to produce a multitude of vaccine candidates. The key advantage of this recombinant protein manufacturing platform is that a universal "plug and play" process may be used for producing a broad range of protein-based prophylactic and therapeutic vaccines for both human and veterinary use while offering the potential for low manufacturing costs. Large scale mammalian cell culture facilities previously established for the manufacturing of monoclonal antibodies that have now become obsolete due to yield improvement could be deployed for the manufacturing of these vaccines. Alternatively, manufacturing capacity could be established in geographic regions that do not have any vaccine production capability. Dependent on health care priorities, different vaccines could be manufactured while maintaining the ability to rapidly convert to producing pandemic influenza vaccine when the need arises. PMID:22265860

  12. Homologous recombination deficiency and ovarian cancer.

    PubMed

    Ledermann, Jonathan A; Drew, Yvette; Kristeleit, Rebecca S

    2016-06-01

    The discovery that PARP inhibitors block an essential pathway of DNA repair in cells harbouring a BRCA mutation has opened up a new therapeutic avenue for high-grade ovarian cancers. BRCA1 and BRCA2 proteins are essential for high-fidelity repair of double-strand breaks of DNA through the homologous recombination repair (HRR) pathway. Deficiency in HRR (HRD) is a target for PARP inhibitors. The first PARP inhibitor, olaparib, has now been licensed for BRCA-mutated ovarian cancers. While mutated BRCA genes are individually most commonly associated with HRD other essential HRR proteins may be mutated or functionally deficient potentially widening the therapeutic opportunities for PARP inhibitors. HRD is the first phenotypically defined predictive marker for therapy with PARP inhibitors in ovarian cancer. Several different PARP inhibitors are being trialled in ovarian cancer and this class of drugs has been shown to be a new selective therapy for high-grade ovarian cancer. Around 20% of high-grade serous ovarian cancers harbour germline or somatic BRCA mutations and testing for BRCA mutations should be incorporated into routine clinical practice. The expanded use of PARP inhibitors in HRD deficient (non-BRCA mutant) tumours using a signature of HRD in clinical practice requires validation. PMID:27065456

  13. Recombinant Human Elastase Treatment of Cephalic Veins

    PubMed Central

    Wong, Marco D; Bingham, Karen; Moss, Emma; Warn, J Donald; Smirnov, Igor; Bland, Kimberly S; Starcher, Barry; Franano, F Nicholas; Burke, Steven K

    2016-01-01

    Background Vessel injury at the time of Arteriovenous Fistula (AVF) creation may lead to neointimal hyperplasia that impairs AVF maturation. Vonapanitase, a recombinant human chymotrypsin-like elastase family member 1, is an investigational drug under development to improve AVF maturation and patency. The current studies were designed to document vonapanitase effects in human cephalic veins that are used in AVF creation. Methods Human cephalic veins were mounted on a perfusion myograph. Vonapanitase 1.2, 4, 13.2, and 40 μg/ml or saline was applied drop wise on the vein followed by saline rinse. Vein segments were cut into rings for elastin content determination by desmosine radioimmunoassay and histology. Fluorescently-labelled vonapanitase was applied to veins and adventitial imaging was performed using laser scanning confocal microscopy. In vivo time course experiments were performed by treating rabbit jugular veins and harvesting 1 h and 4 h after vonapanitase treatment. Results / Conclusion Vonapanitase reduced desmosine content in a dose-related manner. Histology also confirmed a dose-related reduction in elastic fiber staining. Fluorescently-labelled vonapanitase persistently localized to elastic fibers in the vein adventitia. In vivo experiments showed a reduction in desmosine content in jugular veins from 1 h to 4 h following treatment. These data suggest that vonapanitase targets elastin in elastic fibers in a dose related manner and that elastase remains in the vessel wall and has catalytic activity for at least 1 h.

  14. Overview of the Purification of Recombinant Proteins

    PubMed Central

    Wingfield, Paul T.

    2015-01-01

    When the first version of this unit was written in 1995 protein purification of recombinant proteins was based on a variety of standard chromatographic methods and approaches many of which were described and mentioned in this unit and elsewhere in the book. In the interim there has been a shift towards an almost universal usage of the affinity or fusion tag. This may not be the case for biotechnology manufacture where affinity tags can complicate producing proteins under regulatory conditions. Regardless of the protein expression system, questions are asked as to which and how many affinity tags to use, where to attach them in the protein and whether to engineer a self cleavage system or simply leave them on. We will briefly address some of these issues. Also although this overview focuses on E.coli, protein expression and purification from the other commonly used expression systems are mentioned and apart from cell breakage methods, the protein purification methods and strategies are essentially the same. PMID:25829302

  15. Dissociative recombination of rotationally cold H+3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCall, B. J.; Huneycutt, A. J.; Saykally, R. J.; Djuric, N.; Dunn, G. H.; Semaniak, J.; Novotny, O.; Al-Khalili, A.; Ehlerding, A.; Hellberg, F.; Kalhori, S.; Neau, A.; Thomas, R. D.; Paal, A.; Österdahl, F.; Larsson, M.

    2004-11-01

    This paper presents the first dissociative recombination (DR) measurement of electrons with rotationally and vibrationally cold H+3 ions. A dc discharge pinhole supersonic jet source was developed and characterized using infrared cavity ringdown spectroscopy before installation on the CRYRING ion storage ring for the DR measurements. Rotational state distributions ( Trot ˜30 K ) produced using the source were comparable to those in the diffuse interstellar medium. Our measurement of the electron energy dependence of the DR cross section showed resonances not clearly seen in experiments using rotationally hot ions, and allowed calculation of the thermal DR rate coefficient for ions at interstellar temperatures, αDR (23 K)=2.6× 10-7 cm3 s-1 . This value is in general agreement with recent theoretical predictions by

    Kokoouline and Greene [Phys. Rev. A 68, 012703 (2003)
    ]. The branching fractions of the two breakup channels, H+H+H and H+ H2 , have also been measured for rotationally and vibrationally cold H+3 .

  16. Dielectronic recombination studies based on EBIT

    SciTech Connect

    Xiao Jun; Han Chuan; Yao Ke; Shen Yang; Yang Yang; Wei Baoren; Fu Yunqing; Lu Di; Hutton, Roger; Zou Yaming

    2013-04-19

    Dielectronic recombination (DR) process plays an important role in high temperature plasmas, where DR can affect charge balance and level populations significantly, and can cause radiative energy loss. Resolvable DR sourced satellite lines are often used for plasma temperature diagnostics, while the un-resolvable ones disturb determining spectral line shape, line intensity, and line position. Data of DR resonant strength is vital for accurate modeling of high temperature plasmas. DR studies are also important for testing atomic structure and atomic collision theories, since they carry information on quantum electrodynamics, relativistic effects, electron correlations and so on. Electron beam ion trap (EBIT) is an accelerator type device, which is capable of acting as both ion sources and light sources. EBIT can produce a special sort of plasma, in which electron energy is tunable and has a very narrow distribution. This made it possible for disentanglement studies on electron ion collision processes in plasmas. In this paper, experimental studies of DR processes based on electron beam ion traps (EBIT) will be discussed.

  17. Dissociative Recombination of Molecular Ions for Astrochemistry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Savin, Daniel W.; Novotný, O.; Becker, A.; Buhr, H.; Geppert, W.; Hamberg, M.; Krantz, C.; Kreckel, H.; Schwalm, D.; Spruck, K.; Stützel, J.; Wolf, A.; Yang, B.

    2013-06-01

    Dissociative recombination (DR) of molecular ions is a key chemical process in the cold interstellar medium (ISM). DR affects the composition, charge state, and energy balance of such environments. Astrochemical models of the ISM require reliable total DR cross sections as well as knowledge of the chemical composition and excitation states of the neutral DR products. Theory cannot reliably provide these data. We have systematically measured DR for many astrophysically relevant molecular ions utilizing the TSR storage ring at the Max-Planck-Institute for Nuclear Physics in Heidelberg, Germany. We used the merged ion-electron beam technique combined with an energy- and position-sensitive imaging detector and are able to study DR down to plasma temperatures of 10 K. The DR count rate is used to obtain absolute DR rate coefficient. Additionally we determine the masses of the DR products by measuring their kinetic energy. This allows us to assign particular DR fragmentation channels and to obtain their branching ratios. Moreover, the distribution of detected fragment distances provides information on the kinetic energy released in DR and thus also on the internal excitation of the DR products. All this information is particularly important for understanding DR of heteronuclear polyatomic ions. We will present DR results for several ions recently investigated at TSR. This work is supported in part by NASA and the NSF.

  18. Functional divergence of gene duplicates through ectopic recombination

    PubMed Central

    Christiaens, Joaquin F; Van Mulders, Sebastiaan E; Duitama, Jorge; Brown, Chris A; Ghequire, Maarten G; De Meester, Luc; Michiels, Jan; Wenseleers, Tom; Voordeckers, Karin; Verstrepen, Kevin J

    2012-01-01

    Gene duplication stimulates evolutionary innovation as the resulting paralogs acquire mutations that lead to sub- or neofunctionalization. A comprehensive in silico analysis of paralogs in Saccharomyces cerevisiae reveals that duplicates of cell-surface and subtelomeric genes also undergo ectopic recombination, which leads to new chimaeric alleles. Mimicking such intergenic recombination events in the FLO (flocculation) family of cell-surface genes shows that chimaeric FLO alleles confer different adhesion phenotypes than the parental genes. Our results indicate that intergenic recombination between paralogs can generate a large set of new alleles, thereby providing the raw material for evolutionary adaptation and innovation. PMID:23070367

  19. Resonant phenomena in laser-assisted radiative attachment or recombination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheltukhin, A. N.; Flegel, A. V.; Frolov, M. V.; Manakov, N. L.; Starace, Anthony F.

    2012-04-01

    Resonant enhancements are predicted in cross sections σn for laser-assisted radiative attachment or electron-ion recombination accompanied by absorption of n laser photons. These enhancements occur for incoming electron energies at which the electron can be attached or recombined by emitting μ laser photons followed by emission of a spontaneous photon upon absorbing n + μ laser photons. The close similarity between rescattering plateaus in spectra of resonant attachment/recombination and of high-order harmonic generation is shown based on a general parametrization for σn and on numerical results for e - H attachment.

  20. General features of the dissociative recombination of polyatomic molecules

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Pratt, S. T.; Jungen, Ch.; Schneider, I. F.; Dulieu, O.; Robert, J.

    2015-01-29

    We discuss some aspects of a simple expression for the low-energy dissociative recombination cross section that applies when the recombination process is dominated by the indirect mechanism. In most previous applications, this expression has been applied to capture into vibrationally excited Rydberg states with the assumption that capture is always followed by prompt dissociation. Here we consider the dissociative recombination of larger polyatomic ions and electrons. More specifically, we consider capture into electronically core-excited Rydberg states, and begin to assess its potential importance for larger systems.

  1. Plasmodium knowlesi Sporozoite Antigen: Expression by Infectious Recombinant Vaccinia Virus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Geoffrey L.; Godson, G. Nigel; Nussenzweig, Victor; Nussenzweig, Ruth S.; Barnwell, John; Moss, Bernard

    1984-04-01

    The gene coding for the circumsporozoite antigen of the malaria parasite Plasmodium knowlesi was inserted into the vaccinia virus genome under the control of a defined vaccinia virus promoter. Cells infected with the recombinant virus synthesized polypeptides of 53,000 to 56,000 daltons that reacted with monoclonal antibody against the repeating epitope of the malaria protein. Furthermore, rabbits vaccinated with the recombinant virus produced antibodies that bound specifically to sporozoites. These data provide evidence for expression of a cloned malaria gene in mammalian cells and illustrate the potential of vaccinia virus recombinants as live malaria vaccines.

  2. Dynamics of carrier recombination in a semiconductor laser structure

    SciTech Connect

    Dzhioev, R. I. Kavokin, K. V.; Kusrayev, Yu. G.; Poletaev, N. K.

    2015-11-15

    Carrier-recombination dynamics is studied by the method of optical orientation at room temperature in the active layer of a laser diode structure. The dependence of the degree of electron-spin orientation on the excitation density is attributed to saturation of the nonradiative-recombination channel. The time of electron capture at recombination centers is determined to be τ{sub e} = 5 × 10{sup –9} s. The temperature of nonequilibrium electrons heated by a He–Ne laser is estimated.

  3. Minimizing recombinations in consensus networks for phylogeographic studies

    PubMed Central

    Parida, Laxmi; Javed, Asif; Melé, Marta; Calafell, Francesc; Bertranpetit, Jaume

    2009-01-01

    Background We address the problem of studying recombinational variations in (human) populations. In this paper, our focus is on one computational aspect of the general task: Given two networks G1 and G2, with both mutation and recombination events, defined on overlapping sets of extant units the objective is to compute a consensus network G3 with minimum number of additional recombinations. We describe a polynomial time algorithm with a guarantee that the number of computed new recombination events is within ϵ = sz(G1, G2) (function sz is a well-behaved function of the sizes and topologies of G1 and G2) of the optimal number of recombinations. To date, this is the best known result for a network consensus problem. Results Although the network consensus problem can be applied to a variety of domains, here we focus on structure of human populations. With our preliminary analysis on a segment of the human Chromosome X data we are able to infer ancient recombinations, population-specific recombinations and more, which also support the widely accepted 'Out of Africa' model. These results have been verified independently using traditional manual procedures. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first recombinations-based characterization of human populations. Conclusion We show that our mathematical model identifies recombination spots in the individual haplotypes; the aggregate of these spots over a set of haplotypes defines a recombinational landscape that has enough signal to detect continental as well as population divide based on a short segment of Chromosome X. In particular, we are able to infer ancient recombinations, population-specific recombinations and more, which also support the widely accepted 'Out of Africa' model. The agreement with mutation-based analysis can be viewed as an indirect validation of our results and the model. Since the model in principle gives us more information embedded in the networks, in our future work, we plan to investigate

  4. Determination of surface recombination velocity in heavily doped silicon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Watanabe, M.; Gatos, H. C.; Actor, G.

    1976-01-01

    A method was developed and successfully tested for the determination of the effective surface recombination velocity of silicon layers doped by diffusion of phosphorus to a level of 10 to the 19th to 10 to the 21st per cu cm. The effective recombination velocity was obtained from the dependence of the electron-beam-induced current on the penetration of the electron beam of a scanning electron microscope. A special silicon diode was constructed which permitted the collection at the p-n junction of the carriers excited by the electron beam. This diode also permitted the study of the effects of surface preparation on the effective surface recombination velocity.

  5. Further corrections to the theory of cosmological recombination

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krolik, Julian H.

    1990-01-01

    Krolik (1989) pointed out that frequency redistribution due to scattering is more important than cosmological expansion in determining the Ly-alpha frequency profile during cosmological recombination, and that its effects substantially modify the rate of recombination. Although the first statement is true, the second statement is not: a basic symmetry of photon scattering leads to identical cancellations which almost completely erase the effects of both coherent and incoherent scattering. Only a small correction due to atomic recoil alters the line profile from the prediction of pure cosmological expansion, so that the pace of cosmological recombination can be well approximated by ignoring Ly-alpha scattering.

  6. Clinical experience with recombinant molecules for allergy vaccination.

    PubMed

    Cromwell, Oliver; Niederberger, Verena; Horak, Friedrich; Fiebig, Helmut

    2011-01-01

    Numerous allergens have been cloned and produced by the use of recombinant DNA technology. In several cases recombinant variants with reduced IgE-reactivity have also been developed as candidates for allergen specific immunotherapy. Only very few of these proteins have as yet been tested in the clinic, and the major focus has been on birch and grass pollen, two of the most common causes of IgE-mediated allergic disease. This article serves to justify the rational for using recombinant products and reviews the progress that has been made to date with their clinical assessment. PMID:21562972

  7. Characterization and biodistribution of recombinant and recombinant/chimeric constructs of monoclonal antibody B72. 3

    SciTech Connect

    Colcher, D.; Milenic, D.; Roselli, M.; Raubitschek, A.; Yarranton, G.; King, D.; Adair, J.; Whittle, N.; Bodmer, M.; Schlom, J.

    1989-04-01

    Radiolabeled B72.3 has been administered both i.v. and i.p. in patients with colorectal and ovarian cancer as well as other carcinomas and has been shown to selectively bind to approximately 70-80% of metastatic lesions. Greater than 50% of the patients that have been treated with B72.3 have developed an immunological response to murine IgG after a single injection. In an attempt to minimize the immune response of these patients to the administered murine monoclonal antibody, we developed a recombinant form of the murine B72.3 as well as a recombinant/chimeric antibody, using the variable regions of the murine B72.3 and human heavy chain (gamma 4) and light chain (kappa) constant regions. We report here that both the recombinant B72.3 (rB72.3) and the recombinant/chimeric B72.3 (cB72.3(gamma 4)) IgGs maintain the tissue binding and idiotypic specificity of the native murine IgG. The native B72.3, rB72.3, and cB72.3(gamma 4) IgGs were radiolabeled and the biodistribution of these IgGs was studied in athymic mice bearing human colon carcinoma xenografts (LS-174T). Differences were observed between the cB72.3(gamma 4) and the native B72.3 in the percentage of injected dose/g that localized in the tumor. The somewhat lower absolute amounts of the cB72.3(gamma 4) in the tumor are mostly likely due to the observed more rapid clearance from the blood and body of the mouse as compared to the native B72.3 and rB72.3. All three forms (native B72.3, rB72.3, and cB72.3(gamma 4)) of the IgG, however, were able to localize the colon tumor with similar radiolocalization indices (percentage of injected dose/g in tumor divided by the percentage of injected dose/g in normal tissue).

  8. Rate coefficients for N2(+)(v) dissociative recombination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bates, D. R.; Mitchell, J. B. A.

    1991-09-01

    The data of Zipf (1980) on N2(+)(v) dissociative recombination are analyzed taking into account the fact that there is coupling due to reversible symmetrical resonance charge transfer, N2(+)(v) + N2(0) yields N2(+)(0) + N2(v). The vibrational deactivation in N2(+)(v)-Ne collisions is also considered. A reported experimental value of the vibrational deactivation coefficient is found to be much higher than can be reconciled with the results of Zipf and it is therefore rejected. The analysis shows that the recombination coefficient for N2(+)(0) is about 2.6 x 10 exp-7 cu cm/s at 300 K and that recombination coefficients for N2(+)(1) and N2(+)(2) are substantially smaller. It is concluded that these coefficients conflict with the dissociative recombination cross section vs energy curve obtained by the merged beam method.

  9. [Processing and Modification of Recombinant Spider Silk Proteins].

    PubMed

    Liu, Bin; Wang, Tao; Liu, Xiaobing; Luo, Yongen

    2015-08-01

    Due to its special sequence structure, spider silk protein has unique physical and chemical properties, mechanical properties and excellent biological properties. With the expansion of the application value of spider silk in many fields as a functional material, progress has been made in the studies on the expression of recombinant spider silk proteins through many host systems by gene recombinant techniques. Recombinant spider silk proteins can be processed into high performance fibers, and a wide range of nonfibrous morphologies. Moreover, for their excellent biocompatibility and low immune response they are ideal for biomedical applications. Here we review the process and mechanism of preparation in vitro, chemistry and genetic engineering modification on recombinant spider silk protein. PMID:26710473

  10. Experimental study of columnar recombination in fission chambers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Filliatre, P.; Lamirand, V.; Geslot, B.; Jammes, C.

    2016-05-01

    In this paper, we present experimental saturation curves of a small gap miniature fission chamber obtained in the MINERVE reactor. The chamber is filled with argon at various pressures, and the fissile material can be coated on the anode, cathode, or both. For analyzing the recombination regime, we consider a model of columnar recombination and discuss its applicability to our chamber. By applying this model to the data, it is possible to estimate the ratio between the recombination coefficient k and an effective column radius b, appearing in the model, to be k / b =(2.5 ± 0.9) ×10-6m2 / s for argon. From these results, a routine measurement of the recombination regime is proposed in order to detect gas leakage. This online diagnosis would be beneficial in terms of lifetime and reliability of the neutron instrumentation of nuclear reactors.

  11. Interchromosomal recombination is suppressed in mammalian somatic cells.

    PubMed Central

    Shulman, M J; Collins, C; Connor, A; Read, L R; Baker, M D

    1995-01-01

    Homologous recombination occurs intrachromosomally as well as interchromosomally, both in mitotic (somatic) cells as well as meiotically in the germline. These different processes can serve very different purposes in maintaining the integrity of the organism and in enhancing diversity in the species. As shown here, comparison of the frequencies of intra- and interchromosomal recombination in meiotic and mitotic cells of both mouse and yeast argues that interchromosomal recombination is particularly low in mitotic cells of metazoan organisms. This result in turn suggests that the recombination machinery of metazoa might be organized to avoid the deleterious effects of homozygotization in somatic cells while still deriving the benefits of species diversification and of DNA repair. Images PMID:7664750

  12. DNA damage tolerance by recombination: Molecular pathways and DNA structures.

    PubMed

    Branzei, Dana; Szakal, Barnabas

    2016-08-01

    Replication perturbations activate DNA damage tolerance (DDT) pathways, which are crucial to promote replication completion and to prevent fork breakage, a leading cause of genome instability. One mode of DDT uses translesion synthesis polymerases, which however can also introduce mutations. The other DDT mode involves recombination-mediated mechanisms, which are generally accurate. DDT occurs prevalently postreplicatively, but in certain situations homologous recombination is needed to restart forks. Fork reversal can function to stabilize stalled forks, but may also promote error-prone outcome when used for fork restart. Recent years have witnessed important advances in our understanding of the mechanisms and DNA structures that mediate recombination-mediated damage-bypass and highlighted principles that regulate DDT pathway choice locally and temporally. In this review we summarize the current knowledge and paradoxes on recombination-mediated DDT pathways and their workings, discuss how the intermediate DNA structures may influence genome integrity, and outline key open questions for future research. PMID:27236213

  13. Auger recombination in sodium-iodide scintillators from first principles

    SciTech Connect

    McAllister, Andrew; Åberg, Daniel; Schleife, André; Kioupakis, Emmanouil

    2015-04-06

    Scintillator radiation detectors suffer from low energy resolution that has been attributed to non-linear light yield response to the energy of the incident gamma rays. Auger recombination is a key non-radiative recombination channel that scales with the third power of the excitation density and may play a role in the non-proportionality problem of scintillators. In this work, we study direct and phonon-assisted Auger recombination in NaI using first-principles calculations. Our results show that phonon-assisted Auger recombination, mediated primarily by short-range phonon scattering, dominates at room temperature. We discuss our findings in light of the much larger values obtained by numerical fits to z-scan experiments.

  14. Nonradiative recombination of excitons in semimagnetic quantum dots

    SciTech Connect

    Chernenko, A. V.

    2015-12-15

    The mechanisms of the nonradiative recombination of excitons in neutral and charged quantum dots based on II–VI semimagnetic semiconductors are investigated. It is shown that, along with the dipole–dipole and direct-exchange mechanisms, there is one more mechanism referred to as the indirect-exchange mechanism and related to sp–d mixing. The selection rules for nonradiative recombination by exchange mechanisms are subsequently derived. The dependence of the efficiency of all recombination mechanisms on the quantum-dot size is studied. The experimentally observed growth in the intracenter photoluminescence intensity with decreasing size of dots and nanocrystals is accounted for. Methods for experimental determination of the contributions of different mechanisms to nonradiative recombination are discussed.

  15. New strategies for genetic engineering Pseudomonas syringae using recombination

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Here we report that DNA oligonucleotides (oligos) introduced directly into bacteria by electroporation can recombine with the bacterial chromosome. This phenomenon was identified in Pseudomonas syringae and we subsequently found that Escherichia coli, Salmonella typhimurium and Shigella flexneri are...

  16. Recombinational Cloning Using Gateway and In-Fusion Cloning Schemes

    PubMed Central

    Throop, Andrea L.; LaBaer, Joshua

    2015-01-01

    The comprehensive study of protein structure and function, or proteomics, depends on the obtainability of full-length cDNAs in species-specific expression vectors and subsequent functional analysis of the expressed protein. Recombinational cloning is a universal cloning technique based on site-specific recombination that is independent of the insert DNA sequence of interest, which differentiates this method from the classical restriction enzyme-based cloning methods. Recombinational cloning enables rapid and efficient parallel transfer of DNA inserts into multiple expression systems. This unit summarizes strategies for generating expression-ready clones using the most popular recombinational cloning technologies, including the commercially available Gateway® (Life Technologies) and In-Fusion® (Clontech) cloning technologies. PMID:25827088

  17. Paracentric inversions do not normally generate monocentric recombinant chromosomes

    SciTech Connect

    Sutherland, G.R.; Callen, D.F.; Gardner, R.J.M.

    1995-11-20

    Dr. Pettenati et al. recently reported a review of paracentric inversions in humans in which they concluded that carriers of these have a 3.8% risk of viable offspring with recombinant chromosomes. We are of the view that there are serious problems with this estimate which should be much closer to zero. The only recombinant chromosomes which can be generated by a paracentric inversion undergoing a normal meiotic division are dicentrics and acentric fragments. Only two such cases were found by Pettenati et al. Several of the alleged monocentric recombinants were originally reported as arising from parental insertions (3-break rearrangements) and it is not legitimate to include them in any analysis of paracentric inversions. Any monocentric recombinant chromosome can only arise from a paracentric inversion by some abnormal process which must involve chromatid breakage and reunion. 4 refs.

  18. Meiotic recombination in normal and cloned bulls and their offspring

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Homologous chromosome pairing and recombination are essential components of meiosis and sexual reproduction. The reshuffling of genetic material through breakage and reunion of chromatids ensure proper segregation of homologous chromosomes in reduction division and genetic diversity in the progeny....

  19. Effect Of Auger Recombination In An Ion Track

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Edmonds, Larry D.

    1993-01-01

    Report presents theoretical calculations of contribution of Auger recombination to depletion of charge carriers from ionization track left by passage of energetic heavy ion through silicon-based electronic device.

  20. Iron ionization and recombination rates and ionization equilibrium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arnaud, M.; Raymond, J.

    1992-01-01

    In the past few years important progress has been made on the knowledge of ionization and recombination rates of iron, an astrophysically abundant heavy element and a major impurity in laboratory fusion devices. We make a critical review of the existing data on ionization and dielectronic recombination and present new computations of radiative recombination rate coefficients of Fe(+14) through Fe(+25) using the photoionization cross sections of Clark et al. (1986). We provide analytical fits to the recommended data (direct ionization and excitation-autoionization cross sections; radiative and dielectronic recombination rate coefficients). Finally we determine the iron ionic fractions at ionization equilibrium and compare them with previous computations as well as with observational data.

  1. Evidence for recombination in scorpion mitochondrial DNA (Scorpiones: Buthidae)

    PubMed Central

    Gantenbein, Benjamin; Fet, Victor; Gantenbein-Ritter, Iris A; Balloux, François

    2005-01-01

    There has been very little undisputed evidence for recombination in animal mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) provided so far. Previous unpublished results suggestive of mtDNA recombination in the scorpion family Buthidae, together with cytological evidence for a unique mechanism of mitochondrial fusion in that family, prompted us to investigate this group in more details. First, we sequenced the complete mtDNA genome of Mesobuthus gibbosus, and chose two genes opposing each other (16S and coxI). We then sequenced 150 individuals from the natural populations of four species of Buthidae (Old World genera Buthus and Mesobuthus). We observed strong evidence for widespread recombination through highly significant negative correlations between linkage disequilibrium and physical distance in three out of four species. The evidence is further confirmed when using five other tests for recombination and by the presence of a high amount of homoplasy in phylogenetic trees. PMID:15870032

  2. Products of Dissociative Recombination in the Ionosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cosby, Philip

    1996-01-01

    SRI International undertook a novel experimental measurement of the product states formed by dissociative recombination (DR) of O2(+), NO(+), and N2(+) as a function of both electron energy and reactant ion vibrational level. For these measurements we used a recently developed experimental technique for measuring dissociation product distributions that allows both the branching ratios to be accurately determined and the electronic and rovibrational state composition of the reactant ions to be specified. DR is the dominant electron loss mechanism in all regions of the ionosphere. In this process, electron attachment to the molecular ion produces an unstable neutral molecule that rapidly dissociates. For a molecular ion such as O2(+), the dissociation recombination reaction is (1) O2(+) + e yields O + O + W. The atomic products of this reaction, in this case two oxygen atoms, can be produced in a variety of excited states and with a variety of kinetic energies, as represented by W in Eq. (1). These atoms are not only active in the neutral chemistry of the ionosphere, but are also especially important because their optical emissions are often used to infer in situ concentrations of the parent molecular ion and ambient electron densities. Many laboratory measurements have been made of DR reaction rates under a wide range of electron temperatures, but very little is known about the actual distributions among the final states of the atomic products. This lack of knowledge seriously limits the validity and effectiveness of efforts to model both natural and man-made ionospheric disturbances. Bates recently identified major deficiencies in the currently accepted branching ratios for O2(+) as they relate to blue and green line emission measurements in the nocturnal F-region. During our two-year effort, we partially satisfied our ambitious goals. We constructed and operated a variable pressure, electron-impact ion source and a high pressure, hollow-cathode discharge ion

  3. Therapeutic use of recombinant methionyl human leptin.

    PubMed

    Vatier, Camille; Gautier, Jean-François; Vigouroux, Corinne

    2012-10-01

    Recombinant methionyl human leptin (r-metHuLeptin) was first used as a replacement therapy in patients bearing inactivating mutations in the leptin gene. In this indication, it was shown since 1999 to be very efficient in inducing a dramatic weight loss in rare children and adults with severe obesity due to the lack of leptin. These first clinical trials clearly showed that r-metHuLeptin acted centrally to reduce food intake, inducing loss of fat mass, and to correct metabolic alterations, immune and neuroendocrine defects. A few years later, r-metHuLeptin was also shown to reverse the metabolic complications associated with lipodystrophic syndromes, due to primary defects in fat storage, which induce leptin deficiency. The beneficial effects, which could be mediated by central and/or peripheral mechanisms, are thought to mainly involve the lowering effects of leptin on ectopic lipid storage, in particular in liver and muscles, reducing insulin resistance. Interestingly, r-metHuLeptin therapy also reversed the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis dysfunctions associated with hypothalamic amenorrhea. However, if r-metHuLeptin treatment has been shown to be dramatically efficient in leptin-deficient states, its very limited effect in inducing weight loss in common obese patients revealed that, in patients with adequate leptin secretion, mechanisms of leptin resistance and leptin tolerance prevent r-metHuLeptin from inducing any additional effects. This review will present the current data about the effects of r-metHuLeptin therapy in humans, and discuss the recent perspectives of this therapy in new indications. PMID:22464954

  4. Integrated continuous production of recombinant therapeutic proteins.

    PubMed

    Warikoo, Veena; Godawat, Rahul; Brower, Kevin; Jain, Sujit; Cummings, Daniel; Simons, Elizabeth; Johnson, Timothy; Walther, Jason; Yu, Marcella; Wright, Benjamin; McLarty, Jean; Karey, Kenneth P; Hwang, Chris; Zhou, Weichang; Riske, Frank; Konstantinov, Konstantin

    2012-12-01

    In the current environment of diverse product pipelines, rapidly fluctuating market demands and growing competition from biosimilars, biotechnology companies are increasingly driven to develop innovative solutions for highly flexible and cost-effective manufacturing. To address these challenging demands, integrated continuous processing, comprised of high-density perfusion cell culture and a directly coupled continuous capture step, can be used as a universal biomanufacturing platform. This study reports the first successful demonstration of the integration of a perfusion bioreactor and a four-column periodic counter-current chromatography (PCC) system for the continuous capture of candidate protein therapeutics. Two examples are presented: (1) a monoclonal antibody (model of a stable protein) and (2) a recombinant human enzyme (model of a highly complex, less stable protein). In both cases, high-density perfusion CHO cell cultures were operated at a quasi-steady state of 50-60 × 10(6) cells/mL for more than 60 days, achieving volumetric productivities much higher than current perfusion or fed-batch processes. The directly integrated and automated PCC system ran uninterrupted for 30 days without indications of time-based performance decline. The product quality observed for the continuous capture process was comparable to that for a batch-column operation. Furthermore, the integration of perfusion cell culture and PCC led to a dramatic decrease in the equipment footprint and elimination of several non-value-added unit operations, such as clarification and intermediate hold steps. These findings demonstrate the potential of integrated continuous bioprocessing as a universal platform for the manufacture of various kinds of therapeutic proteins. PMID:22729761

  5. Dissociative Recombination of Molecular Ions for Astrochemistry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Novotny, Oldrich; Becker, A.; Buhr, H.; Fleischmann, Andreas; Gamer, Lisa; Geppert, W.; Krantz, C.; Kreckel, H.; Schwalm, D.; Spruck, K.; Wolf, A.; Savin, Daniel Wolf

    2014-06-01

    Dissociative recombination (DR) of molecular ions is a key chemical process in the cold interstellar medium (ISM). DR affects the composition, charge state, and energy balance of such environments. Astrochemical models of the ISM require reliable total DR cross sections as well as knowledge of the chemical composition of the neutral DR products. We have systematically measured DR for many astrophysically relevant molecular ions utilizing the TSR storage ring at the Max-Planck-Institute for Nuclear Physics (MPIK) in Heidelberg, Germany. We used the merged ion-electron beam technique combined with an energy- and position-sensitive imaging detector and are able to study DR down to plasma temperatures as low as 10 K. The DR count rate is used to obtain an absolute merged beams DR rate coefficient from which we can derive a thermal rate coefficient needed for plasma models. Additionally we determine the masses of the DR products by measuring their kinetic energy in the laboratory reference frame. This allows us to assign particular DR fragmentation channels and to obtain their branching ratios. All this information is particularly important for understanding DR of heteronuclear polyatomic ions. We will present DR results for several ions recently investigated at TSR. A new Cryogenic Storage Ring (CSR) is currently being commissioned at MPIK. With the chamber cooled down to ~10 K and a base pressure better than 10-13 mbar, this setup will allow internal cooling of the stored ions down to their rotational ground states, thus opening a new era in DR experiments. New technological challenges arise due to the ultracold, ultra-high vacuum environment of the CSR and thus the detection techniques used at TSR cannot be easily transferred to CSR. We will present new approaches for DR fragment detection in cryogenic environment. This work is supported in part by NASA and the NSF.

  6. The Time Scale of Recombination Rate Evolution in Great Apes.

    PubMed

    Stevison, Laurie S; Woerner, August E; Kidd, Jeffrey M; Kelley, Joanna L; Veeramah, Krishna R; McManus, Kimberly F; Bustamante, Carlos D; Hammer, Michael F; Wall, Jeffrey D

    2016-04-01

    We present three linkage-disequilibrium (LD)-based recombination maps generated using whole-genome sequence data from 10 Nigerian chimpanzees, 13 bonobos, and 15 western gorillas, collected as part of the Great Ape Genome Project (Prado-Martinez J, et al. 2013. Great ape genetic diversity and population history. Nature 499:471-475). We also identified species-specific recombination hotspots in each group using a modified LDhot framework, which greatly improves statistical power to detect hotspots at varying strengths. We show that fewer hotspots are shared among chimpanzee subspecies than within human populations, further narrowing the time scale of complete hotspot turnover. Further, using species-specific PRDM9 sequences to predict potential binding sites (PBS), we show higher predicted PRDM9 binding in recombination hotspots as compared to matched cold spot regions in multiple great ape species, including at least one chimpanzee subspecies. We found that correlations between broad-scale recombination rates decline more rapidly than nucleotide divergence between species. We also compared the skew of recombination rates at centromeres and telomeres between species and show a skew from chromosome means extending as far as 10-15 Mb from chromosome ends. Further, we examined broad-scale recombination rate changes near a translocation in gorillas and found minimal differences as compared to other great ape species perhaps because the coordinates relative to the chromosome ends were unaffected. Finally, on the basis of multiple linear regression analysis, we found that various correlates of recombination rate persist throughout the African great apes including repeats, diversity, and divergence. Our study is the first to analyze within- and between-species genome-wide recombination rate variation in several close relatives. PMID:26671457

  7. Fixation of Emerging Interviral Recombinants in Cucumber Mosaic Virus Populations

    PubMed Central

    Pita, Justin S.

    2013-01-01

    Interstrain recombinants were observed in the progenies of the Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV) reassortant L1L2F3 containing RNAs 1 and 2 from LS-CMV and RNA 3 from Fny-CMV. We characterized these recombinants, and we found that their fixation was controlled by the nature of the replicating RNAs 1 and 2. We demonstrate that the 2b gene partially affects this fixation process, but only in the context of homologous RNAs 1 and 2. PMID:23115282

  8. Strongly Enhanced Recombination via Two-Center Electronic Correlations

    SciTech Connect

    Mueller, C.; Voitkiv, A. B.; Lopez-Urrutia, J. R. Crespo; Harman, Z.

    2010-06-11

    In the presence of a neighboring atom, electron-ion recombination can proceed resonantly via excitation of an electron in the atom, with subsequent relaxation through radiative decay. It is shown that this two-center dielectronic process can largely dominate over single-center radiative recombination at internuclear distances as large as several nanometers. The relevance of the predicted process is demonstrated by using examples of water-dissolved alkali cations and warm dense matter.

  9. Negative-continuum dielectronic recombination for heavy ions

    SciTech Connect

    Artemyev, A.N.; Yerokhin, V.A.; Beier, T.; Kozhuharov, C.; Eichler, J.; Klasnikov, A.E.; Shabaev, V.M.; Stoehlker, T.

    2003-05-01

    The process of recombination of an electron with a bare heavy nucleus via the creation of a free-positron-bound-electron pair is considered. This process is denoted as 'negative-continuum dielectronic recombination' because it results in the capture of an incident electron into a bound state accompanied by a transition of a negative-continuum electron into a bound state. The calculations are performed for a wide range of incident electron energies for Z=82 and 92.

  10. Recombinant Protein Production and Insect Cell Culture and Process

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spaulding, Glenn F. (Inventor); Goodwin, Thomas J. (Inventor); OConnor, Kim C. (Inventor); Francis, Karen M. (Inventor); Andrews, Angela D. (Inventor); Prewett, Tracey L. (Inventor)

    1997-01-01

    A process has been developed for recombinant production of selected polypeptides using transformed insect cells cultured in a horizontally rotating culture vessel modulated to create low shear conditions. A metabolically transformed insect cell line is produced using the culture procedure regardless of genetic transformation. The recombinant polypeptide can be produced by an alternative process using virtually infected or stably transformed insect cells containing a gene encoding the described polypeptide. The insect cells can also be a host for viral production.

  11. Recombinant protein production and insect cell culture and process

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spaulding, Glenn (Inventor); Prewett, Tacey (Inventor); Goodwin, Thomas (Inventor); Francis, Karen (Inventor); Andrews, Angela (Inventor); Oconnor, Kim (Inventor)

    1993-01-01

    A process has been developed for recombinant production of selected polypeptides using transformed insect cells cultured in a horizontally rotating culture vessel modulated to create low shear conditions. A metabolically transformed insect cell line is produced using the culture procedure regardless of genetic transformation. The recombinant polypeptide can be produced by an alternative process using the cultured insect cells as host for a virus encoding the described polypeptide such as baculovirus. The insect cells can also be a host for viral production.

  12. Recombinant HT{sub m4} gene, protein and assays

    DOEpatents

    Lim, B.; Adra, C.N.; Lelias, J.M.

    1996-09-03

    The invention relates to a recombinant DNA molecule which encodes a HT{sub m4} protein, a transformed host cell which has been stably transfected with a DNA molecule which encodes a HT{sub m4} protein and a recombinant HT{sub m4} protein. The invention also relates to a method for detecting the presence of a hereditary atopy. 2 figs.

  13. Green factory: plants as bioproduction platforms for recombinant proteins.

    PubMed

    Xu, Jianfeng; Dolan, Maureen C; Medrano, Giuliana; Cramer, Carole L; Weathers, Pamela J

    2012-01-01

    Molecular farming, long considered a promising strategy to produce valuable recombinant proteins not only for human and veterinary medicine, but also for agriculture and industry, now has some commercially available products. Various plant-based production platforms including whole-plants, aquatic plants, plant cell suspensions, and plant tissues (hairy roots) have been compared in terms of their advantages and limits. Effective recombinant strategies are summarized along with descriptions of scalable culture systems and examples of commercial progress and success. PMID:21924345

  14. Unified Theoretical Approach to Electron-Ion Recombination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pradhan, Anil

    1998-05-01

    Electron-ion recombination occurs via the electron continuum and embedded resonances that are coupled to each other and thus unified in nature. However, theoretical methods generally separate the two as ``radiative recombination" (RR), referring to recombination through the non-resonant continuum, and ``di-electronic recombination" (DR) through the autoionizing resonances. A computationally unified scheme(S.N. Nahar and A.K. Pradhan, Phys.Rev.Lett.) 68,1488(1992); H.L. Zhang and A.K. Pradhan, Phys.Rev.Lett. 78,195(1997) is described that employs the coupled channel R-matrix method, and detailed balance (the Milne relation), to obtain photo-recombination cross sections including both the continuum and resonant recombination in an ab intio manner. In the energy region corresponding to high-n Rydberg resonances, where the background recombination (RR) is negligibly small, a precise theory of DR (R.H. Bell and M.J. Seaton, J.Phys.B) 18,1589(1985) yields DR collision strengths consistent with their threshold behaviour leading to the cross section for electron impact excitation. For highly charged ions the relativistic fine structure and the effect of radiation damping of resonances are considered. Theoretical cross sections agree well with recent experiments on ion stograge rings and the electron-beam-ion-trap (EBIT). Total electron-ion recombination rates can be obtained for practical applications. For many complex atomic systems, such as the important Iron-peak elements, the new results differ considerably from those hitherto available.

  15. Fine-scale recombination and adaptive radiation could be linked.

    PubMed

    Bodilis, Josselin

    2013-09-15

    The difficult reconstruction of the evolutionary history of the major surface protein gene oprF highlighted an adaptive radiation in the Pseudomonas fluorescens group. The recent work of Hao (2013) showed that partial recombination events in oprF gene occurred specifically in a P. fluorescens lineage under ecological niche segregation. So, I suggest that identification of lineage-specific fine-scale recombination may be a way to detect putative adaptive radiation in bacteria. PMID:23774687

  16. Generation of monoclonal antibodies to recombinant vascular endothelial growth factor.

    PubMed

    Shein, S A; Gurina, O I; Leopol'd, A V; Baklaushev, V P; Korchagina, A A; Grinenko, N F; Ivanova, N V; Volgina, N E; Ryabukhin, I A; Chekhonin, V P

    2012-05-01

    Female BALB/c mice were subcutaneously immunized with recombinant VEGF-164. After 3 immunization cycles, splenic B cells from immunized mouse were fused with immortalized myeloma culture SP2/0-Ag14 cells. Screening of hybrid cells producing anti-VEGF antibodies was performed by ELISA and immunocytochemical analysis on cultured C6 glioma cells. Subsequent cloning yielded hybridoma stably expressing monoclonal anti-VEGF antibodies recognizing recombinant and native VEGF. PMID:22808513

  17. Recombinant TCR ligand reverses clinical signs and CNS damage of EAE induced by recombinant human MOG.

    PubMed

    Sinha, Sushmita; Subramanian, Sandhya; Emerson-Webber, Ashley; Lindner, Maren; Burrows, Gregory G; Grafe, Marjorie; Linington, Christopher; Vandenbark, Arthur A; Bernard, Claude C A; Offner, Halina

    2010-06-01

    Increasing evidence suggests that in addition to T cell-dependent effector mechanisms, autoantibodies are also involved in the pathogenesis of MS, including demyelinating antibodies specific for myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (MOG). Our previous studies have demonstrated that recombinant T cell receptor ligands (RTLs) are very effective for treating T cell-mediated experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE). In order to expand the scope of RTL therapy in MS patients, it was of interest to study RTL treatment of EAE involving a demyelinating antibody component. Therefore, we evaluated the therapeutic effects of RTL551, specific for T cells reactive to mouse (m)MOG-35-55 peptide, on EAE induced with recombinant human (rh)MOG in C57BL/6 mice. We report that RTL551 therapy can reverse disease progression and reduce demyelination and axonal damage induced by rhMOG without suppressing the anti-MOG antibody response. This result suggests that T cell-mediated inflammation and associated blood-brain barrier dysfunction are the central contributors to EAE pathogenesis and that successful regulation of these key players restricts potential damage by demyelinating antibodies. The results of our study lend support for the use of RTL therapy for treatment of MS subjects whose disease includes inflammatory T cells as well as those with an additional antibody component. PMID:19789980

  18. Generation of Food-Grade Recombinant Lactic Acid Bacterium Strains by Site-Specific Recombination

    PubMed Central

    Martín, M. Cruz; Alonso, Juan C.; Suárez, Juan E.; Alvarez, Miguel A.

    2000-01-01

    The construction of a delivery and clearing system for the generation of food-grade recombinant lactic acid bacterium strains, based on the use of an integrase (Int) and a resolvo-invertase (β-recombinase) and their respective target sites (attP-attB and six, respectively) is reported. The delivery system contains a heterologous replication origin and antibiotic resistance markers surrounded by two directly oriented six sites, a multiple cloning site where passenger DNA could be inserted (e.g., the cI gene of bacteriophage A2), the int gene, and the attP site of phage A2. The clearing system provides a plasmid-borne gene encoding β-recombinase. The nonreplicative vector-borne delivery system was transformed into Lactobacillus casei ATCC 393 and, by site-specific recombination, integrated as a single copy in an orientation- and Int-dependent manner into the attB site present in the genome of the host strain. The transfer of the clearing system into this strain, with the subsequent expression of the β-recombinase, led to site-specific DNA resolution of the non-food-grade DNA. These methods were validated by the construction of a stable food-grade L. casei ATCC 393-derived strain completely immune to phage A2 infection during milk fermentation. PMID:10831443

  19. Sortase-catalyzed in vitro functionalization of a HER2-specific recombinant Fab for tumor targeting of the plant cytotoxin gelonin

    PubMed Central

    Kornberger, Petra; Skerra, Arne

    2014-01-01

    We report on the preparation of a new type of immunotoxin via in vitro ligation of the αHer2 antigen binding fragment (Fab) of the clinically-validated antibody trastuzumab to the plant toxin gelonin, employing catalysis by the bacterial enzyme sortase A (SrtA). The αHer2 Fab was fused with the extended SrtA recognition motif LPET↓GLEH6 at the C-terminus of its heavy chain, thereby preventing interference with antigen binding, while the toxin was equipped with a Gly2 sequence at its N-terminus, distant to the catalytically active site in the C-terminal region. Site-specific in vitro transpeptidation led to a novel antibody-toxin conjugate wherein gelonin had effectively replaced the Fc region of a conventional (monomerized) immunoglobulin. After optimization of reaction conditions and incubation time, the resulting Fab-Gelonin ligation product was purified to homogeneity in a two-step procedure by means of Strep-Tactin affinity chromatography—utilizing the Strep-tag II appended to gelonin—and size exclusion chromatography. Binding activity of the immunotoxin for the Her2 ectodomain was indistinguishable from the unligated Fab as measured by real-time surface plasmon resonance spectroscopy. Specific cytotoxic potency of Fab-Gelonin was demonstrated against two Her2-positive cell lines, resulting in EC50 values of ~1 nM or lower, indicating a 1000-fold enhanced cell-killing activity compared with gelonin itself. Thus, our strategy provides a convenient route to the modular construction of functional immunotoxins from Fabs of established tumor-specific antibodies with gelonin or related proteotoxins, also avoiding the elevated biosafety levels that would be mandatory for the direct biotechnological preparation of corresponding fusion proteins. PMID:24492291

  20. Posttranslational modifications and activity of natural and recombinant tissue factor

    PubMed Central

    Butenas, Saulius; Krudysz-Amblo, Jolanta; Mann, Kenneth G

    2010-01-01

    Tissue factor is a membrane protein, which in a complex with factor VIIa initiates in vivo blood coagulation. Due to the scarcity of natural tissue factor protein, most studies have relied upon recombinant tissue factor forms. However, there have been only cursory experimental comparisons of natural and recombinant tissue factor proteins. Our preliminary data suggested that placental tissue factor in a complex with factor VIIa was more efficient activator of factor X than the recombinant protein. After deglycosylation, both forms of tissue factor showed almost an identical activity in the extrinsic factor Xase. Analyses using tryptic digestion and mass-spectrometry revealed that the levels of glycosylation and the composition of carbohydrates present in natural placental tissue factor were different than those in its recombinant counterpart. These data indicate that natural and recombinant tissue factor proteins differ in their posttranslational modifications and that these differences translate into different cofactor activity. Thus the use of recombinant tissue factor proteins for the quantitation of natural tissue factor is misleading. PMID:20138335

  1. Recombination Suppression by Heterozygous Robertsonian Chromosomes in the Mouse

    PubMed Central

    Davisson, M. T.; Akeson, E. C.

    1993-01-01

    Robertsonian chromosomes are metacentric chromosomes formed by the joining of two telocentric chromosomes at their centromere ends. Many Robertsonian chromosomes of the mouse suppress genetic recombination near the centromere when heterozygous. We have analyzed genetic recombination and meiotic pairing in mice heterozygous for Robertsonian chromosomes and genetic markers to determine (1) the reason for this recombination suppression and (2) whether there are any consistent rules to predict which Robertsonian chromosomes will suppress recombination. Meiotic pairing was analyzed using synaptonemal complex preparations. Our data provide evidence that the underlying mechanism of recombination suppression is mechanical interference in meiotic pairing between Robertsonian chromosomes and their telocentric partners. The fact that recombination suppression is specific to individual Robertsonian chromosomes suggests that the pairing delay is caused by minor structural differences between the Robertsonian chromosomes and their telocentric homologs and that these differences arise during Robertsonian formation. Further understanding of this pairing delay is important for mouse mapping studies. In 10 mouse chromosomes (3, 4, 5, 6, 8, 9, 10, 11, 15 and 19) the distances from the centromeres to first markers may still be underestimated because they have been determined using only Robertsonian chromosomes. Our control linkage studies using C-band (heterochromatin) markers for the centromeric region provide improved estimates for the centromere-to-first-locus distance in mouse chromosomes 1, 2 and 16. PMID:8454207

  2. RPA homologs and ssDNA processing during meiotic recombination.

    PubMed

    Ribeiro, Jonathan; Abby, Emilie; Livera, Gabriel; Martini, Emmanuelle

    2016-06-01

    Meiotic homologous recombination is a specialized process that involves homologous chromosome pairing and strand exchange to guarantee proper chromosome segregation and genetic diversity. The formation and repair of DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) during meiotic recombination differs from those during mitotic recombination in that the homologous chromosome rather than the sister chromatid is the preferred repair template. The processing of single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) formed on intermediate recombination structures is central to driving the specific outcomes of DSB repair during meiosis. Replication protein A (RPA) is the main ssDNA-binding protein complex involved in DNA metabolism. However, the existence of RPA orthologs in plants and the recent discovery of meiosis specific with OB domains (MEIOB), a widely conserved meiosis-specific RPA1 paralog, strongly suggest that multiple RPA complexes evolved and specialized to subdivide their roles during DNA metabolism. Here we review ssDNA formation and maturation during mitotic and meiotic recombination underlying the meiotic specific features. We describe and discuss the existence and properties of MEIOB and multiple RPA subunits in plants and highlight how they can provide meiosis-specific fates to ssDNA processing during homologous recombination. Understanding the functions of these RPA homologs and how they interact with the canonical RPA subunits is of major interest in the fields of meiosis and DNA repair. PMID:26520106

  3. Recombinant medaka (Oryzias melastigmus) pro-hepcidin: Multifunctional characterization.

    PubMed

    Cai, Ling; Cai, Jing-Jing; Liu, Hai-Peng; Fan, Dan-Qing; Peng, Hui; Wang, Ke-Jian

    2012-02-01

    Recently, two hepcidin variant genes (Om-hep1 and Om-hep2) were identified in a model fish marine medaka and both were highly induced in vivo with bacterial challenge, suggesting that the medaka hepcidin may have a similar function to other reported teleostean hepcidins. In the present study, the antibacterial, antiviral and antitumor activities of Om-hep1 were determined using its synthetic and recombinant pro-peptides. The recombinant pro-hepcidin1 was expressed in Escherichia coli and an effective method to produce recombinant Pro-Omhep1 was developed in order to obtain a right folded structure. The results showed that both the synthetic mature peptide and recombinant pro-peptide had similar antibacterial activity against Gram-positive and negative bacteria. In particular, both the synthetic mature Om-hep1 and recombinant Pro-Omhep1 inhibited the viral replication of white spot syndrome virus in the hematopoietic tissue cells of the crayfish Cherax quadricarinatus. Om-hep1 also presented antitumor activity on the cultured human hepatocellular carcinoma cells. In addition, the antimicrobial mechanism of Om-hep1 was measured and it was found that Om-hep1 was likely to be non-membranolytic. The recombinant Pro-Omhep1 performed better biological activity compared to the synthetic mature Om-hep1. This study suggested that Om-hep1 was likely to be an important multifunction protein involved in various resistance actions in the marine medaka immune system. PMID:22051539

  4. Charge relaxation and recombination in photo-excited Mott insulators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prelovšek, P.; Lenarčič, Z.

    2016-04-01

    Recent femtosecond pump-probe experiments on Mott insulators reveal charge recombination, which is in picosecond range, i.e., much faster than in clean bandgap semiconductors although excitation gaps in Mott insulators are even larger. The charge response in photo-excited insulators can be generally divided in femtosecond transient relaxation of charge excitations, which are holons and doublons, and a second slower, but still very fast, holon-doublon (HD) recombination. We present a theory of the recombination rate of the excited HD pairs, based on the two-dimensional (2D) model relevant for cuprates, which shows that such fast processes can be explained even quantitatively with the multi-magnon emission. We show that the condition for the exponential decay as observed in the experiment is the existence of the exciton, i.e., the bound HD pair. Its recombination rate is exponentially dependent on the charge gap and on the magnon energy, while the ultrafast process can be traced back to strong charge-spin coupling. We comment also fast recombination times in the one-dimensional (1D) Mott insulators, as e.g., organic salts. The recombination rate in the latter cases can be explained with the stronger coupling with phonon excitations.

  5. Genetic diversity and recombination analysis of sweepoviruses from Brazil

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Monopartite begomoviruses (genus Begomovirus, family Geminiviridae) that infect sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas) around the world are known as sweepoviruses. Because sweet potato plants are vegetatively propagated, the accumulation of viruses can become a major constraint for root production. Mixed infections of sweepovirus species and strains can lead to recombination, which may contribute to the generation of new recombinant sweepoviruses. Results This study reports the full genome sequence of 34 sweepoviruses sampled from a sweet potato germplasm bank and commercial fields in Brazil. These sequences were compared with others from public nucleotide sequence databases to provide a comprehensive overview of the genetic diversity and patterns of genetic exchange in sweepoviruses isolated from Brazil, as well as to review the classification and nomenclature of sweepoviruses in accordance with the current guidelines proposed by the Geminiviridae Study Group of the International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses (ICTV). Co-infections and extensive recombination events were identified in Brazilian sweepoviruses. Analysis of the recombination breakpoints detected within the sweepovirus dataset revealed that most recombination events occurred in the intergenic region (IR) and in the middle of the C1 open reading frame (ORF). Conclusions The genetic diversity of sweepoviruses was considerably greater than previously described in Brazil. Moreover, recombination analysis revealed that a genomic exchange is responsible for the emergence of sweepovirus species and strains and provided valuable new information for understanding the diversity and evolution of sweepoviruses. PMID:23082767

  6. Recombination, chromosome number and eusociality in the Hymenoptera

    PubMed Central

    Ross, L; Blackmon, H; Lorite, P; Gokhman, V E; Hardy, N B

    2015-01-01

    Extraordinarily high rates of recombination have been observed in some eusocial species. The most popular explanation is that increased recombination increases genetic variation among workers, which in turn increases colony performance, for example by increasing parasite resistance. However, support for the generality of higher recombination rates among eusocial organisms remains weak, due to low sample size and a lack of phylogenetic independence of observations. Recombination rate, although difficult to measure directly, is correlated with chromosome number. As predicted, several authors have noted that chromosome numbers are higher among the eusocial species of Hymenoptera (ants, bees and wasps). Here, we present a formal comparative analysis of karyotype data from 1567 species of Hymenoptera. Contrary to earlier studies, we find no evidence for an absolute difference between chromosome number in eusocial and solitary species of Hymenoptera. However, we find support for an increased rate of chromosome number change in eusocial taxa. We show that among eusocial taxa colony size is able to explain some of the variation in chromosome number: intermediate-sized colonies have more chromosomes than those that are either very small or very large. However, we were unable to detect effects of a number of other colony characteristics predicted to affect recombination rate – including colony relatedness and caste number. Taken together, our results support the view that a eusocial lifestyle has led to variable selection pressure for increased recombination rates, but that identifying the factors contributing to this variable selection will require further theoretical and empirical effort. PMID:25382409

  7. Meiotic recombination analysis in female ducks (Anas platyrhynchos).

    PubMed

    Pigozzi, M I; Del Priore, L

    2016-06-01

    Meiotic recombination in female ducks was directly studied by immunolocalization of MLH1 protein, a mismatch repair protein of mature recombination nodules. In total, 6820 crossovers were scored along the autosomal synaptonemal complexes in 122 meiotic nuclei. From this analysis we predict that the female map length of the duck is 2845 cM, with a genome wide recombination rate of 2 cM/Mb. MLH1-focus mapping along the six largest bivalents shows regional variations of recombination frequencies that can be linked to differences in chromosome morphology. From this MLH1 mapping it can be inferred that distally located markers will appear more separated in genetic maps than physically equidistant markers located near the centromeres on bivalents 1 and 2. Instead, markers at interstitial positions on the acrocentric bivalents 3-6 will appear more tightly linked than expected on the basis of their physical distance because recombination is comparatively lower at the mid region of these chromosomes. The present results provide useful information to complement linkage mapping in ducks and extend previous knowledge about the variation of recombination rates among domestic Galloanserae. PMID:27115519

  8. Immunoglobulin/Myc recombinations in murine Peyer's patch follicles.

    PubMed

    Müller, J R; Mushinski, E B; Williams, J A; Hausner, P F

    1997-09-01

    Immunoglobulin heavy chain (Igh)/Myc recombinations are a hallmark of pristane-induced mouse plasmacytomas but are also frequently found in non-tumorous tissues. Here we describe for the first time a PCR-based technique for detecting fusions between Igh mu or Igh alpha and Myc in situ. Igh/Myc recombinations were found in transplanted and primary plasmacytomas. In addition, the gut-associated lymphoid tissues of plasmacytoma-free BALB/c mice were investigated for the presence of Igh/Myc fusions. Igh/Myc rearrangements were detected in Peyer's patch follicles and in the intestinal lamina propria both in normal mice and in mice shortly after pristane treatment. The sequence analysis showed that i) three to five different Igh/Myc hybrid sequences were present in individual follicles, ii) Igh/Myc recombinations can be subjected to additional switch recombinations as shown by related sequences in neighboring cells, and iii) cells harboring these rearrangements migrate into the adjacent lamina propria. The results indicate that Peyer's patches are a hyper-recombinogenic tissue. Myc recombination-positive cells are present in at least 100-fold more frequently than expected if recombinations were random, which suggests that this kind of trans-chromosomal rearrangement may be targeted. PMID:9290947

  9. Recombination Coefficient Measurements of O and N radicals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Harmeet; Coburn, John; Graves, David

    1999-10-01

    Surface recombination of radicals in low-pressure high-density plasmas has direct influence on the neutral and ionic composition of the plasma. While, electron impact dissociation of molecules is the dominant mechanism for creation of radicals, the surface recombination of radicals is often expected to be the dominant loss mechanism. We have a combination of measurements and a model to determine the recombination coefficients of O and N, to O2 and N2, respectively on the stainless steel walls of our inductively coupled plasma chamber. The radial variation of the electron energy distribution function (EEDF) is measured using a tuned, cylindrical Langmuir probe. The number density of the molecular species is measured using line-of-sight modulated beam mass spectrometry. The mass spectrometer is differentially pumped in three stages to ensure a good beam to background signal ratio. The radical absolute number density is measured using appearance potential mass spectrometry with the aforementioned mass spectrometer. The recombination coefficient is calculated using a balance of the volume-generation and surface-loss rates of the radicals in the plasma. The generation rate of the radicals is calculated using the number density measurements of the parent molecule and the spatially resolved EEDFs. At approximately 330 K on stainless steel, the recombination coefficient for O is 0.16, and recombination coefficient for N is 0.07.

  10. Seroreactive recombinant herpes simplex virus type 2-specific glycoprotein G.

    PubMed Central

    Parkes, D L; Smith, C M; Rose, J M; Brandis, J; Coates, S R

    1991-01-01

    The herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) genome codes for an envelope protein, glycoprotein G (gG), which contains predominantly type 2-specific epitopes. A portion of this gG gene has been expressed as a fusion protein in Escherichia coli. Expression was regulated by a lambda phage pL promoter. The 60,000-molecular-weight recombinant protein was purified by ion-exchange chromatography. Amino acid sequence analysis confirmed the N terminus of the purified protein. Mice immunized with recombinant gG developed antibodies reactive with native HSV-2 protein, but not with HSV-1 protein, in an indirect immunofluorescence assay. The serological activity of this purified recombinant gG protein was evaluated by immunoblot assay. This protein was reactive with an HSV-2 gG monoclonal antibody. It was also reactive with HSV-2 rabbit antiserum but not with HSV-1 rabbit antiserum. Of 15 patient serum samples known to have antibody to HSV-2, 14 were reactive with this recombinant type 2-specific gG protein, and none of 15 HSV antibody-negative patient serum samples showed reactivity. In agreement with the expected prevalence of HSV-2 infection, 27.6% of 134 serum samples from random normal individuals had antibodies reactive with recombinant gG. This recombinant gG protein may be of value in detecting HSV-2-specific antibody responses in patients infected with HSV-2. Images PMID:1653787

  11. Electron-ion recombination of FetII

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nahar, Sultana N.

    1997-03-01

    A complete treatment of electron-ion recombination of e+Fe III-->Fe II employing a unified method is presented. The treatment incorporates both the radiative and dielectronic recombinations in a self-consistent manner. Total recombination rate coefficients are obtained from photoionization cross sections, and from collision strengths for dielectronic recombination calculated using the precise theory of Bell and Seaton [J. Phys. B 18, 1589 (1985)]. Large-scale computations for both of these quantities are carried out in the close coupling approximation using the R-matrix method with an eigenfunction expansion that includes 83 states of Fe III dominated by the ground 3d6, and the excited 3d54s and 3d54p configurations. Both the total and state-specific recombination rate coefficients are obtained. Comparison of the present results with the previous ones shows considerable difference for most of the temperature regions. The present results provide accurate and self-consistent recombination rates, in the temperature range of practical applications (T<105 K), for ionization balance in photoionization models employing the detailed photoionization cross sections from the Opacity Project.

  12. Electron-ion recombination of FeII

    SciTech Connect

    Nahar, S.N.

    1997-03-01

    A complete treatment of electron-ion recombination of e+FeIII{r_arrow}FeII employing a unified method is presented. The treatment incorporates both the radiative and dielectronic recombinations in a self-consistent manner. Total recombination rate coefficients are obtained from photoionization cross sections, and from collision strengths for dielectronic recombination calculated using the precise theory of Bell and Seaton [J. Phys. B {bold 18}, 1589 (1985)]. Large-scale computations for both of these quantities are carried out in the close coupling approximation using the R-matrix method with an eigenfunction expansion that includes 83 states of FeIII dominated by the ground 3d{sup 6}, and the excited 3d{sup 5}4s and 3d{sup 5}4p configurations. Both the total and state-specific recombination rate coefficients are obtained. Comparison of the present results with the previous ones shows considerable difference for most of the temperature regions. The present results provide accurate and self-consistent recombination rates, in the temperature range of practical applications (T{lt}10{sup 5} K), for ionization balance in photoionization models employing the detailed photoionization cross sections from the Opacity Project. {copyright} {ital 1997} {ital The American Physical Society}

  13. Distribution of Recombination Crossovers and the Origin of Haplotype Blocks: The Interplay of Population History, Recombination, and Mutation

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Ning; Akey, Joshua M.; Zhang, Kun; Chakraborty, Ranajit; Jin, Li

    2002-01-01

    Recent studies suggest that haplotypes are arranged into discrete blocklike structures throughout the human genome. Here, we present an alternative haplotype block definition that assumes no recombination within each block but allows for recombination between blocks, and we use it to study the combined effects of demographic history and various population genetic parameters on haplotype block characteristics. Through extensive coalescent simulations and analysis of published haplotype data on chromosome 21, we find that (1) the combined effects of population demographic history, recombination, and mutation dictate haplotype block characteristics and (2) haplotype blocks can arise in the absence of recombination hot spots. Finally, we provide practical guidelines for designing and interpreting studies investigating haplotype block structure. PMID:12384857

  14. “Genome-wide recombination and chromosome segregation in human oocytes and embryos reveal selection for maternal recombination rates”

    PubMed Central

    Natesan, Senthilkumar A.; Joshi, Hrishikesh A.; Cimadomo, Danilo; Griffin, Darren K.; Sage, Karen; Summers, Michael C.; Thornhill, Alan R.; Housworth, Elizabeth; Herbert, Alex D.; Rienzi, Laura; Ubaldi, Filippo M.; Handyside, Alan H.; Hoffmann, Eva R.

    2015-01-01

    Crossover recombination reshuffles genes and prevents errors in segregation that lead to extra or missing chromosomes (aneuploidy) in human eggs, a major cause of pregnancy failure and congenital disorders. Here, we generate genome-wide maps of crossovers and chromosome segregation patterns by recovering all three products of single female meioses. Genotyping > 4 million informative single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) from 23 complete meioses allowed us to map 2,032 maternal and 1,342 paternal crossovers and to infer the segregation patterns of 529 chromosome pairs. We uncover a novel reverse chromosome segregation pattern in which both homologs separate their sister chromatids at meiosis I; detect selection for higher recombination rates in the female germline by the elimination of aneuploid embryos; and report chromosomal drive against non-recombinant chromatids at meiosis II. Collectively, our findings reveal that recombination not only affects homolog segregation at meiosis I but also the fate of sister chromatids at meiosis II. PMID:25985139

  15. Genome-wide maps of recombination and chromosome segregation in human oocytes and embryos show selection for maternal recombination rates.

    PubMed

    Ottolini, Christian S; Newnham, Louise J; Capalbo, Antonio; Natesan, Senthilkumar A; Joshi, Hrishikesh A; Cimadomo, Danilo; Griffin, Darren K; Sage, Karen; Summers, Michael C; Thornhill, Alan R; Housworth, Elizabeth; Herbert, Alex D; Rienzi, Laura; Ubaldi, Filippo M; Handyside, Alan H; Hoffmann, Eva R

    2015-07-01

    Crossover recombination reshuffles genes and prevents errors in segregation that lead to extra or missing chromosomes (aneuploidy) in human eggs, a major cause of pregnancy failure and congenital disorders. Here we generate genome-wide maps of crossovers and chromosome segregation patterns by recovering all three products of single female meioses. Genotyping >4 million informative SNPs from 23 complete meioses allowed us to map 2,032 maternal and 1,342 paternal crossovers and to infer the segregation patterns of 529 chromosome pairs. We uncover a new reverse chromosome segregation pattern in which both homologs separate their sister chromatids at meiosis I; detect selection for higher recombination rates in the female germ line by the elimination of aneuploid embryos; and report chromosomal drive against non-recombinant chromatids at meiosis II. Collectively, our findings show that recombination not only affects homolog segregation at meiosis I but also the fate of sister chromatids at meiosis II. PMID:25985139

  16. Urinary hMG (Meropur) versus recombinant FSH plus recombinant LH (Pergoveris) in IVF: a multicenter, prospective, randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Pacchiarotti, Alessandro; Sbracia, Marco; Frega, Antonio; Selman, Helmy; Rinaldi, Leonardo; Pacchiarotti, Arianna

    2010-11-01

    To compare IVF outcome in ovarian stimulation protocols with recombinant FSH plus recombinant LH versus hMG, 122 patients were randomized into two study groups: group A, patients treated with urinary hMG, and group B, patients treated with rFSH plus rLH. The two groups proved to be comparable to the main IVF outcome (pregnancy rate, implantation rate, oocytes, and embryos quality), with an increasing risk of ovarian hyperstimulation in the Pergoveris group. PMID:20537626

  17. Differential Requirements of Singleplex and Multiplex Recombineering of Large DNA Constructs

    PubMed Central

    Reddy, Thimma R.; Kelsall, Emma J.; Fevat, Léna M. S.; Munson, Sarah E.; Cowley, Shaun M.

    2015-01-01

    Recombineering is an in vivo genetic engineering technique involving homologous recombination mediated by phage recombination proteins. The use of recombineering methodology is not limited by size and sequence constraints and therefore has enabled the streamlined construction of bacterial strains and multi-component plasmids. Recombineering applications commonly utilize singleplex strategies and the parameters are extensively tested. However, singleplex recombineering is not suitable for the modification of several loci in genome recoding and strain engineering exercises, which requires a multiplex recombineering design. Defining the main parameters affecting multiplex efficiency especially the insertion of multiple large genes is necessary to enable efficient large-scale modification of the genome. Here, we have tested different recombineering operational parameters of the lambda phage Red recombination system and compared singleplex and multiplex recombineering of large gene sized DNA cassettes. We have found that optimal multiplex recombination required long homology lengths in excess of 120 bp. However, efficient multiplexing was possible with only 60 bp of homology. Multiplex recombination was more limited by lower amounts of DNA than singleplex recombineering and was greatly enhanced by use of phosphorothioate protection of DNA. Exploring the mechanism of multiplexing revealed that efficient recombination required co-selection of an antibiotic marker and the presence of all three Red proteins. Building on these results, we substantially increased multiplex efficiency using an ExoVII deletion strain. Our findings elucidate key differences between singleplex and multiplex recombineering and provide important clues for further improving multiplex recombination efficiency. PMID:25954970

  18. Recombinant thrombomodulin for secondary thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura.

    PubMed

    Nakamura, Kensuke; Inokuchi, Ryota; Hiruma, Takahiro; Ohshima, Kazuma; Sonoo, Tomohiro; Tokunaga, Kurato; Doi, Kent; Nakajima, Susumu

    2016-06-01

    In the pathogenesis of thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura (TTP), reductions in the enzyme activity of ADAMTS13, which cuts ultralarge von Willebrand multimers, generates shear stress on the microvascular endothelium, leading to platelet aggregation and the formation of a thrombus. ADAMTS13 activity is markedly decreased in typical TTP, but is only mildly reduced in secondary TTP, which concomitantly develops with primary disease. The latter develops with septic disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC) and often causes organ failure. Recombinant thrombomodulin (rTM) is a drug that is used to treat DIC and may also remit TTP because it improves vascular endothelial dysfunction. Therefore, we herein investigated the efficacy of rTM in patients treated for the pathology of secondary TTP. Patients who were admitted to the Emergency and Critical Care Center of our hospital and met the following conditions were extracted and retrospectively analyzed: hemolytic anemia accompanied by fragmented red blood cells (Hb < 12 g/dL or lower); thrombocytopenia (<100 × 10/μL); and ADAMTS13 activity <50%. Sixteen patients were included and accompanied by Kidney Disease: Improving Global Outcomes (KDIGO) stage 2 or more severe nephropathy and DIC. Eleven and 5 patients treated with and without rTM (the rTM and non-rTM treatment groups, respectively) were compared, and no significant difference was noted in their basic characteristics, such as background disease and severity. No significant difference was observed in survival rates; however, the platelet count, which is an important outcome of treatments for TTP, significantly increased in the rTM treatment group: 3.3 ± 2.6→11.3 ± 14.6 versus 3.5 ± 3.7→5.7 ± 3.9 (×1000/μL) (P = 0.034). Thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura originally requires invasive treatments and its prognosis is not favorable. Blood thrombomodulin levels also markedly increase due to vascular endothelial dysfunction

  19. Transforming the treatment for hemophilia B patients: update on the clinical development of recombinant fusion protein linking recombinant coagulation factor IX with recombinant albumin (rIX-FP).

    PubMed

    Santagostino, Elena

    2016-05-01

    Recombinant fusion protein linking recombinant coagulation factor IX with recombinant albumin (rIX-FP; Idelvion®(†)) is an innovative new treatment designed to extend the half-life of factor IX (FIX) and ease the burden of care for hemophilia B patients. The rIX-FP clinical development program - PROLONG-9FP - is in its advanced phases, with pivotal studies in previously treated adults, adolescents, and pediatrics now completed. Across all age groups studied, rIX-FP has demonstrated a markedly improved pharmacokinetic profile compared with plasma-derived and recombinant FIX treatments, with a 30-40% higher incremental recovery, an approximately 5-fold longer half-life, a lower clearance, and a greater area under the curve. rIX-FP has been very well tolerated with an excellent safety profile. In the pivotal studies, there have been no reports of FIX inhibitors or antidrug antibodies, and few treatment-related adverse events have been observed. Prophylactic regimens of rIX-FP administered once weekly to once every 14 days have been highly effective. When used for surgical prophylaxis, a single infusion of rIX-FP has been sufficient to maintain hemostasis, even during major orthopedic surgery. An ongoing study is now enrolling previously untreated patients and evaluating the possibility of extending the dosing interval to every 21 days. There is little doubt that rIX-FP will transform the treatment of hemophilia B. PMID:27288064

  20. Enhanced Proteolytic Processing of Recombinant Human Coagulation Factor VIII B-Domain Variants by Recombinant Furins.

    PubMed

    Demasi, Marcos A; de S Molina, Erika; Bowman-Colin, Christian; Lojudice, Fernando H; Muras, Angelita; Sogayar, Mari C

    2016-06-01

    Recombinant human factor VIII (rFVIII) is used in replacement therapy for hemophilia A. Current research efforts are focused on bioengineering rFVIII molecules to improve its secretion efficiency and stability, limiting factors for its efficient production. However, high expression yield in mammalian cells of these rFVIII variants is generally associated with limited proteolytic processing. Non-processed single-chain polypeptides constitute non-natural FVIII molecule configurations with unpredictable toxicity and/or antigenicity. Our main objective was to demonstrate the feasibility of promoting full-proteolytic processing of an rFVIII variant retaining a portion of the B-domain, converting it into the smallest natural activatable form of rFVIII, while keeping its main advantage, i.e., improved secretion efficiency. We generated and employed a CHO-DG44 cell clone producing an rFVIII variant retaining a portion of the B-domain and the FVIII native cleavage site between Arg(1648) and Glu(1649). By bioengineering CHO-DG44 cells to express stably the recombinant human endoproteases PACE, PACE-SOL, PCSK5, PCSK6, or PCKS7, we were able to achieve complete intra- or extracellular proteolytic processing of this rFVIII variant. Additionally, our quantitative data indicated that removal of the B-domain segment by intracellular proteolytic processing does not interfere with this rFVIII variant secretion efficiency. This work also provides the first direct evidence of (1) intracellular cleavage at the Arg(1648) FVIII processing site promoted by wild-type PACE and PCSK7 and (2) proteolytic processing at the Arg(1648) FVIII processing site by PCSK6. PMID:27126696

  1. Genome-wide recombination dynamics are associated with phenotypic variation in maize.

    PubMed

    Pan, Qingchun; Li, Lin; Yang, Xiaohong; Tong, Hao; Xu, Shutu; Li, Zhigang; Li, Weiya; Muehlbauer, Gary J; Li, Jiansheng; Yan, Jianbing

    2016-05-01

    Meiotic recombination is a major driver of genetic diversity, species evolution, and agricultural improvement. Thus, an understanding of the genetic recombination landscape across the maize (Zea mays) genome will provide insight and tools for further study of maize evolution and improvement. Here, we used c. 50 000 single nucleotide polymorphisms to precisely map recombination events in 12 artificial maize segregating populations. We observed substantial variation in the recombination frequency and distribution along the ten maize chromosomes among the 12 populations and identified 143 recombination hot regions. Recombination breakpoints were partitioned into intragenic and intergenic events. Interestingly, an increase in the number of genes containing recombination events was accompanied by a decrease in the number of recombination events per gene. This kept the overall number of intragenic recombination events nearly invariable in a given population, suggesting that the recombination variation observed among populations was largely attributed to intergenic recombination. However, significant associations between intragenic recombination events and variation in gene expression and agronomic traits were observed, suggesting potential roles for intragenic recombination in plant phenotypic diversity. Our results provide a comprehensive view of the maize recombination landscape, and show an association between recombination, gene expression and phenotypic variation, which may enhance crop genetic improvement. PMID:26720856

  2. CRISPR-Cas9-assisted recombineering in Lactobacillus reuteri.

    PubMed

    Oh, Jee-Hwan; van Pijkeren, Jan-Peter

    2014-01-01

    Clustered regularly interspaced palindromic repeats (CRISPRs) and the CRISPR-associated (Cas) nuclease protect bacteria and archeae from foreign DNA by site-specific cleavage of incoming DNA. Type-II CRISPR-Cas systems, such as the Streptococcus pyogenes CRISPR-Cas9 system, can be adapted such that Cas9 can be guided to a user-defined site in the chromosome to introduce double-stranded breaks. Here we have developed and optimized CRISPR-Cas9 function in the lactic acid bacterium Lactobacillus reuteri ATCC PTA 6475. We established proof-of-concept showing that CRISPR-Cas9 selection combined with single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) recombineering is a realistic approach to identify at high efficiencies edited cells in a lactic acid bacterium. We show for three independent targets that subtle changes in the bacterial genome can be recovered at efficiencies ranging from 90 to 100%. By combining CRISPR-Cas9 and recombineering, we successfully applied codon saturation mutagenesis in the L. reuteri chromosome. Also, CRISPR-Cas9 selection is critical to identify low-efficiency events such as oligonucleotide-mediated chromosome deletions. This also means that CRISPR-Cas9 selection will allow identification of recombinant cells in bacteria with low recombineering efficiencies, eliminating the need for ssDNA recombineering optimization procedures. We envision that CRISPR-Cas genome editing has the potential to change the landscape of genome editing in lactic acid bacteria, and other Gram-positive bacteria. PMID:25074379

  3. Synonymous and nonsynonymous distances help untangle convergent evolution and recombination.

    PubMed

    Chi, Peter B; Chattopadhyay, Sujay; Lemey, Philippe; Sokurenko, Evgeni V; Minin, Vladimir N

    2015-08-01

    When estimating a phylogeny from a multiple sequence alignment, researchers often assume the absence of recombination. However, if recombination is present, then tree estimation and all downstream analyses will be impacted, because different segments of the sequence alignment support different phylogenies. Similarly, convergent selective pressures at the molecular level can also lead to phylogenetic tree incongruence across the sequence alignment. Current methods for detection of phylogenetic incongruence are not equipped to distinguish between these two different mechanisms and assume that the incongruence is a result of recombination or other horizontal transfer of genetic information. We propose a new recombination detection method that can make this distinction, based on synonymous codon substitution distances. Although some power is lost by discarding the information contained in the nonsynonymous substitutions, our new method has lower false positive probabilities than the comparable recombination detection method when the phylogenetic incongruence signal is due to convergent evolution. We apply our method to three empirical examples, where we analyze: (1) sequences from a transmission network of the human immunodeficiency virus, (2) tlpB gene sequences from a geographically diverse set of 38 Helicobacter pylori strains, and (3) hepatitis C virus sequences sampled longitudinally from one patient. PMID:26061623

  4. Electron-ion Recombination and Photoionization of P II

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nahar, Sultana

    2016-05-01

    Study of the inverse processes of photoionization and electron-ion recombination of P II will be reported. It is a highly reactive ion and has been difficult to detect without detailed information of its interactions. Although a low charged ion, present study shows features in photoionization resulting from relativistic fine structure couplings at low energy region near the ionization threshold of many levels. Unified method under the framework of close coupling approximation and R-matrix method and an extension of Bell and Seaton theory has been used to study the inverse processes. The method gives the level-specific as well as the total recombination rate coefficients which include both the radiative recombination (RR) and dielectronic recombination (DR) in a precise manner. The present results include level specific rates and photoionization cross sections of 475 fine structure levels with n <= 10. Preliminary results on the total recombination rates show considerable interference of RR and DR around 4000 K and a DR peak around 105 K. NSF,DOE,OSC.

  5. Suppression of auger recombination in ""giant"" core/shell nanocrystals

    SciTech Connect

    Garcia Santamaria, Florencio; Vela, Javier; Schaller, Richard D; Hollingsworth, Jennifer A; Klimov, Victor I; Chen, Yongfen

    2009-01-01

    Many potential applications of semiconductor nanocrystals are hindered by nonradiative Auger recombination wherein the electron-hole (exciton) recombination energy is transferred to a third charge carrier. This process severely limits the lifetime and bandwidth of optical gain, leads to large nonradiative losses in light emitting diodes and photovoltaic cells, and is believed to be responsible for intermittency ('blinking') of emission from single nanocrystals. The development of nanostructures in which Auger recombination is suppressed has been a longstanding goal in colloidal nanocrystal research. Here, we demonstrate that such suppression is possible using so-called 'giant' nanocrystals that consist of a small CdSe core and a thick CdS shell. These nanostructures exhibit a very long biexciton lifetime ({approx}10 ns) that is likely dominated by radiative decay instead of non-radiative Auger recombination. As a result of suppressed Auger recombination, even high-order multiexcitons exhibit high emission efficiencies, which allows us to demonstrate optical amplification with an extraordinarily large bandwidth (>500 me V) and record low excitation thresholds.

  6. Epistasis and the selective advantage of sex and recombination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Oliveira, Viviane M.; da Silva, Juliana K.; Campos, Paulo R. A.

    2008-09-01

    The understanding of the central mechanisms favoring sex and recombination in real populations is one of the fundamental issues in evolutionary biology. Based on a previous stochastic formulation for the study of sex, here we aim to investigate the conditions under which epistasis favors the fixation of the sexual mode of reproduction in a given population. In addition, we try to identify the evolutionary forces which contribute to this process. One considers a finite population model which assumes the existence of a recombination modifier allele that can activate the recombination mechanism. We have found that sex is very little favored in a scenario of antagonistic epistasis, and this advantage only occurs in a narrow range of values of the selection coefficient sd . On the other hand, synergistic epistasis favors recombination in a very broad domain. However, the major mechanism contributing to the spreading of the modifier allele depends on the range of values of sd . At large sd , background selection favors recombination since it increases the efficacy of selection, while at low sd Muller’s ratchet is the leading mechanism.

  7. Diversity, Mutation and Recombination Analysis of Cotton Leaf Curl Geminiviruses

    PubMed Central

    Saleem, Huma; Nahid, Nazia; Shakir, Sara; Ijaz, Sehrish; Murtaza, Ghulam; Khan, Asif Ali; Mubin, Muhammad; Nawaz-ul-Rehman, Muhammad Shah

    2016-01-01

    The spread of cotton leaf curl disease in China, India and Pakistan is a recent phenomenon. Analysis of available sequence data determined that there is a substantial diversity of cotton-infecting geminiviruses in Pakistan. Phylogenetic analyses indicated that recombination between two major groups of viruses, cotton leaf curl Multan virus (CLCuMuV) and cotton leaf curl Kokhran virus (CLCuKoV), led to the emergence of several new viruses. Recombination detection programs and phylogenetic analyses showed that CLCuMuV and CLCuKoV are highly recombinant viruses. Indeed, CLCuKoV appeared to be a major donor virus for the coat protein (CP) gene, while CLCuMuV donated the Rep gene in the majority of recombination events. Using recombination free nucleotide datasets the substitution rates for CP and Rep genes were determined. We inferred similar nucleotide substitution rates for the CLCuMuV-Rep gene (4.96X10-4) and CLCuKoV-CP gene (2.706X10-4), whereas relatively higher substitution rates were observed for CLCuMuV-CP and CLCuKoV-Rep genes. The combination of sequences with equal and relatively low substitution rates, seemed to result in the emergence of viral isolates that caused epidemics in Pakistan and India. Our findings also suggest that CLCuMuV is spreading at an alarming rate, which can potentially be a threat to cotton production in the Indian subcontinent. PMID:26963635

  8. Recombination and the maintenance of plant organelle genome stability.

    PubMed

    Maréchal, Alexandre; Brisson, Normand

    2010-04-01

    Like their nuclear counterpart, the plastid and mitochondrial genomes of plants have to be faithfully replicated and repaired to ensure the normal functioning of the plant. Inability to maintain organelle genome stability results in plastid and/or mitochondrial defects, which can lead to potentially detrimental phenotypes. Fortunately, plant organelles have developed multiple strategies to maintain the integrity of their genetic material. Of particular importance among these processes is the extensive use of DNA recombination. In fact, recombination has been implicated in both the replication and the repair of organelle genomes. Revealingly, deregulation of recombination in organelles results in genomic instability, often accompanied by adverse consequences for plant fitness. The recent identification of four families of proteins that prevent aberrant recombination of organelle DNA sheds much needed mechanistic light on this important process. What comes out of these investigations is a partial portrait of the recombination surveillance machinery in which plants have co-opted some proteins of prokaryotic origin but have also evolved whole new factors to keep their organelle genomes intact. These new features presumably optimized the protection of plastid and mitochondrial genomes against the particular genotoxic stresses they face. PMID:20180912

  9. Application of internal standard method in recombinant luminescent bacteria test.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yong-Zhi; Li, Dan; He, Miao

    2015-09-01

    Mercury and its organic compounds have been of severe concern worldwide due to their damage to the ecosystem and human health. The development of effective and affordable technology to monitor and signal the presence of bioavailable mercury is an urgent need. The Mer gene is a mercury-responsive resistant gene, and a mercury-sensing recombinant luminescent bacterium using the Mer gene was constructed in this study. The mer operon from marine Pseudomonas putida strain SP1 was amplified and fused with prompterless luxCDABE in the pUCD615 plasmid within Escherichia coli cells, resulting in pTHE30-E. coli. The recombinant strain showed high sensitivity and specificity. The detection limit of Hg(2+) was 5nmol/L, and distinct luminescence could be detected in 30min. Cd(2+), Cu(2+), Zn(2+), Ca(2+), Pb(2+), Mg(2+), Mn(2+), and Al(3+) did not interfere with the detection over a range of 10(-5)-1mM. Application of recombinant luminescent bacteria testing in environmental samples has been a controversial issue: especially for metal-sensing recombinant strains, false negatives caused by high cytotoxicity are one of the most important issues when applying recombinant luminescent bacteria in biomonitoring of heavy metals. In this study, by establishing an internal standard approach, the false negative problem was overcome; furthermore, the method can also help to estimate the suspected mercury concentration, which ensures high detection sensitivity of bioavailable Hg(2+). PMID:26354701

  10. Recombination spot identification Based on gapped k-mers

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Rong; Xu, Yong; Liu, Bin

    2016-01-01

    Recombination is crucial for biological evolution, which provides many new combinations of genetic diversity. Accurate identification of recombination spots is useful for DNA function study. To improve the prediction accuracy, researchers have proposed several computational methods for recombination spot identification. The k-mer feature is one of the most useful features for modeling the properties and function of DNA sequences. However, it suffers from the inherent limitation. If the value of word length k is large, the occurrences of k-mers are closed to a binary variable, with a few k-mers present once and most k-mers are absent. This usually causes the sparse problem and reduces the classification accuracy. To solve this problem, we add gaps into k-mer and introduce a new feature called gapped k-mer (GKM) for identification of recombination spots. By using this feature, we present a new predictor called SVM-GKM, which combines the gapped k-mers and Support Vector Machine (SVM) for recombination spot identification. Experimental results on a widely used benchmark dataset show that SVM-GKM outperforms other highly related predictors. Therefore, SVM-GKM would be a powerful predictor for computational genomics. PMID:27030570

  11. Novel Heterotypic Rox Sites for Combinatorial Dre Recombination Strategies

    PubMed Central

    Chuang, Katherine; Nguyen, Eileen; Sergeev, Yuri; Badea, Tudor C.

    2015-01-01

    Site-specific recombinases (SSRs) such as Cre are widely used in gene targeting and genetic approaches for cell labeling and manipulation. They mediate DNA strand exchange between two DNA molecules at dedicated recognition sites. Precise understanding of the Cre recombination mechanism, including the role of individual base pairs in its loxP target site, guided the generation of mutant lox sites that specifically recombine with themselves but not with the wild type loxP. This has led to the development of a variety of combinatorial Cre-dependent genetic strategies, such as multicolor reporters, irreversible inversions, or recombination-mediated cassette exchange. Dre, a Cre-related phage integrase that recognizes roxP sites, does not cross-react with the Cre-loxP system, but has similar recombination efficiency. We have previously described intersectional genetic strategies combining Dre and Cre. We now report a mutagenesis screen aimed at identifying roxP base pairs critical for self-recognition. We describe several rox variant sites that are incompatible with roxP, but are able to efficiently recombine with themselves in either purified systems or bacterial and eukaryotic tissue culture systems. These newly identified rox sites are not recognized by Cre, thus enabling potential combinatorial strategies involving Cre, Dre, and target loci including multiple loxP and roxP variants. PMID:26715092

  12. Recombination spot identification Based on gapped k-mers.

    PubMed

    Wang, Rong; Xu, Yong; Liu, Bin

    2016-01-01

    Recombination is crucial for biological evolution, which provides many new combinations of genetic diversity. Accurate identification of recombination spots is useful for DNA function study. To improve the prediction accuracy, researchers have proposed several computational methods for recombination spot identification. The k-mer feature is one of the most useful features for modeling the properties and function of DNA sequences. However, it suffers from the inherent limitation. If the value of word length k is large, the occurrences of k-mers are closed to a binary variable, with a few k-mers present once and most k-mers are absent. This usually causes the sparse problem and reduces the classification accuracy. To solve this problem, we add gaps into k-mer and introduce a new feature called gapped k-mer (GKM) for identification of recombination spots. By using this feature, we present a new predictor called SVM-GKM, which combines the gapped k-mers and Support Vector Machine (SVM) for recombination spot identification. Experimental results on a widely used benchmark dataset show that SVM-GKM outperforms other highly related predictors. Therefore, SVM-GKM would be a powerful predictor for computational genomics. PMID:27030570

  13. Recombination coefficients of O and N radicals on stainless steel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Harmeet; Coburn, J. W.; Graves, David B.

    2000-09-01

    Surface recombination coefficients of O and N radicals in pure O2 and N2 plasmas, respectively, have been estimated on the stainless steel walls of a low-pressure inductively coupled plasma reactor. The recombination coefficients are estimated using a steady state plasma model describing the balance between the volume generation of the radicals from electron-impact dissociation of the parent molecules, and the loss of the radicals due to surface recombination. The model uses radical and parent molecule number densities and the electron energy distribution function (EEDF) as input parameters. We have measured the radical number density using appearance potential mass spectrometry. The parent neutral number density is measured using mass spectrometry. The EEDF is measured using a Langmuir probe. The recombination coefficient of O radicals on stainless steel walls at approximately 330 K is estimated to be 0.17±0.02, and agrees well with previous measurements. The recombination coefficient of N radicals is estimated to be 0.07±0.02 on stainless steel at 330 K.

  14. Recombinant host cells and media for ethanol production

    DOEpatents

    Wood, Brent E; Ingram, Lonnie O; Yomano, Lorraine P; York, Sean W

    2014-02-18

    Disclosed are recombinant host cells suitable for degrading an oligosaccharide that have been optimized for growth and production of high yields of ethanol, and methods of making and using these cells. The invention further provides minimal media comprising urea-like compounds for economical production of ethanol by recombinant microorganisms. Recombinant host cells in accordance with the invention are modified by gene mutation to eliminate genes responsible for the production of unwanted products other than ethanol, thereby increasing the yield of ethanol produced from the oligosaccharides, relative to unmutated parent strains. The new and improved strains of recombinant bacteria are capable of superior ethanol productivity and yield when grown under conditions suitable for fermentation in minimal growth media containing inexpensive reagents. Systems optimized for ethanol production combine a selected optimized minimal medium with a recombinant host cell optimized for use in the selected medium. Preferred systems are suitable for efficient ethanol production by simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) using lignocellulose as an oligosaccharide source. The invention also provides novel isolated polynucleotide sequences, polypeptide sequences, vectors and antibodies.

  15. Enhancing radiotherapy through a greater understanding of homologous recombination

    PubMed Central

    Barker, Christopher A.; Powell, Simon N.

    2016-01-01

    Radiotherapy for the treatment of cancer can cause a wide range of cellular effects, the most biologically potent of which is the double strand break in DNA. The process of repairing DNA double strand breaks involves one of two major mechanisms: non-homologous end-joining or homologous recombination. In this review, we review the molecular mechanisms of homologous recombination, in particular as it relates to the repair of DNA damage from ionizing radiation. We also present specific situations where homologous recombination may be dysfunctional in human cancers, and how this functional abnormality can be recognized. We also discuss the therapeutic opportunities that can be exploited based on deficiencies in homologous recombination at various steps in the DNA repair pathway. Side-by-side with these potential therapeutic opportunities, we review the contemporary clinical trials in which strategies to exploit these defects in homologous recombination can be enhanced by the use of radiotherapy in conjunction with biologically-targeted agents. We conclude that the field of radiation oncology has only scratched the surface of a potentially highly efficacious therapeutic strategy. PMID:20832019

  16. Directed Ig class switch recombination in activated murine B cells.

    PubMed Central

    Winter, E; Krawinkel, U; Radbruch, A

    1987-01-01

    Immunoglobulin class switch recombination occurs at frequencies of up to 10%/cell/generation in activated murine B-lymphocytes. We analysed cH gene rearrangements and switch recombinations from active and inactive IgH loci of B-cells activated in various ways and immortalized by cell fusion. Although about half of the IgM+ cells show rearrangement of c mu genes, the deletion of c mu is a rare event. Half of the IgG3+ and IgG1+ cells show rearrangement of c mu genes on the inactive IgH locus and the other half of the IgG+ cells have deleted c mu from both IgH loci by switch recombination. This recombination is directed to the same switch regions on both IgH loci in 60-80% of all cases. Interleukin 4 may play a critical role in programming murine B-lymphocytes for specific switch recombination. Images Fig. 1. Fig. 2. Fig. 6. PMID:3038529

  17. Auger recombination in InN from first principles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McAllister, Andrew; Kioupakis, Emmanouil

    Group-III Nitride materials are used in numerous electronic and optoelectronic devices including solid-state lighting, energy conversion, sensor technologies, and high-power electronics. Indium nitride in particular is interesting for fast electronics and optoelectronics in the infrared. Auger recombination is a non-radiative carrier recombination process that would limit the efficiency of these devices. The small band gap (0.7 eV) and the high intrinsic free-electron concentrations in InN possibly make Auger recombination particularly important in this material. We used first-principles computational methods to determine the Auger recombination rates in InN. Our results suggest that direct Auger recombination is dominant in this material and that phonon-assisted Auger processes are not as important as in wider-gap nitrides such as GaN. This research was supported by the National Science Foundation CAREER award through Grant No. DMR-1254314. Computational resources were provided by the DOE NERSC facility.

  18. Replication-Associated Recombinational Repair: Lessons from Budding Yeast

    PubMed Central

    Bonner, Jaclyn N.; Zhao, Xiaolan

    2016-01-01

    Recombinational repair processes multiple types of DNA lesions. Though best understood in the repair of DNA breaks, recombinational repair is intimately linked to other situations encountered during replication. As DNA strands are decorated with many types of blocks that impede the replication machinery, a great number of genomic regions cannot be duplicated without the help of recombinational repair. This replication-associated recombinational repair employs both the core recombination proteins used for DNA break repair and the specialized factors that couple replication with repair. Studies from multiple organisms have provided insights into the roles of these specialized factors, with the findings in budding yeast being advanced through use of powerful genetics and methods for detecting DNA replication and repair intermediates. In this review, we summarize recent progress made in this organism, ranging from our understanding of the classical template switch mechanisms to gap filling and replication fork regression pathways. As many of the protein factors and biological principles uncovered in budding yeast are conserved in higher eukaryotes, these findings are crucial for stimulating studies in more complex organisms. PMID:27548223

  19. Recombination shapes the structure of an environmental Vibrio cholerae population.

    PubMed

    Keymer, Daniel P; Boehm, Alexandria B

    2011-01-01

    Vibrio cholerae consists of pathogenic strains that cause sporadic gastrointestinal illness or epidemic cholera disease and nonpathogenic strains that grow and persist in coastal aquatic ecosystems. Previous studies of disease-causing strains have shown V. cholerae to be a primarily clonal bacterial species, but isolates analyzed have been strongly biased toward pathogenic genotypes, while representing only a small sample of the vast diversity in environmental strains. In this study, we characterized homologous recombination and structure among 152 environmental V. cholerae isolates and 13 other putative Vibrio isolates from coastal waters and sediments in central California, as well as four clinical V. cholerae isolates, using multilocus sequence analysis of seven housekeeping genes. Recombinant regions were identified by at least three detection methods in 72% of our V. cholerae isolates. Despite frequent recombination, significant linkage disequilibrium was still detected among the V. cholerae sequence types. Incongruent but nonrandom associations were observed for maximum likelihood topologies from the individual loci. Overall, our estimated recombination rate in V. cholerae of 6.5 times the mutation rate is similar to those of other sexual bacteria and appears frequently enough to restrict selection from purging much of the neutral intraspecies diversity. These data suggest that frequent recombination among V. cholerae may hinder the identification of ecotypes in this bacterioplankton population. PMID:21075874

  20. Systemic delivery of recombinant proteins by genetically modified myoblasts

    SciTech Connect

    Barr, E.; Leiden, J.M. )

    1991-12-06

    The ability to stably deliver recombinant proteins to the systemic circulation would facilitate the treatment of a variety of acquired and inherited diseases. To explore the feasibility of the use of genetically engineered myoblasts as a recombinant protein delivery system, stable transfectants of the murine C2C12 myoblast cell line were produced that synthesize and secrete high levels of human growth hormone (hGH) in vitro. Mice injected with hGH-transfected myoblasts had significant levels of hGH in both muscle and serum that were stable for at least 3 weeks after injection. Histological examination of muscles injected with {beta}-galactosidase-expressing C2C12 myoblasts demonstrated that many of the injected cells had fused to form multinucleated myotubes. Thus, genetically engineered myoblasts can be used for the stable delivery of recombinant proteins into the circulation.