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Sample records for recombinant plasmid piresegr-ifn

  1. Genetic recombination of bacterial plasmid DNA: effect of RecF pathway mutations on plasmid recombination in Escherichia coli.

    PubMed Central

    Kolodner, R; Fishel, R A; Howard, M

    1985-01-01

    Tn5 insertion mutations in the recN gene, and in what appears to be a new RecF pathway gene designated recO and mapping at approximately 55.4 min on the standard genetic map, were isolated by screening Tn5 insertion mutations that cotransduced with tyrA. The recO1504::Tn5 mutation decreased the frequency of recombination during Hfr-mediated crosses and increased the susceptibility to killing by UV irradiation and mitomycin C when present in a recB recC sbcB background, but only increased the sensitivity to killing by UV irradiation when present in an otherwise Rec+ background. The effects of these and other RecF pathway mutations on plasmid recombination were tested. Mutations in the recJ, recO, and ssb genes, when present in otherwise Rec+ E. coli strains, decreased the frequency of plasmid recombination, whereas the lexA3, recAo281, recN, and ruv mutations had no effect on plasmid recombination. Tn5 insertion mutations in the lexA gene increased the frequency of plasmid recombination. These data indicate that plasmid recombination events in wild-type Escherichia coli strains are catalyzed by a recombination pathway that is related to the RecF recombination pathway and that some component of this pathway besides the recA gene product is regulated by the lexA gene product. PMID:2993230

  2. Isolation and screening of plasmids from the epilithon which mobilize recombinant plasmid pD10.

    PubMed Central

    Hill, K E; Weightman, A J; Fry, J C

    1992-01-01

    This study examined the potential of bacteria from river epilithon to mobilize a recombinant catabolic plasmid, pD10, encoding 3-chlorobenzoate degradation and kanamycin resistance. Fifty-four mobilizing plasmids were exogenously isolated by triparental matings between strains of Pseudomonas putida and epilithic bacteria from the River Taff (South Wales, United Kingdom). Frequencies for mobilization ranged from 1.7 x 10(-8) to 4.5 x 10(-3) per recipient at 20 degrees C. The sizes of the mobilizing plasmids isolated ranged from 40 kb to over 200 kb, and 19 of 54 were found to encode mercury resistance. Plasmid-encoded resistance to tetracycline and streptomycin was also found but not resistance to UV light or various heavy metals. Eight plasmids of epilithic bacteria, analyzed by comparing restriction fragmentation patterns, showed significant differences between those isolated from different independent matings. Optimal temperatures for mobilization of pD10 were between 15 and 25 degrees C. Four mercury resistance plasmids were found to be broad host range, transferring mercury resistance and mobilizing pD10 readily to representative species of beta- and gamma-purple bacteria. In general, frequencies of pD10 mobilization by plasmids of epilithic bacteria were 2 to 3 orders of magnitude lower than conjugal transfer frequencies. Thus, there is a high potential for exchange of recombinant genes introduced into the epilithon by mobilization between a variety of bacterial species. Images PMID:1599248

  3. Plasmid-Chromosome Recombination of Irradiated Shuttle Vector DNA in African Green Monkey Kidney Cells.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mudgett, John Stuart

    1987-09-01

    An autonomously replicating shuttle vector was used to investigate the enhancement of plasmid-chromosome recombination in mammalian host cells by ultraviolet light and gamma radiation. Sequences homologous to the shuttle vector were stably inserted into the genome of African Green Monkey kidney cells to act as the target substrate for these recombination events. The SV40- and pBR322-derived plasmid DNA was irradiated with various doses of radiation before transfection into the transformed mammalian host cells. The successful homologous transfer of the bacterial ampicillin resistance (amp^{rm r}) gene from the inserted sequences to replace a mutant amp^->=ne on the shuttle vector was identified by plasmid extraction and transformation into E. coli host cells. Ultraviolet light (UV) was found not to induce homologous plasmid-chromosome recombination, while gamma radiation increased the frequency of recombinant plasmids detected. The introduction of specific double -strand breaks in the plasmid or prolonging the time of plasmid residence in the mammalian host cells also enhanced plasmid-chromosome recombination. In contrast, plasmid mutagenesis was found to be increased by plasmid UV irradiation, but not to change with time. Plasmid survival, recombination, and mutagenesis were not affected by treating the mammalian host cells with UV light prior to plasmid transfection. The amp^{rm r} recombinant plasmid molecules analyzed were found to be mostly the result of nonconservative exchanges which appeared to involve both homologous and possibly nonhomologous interactions with the host chromosome. The observation that these recombinant structures were obtained from all of the plasmid alterations investigated suggests a common mechanistic origin for plasmid -chromosome recombination in these mammalian cells.

  4. Construction of pBR322-ara hybrid plasmids by in vivo recombination.

    PubMed

    Horwitz, A H; Heffernan, L; Cass, L; Miyada, C G; Wilcox, G

    1980-01-01

    In vivo recombination was used to clone deletions of the araBAD-araC genes of Escherichia coli onto a hybrid pBR322-ara plasmid. Genetic and physical analyses demonstrated that the desired deletions had been recombined onto the plasmid. In addition to permitting a detailed physical analysis of various ara deletions, this procedure has generated a series of plasmid cloning vehicles that can be used to clone, by in vivo recombination, any ara point mutation located within the region covered by the deletions. Hybrid plasmids containing the cloned point mutation can be distinguished from the original cloning vehicle by genetic complementation. The desired recombinant plasmid can be easily obtained because the frequency of recombination between the plasmid ara region and the chromosomal ara region is 0.025%--3%. A plasmid containing a deletion which removes the ara controlling site region and the araC gene was used to clone two types of araBAD promoter mutations and an araC mutation by in vivo recombination. Genetic and physical analysis of these plasmids established that the mutations in question had been recombined on to the ara deletion plasmid. The application of this procedure to the ara genes and to other genetic systems is discussed. PMID:6255287

  5. Recombination between bacteriophage lambda and plasmid pBR322 in Escherichia coli.

    PubMed Central

    Pogue-Geile, K L; Dassarma, S; King, S R; Jaskunas, S R

    1980-01-01

    Recombinant lambda phages were isolated that resulted from recombination between the lambda genome and plasmid pBR322 in Escherichia coli, even though these deoxyribonucleic acids (DNAs) did not share extensive regions of homology. The characterization of these recombinant DNAs by heteroduplex analysis and restriction endonucleases is described. All but one of the recombinants appeared to have resulted from reciprocal recombination between a site on lambda DNA and a site on the plasmid. In general, there were two classes of recombinants. One class appeared to have resulted from recombination at the phage attachment site that probably resulted from lambda integration into secondary attachment sites on the plasmid. Seven different secondary attachment sites on pBR322 were found. The other class resulted from plasmid integration at other sites that were widely scattered on the lambda genome. For this second class of recombinants, more than one site on the plasmid could recombine with lambda DNA. Thus, the recombination did not appear to be site specific with respect to lambda or the plasmid. Possible mechanisms for generating these recombinants are discussed. Images PMID:6247334

  6. Molecular and population analyses of a recombination event in the catabolic plasmid pJP4.

    PubMed

    Larraín-Linton, Juanita; De la Iglesia, Rodrigo; Melo, Francisco; González, Bernardo

    2006-10-01

    Cupriavidus necator JMP134(pJP4) harbors a catabolic plasmid, pJP4, which confers the ability to grow on chloroaromatic compounds. Repeated growth on 3-chlorobenzoate (3-CB) results in selection of a recombinant strain, which degrades 3-CB better but no longer grows on 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetate (2,4-D). We have previously proposed that this phenotype is due to a double homologous recombination event between inverted repeats of the multicopies of this plasmid within the cell. One recombinant form of this plasmid (pJP4-F3) explains this phenotype, since it harbors two copies of the chlorocatechol degradation tfd gene clusters, which are essential to grow on 3-CB, but has lost the tfdA gene, encoding the first step in degradation of 2,4-D. The other recombinant plasmid (pJP4-FM) should harbor two copies of the tfdA gene but no copies of the tfd gene clusters. A molecular analysis using a multiplex PCR approach to distinguish the wild-type plasmid pJP4 from its two recombinant forms, was carried out. Expected PCR products confirming this recombination model were found and sequenced. Few recombinant plasmid forms in cultures grown in several carbon sources were detected. Kinetic studies indicated that cells containing the recombinant plasmid pJP4-FM were not selectable by sole carbon source growth pressure, whereas those cells harboring recombinant plasmid pJP4-F3 were selected upon growth on 3-CB. After 12 days of repeated growth on 3-CB, the complete plasmid population in C. necator JMP134 apparently corresponds to this form. However, wild-type plasmid forms could be recovered after growing this culture on 2,4-D, indicating that different plasmid forms can be found in C. necator JMP134 at the population level. PMID:16980481

  7. Polar Fixation of Plasmids during Recombinant Protein Production in Bacillus megaterium Results in Population Heterogeneity.

    PubMed

    Münch, Karin M; Müller, Johannes; Wienecke, Sarah; Bergmann, Simone; Heyber, Steffi; Biedendieck, Rebekka; Münch, Richard; Jahn, Dieter

    2015-09-01

    During the past 2 decades, Bacillus megaterium has been systematically developed for the gram-per-liter scale production of recombinant proteins. The plasmid-based expression systems employed use a xylose-controlled promoter. Protein production analyses at the single-cell level using green fluorescent protein as a model product revealed cell culture heterogeneity characterized by a significant proportion of less productive bacteria. Due to the enormous size of B. megaterium, such bistable behavior seen in subpopulations was readily analyzed by time lapse microscopy and flow cytometry. Cell culture heterogeneity was not caused simply by plasmid loss: instead, an asymmetric distribution of plasmids during cell division was detected during the exponential-growth phase. Multicopy plasmids are generally randomly distributed between daughter cells. However, in vivo and in vitro experiments demonstrated that under conditions of strong protein production, plasmids are retained at one of the cell poles. Furthermore, it was found that cells with accumulated plasmids and high protein production ceased cell division. As a consequence, the overall protein production of the culture was achieved mainly by the subpopulation with a sufficient plasmid copy number. Based on our experimental data, we propose a model whereby the distribution of multicopy plasmids is controlled by polar fixation under protein production conditions. Thereby, cell lines with fluctuating plasmid abundance arise, which results in population heterogeneity. Our results provide initial insights into the mechanism of cellular heterogeneity during plasmid-based recombinant protein production in a Bacillus species. PMID:26116677

  8. Polar Fixation of Plasmids during Recombinant Protein Production in Bacillus megaterium Results in Population Heterogeneity

    PubMed Central

    Münch, Karin M.; Müller, Johannes; Wienecke, Sarah; Bergmann, Simone; Heyber, Steffi; Biedendieck, Rebekka; Jahn, Dieter

    2015-01-01

    During the past 2 decades, Bacillus megaterium has been systematically developed for the gram-per-liter scale production of recombinant proteins. The plasmid-based expression systems employed use a xylose-controlled promoter. Protein production analyses at the single-cell level using green fluorescent protein as a model product revealed cell culture heterogeneity characterized by a significant proportion of less productive bacteria. Due to the enormous size of B. megaterium, such bistable behavior seen in subpopulations was readily analyzed by time lapse microscopy and flow cytometry. Cell culture heterogeneity was not caused simply by plasmid loss: instead, an asymmetric distribution of plasmids during cell division was detected during the exponential-growth phase. Multicopy plasmids are generally randomly distributed between daughter cells. However, in vivo and in vitro experiments demonstrated that under conditions of strong protein production, plasmids are retained at one of the cell poles. Furthermore, it was found that cells with accumulated plasmids and high protein production ceased cell division. As a consequence, the overall protein production of the culture was achieved mainly by the subpopulation with a sufficient plasmid copy number. Based on our experimental data, we propose a model whereby the distribution of multicopy plasmids is controlled by polar fixation under protein production conditions. Thereby, cell lines with fluctuating plasmid abundance arise, which results in population heterogeneity. Our results provide initial insights into the mechanism of cellular heterogeneity during plasmid-based recombinant protein production in a Bacillus species. PMID:26116677

  9. Gene A protein cleavage of recombinant plasmids containing the phi X174 replication origin.

    PubMed Central

    Fluit, A C; Baas, P D; Van Boom, J H; Veeneman, G H; Jansz, H S

    1984-01-01

    Synthetic oligonucleotides, DNA ligase and DNA polymerase were used to construct double-stranded DNA fragments homologous to the first 25, 27 or 30 b.p. of the origin of replication of bacteriophage phi X174 (nucleotides 4299-4328 of the phi X174 DNA sequence). The double-stranded DNA fragments were cloned into the unique SmaI or HindIII restriction sites in the kanamycin-resistance gene of pACYC177 (AmpR, KmR). Recombinant plasmids were picked up by colony hybridization. DNA sequencing showed that not only recombinant plasmids with the expected insert were formed, but also recombinant plasmids with a shorter insert. Recombinant plasmids with an insert homologous to the first 24, 25, 26, 27, 28 or all 30 b.p. of the phi X174 origin region were thus obtained. Supercoiled plasmids containing a sequence homologous to the first 27, 28 or 30 b.p. of the phi X174 origin region are nicked by the phi X174 gene A protein. However, the other supercoiled plasmids are not nicked by the phi X174 gene A protein. These results show that the first 27 b.p. of the phi X174 origin region are sufficient as well as required for the initiation step in phi X174 RF DNA replication, i.e. the cleavage by gene A protein. Images PMID:6236428

  10. Survival in soils of an herbicide-resistant Pseudomonas putida strain bearing a recombinant TOL plasmid

    SciTech Connect

    Ramos, J.L.; Duque, E.; Ramos-Gonzalez, M.-I. )

    1991-01-01

    Pseudomonas putida EEZ15(pWW0-EB62) is a phosphinothricin (PPT)-resistant strain with a recombinant TOL plasmid which allows the strain to grown on p-ethylbenzoate. The survival of this strain in sterile agricultural soils depends on the physicochemical properties of the soil. The recombinant pWW0-EB62 plasmid and its catabolic functions were stable for periods of up to 1 month in bacteria introduced in unamended soils and only conferred selective advantage to the host bacteria without the plasmid or with the natural pWW0 plasmid when the soils were amended with low amounts of p-ethylbenzoate. The addition to soils of aromatics that are cometabolized by P. putida EEZ15(pWW0-EB62) had a detrimental effect on the survival of the bacteria, whereas low amounts of aromatics that are not metabolized by this bacterium had no effect on their survival. Survival of P. putida EEZ15(pWW0-EB62) was better at 4 and 25{degree}C than at 37{degree}C. The host bacterium carrying the recombinant pWW0-EB62 plasmid was established in unsterile soils.

  11. Chromatin structure of simian virus 40-pBR322 recombinant plasmids in COS-1 cells

    SciTech Connect

    Innis, J.W.; Scott, W.A.

    1983-12-01

    To study the nucleoprotein structure formed by recombinant plasmid DNA in mammalian cells, nuclei were isolated from COS-1 cells after transfection with a recombinant (pJI1) containing pBR322 sequences and a segment of simian virus 40 containing information for a nuclease-sensitive chromatin structure. The nuclei were incubated with DNase I. DNA fragments which were the size of linear pJI1 DNA were isolated, redigested with restriction enzymes, fractionated by electrophoresis, and detected by hybridization with nick-translated segments prepared from the plasmid DNA. Two DNase I-sensitive sites were detected in the simian virus 40 portion of the plasmid at the same sites that were DNase I sensitive in simian virus 40 chromatin prepared late after infection of African green monkey kidney (BSC-1) cells. One site extended from the viral origin of replication to approximately nucleotide 40. The 21-base pair repeated sequences were relatively DNase I resistant. A second site occurred over the single copy of hte 72-base pair segment present in this plasmid. These results indicate that the nuclease-sensitive chromatin structure does not depend on the presence of viral structural proteins. In addition, late viral proteins added to PJI1-transfected COS-1 cells by superinfection with simian virus 40 caused no change in the distribution of DNase I-sensitive sites in plasmid chromatin. Analysis of transfected plasmid DNA may provide a general method applicable to the study of the chromatin structure of cloned segments of DNA.

  12. FATE IN SOIL OF A RECOMBINANT PLASMID CARRYING A 'DROSOPHILA' GENE

    EPA Science Inventory

    A recombinant plasmid (C357;3.5 Mdal) containing heterologous DNA(pBR322(2.6 Mdal) with cDNA for an egg yolk protein from Drosophila grimshawi) in Escherichia coli strain HB 101 survived in and was recovered on selective media from sterile and nonsterile soil during 27 days at fr...

  13. Accurate modification of a chromosomal plasmid by homologous recombination in human cells

    SciTech Connect

    Song, K.Y.; Schwartz, F.; Maeda, N.; Smithies, O.; Kucherlapati, R.

    1987-10-01

    The authors have examined the consequences of modifying mammalian cellular DAN sequences by homologous recombination. A plasmid carrying a 248-base-pair deletion in the neomycin phosphotransferase (neo) gene was introduced into hamster and human cells. The integrated, defective neo gene was used as a target for modification by a second round of transfection with a plasmid carrying a different (283-base-pair) deletion in the neo gene. Recombinants resulting in an intact neo gene were selected by their G418 resistance phenotype. The best ratio of homologous to nonhomologous recombination events was about 1:80. Analysis of the functional neo genes in various independent cell lines establish that simple crossovers (single and double) generated the wild-type neo genes.

  14. Construction of a recombinant bacterial plasmid containing DNA sequences for a mouse embryonic globin chain.

    PubMed

    Fantoni, A; Bozzoni, I; Ullu, E; Farace, M G

    1979-08-10

    Messenger RNAs for mouse embryonic globins were purified from yolk sac derived eyrthroid cells in mouse fetuses. Double stranded DNAs complementary to these messengers were synthesized and blunt end ligated to a EcoRI digested and DNA polymerase I repaired pBR322 plasmid. Of the ampicillin resistant transformants, one contained a plasmid with globin-specific cDNA. The inserted sequence is about 350 base pairs long. It contains one restriction site for EcoRI and one restriction site for HinfI about 170 and 80 base pairs from one end. The insert is not cleaved by HindIII, HindII, BamHI, PstI, SalI, AvaI, TaqI, HpaII, BglI. A mixture of purified messengers coding for alpha chains and for x, y and z embryonic chains was incubated with the recombinant plasmid and the hybridized messenger was translated in a mRNA depleted reticulocyte lysate protein synthesizing system. The product of translation was identified as a z chain by carboxymethylcellulose cromatography. The recombinant plasmid is named "pBR322-egz" after embryonic globin z. PMID:493112

  15. Construction of a recombinant bacterial plasmid containing DNA sequences for a mouse embryonic globin chain.

    PubMed Central

    Fantoni, A; Bozzoni, I; Ullu, E; Farace, M G

    1979-01-01

    Messenger RNAs for mouse embryonic globins were purified from yolk sac derived eyrthroid cells in mouse fetuses. Double stranded DNAs complementary to these messengers were synthesized and blunt end ligated to a EcoRI digested and DNA polymerase I repaired pBR322 plasmid. Of the ampicillin resistant transformants, one contained a plasmid with globin-specific cDNA. The inserted sequence is about 350 base pairs long. It contains one restriction site for EcoRI and one restriction site for HinfI about 170 and 80 base pairs from one end. The insert is not cleaved by HindIII, HindII, BamHI, PstI, SalI, AvaI, TaqI, HpaII, BglI. A mixture of purified messengers coding for alpha chains and for x, y and z embryonic chains was incubated with the recombinant plasmid and the hybridized messenger was translated in a mRNA depleted reticulocyte lysate protein synthesizing system. The product of translation was identified as a z chain by carboxymethylcellulose cromatography. The recombinant plasmid is named "pBR322-egz" after embryonic globin z. Images PMID:493112

  16. Construtcion of Neisseria gonorrhoeae porin B plasmid recombinant and its expression in E. coli.

    PubMed

    Song, Qifa; Liao, Fang; Ye, Siying; Cui, Bing; Xiong, Ping

    2005-01-01

    A prokaryotic expression recombinant plasmid pET-PIB to express porin B (PIB) of Neisseria gonorrhoeae in E. coli DE3 was constructed in order to provide a basis of research in detection, prophylactic and therapeutic vaccine against the pathogen infection. The gene encoding PIB was amplified by PCR from Neisseria gonorrhoeae and cloned into prokaryotic expression plasmid pET-28a(+) to construct a pET-PIB recombinant, which was verified by restriction endonuclease and DNA sequencing. Protein PIB was expressed in E. coli DE3 induced with IPTG. The antigenicity of the expressed protein was evaluated by indirect ELISA. Rabbits were immunized with the protein and serum was collected after immunization. To assess the immunogenicity of the protein, the titer of serum to protein PIB was determined by ELISA. DNA sequence analysis showed that the nucleic acid sequence of PIB gene was 99.28% of homology compared with that (NGPIB18) published in GenBank. A 41 kD fused protein was detected by SDS-PAGE and was proven to have reactivity with anti-PIB polyclonal antibody from mouse. A polyclonal antibody to PIB of 1:4000 titer determined by indirect EISA was obtained from rabbit immunized with the purified product. Recombinant plasmid encoding PIB of Neisseria gonorrhoeae was constructed. Protein PIB with antigenicity and immunogenicity was successfully expressed. PMID:16201262

  17. Characterization of a Pasteurella multocida plasmid and its use to express recombinant proteins in P. multocida.

    PubMed

    Wright, C L; Strugnell, R A; Hodgson, A L

    1997-01-01

    The complete nucleotide sequence of a naturally occurring 5.36-kb streptomycin and sulphonamide resistance plasmid, designated pIG1, isolated from type D Pasteurella multocida was determined. A 1.6-kb noncoding region and a 1.4-kb region encoding three putative proteins were shown by sequence homologies and functional characterizations to be involved in the replication and mobilization of pIG1, respectively. The remaining sequence carried an unusual arrangement of streptomycin- and sulphonamide-resistant genes when compared to various other plasmids. It appears that the antibiotic resistance region of pIG1 may have evolved by recombination between three different short direct repeat DNA sequences. A 4.5-kb recombinant plasmid was constructed by replacing the antibiotic resistance genes of pIG1 with a kanamycin resistance gene and seven unique restriction sites. The resulting plasmid, designated pIG112, stably replicates in P. multocida, Pasteurella haemolytica, Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae, and Escherichia coli and can be introduced into these organisms by either transformation or conjugation. This vector exists at approximately 70 copies per cell in P. multocida and approximately 20 copies per cell in E. coli. To demonstrate plasmid-borne gene expression in P. multocida, the P. multocida dermonecrotic toxin gene, toxA, and a genetically modified form of this gene were cloned into pIG112 and expressed in high amounts in a nontoxigenic P. multocida strain. Cell culture assays demonstrated that nontoxigenic P. multocida expressing toxA was cytopathic, whereas a strain expressing the modified toxA derivative was not. PMID:9073583

  18. Use of FabV-Triclosan Plasmid Selection System for Efficient Expression and Production of Recombinant Proteins in Escherichia coli

    PubMed Central

    Ali, Syed A.; Chew, Yik Wei; Omar, Tasyriq Che; Azman, Nizuwan

    2015-01-01

    Maintenance of recombinant plasmid vectors in host bacteria relies on the presence of selection antibiotics in the growth media to suppress plasmid -free segregants. However, presence of antibiotic resistance genes and antibiotics themselves is not acceptable in several applications of biotechnology. Previously, we have shown that FabV-Triclosan selection system can be used to select high and medium copy number plasmid vectors in E. coli. Here, we have extended our previous work and demonstrated that expression vectors containing FabV can be used efficiently to express heterologous recombinant proteins in similar or better amounts in E. coli host when compared with expression vectors containing β-lactamase. Use of small amount of non-antibiotic Triclosan as selection agent in growth medium, enhanced plasmid stability, applicability in various culture media, and compatibility with other selection systems for multiple plasmid maintenance are noteworthy features of FabV-Triclosan selection system. PMID:26642325

  19. Use of FabV-Triclosan Plasmid Selection System for Efficient Expression and Production of Recombinant Proteins in Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Ali, Syed A; Chew, Yik Wei; Omar, Tasyriq Che; Azman, Nizuwan

    2015-01-01

    Maintenance of recombinant plasmid vectors in host bacteria relies on the presence of selection antibiotics in the growth media to suppress plasmid -free segregants. However, presence of antibiotic resistance genes and antibiotics themselves is not acceptable in several applications of biotechnology. Previously, we have shown that FabV-Triclosan selection system can be used to select high and medium copy number plasmid vectors in E. coli. Here, we have extended our previous work and demonstrated that expression vectors containing FabV can be used efficiently to express heterologous recombinant proteins in similar or better amounts in E. coli host when compared with expression vectors containing β-lactamase. Use of small amount of non-antibiotic Triclosan as selection agent in growth medium, enhanced plasmid stability, applicability in various culture media, and compatibility with other selection systems for multiple plasmid maintenance are noteworthy features of FabV-Triclosan selection system. PMID:26642325

  20. Complex in vivo Ligation Using Homologous Recombination and High-efficiency Plasmid Rescue from Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    PubMed Central

    Finnigan, Gregory C.; Thorner, Jeremy

    2015-01-01

    The protocols presented here allow for the facile generation of a wide variety of complex multipart DNA constructs (tagged gene products, gene fusions, chimeric proteins, and other variants) using homologous recombination and in vivo ligation in budding yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae). This method is straightforward, efficient and cost-effective, and can be used both for vector creation and for subsequent one-step, high frequency integration into a chromosomal locus in yeast. The procedure utilizes PCR with extended oligonucleotide “tails” of homology between multiple fragments to allow for reassembly in yeast in a single transformation followed by a method for highly efficient plasmid extraction from yeast (for transformation into bacteria). The latter is an improvement on existing methods of yeast plasmid extraction, which, historically, has been a limiting step in recovery of desired constructs. We describe the utility and convenience of our techniques, and provide several examples. PMID:26523287

  1. DNA synthesis in yeast cell-free extracts dependent on recombinant DNA plasmids purified from Escherichia coli.

    PubMed Central

    Jong, A Y; Scott, J F

    1985-01-01

    In our attempts to establish a cell-free DNA replication system for the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, we have observed that recombinant DNA plasmids purified from Escherichia coli by a common procedure (lysozyme-detergent lysis and equilibrium banding in cesium chloride ethidium bromide gradients) often serve as templates for DNA synthesis by elongation enzymes. The templates could be elongated equally well by enzymes present in the yeast cell-free extracts, by the large proteolytic fragment of E. coli DNA polymerase I or by T4 DNA polymerase. The template activity of the purified plasmids was dependent on the presence of heterologous DNA segments in the bacterial vectors. The template activity could be diminished by treatment with alkali. We propose that the ability of recombinant plasmids isolated from bacterial hosts to serve as elongation templates may lead to erroneous conclusions when these plasmids are used as templates for in vitro replication or transcription reactions. Images PMID:3889851

  2. Construction of the recombinant broad-host-range plasmids providing their bacterial hosts arsenic resistance and arsenite oxidation ability.

    PubMed

    Drewniak, Lukasz; Ciezkowska, Martyna; Radlinska, Monika; Sklodowska, Aleksandra

    2015-02-20

    The plasmid pSinA of Sinorhizobium sp. M14 was used as a source of functional phenotypic modules, encoding proteins involved in arsenite oxidation and arsenic resistance, to obtain recombinant broad-host-range plasmids providing their bacterial hosts arsenic resistance and arsenite oxidative ability. An arsenite oxidation module was cloned into pBBR1MCS-2 vector yielding plasmid vector pAIO1, while an arsenic resistance module was cloned into pCM62 vector yielding plasmid pARS1. Both plasmid constructs were introduced (separately and together) into the cells of phylogenetically distant (representing Alpha-, Beta-, and Gammaproteobacteria) and physiologically diversified (unable to oxidize arsenite and susceptible/resistant to arsenite and arsenate) bacteria. Functional analysis of the modified strains showed that: (i) the plasmid pARS1 can be used for the construction of strains with an increased resistance to arsenite [up to 20mM of As(III), (ii) the presence of the plasmid pAIO1 in bacteria previously unable to oxidize As(III) to As(V), contributes to the acquisition of arsenite oxidation abilities by these cells, (iii) the highest arsenite utilization rate are observed in the culture of strains harbouring both the plasmids pAIO1 and pARS1, (iv) the strains harbouring the plasmid pAIO1 were able to grow on arsenic-contaminated mine waters (∼ 3.0 mg As L(-1)) without any supplementation. PMID:25617684

  3. Influence of Different Functional Elements of Plasmid pGT232 on Maintenance of Recombinant Plasmids in Lactobacillus reuteri Populations In Vitro and In Vivo

    PubMed Central

    Heng, Nicholas C. K.; Bateup, Judith M.; Loach, Diane M.; Wu, Xiyang; Jenkinson, Howard F.; Morrison, Mark; Tannock, Gerald W.

    1999-01-01

    Plasmid pGT232 (5.1 kb), an indigenous plasmid of Lactobacillus reuteri 100-23, was determined, on the basis of nucleotide and deduced protein sequence data, to belong to the pC194-pUB110 family of plasmids that replicate via the rolling-circle mechanism. The minimal replicon of pGT232 was located on a 1.7-kb sequence consisting of a double-strand origin of replication and a gene encoding the replication initiation protein, repA. An erythromycin-selectable recombinant plasmid containing this minimal replicon was stably maintained (>97% erythromycin-resistant cells) without antibiotic selection in an L. reuteri population under laboratory growth conditions but was poorly maintained (<33% resistant cells) in the L. reuteri population inhabiting the murine gastrointestinal tract. Stable maintenance (>90% resistant cells) of pGT232-derived plasmids in the lactobacillus population in vivo required an additional 1.0-kb sequence which contained a putative single-strand replication origin (SSO). The SSO of pGT232 is believed to be novel and functions in an orientation-specific manner. PMID:10583992

  4. Recombinant goose-type lysozyme in channel catfish: lysozyme activity and efficacy as plasmid DNA immunostimulant against Aeromonas hydrophila infection

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objectives of this study were: 1) to investigate whether recombinant channel catfish lysozyme g (CC-Lys-g) produced in E. coli expression system possesses any lysozyme activity; and 2) to evaluate whether channel catfish lysozyme g plasmid DNA could be used as an immunostimulant to protect chann...

  5. Recombinant goose-type lysozyme in channel catfish: Lysozyme activity and efficacy as plasmid DNA immunostimulant against Aeromonas hydrophila infection

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objectives of this study were: 1) to investigate whether recombinant channel catfish lysozyme g (CC-Lys-g) produced in E. coli expression system possesses any lysozyme activity; and 2) to evaluate whether channel catfish lysozyme g plasmid DNA could be used as an immunostimulant to protect chann...

  6. Recombination of a 3-chlorobenzoate catabolic plasmid from Alcaligenes eutrophus NH9 mediated by direct repeat elements.

    PubMed

    Ogawa, N; Miyashita, K

    1995-11-01

    Alcaligenes eutrophus NH9 was isolated from soil. This strain can utilize 3-chlorobenzoate (3-CB) as a sole source of carbon and energy. Most of the 3-CB-negative segregants had lost one of the plasmids present in the parent strain. The genes for catabolism of 3-CB were located within a 9.2-kb SacI fragment of this plasmid (pENH91). The genes were found to hybridize with genes for components of the modified ortho cleavage pathway from Pseudomonas putida. In one of the 3-CB-negative segregants, the plasmid had undergone the deletion of a segment with a size of about 12.5 kb that covered the catabolic genes. The deletion event seemed to be the result of reciprocal recombination between two highly homologous sequences with sizes of 2.5 kb that were present as a direct repeat at the two ends of the region that included the catabolic genes. Nucleotide sequence analysis of homologous fragments revealed a structure that resembled an insertion sequence and relatedness to IS21. During repeated subculturing of NH9 on liquid media with 3-CB, the culture was taken over by a derivative strain (designated NH9A) in which the degradative plasmid carried a duplicate copy of the 12.5-kb region that contained the catabolic genes. The duplication of these genes seemed again to have been mediated by recombination between the direct repeat sequences. PMID:8526487

  7. IS2-mediated re-arrangement of the promoter sequence suppresses metabolic burden of the recombinant plasmid.

    PubMed

    Valesová, R; Stepánek, V; Vecerek, B; Kyslík, P

    2005-01-01

    Recombinant plasmid pKA18 of the high expression bacterial system for penicillin amidase ('penicillin G acylase') bears the 3' end region of IS2 element. The IS2 sequence replaces the -35 region of promoter of pga and extends up to TAGTAT box at position -10 of the promoter region. It therefore forms a hybrid promoter of pga ppgaHT. A natural promoter ppgaWT was not detected on any recombinant plasmid isolated from recombinant strains of Escherichia coli constitutively producing penicillin amidase. PCR fragments carrying both types of promoters were cloned into the promoter-probe vector pET2 to compare their transcriptional activity: the activity of ppgaWT was 5x higher than that of ppgaHT. The same nucleotide "G" localized 28 nucleotides upstream of the translation start point was identified as the respective transcription start point of both mRNAs. An attempt was made to place the pga gene cloned on a plasmid under the control of the natural promoter: not a single clone expressing penicillin amidase was found among 150 transformants. High transcriptional activity of the natural promoter together with high pga gene dosage could result in a deleterious metabolic burden of the periplasmic enzyme. PMID:16408844

  8. Stability of plasmids R1-19 and R100 in hyper-recombinant Escherichia coli strains and in Salmonella typhimurium strains.

    PubMed Central

    Gómez-Eichelmann, M C; Torres, H K

    1983-01-01

    Plasmids R1-19 and R100 dissociate in hyper-recominant Escherichia coli strains in a way that is similar to but slower than dissociation in Salmonella typhimurium. The results presented suggest that the molecular mechanism for plasmid dissociation in hyper-recombinant E. coli strains is different than that in S. typhimurium strains. PMID:6343357

  9. Patterns of integration of DNA microinjected into cultured mammalian cells: evidence for homologous recombination between injected plasmid DNA molecules.

    PubMed Central

    Folger, K R; Wong, E A; Wahl, G; Capecchi, M R

    1982-01-01

    We examined the fate of DNA microinjected into nuclei of cultured mammalian cells. The sequence composition and the physical form of the vector carrying the selectable gene affected the efficiency of DNA-mediated transformation. Introduction of sequences near the simian virus 40 origin of DNA replication or in the long terminal repeat of avian sarcoma provirus into a recombinant plasmid containing the herpes simplex virus thymidine kinase gene. (pBR322/HSV-tk) enhanced the frequency of transformation of LMtk- and RAT-2tk- cells to the TK+ phenotype 20- to 40-fold. In cells receiving injections of only a few plasmid DNA molecules, the transformation frequency was 40-fold higher after injection of linear molecules than after injection of supercoiled molecules. By controlling the number of gene copies injected into a recipient cell, we could obtain transformants containing a single copy or as many as 50 to 100 copies of the selectable gene. Multiple copies of the transforming gene were not scattered throughout the host genome but were integrated as a concatemer at one or a very few sites in the host chromosome. Independent transformants contained the donated genes in different chromosomes. The orientation of the gene copies within the concatemer was not random; rather, the copies were organized as tandem head-to-tail arrays. By analyzing transformants obtained by coinjecting two vectors which were identical except that in one a portion of the vector was inverted, we were able to conclude that the head-to-tail concatemers were generated predominantly by homologous recombination. Surprisingly, these head-to-tail concatemers were found in transformants obtained by injecting either supercoiled or linear plasmid DNA. Even though we demonstrated that cultured mammalian cells contain the enzymes for ligating two DNA molecules very efficiently irrespective of the sequences or topology at their ends, we found that even linear plasmid DNA was recruited into the concatemer by

  10. Patterns of integration of DNA microinjected into cultured mammalian cells: Evidence for homologous recombination between injected plasmid DNA molecules

    SciTech Connect

    Folger, K.R.; Wong, E.A.; Wahl, G.; Capecchi, M.R.

    1982-11-01

    The authors examined the fate of DNA microinjected into nuclei of cultured mammalian cells. The sequence composition and the physical form of the vector carrying the selectable gene affected the efficiency of DNA-mediated transformation. Introduction of sequences near the simian virus 40 origin of DNA replication or in the long terminal repeat of avian sarcoma provirus into a recombinant plasmid containing the herpes simplex virus thymidine kinase gene (pBR322/HSV-tk) enhanced the frequency of transformation of LMtk/sup -/ and RAT-2tk/sup -/ cells to the TK/sup +/ phenotype 20- to 40-fold. In cells receiving injections of only a few plasmid DNA molecules, the transformation frequency was 40-fold higher after injection of linear molecules than after injection of supercoiled molecules. By controlling the number of gene copies injected into a recipient cell, we could obtain transformants containing a single copy or as many as 50 to 100 copies of the selectable gene. By analyzing transformants obtained by coinjecting two vectors which were identical except that in one a portion of the vector was inverted, the authors were able to conclude that the head-to-tail concatemers were generated predominantly by homologous recombination. Surprisingly, these head-to-tail concatemers were found in transformants obtained by injecting either supercoiled or linear plasmid DNA.

  11. Recombination and Replication of Plasmid-like Derivatives of a Short Section of the Mitochondrial Chromosome of Neurospora Crassa

    PubMed Central

    Gross, S. R.; Levine, P. H.; Metzger, S.; Glaser, G.

    1989-01-01

    The 21-kbp mitochondrial chromosome of the stp-ruv strain of Neurospora crassa undergoes regional amplification yielding plasmid-like supercoiled circles varying in size from subunit length to very high multimers. A comparison of the base sequence of the five plasmids studied, with the region of the chromosome from which they were derived, indicated that the amplified chromosomal segments were determined by a recombination-excision process near or within two structurally distinctive regions. One of these, consisting of nearly uninterrupted strings of Cs and Gs straddling tandem PstI site direct repeats, could form an extended hairpin loop with only a few mismatches. It was found at or near the 5' exchange point of all of the plasmids. An extended 35-bp sequence containing 17-bp direct repeats was the primary 3' site of exchange. Base sequence changes were found in the vicinity of exchange points. Most notable of these was a G insertion and T to C transition within a section of the 5' region likely to form a hairpin loop, suggesting the involvement of a mismatch repair-like mechanism in the recombination process. The sequence, TATATAGACATATA, was identified as a likely candidate for the site of replication initiation. A nearly identical sequence was found common to all of the corresponding plasmids of Podospora anserina and was reported near the presumed replication origin of the Drosophila yakuba mitochondrial chromosome. A search of GenBank revealed a remarkable association of the consensus sequence, TATATAGAXATATA, with the plus strand of organelle DNA. PMID:2524421

  12. Overlap extension PCR cloning: a simple and reliable way to create recombinant plasmids.

    PubMed

    Bryksin, Anton V; Matsumura, Ichiro

    2010-06-01

    Here we describe a straightforward, efficient, and reliable way to clone an insert of choice into a plasmid of choice without restriction endonucleases or T4 DNA ligase. Chimeric primers containing plasmid sequence at the 5' ends and insert sequence at the 3' ends were used to PCR-amplify insertion sequences of various sizes, namely the genes for GFP (gfp), beta-d-glucuronidase (gusA), and beta-galactosidase (lacZ), as well as the entire luxABCDE operon. These inserts were employed as mega-primers in a second PCR with a circular plasmid template. The original plasmid templates were then destroyed in restriction digests with DpnI, and the overlap extension PCR products were used to transform competent Escherichia coli cells. Phusion DNA polymerase was used for the amplification and fusion reactions, so both reactions were easy to monitor and optimize. PMID:20569222

  13. The arginine repressor is essential for plasmid-stabilizing site-specific recombination at the ColE1 cer locus.

    PubMed Central

    Stirling, C J; Szatmari, G; Stewart, G; Smith, M C; Sherratt, D J

    1988-01-01

    The heritable stability in Escherichia coli of the multicopy plasmid ColE1 and its natural relatives requires that the plasmids be maintained in the monomeric state. Plasmid multimers, that arise through recA-dependent homologous recombination, are normally converted to monomers by a site-specific recombination system that acts at a specific plasmid site (cer in ColE1). No plasmid functions that act at this site have been identified. In contrast, two unlinked E.coli genes that encode functions required for cer-mediated site-specific recombination have been identified. Here we describe the isolation and characterization of one such gene (xerA) and show it to be identical to the gene encoding the repressor of the arginine biosynthetic genes (argR). The argR protein binds to cer DNA both in vivo and in vitro in the presence of arginine. We believe this binding is required to generate a higher order protein-DNA complex within the recombinational synapse. The argR gene of Bacillus subtilis complements an E.coli argR deficiency for cer-mediated recombination despite the two proteins having only 27% amino acid identity. Images PMID:3149585

  14. Effect of limited homology on gene conversion in a Saccharomyces cerevisiae plasmid recombination system

    SciTech Connect

    Ahn, B.Y.; Dornfeld, K.J.; Fagrelius, T.J.; Livingston, D.M.

    1988-06-01

    Plasmids containing heteroallelic copies of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae HIS3 gene undergo intramolecular gene conservation in mitotically dividing S. cerevisiae cels. The authors used this plasmid system to determine the minimum amount of homology required for gene conversion, to examine how conversion tract lengths are affected by limited homology, and to analyze the role of flanking DNA sequences on the pattern of exchange. Plasmids with homologous sequences greater than 2 kilobases have mitotic exchange rates as high as 2 x 10/sup -3/ event soper cell per generation. As the homology is reduced, the exchange rate decreases dramatically. A plasmid with 26 base pairs (bp) of homology undergones gene conversion at a rate of approximately 1 x 10/sup -10/ events per cell per generation. These studies have also shown that an 8-bp insertion mutation 13 bp from a border between homologous and nonhomologous sequences undergoes conversion, but that a similar 8-bp insertion 5 bp from a border does not. Examination of independent conversion events which occurred in plasmids with heteroallelic copies of the HIS3 gene shows that markers within 280 bp of a border between homologous and nonhomologous sequences undergo conversion less frequently than the same markers within a more extensive homologous sequence. Thus, proximity to a border between homologous and nonhomologous sequences shortens the conversion tract length.

  15. Rational plasmid design and bioprocess optimization to enhance recombinant adeno-associated virus (AAV) productivity in mammalian cells.

    PubMed

    Emmerling, Verena V; Pegel, Antje; Milian, Ernest G; Venereo-Sanchez, Alina; Kunz, Marion; Wegele, Jessica; Kamen, Amine A; Kochanek, Stefan; Hoerer, Markus

    2016-02-01

    Viral vectors used for gene and oncolytic therapy belong to the most promising biological products for future therapeutics. Clinical success of recombinant adeno-associated virus (rAAV) based therapies raises considerable demand for viral vectors, which cannot be met by current manufacturing strategies. Addressing existing bottlenecks, we improved a plasmid system termed rep/cap split packaging and designed a minimal plasmid encoding adenoviral helper function. Plasmid modifications led to a 12-fold increase in rAAV vector titers compared to the widely used pDG standard system. Evaluation of different production approaches revealed superiority of processes based on anchorage- and serum-dependent HEK293T cells, exhibiting about 15-fold higher specific and volumetric productivity compared to well-established suspension cells cultivated in serum-free medium. As for most other viral vectors, classical stirred-tank bioreactor production is thus still not capable of providing drug product of sufficient amount. We show that manufacturing strategies employing classical surface-providing culture systems can be successfully transferred to the new fully-controlled, single-use bioreactor system Integrity(TM) iCELLis(TM) . In summary, we demonstrate substantial bioprocess optimizations leading to more efficient and scalable production processes suggesting a promising way for flexible large-scale rAAV manufacturing. PMID:26284700

  16. Construction of recombinant pEGFP-N1-hPer2 plasmid and its expression in osteosarcoma cells

    PubMed Central

    CHENG, ANYUAN; ZHANG, YAN; MEI, HONGJUN; FANG, SHUO; JI, PENG; YANG, JIAN; YU, LING; GUO, WEICHUN

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to construct the eukaryotic expression vector pEGFP-N1-hPer2 and assess its expression in the human osteosarcoma cell line MG63. Total mRNA was extracted from human osteosarcoma MG63 cells, the human period 2 (hPer2) gene was obtained by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and cloned into the pEGFP-N1 vector, then the recombinant pEGFP-N1-hPer2 plasmid was constructed and transfected into MG63 cells using Lipofectamine 2000. The expression of hPer2 in MG63 cells was measured by quantitative RT-PCR and western blot analysis. The accurate construction of pEGFP-N1-hPer2 was verified by double enzyme digestion and DNA sequencing. hPer2 gene expression in the transfected cells was assessed by RT-qPCR and western blot analysis. In conclusion, the recombinant pEGFP-N1-hPer2 plasmid was constructed successfully, and expressed effectively in MG63 cells. PMID:27073550

  17. Cloning of a Recombinant Plasmid Encoding Thiol-Specific Antioxidant Antigen (TSA) Gene of Leishmania majorand Expression in the Chinese Hamster Ovary Cell Line

    PubMed Central

    Fatemeh, Ghaffarifar; Fatemeh, Tabatabaie; Zohreh, Sharifi; Abdolhosein, Dalimiasl; Mohammad Zahir, Hassan; Mehdi, Mahdavi

    2012-01-01

    Background: TSA (thiol-specific antioxidant antigen) is the immune-dominant antigen of Leishmania major and is considered to be the most promising candidate molecule for a recombinant or DNA vaccine against leishmaniasis. The aim of the present work was to express a plasmid containing the TSA gene in eukaryotic cells. Methods: Genomic DNA was extracted, and the TSA gene was amplified by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). The PCR product was cloned into the pTZ57R/T vector, followed by subcloning into the eukaryotic expression vector pcDNA3 (EcoRI and HindIII sites). The recombinant plasmid was characterised by restriction digest and PCR. Eukaryotic Chinese hamster ovary cells were transfected with the plasmid containing the TSA gene. Expression of the L. major TSA gene was confirmed by sodium dodecyl sulphate–polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and Western blotting. Results: The plasmid containing the TSA gene was successfully expressed, as demonstrated by a band of 22.1 kDa on Western blots. Conclusion: The plasmid containing the TSA gene can be expressed in a eukaryotic cell line. Thus, the recombinant plasmid may potentially be used as a DNA vaccine in animal models. PMID:22977370

  18. Recombinant plasmids for encoding restriction enzymes DpnI and DpnII of streptococcus pneumontae

    DOEpatents

    Lacks, Sanford A.

    1990-01-01

    Chromosomal DNA cassettes containing genes encoding either the DpnI or DpnII restriction endonucleases from Streptococcus pneumoniae are cloned into a streptococcal vector, pLS101. Large amounts of the restriction enzymes are produced by cells containing the multicopy plasmids, pLS202 and pLS207, and their derivatives pLS201, pLS211, pLS217, pLS251 and pLS252.

  19. Recombinant plasmids for encoding restriction enzymes DpnI and DpnII of Streptococcus pneumontae

    DOEpatents

    Lacks, S.A.

    1990-10-02

    Chromosomal DNA cassettes containing genes encoding either the DpnI or DpnII restriction endonucleases from Streptococcus pneumoniae are cloned into a streptococcal vector, pLS101. Large amounts of the restriction enzymes are produced by cells containing the multicopy plasmids, pLS202 and pLS207, and their derivatives pLS201, pLS211, pLS217, pLS251 and pLS252. 9 figs.

  20. Immune Responses of Piglets Immunized by a Recombinant Plasmid Containing Porcine Circovirus Type 2 and Porcine Interleukin-18 Genes

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Guang-Lei; Fu, Peng-Fei; Wang, Lin-Qing

    2014-01-01

    Abstract In this study, two recombinant plasmids containing the ORF2 gene of porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) with or without porcine interleukin-18 (IL-18) were constructed and evaluated for their ability to protect piglets against PCV2 challenge. Transient expression of the plasmids in PK-15 cells could be detected using Western blot. Piglets were given two intramuscular immunizations 3 weeks apart and were challenged with a virulent Wuzhi strain of PCV2 at 42 days after the initial immunization. All animals vaccinated with pBudCE4.1-ORF2 or with pBudCE4.1-ORF2/IL18 developed PCV2-specific antibody and T-lymphocyte proliferative responses. The levels of T-lymphocyte proliferation in piglets immunized with pBudCE4.1-ORF2/IL18 were significantly higher than in those immunized with pBudCE4.1-ORF2, and pBudCE4.1-ORF2/IL18 stimulated a significantly increased production of IFN-γ and IL-2. Furthermore, PCV2 challenge experiments showed that the DNA vaccine-immunized groups can partially prevent PCV2 viremia and significantly reduce the amount of PCV2 virus in the lymphoid tissues, and the piglets immunized by pBudCE4.1-ORF2/IL18 exhibit a marked inhibition of PCV2 replication compared to the pBudCE4.1-ORF2 group. These data demonstrate that the plasmid pBudCE4.1-ORF2/IL18 may be an effective approach for increasing PCV2 DNA vaccine immunogenicity. PMID:25268976

  1. A recombinant plasmid containing CpG motifs as a novel vaccine adjuvant for immune protection against herpes simplex virus 2.

    PubMed

    He, Zhuojing; Xu, Juan; Tao, Wei; Fu, Ting; He, Fang; Hu, Ruxi; Jia, Lan; Hong, Yan

    2016-08-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the efficacy of a herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) DNA vaccine co‑immunized with a plasmid adjuvant containing CpG motifs. A novel eukaryotic expression plasmid vector containing kanamycin resistance gene (pcDNA3Kan) was acquired from pET‑28a(+) and pcDNA3 plasmids. A gene encoding full length HSV‑2 glycoprotein D (gD) was amplified from the pcDNA3‑gD plasmid, which was cloned into pcDNA3Kan resulting in the construction of the recombinant plasmid pcDNA3Kan‑gD (pgD). A DNA segment containing 8 CpG motifs was synthesized, and cloned into pcDNA3Kan, resulting in the recombinant plasmid pcDNA3Kan‑CpG (pCpG). Mice were co‑inoculated with pgD (used as a DNA vaccine) and pCpG (used as an adjuvant) by bilateral intramuscular injection. Mice inoculated with pgD+pCpG showed higher titers of antibodies than those inoculated with the DNA vaccine alone (P<0.05). In addition, mice inoculated with pgD+pCpG showed the highest percentage of CD4+ T cells in the blood of all the groups (P﹤0.05). Thus, the present study demonstrated that pCpG could stimulate the HSV‑2 DNA vaccine to induce a stronger cell‑mediated immune response than the DNA vaccine alone. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the efficacy of a HSV‑2 DNA vaccine (pgD) co‑immunized with a plasmid adjuvant containing CpG motifs (pCpG). Whether the pCpG would be able to stimulate the pgD to induce a stronger immune response compared with pgD alone. PMID:27357208

  2. [Immunogenecity of expressed protein p68 from recombinant plasmid rpDJt in L. interrogans serovar lai].

    PubMed

    Jiang, N; Dai, B; Li, S; Zhao, H; Fang, Z; Wu, W; Ye, D; Liu, J; Song, S; Yang, Y; Zhang, Y; Liu, F; Tu, Y; Yang, H; Huang, Z; Liang, L; Hu, L; Zhao, M

    1997-06-01

    There are two types of infection caused by pathogenic microorganisms, intracellular infection and intercellular infection. Infection of pathogenic leptospira is an intercellular infection. The immunological reaction of host to intercellular infection is unique. The potential immunogen of an expressed protein should meet three criteria: it can be degraded (by antigen-present cells in the host); it should have antigenic epitope which can be recognized by specific antibodies and have at least one epitope that can be recognized by an MHC II protein and T cell receptor. In this study we report the cloning of an L. interrogans protein in plasmid rpDJt and the immunogencity of the expressed protein derivative. A genomic library of L. interrogans serovar lai strain 017 was constructed with the plasmid vector pUC18. Recombinant plasmids, designated pDJH2 and pDJ8 were screened from the bank. EcoRI-inserted fragment of 1. 9 kb recombinant DNA of pDJH2 was ligated into T7 RNA polymerase/promoter vectors (pT7-7). Then they were transformed into E. coli JM109 (De3), one of subclones, designated rpDJt was achieved. SDS-PAGE showed that the molecular weights of expression proteins were 68 kd and 23 kd respectively, designated p68 and p23. Purifying and isolating p68 and p23, we separated them from SDS-Polyacrylamide gels by using Side-Strip method. After fragmenting and electroeluting, p68 and p23 were injected into guinea pigs and rabbits. An extremely strong immune response to p68 was obtained since an anti-p68 antibody response could be detected to a dilution 1:524,288 (guinea pigs) and 1:262,144 (rabbits) by ELISA while anti-P23 antibody being 1:1024 (the same to guinea pigs and rabbits). The results of improved MTT and conA 3HTdR transformation methods showed the activities and proliferation of Th-cells were increased in guinea pigs after p68 immunization (IL-6, 83.25 IU/ml, IL-2, 28.75 IU/ml; RPI, 2.04, SI, 65.62%) Thlymphocyte existed in two subclasses, the Th1- and Th2

  3. Tuneable endogenous mammalian target complementation via multiplexed plasmid-based recombineering

    PubMed Central

    Beltran-Sastre, Violeta; Benisty, Hannah; Burnier, Julia; Berger, Imre; Serrano, Luis; Kiel, Christina

    2015-01-01

    Understanding the quantitative functional consequences of human disease mutations requires silencing of endogenous genes and expression of mutants at close to physiological levels. Changing protein levels above or below these levels is also important for system perturbation and modelling. Fast design optimization demands flexible interchangeable cassettes for endogenous gene silencing and tuneable expression. Here, we introduce ‘TEMTAC’, a multigene recombineering and delivery system for simultaneous siRNA-based knockdown and regulated mutant (or other variant) expression with different dynamic ranges. We show its applicability by confirming known phenotypic effects for selected mutations for BRAF, HRAS, and SHP2. PMID:26612112

  4. Nonclinical toxicology study of recombinant-plasmid DNA anti-rabies vaccines.

    PubMed

    Kumar, P Uday; Kumar, B Dinesh; Annapurna, V V; Krishna, T Prasanna; Kalyanasundaram, S; Suresh, P; Harishankar, N; Jagadeesan, V; Hariharan, S; Naidu, A Nadamuni; Krishnaswamy, Kamala; Rangarajan, P N; Srinivasan, V A; Reddy, G S; Sesikeran, B

    2006-04-01

    The absence of standard guidelines from National and International regulatory agencies for the safety evaluation of biotechnology products challenges the ingenuity of toxicologists. At present, the development of standard pre-clinical toxicology protocols for such products is on an individual case basis. The present investigation is an attempt to evaluate the safety profile of the first indigenously developed DNA based anti-rabies vaccine in India. The test compounds were DNA rabies vaccine [DRV (100 microg)] and combination rabies vaccine (CRV (100 microg DRV and 1/50 dose of cell culture vaccine)), intended for clinical use by intramuscular route on 1, 7, 14 and 28 day. As per the regular mandatory requirements, the study has been designed to undertake acute (single dose--10 days), sub-chronic (repeat dose--28 days) and chronic (intended clinical dose--120 days) toxicity tests using three dose levels viz. therapeutic, average (2 x therapeutic dose) and highest dose (10 x therapeutic dose) exposure in Swiss Albino mice. The selection of the rodent model viz. Swiss Albino mice is based on affinity and rapid higher antibody response during the efficacy studies. Apart from physical, physiological, clinical, hematological and histopathology profiles of all target organs, the tier-I immunotoxicity parameters have also been monitored. There were no observational adverse effects even at levels of 10x therapeutic dose administration of DRV and CRV. The procedure also emphasizes on the designing of protocols for the products developed by recombinant technique. PMID:16448727

  5. Construction and evaluation of a plasmid vector for the expression of recombinant lipoproteins in Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Cullen, Paul A; Lo, Miranda; Bulach, Dieter M; Cordwell, Stuart J; Adler, Ben

    2003-01-01

    Outer membrane lipoproteins are emerging as key targets for protective immunity to many bacterial pathogens. Heterologous expression of lipoproteins in Escherichia coli does not always result in high level expression of acylated recombinant protein. Thus, these proteins do not take up their correct membrane topology and are lacking the immunostimulatory properties endowed by the lipid. To this end, we have designed a lipoprotein expression vector (pDUMP) that results in the production of fusion proteins containing the E. coli major outer membrane lipoprotein (Lpp) signal sequence, lipoprotein signal peptidase recognition site, and the +2 outer membrane sorting signal at their N termini. To test the ability of pDUMP to express lipoproteins from heterologous hosts, the surface lipoprotein PsaA from the Gram-positive organism Streptococcus pneumoniae and the outer membrane lipoproteins MlpA from the Gram-negative Pasteurella multocida and BlpA from the spirochete Brachyspira hyodysenteriae were cloned into both hexahistidine fusion vectors and pDUMP. High level expression of antigenically active protein from both the hexahistidine fusion vectors and pDUMP resulted in abundant bands of the predicted molecular masses when analyzed by SDS-PAGE. When grown in the presence of 3[H]palmitic acid, proteins encoded by pDUMP were observed to incorporate palmitic acid whilst the hexahistidine fusion proteins did not. Using mass spectrometry and image analysis we determined the efficiency of lipidation between the three clones to vary from 31.7 to 100%. In addition, lipidated, but not hexahistidine, forms of the proteins were presented on the E. coli surface. PMID:12583997

  6. Instability of Escherichia coli R-factors in Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi involves formation of recombinant composite plasmid structures.

    PubMed

    Mendoza-Medellín, Aurelio; Camacho-Carranza, Rafael; Curiel-Quesada, Everardo

    2012-09-01

    In spite of a well-documented ability of Samonella enterica Typhi strains to receive R factors from Escherichia coli and other enterobacteria, epidemiological data show that Typhi is a rather poor host of antibiotic-resistance genes and in fact, of plasmids, suggesting that most of the plasmids naturally acquired by Typhi strains become unstable and eventually segregate. We have previously reported evidence that each of three plasmids conjugatively transferred to S. enterica Typhi experienced deletion-mediated loss of a resistance determinant before plasmid segregation occurred. We now report that in Typhi strains containing these unstable plasmids a superhelical DNA species of lower mobility is detected, probably representing plasmid dimer structures. Plasmid deletion is a RecA-dependent process since it is not detected in derivatives of a recA1 S. enterica Typhi strain containing the corresponding plasmids, and in such strains we were unable to detect either the low-mobility species. We propose that the deletable segments contain key information for plasmid stability in S. enterica Typhi, possibly a multimer resolution system. PMID:22579995

  7. Construction of a Food Grade Recombinant Bacillus subtilis Based on Replicative Plasmids with an Auxotrophic Marker for Biotransformation of d-Fructose to d-Allulose.

    PubMed

    He, Weiwei; Mu, Wanmeng; Jiang, Bo; Yan, Xin; Zhang, Tao

    2016-04-27

    A food grade recombinant Bacillus subtilis that produces d-psicose 3-epimerase (DPEase; EC 5.1.3.30) was constructed by transforming a replicative multicopy plasmid with a d-alanine racemase gene marker into B. subtilis 1A751 with the d-alanine racemase gene knocked out. The DPEase was expressed in B. subtilis without antibiotic resistance genes and without adding antibiotics during fermentation. Whole cells of the food grade recombinant B. subtilis were used to biotransform d-fructose to d-allulose. The two tandem promoters, including the HpaII and P43 promoters, increased expression levels compared to the use of one promoter, HpaII. For large-scale d-allulose production, the optimal enzyme dose was 40 enzyme activity units of dry cells per gram of d-fructose, which produced a 28.5% turnover yield in 60 min. The recombinant plasmid exhibited stability over 100 generations. This food grade recombinant B. subtilis may be used for large-scale d-allulose production in the food industry. PMID:27056339

  8. Biological effects of eukaryotic recombinant plasmid pReceiver-M61-BAI-1 transfection on T24 cells and HUVECs

    PubMed Central

    Tian, Da-Wei; Hu, Hai-Long; Sun, Yan; Tang, Yang; Lei, Ming-De; Liu, Li-Wei; Han, Rui-Fa; Wu, Chang-Li

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the current study was to investigate the biological effect on T24 cells and human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) of transfection with brain-specific angiogenesis inhibitor-1 (BAI-1). The recombinant plasmid pReceiver-M61-BAI-1 was transfected into human superficial bladder tumor cells (T24) and HUVECs, in parallel with the vector control. mRNA and protein expression levels of BAI-1 were then detected by quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) and western blotting, respectively. Cell apoptosis of T24 cells and HUVECs prior and subsequent to transfection with BAI-1 was analyzed by flow cytometric analysis. Proliferation of T24 cells and HUVECs prior and subsequent to transfection of BAI-1 was assessed by the MTT method. T24 cells and HUVECs transfected with pReceiver-M61-BA1-1 were classed as the experimental group; T24 cells and HUVECs transfected with p-Receiver-M61 were the control group. qPCR and western blotting methods confirmed that there was positive expression of BAI-1 in T24 cells and HUVECs transfected with pReceiver-M61-BAI-1, however BAI-1 was not expressed in T24 cells and HUVECs transfected with pReceiver-M61. The results of the MTT assay demonstrated that absorbance was markedly reduced in HUVECs at 12, 48 and 72 h subsequent to transfection with pReceiver-M61-BAI-1 when compared with that of the control group and in T24 cells transfected with p-Receiver-M61-BAI-1. Furthermore, flow cytometry results also indicated that the apoptotic rate of HUVECs transfected with p-Receiver-M61-BAI-1 was significantly increased compared with that of the control group and T24 cells transfected with p-Receiver-M61-BAI-1. BAI-1 was observed to markedly inhibit the proliferation of vascular endothelial cells in vitro, however, no direct inhibition by BAI-1 was observed in T24 cells. In conclusion, BAI-1 is suggested to be a potential novel therapautic target for the inhibition of tumor neovascularization. PMID:27356780

  9. Prime-boost vaccination with plasmid DNA followed by recombinant vaccinia virus expressing BgGARP induced a partial protective immunity to inhibit Babesia gibsoni proliferation in dogs.

    PubMed

    Cao, Shinuo; Mousa, Ahmed Abdelmoniem; Aboge, Gabriel Oluga; Kamyingkird, Ketsarin; Zhou, Mo; Moumouni, Paul Franck Adjou; Terkawi, Mohamad Alaa; Masatani, Tatsunori; Nishikawa, Yoshifumi; Suzuki, Hiroshi; Fukumoto, Shinya; Xuan, Xuenan

    2013-12-01

    A heterologous prime-boost vaccination regime with DNA and recombinant vaccinia virus (rvv) vectors expressing relevant antigens has been shown to induce effective immune responses against several infectious pathogens. In this study, we describe the effectiveness of the prime-boost strategy by immunizing dogs with a recombinant plasmid followed by vaccinia virus, both of which expressed the glutamic acid-rich protein (BgGARP) of Babesia gibsoni. The dogs immunized with the prime-boost regime developed a significantly high level of specific antibodies against BgGARP when compared with the control groups. The antibody level was strongly increased after a booster immunization with a recombinant vaccinia virus. Two weeks after the booster immunization with a recombinant vaccinia virus expressing BgGARP, the dogs were challenged with B. gibsoni parasite. The dogs immunized with the prime-boost regime showed partial protection, manifested as a significantly low level of parasitemia. These results indicated that this type of DNA/rvv prime-boost immunization approach may have use against B. gibsoni infection in dogs. PMID:24338330

  10. The pURI family of expression vectors: a versatile set of ligation independent cloning plasmids for producing recombinant His-fusion proteins.

    PubMed

    Curiel, José Antonio; de Las Rivas, Blanca; Mancheño, José Miguel; Muñoz, Rosario

    2011-03-01

    A family of restriction enzyme- and ligation-independent cloning vectors has been developed for producing recombinant His-tagged fusion proteins in Escherichia coli. These are based on pURI2 and pURI3 expression vectors which have been previously used for the successful production of recombinant proteins at the milligram scale. The newly designed vectors combines two different promoters (lpp(p)-5 and T7 RNA polymerase Ø10), two different endoprotease recognition sites for the His₆-tag removal (enterokinase and tobacco etch virus), different antibiotic selectable markers (ampicillin and erythromycin resistance), and different placements of the His₆-tag (N- and C-terminus). A single gene can be cloned and further expressed in the eight pURI vectors by using six nucleotide primers, avoiding the restriction enzyme and ligation steps. A unique NotI site was introduced to facilitate the selection of the recombinant plasmid. As a case study, the new vectors have been used to clone the gene coding for the phenolic acid decarboxylase from Lactobacillus plantarum. Interestingly, the obtained results revealed markedly different production levels of the target protein, emphasizing the relevance of the cloning strategy on soluble protein production yield. Efficient purification and tag removal steps showed that the affinity tag and the protease cleavage sites functioned properly. The novel family of pURI vectors designed for parallel cloning is a useful and versatile tool for the production and purification of a protein of interest. PMID:21055470

  11. Recombinant vector and eukaryotic host transformed thereby

    SciTech Connect

    Sugden, W.M.

    1987-08-11

    A recombinant plasmid is described comprising: a segment from a first plasmid which is not a lymphotrophic herpes virus segment and which facilitates the replication of the recombinant plasmid in a prokaryotic host; a segment from a lymphotrophic herpes virus which is linked to the first plasmid segment such that is a capable of assisting in maintaining the recombinant plasmid as a plasmid if the recombinant plasmid is inserted into a eukaryotic host that has been transformed by the lymphotrophic herpes virus; and a foreign eukaryotic gene component linked as part of the recombinant plasmid.

  12. Construction of recombinant eukaryotic expression plasmid containing murine CD40 ligand gene and its expression in H22 cells

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Yong-Fang; He, Yan; Gong, Guo-Zhong; Chen, Jun; Yang, Chun-Yan; Xu, Yun

    2005-01-01

    AIM: To construct a recombinant murine CD40 ligand (mCD40L) eukaryotic expression vector for gene therapy and target therapy of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). METHODS: mCD40L cDNA was synthesized by RT-PCR with the specific primers and directly cloned into T vector to generate middle recombinant. After digestion with restriction endonuclease, the target fragment was subcloned into the multi-clone sites of the eukaryotic vector. The constructed vector was verified by enzyme digestion and sequencing, and the product expressed was detected by RT-PCR and immunofluorescence methods. RESULTS: The full-length mCD40L-cDNA was successfully cloned into the eukaryotic vector through electrophoresis, and mCD40L gene was integrated into the genome of infected H22 cells by RT-PCR. Murine CD40L antigen molecule was observed in the plasma of mCD40L-H22 by indirect immuno-fluorescence staining. CONCLUSION: The recombined mCD40L eukaryotic expression vector can be expressed in H22 cell line. It provides experimental data for gene therapy and target therapy of hepatocellular carcinoma. PMID:15633212

  13. Homologous Recombination-Independent Large Gene Cassette Knock-in in CHO Cells Using TALEN and MMEJ-Directed Donor Plasmids.

    PubMed

    Sakuma, Tetsushi; Takenaga, Mitsumasa; Kawabe, Yoshinori; Nakamura, Takahiro; Kamihira, Masamichi; Yamamoto, Takashi

    2015-01-01

    Gene knock-in techniques have rapidly evolved in recent years, along with the development and maturation of genome editing technology using programmable nucleases. We recently reported a novel strategy for microhomology-mediated end-joining-dependent integration of donor DNA by using TALEN or CRISPR/Cas9 and optimized targeting vectors, named PITCh (Precise Integration into Target Chromosome) vectors. Here we describe TALEN and PITCh vector-mediated integration of long gene cassettes, including a single-chain Fv-Fc (scFv-Fc) gene, in Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells, with comparison of targeting and cloning efficiency among several donor design and culture conditions. We achieved 9.6-kb whole plasmid integration and 7.6-kb backbone-free integration into a defined genomic locus in CHO cells. Furthermore, we confirmed the reasonable productivity of recombinant scFv-Fc protein of the knock-in cells. Using our protocol, the knock-in cell clones could be obtained by a single transfection and a single limiting dilution using a 96-well plate, without constructing targeting vectors containing long homology arms. Thus, the study described herein provides a highly practical strategy for gene knock-in of large DNA in CHO cells, which accelerates high-throughput generation of cell lines stably producing any desired biopharmaceuticals, including huge antibody proteins. PMID:26473830

  14. Combined IL-12 Plasmid and Recombinant SjGST Enhance the Protective and Anti-pathology Effect of SjGST DNA Vaccine Against Schistosoma japonicum.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Po-Ching; Lin, Ching-Nan; Peng, Shih-Yi; Kang, Tsung-Fu; Lee, Kin-Mu

    2016-02-01

    Schistosomiasis is listed as one of most important tropical diseases and more than 200 million people are estimated to be infected. Development of a vaccine is thought to be the most effective way to control this disease. Recombinant 26-kDa glutathione S-transferase (rSjGST) has previously been reported to achieve a worm reduction rate of 42-44%. To improve the efficiency of the vaccine against Schistosoma japonicum, we immunized mice with a combination of pcDNA vector-encoded 26-kDa SjGST (pcDNA/SjGST), IL-12 expressing-plasmid (pIL-12), and rSjGST. Co-vaccination with pcDNA/SjGST, pIL-12, and rSjGST led to a reduction in worm burden, hepatic egg burden, and the size of liver tissue granulomas than that in the untreated infection controls. In addition, we detected high levels of specific IgG, IgG1, and IgG2a against the rSjGST antigen in infected mice vaccinated with this combination of pcDNA/SjGST, pIL-12, and rSjGST. Moreover, high expression levels of Th2 cytokines, including IL-4 and IL-10, were also detected in this group, without diminished levels of IL-12, INF-γ, and TNF-α cytokines that are related to parasite killing. In conclusion, we have developed a new vaccination regimen against S. japonicum infection and shown that co-immunization with pcDNA/SjGST vaccine, pIL-12, and rSjGST has significant anti-parasite, anti-hepatic egg and anti-pathology effects in mice. The efficacy of this vaccination method should be further validated in large animals such as water buffalo. This method may help to reduce the transmission of zoonotic schistosomiasis japonica. PMID:26891172

  15. Combined IL-12 Plasmid and Recombinant SjGST Enhance the Protective and Anti-pathology Effect of SjGST DNA Vaccine Against Schistosoma japonicum

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Po-Ching; Lin, Ching-Nan; Peng, Shih-Yi; Kang, Tsung-Fu; Lee, Kin-Mu

    2016-01-01

    Schistosomiasis is listed as one of most important tropical diseases and more than 200 million people are estimated to be infected. Development of a vaccine is thought to be the most effective way to control this disease. Recombinant 26-kDa glutathione S-transferase (rSjGST) has previously been reported to achieve a worm reduction rate of 42–44%. To improve the efficiency of the vaccine against Schistosoma japonicum, we immunized mice with a combination of pcDNA vector-encoded 26-kDa SjGST (pcDNA/SjGST), IL-12 expressing-plasmid (pIL-12), and rSjGST. Co-vaccination with pcDNA/SjGST, pIL-12, and rSjGST led to a reduction in worm burden, hepatic egg burden, and the size of liver tissue granulomas than that in the untreated infection controls. In addition, we detected high levels of specific IgG, IgG1, and IgG2a against the rSjGST antigen in infected mice vaccinated with this combination of pcDNA/SjGST, pIL-12, and rSjGST. Moreover, high expression levels of Th2 cytokines, including IL-4 and IL-10, were also detected in this group, without diminished levels of IL-12, INF-γ, and TNF-α cytokines that are related to parasite killing. In conclusion, we have developed a new vaccination regimen against S. japonicum infection and shown that co-immunization with pcDNA/SjGST vaccine, pIL-12, and rSjGST has significant anti-parasite, anti-hepatic egg and anti-pathology effects in mice. The efficacy of this vaccination method should be further validated in large animals such as water buffalo. This method may help to reduce the transmission of zoonotic schistosomiasis japonica. PMID:26891172

  16. Biological effects of eukaryotic recombinant plasmid pReceiver-M61-BAI-1 transfection on T24 cells and HUVECs.

    PubMed

    Tian, Da-Wei; Hu, Hai-Long; Sun, Yan; Tang, Yang; Lei, Ming-De; Liu, Li-Wei; Han, Rui-Fa; Wu, Chang-Li

    2016-08-01

    The aim of the current study was to investigate the biological effect on T24 cells and human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) of transfection with brain-specific angiogenesis inhibitor-1 (BAI-1). The recombinant plasmid pReceiver-M61-BAI-1 was transfected into human superficial bladder tumor cells (T24) and HUVECs, in parallel with the vector control. mRNA and protein expression levels of BAI‑1 were then detected by quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) and western blotting, respectively. Cell apoptosis of T24 cells and HUVECs prior and subsequent to transfection with BAI‑1 was analyzed by flow cytometric analysis. Proliferation of T24 cells and HUVECs prior and subsequent to transfection of BAI-1 was assessed by the MTT method. T24 cells and HUVECs transfected with pReceiver‑M61‑BA1‑1 were classed as the experimental group; T24 cells and HUVECs transfected with p‑Receiver‑M61 were the control group. qPCR and western blotting methods confirmed that there was positive expression of BAI‑1 in T24 cells and HUVECs transfected with pReceiver‑M61‑BAI‑1, however BAI‑1 was not expressed in T24 cells and HUVECs transfected with pReceiver‑M61. The results of the MTT assay demonstrated that absorbance was markedly reduced in HUVECs at 12, 48 and 72 h subsequent to transfection with pReceiver-M61-BAI-1 when compared with that of the control group and in T24 cells transfected with p‑Receiver-M61-BAI-1. Furthermore, flow cytometry results also indicated that the apoptotic rate of HUVECs transfected with p‑Receiver‑M61‑BAI‑1 was significantly increased compared with that of the control group and T24 cells transfected with p‑Receiver‑M61‑BAI‑1. BAI‑1 was observed to markedly inhibit the proliferation of vascular endothelial cells in vitro, however, no direct inhibition by BAI‑1 was observed in T24 cells. In conclusion, BAI-1 is suggested to be a potential novel therapautic target for the inhibition of

  17. pLS101 plasmid vector

    DOEpatents

    Lacks, S.A.; Balganesh, T.S.

    1985-02-19

    Disclosed is recombinant plasmid pLS101, consisting essentially of a 2.0 Kb ma1M gene fragment ligated to a 4.4 Kb Tcr DNA fragment, which is particularly useful for transforming Gram-positive bacteria. This plasmid contains at least four restriction sites suitable for inserting exogeneous gene sequences. Also disclosed is a method for plasmid isolation by penicillin selection, as well as processes for enrichment of recombinant plasmids in Gram-positive bacterial systems. 5 figs., 2 tabs.

  18. pLS010 plasmid vector

    DOEpatents

    Lacks, Sanford A.; Balganesh, Tanjore S.

    1988-01-01

    Disclosed is recombinant plasmid pLS101, consisting essentially of a 2.0 Kb malM gene fragment ligated to a 4.4 Kb T.sub.c r DNA fragment, which is particularly useful for transforming Gram-positive bacteria. This plasmid contains at least four restriction sites suitable for inserting exogeneous gene sequences. Also disclosed is a method for plasmid isolation by penicillin selection, as well as processes for enrichment of recombinant plasmids in Gram-positive bacterial systems.

  19. Construction of a stable plasmid vector for industrial production of poly(3-hydroxybutyrate-co-3-hydroxyhexanoate) by a recombinant Cupriavidus necator H16 strain.

    PubMed

    Sato, Shunsuke; Fujiki, Tetsuya; Matsumoto, Keiji

    2013-12-01

    A new stable plasmid vector (pCUP3) was developed for high and stable production of poly(3-hydroxybutyrate-co-3-hydroxyhexanoate) (PHBH) using Cupriavidus necator H16 as the host strain. In pCUP3, it was found that the plasmid partition and replication region of the megaplasmid pMOL28 in the Cupriavidus metallidurans CH34 strain plays an important role in plasmid stability in C. necator H16. Moreover, the partition locus (comprising parA28 and parB28 and the parS28 region) is essential for plasmid maintenance under high-PHBH-accumulation. PHBH productivity by the C. necator H16/ds strain (phaC1 deactivated mutant strain) harboring a phaCAc NSDG within pCUP3 was identical to the productivity of poly(3-hydroxybutyrate) by the C. necator H16 strain when palm kernel oil was used as the sole carbon source without any antibiotics. This new vector is important for industrial mass production of polyhydroxyalkanoates using the C. necator H16 strain as the host, dispensing the necessity of the application of selective pressure such as antibiotics. PMID:23816763

  20. Yeast telomere repeat sequence (TRS) improves circular plasmid segregation, and TRS plasmid segregation involves the RAP1 gene product.

    PubMed Central

    Longtine, M S; Enomoto, S; Finstad, S L; Berman, J

    1992-01-01

    Telomere repeat sequences (TRSs) can dramatically improve the segregation of unstable circular autonomously replicating sequence (ARS) plasmids in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Deletion analysis demonstrated that yeast TRSs, which conform to the general sequence (C(1-3)A)n, are able to stabilize circular ARS plasmids. A number of TRS clones of different primary sequence and C(1-3)A tract length confer the plasmid stabilization phenotype. TRS sequences do not appear to improve plasmid replication efficiency, as determined by plasmid copy number analysis and functional assays for ARS activity. Pedigree analysis confirms that TRS-containing plasmids are missegregated at low frequency and that missegregated TRS-containing plasmids, like ARS plasmids, are preferentially retained by the mother cell. Plasmids stabilized by TRSs have properties that distinguish them from centromere-containing plasmids and 2 microns-based recombinant plasmids. Linear ARS plasmids, which include two TRS tracts at their termini, segregate inefficiently, while circular plasmids with one or two TRS tracts segregate efficiently, suggesting that plasmid topology or TRS accessibility interferes with TRS segregation function on linear plasmids. In strains carrying the temperature-sensitive mutant alleles rap1grc4 and rap1-5, TRS plasmids are not stable at the semipermissive temperature, suggesting that RAP1 protein is involved in TRS plasmid stability. In Schizosaccharomyces pombe, an ARS plasmid was stabilized by the addition of S. pombe telomere sequence, suggesting that the ability to improve the segregation of ARS plasmids is a general property of telomere repeats. PMID:1569937

  1. Perforin and Gamma Interferon Expression Are Required for CD4+ and CD8+ T-Cell-Dependent Protective Immunity against a Human Parasite, Trypanosoma cruzi, Elicited by Heterologous Plasmid DNA Prime-Recombinant Adenovirus 5 Boost Vaccination▿

    PubMed Central

    de Alencar, Bruna C. G.; Persechini, Pedro M.; Haolla, Filipe A.; de Oliveira, Gabriel; Silverio, Jaline C.; Lannes-Vieira, Joseli; Machado, Alexandre V.; Gazzinelli, Ricardo T.; Bruna-Romero, Oscar; Rodrigues, Mauricio M.

    2009-01-01

    A heterologous prime-boost strategy using plasmid DNA, followed by replication-defective recombinant adenovirus 5, is being proposed as a powerful way to elicit CD4+ and CD8+ T-cell-mediated protective immunity against intracellular pathogens. We confirmed this concept and furthered existing research by providing evidence that the heterologous prime-boost regimen using the gene encoding amastigote surface protein 2 elicited CD4+ and CD8+ T-cell-mediated protective immunity (reduction of acute parasitemia and prolonged survival) against experimental infection with Trypanosoma cruzi. Protective immunity correlated with the presence of in vivo antigen-specific cytotoxic activity prior to challenge. Based on this, our second goal was to determine the outcome of infection after heterologous prime-boost immunization of perforin-deficient mice. These mice were highly susceptible to infection. A detailed analysis of the cell-mediated immune responses in immunized perforin-deficient mice showed an impaired gamma interferon (IFN-γ) secretion by immune spleen cells upon restimulation in vitro with soluble recombinant antigen. In spite of a normal numeric expansion, specific CD8+ T cells presented several functional defects detected in vivo (cytotoxicity) and in vitro (simultaneous expression of CD107a/IFN-γ or IFN-γ/tumor necrosis factor alpha) paralleled by a decreased expression of CD44 and KLRG-1. Our final goal was to determine the importance of IFN-γ in the presence of highly cytotoxic T cells. Vaccinated IFN-γ-deficient mice developed highly cytotoxic cells but failed to develop any protective immunity. Our study thus demonstrated a role for perforin and IFN-γ in a number of T-cell-mediated effector functions and in the antiparasitic immunity generated by a heterologous plasmid DNA prime-adenovirus boost vaccination strategy. PMID:19651871

  2. Perforin and gamma interferon expression are required for CD4+ and CD8+ T-cell-dependent protective immunity against a human parasite, Trypanosoma cruzi, elicited by heterologous plasmid DNA prime-recombinant adenovirus 5 boost vaccination.

    PubMed

    de Alencar, Bruna C G; Persechini, Pedro M; Haolla, Filipe A; de Oliveira, Gabriel; Silverio, Jaline C; Lannes-Vieira, Joseli; Machado, Alexandre V; Gazzinelli, Ricardo T; Bruna-Romero, Oscar; Rodrigues, Mauricio M

    2009-10-01

    A heterologous prime-boost strategy using plasmid DNA, followed by replication-defective recombinant adenovirus 5, is being proposed as a powerful way to elicit CD4(+) and CD8(+) T-cell-mediated protective immunity against intracellular pathogens. We confirmed this concept and furthered existing research by providing evidence that the heterologous prime-boost regimen using the gene encoding amastigote surface protein 2 elicited CD4(+) and CD8(+) T-cell-mediated protective immunity (reduction of acute parasitemia and prolonged survival) against experimental infection with Trypanosoma cruzi. Protective immunity correlated with the presence of in vivo antigen-specific cytotoxic activity prior to challenge. Based on this, our second goal was to determine the outcome of infection after heterologous prime-boost immunization of perforin-deficient mice. These mice were highly susceptible to infection. A detailed analysis of the cell-mediated immune responses in immunized perforin-deficient mice showed an impaired gamma interferon (IFN-gamma) secretion by immune spleen cells upon restimulation in vitro with soluble recombinant antigen. In spite of a normal numeric expansion, specific CD8(+) T cells presented several functional defects detected in vivo (cytotoxicity) and in vitro (simultaneous expression of CD107a/IFN-gamma or IFN-gamma/tumor necrosis factor alpha) paralleled by a decreased expression of CD44 and KLRG-1. Our final goal was to determine the importance of IFN-gamma in the presence of highly cytotoxic T cells. Vaccinated IFN-gamma-deficient mice developed highly cytotoxic cells but failed to develop any protective immunity. Our study thus demonstrated a role for perforin and IFN-gamma in a number of T-cell-mediated effector functions and in the antiparasitic immunity generated by a heterologous plasmid DNA prime-adenovirus boost vaccination strategy. PMID:19651871

  3. Preparation of Saccharomyces cerevisiae expression plasmids.

    PubMed

    Drew, David; Kim, Hyun

    2012-01-01

    Expression plasmids for Saccharomyces cerevisiae offer a wide choice of vector copy number, promoters of varying strength and selection markers. These expression plasmids are usually shuttle vectors that can be propagated both in yeast and bacteria, making them useful in gene cloning. For heterologous production of membrane proteins, we used the green fluorescent protein (GFP) fusion technology which was previously developed in the Escherichia coli system. We designed an expression plasmid carrying an inducible GAL1 promoter, a gene encoding a membrane protein of interest and the GFP-octa-histidine sequence. Here we describe construction of multi-copy yeast expression plasmids by homologous recombination in S. cerevisiae. PMID:22454112

  4. Curing Both Virulent Mega-Plasmids from Bacillus anthracis Wild-Type Strain A16 Simultaneously Using Plasmid Incompatibility.

    PubMed

    Wang, Dongshu; Gao, Zhiqi; Wang, Huagui; Feng, Erling; Zhu, Li; Liu, Xiankai; Wang, Hengliang

    2015-10-28

    Plasmid-cured derivative strains of Bacillus anthracis are frequently used in laboratory studies. Plasmid incompatibility, which does not increase the risk of chromosomal mutation, is a useful method for plasmid curing. However, in bacteria containing multiple plasmids, it often requires the sequential introduction of multiple, specific incompatibility plasmids. This lengthy process renders the traditional plasmid incompatibility method inefficient and mutation-prone. In this study, we successfully cured plasmids pXO1 and pXO2 from B. anthracis A16 simultaneously using only one recombinant incompatible plasmid, pKORT, to obtain a plasmid-free strain, designated A16DD. This method may also be useful for the simultaneous, one-step curing of multiple plasmids from other bacteria, including Bacillus thuringiensis and Yersinia pestis. PMID:26059513

  5. A Recombinant DNA Plasmid Encoding the sIL-4R-NAP Fusion Protein Suppress Airway Inflammation in an OVA-Induced Mouse Model of Asthma.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xin; Fu, Guo; Ji, Zhenyu; Huang, Xiabing; Ding, Cong; Jiang, Hui; Wang, Xiaolong; Du, Mingxuan; Wang, Ting; Kang, Qiaozhen

    2016-08-01

    Asthma is a chronic inflammatory airway disease. It was prevalently perceived that Th2 cells played the crucial role in asthma pathogenesis, which has been identified as the important target for anti-asthma therapy. The soluble IL-4 receptor (sIL-4R), which is the decoy receptor for Th2 cytokine IL-4, has been reported to be effective in treating asthma in phase I/II clinical trail. To develop more efficacious anti-asthma agent, we attempt to test whether the Helicobacter pylori neutrophil-activating protein (HP-NAP), a novel TLR2 agonist, would enhance the efficacy of sIL-4R in anti-asthma therapy. In our work, we constructed a pcDNA3.1-sIL-4R-NAP plasmid, named PSN, encoding fusion protein of murine sIL-4R and HP-NAP. PSN significantly inhibited airway inflammation, decreased the serum OVA-specific IgE levels and remodeled the Th1/Th2 balance. Notably, PSN is more effective on anti-asthma therapy comparing with plasmid only expressing sIL-4R. PMID:27209195

  6. Development of Targeted Recombinant Polymers that can deliver siRNA to the Cytoplasm and Plasmid DNA to the Cell Nucleus

    PubMed Central

    Canine, Brenda F.; Wang, Yuhua; Ouyang, Wenyun; Hatefi, Arash

    2011-01-01

    One of the major limitations to effective siRNA delivery is the lack of a siRNA-specific delivery system. Currently, the same delivery systems that are used for plasmid DNA (pDNA) delivery to the cell nucleus are used for siRNA delivery to the cytoplasm. To fill this gap, the objective of this study was to design a biopolymer that can be programmed via its amino acid sequence to deliver siRNA specifically to cytoplasm. For pDNA delivery, a nuclear localization signal (NLS) was added to the biopolymer structure to facilitate active translocation of the genetic material towards nucleus. The biopolymers were complexed with pEGFP and GFP-siRNA and used to transfect SKOV-3 (HER2+) cells. The intracellular trafficking of the nanoparticles was also monitored in real-time and live cells. The results demonstrated that the biopolymer with NLS is a suitable carrier for pDNA delivery but not siRNA delivery. Conversely, the biopolymer without NLS was suitable for siRNA delivery to the cytoplasm but not pDNA to the cell nucleus. The potential use of the designed biopolymer for combination therapy of cancer cells with gene (thymidine kinase) and siRNA (BCL2) was also examined in SKOV-3 cancer cells. PMID:21192992

  7. Seamless stitching of biosynthetic gene cluster containing type I polyketide synthases using Red/ET mediated recombination for construction of stably co-existing plasmids.

    PubMed

    Su, Chun; Zhao, Xin-Qing; Wang, Hai-Na; Qiu, Rong-Guo; Tang, Li

    2015-01-10

    Type I polyketides are natural products with diverse functions that are important for medical and agricultural applications. Manipulation of large biosynthetic gene clusters containing type I polyketide synthases (PKS) for heterologous expression is difficult due to the existence of conservative sequences of PKS in multiple modules. Red/ET mediated recombination has permitted rapid manipulation of large fragments; however, it requires insertion of antibiotic selection marker in the cassette, raising the problem of interference of expression by leaving "scar" sequence. Here, we report a method for precise seamless stitching of large polyketide biosynthetic gene cluster using a 48.4kb fragment containing type I PKS involved in fostriecin biosynthesis as an example. rpsL counter-selection was used to assist seamless stitching of large fragments, where we have overcome both the size limitations and the restriction on endonuclease sites during the Red/ET recombination. The compatibility and stability of the co-existing vectors (p184 and pMT) which respectively accommodate 16kb and 32.4kb inserted fragments were demonstrated. The procedure described here is efficient for manipulation of large DNA fragments for heterologous expression. PMID:25311549

  8. USE OF A NOVEL PLASMID TO MONITOR THE FATE OF A GENETICALLY ENGINEERED PSEUDOMONAS PUTIDA STRAIN

    EPA Science Inventory

    Plasmid pSI30 was constructed to increase the sensitivity of detection of a genetically engineered microorganism (GEM) and its recombinant DNA in environmental samples. his broad host-range, mobilizable plasmid contained chlorocatechol (clc) degradative genes, antibiotic resistan...

  9. Engineering large functional plasmids for biosafety.

    PubMed

    Cangelosi, Chris; Shank, Caroline; Santiago, Clayton; Wilson, James W

    2013-11-01

    Large bacterial plasmid constructs (generally 25-100 kb, but can be greater), such as those engineered with DNA encoding specific functions such as protein secretion or specialized metabolism, can carry antibiotic resistance genes and/or conjugation systems that typically must be removed before use in medical or environmental settings due to biosafety concerns. However, a convenient in vivo recombineering approach for intact large plasmids to sequentially remove multiple different genes using non-antibiotic selection methods is not described in the literature to our knowledge. We developed strategies and reagents for convenient removal of antibiotic resistance markers and conjugation genes while retaining non-antibiotic-based plasmid selection to increase practical utility of large engineered plasmids. This approach utilizes targeted lambda Red recombination of PCR products encoding the trpE and asd genes and as well as FLP/FRT-mediated marker removal. This is particularly important given that use of restriction enzymes with plasmids of this size is extremely problematic and often not feasible. This report provides the first example of the trpE gene/tryptophan prototrophy being used for recombineering selection. We applied this strategy to the plasmids R995+SPI-1 and R995+SPI-2 which encode cloned type III secretion systems to allow protein secretion and substrate delivery to eukaryotic cells. The resulting constructs are functional, stably maintained under conditions where the original constructs are unstable, completely defective for conjugative transfer, and transferred via electroporation. PMID:24055203

  10. GENERATION OF RECOMBINANT BACULOVIRUS VIA LIPOSOME MEDIATED TRANSFECTION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Baculovirus expression vectors have become a popular method of producing recombinant proteins. Production of recombinant virus requires the transfection of both the native viral DNA and a transfer plasmid into insect cells where recombination takes place. While several methods of...

  11. Determination of Plasmid Segregational Stability in a Growing Bacterial Population.

    PubMed

    Kramer, M Gabriela

    2016-01-01

    Bacterial plasmids are extensively used as cloning vectors for a number of genes for academic and commercial purposes. Moreover, attenuated bacteria carrying recombinant plasmids expressing genes with anti-tumor activity have shown promising therapeutic results in animal models of cancer. Equitable plasmid distribution between daughter cells during cell division, i.e., plasmid segregational stability, depends on many factors, including the plasmid copy number, its replication mechanism, the levels of recombinant gene expression, the type of bacterial host, and the metabolic burden associated with all these factors. Plasmid vectors usually code for antibiotic-resistant functions, and, in order to enrich the culture with bacteria containing plasmids, antibiotic selective pressure is commonly used to eliminate plasmid-free segregants from the growing population. However, administration of antibiotics can be inconvenient for many industrial and therapeutic applications. Extensive ongoing research is being carried out to develop stably-inherited plasmid vectors. Here, I present an easy and precise method for determining the kinetics of plasmid loss or maintenance for every ten generations of bacterial growth in culture. PMID:26846807

  12. Protein Aggregation Formed by Recombinant cp19k Homologue of Balanus albicostatus Combined with an 18 kDa N-Terminus Encoded by pET-32a(+) Plasmid Having Adhesion Strength Comparable to Several Commercial Glues.

    PubMed

    Liang, Chao; Li, Yunqiu; Liu, Zhiming; Wu, Wenjian; Hu, Biru

    2015-01-01

    The barnacle is well known for its tenacious and permanent attachment to a wide variety of underwater substrates, which is accomplished by synthesizing, secreting and curing a mixture of adhesive proteins termed "barnacle cement". In order to evaluate interfacial adhesion abilities of barnacle cement proteins, the cp19k homologous gene in Balanus albicostatus (Balcp19k) was cloned and expressed in Escherichia coli. Here, we report an intriguing discovery of a gel-like super adhesive aggregation produced by Trx-Balcp19k, a recombinant Balcp19k fusion protein. The Trx-Balcp19k consists of an 18 kDa fragment at the N-terminus, which is encoded by pET-32a(+) plasmid and mainly comprised of a thioredoxin (Trx) tag, and Balcp19k at the C-terminus. The sticky aggregation was designated as "Trx-Balcp19k gel", and the bulk adhesion strength, biochemical composition, as well as formation conditions were all carefully investigated. The Trx-Balcp19k gel exhibited strong adhesion strength of 2.10 ± 0.67 MPa, which was approximately fifty folds higher than that of the disaggregated Trx-Balcp19k (40 ± 8 kPa) and rivaled those of commercial polyvinyl acetate (PVA) craft glue (Mont Marte, Australia) and UHU glue (UHU GmbH & Co. KG, Germany). Lipids were absent from the Trx-Balcp19k gel and only a trace amount of carbohydrates was detected. We postulate that the electrostatic interactions play a key role in the formation of Trx-Balcp19k gel, by mediating self-aggregation of Trx-Balcp19k based on its asymmetric distribution pattern of charged amino acids. Taken together, we believe that our discovery not only presents a promising biological adhesive with potential applications in both biomedical and technical fields, but also provides valuable paradigms for molecular design of bio-inspired peptide- or protein-based materials. PMID:26317205

  13. Protein Aggregation Formed by Recombinant cp19k Homologue of Balanus albicostatus Combined with an 18 kDa N-Terminus Encoded by pET-32a(+) Plasmid Having Adhesion Strength Comparable to Several Commercial Glues

    PubMed Central

    Liang, Chao; Li, Yunqiu; Liu, Zhiming; Wu, Wenjian; Hu, Biru

    2015-01-01

    The barnacle is well known for its tenacious and permanent attachment to a wide variety of underwater substrates, which is accomplished by synthesizing, secreting and curing a mixture of adhesive proteins termed “barnacle cement”. In order to evaluate interfacial adhesion abilities of barnacle cement proteins, the cp19k homologous gene in Balanus albicostatus (Balcp19k) was cloned and expressed in Escherichia coli. Here, we report an intriguing discovery of a gel-like super adhesive aggregation produced by Trx-Balcp19k, a recombinant Balcp19k fusion protein. The Trx-Balcp19k consists of an 18 kDa fragment at the N-terminus, which is encoded by pET-32a(+) plasmid and mainly comprised of a thioredoxin (Trx) tag, and Balcp19k at the C-terminus. The sticky aggregation was designated as “Trx-Balcp19k gel”, and the bulk adhesion strength, biochemical composition, as well as formation conditions were all carefully investigated. The Trx-Balcp19k gel exhibited strong adhesion strength of 2.10 ± 0.67 MPa, which was approximately fifty folds higher than that of the disaggregated Trx-Balcp19k (40 ± 8 kPa) and rivaled those of commercial polyvinyl acetate (PVA) craft glue (Mont Marte, Australia) and UHU glue (UHU GmbH & Co. KG, Germany). Lipids were absent from the Trx-Balcp19k gel and only a trace amount of carbohydrates was detected. We postulate that the electrostatic interactions play a key role in the formation of Trx-Balcp19k gel, by mediating self-aggregation of Trx-Balcp19k based on its asymmetric distribution pattern of charged amino acids. Taken together, we believe that our discovery not only presents a promising biological adhesive with potential applications in both biomedical and technical fields, but also provides valuable paradigms for molecular design of bio-inspired peptide- or protein-based materials. PMID:26317205

  14. Cloning and expression of a plasmid-linked pediocin determinant trait of Pediococcus acidilactici F.

    PubMed

    Osmanağaoğlu, O; Beyatli, Y; Gündüz, U

    2000-01-01

    Plasmid DNA from Pediococcus acidilactici F was prepared by lysozyme-mutanolysin method and purified by cesium chloride-ethidium bromide (CsCl-EtBr) density gradient ultracentrifugation. Agarose gel electrophoresis of plasmid DNA and plasmid-curing experiments suggested that bacteriocin activity was harboured on a small plasmid of approximately 9.1 kb (kilobasepair) in Pediococcus acidilactici F. Plasmid encoding bacteriocin production in P. acidilactici F was examined for restriction enzyme cleavage patterns and its map has been constructed. An Escherichia coli strain transformed with the recombinant plasmid, pQE322, produced and, most probably, secreted pediocin F. PMID:10746198

  15. The genetic basis of plasmid tropism between Chlamydia trachomatis and Chlamydia muridarum.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yibing; Cutcliffe, Lesley T; Skilton, Rachel J; Ramsey, Kyle H; Thomson, Nicholas R; Clarke, Ian N

    2014-10-01

    The development of genetic transformation technology for Chlamydia trachomatis using its endogenous plasmid has recently been described. Chlamydia muridarum cannot be transformed by the C. trachomatis plasmid, indicating a barrier between chlamydial species. To determine which regions of the plasmid conferred the species specificity, we used the novel approach of transforming wild-type C. muridarum carrying the endogenous plasmid pNigg and forced recombination with the C. trachomatis vector pGFP::SW2 which carries the complete C. trachomatis plasmid (pSW2). Penicillin and chloramphenicol-resistant transformants expressing the green fluorescent protein were selected. Recovery of plasmids from these transformants showed they were recombinants. The differences between the pSW2 and pNigg allowed identification of the recombination breakpoints and showed that pGFP::SW2 had exchanged a ~ 1 kbp region with pNigg covering CDS 2. The recombinant plasmid (pSW2NiggCDS2) is maintained under antibiotic selection when transformed into plasmid-cured C. muridarum. The ability to select for recombinants in C. muridarum shows that the barrier is not at transformation, but at the level of plasmid replication or maintenance. Our studies show that CDS 2, together with adjoining sequences, is the main determinant of plasmid tropism. PMID:24700815

  16. The genetic basis of plasmid tropism between Chlamydia trachomatis and Chlamydia muridarum

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yibing; Cutcliffe, Lesley T; Skilton, Rachel J; Ramsey, Kyle H; Thomson, Nicholas R; Clarke, Ian N

    2014-01-01

    The development of genetic transformation technology for Chlamydia trachomatis using its endogenous plasmid has recently been described. Chlamydia muridarum cannot be transformed by the C. trachomatis plasmid, indicating a barrier between chlamydial species. To determine which regions of the plasmid conferred the species specificity, we used the novel approach of transforming wild-type C. muridarum carrying the endogenous plasmid pNigg and forced recombination with the C. trachomatis vector pGFP::SW2 which carries the complete C. trachomatis plasmid (pSW2). Penicillin and chloramphenicol-resistant transformants expressing the green fluorescent protein were selected. Recovery of plasmids from these transformants showed they were recombinants. The differences between the pSW2 and pNigg allowed identification of the recombination breakpoints and showed that pGFP::SW2 had exchanged a ∼ 1 kbp region with pNigg covering CDS 2. The recombinant plasmid (pSW2NiggCDS2) is maintained under antibiotic selection when transformed into plasmid-cured C. muridarum. The ability to select for recombinants in C. muridarum shows that the barrier is not at transformation, but at the level of plasmid replication or maintenance. Our studies show that CDS 2, together with adjoining sequences, is the main determinant of plasmid tropism. PMID:24700815

  17. Evolution of genes on the Salmonella Virulence plasmid phylogeny revealed from sequencing of the virulence plasmids of S. enterica serotype Dublin and comparative analysis.

    PubMed

    Chu, Chishih; Feng, Ye; Chien, An-Chi; Hu, Songnian; Chu, Chi-Hong; Chiu, Cheng-Hsun

    2008-11-01

    Salmonella enterica serotype Dublin harbors an approximately 80-kb virulence plasmid (pSDV), which mediates systemic infection in cattle. There are two types of pSDV: one is pSDVu (pOU1113) in strain OU7025 and the other pSDVr (pOU1115) in OU7409 (SD Lane) and many clinical isolates. Sequence analysis showed that pSDVr was a recombinant plasmid (co-integrate) of pSDVu and a plasmid similar to a 35-kb indigenous plasmid (pOU1114) of S. Dublin. Most of the F-transfer region in pSDVu was replaced by a DNA segment from the pOU1114-like plasmid containing an extra replicon and a pilX operon encoding for a type IV secretion system to form pSDVr. We reconstructed the particular evolutionary history of the seven virulence plasmids of Salmonella by comparative sequence analysis. The whole evolutionary process might begin with two different F-like plasmids (IncFI and IncFII), which then incorporated the spv operon and fimbriae operon from the chromosome to form the primitive virulence plasmids. Subsequently, these plasmids descended by deletion from a relatively large plasmid to smaller ones, with some recombination events occurring over time. Our results suggest that the phylogeny of virulence plasmids as a result of frequent recombination provides the opportunity for rapid evolution of Salmonella in response to the environmental cues. PMID:18718522

  18. Properties of IncP-2 plasmids of Pseudomonas spp.

    PubMed Central

    Jacoby, G A; Sutton, L; Knobel, L; Mammen, P

    1983-01-01

    Thirty IncP-2 R plasmids from isolates of Pseudomonas spp. of diverse geographical origins were examined for the production of resistance properties. All the plasmids determined resistance to tellurite and all inhibited the propagation of certain DNA phages, although several patterns of phage inhibition were detected. Of the 30 plasmids, 29 determined resistance to streptomycin, 28 determined resistance to mercuric ion, and 24 determined resistance to sulfonamide. Resistance to other antibiotics, to compounds of arsenic, boron, or chromium, and to UV irradiation was less common. The degradative plasmid CAM also belonged to this group. When CAM was introduced into recipients carrying an IncP-2 R plasmid, recombinant plasmids were often formed in which antibiotic resistance and the ability to grow on camphor were transferred together to further recipients or were lost together in a strain in which IncP-2 plasmids were unstable. Such hybrid plasmid formation was rec dependent. CAM and other IncP-2 plasmids that determine UV light resistance demonstrated UV-enhanced, nonpolarized transfer of the Pseudomonas aeruginosa chromosome. By agarose gel electrophoresis, all IncP-2 R plasmids and CAM were ca. 300 X 10(6) in molecular weight. PMID:6638986

  19. Analysis of plasmid deletional instability in Bacillus subtilis.

    PubMed Central

    Hahn, J; Dubnau, D

    1985-01-01

    Using a model system, we have studied deletion formation in Bacillus subtilis. When the staphylococcal plasmids pSA2100 (7.1 kilobases) and pUB110 (4.5 kilobases) were ligated to one another at their unique XbaI sites and transformed into either rec+ or recE4 strains of B. subtilis, an intramolecular recombination event usually occurred. Two plasmids, one of 2.6 kilobases and the other of 9.0 kilobases, were consistently isolated and shown by restriction enzyme analysis to be derived by recombination occurring in the pSA2100-pUB110 cointegrate. Analysis of the sequence of the junctions of the recombinant plasmids and of the crossover regions of the parental plasmids suggested that a reciprocal, conservative, intramolecular recombination event had occurred between short 18-base-pair homologous sequences that were oriented as direct repeats and bounded by regions of dyad symmetry. Evidence is presented that the above illegitimate recombination event is biased to occur intramolecularly and that randomly chosen direct repeats of either 22 or 29 base pairs are not sufficient to support recombination. The recombination event occurs in recA1, recB2, recD3, recE5, recL16, recM13, polA59, polA13, uvr-22, uvr-13, and stb mutants of B. subtilis and does not require that the competent state be established. Images PMID:3922940

  20. Plasmid addiction systems: perspectives and applications in biotechnology.

    PubMed

    Kroll, Jens; Klinter, Stefan; Schneider, Cornelia; Voss, Isabella; Steinbüchel, Alexander

    2010-11-01

    Biotechnical production processes often operate with plasmid-based expression systems in well-established prokaryotic and eukaryotic hosts such as Escherichia coli or Saccharomyces cerevisiae, respectively. Genetically engineered organisms produce important chemicals, biopolymers, biofuels and high-value proteins like insulin. In those bioprocesses plasmids in recombinant hosts have an essential impact on productivity. Plasmid-free cells lead to losses in the entire product recovery and decrease the profitability of the whole process. Use of antibiotics in industrial fermentations is not an applicable option to maintain plasmid stability. Especially in pharmaceutical or GMP-based fermentation processes, deployed antibiotics must be inactivated and removed. Several plasmid addiction systems (PAS) were described in the literature. However, not every system has reached a full applicable state. This review compares most known addiction systems and is focusing on biotechnical applications. PMID:21255361

  1. Recombination-deficient mutant of Streptococcus faecalis

    SciTech Connect

    Yagi, Y.; Clewell, D.B.

    1980-08-01

    An ultraviolet radiation-sensitive derivative of Streptococcus faecalis strain JH2-2 was isolated and found to be deficient in recombination, using a plasmid-plasmid recombination system. The strain was sensitive to chemical agents which interact with deoxyribonucleic acid and also underwent deoxyribonucleic acid degradation after ultraviolet irradiation. Thus, the mutant has properties similar to those of recA strains of Escherichia coli.

  2. Plasmid-free T7-based Escherichia coli expression systems.

    PubMed

    Striedner, Gerald; Pfaffenzeller, Irene; Markus, Luchner; Nemecek, Sabine; Grabherr, Reingard; Bayer, Karl

    2010-03-01

    In order to release host cells from plasmid-mediated increases in metabolic load and high gene dosages, we developed a plasmid-free, T7-based E. coli expression system in which the target gene is site-specifically integrated into the genome of the host. With this system, plasmid-loss, a source of instability for conventional expression systems, was eliminated. At the same time, system leakiness, a challenging problem with recombinant systems, was minimized. The efficiency of the T7 RNA polymerase compensates for low gene dosage and provides high rates of recombinant gene expression without fatal consequences to host metabolism. Relative to conventional pET systems, this system permits improved process stability and increases the host cell's capacity for recombinant gene expression, resulting in higher product yields. The stability of the plasmid-free system was proven in chemostat cultivation for 40 generations in a non-induced and for 10 generations in a fully induced state. For this reason plasmid-free systems benefit the development of continuous production processes with E. coli. However, time and effort of the more complex cloning procedure have to be considered in relation to the advantages of plasmid-free systems in upstream-processing. PMID:19891007

  3. Plasmid Copy Number Determination by Quantitative Polymerase Chain Reaction.

    PubMed

    Anindyajati; Artarini, A Anita; Riani, Catur; Retnoningrum, Debbie S

    2016-01-01

    Recombinant therapeutic proteins are biopharmaceutical products that develop rapidly for years. Recombinant protein production in certain hosts requires vector expression harboring the gene encoding the corresponding protein. Escherichia coli is the prokaryote organism mostly used in recombinant protein production, commonly using a plasmid as the expression vector. Recombinant protein production is affected by plasmid copy number harboring the encoded gene, hence the determination of plasmid copy number also plays an important role in establishing a recombinant protein production system. On the industrial scale, a low copy number of plasmids are more suitable due to their better stability. In the previous study we constructed pCAD, a plasmid derived from the low copy number pBR322 plasmid. This study was aimed to confirm pCAD's copy number by quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR). Plasmid copy number was determined by comparing the quantification signal from the plasmid to those from the chromosome. Copy number was then calculated by using a known copy number plasmid as a standard. Two pairs of primers, called tdk and ori, were designed for targeting a single gene tdk in the chromosome and a conserved domain in the plasmid's ori, respectively. Primer quality was analyzed in silico using PrimerSelect DNASTAR and PraTo software prior to in vitro evaluation on primer specificity and efficiency as well as optimization of qPCR conditions. Plasmid copy number determination was conducted on E. coli lysates harboring each plasmid, with the number of cells ranging from 10(2)-10(5) cells/μL. Cells were lysed by incubation at 95ºC for 10 minutes, followed by immediate freezing at -4°C. pBR322 plasmid with the copy number of ~19 copies/cell was used as the standard, while pJExpress414-sod plasmid possessing the high copy number pUC ori was also determined to test the method being used. In silico analysis based on primer-primer and primer-template interactions showed

  4. Plasmids in Frankia sp.

    PubMed

    Normand, P; Simonet, P; Butour, J L; Rosenberg, C; Moiroud, A; Lalonde, M

    1983-07-01

    A method to achieve cell lysis and isolate Frankia sp. plasmid DNA was developed. A screening of Frankia sp. strains belonging to different host compatibility groups (Alnus sp., Elaeagnus sp., Ceanothus sp.) showed that, of 39 strains tested, 4 (strains Cp11, ARgN22d, ArI3, and EUN1f) possessed plasmids ranging in size from 7.1 to 32.2 kilobase pairs as estimated from agarose gel electrophoresis and electron microscopy. A total of 11 plasmids were detected. PMID:6863219

  5. Natural plasmids of filamentous fungi.

    PubMed Central

    Griffiths, A J

    1995-01-01

    Among eukaryotes, plasmids have been found in fungi and plants but not in animals. Most plasmids are mitochondrial. In filamentous fungi, plasmids are commonly encountered in isolates from natural populations. Individual populations may show a predominance of one type, but some plasmids have a global distribution, often crossing species boundaries. Surveys have shown that strains can contain more than one type of plasmid and that different types appear to be distributed independently. In crosses, plasmids are generally inherited maternally. Horizontal transmission is by cell contact. Circular plasmids are common only in Neurospora spp., but linear plasmids have been found in many fungi. Circular plasmids have one open reading frame (ORF) coding for a DNA polymerase or a reverse transcriptase. Linear plasmids generally have two ORFs, coding for presumptive DNA and RNA polymerases with amino acid motifs showing homology to viral polymerases. Plasmids often attain a high copy number, in excess of that of mitochondrial DNA. Linear plasmids have a protein attached to their 5' end, and this is presumed to act as a replication primer. Most plasmids are neutral passengers, but several linear plasmids integrate into mitochondrial DNA, causing death of the host culture. Inferred amino acid sequences of linear plasmid ORFs have been used to plot phylogenetic trees, which show a fair concordance with conventional trees. The circular Neurospora plasmids have replication systems that seem to be evolutionary intermediates between the RNA and the DNA worlds. PMID:8531891

  6. Construction and expression of a recombinant eukaryotic expression plasmid containing the preS1-preS2-S genes of hepatitis B virus and the granulocyte-macrophage colony stimulating factor gene: A study of its immunomodulatory effects.

    PubMed

    Gong, Jun-Yuan; Liu, Xin; Dong, Yan; Zhou, Tian-Hong; Li, Jun-Wu

    2013-03-01

    A total of 10-20% of the population remains unresponsive or weakly responsive to hepatitis B vaccine, which is composed of hepatitis B surface antigen HBsAg (S protein). Therefore, it is necessary to develop a hepatitis B vaccine with a better penetrating and responsive rate. In the present study, a plasmid pVAX1-L-GM was constructed and its immunomodulatory effect of as hepatitis B virus (HBV) DNA vaccine was analyzed through the immunization of BALB/c mice. Immune responses were measured after immunization by anti-HBsAg, proliferation of splenocytes, the number of CD4(+) and CD8(+) molecules, CTL cytotoxicity, cytokines of IFN-γ and IL-2 secretion assays. Following the immunization, mice in the pVAX1-L-GM group produced antibody 2 weeks earlier compared to the control plasmid pVAX1 and pVAX1HBsAg groups and antibody levels showed significant differences. Enhanced HBsAg-specific splenocyte proliferation as well as specific cytotoxic activities of splenic CTLs were also detected. Furthermore, pVAX1-L-GM plasmid increased the number of CD4(+) and CD8(+) molecules on the surface of the spleen T cell and the level of IFN-γ, IL-2 secretion. pVAX1-L-GM induced a specific immune response in mice and enhanced the immune effect. Thus, a foundation was laid for developing immunogenicity of a better prevention and treatment of HBV via a hepatitis B vaccine. PMID:24648930

  7. Cloning and analysis of a large plasmid pBMB165 from Bacillus thuringiensis revealed a novel plasmid organization.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yueying; Peng, Donghai; Dong, Zhaoxia; Zhu, Lei; Guo, Suxia; Sun, Ming

    2013-01-01

    In this study, we report a rapid cloning strategy for large native plasmids via a contig linkage map by BAC libraries. Using this method, we cloned a large plasmid pBMB165 from Bacillus thuringiensis serovar tenebrionis strain YBT-1765. Complete sequencing showed that pBMB165 is 77,627 bp long with a GC-content of 35.36%, and contains 103 open reading frames (ORFs). Sequence analysis and comparison reveals that pBMB165 represents a novel plasmid organization: it mainly consists of a pXO2-like replicon and mobile genetic elements (an inducible prophage BMBTP3 and a set of transposable elements). This is the first description of this plasmid organization pattern, which may result from recombination events among the plasmid replicon, prophage and transposable elements. This plasmid organization reveals that the prophage BMBTP3 may use the plasmid replicon to maintain its genetic stability. Our results provide a new approach to understanding co-evolution between bacterial plasmids and bacteriophage. PMID:24312580

  8. Cloning in Streptococcus lactis of plasmid-mediated UV resistance and effect on prophage stability

    SciTech Connect

    Chopin, M.C.; Chopin, A.; Rouault, A.; Simon, D.

    1986-02-01

    Plasmid pIL7 (33 kilobases) from Streptococcus lactis enhances UV resistance and prophage stability. A 5.4-kilobase pIL7 fragment carrying genes coding for both characters was cloned into S. lactis, using plasmid pHV1301 as the cloning vector. The recombinant plasmid was subsequently transferred to three other S. lactis strains by transformation or protoplast fusion. Cloned genes were expressed in all tested strains.

  9. PREDICTIVE MODEL OF CONJUGATIVE PLASMID TRANSFER IN THE RHIZOSPHERE AND PHYLLOSPHERE

    EPA Science Inventory

    A computer simulation model was used to predict the dynamics of survival and conjugation of Pseudomonas cepacia (carrying the transmissible recombinant plasmid R388:Tn1721) with a nonrecombinant recipient strain in simple rhizosphere and phyllosphere microcosms. lasmid transfer r...

  10. Plasmid marker rescue transformation proceeds by breakage-reunion in Bacillus subtilis

    SciTech Connect

    Weinrauch, Y.; Dubnau, D.

    1987-03-01

    Bacillus subtilis carrying a plasmid which replicates with a copy number of about 1 was transformed with linearized homologous plasmid DNA labeled with the heavy isotopes /sup 2/H and /sup 15/N, in the presence of /sup 32/Pi and 6-(p-hydroxyphenylazo)-uracil to inhibit DNA replication. Plasmid DNA was isolated from the transformed culture and fractionated in cesium chloride density gradients. The distribution of total and donor plasmid DNA was examined, using specific hybridization probes. The synthesis of new DNA, associated with the integration of donor moiety, was also monitored. Donor-specific sequences were present at a density intermediate between that of light and hybrid DNA. This recombinant DNA represented 1.4% of total plasmid DNA. The latter value corresponded well with the transforming activity (1.7%) obtained for the donor marker. Newly synthesized material associated with plasmid DNA at the recombinant density amounted to a minor portion of the recombinant plasmid DNA. These data suggest that, like chromosomal transformation, plasmid marker rescue transformation does not require replication for the integration of donor markers and, also like chromosomal transformation, proceeds by a breakage-reunion mechanism. The extent of donor DNA replacement of recipient DNA per plasmid molecule of 54 kilobases (27 kilobase pairs) was estimated as 16 kilobases.

  11. Synthesis of hybrid bacterial plasmids containing highly repeated satellite DNA.

    PubMed

    Brutlag, D; Fry, K; Nelson, T; Hung, P

    1977-03-01

    Hybrid plasmid molecules containing tandemly repeated Drosophila satellite DNA were constructed using a modification of the (dA)-(dT) homopolymer procedure of Lobban and Kaiser (1973). Recombinant plasmids recovered after transformation of recA bacteria contained 10% of the amount of satellite DNA present in the transforming molecules. The cloned plasmids were not homogenous in size. Recombinant plasmids isolated from a single colony contained populations of circular molecules which varied both in the length of the satellite region and in the poly(dA)-(dt) regions linking satellite and vector. While subcloning reduced the heterogeneity of these plasmid populations, continued cell growth caused further variations in the size of the repeated regions. Two different simple sequence satellites of Drosophila melanogaster (1.672 and 1.705 g/cm3) were unstable in both recA and recBC hosts and in both pSC101 and pCR1 vectors. We propose that this recA-independent instability of tandemly repeated sequences is due to unequal intramolecular recombination events in replicating DNA molecules, a mechanism analogous to sister chromatid exchange in eucaryotes. PMID:403010

  12. Plasmids encoding therapeutic agents

    DOEpatents

    Keener, William K.

    2007-08-07

    Plasmids encoding anti-HIV and anti-anthrax therapeutic agents are disclosed. Plasmid pWKK-500 encodes a fusion protein containing DP178 as a targeting moiety, the ricin A chain, an HIV protease cleavable linker, and a truncated ricin B chain. N-terminal extensions of the fusion protein include the maltose binding protein and a Factor Xa protease site. C-terminal extensions include a hydrophobic linker, an L domain motif peptide, a KDEL ER retention signal, another Factor Xa protease site, an out-of-frame buforin II coding sequence, the lacZ.alpha. peptide, and a polyhistidine tag. More than twenty derivatives of plasmid pWKK-500 are described. Plasmids pWKK-700 and pWKK-800 are similar to pWKK-500 wherein the DP178-encoding sequence is substituted by RANTES- and SDF-1-encoding sequences, respectively. Plasmid pWKK-900 is similar to pWKK-500 wherein the HIV protease cleavable linker is substituted by a lethal factor (LF) peptide-cleavable linker.

  13. Plasmid detection, characterization and ecology

    PubMed Central

    Smalla, Kornelia; Jechalke, Sven; Top, Eva M.

    2015-01-01

    Plasmids are important vehicles for rapid adaptation of bacterial populations to changing environmental conditions. To reduce the cost of plasmid carriage, it is thought that only a fraction of a local population carries plasmids or is permissive to plasmid uptake. Plasmids provide various accessory traits which might be beneficial under particular conditions. The genetic variation generated by plasmid carriage within populations ensures the robustness towards environmental change. Plasmid-mediated gene transfer plays an important role not only in the mobilization and dissemination of antibiotic resistance genes but also in the spread of degradative pathways and pathogenicity determinants of pathogens. Here we summarize the state-of-the-art methods to study the occurrence, abundance and diversity of plasmids in environmental bacteria. Increasingly, cultivation independent total community DNA methods are being used to characterize and quantify the diversity and abundance of plasmids in relation to various biotic and abiotic factors. An improved understanding of the ecology of plasmids and their hosts is crucial in the development of intervention strategies for antibiotic resistance gene spread. We discuss the potentials and limitations of methods used to determine the host range of plasmids as the ecology of plasmids is tightly linked to their hosts. The recent advances in sequencing technologies provide an enormous potential for plasmid classification, diversity and evolution studies but numerous challenges still exist. PMID:26104560

  14. Genetic transformation of a clinical (genital tract), plasmid-free isolate of Chlamydia trachomatis: engineering the plasmid as a cloning vector.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yibing; Kahane, Simona; Cutcliffe, Lesley T; Skilton, Rachel J; Lambden, Paul R; Persson, Kenneth; Bjartling, Carina; Clarke, Ian N

    2013-01-01

    Our study had three objectives: to extend the plasmid-based transformation protocol to a clinical isolate of C. trachomatis belonging to the trachoma biovar, to provide "proof of principle" that it is possible to "knock out" selected plasmid genes (retaining a replication competent plasmid) and to investigate the plasticity of the plasmid. A recently developed, plasmid-based transformation protocol for LGV isolates of C. trachomatis was modified and a plasmid-free, genital tract C. trachomatis isolate from Sweden (SWFP-) was genetically transformed. Transformation of this non-LGV C. trachomatis host required a centrifugation step, but the absence of the natural plasmid removed the need for plaque purification of transformants. Transformants expressed GFP, were penicillin resistant and iodine stain positive for accumulated glycogen. The transforming plasmid did not recombine with the host chromosome. A derivative of pGFP::SW2 carrying a deletion of the plasmid CDS5 gene was engineered. CDS5 encodes pgp3, a protein secreted from the inclusion into the cell cytoplasm. This plasmid (pCDS5KO) was used to transform C. trachomatis SWFP-, and established that pgp3 is dispensable for plasmid function. The work shows it is possible to selectively delete segments of the chlamydial plasmid, and this is the first step towards a detailed molecular dissection of the role of the plasmid. The 3.6 kb β-galactosidase cassette was inserted into the deletion site of CDS5 to produce plasmid placZ-CDS5KO. Transformants were penicillin resistant, expressed GFP and stained for glycogen. In addition, they expressed β-galactosidase showing that the lacZ cassette was functional in C. trachomatis. An assay was developed that allowed the visualisation of individual inclusions by X-gal staining. The ability to express active β-galactosidase within chlamydial inclusions is an important advance as it allows simple, rapid assays to measure directly chlamydial infectivity without the need for

  15. SURVIVAL AND EFFECTS OF WILD-TYPE, MUTANT, AND RECOMBINANT STREPTOMYCES IN A SOIL ECOSYSTEM

    EPA Science Inventory

    In a laboratory simulation, selected wild-type, mutant, and recombinant Streptomyces were released into a silt loam soil. trains included genetically enhanced lignin decomposers and those expressing recombinant plasmids. heir survival and effects on soil organic carbon mineraliza...

  16. Nonconjugative Plasmids Encoding Sulfanilamide Resistance

    PubMed Central

    Mitsuhashi, Susumu; Inoue, Kunio; Inoue, Matsuhisa

    1977-01-01

    Nonconjugative plasmids encoding sulfanilamide (Sa) resistance were demonstrated at a high frequency in Shigella and Escherichia coli strains resistant to sulfanilamide. These Sa plasmids were all compatible with the standard plasmids used in compatibility testing. The sizes of seven Sa plasmids were measured by electron microscopy and ranged from 1.79 to 2.08 μm, corresponding to 3.5 to 3.9 megadaltons. Images PMID:334067

  17. Potential shuttle vectors based on the methanogen plasmid pME2001

    SciTech Connect

    Meile, L.; Reeve, J.N.

    1985-01-01

    Methane is produced by anaerobic archaebacteria known as methanogens. Currently the only available plasmid from a methanogen is pME2001. The authors incorporated pME2001 into plasmids which should be capable of replication in a range of microbial host species. Plasmid pET2411, a recombinant plasmid formed by joining pBR322 to pME2001, directs the synthesis of pME2001 encoded polypeptides in Escherichia coli but cannot replicate in E. coli in the absence of E. coli DNA polymerase I. 23 references, 3 figures, 1 table.

  18. recA-independent recombination between repeated IS50 elements is not caused by an IS50-encoded function.

    PubMed Central

    Phadnis, S H; Berg, D E

    1985-01-01

    Certain pBR322-related plasmids containing direct repeats of the insertion element IS50 appear to be unstable in recA Escherichia coli because smaller recombinant derivatives accumulate rapidly in plasmid DNA populations. We show here that (i) this instability is plasmid specific, but not IS50 specific; (ii) it is due to a detrimental effect exerted by these plasmids on bacterial growth; and (iii) the growth impairment is alleviated in cells harboring the smaller recombinant plasmids. Although a recent report had concluded that accumulation of recombinants reflected an IS50-specific recombination function, when correction is made for the relative growth rates of cells containing the parental and recombinant plasmids the evidence for such a recombination function disappears. Images PMID:2982795

  19. Toxin plasmids of Clostridium perfringens.

    PubMed

    Li, Jihong; Adams, Vicki; Bannam, Trudi L; Miyamoto, Kazuaki; Garcia, Jorge P; Uzal, Francisco A; Rood, Julian I; McClane, Bruce A

    2013-06-01

    In both humans and animals, Clostridium perfringens is an important cause of histotoxic infections and diseases originating in the intestines, such as enteritis and enterotoxemia. The virulence of this Gram-positive, anaerobic bacterium is heavily dependent upon its prolific toxin-producing ability. Many of the ∼16 toxins produced by C. perfringens are encoded by large plasmids that range in size from ∼45 kb to ∼140 kb. These plasmid-encoded toxins are often closely associated with mobile elements. A C. perfringens strain can carry up to three different toxin plasmids, with a single plasmid carrying up to three distinct toxin genes. Molecular Koch's postulate analyses have established the importance of several plasmid-encoded toxins when C. perfringens disease strains cause enteritis or enterotoxemias. Many toxin plasmids are closely related, suggesting a common evolutionary origin. In particular, most toxin plasmids and some antibiotic resistance plasmids of C. perfringens share an ∼35-kb region containing a Tn916-related conjugation locus named tcp (transfer of clostridial plasmids). This tcp locus can mediate highly efficient conjugative transfer of these toxin or resistance plasmids. For example, conjugative transfer of a toxin plasmid from an infecting strain to C. perfringens normal intestinal flora strains may help to amplify and prolong an infection. Therefore, the presence of toxin genes on conjugative plasmids, particularly in association with insertion sequences that may mobilize these toxin genes, likely provides C. perfringens with considerable virulence plasticity and adaptability when it causes diseases originating in the gastrointestinal tract. PMID:23699255

  20. Influence on the osteogenic activity of the human bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells transfected by liposome-mediated recombinant plasmid pIRES-hBMP2-hVEGF165 in vitro.

    PubMed

    Guo-ping, Wu; Xiao-chuan, He; Zhi-hui, Yang; Li, Guo

    2010-07-01

    Bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) is an attractive option for use as seed cells in tissue engineering strategies. Bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) to be involved in the formation of various tissue types including bone, cartilage, tendon, and ligament. Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is a promising reagent for inducing angiogenesis. Constructed a coexpressing vector of human bone morphogenetic protein 2 (hBMP-2) and vascular endothelial growth factor 165 (hVEGF165). The vectors were transfected into proliferated BMSCs isolated from healthy adult bone marrow. The expression of hBMP-2 and hVEGF165 genes of BMSCs were assayed by Western-blot, and the level of alkaline phosphatase activities of BMSCs was determined by RT-PCR analysis of osteocalcin mRNA expression. The levels of collagen I by immunohistochemical staining were also determined.BMSCs transfected with reconstructed plasmid pIRES-hBMP-2-VEGF165 could secret a high level of BMP-2 and hVEGF165. The production of type I collagen, the activity of alkaline phosphatase, and the expression of osteocalcin mRNA were also significantly improved in the transfected BMSCs, compared with the control group.The exogenous hBMP-2 and hVEGF165 genes can be expressed constitutively in the transfected BMSCs, and the lineage-committed differentiation abilities of BMSCs containing combination of genes BMP-2 and VEGF165 are enhanced. PMID:20548225

  1. Effect of plasmid copy number and lac operator sequence on antibiotic-free plasmid selection by operator-repressor titration in Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Cranenburgh, Rocky M; Lewis, Kathryn S; Hanak, Julian A J

    2004-01-01

    The Escherichia coli strain DH1lacdapD enables plasmid selection and maintenance that is free from antibiotics and selectable marker genes. This is achieved by using only the lac operator sequence as a selectable element. This strain is currently used to generate high copy number plasmids with no antibiotic resistance genes for use as DNA vaccines and for expression of recombinant proteins. Until now these have been limited to pUC-based plasmids containing a high copy number pMB1-derived origin of replication, and the principle lacO(1) and auxiliary lacO(3) operators. In this study we have shown that this system can also be used to select and maintain pBR322-based plasmids with the lower copy number pMB1 origin of replication, and that lacO(1) alone or a palindromic version of lacO(1) can provide a sufficient level of repressor titration for plasmid selection. This is advantageous for recombinant protein production, where low copy number plasmids are often used and plasmid maintenance is important. The degree of repressor titration due to these plasmids was measured using the natural lactose operon in E. coli DH1 as a model. PMID:15383717

  2. λ Recombination and Recombineering.

    PubMed

    Murphy, Kenan C

    2016-05-01

    The bacteriophage λ Red homologous recombination system has been studied over the past 50 years as a model system to define the mechanistic details of how organisms exchange DNA segments that share extended regions of homology. The λ Red system proved useful as a system to study because recombinants could be easily generated by co-infection of genetically marked phages. What emerged from these studies was the recognition that replication of phage DNA was required for substantial Red-promoted recombination in vivo, and the critical role that double-stranded DNA ends play in allowing the Red proteins access to the phage DNA chromosomes. In the past 16 years, however, the λ Red recombination system has gained a new notoriety. When expressed independently of other λ functions, the Red system is able to promote recombination of linear DNA containing limited regions of homology (∼50 bp) with the Escherichia coli chromosome, a process known as recombineering. This review explains how the Red system works during a phage infection, and how it is utilized to make chromosomal modifications of E. coli with such efficiency that it changed the nature and number of genetic manipulations possible, leading to advances in bacterial genomics, metabolic engineering, and eukaryotic genetics. PMID:27223821

  3. Development of simple and efficient protocol for isolation of plasmids from mycobacteria using zirconia beads.

    PubMed

    Madiraju, M V; Qin, M H; Rajagopalan, M

    2000-01-01

    A two-step protocol has been developed for isolation of plasmids from recombinant mycobacteria via Escherichia coli. First either mycobacterial primary transformants or propagated cultures were lysed in a mini-bead beater using zirconia beads and the lysate thus obtained was used to transform E. coli recA mutant cells. Secondly, plasmid DNA was isolated from recombinant E. coli cells and analysed. Bead beating times of 2 min for Mycobacterium smegmatis, a rapid grower, and 4 min for M. bovis BCG, a slow grower, were found to be optimal for recovery of plasmid DNA. This protocol was also amenable to other mycobacterial species such as M. avium, M. fortuitum and M. tuberculosis H37Ra. Plasmid recovery from the recombinant M. bovis BCG using this protocol is approximately 300-fold higher than that reported for the electroduction method. PMID:10728558

  4. Plasmids as Tools for Containment.

    PubMed

    García, José L; Díaz, Eduardo

    2014-10-01

    Active containment systems are a major tool for reducing the uncertainty associated with the introduction of monocultures, genetically engineered or not, into target habitats for a large number of biotechnological applications (e.g., bioremediation, bioleaching, biopesticides, biofuels, biotransformations, live vaccines, etc.). While biological containment reduces the survival of the introduced organism outside the target habitat and/or upon completion of the projected task, gene containment strategies reduce the lateral spread of the key genetic determinants to indigenous microorganisms. In fundamental research, suicide circuits become relevant tools to address the role of gene transfer, mainly plasmid transfer, in evolution and how this transfer contributes to genome plasticity and to the rapid adaptation of microbial communities to environmental changes. Many lethal functions and regulatory circuits have been used and combined to design efficient containment systems. As many new genomes are being sequenced, novel lethal genes and regulatory elements are available, e.g., new toxin-antitoxin modules, and they could be used to increase further the current containment efficiencies and to expand containment to other organisms. Although the current containment systems can increase the predictability of genetically modified organisms in the environment, containment will never be absolute, due to the existence of mutations that lead to the appearance of surviving subpopulations. In this sense, orthogonal systems (xenobiology) appear to be the solution for setting a functional genetic firewall that will allow absolute containment of recombinant organisms. PMID:26104372

  5. Topological Behavior of Plasmid DNA

    PubMed Central

    Higgins, N. Patrick; Vologodskii, Alexander V.

    2015-01-01

    The discovery of the B-form structure of DNA by Watson and Crick led to an explosion of research on nucleic acids in the fields of biochemistry, biophysics, and genetics. Powerful techniques were developed to reveal a myriad of different structural conformations that change B-DNA as it is transcribed, replicated, and recombined and as sister chromosomes are moved into new daughter cell compartments during cell division. This article links the original discoveries of superhelical structure and molecular topology to non-B form DNA structure and contemporary biochemical and biophysical techniques. The emphasis is on the power of plasmids for studying DNA structure and function. The conditions that trigger the formation of alternative DNA structures such as left-handed Z-DNA, inter- and intra-molecular triplexes, triple-stranded DNA, and linked catenanes and hemicatenanes are explained. The DNA dynamics and topological issues are detailed for stalled replication forks and for torsional and structural changes on DNA in front of and behind a transcription complex and a replisome. The complex and interconnected roles of topoisomerases and abundant small nucleoid association proteins are explained. And methods are described for comparing in vivo and in vitro reactions to probe and understand the temporal pathways of DNA and chromosome chemistry that occur inside living cells. PMID:26104708

  6. Ethanol production by recombinant hosts

    DOEpatents

    Ingram, Lonnie O.; Beall, David S.; Burchhardt, Gerhard F. H.; Guimaraes, Walter V.; Ohta, Kazuyoshi; Wood, Brent E.; Shanmugam, Keelnatham T.

    1995-01-01

    Novel plasmids comprising genes which code for the alcohol dehydrogenase and pyruvate decarboxylase are described. Also described are recombinant hosts which have been transformed with genes coding for alcohol dehydrogenase and pyruvate. By virtue of their transformation with these genes, the recombinant hosts are capable of producing significant amounts of ethanol as a fermentation product. Also disclosed are methods for increasing the growth of recombinant hosts and methods for reducing the accumulation of undesirable metabolic products in the growth medium of these hosts. Also disclosed are recombinant host capable of producing significant amounts of ethanol as a fermentation product of oligosaccharides and plasmids comprising genes encoding polysaccharases, in addition to the genes described above which code for the alcohol dehydrogenase and pyruvate decarboxylase. Further, methods are described for producing ethanol from oligomeric feedstock using the recombinant hosts described above. Also provided is a method for enhancing the production of functional proteins in a recombinant host comprising overexpressing an adhB gene in the host. Further provided are process designs for fermenting oligosaccharide-containing biomass to ethanol.

  7. Ethanol production by recombinant hosts

    DOEpatents

    Fowler, David E.; Horton, Philip G.; Ben-Bassat, Arie

    1996-01-01

    Novel plasmids comprising genes which code for the alcohol dehydrogenase and pyruvate decarboxylase are described. Also described are recombinant hosts which have been transformed with genes coding for alcohol dehydrogenase and pyruvate. By virtue of their transformation with these genes, the recombinant hosts are capable of producing significant amounts of ethanol as a fermentation product. Also disclosed are methods for increasing the growth of recombinant hosts and methods for reducing the accumulation of undesirable metabolic products in the growth medium of these hosts. Also disclosed are recombinant host capable of producing significant amounts of ethanol as a fermentation product of oligosaccharides and plasmids comprising genes encoding polysaccharases, in addition to the genes described above which code for the alcohol dehydrogenase and pyruvate decarboxylase. Further, methods are described for producing ethanol from oligomeric feedstock using the recombinant hosts described above. Also provided is a method for enhancing the production of functional proteins in a recombinant host comprising overexpressing an adhB gene in the host. Further provided are process designs for fermenting oligosaccharide-containing biomass to ethanol.

  8. Recombinant protein expression plasmids optimized for industrial E. coli fermentation and plant systems produce biologically active human insulin-like growth factor-1 in transgenic rice and tobacco plants.

    PubMed

    Panahi, Mitra; Alli, Zaman; Cheng, Xiongying; Belbaraka, Loubaba; Belgoudi, Jaafar; Sardana, Ravinder; Phipps, Jenny; Altosaar, Illimar

    2004-06-01

    Human insulin-like growth factor-1 (hIGF-1) is a growth factor with clinical significance in medicine. The therapeutic potential of recombinant hIGF-1 (rthIGF-1) stems from the fact that hIGF-1 resembles insulin in many aspects of physiology. The expression of hIGF-1 in transgenic tobacco and rice plants using different expression cassettes is reported here. In the present study, two coding sequences were tested, one with the original human sequence, but partially optimized for expression in E. coli and the other with a plant-codon-optimized sequence that was expected to give a higher level of expression in plant systems. Three different hIGF-1 recombinant expression constructs were generated. All expression constructs utilized the maize ubiquitin 1 promoter with or without a signal sequence. Analyses conducted using a hIGF-1 specific ELISA kit showed all transgenic plants produced hIGF-1 and the accumulated hIGF-1 increased from the E. coli codon bias to higher levels when the hIGF-1 coding sequence was codon-optimized to match that of the maize zeamatin protein--the most transcribed gene in maize endosperm suspension cells. Further analyses that compared the functionality of the bacterial signal peptide Lam B in plants showed that this leader peptide led to lower expression levels when compared to transgenic plants that did not contain this sequence. This indicated that this expression construct was functional without removal of the bacterial signal sequence. The maize ubiquitin 1 promoter was found to be more active in rice plants than tobacco plants indicating that in this case, there was a class preference that was biased towards a monocot host. Biological analyses conducted using protein extracts from transgenic plants showed that the rthIGF-1 was effective in stimulating the in vitro growth and proliferation of human SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cells. This indicated that the plant-produced rthIGF-1 was stable and biologically active. As some plants have been

  9. Role of the 85-Kilobase Plasmid and Plasmid-Encoded Virulence-Associated Protein A in Intracellular Survival and Virulence of Rhodococcus equi

    PubMed Central

    Giguère, Steeve; Hondalus, Mary K.; Yager, Julie A.; Darrah, Patricia; Mosser, David M.; Prescott, John F.

    1999-01-01

    Rhodococcus equi is a facultative intracellular pathogen of macrophages and a cause of pneumonia in young horses (foals) and immunocompromised people. Isolates of R. equi from pneumonic foals typically contain large, 85- or 90-kb plasmids encoding a highly immunogenic virulence-associated protein (VapA). The objective of this study was to determine the role of the 85-kb plasmid and VapA in the intracellular survival and virulence of R. equi. Clinical isolates containing the plasmid and expressing VapA efficiently replicated within mouse macrophages in vitro, while plasmid-cured derivatives of these organisms did not multiply intracellularly. An isolate harboring the large plasmid also replicated in the tissues of experimentally infected mice, whereas its plasmid-cured derivative was rapidly cleared. All foals experimentally infected with a plasmid-containing clinical isolate developed severe bronchopneumonia, whereas the foals infected with its plasmid-cured derivative remained asymptomatic and free of visible lung lesions. By day 14 postinfection, lung bacterial burdens had increased considerably in foals challenged with the plasmid-containing clinical isolate. In contrast, bacteria could no longer be cultured from the lungs of foals challenged with the isogenic plasmid-cured derivative. A recombinant, plasmid-cured derivative expressing wild-type levels of VapA failed to replicate in macrophages and remained avirulent for both mice and foals. These results show that the 85-kb plasmid of R. equi is essential for intracellular replication within macrophages and for development of disease in the native host, the foal. However, expression of VapA alone is not sufficient to restore the virulence phenotype. PMID:10377138

  10. Toxin Plasmids of Clostridium perfringens

    PubMed Central

    Li, Jihong; Adams, Vicki; Bannam, Trudi L.; Miyamoto, Kazuaki; Garcia, Jorge P.; Uzal, Francisco A.; Rood, Julian I.

    2013-01-01

    SUMMARY In both humans and animals, Clostridium perfringens is an important cause of histotoxic infections and diseases originating in the intestines, such as enteritis and enterotoxemia. The virulence of this Gram-positive, anaerobic bacterium is heavily dependent upon its prolific toxin-producing ability. Many of the ∼16 toxins produced by C. perfringens are encoded by large plasmids that range in size from ∼45 kb to ∼140 kb. These plasmid-encoded toxins are often closely associated with mobile elements. A C. perfringens strain can carry up to three different toxin plasmids, with a single plasmid carrying up to three distinct toxin genes. Molecular Koch's postulate analyses have established the importance of several plasmid-encoded toxins when C. perfringens disease strains cause enteritis or enterotoxemias. Many toxin plasmids are closely related, suggesting a common evolutionary origin. In particular, most toxin plasmids and some antibiotic resistance plasmids of C. perfringens share an ∼35-kb region containing a Tn916-related conjugation locus named tcp (transfer of clostridial plasmids). This tcp locus can mediate highly efficient conjugative transfer of these toxin or resistance plasmids. For example, conjugative transfer of a toxin plasmid from an infecting strain to C. perfringens normal intestinal flora strains may help to amplify and prolong an infection. Therefore, the presence of toxin genes on conjugative plasmids, particularly in association with insertion sequences that may mobilize these toxin genes, likely provides C. perfringens with considerable virulence plasticity and adaptability when it causes diseases originating in the gastrointestinal tract. PMID:23699255

  11. Molecular and immunological characterisation of recombinant Brucella abortus glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate-dehydrogenase, a T- and B-cell reactive protein that induces partial protection when co-administered with an interleukin-12-expressing plasmid in a DNA vaccine formulation.

    PubMed

    Rosinha, Gracia M S; Myioshi, Anderson; Azevedo, Vasco; Splitter, Gary A; Oliveira, Sergio C

    2002-08-01

    To identify antigens of Brucella spp. that are potentially involved in stimulating a protective T-cell-mediated immune response, previous studies identified 10 clones from a Brucella abortus 2308 genomic library with primed lymphocytes as probes. One selected positive clone (182) contained an insert of 1.2 kb which was identified, sequenced and characterised. The deduced amino acid sequence of the open reading frame (ORF) revealed 82% and 81% identity to the glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH) enzymes from Agrobacterium tumefaciens and Xanthobacter flavus, respectively. Southern blot analysis demonstrated that the gap gene is present in only one copy in the Brucella genome. B. abortus GAPDH was then expressed in Escherichia coli as a fusion protein with the maltose-binding protein (MBP). To demonstrate the functional activity of Brucella GAPDH, E. coli gap mutants were transformed with a Brucella pMAL-gap construct. Genetic complementation was achieved and as a result E. coli mutants were able to grow on glucose or other carbon source medium. The humoral and cellular immune responses to the recombinant (r) GAPDH were characterised. In Western blots, sera from naturally infected cattle and sheep showed antibody reactivity against rGAPDH. In response to in-vitro stimulation by rGAPDH, splenocytes from mice vaccinated with rGAPDH or B. abortus S19 were able to produce gamma-interferon and tumour necrosis factor-a but not interleukin (IL)-4. Furthermore, gap associated with murine IL-12 gene in a DNA vaccine formulation partially protected mice against experimental infection. PMID:12171297

  12. Plasmid vector with temperature-controlled gene expression

    SciTech Connect

    Kravchenko, V.V.; Yamshchikov, V.F.; Pletnev, A.G.

    1986-02-01

    In plasmid pBR327, a fragment 169 b.p. long including promotor p/sub 3/ of the bla gene has been deleted. The deletional derivative so obtained (pSP2) has been used to construct a recombinant plasmid bearing a fragment of phage lambda DNA with the p/sub R/ promotor and the gene of the temperature-sensitive repressor cI. It has been shown that the plasmid vector so constructed (pCE119) with promotor cR performs repressor-cI-controlled transcription of the bla gene, as a result of which induction for an hour at 42/sup 0/C leads to an almost 100-fold increase in the amount of product of the bla gene as compared with that at 32/sup 0/C. The possibility of the use of plasmid cPE119 for the expression of other genes has been demonstrated for the case of the semisynthetic ..beta..-galactosidase gene of E. coli. In this case, on induction of the cells with recombinant plasmid pCEZ12 for 3 hours at 42/sup 0/C, a 300-fold increase in the amount of active ..beta..-galactosidase, as compared with that at 32/sup 0/C, was observed. It is important to point out that under these conditions (at 42/sup 0/C), at least 99% of the cells containing the plasmid retain the phenotype lacZ/sup +/, which indicates the stability of the proposed vector system

  13. Evolution of Chromosomal Clostridium botulinum Type E Neurotoxin Gene Clusters: Evidence Provided by Their Rare Plasmid-Borne Counterparts.

    PubMed

    Carter, Andrew T; Austin, John W; Weedmark, Kelly A; Peck, Michael W

    2016-03-01

    Analysis of more than 150 Clostridium botulinum Group II type E genomes identified a small fraction (6%) where neurotoxin-encoding genes were located on plasmids. Seven closely related (134-144 kb) neurotoxigenic plasmids of subtypes E1, E3, and E10 were characterized; all carried genes associated with plasmid mobility via conjugation. Each plasmid contained the same 24-kb neurotoxin cluster cassette (six neurotoxin cluster and six flanking genes) that had split a helicase gene, rather than the more common chromosomal rarA. The neurotoxin cluster cassettes had evolved as separate genetic units which had either exited their chromosomal rarA locus in a series of parallel events, inserting into the plasmid-borne helicase gene, or vice versa. A single intact version of the helicase gene was discovered on a nonneurotoxigenic form of this plasmid. The observed low frequency for the plasmid location may reflect one or more of the following: 1) Less efficient recombination mechanism for the helicase gene target, 2) lack of suitable target plasmids, and 3) loss of neurotoxigenic plasmids. Type E1 and E10 plasmids possessed a Clustered Regularly Interspaced Short Palindromic Repeats locus with spacers that recognized C. botulinum Group II plasmids, but not C. botulinum Group I plasmids, demonstrating their long-term separation. Clostridium botulinum Group II type E strains also carry nonneurotoxigenic plasmids closely related to C. botulinum Group II types B and F plasmids. Here, the absence of neurotoxin cassettes may be because recombination requires both a specific mechanism and specific target sequence, which are rarely found together. PMID:26936890

  14. Evolution of Chromosomal Clostridium botulinum Type E Neurotoxin Gene Clusters: Evidence Provided by Their Rare Plasmid-Borne Counterparts

    PubMed Central

    Carter, Andrew T.; Austin, John W.; Weedmark, Kelly A.; Peck, Michael W.

    2016-01-01

    Analysis of more than 150 Clostridium botulinum Group II type E genomes identified a small fraction (6%) where neurotoxin-encoding genes were located on plasmids. Seven closely related (134–144 kb) neurotoxigenic plasmids of subtypes E1, E3, and E10 were characterized; all carried genes associated with plasmid mobility via conjugation. Each plasmid contained the same 24-kb neurotoxin cluster cassette (six neurotoxin cluster and six flanking genes) that had split a helicase gene, rather than the more common chromosomal rarA. The neurotoxin cluster cassettes had evolved as separate genetic units which had either exited their chromosomal rarA locus in a series of parallel events, inserting into the plasmid-borne helicase gene, or vice versa. A single intact version of the helicase gene was discovered on a nonneurotoxigenic form of this plasmid. The observed low frequency for the plasmid location may reflect one or more of the following: 1) Less efficient recombination mechanism for the helicase gene target, 2) lack of suitable target plasmids, and 3) loss of neurotoxigenic plasmids. Type E1 and E10 plasmids possessed a Clustered Regularly Interspaced Short Palindromic Repeats locus with spacers that recognized C. botulinum Group II plasmids, but not C. botulinum Group I plasmids, demonstrating their long-term separation. Clostridium botulinum Group II type E strains also carry nonneurotoxigenic plasmids closely related to C. botulinum Group II types B and F plasmids. Here, the absence of neurotoxin cassettes may be because recombination requires both a specific mechanism and specific target sequence, which are rarely found together. PMID:26936890

  15. Transformation-associated recombination between diverged and homologous DNA repeats is induced by strand breaks

    SciTech Connect

    Larionov, V.; Kouprina, N. |; Edlarov, M. |; Perkins, E.; Porter, G.; Resnick, M.A.

    1993-12-31

    Rearrangement and deletion within plasmid DNA is commonly observed during transformation. We have examined the mechanisms of transformation-associated recombination in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae using a plasmid system which allowed the effects of physical state and/or extent of homology on recombination to be studied. The plasmid contains homologous or diverged (19%) DNA repeats separated by a genetically detectable color marker. Recombination during transformation for covalently closed circular plasmids was over 100-fold more frequent than during mitotic growth. The frequency of recombination is partly dependent on the method of transformation in that procedures involving lithium acetate or spheroplasting yield higher frequencies than electroporation. When present in the repeats, unique single-strand breaks that are ligatable, as well as double-strand breaks, lead to high levels of recombination between diverged and identical repeats. The transformation-associated recombination between repeat DNA`s is under the influence of the RADS2, RADI and the RNCI genes,

  16. Conjugative Plasmids of Neisseria gonorrhoeae

    PubMed Central

    Pachulec, Emilia; van der Does, Chris

    2010-01-01

    Many clinical isolates of the human pathogen Neisseria gonorrhoeae contain conjugative plasmids. The host range of these plasmids is limited to Neisseria species, but presence of a tetracycline (tetM) determinant inserted in several of these plasmids is an important cause of the rapid spread of tetracycline resistance. Previously plasmids with different backbones (Dutch and American type backbones) and with and without different tetM determinants (Dutch and American type tetM determinants) have been identified. Within the isolates tested, all plasmids with American or Dutch type tetM determinants contained a Dutch type plasmid backbone. This demonstrated that tetM determinants should not be used to differentiate between conjugal plasmid backbones. The nucleotide sequences of conjugative plasmids with Dutch type plasmid backbones either not containing the tetM determinant (pEP5233) or containing Dutch (pEP5289) or American (pEP5050) type tetM determinants were determined. Analysis of the backbone sequences showed that they belong to a novel IncP1 subfamily divergent from the IncP1α, β, γ, δ and ε subfamilies. The tetM determinants were inserted in a genetic load region found in all these plasmids. Insertion was accompanied by the insertion of a gene with an unknown function, and rearrangement of a toxin/antitoxin gene cluster. The genetic load region contains two toxin/antitoxins of the Zeta/Epsilon toxin/antitoxin family previously only found in Gram positive organisms and the virulence associated protein D of the VapD/VapX toxin/antitoxin family. Remarkably, presence of VapX of pJD1, a small cryptic neisserial plasmid, in the acceptor strain strongly increased the conjugation efficiency, suggesting that it functions as an antitoxin for the conjugative plasmid. The presence of the toxin and antitoxin on different plasmids might explain why the host range of this IncP1 plasmid is limited to Neisseria species. The isolated plasmids conjugated efficiently between

  17. Replication of Staphylococcal Multiresistance Plasmids

    PubMed Central

    Firth, Neville; Apisiridej, Sumalee; Berg, Tracey; O'Rourke, Brendon A.; Curnock, Steve; Dyke, Keith G. H.; Skurray, Ronald A.

    2000-01-01

    Based on structural and functional properties, three groups of large staphylococcal multiresistance plasmids have been recognized, viz., the pSK1 family, pSK41-like conjugative plasmids, and β-lactamase–heavy-metal resistance plasmids. Here we describe an analysis of the replication functions of a representative of each of these plasmid groups. The replication initiation genes from the Staphylococcus aureus plasmids pSK1, pSK41, and pI9789::Tn552 were found to be related to each other and to the Staphylococcus xylosus plasmid pSX267 and are also related to rep genes of several plasmids from other gram-positive genera. Nucleotide sequence similarity between pSK1 and pI9789::Tn552 extended beyond their rep genes, encompassing upstream divergently transcribed genes, orf245 and orf256, respectively. Our analyses revealed that genes encoding proteins related to the deduced orf245 product are variously represented, in several types of organization, on plasmids possessing six seemingly evolutionarily distinct types of replication initiation genes and including both theta-mode and rolling-circle replicons. Construction of minireplicons and subsequent functional analysis demonstrated that orf245 is required for the segregational stability of the pSK1 replicon. In contrast, no gene equivalent to orf245 is evident on the conjugative plasmid pSK41, and a minireplicon encoding only the pSK41 rep gene was found to exhibit a segregational stability approaching that of the parent plasmid. Significantly, the results described establish that many of the large multiresistance plasmids that have been identified in clinical staphylococci, which were formerly presumed to be unrelated, actually utilize an evolutionarily related theta-mode replication system. PMID:10735859

  18. Recombinant microorganisms for increased production of organic acids

    DOEpatents

    Yi, Jian; Kleff, Susanne; Guettler, Michael V.

    2012-02-21

    Disclosed are recombinant microorganisms for producing organic acids. The recombinant microorganisms express a polypeptide that has the enzymatic activity of an enzyme that is utilized in the pentose phosphate cycle. The recombinant microorganism may include recombinant Actinobacillus succinogenes that has been transformed to express a Zwischenferment (Zwf) gene. The recombinant microorganisms may be useful in fermentation processes for producing organic acids such as succinic acid and lactic acid. Also disclosed are novel plasmids that are useful for transforming microorganisms to produce recombinant microorganisms that express enzymes such as Zwf.

  19. Recombinant microorganisms for increased production of organic acids

    DOEpatents

    Yi, Jian; Kleff, Susanne; Guettler, Michael V

    2013-04-30

    Disclosed are recombinant microorganisms for producing organic acids. The recombinant microorganisms express a polypeptide that has the enzymatic activity of an enzyme that is utilized in the pentose phosphate cycle. The recombinant microorganism may include recombinant Actinobacillus succinogenes that has been transformed to express a Zwischenferment (Zwf) gene. The recombinant microorganisms may be useful in fermentation processes for producing organic acids such as succinic acid and lactic acid. Also disclosed are novel plasmids that are useful for transforming microorganisms to produce recombinant microorganisms that express enzymes such as Zwf.

  20. Phenotypic plasticity in bacterial plasmids.

    PubMed Central

    Turner, Paul E

    2004-01-01

    Plasmid pB15 was previously shown to evolve increased horizontal (infectious) transfer at the expense of reduced vertical (intergenerational) transfer and vice versa, a key trade-off assumed in theories of parasite virulence. Whereas the models predict that susceptible host abundance should determine which mode of transfer is selectively favored, host density failed to mediate the trade-off in pB15. One possibility is that the plasmid's transfer deviates from the assumption that horizontal spread (conjugation) occurs in direct proportion to cell density. I tested this hypothesis using Escherichia coli/pB15 associations in laboratory serial culture. Contrary to most models of plasmid transfer kinetics, my data show that pB15 invades static (nonshaking) bacterial cultures only at intermediate densities. The results can be explained by phenotypic plasticity in traits governing plasmid transfer. As cells become more numerous, the plasmid's conjugative transfer unexpectedly declines, while the trade-off between transmission routes causes vertical transfer to increase. Thus, at intermediate densities the plasmid's horizontal transfer can offset selection against plasmid-bearing cells, but at high densities pB15 conjugates so poorly that it cannot invade. I discuss adaptive vs. nonadaptive causes for the phenotypic plasticity, as well as potential mechanisms that may lead to complex transfer dynamics of plasmids in liquid environments. PMID:15166133

  1. Stable maintenance of plasmid in continuous culture of yeast under non-selective conditions.

    PubMed

    Gupta, J C; Mukherjee, K J

    2001-01-01

    A recombinant yeast plasmid containing the gene for beta-galactosidase was tested for stability in a host auxotrophic for leucine. Plasmid loss was studied at different dilution rates in continuous culture under selective as well as non-selective conditions. It was observed that the instability of the culture was higher at low dilution rates in selective medium, while the pattern was reversed when complex non-selective medium was used, with plasmid-containing cells competing effectively with plasmid-free cells at low dilution rates. This was attributed to a low residual yeast extract concentration in the medium at low dilution rates. Since yeast extract was the sole source of leucine, this limited the growth of plasmid-free cells, which were auxotrophic for leucine. Growth rate studies also indicated a competitive advantage of the plasmid-containing cells over the plasmid-free cells at low yeast extract concentrations in semi-defined medium. Using the above data, a modified continuous culture was run using non-selective medium at a low dilution rate of 0.05 h(-1). This resulted in stable coexistence of plasmid-containing and plasmid-free cells and hence sustained expression of beta-galactosidase at approximately 330 OD420l(-1) h(-1) throughout the period of cultivation (134 h). PMID:16233104

  2. The 2-micron plasmid as a nonselectable, stable, high copy number yeast vector

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ludwig, D. L.; Bruschi, C. V.

    1991-01-01

    The endogenous 2-microns plasmid of Saccharomyces cerevisiae has been used extensively for the construction of yeast cloning and expression plasmids because it is a native yeast plasmid that is able to be maintained stably in cells at high copy number. Almost invariably, these plasmid constructs, containing some or all 2-microns sequences, exhibit copy number levels lower than 2-microns and are maintained stably only under selective conditions. We were interested in determining if there was a means by which 2-microns could be utilized for vector construction, without forfeiting either copy number or nonselective stability. We identified sites in the 2-microns plasmid that could be used for the insertion of genetic sequences without disrupting 2-microns coding elements and then assessed subsequent plasmid constructs for stability and copy number in vivo. We demonstrate the utility of a previously described 2-microns recombination chimera, pBH-2L, for the manipulation and transformation of 2-microns as a pure yeast plasmid vector. We show that the HpaI site near the STB element in the 2-microns plasmid can be utilized to clone yeast DNA of at least 3.9 kb with no loss of plasmid stability. Additionally, the copy number of these constructs is as high as levels reported for the endogenous 2-microns.

  3. Mobilization functions of the bacteriocinogenic plasmid pRJ6 of Staphylococcus aureus.

    PubMed

    Varella Coelho, Marcus Livio; Ceotto, Hilana; Madureira, Danielle Jannuzzi; Nes, Ingolf F; Bastos, Maria do Carmo de Freire

    2009-06-01

    Plasmid pRJ6 is the first known bacteriocinogenic mobilizable (Mob) plasmid of Staphylococcus aureus. Its Mob region is composed of four mob genes (mobCDAB) arranged as an operon, a genetic organization uncommon among S. aureus Mob plasmids. oriT (pRJ6) was detected in a region of 431 bp, positioned immediately upstream of mobC. This region, when cloned into pCN37, was able to confer mobilization to the re-combinant plasmid only in the presence of pRJ6. The entire Mob region, including oriT (pRJ6), is much more similar to Mob regions from several coagulase-negative staphylococci plasmids, although some remarkable similarities with S. aureus Mob plasmids can also be noted. These similarities include the presence within oriT (pRJ6) of the three mcb (MobC binding sites), firstly described in pC221 and pC223, an identical nick site also found in these same plasmids, and a nearly identical sra(pC223) site (sequence recognized by MobA). pRJ6 was successfully transferred to S. epidermidis by conjugation in the presence of the conjugative plasmid pGOl. Altogether these findings suggest that pRJ6 might have been originally a coagulase-negative staphylococci plasmid that had been transferred successfully to S. aureus. PMID:19557350

  4. Rapid alkaline extraction method for the isolation of plasmid DNA

    SciTech Connect

    Birnboim, H.C.

    1983-01-01

    Plasmids are double-stranded circular DNA molecules that have the property of self-replication, independent of chromosomal DNA. Although the presence of a plasmid in a bacterial cell may be detected genetically as a change in phenotype, often it is necessary to isolate plasmid DNA for molecular studies, such as size determination, restriction enzyme mapping, and nucleotide sequencing, or for the construction of new hybrid plasmids. The degree of purification required will depend upon the intended use. Less purified plasmid DNA is often satisfactory for recombinant DNA studies, and a large number of shorter and simpler methods have been developed. This chapter describes one such method that uses an alkaline extraction step. It is rapid enough to be used as a screening method, permitting 50-100 or more samples to be extracted in a few hours. The DNA is sufficiently pure to be digestible by restriction enzymes, an important advantage for screening. A preparative version that allows isolation of larger quantities of more highly purified material is also described.

  5. Plasmid acquisition in microgravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Juergensmeyer, Margaret A.; Juergensmeyer, Elizabeth A.; Guikema, James A.

    1995-01-01

    In microgravity, bacteria often show an increased resistance to antibiotics. Bacteria can develop resistance to an antibiotic after transformation, the acquisition of DNA, usually in the form of a plasmid containing a gene for resistance to one or more antibiotics. In order to study the capacity of bacteria to become resistant to antibiotics in microgravity, we have modified the standard protocol for transformation of Escherichia coli for use in the NASA-flight-certified hardware package, The Fluid Processing Apparatus (FPA). Here we report on the ability of E. coli to remain competent for long periods of time at temperatures that are readily available on the Space Shuttle, and present some preliminary flight results.

  6. Evolved plasmid-host interactions reduce plasmid interference cost.

    PubMed

    Yano, Hirokazu; Wegrzyn, Katarznya; Loftie-Eaton, Wesley; Johnson, Jenny; Deckert, Gail E; Rogers, Linda M; Konieczny, Igor; Top, Eva M

    2016-09-01

    Antibiotic selection drives adaptation of antibiotic resistance plasmids to new bacterial hosts, but the molecular mechanisms are still poorly understood. We previously showed that a broad-host-range plasmid was poorly maintained in Shewanella oneidensis, but rapidly adapted through mutations in the replication initiation gene trfA1. Here we examined if these mutations reduced the fitness cost of TrfA1, and whether this was due to changes in interaction with the host's DNA helicase DnaB. The strains expressing evolved TrfA1 variants showed a higher growth rate than those expressing ancestral TrfA1. The evolved TrfA1 variants showed a lower affinity to the helicase than ancestral TrfA1 and were no longer able to activate the helicase at the oriV without host DnaA. Moreover, persistence of the ancestral plasmid was increased upon overexpression of DnaB. Finally, the evolved TrfA1 variants generated higher plasmid copy numbers than ancestral TrfA1. The findings suggest that ancestral plasmid instability can at least partly be explained by titration of DnaB by TrfA1. Thus under antibiotic selection resistance plasmids can adapt to a novel bacterial host through partial loss of function mutations that simultaneously increase plasmid copy number and decrease unfavorably high affinity to one of the hosts' essential proteins. PMID:27121483

  7. Direct transfection of viral and plasmid DNA into the liver or spleen of mice.

    PubMed Central

    Dubensky, T W; Campbell, B A; Villarreal, L P

    1984-01-01

    A method for the direct transfection of polyoma viral DNA and polyoma-plasmid recombinant DNA into the liver or spleen of newborn or adult mice was developed. Calcium phosphate-precipitated DNA was injected directly into mouse organs in combination with hyaluronidase and collagenase. Transfected DNA was shown to replicate at moderate efficiency, relative to direct infection of organs with virus. Transfection with viral DNA rapidly led to an acute infection. A polyoma-bacterial plasmid recombinant DNA also was shown to replicate when transfected into mice. With this plasmid, however, genomic-length polyoma DNA rapidly recombined away from the bacterial component and replicated as viral DNA. This method should allow the direct determination of the biological activity of a cloned DNA within a mouse organ. Images PMID:6095303

  8. A mitochondrial mutator plasmid that causes senescence under dietary restricted conditions

    PubMed Central

    Maas, Marc FPM; Hoekstra, Rolf F; Debets, Alfons JM

    2007-01-01

    Background Calorie or dietary restriction extends life span in a wide range of organisms including the filamentous fungus Podospora anserina. Under dietary restricted conditions, P. anserina isolates are several-fold longer lived. This is however not the case in isolates that carry one of the pAL2-1 homologous mitochondrial plasmids. Results We show that the pAL2-1 homologues act as 'insertional mutators' of the mitochondrial genome, which may explain their negative effect on life span extension. Sequencing revealed at least fourteen unique plasmid integration sites, of which twelve were located within the mitochondrial genome and two within copies of the plasmid itself. The plasmids were able to integrate in their entirety, via a non-homologous mode of recombination. Some of the integrated plasmid copies were truncated, which probably resulted from secondary, post-integrative, recombination processes. Integration sites were predominantly located within and surrounding the region containing the mitochondrial rDNA loci. Conclusion We propose a model for the mechanism of integration, based on innate modes of mtDNA recombination, and discuss its possible link with the plasmid's negative effect on dietary restriction mediated life span extension. PMID:17407571

  9. [Integration of plasmids into E. coli K12 chromosomes, caused by a Bordetella transposon].

    PubMed

    Sivov, I G; Beliavskiĭ, O A; karataev, G I

    2000-01-01

    Transposition of Bordetella pertussis transposon in E. coli chromosome has been studied on a model of exclusion of donor multicopy pKK3 plasmid with coumermicin. TnBP3 induced the formation of co-integrates between the plasmid and chromosome. The structure of co-integrate was determined. Facts of exclusion of integrated structure and transposon transposition within integrated plasmid into new sites on a recipient chromosome were detected. Relationship between these processes and activity of bacterial cell recombination system has been determined. PMID:10876766

  10. CRMAGE: CRISPR Optimized MAGE Recombineering

    PubMed Central

    Ronda, Carlotta; Pedersen, Lasse Ebdrup; Sommer, Morten O. A.; Nielsen, Alex Toftgaard

    2016-01-01

    A bottleneck in metabolic engineering and systems biology approaches is the lack of efficient genome engineering technologies. Here, we combine CRISPR/Cas9 and λ Red recombineering based MAGE technology (CRMAGE) to create a highly efficient and fast method for genome engineering of Escherichia coli. Using CRMAGE, the recombineering efficiency was between 96.5% and 99.7% for gene recoding of three genomic targets, compared to between 0.68% and 5.4% using traditional recombineering. For modulation of protein synthesis (small insertion/RBS substitution) the efficiency was increased from 6% to 70%. CRMAGE can be multiplexed and enables introduction of at least two mutations in a single round of recombineering with similar efficiencies. PAM-independent loci were targeted using degenerate codons, thereby making it possible to modify any site in the genome. CRMAGE is based on two plasmids that are assembled by a USER-cloning approach enabling quick and cost efficient gRNA replacement. CRMAGE furthermore utilizes CRISPR/Cas9 for efficient plasmid curing, thereby enabling multiple engineering rounds per day. To facilitate the design process, a web-based tool was developed to predict both the λ Red oligos and the gRNAs. The CRMAGE platform enables highly efficient and fast genome editing and may open up promising prospective for automation of genome-scale engineering. PMID:26797514

  11. Large plasmids of avian Escherichia coli isolates.

    PubMed

    Doetkott, D M; Nolan, L K; Giddings, C W; Berryhill, D L

    1996-01-01

    The plasmid DNA of 30 Escherichia coli isolates from chickens was extracted and examined using techniques designed to isolate large plasmids. This plasmid DNA was examined for the presence of certain known virulence-related genes including cvaC, traT, and some aerobactin-related sequences. Seventeen of the 30 isolates contained from one to four plasmids greater than 50 kb in size. Eleven of these 17 strains possessed plasmids greater than 100 kb in size. Therefore, E. coli isolates of chickens frequently contain large plasmids, and many of these plasmids are likely to contain virulence-related sequences. PMID:8980827

  12. Genetic Transformation of a Clinical (Genital Tract), Plasmid-Free Isolate of Chlamydia trachomatis: Engineering the Plasmid as a Cloning Vector

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yibing; Kahane, Simona; Cutcliffe, Lesley T.; Skilton, Rachel J.; Lambden, Paul R.; Persson, Kenneth; Bjartling, Carina; Clarke, Ian N.

    2013-01-01

    Our study had three objectives: to extend the plasmid-based transformation protocol to a clinical isolate of C. trachomatis belonging to the trachoma biovar, to provide “proof of principle” that it is possible to “knock out” selected plasmid genes (retaining a replication competent plasmid) and to investigate the plasticity of the plasmid. A recently developed, plasmid-based transformation protocol for LGV isolates of C. trachomatis was modified and a plasmid-free, genital tract C. trachomatis isolate from Sweden (SWFP-) was genetically transformed. Transformation of this non-LGV C. trachomatis host required a centrifugation step, but the absence of the natural plasmid removed the need for plaque purification of transformants. Transformants expressed GFP, were penicillin resistant and iodine stain positive for accumulated glycogen. The transforming plasmid did not recombine with the host chromosome. A derivative of pGFP::SW2 carrying a deletion of the plasmid CDS5 gene was engineered. CDS5 encodes pgp3, a protein secreted from the inclusion into the cell cytoplasm. This plasmid (pCDS5KO) was used to transform C. trachomatis SWFP-, and established that pgp3 is dispensable for plasmid function. The work shows it is possible to selectively delete segments of the chlamydial plasmid, and this is the first step towards a detailed molecular dissection of the role of the plasmid. The 3.6 kb β-galactosidase cassette was inserted into the deletion site of CDS5 to produce plasmid placZ-CDS5KO. Transformants were penicillin resistant, expressed GFP and stained for glycogen. In addition, they expressed β-galactosidase showing that the lacZ cassette was functional in C. trachomatis. An assay was developed that allowed the visualisation of individual inclusions by X-gal staining. The ability to express active β-galactosidase within chlamydial inclusions is an important advance as it allows simple, rapid assays to measure directly chlamydial infectivity without the need

  13. Plasmid-mediated quinolone resistance

    PubMed Central

    Jacoby, George A.; Strahilevitz, Jacob; Hooper, David C.

    2014-01-01

    Summary Three mechanisms for plasmid-mediated quinolone resistance (PMQR) have been discovered since 1998. Plasmid genes qnrA, qnrB, qnrC, qnrD, qnrS, and qnrVC code for proteins of the pentapeptide repeat family that protects DNA gyrase and topoisomerase IV from quinolone inhibition. The qnr genes appear to have been acquired from chromosomal genes in aquatic bacteria, are usually associated with mobilizing or transposable elements on plasmids, and are often incorporated into sul1-type integrons. The second plasmid-mediated mechanism involves acetylation of quinolones with an appropriate amino nitrogen target by a variant of the common aminoglycoside acetyltransferase AAC(6′)-Ib. The third mechanism is enhanced efflux produced by plasmid genes for pumps QepAB and OqxAB. PMQR has been found in clinical and environmental isolates around the world and appears to be spreading. The plasmid-mediated mechanisms provide only low-level resistance that by itself does not exceed the clinical breakpoint for susceptibility but nonetheless facilitates selection of higher-level resistance and makes infection by pathogens containing PMQR harder to treat. PMID:25584197

  14. Plasmids of Carotenoid-Producing Paracoccus spp. (Alphaproteobacteria) - Structure, Diversity and Evolution

    PubMed Central

    Maj, Anna; Dziewit, Lukasz; Czarnecki, Jakub; Wlodarczyk, Miroslawa; Baj, Jadwiga; Skrzypczyk, Grazyna; Giersz, Dorota; Bartosik, Dariusz

    2013-01-01

    Plasmids are components of many bacterial genomes. They enable the spread of a large pool of genetic information via lateral gene transfer. Many bacterial strains contain mega-sized replicons and these are particularly common in Alphaproteobacteria. Considerably less is known about smaller alphaproteobacterial plasmids. We analyzed the genomes of 14 such plasmids residing in 4 multireplicon carotenoid-producing strains of the genus Paracoccus (Alphaproteobacteria): P. aestuarii DSM 19484, P. haeundaensis LG P-21903, P. marcusii DSM 11574 and P. marcusii OS22. Comparative analyses revealed mosaic structures of the plasmids and recombinational shuffling of diverse genetic modules involved in (i) plasmid replication, (ii) stabilization (including toxin-antitoxin systems of the relBE/parDE, tad-ata, higBA, mazEF and toxBA families) and (iii) mobilization for conjugal transfer (encoding relaxases of the MobQ, MobP or MobV families). A common feature of the majority of the plasmids is the presence of AT-rich sequence islets (located downstream of exc1-like genes) containing genes, whose homologs are conserved in the chromosomes of many bacteria (encoding e.g. RelA/SpoT, SMC-like proteins and a retron-type reverse transcriptase). The results of this study have provided insight into the diversity and plasticity of plasmids of Paracoccus spp., and of the entire Alphaproteobacteria. Some of the identified plasmids contain replication systems not described previously in this class of bacteria. The composition of the plasmid genomes revealed frequent transfer of chromosomal genes into plasmids, which significantly enriches the pool of mobile DNA that can participate in lateral transfer. Many strains of Paracoccus spp. have great biotechnological potential, and the plasmid vectors constructed in this study will facilitate genetic studies of these bacteria. PMID:24260361

  15. Separate F-Type Plasmids Have Shaped the Evolution of the H30 Subclone of Escherichia coli Sequence Type 131.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Timothy J; Danzeisen, Jessica L; Youmans, Bonnie; Case, Kyle; Llop, Katharine; Munoz-Aguayo, Jeannette; Flores-Figueroa, Cristian; Aziz, Maliha; Stoesser, Nicole; Sokurenko, Evgeni; Price, Lance B; Johnson, James R

    2016-01-01

    131. From this work, it was determined that a series of plasmid gains, losses, and recombinational events has led to the currently circulating plasmids of ST131 strains. These plasmids appear to have evolved to acquire similar gene clusters on multiple occasions, suggesting possible plasmid-mediated convergent evolution leading to evolutionary success. These plasmids also appear to be better suited to exist in specific strains of ST131 due to coadaptive mutations. Overall, a series of events has enabled the evolution of ST131 plasmids, possibly contributing to the lineage's success. PMID:27390780

  16. Separate F-Type Plasmids Have Shaped the Evolution of the H30 Subclone of Escherichia coli Sequence Type 131

    PubMed Central

    Danzeisen, Jessica L.; Youmans, Bonnie; Case, Kyle; Llop, Katharine; Munoz-Aguayo, Jeannette; Flores-Figueroa, Cristian; Aziz, Maliha; Sokurenko, Evgeni; Price, Lance B.; Johnson, James R.

    2016-01-01

    lineages of ST131. From this work, it was determined that a series of plasmid gains, losses, and recombinational events has led to the currently circulating plasmids of ST131 strains. These plasmids appear to have evolved to acquire similar gene clusters on multiple occasions, suggesting possible plasmid-mediated convergent evolution leading to evolutionary success. These plasmids also appear to be better suited to exist in specific strains of ST131 due to coadaptive mutations. Overall, a series of events has enabled the evolution of ST131 plasmids, possibly contributing to the lineage’s success. PMID:27390780

  17. Stability of Penicillinase Plasmids in Staphylococcus aureus

    PubMed Central

    Johnston, L. H.; Dyke, K. G. H.

    1971-01-01

    The isolation of mutants of Staphylococcus aureus that are affected in the stability of penicillinase plasmids is described. One mutation is plasmid borne and results in nonreplication of the plasmid at 42 C. A second type of mutation is host-borne and gives rise to instability of both mcrI and mcrII penicillinase plasmids but not a tetracycline-resistant plasmid. Images PMID:4105036

  18. Environmentally co‐occurring mercury resistance plasmids are genetically and phenotypically diverse and confer variable context‐dependent fitness effects

    PubMed Central

    Harrison, Ellie; Lilley, Andrew K.; Paterson, Steve; Spiers, Andrew J.; Brockhurst, Michael A.

    2015-01-01

    Summary Plasmids are important mobile elements that can facilitate genetic exchange and local adaptation within microbial communities. We compared the sequences of four co‐occurring pQBR family environmental mercury resistance plasmids and measured their effects on competitive fitness of a P seudomonas fluorescens  SBW25 host, which was isolated at the same field site. Fitness effects of carriage differed between plasmids and were strongly context dependent, varying with medium, plasmid status of competitor and levels of environmental mercury. The plasmids also varied widely in their rates of conjugation and segregational loss. We found that few of the plasmid‐borne accessory genes could be ascribed functions, although we identified a putative chemotaxis operon, a type IV pilus‐encoding cluster and a region encoding putative arylsulfatase enzymes, which were conserved across geographically distant isolates. One plasmid, pQBR55, conferred the ability to catabolize sucrose. Transposons, including the mercury resistance Tn5042, appeared to have been acquired by different pQBR plasmids by recombination, indicating an important role for horizontal gene transfer in the recent evolution of pQBR plasmids. Our findings demonstrate extensive genetic and phenotypic diversity among co‐occurring members of a plasmid community and suggest a role for environmental heterogeneity in the maintenance of plasmid diversity. PMID:25969927

  19. Spaceflight Effects on Genetics and Plasmids of Streptomycetes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Voeikova, T. A.; Emelyanova, L. K.; Tyaglov, B. V.; Novikova, L. M.; Goins, T. L.; Pyle, B. H.

    2008-06-01

    In 2007, experiments with streptomycetes were conducted during a 12-day flight of the Russian Foton-M3 spacecraft. The flight (F), synchronous control (SC) and laboratory control (LC) specimens were kept at 30°C. The objective of the experiments was to study spaceflight effects on the streptomycetes growth, differentiation, pigmentation, enzyme formation, genetic stability of plasmid and crossing between strains. It was found that the frequency of strain Streptomyces lividans segregation, the enzyme synthesis, pigmentation, and the level of sporulation were higher in F than in SC organisms. The study of pIJ702 plasmid inheritance in S. lividans showed that the frequency of plasmid loss in F and LC was similar and lower than that in SC specimens. The study of melanin synthesis in S. lividans (pIJ702) strain demonstrated decreased melanin specific yield and increased biomass accumulation in F microorganisms. HPTLC analysis of melanin showed that the number, molecular mass and the percentage of fractions were similar in SC and LC but different in F organisms. The study of spaceflight effects on genetic recombination in crosses between Streptomyces coelicolor A3(2) auxotrophic mutants showed that the frequency of various recombinant classes in F specimens differed from that in SC and LC. The frequency of a distal donor marker entry to the recipient in F was higher than in SC and LC.

  20. Loss of plasmids containing cloned inserts coding for novobiocin resistance or novobiocin sensitivity in Haemophilus influenzae.

    PubMed Central

    Setlow, J K; Spikes, D; Ledbetter, M

    1984-01-01

    Plasmids pNov1 and pNov1s , coding for resistance and sensitivity to novobiocin, respectively, were readily lost from wild-type Haemophilus influenzae but retained in a strain lacking an inducible defective prophage. The plasmid loss could be partly or wholly eliminated by a low-copy-number mutation in the plasmid or by the presence of certain antibiotic resistance markers in the host chromosome. Release of both phage HP1c1 , measured by plaque assay, and defective phage, measured by electron microscopy, was increased when the plasmids were present. The frequency of recombination between pNov1 and the chromosome, causing the plasmid to be converted to pNov1s , could under some circumstances be decreased from the normal 60 to 70% to below 10% by the presence of a kanamycin resistance marker in the chromosome. This suggested that a gene product coded for by the plasmid, the expression of which was affected by the kanamycin resistance marker, was responsible for the high recombination frequency. Evidence was obtained from in vitro experiments that the gene product was a gyrase. Images PMID:6327644

  1. Genetic Recombination

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whitehouse, H. L. K.

    1973-01-01

    Discusses the mechanisms of genetic recombination with particular emphasis on the study of the fungus Sordaria brevicollis. The study of recombination is facilitated by the use of mutants of this fungus in which the color of the ascospores is affected. (JR)

  2. A bacteriocin gene cluster able to enhance plasmid maintenance in Lactococcus lactis

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Lactococcus lactis is widely used as a dairy starter and has been extensively studied. Based on the acquired knowledge on its physiology and metabolism, new applications have been envisaged and there is an increasing interest of using L. lactis as a cell factory. Plasmids constitute the main toolbox for L. lactis genetic engineering and most rely on antibiotic resistant markers for plasmid selection and maintenance. In this work, we have assessed the ability of the bacteriocin Lactococcin 972 (Lcn972) gene cluster to behave as a food-grade post-segregational killing system to stabilize recombinant plasmids in L. lactis in the absence of antibiotics. Lcn972 is a non-lantibiotic bacteriocin encoded by the 11-kbp plasmid pBL1 with a potent antimicrobial activity against Lactococcus. Results Attempts to clone the full lcn972 operon with its own promoter (P972), the structural gene lcn972 and the immunity genes orf2-orf3 in the unstable plasmid pIL252 failed and only plasmids with a mutated promoter were recovered. Alternatively, cloning under other constitutive promoters was approached and achieved, but bacteriocin production levels were lower than those provided by pBL1. Segregational stability studies revealed that the recombinant plasmids that yielded high bacteriocin titers were maintained for at least 200 generations without antibiotic selection. In the case of expression vectors such as pTRL1, the Lcn972 gene cluster also contributed to plasmid maintenance without compromising the production of the fluorescent mCherry protein. Furthermore, unstable Lcn972 recombinant plasmids became integrated into the chromosome through the activity of insertion sequences, supporting the notion that Lcn972 does apply a strong selective pressure against susceptible cells. Despite of it, the Lcn972 gene cluster was not enough to avoid the use of antibiotics to select plasmid-bearing cells right after transformation. Conclusions Inserting the Lcn972 cluster into

  3. Distribution and diversity of mycoplasma plasmids: lessons from cryptic genetic elements

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The evolution of mycoplasmas from a common ancestor with Firmicutes has been characterized not only by genome down-sizing but also by horizontal gene transfer between mycoplasma species sharing a common host. The mechanisms of these gene transfers remain unclear because our knowledge of the mycoplasma mobile genetic elements is limited. In particular, only a few plasmids have been described within the Mycoplasma genus. Results We have shown that several species of ruminant mycoplasmas carry plasmids that are members of a large family of elements and replicate via a rolling-circle mechanism. All plasmids were isolated from species that either belonged or were closely related to the Mycoplasma mycoides cluster; none was from the Mycoplasma bovis-Mycoplasma agalactiae group. Twenty one plasmids were completely sequenced, named and compared with each other and with the five mycoplasma plasmids previously reported. All plasmids share similar size and genetic organization, and present a mosaic structure. A peculiar case is that of the plasmid pMyBK1 from M. yeatsii; it is larger in size and is predicted to be mobilizable. Its origin of replication and replication protein were identified. In addition, pMyBK1 derivatives were shown to replicate in various species of the M. mycoides cluster, and therefore hold considerable promise for developing gene vectors. The phylogenetic analysis of these plasmids confirms the uniqueness of pMyBK1 and indicates that the other mycoplasma plasmids cluster together, apart from the related replicons found in phytoplasmas and in species of the clade Firmicutes. Conclusions Our results unraveled a totally new picture of mycoplasma plasmids. Although they probably play a limited role in the gene exchanges that participate in mycoplasma evolution, they are abundant in some species. Evidence for the occurrence of frequent genetic recombination strongly suggests they are transmitted between species sharing a common host or niche. PMID

  4. A novel suicide plasmid for efficient gene mutation in Listeria monocytogenes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Although several plasmids have been used in Listeria monocytogenes for generating mutants by allelic exchange, construction of L. monocytogenes mutants has been inefficient due to lack of effective selection markers for first and second recombination events. To address this problem, we have develope...

  5. EBV-based plasmid DNA rearrangements after transfection of eukaryotic cells.

    PubMed

    Morozova, O V; Maksimova, T G; Kostenko, E V

    2000-05-01

    The cDNA encoding influenza virus (A/Udorn/307/72 strain) M2 protein was subcloned into the EBV-based vector pREP9. Three continuous kidney cellular lines of different origin were transfected with recombinant plasmid pREP9-M2. One and 5 months after transfection plasmid DNA rearrangements were detected by means of restriction analysis of recovered plasmids and their hybridization with an influenza-virus-specific radioactive probe. Deletions were the most frequent type of pREP9-M2 mutations. PCR with primers corresponding to cellular genome and plasmid DNA followed by Southern blot analysis with the [(32)P]-labeled M2-fragment allowed host DNA rearrangements to be revealed in transfected cells. PMID:10783296

  6. EVALUATION OF A METHOD TO MEASURE CONJUGAL TRANSFER OF RECOMBINANT DNA IN SOIL SLURRIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Release of recombinant microbes into the environment necessitates an evaluation of their ability to transfer genetic material. he present report evaluates a method to detect conjugal DNA plasmid transfer in soil slurries under various environmental conditions. onor Pseudomonas ce...

  7. The "Frankenplasmid" Lab: An Investigative Exercise for Teaching Recombinant DNA Methods

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dean, Derek M.; Wilder, Jason A.

    2011-01-01

    We describe an investigative laboratory module designed to give college undergraduates strong practical and theoretical experience with recombinant DNA methods within 3 weeks. After deducing restriction enzyme maps for two different plasmids, students ligate the plasmids together in the same reaction, transform "E. coli" with this mixture of…

  8. Fertility properties and regulation of antimicrobial substance production by plasmid SCP2 of Streptomyces coelicolor.

    PubMed Central

    Troost, T R; Danilenko, V N; Lomovskaya, N D

    1979-01-01

    Streptomyces coelicolor A3(2) possesses two plasmids (SCP1 and SCP2) that act as sex factors. The plasmid deoxyribonucleic acid isolated from S. coelicolor A3(2) SCP1- strains A617 and A585 had the same molecular weight and endonuclease cleavage pattern as the SCP2 plasmid. The plasmidless strain S18 SCP2- was isolated from the A617 X A585 cross. SCP2 plasmid-containing strains acted as donors of chromosomal markers, whereas the plasmidless strain acted as recipient. The transfer of SCP2+ donor strain markers into the SCP2- recipient occurred at high frequencies (approximately 75%), was unidirectional, was initiated from a fixed region of the chromosome, and had the SCP2 fertility factor transferred first. The introduction of the SCP2 plasmid into a recipient strain greatly reduced the recombination frequency. These fertility properties differed from those previously reported, thereby suggesting that the SCP2 plasmid examined in this investigation may be an additional variant to those described in the literature. The SCP2 plasmid also regulated production of three antibacterial substances and conveyed resistance for S. coelicolor A3(2) strains against growth inhibition by one of them. Images PMID:500559

  9. Characterization of Mobile Staphylococcus equorum Plasmids Isolated from Fermented Seafood That Confer Lincomycin Resistance.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jong-Hoon; Jeong, Do-Won

    2015-01-01

    The complete nucleotide sequences of lincomycin-resistance gene (lnuA)-containing plasmids in Staphylococcus equorum strains isolated from the high-salt-fermented seafood jeotgal were determined. These plasmids, designated pSELNU1-3, are 2638-bp long, have two polymorphic sites, and encode typical elements found in plasmids that replicate via a rolling-circle mechanism including the replication protein gene (rep), a double-stranded origin of replication, a single-stranded origin of replication, and counter-transcribed RNA sequence, as well as lnuA. Plasmid sequences exhibit over 83% identity to other Staphylococcus plasmids that harbor rep and lnuA genes. Further, three pairs of identified direct repeats may be involved in inter-plasmid recombination. One plasmid, pSELNU1, was successfully transferred to other Staphylococcus species, Enterococcus faecalis, and Tetragenococcus halophilus in vitro. Antibiotic susceptibility of the transconjugants was host-dependent, and transconjugants maintained a lincomycin resistance phenotype in the absence of selective pressure over 60 generations. PMID:26448648

  10. Characterization of Mobile Staphylococcus equorum Plasmids Isolated from Fermented Seafood That Confer Lincomycin Resistance

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Jong-Hoon; Jeong, Do-Won

    2015-01-01

    The complete nucleotide sequences of lincomycin-resistance gene (lnuA)-containing plasmids in Staphylococcus equorum strains isolated from the high-salt-fermented seafood jeotgal were determined. These plasmids, designated pSELNU1–3, are 2638-bp long, have two polymorphic sites, and encode typical elements found in plasmids that replicate via a rolling-circle mechanism including the replication protein gene (rep), a double-stranded origin of replication, a single-stranded origin of replication, and counter-transcribed RNA sequence, as well as lnuA. Plasmid sequences exhibit over 83% identity to other Staphylococcus plasmids that harbor rep and lnuA genes. Further, three pairs of identified direct repeats may be involved in inter-plasmid recombination. One plasmid, pSELNU1, was successfully transferred to other Staphylococcus species, Enterococcus faecalis, and Tetragenococcus halophilus in vitro. Antibiotic susceptibility of the transconjugants was host-dependent, and transconjugants maintained a lincomycin resistance phenotype in the absence of selective pressure over 60 generations. PMID:26448648

  11. Large-scale production of endotoxin-free plasmids for transient expression in mammalian cell culture.

    PubMed

    Rozkov, Aleksei; Larsson, Bert; Gillström, Stefan; Björnestedt, Robert; Schmidt, Stefan R

    2008-02-15

    Transient expression of recombinant proteins in mammalian cell culture in a 100-L scale requires a large quantity of plasmid that is very labour intensive to achieve with shake flask cultures and commercially available plasmid purification kits. In this paper we describe a process for plasmid production in 100-mg scale. The fermentation is carried out in a 4-L fed-batch culture with a minimal medium. The detection of the end of batch and triggering the exponential (0.1 h(-1)) feed profile was unattended and controlled by Multi-fermenter Control System. A restricted specific growth rate in fed-batch culture increased the specific plasmid yield compared to batch cultures with minimal and rich media. This together with high biomass concentration (68-107 g L(-1) wet weight) achieves high volumetric yields of plasmid (95-277 mg L(-1) depending on the construct). The purification process consisted of alkaline lysis, lysate clarification and ultrafiltration, two-phase extraction with Triton X-114 for endotoxin removal, anion-exchange chromatography as a polishing step, ultrafiltration and sterile filtration. Both fermentation and purification processes were used without optimisation for production of four plasmids yielding from 39 to 163 mg of plasmids with endotoxin content of 2.5 EU mg(-1) or less. PMID:17680665

  12. A plasmid in Legionella pneumophila.

    PubMed Central

    Knudson, G B; Mikesell, P

    1980-01-01

    Sixteen strains from the six serogroups of Legionella pneumophila were examined for the presence of extrachromosomal genetic elements by a modified cleared lysate procedure, dye-buoyant centrifugation, and agarose gel electrophoresis. Two strains, Atlanta-1 and Atlanta-2 from serogroup II, each contained a plasmid of cryptic function with a molecular weight of ca. 30 megadaltons. Images Fig. 1 PMID:7429628

  13. A Plasmid Bearing the bla(CTX-M-15) Gene and Phage P1-Like Sequences from a Sequence Type 11 Klebsiella pneumoniae Isolate.

    PubMed

    Shin, Juyoun; Ko, Kwan Soo

    2015-10-01

    Plasmid pKP12226 was extracted and analyzed from a CTX-M-15-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae sequence type 11 (ST11) isolate collected in South Korea. The plasmid represents chimeric characteristics consisting of a pIP1206-like backbone and lysogenized phage P1-like sequences. It bears a resistance region that includes resistance genes to several antibiotics and is different from previously characterized plasmids from South Korea bearing blaCTX-M-15. It may have resulted from recombination between an Escherichia coli plasmid backbone, a blaCTX-M-15-bearing resistance region, and lysogenized phage P1-like sequences. PMID:26195513

  14. Origin-of-transfer sequences facilitate mobilisation of non-conjugative antimicrobial-resistance plasmids in Staphylococcus aureus.

    PubMed

    O'Brien, Frances G; Yui Eto, Karina; Murphy, Riley J T; Fairhurst, Heather M; Coombs, Geoffrey W; Grubb, Warren B; Ramsay, Joshua P

    2015-09-18

    Staphylococcus aureus is a common cause of hospital, community and livestock-associated infections and is increasingly resistant to multiple antimicrobials. A significant proportion of antimicrobial-resistance genes are plasmid-borne, but only a minority of S. aureus plasmids encode proteins required for conjugative transfer or Mob relaxase proteins required for mobilisation. The pWBG749 family of S. aureus conjugative plasmids can facilitate the horizontal transfer of diverse antimicrobial-resistance plasmids that lack Mob genes. Here we reveal that these mobilisable plasmids carry copies of the pWBG749 origin-of-transfer (oriT) sequence and that these oriT sequences facilitate mobilisation by pWBG749. Sequences resembling the pWBG749 oriT were identified on half of all sequenced S. aureus plasmids, including the most prevalent large antimicrobial-resistance/virulence-gene plasmids, pIB485, pMW2 and pUSA300HOUMR. oriT sequences formed five subfamilies with distinct inverted-repeat-2 (IR2) sequences. pWBG749-family plasmids encoding each IR2 were identified and pWBG749 mobilisation was found to be specific for plasmids carrying matching IR2 sequences. Specificity of mobilisation was conferred by a putative ribbon-helix-helix-protein gene smpO. Several plasmids carried 2-3 oriT variants and pWBG749-mediated recombination occurred between distinct oriT sites during mobilisation. These observations suggest this relaxase-in trans mechanism of mobilisation by pWBG749-family plasmids is a common mechanism of plasmid dissemination in S. aureus. PMID:26243776

  15. Origin-of-transfer sequences facilitate mobilisation of non-conjugative antimicrobial-resistance plasmids in Staphylococcus aureus

    PubMed Central

    O'Brien, Frances G.; Yui Eto, Karina; Murphy, Riley J. T.; Fairhurst, Heather M.; Coombs, Geoffrey W.; Grubb, Warren B.; Ramsay, Joshua P.

    2015-01-01

    Staphylococcus aureus is a common cause of hospital, community and livestock-associated infections and is increasingly resistant to multiple antimicrobials. A significant proportion of antimicrobial-resistance genes are plasmid-borne, but only a minority of S. aureus plasmids encode proteins required for conjugative transfer or Mob relaxase proteins required for mobilisation. The pWBG749 family of S. aureus conjugative plasmids can facilitate the horizontal transfer of diverse antimicrobial-resistance plasmids that lack Mob genes. Here we reveal that these mobilisable plasmids carry copies of the pWBG749 origin-of-transfer (oriT) sequence and that these oriT sequences facilitate mobilisation by pWBG749. Sequences resembling the pWBG749 oriT were identified on half of all sequenced S. aureus plasmids, including the most prevalent large antimicrobial-resistance/virulence-gene plasmids, pIB485, pMW2 and pUSA300HOUMR. oriT sequences formed five subfamilies with distinct inverted-repeat-2 (IR2) sequences. pWBG749-family plasmids encoding each IR2 were identified and pWBG749 mobilisation was found to be specific for plasmids carrying matching IR2 sequences. Specificity of mobilisation was conferred by a putative ribbon-helix-helix-protein gene smpO. Several plasmids carried 2–3 oriT variants and pWBG749-mediated recombination occurred between distinct oriT sites during mobilisation. These observations suggest this relaxase-in trans mechanism of mobilisation by pWBG749-family plasmids is a common mechanism of plasmid dissemination in S. aureus. PMID:26243776

  16. A Low-Copy-Number Plasmid for Retrieval of Toxic Genes from BACs and Generation of Conditional Targeting Constructs

    PubMed Central

    Na, Giyoun; Wolfe, Andrew; Ko, CheMyong; Youn, Hyesook; Lee, Young-Min; Byun, Sung June; Jeon, Iksoo

    2016-01-01

    Bacterial Artificial Chromosome (BAC) clones are widely used for retrieving genomic DNA sequences for gene targeting. In this study, low-copy-number plasmids pBAC-FB, pBAC-FC, and pBAC-DE, which carry the F plasmid replicon, were generated from pBACe3.6. pBAC-FB was successfully used to retrieve a sequence of a BAC that was resistant to retrieval by a high-copy-number plasmid via λ Red-mediated recombineering (gap-repair cloning). This plasmid was also used to retrieve two other genes from BAC, indicating its general usability retrieving genes from BAC. The retrieved genes were manipulated in generating targeting vectors for gene knockouts by recombineering. The functionality of the targeting vector was further validated in a targeting experiment with C57BL/6 embryonic stem cells. The low-copy-number plasmid pBAC-FB is a plasmid of choice to retrieve toxic DNA sequences from BACs and to manipulate them to generate gene-targeting constructs by recombineering. PMID:22945876

  17. Origin and Evolution of Rickettsial Plasmids

    PubMed Central

    El Karkouri, Khalid; Pontarotti, Pierre; Raoult, Didier; Fournier, Pierre-Edouard

    2016-01-01

    Background Rickettsia species are strictly intracellular bacteria that have undergone a reductive genomic evolution. Despite their allopatric lifestyle, almost half of the 26 currently validated Rickettsia species have plasmids. In order to study the origin, evolutionary history and putative roles of rickettsial plasmids, we investigated the evolutionary processes that have shaped 20 plasmids belonging to 11 species, using comparative genomics and phylogenetic analysis between rickettsial, microbial and non-microbial genomes. Results Plasmids were differentially present among Rickettsia species. The 11 species had 1 to 4 plasmid (s) with a size ranging from 12 kb to 83 kb. We reconstructed pRICO, the last common ancestor of the current rickettsial plasmids. pRICO was vertically inherited mainly from Rickettsia/Orientia chromosomes and diverged vertically into a single or multiple plasmid(s) in each species. These plasmids also underwent a reductive evolution by progressive gene loss, similar to that observed in rickettsial chromosomes, possibly leading to cryptic plasmids or complete plasmid loss. Moreover, rickettsial plasmids exhibited ORFans, recent gene duplications and evidence of horizontal gene transfer events with rickettsial and non-rickettsial genomes mainly from the α/γ-proteobacteria lineages. Genes related to maintenance and plasticity of plasmids, and to adaptation and resistance to stress mostly evolved under vertical and/or horizontal processes. Those involved in nucleotide/carbohydrate transport and metabolism were under the influence of vertical evolution only, whereas genes involved in cell wall/membrane/envelope biogenesis, cycle control, amino acid/lipid/coenzyme and secondary metabolites biosynthesis, transport and metabolism underwent mainly horizontal transfer events. Conclusion Rickettsial plasmids had a complex evolution, starting with a vertical inheritance followed by a reductive evolution associated with increased complexity via

  18. Cosmological Recombination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wong, Wan Yan

    2008-11-01

    In this thesis we focus on studying the physics of cosmological recombination and how the details of recombination affect the Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) anisotropies. We present a detailed calculation of the spectral line distortions on the CMB spectrum arising from the Lyman-alpha and the lowest two-photon transitions in the recombination of hydrogen (H), and the corresponding lines from helium (He). The peak of these distortions mainly comes from the Lyman-alpha transition and occurs at about 170 microns, which is the Wien part of the CMB. The major theoretical limitation for extracting cosmological parameters from the CMB sky lies in the precision with which we can calculate the cosmological recombination process. With this motivation, we perform a multi-level calculation of the recombination of H and He with the addition of the spin-forbidden transition for neutral helium (He I), plus the higher order two-photon transitions for H and among singlet states of He I. We find that the inclusion of the spin-forbidden transition results in more than a percent change in the ionization fraction, while the other transitions give much smaller effects. Last we modify RECFAST by introducing one more parameter to reproduce recent numerical results for the speed-up of helium recombination. Together with the existing hydrogen `fudge factor', we vary these two parameters to account for the remaining dominant uncertainties in cosmological recombination. By using a Markov Chain Monte Carlo method with Planck forecast data, we find that we need to determine the parameters to better than 10% for He I and 1% for H, in order to obtain negligible effects on the cosmological parameters.

  19. Chromate resistance plasmid in Pseudomonas fluorescens.

    PubMed Central

    Bopp, L H; Chakrabarty, A M; Ehrlich, H L

    1983-01-01

    Chromate resistance of Pseudomonas fluorescens LB300, isolated from chromium-contaminated sediment in the upper Hudson River, was found to be plasmid specified. Loss of the plasmid (pLHB1) by spontaneous segregation or mitomycin C curing resulted in a simultaneous loss of chromate resistance. Subsequent transformation of such strains with purified pLHB1 plasmid DNA resulted in a simultaneous re-acquisition of the chromate resistance phenotype and the plasmid. When pLHB1 was transferred by conjugation to Escherichia coli, the plasmid still conferred chromate resistance. PMID:6309741

  20. [Stable expression of recombinant human podoplanin in Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells].

    PubMed

    Qu, Le; Zhao, Xingpeng; Fu, Jianxin; Xia, Lijun; Dai, Lan; Ruan, Changgeng; Zhao, Yiming

    2016-01-01

    Objective To construct podoplanin (PDPN) eukaryotic expression plasmid PDPN-pEGFP-N1, establish Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cell line stably expressing recombinant human PDPN and investigate its biological activity. Methods PDPN cDNA was cloned from HEK293 cells by reverse transcription PCR and recombinant DNA technology and inserted into plasmid pEGFP-N1 labeled by enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP). The recombinant vector was identified by PCR, restriction enzyme digestion and DNA sequencing, and then transfected into CHO cells. Recombinant PDPN-EGFP was observed by fluorescent microscopy and CHO cell line with the high expression of PDPN-EGFP was selected by flow cytometry. Recombinant PDPN was detected by Western blotting and the biological activity of the cell line was determined by platelet aggregation assay. Results DNA sequencing and restriction enzyme digestion proved that the gene of PDPN was inserted successfully into pEGFP-N1 plasmid. After stable transfection of the recombinant plasmid into CHO cells, CHO with EGFP could be seen under a fluorescent microscope. The CHO cell line with the high expression of recombinant PDPN-EGFP was obtained after sorting by flow cytometry. Western blotting showed that the recombinant PDPN was expressed on the cell surface. The over-expressing PDPN-EGFP CHO cells were able to induce human platelet aggregation. Conclusion The CHO cell line with the stable and high expression of recombinant PDPN-EGFP has been constructed successfully, and it could induce platelet aggregation. PMID:26728373

  1. Mobile insertion cassette elements found in small non-transmissible plasmids in Proteeae may explain qnrD mobilization.

    PubMed

    Guillard, Thomas; Grillon, Antoine; de Champs, Christophe; Cartier, Céline; Madoux, Janick; Berçot, Béatrice; Lebreil, Anne-Laure; Lozniewski, Alain; Riahi, Jacques; Vernet-Garnier, Véronique; Cambau, Emmanuelle

    2014-01-01

    qnrD is a plasmid mediated quinolone resistance gene from unknown origin, recently described in Enterobacteriaceae. It encodes a pentapeptide repeat protein 36-60% different from the other Qnr (A, B, C, S and VC). Since most qnrD-positive strains were described as strains belonging to Proteus or Providencia genera, we hypothesized that qnrD originated in Proteeae before disseminating to other enterobacterial species. We screened 317 strains of Proteeae for qnrD and its genetic support by PCR. For all the seven qnrD-positive strains (4 Proteus mirabilis, 1 Proteus vulgaris and 2 Providencia rettgeri) the gene was carried onto a small non-transmissible plasmid, contrarily to other qnr genes that are usually carried onto large multi-resistant plasmids. Nucleotide sequences of the qnrD-bearing plasmids were 96% identical. Plasmids contained 3 ORFs apart from qnrD and belonged to an undescribed incompatibility group. Only one plasmid, in P. vulgaris, was slightly different with a 1,568-bp insertion between qnrD and its promoter, leading to absence of quinolone resistance. We sought for similar plasmids in 15 reference strains of Proteeae, but which were tested negative for qnrD, and found a 48% identical plasmid (pVERM) in Providencia vermicola. In order to explain how qnrD could have been inserted into such native plasmid, we sought for gene mobilization structures. qnrD was found to be located within a mobile insertion cassette (mic) element which sequences are similar to one mic also found in pVERM. Our conclusions are that (i) the small non-transmissible qnrD-plasmids described here may result from the recombination between an as-yet-unknown progenitor of qnrD and pVERM, (ii) these plasmids are maintained in Proteeae being a qnrD reservoir (iii) the mic element may explain qnrD mobilization from non-transmissible plasmids to mobilizable or conjugative plasmids from other Enterobacteriaceae, (iv) they can recombined with larger multiresistant plasmids conjugated in

  2. [Curing effects of chlorination, ozone and UV treatments on plasmid DNAs].

    PubMed

    Nakamura, S

    1990-09-01

    Curing effects of chlorine, ozone and ultraviolet (UV) on plasmid DNAs were investigated as one of the measures of bio-hazards due to recombinant plasmids. For donor strains of plasmids, Pseudomonas aeruginosa RM 2046 harboring the self-transmissible plasmid R68 and RM 2021 harboring the cloning vector R1162, Escherichia coli C 600 ML 4903 and ML 1410 harboring the self-transmissible plasmid Rts-1 and RP4, and E. coli JM 109 harboring the cloning vector pBR 322 were used. The curing rate showed a tendency to increase with treatment time in a L-shaped curve for each plasmid DNA. The rates reached steady state after more than 5-10 minutes of the chlorination and ozone treatment, or 5-10 seconds of the UV treatment, independent of the treatment intensity. It became clear by use of replica technique that effective curing took place by chlorination for Rts-1, R1162 and pBR322, by ozone treatment for R68, and by UV treatment for PR4, respectively. Of the three disinfection treatments excellent curing effect occurred with chlorination, as more than 90% of the curing rate was obtained by that treatment for all donor strains. PMID:2132391

  3. Module-based construction of plasmids for chromosomal integration of the fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe.

    PubMed

    Kakui, Yasutaka; Sunaga, Tomonari; Arai, Kunio; Dodgson, James; Ji, Liang; Csikász-Nagy, Attila; Carazo-Salas, Rafael; Sato, Masamitsu

    2015-06-01

    Integration of an external gene into a fission yeast chromosome is useful to investigate the effect of the gene product. An easy way to knock-in a gene construct is use of an integration plasmid, which can be targeted and inserted to a chromosome through homologous recombination. Despite the advantage of integration, construction of integration plasmids is energy- and time-consuming, because there is no systematic library of integration plasmids with various promoters, fluorescent protein tags, terminators and selection markers; therefore, researchers are often forced to make appropriate ones through multiple rounds of cloning procedures. Here, we establish materials and methods to easily construct integration plasmids. We introduce a convenient cloning system based on Golden Gate DNA shuffling, which enables the connection of multiple DNA fragments at once: any kind of promoters and terminators, the gene of interest, in combination with any fluorescent protein tag genes and any selection markers. Each of those DNA fragments, called a 'module', can be tandemly ligated in the order we desire in a single reaction, which yields a circular plasmid in a one-step manner. The resulting plasmids can be integrated through standard methods for transformation. Thus, these materials and methods help easy construction of knock-in strains, and this will further increase the value of fission yeast as a model organism. PMID:26108218

  4. Genetic and physical evidence for plasmid control of Shigella sonnei form I cell surface antigen.

    PubMed Central

    Kopecko, D J; Washington, O; Formal, S B

    1980-01-01

    Virulent Shigella sonnei synthesize a surface antigen (form I) which appears to be one of several requirements needed for this host to invade epithelial cells. Upon restreaking on agar media, form I cells readily and irreversibly generate form II cells that lack the form I antigen. All form II cells are avirulent. Plasmid deoxyribonucleic acid of form I and II cells of four different S. sonnei isolates, obtained from different areas of the world, was analyzed by agarose gel electrophoresis. A large plasmid (approximately 120 megadaltons in three of the strains) that is present in form I cells was always absent from form II derivatives. Attempts to transfer conjugally only this large plasmid from form I to genetically marked form II cells were unsuccessful. However, a composite molecule, apparently formed by recombination between the large form I plasmid and a self-transmissible plasmid, was found to transfer the form I trait. Transconjugant S. sonnei strains acquiring the form I antigen could retransfer this trait to S. sonnei, Shigella flexneri, or Salmonella typhi. These preliminary findings demonstrate that S. sonnei form I antigen synthesis is mediated by a large plasmid which is lost spontaneously at a relatively high frequency from S. sonnei strains. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 PMID:6249756

  5. Module-based construction of plasmids for chromosomal integration of the fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe

    PubMed Central

    Kakui, Yasutaka; Sunaga, Tomonari; Arai, Kunio; Dodgson, James; Ji, Liang; Csikász-Nagy, Attila; Carazo-Salas, Rafael; Sato, Masamitsu

    2015-01-01

    Integration of an external gene into a fission yeast chromosome is useful to investigate the effect of the gene product. An easy way to knock-in a gene construct is use of an integration plasmid, which can be targeted and inserted to a chromosome through homologous recombination. Despite the advantage of integration, construction of integration plasmids is energy- and time-consuming, because there is no systematic library of integration plasmids with various promoters, fluorescent protein tags, terminators and selection markers; therefore, researchers are often forced to make appropriate ones through multiple rounds of cloning procedures. Here, we establish materials and methods to easily construct integration plasmids. We introduce a convenient cloning system based on Golden Gate DNA shuffling, which enables the connection of multiple DNA fragments at once: any kind of promoters and terminators, the gene of interest, in combination with any fluorescent protein tag genes and any selection markers. Each of those DNA fragments, called a ‘module’, can be tandemly ligated in the order we desire in a single reaction, which yields a circular plasmid in a one-step manner. The resulting plasmids can be integrated through standard methods for transformation. Thus, these materials and methods help easy construction of knock-in strains, and this will further increase the value of fission yeast as a model organism. PMID:26108218

  6. Ends-in Vs. Ends-Out Recombination in Yeast

    PubMed Central

    Hastings, P. J.; McGill, C.; Shafer, B.; Strathern, J. N.

    1993-01-01

    Integration of linearized plasmids into yeast chromosomes has been used as a model system for the study of recombination initiated by double-strand breaks. The linearized plasmid DNA recombines efficiently into sequences homologous to the ends of the DNA. This efficient recombination occurs both for the configuration in which the break is in a contiguous region of homology (herein called the ends-in configuration) and for ``omega'' insertions in which plasmid sequences interrupt a linear region of homology (herein called the ends-out configuration). The requirements for integration of these two configurations are expected to be different. We compared these two processes in a yeast strain containing an ends-in target and an ends-out target for the same cut plasmid. Recovery of ends-in events exceeds ends-out events by two- to threefold. Possible causes for the origin of this small bias are discussed. The lack of an extreme difference in frequency implies that cooperativity between the two ends does not contribute to the efficiency with which cut circular plasmids are integrated. This may also be true for the repair of chromosomal double-strand breaks. PMID:8307337

  7. Spectrum Recombination.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greenslade, Thomas B., Jr.

    1984-01-01

    Describes several methods of executing lecture demonstrations involving the recombination of the spectrum. Groups the techniques into two general classes: bringing selected portions of the spectrum together using lenses or mirrors and blurring the colors by rapid movement or foreshortening. (JM)

  8. Plasmids in the driving seat: The regulatory RNA Rcd gives plasmid ColE1 control over division and growth of its E. coli host.

    PubMed

    Gaimster, Hannah; Summers, David

    2015-03-01

    Regulation by non-coding RNAs was found to be widespread among plasmids and other mobile elements of bacteria well before its ubiquity in the eukaryotic world was suspected. As an increasing number of examples was characterised, a common mechanism began to emerge. Non-coding RNAs, such as CopA and Sok from plasmid R1, or RNAI from ColE1, exerted regulation by refolding the secondary structures of their target RNAs or modifying their translation. One regulatory RNA that seemed to swim against the tide was Rcd, encoded within the multimer resolution site of ColE1. Required for high fidelity maintenance of the plasmid in recombination-proficient hosts, Rcd was found to have a protein target, elevating indole production by stimulating tryptophanase. Rcd production is up-regulated in dimer-containing cells and the consequent increase in indole is part of the response to the rapid accumulation of dimers by over-replication (known as the dimer catastrophe). It is proposed that indole simultaneously inhibits cell division and plasmid replication, stopping the catastrophe and allowing time for the resolution of dimers to monomers. The idea of a plasmid-mediated cell division checkpoint, proposed but then discarded in the 1980s, appears to be enjoying a revival. PMID:25446541

  9. Bacterial Plasmids in Antarctic Natural Microbial Assemblages

    PubMed Central

    Kobori, Hiromi; Sullivan, Cornelius W.; Shizuya, Hiroaki

    1984-01-01

    Samples of psychrophilic and psychrotrophic bacteria were collected from sea ice, seawater, sediments, and benthic or ice-associated animals in McMurdo Sound, Antarctica. A total of 155 strains were isolated and tested for the presence of plasmids by DNA agarose gel electrophoresis. Thirty-one percent of the isolates carried at least one kind of plasmid. Bacterial isolates taken from sediments showed the highest plasmid incidence (42%), and isolates from seawater showed the lowest plasmid incidence (20%). Plasmids were significantly more frequent in the strains which had been first isolated from low-nutrient media (46%) than in the strains which had been isolated from high-nutrient media (25%). Multiple forms of plasmids were observed in two-thirds of the plasmid-carrying strains. A majority of the plasmids detected were estimated to have a mass of 10 megadaltons or less. Among 48 plasmid-carrying strains, 7 showed antibiotic resistance. It is concluded that bacterial plasmids are ubiquitous in natural microbial assemblages of the pristine marine ecosystem of Antarctica. Images PMID:16346621

  10. Virulence Plasmids of Spore-Forming Bacteria.

    PubMed

    Adams, Vicki; Li, Jihong; Wisniewski, Jessica A; Uzal, Francisco A; Moore, Robert J; McClane, Bruce A; Rood, Julian I

    2014-12-01

    Plasmid-encoded virulence factors are important in the pathogenesis of diseases caused by spore-forming bacteria. Unlike many other bacteria, the most common virulence factors encoded by plasmids in Clostridium and Bacillus species are protein toxins. Clostridium perfringens causes several histotoxic and enterotoxin diseases in both humans and animals and produces a broad range of toxins, including many pore-forming toxins such as C. perfringens enterotoxin, epsilon-toxin, beta-toxin, and NetB. Genetic studies have led to the determination of the role of these toxins in disease pathogenesis. The genes for these toxins are generally carried on large conjugative plasmids that have common core replication, maintenance, and conjugation regions. There is considerable functional information available about the unique tcp conjugation locus carried by these plasmids, but less is known about plasmid maintenance. The latter is intriguing because many C. perfringens isolates stably maintain up to four different, but closely related, toxin plasmids. Toxin genes may also be plasmid-encoded in the neurotoxic clostridia. The tetanus toxin gene is located on a plasmid in Clostridium tetani, but the botulinum toxin genes may be chromosomal, plasmid-determined, or located on bacteriophages in Clostridium botulinum. In Bacillus anthracis it is well established that virulence is plasmid determined, with anthrax toxin genes located on pXO1 and capsule genes on a separate plasmid, pXO2. Orthologs of these plasmids are also found in other members of the Bacillus cereus group such as B. cereus and Bacillus thuringiensis. In B. thuringiensis these plasmids may carry genes encoding one or more insecticidal toxins. PMID:26104459

  11. Strategy to approach stable production of recombinant nattokinase in Bacillus subtilis.

    PubMed

    Chen, Po Ting; Chiang, Chung-Jen; Chao, Yun-Peng

    2007-01-01

    Bacillus subtilis (B. subtilis) is widely accepted as an excellent host cell for the secretory production of recombinant proteins. In this study, a shuttle vector was constructed by fusion of Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) plasmid pUB110 with Escherichia coli (E. coli) plasmid pUC18 and used for the expression of nattokinase in B. subtilis. The pUB110/pUC-based plasmid was found to exhibit high structural instability with the identification of a DNA deletion between two repeated regions. An initial attempt was made to eliminate the homologous site in the plasmid, whereas the stability of the resulting plasmid was not improved. In an alternative way, the pUC18-derived region in this hybrid vector was replaced by the suicidal R6K plasmid origin of E. coli. As a consequence, the pUB110/R6K-based plasmid displayed full structural stability, leading to a high-level production of recombinant nattokinase in the culture broth. This was mirrored by the detection of a very low level of high molecular weight DNAs generated by the plasmid. Moreover, 2-fold higher nattokinase production was obtained by B. subtilis strain carrying the pUB110/R6K-based plasmid as compared to the cell with the pAMbeta1-derived vector, a plasmid known to have high structural stability. Overall, it indicates the feasibility of the approach by fusing two compatible plasmid origins for stable and efficient production of recombinant nattokinase in B. subtilis. PMID:17595111

  12. Electroporation of plasmid DNA to swine muscle.

    PubMed

    Bodles-Brakhop, Angela M; Draghia-Akli, Ruxandra; Broderick, Kate; Khan, Amir S

    2011-01-01

    For plasmid-mediated gene therapy applications, a major limitation to scale up from rodents to large animals is the low expression level of injected plasmid DNA. The electroporation technique, which results in the passage of foreign material through the cell membrane, is one method that has been shown to be effective at improving local plasmid uptake and consequently, expression levels. Previous studies have determined that optimized electroporation parameters (such as electric field intensity, number of pulses, lag time between plasmid injections and electroporations, and optimal plasmid formulation conditions) are dependent on the target muscle type and individual species. Here, we provide a detailed protocol to optimize conditions for the successful intramuscular electroporation of plasmid DNA to swine, a large animal model. Our results suggest that the technique is safe and effective for veterinary applications. Furthermore, these results provide evidence for the feasibility of upcoming human applications. PMID:21194033

  13. PENICILLINASE PLASMID DNA FROM Staphylococcus aureus*

    PubMed Central

    Rush, Mark G.; Gordon, C. N.; Novick, Richard P.; Warner, Robert C.

    1969-01-01

    A penicillinase plasmid from Staphylococcus aureus and three of its derivatives, all previously identified as extrachromosomal genetic elements, have been isolated in high yield as circular duplex DNA molecules. The wild-type plasmid was found by contour-length measurements of electron micrographs to have a molecular weight of 18.6 × 106 daltons. Two plasmids with deletions encompassing six and eight of the eleven known plasmid cistrons had molecular weights of 16.4 × 106 and 15.3 × 106 daltons, respectively. This information was used to establish approximate physical distances for the genetic map. A high-frequency transducing element also derived from the plasmid had a molecular weight of approximately 24 × 106 daltons. Although each plasmid preparation appeared homogeneous by ultracentrifugal analysis, electron micrographs always revealed the presence of a low percentage of complex oligomeric forms, particularly circular and catenated dimers. Images PMID:5260933

  14. Homemade Site Directed Mutagenesis of Whole Plasmids

    PubMed Central

    Laible, Mark; Boonrod, Kajohn

    2009-01-01

    Site directed mutagenesis of whole plasmids is a simple way to create slightly different variations of an original plasmid. With this method the cloned target gene can be altered by substitution, deletion or insertion of a few bases directly into a plasmid. It works by simply amplifying the whole plasmid, in a non PCR-based thermocycling reaction. During the reaction mutagenic primers, carrying the desired mutation, are integrated into the newly synthesized plasmid. In this video tutorial we demonstrate an easy and cost effective way to introduce base substitutions into a plasmid. The protocol works with standard reagents and is independent from commercial kits, which often are very expensive. Applying this protocol can reduce the total cost of a reaction to an eighth of what it costs using some of the commercial kits. In this video we also comment on critical steps during the process and give detailed instructions on how to design the mutagenic primers. PMID:19488024

  15. Microwave effects on plasmid DNA

    SciTech Connect

    Sagripanti, J.L.; Swicord, M.L.; Davis, C.C.

    1987-05-01

    The exposure of purified plasmid DNA to microwave radiation at nonthermal levels in the frequency range from 2.00 to 8.75 GHz produces single- and double-strand breaks that are detected by agarose gel electrophoresis. Microwave-induced damage to DNA depends on the presence of small amounts of copper. This effect is dependent upon both the microwave power and the duration of the exposure. Cuprous, but not cupric, ions were able to mimic the effects produced by microwaves on DNA.

  16. Vaccination of mice with ORF 5 plasmid DNA of PRRSV; enhanced effects by co-immunizing with porcine IL-15

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The open reading frame (ORF) 5 of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) encodes a major envelope glycoprotein designated GP5. The GP5 protein is a candidate for developing vaccines against PRRSV infection. In this study, recombinant plasmids bearing the PRRSV GP5 gene or the po...

  17. Internal ribosome entry site (IRES) from Encephalomyocarditis virus (EMCV) as a tool for shuttle expression plasmids.

    PubMed

    Telpalo-Carpio, Sandra Aurora; Diaz-Mitoma, Francisco; Moreno-Cuevas, Jorge Eugenio; Aguilar-Yáñez, José Manuel

    2015-12-25

    In eukaryotes, IRES sequences aid the recruitment of factors needed for translation to occur, enabling protein production independent of 5' capped mRNA. Many patents and commercially available plasmids exploit their properties for polycistronic expression of recombinant proteins. However, these applications have been restricted to eukaryotic organisms, since it was thought that elements of this origin were essential for their activity. Here, using two tricistronic vectors designed for expression in mammalian hosts, we present evidence of EMCV IRES activity in prokaryotes. This finding enables the development of new and more versatile plasmid vectors for the production of recombinant proteins in multiple hosts from a single construct. Additionally, it provides new hints for the elaboration of alternative models describing the molecular mechanism of EMCV IRES mediated translation, in the absence of eukaryotic elements that were considered indispensable for its function. PMID:26546818

  18. Natural plasmid transformation in Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Tsen, Suh-Der; Fang, Suh-Sen; Chen, Mei-Jye; Chien, Jun-Yi; Lee, Chih-Chun; Tsen, Darwin Han-Lin

    2002-01-01

    Although Escherichia coli does not have a natural transformation process, strains of E. coli can incorporate extracellular plasmids into cytoplasm 'naturally' at low frequencies. A standard method was developed in which stationary phase cells were concentrated, mixed with plasmids, and then plated on agar plates with nutrients which allowed cells to grow. Transformed cells could then be selected by harvesting cells and plating again on selective agar plates. Competence developed in the lag phase, but disappeared during exponential growth. As more plasmids were added to the cell suspension, the number of transformants increased, eventually reaching a plateau. Supercoiled monomeric or linear concatemeric DNA could transform cells, while linear monomeric DNA could not. Plasmid transformation was not related to conjugation and was recA-independent. Most of the E. coli strains surveyed had this process. All tested plasmids, except pACYC184, could transform E. coli. Insertion of a DNA fragment containing the ampicillin resistance gene into pACYC184 made the plasmid transformable. By inserting random 20-base-pair oligonucleotides into pACYC184 and selecting for transformable plasmids, a most frequent sequence was identified. This sequence resembled the bacterial interspersed medium repetitive sequence of E. coli, suggesting the existence of a recognition sequence. We conclude that plasmid natural transformation exists in E. coli. PMID:12065899

  19. CONSTRUCTION OF PLASMIDS FOR USE IN RISK ASSESSMENT RESEARCH

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report describes a series of selftransmissible and nonselftransmissible (cloning vector) plasmids constructed to compare results from different laboratory tests and plasmid systems. Plasmids were designed to overcome problems of reproducibility, confusion due to use of differ...

  20. MEGAWHOP cloning: a method of creating random mutagenesis libraries via megaprimer PCR of whole plasmids.

    PubMed

    Miyazaki, Kentaro

    2011-01-01

    MEGAWHOP allows for the cloning of DNA fragments into a vector and is used for conventional restriction digestion/ligation-based procedures. In MEGAWHOP, the DNA fragment to be cloned is used as a set of complementary primers that replace a homologous region in a template vector through whole-plasmid PCR. After synthesis of a nicked circular plasmid, the mixture is treated with DpnI, a dam-methylated DNA-specific restriction enzyme, to digest the template plasmid. The DpnI-treated mixture is then introduced into competent Escherichia coli cells to yield plasmids carrying replaced insert fragments. Plasmids produced by the MEGAWHOP method are virtually free of contamination by species without any inserts or with multiple inserts, and also the parent. Because the fragment is usually long enough to not interfere with hybridization to the template, various types of fragments can be used with mutations at any site (either known or unknown, random, or specific). By using fragments having homologous sequences at the ends (e.g., adaptor sequence), MEGAWHOP can also be used to recombine nonhomologous sequences mediated by the adaptors, allowing rapid creation of novel constructs and chimeric genes. PMID:21601687

  1. Characterization of KfrA proteins encoded by a plasmid of Paenibacillus popilliae ATCC 14706T

    PubMed Central

    Iiyama, Kazuhiro; Mon, Hiroaki; Mori, Kazuki; Mitsudome, Takumi; Lee, Jae Man; Kusakabe, Takahiro; Tashiro, Kousuke; Asano, Shin-ichiro; Yasunaga-Aoki, Chisa

    2015-01-01

    A scaffold obtained from whole-genome shotgun sequencing of Paenibacillus popilliae ATCC 14706T shares partial homology with plasmids found in other strains of P. popilliae. PCR and sequencing for gap enclosure indicated that the scaffold originated from a 15,929-bp circular DNA. The restriction patterns of a plasmid isolated from P. popilliae ATCC 14706T were identical to those expected from the sequence; thus, this circular DNA was identified as a plasmid of ATCC 14706T and designated pPOP15.9. The plasmid encodes 17 putative open reading frames. Orfs 1, 5, 7, 8, and 9 are homologous to Orfs 11, 12, 15, 16, and 17, respectively. Orf1 and Orf11 are annotated as replication initiation proteins. Orf8 and Orf16 are homologs of KfrA, a plasmid-stabilizing protein in Gram-negative bacteria. Recombinant Orf8 and Orf16 proteins were assessed for the properties of KfrA. Indeed, they formed multimers and bound to inverted repeat sequences in upstream regions of both orf8 and orf16. A phylogenetic tree based on amino acid sequences of Orf8, Orf16 and Kfr proteins did not correlate with species lineage. PMID:25853059

  2. Mini-F plasmid genes that couple host cell division to plasmid proliferation.

    PubMed Central

    Ogura, T; Hiraga, S

    1983-01-01

    A mechanism for stable maintenance of plasmids, besides the replication and partition mechanisms, has been found to be specified by genes of a mini-F plasmid. An oriC plasmid carrying both a mini-F segment necessary for partition [coordinates 46.4-49.4 kilobase pairs (kb) on the F map] and another segment (42.9-43.6 kb), designated ccd (coupled cell division), is more stably maintained than are oriC plasmids carrying only the partition segment; the stability is comparable to that of the parental mini-F plasmid. When replication of a plasmid carrying ccd is prevented and the plasmid copy number decreases, to as few as one per cell, host cell division is inhibited, but not increase of turbidity or chromosome replication. Appearance of plasmid-free segregants is therefore effectively prevented under such conditions. Experimental results suggest that reduction of the copy number of plasmids carrying the ccd region causes an inhibition of cell division and that the ccd region can be dissected into two functional regions; one (ccdB) inhibits cell division and the other (ccdA) releases the inhibition. The interplay of the ccdA and ccdB genes promotes stable plasmid maintenance by coupling host cell division to plasmid proliferation. PMID:6308648

  3. Molecular characterization and structural instability of the industrially important composite metabolic plasmid pLP712.

    PubMed

    Wegmann, Udo; Overweg, Karin; Jeanson, Sophie; Gasson, Mike; Shearman, Claire

    2012-12-01

    The widely used plasmid-free Lactococcus lactis strain MG1363 was derived from the industrial dairy starter strain NCDO712. This strain carries a 55.39 kb plasmid encoding genes for lactose catabolism and a serine proteinase involved in casein degradation. We report the DNA sequencing and annotation of pLP712, which revealed additional metabolic genes, including peptidase F, d-lactate dehydrogenase and α-keto acid dehydrogenase (E3 complex). Comparison of pLP712 with other large lactococcal lactose and/or proteinase plasmids from L. lactis subsp. cremoris SK11 (pSK11L, pSK11P) and the plant strain L. lactis NCDO1867 (pGdh442) revealed their close relationship. The plasmid appears to have evolved through a series of genetic events as a composite of pGdh442, pSK11L and pSK11P. We describe in detail a scenario by which the metabolic genes relevant to the growth of its host in a milk environment have been unified on one replicon, reflecting the evolution of L. lactis as it changed its biological niche from plants to dairy environments. The extensive structural instability of pLP712 allows easy isolation of derivative plasmids lacking genes for casein degradation and/or lactose catabolism. Plasmid pLP712 is transferable by transduction and conjugation, and both of these processes result in significant molecular rearrangements. We report the detailed molecular analysis of insertion sequence element-mediated genetic rearrangements within pLP712 and several different mechanisms, including homologous recombination and adjacent deletion. Analysis of the integration of the lactose operon into the chromosome highlights the fluidity of the MG1363 integration hotspot and the potential for frequent movement of genes between plasmids and chromosomes in Lactococcus. PMID:23023974

  4. Construction of an Escherichia coli-rhodococcus shuttle vector and plasmid transformation in Rhodococcus spp

    SciTech Connect

    Singer, M.E.V.; Finnerty, W.R.

    1988-02-01

    A plasmid transformation system for Rhodococcus sp. strain H13-A was developed by using an Escherichia coli-Rhodococcus shuttle plasmid constructed in this study. Rhodococcus sp. strain H13-A contains three cryptic indigenous plasmids, designated pMVS100, pMVS200, and pMVS300, of 75, 19.5, and 13.4 kilobases (kb), respectively. A 3.8-kb restriction fragment of pMVS300 was cloned into pIJ30, a 6.3-kb pBR322 derivative, containing the E. coli origin of replication (ori) and ampicillin resistance determinant (bla), as well as a Streptomyces gene for thiostrepton resistance, tsr. The resulting 10.1-kb recombinant plasmid, designated pMVS301, was isolated from E. coli DH1 (pMVS301) and transformed into Rhodococccus sp. strain AS-50, a derivative of strain H13-A. The cloned 3.8-kb fragment of Rhodococcus DNA in pMVS301 contains a Rhodococcus origin of replication, since the hybrid plasmid was capable of replication in both genera. The plasmid was identical in E. coli and Rhodococcus transformants as determined by restriction analysis and was maintained as a stable, independent replicon in both organisms. A restriction map demonstrated 14 unique restriction sites in pMVS301, some of which are potentially useful for molecular cloning in Rhodococcus spp. and other actinomycetes. This is the first report of plasmid transformation and of heterologous gene expression in a Rhodococcus sp.

  5. Differential Requirements of Singleplex and Multiplex Recombineering of Large DNA Constructs

    PubMed Central

    Reddy, Thimma R.; Kelsall, Emma J.; Fevat, Léna M. S.; Munson, Sarah E.; Cowley, Shaun M.

    2015-01-01

    Recombineering is an in vivo genetic engineering technique involving homologous recombination mediated by phage recombination proteins. The use of recombineering methodology is not limited by size and sequence constraints and therefore has enabled the streamlined construction of bacterial strains and multi-component plasmids. Recombineering applications commonly utilize singleplex strategies and the parameters are extensively tested. However, singleplex recombineering is not suitable for the modification of several loci in genome recoding and strain engineering exercises, which requires a multiplex recombineering design. Defining the main parameters affecting multiplex efficiency especially the insertion of multiple large genes is necessary to enable efficient large-scale modification of the genome. Here, we have tested different recombineering operational parameters of the lambda phage Red recombination system and compared singleplex and multiplex recombineering of large gene sized DNA cassettes. We have found that optimal multiplex recombination required long homology lengths in excess of 120 bp. However, efficient multiplexing was possible with only 60 bp of homology. Multiplex recombination was more limited by lower amounts of DNA than singleplex recombineering and was greatly enhanced by use of phosphorothioate protection of DNA. Exploring the mechanism of multiplexing revealed that efficient recombination required co-selection of an antibiotic marker and the presence of all three Red proteins. Building on these results, we substantially increased multiplex efficiency using an ExoVII deletion strain. Our findings elucidate key differences between singleplex and multiplex recombineering and provide important clues for further improving multiplex recombination efficiency. PMID:25954970

  6. High-level plasmid-mediated gentamicin resistance and pheromone response of plasmids present in clinical isolates of Enterococcus faecalis.

    PubMed Central

    Shiojima, M; Tomita, H; Tanimoto, K; Fujimoto, S; Ike, Y

    1997-01-01

    Eleven pheromone-responding plasmids encoding erythromycin or gentamicin resistance were isolated from multiresistant clinical Enterococcus faecalis isolates. The plasmids were classified into six types with respect to their pheromone responses. The three erythromycin resistance plasmids responded to different pheromones. Of the eight gentamicin resistance plasmids, four plasmids responded to same pheromone. Southern hybridization studies showed that the genes involved in regulation of the pheromone response were conserved in the drug resistance plasmids. PMID:9056018

  7. Long term stability of lyophilized plasmid DNA pDERMATT.

    PubMed

    van der Heijden, Iris; Beijnen, Jos H; Nuijen, Bastiaan

    2013-09-10

    In this short note we report on the shelf-life stability of pDERMATT (plasmid DNA encoding recombinant MART-1 and tetanus toxin fragment-c) 2mg lyophilized powder for reconstitution for intradermal administration, used in an in-house, investigator-initiated clinical phase I study. pDERMATT was stored at 25°C/60% relative humidity (6 months), 2-8°C (24 months), and -20°C (66 months) in the dark and analyzed at several timepoints during the conduct of the clinical study for appearance, identity, purity (plasmid topology), content and residual water content. pDERMATT appeared stable at all storage conditions for the periods tested which, although patient inclusion in the study was significantly delayed, ensured the clinical supply needs. This study shows that lyophilization is an useful tool to preserve the quality of the pDNA and can prevent the need for costly and time-consuming additional manufacture of drug product in case of study delays, not uncommon at the early stage of drug development. To our knowledge, this is the first study reporting shelf life stability of a pDNA formulation for more than 5 years. PMID:23792100

  8. Budding yeast Rad50, Mre11, Xrs2, and Hdf1, but not Rad52, are involved in the formation of deletions on a dicentric plasmid.

    PubMed

    Tsukamoto, Y; Kato, J; Ikeda, H

    1997-08-01

    We have previously shown that the RAD50, RAD52, MRE11, XRS2, and HDF1 genes of Saccharomyces cervisiae are involved in the formation of deletions by illegitimate recombination on a monocentric plasmid. In this study, we investigated the effects of mutations of these genes on formation of deletions of a dicentric plasmid, in which DNA double-strand breaks are expected to occur frequently because the two centromeres are pulled to opposite poles in mitosis. We transformed yeast cells with a dicentric plasmid, and after incubation for a few division cycles, cells carrying deleted plasmids were detected using negative selection markers. Deletions occurred at a higher frequency than on the monocentric plasmid and there were short regions of homology at the recombination junctions as observed on the monocentric plasmid. In rad50, mre11, xrs2, and hdf1 mutants, the frequency of occurrence of deletions was reduced by about 50-fold, while in the rad52 mutant, it was comparable to that in the wild-type strain. The end-joining functions of Rad50, Mre11, Xrs2, and Hdf1, suggest that these proteins play important roles in the joining of DNA ends produced on the dicentric plasmid during mitosis. PMID:9294039

  9. Mobilization of the genetically engineered plasmid pHSV106 from Escherichia coli HB101(pHSV106) to Enterobacter cloacae in drinking water.

    PubMed Central

    Sandt, C H; Herson, D S

    1991-01-01

    We have used triparental matings to demonstrate transfer (mobilization) of the nonconjugative genetically engineered plasmid pHSV106, which contains the thymidine kinase gene of herpes simplex virus cloned into pBR322, from Escherichia coli HB101 to an environmental isolate of Enterobacter cloacae in sterile drinking water. This is the first demonstration of a two-step mobilization of a genetically engineered plasmid in any type of fresh water, including drinking water. Transfer was mediated by R plasmid R100-1 of E. coli ED2149(R100-1). Matings in drinking water at 15, 25, and 35 degrees C yielded recombinants, the number of which increased with increasing temperature. Numbers of recombinants obtained were 2 orders of magnitude lower than those obtained from matings in Trypticase soy broth. High concentrations of parental organisms (2.6 x 10(8) to 2.0 x 10(9) CFU/ml) were required. During 1 week of incubation in drinking water, number of parental organisms and recombinants resulting from mobilization remained constant in the absence of indigenous organisms and declined in their presence. Using oligonucleotide probes for the cloned foreign DNA (thymidine kinase gene) and plasmid vector DNA (ampicillin resistance gene), we demonstrated that both genes were transferred to E. cloacae in the mobilization process. In one recombinant selected for detailed study, the plasmids containing these genes differed in size from all forms of pHSV106 present in E. coli HB101(pHSV106), indicating that DNA rearrangement had occurred. This recombinant maintained its plasmids in unchanged form for 15 days in drinking water. A second rearrangement occurred during serial passage of this recombinant on selective media.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) Images PMID:2036007

  10. PlasmID: a centralized repository for plasmid clone information and distribution

    PubMed Central

    Zuo, Dongmei; Mohr, Stephanie E.; Hu, Yanhui; Taycher, Elena; Rolfs, Andreas; Kramer, Jason; Williamson, Janice; LaBaer, Joshua

    2007-01-01

    The Plasmid Information Database (PlasmID; ) was developed as a community-based resource portal to facilitate search and request of plasmid clones shared with the Dana-Farber/Harvard Cancer Center (DF/HCC) DNA Resource Core. PlasmID serves as a central data repository and enables researchers to search the collection online using common gene names and identifiers, keywords, vector features, author names and PubMed IDs. As of October 2006, the repository contains >46 000 plasmids in 98 different vectors, including cloned cDNA and genomic fragments from 26 different species. Moreover, the clones include plasmid vectors useful for routine and cutting-edge techniques; functionally related sets of human cDNA clones; and genome-scale gene collections for Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Yersinia pestis, Francisella tularensis, Bacillus anthracis and Vibrio cholerae. Information about the plasmids has been fully annotated in adherence with a high-quality standard, and clone samples are stored as glycerol stocks in a state-of-the-art automated −80°C freezer storage system. Clone replication and distribution is highly automated to minimize human error. Infor-mation about vectors and plasmid clones, including downloadable maps and sequence data, is freely available online. Researchers interested in requesting clone samples or sharing their own plasmids with the repository can visit the PlasmID website for more information. PMID:17132831

  11. Generalized Transduction of Small Yersinia enterocolitica Plasmids

    PubMed Central

    Hertwig, Stefan; Popp, Andreas; Freytag, Barbara; Lurz, Rudi; Appel, Bernd

    1999-01-01

    To study phage-mediated gene transfer in Yersinia, the ability of Yersinia phages to transduce naturally occurring plasmids was investigated. The transduction experiments were performed with a temperate phage isolated from a pathogenic Yersinia enterocolitica strain and phage mixtures isolated from sewage. Small plasmids (4.3 and 5.8 kb) were transduced at a frequency of 10−5 to 10−7/PFU. However, we could not detect the transduction of any indigenous virulence plasmid (ca. 72 kb) in pathogenic Yersinia strains. Transductants obtained by infection with the temperate phage were lysogenic and harbored the phage genome in their chromosomes. PMID:10473387

  12. Improved seamless mutagenesis by recombineering using ccdB for counterselection

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Hailong; Bian, Xiaoying; Xia, Liqiu; Ding, Xuezhi; Müller, Rolf; Zhang, Youming; Fu, Jun; Stewart, A. Francis

    2014-01-01

    Recombineering, which is the use of homologous recombination for DNA engineering in Escherichia coli, usually uses antibiotic selection to identify the intended recombinant. When combined in a second step with counterselection using a small molecule toxin, seamless products can be obtained. Here, we report the advantages of a genetic strategy using CcdB as the counterselectable agent. Expression of CcdB is toxic to E. coli in the absence of the CcdA antidote so counterselection is initiated by the removal of CcdA expression. CcdB counterselection is robust and does not require titrations or experiment-to-experiment optimization. Because counterselection strategies necessarily differ according to the copy number of the target, we describe two variations. For multi-copy targets, we use two E. coli hosts so that counterselection is exerted by the transformation step that is needed to separate the recombined and unrecombined plasmids. For single copy targets, we put the ccdA gene onto the temperature-sensitive pSC101 Red expression plasmid so that counterselection is exerted by the standard temperature shift to remove the expression plasmid. To reduce unwanted intramolecular recombination, we also combined CcdB counterselection with Redα omission. These options improve the use of counterselection in recombineering with BACs, plasmids and the E. coli chromosome. PMID:24369425

  13. Transformation-associated recombination between diverged and homologous DNA repeats is induced by strand breaks

    SciTech Connect

    Larionov, V.; Kouprina, N. |; Eldarov, M. |; Perkins, E.; Porter, G.; Resnick, M.A.

    1994-10-01

    Rearrangement and deletion within plasmid DNA is commonly observed during transformation. We have examined the mechanisms of transformation-associated recombination in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae using a plasmid system which allowed the effects of physical state and/or extent of homology on recombination to be studied. The plasmid contains homologous or diverged (19%) DNA repeats separated by a genetically detectable color marker. Recombination during transformation for covalently closed circular plasmids was over 100-fold more frequent than during mitotic-growth. The frequency of recombination is partly dependent on the method of transformation In that procedures involving lithium acetate or spheroplasting yield higher frequencies than electroporation. When present in the repeats, unique single-strand breaks that are ligatable, as well as double-strand breaks, lead to high levels of recombination between diverged and identical repeats. The transformation-associated recombination between repeat DNA`s is under the influence of the RAD52, RAD1 and the RNC1 genes.

  14. [Generation and preliminary immunological efficacy of a recombinant human adenovirus-rabies virus glycoprotein].

    PubMed

    Wang, Ying; Zhang, Shou-Feng; Liu, Ye; Zhang, Fei; Zhang, Jin-Xia; Hu, Rong-Liang

    2011-09-01

    To construct a recombinant human adenovirus type 5 expressing glycoprotein (GP) of attenuated rabies virus SRV9 and testing immunological efficacy on the immunized mice. Open reading frame of rabies virus GP gene of SRV9 strain was cloned into the shuttle vector of adenovirus expression system in multiple cloning sites to construct the recombinant shuttle plasmid pacAd5 CMV-Gs9, cotransfection was performed into 293AD cells mediated by FuGENE Transfection Reagent with linearized backbone plasmid and recombinant shuttle plasmid, cell cultures were collected after CPE appearance and were identified by PCR and electronmicroscopy, virus titer was measured in 293AD cells. Kunming mice were intraperitoneally injected with 10(6) TCID50 adenovirus, blood for serum preparation was collected through caudal vein pre-immune and post-immune and tested for VNA appearance by fluorescent antibody virus neutralization test (FAVN) detection. Recombinant shuttle plasmid pacAd5 CMV-Gs9 was constructed correctly. A recombinant human adenovirus type 5 was obtained expressing GP protein of rabies virus SRV9. The virus titer reached 10(6) CFU/mL at the least. All mice developed a certain amount of the anti-rabies neutralizing antibody 14 days after intraperitoneal inoculation, while the effective protection rates were 90%. In conclusion, Recombinant adenovirus expressing the rabies virus GP was constructed successfully and a certain amount of neutralizing antibodies were induced in mice, which laid the material foundation for further development of new rabies vaccine. PMID:21998956

  15. Population genomics of the symbiotic plasmids of sympatric nitrogen-fixing Rhizobium species associated with Phaseolus vulgaris.

    PubMed

    Pérez Carrascal, Olga M; VanInsberghe, David; Juárez, Soledad; Polz, Martin F; Vinuesa, Pablo; González, Víctor

    2016-09-01

    Cultivated common beans are the primary protein source for millions of people around the world who subsist on low-input agriculture, enabled by the symbiotic N2 -fixation these legumes perform in association with rhizobia. Within a single agricultural plot, multiple Rhizobium species can nodulate bean roots, but it is unclear how genetically isolated these species remain in sympatry. To better understand this issue, we sequenced and compared the genomes of 33 strains isolated from the rhizosphere and root nodules of a particular bean variety grown in the same agricultural plot. We found that the Rhizobium species we observed coexist with low genetic recombination across their core genomes. Accessory plasmids thought to be necessary for the saprophytic lifestyle in soil show similar levels of genetic isolation, but with higher rates of recombination than the chromosomes. However, the symbiotic plasmids are extremely similar, with high rates of recombination and do not appear to have co-evolved with the chromosome or accessory plasmids. Therefore, while Rhizobium species are genetically isolated units within the microbial community, a common symbiotic plasmid allows all Rhizobium species to engage in symbiosis with the same host in a single agricultural plot. PMID:27312778

  16. Transposition of a plasmid deoxyribonucleic acid sequence that mediates ampicillin resistance: independence from host rec functions and orientation of insertion.

    PubMed Central

    Rubens, C; Heffron, F; Falkow, S

    1976-01-01

    Insertion of the transposable deoxyribonucleic acid sequence that specifies the TEM beta-lactamase (TnA) occurred in at least 19 sites on the 5.5 x 10(6)-dalton plasmid RSF1010. There was no significant difference in the frequency of transposition or in the distribution of TnA insertion sites for recombinant plasmids isolated from recombination-proficient (rec+) or recombination-deficient (rec-) bacterial host cells. The site and orientation of TnA insertions were determined by both heteroduplex analysis and enzymatic digestion with restriction endonucleases. Insertion in the gene encoding for sulfonamide resistance occurred without circular permutation in one or the other of two distinct orientations. Insertions in orientation P were strongly polar on distal gene expression, whereas insertions in orientation M were mutagenic but not polar. In addition, we have observed that TnA elements from different R plasmids show fine structural heterogeneity, and that TnA insertion at a site adjacent to the origin of replication causes an increase in plasmid copy number. Images PMID:789346

  17. Plasmid-Encoded Phthalate Catabolic Pathway in Arthrobacter keyseri 12B†

    PubMed Central

    Eaton, Richard W.

    2001-01-01

    Several 2-substituted benzoates (including 2-trifluoromethyl-, 2-chloro-, 2-bromo-, 2-iodo-, 2-nitro-, 2-methoxy-, and 2-acetyl-benzoates) were converted by phthalate-grown Arthrobacter keyseri (formerly Micrococcus sp.) 12B to the corresponding 2-substituted 3,4-dihydroxybenzoates (protocatechuates). Because these products lack a carboxyl group at the 2 position, they were not substrates for the next enzyme of the phthalate catabolic pathway, 3,4-dihydroxyphthalate 2-decarboxylase, and accumulated. When these incubations were carried out in iron-containing minimal medium, the products formed colored chelates. This chromogenic response was subsequently used to identify recombinant Escherichia coli strains carrying genes encoding the responsible enzymes, phthalate 3,4-dioxygenase and 3,4-dihydroxy-3,4-dihydrophthalate dehydrogenase, from the 130-kbp plasmid pRE1 of strain 12B. Beginning with the initially cloned 8.14-kbp PstI fragment of pRE824 as a probe to identify recombinant plasmids carrying overlapping fragments, a DNA segment of 33.5 kbp was cloned from pRE1 on several plasmids and mapped using restriction endonucleases. From these plasmids, the sequence of 26,274 contiguous bp was determined. Sequenced DNA included several genetic units: tnpR, pcm operon, ptr genes, pehA, norA fragment, and pht operon, encoding a transposon resolvase, catabolism of protocatechuate (3,4-dihydroxybenzoate), a putative ATP-binding cassette transporter, a possible phthalate ester hydrolase, a fragment of a norfloxacin resistance-like transporter, and the conversion of phthalate to protocatechuate, respectively. Activities of the eight enzymes involved in the catabolism of phthalate through protocatechuate to pyruvate and oxaloacetate were demonstrated in cells or cell extracts of recombinant E. coli strains. PMID:11371533

  18. β-Carotene production by Saccharomyces cerevisiae with regard to plasmid stability and culture media.

    PubMed

    Lange, Nicole; Steinbüchel, Alexander

    2011-09-01

    A recombinant Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain was used for the production of β-carotene. The episomal plasmid YEplac195YB/I/E was extended by a gene coding for the mevalonate kinase (mvaK1) from Staphylococcus aureus. The adh1 promoter was chosen for constitutive expression of mvaK1. The recombinant strain S. cerevisiae G175 (YEplac-CaroSA) synthesised β-carotene by expressing the carotenogenic genes of Xanthophyllomyces dendrorhous together with the mvaK1 gene. Cells of this strain were investigated for their carotenoid contents in YNB and YPD media. A corresponding mvaK1 transcript in the recombinant yeast host was verified. Growth experiments of a specific erg12 deletion mutant showed that the mevalonate kinase (MvaK1) was able to complement the function of the deleted native mevalonate kinase (Erg12) from S. cerevisiae in the MVA pathway under control of the constitutive adh1 promoter. Cells of S. cerevisiae G175 (YEplac-CaroSA) exhibited high plasmid stability under either selective or non-selective cultivation conditions. Time course experiments demonstrated high plasmid stability even over extended cultivation periods. Carotenoid production was therefore also stable in larger culture volumes. Due to the stability of the plasmid, cultivation of the cells in complex YPD medium was possible, and 14.3 mg β-carotene per litre and a cell density of 9 g cell dry matter (CDM) per litre were achieved. The highest amount of 3,897 μg β-carotene per gramme CDM at a cell density of 1 g CDM per litre was measured after cultivation of the cells in YNB medium with glucose as sole carbon source. PMID:21573686

  19. Plasmid DNA fermentation strategies: influence on plasmid stability and cell physiology.

    PubMed

    Silva, Filomena; Queiroz, João A; Domingues, Fernanda C

    2012-03-01

    In order to provide sufficient pharmaceutical-grade plasmid DNA material, it is essential to gain a comprehensive knowledge of the bioprocesses involved; so, the development of protocols and techniques that allow a fast monitoring of process performance is a valuable tool for bioprocess design. Regarding plasmid DNA production, the metabolic stress of the host strain as well as plasmid stability have been identified as two of the key parameters that greatly influence plasmid DNA yields. The present work describes the impact of batch and fed-batch fermentations using different C/N ratios and different feeding profiles on cell physiology and plasmid stability, investigating the potential of these two monitoring techniques as valuable tools for bioprocess development and design. The results obtained in batch fermentations showed that plasmid copy number values suffered a pronounced increase at the end of almost all fermentation conditions tested. Regarding fed-batch fermentations, the strategies with exponential feeding profiles, in contrast with those with constant feeding, showed higher biomass and plasmid yields, the maximum values obtained for these two parameters being 95.64 OD(600) and 344.3 mg plasmid DNA (pDNA)/L, respectively, when using an exponential feed rate of 0.2 h(-1). Despite the results obtained, cell physiology and plasmid stability monitoring revealed that, although higher pDNA overall yields were obtained, this fermentation exhibited lower plasmid stability and percentage of viable cells. In conclusion, this study allowed clarifying the bioprocess performance based on cell physiology and plasmid stability assessment, allowing improvement of the overall process and not only plasmid DNA yield and cell growth. PMID:22089386

  20. Characterization of IntA, a Bidirectional Site-Specific Recombinase Required for Conjugative Transfer of the Symbiotic Plasmid of Rhizobium etli CFN42

    PubMed Central

    Hernández-Tamayo, Rogelio; Sohlenkamp, Christian; Puente, José Luis; Brom, Susana

    2013-01-01

    Site-specific recombination occurs at short specific sequences, mediated by the cognate recombinases. IntA is a recombinase from Rhizobium etli CFN42 and belongs to the tyrosine recombinase family. It allows cointegration of plasmid p42a and the symbiotic plasmid via site-specific recombination between attachment regions (attA and attD) located in each replicon. Cointegration is needed for conjugative transfer of the symbiotic plasmid. To characterize this system, two plasmids harboring the corresponding attachment sites and intA were constructed. Introduction of these plasmids into R. etli revealed IntA-dependent recombination events occurring at high frequency. Interestingly, IntA promotes not only integration, but also excision events, albeit at a lower frequency. Thus, R. etli IntA appears to be a bidirectional recombinase. IntA was purified and used to set up electrophoretic mobility shift assays with linear fragments containing attA and attD. IntA-dependent retarded complexes were observed only with fragments containing either attA or attD. Specific retarded complexes, as well as normal in vivo recombination abilities, were seen even in derivatives harboring only a minimal attachment region (comprising the 5-bp central region flanked by 9- to 11-bp inverted repeats). DNase I-footprinting assays with IntA revealed specific protection of these zones. Mutations that disrupt the integrity of the 9- to 11-bp inverted repeats abolish both specific binding and recombination ability, while mutations in the 5-bp central region severely reduce both binding and recombination. These results show that IntA is a bidirectional recombinase that binds to att regions without requiring neighboring sequences as enhancers of recombination. PMID:23935046

  1. Expression Plasmids for Use in Candida glabrata

    PubMed Central

    Zordan, Rebecca E.; Ren, Yuxia; Pan, Shih-Jung; Rotondo, Giuseppe; Peñas, Alejandro De Las; Iluore, Joseph; Cormack, Brendan P.

    2013-01-01

    We describe a series of CEN/ARS episomal plasmids containing different Candida glabrata promoters, allowing for a range of constitutive or regulated expression of proteins in C. glabrata. The set of promoters includes three constitutive promoters (EGD2pr, HHT2pr, PDC1pr), two macrophage/phagocytosis-induced promoters (ACO2pr, LYS21pr), and one nutritionally regulated promoter (MET3pr). Each promoter was cloned into two plasmid backbones that differ in their selectable marker, URA3, or the dominant-selectable NAT1 gene, which confers resistance to the drug nourseothricin. Expression from the 12 resulting plasmids was assessed using GFP as a reporter and flow cytometry or quantitative reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction to assess expression levels. Together this set of plasmids expands the toolkit of expression vectors available for use with C. glabrata. PMID:23934995

  2. SIMPLAS: A Simulation of Bacterial Plasmid Maintenance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dunn, A.; And Others

    1988-01-01

    This article describes a computer simulation of bacterial physiology during growth in a chemostat. The program was designed to help students to appreciate and understand the related effects of parameters which influence plasmid persistence in bacterial populations. (CW)

  3. Monitoring plasmid replication in live mammalian cells over multiple generations by fluorescence microscopy.

    PubMed

    Norby, Kathryn; Chiu, Ya-Fang; Sugden, Bill

    2012-01-01

    daughter cells. Ideal cells are adherent, easily transfected, and have large nuclei. This technique has been used to determine that 84% of EBV-derived plasmids are synthesized each generation and 88% of the newly synthesized plasmids partition faithfully to daughter cells in HeLa cells. Pairs of these EBV plasmids were seen to be tethered to or associated with sister chromatids after their synthesis in S-phase until they were seen to separate as the sister chromatids separated in Anaphase(10). The method is currently being used to study replication of KSHV genomes in HeLa cells and SLK cells. HeLa cells are immortalized human epithelial cells, and SLK cells are immortalized human endothelial cells. Though SLK cells were originally derived from a KSHV lesion, neither the HeLa nor SLK cell line naturally harbors KSHV genomes(11). In addition to studying viral replication, this visualization technique can be used to investigate the effects of the addition, removal, or mutation of various DNA sequence elements on synthesis, localization, and partitioning of other recombinant plasmid DNAs. PMID:23271393

  4. Shigella sonnei plasmids: evidence that a large plasmid is necessary for virulence.

    PubMed Central

    Sansonetti, P J; Kopecko, D J; Formal, S B

    1981-01-01

    Virulent form I Shigella sonnei strains contain a 120-megadalton plasmid that is absent in their form II derivatives, which are always avirulent and devoid of O side chains. In the present study, 165 biochemical and antibiotic traits were assessed, but no experimentally useful phenotype could be associated with this large form I plasmid. Therefore, the form I plasmids of several S. sonnei strains were tagged with the antibiotic resistance transposons Tn3, Tn5, or Tn10. Transposon-tagged form I plasmids were not self-transmissible, but could be mobilized by the plasmid R386. Form II S. sonnei transconjugants for the form I plasmid acquired both virulence and the ability to synthesize form I antigen, establishing that these properties are plasmid mediated. Further studies indicate that this 120-megadalton form I plasmid is physically unstable in any of several host bacteria and suggest that it is a member of the FI incompatibility group. Also, two commonly observed, small plasmids of S. sonnei, of 3.2 and 3.9 megadaltons, were shown to encode either colicin E1 production or resistance to streptomycin and sulfonamide, respectively. Images PMID:6271687

  5. Denitrification by Alcaligenes eutrophus is plasmid dependent.

    PubMed Central

    Römermann, D; Friedrich, B

    1985-01-01

    Curing of the hydrogenase-specifying megaplasmid pHG indigenous to strains of the facultative lithoautotrophic bacterium Alcaligenes eutrophus was correlated with a loss of denitrifying ability (Nitd). The retransfer of plasmid pHG1 reconstituted the Nitd phenotype. Plasmid-free mutants were still capable of converting some nitrate to nitrite, but they did not metabolize nitrite under anaerobic conditions. PMID:3886640

  6. Genetic analyses of sulfonamide resistance and its dissemination in gram-negative bacteria illustrate new aspects of R plasmid evolution.

    PubMed Central

    Rådström, P; Swedberg, G; Sköld, O

    1991-01-01

    In contrast to what has been observed for many other antibiotic resistance mechanisms, there are only two known genes encoding plasmid-borne sulfonamide resistance. Both genes, sulI and sulII, encode a drug-resistant dihydropteroate synthase enzyme. In members of the family Enterobacteriaceae isolated from several worldwide sources, plasmid-mediated resistance to sulfonamides could be identified by colony hybridization as being encoded by sulI, sulII, or both. The sulI gene was in all cases found to be located in the newly defined, mobile genetic element, recently named an integron, which has been shown to contain a site-specific recombination system for the integration of various antibiotic resistance genes. The sulII gene was almost exclusively found as part of a variable resistance region on small, nonconjugative plasmids. Colony hybridization to an intragenic probe, restriction enzyme digestion, and nucleotide sequence analysis of small plasmids indicated that the sulII gene and contiguous sequences represent an independently occurring region disseminated in the bacterial population. The sulII resistance region was bordered by direct repeats, which in some plasmids were totally or partially deleted. The prevalence of sulI and sulII could thus be accounted for by their stable integration in transposons and in plasmids that are widely disseminated among gram-negative bacteria. Images PMID:1952855

  7. Clostridium perfringens type A–E toxin plasmids

    PubMed Central

    Freedman, John C.; Theoret, James R.; Wisniewski, Jessica A.; Uzal, Francisco A.; Rood, Julian I.; McClane, Bruce A.

    2014-01-01

    Clostridium perfringens relies upon plasmid-encoded toxin genes to cause intestinal infections. These toxin genes are associated with insertion sequences that may facilitate their mobilization and transfer, giving rise to new toxin plasmids with common backbones. Most toxin plasmids carry a transfer of clostridial plasmids locus mediating conjugation, which likely explains the presence of similar toxin plasmids in otherwise unrelated C. perfringens strains. The association of many toxin genes with insertion sequences and conjugative plasmids provides virulence flexibility when causing intestinal infections. However, incompatibility issues apparently limit the number of toxin plasmids maintained by a single cell. PMID:25283728

  8. Immobilization of plasmid DNA in bacterial ghosts.

    PubMed

    Mayrhofer, Peter; Tabrizi, Chakameh Azimpour; Walcher, Petra; Haidinger, Wolfgang; Jechlinger, Wolfgang; Lubitz, Werner

    2005-02-16

    The development of novel delivery vehicles is crucial for the improvement of DNA vaccine efficiency. In this report, we describe a new platform technology, which is based on the immobilization of plasmid DNA in the cytoplasmic membrane of a bacterial carrier. This technology retains plasmid DNA (Self-Immobilizing Plasmid, pSIP) in the host envelope complex due to a specific protein/DNA interaction during and after protein E-mediated lysis. The resulting bacterial ghosts (empty bacterial envelopes) loaded with pDNA were analyzed in detail by real time PCR assays. We could verify that pSIP plasmids were retained in the pellets of lysed Escherichia coli cultures indicating that they are efficiently anchored in the inner membrane of bacterial ghosts. In contrast, a high percentage of control plasmids that lack essential features of the self-immobilization system were expelled in the culture broth during the lysis process. We believe that the combination of this plasmid immobilization procedure and the protein E-mediated lysis technology represents an efficient in vivo technique for the production of non-living DNA carrier vehicles. In conclusion, we present a "self-loading", non-living bacterial DNA delivery vector for vaccination endowed with intrinsic adjuvant properties of the Gram-negative bacterial cell envelope. PMID:15681093

  9. An improved recombineering approach by adding RecA to lambda Red recombination.

    PubMed

    Wang, Junping; Sarov, Mihail; Rientjes, Jeanette; Fu, Jun; Hollak, Heike; Kranz, Harald; Xie, Wei; Stewart, A Francis; Zhang, Youming

    2006-01-01

    Recombineering is the use of homologous recombination in Escherichia coli for DNA engineering. Of several approaches, use of the lambda phage Red operon is emerging as the most reliable and flexible. The Red operon includes three components: Redalpha, a 5' to 3' exonuclease, Redbeta, an annealing protein, and Redgamma, an inhibitor of the major E. coli exonuclease and recombination complex, RecBCD. Most E. coli cloning hosts are recA deficient to eliminate recombination and therefore enhance the stability of cloned DNAs. However, loss of RecA also impairs general cellular integrity. Here we report that transient RecA co-expression enhances the total number of successful recombinations in bacterial artificial chromosomes (BACs), mostly because the E. coli host is more able to survive the stresses of DNA transformation procedures. We combined this practical improvement with the advantages of a temperature-sensitive version of the low copy pSC101 plasmid to develop a protocol that is convenient and more efficient than any recombineering procedure, for use of either double- or single-stranded DNA, published to date. PMID:16382181

  10. Inducible Escherichia coli fermentation for increased plasmid DNA production.

    PubMed

    Carnes, Aaron E; Hodgson, Clague P; Williams, James A

    2006-11-01

    Bacterial plasmids are the vectors of choice for DNA vaccines and short-term gene therapeutics. Growing plasmid DNA by microbial (Escherichia coli) fermentation is usually combined with alkaline lysis/chromatography methods of purification. To date, typical plasmid fermentation media and processes result in yields of 100-250 mg of plasmid DNA/l of culture medium, using standard high-copy pUC origin-containing plasmids. In order to address this initial and yield-limiting upstream step, we identified novel fermentation control parameters for fed-batch fermentation. The resulting fermentation strategies significantly increased specific plasmid yield with respect to cell mass while enhancing plasmid integrity and maintaining supercoiled DNA content. Fed-batch fermentation yield exceeding 1000 mg of plasmid DNA/l was obtained after reduction of plasmid-mediated metabolic burden during growth, and yields up to 1500 mg of plasmid DNA/l have been achieved with optimized plasmid backbones. Interestingly, by inducing high plasmid levels after sufficient biomass accumulation at low temperature and restricted growth, cells were able to tolerate significantly higher plasmid quantities than cells grown by conventional processes. This 5-10-fold increase in plasmid yield dramatically decreases plasmid manufacturing costs and improves the effectiveness of downstream purification by reducing the fraction of impurities. PMID:16819941

  11. Recombinant laccase: I. Enzyme cloning and characterization.

    PubMed

    Nicolini, Claudio; Bruzzese, Debora; Cambria, Maria Teresa; Bragazzi, Nicola Luigi; Pechkova, Eugenia

    2013-03-01

    We obtained structural and functional characterization of a recombinant Laccase from Rigidoporus lignosus (formerly Rigidoporus microporus), a white-rot basidiomycete, by means of circular dichroism (CD) spectra, cyclic voltammetry (CV) and biochemical assays. Here we report the optimization of expression and purification procedures of a recombinant Laccase expressed in supercompetent Escherichia coli cells. We amplified the coding sequence of Laccase using PCR from cDNA and cloned into a bacterial expression system. The resulting expression plasmid, pET-28b, was under a strong T7/Lac promoter induced by IPTG (isopropyl-β-d-thiogalactoipyranoside). We obtained purification by fast protein liquid chromatography (FPLC) method. We recorded the variation of the current of a solution containing purified Laccase with increasing Syringaldazine (SGZ) concentration using a potentiometer as proof of principle, showing its compatibility with the development of a new enzymatic biosensor for medical purposes, as described in Part II. PMID:22991171

  12. Identification and removal of colanic acid from plasmid DNA preparations: implications for gene therapy

    PubMed Central

    Firozi, P; Zhang, W; Chen, L; Quiocho, FA; Worley, KC; Templeton, NS

    2012-01-01

    Polysaccharide contaminants in plasmid DNA, including current good manufacturing practices (cGMP) clinical preparations, must be removed to provide the greatest safety and efficacy for use in gene therapy and other clinical applications. We developed assays and methods for the detection and removal of these polysaccharides, our Super Clean DNA (SC-DNA) process, and have shown that these contaminants in plasmid DNA preparations are responsible for toxicity observed post-injection in animals. Furthermore, these contaminants limit the efficacy of low and high doses of plasmid DNA administered by numerous delivery routes. In particular, colanic acid (CA) that is mainly long-chained, branched and has high molecular weight (MW) is most refractory when complexed to cationic delivery vehicles and injected intravenously (IV). Because CA is often extremely large and tightly intertwined with DNA, it must be degraded, in order, to be effectively removed. We have produced a recombinant, truncated colanic acid degrading enzyme (CAE) that successfully accomplishes this task. Initially, we isolated a newly identified CAE from a bacteriophage that required truncation for proper folding while retaining its full enzymatic activity during production. Any plasmid DNA preparation can be digested with CAE and further purified, providing a critical advance to non-viral gene therapy. PMID:20664542

  13. A Eukaryotic Expression Plasmid Carrying Chicken Interleukin-18 Enhances the Response to Newcastle Disease Virus Vaccine

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xiaokang; Zhang, Chunjie; Wu, Tingcai; Li, Yinju

    2014-01-01

    Interleukin-18 (IL-18) is an important cytokine involved in innate and acquired immunity. In this study, we cloned the full-length chicken IL-18 (ChIL-18) gene from specific-pathogen-free (SPF) chicken embryo spleen cells and provided evidence that the ChIL-18 gene in a recombinant plasmid was successfully expressed in chicken DT40 cells. ChIL-18 significantly enhanced gamma interferon (IFN-γ) mRNA expression in chicken splenocytes, which increased IFN-γ-induced nitric oxide (NO) synthesis by macrophages. The potential genetic adjuvant activity of the ChIL-18 plasmid was examined in chickens by coinjecting ChIL-18 plasmid and inactivated Newcastle disease virus (NDV) vaccine. ChIL-18 markedly elevated serum hemagglutination inhibition (HI) titers and anti-hemagglutinin-neuraminidase (anti-HN)-specific antibody levels, induced the secretion of both Th1- (IFN-γ) and Th2- (interleukin-4) type cytokines, promoted the proliferation of T and B lymphocytes, and increased the populations of CD3+ T cells and their subsets, CD3+ CD4+ and CD3+ CD8+ T cells. Furthermore, a virus challenge revealed that ChIL-18 contributed to protection against Newcastle disease virus challenge. Taken together, our data indicate that the coadministration of ChIL-18 plasmid and NDV vaccine induces a strong immune response at both the humoral and cellular levels and that ChIL-18 is a novel immunoadjuvant suitable for NDV vaccination. PMID:25355794

  14. Linear plasmid vector for cloning of repetitive or unstable sequences in Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Godiska, Ronald; Mead, David; Dhodda, Vinay; Wu, Chengcang; Hochstein, Rebecca; Karsi, Attila; Usdin, Karen; Entezam, Ali; Ravin, Nikolai

    2010-04-01

    Despite recent advances in sequencing, complete finishing of large genomes and analysis of novel proteins they encode typically require cloning of specific regions. However, many of these fragments are extremely difficult to clone in current vectors. Superhelical stress in circular plasmids can generate secondary structures that are substrates for deletion, particularly in regions that contain numerous tandem or inverted repeats. Common vectors also induce transcription and translation of inserted fragments, which can select against recombinant clones containing open reading frames or repetitive DNA. Conversely, transcription from cloned promoters can interfere with plasmid stability. We have therefore developed a novel Escherichia coli cloning vector (termed 'pJAZZ' vector) that is maintained as a linear plasmid. Further, it contains transcriptional terminators on both sides of the cloning site to minimize transcriptional interference between vector and insert. We show that this vector stably maintains a variety of inserts that were unclonable in conventional plasmids. These targets include short nucleotide repeats, such as those of the expanded Fragile X locus, and large AT-rich inserts, such as 20-kb segments of genomic DNA from Pneumocystis, Plasmodium, Oxytricha or Tetrahymena. The pJAZZ vector shows decreased size bias in cloning, allowing more uniform representation of larger fragments in libraries. PMID:20040575

  15. In vivo visualization of type II plasmid segregation: bacterial actin filaments pushing plasmids

    PubMed Central

    Campbell, Christopher S.; Mullins, R. Dyche

    2007-01-01

    Type II par operons harness polymerization of the dynamically unstable actin-like protein ParM to segregate low-copy plasmids in rod-shaped bacteria. In this study, we use time-lapse fluorescence microscopy to follow plasmid dynamics and ParM assembly in Escherichia coli. Plasmids lacking a par operon undergo confined diffusion with a diffusion constant of 5 × 10−5 μm2/s and a confinement radius of 0.28 μm. Single par-containing plasmids also move diffusively but with a larger diffusion constant (4 × 10−4 μm2/s) and confinement radius (0.42 μm). ParM filaments are dynamically unstable in vivo and form spindles that link pairs of par-containing plasmids and drive them rapidly (3.1 μm/min) toward opposite poles of the cell. After reaching the poles, ParM filaments rapidly and completely depolymerize. After ParM disassembly, segregated plasmids resume diffusive motion, often encountering each other many times and undergoing multiple rounds of ParM-dependent segregation in a single cell cycle. We propose that in addition to driving segregation, the par operon enables plasmids to search space and find sister plasmids more effectively. PMID:18039937

  16. Processing of triplex-directed psoralen DNA interstrand crosslinks by recombination mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yaobin; Nairn, Rodney S; Vasquez, Karen M

    2008-08-01

    Gene targeting via homologous recombination (HR) is an important application in biotechnology and medicine. However, in mammalian cells HR is much less efficient than random integration. Triplex-forming oligonucleotides (TFOs) linked to DNA damaging agents (e.g. psoralen) can stimulate HR, providing the potential to improve gene therapy applications. To elucidate factors affecting TFO-directed psoralen interstrand crosslink (ICL)-induced recombination, we constructed a series of plasmids with duplicated supF reporter genes, each containing an inactivating deletion, to measure HR frequencies in mammalian cells. Our results indicated that TFO-directed ICL-induced recombination frequencies were higher in the plasmids with larger distances between duplicated supF genes than with a smaller separation distance. However, the position of the ICL relative to the reporter genes did not affect HR frequencies. Recombination spectra were altered by the distance between supF copies. Although single-strand annealing (SSA) recombinants were predominant in all plasmid substrates, the plasmid with the shortest interval (60 bp) revealed a significant proportion of gene conversions (GCs). GCs occurred exclusively in the gene containing the shortest deletion, regardless of the distance between supF genes, ICL position or deletion orientation. Our analyses indicated that SSA is the predominant mechanism of ICL processing of these substrates in mammalian cells. PMID:18628293

  17. Complete nucleotide sequence of plasmid pNA6 reveals the high plasticity of IncU family plasmids.

    PubMed

    Dang, Bingjun; Xu, Yan; Mao, Daqing; Luo, Yi

    2016-10-10

    Antibiotic resistance is a serious problem in health care and is of widespread public concern. Conjugative plasmids are the most important vectors in the dissemination of antibiotic resistance genes. In this study, we determined the complete sequence of plasmid pNA6, a plasmid which was isolated from the sediments of Haihe River. This plasmid confers reduced susceptibility to ampicillin, erythromycin and sulfamethoxazole. The complete sequence of plasmid pNA6 was 52,210bp in length with an average G+C content of 52.70%. Plasmid pNA6 belongs to the IncU group by sequence queries against the GenBank database. This plasmid has a typical IncU backbone and shows the highest similarities with plasmid RA3 and plasmid pFBAOT6. Plasmid pNA6 carries a class 1 integron consisting of aacA4, ereA and dfrA1 genes. Moreover, plasmid pNA6 also harbors a blaTEM-1-containing complex structure which inserted into the replication region and maintenance region. This insertion site has never been found on other IncU plasmids. The sequencing of plasmid pNA6 will add new sequence information to IncU family plasmids and enhance our understanding of the plasticity of IncU family plasmids. PMID:27374151

  18. Comparative study of the lethal effects of near-UV light (360 nm) and 8-methoxypsoralen plus near-UV on plasmid DNA

    SciTech Connect

    Paramio, J.M.; Bauluz, C.; de Vidania, R. )

    1991-01-01

    The authors have studied the lethality produced on pBR322 by near-UV radiation and by 8-Methoxypsoralen plus near-UV (PUV treatment). Samples of pBR322 DNA were irradiated with increasing fluences of 360 nm-light either in the absence or presence of 400 molecules of 8-Methoxypsoralen (8-MOP) per plasmid molecule. They have estimated to what extent the global lethality of PUVA treatment is due to the presence of psoralen adducts in DNA or to radiation itself. In order to analyse the involvement of DNA repair mechanisms in the removal of plasmid lesions, several strains of E. coli (differing in their repair capacities) they are used as recipients of the treated plasmids. Results showed that excision and recombination participate in the repair of near-UV-induced plasmid lesions. Repair of PUV-induced lesions showed an even greater requirement of the excision pathway. Besides, a slight increase on plasmid mutation frequencies was observed after near-UV or PUV treatment in wild type and uvrA cells. Estimation of the contribution of 8-MOP to the global lethality of PUV treatment showed that only the excision pathway was involved in removing psoralen adducts from plasmid DNA, suggesting the involvement of the recombinational pathway in the repair of near-UV-derived lesions.

  19. Further Tests of a Recombination Model in Which χ Removes the Recd Subunit from the Recbcd Enzyme of Escherichia Coli

    PubMed Central

    Stahl, F. W.; Thomason, L. C.; Siddiqi, I.; Stahl, M. M.

    1990-01-01

    When one of two infecting λ phage types in a replication-blocked cross is χ(+) and DNA packaging is divorced from the RecBCD-χ interaction, complementary χ-stimulated recombinants are recovered equally in mass lysates only if the χ(+) parent is in excess in the infecting parental mixture. Otherwise, the χ(0) recombinant is recovered in excess. This observation implies that, along with the χ(0) chromosome, two χ(+) parent chromosomes are involved in the formation of each χ(+) recombinant. The trimolecular nature of χ(+)-stimulated recombination is manifest in recombination between λ and a plasmid. When λ recombines with a plasmid via the RecBCD pathway, the resulting chromosome has an enhanced probability of undergoing λ X λ recombination in the interval into which the plasmid was incorporated. These two observations support a model in which DNA is degraded by Exo V from cos, the sequence that determines the end of packaged λ DNA and acts as point of entry for RecBCD enzyme, to χ, the DNA sequence that stimulates the RecBCD enzyme to effect recombination. The model supposes that χ acts by ejecting the RecD subunit from the RecBCD enzyme with two consequences. (1) ExoV activity is blocked leaving a highly recombinagenic, frayed duplex end near χ, and (2) as the enzyme stripped of the RecD subunit travels beyond χ it is competent to catalyze reciprocal recombination. PMID:2249753

  20. Recombinant protein expression in Escherichia coli: advances and challenges

    PubMed Central

    Rosano, Germán L.; Ceccarelli, Eduardo A.

    2014-01-01

    Escherichia coli is one of the organisms of choice for the production of recombinant proteins. Its use as a cell factory is well-established and it has become the most popular expression platform. For this reason, there are many molecular tools and protocols at hand for the high-level production of heterologous proteins, such as a vast catalog of expression plasmids, a great number of engineered strains and many cultivation strategies. We review the different approaches for the synthesis of recombinant proteins in E. coli and discuss recent progress in this ever-growing field. PMID:24860555

  1. Roles of the 2 microns gene products in stable maintenance of the 2 microns plasmid of Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed Central

    Reynolds, A E; Murray, A W; Szostak, J W

    1987-01-01

    We have examined the replication and segregation of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae 2 microns circle. The amplification of the plasmid at low copy numbers requires site-specific recombination between the 2 microns inverted repeat sequences catalyzed by the plasmid-encoded FLP gene. No other 2 microns gene products are required. The overexpression of FLP in a strain carrying endogenous 2 microns leads to uncontrolled plasmid replication, longer cell cycles, and cell death. Two different assays show that the level of Flp activity decreases with increasing 2 microns copy number. This regulation requires the products of the REP1 and REP2 genes. These gene products also act together to ensure that 2 microns molecules are randomly segregated between mother and daughter cells at cell division. Images PMID:3316982

  2. [Preparation of Recombinant Human Adenoviruses Labeled with miniSOG].

    PubMed

    Zou, Xiaohui; Xiao, Rong; Guo, Xiaojuan; Qu, Jianguo; Lu, Zhuozhuang; Hong, Tao

    2016-01-01

    We wished to study the intracellular transport of adenoviruses. We constructed a novel recombinant adenovirus in which the structural protein IX was labeled with a mini-singlet oxygen generator (miniSOG). The miniSOG gene was synthesized by overlapping extension polymerase chain reaction (PCR), cloned to the pcDNA3 vector, and expressed in 293 cells. Activation of miniSOG generated sufficient numbers of singlet oxygen molecules to catalyze polymerization of diaminobenzidine into an osmiophilic reaction product resolvable by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). To construct miniSOG-labelled recombinant adenoviruses, the miniSOG gene was subcloned downstream of the IX gene in a pShuttle plasmid. Adenoviral plasmid pAd5-IXSOG was generated by homologous recombination of the modified shuttle plasmid (pShuttle-IXSOG) with the backbone plasmid (pAdeasy-1) in the BJ5183 strain of Eschericia coli. Adenovirus HAdV-5-IXSOG was rescued by transfection of 293 cells with the linearized pAd5-IXSOG. After propagation, virions were purified using the CsC1 ultracentrifugation method. Finally, HAdV-5-IXSOG in 2.0 mL with a particle titer of 6 x 1011 vp/mL was obtained. Morphology of HAdV-5-IXSOG was verified by TEM. Fusion of IX with the miniSOG gene was confirmed by PCR. In conclusion, miniSOG-labeled recombinant adenoviruses were constructed, which could be valuable tools for virus tracking by TEM. PMID:27295881

  3. Extrachromosomal homologous DNA recombination in plant cells is fast and is not affected by CpG methylation.

    PubMed Central

    Puchta, H; Kocher, S; Hohn, B

    1992-01-01

    Using a sensitive transient assay, we investigated extrachromosomal homologous DNA recombination (ECR) in plant cells. As the plant genome is highly C methylated, we addressed the question of whether CpG methylation has an influence on DNA recombination efficiencies. Whereas the expression level of the fully CpG-methylated DNA molecules was reduced drastically, we found no significant changes in ECR efficiencies between two partly CpG-methylated plasmids or between one fully CpG-methylated and one nonmethylated plasmid. Using a modified polymerase chain reaction analysis, we were able to detect recombination between two fully CpG-methylated plasmids. Furthermore, we characterized the kinetics of the ECR reaction. Cotransfection of plasmids carrying truncated copies of the beta-glucuronidase (GUS) gene resulted in enzyme activity with a delay of only half an hour compared with that of the plasmid carrying the functional marker gene. This indicates that the ECR reaction itself requires no more than 30 min. By polymerase chain reaction, we were able to detect the recombined GUS gene as early as 2 h after transfection. This result and the time course of the transient GUS activity indicate that ECR occurs mainly early after transfection. The biological significance of this finding is discussed, and properties of ECR and intrachromosomal recombination are compared. Images PMID:1630452

  4. Elucidation of Insertion Elements Carried on Plasmids and In Vitro Construction of Shuttle Vectors from the Toxic Cyanobacterium Planktothrix

    PubMed Central

    Christiansen, Guntram; Goesmann, Alexander

    2014-01-01

    Several gene clusters that are responsible for toxin synthesis in bloom-forming cyanobacteria have been found to be associated with transposable elements (TEs). In particular, insertion sequence (IS) elements were shown to play a role in the inactivation or recombination of the genes responsible for cyanotoxin synthesis. Plasmids have been considered important vectors of IS element distribution to the host. In this study, we aimed to elucidate the IS elements propagated on the plasmids and the chromosome of the toxic cyanobacterium Planktothrix agardhii NIVA-CYA126/8 by means of high-throughput sequencing. In total, five plasmids (pPA5.5, pPA14, pPA50, pPA79, and pPA115, of 5, 6, 50, 79, and 120 kbp, respectively) were elucidated, and two plasmids (pPA5.5, pPA115) were found to propagate full IS element copies. Large stretches of shared DNA information between plasmids were constituted of TEs. Two plasmids (pPA5.5, pPA14) were used as candidates to engineer shuttle vectors (named pPA5.5SV and pPA14SV, respectively) in vitro by PCR amplification and the subsequent transposition of the Tn5 cat transposon containing the R6Kγ origin of replication of Escherichia coli. While pPA5.5SV was found to be fully segregated, pPA14SV consistently co-occurred with its wild-type plasmid even under the highest selective pressure. Interestingly, the Tn5 cat transposon became transferred by homologous recombination into another plasmid, pPA50. The availability of shuttle vectors is considered to be of relevance in investigating genome plasticity as a consequence of homologous recombination events. Combining the potential of high-throughput sequencing and in vitro production of shuttle vectors makes it simple to produce species-specific shuttle vectors for many cultivable prokaryotes. PMID:24907328

  5. A Heritable Recombination system for synthetic Darwinian evolution in yeast.

    PubMed

    Romanini, Dante W; Peralta-Yahya, Pamela; Mondol, Vanessa; Cornish, Virginia W

    2012-12-21

    Genetic recombination is central to the generation of molecular diversity and enhancement of evolutionary fitness in living systems. Methods such as DNA shuffling that recapitulate this diversity mechanism in vitro are powerful tools for engineering biomolecules with useful new functions by directed evolution. Synthetic biology now brings demand for analogous technologies that enable the controlled recombination of beneficial mutations in living cells. Thus, here we create a Heritable Recombination system centered around a library cassette plasmid that enables inducible mutagenesis via homologous recombination and subsequent combination of beneficial mutations through sexual reproduction in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Using repair of nonsense codons in auxotrophic markers as a model, Heritable Recombination was optimized to give mutagenesis efficiencies of up to 6% and to allow successive repair of different markers through two cycles of sexual reproduction and recombination. Finally, Heritable Recombination was employed to change the substrate specificity of a biosynthetic enzyme, with beneficial mutations in three different active site loops crossed over three continuous rounds of mutation and selection to cover a total sequence diversity of 10(13). Heritable Recombination, while at an early stage of development, breaks the transformation barrier to library size and can be immediately applied to combinatorial crossing of beneficial mutations for cell engineering, adding important features to the growing arsenal of next generation molecular biology tools for synthetic biology. PMID:23412545

  6. Rapid and apparently error-prone excision repair of nonreplicating UV-irradiated plasmids in Xenopus laevis oocytes

    SciTech Connect

    Hays, J.B.; Ackerman, E.J.; Pang, Q.S. )

    1990-07-01

    Repair of UV-irradiated plasmid DNA microinjected into frog oocytes was measured by two techniques: transformation of repair-deficient (delta uvrB delta recA delta phr) bacteria, and removal of UV endonuclease-sensitive sites (ESS). Transformation efficiencies relative to unirradiated plasmids were used to estimate the number of lethal lesions; the latter were assumed to be Poisson distributed. These estimates were in good agreement with measurements of ESS. By both criteria, plasmid DNA was efficiently repaired, mostly during the first 2 h, when as many as 2 x 10(10) lethal lesions were removed per oocyte. This rate is about 10(6) times the average for removal of ESS from repair-proficient human cells. Repair was slower but still significant after 2 h, but some lethal lesions usually remained after overnight incubation. Most repair occurred in the absence of light, in marked contrast to differentiated frog cells, previously shown to possess photoreactivating but no excision repair activity. There was no increase in the resistance to DpnI restriction of plasmids (methylated in Escherichia coli at GATC sites) incubated in oocytes; this implies no increase in hemimethylated GATC sites, and hence no semiconservative DNA replication. Plasmid substrates capable of either intramolecular or intermolecular homologous recombination were not recombined, whether UV-irradiated or not. Repair of Lac+ plasmids was accompanied by a significant UV-dependent increase in the frequency of Lac- mutants, corresponding to a repair synthesis error frequency on the order of 10(-4) per nucleotide.

  7. BioShuttle-mediated Plasmid Transfer

    PubMed Central

    Braun, Klaus; von Brasch, Leonie; Pipkorn, Ruediger; Ehemann, Volker; Jenne, Juergen; Spring, Herbert; Debus, Juergen; Didinger, Bernd; Rittgen, Werner; Waldeck, Waldemar

    2007-01-01

    An efficient gene transfer into target tissues and cells is needed for safe and effective treatment of genetic diseases like cancer. In this paper, we describe the development of a transport system and show its ability for transporting plasmids. This non-viral peptide-based BioShuttle-mediated transfer system consists of a nuclear localization address sequence realizing the delivery of the plasmid phNIS-IRES-EGFP coding for two independent reporter genes into nuclei of HeLa cells. The quantification of the transfer efficiency was achieved by measurements of the sodium iodide symporter activity. EGFP gene expression was measured with Confocal Laser Scanning Microscopy and quantified with biostatistical methods by analysis of the frequency of the amplitude distribution in the CLSM images. The results demonstrate that the “BioShuttle”-Technology is an appropriate tool for an effective transfer of genetic material carried by a plasmid. PMID:18026568

  8. Plasmid DNA from the acetotrophic methanogen Methanosarcina acetivorans

    SciTech Connect

    Sowers, K.R.; Gunsalus, R.P. )

    1988-10-01

    Nine acetotrophic and three methylotrophic strains of methane-producing bacteria were screened for the presence of plasmid DNA. Plasmids were detected in three marine isolates, including Methanosarcina acetivorans. All three plasmids appeared to be similar based on size and restriction site analyses. The plasmid from M. acetivorans, designated pC2A, was approximately 5.1 kilobase pairs in size and was estimated to be present in a low copy number of six plasmids per genome. Multimers were also observed. A restriction map was constructed. The function of this plasmid is cryptic.

  9. Construction of small plasmid vectors for use in genetic improvement of the extremely acidophilic Acidithiobacillus caldus.

    PubMed

    Meng, Jianzhou; Wang, Huiyan; Liu, Xiangmei; Lin, Jianqun; Pang, Xin; Lin, Jianqiang

    2013-10-01

    The genetic improvement of biomining bacteria including Acidithiobacillus caldus could facilitate the bioleaching process of sulfur-containing minerals. However, the available vectors for use in A. caldus are very scanty and limited to relatively large broad-host-range IncQ plasmids. In this study, a set of small, mobilizable plasmid vectors (pBBR1MCS-6, pMSD1 and pMSD2) were constructed based on plasmid pBBR1MCS-2, which does not belong to the IncQ, IncW, or IncP groups. The function of the tac promoter on 5.8-kb pMSD2 was determined by inserting a kanamycin-resistant reporter gene. The resulting recombinant pMSD2-Km was successfully transferred by conjugation into A. caldus MTH-04 with transfer frequency of 1.38±0.64×10(-5). The stability and plasmid copy number of pMSD2-Km in A. caldus MTH-04 were 75±2.7% and 5-6 copies per cell, respectively. By inserting an arsABC operon into pMSD2, an arsenic-resistant recombinant pMSD2-As was constructed and transferred into A. caldus MTH-04 by conjugation. The arsenic tolerance of A. caldus MTH-04 containing pMSD2-As was obviously increased up to 45mM of NaAsO2. These vectors could be applied in genetic improvement of A. caldus as well as other bioleaching bacteria. PMID:23639949

  10. Electrotransfer of Plasmid Vector DNA into Muscle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miyazaki, Satsuki; Miyazaki, Jun-Ichi

    Wolff et al. (1990) first reported that plasmid DNA injected into skeletal muscle is taken up by muscle cells and the genes in the plasmid are expressed for more than two months thereafter, although the transfected DNA does not usually undergo chromosomal integration (Wolff et al., 1991, 1992). However, the relatively low expression levels attained by this method have hampered its applications for uses other than as a DNA vaccine (Davis et al., 1995). There are a number of reports analyzing the conditions that affect the efficiency of gene transfer by intramuscular DNA injection and assessing the fine structures of expression plasmid vectors that may affect expression levels (Davis et al., 1993; Liang et al., 1996; Norman et al., 1997). Furthermore, various attempts were done to improve the efficiency of gene transfer by intramus cular DNA injection. Consequently, regenerating muscle was shown to produce 80-fold or more protein than did normal muscle, following injection of an expression plas-mid. Muscle regeneration was induced by treatment with cardiotoxin or bupivacaine (Wells, 1993; Vitadello et al., 1994). We previously demonstrated that by combining a strong promoter and bupivacaine pretreatment intramuscular injection of an IL-5 expression plasmid results in IL-5 production in muscle at a level sufficient to induce marked proliferation of eosinophils in the bone marrow and eosinophil infiltration of various organs (Tokui et al., 1997). It was also reported that a single intramuscular injection of an erythropoietin expression plasmid produced physiologically significant elevations in serum erythropoietin levels and increased hematocrits in adult mice (Tripathy et al., 1996). Hematocrits in these animals remained elevated at >60% for at least 90 days after a single injection. However, improvements to this method have not been sufficient to extend its applications including clinical use.

  11. Spread of Plasmids Carrying Multiple GES Variants.

    PubMed

    Cuzon, Gaelle; Bogaerts, Pierre; Bauraing, Caroline; Huang, Te-Din; Bonnin, Rémy A; Glupczynski, Youri; Naas, Thierry

    2016-08-01

    Five GES-producing Enterobacteriaceae isolates that displayed an extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL) phenotype harbored two GES variants: GES-7 ESBL and GES-6 carbapenemase. In all isolates, the two GES alleles were located on the same integron that was inserted into an 80-kb IncM1 self-conjugative plasmid. Whole-genome sequencing suggested in vivo horizontal gene transfer of the plasmid along with clonal diffusion of Enterobacter cloacae To our knowledge, this is the first description in Europe of clustered Enterobacteriaceae isolates carrying two GES β-lactamases, of which one has extended activity toward carbapenems. PMID:27216071

  12. Molecular identification of Acetobacter isolates from submerged vinegar production, sequence analysis of plasmid pJK2-1 and application in the development of a cloning vector.

    PubMed

    Trcek, J; Raspor, P; Teuber, M

    2000-03-01

    Three new Acetobacter strains were isolated from vinegar. By plasmid profiling they were recognized as genotypically different from each other. Sequencing of the genes for 16S and 23S rRNA and DNA-DNA hybridization of total DNA against DNA of all type strains of Acetobacter identified Acetobacter strains JK2 and V3 as A. europaeus, and Acetobacter strain JK3 as A. intermedius. In contrast to the type strain of A. europaeus (DSM 6160), A. europaeus JK2 and V3 do not require acetic acid for growth and can be successfully transferred between media with and without acetic acid. This phenotypic characteristic enables convenient handling of both strains in genetic studies. Plasmid pJK2-1 from A. europaeus JK2 was used as the basis for shuttle plasmid construction with the aim of developing an efficient vector system for these strains. The entire nucleotide sequence of pJK2-1 was determined. High amino acid identities were found for three open reading frames: Rep (replication protein); Dinjl (DNA damage inducible enzyme); and Dinj2 proteins. A recombinant plasmid pUCJK2-1 (5.6 kb) consisting of the entire plasmid pJK2-1 and the entire plasmid pUC18 was successfully used in transformation experiments. Plasmid pJT2 (5.8 kb) was constructed from pUCJK2-1 with the aim of reactivating the lacZ' gene. PMID:10772468

  13. Active and Inactive Transplacement of the M26 Recombination Hotspot in Schizosaccharomyces Pombe

    PubMed Central

    Virgin, J. B.; Metzger, J.; Smith, G. R.

    1995-01-01

    The ade6-M26 mutation of the fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe creates a meiotic recombination hotspot that elevates ade6 intragenic recombination ~10-15-fold. A heptanucleotide sequence including the M26 point mutation is required but not sufficient for hotspot activity. We studied the effects of plasmid and chromosomal context on M26 hotspot activity. The M26 hotspot was inactive on a multicopy plasmid containing M26 embedded within 3.0 or 5.9 kb of ade6 DNA. Random S. pombe genomic fragments totaling ~7 Mb did not activate the M26 hotspot on a plasmid. M26 hotspot activity was maintained when 3.0-, 4.4-, and 5.9-kb ade6-M26 DNA fragments, with various amounts of non-S. pombe plasmid DNA, were integrated at the ura4 chromosomal locus, but only in certain configurations relative to the ura4 gene and the cointegrated plasmid DNA. Several integrations created new M26-independent recombination hotspots. In all cases the non-ade6 DNA was located >1 kb from the M26 site, and in some cases >2 kb. Because the chromosomal context effect was transmitted over large distances, and did not appear to be mediated by a single discrete DNA sequence element, we infer that the local chromatin structure has a pronounced effect on M26 hotspot activity. PMID:8536980

  14. REPLACR-mutagenesis, a one-step method for site-directed mutagenesis by recombineering

    PubMed Central

    Trehan, Ashutosh; Kiełbus, Michał; Czapinski, Jakub; Stepulak, Andrzej; Huhtaniemi, Ilpo; Rivero-Müller, Adolfo

    2016-01-01

    Mutagenesis is an important tool to study gene regulation, model disease-causing mutations and for functional characterisation of proteins. Most of the current methods for mutagenesis involve multiple step procedures. One of the most accurate methods for genetically altering DNA is recombineering, which uses bacteria expressing viral recombination proteins. Recently, the use of in vitro seamless assembly systems using purified enzymes for multiple-fragment cloning as well as mutagenesis is gaining ground. Although these in vitro isothermal reactions are useful when cloning multiple fragments, for site-directed mutagenesis it is unnecessary. Moreover, the use of purified enzymes in vitro is not only expensive but also more inaccurate than the high-fidelity recombination inside bacteria. Here we present a single-step method, named REPLACR-mutagenesis (Recombineering of Ends of linearised PLAsmids after PCR), for creating mutations (deletions, substitutions and additions) in plasmids by in vivo recombineering. REPLACR-mutagenesis only involves transformation of PCR products in bacteria expressing Red/ET recombineering proteins. Modifications in a variety of plasmids up to bacterial artificial chromosomes (BACs; 144 kb deletion) have been achieved by this method. The presented method is more robust, involves fewer steps and is cost-efficient. PMID:26750263

  15. REPLACR-mutagenesis, a one-step method for site-directed mutagenesis by recombineering.

    PubMed

    Trehan, Ashutosh; Kiełbus, Michał; Czapinski, Jakub; Stepulak, Andrzej; Huhtaniemi, Ilpo; Rivero-Müller, Adolfo

    2016-01-01

    Mutagenesis is an important tool to study gene regulation, model disease-causing mutations and for functional characterisation of proteins. Most of the current methods for mutagenesis involve multiple step procedures. One of the most accurate methods for genetically altering DNA is recombineering, which uses bacteria expressing viral recombination proteins. Recently, the use of in vitro seamless assembly systems using purified enzymes for multiple-fragment cloning as well as mutagenesis is gaining ground. Although these in vitro isothermal reactions are useful when cloning multiple fragments, for site-directed mutagenesis it is unnecessary. Moreover, the use of purified enzymes in vitro is not only expensive but also more inaccurate than the high-fidelity recombination inside bacteria. Here we present a single-step method, named REPLACR-mutagenesis (Recombineering of Ends of linearised PLAsmids after PCR), for creating mutations (deletions, substitutions and additions) in plasmids by in vivo recombineering. REPLACR-mutagenesis only involves transformation of PCR products in bacteria expressing Red/ET recombineering proteins. Modifications in a variety of plasmids up to bacterial artificial chromosomes (BACs; 144 kb deletion) have been achieved by this method. The presented method is more robust, involves fewer steps and is cost-efficient. PMID:26750263

  16. Alternative model for chromatin organization of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae chromosomal DNA plasmid TRP1 RI circle (YARp1).

    PubMed Central

    Long, C M; Brajkovich, C M; Scott, J F

    1985-01-01

    TRP1 RI circle (now designated YARp1, yeast acentric ring plasmid 1) is a 1,453-base-pair artificial plasmid composed exclusively of Saccharomyces cerevisiae chromosomal DNA. It contains both the TRP1 gene and ARS1 (a DNA sequence that permits extrachromosomal maintenance of recombinant plasmids). This high-copy-number, relatively stable plasmid was shown to be organized into nucleosomes comparable to typical yeast chromatin, containing a possible maximum of nine nucleosomes per circle. Therefore, YARp1 can be used to examine the structure of chromatin of both a chromosomally derived replicator and a functional gene. By mapping regions of micrococcal nuclease cleavage in chromatin versus purified DNA, we located the positions of protected regions on the circle with reference to six unique restriction sites. Measurements made on patterns of early digestion products indicated that a region of approximately 300 base pairs in the vicinity of ARS1 was strongly resistant to micrococcal nuclease. The remainder of the plasmid appeared to be associated with five positioned nucleosomes and two nonnucleosomal, partially protected regions on the bulk of the molecules. After similar extents of digestion, naked DNA did not exhibit an equivalent pattern, although some hypersensitive cleavage sites matched sites found in the chromatin. These results are consistent with the interpretation that the protected domains are aligned with respect to a specific site or sites on the small circular chromatin. Images PMID:3018502

  17. Herpes simplex virus type 1 recombination: the Uc-DR1 region is required for high-level a-sequence-mediated recombination.

    PubMed Central

    Dutch, R E; Zemelman, B V; Lehman, I R

    1994-01-01

    The a sequences of herpes simplex virus type 1 are believed to be the cis sites for inversion events that generate four isomeric forms of the viral genome. Using an assay that measures deletion of a beta-galactosidase gene positioned between two directly repeated sequences in plasmids transiently maintained in Vero cells, we had found that the a sequence is more recombinogenic than another sequence of similar size. To investigate the basis for the enhanced recombination mediated by the a sequence, we examined plasmids containing direct repeats of approximately 350 bp from a variety of sources and with a wide range of G+C content. We observed that all of these plasmids show similar recombination frequencies (3 to 4%) in herpes simplex virus type 1-infected cells. However, recombination between directly repeated a sequences occurs at twice this frequency (6 to 10%). In addition, we find that insertion of a cleavage site for an a-sequence-specific endonuclease into the repeated sequences does not appreciably increase the frequency of recombination, indicating that the presence of endonuclease cleavage sites within the a sequence does not account for its recombinogenicity. Finally, by replacing segments of the a sequence with DNA fragments of similar length, we have determined that only the 95-bp Uc-DR1 segment is indispensable for high-level a-sequence-mediated recombination. Images PMID:8189511

  18. Recombinant protein production technology

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Recombinant protein production is an important technology for antibody production, biochemical activity study, and structural determination during the post-genomic era. Limiting factors in recombinant protein production include low-level protein expression, protein precipitation, and loss of protein...

  19. The Master Activator of IncA/C Conjugative Plasmids Stimulates Genomic Islands and Multidrug Resistance Dissemination

    PubMed Central

    Luo, Peng; Rodrigue, Sébastien; Burrus, Vincent

    2014-01-01

    Dissemination of antibiotic resistance genes occurs mostly by conjugation, which mediates DNA transfer between cells in direct contact. Conjugative plasmids of the IncA/C incompatibility group have become a substantial threat due to their broad host-range, the extended spectrum of antimicrobial resistance they confer, their prevalence in enteric bacteria and their very efficient spread by conjugation. However, their biology remains largely unexplored. Using the IncA/C conjugative plasmid pVCR94ΔX as a prototype, we have investigated the regulatory circuitry that governs IncA/C plasmids dissemination and found that the transcriptional activator complex AcaCD is essential for the expression of plasmid transfer genes. Using chromatin immunoprecipitation coupled with exonuclease digestion (ChIP-exo) and RNA sequencing (RNA-seq) approaches, we have identified the sequences recognized by AcaCD and characterized the AcaCD regulon. Data mining using the DNA motif recognized by AcaCD revealed potential AcaCD-binding sites upstream of genes involved in the intracellular mobility functions (recombination directionality factor and mobilization genes) in two widespread classes of genomic islands (GIs) phylogenetically unrelated to IncA/C plasmids. The first class, SGI1, confers and propagates multidrug resistance in Salmonella enterica and Proteus mirabilis, whereas MGIVmi1 in Vibrio mimicus belongs to a previously uncharacterized class of GIs. We have demonstrated that through expression of AcaCD, IncA/C plasmids specifically trigger the excision and mobilization of the GIs at high frequencies. This study provides new evidence of the considerable impact of IncA/C plasmids on bacterial genome plasticity through their own mobility and the mobilization of genomic islands. PMID:25340549

  20. Degradation of trichloroethene by a linear-plasmid-encoded alkene monooxygenase in Rhodococcus corallinus (Nocardia corallina) B-276.

    PubMed

    Saeki, H; Akira, M; Furuhashi, K; Averhoff, B; Gottschalk, G

    1999-07-01

    Rhodococcus corallinus (formerly Nocardia corallina) B-276, isolated with propene as sole carbon and energy source, is able to oxidize trichloroethene (TCE). Glucose- or propene-grown R. corallinus B-276 cells exhibited no difference in TCE degradation efficiency. TCE degradation was found to be growth-phase-dependent and maximum rates were monitored with stationary-phase cells. K(m) and Vmax values for TCE degradation of R. corallinus B-276 grown in nutrient broth medium in the presence of glucose were 187 microM and 2.4 nmol min-1 (mg protein)-1, respectively. Escherichia coli recombinants harbouring and expressing the alkene monooxygenase genes of R. corallinus B-276 exhibited the ability to degrade TCE. This result provides clear evidence that the alkene monooxygenase of R. corallinus B-276 catalyses TCE oxidation. R. corallinus B-276 was shown to contain four linear plasmids, pNC10 (70 kb), pNC20 (85 kb), pNC30 (185 kb) and pNC40 (235 kb). The observation that pNC30-deficient strains had lost the ability to grow on propene suggested that the genes of the propene degradation pathway are encoded by the linear plasmid pNC30. Southern blot analysis with cloned alkene monooxygenase genes from R. corallinus B-276 revealed a positive hybridization signal with the linear plasmid pNC30. This result clearly shows that the alkene monooxygenase is encoded by the linear plasmid pNC30. Eleven short-chain-alkene-oxidizing strains were screened for the presence of linear plasmids. Among these, four propene-oxidizing Rhodococcus strains and one ethene-oxidizing Mycobacterium strain were found to contain linear megaplasmids. Southern blot analysis with the alkene monooxygenase revealed positive signals with linear plasmids of two propene-oxidizing Rhodococcus ruber strains. These results indicate that homologous alkene monooxygenases are encoded by linear plasmids in R. ruber strains. PMID:10439411

  1. The IncF plasmid pRSB225 isolated from a municipal wastewater treatment plant's on-site preflooder combining antibiotic resistance and putative virulence functions is highly related to virulence plasmids identified in pathogenic E. coli isolates.

    PubMed

    Wibberg, Daniel; Szczepanowski, Rafael; Eikmeyer, Felix; Pühler, Alfred; Schlüter, Andreas

    2013-03-01

    The IncF antibiotic resistance and virulence plasmid pRSB225, isolated from an unknown bacterium released with the purified wastewater from a municipal sewage treatment plant into the environment has been analysed at the genomic level by pyrosequencing. The 164,550bp plasmid comprises 210 coding sequences (cds). It is composed of three replicons (RepFIA, RepFIB, and RepFII) and encodes further plasmid-specific functions for stable maintenance and inheritance and conjugative plasmid transfer. The plasmid is self-transmissible and shows a narrow host range limited to the family Enterobacteriaceae. The accessory modules of the plasmid mainly comprise genes conferring resistance to ampicillin (bla(TEM-1b)), chloramphenicol (catA1), erythromycin (mphA), kanamycin and neomycin (aphA1), streptomycin (strAB), sulphonamides (sul2), tetracycline (tetA(B)) and trimethoprim (dfrA14), as well as mercuric ions (mer genes). In addition, putative virulence-associated genes coding for iron uptake (iutA/iucABCD, sitABCD, and a putative high-affinity Fe²⁺ uptake system) and for a toxin/antitoxin system (vagCD) were identified on the plasmid. All antibiotic and heavy metal resistance genes are located either on class 1 (Tn10-remnant, Tn4352B) and class 2 transposons (Tn2-remnant, Tn21, Tn402-remnant) or a class 1 integron, whereas almost all putative virulence genes are associated with IS elements (IS1, IS26), indicating that transposition and/or recombination events were responsible for acquisition of the accessory pRSB225 modules. Particular modules of plasmid pRSB225 are related to corresponding segments of different virulence plasmids harboured by pathogenic Escherichia coli strains. Moreover, pRSB225 modules were also detected in entero-aggregative-haemorrhagic E. coli (EAHEC) draft genome sequences suggesting that IncF plasmids related to pRSB225 mediated gene transfer into pathogenic E. coli derivatives. PMID:23212116

  2. Plasmid maintenance and protein overproduction in selective recycle bioreactors.

    PubMed

    Ogden, K L; Davis, R H

    1991-02-20

    A new plasmid construct has been used in conjunction with selective recycle to successfully maintain otherwise unstable plasmid-bearing E. coli cells in a continuous bioreactor and to produce significant amounts of the plasmid-encoded protein beta-lactamase. The plasmid is constructed so that pilin expression, which leads to bacterial flocculation, is under control of the tac operon. The plasmid-bearing cells are induced to flocculate in the separator, whereas cell growth and product synthesis occur in the main fermentation vessel without the inhibiting effects of pilin production. Selective recycle allows for the maintenance of the plasmid-bearing cells by separating flocculent, plasmid-bearing cells from nonflocculent, segregant cells in an inclined settler, and recycling only the plasmid-bearing cells to the reactor. As a result, product expression levels are maintained that are more than ten times the level achieved without selective recycle. All experimental data agree well with theoretical predictions. PMID:18597374

  3. Plasmid-protein relaxation complexes in Staphylococcus aureus.

    PubMed

    Novick, R

    1976-09-01

    Protein-deoxyribonucleic acid relaxation complexes have been demonstrated for six Staphylococcus aureus plasmids out of sixteen examined. Four of these encode stretomycin resistence, have molecular weights of about 2.7 x 10(6), and are isolated as supercoiled molecules that are virtally 100% relaxable by treatment with sodium dodecyl sulfate. It is probable that these four isolates represent a single widely disseminated plasmid species. The other two plasmids showing relaxation complexes have molecular weights of about 3 x 10(6) and encode chloramphenicol resistance. The complexes in these cases are unstable, and it has not been possible to induce more than 50% relaxation by any of the standard treatments. Ten other plasmids do not show detectable complexes. These include three penicillinase plasmids, four tetracycline-resistance plasmids, one plasmid carrying kanamycin-neomycin resistance, and finally, two chloramphenicol-resistance plasmids. PMID:956124

  4. DISTRIBUTION OF PLASMIDS IN GROUNDWATER BACTERIA

    EPA Science Inventory

    Bacteria isolated from groundwater aquifer core materials of pristine aquifers at Lula and Pickett, Oklahoma, and from a site with a history of aromatic hydrocarbon contamination and natural renovation located at Conroe, Texas, were screened for the presence of plasmid Deoxyribon...

  5. DYNAMICS OF PLASMID TRANSFER ON SURFACES

    EPA Science Inventory

    A protocol was developed to study the dynamics of growth and plasmid transfer in surface populations of bacteria. his method allows for quantitative estimates of cell population densities over time, as well as microscopic observations of colony growth and interactions. sing this ...

  6. Therapeutic Recombinant Monoclonal Antibodies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bakhtiar, Ray

    2012-01-01

    During the last two decades, the rapid growth of biotechnology-derived techniques has led to a myriad of therapeutic recombinant monoclonal antibodies with significant clinical benefits. Recombinant monoclonal antibodies can be obtained from a number of natural sources such as animal cell cultures using recombinant DNA engineering. In contrast to…

  7. Analysis of pSC138, the multidrug resistance plasmid of Salmonella enterica serotype Choleraesuis SC-B67.

    PubMed

    Ye, Jiehua; Su, Lin-Hui; Chen, Chyi-Liang; Hu, Songnian; Wang, Jianbing; Yu, Jun; Chiu, Cheng-Hsun

    2011-03-01

    revealed a high identity level between partial sequences of pSC138 and plasmids of the same or different incompatibility groups. The large MDR region found in pSC138 may provide a niche for the future evolution of the plasmid by acquisition of relevant resistance genes through the panoply of mobile elements and illegitimate recombination events. PMID:21111756

  8. Recombineering homologous recombination constructs in Drosophila.

    PubMed

    Carreira-Rosario, Arnaldo; Scoggin, Shane; Shalaby, Nevine A; Williams, Nathan David; Hiesinger, P Robin; Buszczak, Michael

    2013-01-01

    The continued development of techniques for fast, large-scale manipulation of endogenous gene loci will broaden the use of Drosophila melanogaster as a genetic model organism for human-disease related research. Recent years have seen technical advancements like homologous recombination and recombineering. However, generating unequivocal null mutations or tagging endogenous proteins remains a substantial effort for most genes. Here, we describe and demonstrate techniques for using recombineering-based cloning methods to generate vectors that can be used to target and manipulate endogenous loci in vivo. Specifically, we have established a combination of three technologies: (1) BAC transgenesis/recombineering, (2) ends-out homologous recombination and (3) Gateway technology to provide a robust, efficient and flexible method for manipulating endogenous genomic loci. In this protocol, we provide step-by-step details about how to (1) design individual vectors, (2) how to clone large fragments of genomic DNA into the homologous recombination vector using gap repair, and (3) how to replace or tag genes of interest within these vectors using a second round of recombineering. Finally, we will also provide a protocol for how to mobilize these cassettes in vivo to generate a knockout, or a tagged gene via knock-in. These methods can easily be adopted for multiple targets in parallel and provide a means for manipulating the Drosophila genome in a timely and efficient manner. PMID:23893070

  9. Plasmid mediated enhancement of uv resistance in Streptococcus faecalis

    SciTech Connect

    Miehl, R.; Miller, M.; Yasbin, R.E.

    1980-01-01

    A 38.5-Mdal plasmid of Streptococcus faecalis subdp. zymogenes has been shown to enhance survival following uv irradiation. In addition, the presence of this plasmid increases the mutation frequencies following uv irradiation and enhanced W-reactivation. The data presented indicate that S. faecalis has an inducible error-prone repair system and that the plasmid enhances these repair functions.

  10. Compositional discordance between prokaryotic plasmids and host chromosomes

    PubMed Central

    van Passel, Mark WJ; Bart, Aldert; Luyf, Angela CM; van Kampen, Antoine HC; van der Ende, Arie

    2006-01-01

    Background Most plasmids depend on the host replication machinery and possess partitioning genes. These properties confine plasmids to a limited range of hosts, yielding a close and presumably stable relationship between plasmid and host. Hence, it is anticipated that due to amelioration the dinucleotide composition of plasmids is similar to that of the genome of their hosts. However, plasmids are also thought to play a major role in horizontal gene transfer and thus are frequently exchanged between hosts, suggesting dinucleotide composition dissimilarity between plasmid and host genome. We compared the dinucleotide composition of a large collection of plasmids with that of their host genomes to shed more light on this enigma. Results The dinucleotide frequency, coined the genome signature, facilitates the identification of putative horizontally transferred DNA in complete genome sequences, since it was found to be typical for a certain genome, and similar between related species. By comparison of the genome signature of 230 plasmid sequences with that of the genome of each respective host, we found that in general the genome signature of plasmids is dissimilar from that of their host genome. Conclusion Our results show that the genome signature of plasmids does not resemble that of their host genome. This indicates either absence of amelioration or a less stable relationship between plasmids and their host. We propose an indiscriminate lifestyle for plasmids preserving the genome signature discordance between these episomes and host chromosomes. PMID:16480495

  11. Optimal gene expression and amplification strategies for batch and continuous recombinant cultures

    SciTech Connect

    Seressiotis, A.; Bailey, J.E.

    1987-02-20

    Maximizing the amount of protein produced from a cloned gene in a recombinant organism requires careful consideration of the trade-offs involved between cloned gene expression and host cell growth and biosythetic activity. Numerous experimental studies of recombinant Escherichia coli and Saccharomyces cerevisiae have shown that the presence of plasmids reduces host cell growth rate and, overall protein synthesis activity. Reduction host cell growth rates and biosynthetic activity in the presence of plasmid-directed macromolecular synthesis presumably occurs because of competition between plasmid-directed and host-cell-directed activity for common pools of precursors, chemical energy and electrons, activator species, repressor molecules, transport apparatus, and enzymes and other catalytic assemblies. The use of regulated promoters and plasmid replication controls amenable to environmental manipulation offers the opportunity of reconciling the opposing effects of cloned-gene content and expression level on process productivity. Several promoters are available for E. coli, S. cerevisiae, and other hosts that allow the expression level of the cloned gene to be switched from a relatively low to a relatively high level by a change in the organism environment. Similarly, in a plasmid replicon repressed by a temperature-sensitive molecule, such as the ColE1 origin of replication for E. coli plasmids with a mutant RNA I gene providing temperature-sensitive replication repressor activity, cellular plasmid content can be altered from around 25 to 700 or more copies per cell by increasing the medium temperature. Similar temperature-sensitive replication regulators are known for R1 plasmids.

  12. Plasmids enriched with CpG motifs activate human peripheral blood mononuclear cells in vitro and enhance th-1 immune responses to hepatitis B surface antigen in mice.

    PubMed

    Chen, Zhihui; Cao, Jie; Liao, Xiaoling; Ke, Jinshan; Zhu, Shiying; Zhao, Ping; Qi, Zhongtian

    2011-06-01

    T helper-1 (Th-1)-type immune responses play an important role in viral clearance during infection with hepatitis B virus (HBV). Unmethylated CpG motifs present in bacterial DNA can activate toll-like receptor 9 (TLR9) signals and act as potent adjuvants to induce Th-1-type immune responses. Here, a mini-plasmid with 812 base pairs in length was constructed and used as a vector to prepare a series of plasmids containing 3-21 copies of D-type CpG motifs. In vitro, these CpG-enriched plasmids strongly stimulated proliferation of human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) and enhanced secretion of interferon-γ (IFN-γ) and interleukin-12 (IL-12). The responses of the PBMCs from healthy individuals to the plasmids were stronger than those obtained from HBV-infected individuals. Contrary to the strong Th-2-biased response induced by surface antigen of hepatitis B virus (HBsAg) plus alum adjuvant, immunization of BALB/c mice with HBsAg plus these plasmids induced a strong Th-1-biased response. The plasmids increased the titers of HBsAg-specific total immunoglobulin G (IgG) and IgG(2a). HBsAg-specific IL-2 and IFN-γ production and cytotoxic activity were also enhanced in the presence of the plasmids. The strength of the immune responses positively correlated with the number of CpG motifs in the plasmids. These results indicate that the use of CpG-enriched plasmids as an adjuvant to recombinant HBsAg could provide a promising and cost-effective approach for the development of efficacious therapeutic vaccines against HBV infection. PMID:21668361

  13. Photoionization and Recombination

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nahar, Sultana N.

    2000-01-01

    Theoretically self-consistent calculations for photoionization and (e + ion) recombination are described. The same eigenfunction expansion for the ion is employed in coupled channel calculations for both processes, thus ensuring consistency between cross sections and rates. The theoretical treatment of (e + ion) recombination subsumes both the non-resonant recombination ("radiative recombination"), and the resonant recombination ("di-electronic recombination") processes in a unified scheme. In addition to the total, unified recombination rates, level-specific recombination rates and photoionization cross sections are obtained for a large number of atomic levels. Both relativistic Breit-Pauli, and non-relativistic LS coupling, calculations are carried out in the close coupling approximation using the R-matrix method. Although the calculations are computationally intensive, they yield nearly all photoionization and recombination parameters needed for astrophysical photoionization models with higher precision than hitherto possible, estimated at about 10-20% from comparison with experimentally available data (including experimentally derived DR rates). Results are electronically available for over 40 atoms and ions. Photoionization and recombination of He-, and Li-like C and Fe are described for X-ray modeling. The unified method yields total and complete (e+ion) recombination rate coefficients, that can not otherwise be obtained theoretically or experimentally.

  14. Plasmids captured in C. metallidurans CH34: defining the PromA family of broad-host-range plasmids.

    PubMed

    Van der Auwera, Géraldine A; Król, Jaroslaw E; Suzuki, Haruo; Foster, Brian; Van Houdt, Rob; Brown, Celeste J; Mergeay, Max; Top, Eva M

    2009-08-01

    The self-transmissible, broad-host-range (BHR) plasmid pMOL98 was previously isolated from polluted soil using a triparental plasmid capture approach and shown to possess a replicon similar to that of the BHR plasmids pSB102 and pIPO2. Here, complete sequence analysis and comparative genomics reveal that the 55.5 kb nucleotide sequence of pMOL98 shows extensive sequence similarity and synteny with the BHR plasmid family that now includes pIPO2, pSB102, pTER331, and pMRAD02. They share a plasmid backbone comprising replication, partitioning and conjugative transfer functions. Comparison of the variable accessory regions of these plasmids shows that the majority of natural transposons, as well as the mini-transposon used to mark the plasmids, are inserted in the parA locus. The transposon unique to pMOL98 appears to have inserted from the chromosome of the recipient strain used in the plasmid capture procedure. This demonstrates the necessity for careful screening of plasmids and host chromosomes to avoid mis-interpretation of plasmid genome content. The presence of very similar BHR plasmids with different accessory genes in geographically distinct locations suggests an important role in horizontal gene exchange and bacterial adaptation for this recently defined plasmid group, which we propose to name "PromA". PMID:19259779

  15. Plasmid Flux in Escherichia coli ST131 Sublineages, Analyzed by Plasmid Constellation Network (PLACNET), a New Method for Plasmid Reconstruction from Whole Genome Sequences

    PubMed Central

    Garcillán-Barcia, M. Pilar; Mora, Azucena; Blanco, Jorge; Coque, Teresa M.; de la Cruz, Fernando

    2014-01-01

    Bacterial whole genome sequence (WGS) methods are rapidly overtaking classical sequence analysis. Many bacterial sequencing projects focus on mobilome changes, since macroevolutionary events, such as the acquisition or loss of mobile genetic elements, mainly plasmids, play essential roles in adaptive evolution. Existing WGS analysis protocols do not assort contigs between plasmids and the main chromosome, thus hampering full analysis of plasmid sequences. We developed a method (called plasmid constellation networks or PLACNET) that identifies, visualizes and analyzes plasmids in WGS projects by creating a network of contig interactions, thus allowing comprehensive plasmid analysis within WGS datasets. The workflow of the method is based on three types of data: assembly information (including scaffold links and coverage), comparison to reference sequences and plasmid-diagnostic sequence features. The resulting network is pruned by expert analysis, to eliminate confounding data, and implemented in a Cytoscape-based graphic representation. To demonstrate PLACNET sensitivity and efficacy, the plasmidome of the Escherichia coli lineage ST131 was analyzed. ST131 is a globally spread clonal group of extraintestinal pathogenic E. coli (ExPEC), comprising different sublineages with ability to acquire and spread antibiotic resistance and virulence genes via plasmids. Results show that plasmids flux in the evolution of this lineage, which is wide open for plasmid exchange. MOBF12/IncF plasmids were pervasive, adding just by themselves more than 350 protein families to the ST131 pangenome. Nearly 50% of the most frequent γ–proteobacterial plasmid groups were found to be present in our limited sample of ten analyzed ST131 genomes, which represent the main ST131 sublineages. PMID:25522143

  16. Plasmid flux in Escherichia coli ST131 sublineages, analyzed by plasmid constellation network (PLACNET), a new method for plasmid reconstruction from whole genome sequences.

    PubMed

    Lanza, Val F; de Toro, María; Garcillán-Barcia, M Pilar; Mora, Azucena; Blanco, Jorge; Coque, Teresa M; de la Cruz, Fernando

    2014-12-01

    Bacterial whole genome sequence (WGS) methods are rapidly overtaking classical sequence analysis. Many bacterial sequencing projects focus on mobilome changes, since macroevolutionary events, such as the acquisition or loss of mobile genetic elements, mainly plasmids, play essential roles in adaptive evolution. Existing WGS analysis protocols do not assort contigs between plasmids and the main chromosome, thus hampering full analysis of plasmid sequences. We developed a method (called plasmid constellation networks or PLACNET) that identifies, visualizes and analyzes plasmids in WGS projects by creating a network of contig interactions, thus allowing comprehensive plasmid analysis within WGS datasets. The workflow of the method is based on three types of data: assembly information (including scaffold links and coverage), comparison to reference sequences and plasmid-diagnostic sequence features. The resulting network is pruned by expert analysis, to eliminate confounding data, and implemented in a Cytoscape-based graphic representation. To demonstrate PLACNET sensitivity and efficacy, the plasmidome of the Escherichia coli lineage ST131 was analyzed. ST131 is a globally spread clonal group of extraintestinal pathogenic E. coli (ExPEC), comprising different sublineages with ability to acquire and spread antibiotic resistance and virulence genes via plasmids. Results show that plasmids flux in the evolution of this lineage, which is wide open for plasmid exchange. MOBF12/IncF plasmids were pervasive, adding just by themselves more than 350 protein families to the ST131 pangenome. Nearly 50% of the most frequent γ-proteobacterial plasmid groups were found to be present in our limited sample of ten analyzed ST131 genomes, which represent the main ST131 sublineages. PMID:25522143

  17. Streptococcal R plasmid pIP501: endonuclease site map, resistance determinant location, and construction of novel derivatives.

    PubMed Central

    Evans, R P; Macrina, F L

    1983-01-01

    The streptococcal resistance plasmid pIP501 (30 kilobase pairs [kb]) encodes resistance to chloramphenicol (Cmr) and erythromycin (Emr) and is capable of conjugative transfer among numerous streptococcal species. By using a streptococcal host-vector recombinant DNA system, the Cmr and Emr determinants of pIP501 were localized to 6.3-kb HindIII and 2.1-kb HindIII-AvaI fragments, respectively. pIP501 was lost at a frequency of 22% in Streptococcus sanguis cells grown at 42 degrees C but was stable in cells grown at 37 degrees C (less than 1% frequency of loss). Sequences from a cryptic multicopy plasmid, pVA380-1, were substituted for the pIP501 Emr determinant in vitro, and the resulting recombinant plasmid, designated pVA797, was recovered in transformed S. sanguis cells. The replication of pVA797 was governed by the pVA380-1 sequences based on temperature-stable replication and incompatibility with pVA380-1-derived replicons. The self-ligation of partially cleaved HindIII pIP501 DNA fragments allowed the localization of a pIP501 region involved in autonomous plasmid replication. A small pIP501 derivative (pVA798) obtained from this experiment had a greatly increased copy number but was unstably inherited. Our data indicate that the sequences encoding the resistance determinants and some of the plasmid replication machinery are relatively clustered on the pIP501 molecule. The properties of pVA797 and pVA798 indicate that these molecules will enhance current streptococcal genetic systems from the standpoint of conjugative mobilization (pVA797) and gene amplification (pVA798). PMID:6304011

  18. Cre-mediated site-specific recombination in zebrafish embryos.

    PubMed

    Thummel, Ryan; Burket, Christopher T; Brewer, Jeffrey L; Sarras, Michael P; Li, Li; Perry, Martin; McDermott, Jeffrey P; Sauer, Brian; Hyde, David R; Godwin, Alan R

    2005-08-01

    Cre-mediated site-specific recombination has become an invaluable tool for manipulation of the murine genome. The ability to conditionally activate gene expression or to generate chromosomal alterations with this same tool would greatly enhance zebrafish genetics. This study demonstrates that the HSP70 promoter can be used to inducibly control expression of an enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) -Cre fusion protein. The EGFP-Cre fusion protein is capable of promoting recombination between lox sites in injected plasmids or in stably inherited transgenes as early as 2 hr post-heat shock induction. Finally, the levels of Cre expression achieved in a transgenic fish line carrying the HSP70-EGFP-cre transgene are compatible with viability and both male and female transgenic fish are fertile subsequent to induction of EGFP-Cre expression. Hence, our data suggests that Cre-mediated recombination is a viable means of manipulating gene expression in zebrafish. PMID:15977183

  19. Plasmid-associated aggregation in Thermus thermophilus HB8

    SciTech Connect

    Mather, M.W.; Fee, J.A. )

    1990-01-01

    Thermus thermophilus HB8, a moderate thermophile, exhibits visible aggregation when growing on a rich broth. Strain HB8 also contains two cryptic plasmids. The authors isolated cured strains from HB8 and observed that loss of the 47-MDa plasmid was correlated with loss of aggregation. An enrichment procedure was developed for aggregating cells and used to demonstrate that aggregation was restored upon transformation of a cured strain with plasmid DNA. The aggregation phenotype of transformed cells was variably stable; most did not retain either the plasmid or the phenotype for prolonged periods of growth. Hybridization experiments using a partial sequence from the 47-MDa plasmid suggested the presence of a repeated DNA sequence on this plasmid and on the chromosome. This is the first report of a phenotype associated with a plasmid from a Thermus strain.

  20. Gene and cell survival: lessons from prokaryotic plasmid R1.

    PubMed

    de la Cueva-Méndez, Guillermo; Pimentel, Belén

    2007-05-01

    Plasmids are units of extrachromosomal genetic inheritance found in all kingdoms of life. They replicate autonomously and undergo stable propagation in their hosts. Despite their small size, plasmid replication and gene expression constitute a metabolic burden that compromises their stable maintenance in host cells. This pressure has driven the evolution of strategies to increase plasmid stability--a process accelerated by the ability of plasmids to transfer horizontally between cells and to exchange genetic material with their host and other resident episomal DNAs. These abilities drive the adaptability and diversity of plasmids and their host cells. Indeed, survival functions found in plasmids have chromosomal homologues that have an essential role in cellular responses to stress. An analysis of these functions in the prokaryotic plasmid R1, and of their intricate interrelationships, reveals remarkable overall similarities with other gene- and cell-survival strategies found within and beyond the prokaryotic world. PMID:17471262

  1. The 2 micron plasmid purloins the yeast cohesin complex

    PubMed Central

    Mehta, Shwetal; Yang, Xian Mei; Chan, Clarence S.; Dobson, Melanie J.; Jayaram, Makkuni; Velmurugan, Soundarapandian

    2002-01-01

    The yeast 2 micron plasmid achieves high fidelity segregation by coupling its partitioning pathway to that of the chromosomes. Mutations affecting distinct steps of chromosome segregation cause the plasmid to missegregate in tandem with the chromosomes. In the absence of the plasmid stability system, consisting of the Rep1 and Rep2 proteins and the STB DNA, plasmid and chromosome segregations are uncoupled. The Rep proteins, acting in concert, recruit the yeast cohesin complex to the STB locus. The periodicity of cohesin association and dissociation is nearly identical for the plasmid and the chromosomes. The timely disassembly of cohesin is a prerequisite for plasmid segregation. Cohesin-mediated pairing and unpairing likely provides a counting mechanism for evenly partitioning plasmids either in association with or independently of the chromosomes. PMID:12177044

  2. Formation of AAV Single Stranded DNA Genome from a Circular Plasmid in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    PubMed Central

    Cervelli, Tiziana; Backovic, Ana; Galli, Alvaro

    2011-01-01

    Adeno-associated virus (AAV)-based vectors are promising tools for targeted transfer in gene therapy studies. Many efforts have been accomplished to improve production and purification methods. We thought to develop a simple eukaryotic system allowing AAV replication which could provide an excellent opportunity for studying AAV biology and, more importantly, for AAV vector production. It has been shown that yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae is able to replicate and form the capsid of many viruses. We investigated the ability of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae to carry out the replication of a recombinant AAV (rAAV). When a plasmid containing a rAAV genome in which the cap gene was replaced with the S. cerevisiae URA3 gene, was co-transformed in yeast with a plasmid expressing Rep68, a significant number of URA3+ clones were scored (more than 30-fold over controls). Molecular analysis of low molecular weight DNA by Southern blotting revealed that single stranded DNA is formed and that the plasmid is entirely replicated. The ssDNA contains the ITRs, URA3 gene and also vector sequences suggesting the presence of two distinct molecules. Its formation was dependent on Rep68 expression and ITR. These data indicate that DNA is not obtained by the canonical AAV replication pathway. PMID:21853137

  3. Plasmid encoded antibiotic resistance: acquisition and transfer of antibiotic resistance genes in bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Bennett, P M

    2008-01-01

    Bacteria have existed on Earth for three billion years or so and have become adept at protecting themselves against toxic chemicals. Antibiotics have been in clinical use for a little more than 6 decades. That antibiotic resistance is now a major clinical problem all over the world attests to the success and speed of bacterial adaptation. Mechanisms of antibiotic resistance in bacteria are varied and include target protection, target substitution, antibiotic detoxification and block of intracellular antibiotic accumulation. Acquisition of genes needed to elaborate the various mechanisms is greatly aided by a variety of promiscuous gene transfer systems, such as bacterial conjugative plasmids, transposable elements and integron systems, that move genes from one DNA system to another and from one bacterial cell to another, not necessarily one related to the gene donor. Bacterial plasmids serve as the scaffold on which are assembled arrays of antibiotic resistance genes, by transposition (transposable elements and ISCR mediated transposition) and site-specific recombination mechanisms (integron gene cassettes). The evidence suggests that antibiotic resistance genes in human bacterial pathogens originate from a multitude of bacterial sources, indicating that the genomes of all bacteria can be considered as a single global gene pool into which most, if not all, bacteria can dip for genes necessary for survival. In terms of antibiotic resistance, plasmids serve a central role, as the vehicles for resistance gene capture and their subsequent dissemination. These various aspects of bacterial resistance to antibiotics will be explored in this presentation. PMID:18193080

  4. Plasmid encoded antibiotic resistance: acquisition and transfer of antibiotic resistance genes in bacteria.

    PubMed

    Bennett, P M

    2008-03-01

    Bacteria have existed on Earth for three billion years or so and have become adept at protecting themselves against toxic chemicals. Antibiotics have been in clinical use for a little more than 6 decades. That antibiotic resistance is now a major clinical problem all over the world attests to the success and speed of bacterial adaptation. Mechanisms of antibiotic resistance in bacteria are varied and include target protection, target substitution, antibiotic detoxification and block of intracellular antibiotic accumulation. Acquisition of genes needed to elaborate the various mechanisms is greatly aided by a variety of promiscuous gene transfer systems, such as bacterial conjugative plasmids, transposable elements and integron systems, that move genes from one DNA system to another and from one bacterial cell to another, not necessarily one related to the gene donor. Bacterial plasmids serve as the scaffold on which are assembled arrays of antibiotic resistance genes, by transposition (transposable elements and ISCR mediated transposition) and site-specific recombination mechanisms (integron gene cassettes).The evidence suggests that antibiotic resistance genes in human bacterial pathogens originate from a multitude of bacterial sources, indicating that the genomes of all bacteria can be considered as a single global gene pool into which most, if not all, bacteria can dip for genes necessary for survival. In terms of antibiotic resistance, plasmids serve a central role, as the vehicles for resistance gene capture and their subsequent dissemination. These various aspects of bacterial resistance to antibiotics will be explored in this presentation. PMID:18193080

  5. A prototype stable RNA identification cassette for monitoring plasmids of genetically engineered microorganisms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hedenstierna, K. O.; Lee, Y. H.; Yang, Y.; Fox, G. E.

    1993-01-01

    A prototype stable RNA identification cassette for monitoring genetically engineered plasmids carried by strains of Escherichia coli has been developed. The cassette consists of a Vibrio proteolyticus 5S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) gene surrounded by promoters and terminators from the rrnB operon of Escherischia coli. The identifier RNA is expressed and successfully processed so that approximately 30% of the 5S rRNA isolated from either whole cells or 70S ribosomes is of the V. proteolyticus type. Cells carrying the identifier are readily detectable by hybridization. Accurate measurements show that the identification cassette has little effect on fitness compared to a strain containing an analogous plasmid carrying wild type E. coli 5S rRNA, and the V. proteolyticus 5S rRNA gene is not inactivated after prolonged growth. These results demonstrate the feasibility of developing small standardized identification cassettes that can utilize already existing highly sensitive rRNA detection methods. Cassettes of this type could in principle be incorporated into either the engineered regions of recombinant plasmids or their hosts.

  6. Formation of AAV single stranded DNA genome from a circular plasmid in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Cervelli, Tiziana; Backovic, Ana; Galli, Alvaro

    2011-01-01

    Adeno-associated virus (AAV)-based vectors are promising tools for targeted transfer in gene therapy studies. Many efforts have been accomplished to improve production and purification methods. We thought to develop a simple eukaryotic system allowing AAV replication which could provide an excellent opportunity for studying AAV biology and, more importantly, for AAV vector production. It has been shown that yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae is able to replicate and form the capsid of many viruses. We investigated the ability of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae to carry out the replication of a recombinant AAV (rAAV). When a plasmid containing a rAAV genome in which the cap gene was replaced with the S. cerevisiae URA3 gene, was co-transformed in yeast with a plasmid expressing Rep68, a significant number of URA3(+) clones were scored (more than 30-fold over controls). Molecular analysis of low molecular weight DNA by Southern blotting revealed that single stranded DNA is formed and that the plasmid is entirely replicated. The ssDNA contains the ITRs, URA3 gene and also vector sequences suggesting the presence of two distinct molecules. Its formation was dependent on Rep68 expression and ITR. These data indicate that DNA is not obtained by the canonical AAV replication pathway. PMID:21853137

  7. Genomes of sequence type 121 Listeria monocytogenes strains harbor highly conserved plasmids and prophages

    PubMed Central

    Schmitz-Esser, Stephan; Müller, Anneliese; Stessl, Beatrix; Wagner, Martin

    2015-01-01

    The food-borne pathogen Listeria (L.) monocytogenes is often found in food production environments. Thus, controlling the occurrence of L. monocytogenes in food production is a great challenge for food safety. Among a great diversity of L. monocytogenes strains from food production, particularly strains belonging to sequence type (ST)121 are prevalent. The molecular reasons for the abundance of ST121 strains are however currently unknown. We therefore determined the genome sequences of three L. monocytogenes ST121 strains: 6179 and 4423, which persisted for up to 8 years in food production plants in Ireland and Austria, and of the strain 3253 and compared them with available L. monocytogenes ST121 genomes. Our results show that the ST121 genomes are highly similar to each other and show a tremendously high degree of conservation among some of their prophages and particularly among their plasmids. This remarkably high level of conservation among prophages and plasmids suggests that strong selective pressure is acting on them. We thus hypothesize that plasmids and prophages are providing important adaptations for survival in food production environments. In addition, the ST121 genomes share common adaptations which might be related to their persistence in food production environments such as the presence of Tn6188, a transposon responsible for increased tolerance against quaternary ammonium compounds, a yet undescribed insertion harboring recombination hotspot (RHS) repeat proteins, which are most likely involved in competition against other bacteria, and presence of homologs of the L. innocua genes lin0464 and lin0465. PMID:25972859

  8. Transposition of a duplicate antibiotic resistance gene and generation of deletions in plasmid R6K.

    PubMed Central

    Holmans, P L; Clowes, R C

    1979-01-01

    Transformation experiments showed that spontaneous deletions which result in loss of streptomycin resistance and an increase in conjugal transfer efficiency are present at a frequency of about 10(-4) in plasmid molecules of R6K. Similar deletions were thus readily selected by conjugal transfer of R6K, and their appearance was dependent upon recA+ activity in either donor or recipient host. The deoxyribonucleic acid segment deleted in four mutants examined was concluded to extend from the same terminus of the transposon, TnA, in the same direction, but to different extents, and to retain the TnA region intact. Insertions of a duplicate TnA element were found in R6K plasmids isolated from strains selected for increased ampicillin resistance, which were unstable in recA+ strains. In four plasmids examined after transfer to a recA host, an inverted repeat of the preexisting TnA element was shown to have been inserted at a similar location and was in two instances associated with deletions which extended from the same direction as those described above. The deletions are ascribed to the result of recA+-dependent recombination between direct repeats of TnA. Images PMID:370107

  9. Metagenomic analyses of novel viruses and plasmids from a cultured environmental sample of hyperthermophilic neutrophiles.

    PubMed

    Garrett, Roger A; Prangishvili, David; Shah, Shiraz A; Reuter, Monika; Stetter, Karl O; Peng, Xu

    2010-11-01

    Two novel viral genomes and four plasmids were assembled from an environmental sample collected from a hot spring at Yellowstone National Park, USA, and maintained anaerobically in a bioreactor at 85°C and pH 6. The double-stranded DNA viral genomes are linear (22.7 kb) and circular (17.7 kb), and derive apparently from archaeal viruses HAV1 and HAV2. Genomic DNA was obtained from samples enriched in filamentous and tadpole-shaped virus-like particles respectively. They yielded few significant matches in public sequence databases reinforcing, further, the wide diversity of archaeal viruses. Several variants of HAV1 exhibit major genomic alterations, presumed to arise from viral adaptation to different hosts. They include insertions up to 350 bp, deletions up to 1.5 kb, and genes with extensively altered sequences. Some result from recombination events occurring at low complexity direct repeats distributed along the genome. In addition, a 33.8 kb archaeal plasmid pHA1 was characterized, encoding a possible conjugative apparatus, as well as three cryptic plasmids of thermophilic bacterial origin, pHB1 of 2.1 kb and two closely related variants pHB2a and pHB2b, of 5.2 and 4.8 kb respectively. Strategies are considered for assembling genomes of smaller genetic elements from complex environmental samples, and for establishing possible host identities on the basis of sequence similarity to host CRISPR immune systems. PMID:20545752

  10. Trichloroethylene degradation using recombinant bacteria expressing the soluble methane monooxygenase from methylosinus trichosporium OB3b

    SciTech Connect

    Jahng, D.; Kim, C.; Wood, T.K.

    1995-12-01

    Soluble methane monooxygenase (sMMO) from M. trichosporium OB3b has the ability to degrade many halogenated aliphatic compounds that are found in contaminated soil and groundwater. For efficient trichloroethylene (TCE) degradation in a foreign host, efforts are being made to improve inconsistent and low sMMO activity of the recombinant strain constructed previously (Pseudomonas putida F1/pSMMO20). Additional smmo-containing recombinant strains have been constructed including various Pseudomonas, Agrobacterium, and Rhizobium strains. Recombinant facultative methylotrophs containing the smmo locus were also constructed through electroporation and tri-parental mating using a new plasmid pSMMO50. TCE degradation by these recombinant strains was examined. The effect of metal ions on in vitro sMMO activity was also discerned to optimize the expression medium. Among the metal ions examined, Cu(I), Cu(II), Ni(II), and Zn(II) inhibited sMMO purified from trichosporium OB3b, and the effect of the metal ions on each of the components of sMMO will also be discussed. In addition, the post-segregational killing locus (hok/sok) from E. coli plasmid R1 was inserted downstream of the smmo locus to stabilize the recombinant plasmid in these host cells, and chemostat cultures were used to optimize expression of active sMMO by varying the growth rate.

  11. Vaccination against Anthrax with Attenuated Recombinant Strains of Bacillus anthracis That Produce Protective Antigen

    PubMed Central

    Barnard, John P.; Friedlander, Arthur M.

    1999-01-01

    The protective efficacy of several live, recombinant anthrax vaccines given in a single-dose regimen was assessed with Hartley guinea pigs. These live vaccines were created by transforming ΔANR and ΔSterne, two nonencapsulated, nontoxinogenic strains of Bacillus anthracis, with four different recombinant plasmids that express the anthrax protective antigen (PA) protein to various degrees. This enabled us to assess the effect of the chromosomal background of the strain, as well as the amount of PA produced, on protective efficacy. There were no significant strain-related effects on PA production in vitro, plasmid stability in vivo, survival of the immunizing strain in the host, or protective efficacy of the immunizing infection. The protective efficacy of the live, recombinant anthrax vaccine strains correlated with the anti-PA antibody titers they elicited in vivo and the level of PA they produced in vitro. PMID:9916059

  12. Plasmid R6K Replication Control

    PubMed Central

    Rakowski, Sheryl A.; Filutowicz, Marcin

    2013-01-01

    The focus of this minireview is the replication control of the 39.9-kb plasmid R6K and its derivatives. Historically, this plasmid was thought to have a narrow host range but more recent findings indicate that its derivatives can replicate in a variety of enteric and non-enteric bacterial species (Wild et al., 2004). In the four-plus decades since it was first described, R6K has proven to be an excellent model for studies of plasmid DNA replication. In part this is because of its similarities to other systems in which replication is activated and regulated by Rep protein and iteron-containing DNA. However its apparent idiosynchracies have also added to its significance (e.g., independent and co-dependent replication origins, and Rep dimers that stably bind iterons). Here, we survey the current state of knowledge regarding R6K replication and place individual regulatory elements into a proposed homeostatic model with implications for the biological significance of R6K and its multiple origins of replication. PMID:23474464

  13. A seven plasmid-based system for the rescue of influenza C virus

    PubMed Central

    Pachler, Karin; Mayr, Juliane; Vlasak, Reinhard

    2010-01-01

    We report the establishment of a reverse-genetics system for the rescue of recombinant influenza C/JJ/50 virus from seven plasmids. The nucleotide sequence of the whole C/JJ/50 genome was determined and full-length cDNAs were cloned into an RNA pol I/pol II-based bidirectional vector. Transfection of Vero cells and subsequent amplification on MDCK cells yielded viral HA titres of 128. The utility of this bidirectional approach was proved by generating a reassortant virus encoding the NS segment from strain C/JHB/1/66 and a virus with mutations in the noncoding ends of PB1. The latter virus, which has a base-pair mutation within the proposed double-stranded region of the PB1 termini, exhibited impaired replication. In conclusion, our efficient seven-plasmid system for the rescue of recombinant influenza C virus may be used to study the influenza C virus life cycle in more detail and for generation of influenza C virus-based vectors. PMID:20838663

  14. Recombination of cluster ions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnsen, Rainer

    1993-01-01

    Some of our recent work on molecular band emissions from recombination of molecular dimer ions (N4(+) and CO(+) CO) is discussed. Much of the experimental work was done by Y. S. Cao; the results on N4(+) recombination have been published. A brief progress report is given on our ongoing measurements of neutral products of recombination using the flowing-afterglow Langmuir-probe technique in conjunction with laser-induced fluorescence.

  15. Oral Administration of Recombinant Lactococcus lactis Expressing the Cellulase Gene Increases Digestibility of Fiber in Geese.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Haizhu; Gao, Yunhang; Gao, Guang; Lou, Yujie

    2015-12-01

    Enhancing cellulose digestibility in animals is important for improving the utilization of forage, which can decrease the amount of food used in animal production. The aim of the present study was to achieve recombinant expression of the cellulase gene in Lactococcus lactis and evaluate the effects of oral administration of the recombinant L. lactis on fiber digestibility in geese. Cellulase (Cell) and green fluorescent protein (GFP) genes were cloned into a L. lactis expression vector (pNZ8149) to construct the recombinant expression plasmid (pNZ8149-GFP-Cell). Then, the recombinant expression plasmid was transformed into L. lactis (NZ3900) competent cells by electroporation to obtain recombinant L. lactis (pNZ8149-GFP-Cell/NZ3900) in which protein expression was induced by Nisin. Expression of GFP and Cell by the recombinant L. lactis was confirmed using SDS-PAGE, fluorescence detection, and Congo red assays. A feeding experiment showed that oral administration of pNZ8149-GFP-Cell/NZ3900 significantly increased the digestibility of dietary fiber in geese fed either a maize stalk diet or a rice chaff diet. Therefore, oral administration of recombinant L. lactis cells expressing the cellulase gene increases fiber digestibility in geese, offering a way to increase the utilization of dietary fiber in geese. PMID:26341925

  16. A Rapid and Improved Method to Generate Recombinant Dengue Virus Vaccine Candidates.

    PubMed

    Govindarajan, Dhanasekaran; Guan, Liming; Meschino, Steven; Fridman, Arthur; Bagchi, Ansu; Pak, Irene; Meulen, Jan Ter; Casimiro, Danilo R; Bett, Andrew J

    2016-01-01

    Dengue is one of the most important mosquito-borne infections accounting for severe morbidity and mortality worldwide. Recently, the tetravalent chimeric live attenuated Dengue vaccine Dengvaxia® was approved for use in several dengue endemic countries. In general, live attenuated vaccines (LAV) are very efficacious and offer long-lasting immunity against virus-induced disease. Rationally designed LAVs can be generated through reverse genetics technology, a method of generating infectious recombinant viruses from full length cDNA contained in bacterial plasmids. In vitro transcribed (IVT) viral RNA from these infectious clones is transfected into susceptible cells to generate recombinant virus. However, the generation of full-length dengue virus cDNA clones can be difficult due to the genetic instability of viral sequences in bacterial plasmids. To circumvent the need for a single plasmid containing a full length cDNA, in vitro ligation of two or three cDNA fragments contained in separate plasmids can be used to generate a full-length dengue viral cDNA template. However, in vitro ligation of multiple fragments often yields low quality template for IVT reactions, resulting in inconsistent low yield RNA. These technical difficulties make recombinant virus recovery less efficient. In this study, we describe a simple, rapid and efficient method of using LONG-PCR to recover recombinant chimeric Yellow fever dengue (CYD) viruses as potential dengue vaccine candidates. Using this method, we were able to efficiently generate several viable recombinant viruses without introducing any artificial mutations into the viral genomes. We believe that the techniques reported here will enable rapid and efficient recovery of recombinant flaviviruses for evaluation as vaccine candidates and, be applicable to the recovery of other RNA viruses. PMID:27008550

  17. A Rapid and Improved Method to Generate Recombinant Dengue Virus Vaccine Candidates

    PubMed Central

    Govindarajan, Dhanasekaran; Guan, Liming; Meschino, Steven; Fridman, Arthur; Bagchi, Ansu; Pak, Irene; ter Meulen, Jan; Casimiro, Danilo R.; Bett, Andrew J.

    2016-01-01

    Dengue is one of the most important mosquito-borne infections accounting for severe morbidity and mortality worldwide. Recently, the tetravalent chimeric live attenuated Dengue vaccine Dengvaxia® was approved for use in several dengue endemic countries. In general, live attenuated vaccines (LAV) are very efficacious and offer long-lasting immunity against virus-induced disease. Rationally designed LAVs can be generated through reverse genetics technology, a method of generating infectious recombinant viruses from full length cDNA contained in bacterial plasmids. In vitro transcribed (IVT) viral RNA from these infectious clones is transfected into susceptible cells to generate recombinant virus. However, the generation of full-length dengue virus cDNA clones can be difficult due to the genetic instability of viral sequences in bacterial plasmids. To circumvent the need for a single plasmid containing a full length cDNA, in vitro ligation of two or three cDNA fragments contained in separate plasmids can be used to generate a full-length dengue viral cDNA template. However, in vitro ligation of multiple fragments often yields low quality template for IVT reactions, resulting in inconsistent low yield RNA. These technical difficulties make recombinant virus recovery less efficient. In this study, we describe a simple, rapid and efficient method of using LONG-PCR to recover recombinant chimeric Yellow fever dengue (CYD) viruses as potential dengue vaccine candidates. Using this method, we were able to efficiently generate several viable recombinant viruses without introducing any artificial mutations into the viral genomes. We believe that the techniques reported here will enable rapid and efficient recovery of recombinant flaviviruses for evaluation as vaccine candidates and, be applicable to the recovery of other RNA viruses. PMID:27008550

  18. Recombination in electron coolers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wolf, A.; Gwinner, G.; Linkemann, J.; Saghiri, A. A.; Schmitt, M.; Schwalm, D.; Grieser, M.; Beutelspacher, M.; Bartsch, T.; Brandau, C.; Hoffknecht, A.; Müller, A.; Schippers, S.; Uwira, O.; Savin, D. W.

    2000-02-01

    An introduction to electron-ion recombination processes is given and recent measurements are described as examples, focusing on low collision energies. Discussed in particular are fine-structure-mediated dielectronic recombination of fluorine-like ions, the moderate recombination enhancement by factors of typically 1.5-4 found for most ion species at relative electron-ion energies below about 10 meV, and the much larger enhancement occurring for specific highly charged ions of complex electronic structure, apparently caused by low-energy dielectronic recombination resonances. Recent experiments revealing dielectronic resonances with very large natural width are also described.

  19. Intermolecular Transposition of Is10 Causes Coupled Homologous Recombination at the Transposition Site

    PubMed Central

    Eichenbaum, Z.; Livneh, Z.

    1995-01-01

    Interplasmid and chromosome to plasmid transposition of IS10 were studied by assaying inactivation of the phage 434 cI gene, carried on a low copy number plasmid. This was detected by the activity of the tet gene expressed from the phage 434 P(R) promoter. Each interplasmid transposition resulted in the fusion of the donor and acceptor plasmids into cointegrate structure, with a 9-bp duplication of the target DNA at the insertion site. Cointegrate formation was abolished in δrecA strains, although simple insertions of IS10 were observed. This suggests a two-stage mechanism involving IS10 conservative transposition, followed by homologous recombination between the donor and the acceptor. Two plasmids carrying inactive IS10 sequences were fused to cointegrates at a 100-fold lower frequency, suggesting that homologous recombination is coupled to and stimulated by the transposition event. Each IS10 transposition from the chromosome to the acceptor plasmid involved replicon fusion, providing a mechanism for IS10-mediated integration of extrachromosomal elements into the chromosome. This was accompanied by the formation of an additional copy of IS10 in the chromosome. Thus, like replicative transposition, conservative transposition of IS10 is accompanied by cointegrate formation and results in duplication of the IS10. PMID:7672587

  20. Improved determination of plasmid copy number using quantitative real-time PCR for monitoring fermentation processes

    PubMed Central

    Škulj, Mihaela; Okršlar, Veronika; Jalen, Špela; Jevševar, Simona; Slanc, Petra; Štrukelj, Borut; Menart, Viktor

    2008-01-01

    Background Recombinant protein production in Escherichia coli cells is a complex process, where among other parameters, plasmid copy number, structural and segregational stability of plasmid have an important impact on the success of productivity. It was recognised that a method for accurate and rapid quantification of plasmid copy number is necessary for optimization and better understanding of this process. Lately, qPCR is becoming the method of choice for this purpose. In the presented work, an improved qPCR method adopted for PCN determination in various fermentation processes was developed. Results To avoid experimental errors arising from irreproducible DNA isolation, whole cells, treated by heating at 95°C for 10 minutes prior to storage at -20°C, were used as a template source. Relative quantification, taking into account different amplification efficiencies of amplicons for chromosome and plasmid, was used in the PCN calculation. The best reproducibility was achieved when the efficiency estimated for specific amplicon, obtained within one run, was averaged. It was demonstrated that the quantification range of 2 log units (100 to 10000 bacteria per well) enable quantification in each time point during fermentation. The method was applied to study PCN variation in fermentation at 25°C and the correlation between PCN and protein accumulation was established. Conclusion Using whole cells as a template source and relative quantification considering different PCR amplification efficiencies are significant improvements of the qPCR method for PCN determination. Due to the approaches used, the method is suitable for PCN determination in fermentation processes using various media and conditions. PMID:18328094

  1. Identification of hairy root loci in the T-regions of Agrobacterium rhizogenes Ri plasmids.

    PubMed

    Boulanger, F; Berkaloff, A; Richaud, F

    1986-07-01

    Agrobacterium rhizogenes induces root formation at the wound site of inoculation in plants and inserts a fragment of its plasmid (Ri) into the plant nuclear DNA. Parts of the transferred region (T-region) of the Ri plasmid of A. rhizogenes strain A4 or 8196 are cloned in Escherichia coli. Insertions of the E. coli lacZ coding region into the hybrid plasmids were made in vivo using transduction by miniMu. Twenty insertions localized in the TL-DNA of pRiA4 (or pRi1855) and 2 inserts in the T-DNA of pRi8196 were obtained in E. coli. One of the TL-DNA insertions is saved up because it is linked to an internal T-DNA deletion; the others because they confer a lactose plus phenotype on E. coli; this indicates that the T-DNA harbours sequences that are expressed in E. coli. Fifteen of these T-DNA insertions were transfered to Agrobacterium where they substitute the corresponding wild-type T-DNA of the Ri plasmid by homologous recombination. These strains corresponding to insertion-directed mutagenesis were used to inoculate Daucus carota slices and stems and leaves of Kalanchoe daigremontiana. The two insertions strains obtained in the T-DNA of pRi8196 are avirulent on K. daigremontiana; but their phenotypes differ on D. carota slices, suggesting that insertions affect distinct loci on the T-DNA involved in hairy root formation. Only one insertion out of the twenty obtained in the TL-DNA of pRiA4 (or 1855) induces a loss of virulence on leaves of K. daigremontiana. However the TL-DNA deletion harbouring strain induces a loss of virulence on D. carota and K. daigremontiana (stems and leaves), confirming the importance of the TL-DNA for hairy root induction. re]19850711 rv]19851230 ac]19860114. PMID:24307326

  2. Cloning and sequencing of a plasmid-borne gene (opd) encoding a phosphotriesterase.

    PubMed Central

    McDaniel, C S; Harper, L L; Wild, J R

    1988-01-01

    Plasmid pCMS1 was isolated from Pseudomonas diminuta MG, a strain which constitutively hydrolyzes a broad spectrum of organophosphorus compounds. The native plasmid was restricted with PstI, and individual DNA fragments were subcloned into pBR322. A recombinant plasmid transformed into Escherichia coli possessed weak hydrolytic activity, and Southern blotting with the native plasmid DNA verified that the DNA sequence originated from pCMS1. When the cloned 1.3-kilobase fragment was placed behind the lacZ' promoter of M13mp10 and retransformed into E. coli, clear-plaque isolates with correctly sized inserts exhibited isopropyl-beta-D-thiogalactopyranoside-inducible whole-cell activity. Sequence determination of the M13 constructions identified an open reading frame of 975 bases preceded by a putative ribosome-binding site appropriately positioned upstream of the first ATG codon in the open reading frame. An intragenic fusion of the opd gene with the lacZ gene produced a hybrid polypeptide which was purified by beta-galactosidase immunoaffinity chromatography and used to confirm the open reading frame of opd. The gene product, an organophosphorus phosphotriesterase, would have a molecular weight of 35,418 if the presumed start site is correct. Eighty to ninety percent of the enzymatic activity was associated with the pseudomonad membrane fractions. When dissociated by treatment with 0.1% Triton and 1 M NaCl, the enzymatic activity was associated with a molecular weight of approximately 65,000, suggesting that the active enzyme was dimeric. Images PMID:2834339

  3. Linear and Circular Plasmid Content in Borrelia burgdorferi Clinical Isolates

    PubMed Central

    Iyer, Radha; Kalu, Ogori; Purser, Joye; Norris, Steven; Stevenson, Brian; Schwartz, Ira

    2003-01-01

    The genome of Borrelia burgdorferi, the etiologic agent of Lyme disease, is composed of a linear chromosome and more than 20 linear and circular plasmids. Typically, plasmid content analysis has been carried out by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis and confirmed by Southern hybridization. However, multiple plasmids of virtually identical sizes (e.g., lp28 and cp32) complicate the interpretation of such data. The present study was undertaken to investigate the complete plasmid complements of B. burgdorferi clinical isolates cultivated from patients from a single region where early Lyme disease is endemic. A total of 21 isolates obtained from the skin biopsy or blood samples of Lyme disease patients were examined for their complete plasmid complements by Southern hybridization and plasmid-specific PCR analysis. All clinical isolates harbored at least six of the nine previously characterized cp32s. Fourteen isolates harbored all B31-like linear plasmids, and seven isolates simultaneously lacked lp56, lp38, and some segments of lp28-1. The distinctive plasmid profile observed in these seven isolates was specific to organisms that had ribosomal spacer type 2 and pulsed-field gel type A, which implies a clonal origin for this genotype. The presence of nearly identical complements of multiple linear and circular plasmids in all of the human isolates suggests that these plasmids may be particularly necessary for infection, adaptation, and/or maintenance in the infected host. PMID:12819050

  4. Characterization of toxin plasmids in Clostridium perfringens type C isolates.

    PubMed

    Gurjar, Abhijit; Li, Jihong; McClane, Bruce A

    2010-11-01

    Clostridium perfringens type C isolates cause enteritis necroticans in humans or necrotizing enteritis and enterotoxemia in domestic animals. Type C isolates always produce alpha toxin and beta toxin but often produce additional toxins, e.g., beta2 toxin or enterotoxin. Since plasmid carriage of toxin-encoding genes has not been systematically investigated for type C isolates, the current study used Southern blot hybridization of pulsed-field gels to test whether several toxin genes are plasmid borne among a collection of type C isolates. Those analyses revealed that the surveyed type C isolates carry their beta toxin-encoding gene (cpb) on plasmids ranging in size from ∼65 to ∼110 kb. When present in these type C isolates, the beta2 toxin gene localized to plasmids distinct from the cpb plasmid. However, some enterotoxin-positive type C isolates appeared to carry their enterotoxin-encoding cpe gene on a cpb plasmid. The tpeL gene encoding the large clostridial cytotoxin was localized to the cpb plasmids of some cpe-negative type C isolates. The cpb plasmids in most surveyed isolates were found to carry both IS1151 sequences and the tcp genes, which can mediate conjugative C. perfringens plasmid transfer. A dcm gene, which is often present near C. perfringens plasmid-borne toxin genes, was identified upstream of the cpb gene in many type C isolates. Overlapping PCR analyses suggested that the toxin-encoding plasmids of the surveyed type C isolates differ from the cpe plasmids of type A isolates. These findings provide new insight into plasmids of proven or potential importance for type C virulence. PMID:20823204

  5. Plasmid replicon typing of commensal and pathogenic Escherichia coli isolates.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Timothy J; Wannemuehler, Yvonne M; Johnson, Sara J; Logue, Catherine M; White, David G; Doetkott, Curt; Nolan, Lisa K

    2007-03-01

    Despite the critical role of plasmids in horizontal gene transfer, few studies have characterized plasmid relatedness among different bacterial populations. Recently, a multiplex PCR replicon typing protocol was developed for classification of plasmids occurring in members of the Enterobacteriaceae. Here, a simplified version of this replicon typing procedure which requires only three multiplex panels to identify 18 plasmid replicons is described. This method was used to screen 1,015 Escherichia coli isolates of avian, human, and poultry meat origin for plasmid replicon types. Additionally, the isolates were assessed for their content of several colicin-associated genes. Overall, a high degree of plasmid variability was observed, with 221 different profiles occurring among the 1,015 isolates examined. IncFIB plasmids were the most common type identified, regardless of the source type of E. coli. IncFIB plasmids occurred significantly more often in avian pathogenic E. coli (APEC) and retail poultry E. coli (RPEC) than in uropathogenic E. coli (UPEC) and avian and human fecal commensal E. coli isolates (AFEC and HFEC, respectively). APEC and RPEC were also significantly more likely than UPEC, HFEC, and AFEC to possess the colicin-associated genes cvaC, cbi, and/or cma in conjunction with one or more plasmid replicons. The results suggest that E. coli isolates contaminating retail poultry are notably similar to APEC with regard to plasmid profiles, with both generally containing multiple plasmid replicon types in conjunction with colicin-related genes. In contrast, UPEC and human and avian commensal E. coli isolates generally lack the plasmid replicons and colicin-related genes seen in APEC and RPEC, suggesting limited dissemination of such plasmids among these bacterial populations. PMID:17277222

  6. Plasmid Capture by the Bacillus thuringiensis Conjugative Plasmid pXO16▿

    PubMed Central

    Timmery, Sophie; Modrie, Pauline; Minet, Olivier; Mahillon, Jacques

    2009-01-01

    Conjugation, mobilization, and retromobilization are three related mechanisms of horizontal gene transfer in bacteria. They have been extensively studied in gram-negative species, where retromobilization, the capture of DNA from a recipient by a donor cell, was shown to result from two successive steps: the transfer of the conjugative plasmid from the donor to the recipient followed by the retrotransfer of the mobilizable plasmid to the donor. This successive model was established for gram-negative bacteria but was lacking experimental data from the gram-positive counterparts. In the present work, the mobilization and retromobilization abilities of the conjugative plasmid pXO16 from Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. israelensis were studied using the mobilizable plasmids pUB110 and pE194 and the “nonmobilizable” element pC194 lacking the mob and oriT features (all from Staphylococcus aureus). Experimental data suggested a successive model, since different retromobilization frequencies were observed between the small plasmids. More importantly, retromobilization was shown to be delayed by 50 and 150 min for pUB110 and pE194, respectively, compared to pXO16 conjugation. Natural liquid foods (cow milk, soy milk, and rice milk) were used to evaluate the putative ecological impact of these transfers. In cow and soy milk, conjugation, mobilization, and retromobilization were shown to occur at frequencies of 8.0 × 10−1, 1.0 × 10−2, and 1.2 × 10−4 transconjugants per recipient, respectively. These data are comparable to those obtained with LB medium and about 10-fold lower than in the case of rice milk. Taken together, these results emphasize the potential role of plasmid capture played by B. thuringiensis in natural environments. PMID:19181805

  7. Characterization of Plasmid pOR1 from Ornithobacterium rhinotracheale and Construction of a Shuttle Plasmid

    PubMed Central

    Jansen, Ruud; Chansiripornchai, Niwat; Gaastra, Wim; van Putten, Jos P. M.

    2004-01-01

    The bacterium Ornithobacterium rhinotracheale has been recognized as an emerging pathogen in poultry since about 10 years ago. Knowledge of this bacterium and its mechanisms of virulence is still very limited. Here we report the development of a transformation system that enables genetic modification of O. rhinotracheale. The system is based on a cryptic plasmid, pOR1, that was derived from an O. rhinotracheale strain of serotype K. Sequencing indicated that the plasmid consisted of 14,787 nucleotides. Sequence analysis revealed one replication origin and several rep genes that control plasmid replication and copy number, respectively. In addition, pOR1 contains genes with similarity to a heavy-metal-transporting ATPase, a TonB-linked siderophore receptor, and a laccase. Reverse transcription-PCR demonstrated that these genes were transcribed. Other putative open reading frames exhibited similarities with a virulence-associated protein in Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans and a number of genes coding for proteins with unknown function. An Escherichia coli-O. rhinotracheale shuttle plasmid (pOREC1) was constructed by cloning the replication origin and rep genes from pOR1 and the cfxA gene from Bacteroides vulgatus, which codes for resistance to the antibiotic cefoxitin, into plasmid pGEM7 by using E. coli as a host. pOREC1 was electroporated into O. rhinotracheale and yielded cefoxitin-resistant transformants. The pOREC1 isolated from these transformants was reintroduced into E. coli, demonstrating that pOREC1 acts as an independent replicon in both E. coli and O. rhinotracheale, fulfilling the criteria for a shuttle plasmid that can be used for transformation, targeted mutagenesis, and the construction of defined attenuated vaccine strains. PMID:15466524

  8. A simplified system for generating recombinant E3-deleted canine adenovirus-2.

    PubMed

    Yu, Zuo; Jiang, Qian; Liu, Jiasen; Guo, Dongchun; Quan, Chuansong; Li, Botao; Qu, Liandong

    2015-01-01

    Canine adenovirus type 2 (CAV-2) has been used extensively as a vector for studying gene therapy and vaccine applications. We describe a simple strategy for generating a replication-competent recombinant CAV-2 using a backbone vector and a shuttle vector. The backbone plasmid containing the full-length CAV-2 genome was constructed by homologous recombination in Escherichia coli strain BJ5183. The shuttle plasmid, which has a deletion of 1478 bp in the nonessential E3 viral genome region, was generated by subcloning a fusion fragment containing the flanking sequences of the CAV-2 E3 region and expression cassette sequences from pcDNA3.1(+) into modified pUC18. To determine system effectiveness, a gene for enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) was inserted into the shuttle plasmid and cloned into the backbone plasmid using two unique NruI and SalI sites. Transfection of Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK) cells with the recombinant adenovirus genome containing the EGFP expression cassette resulted in infectious viral particles. This strategy provides a solid foundation for developing candidate vaccines using CAV-2 as a delivery vector. PMID:25450764

  9. Construction of prokaryotic expression plasmid of mtrC protein of Neisseria gonorrhoeae and its expression in E. coli.

    PubMed

    Chen, Hongxiang; Tu, Yating; Lin, Nengxing; Huang, Changzheng

    2005-01-01

    In order to provide a rational research basis for detection of resistance of Neisseria gonorrhoeae to antimicrobial hydrophobic agents and study on the resistant mechanism of multiple transferable resistance (mtr) efflux system, plasmid pET-28a(+) encoding mtrC gene was constructed and the related target protein was expressed in Escherichia coli (E. coli) DE3. The fragments of mtrC gene of Neisseria gonorrhoeae from the standard strains were amplified and cloned into prokaryotic expression plasmid pET-28a(+) with restriction endonuclease to construct recombinant pET-mtrC which was verified by restriction endonuclease and DNA sequencing. The recombinant was transformed into E. coli DE3 to express the protein mtrC induced by IPTG. The results showed mtrC DNA fragment was proved correct through restriction endonuclease and DNA sequencing. Its sequence was 99.5% homologus to that published on GeneBank (U14993). A 48.5 kD fusion protein which was induced by IPTG was detected by SDS-PAGE. It was concluded that the construction of prokaryotic expression plasmid of mtrC protein of Neisseria gonorrhoeae was correct and the fusion protein was successively expressed in E. coli. PMID:16463681

  10. The mitochondrial plasmid of the true slime mold Physarum polycephalum bypasses uniparental inheritance by promoting mitochondrial fusion.

    PubMed

    Sakurai, Rakusa; Nomura, Hideo; Moriyam, Yohsuke; Kawano, Shigeyuki

    2004-08-01

    Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) is inherited maternally in most eukaryotes. Linear mitochondrial plasmids in higher plants and fungi are also transmitted from the maternal parent to the progeny. However, mF, which is a mitochondrial linear plasmid of Physarum polycephalum, evades uniparental mitochondrial inheritance. We examined 36 myxamoebal strains of Physarum and isolated three novel mF+ strains (JE8, TU111, NG111) that harbored free mF plasmids. These strains were mated with the mF- strain KM88. Of the three mF- x mF+ crosses, only KM88 x JE8 displayed complete uniparental inheritance. However, in KM88 x TU111 and KM88 x NG111, the mtDNA of KM88 and mF of TU111 and NG111 were inherited by the plasmodia and showed recombination. For example, although the mtDNA of TU111 was eliminated, the mF of TU111 persisted and became inserted into the mtDNA of KM88, such that recombinant mtDNA represented 80% of the total mtDNA. The parental mitochondria fused to yield giant mitochondria with two or more mitochondrial nucleoids. The mF appears to exchange mitochondria from the recipient (paternal) to the donor (maternal) by promoting mitochondrial fusion. PMID:15179521

  11. Construction and characterization of plasmid and lambda phage vector systems for study of transcriptional control in Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Hirano, M; Shigesada, K; Imai, M

    1987-01-01

    We constructed a family of lambda phage and plasmid vectors which facilitate cloning and quantitative analysis of transcriptional regulator in both single and multiple copies. Their expression system was modified from the ara-trp-lac fusion operon of plasmid pMC81 [Casadaban and Cohen, J. Mol. Biol. 138 (1980) 179-207], which is designed to assay both promoters and terminators with a single vehicle. To eliminate transcriptional and translational polar effects liable to occur in the original fusion operon upon insertion of a foreign nucleotide sequence, intracistronic Rho-dependent terminators, that are present within the trpB gene and distal to the cloning site were deleted, and DNA spacers containing stop codons were introduced immediately before and after the cloning site. In analysis of the cloned trp regulatory region, the lambda phage system faithfully reproduced the tight regulation by tryptophan characteristic to the natural trp operon on the E. coli chromosome, whereas the plasmid counterpart exhibited a substantially relaxed response. Comparative studies on the relative strengths of various promoters and terminators have further demonstrated that the lambda phage vector system permits accurate assays of exceptionally strong promoters like Ptrp and lambda pL without disturbing the bacterial growth, while being sensitive enough for detecting low-level transcription under the control of weak promoters or potent terminators. Cloning with the lambda phage vector can be greatly facilitated by transferring the target regulatory site precloned with the plasmid onto the phage genome through in vivo recombination. PMID:2828183

  12. Sequence of two plasmids from Clostridium perfringens chicken necrotic enteritis isolates and comparison with C. perfringens conjugative plasmids.

    PubMed

    Parreira, Valeria R; Costa, Marcio; Eikmeyer, Felix; Blom, Jochen; Prescott, John F

    2012-01-01

    Twenty-six isolates of Clostridium perfringens of different MLST types from chickens with necrotic enteritis (NE) (15 netB-positive) or from healthy chickens (6 netB-positive, 5 netB-negative) were found to contain 1-4 large plasmids, with most netB-positive isolates containing 3 large and variably sized plasmids which were more numerous and larger than plasmids in netB-negative isolates. NetB and cpb2 were found on different plasmids consistent with previous studies. The pathogenicity locus NELoc1, which includes netB, was largely conserved in these plasmids whereas NeLoc3, present in the cpb2 containing plasmids, was less well conserved. A netB-positive and a cpb2-positive plasmid were likely to be conjugative, and the plasmids were completely sequenced. Both plasmids possessed the intact tcp conjugative region characteristic of C. perfringens conjugative plasmids. Comparative genomic analysis of nine CpCPs, including the two plasmids described here, showed extensive gene rearrangements including pathogenicity locus and accessory gene insertions around rather than within the backbone region. The pattern that emerges from this analysis is that the major toxin-containing regions of the variety of virulence-associated CpCPs are organized as complex pathogenicity loci. How these different but related CpCPs can co-exist in the same host has been an unanswered question. Analysis of the replication-partition region of these plasmids suggests that this region controls plasmid incompatibility, and that CpCPs can be grouped into at least four incompatibility groups. PMID:23189158

  13. Biotransformation of substituted benzoates to the corresponding cis-diols by an engineered strain of Pseudomonas oleovorans producing the TOL plasmid-specified enzyme toluate-1,2-dioxygenase

    SciTech Connect

    Wubbolts, M.G.; Timmis, K.N. )

    1990-02-01

    The conversion of substituted benzoates into 1,2-cis-dihydroxycyclohexa-3,5-diene carboxylic acids (cis-diols) was affected by using Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas recombinants carrying the xylXYZ genes originating from the Pseudomonas putida mt-2 TOL plasmid, thus producing toluate-1,2-dioxygenase. Pseudomonas oleovorans GPo12 recombinants readily produced meta-and para-substituted cis-diols, but were limited in their oxidation of ortho-substituted substrates.

  14. Genetic recombination. [Escherichia coli

    SciTech Connect

    Stahl, F.W.

    1987-02-01

    The molecular pathways of gene recombination are explored and compared in studies of the model organisms, Escherichia coli and phase lambda. In the discussion of data from these studies it seems that recombination varies with the genetic idiosyncrasies of the organism and may also vary within a single organism.

  15. Identification and sequence homology relationships of plasmids from various micrococci

    SciTech Connect

    Mathis, J.N.

    1983-01-01

    Plasmids have been found in strains of the following Micrococcus species M. nishinomiyaensis (9/22), M. luteus (8/47), and M. agilis (1/5). No plasmids were detected in strains of M. lylae (0/16) or M. sedentarius (0/20). Thirty-eight antibiotics and 23 inorganic salts were screened in an attempt to determine plasmid function. None of these antibiotics and inorganic salts were found to be associated with the presence or absence of plasmid DNA within these strains. Minimum inhibitory concentration experiments and curing experiments in which phenotypic change occurred without plasmid loss are the basis for this conclusion. Hydrocarbon biosynthesis parameters in certain Micrococcus strains previously analyzed were also shown not to be clearly associated to the presence or absence of plasmid DNA.

  16. Community-wide plasmid gene mobilization and selection

    PubMed Central

    Sentchilo, Vladimir; Mayer, Antonia P; Guy, Lionel; Miyazaki, Ryo; Green Tringe, Susannah; Barry, Kerrie; Malfatti, Stephanie; Goessmann, Alexander; Robinson-Rechavi, Marc; van der Meer, Jan R

    2013-01-01

    Plasmids have long been recognized as an important driver of DNA exchange and genetic innovation in prokaryotes. The success of plasmids has been attributed to their independent replication from the host's chromosome and their frequent self-transfer. It is thought that plasmids accumulate, rearrange and distribute nonessential genes, which may provide an advantage for host proliferation under selective conditions. In order to test this hypothesis independently of biases from culture selection, we study the plasmid metagenome from microbial communities in two activated sludge systems, one of which receives mostly household and the other chemical industry wastewater. We find that plasmids from activated sludge microbial communities carry among the largest proportion of unknown gene pools so far detected in metagenomic DNA, confirming their presumed role of DNA innovators. At a system level both plasmid metagenomes were dominated by functions associated with replication and transposition, and contained a wide variety of antibiotic and heavy metal resistances. Plasmid families were very different in the two metagenomes and grouped in deep-branching new families compared with known plasmid replicons. A number of abundant plasmid replicons could be completely assembled directly from the metagenome, providing insight in plasmid composition without culturing bias. Functionally, the two metagenomes strongly differed in several ways, including a greater abundance of genes for carbohydrate metabolism in the industrial and of general defense factors in the household activated sludge plasmid metagenome. This suggests that plasmids not only contribute to the adaptation of single individual prokaryotic species, but of the prokaryotic community as a whole under local selective conditions. PMID:23407308

  17. Identification of plasmid partition function in coryneform bacteria

    SciTech Connect

    Kurusu, Yasurou; Satoh, Yukie; Inui, Masayuki; Kohama, Keiko; Kobayashi, Miki; Terasawa, Masato; Yukawa, Hideaki )

    1991-03-01

    The authors have identified and characterized a partition function that is required for stable maintenance of plasmids in the coryneform bacteria Brevibacterium flavum MJ233 and Corynebacterium glutamicum ATCC 31831. This function is localized to a HindIII-NspV fragment (673 bp) adjacent to the replication region of the plasmid, named pBY503, from Brevibacterium stationis IFO 12144. The function was independent of copy number control and was not associated directly with plasmid replication functions. This fragment was able to stabilize the unstable plasmids in cis but not in trans.

  18. Analysis of Genetic Toggle Switch Systems Encoded on Plasmids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loinger, Adiel; Biham, Ofer

    2009-08-01

    Genetic switch systems with mutual repression of two transcription factors, encoded on plasmids, are studied using stochastic methods. The plasmid copy number is found to strongly affect the behavior of these systems. More specifically, the average time between spontaneous switching events quickly increases with the number of plasmids. It was shown before that for a single copy encoded on the chromosome, the exclusive switch is more stable than the general switch. Here we show that when the switch is encoded on a sufficiently large number of plasmids, the situation is reversed and the general switch is more stable than the exclusive switch. These predictions can be tested experimentally using methods of synthetic biology.

  19. Ultrasensitive plasmid mapping by high performance capillary electrophoresis.

    PubMed

    Maschke, H E; Frenz, J; Belenkii, A; Karger, B L; Hancock, W S

    1993-01-01

    This paper compares high performance capillary electrophoresis (HPCE) and conventional slab electrophoresis in mapping of four closely related plasmids with three different restriction enzymes. The plasmids express full length and truncated forms of a growth factor receptor oncogene product and were digested with HpaII, HaeIII and RsaI. The resulting oligonucleotide fragments were under 2000 base pairs in length, a size well suited to separation by HPCE with linear polyacrylamide as a sieving matrix. Plasmid mapping is an essential tool in biotechnology both for the design of an expression system and for monitoring the stability of the expression system during fermentation. HPCE can yield much higher resolution of oligonucleotides than attainable in conventional agarose gel electrophoretic procedures for plasmid mapping. In the examples described here, the HpaII digests provided the surest identification of individual plasmids in the HPCE analysis and could discriminate among all four plasmids. In conventional slab electrophoresis, however, the RsaI digests provided the best discrimination, although two of the plasmids in this system yielded essentially identical electrophoretic patterns. Hence the optimal restriction enzyme for plasmid mapping applications with HPCE may differ from that selected on the basis of conventional slab gel analysis, and the former technique can provide higher discrimination among related plasmids. The advantages of the HPCE format with respect to speed, low sample consumption and resolution are described. PMID:8354236

  20. Impact of plasmid quality on lipoplex-mediated transfection.

    PubMed

    De La Vega, Jonathan; Braak, Bas Ter; Azzoni, Adriano R; Monteiro, Gabriel A; Prazeres, Duarte Miguel F

    2013-11-01

    This work investigates the impact of quality attributes (impurity content, plasmid charge, and compactness) of plasmid DNA isolated with different purification methodologies on the characteristics of lipoplexes prepared thereof (size, zeta potential, stability) and on their ability to transfect mammalian cells. A 3.7 kb plasmid with a green fluorescence protein (GFP) reporter gene, Lipofectamine®-based liposomes, and Chinese Hamster Ovary (CHO) cells were used as models. The plasmid was purified by hydrophobic interaction chromatography (HIC)/gel filtration, and with three commercial kits, which combine the use of chaotropic salts with silica membranes/glass fiber fleeces. The HIC-based protocol delivered a plasmid with the smallest hydrodynamic diameter (144 nm) and zeta potential (-46.5 mV), which is virtually free from impurities. When formulated with Lipofectamine®, this plasmid originated the smallest (146 nm), most charged (+13 mV), and most stable lipoplexes. In vitro transfection experiments further showed that these lipoplexes performed better in terms of plasmid uptake (∼500,000 vs. ∼100,000-200,000 copy number/cell), transfection efficiency (50% vs. 20%-40%), and GFP expression levels (twofold higher) when compared with lipoplexes prepared with plasmids isolated using commercial kits. Overall our observations highlight the potential impact that plasmid purification methodologies can have on the outcome of gene transfer experiments and trials. PMID:23996350

  1. Photonic plasmid stability of transformed Salmonella typhimurium: A comparison of three unique plasmids

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Acquiring a highly stable photonic plasmid in transformed Salmonella typhimurium for use in biophotonic studies of bacterial tracking in vivo is critical to experimental paradigm development. The objective of this study was to determine stability of transformed Salmonella typhimurium (S. typh-lux) u...

  2. Photonic Plasmid Stability of Transformed Salmonella Typhimurium: A Comparison of Three Unique Plasmids

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Background: Acquiring a highly stable photonic plasmid in transformed Salmonella Typhimurium for use in biophotonic studies of bacterial tracking in vivo is critical to experimental paradigm development. The objective of this study was to determine stability of transformed Salmonella Typhimurium (S....

  3. Ornamental fish as a source of plasmid-mediated quinolone resistance genes and antibiotic resistance plasmids.

    PubMed

    Dobiasova, Hana; Kutilova, Iva; Piackova, Veronika; Vesely, Tomas; Cizek, Alois; Dolejska, Monika

    2014-07-16

    Growing ornamental fish industry is associated with public health concerns including extensive antibiotic use accompanied by increasing antibiotic resistance. The aim of this study was to analyze Aeromonas isolates from imported tropical ornamental fish and coldwater koi carps bred in the Czech Republic to assess the potential risk of ornamental fish as a source of plasmid-mediated quinolone resistance genes (PMQR) and antibiotic resistance plasmids. A collection of Aeromonas spp. with reduced susceptibility to ciprofloxacin (MIC ≥ 0.05 mg/L) was selected for the detection of PMQR genes. Isolates harbouring PMQR genes were further analyzed for the additional antibiotic resistance, integron content, clonality, biofilm production and transferability of PMQR genes by conjugation and transformation. Comparative analysis of plasmids carrying PMQR genes was performed. Fifteen (19%, n=80) isolates from koi carps and 18 (24%, n=76) isolates from imported ornamental fish were positive for qnrS2, aac(6')-Ib-cr or qnrB17 genes. PMQR-positive isolates from imported ornamental fish showed higher MIC levels to quinolones, multiresistance and diverse content of antibiotic resistance genes and integrons compared to the isolates from the carps. Related IncU plasmids harbouring qnrS2 and aac(6')-Ib-cr genes were found in Aeromonas spp. from imported ornamental fish and koi carps from various geographical areas. Ornamental fish may represent a potential source of multiresistant bacteria and mobile genetic elements for the environment and for humans. PMID:24629900

  4. Strains of Escherichia coli carrying the structural gene for histidyl-tRNA synthetase on a high copy-number plasmid.

    PubMed

    Eisenbeis, S J; Parker, J

    1981-01-01

    That portion of the Escherichia coli chromosome carried by a number of lambda transducing phages, all of which carry the gua operon, was mapped using restriction endonucleases. The DNA from one of these transducing phages was subcloned onto pBR322. We have identified two recombinant plasmids which carry the Escherichia coli gene hisS, the structural gene for histidyl-tRNA synthetase. The two plasmids, pSE301 and pSE401, have in common a 3,540 bp fragment of E. coli DNA which is bounded by BglII and SalI restriction endonuclease recognition sites. Strains carrying these plasmids overproduce histidyl-tRNA synthetase 20 to 30 fold. The growth rate of these strains is not affected although the histidine biosynthetic enzymes are derepressed. This derepression seems to be in addition to that caused by introduction of a hisT mutation on the chromosome. PMID:6460151

  5. Characterization of a cryptic plasmid pSM429 and its application for heterologous expression in psychrophilic Pseudoalteromonas

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Pseudoalteromonas is an important genus widespread in marine environment, and a lot of psychrophilic Pseudoalteromonas strains thrive in deep sea and polar sea. By now, there are only a few genetic systems for Pseudoalteromonas reported and no commercial Pseudoalteromonas genetic system is available, which impedes the study of Pseudoalteromonas, especially for psychrophilic strains. The aim of this study is to develop a heterologous expression system for psychrophilic Pseudoalteromonas. Results A cryptic plasmid pSM429 isolated from psychrophilic Pseudoalteromonas sp. BSi20429 from the Arctic sea ice, was sequenced and characterized. The plasmid pSM429 is 3874 bp in length, with a G+C content of 28%. Four putative open reading frames (ORFs) were identified on pSM429. Based on homology, the ORF4 was predicted to encode a replication initiation (Rep) protein. A shuttle vector (Escherichia coli, Pseudoalteromonas), pWD, was constructed by ligating pSM429 and pUC19 and inserting a chloramphenicol acetyl transferase (CAT) cassette conferring chloramphenicol resistance. To determine the minimal replicon of pSM429 and to check the functionality of identified ORFs, various pWD derivatives were constructed. All derivatives except the two smallest ones were shown to allow replication in Pseudoalteromonas sp. SM20429, a plasmid-cured strain of Pseudoalteromonas sp. BSi20429, suggesting that the orf4 and its flanking intergenic regions are essential for plasmid replication. Although not essential, the sequence including some repeats between orf1 and orf2 plays important roles in segregational stability of the plasmid. With the aid of pWD-derived plasmid pWD2, the erythromycin resistance gene and the cd gene encoding the catalytic domain of a cold-adapted cellulase were successfully expressed in Pseudoalteromonas sp. SM20429. Conclusions Plasmid pSM429 was isolated and characterized, and the regions essential for plasmid replication and stability were determined

  6. Different IncI1 plasmids from Escherichia coli carry ISEcp1-blaCTX-M-15 associated with different Tn2-derived elements.

    PubMed

    Zong, Zhiyong; Ginn, Andrew N; Dobiasova, Hana; Iredell, Jonathan R; Partridge, Sally R

    2015-07-01

    The bla(CTX-M-15) gene, encoding the globally dominant CTX-M-15 extended-spectrum β-lactamase, has generally been found in a 2.971-kb ISEcp1-bla(CTX-M-15)-orf477Δ transposition unit, with ISEcp1 providing a promoter. In available IncF plasmid sequences from Escherichia coli, this transposition unit interrupts a truncated copy of transposon Tn2 that lies within larger multiresistance regions. In E. coli, bla(CTX-M-15) is also commonly associated with IncI1 plasmids and here three such plasmids from E. coli clinical isolates from western Sydney 2006-2007 have been sequenced. The plasmid backbones are organised similarly to those of other IncI1 plasmids, but have insertions and/or deletions and sequence differences. Each plasmid also has a different insertion carrying bla(CTX-M-15). pJIE113 (IncI1 sequence type ST31) is almost identical to plasmids isolated from the 2011 E. coli O104:H4 outbreak in Europe, where the typical bla(CTX-M-15) transposition unit interrupts a complete Tn2 inserted directly in the plasmid backbone. In the novel plasmid pJIE139 (ST88), ISEcp1-blaC(TX-M-15)-orf477Δ lies within a Tn2/3 hybrid transposon. Homologous recombination could explain movement of ISEcp1-bla(CTX-M-15)-orf477Δ between copies of Tn2 on IncF and IncI1 plasmids and generation of the Tn2/3 hybrid. pJIE174 (ST37) is almost identical to pESBL-12 from the Netherlands and in these plasmids bla(CTX-M-15) is flanked by two copies of IS26 that truncate the transposition unit within a larger region bounded by the ends of Tn2. bla(CTX-M-15) and the associated ISEcp1-derived promoter may be able to move from this structure by the actions of IS26, independently of both ISEcp1 and Tn2. PMID:25929173

  7. BACTERIAL METABOLISM OF NAPTHALENE: CONSTRUCTION AND USE OF RECOMBINANT BACTERIA TO STUDY THE RING CLEAVAGE OF 1,2-DIIHYDROXYNAPTHALENE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The reactions involved in the bacterial metabolism of napthalene to salicylate have been reinvestigated by using recombinant bacteria carrying genes cloned form plasmid NAH7. hen intact cells of Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1 carrying DNA fragments encoding the first three enzymes o...

  8. High cell density cultivation of recombinant Escherichia coli for prodrug of recombinant human GLPs production.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Ying; Ma, Xue; Hou, Zheng; Xue, Xiaoyan; Meng, Jingru; Li, Mingkai; Jia, Min; Luo, Xiaoxing

    2012-09-01

    Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1)(2) has been attracting increasing interest on account of its prominent benefits in type 2 diabetes. However, its clinical applications are limited by the short half-life in vivo. To overcome this limitation, a new polymer of GLP-1 was developed by prodrug strategy. In this study a recombinant protein, rhGLPs, was successfully constructed, cloned into plasmid pET30a (+) and expressed in Escherichia coli ArcticExpress(DE3)RP in the form of inclusion body. The recombinant fusion protein productivity could be enhanced by high cell density culture of the recombinant strain. As a result, about 40 g wet weight cells per liter were obtained. The protein was purified by size-exclusion chromatography on a Superdex 75 column and refolded using reverse dilution and dialysis methods. SDS-PAGE, HPLC and MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry were undertaken to determine the purity and molecular weight of rhGLPs. Bioactivity assay revealed that it had glucose-lowering and insulin-releasing action in vivo. PMID:22771632

  9. Plasmids for heterologous expression in Pasteurella haemolytica.

    PubMed

    Fedorova, N D; Highlander, S K

    1997-02-28

    New cloning and expression vectors that replicate both in Pasteurella haemolytica and in Escherichia coli were constructed based on a native sulfonamide (SuR) and streptomycin (SmR) resistant plasmid of P. haemolytica called pYFC1. Each shuttle vector includes an MCS and a selectable antibiotic resistance marker that is expressed in both organisms. Plasmid pNF2176 carries the P. haemolytica ROB-1 beta-lactamase gene (blaP, ApR) and pNF2214 carries the Tn903 aph3 kanamycin resistance (KmR) element. The expression vector, pNF2176, was created by placing the MCS downstream of the sulfonamide gene promoter (PsulII) on pYFC1; this was used to clone and express the promoterless Tn9 chloramphenicol resistance gene (cat, CmR) in P. haemolytica (pNF2200). A promoter-probe vector (pNF2283) was constructed from pNF2200 by deleting PsulII. PMID:9074498

  10. Application of internal standard method in recombinant luminescent bacteria test.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yong-Zhi; Li, Dan; He, Miao

    2015-09-01

    Mercury and its organic compounds have been of severe concern worldwide due to their damage to the ecosystem and human health. The development of effective and affordable technology to monitor and signal the presence of bioavailable mercury is an urgent need. The Mer gene is a mercury-responsive resistant gene, and a mercury-sensing recombinant luminescent bacterium using the Mer gene was constructed in this study. The mer operon from marine Pseudomonas putida strain SP1 was amplified and fused with prompterless luxCDABE in the pUCD615 plasmid within Escherichia coli cells, resulting in pTHE30-E. coli. The recombinant strain showed high sensitivity and specificity. The detection limit of Hg(2+) was 5nmol/L, and distinct luminescence could be detected in 30min. Cd(2+), Cu(2+), Zn(2+), Ca(2+), Pb(2+), Mg(2+), Mn(2+), and Al(3+) did not interfere with the detection over a range of 10(-5)-1mM. Application of recombinant luminescent bacteria testing in environmental samples has been a controversial issue: especially for metal-sensing recombinant strains, false negatives caused by high cytotoxicity are one of the most important issues when applying recombinant luminescent bacteria in biomonitoring of heavy metals. In this study, by establishing an internal standard approach, the false negative problem was overcome; furthermore, the method can also help to estimate the suspected mercury concentration, which ensures high detection sensitivity of bioavailable Hg(2+). PMID:26354701

  11. Characterization of Wild-Type Adeno-Associated Virus Type 2-Like Particles Generated during Recombinant Viral Vector Production and Strategies for Their Elimination

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xu-Shan; Khuntirat, Benjawan; Qing, Keyun; Ponnazhagan, Selvarangan; Kube, Dagmar M.; Zhou, Shangzhen; Dwarki, Varavani J.; Srivastava, Arun

    1998-01-01

    The pSub201-pAAV/Ad plasmid cotransfection system was developed to eliminate homologous recombination which leads to generation of the wild-type (wt) adeno-associated virus type 2 (AAV) during recombinant vector production. The extent of contamination with wt AAV has been documented to range between 0.01 and 10%. However, the precise mechanism of generation of the contaminating wt AAV remains unclear. To characterize the wt AAV genomes, recombinant viral stocks were used to infect human 293 cells in the presence of adenovirus. Southern blot analyses of viral replicative DNA intermediates revealed that the contaminating AAV genomes were not authentic wt but rather wt AAV-like sequences derived from recombination between (i) AAV inverted terminal repeats (ITRs) in the recombinant plasmid and (ii) AAV sequences in the helper plasmid. Replicative AAV DNA fragments, isolated following amplification through four successive rounds of amplification in adenovirus-infected 293 cells, were molecularly cloned and subjected to nucleotide sequencing to identify the recombinant junctions. Following sequence analyses of 31 different ends of AAV-like genomes derived from two different recombinant vector stocks, we observed that all recombination events involved 10 nucleotides in the AAV D sequence distal to viral hairpin structures. We have recently documented that the first 10 nucleotides in the D sequence proximal to the AAV hairpin structures are essential for successful replication and encapsidation of the viral genome (X.-S. Wang et al., J. Virol. 71:3077–3082, 1997), and it was noteworthy that in each recombinant junction sequenced, the same 10 nucleotides were retained. We also observed that adenovirus ITRs in the helper plasmid were involved in illegitimate recombination with AAV ITRs, deletions of which significantly reduced the extent of wt AAV-like particles. Furthermore, the combined use of recombinant AAV plasmids lacking the distal 10 nucleotides in the D sequence

  12. Plasmid Instability in Batch Cultures of Recombinant Bacteria. A Laboratory Experiment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bentley, William E.; Kompala, Dhinakar S.

    1990-01-01

    Described is a laboratory experiment designed to expose students to problem-solving methods individually and as a group. Included are background information, a list of materials, laboratory procedures, analysis methods, and probable results. (CW)

  13. [Recombinant antibodies against bioweapons].

    PubMed

    Thullier, Philippe; Pelat, Thibaut; Vidal, Dominique

    2009-12-01

    The threat posed by bioweapons (BW) could lead to the re-emergence of such deadly diseases as plague or smallpox, now eradicated from industrialized countries. The development of recombinant antibodies allows tackling this risk because these recombinant molecules are generally well tolerated in human medicine, may be utilized for prophylaxis and treatment, and because antibodies neutralize many BW. Recombinant antibodies neutralizing the lethal toxin of anthrax, botulinum toxins and the smallpox virus have in particular been isolated recently, with different technologies. Our approach, which uses phage-displayed immune libraries built from non-human primates (M. fascicularis) to obtain recombinant antibodies, which may later be super-humanized (germlinized), has allowed us to obtain such BWs-neutralizing antibodies. PMID:20035695

  14. A simple plasmid-based transient gene expression method using High Five cells.

    PubMed

    Shen, Xiao; Pitol, Ana K; Bachmann, Virginie; Hacker, David L; Baldi, Lucia; Wurm, Florian M

    2015-12-20

    The High Five (H5) cell line, derived from the lepidopteran Trichoplusia ni, is one of the major insect cell hosts for the production of recombinant proteins using the baculovirus expression vector system (BEVS). Here, we describe a simple polyethylenimine (PEI)-based transient gene expression (TGE) process for the rapid production of recombinant proteins from suspension-adapted H5 cells. The method was optimized using two model proteins, enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) and human tumor necrosis factor receptor-Fc fusion protein (TNFR-Fc). After screening several promoter and enhancer combinations for high levels of TNFR:Fc production, an expression vector containing the Autographa californica multicapsid nucleopolyhedrovirus immediate early 1 (ie1) promoter and homologous region 5 (hr5) enhancer was selected. Cells were transfected at a density of 2×10(6) cells/mL by direct addition of DNA and PEI. Under optimized conditions, a 90% transfection efficiency (percentage of EGFP-positive cells) was obtained. In addition, we observed volumetric TNFR-Fc yields over 150μg/mL within 4 days of transfection. The method was found to be reproducible and scalable to 300mL. This plasmid-based transient transfection process is a simple and efficient alternative to the BEVS for recombinant protein production in H5 cells. PMID:26476358

  15. An oligonucleotide microarray to characterize multidrug resistant plasmids

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Bacteria plasmids are fragments of extra-chromosomal double stranded deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) that can contain a variety of genes beneficial to the host organism like antibiotic drug resistance. Many of the Enterobacteriaceae carry multiple drug resistance (MDR) genes on large plasmids of replic...

  16. Purification of large plasmids with methacrylate monolithic columns.

    PubMed

    Krajnc, Nika Lendero; Smrekar, Franci; Cerne, Jasmina; Raspor, Peter; Modic, Martina; Krgovic, Danijela; Strancar, Ales; Podgornik, Ales

    2009-08-01

    The rapid evolution of gene therapy and DNA vaccines results in an increasing interest in producing large quantities of pharmaceutical grade plasmid DNA. Most current clinical trials involve plasmids of 10 kb or smaller in size, however, future requirements for multigene vectors including extensive control regions may require the production of larger plasmids, e. g., 20 kb and bigger. The objective of this study was to examine certain process conditions for purification of large plasmids with the size of up to 93 kb. Since there is a lack of knowledge about production and purification of bigger plasmid DNA, cell lysis and storage conditions were investigated. The impact of chromatographic system and methacrylate monolithic column on the degradation of plasmid molecules under nonbinding conditions at different flow rates was studied. Furthermore, capacity measurements varying salt concentration in loading buffer were performed and the capacities up to 13 mg of plasmid per mL of the monolithic column were obtained. The capacity flow independence in the range from 130 to 370 cm/h was observed. Using high resolution monolithic column the separation of linear and supercoiled isoforms of large plasmids was obtained. Last but not least, since the baseline separation of RNA and pDNA was achieved, the one step purification on larger CIM DEAE 8 mL tube monolithic column was performed and the fractions were analyzed by CIM analytical monolithic columns. PMID:19598166

  17. Rapid compensatory evolution promotes the survival of conjugative plasmids

    PubMed Central

    Harrison, Ellie; Dytham, Calvin; Hall, James P. J.; Guymer, David; Spiers, Andrew J.; Paterson, Steve; Brockhurst, Michael A.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Conjugative plasmids play a vital role in bacterial adaptation through horizontal gene transfer. Explaining how plasmids persist in host populations however is difficult, given the high costs often associated with plasmid carriage. Compensatory evolution to ameliorate this cost can rescue plasmids from extinction. In a recently published study we showed that compensatory evolution repeatedly targeted the same bacterial regulatory system, GacA/GacS, in populations of plasmid-carrying bacteria evolving across a range of selective environments. Mutations in these genes arose rapidly and completely eliminated the cost of plasmid carriage. Here we extend our analysis using an individual based model to explore the dynamics of compensatory evolution in this system. We show that mutations which ameliorate the cost of plasmid carriage can prevent both the loss of plasmids from the population and the fixation of accessory traits on the bacterial chromosome. We discuss how dependent the outcome of compensatory evolution is on the strength and availability of such mutations and the rate at which beneficial accessory traits integrate on the host chromosome. PMID:27510852

  18. Inc A/C Plasmids in Multidrug resistant Salmonella enterica

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Bacteria plasmids are fragments of extra-chromosomal double stranded deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) that can contain a variety of genes beneficial to the survival of the host bacteria. Classification and tracking of plasmids is beneficial because they are potentially a medium of horizontal gene transf...

  19. Horizontal gene transfer of stress resistance genes through plasmid transport.

    PubMed

    Shoeb, Erum; Badar, Uzma; Akhter, Jameela; Shams, Hina; Sultana, Maria; Ansari, Maqsood A

    2012-03-01

    The horizontal gene transfer of plasmid-determined stress tolerance was achieved under lab conditions. Bacterial isolates, Enterobacter cloacae (DGE50) and Escherichia coli (DGE57) were used throughout the study. Samples were collected from contaminated marine water and soil to isolate bacterial strains having tolerance against heavy metals and antimicrobial agents. We have demonstrated plasmid transfer, from Amp(+)Cu(+)Zn(-) strain (DGE50) to Amp(-)Cu(-)Zn(+) strain (DGE57), producing Amp(+)Cu(+)Zn(+) transconjugants (DGE(TC50→57)) and Amp(+)Cu(-)Zn(+) transformants (DGE(TF50→57)). DGE57 did not carry any plasmid, therefore, it can be speculated that zinc tolerance gene in DGE57 is located on chromosome. DGE50 was found to carry three plasmids, out of which two were transferred through conjugation into DGE57, and only one was transferred through transformation. Plasmid transferred through transformation was one out of the two transferred through conjugation. Through the results of transformation it was revealed that the genes of copper and ampicillin tolerance in DGE50 were located on separate plasmids, since only ampicillin tolerance genes were transferred through transformation as a result of one plasmid transfer. By showing transfer of plasmids under lab conditions and monitoring retention of respective phenotype via conjugation and transformation, it is very well demonstrated how multiple stress tolerant strains are generated in nature. PMID:22805823

  20. Functional identification of Xylella fastidiosa plasmid replication and stability factors

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Xylella fastidiosa (Xf) strain RIV11 harbors a 25 kbp plasmid (pXFRIV11) belonging to the incP1 incompatibility group. Replication and stability factors of pXFRIV11 were identified and used to construct plasmids able to replicate in both Xf and Escherichia coli. Sequences required for replication i...

  1. Linear plasmids in plant mitochondria: peaceful coexistences or malicious invasions?

    PubMed

    Handa, Hirokazu

    2008-01-01

    Plant mitochondria contain small extrachromosomal DNAs in addition to a large and complex main mitochondrial genome. These molecules can be regarded as extrachromosomal replicons or plasmids, of which there are two forms, circular and linear. Linear mitochondrial plasmids are present in many fungi and in some plants, but they seem to be absent from most animal cells. They usually have a common structural feature, called an invertron, that is characterized by the presence of terminal inverted repeats and proteins covalently attached to their 5 termini. Linear mitochondrial plasmids possess one to six ORFs that can encode unknown proteins but often code for the DNA and RNA polymerases. Although the functions of most linear plasmids in plant mitochondria are unknown, some plasmids may be associated with mitochondrial genome rearrangements and may have phenotypic effects due to their integration into mitochondrial genome. The Brassica 11.6-kb plasmid, one of the linear mitochondrial plasmids in plants, shows a non-maternal inheritance, in contrast to mitochondrial genomes. The origin of these plasmids is still a mystery, but indirect evidence indicates the possibility of horizontal transfer from fungal mitochondria. In this review, the main features of these unique DNAs present in plant mitochondria are described. PMID:18326073

  2. Activated recombinant adenovirus proteinases

    DOEpatents

    Anderson, C.W.; Mangel, W.F.

    1999-08-10

    This application describes methods and expression constructs for producing activatable recombinant adenovirus proteinases. Purified activatable recombinant adenovirus proteinases and methods of purification are described. Activated adenovirus proteinases and methods for obtaining activated adenovirus proteinases are further included. Isolated peptide cofactors of adenovirus proteinase activity, methods of purifying and identifying peptide cofactors are also described. Antibodies immunoreactive with adenovirus proteinases, immunospecific antibodies, and methods for preparing them are also described. Other related methods and materials are also described. 29 figs.

  3. Activated recombinant adenovirus proteinases

    DOEpatents

    Anderson, Carl W.; Mangel, Walter F.

    1999-08-10

    This application describes methods and expression constructs for producing activatable recombinant adenovirus proteinases. Purified activatable recombinant adenovirus proteinases and methods of purification are described. Activated adenovirus proteinases and methods for obtaining activated adenovirus proteinases are further included. Isolated peptide cofactors of adenovirus proteinase activity, methods of purifying and identifying said peptide cofactors are also described. Antibodies immunoreactive with adenovirus proteinases, immunospecific antibodies, and methods for preparing them are also described. Other related methods and materials are also described.

  4. Delivery of rhBMP-2 Plasmid DNA Complexes via a PLLA/Collagen Electrospun Scaffold Induces Ectopic Bone Formation.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Xia; Komatsu, David E; Hadjiargyrou, Michael

    2016-06-01

    The development of effective strategies for gene delivery is a critical goal in DNA-based tissue engineering. Previously, our laboratory utilized the process of electrospinning to fabricate plasmid DNA-based polymeric scaffolds. Although there lease of DNA was robust, the in vitro transfection efficiency was low. In order to optimize these results, we recently modified our approach and utilized a strategy to adsorb plasmid DNA transfection complexes onto a PLLA/Collagen I electrospun scaffold for the delivery of recombinant human Bone Morphogenetic Protein-2 (rhBMP-2). BMP-2 was selected since it is currently clinically used to stimulate osteogenesis. Initially, we tested this approach using β-gal plasmid DNA complexes adsorbed onto PLLA/Collagen I scaffolds and obtained a transfection efficiency of 41% of that of the positive control (over 90%, DNA complexes in solution). Next, we utilized the same approach using the rhBMP-2 plasmid DNA complexes with the pre-osteoblastic. cell line, MC3T3, and detected robust (13-fold) expression of rhBMP-2 mRNA following transfection. Lastly, a mouse muscle pouch model was used to evaluate in vivo gene delivery efficacy and ectopic bone inducing capability of the scaffold adsorbed rhBMP-2 transfection complexes. Results showed that both rhBMP-2mRNA and protein were expressed and stimulated some ectopic bone formation. As such, adsorption of plasmid DNA complexes can be an effective strategy for tissue engineering in vivo, but further research is required to optimize our approach and obtain a clinically meaningful tissue response. PMID:27319221

  5. Effect of the Plasmid-DNA Vaccination on Macroscopic and Microscopic Damage Caused by the Experimental Chronic Trypanosoma cruzi Infection in the Canine Model

    PubMed Central

    Rodríguez-Morales, Olivia; Carrillo-Sánchez, Silvia C.; García-Mendoza, Humberto; Aranda-Fraustro, Alberto; Ballinas-Verdugo, Martha A.; Alejandre-Aguilar, Ricardo; Rosales-Encina, José Luis; Arce-Fonseca, Minerva

    2013-01-01

    The dog is considered the main domestic reservoir for Trypanosoma cruzi infection and a suitable experimental animal model to study the pathological changes during the course of Chagas disease (CD). Vaccine development is one of CD prevention methods to protect people at risk. Two plasmids containing genes encoding a trans-sialidase protein (TcSP) and an amastigote-specific glycoprotein (TcSSP4) were used as DNA vaccines in a canine model. Splenomegaly was not found in either of the recombinant plasmid-immunized groups; however, cardiomegaly was absent in animals immunized only with the plasmid containing the TcSSP4 gene. The inflammation of subendocardial and myocardial tissues was prevented only with the immunization with TcSSP4 gene. In conclusion, the vaccination with these genes has a partial protective effect on the enlargement of splenic and cardiac tissues during the chronic CD and on microscopic hearth damage, since both plasmids prevented splenomegaly but only one avoided cardiomegaly, and the lesions in heart tissue of dog immunized with plasmid containing the TcSSP4 gene covered only subepicardial tissue. PMID:24163822

  6. Physical mapping of the exuT and uxaC operators by use of exu plasmids and generation of deletion mutants in vitro.

    PubMed Central

    Mata-Gilsinger, M; Ritzenthaler, P

    1983-01-01

    Operons uxaCA and exuT of the hexuronate system are very closely linked on the Escherichia coli genetic map. Using plasmid vectors constructed by Casadaban et al. (J. Bacteriol. 143:971-980, 1980), we formed exuT-lacZ and uxaA-lacZ fusions in vitro. The phenotypic properties of the new plasmids allowed us to confirm that the exuT and uxaCA operons are divergently transcribed. An analysis of these fusion plasmids and derivatives in the presence of multiple copies of the exuR regulatory gene demonstrated that the two operons possess separate control regions. The precise location of the operator site relative to endonuclease restriction sites was determined. In addition, deletions of different lengths were generated on exu plasmids by restriction enzymes and were recombined into the chromosome. The expression of the exu regulon genes in the resulting deletion mutants is in agreement with the postulated location of the exuT and uxaCA operators in the fusion plasmids. PMID:6309752

  7. Effect of the plasmid-DNA vaccination on macroscopic and microscopic damage caused by the experimental chronic Trypanosoma cruzi infection in the canine model.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Morales, Olivia; Carrillo-Sánchez, Silvia C; García-Mendoza, Humberto; Aranda-Fraustro, Alberto; Ballinas-Verdugo, Martha A; Alejandre-Aguilar, Ricardo; Rosales-Encina, José Luis; Vallejo, Maite; Arce-Fonseca, Minerva

    2013-01-01

    The dog is considered the main domestic reservoir for Trypanosoma cruzi infection and a suitable experimental animal model to study the pathological changes during the course of Chagas disease (CD). Vaccine development is one of CD prevention methods to protect people at risk. Two plasmids containing genes encoding a trans-sialidase protein (TcSP) and an amastigote-specific glycoprotein (TcSSP4) were used as DNA vaccines in a canine model. Splenomegaly was not found in either of the recombinant plasmid-immunized groups; however, cardiomegaly was absent in animals immunized only with the plasmid containing the TcSSP4 gene. The inflammation of subendocardial and myocardial tissues was prevented only with the immunization with TcSSP4 gene. In conclusion, the vaccination with these genes has a partial protective effect on the enlargement of splenic and cardiac tissues during the chronic CD and on microscopic hearth damage, since both plasmids prevented splenomegaly but only one avoided cardiomegaly, and the lesions in heart tissue of dog immunized with plasmid containing the TcSSP4 gene covered only subepicardial tissue. PMID:24163822

  8. Molecular analysis of plasmid DNA repair within ultraviolet-irradiated Escherichia coli. I. T4 endonuclease V-initiated excision repair

    SciTech Connect

    Gruskin, E.A.; Lloyd, R.S.

    1988-09-05

    The process by which DNA-interactive proteins locate specific sequences or target sites on cellular DNA within Escherichia coli is a poorly understood phenomenon. In this study, we present the first direct in vivo analysis of the interaction of a DNA repair enzyme, T4 endonuclease V, and its substrate, pyrimidine dimer-containing plasmid DNA, within UV-irradiated E. coli. A pyrimidine dimer represents a small target site within large domains of DNA. There are two possible paradigms by which endonuclease V could locate these small target sites: a processive mechanism in which the enzyme scans DNA for dimer sites or a distributive process in which dimers are located by random three-dimensional diffusion. In order to discriminate between these two possibilities in E. coli, an in vivo DNA repair assay was developed to study the kinetics of plasmid DNA repair and the dimer frequency (i.e. the number of dimer sites on a given plasmid molecule) in plasmid DNA as a function of time during repair. Our results demonstrate that the overall process of plasmid DNA repair initiated by T4 endonuclease V (expressed from a recombinant plasmid within repair-deficient E. coli) occurs by a processive mechanism. Furthermore, by reducing the temperature of the repair incubation, the endonuclease V-catalyzed incision step has been effectively decoupled from the subsequent steps including repair patch synthesis, ligation, and supercoiling. By this manipulation, it was determined that the overall processive mechanism is composed of two phases: a rapid processive endonuclease V-catalyzed incision reaction, followed by a slower processive mechanism, the ultimate product of which is the dimer-free supercoiled plasmid molecule.

  9. Recombinant protein production from stable mammalian cell lines and pools.

    PubMed

    Hacker, David L; Balasubramanian, Sowmya

    2016-06-01

    We highlight recent developments for the production of recombinant proteins from suspension-adapted mammalian cell lines. We discuss the generation of stable cell lines using transposons and lentivirus vectors (non-targeted transgene integration) and site-specific recombinases (targeted transgene integration). Each of these methods results in the generation of cell lines with protein yields that are generally superior to those achievable through classical plasmid transfection that depends on the integration of the transfected DNA by non-homologous DNA end-joining. This is the main reason why these techniques can also be used for the generation of stable cell pools, heterogenous populations of recombinant cells generated by gene delivery and genetic selection without resorting to single cell cloning. This allows the time line from gene transfer to protein production to be reduced. PMID:27322762

  10. Rescue of recombinant Newcastle disease virus from cDNA.

    PubMed

    Ayllon, Juan; García-Sastre, Adolfo; Martínez-Sobrido, Luis

    2013-01-01

    Newcastle disease virus (NDV), the prototype member of the Avulavirus genus of the family Paramyxoviridae(1), is a non-segmented, negative-sense, single-stranded, enveloped RNA virus (Figure 1) with potential applications as a vector for vaccination and treatment of human diseases. In-depth exploration of these applications has only become possible after the establishment of reverse genetics techniques to rescue recombinant viruses from plasmids encoding their complete genomes as cDNA(2-5). Viral cDNA can be conveniently modified in vitro by using standard cloning procedures to alter the genotype of the virus and/or to include new transcriptional units. Rescue of such genetically modified viruses provides a valuable tool to understand factors affecting multiple stages of infection, as well as allows for the development and improvement of vectors for the expression and delivery of antigens for vaccination and therapy. Here we describe a protocol for the rescue of recombinant NDVs. PMID:24145366

  11. Recombinant production of TEV cleaved human parathyroid hormone.

    PubMed

    Audu, Christopher O; Cochran, Jared C; Pellegrini, Maria; Mierke, Dale F

    2013-08-01

    The parathyroid hormone, PTH, is responsible for calcium and phosphate ion homeostasis in the body. The first 34 amino acids of the peptide maintain the biological activity of the hormone and is currently marketed for calcium imbalance disorders. Although several methods for the production of recombinant PTH(1-34) have been reported, most involve the use of cleavage conditions that result in a modified peptide or unfavorable side products. Herein, we detail the recombinant production of (15) N-enriched human parathyroid hormone, (15) N PTH(1-34), generated via a plasmid vector that gives reasonable yield, low-cost protease cleavage (leaving the native N-terminal serine in its amino form), and purification by affinity and size exclusion chromatography. We characterize the product by multidimensional, heteronuclear NMR, circular dichroism, and LC/MS. PMID:23794508

  12. Rescue of Recombinant Newcastle Disease Virus from cDNA

    PubMed Central

    Ayllon, Juan; García-Sastre, Adolfo; Martínez-Sobrido, Luis

    2013-01-01

    Newcastle disease virus (NDV), the prototype member of the Avulavirus genus of the family Paramyxoviridae1, is a non-segmented, negative-sense, single-stranded, enveloped RNA virus (Figure 1) with potential applications as a vector for vaccination and treatment of human diseases. In-depth exploration of these applications has only become possible after the establishment of reverse genetics techniques to rescue recombinant viruses from plasmids encoding their complete genomes as cDNA2-5. Viral cDNA can be conveniently modified in vitro by using standard cloning procedures to alter the genotype of the virus and/or to include new transcriptional units. Rescue of such genetically modified viruses provides a valuable tool to understand factors affecting multiple stages of infection, as well as allows for the development and improvement of vectors for the expression and delivery of antigens for vaccination and therapy. Here we describe a protocol for the rescue of recombinant NDVs. PMID:24145366

  13. Modeling and observer design for recombinant Escherichia coli strain.

    PubMed

    Nadri, M; Trezzani, I; Hammouri, H; Dhurjati, P; Longin, R; Lieto, J

    2006-03-01

    A mathematical model for recombinant bacteria which includes foreign protein production is developed. The experimental system consists of an Escherichia Coli strain and plasmid pIT34 containing genes for bioluminescence and production of a protein, beta-galactosidase. This recombinant strain is constructed to facilitate on-line estimation and control in a complex bioprocess. Several batch experiments are designed and performed to validate the developed model. The design of a model structure, the identification of the model parameters and the estimation problem are three parts of a joint design problem. A nonlinear observer is designed and an experimental evaluation is performed on a batch fermentation process to estimate the substrate consumption. PMID:16411071

  14. Stimulation of mitotic recombination upon transcription from the yeast GAL1 promoter but not from other RNA polymerase I, II and III promoters.

    PubMed

    Bratty, J; Ferbeyre, G; Molinaro, C; Cedergren, R

    1996-11-01

    Homologous recombination in Saccharomyces cerevisiae and other organisms can be stimulated by transcription. Consistent with this, we find that recombination of a chromosomal ade1 allele with a plasmid-borne ADE1 ORF under the control of the GAL1 promoter increased from 6.1x10(-6) to 1.7x10(-4) when transcription of the plasmid locus was induced by growing the cells in the presence of galactose. Recombination could also be stimulated by over-expressing the Gal4 transcription factor in the presence of the GAL1-ADE1 plasmid, while culturing the cells in dextrose medium. However, when transcription of the same ORF was driven from the highly active promoters of the rDNA (RNA polymerase I), and ADH1 (RNA polymerase II) genes, only background levels of recombination (5-10x10(-6)) were observed, irrespective of the carbon source. Recombination was found to involve integration of the whole plasmid and to depend on RAD51, RAD52 and RAD54. The results indicate that increased accessibility of transcriptionally active chromatin is not sufficient to cause increased rates of this kind of reciprocal exchange. PMID:8929389

  15. [Construction of Bacillus thuringiensis labeled recombinant strain and horizontal transfer of its cry1Ac10 gene].

    PubMed

    Zhou, Qin; Sun, Ming; Li, Lin; Yang, Zaiqing; Yu, Ziniu

    2005-01-01

    A recombinant plasmid pBMBZGC10 was obtained by the ligation of gfp-cry1Ac10 fusion gene and vector plasmid pAD4412, which was then introduced by gene pulser into acrystalliferous strain CryB, and a recombinant strain CryB(pBMBZGC10) was obtained. Different fermentative solutions of recombinant strain were used for multi-spraying on Brassica pekinesis, Ipomoea aquatica and Lycopersicon esculentum leaves. The results of fluorescent detection and PCR amplification revealed that cry1Ac10 gene did not transfer into indigenous bacteria, actinomyces and fungi in test soil, and could not be detected in roots, stems and leaves of test plants. PMID:15852975

  16. Cloning of a copper resistance gene cluster from the cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803 by recombineering recovery.

    PubMed

    Gittins, John R

    2015-07-01

    A copper resistance gene cluster (6 genes, ∼8.2 kb) was isolated from the cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803 by recombineering recovery (RR). Following integration of a narrow-host-range plasmid vector adjacent to the target region in the Synechocystis genome (pSYSX), DNA was isolated from transformed cells and the plasmid plus flanking sequence circularized by recombineering to precisely clone the gene cluster. Complementation of a copper-sensitive Escherichia coli mutant demonstrated the functionality of the pcopM gene encoding a copper-binding protein. RR provides a novel alternative method for cloning large DNA fragments from species that can be transformed by homologous recombination. PMID:25980606

  17. A replicative plasmid vector allows efficient complementation of pathogenic Leptospira strains.

    PubMed

    Pappas, Christopher J; Benaroudj, Nadia; Picardeau, Mathieu

    2015-05-01

    Leptospirosis, an emerging zoonotic disease, remains poorly understood because of a lack of genetic manipulation tools available for pathogenic leptospires. Current genetic manipulation techniques include insertion of DNA by random transposon mutagenesis and homologous recombination via suicide vectors. This study describes the construction of a shuttle vector, pMaORI, that replicates within saprophytic, intermediate, and pathogenic leptospires. The shuttle vector was constructed by the insertion of a 2.9-kb DNA segment including the parA, parB, and rep genes into pMAT, a plasmid that cannot replicate in Leptospira spp. and contains a backbone consisting of an aadA cassette, ori R6K, and oriT RK2/RP4. The inserted DNA segment was isolated from a 52-kb region within Leptospira mayottensis strain 200901116 that is not found in the closely related strain L. mayottensis 200901122. Because of the size of this region and the presence of bacteriophage-like proteins, it is possible that this region is a result of a phage-related genomic island. The stability of the pMaORI plasmid within pathogenic strains was tested by passaging cultures 10 times without selection and confirming the presence of pMaORI. Concordantly, we report the use of trans complementation in the pathogen Leptospira interrogans. Transformation of a pMaORI vector carrying a functional copy of the perR gene in a null mutant background restores the expression of PerR and susceptibility to hydrogen peroxide comparable to that of wild-type cells. In conclusion, we demonstrate the replication of a stable plasmid vector in a large panel of Leptospira strains, including pathogens. The shuttle vector described will expand our ability to perform genetic manipulation of Leptospira spp. PMID:25724960

  18. Virulence Plasmid of Rhodococcus equi Contains Inducible Gene Family Encoding Secreted Proteins

    PubMed Central

    Byrne, Barbara A.; Prescott, John F.; Palmer, Guy H.; Takai, Shinji; Nicholson, Vivian M.; Alperin, Debra C.; Hines, Stephen A.

    2001-01-01

    Rhodococcus equi causes severe pyogranulomatous pneumonia in foals. This facultative intracellular pathogen produces similar lesions in immunocompromised humans, particularly in AIDS patients. Virulent strains of R. equi bear a large plasmid that is required for intracellular survival within macrophages and for virulence in foals and mice. Only two plasmid-encoded proteins have been described previously; a 15- to 17-kDa surface protein designated virulence-associated protein A (VapA) and an antigenically related 20-kDa protein (herein designated VapB). These two proteins are not expressed by the same R. equi isolate. We describe here the substantial similarity between VapA and VapB. Moreover, we identify three additional genes carried on the virulence plasmid, vapC, -D, and -E, that are tandemly arranged downstream of vapA. These new genes are members of a gene family and encode proteins that are approximately 50% homologous to VapA, VapB, and each other. vapC, -D, and -E are found only in R. equi strains that express VapA and are highly conserved in VapA-positive isolates from both horses and humans. VapC, -D, and -E are secreted proteins coordinately regulated by temperature with VapA; the proteins are expressed when R. equi is cultured at 37°C but not at 30°C, a finding that is compatible with a role in virulence. As secreted proteins, VapC, -D, and -E may represent targets for the prevention of rhodococcal pneumonia. An immunologic study using VapA-specific antibodies and recombinant Vap proteins revealed no evidence of cross-reactivity despite extensive sequence similarity over the carboxy terminus of all four proteins. PMID:11159951

  19. Fast plasmid based protein expression analysis in insect cells using an automated SplitGFP screen.

    PubMed

    Bleckmann, Maren; Schmelz, Stefan; Schinkowski, Christian; Scrima, Andrea; van den Heuvel, Joop

    2016-09-01

    Recombinant protein expression often presents a bottleneck for the production of proteins for use in many areas of animal-cell biotechnology. Difficult-to-express proteins require the generation of numerous expression constructs, where popular prokaryotic screening systems often fail to identify expression of multi domain or full-length protein constructs. Post-translational modified mammalian proteins require an alternative host system such as insect cells using the Baculovirus Expression Vector System (BEVS). Unfortunately this is time-, labor-, and cost-intensive. It is clearly desirable to find an automated and miniaturized fast multi-sample screening method for protein expression in such systems. With this in mind, in this paper a high-throughput initial expression screening method is described using an automated Microcultivation system in conjunction with fast plasmid based transient transfection in insect cells for the efficient generation of protein constructs. The applicability of the system is demonstrated for the difficult to express Nucleotide-binding Oligomerization Domain-containing protein 2 (NOD2). To enable detection of proper protein expression the rather weak plasmid based expression has been improved by a sensitive inline detection system. Here we present the functionality and application of the sensitive SplitGFP (split green fluorescent protein) detection system in insect cells. The successful expression of constructs is monitored by direct measurement of the fluorescence in the BioLector Microcultivation system. Additionally, we show that the results obtained with our plasmid-based SplitGFP protein expression screen correlate directly to the level of soluble protein produced in BEVS. In conclusion our automated SplitGFP screen outlines a sensitive, fast and reliable method reducing the time and costs required for identifying the optimal expression construct prior to large scale protein production in baculovirus infected insect cells

  20. Evaluation of Biological and Physical Protection against Nuclease Degradation of Clay-Bound Plasmid DNA

    PubMed Central

    Demanèche, Sandrine; Jocteur-Monrozier, Lucile; Quiquampoix, Hervé; Simonet, Pascal

    2001-01-01

    In order to determine the mechanisms involved in the persistence of extracellular DNA in soils and to monitor whether bacterial transformation could occur in such an environment, we developed artificial models composed of plasmid DNA adsorbed on clay particles. We determined that clay-bound DNA submitted to an increasing range of nuclease concentrations was physically protected. The protection mechanism was mainly related to the adsorption of the nuclease on the clay mineral. The biological potential of the resulting DNA was monitored by transforming the naturally competent proteobacterium Acinetobacter sp. strain BD413, allowing us to demonstrate that adsorbed DNA was only partially available for transformation. This part of the clay-bound DNA which was available for bacteria, was also accessible to nucleases, while the remaining fraction escaped both transformation and degradation. Finally, transformation efficiency was related to the perpetuation mechanism, with homologous recombination being less sensitive to nucleases than autonomous replication, which requires intact molecules. PMID:11133458

  1. Regulation of Meiotic Recombination

    SciTech Connect

    Gregory p. Copenhaver

    2011-11-09

    Meiotic recombination results in the heritable rearrangement of DNA, primarily through reciprocal exchange between homologous chromosome or gene conversion. In plants these events are critical for ensuring proper chromosome segregation, facilitating DNA repair and providing a basis for genetic diversity. Understanding this fundamental biological mechanism will directly facilitate trait mapping, conventional plant breeding, and development of genetic engineering techniques that will help support the responsible production and conversion of renewable resources for fuels, chemicals, and the conservation of energy (1-3). Substantial progress has been made in understanding the basal recombination machinery, much of which is conserved in organisms as diverse as yeast, plants and mammals (4, 5). Significantly less is known about the factors that regulate how often and where that basal machinery acts on higher eukaryotic chromosomes. One important mechanism for regulating the frequency and distribution of meiotic recombination is crossover interference - or the ability of one recombination event to influence nearby events. The MUS81 gene is thought to play an important role in regulating the influence of interference on crossing over. The immediate goals of this project are to use reverse genetics to identify mutants in two putative MUS81 homologs in the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana, characterize those mutants and initiate a novel forward genetic screen for additional regulators of meiotic recombination. The long-term goal of the project is to understand how meiotic recombination is regulated in higher eukaryotes with an emphasis on the molecular basis of crossover interference. The ability to monitor recombination in all four meiotic products (tetrad analysis) has been a powerful tool in the arsenal of yeast geneticists. Previously, the qrt mutant of Arabidopsis, which causes the four pollen products of male meiosis to remain attached, was developed as a facile system

  2. [Comparison of expression and antibacterial activities of recombinant porcine lactoferrin expressed in four Lactobacillus species].

    PubMed

    Yu, Hui; Jiang, Yanping; Cui, Wen; Wu, Xiao; He, Jia; Qiao, Xinyuan; Li, Yijing; Tang, Lijie

    2014-09-01

    The coding sequence for the mature peptide of porcine lactoferrin (Plf) was synthesized according to the codon usage of lactobacillus, to establish optimized porcine lactoferrin Lactobacillus expression system. The gene was ligated into the Xho I/BamH I site of Lactobacillus expression vector pPG612.1 and the recombinant plasmid pPG612.1-plf was transformed individually into Lactobacillus casei ATCC393, Lactobacillus pentosus KLDS1.0413, Lactobacillus plantarum KLDS1.0344 or Lactobacillus paracasei KLDS1.0652 by electroporation. After induction with xylose, expression of the recombinant proteins was detected by Western blotting and confocal laser scanning microscopy. Secretion of recombinant Plf proteins from four recombinant species was determined quantitatively by ELISA. The antibacterial activities of recombinant proteins were measured by agar diffusion method. The result shows that Plf was correctly expressed in four species of recombinant lactobacillus, with molecular weight of about 73 kDa. The expression levels in recombinant Lactobacillus casei, Lactobacillus pentosus, Lactobacillus plantarum, Lactobacillus paracasei were 9.6 μg/mL, 10.8 μg/mL, 12.5 μg/mL and 9.9 μg/mL, respectively. Antimicrobial activity experiment shows that the recombinant proteins were active against E. coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Salmonella typhimurium, Listeria, Pasteurella. The recombinant Plf expressed by recombinant Lactobacillus plantarum showed the best antibacterial activity among all recombinant lactobacillus species. These data represent a basis for the development and application of porcine lactoferrin from recombinant lactobacillus. PMID:25720152

  3. Sequence analysis and characterization of pOM1, a small cryptic plasmid from Butyrivibrio fibrisolvens, and its use in construction of a new family of cloning vectors for Butyrivibrios.

    PubMed Central

    Hefford, M A; Kobayashi, Y; Allard, S E; Forster, R J; Teather, R M

    1997-01-01

    As a preliminary step in the development of vector systems, we have isolated and begun to characterize small, cryptic plasmids from several strains of the rumen bacterium Butyrivibrio fibrisolvens. We present here the complete nucleotide sequence of Butyrivibrio plasmid pOM1, which was isolated from B. fibrisolvens Bu49. While it is very similar in size to the previously characterized Butyrivibrio plasmids pRJF1 and pRJF2, pOM1 exhibits a restriction pattern which is quite distinct. Analysis of sequence data reveals that pOM1 contains only two open reading frames of significant length (ORF1 and ORF2), both of which are required for self-replication and maintenance. The protein encoded in ORF1 shows homologies with Pre (plasmid recombination enzyme) proteins encoded in plasmids from gram-positive organisms such as Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus agalactiae, Lactobacillus plantarum, and Bacillus thuringiensis. The putative translation product of ORF2, on the other hand, resembles Rep (replication) proteins of a different group of gram-positive plasmids, for which the Staphylococcus plasmid pSN2 is a prototype. Unlike the other characterized-Butyrivibrio plasmids, pOM1 appears to replicate via a rolling-circle mechanism. Experimental evidence showing the presence of a single-stranded replication intermediate consistent with this mechanism is presented. pOM1 has been used in the construction of a new Escherichia coli-B. fibrisolvens shuttle vector, pSMerm1, which has been successfully used to introduce a cloned gene into B. fibrisolvens harboring the pRJF1 plasmid. PMID:9143105

  4. An optimized protocol for overproduction of recombinant protein expression in Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Bahreini, Elham; Aghaiypour, Khosrow; Abbasalipourkabir, Roghayeh; Goodarzi, Mohammad Taghi; Saidijam, Massoud; Safavieh, Sedigheh Sadat

    2014-01-01

    The gram-negative bacterium Escherichia coli (E. coli) offers a means for rapid, high-yield, and economical production of recombinant proteins. Here, a protocol for optimization of parameters involved in bacterial expression conditions is described. L-Asparaginase (ASNase II) was chosen as a model protein for our experiments. ASNase II gene (ansB) was cloned into the pAED4 plasmid and transformed into E. coli BL21pLysS (DE3)-competent cells. It was assumed that high cell density and high copy number of recombinant plasmid in the bacteria host could result in very high production of the recombinant protein. Circumstances for the overproduction of recombinant ASNase II including cell growth conditions, isopropyl β-D-1-thiogalactopyranoside (IPTG) level, ampicillin (Amp) concentration before and during IPTG induction, and cell density were optimized. Regarding the final optimization, overexpression of ASNase II was assessed on a large scale in LB medium. Periplasmic ASNase II was extracted using an alkaline lysis method. The extracted protein was purified by one-step DEAE-Sepharose fast-flow chromatography. ASNase II activity was considered an index for the protein expression. Applying the optimized practical protocol, protein production was significantly enhanced in comparison to the traditional IPTG induction method in the absence of a fermentor and can be applied for overexpression of other recombinant proteins. PMID:24219068

  5. Generation of Recombinant Capripoxvirus Vectors for Vaccines and Gene Knockout Function Studies.

    PubMed

    Boshra, Hani; Cao, Jingxin; Babiuk, Shawn

    2016-01-01

    The ability to manipulate capripoxvirus through gene knockouts and gene insertions has become an increasingly valuable research tool in elucidating the function of individual genes of capripoxvirus, as well as in the development of capripoxvirus-based recombinant vaccines. The homologous recombination technique is used to generate capripoxvirus knockout viruses (KO), and is based on the targeting a particular viral gene of interest. This technique can also be used to insert a gene of interest. A protocol for the generation of a viral gene knockout is described. This technique involves the use of a plasmid which encodes the flanking sequences of the regions where the homologous recombination will occur, and will result in the insertion of an EGFP reporter gene for visualization of recombinant virus, as well as the E. coli gpt gene as a positive selection marker. If an additional gene is to be incorporated, this can be achieved by inserting a gene of interest for expression under a poxvirus promoter into the plasmid between the flanking regions for insertion. This chapter describes a protocol for generating such recombinant capripoxviruses. PMID:26458835

  6. High-yield recombinant expression of the chicken antimicrobial peptide fowlicidin-2 in Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Feng, Xingjun; Xu, Wenshan; Qu, Pei; Li, Xiaochong; Xing, Liwei; Liu, Di; Jiao, Jian; Wang, Jue; Li, Zhongqiu; Liu, Chunlong

    2015-01-01

    The antimicrobial peptide fowlicidin-2 identified in chicken is a member of the cathelicidins family. The mature fowlicidin-2 possesses high antibacterial efficacy and lipopolysaccharide (LPS) neutralizing activity, and also represents an excellent candidate as an antimicrobial agent. In the present study, the recombinant fowlicidin-2 was successfully produced by Escherichia coli (E. coli) recombinant expression system. The gene encoding fowlicidin-2 with the codon preference of E. coli was designed through codon optimization and synthesized in vitro. The gene was then ligated into the plasmid pET-32a(+), which features fusion protein thioredoxin at the N-terminal. The recombinant plasmid was transformed into E. coli BL21(DE3) and cultured in Luria-Bertani (LB) medium. After isopropyl-β-D-thiogalactopyranoside (IPTG) induction, the fowlicidin-2 fusion protein was successfully expressed as inclusion bodies. The inclusion bodies were dissolved and successfully released the peptide in 70% formic acid solution containing cyanogen bromide (CNBr) in a single step. After purification by reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC), ∼6.0 mg of fowlicidin-2 with purity more than 97% was obtained from 1 litre of bacteria culture. The recombinant peptide exhibited high antibacterial activity against the Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria, and even drug-resistant strains. This system could be used to rapidly and efficiently produce milligram quantities of a battery of recombinant antimicrobial peptides as well as for large-scale production. PMID:25641948

  7. [Recombinant expression and antibacterial activity of i-type lysozyme from sea cucumber Stichopus japonicus].

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiuxia; Cong, Lina; Wang, Dan; Yang, Xijian; Zhu, Beiwei

    2009-02-01

    The cDNA of an i type lysozyme was cloned from Stichopus japonicus (named as SjLys). The DNA fragment of the mature SjLys was subcloned into expression vector of pET-32a (+) to construct the recombinant plasmid of pET32a (+)-SjLys. The recombinant plasmid was then transformed into Escherichia coli BL21 (DE3) pLysS and induced by isopropylthio-beta-D-galactoside (IPTG). The recombinant protein expressed as inclusion bodies was denatured, partially purified and refolded to be an active form. The bacteriolytic activity of recombinant protein purified by the metal-chelating was 19.2 U/mg. The antibacterial activity of the purified recombinant SjLys (rSjLys) was analyzed. The rSjLys protein displayed inhibitive effect on the growth of the tested Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. In particular, rSjLys had a strong inhibitive activity on Vibrio parahaemolyticus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa, both the most common pathogenic bacteria in the marine animals. The heat-treated rSjLys exhibited more potent activities against all tested bacteria. These results indicated that the S. japonicus lysozyme was the enzyme with combined enzymatic (glycosidase) and non-enzymatic antibacterial action, and it had a wide antibacterial spectrum. Therefore, it is suggested that the S. japonicus lysozyme should be one of the important molecules against pathogens in the innate immunity of sea cucumbers. PMID:19459322

  8. An updated view of plasmid conjugation and mobilization in Staphylococcus

    PubMed Central

    Ramsay, Joshua P.; Kwong, Stephen M.; Murphy, Riley J. T.; Yui Eto, Karina; Price, Karina J.; Nguyen, Quang T.; O'Brien, Frances G.; Grubb, Warren B.; Coombs, Geoffrey W.; Firth, Neville

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT The horizontal gene transfer facilitated by mobile genetic elements impacts almost all areas of bacterial evolution, including the accretion and dissemination of antimicrobial-resistance genes in the human and animal pathogen Staphylococcus aureus. Genome surveys of staphylococcal plasmids have revealed an unexpected paucity of conjugation and mobilization loci, perhaps suggesting that conjugation plays only a minor role in the evolution of this genus. In this letter we present the DNA sequences of historically documented staphylococcal conjugative plasmids and highlight that at least 3 distinct and widely distributed families of conjugative plasmids currently contribute to the dissemination of antimicrobial resistance in Staphylococcus. We also review the recently documented “relaxase-in trans” mechanism of conjugative mobilization facilitated by conjugative plasmids pWBG749 and pSK41, and discuss how this may facilitate the horizontal transmission of around 90% of plasmids that were previously considered non-mobilizable. Finally, we enumerate unique sequenced S. aureus plasmids with a potential mechanism of mobilization and predict that at least 80% of all non-conjugative S. aureus plasmids are mobilizable by at least one mechanism. We suggest that a greater research focus on the molecular biology of conjugation is essential if we are to recognize gene-transfer mechanisms from our increasingly in silico analyses. PMID:27583185

  9. Plasmid incidence in bacteria from deep subsurface sediments

    SciTech Connect

    Fredrickson, J.K.; Hicks, R.J.; Li, S.W.; Brockman, F.J. )

    1988-12-01

    Bacteria were isolated from deep terrestrial subsurface sediments underlying the coastal plain of South Carolina. A total of 163 isolates from deep sediments, surface soil, and return drill muds were examined for plasmid DNA content and resistance to the antibiotics penicillin, ampicillin, carbenicillin, streptomycin, kanamycin, and tetracycline. MICs of Cu{sup 2+}, Cr{sup 3+}, and Hg{sup 2+} for each isolate were also determined. The overall frequency of plasmid occurrence in the subsurface bacteria was 33%. Resistance was most frequent to penicillin (70% of all isolates), ampicillin (49%), and carbenicillin (32%) and was concluded to be related to the concentrations of the individual antibiotics in the disks used for assaying resistance and to the production of low levels of {beta}-lactamase. The frequencies of resistance to penicillin and ampicillin were significantly greater for isolates bearing plasmids than for plasmidless isolates; however, resistance was not transferable to penicillin-sensitive Escherichia coli. Hybridization of subsurface bacterial plasmids and chromosomal DNA with a whole-TOL-plasmid (pWWO) probe revealed some homology of subsurface bacterial plasmid and chromosomal DNAs, indicating a potential for those bacterial to harbor catabolic genes on plasmids or chromosomes. The incidences of antibiotic resistance and MICs of metals for subsurface bacteria were significantly different from those drill mud bacteria, ruling out the possibility that bacteria from sediments were derived from drill muds.

  10. Fractional precipitation of plasmid DNA from lysate by CTAB.

    PubMed

    Lander, Russel J; Winters, Michael A; Meacle, Francis J; Buckland, Barry C; Lee, Ann L

    2002-09-30

    Preparative-scale purification of plasmid DNA has been attempted by diverse methods, including precipitation with solvents, salts, and detergents and chromatography with ion-exchange, reversed-phase, and size-exclusion columns. Chromatographic methods such as hydrophobic interaction chromatography (HIC), reversed phase chromatography (RPC), and size exclusion chromatography (SEC) are the only effective means of eliminating the closely related relaxed and denatured forms of plasmid as well as endotoxin to acceptable levels. However, the anticipated costs of manufacturing-scale chromatography are high due to (a) large projected volumes of the high-dosage therapeutic molecule and (b) restricted loading of the large plasmid molecule in the pores of expensive resins. As an alternative to chromatography, we show herein that precipitation with the cationic detergent, cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB), is effective for selective precipitation of plasmid DNA from proteins, RNA, and endotoxin. Moreover, CTAB affords novel selectivity by removal of host genomic DNA and even the more closely related relaxed and denatured forms of plasmid as earlier, separate fractions. Finally, plasmid that has been precipitated by CTAB can be purified by selectively dissolving under conditions of controlled salt concentration. The selectivity mechanism is most likely based upon conformational differences among the several forms of DNA. As such, CTAB precipitation provides an ideal nonchromatographic capture step for the manufacture of plasmid DNA. PMID:12209800

  11. Investigation of plasmid-induced growth defect in Pseudomonas putida.

    PubMed

    Mi, Jia; Sydow, Anne; Schempp, Florence; Becher, Daniela; Schewe, Hendrik; Schrader, Jens; Buchhaupt, Markus

    2016-08-10

    Genetic engineering in bacteria mainly relies on the use of plasmids. But despite their pervasive use for physiological studies as well as for the design and optimization of industrially used production strains, only limited information about plasmid induced growth defects is available for different replicons and organisms. Here, we present the identification and characterization of such a phenomenon for Pseudomonas putida transformants carrying the pBBR1-derived plasmid pMiS1. We identified the kanamycin resistance gene and the transcription factor encoding rhaR gene to be causal for the growth defect in P. putida. In contrast, this effect was not observed in Escherichia coli. The plasmid-induced growth defect was eliminated after introduction of a mutation in the plasmid-encoded rep gene, thus enabling construction of the non-toxic variant pMiS4. GFP reporters construct analyses and qPCR experiments revealed a distinctly lowered plasmid copy number for pMiS4, which is probably the reason for alleviation of the growth defect by this mutation. Our work expands the knowledge about plasmid-induced growth defects and provides a useful low-copy pBBR1 replicon variant. PMID:27287537

  12. Plasmid incidence in bacteria from deep subsurface sediments.

    PubMed

    Fredrickson, J K; Hicks, R J; Li, S W; Brockman, F J

    1988-12-01

    Bacteria were isolated from deep terrestrial subsurface sediments underlying the coastal plain of South Carolina. A total of 163 isolates from deep sediments, surface soil, and return drill muds were examined for plasmid DNA content and resistance to the antibiotics penicillin, ampicillin, carbenicillin, streptomycin, kanamycin, and tetracycline. MICs of Cu, Cr, and Hg for each isolate were also determined. The overall frequency of plasmid occurrence in the subsurface bacteria was 33%. Resistance was most frequent to penicillin (70% of all isolates), ampicillin (49%), and carbenicillin (32%) and was concluded to be related to the concentrations of the individual antibiotics in the disks used for assaying resistance and to the production of low levels of beta-lactamase. The frequencies of resistance to penicillin and ampicillin were significantly greater for isolates bearing plasmids than for plasmidless isolates; however, resistance was not transferable to penicillin-sensitive Escherichia coli. Hybridization of subsurface bacterial plasmids and chromosomal DNA with a whole-TOL-plasmid (pWWO) probe revealed some homology of subsurface bacterial plasmid and chromosomal DNAs, indicating a potential for those bacteria to harbor catabolic genes on plasmids or chromosomes. The incidences of antibiotic resistance and MICs of metals for subsurface bacteria were significantly different from those for drill mud bacteria, ruling out the possibility that bacteria from sediments were derived from drill muds. PMID:16347789

  13. Analysis of chromosomal integration and deletions of yeast plasmids.

    PubMed Central

    Cameron, J R; Philippsen, P; Davis, R W

    1977-01-01

    Plasmid DNAs from six strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae were compared. Three different plasmids were found, designated Scp 1, Scp 2 and Scp 3, with monomer lengths of 6.19, 6.06 and 5.97 kilobases as referenced to sequenced phiX174 DNA. DNA from each of the plasmids was inserted into a lambda vector DNA. Hybrid phage containing inserted DNA of the desired size were enriched by genetic selection and their DNAs analysed by rapid techniques. All three plasmids share the same organization, two unique sequences separated by two inverted repeats, and share basically the same DNA sequences. Scp 2 and Scp 3 differ from Scp 1 by missing a unique HpaI site and by having small overlapping deletions in the same region. The HpaI site in Scp 1 is, therefore, in a nonessential region and suitable for insertion of foreign DNA in the potential use of the yeast plasmid as a vector. Hybridization of labelled cloned plasmid DNA to restriction fragments of linear yeast DNA separated on agarose gels showed that the plasmid DNA was not stably integrated into the yeast chromosomal DNA. Images PMID:331256

  14. Sociobiological Control of Plasmid Copy Number in Bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Watve, Mukta M.; Dahanukar, Neelesh; Watve, Milind G.

    2010-01-01

    All genes critical for plasmid replication regulation are located on the plasmid rather than on the host chromosome. It is possible therefore that there can be copy-up “cheater” mutants. In spite of this possibility, low copy number plasmids appear to exist stably in host populations. We examined this paradox using a multilevel selection model. Simulations showed that, a slightly higher copy number mutant could out-compete the wild type. Consequently, another mutant with still higher copy number could invade the first invader. However, the realized benefit of increasing intra-host fitness was saturating whereas that of inter-host fitness was exponential. As a result, above a threshold, intra-host selection was overcompensated by inter-host selection and the low copy number wild type plasmid could back invade a very high copy number plasmid. This led to a rock-paper-scissor (RPS) like situation that allowed the coexistence of plasmids with varied copy numbers. Furthermore, another type of cheater that had lost the genes required for conjugation but could hitchhike on a conjugal plasmid, could further reduce the advantage of copy-up mutants. These sociobiological interactions may compliment molecular mechanisms of replication regulation in stabilizing the copy numbers. PMID:20195362

  15. An updated view of plasmid conjugation and mobilization in Staphylococcus.

    PubMed

    Ramsay, Joshua P; Kwong, Stephen M; Murphy, Riley J T; Yui Eto, Karina; Price, Karina J; Nguyen, Quang T; O'Brien, Frances G; Grubb, Warren B; Coombs, Geoffrey W; Firth, Neville

    2016-01-01

    The horizontal gene transfer facilitated by mobile genetic elements impacts almost all areas of bacterial evolution, including the accretion and dissemination of antimicrobial-resistance genes in the human and animal pathogen Staphylococcus aureus. Genome surveys of staphylococcal plasmids have revealed an unexpected paucity of conjugation and mobilization loci, perhaps suggesting that conjugation plays only a minor role in the evolution of this genus. In this letter we present the DNA sequences of historically documented staphylococcal conjugative plasmids and highlight that at least 3 distinct and widely distributed families of conjugative plasmids currently contribute to the dissemination of antimicrobial resistance in Staphylococcus. We also review the recently documented "relaxase-in trans" mechanism of conjugative mobilization facilitated by conjugative plasmids pWBG749 and pSK41, and discuss how this may facilitate the horizontal transmission of around 90% of plasmids that were previously considered non-mobilizable. Finally, we enumerate unique sequenced S. aureus plasmids with a potential mechanism of mobilization and predict that at least 80% of all non-conjugative S. aureus plasmids are mobilizable by at least one mechanism. We suggest that a greater research focus on the molecular biology of conjugation is essential if we are to recognize gene-transfer mechanisms from our increasingly in silico analyses. PMID:27583185

  16. Molecular classification of IncP-9 naphthalene degradation plasmids

    SciTech Connect

    Izmalkova, T.Y.; Mavrodi, D.V.; Sokolov, S.L.; Kosheleva, I.A.; Smalla, K.; Thomas, C.M.; Boronin, A.M.

    2006-07-15

    A large collection of naphthalene-degrading fluorescent Pseudomonas strains isolated from sites contaminated with coal tar and crude oil was screened for the presence of IncP-9 plasmids. Seventeen strains were found to carry naphthalene catabolic plasmids ranging in size from 83 to 120kb and were selected for further study. Results of molecular genotyping revealed that 15 strains were closely related to P. putida, one to P. fluorescens, and one to P. aeruginosa. All catabolic plasmids found in these strains, with the exception of pBS216, pSN11, and p8909N-1, turned out to belong to IncP-9 {beta}-subgroup. Plasmids pBS216, pSN11, and p8909N-1 were identified as members of IncP-9 {delta}-subgroup. One plasmid, pBS2, contains fused replicons of IncP-9 {beta} and IncP-7 groups. RFLP analyses of the naphthalene catabolic plasmids revealed that organisation of the replicon correlates well with the overall plasmid structure. Comparative PCR studies with conserved oligonucleotide primers indicated that genes for key enzymes of naphthalene catabolism are highly conserved among all studied plasmids. Three bacterial strains, P. putida BS202, P. putida BS3701, and P. putida BS3790, were found to have two different salicylate hydroxylase genes one of which has no similarity to the 'classic' enzyme encoded by nahG gene. Discovery of a large group of plasmid with unique nahR suggested that the regulatory loop may also represent a variable part of the pathway for catabolism of naphthalene in fluorescent Pseudomonas spp.

  17. Systems biology of recombinant protein production using Bacillus megaterium.

    PubMed

    Biedendieck, Rebekka; Borgmeier, Claudia; Bunk, Boyke; Stammen, Simon; Scherling, Christian; Meinhardt, Friedhelm; Wittmann, Christoph; Jahn, Dieter

    2011-01-01

    The Gram-negative bacterium Escherichia coli is the most widely used production host for recombinant proteins in both academia and industry. The Gram-positive bacterium Bacillus megaterium represents an increasingly used alternative for high yield intra- and extracellular protein synthesis. During the past two decades, multiple tools including gene expression plasmids and production strains have been developed. Introduction of free replicating and integrative plasmids into B. megaterium is possible via protoplasts transformation or transconjugation. Using His(6)- and StrepII affinity tags, the intra- or extracellular produced proteins can easily be purified in one-step procedures. Different gene expression systems based on the xylose controlled promoter P(xylA) and various phage RNA polymerase (T7, SP6, K1E) driven systems enable B. megaterium to produce up to 1.25g of recombinant protein per liter. Biomass concentrations of up to 80g/l can be achieved by high cell density cultivations in bioreactors. Gene knockouts and gene replacements in B. megaterium are possible via an optimized gene disruption system. For a safe application in industry, sporulation and protease-deficient as well as UV-sensitive mutants are available. With the help of the recently published B. megaterium genome sequence, it is possible to characterize bottle necks in the protein production process via systems biology approaches based on transcriptome, proteome, metabolome, and fluxome data. The bioinformatical platform (Megabac, http://www.megabac.tu-bs.de) integrates obtained theoretical and experimental data. PMID:21943898

  18. Evaluation of Recombinant SAG1, SAG2, and SAG3 Antigens for Serodiagnosis of Toxoplasmosis

    PubMed Central

    Khanaliha, Khadijeh; Kazemi, Bahram; Shahriari, Bahador; Bandehpour, Mojgan; Sharifniya, Zarin

    2014-01-01

    Serologic tests are widely accepted for diagnosing Toxoplasma gondii but purification and standardization of antigen needs to be improved. Recently, surface tachyzoite and bradyzoite antigens have become more attractive for this purpose. In this study, diagnostic usefulness of 3 recombinant antigens (SAG1, SAG2, and SAG3) were evaluated, and their efficacy was compared with the available commercial ELISA. The recombinant plasmids were transformed to JM109 strain of Escherichia coli, and the recombinants were expressed and purified. Recombinant SAG1, SAG2, and SAG3 antigens were evaluated using different groups of sera in an ELISA system, and the results were compared to those of a commercial IgG and IgM ELISA kit. The sensitivity and specificity of recombinant surface antigens for detection of anti-Toxoplasma IgG in comparison with commercially available ELISA were as follows: SAG1 (93.6% and 92.9%), SAG2 (100.0% and 89.4%), and SAG3 (95.4% and 91.2%), respectively. A high degree of agreement (96.9%) was observed between recombinant SAG2 and commercial ELISA in terms of detecting IgG anti-Toxoplasma antibodies. P22 had the best performance in detecting anti-Toxoplasma IgM in comparison with the other 2 recombinant antigens. Recombinant SAG1, SAG2, and SAG3 could all be used for diagnosis of IgG-specific antibodies against T. gondii. PMID:24850956

  19. Meiotic recombination at the Lmp2 hotspot tolerates minor sequence divergence between homologous chromosomes

    SciTech Connect

    Yoshino, Masayasu; Sagai, Tomoko; Shiroishi, Toshihiko

    1996-06-01

    Recombination is widely considered to linearly depend on the length of the homologous sequences. An 11% mismatch decreases the rate of phage-plasmid recombination 240-fold. Two single nucleotide mismatches, which reduce the longest uninterrupted stretch of similarity from 232 base pairs (bp) to 134 bp, reduce gene conversion in mouse L cells 20-fold. The efficiency of gene targeting through homologous recombination in mouse embryonic stem cells can be increased by using an isogenic, rather than a non-isogenic, DNA construct. In this study we asked whether a high degree of sequence identity between homologous mouse chromosomes enhances meiotic recombination at a hotspot. Sites of meiotic recombination in the mouse major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II region are not randomly distributed but are almost all clustered within short segments known as recombinational hotspots. The wm7 MHC haplotype, derived from Japanese wild mice Mus musculus molossinus, enhances meiotic recombination at a hotspot near the Lmp2 gene. Heterozygotes between the wm7 haplotype and the b or k haplotypes have yielded a high frequency of recombination (2.1%) in 1.3 kilobase kb segment of this hotspot. 20 refs., 2 figs.

  20. Separation of plasmid DNA topoisomers by multimodal chromatography.

    PubMed

    Silva-Santos, A Rita; Alves, Cláudia P A; Prazeres, Duarte Miguel F; Azevedo, Ana M

    2016-06-15

    The ability to analyze the distribution of topoisomers in a plasmid DNA sample is important when evaluating the quality of preparations intended for gene therapy and DNA vaccination or when performing biochemical studies on the action of topoisomerases and gyrases. Here, we describe the separation of supercoiled (sc) and open circular (oc) topoisomers by multimodal chromatography. A medium modified with the ligand N-benzyl-N-methyl ethanolamine and an elution scheme with increasing NaCl concentration are used to accomplish the baseline separation of sc and oc plasmid. The utility of the method is demonstrated by quantitating topoisomers in a purified plasmid sample. PMID:27033004

  1. Characterization of ampicillin resistance plasmids from Haemophilus ducreyi.

    PubMed Central

    Totten, P A; Handsfield, H H; Peters, D; Holmes, K K; Falkow, S

    1982-01-01

    Seven strains of Haemophilus ducreyi from diverse geographic origins were analyzed for their plasmid content. All strains were multiply resistant, but only resistance to ampicillin was transferred to Escherichia coli by transformation. The H. ducreyi plasmids encoding for ampicillin resistance were 7.4, 5.7, and 3.6 megadaltons and encoded for part or all of TnA, and ampicillin transposon. The relatedness of these plasmids was examined by restriction endonuclease digestion and DNA-DNA homology with isolated DNA fragments from TnA. Images PMID:6282212

  2. Meiotic recombination mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Grelon, Mathilde

    2016-01-01

    Meiosis is a specialized cell division at the origin of the haploid cells that eventually develop into the gametes. It therefore lies at the heart of Mendelian heredity. Recombination and redistribution of the homologous chromosomes arising during meiosis constitute an important source of genetic diversity, conferring to meiosis a particularly important place in the evolution and the diversification of the species. Our understanding of the molecular mechanisms governing meiotic recombination has considerably progressed these last decades, benefiting from complementary approaches led on various model species. An overview of these mechanisms will be provided as well as a discussion on the implications of these recent discoveries. PMID:27180110

  3. Expression of recombinant green fluorescent protein in Bacillus methanolicus.

    PubMed

    Nilasari, Dewi; Dover, Nir; Rech, Sabine; Komives, Claire

    2012-01-01

    Microbial biocatalysts are used in a wide range of industries to produce large scale quantities of proteins, amino acids, and commodity chemicals. While the majority of these processes use glucose or other low-cost sugars as the substrate, Bacillus methanolicus is one example of a biocatalyst that has shown sustained growth on methanol as a carbon source at elevated temperature (50-53°C optimum) resulting in reduced feed and utility costs. Specifically, the complete chemical process enabled by this approach takes methane from natural gas, and following a low-cost conversion to methanol, can be used for the production of high value products. In this study, production of recombinant green fluorescent protein (GFPuv) by B. methanolicus is explored. A plasmid was constructed that incorporates the methanol dehydrogenase (mdh) promoter of B. methanolicus MGA3 together with the GFPuv gene. The plasmid, pNW33N, was shown to be effective for expression in other Bacillus strains, although not previously in B. methanolicus. A published electroporation protocol for transformation of B. methanolicus was modified to result in expression of GFP using plasmid pNW33N-mdh-GFPuv (pNmG). Transformation was confirmed by both agarose gel electrophoresis and by observation of green fluorescence under UV light exposure. The mass yield of cells and protein were measured in shake flask experiments. The optimum concentration of methanol for protein production was found to be at 200 mM. Higher concentrations than 200 mM resulted in slightly higher biomass production but lower amounts of recombinant protein. PMID:22275315

  4. Immunogenicity of a plasmid DNA vaccine encoding 42kDa fragment of Plasmodium vivax merozoite surface protein-1.

    PubMed

    Sheikh, Inayat Hussain; Kaushal, Deep C; Chandra, Deepak; Kaushal, Nuzhat A

    2016-10-01

    Plasmodium vivax is the second major human malaria parasite that inflicts debilitating morbidity and consequent economic impact in South-East Asian countries. The relapsing nature of P. vivax along with the emergence of drug-resistant P. vivax strains has emphasized the urgent need for a vaccine. However, the development of an effective vivax vaccine is seriously hampered due to the diversity and variation in parasite antigens and non-availability of suitable animal models. DNA based vaccines represent an alternative approach in inducing immunity to multiple targets from different stages of malaria parasite. DNA prime-boosting strategies induce both antibody mediated and cell-mediated immune responses that are the major mechanisms of protection against malaria parasites. We have earlier studied the immunogenicity and protective efficacy of the soluble and refolded forms of recombinant 42kDa fragment of Plasmodium vivax merozoite surface protein-1 (PvMSP-142) using P. cynomolgi rhesus monkey model. In the present study, we have constructed a recombinant DNA vaccine encoding 42kDa fragment of P. vivax MSP-1 and studied the immunogenicity of PvMSP-142 DNA vaccine construct in mice. The 42kDa gene fragment of PvMSP-1 was PCR amplified using gene specific primers and subcloned into pcDNA 3.1 (+) eukaryotic expression vector. In vitro expression of PvMSP-142 plasmid construct was checked by transfection in COS-1 cell line. Indirect immunofluorescence of transfected COS-1 cells probed with monoclonal antibodies against PvMSP-142 exhibited positive fluorescence. Immunization of BALB/c mice with PvMSP-142-pcDNA vaccine construct revealed the immunogenicity of recombinant vaccine plasmid that can be enhanced by prime boosting with recombinant protein corresponding to the DNA vaccine as evidenced by significant elevation of antibody and the cytokines responses. PMID:27311385

  5. [Cloning and functional analysis of the stable plasmid pBMB175 in Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. tenebrionis strains YBT-1765].

    PubMed

    Han, Dong-Mei; Huang, Jun-Yan; Yu, Zi-Niu; Sun, Ming

    2005-12-01

    A 15.2 kb plasmid pBMB175 from Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. tenebrionis strains YBT-1765 was cloned and the restriction map was constructed. The mini-replicating region of pBMB175 was located in a 1151 bp fragment by functional analysis. The sequence of a 4152 bp fragment which contained the mini-replicating region was analyzed and results showed that the fragment had three potential open reading frames (ORF1, ORF2 and ORF3). Sequence comparison and homology search revealed that ORF1 (767AA) has 20% approximately 30% similarity to UvrD-helicase, RecD and RecB family proteins; no homology was found between ORF2 (149AA) and other known proteins; ORF3 shared 34% identification to a potential protein (ORF7) in pGI3. Deletion and sequence analysis presumed that the protein encoded by ORF2 maybe a new replication protein. Above all, pBMB175 likely belongs to a new plasmid family with a new replicon. The recombinant plasmid harboring the mini-replicating region is very stable, even after growth for more than 40 generations without selection, so it might be used as a cloning and expression vector. PMID:16496686

  6. Biosynthetic burden and plasmid burden limit expression of chromosomally integrated heterologous genes (pdc, adhB) in Escherichia coli

    SciTech Connect

    Martinez, A.; York, S.W.; Yomano, L.P.; Pineda, V.L.; Davis, F.C.; Shelton, J.C.; Ingram, L.O.

    1999-10-01

    Previous studies have shown an unexpectedly high nutrient requirement for efficient ethanol production by ethanologenic recombinants of Escherichia coli B such as LY01 which contain chromosomally integrated Zymomonas mobilis genes (pdc, adhB) encoding the ethanol pathway. The basis for this requirement has been identified as a media-dependent effect on the expression of the Z. mobilis genes rather than a nutritional limitation. Ethanol production was substantially increased without additional nutrients simply by increasing the level of pyruvate decarboxylase activity. This was accomplished by adding a multicopy plasmid containing pdc alone (but not adhB alone) to strain LY01, and by adding multicopy plasmids which express pdc and adhB from strong promoters. New strong promoters were isolated from random fragments of Z. mobilis DNA and characterized but were not used to construct integrated biocatalysts. These promoters contained regions resembling recognition sites for 3 different E. coli sigma factors: {sigma}{sup 70}, {sigma}{sup 38}, and {sigma}{sup 28}. The most effective plasmid-based promoters for fermentation were recognized by multiple sigma factors, expressed both pdc and adhB at high levels, and produced ethanol efficiently while allowing up to 80% reduction in complex nutrients as compared to LY01. The ability to utilize multiple sigma factors may be advantageous to maintain the high levels of PDC and ADH needed for efficient ethanol production throughout batch fermentation.

  7. Generation of human induced pluripotent stem cells by simple transient transfection of plasmid DNA encoding reprogramming factors

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background The use of lentiviruses to reprogram human somatic cells into induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells could limit their therapeutic usefulness due to the integration of viral DNA sequences into the genome of the recipient cell. Recent work has demonstrated that human iPS cells can be generated using episomal plasmids, excisable transposons, adeno or sendai viruses, mRNA, or recombinant proteins. While these approaches offer an advance, the protocols have some drawbacks. Commonly the procedures require either subcloning to identify human iPS cells that are free of exogenous DNA, a knowledge of virology and safe handling procedures, or a detailed understanding of protein biochemistry. Results Here we report a simple approach that facilitates the reprogramming of human somatic cells using standard techniques to transfect expression plasmids that encode OCT4, NANOG, SOX2, and LIN28 without the need for episomal stability or selection. The resulting human iPS cells are free of DNA integration, express pluripotent markers, and form teratomas in immunodeficient animals. These iPS cells were also able to undergo directed differentiation into hepatocyte-like and cardiac myocyte-like cells in culture. Conclusions Simple transient transfection of plasmid DNA encoding reprogramming factors is sufficient to generate human iPS cells from primary fibroblasts that are free of exogenous DNA integrations. This approach is highly accessible and could expand the use of iPS cells in the study of human disease and development. PMID:20682060

  8. Adaptive evolution of a lactose-consuming Saccharomyces cerevisiae recombinant.

    PubMed

    Guimarães, Pedro M R; François, Jean; Parrou, Jean Luc; Teixeira, José A; Domingues, Lucília

    2008-03-01

    The construction of Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains that ferment lactose has biotechnological interest, particularly for cheese whey fermentation. A flocculent lactose-consuming S. cerevisiae recombinant expressing the LAC12 (lactose permease) and LAC4 (beta-galactosidase) genes of Kluyveromyces lactis was constructed previously but showed poor efficiency in lactose fermentation. This strain was therefore subjected to an evolutionary engineering process (serial transfer and dilution in lactose medium), which yielded an evolved recombinant strain that consumed lactose twofold faster, producing 30% more ethanol than the original recombinant. We identified two molecular events that targeted the LAC construct in the evolved strain: a 1,593-bp deletion in the intergenic region (promoter) between LAC4 and LAC12 and a decrease of the plasmid copy number by about 10-fold compared to that in the original recombinant. The results suggest that the intact promoter was unable to mediate the induction of the transcription of LAC4 and LAC12 by lactose in the original recombinant and that the deletion established the transcriptional induction of both genes in the evolved strain. We propose that the tuning of the expression of the heterologous LAC genes in the evolved recombinant was accomplished by the interplay between the decreased copy number of both genes and the different levels of transcriptional induction for LAC4 and LAC12 resulting from the changed promoter structure. Nevertheless, our results do not exclude other possible mutations that may have contributed to the improved lactose fermentation phenotype. This study illustrates the usefulness of simple evolutionary engineering approaches in strain improvement. The evolved strain efficiently fermented threefold-concentrated cheese whey, providing an attractive alternative for the fermentation of lactose-based media. PMID:18245248

  9. Isolation and characterization of recombinant DNAs containing repeated elements of barley genome: identification of individual actively transcribed families of repeats

    SciTech Connect

    Prosnyak, M.I.; Kartel', N.A.; Ryskov, A.P.

    1986-05-01

    A bank of Escherichia coli clones containing fragments of barley nuclear DNA was obtained using plasmid pBR 322. Clones carrying repeated sequences of the plant genome were selected by means of colony and blot hybridization. Clones with actively transcribed sequences were selected by hybridization to complementary DNA synthesized by means of reverse transcription on a template of total barley poly(A)-containing RNA. Individual families of repeats, two of which contained transcriptionally active sequences of the barley genome, were identified by blot hybridization of recombinant plasmids containing labeled DNA fragments of the inserts of three different clones.

  10. Generation of Food-Grade Recombinant Lactic Acid Bacterium Strains by Site-Specific Recombination

    PubMed Central

    Martín, M. Cruz; Alonso, Juan C.; Suárez, Juan E.; Alvarez, Miguel A.

    2000-01-01

    The construction of a delivery and clearing system for the generation of food-grade recombinant lactic acid bacterium strains, based on the use of an integrase (Int) and a resolvo-invertase (β-recombinase) and their respective target sites (attP-attB and six, respectively) is reported. The delivery system contains a heterologous replication origin and antibiotic resistance markers surrounded by two directly oriented six sites, a multiple cloning site where passenger DNA could be inserted (e.g., the cI gene of bacteriophage A2), the int gene, and the attP site of phage A2. The clearing system provides a plasmid-borne gene encoding β-recombinase. The nonreplicative vector-borne delivery system was transformed into Lactobacillus casei ATCC 393 and, by site-specific recombination, integrated as a single copy in an orientation- and Int-dependent manner into the attB site present in the genome of the host strain. The transfer of the clearing system into this strain, with the subsequent expression of the β-recombinase, led to site-specific DNA resolution of the non-food-grade DNA. These methods were validated by the construction of a stable food-grade L. casei ATCC 393-derived strain completely immune to phage A2 infection during milk fermentation. PMID:10831443

  11. Recombinant renewable polyclonal antibodies

    PubMed Central

    Ferrara, Fortunato; D’Angelo, Sara; Gaiotto, Tiziano; Naranjo, Leslie; Tian, Hongzhao; Gräslund, Susanne; Dobrovetsky, Elena; Hraber, Peter; Lund-Johansen, Fridtjof; Saragozza, Silvia; Sblattero, Daniele; Kiss, Csaba; Bradbury, Andrew RM

    2015-01-01

    Only a small fraction of the antibodies in a traditional polyclonal antibody mixture recognize the target of interest, frequently resulting in undesirable polyreactivity. Here, we show that high-quality recombinant polyclonals, in which hundreds of different antibodies are all directed toward a target of interest, can be easily generated in vitro by combining phage and yeast display. We show that, unlike traditional polyclonals, which are limited resources, recombinant polyclonal antibodies can be amplified over one hundred million-fold without losing representation or functionality. Our protocol was tested on 9 different targets to demonstrate how the strategy allows the selective amplification of antibodies directed toward desirable target specific epitopes, such as those found in one protein but not a closely related one, and the elimination of antibodies recognizing common epitopes, without significant loss of diversity. These recombinant renewable polyclonal antibodies are usable in different assays, and can be generated in high throughput. This approach could potentially be used to develop highly specific recombinant renewable antibodies against all human gene products. PMID:25530082

  12. Recombinant DNA for Teachers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duvall, James G., III

    1992-01-01

    A science teacher describes his experience at a workshop to learn to teach the Cold Spring Harbor DNA Science Laboratory Protocols. These protocols lead students through processes for taking E. coli cells and transforming them into a new antibiotic resistant strain. The workshop featured discussions of the role of DNA recombinant technology in…

  13. Recombineering Pseudomonas syringae

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Here we report the identification of functions that promote genomic recombination of linear DNA introduced into Pseudomonas cells by electroporation. The genes encoding these functions were identified in Pseudomonas syringae pv. syringae B728a based on similarity to the lambda Red Exo/Beta and RecE...

  14. Oligonucleotide recombination in bacteria

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Today, there are more than 1,500 completed or draft bacterial genome sequences available for public access. To functionally analyze these genomes and to test the hypotheses that are generated from the sequence information we require new and generically useful tools. Recombineering (genetic engineer...

  15. Photoinduced silver nanoparticles/nanorings on plasmid DNA scaffolds.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jianhua; Zhang, Xiaoliang; Yu, Mei; Li, Songmei; Zhang, Jindan

    2012-01-23

    Biological scaffolds are being actively explored for the synthesis of nanomaterials with novel structures and unexpected properties. Toroidal plasmid DNA separated from the Bacillus host is applied as a sacrificial mold for the synthesis of silver nanoparticles and nanorings. The photoirradiation method is applied to reduce Ag(I) on the plasmid. The nanoparticles are obtained by varying the concentration of the Ag(I) ion solution and the exposure time of the plasmid-Ag(I) complex under UV light at 254 nm and room temperature. It is found that the plasmid serves not only as a template but also as a reductant to drive the silver nucleation and deposition. The resulting nanoparticles have a face-centered cubic (fcc) crystal structure and 20-30 nm average diameter. The detailed mechanism is discussed, and other metals or alloys could also be synthesized with this method. PMID:22102552

  16. A series of template plasmids for Escherichia coli genome engineering.

    PubMed

    Deb, Shalini S; Reshamwala, Shamlan M S; Lali, Arvind M

    2016-06-01

    Metabolic engineering strategies often employ multi-copy episomal vectors to overexpress genes. However, chromosome-based overexpression is preferred as it avoids the use of selective pressure and reduces metabolic burden on the cell. We have constructed a series of template plasmids for λ Red-mediated Escherichia coli genome engineering. The template plasmids allow construction of genome integrating cassettes that can be used to integrate single copies of DNA sequences at predetermined sites or replace promoter regions. The constructed cassettes provide flexibility in terms of expression levels achieved and antibiotics used for selection, as well as allowing construction of marker-free strains. The modular design of the template plasmids allows replacement of genetic parts to construct new templates. Gene integration and promoter replacement using the template plasmids are illustrated. PMID:27071533

  17. [New low-copy plasmid in cyanobacterium Anabaena variabilis].

    PubMed

    Mardanov, A V; Beletskiĭ, A V; Gumerov, V M; Karbysheva, E A; Mikheeva, L E

    2013-08-01

    Complete genome sequencing was performed for Anabaena variabilis ATCC 29413 from the collection of the Chair of Genetics, Department of Biology, Moscow State University, Russia. In addition to known plasmids A, B, and C, a new circular low-copy plasmid was detected and named D. It was also sequenced completely and found to have 27051 bp. The plasmid contained the parA and parB genes of the partition system, two genes that encode replication proteins, a gene for site-specific recombinase, atype-I restriction-modification system, and several genes with unknown functions. Analysis by PCR revealed the presence of plasmid D in two epiphytic strains from Vietnam, i.e., Anabaena sp. 182 and Anabaena sp. 281, as well as in Anabaena sp. V5 and A. azollae (Newton's isolate). PMID:25474879

  18. [New low-copy plasmid in cyanobacterium Anabaena variabilis].

    PubMed

    2013-08-01

    Complete genome sequencing was performed for Anabaena variabilis ATCC 29413 from the collection of the Chair of Genetics, Department of Biology, Moscow State University, Russia. In addition to known plasmids A, B, and C, a new circular low-copy plasmid was detected and named D. It was also sequenced completely and found to have 27051 bp. The plasmid contained the parA and parB genes of the partition system, two genes that encode replication proteins, a gene for site-specific recombinase, atype-I restriction-modification system, and several genes with unknown functions. Analysis by PCR revealed the presence of plasmid D in two epiphytic strains from Vietnam, i.e., Anabaena sp. 182 and Anabaena sp. 281, as well as in Anabaena sp. V5 and A. azollae (Newton's isolate). PMID:25508658

  19. Plasmid content of isolates of Erwinia amylovora from orchards in Washington and Oregon in the USA

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Nearly all strains of Erwinia amylovora carry plasmid pEA29, which has not been found in other species of bacteria. Additional plasmids have been reported in the pathogen isolates from Western states, such as a plasmid in strain CA11 that carries streptomycin-resistance genes and the plasmid pEU30,...

  20. Isolation of cis-acting vaccinia virus DNA fragments promoting the expression of herpes simplex virus thymidine kinase by recombinant viruses.

    PubMed Central

    Vassef, A; Mars, M; Dru, A; Plucienniczak, A; Streeck, R E; Beaud, G

    1985-01-01

    Recombinant TK- vaccinia viruses containing the pBR322 sequence inserted in either orientation within the coding sequence of the viral thymidine kinase gene were constructed. They were characterized by genomic analysis, hybridization studies, reversion to wild-type virus by in vivo recombination, and rescue from their genomes of plasmids which contained all or parts of the pBR322 sequence. TK- cells were infected with one of these recombinant viruses and then transfected with pools of chimeric plasmids composed of a cloned herpes simplex virus thymidine kinase gene which contained upstream inserts of different vaccinia DNA fragments prepared by restriction or sonication. Recombination between homologous pBR322 sequences within infected cells generated selectable recombinant viruses in which expression of the herpes simplex virus thymidine kinase gene was promoted by the upstream vaccinia insert. These viruses were characterized by genomic analysis, hybridization, and in vivo or in vitro phosphorylation of (5-[125I]deoxycytidine as a specific assay for the expressed herpes simplex virus thymidine kinase. Vaccinia DNA inserts were isolated conveniently for transfer to bacteria by rescuing appropriate plasmids from the genome of recombinant viruses. The sequence of 100 nucleotides adjacent to the upstream region of the herpes simplex virus gene was determined in nine different inserts measuring 0.17 to 1.07 kilobase pairs. Images PMID:2989553

  1. Transfer of plasmids by conjugation in Streptococcus pneumoniae

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, M.D.; Shoemaker, N.B.; Burdett, V.; Guild, W.R.

    1980-01-01

    Transfer of resistance plasmids occurred by conjugation in Streptococcus pneumoniae (pneumococcus) similiarly to the process in other streptococcal groups. The 20-megadalton plasmid pIP501 mediated its own DNase-resistant transfer by filter mating and mobilized the 3.6-megadalton non-self-transmissible pMV158. Pneumococcal strains acted as donors or as recipients for intraspecies transfers and for interspecific transfers with Streptococcus faecalis. Transfer-deficient mutants of pIP501 have been found.

  2. A novel chromatographic procedure for purification of bacterial plasmids.

    PubMed

    Bywater, M; Bywater, R; Hellman, L

    1983-07-01

    A new, rapid procedure for purifying bacterial plasmids with high recovery is described. The sequence of operations consists essentially of treatment with alkali, ribonuclease, and proteinase K, followed by chisam extraction and gel filtration on Sephacryl S-1000, and finally a precipitation step using isopropanol at room temperature. The method gives rather good yields of plasmid DNA of high purity, and lends itself to scaling up. PMID:6312836

  3. Characterization of the tyrosine recombinase MrpA encoded by the Streptomyces coelicolor A3(2) plasmid SCP2*.

    PubMed

    Warth, Lydia; Haug, Iris; Altenbuchner, Josef

    2011-03-01

    MrpA is the multimer resolution protein of the Streptomyces coelicolor A3(2) plasmid SCP2*. Previously, MrpA was found to significantly increase the stability of SCP2*-derived plasmids in Streptomyces lividans. The present report gives a functional characterization of MrpA. A sequence alignment revealed that MrpA shares highly conserved residues with members of the tyrosine recombinase family. After overexpression and Strep-tag purification, a DNase I footprint analysis and a gel mobility shift assay allowed for the identification of the 36-bp MrpA binding site mrpS. The mrpS site shows the configuration typical for tyrosine recombinases and contains two MrpA binding sites. The activity of MrpA was explored in vivo in E. coli cells and in vitro using purified MrpA. Depending on the position and orientation of the mrpS sites, three activities were detected: integration, resolution, and inversion. No accessory sites or proteins were required. Substitution of the conserved tyrosine (Y354F) by site-directed mutagenesis resulted in a complete loss of recombination activity but it still allowed the binding of MrpA to mrpS. The results define MrpA as a new site-specific tyrosine recombinase that acts with mrpS. In addition, we suggest that Y354 provides the nucleophile for DNA cleavage during recombination. PMID:21165603

  4. Enhanced Delivery of Plasmid Encoding Interleukin-12 Gene by Diethylene Triamine Penta-Acetic Acid (DTPA)-Conjugated PEI Nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Dehshahri, Ali; Sadeghpour, Hossein; Keykhaee, Maryam; Khalvati, Bahman; Sheikhsaran, Fatemeh

    2016-05-01

    Recombinant therapeutic proteins have been considered as an efficient category of medications used for the treatment of various diseases. Despite their effectiveness, there are some reports on the systemic adverse effects of recombinant therapeutic proteins limiting their wide clinical applications. Among different cytokines used for cancer immunotherapy, interleukin-12 (IL-12) has shown great ability as a powerful antitumor and antiangiogenic agent. However, significant toxic reactions following the systemic administration of IL-12 have led researchers to seek for alternative approaches such as the delivery and local expression of the IL-12 gene inside the tumor tissues. In order to transfer the plasmid encoding IL-12 gene, the most extensively investigated polycationic polymer, polyethylenimine (PEI), was modified by diethylene triamine penta-acetic acid (DTPA) to modulate the hydrophobic-hydrophilic balance of the polymer as well as its toxicity. DTPA-conjugated PEI derivatives were able to form complexes in the size range around 100-180 nm with great condensation ability and protection of the plasmid against enzymatic degradation. The highest gene transfer ability was achieved by the DTPA-conjugated PEI at the conjugation degree of 0.1 % where the level of IL-12 production increased up to twofold compared with that of the unmodified PEI. Results of the present study demonstrated that modulation of the surface positive charge of PEI along with the improvement of the polymer hydrophobic balance could be considered as a successful strategy to develop safe and powerful nanocarriers. PMID:26801817

  5. A Novel and Simple Method for Rapid Generation of Recombinant Porcine Adenoviral Vectors for Transgene Expression

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Jing; Wang, Wenbin; Zhang, Lu; Tikoo, Suresh K.; Yang, Zengqi

    2015-01-01

    Many human (different serotypes) and nonhuman adenovirus vectors are being used for gene delivery. However, the current system for isolating recombinant adenoviral vectors is either time-consuming or expensive, especially for the generation of recombinant non-human adenoviral vectors. We herein report a new and simple cloning approach for the rapid generation of a porcine adenovirus (PAdV-3) vector which shows promise for gene transfer to human cells and evasion of human adenovirus type 5 (HAdV-5) immunity. Based on the final cloning plasmid, pFPAV3-CcdB-Cm, and our modified SLiCE strategy (SLiCE cloning and lethal CcdB screening), the process for generating recombinant PAdV-3 plasmids required only one step in 3 days, with a cloning efficiency as high as 620±49.56 clones/ng and zero background (100% accuracy). The recombinant PAdV-3 plasmids could be successfully rescued in porcine retinal pigment epithelium cells (VR1BL), which constitutively express the HAdV-5 E1 and PAdV-3 E1B 55k genes, and the foreign genes were highly expressed at 24 h after transduction into swine testicle (ST) cells. In conclusion, this strategy for generating recombinant PAdV-3 vectors based on our modified SLiCE cloning system was rapid and cost-efficient, which could be used as universal cloning method for modification the other regions of PAdV-3 genome as well as other adenoviral genomes. PMID:26011074

  6. Identifying the Effects of BRCA1 Mutations on Homologous Recombination using Cells that Express Endogenous Wild-type BRCA1

    PubMed Central

    Parvin, Jeffrey; Chiba, Natsuko; Ransburgh, Derek

    2011-01-01

    The functional analysis of missense mutations can be complicated by the presence in the cell of the endogenous protein. Structure-function analyses of the BRCA1 have been complicated by the lack of a robust assay for the full length BRCA1 protein and the difficulties inherent in working with cell lines that express hypomorphic BRCA1 protein1,2,3,4,5. We developed a system whereby the endogenous BRCA1 protein in a cell was acutely depleted by RNAi targeting the 3'-UTR of the BRCA1 mRNA and replaced by co-transfecting a plasmid expressing a BRCA1 variant. One advantage of this procedure is that the acute silencing of BRCA1 and simultaneous replacement allow the cells to grow without secondary mutations or adaptations that might arise over time to compensate for the loss of BRCA1 function. This depletion and add-back procedure was done in a HeLa-derived cell line that was readily assayed for homologous recombination activity. The homologous recombination assay is based on a previously published method whereby a recombination substrate is integrated into the genome (Figure 1)6,7,8,9. This recombination substrate has the rare-cutting I-SceI restriction enzyme site inside an inactive GFP allele, and downstream is a second inactive GFP allele. Transfection of the plasmid that expresses I-SceI results in a double-stranded break, which may be repaired by homologous recombination, and if homologous recombination does repair the break it creates an active GFP allele that is readily scored by flow cytometry for GFP protein expression. Depletion of endogenous BRCA1 resulted in an 8-10-fold reduction in homologous recombination activity, and add-back of wild-type plasmid fully restored homologous recombination function. When specific point mutants of full length BRCA1 were expressed from co-transfected plasmids, the effect of the specific missense mutant could be scored. As an example, the expression of the BRCA1(M18T) protein, a variant of unknown clinical significance10, was

  7. Genomic homologous recombination in planta.

    PubMed Central

    Gal, S; Pisan, B; Hohn, T; Grimsley, N; Hohn, B

    1991-01-01

    A system for monitoring intrachromosomal homologous recombination in whole plants is described. A multimer of cauliflower mosaic virus (CaMV) sequences, arranged such that CaMV could only be produced by recombination, was integrated into Brassica napus nuclear DNA. This set-up allowed scoring of recombination events by the appearance of viral symptoms. The repeated homologous regions were derived from two different strains of CaMV so that different recombinant viruses (i.e. different recombination events) could be distinguished. In most of the transgenic plants, a single major virus species was detected. About half of the transgenic plants contained viruses of the same type, suggesting a hotspot for recombination. The remainder of the plants contained viruses with cross-over sites distributed throughout the rest of the homologous sequence. Sequence analysis of two recombinant molecules suggest that mismatch repair is linked to the recombination process. Images PMID:2026150

  8. Exposing Plasmids as the Achilles’ Heel of Drug-Resistant Bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Williams, Julia J.; Hergenrother, Paul J.

    2008-01-01

    Many multi-drug resistant bacterial pathogens harbor large plasmids that encode proteins conferring resistance to antibiotics. While the acquisition of these plasmids often enables bacteria to survive in the presence of antibiotics, it is possible that plasmids also represent a vulnerability that can be exploited in tailored antibacterial therapy. This review highlights three recently described strategies designed to specifically combat bacteria harboring such plasmids: Inhibition of plasmid conjugation, inhibition of plasmid replication, and exploitation of plasmid-encoded toxin-antitoxin systems. PMID:18625335

  9. Automated Filtration-Based High-Throughput Plasmid Preparation System

    PubMed Central

    Itoh, Masayoshi; Kitsunai, Tokuji; Akiyama, Junichi; Shibata, Kazuhiro; Izawa, Masaki; Kawai, Jun; Tomaru, Yasuhiro; Carninci, Piero; Shibata, Yuko; Ozawa, Yasuhiro; Muramatsu, Masami; Okazaki, Yasushi; Hayashizaki, Yoshihide

    1999-01-01

    Current methods of plasmid preparation do not allow for large capacity automated processing. We have developed an automated high-throughput system that prepares plasmid DNA for large-scale sequencing. This system is based on our previously reported filtration method. In this method, cell harvesting, alkaline lysis, and plasmid purification occur in a single 96-well microtiter plate from which sequence-ready DNA samples are collected. The plates are designed to allow all reagents to be injected from above the wells and the spent reagents to be aspirated from below. This design has enabled us to build a linear process plasmid preparation system consisting of an automated filter plate stacker and a 21-stage automated plasmid preparator. The 96-well plates used are outfitted with glass-filters that trap Escherichia coli before the plates are stacked in the automated stacker. The plates move from the stacker to each of the 21 stages of the preparator. At specific stages, various reagents or chemicals are injected into the wells from above. Finally, the plates are collected in the second stacker. The optimal throughput of the preparator is 40,000 samples in 17.5 hr. Here, we describe a pilot experiment preparing 15,360 templates in 160 specially designed 96-well glass-filter plates. The prepared plasmids were subjected to restriction digestion, DNA sequencing, and transcriptional sequencing. PMID:10330126

  10. Functional analysis of the yeast plasmid partition locus STB

    PubMed Central

    Murray, James A. H.; Cesareni, Gianni

    1986-01-01

    Derivatives of the yeast 2μ plasmid with the cis-acting locus STB (also called REP3) are stably maintained if two plasmid-encoded proteins are present in trans. There are conflicting reports of both the extent of STB and its possible involvement in plasmid partition or copy number control. We have resolved the controversy by constructing 2µ derivatives with a conditional STB function, and showing that when STB is inactivated plasmids become concentrated in a small fraction of the population although the total number of plasmids remains unaltered. Moreover we show that STB consists of two functionally distinct domains which we call STB-proximal and STB-distal relative to the origin of replication. Although STB-proximal is sufficient for proper partitioning, this function is severely disrupted by active transcription from neighbouring sequences. STB-distal is important to protect STB-proximal and ORI from such transcription, and can be effeciently replaced by a 94-bp terminator fragment in an orientation-dependent manner. We find that STB-distal contains an additional element which depresses transcription from upstream promoters. We also describe the phenomenon of replicaton inhibition which we believe can exlain the anomalous instability of some yeast plasmids. ImagesFig. 4.Fig. 5.Fig. 6.Fig. 7. PMID:16453734

  11. Plasmid Carriage and the Serum Sensitivity of Enterobacteria

    PubMed Central

    Taylor, Peter W.; Hughes, Colin

    1978-01-01

    The carriage of a range of plasmids by rough, serum-sensitive laboratory strains of Escherichia coli made no difference to their reactivity in human serum as determined by two methods. Plasmid-carrying enterobacteria isolated from polluted river water gave a variety of responses to serum. Smooth E. coli river isolate C8 was killed by serum but only after a delay of 1 h, and curing of antibiotic resistance and colicin determinants from this strain led to a small but significant increase in serum sensitivity. Plasmids from eight strains were transferred by conjugation to a cured derivative of C8 (C8−NalR), and in six cases a significant increase in the serum resistance of the progeny was observed. Plasmid-mediated enhancement of resistance was particularly marked with plasmids R1 and NR1, and a round of replication mutant of NR1 conferred greater resistance than did the normal R factor. However, R1 and NR1 were unable to modify the serum response of a cured strain (P21−NalR) derived from promptly serum-sensitive isolate P21. These findings suggest that lipopolysaccharide O-side chains, the cell surface components responsible for the delay in serum killing, are essential for the expression of plasmid factors that modify sensitivity to serum. Examination of K(A)− variants of two isolates indicated that the K(A) antigen has only a marginal effect on the serum response. PMID:365738

  12. Construction and Immunogenicity Analysis of Hepatitis C Virus (HCV) Truncated Non-Structural Protein 3 (NS3) Plasmid Vaccine

    PubMed Central

    Pouriayevali, Mohammad-Hassan; Bamdad, Taravat; Aghasadeghi, Mohammad-Reza; Sadat, Seyed Mehdi; Sabahi, Farzaneh

    2016-01-01

    Background To develop hepatitis C virus (HCV) vaccine, induction of potent humoral and T cell response against immunogenic targets with conserved region should be achieved. T cell response against NS3 is often associated with complete clearance of the virus. Objectives Herein, we expressed the truncated form of NS3 in a mammalian cell line and evaluated immune responses of NS3 DNA vaccine in BALB/c. Materials and Methods The partial length of NS3 gene, which encodes immunogenic epitopes (1095 - 1379 aa), was amplified by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) on RNA obtained from a patient with HCV, inserted into pcDNA3.1 plasmid using XhoI/HindIII sites, and finally evaluated by restriction analysis and sequencing. After transfection of the recombinant plasmid into HEK293T cells, the NS3 protein expression was confirmed by western blotting. Mice were immunized intra-dermally close to the base of the mice tail with four doses in two-weeks intervals and the immune responses were assessed using total and subtypes of IgG antibody assay, cell proliferation and cytokine assay. Results The pcDNA3.1 plasmid harboring the coding sequence of NS3 (pc-NS3) was constructed and confirmed with the expected size. Proper expression of the recombinant protein in transfected HEK 293T cells was confirmed using western blotting. The immunization results indicated that pc-NS3 induced significant levels of total antibody, IgG2a subclass antibody, Interferon (IFN)-γ, Interleukin (IL)-4 and proliferation assay compared to the control group (P < 0.05). Conclusions The pc-NS3 possesses the capacity to express NS3 in the mammalian cell line and demonstrated strong immunogenicity in a murine model. Our primary results demonstrated that the immunogenic truncated region of NS3 could be used as a potential vaccine candidate against hepatitis C. PMID:27226878

  13. Dye affinity cryogels for plasmid DNA purification.

    PubMed

    Çimen, Duygu; Yılmaz, Fatma; Perçin, Işık; Türkmen, Deniz; Denizli, Adil

    2015-11-01

    The aim of this study is to prepare megaporous dye-affinity cryogel discs for the purification of plasmid DNA (pDNA) from bacterial lysate. Poly(hydroxyethyl methacrylate) [PHEMA] cryogel discs were produced by free radical polymerization initiated by N,N,N',N'-tetramethylene diamine (TEMED) and ammonium persulfate (APS) redox pair in an ice bath. Cibacron Blue F3GA was used as an affinity ligand (loading amount: 68.9μmol/g polymer). The amount of pDNA adsorbed onto the PHEMA-Cibacron Blue F3GA cryogel discs first increased and then reached a plateau value (i.e., 32.5mg/g cryogel) at 3.0mg/mL pDNA concentration. Compared with the PHEMA cryogel (0.11mg/g cryogel), the pDNA adsorption capacity of the PHEMA-Cibacron Blue F3GA cryogel (32.4mg/g polymer) was improved significantly due to the Cibacron Blue 3GA immobilization onto the polymeric matrix. pDNA adsorption amount decreased from 11.7mg/g to 1.1mg/g with the increasing of NaCl concentration. The maximum pDNA adsorption was achieved at 4°C. The overall recovery of pDNA was calculated as 90%. The PHEMA-Cibacron Blue F3GA cryogel discs could be used five times without decreasing the pDNA adsorption capacity significantly. The results show that the PHEMA-Cibacron Blue F3GA cryogel discs promise high selectivity for pDNA. PMID:26249596

  14. Suppression of the Formation of Polygenotypic Recombinant Colonies by a maf Mutation in Mating with Hfrh

    PubMed Central

    Ou, Jonathan T.; Kuo, Li-Mei

    1979-01-01

    W3011, a Cavalli-type Hfr (HfrC), was mated with F-KY9474, maf-1, which cannot maintain F or F-like plasmids, and with F-OU9474, Maf+, a spontaneous revertant of KY9474. The recombinant colonies obtained were 100% monogenotypic from KY9474 and 90% monogenotypic from OU9474. On the other hand, in matings with OU11, a Hayes-type Hfr (HfrH), and these two F- strains, recombinant colonies derived from KY9474 showed only 22% polygenotypic recombinant colonies; whereas, those derived from OU9474 showed a high production rate (57%) of polygenotypic recombinant colonies. Among the polygenotypic recombinant colonies derived from KY9474 maf-1, 50% contained three or more recombinant types. These were probably derived from a small fraction of Maf+ revertants in the KY9474 population, as suggested by the results of mating this strain with M80, an F' strain that contains an amber mutation in traH. These results support the hypothesis that the donor DNA fragments derived from an HfrH can undergo a limited replication in the recipient to produce polygenotypic recombinant colonies, whereas those derived from HfrC cannot. PMID:395025

  15. Relationship between pNG2, an Emr plasmid in Corynebacterium diphtheriae, and plasmids in aerobic skin coryneforms.

    PubMed Central

    Schiller, J; Strom, M; Groman, N; Coyle, M

    1983-01-01

    Erythromycin-resistant (Emr) coryneforms from cutaneous lesions and erythromycin-susceptible (Ems) coryneforms from normal skin sites were screened for plasmids. Approximately one-third of the 40 isolates carried one or more plasmids ranging in mass from 2.5 to 36 megadaltons, all exhibiting different restriction enzyme digest patterns. In contrast, only Corynebacterium diphtheriae strains comprising a single cohort of apparently identical Emr, pNG2-carrying isolates have been identified as plasmid carriers. Homology was demonstrated between pNG2 and a number of fragments in restriction enzyme digests of plasmids from both Emr and Ems skin coryneforms under high-stringency conditions. However, none was detected between pNG2 and the genomic or plasmid DNAs of Emr staphylococci or streptococci isolated concurrently with the Emr coryneforms. One coryneform plasmid, pNG34, exhibited extensive homology with pNG2, and many comigrating fragments were observed. Very little relationship was observed between C. diphtheriae and the skin coryneforms when their genomic DNAs were hybridized. The origin and presence of pNG2 in Emr C. diphtheriae is discussed in relation to these findings. Images PMID:6318665

  16. Radiosensitivity of plasmid DNA: role of topology and concentration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giustranti, C.; Pérez, C.; Rousset, S.; Balanzat, E.; Sage, E.

    1999-01-01

    Using the plasmid relaxation assay, the induction of single strand breaks (SSB) by ionizing radiation was investigated in two plasmids of different length, pBS and pSP189. The dose-response was linear for both plasmids but pSP189 exhibited a three times higher sensitivity than pBS. This disparity may be explained by a reduced accessibility to hydroxyl radicals due to a different topology of each plasmid, i.e. degree of compaction, as observed with electron microscopy. pBS plasmid was also exposed at various DNA concentrations to rays. The yield of SSB decreased with increasing concentration, suggesting a diminution in the amount of hydroxyl radicals efficient for radiolytic attack. This effect of concentration was also observed with densely ionizing radiation. In conclusion, the accessibility of DNA is a key-parameter in the formation of damage in vitro and in vivo as well. En utilisant la technique de relaxation de plasmide, l'induction de cassures simple brin (SSB) par les radiations ? a été comparée dans deux plasmides de taille différente, pSP189 et pBS. La relation dose-effet est linéaire pour les deux plasmides, mais il se forme trois fois plus de SSB dans pSP189 que dans pBS. Cette disparité semble pouvoir être reliée au degré de compaction différent des plasmides, observé en microscopie électronique. Elle s'expliquerait en terme d'accessibilité aux espèces radicalaires formées lors de la radiolyse de l'eau. Le plasmide pBS, à différentes concentrations, a été ensuite exposé aux radiations γ. Le taux de cassures décroit lorsque la concentration en ADN croit, suggérant une diminution du nombre de radicaux pouvant efficacement réagir avec l'ADN. Cet effet a également été mis en évidence lors d'une irradiation avec des particules de TEL élevé. En conclusion, l'accessibilité de l'ADN est un paramètre- clé dans la formation des dommages, tant in vitro que in vivo.

  17. Homologous recombination in plant cells is enhanced by in vivo induction of double strand breaks into DNA by a site-specific endonuclease.

    PubMed Central

    Puchta, H; Dujon, B; Hohn, B

    1993-01-01

    Induction of double strand breaks (DSBs) is coupled to meiotic and mitotic recombination in yeast. We show that also in a higher eukaryote induction of DSBs is directly correlated with a strong enhancement of recombination frequencies. We cotransfected Nicotiana plumbaginifolia protoplasts with a plasmid carrying a synthetic I-SceI gene, coding for a highly sequence specific endonuclease, together with recombination substrates carrying an I-SceI-site adjacent to their homologous sequences. We measured efficiencies of extrachromosomal recombination, using a well established transient beta-glucuronidase (GUS) assay. GUS enzyme activities were strongly increased when a plasmid carrying the I-SceI gene in sense but not in antisense orientation with respect to the promoter was included in the transfections. The in vivo induced DSBs were detected in the recombination substrates by Southern blotting, demonstrating that the yeast enzyme is functional in plant cells. At high ratios of transfected I-SceI-genes to I-SceI-sites the majority of the I-SceI-sites in the recombination substrates are cleaved, indicating that the induction of the DSBs is the rate limiting step in the described recombination reaction. These results imply that in vivo induction of transient breaks at specific sites in the plant genome could allow foreign DNA to be targeted to these sites via homologous recombination. Images PMID:8255757

  18. Differential regulation of lambda pL and pR promoters by a cI repressor in a broad-host-range thermoregulated plasmid marker system.

    PubMed Central

    Winstanley, C; Morgan, J A; Pickup, R W; Jones, J G; Saunders, J R

    1989-01-01

    Plasmid systems with unique markers were constructed to assess the fate of recombinant DNA and genetically manipulated bacteria in soil and freshwater model environments. On such constructs the marker gene, xylE (for catechol 2,3-dioxygenase), is expressed from the lambda promoter pL or pR, each of which is controlled by the temperature-sensitive lambda repressor c1857. Combinations of these elements were cloned into the broad-host-range plasmid pKT230 to form pLV1010 (pL-xylE), pLV1011 (pL-xylE-c1857), and pLV1013 (pR-xylE-c1857). The recombinant plasmids were introduced into different gram-negative bacteria. The thermoregulated system of pLV1013 functioned well in a range of species, with xylE induction being readily achieved by elevation of the temperature from 28 to 37 degrees C. There was a difference in the induction of catechol 2,3-dioxygenase activity, depending on whether xylE was expressed from pL (pLV1011) or pR (pLV1013). Our observations on testing the different systems in a number of hosts suggest that genes carried by the DNA of genetically engineered microorganisms may not be expressed in a predictable manner following transfer from the release host to other species. Images PMID:2729979

  19. Construction of upp deletion mutant strains of Lactobacillus casei and Lactococcus lactis based on counterselective system using temperature-sensitive plasmid.

    PubMed

    Song, Li; Cui, Hongyu; Tang, Lijie; Qiao, Xinyuan; Liu, Min; Jiang, Yanping; Cui, Wen; Li, Yijing

    2014-07-01

    Integration plasmids are often used in constructing chromosomal mutations, as it enables the alternation of genes at any location by integration or replacement. Food-grade integration vectors can integrate into the host genome without introducing any selectable markers or residual bases, and the recombination often happens in non-coding region. In this study we used the temperature-sensitive pWV01 replicon to construct 2 chloramphenicol-resistant integration plasmids (pGBHC32-upp) containing the uracil phosphoribosyl transferase (upp) gene as a counterselective marker for Lactobacillus casei (L. casei) ATCC393 and Lactococcus lactis (L. lactis) MG1363. We then ligated the designed homologous arms to the pGBHC32-upp plasmids to allow their integration to the bacterial chromosome, and selected upp deletion mutants of L. casei ATCC393 and L. lactis MG1363 in the presence of 5-fluorouracil (5-FU). Analysis of genetic stability, growth curve, carbon utilization and scanning electronic microscopy showed that, except for 5-FU resistance, there were no significant differences between the wild type and mutant lactic acid bacteria. The integration system and the upp deletion strains could be used in the insertion or deletion of genes at any location of the chromosome of both L. casei ATCC 393 and L. lactis MG1363, and the homologous recombination would not introduce any selectable markers or residual bases. These mutant strains can be further investigated for heterologous protein expression and construction of a live mucosal vaccine carrier. PMID:24798148

  20. Recombinant vaccines against leptospirosis.

    PubMed

    Dellagostin, Odir A; Grassmann, André A; Hartwig, Daiane D; Félix, Samuel R; da Silva, Éverton F; McBride, Alan J A

    2011-11-01

    Leptospirosis is an important neglected infectious disease that occurs in urban environments, as well as in rural regions worldwide. Rodents, the principal reservoir hosts of pathogenic Leptospira spp., and other infected animals shed the bacteria in their urine. During occupational or even recreational activities, humans that come into direct contact with infected animals or with a contaminated environment, particularly water, are at risk of infection. Prevention of urban leptospirosis is largely dependent on sanitation measures that are often difficult to implement, especially in developing countries. Vaccination with inactivated whole-cell preparations (bacterins) has limited efficacy due to the wide antigenic variation of the pathogen. Intensive efforts towards developing improved recombinant vaccines are ongoing. During the last decade, many reports on the evaluation of recombinant vaccines have been published. Partial success has been obtained with some surface-exposed protein antigens. The combination of protective antigens and new adjuvants or delivery systems may result in the much-needed effective vaccine. PMID:22048111

  1. Recombinant influenza vaccines.

    PubMed

    Sedova, E S; Shcherbinin, D N; Migunov, A I; Smirnov, Iu A; Logunov, D Iu; Shmarov, M M; Tsybalova, L M; Naroditskiĭ, B S; Kiselev, O I; Gintsburg, A L

    2012-10-01

    This review covers the problems encountered in the construction and production of new recombinant influenza vaccines. New approaches to the development of influenza vaccines are investigated; they include reverse genetics methods, production of virus-like particles, and DNA- and viral vector-based vaccines. Such approaches as the delivery of foreign genes by DNA- and viral vector-based vaccines can preserve the native structure of antigens. Adenoviral vectors are a promising gene-delivery platform for a variety of genetic vaccines. Adenoviruses can efficiently penetrate the human organism through mucosal epithelium, thus providing long-term antigen persistence and induction of the innate immune response. This review provides an overview of the practicability of the production of new recombinant influenza cross-protective vaccines on the basis of adenoviral vectors expressing hemagglutinin genes of different influenza strains. PMID:23346377

  2. Site directed recombination

    DOEpatents

    Jurka, Jerzy W.

    1997-01-01

    Enhanced homologous recombination is obtained by employing a consensus sequence which has been found to be associated with integration of repeat sequences, such as Alu and ID. The consensus sequence or sequence having a single transition mutation determines one site of a double break which allows for high efficiency of integration at the site. By introducing single or double stranded DNA having the consensus sequence flanking region joined to a sequence of interest, one can reproducibly direct integration of the sequence of interest at one or a limited number of sites. In this way, specific sites can be identified and homologous recombination achieved at the site by employing a second flanking sequence associated with a sequence proximal to the 3'-nick.

  3. Different expression systems for production of recombinant proteins in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Liu, Zihe; Tyo, Keith E J; Martínez, José L; Petranovic, Dina; Nielsen, Jens

    2012-05-01

    Yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae has become an attractive cell factory for production of commodity and speciality chemicals and proteins, such as industrial enzymes and pharmaceutical proteins. Here we evaluate most important expression factors for recombinant protein secretion: we chose two different proteins (insulin precursor (IP) and α-amylase), two different expression vectors (POTud plasmid and CPOTud plasmid) and two kinds of leader sequences (the glycosylated alpha factor leader and a synthetic leader with no glycosylation sites). We used IP and α-amylase as representatives of a simple protein and a multi-domain protein, as well as a non-glycosylated protein and a glycosylated protein, respectively. The genes coding for the two recombinant proteins were fused independently with two different leader sequences and were expressed using two different plasmid systems, resulting in eight different strains that were evaluated by batch fermentations. The secretion level (µmol/L) of IP was found to be higher than that of α-amylase for all expression systems and we also found larger variation in IP production for the different vectors. We also found that there is a change in protein production kinetics during the diauxic shift, that is, the IP was produced at higher rate during the glucose uptake phase, whereas amylase was produced at a higher rate in the ethanol uptake phase. For comparison, we also refer to data from another study, (Tyo et al. submitted) in which we used the p426GPD plasmid (standard vector using URA3 as marker gene and pGPD1 as expression promoter). For the IP there is more than 10-fold higher protein production with the CPOTud vector compared with the standard URA3-based vector, and this vector system therefore represent a valuable resource for future studies and optimization of recombinant protein production in yeast. PMID:22179756

  4. [Dual promoters enhance heterologous enzyme production from bacterial phage based recombinant Bacillus subtilis].

    PubMed

    Liu, Gang; Zhang, Yan; Xing, Miao

    2006-03-01

    The effect of dual promoters on recombinant protein production from bacterial phage based Bacillus subtilis expression system was investigated. Alpha amylase (from Bacillus amyloliquefaciens) and penicillin acylase (from Bacillus megaterium) were selected as the indicating enzymes. Both the promoterless genes and the promoter-bearing genes were isolated through PCR amplification with properly designed primers, and were inserted into plasmid pSG703 that contains the lacZ-cat expression cartridge. The lysogenic B. subtilis (phi105 MU331) was transformed with the resultant recombinant plasmids, and the heterologous genes were thereby integrated into the chromosommal DNA of B. subtilis via homologous recombination. The transformants were designated as B. subtilis AMY1, B. subtilis AMY2, B. subtilis PA1, and B. subtilis PA2, respectively. In the recombinant B. subtilis strains, the inserted sequences were located down stream of a strong phage promoter that could be activated by thermal induction. In B. subtilis AMY1 and B. subtilis PA1, transcription of the heterologous genes was only initiated by the phage promoter after heat shock, whereas in B. subtilis AMY2 and B. subtilis PA2, transcription of the heterologous genes was initiated by dual promoters, the phage promoter and the native promoter. The application of dual promoters increased the productivity of both enzymes, with 133% enhancement for alpha-amylase production and 113% enhancement for penicillin acylase production. PMID:16607942

  5. Construction and characterization of a recombinant human adenovirus vector expressing bone morphogenetic protein 2.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zheng; Wang, Guoxian; Li, Chen; Liu, Danping

    2013-08-01

    The aim of this study was to construct and characterize a novel recombinant human adenovirus vector expressing bone morphogenetic protein 2 (BMP2) and green fluorescent protein (GFP). The BMP2 gene in the plasmid pcDNA3-BMP2 was sequenced and the restriction enzyme recognition sites were analyzed. Following mutagenesis using polymerase chain reaction (PCR), the gene sequence after the translation termination codon was removed and new restriction sites were added. The mutated BMP2 gene (BMP2(+) gene) was cloned into an adenovirus shuttle vector to obtain pShuttle cytomegalovirus (CMV)-BMP2(+)-internal ribosome entry site (IRES)-hrGFP-1. The adenovirus plasmid pAd CMV-BMP2(+)-IRES-hrGFP-1 was constructed by homologous recombination and was transfected into HEK293A cells, followed by adenovirus packaging. pAd CMV-BMP2 was used as the control. The two types of adenovirus were transfected into marrow stromal cells (MSCs). The expression of BMP2 and GFP, as well as the alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity of expressed BMP2 were detected. Following mutagenesis, the BMP2 gene sequence and recombinant adenovirus vector were as predicted. The novel adenovirus vector expressed both BMP2 and GFP, indicating that a novel recombinant human adenovirus vector expressing BMP2 had been successfully constructed. PMID:24137184

  6. A proposed feeding strategy for the overproduction of recombinant proteins in Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Babaeipour, Valiollah; Shojaosadati, Seyed Abbas; Khalilzadeh, Rasoul; Maghsoudi, Nader; Tabandeh, Fatemeh

    2008-02-01

    Different feeding strategies for the production of human interferon-gamma using an isopropyl beta-D-thiogalactoside-inducible expression system in recombinant Escherichia coli BL21(DE3) (plasmid pET3a-ifngamma) were studied. Four fed-batch modes were designed to compare the effect of mu (specific growth rate) on recombinant-protein production, substrate consumption, by-product formation and plasmid stability during pre- and post-chemical induction in high-cell-density cultures of E. coli. It was found that Y(p/s), the product/substrate yield of interferon-gamma was significantly affected by mu throughout the process, but product/biomass yield (Y(p/x)) was influenced by mu at the pre-induction stage. By applying an efficient feeding strategy, in which the mu was maintained at the maximum attainable level, recombinant protein was accumulated up to a level of 60% of the total cell protein and its productivity was increased significantly. In this case, the overall productivities of biomass and recombinant protein were 6.36 g l(-1) h(-1) and 2.1 g l(-1) h(-1) respectively, in comparison with 1.91 g l(-1) h(-1) and 0.16 g l(-1) h(-1) during exponential feeding, in which the specific growth rate was kept constant throughout the entire process. PMID:17630954

  7. Intranasal Delivery of Recombinant NT4-NAP/AAV Exerts Potential Antidepressant Effect.

    PubMed

    Ma, Xian-Cang; Chu, Zheng; Zhang, Xiao-Ling; Jiang, Wen-Hui; Jia, Min; Dang, Yong-Hui; Gao, Cheng-Ge

    2016-06-01

    The present study was designed to construct a recombinant adeno-associated virus (rAAV) which can express NAP in the brain and examine whether this virus can produce antidepressant effects on C57 BL/6 mice that had been subjected to open field test and forced swimming test, via nose-to-brain pathway. When the recombinant plasmid pGEM-T Easy/NT4-NAP was digested by EcoRI, 297 bp fragments can be obtained and NT4-NAP sequence was consistent with the designed sequence confirmed by DNA sequencing. When the recombinant plasmid pSSCMV/NT4-NAP was digested by EcoRI, 297 bp fragments is visible. Immunohistochemical staining of fibroblasts revealed that expression of NAP was detected in NT4-NAP/AAV group. Intranasal delivery of NT4-NAP/AAV significantly reduced immobility time when the FST was performed after 1 day from the last administration. The effects observed in the FST could not be attributed to non-specific increases in activity since intranasal delivery of NT4-NAP/AAV did not alter the behavior of the mice during the open field test. The results indicated that a recombinant AAV vector which could express NAP in cells was successfully constructed and NAP may be a potential target for therapeutic action of antidepressant treatment. PMID:26846142

  8. Analysis of processing and polyadenylation signals of the hepatitis B virus surface antigen gene by using simian virus 40-hepatitis B virus chimeric plasmids

    SciTech Connect

    Simonsen, C.C.; Levinson, A.D.

    1983-12-01

    The authors examined the transcription of the hepatitis B virus surface antigen (HBsAg) gene in COs cells transfected with simian virus 40-based recombinant plasmids. When positioned behind the simian virus 40 late promoter, three transcripts were identified which hybridized to the HBsAg gene: a 2,000-nucleotide transcript colinear with a gene, a 1,100-nucleotide transcript representing a spliced molecule in which a major portion of the sequences encoding HBsAg were deleted, and an 800-nucleotide transcript derived primarily from sequences 3' to the HBsAg gene. The splice acceptor site utilized by the 1,100-nucleotide transcript is located immediately upstream of an open reading frame of unknown function contained within the 3' nontranslated region of the HBsAg gene. The HBsAg-specific mRNA species terminate 12 to 19 base pairs 3' of the sequence UAUAAA, similar to the concensus hexanucleotide which is thought to promote polyadenylation (AAUAAA). They constructed a series of plasmids with progressive deletions from the region surrounding where these transcripts terminate. Analysis of mRNA produced by cells transfected with these plasmids indicated that the signal hexanucleotide is in itself unable to promote the efficient processing of mRNA in the absence of downstream hepatitis B virus sequences. Processing proceeds properly, however, from plasmids containing an additional 30 nucleotides 3' of this signal.

  9. The IncP-6 Plasmid p10265-KPC from Pseudomonas aeruginosa Carries a Novel ΔISEc33-Associated bla KPC-2 Gene Cluster.

    PubMed

    Dai, Xiaotian; Zhou, Dongsheng; Xiong, Wei; Feng, Jiao; Luo, Wenbo; Luo, Guangming; Wang, Haijing; Sun, Fengjun; Zhou, Xiangdong

    2016-01-01

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa strain 10265 was recovered from a patient with pneumonia in a Chinese public hospital, and it displays the carbapenem resistance phenotype due to the acquisition of a non-conjugative but mobilizable IncP-6-type plasmid p10265-KPC. p10265-KPC carries a Tn5563-borne defective mer locus, and a novel ΔISEc33-associated bla KPC-2 gene cluster without paired inverted repeats and paired direct repeats at both ends. Mobilization of this ΔISEc33-associated element in p10265-KPC would be attributed to homologous recombination-based insertion of a foreign structure Tn3-ISApu1-orf7-ISApu2- ISKpn27-Δbla TEM-1 -bla KPC-2 -ΔISKpn6- korC-orf6-klcA-ΔrepB into a pre-existent intact ISEc33, making ISEc33 truncated at the 3' end. The previously reported pCOL-1 represents the first sequenced KPC-producing IncP-6 plasmid, while p10265-KPC is the second one. These two plasmids carry two distinct bla KPC-2 gene clusters, which are inserted into the different sites of the IncP-6 backbone and have different evolutionary histories of assembly and mobilization. This is the first report of identification of the IncP-6-type resistance plasmid in China. PMID:27014233

  10. The IncP-6 Plasmid p10265-KPC from Pseudomonas aeruginosa Carries a Novel ΔISEc33-Associated blaKPC-2 Gene Cluster

    PubMed Central

    Dai, Xiaotian; Zhou, Dongsheng; Xiong, Wei; Feng, Jiao; Luo, Wenbo; Luo, Guangming; Wang, Haijing; Sun, Fengjun; Zhou, Xiangdong

    2016-01-01

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa strain 10265 was recovered from a patient with pneumonia in a Chinese public hospital, and it displays the carbapenem resistance phenotype due to the acquisition of a non-conjugative but mobilizable IncP-6-type plasmid p10265-KPC. p10265-KPC carries a Tn5563-borne defective mer locus, and a novel ΔISEc33-associated blaKPC-2 gene cluster without paired inverted repeats and paired direct repeats at both ends. Mobilization of this ΔISEc33-associated element in p10265-KPC would be attributed to homologous recombination-based insertion of a foreign structure Tn3-ISApu1-orf7-ISApu2- ISKpn27-ΔblaTEM-1-blaKPC-2-ΔISKpn6- korC-orf6-klcA-ΔrepB into a pre-existent intact ISEc33, making ISEc33 truncated at the 3′ end. The previously reported pCOL-1 represents the first sequenced KPC-producing IncP-6 plasmid, while p10265-KPC is the second one. These two plasmids carry two distinct blaKPC-2 gene clusters, which are inserted into the different sites of the IncP-6 backbone and have different evolutionary histories of assembly and mobilization. This is the first report of identification of the IncP-6-type resistance plasmid in China. PMID:27014233

  11. Genetic mapping of the obligate methylotroph Methylobacillus flagellatum: characteristics of prime plasmids and mapping of the chromosome in time-of-entry units.

    PubMed Central

    Tsygankov, Y D; Kazakova, S M; Serebrijski, I G

    1990-01-01

    A pULB113 (RP4::mini-Mu cts) plasmid was used to generate a library of prime plasmids carrying fragments of the Methylobacillus flagellatum genome. The genes carried by these prime plasmids were identified by complementation after transfer to suitably marked Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa strains. The hybrid plasmids were used for complementation mapping with a range of E. coli, M. flagellatum, and P. aeruginosa mutants. A preliminary map of the M. flagellatum genome section with seven groups of linked markers was obtained. Three of seven groups contain an overlapping sequence of cloned genes and can be considered as one large group of linked genes. A high-frequency-of-recombination donor of M. flagellatum (strain MFK64) mobilized the chromosome in a polarized manner from a single transfer origin. The donor was used to construct a time-of-entry map of the M. flagellatum chromosome. This was achieved by determining the time of entry of six randomly dispersed markers, four of which are included in known groups of linked markers. The linear map of M. flagellatum reported here consists of 44 markers. PMID:2110149

  12. The recombination epoch revisited

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krolik, Julian H.

    1989-01-01

    Previous studies of cosmological recombination have shown that this process produces as a by-product a highly superthermal population of Ly-alpha photons which retard completion of recombination. Cosmological redshifting was thought to determine the frequency distribution of the photons, while two-photon decay of hydrogen's 2s state was thought to control their numbers. It is shown here that frequency diffusion due to photon scattering dominate the cosmological redshift in the frequency range near line center which fixes the ratio of ground state to excited state population, while incoherent scattering into the far-red damping wing effectively destroys Ly-alpha photons as a rate which is competitive with two-photon decay. The former effect tends to hold back recombination, while the latter tends to accelerate it; the net results depends on cosmological parameters, particularly the combination Omega(b) h/sq rt (2q0), where Omega(b) is the fraction of the critical density provided by baryons.

  13. Plasmids and Rickettsial Evolution: Insight from Rickettsia felis

    PubMed Central

    Gillespie, Joseph J.; Beier, Magda S.; Rahman, M. Sayeedur; Ammerman, Nicole C.; Shallom, Joshua M.; Purkayastha, Anjan; Sobral, Bruno S.; Azad, Abdu F.

    2007-01-01

    Background The genome sequence of Rickettsia felis revealed a number of rickettsial genetic anomalies that likely contribute not only to a large genome size relative to other rickettsiae, but also to phenotypic oddities that have confounded the categorization of R. felis as either typhus group (TG) or spotted fever group (SFG) rickettsiae. Most intriguing was the first report from rickettsiae of a conjugative plasmid (pRF) that contains 68 putative open reading frames, several of which are predicted to encode proteins with high similarity to conjugative machinery in other plasmid-containing bacteria. Methodology/Principal Findings Using phylogeny estimation, we determined the mode of inheritance of pRF genes relative to conserved rickettsial chromosomal genes. Phylogenies of chromosomal genes were in agreement with other published rickettsial trees. However, phylogenies including pRF genes yielded different topologies and suggest a close relationship between pRF and ancestral group (AG) rickettsiae, including the recently completed genome of R. bellii str. RML369-C. This relatedness is further supported by the distribution of pRF genes across other rickettsiae, as 10 pRF genes (or inactive derivatives) also occur in AG (but not SFG) rickettsiae, with five of these genes characteristic of typical plasmids. Detailed characterization of pRF genes resulted in two novel findings: the identification of oriV and replication termination regions, and the likelihood that a second proposed plasmid, pRFδ, is an artifact of the original genome assembly. Conclusion/Significance Altogether, we propose a new rickettsial classification scheme with the addition of a fourth lineage, transitional group (TRG) rickettsiae, that is unique from TG and SFG rickettsiae and harbors genes from possible exchanges with AG rickettsiae via conjugation. We offer insight into the evolution of a plastic plasmid system in rickettsiae, including the role plasmids may have played in the acquirement of

  14. Gene doctoring: a method for recombineering in laboratory and pathogenic Escherichia coli strains

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background Homologous recombination mediated by the λ-Red genes is a common method for making chromosomal modifications in Escherichia coli. Several protocols have been developed that differ in the mechanisms by which DNA, carrying regions homologous to the chromosome, are delivered into the cell. A common technique is to electroporate linear DNA fragments into cells. Alternatively, DNA fragments are generated in vivo by digestion of a donor plasmid with a nuclease that does not cleave the host genome. In both cases the λ-Red gene products recombine homologous regions carried on the linear DNA fragments with the chromosome. We have successfully used both techniques to generate chromosomal mutations in E. coli K-12 strains. However, we have had limited success with these λ-Red based recombination techniques in pathogenic E. coli strains, which has led us to develop an enhanced protocol for recombineering in such strains. Results Our goal was to develop a high-throughput recombineering system, primarily for the coupling of genes to epitope tags, which could also be used for deletion of genes in both pathogenic and K-12 E. coli strains. To that end we have designed a series of donor plasmids for use with the λ-Red recombination system, which when cleaved in vivo by the I-SceI meganuclease generate a discrete linear DNA fragment, allowing for C-terminal tagging of chromosomal genes with a 6 × His, 3 × FLAG, 4 × ProteinA or GFP tag or for the deletion of chromosomal regions. We have enhanced existing protocols and technologies by inclusion of a cassette conferring kanamycin resistance and, crucially, by including the sacB gene on the donor plasmid, so that all but true recombinants are counter-selected on kanamycin and sucrose containing media, thus eliminating the need for extensive screening. This method has the added advantage of limiting the exposure of cells to the potential damaging effects of the λ-Red system, which can lead to unwanted secondary

  15. Biased Gene Conversion in Rhizobium etli Is Caused by Preferential Double-Strand Breaks on One of the Recombining Homologs

    PubMed Central

    Yáñez-Cuna, Fares Osam; Castellanos, Mildred

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Gene conversion, the nonreciprocal transfer of information during homologous recombination, is the main process that maintains identity between members of multigene families. Gene conversion in the nitrogenase (nifH) multigene family of Rhizobium etli was analyzed by using a two-plasmid system, where each plasmid carried a copy of nifH. One of the nifH copies was modified, creating restriction fragment length polymorphisms (RFLPs) spaced along the gene. Once the modified plasmid was introduced into R. etli, selection was done for cointegration with a resident plasmid lacking the RFLPs. Most of the cointegrate molecules harbor gene conversion events, biased toward a gain of RFLPs. This bias may be explained under the double-strand break repair model by proposing that the nifH gene lacking the RFLPs suffers a DNA double-strand break, so the incoming plasmid functions as a template for repairing the homolog on the resident plasmid. To support this proposal, we cloned an SceI site into the nifH homolog that had the RFLPs used for scoring gene conversion. In vivo expression of the meganuclease I-SceI allowed the generation of a double-strand break on this homolog. Upon introduction of this modified plasmid into an R. etli strain lacking I-SceI, biased gene conversion still favored the retention of markers on the incoming plasmid. In contrast, when the recipient strain ectopically expressed I-SceI, a dramatic reversal in gene conversion bias was seen, favoring the preservation of resident sequences. These results show that biased gene conversion is caused by preferential double-strand breaks on one of the recombining homologs. IMPORTANCE In this work, we analyzed gene conversion by using a system that entails horizontal gene transfer followed by homologous recombination in the recipient cell. Most gene conversion events are biased toward the acquisition of the incoming sequences, ranging in size from 120 bp to 800 bp. This bias is due to preferential cutting of

  16. Functional amyloids as inhibitors of plasmid DNA replication.

    PubMed

    Molina-García, Laura; Gasset-Rosa, Fátima; Moreno-Del Álamo, María; Fernández-Tresguerres, M Elena; Moreno-Díaz de la Espina, Susana; Lurz, Rudi; Giraldo, Rafael

    2016-01-01

    DNA replication is tightly regulated to constrain the genetic material within strict spatiotemporal boundaries and copy numbers. Bacterial plasmids are autonomously replicating DNA molecules of much clinical, environmental and biotechnological interest. A mechanism used by plasmids to prevent over-replication is 'handcuffing', i.e. inactivating the replication origins in two DNA molecules by holding them together through a bridge built by a plasmid-encoded initiator protein (Rep). Besides being involved in handcuffing, the WH1 domain in the RepA protein assembles as amyloid fibres upon binding to DNA in vitro. The amyloid state in proteins is linked to specific human diseases, but determines selectable and epigenetically transmissible phenotypes in microorganisms. Here we have explored the connection between handcuffing and amyloidogenesis of full-length RepA. Using a monoclonal antibody specific for an amyloidogenic conformation of RepA-WH1, we have found that the handcuffed RepA assemblies, either reconstructed in vitro or in plasmids clustering at the bacterial nucleoid, are amyloidogenic. The replication-inhibitory RepA handcuff assembly is, to our knowledge, the first protein amyloid directly dealing with DNA. Built on an amyloid scaffold, bacterial plasmid handcuffs can bring a novel molecular solution to the universal problem of keeping control on DNA replication initiation. PMID:27147472

  17. Bacterial plasmid transfer under space flight conditions: The Mobilisatsia experience

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Boever, P.; Ilyin, V.; Mahillon, J.; Mergeay, M.

    Background Microorganisms are subject to a genetic evolution which may lead to the capacity to colonize new environments and to cause infections Central players in this evolutionary process are mobile genetic elements phages plasmids and transposons The latter help to mobilize and reorganize genes be it within a given genome intragenomic mobility or between bacterial cells intercellular mobility Confined environment and space flight related factors such as microgravity and cosmic radiation may influence the frequency with which mobile genetic elements are exchanged between microorganisms Aim Within the frame of the Mobilisatsia experiment a triparental microbial plasmid transfer was promoted aboard the International Space Station ISS The efficiency of the plasmid exchange process was compared with a synchronously performed ground control experiment An experiment was carried out with well-characterized Gram-negative test strains and one experiment was done with Gram-positive test strains Results The experiment took place during the Soyouz Mission 8 to the ISS from April 19th until April 30th 2004 Liquid cultures of the bacterial strains Cupriavidus metallidurans AE815 final recipient Escherichia coli CM1962 carrying a mobilisable vector with a nickel-resistance marker and E coli CM140 carrying the Broad Host Range plasmid RP4 for the Gram-negative experiment and Bacillus thuringiensis Bti AND931 carrying the conjugative plasmid pXO16 Bti 4Q7 with mobilisable vector pC194 carrying a resistance to chloramphenicol and Bti GBJ002

  18. Dcm methylation is detrimental to plasmid transformation in Clostridium thermocellum

    SciTech Connect

    Guss, Adam M; Olson, Daniel G.; Caiazza, Nicky; Lynd, Lee R

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Industrial production of biofuels and other products by cellulolytic microorganisms is of interest but hindered by the nascent state of genetic tools. Although a genetic system for Clostridium thermocellum DSM1313 has recently been developed, available methods achieve relatively low efficiency and similar plasmids can transform C. thermocellum at dramatically different efficiencies. RESULTS: We report an increase in transformation efficiency of C. thermocellum for a variety of plasmids by using DNA that has been methylated by Escherichia coli Dam but not Dcm methylases. When isolated from a dam+ dcm+ E. coli strain, pAMG206 transforms C. thermocellum 100-fold better than the similar plasmid pAMG205, which contains an additional Dcm methylation site in the pyrF gene. Upon removal of Dcm methylation, transformation with pAMG206 showed a four- to seven-fold increase in efficiency; however, transformation efficiency of pAMG205 increased 500-fold. Removal of the Dcm methylation site from the pAM205 pyrF gene via silent mutation resulted in increased transformation efficiencies equivalent to that of pAMG206. Upon proper methylation, transformation efficiency of plasmids bearing the pMK3 and pB6A origins of replication increased ca. three orders of magnitude. CONCLUSION: E. coli Dcm methylation decreases transformation efficiency in C. thermocellum DSM1313. The use of properly methylated plasmid DNA should facilitate genetic manipulation of this industrially relevant bacterium.

  19. Plasma-activated air mediates plasmid DNA delivery in vivo.

    PubMed

    Edelblute, Chelsea M; Heller, Loree C; Malik, Muhammad A; Bulysheva, Anna; Heller, Richard

    2016-01-01

    Plasma-activated air (PAA) provides a noncontact DNA transfer platform. In the current study, PAA was used for the delivery of plasmid DNA in a 3D human skin model, as well as in vivo. Delivery of plasmid DNA encoding luciferase to recellularized dermal constructs was enhanced, resulting in a fourfold increase in luciferase expression over 120 hours compared to injection only (P < 0.05). Delivery of plasmid DNA encoding green fluorescent protein (GFP) was confirmed in the epidermal layers of the construct. In vivo experiments were performed in BALB/c mice, with skin as the delivery target. PAA exposure significantly enhanced luciferase expression levels 460-fold in exposed sites compared to levels obtained from the injection of plasmid DNA alone (P < 0.001). Expression levels were enhanced when the plasma reactor was positioned more distant from the injection site. Delivery of plasmid DNA encoding GFP to mouse skin was confirmed by immunostaining, where a 3-minute exposure at a 10 mm distance displayed delivery distribution deep within the dermal layers compared to an exposure at 3 mm where GFP expression was localized within the epidermis. Our findings suggest PAA-mediated delivery warrants further exploration as an alternative approach for DNA transfer for skin targets. PMID:27110584

  20. Functional amyloids as inhibitors of plasmid DNA replication

    PubMed Central

    Molina-García, Laura; Gasset-Rosa, Fátima; Moreno-del Álamo, María; Fernández-Tresguerres, M. Elena; Moreno-Díaz de la Espina, Susana; Lurz, Rudi; Giraldo, Rafael

    2016-01-01

    DNA replication is tightly regulated to constrain the genetic material within strict spatiotemporal boundaries and copy numbers. Bacterial plasmids are autonomously replicating DNA molecules of much clinical, environmental and biotechnological interest. A mechanism used by plasmids to prevent over-replication is ‘handcuffing’, i.e. inactivating the replication origins in two DNA molecules by holding them together through a bridge built by a plasmid-encoded initiator protein (Rep). Besides being involved in handcuffing, the WH1 domain in the RepA protein assembles as amyloid fibres upon binding to DNA in vitro. The amyloid state in proteins is linked to specific human diseases, but determines selectable and epigenetically transmissible phenotypes in microorganisms. Here we have explored the connection between handcuffing and amyloidogenesis of full-length RepA. Using a monoclonal antibody specific for an amyloidogenic conformation of RepA-WH1, we have found that the handcuffed RepA assemblies, either reconstructed in vitro or in plasmids clustering at the bacterial nucleoid, are amyloidogenic. The replication-inhibitory RepA handcuff assembly is, to our knowledge, the first protein amyloid directly dealing with DNA. Built on an amyloid scaffold, bacterial plasmid handcuffs can bring a novel molecular solution to the universal problem of keeping control on DNA replication initiation. PMID:27147472

  1. Plasma-activated air mediates plasmid DNA delivery in vivo

    PubMed Central

    Edelblute, Chelsea M; Heller, Loree C; Malik, Muhammad A; Bulysheva, Anna; Heller, Richard

    2016-01-01

    Plasma-activated air (PAA) provides a noncontact DNA transfer platform. In the current study, PAA was used for the delivery of plasmid DNA in a 3D human skin model, as well as in vivo. Delivery of plasmid DNA encoding luciferase to recellularized dermal constructs was enhanced, resulting in a fourfold increase in luciferase expression over 120 hours compared to injection only (P < 0.05). Delivery of plasmid DNA encoding green fluorescent protein (GFP) was confirmed in the epidermal layers of the construct. In vivo experiments were performed in BALB/c mice, with skin as the delivery target. PAA exposure significantly enhanced luciferase expression levels 460-fold in exposed sites compared to levels obtained from the injection of plasmid DNA alone (P < 0.001). Expression levels were enhanced when the plasma reactor was positioned more distant from the injection site. Delivery of plasmid DNA encoding GFP to mouse skin was confirmed by immunostaining, where a 3-minute exposure at a 10 mm distance displayed delivery distribution deep within the dermal layers compared to an exposure at 3 mm where GFP expression was localized within the epidermis. Our findings suggest PAA-mediated delivery warrants further exploration as an alternative approach for DNA transfer for skin targets. PMID:27110584

  2. Conjugative plasmids: vessels of the communal gene pool

    PubMed Central

    Norman, Anders; Hansen, Lars H.; Sørensen, Søren J.

    2009-01-01

    Comparative whole-genome analyses have demonstrated that horizontal gene transfer (HGT) provides a significant contribution to prokaryotic genome innovation. The evolution of specific prokaryotes is therefore tightly linked to the environment in which they live and the communal pool of genes available within that environment. Here we use the term supergenome to describe the set of all genes that a prokaryotic ‘individual’ can draw on within a particular environmental setting. Conjugative plasmids can be considered particularly successful entities within the communal pool, which have enabled HGT over large taxonomic distances. These plasmids are collections of discrete regions of genes that function as ‘backbone modules’ to undertake different aspects of overall plasmid maintenance and propagation. Conjugative plasmids often carry suites of ‘accessory elements’ that contribute adaptive traits to the hosts and, potentially, other resident prokaryotes within specific environmental niches. Insight into the evolution of plasmid modules therefore contributes to our knowledge of gene dissemination and evolution within prokaryotic communities. This communal pool provides the prokaryotes with an important mechanistic framework for obtaining adaptability and functional diversity that alleviates the need for large genomes of specialized ‘private genes’. PMID:19571247

  3. Mitochondrial DNAs and plasmids as taxonomic characteristics in Trichoderma viride.

    PubMed Central

    Meyer, R J

    1991-01-01

    Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) was purified from 12 isolates of the Trichoderma viride aggregate and found to be, on the average, 32.7 kb in size. Plasmids were present in the mtDNA preparations from 8 of 12 strains of T. viride examined. Plasmids in four of the strains produced ladderlike banding patterns on gels, and these plasmids were studied in detail. The ladderlike patterns were produced by single molecules that were supercoiled to various degrees. Plasmids from two of the strains do not have homology with the mtDNA but do have a limited amount of homology with each other. No phenotype could be associated with the presence of a plasmid. Restriction endonuclease digestion of the mtDNAs produced patterns in which the presence or absence of certain fragments correlated with the classification of the strains into T. viride group I or II. Phenetic cluster analysis and parsimony analysis of the fragment patterns produced groups that corresponded to T. viride groups I and II. The fragment patterns were very diverse, with nearly all strains having a unique pattern. However, two strains of T. viride group I from widely different geographical locations did have identical restriction patterns for all the enzymes used in this study. This result indicates that it may not be possible to use mtDNA restriction patterns alone to identify Trichoderma strains. Images PMID:1768099

  4. High-Level Expression of Recombinant Bovine Lactoferrin in Pichia pastoris with Antimicrobial Activity.

    PubMed

    Iglesias-Figueroa, Blanca; Valdiviezo-Godina, Norberto; Siqueiros-Cendón, Tania; Sinagawa-García, Sugey; Arévalo-Gallegos, Sigifredo; Rascón-Cruz, Quintín

    2016-01-01

    In this study, bovine lactoferrin (bLf), an iron-binding glycoprotein considered an important nutraceutical protein because of its several properties, was expressed in Pichia pastoris KM71-H under AOX1 promoter control, using pJ902 as the recombinant plasmid. Dot blotting analysis revealed the expression of recombinant bovine lactoferrin (rbLf) in Pichia pastoris. After Bach fermentation and purification by molecular exclusion, we obtained an expression yield of 3.5 g/L of rbLf. rbLf and predominantly pepsin-digested rbLf (rbLfcin) demonstrated antibacterial activity against Escherichia coli (E. coli) BL21DE3, Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) FRI137, and, in a smaller percentage, Pseudomonas aeruginosa (Ps. Aeruginosa) ATCC 27833. The successful expression and characterization of functional rbLf expressed in Pichia pastoris opens a prospect for the development of natural antimicrobial agents produced recombinantly. PMID:27294912

  5. High-Level Expression of Recombinant Bovine Lactoferrin in Pichia pastoris with Antimicrobial Activity

    PubMed Central

    Iglesias-Figueroa, Blanca; Valdiviezo-Godina, Norberto; Siqueiros-Cendón, Tania; Sinagawa-García, Sugey; Arévalo-Gallegos, Sigifredo; Rascón-Cruz, Quintín

    2016-01-01

    In this study, bovine lactoferrin (bLf), an iron-binding glycoprotein considered an important nutraceutical protein because of its several properties, was expressed in Pichia pastoris KM71-H under AOX1 promoter control, using pJ902 as the recombinant plasmid. Dot blotting analysis revealed the expression of recombinant bovine lactoferrin (rbLf) in Pichia pastoris. After Bach fermentation and purification by molecular exclusion, we obtained an expression yield of 3.5 g/L of rbLf. rbLf and predominantly pepsin-digested rbLf (rbLfcin) demonstrated antibacterial activity against Escherichia coli (E. coli) BL21DE3, Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) FRI137, and, in a smaller percentage, Pseudomonas aeruginosa (Ps. Aeruginosa) ATCC 27833. The successful expression and characterization of functional rbLf expressed in Pichia pastoris opens a prospect for the development of natural antimicrobial agents produced recombinantly. PMID:27294912

  6. Recombinant Goat VEGF164 Increases Hair Growth by Painting Process on the Skin of Shaved Mouse.

    PubMed

    Bao, Wenlei; Yin, Jianxin; Liang, Yan; Guo, Zhixin; Wang, Yanfeng; Liu, Dongjun; Wang, Xiao; Wang, Zhigang

    2014-09-01

    To detect goat vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)-mediated regrowth of hair, full-length VEGF164 cDNA was cloned from Inner Mongolia cashmere goat (Capra hircus) into the pET-his prokaryotic expression vector, and the recombinant plasmid was transferred into E. coli BL21 cells. The expression of recombinant 6×his-gVEGF164 protein was induced by 0.5 mM isopropyl thio-β-D-galactoside at 32°C. Recombinant goat VEGF164 (rgVEGF164) was purified and identi ed by western blot using monoclonal anti-his and anti-VEGF antibodies. The rgVEGF164 was smeared onto the dorsal area of a shaved mouse, and we noted that hair regrowth in this area was faster than in the control group. Thus, rgVEGF164 increases hair growth in mice. PMID:25178380

  7. Bacterial Recombineering: Genome Engineering via Phage-Based Homologous Recombination.

    PubMed

    Pines, Gur; Freed, Emily F; Winkler, James D; Gill, Ryan T

    2015-11-20

    The ability to specifically modify bacterial genomes in a precise and efficient manner is highly desired in various fields, ranging from molecular genetics to metabolic engineering and synthetic biology. Much has changed from the initial realization that phage-derived genes may be employed for such tasks to today, where recombineering enables complex genetic edits within a genome or a population. Here, we review the major developments leading to recombineering becoming the method of choice for in situ bacterial genome editing while highlighting the various applications of recombineering in pushing the boundaries of synthetic biology. We also present the current understanding of the mechanism of recombineering. Finally, we discuss in detail issues surrounding recombineering efficiency and future directions for recombineering-based genome editing. PMID:25856528

  8. The gene therapy of collagen-induced arthritis in rats by intramuscular administration of the plasmid encoding TNF-binding domain of variola virus CrmB protein.

    PubMed

    Shchelkunov, S N; Taranov, O S; Tregubchak, T V; Maksyutov, R A; Silkov, A N; Nesterov, A E; Sennikov, S V

    2016-07-01

    Wistar rats with collagen-induced arthritis were intramuscularly injected with the recombinant plasmid pcDNA/sTNF-BD encoding the sequence of the TNF-binding protein domain of variola virus CrmB protein (VARV sTNF-BD) or the pcDNA3.1 vector. Quantitative analysis showed that the histopathological changes in the hind-limb joints of rats were most severe in the animals injected with pcDNA3.1 and much less severe in the group of rats injected with pcDNA/sTNF-BD, which indicates that gene therapy of rheumatoid arthritis is promising in the case of local administration of plasmids governing the synthesis of VARV immunomodulatory proteins. PMID:27599513

  9. Molecular cloning of a thermostable neutral protease gene from Bacillus stearothermophilus in a vector plasmid and its expression in Bacillus stearothermophilus and Bacillus subtilis.

    PubMed Central

    Fujii, M; Takagi, M; Imanaka, T; Aiba, S

    1983-01-01

    The structural gene for a thermostable protease from Bacillus stearothermophilus was cloned in plasmid pTB90. It is expressed in both B. stearothermophilus and Bacillus subtilis. B. stearothermophilus carrying the recombinant plasmid produced about 15-fold more protease (310 U/mg of cell dry weight) than did the wild-type strain of B. stearothermophilus. Some properties of the proteases that have been purified from the transformants of B. stearothermophilus and B. subtilis were examined. No significant difference was observed among the enzyme properties studied here despite the difference in host cells. We found that the protease, neutral in pH characteristics and with a molecular weight of 36,000, retained about 80% of its activity even after treatment of 65 degrees C for 30 min. Images PMID:6302083

  10. Construction of a recombinant-BCG containing the LMP2A and BZLF1 genes and its significance in the Epstein-Barr virus positive gastric carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Xue, Qing-Jie; Dai, Jun; Li, Xiu-Zhen; Zhu, Wei; Si, Chuan-Ping; Chen, Ting

    2014-10-01

    The signal peptide Ag85B of Bacillus Chalmette-Guerin (BCG) was used to construct a recombinant plasmid of BCG. The BCG-Ag85B gene and fused EBV LMP2A and BZLF1 genes were amplified and successively inserted into the Escherichia coli-BCG shuttle-vector pMV261. The recombinant plasmids were then amplified in E. coli DH5α and transformed into competent BCG. The expression of BZLF1 and LMP2A fusion proteins in recombinant-BCG (rBCG) was shown by Western blot. After the injection of recombinant-BCG into mice, antibodies against the fusion protein BZLF1 and LMP2A were measured by ELISA, and the cellular immune effects were determined by the lactate dehydrogenate (LDH) release assays. The results confirmed that the cloned genes of BCG-Ag85B and Z2A were correctly inserted into the vector pMV261. The recombinant plasmid pMVZ2A expressed Z2A in BCG effectively after transformation. The rBCG proteins were recognized by the BZLF1 (LMP2A) antibody. An ELISA demonstrated that rBCG could stimulate the generation of antibody against the fusion protein. The fusion gene was constructed successfully, and the rBCG induced humoral and cellular immune response in mice. PMID:24699993

  11. Optimal cloning of PCR fragments by homologous recombination in Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Jacobus, Ana Paula; Gross, Jeferson

    2015-01-01

    PCR fragments and linear vectors containing overlapping ends are easily assembled into a propagative plasmid by homologous recombination in Escherichia coli. Although this gap-repair cloning approach is straightforward, its existence is virtually unknown to most molecular biologists. To popularize this method, we tested critical parameters influencing the efficiency of PCR fragments cloning into PCR-amplified vectors by homologous recombination in the widely used E. coli strain DH5α. We found that the number of positive colonies after transformation increases with the length of overlap between the PCR fragment and linear vector. For most practical purposes, a 20 bp identity already ensures high-cloning yields. With an insert to vector ratio of 2:1, higher colony forming numbers are obtained when the amount of vector is in the range of 100 to 250 ng. An undesirable cloning background of empty vectors can be minimized during vector PCR amplification by applying a reduced amount of plasmid template or by using primers in which the 5' termini are separated by a large gap. DpnI digestion of the plasmid template after PCR is also effective to decrease the background of negative colonies. We tested these optimized cloning parameters during the assembly of five independent DNA constructs and obtained 94% positive clones out of 100 colonies probed. We further demonstrated the efficient and simultaneous cloning of two PCR fragments into a vector. These results support the idea that homologous recombination in E. coli might be one of the most effective methods for cloning one or two PCR fragments. For its simplicity and high efficiency, we believe that recombinational cloning in E. coli has a great potential to become a routine procedure in most molecular biology-oriented laboratories. PMID:25774528

  12. Construction of chlorobenzene-utilizing recombinants by progenitive manifestation of a rare event

    SciTech Connect

    Kroeckel, L.; Focht, D.D.

    1987-10-01

    Separate continuous cultures of Pseudomonas putida R5-3, grown on toluene, and Pseudomonas alcaligenes C-0, grown on benzoate, were concentrated and continuously amalgamated on a ceramic bead column, which was subjected to a continuous stream of chlorobenzene vapors. A recombinant strain, P. putida CB1-9, was isolated in less than 1 month. P. alcaligenes C-0 grew on benzoate and 3-chlorobenzoate but not on toluene, P. putida R5-3 grew on benzoate and toluene but not on 3-chlorobenzoate, and neither strain grew on chlorobenzene or 1,4-dichlorobenzene; however, the recombinant P. putida CB1-9 grew on all of these substrates. Chlorobenzene-utilizing strains were not found in continuous cultures run at the lowest growth rate (0.05/h) or in the absences of the donor strain, P. alcaligenes C-0. Chloride was released in stoichiometric amounts when P. putida CB1-9 was grown on either chlorobenzene of 1,4-dichlorobenzene. The recombinant strain was related to P. putida R5-3, phenotypically and genetically. Restriction enzyme digests of the single 57-kilobase (kb) plasmid in R5-3 and of the single 33-kb plasmid in CB1-9 were similar, but also indicated rearrangement of plasmid DNA. Coincidental or causal to the loss of the 24-kb fragment was the observation that the recombinant-unlike it parent, R5-3-did not grown on xylenes or methylbenzoates. Although both ortho-pyrocatechase (OP) and meta-pyrocatechase (MP) were found in CB1-9 and R5-3, MP activity was 20- to 50-fold higher in R5-3 cells grown in 4-methylbenzoate than in the same cells grown on benzene. Benzene was metabolized through the MP pathway in CB1-9, while chlorobenzene was metabolized through the OP pathway.

  13. Dielectronic recombination theory

    SciTech Connect

    LaGattuta, K.J.

    1991-12-31

    A theory now in wide use for the calculation of dielectronic recombination cross sections ({sigma}{sup DR}) and rate coefficients ({alpha}{sup DR}) was one introduced originally by Feshbach for nuclear physics applications, and then later adapted for atomic scattering problems by Hahn. In the following, we briefly review this theory in a very general form, which allows one to account for the effects of overlapping and interacting resonances, as well as continuum-continuum coupling. An extension of our notation will then also allow for the inclusion of the effects of direct radiative recombination, along with a treatment of the interference between radiative and dielectronic recombination. Other approaches to the calculation of {sigma}{sup DR} have been described by Fano and by Seaton. We will not consider those theories here. Calculations of {alpha}{sup DR} have progressed considerably over the last 25 years, since the early work of Burgess. Advances in the reliability of theoretical predictions have also been promoted recently b a variety of direct laboratory measurements of {sigma}{sup DR}. While the measurements of {sigma}{sup DR} for {delta}n {ne} 0 excitations have tended to agree very well with calculations, the case of {delta}n = 0 has been much problematic. However, by invoking a mechanism originally proposed by Jacobs, which takes into account the effect of stray electric fields on high Rydberg states (HRS) participating in the DR process, new calculations have improved the agreement between theory and experiment for these cases. Nevertheless, certain discrepancies still remain.

  14. Recombinant Collagenlike Proteins

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fertala, Andzej

    2007-01-01

    A group of collagenlike recombinant proteins containing high densities of biologically active sites has been invented. The method used to express these proteins is similar to a method of expressing recombinant procollagens and collagens described in U. S. Patent 5,593,859, "Synthesis of human procollagens and collagens in recombinant DNA systems." Customized collagenous proteins are needed for biomedical applications. In particular, fibrillar collagens are attractive for production of matrices needed for tissue engineering and drug delivery. Prior to this invention, there was no way of producing customized collagenous proteins for these and other applications. Heretofore, collagenous proteins have been produced by use of such biological systems as yeasts, bacteria, and transgenic animals and plants. These products are normal collagens that can also be extracted from such sources as tendons, bones, and hides. These products cannot be made to consist only of biologically active, specific amino acid sequences that may be needed for specific applications. Prior to this invention, it had been established that fibrillar collagens consist of domains that are responsible for such processes as interaction with cells, binding of growth factors, and interaction with a number of structural proteins present in the extracellular matrix. A normal collagen consists of a sequence of domains that can be represented by a corresponding sequence of labels, e.g., D1D2D3D4. A collagenlike protein of the present invention contains regions of collagen II that contain multiples of a single domain (e.g., D1D1D1D1 or D4D4D4D4) chosen for its specific biological activity. By virtue of the multiplicity of the chosen domain, the density of sites having that specific biological activity is greater than it is in a normal collagen. A collagenlike protein according to this invention can thus be made to have properties that are necessary for tissue engineering.

  15. Rapid Engineering of the Geldanamycin Biosynthesis Pathway by Red/ET Recombination and Gene Complementation

    PubMed Central

    Vetcher, Leandro; Tian, Zong-Qiang; McDaniel, Robert; Rascher, Andreas; Revill, W. Peter; Hutchinson, C. Richard; Hu, Zhihao

    2005-01-01

    Genetic manipulation of antibiotic producers, such as Streptomyces species, is a rational approach to improve the properties of biologically active molecules. However, this can be a slow and sometimes problematic process. Red/ET recombination in an Escherichia coli host has permitted rapid and more versatile engineering of geldanamycin biosynthetic genes in a complementation plasmid, which can then be readily transferred into the Streptomyces host from which the corresponding wild type gene(s) has been removed. With this rapid Red/ET recombination and gene complementation approach, efficient gene disruptions and gene replacements in the geldanamycin biosynthetic gene cluster have been successfully achieved. As an example, we describe here the creation of a ketoreductase 6 null mutation in an E. coli high-copy-number plasmid carrying gdmA2A3 from Streptomyces hygroscopicus NRRL3602 and the subsequent complementation of a gdmA2A3 deletion host with this plasmid to generate a novel geldanamycin analog. PMID:15812008

  16. Did the universe recombine?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bartlett, James G.; Stebbins, Albert

    1991-01-01

    The Zel'dovich-Sunyaev model-independent arguments for the existence of a neutral hydrogen phase is reviewed in light of new limits on the Compton y parameter from COBE. It is concluded that with baryon densities compatible with standard cosmological nucleosynthesis, the universe could have remained fully ionized throughout its history without producing a detectable spectral distortion. It is argued that it is unlikely that spectral observations of the cosmic microwave background will ever require the universe to have recombined for flat cosmologies.

  17. Proton-induced direct and indirect damage of plasmid DNA.

    PubMed

    Vyšín, Luděk; Pachnerová Brabcová, Kateřina; Štěpán, Václav; Moretto-Capelle, Patrick; Bugler, Beatrix; Legube, Gaelle; Cafarelli, Pierre; Casta, Romain; Champeaux, Jean Philippe; Sence, Martine; Vlk, Martin; Wagner, Richard; Štursa, Jan; Zach, Václav; Incerti, Sebastien; Juha, Libor; Davídková, Marie

    2015-08-01

    Clustered DNA damage induced by 10, 20 and 30 MeV protons in pBR322 plasmid DNA was investigated. Besides determination of strand breaks, additional lesions were detected using base excision repair enzymes. The plasmid was irradiated in dry form, where indirect radiation effects were almost fully suppressed, and in water solution containing only minimal residual radical scavenger. Simultaneous irradiation of the plasmid DNA in the dry form and in the solution demonstrated the contribution of the indirect effect as prevalent. The damage composition slightly differed when comparing the results for liquid and dry samples. The obtained data were also subjected to analysis concerning different methodological approaches, particularly the influence of irradiation geometry, models used for calculation of strand break yields and interpretation of the strand breaks detected with the enzymes. It was shown that these parameters strongly affect the results. PMID:26007308

  18. A novel plasmid pEA68 of Erwinia amylovora and the description of a new family of plasmids.

    PubMed

    Ismail, Emadeldeen; Blom, Jochen; Bultreys, Alain; Ivanović, Milan; Obradović, Aleksa; van Doorn, Joop; Bergsma-Vlami, Maria; Maes, Martine; Willems, Anne; Duffy, Brion; Stockwell, Virginia O; Smits, Theo H M; Puławska, Joanna

    2014-12-01

    Recent genome analysis of Erwinia amylovora, the causal agent of fire blight disease on Rosaceae, has shown that the chromosome is highly conserved among strains and that plasmids are the principal source of genomic diversity. A new circular plasmid, pEA68, was found in E. amylovora strain 692 (LMG 28361), isolated in Poland from Sorbus (mountain ash) with fire blight symptoms. Annotation of the 68,763-bp IncFIIa-type plasmid revealed that it contains 79 predicted CDS, among which two operons (tra, pil) are associated with mobility. The plasmid is maintained stably in E. amylovora and does not possess genes associated with antibiotic resistance or known virulence genes. Curing E. amylovora strain 692 of pEA68 did not influence its virulence in apple shoots nor amylovoran synthesis. Of 488 strains of E. amylovora from seventeen countries, pEA68 was only found in two additional strains from Belgium. Although the spread of pEA68 is currently limited to Europe, pEA68 comprises, together with pEA72 and pEA78 both found in North America, a new plasmid family that spans two continents. PMID:25178659

  19. The development of plasmid-free strains of Agrobacterium tumefaciens by using incompatibility with a Rhizobium meliloti plasmid to eliminate pAtC58.

    PubMed

    Hynes, M F; Simon, R; Pühler, A

    1985-03-01

    Agrobacterium tumefaciens strains LBA275 and LBA290 were cured of their cryptic plasmid pAtC58 by the introduction of the Rhizobium meliloti plasmid pRme41a, which is incompatible with pAtC58. pRme41a and pTiC58, the resident Ti plasmid of LBA275, were subsequently eliminated by growth at supraoptimal temperature (40 degrees C). The resulting plasmid-free Agrobacterium strains, UBAPF1 and UBAPF2, have proved extremely useful for the study of Rhizobium plasmids. The loss of the cryptic plasmid pAtC58 has no effect on the tumor-forming ability of the Agrobacterium strains; when the Ti plasmid is present, normal tumors are formed on Kalanchoe daigremontiana. PMID:4001194

  20. Complete Sequence of a blaKPC-Harboring Cointegrate Plasmid Isolated from Escherichia coli

    PubMed Central

    Chavda, Kalyan D.; Chen, Liang; Jacobs, Michael R.; Rojtman, Albert D.; Bonomo, Robert A.

    2015-01-01

    Horizontal transfer of blaKPC-harboring plasmids contributes significantly to the inter- and intraspecies spread of Klebsiella pneumoniae carbapenemase (KPC). Here we report the complete nucleotide sequence of a blaKPC-harboring IncFIA plasmid, pBK32533, from Escherichia coli. pBK32533 is a cointegrate plasmid comprising of a 72-kb sequence identical to that of the nonconjugative pBK30661 plasmid plus an additional 170-kb element that harbors the genes for plasmid transfer. pBK32533 demonstrates how blaKPC can be spread from a nonconjugative plasmid through cointegration. PMID:25753632

  1. Involvement of Linear Plasmids in Aerobic Biodegradation of Vinyl Chloride

    SciTech Connect

    BRIGMON, ROBINL.

    2004-06-14

    Pseudomonas putida strain AJ and Ochrobactrum strain TD were isolated from hazardous waste sites based on their ability to use vinyl chloride (VC) as a sole source of carbon and energy under aerobic conditions. Strains AJ and TD also use ethene and ethylene oxide as growth substrates. Strain AJ contained a linear megaplasmid (approximately 260 kb) when grown on VC or ethene, but no circular plasmids. While growing on ethylene oxide, the size of the linear plasmid in strain AJ decreased to approximately 100 kb, although its ability to use VC as a substrate was retained. The linear plasmids in strain AJ were cured and its ability to consume VC, ethene, and ethylene oxide was lost following growth on a rich substrate (Luria-Bertani broth) through at least three transfers. Strain TD contained three linear plasmids, ranging in size from approximately 100 kb to 320 kb, when growing on VC or ethene. As with strain AJ, the linear plasmids in strain TD were cured following growth on Luria -Bertani broth and its ability to consume VC and ethene was lost. Further analysis of these linear plasmids may help reveal the pathway for VC biodegradation in strains AJ and TD and explain why this process occurs at many but not all sites where groundwater is contaminated with chloroethenes. Metabolism of VC and ethene by strains AJ and TD is initiated by an alkene monooxygenase. Their yields during growth on VC (0.15-0.20 mg total suspended solids per mg VC) are similar to the yields reported for other isolates i.e., Mycobacterium sp., Nocardioides sp., and Pseudomonas sp.

  2. Effects of maternal plasmid GHRH treatment on offspring growth.

    PubMed

    Khan, Amir S; Bodles-Brakhop, Angela M; Fiorotto, Marta L; Draghia-Akli, Ruxandra

    2010-02-23

    To differentiate prenatal effects of plasmid growth hormone-releasing hormone (GHRH) treatment from maternal effects mediated by lactation on long-term growth of offspring, a cross-fostering study was designed. Pregnant sows (n=12) were untreated (n=6) or received either a Wt-GHRH (n=2) or HV-GHRH (n=4) plasmid. At birth, half of each litter was cross-fostered (treated to controls and controls to treated only). Piglets from plasmid-injected sows were heavier at birth (HV-GHRH, 1.65+/-0.07kg; Wt-GHRH, 1.46+/-0.05kg vs. Controls, 1.27+/-0.03kg; P>or=0.001) and at weaning (Wt-GHRH, 6.01+/-0.21kg and HV-GHRH, 6.34+/-0.15kg vs. Controls, 5.37+/-0.14kg; P>or=0.02, respectively). Control piglets cross-fostered to plasmid-injected sows grew faster to weaning (Wt-GHRH, 5.61+/-0.15kg and HV-GHRH, 5.70+/-0.29kg vs. Controls, 5.08+/-0.22kg; P>0.05, respectively). Piglets from plasmid-injected sows that suckled on control sows were larger than control piglets on control sows (Wt-GHRH, 5.93+/-0.20kg and HV-GHRH, 6.2+/-0.19kg vs. Controls, 5.08+/-0.22kg; P>0.05, respectively), but smaller than their littermates left on their treated mothers. The observed improvements were maintained until the end of the study when the offspring were 170-day-old. The results suggest that the improved growth of offspring of GHRH plasmid-treated sows pre-weaning is attributable to improved maternal performance, while after weaning the effects on the pituitary component are relevant. PMID:20188245

  3. Anion exchange purification of plasmid DNA using expanded bed adsorption.

    PubMed

    Ferreira, G N; Cabral, J M; Prazeres, D M

    2000-01-01

    Recent developments in gene therapy with non-viral vectors and DNA vaccination have increased the demand for large amounts of pharmaceutical-grade plasmid DNA. The high viscosity of process streams is of major concern in the purification of plasmids, since it can cause high back pressures in column operations, thus limiting the throughput. In order to avoid these high back pressures, expanded bed anion exchange chromatography was evaluated as an alternative to fixed bed chromatography. A Streamline 25 column filled with 100 ml of Streamline QXL media, was equilibrated with 0.5 M NaCl in TE (10 mM Tris, 1 mM EDTA, pH = 8.0) buffer at an upward flow of 300 cmh-1, E. coli lysates (obtained from up to 3 liters of fermentation broth) were injected in the column. After washing out the unbound material, the media was allowed to sediment and the plasmid was eluted with 1 M NaCl in TE buffer at a downward flow of 120 cmh-1. Purification factors of 36 +/- 1 fold, 26 +/- 0.4 plasmid purity, and close to 100% yields were obtained when less than one settled column volume of plasmid feed was injected. However, both recovery yield and purity abruptly decreased when larger amounts were processed-values of 35 +/- 2 and 5 +/- 0.7 were obtained for the recovery yield and purity, respectively, when 250 ml of feedstock were processed. In these cases, gel clogging and expansion collapse were observed. The processing of larger volumes, thus larger plasmid quantities, was only possible by performing an isopropanol precipitation step prior to the chromatographic step. This step led to an enhancement of the purification step. PMID:10840595

  4. The no-SCAR (Scarless Cas9 Assisted Recombineering) system for genome editing in Escherichia coli

    PubMed Central

    Reisch, Chris R.; Prather, Kristala L. J.

    2015-01-01

    Genome engineering methods in E. coli allow for easy to perform manipulations of the chromosome in vivo with the assistance of the λ-Red recombinase system. These methods generally rely on the insertion of an antibiotic resistance cassette followed by removal of the same cassette, resulting in a two-step procedure for genomic manipulations. Here we describe a method and plasmid system that can edit the genome of E. coli without chromosomal markers. This system, known as Scarless Cas9 Assisted Recombineering (no-SCAR), uses λ-Red to facilitate genomic integration of donor DNA and double stranded DNA cleavage by Cas9 to counterselect against wild-type cells. We show that point mutations, gene deletions, and short sequence insertions were efficiently performed in several genomic loci in a single-step with regards to the chromosome and did not leave behind scar sites. The single-guide RNA encoding plasmid can be easily cured due to its temperature sensitive origin of replication, allowing for iterative chromosomal manipulations of the same strain, as is often required in metabolic engineering. In addition, we demonstrate the ability to efficiently cure the second plasmid in the system by targeting with Cas9, leaving the cells plasmid-free. PMID:26463009

  5. Hijacked then lost in translation: the plight of the recombinant host cell in membrane protein structural biology projects.

    PubMed

    Bill, Roslyn M; von der Haar, Tobias

    2015-06-01

    Membrane protein structural biology is critically dependent upon the supply of high-quality protein. Over the last few years, the value of crystallising biochemically characterised, recombinant targets that incorporate stabilising mutations has been established. Nonetheless, obtaining sufficient yields of many recombinant membrane proteins is still a major challenge. Solutions are now emerging based on an improved understanding of recombinant host cells; as a 'cell factory' each cell is tasked with managing limited resources to simultaneously balance its own growth demands with those imposed by an expression plasmid. This review examines emerging insights into the role of translation and protein folding in defining high-yielding recombinant membrane protein production in a range of host cells. PMID:26037971

  6. Separation of plasmid DNA isoforms using centrifugal ultrafiltration.

    PubMed

    Borujeni, Ehsan Espah; Zydney, Andrew L

    2012-07-01

    Centrifugal ultrafiltration is a well-established method for concentrating and purifying DNA. Here, we describe the use of centrifugal ultrafiltration for the separation of plasmid DNA isoforms based on differences in elongational flexibility of the supercoiled, open-circular, and linear plasmids. Transmission of each isoform is minimal below a critical value of the filtration velocity, which is directly related to the magnitude of the centrifugal speed and the system geometry. A discontinuous diafiltration process was used to enrich the desired isoform, as determined by agarose gel electrophoresis. The simplicity and efficacy of this membrane-based separation are attractive for multiple applications requiring the use of separated DNA isoforms. PMID:22780319

  7. Effect of plasmid-mediated RNA interference targeting telomerase reverse transcriptase on lung cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Ge, Linhu; Deng, Zhansheng; Zhang, Yangde; Shao, Wenlong; Qiu, Yuan; Cui, Dong; Huang, Donghai

    2011-12-01

    In the present study, a plasmid-mediated siRNA interference vector targeting the hTERT gene was constructed and stably transfected into H1299 lung cancer cells. Using real-time quantitative fluorescent PCR technology, western blotting and flow cytometry-based cell cycle profiling, the silencing effect of this vector and its inhibitory effect on proliferation in lung cancer cells were explored. Based upon the results of our previous study, a pair of siRNA sequences was selected, and a DNA template primer was designed and synthesized. After cloning of the template primer into the promoter of the pGenesil-1.1 expression vector, the constructed interference vector was validated using enzyme digestion and gene sequencing. The recombinant interference vector and empty vector were separately transfected into H1299 lung cancer cells with cationic liposomes, and stable monoclonally transfected cells were obtained after selection with G418. After stable transfection, hTERT mRNA and protein expression levels were detected using real-time RT-PCR technology and western blotting. Using the MTT method and a colony formation assay, the growth and proliferation of the stably transfected lung cancer cells were determined. Changes in the cell cycle profile of the stably transfected lung cancer cells were detected using flow cytometry. An interference vector targeting the hTERT gene (pGenesil.1-hTERT) was successfully constructed. Enzyme digestion and gene sequencing confirmed that the sequence insertion met the criteria of the design. After transfection of H1299 cells with pGenesil.1-hTERT or an empty vector, the stably transfected monoclonal cell lines H1299-pGenesil.1-hTERT and H1299-pGenesil.1 were obtained. Compared to the control cells transfected with the empty vector, the H1299-pGenesil.1-hTERT cells had significantly lower mRNA expression of hTERT (93.97±0.83% inhibition, with P<0.001). The protein expression of hTERT in H1299-pGenesil.1-hTERT cells was significantly lower

  8. Expression of Recombinant Antibodies

    PubMed Central

    Frenzel, André; Hust, Michael; Schirrmann, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    Recombinant antibodies are highly specific detection probes in research, diagnostics, and have emerged over the last two decades as the fastest growing class of therapeutic proteins. Antibody generation has been dramatically accelerated by in vitro selection systems, particularly phage display. An increasing variety of recombinant production systems have been developed, ranging from Gram-negative and positive bacteria, yeasts and filamentous fungi, insect cell lines, mammalian cells to transgenic plants and animals. Currently, almost all therapeutic antibodies are still produced in mammalian cell lines in order to reduce the risk of immunogenicity due to altered, non-human glycosylation patterns. However, recent developments of glycosylation-engineered yeast, insect cell lines, and transgenic plants are promising to obtain antibodies with “human-like” post-translational modifications. Furthermore, smaller antibody fragments including bispecific antibodies without any glycosylation are successfully produced in bacteria and have advanced to clinical testing. The first therapeutic antibody products from a non-mammalian source can be expected in coming next years. In this review, we focus on current antibody production systems including their usability for different applications. PMID:23908655

  9. Recombinant factor VIIa.

    PubMed

    Aitken, Michael G

    2004-01-01

    Human coagulation factor (F) VII is a single chain protease that circulates in the blood as a weakly active zymogen at concentrations of approximately 10 nmol/L. When converted to the active 2 chain form (FVIIa), it is a powerful initiator of haemostasis. Recombinant factor VIIa (rFVIIa, eptacog alfa, NovoSeven) is a genetically engineered product that was first introduced in 1988 for the treatment of patients with haemophilia A and B with high inhibitory antibody titres to factors VIII and IX. Recent reports in the form of case studies and series, and early trial data, have suggested a role for rFVIIa across a diverse range of indications including bleeding associated with trauma, surgery, thrombocytopaenia, liver disease and oral anticoagulant toxicity. This review describes the physiology of the coagulation pathway and in particular the role of recombinant factor VIIa. It will also focus on the emerging role of rFVIIa in both trauma and non-trauma bleeding and its potential use in the ED. PMID:15537408

  10. A new regulatory element modulates homoserine lactone-mediated autoinduction of Ti plasmid conjugal transfer.

    PubMed Central

    Hwang, I; Cook, D M; Farrand, S K

    1995-01-01

    Conjugal transfer of the Agrobacterium tumefaciens nopaline-type Ti plasmid pTiC58 is induced by agrocinopines A and B, opines secreted by crown gall tumors induced by the bacterium. This regulation functions through the transcriptional repressor, AccR. However, actual transcription of the tra genes is regulated by autoinduction through the activator TraR and the substituted homoserine lactone second messenger, Agrobacterium autoinducer (AAI). We have identified a new regulatory element that modulates the response of TraR to AAI. The gene, called traM, suppresses TraR-AAI activation of transcription of tra genes carried on recombinant clones. The suppression could be relieved by increasing the expression of TraR but not by increasing AAI levels. traM is located between traR and traAF on pTiC58 and is transcribed in the clockwise direction. The 306-bp gene encodes an 11.2-kDa protein showing no significant relatedness to other proteins in the databases. Mutations in traM in pTiC58 conferred a transfer-constitutive phenotype, and strains harboring the Ti plasmid produced easily detectable amounts of AAI. These same mutations engineered into the transfer-constitutive Ti plasmid pTiC58 delta accR conferred a hyperconjugal phenotype and very high levels of AAI production. Expression of traM required TraR, indicating that transcription of the gene is regulated by the autoinduction system. TraM had no effect on the expression of traR, demonstrating that the suppressive effect is not due to repression of the gene encoding the activator. These results suggest that TraM is not a direct transcriptional regulator. Since the suppressive effect is demonstrable only when traM is overexpressed with respect to traR, we suggest that TraM functions to sequester TraR from the very small amounts of AAI produced under conditions when the agrocinopines are not present. PMID:7814335

  11. A novel recombinant pseudorabies virus expressing parvovirus VP2 gene: Immunogenicity and protective efficacy in swine

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Porcine parvovirus (PPV) VP2 gene has been successfully expressed in many expression systems resulting in self-assembly of virus-like particles (VLPs) with similar morphology to the native capsid. Here, a pseudorabies virus (PRV) system was adopted to express the PPV VP2 gene. Methods A recombinant PRV SA215/VP2 was obtained by homologous recombination between the vector PRV viral DNA and a transfer plasmid. Then recombinant virus was purified with plaque purification, and its identity confirmed by PCR amplification, Western blot and indirect immunofluorescence (IFA) analyses. Electronic microscopy of PRV SA215/VP2 confirmed self-assembly of both pseudorabies virus and VLPs from VP2 protein. Results Immunization of piglets with recombinant virus elicited PRV-specific and PPV-specific humoral immune responses and provided complete protection against a lethal dose of PRV challenges. Gilts immunized with recombinant viruses induced PPV-specific antibodies, and significantly reduced the mortality rate of (1 of 28) following virulent PPV challenge compared with the control (7 of 31). Furthermore, PPV virus DNA was not detected in the fetuses of recombinant virus immunized gilts. Conclusions In this study, a recombinant PRV SA215/VP2 virus expressing PPV VP2 protein was constructed using PRV SA215 vector. The safety, immunogenicity, and protective efficacy of the recombinant virus were demonstrated in piglets and primiparous gilts. This recombinant PRV SA215/VP2 represents a suitable candidate for the development of a bivalent vaccine against both PRV and PPV infection. PMID:21679423

  12. Genetic Characterization of ExPEC-Like Virulence Plasmids among a Subset of NMEC.

    PubMed

    Nicholson, Bryon A; West, Aaron C; Mangiamele, Paul; Barbieri, Nicolle; Wannemuehler, Yvonne; Nolan, Lisa K; Logue, Catherine M; Li, Ganwu

    2016-01-01

    Neonatal Meningitis Escherichia coli (NMEC) is one of the most common causes of neonatal bacterial meningitis in the US and elsewhere resulting in mortality or neurologic deficits in survivors. Large plasmids have been shown experimentally to increase the virulence of NMEC in the rat model of neonatal meningitis. Here, 9 ExPEC-like plasmids were isolated from NMEC and sequenced to identify the core and accessory plasmid genes of ExPEC-like virulence plasmids in NMEC and create an expanded plasmid phylogeny. Results showed sequenced virulence plasmids carry a strongly conserved core of genes with predicted functions in five distinct categories including: virulence, metabolism, plasmid stability, mobile elements, and unknown genes. The major functions of virulence-associated and plasmid core genes serve to increase in vivo fitness by adding multiple iron uptake systems to the genetic repertoire to facilitate NMEC's survival in the host's low iron environment, and systems to enhance bacterial resistance to host innate immunity. Phylogenetic analysis based on these core plasmid genes showed that at least two lineages of ExPEC-like plasmids could be discerned. Further, virulence plasmids from Avian Pathogenic E. coli and NMEC plasmids could not be differentiated based solely on the genes of the core plasmid genome. PMID:26800268

  13. Plasmid profiles, restriction fragment length polymorphisms and O-serotypes among Vibrio anguillarum isolates.

    PubMed Central

    Pedersen, K.; Tiainen, T.; Larsen, J. L.

    1996-01-01

    A total of 279 Vibrio anguillarum strains were serotyped and examined for plasmid content. Plasmids were subjected to digestion with restriction enzymes. Most strains belonged to serogroup O1 (39%) and O2 (16%). In total 164 strains (53%) carried plasmids. Of the O1 and O2 isolates, 92% and 30%, respectively, carried one or more plasmids. Restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) analysis of plasmid DNA indicated that plasmids belonged to several groups. Each group seemed to be restricted to a single O-serovar. The largest group was the pJM1-like plasmids among most serovar O1 strains. Most of these plasmids were about 67 kb like the pJM1 plasmid, but various derivatives ranged from 26-77 kb. RFLP studies of the 67 kb plasmids revealed 17 different restriction patterns. Some patterns were dominant among European strains whereas others were dominant among North American strains. The results confirmed the applicability of O-serotyping together with plasmid profile and restriction analysis of plasmids for typing of V. anguillarum. They also indicated that plasmids among strains which belonged to the traditional fish pathogenic serogroups, O1 and O2, showed more homology than did strains from most other serogroups, that were usually non-pathogenic, environmental bacteria. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 PMID:8972671

  14. Genetic Characterization of ExPEC-Like Virulence Plasmids among a Subset of NMEC

    PubMed Central

    Nicholson, Bryon A.; West, Aaron C.; Mangiamele, Paul; Barbieri, Nicolle; Wannemuehler, Yvonne; Nolan, Lisa K.; Logue, Catherine M.; Li, Ganwu

    2016-01-01

    Neonatal Meningitis Escherichia coli (NMEC) is one of the most common causes of neonatal bacterial meningitis in the US and elsewhere resulting in mortality or neurologic deficits in survivors. Large plasmids have been shown experimentally to increase the virulence of NMEC in the rat model of neonatal meningitis. Here, 9 ExPEC-like plasmids were isolated from NMEC and sequenced to identify the core and accessory plasmid genes of ExPEC-like virulence plasmids in NMEC and create an expanded plasmid phylogeny. Results showed sequenced virulence plasmids carry a strongly conserved core of genes with predicted functions in five distinct categories including: virulence, metabolism, plasmid stability, mobile elements, and unknown genes. The major functions of virulence-associated and plasmid core genes serve to increase in vivo fitness by adding multiple iron uptake systems to the genetic repertoire to facilitate NMEC’s survival in the host’s low iron environment, and systems to enhance bacterial resistance to host innate immunity. Phylogenetic analysis based on these core plasmid genes showed that at least two lineages of ExPEC-like plasmids could be discerned. Further, virulence plasmids from Avian Pathogenic E. coli and NMEC plasmids could not be differentiated based solely on the genes of the core plasmid genome. PMID:26800268

  15. Subcloning plus insertion (SPI)--a novel recombineering method for the rapid construction of gene targeting vectors.

    PubMed

    Reddy, Thimma R; Kelsall, Emma J; Fevat, Léna M S; Munson, Sarah E; Cowley, Shaun M

    2015-01-01

    Gene targeting refers to the precise modification of a genetic locus using homologous recombination. The generation of novel cell lines and transgenic mouse models using this method necessitates the construction of a 'targeting' vector, which contains homologous DNA sequences to the target gene, and has for many years been a limiting step in the process. Vector construction can be performed in vivo in Escherichia coli cells using homologous recombination mediated by phage recombinases using a technique termed recombineering. Recombineering is the preferred technique to subclone the long homology sequences (>4 kb) and various targeting elements including selection markers that are required to mediate efficient allelic exchange between a targeting vector and its cognate genomic locus. Typical recombineering protocols follow an iterative scheme of step-wise integration of the targeting elements and require intermediate purification and transformation steps. Here, we present a novel recombineering methodology of vector assembly using a multiplex approach. Plasmid gap repair is performed by the simultaneous capture of genomic sequence from mouse Bacterial Artificial Chromosome libraries and the insertion of dual bacterial and mammalian selection markers. This subcloning plus insertion method is highly efficient and yields a majority of correct recombinants. We present data for the construction of different types of conditional gene knockout, or knock-in, vectors and BAC reporter vectors that have been constructed using this method. SPI vector construction greatly extends the repertoire of the recombineering toolbox and provides a simple, rapid and cost-effective method of constructing these highly complex vectors. PMID:25590226

  16. Recombinant origin, contamination, and de-discovery of XMRV.

    PubMed

    Delviks-Frankenberry, Krista; Cingöz, Oya; Coffin, John M; Pathak, Vinay K

    2012-08-01

    The discovery and de-discovery of the xenotropic murine leukemia virus-related virus (XMRV) has been a tumultuous roller-coaster ride for scientists and patients. The initial associations of XMRV with chronic fatigue syndrome and prostate cancer, while providing much hope and optimism, have now been discredited and/or retracted following overwhelming evidence that (1) numerous patient cohorts from around the world are XMRV-negative, (2) the initial reports of XMRV-positive patients were due to contamination with mouse DNA, XMRV plasmid DNA, or virus from the 22Rv1 cell line and (3) XMRV is a laboratory-derived virus generated in the mid 1990s through recombination during passage of a prostate tumor xenograft in immuno-compromised mice. While these developments are disappointing to scientists and patients, they provide a valuable road map of potential pitfalls to the would-be microbe hunters. PMID:22818188

  17. Characterization of the chromosomal integration of Saccharopolyspora plasmid pCM32 and its application to improve production of spinosyn in Saccharopolyspora spinosa.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jian; Xia, Haiyang; Dang, Fujun; Xu, Qingyu; Li, Wenjun; Qin, Zhongjun

    2015-12-01

    Saccharopolyspora spinosa produces tetra-cyclic macrolide spinosyns, a group of highly efficient pesticidal agents. However, this species lacks efficient vectors for genetic manipulation. In this study, the circular plasmid pCM32 was newly isolated from Saccharopolyspora endophytica YIM 61095. The complete nucleotide sequence of pCM32 consists of 14,611 bp and is predicted to encode 17 open reading frames (ORFs). Interestingly, a putative int gene in pCM32 was predicted by homologous alignment to encode an integrase belonging to the tyrosine family of integrases/recombinases. Plasmid pCM238 containing this int locus derived from pCM32 could be transferred by conjugation from Escherichia coli into Sa. spinosa at a high frequency. Integration of pCM238 in the host chromosome was demonstrated as site-specific recombination (at the tRNA (Ser) gene) via a 56-bp core sequence within the attP/attB sites. Plasmid pCM265, a shuttle vector containing the int and attP sequences of pCM32, was constructed to introduce foreign genes into Sa. spinosa. The production of spinosad approximately doubled in Sa. spinosa NRRL18395 after introducing pCM265-derived plasmids carrying the genes for phosphofructokinase (PFK) or anthranilate synthase. These results indicate that plasmid pCM32 is an actinomycete integrative and conjugative element (AICE) and that its derived integrative vectors are useful for efficiently introducing foreign DNA into Sa. spinosa. PMID:26260388

  18. Recombinant methods for screening human DNA excision repair proficiency

    SciTech Connect

    Athas, W.F.

    1988-01-01

    A method for measuring DNA excision repair in response to ultraviolet radiation (UV)-induced DNA damage has been developed, validated, and field-tested in cultured human lymphocytes. The methodology is amenable to population-based screening and should facilitate future epidemiologic studies seeking to investigate associations between excision repair proficiency and cancer susceptibility. The impetus for such endeavors derives from the belief that the high incidence of skin cancer in the genetic disorder xeroderma pigmentosum (XP) primarily is a result of the reduced capacity of patients cells to repair UV-induced DNA damage. For assay, UV-irradiated non-replicating recombinant plasmid DNA harboring a chloramphenicol acetyltransferase (CAT) indicator gene is introduced into lymphocytes using DEAE-dextran short-term transfection conditions. Exposure to UV induces transcriptionally-inactivating DNA photoproducts in the plasmid DNA which inactivate CAT gene expression. Excision repair of the damaged CAT gene is monitored indirectly as a function of reactivated CAT enzyme activity following a 40 hour repair/expression incubation period.

  19. The Complete Sequences and Ecological Roles of Two IncP-1β Plasmids, pHB44 and pBS64, Isolated from the Mycosphere of Laccaria proxima

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Miaozhi; Brons, Jolanda K.; van Elsas, Jan Dirk

    2016-01-01

    Two novel plasmids, coined pHB44 and pBS64, were recently found in Variovorax paradoxus strains HB44 and BS64 isolated from the mycosphere of Laccaria proxima, on two different sampling occasions. We here describe the full sequences of pHB44 and pBS64 and establish their evolutionary placement and ecological function. Both plasmids, unique for mycospheric V. paradoxus, were around 58 kb in size. They possessed, in a very similar fashion, three main plasmid backbone regions, which were predicted to be involved in plasmid replication, central control of maintenance, and conjugational transfer. Phylogenetic inference on the basis of seven selected and concatenated plasmid backbone genes provided solid evidence for the placement of the two plasmids in the IncP-1β1 group, with the recently isolated IncP-1β1 plasmid pMBUI8 as the closest relative. A comparative analysis of the sequences present in each of the recombinational hot spots (RHS) I to III across plasmids pHB44, pBS64, and pMBUI8 revealed the insertions found in plasmids pHB44 and pBS64 to be different from those of pMBUI8. Whereas, in the former two plasmids, RHS I and III were devoid of any major inserts, their RHS II regions contained inserts of 15,043 (pHB44) and 16,406 kb (pBS64), against about 9,3 kb for pMBUI8. Interestingly, these regions were highly similar across plasmids pHB44 and pBS64, and differed from that of pMBUI8. Closer inspection revealed the insert in the former plasmids to contain, next to transposases, an “mmf” gene cassette previously reported to encode metal “responsiveness” in the PromA plasmid pMOL98. Whereas the plasmid pHB44 RHS II contained the canonical mmf sequence, that in pBS64 contained, in addition, a “two-gene duplicated region” flanking the mmf C2 gene. In vitro experiments on the growth and survival of strains with or without plasmid pHB44 suggested this plasmid was involved in the binding and import of Fe3+ as well as V3+ ions into the host cells, thus

  20. Recombination-deficient Streptococcus sanguis

    SciTech Connect

    Daneo-Moore, L.; Volpe, A.

    1985-05-01

    A UV-sensitive derivative was obtained from Streptococcus sanguis Challis. The organism could be transformed with a number of small streptococcal plasmids at frequencies equal to, or 1 logarithm below, the transformation frequencies for the parent organism. However, transformation with chromosomal DNA was greatly impaired in the UV-sensitive derivative.

  1. [The construction of recombinant adenovirus expressing bifunctional fusion protein sCAR-EGF and the detection of its activity].

    PubMed

    Ren, Peng-Kang; Wang, Feng; Li, Hui-Ming; Li, Zong-Hai; Huang, Qian

    2006-09-01

    To improve the targeting of adenovirus vector for gene therapy, a fusion gene sCAR-EGF, in which epidermal growth factor gene was fused to the 3' end of extracellular Coxsackie virus-adenovirus receptor gene, was constructed and cloned into shuttle plasmid pDC315 to obtain a recombinant plasmid pDC315-sCAR-EGF. With the AdMax system, AD-293 cells were co-transfected with pDC315-sCAR-EGF and adenovirus genomic plasmid pBHGloxdeltaE13cre. Through high efficiency site specific recombination, a replication-defective adenovirus Ad5-CMV-sCAR-EGF was constructed. The recombinant adenovirus was analyzed by PCR and Western blotting, the results indicated that Ad5-CMV-sCAR-EGF contained the fusion gene sCAR-EGF, and the adenovirus infected cells was induced to produce and secrete the fusion protein into the supernatant. We have demonstrated that the fusion protein sCAR-EGF is helpful for elevating the infection efficiency of Ad5-CMV-luc with the reporter gene in vitro, which providing a new approach to the gene therapy for tumors overexpressing EGFR. PMID:17037191

  2. Unraveling recombination rate evolution using ancestral recombination maps

    PubMed Central

    Munch, Kasper; Schierup, Mikkel H; Mailund, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    Recombination maps of ancestral species can be constructed from comparative analyses of genomes from closely related species, exemplified by a recently published map of the human-chimpanzee ancestor. Such maps resolve differences in recombination rate between species into changes along individual branches in the speciation tree, and allow identification of associated changes in the genomic sequences. We describe how coalescent hidden Markov models are able to call individual recombination events in ancestral species through inference of incomplete lineage sorting along a genomic alignment. In the great apes, speciation events are sufficiently close in time that a map can be inferred for the ancestral species at each internal branch - allowing evolution of recombination rate to be tracked over evolutionary time scales from speciation event to speciation event. We see this approach as a way of characterizing the evolution of recombination rate and the genomic properties that influence it. PMID:25043668

  3. Algebraic theory of recombination spaces.

    PubMed

    Stadler, P F; Wagner, G P

    1997-01-01

    A new mathematical representation is proposed for the configuration space structure induced by recombination, which we call "P-structure." It consists of a mapping of pairs of objects to the power set of all objects in the search space. The mapping assigns to each pair of parental "genotypes" the set of all recombinant genotypes obtainable from the parental ones. It is shown that this construction allows a Fourier decomposition of fitness landscapes into a superposition of "elementary landscapes." This decomposition is analogous to the Fourier decomposition of fitness landscapes on mutation spaces. The elementary landscapes are obtained as eigenfunctions of a Laplacian operator defined for P-structures. For binary string recombination, the elementary landscapes are exactly the p-spin functions (Walsh functions), that is, the same as the elementary landscapes of the string point mutation spaces (i.e., the hypercube). This supports the notion of a strong homomorphism between string mutation and recombination spaces. However, the effective nearest neighbor correlations on these elementary landscapes differ between mutation and recombination and among different recombination operators. On average, the nearest neighbor correlation is higher for one-point recombination than for uniform recombination. For one-point recombination, the correlations are higher for elementary landscapes with fewer interacting sites as well as for sites that have closer linkage, confirming the qualitative predictions of the Schema Theorem. We conclude that the algebraic approach to fitness landscape analysis can be extended to recombination spaces and provides an effective way to analyze the relative hardness of a landscape for a given recombination operator. PMID:10021760

  4. Nucleotide sequence of a small cryptic plasmid from Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans strain A-6

    SciTech Connect

    F. Roberto

    2003-10-01

    A 2.1 kb cryptic plasmid from Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans strain A-6 was isolated and cloned into the E. coli vector plasmid, pUC128. The cloned plasmid was mapped by restriction enzyme fragment analysis and subsequently sequenced. At this time over half the plasmid sequence has been determined and compared to sequences in the GenBank nucleotide and protein sequence databases. Much of the plasmid remains cryptic, but substantial nucleotide and protein sequence similarities have been observed to the putative replication protein, RepA, of the small cryptic plasmids pAYS and pAYL found in the ammonia-oxidizing Nitrosomonas sp. Strain ENI-11. These results suggest an entirely new class of plasmid is maintained in at least one strain of Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans and other acidophilic bacteria, and raises interesting questions about the origin of this plasmid in acidic environments.

  5. Conservation of plasmids among plant-pathogenic Pseudomonas syringae isolates of diverse origins.

    PubMed

    von Bodman, S B; Shaw, P D

    1987-05-01

    Thirty isolates of Pseudomonas syringae pv. tabaci, pv. angulata (pathogens on tobacco), pv. coronafaciens, and pv. striafaciens (pathogens on oats) were examined for plasmid DNAs. The strains were obtained from plants throughout the world, some over 50 years ago. Of the 22 tobacco pathogens, 16 contain predominantly one type of plasmid, the pJP27.00 type. The remaining six tobacco-specific strains do not harbor detectable plasmids. The oat pathogens contain one, two, or three plasmids. DNA homology studies indicate that the plasmid DNAs are highly conserved. More importantly, the plasmids harbored by strains isolated from one host plant are conserved most stringently; e.g., the plasmids from the tobacco pathogens are, with one exception, indistinguishable by restriction endonuclease digestion and Southern hybridization. There is also extensive homology among plasmids indigenous to the oat-specific P. syringae pv. coronafaciens and pv. striafaciens strains. PMID:3628554

  6. A Time-Efficient and User-Friendly Method for Plasmid DNA Restriction Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LaBanca, Frank; Berg, Claire M.

    1998-01-01

    Describes an experiment in which plasmid DNA is digested with restriction enzymes that cleave the plasmid either once or twice. The DNA is stained, loaded on a gel, electrophoresed, and viewed under normal laboratory conditions during electrophoresis. (DDR)

  7. Description of a 2,683-base-pair plasmid containing qnrD in two Providencia rettgeri isolates.

    PubMed

    Guillard, Thomas; Cambau, Emmanuelle; Neuwirth, Catherine; Nenninger, Thomas; Mbadi, Aurore; Brasme, Lucien; Vernet-Garnier, Véronique; Bajolet, Odile; de Champs, Christophe

    2012-01-01

    qnr genes are plasmid-mediated quinolone resistance genes mainly harbored on large conjugative multiresistant plasmids. The qnrD gene was recently observed in Salmonella enterica on a small nonconjugative plasmid (p2007057). We describe two strains of Providencia rettgeri harboring qnrD on nonconjugative plasmids. The plasmids were 99% identical, with 2,683 bp and four open reading frames, including qnrD, but exhibited only 53% identity with the plasmid found in S. enterica. PMID:21986831

  8. Autonomous plasmid-like replication of a conjugative transposon

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Catherine A.; Babic, Ana; Grossman, Alan D.

    2010-01-01

    Summary Integrative and conjugative elements (ICEs), a.k.a. conjugative transposons, are mobile genetic elements involved in many biological processes, including pathogenesis, symbiosis, and the spread of antibiotic resistance. Unlike conjugative plasmids that are extra-chromosomal and replicate autonomously, ICEs are integrated in the chromosome and replicate passively during chromosomal replication. It is generally thought that ICEs do not replicate autonomously. We found that when induced, Bacillus subtilis ICEBs1 undergoes autonomous plasmid-like replication. Replication was unidirectional, initiated from the ICEBs1 origin of transfer, oriT, and required the ICEBs1-encoded relaxase NicK. Replication also required several host proteins needed for chromosomal replication, but did not require the replicative helicase DnaC or the helicase loader protein DnaB. Rather, replication of ICEBs1 required the helicase PcrA that is required for rolling circle replication of many plasmids. Transfer of ICEBs1 from the donor required PcrA, but did not require replication, indicating that PcrA, and not DNA replication, facilitates unwinding of ICEBs1 DNA for horizontal transfer. Although not needed for horizontal transfer, replication of ICEBs1 was needed for stability of the element. We propose that autonomous plasmid-like replication is a common property of ICEs and contributes to the stability and maintenance of these mobile genetic elements in bacterial populations. PMID:19943900

  9. [Chromatographic separation of plasmid DNA by anion-exchange cryogel].

    PubMed

    Guo, Yantao; Shen, Shaochuan; Yun, Junxian; Yao, Kejian

    2012-08-01

    Plasmid DNA (pDNA) is used as an important vector for gene therapy, and its wide application is restricted by the purity and yield. To obtain high-purity pDNA, a chromatographic method based on anion-exchange supermacroporous cryogel was explored. The anion-exchange cryogel was prepared by grafting diethylaminoethyl-dextran to the epoxide groups of polyacrylamide-based matrix and pUC19 plasmid was used as a target to test the method. The plasmid was transferred into Escherichia coli DH5alpha, cultivated, harvested and lysed. The obtained culture was centrifuged and the supernatant was used as the plasmid feedstock, which was loaded into the anion-exchange cryogel bed for chromatographic separation. By optimizing the pH of running buffer and the elution conditions, high-purity pDNA was obtained by elution with 0.5 mol/L sodium chloride solution at pH 6.6. Compared to the traditional methods for purification of pDNA, animal source enzymes and toxic reagents were not involved in the present separation process, ensuring the safety of both the purification operations and the obtained pDNA. PMID:23185899

  10. Geminiviruses: a tale of a plasmid becoming a virus

    PubMed Central

    Krupovic, Mart; Ravantti, Janne J; Bamford, Dennis H

    2009-01-01

    Background Geminiviruses (family Geminiviridae) are small single-stranded (ss) DNA viruses infecting plants. Their virion morphology is unique in the known viral world – two incomplete T = 1 icosahedra are joined together to form twinned particles. Geminiviruses utilize a rolling-circle mode to replicate their genomes. A limited sequence similarity between the three conserved motifs of the rolling-circle replication initiation proteins (RCR Reps) of geminiviruses and plasmids of Gram-positive bacteria allowed Koonin and Ilyina to propose that geminiviruses descend from bacterial replicons. Results Phylogenetic and clustering analyses of various RCR Reps suggest that Rep proteins of geminiviruses share a most recent common ancestor with Reps encoded on plasmids of phytoplasmas, parasitic wall-less bacteria replicating both in plant and insect cells and therefore occupying a common ecological niche with geminiviruses. Capsid protein of Satellite tobacco necrosis virus was found to be the best template for homology-based structural modeling of the geminiviral capsid protein. Good stereochemical quality of the generated models indicates that the geminiviral capsid protein shares the same structural fold, the viral jelly-roll, with the vast majority of icosahedral plant-infecting ssRNA viruses. Conclusion We propose a plasmid-to-virus transition scenario, where a phytoplasmal plasmid acquired a capsid-coding gene from a plant RNA virus to give rise to the ancestor of geminiviruses. PMID:19460138

  11. Plasmid-determined copper resistance in Pseudomonas syringae from impatiens

    SciTech Connect

    Cooksey, D.A. )

    1990-01-01

    A strain of Pseudomonas syringae was recently identified as the cause of a new foliar blight of impatiens. The bacterium was resistant to copper compounds, which are used on a variety of crops for bacterial and fungal disease control. The bacterium contained a single 47-kilobase plasmid (pPSI1) that showed homology to a copper resistance operon previously cloned and characterized from P. syringae pv. tomato plasmid pPT23D (D. Cooksey, Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 53:454-456, 1987). pPSI1 was transformed by electroporation into a copper-sensitive P. syringae strain, and the resulting transformants were copper resistant. A physical map of pPSI1 was constructed, and the extent of homology to pPT23D outside the copper resistance operon was determined in Southern hybridizations. The two plasmids shared approximately 20 kilobases of homologous DNA, with the remainder of each plasmid showing no detectable homology. The homologous regions hybridized strongly, but there was little or no conservation of restriction enzyme recognition sites.

  12. Effects of maternal plasmid GHRH treatment on offspring growth

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    To differentiate prenatal effects of plasmid growth hormone-releasing hormone (GHRH) treatment from maternal effects mediated by lactation on long-term growth of offspring, a cross-fostering study was designed. Pregnant sows (n = 12) were untreated (n = 6), or received either a Wt-GHRH (n = 2), or H...

  13. [Transfer of plasmid beta-lactamases in enterobacteria].

    PubMed

    Umaran, A; Garaizar, J; Gallego, L; Colom, K; Cisterna, R

    1989-04-01

    The aim of the present study was to determine which types of beta-lactamases codified by plasmids are transferred by conjugation from several species of enterobacteria. To this end, 352 strains of ampicillin-resistant enterobacteria from clinical samples from the Hospital Civil of Bilbao were evaluated. Their beta-lactamase activity and their capacity to transfer this capacity by conjugation were evaluated. The several types of plasmidic beta-lactamases in the strains that conjugated and in their respective transconjugants were characterized by analytic isoelectric approach, and also the sensitivity of these stains to 20 beta-lactamic antibiotics and the size of their plasmids. Twenty different types were detected, with a clear predominance of TEM 1. Type TEM 2 was found in 19% of the strains which conjugated, and much less commonly the types SHV 1, HMS 1 and a beta-lactamase of an approximate pl of 4.9 were found. The transfer of these beta-lactamases is mediated by a great variety of plasmids and is associated with variable levels of resistance to penicillins and unstable cephalosporins. The presence of betalactamases with activity on the more stable cephalosporins has not been detected. PMID:2490696

  14. Synthetic Fatty Acids Prevent Plasmid-Mediated Horizontal Gene Transfer

    PubMed Central

    Getino, María; Sanabria-Ríos, David J.; Fernández-López, Raúl; Campos-Gómez, Javier; Sánchez-López, José M.; Fernández, Antonio; Carballeira, Néstor M.

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Bacterial conjugation constitutes a major horizontal gene transfer mechanism for the dissemination of antibiotic resistance genes among human pathogens. Antibiotic resistance spread could be halted or diminished by molecules that interfere with the conjugation process. In this work, synthetic 2-alkynoic fatty acids were identified as a novel class of conjugation inhibitors. Their chemical properties were investigated by using the prototype 2-hexadecynoic acid and its derivatives. Essential features of effective inhibitors were the carboxylic group, an optimal long aliphatic chain of 16 carbon atoms, and one unsaturation. Chemical modification of these groups led to inactive or less-active derivatives. Conjugation inhibitors were found to act on the donor cell, affecting a wide number of pathogenic bacterial hosts, including Escherichia, Salmonella, Pseudomonas, and Acinetobacter spp. Conjugation inhibitors were active in inhibiting transfer of IncF, IncW, and IncH plasmids, moderately active against IncI, IncL/M, and IncX plasmids, and inactive against IncP and IncN plasmids. Importantly, the use of 2-hexadecynoic acid avoided the spread of a derepressed IncF plasmid into a recipient population, demonstrating the feasibility of abolishing the dissemination of antimicrobial resistances by blocking bacterial conjugation. PMID:26330514

  15. Recombinant Human Erythropoietin

    PubMed Central

    Bartels, Claudia; Späte, Kira; Krampe, Henning

    2008-01-01

    Treatment of multiple sclerosis (MS) is still unsatisfactory and essentially non-existing for the progressive course of the disease. Recombinant human erythropoietin (EPO) may be a promising neuroprotective/neuroregenerative treatment of MS. In the nervous system, EPO acts anti-apoptotic, antioxidative, anti-inflammatory, neurotrophic and plasticity-modulating. Beneficial effects have been shown in animal models of various neurological and psychiatric diseases, including different models of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis. EPO is also effective in human brain disease, as shown in double-blind placebo-controlled clinical studies on ischemic stroke and chronic schizophrenia. An exploratory study on chronic progressive MS yielded lasting improvement in motor and cognitive performance upon high-dose long-term EPO treatment. PMID:21180577

  16. Recombinant glucose uptake system

    DOEpatents

    Ingrahm, Lonnie O.; Snoep, Jacob L.; Arfman, Nico

    1997-01-01

    Recombinant organisms are disclosed that contain a pathway for glucose uptake other than the pathway normally utilized by the host cell. In particular, the host cell is one in which glucose transport into the cell normally is coupled to PEP production. This host cell is transformed so that it uses an alternative pathway for glucose transport that is not coupled to PEP production. In a preferred embodiment, the host cell is a bacterium other than Z. mobilis that has been transformed to contain the glf and glk genes of Z. mobilis. By uncoupling glucose transport into the cell from PEP utilization, more PEP is produced for synthesis of products of commercial importance from a given quantity of biomass supplied to the host cells.

  17. The replication origin of a repABC plasmid

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background repABC operons are present on large, low copy-number plasmids and on some secondary chromosomes in at least 19 α-proteobacterial genera, and are responsible for the replication and segregation properties of these replicons. These operons consist, with some variations, of three genes: repA, repB, and repC. RepA and RepB are involved in plasmid partitioning and in the negative regulation of their own transcription, and RepC is the limiting factor for replication. An antisense RNA encoded between the repB-repC genes modulates repC expression. Results To identify the minimal region of the Rhizobium etli p42d plasmid that is capable of autonomous replication, we amplified different regions of the repABC operon using PCR and cloned the regions into a suicide vector. The resulting vectors were then introduced into R. etli strains that did or did not contain p42d. The minimal replicon consisted of a repC open reading frame under the control of a constitutive promoter with a Shine-Dalgarno sequence that we designed. A sequence analysis of repC revealed the presence of a large A+T-rich region but no iterons or DnaA boxes. Silent mutations that modified the A+T content of this region eliminated the replication capability of the plasmid. The minimal replicon could not be introduced into R. etli strain containing p42d, but similar constructs that carried repC from Sinorhizobium meliloti pSymA or the linear chromosome of Agrobacterium tumefaciens replicated in the presence or absence of p42d, indicating that RepC is an incompatibility factor. A hybrid gene construct expressing a RepC protein with the first 362 amino acid residues from p42d RepC and the last 39 amino acid residues of RepC from SymA was able to replicate in the presence of p42d. Conclusions RepC is the only element encoded in the repABC operon of the R. etli p42d plasmid that is necessary and sufficient for plasmid replication and is probably the initiator protein. The oriV of this plasmid resides

  18. The recombination of genetic material

    SciTech Connect

    Low, K.B.

    1988-01-01

    Genetic recombination is the major mechanism by which new arrangements of genetic elements are produced in all living organisms, from the simplest bacterial viruses to humans. This volume presents an overview of the types of recombination found in prokaryotes and eukaryotes.

  19. Immunogenicity of recombinant BCGs expressing predicted antigenic epitopes of bovine viral diarrhea virus E2 gene.

    PubMed

    Liu, Dongxu; Lu, Huijun; Shi, Kun; Su, Fengyan; Li, Jianming; Du, Rui

    2014-10-01

    To develop a vaccine to prevent diseases caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis and bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) simultaneously, recombinant Bacillus Calmette-Guerin (rBCG) vaccines expressing different regions of the BVDV E2 gene were constructed. Using DNASTAR 6.0 software, potential antigenic epitopes were predicted, and six regions were chosen to generate recombinant plasmids with the pMV361 vector (pMV361-E2-1, pMV361-E2-2, pMV361-E2-3, pMV361-E2-4, pMV361-E2-5 and pMV361-E2-6, respectively). The recombinant plasmids were transformed into BCG, and protein expression was thermally induced at 45 °C. Mice were immunized with 5 × 10(6) CFU/200 µL of each rBCG strain. Compared with other groups, BVDV E2 specific antibody titers were higher in mice immunized with rBCG-E2-6. Ratios and numbers of CD4+, CD8+ and IL-12 expressing spleen lymphocytes of the rBCG-E2-6 group also were higher than those of other groups. Thus, the rBCG-E2-6 vaccine showed the highest immunogenicity of all groups based on the humoral and cellular responses to vaccination. PMID:25135492

  20. Thioredoxin from Streptomyces aureofaciens controls coiling of plasmid DNA.

    PubMed

    Golubnitchaya-Labudova, O; Horecka, T; Kapalla, M; Perecko, D; Kutejova, E; Lubec, G

    1998-01-01

    A number of potential functions of thioredoxin have been proposed in literature, including a role for DNA replication. The aim of our study was to investigate the effects of thioredoxin from Streptomyces aureofaciens (Trx S.a.) on plasmid DNA. Trx S.a. was incubated with plasmid forms and the incubation product(s) characterized on agarose gels. To compare Trx activity with enzymes with known DNA modifying activities, topoisomerase I, II (gyrase) and T4 DNA ligase were incubated with plasmid DNA in parallel. For the demonstration of nick removal a PCR technique was used. Trx S.a. bound non-specifically to plasmid DNA relaxing supercoiled circle closed form (CCC form) with subsequent formation of the circle closed form (CC form) as a major product. The amplification of a specific DNA template, possible only after nick removal, took place following incubation with Trx. The effect of topoisomerase I on plasmid DNA resembled Trx S.a. activity. We propose the following mechanism for CCC relaxation: Binding of Trx leads to a break of one strand and CC is formed by stepwise relaxation, ending with nick removal. The concomitant finding of open circle form (OC form) generation after incubation with Trx may indicate the generation of an intermediate due to the postulated strand break at initiation. This control of coiling may play a role in the DNA replication machinery, providing CC as a readily available substrate for DNA polymerases. In addition, Trx may serve in DNA repair mechanisms by its nonspecific binding to DNA and nick removing activity. PMID:9449230

  1. Plasmid copy number underlies adaptive mutability in bacteria.

    PubMed

    Sano, Emiko; Maisnier-Patin, Sophie; Aboubechara, John Paul; Quiñones-Soto, Semarhy; Roth, John R

    2014-11-01

    The origin of mutations under selection has been intensively studied using the Cairns-Foster system, in which cells of an Escherichia coli lac mutant are plated on lactose and give rise to 100 Lac+ revertants over several days. These revertants have been attributed variously to stress-induced mutagenesis of nongrowing cells or to selective improvement of preexisting weakly Lac+ cells with no mutagenesis. Most revertant colonies (90%) contain stably Lac+ cells, while others (10%) contain cells with an unstable amplification of the leaky mutant lac allele. Evidence is presented that both stable and unstable Lac+ revertant colonies are initiated by preexisting cells with multiple copies of the F'lac plasmid, which carries the mutant lac allele. The tetracycline analog anhydrotetracycline (AnTc) inhibits growth of cells with multiple copies of the tetA gene. Populations with tetA on their F'lac plasmid include rare cells with an elevated plasmid copy number and multiple copies of both the tetA and lac genes. Pregrowth of such populations with AnTc reduces the number of cells with multiple F'lac copies and consequently the number of Lac+ colonies appearing under selection. Revertant yield is restored rapidly by a few generations of growth without AnTc. We suggest that preexisting cells with multiple F'lac copies divide very little under selection but have enough energy to replicate their F'lac plasmids repeatedly until reversion initiates a stable Lac+ colony. Preexisting cells whose high-copy plasmid includes an internal lac duplication grow under selection and produce an unstable Lac+ colony. In this model, all revertant colonies are initiated by preexisting cells and cannot be stress induced. PMID:25173846

  2. GeneGuard: A modular plasmid system designed for biosafety.

    PubMed

    Wright, Oliver; Delmans, Mihails; Stan, Guy-Bart; Ellis, Tom

    2015-03-20

    Synthetic biology applications in biosensing, bioremediation, and biomining envision the use of engineered microbes beyond a contained laboratory. Deployment of such microbes in the environment raises concerns of unchecked cellular proliferation or unwanted spread of synthetic genes. While antibiotic-resistant plasmids are the most utilized vectors for introducing synthetic genes into bacteria, they are also inherently insecure, acting naturally to propagate DNA from one cell to another. To introduce security into bacterial synthetic biology, we here took on the task of completely reformatting plasmids to be dependent on their intended host strain and inherently disadvantageous for others. Using conditional origins of replication, rich-media compatible auxotrophies, and toxin-antitoxin pairs we constructed a mutually dependent host-plasmid platform, called GeneGuard. In this, replication initiators for the R6K or ColE2-P9 origins are provided in trans by a specified host, whose essential thyA or dapA gene is translocated from a genomic to a plasmid location. This reciprocal arrangement is stable for at least 100 generations without antibiotic selection and is compatible for use in LB medium and soil. Toxin genes ζ or Kid are also employed in an auxiliary manner to make the vector disadvantageous for strains not expressing their antitoxins. These devices, in isolation and in concert, severely reduce unintentional plasmid propagation in E. coli and B. subtilis and do not disrupt the intended E. coli host's growth dynamics. Our GeneGuard system comprises several versions of modular cargo-ready vectors, along with their requisite genomic integration cassettes, and is demonstrated here as an efficient vector for heavy-metal biosensors. PMID:24847673

  3. Plasmid profiling of bacterial isolates from confined environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Houdt, Rob; Provoost, Ann; Coninx, Ilse; Leys, Natalie; Mergeay, Max

    Plasmid profiling of bacterial isolates from confined environments R. Van Houdt, I. Coninx, A. Provoost, N. Leys, and M. Mergeay Expertise group for Molecular and Cellular Biology, Institute for Environment, Health and Safety, Belgian Nuclear Research Centre (SCK•CEN), Boeretang 200, B-2400 Mol, Belgium. Human exploration of extreme and isolated hostile environments such as space requires special confined small volume habitats to protect and house the crew. However, human confinement in such small volume habitats has restrictions on waste disposal and personal hygiene and inevitably generates a particular community of microorganisms within the habitat. These microorganisms are mainly originating from the crew (skin, mucous membranes, upper respiratory tract, mouth, and gastrointestinal tract) but also include the residing environmental microorganisms. Earth-based confined habitats such as the Antarctic Research Station Concordia are used as test beds for long-duration spaceflights to study the physiologic and psychological adaptation to isolated environments. The dynamics of the environmental microbial population in such a test bed could render additional insights in assessing the potential health risks in long-duration space missions. Not only total bacterial contamination levels are important, but it is essential to identify also the predominant microbial taxa and their mobile genetic elements (MGE). These MGEs could be exchanged between bacteria by horizontal gene transfer and may alter the pathogenic potential since they often carry antibiotic resistance or more in general adaptation-enhancing traits. In this study several bacterial strains isolated in the Concordia research station were examined for their plasmid content. An optimized protocol for extraction of large plasmids showed the present of at least one plasmid in 50% of the strains. For all strains the minimal inhibitory concentration of a range of antibiotics was determined indicating resistance to

  4. Plasmid Mediated Antibiotic Resistance in Isolated Bacteria From Burned Patients

    PubMed Central

    Beige, Fahimeh; Baseri Salehi, Majid; Bahador, Nima; Mobasherzadeh, Sina

    2014-01-01

    Background: Nowadays, the treatment of burned patients is difficult because of the high frequency of infection with antibiotic resistance bacteria. Objectives: This study was conducted to evaluate the level of antibiotic resistance in Gram-negative bacteria and its relation with the existence of plasmid. Materials and Methods: The samples were collected from two hundred twenty hospitalized burned patients in Isfahan burn hospital during a three-month period (March 2012 to June 2012). The samples were isolated and the Gram-negative bacteria were identified using phenotypic method and API 20E System. Antibiotic susceptibility and plasmid profile were determined by standard Agar disc diffusion and plasmid spin column extraction methods. Results: Totally 117 Gram-negative bacteria were isolated, the most common were Pseudomonas aerugionsa (37.6%), P. fluorescens (25.6%), Acinetobacter baumanii (20/5%) and Klebsiella pneumoniae (7.6%), respectively. The isolates showed high frequency of antibiotic resistance against ceftazidime and co-amoxiclave (100%) and low frequency of antibiotic resistance against amikacin with (70%).The results indicated that 60% of the isolates harboured plasmid. On the other hand, the patients infected with A. baumanii and P. aeruginosa were cured (with 60% frequency) whereas, those infected with P. fluorescens were not cured. Hence, probably antibiotic resistance markers of A. baumanii and P. aeruginosa are plasmid mediated; however, P. fluorescens is chromosomally mediated. Conclusions: Based on our findings, P. aerugionsa is a major causative agent of wound infections and amikacin could be considered as a more effective antibiotic for treatment of the burned patients. PMID:25789121

  5. Chromosome and Plasmids of the Tick-Borne Relapsing Fever Agent Borrelia hermsii

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    The zoonotic pathogen Borrelia hermsii bears its multiple paralogous genes for variable antigens on several linear plasmids. Application of combined long-read and short-read next-generation sequencing provided complete sequences for antigen-encoding plasmids as well as other linear and circular plasmids and the linear chromosome of the genome. PMID:27284141

  6. Generation and Molecular Characterization of New Temperature-Sensitive Plasmids Intended for Genetic Engineering of Pasteurellaceae

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Temperature-sensitive (TS) plasmids were generated through chemical mutagenesis of a derivative of the streptomycin resistance parent plasmid pD70, isolated from Mannheimia hemolytica serotype 1. Three TS plasmids which failed to replicate at or above 42°C in M. hemolytica but which were fully func...

  7. Mix and match of KPC-2 encoding plasmids in Enterobacteriaceae-comparative genomics.

    PubMed

    Chmelnitsky, Inna; Shklyar, Maya; Leavitt, Azita; Sadovsky, Evgeniya; Navon-Venezia, Shiri; Ben Dalak, Maayan; Edgar, Rotem; Carmeli, Yehuda

    2014-06-01

    We performed comparative sequence analysis of 3 blaKPC-2 encoding plasmids to examine evolution of these plasmids and their dissemination. We found that all of them have an IncN replicon with a newly determined IncN plasmid sequence type (ST), ST15. The 2 Klebsiella pneumoniae (KPN) plasmids also harbor an IncF2A1-B1- replicon. The blaKPC-2 is located in the Tn4401c transposon with a newly discovered mutation in the P2 promoter. Screening of the 27 additional blaKPC-2 carrying plasmids from Enterobacter cloacae, Escherichia coli (EC), and K. pneumoniae showed that: all KPN and EC plasmids are IncN plasmids belonging to ST15; 4/7 KPN and 1/6 EC plasmids contain an additional IncF2A1-B1- replicon; all Enterobacter plasmids belong to neither IncN nor IncF2A1-B1- replicon plasmids; 6/7 KPN and 2/5 EC plasmids carry the mutated P2 promoter. Study of the blaKPC-2 environment, transposon, pMLST, and Inc group suggests transposon and plasmid inter- and intra-species dissemination and evolution. PMID:24743043

  8. Novel plasmid conferring kanamycin and tetracycline resistance in turkey-derived Campylobacter jejuni strain 11601MD

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In Campylobacter spp., resistance to the antibiotics kanamycin and tetracycline is frequently associated with plasmid-borne genes. However, relatively few plasmids of Campylobacter jejuni have been fully characterized to date. A novel plasmid (p11601MD; 44,095 bp.) harboring tet(O) was identified in...

  9. Chromosome and Plasmids of the Tick-Borne Relapsing Fever Agent Borrelia hermsii.

    PubMed

    Barbour, Alan G

    2016-01-01

    The zoonotic pathogen Borrelia hermsii bears its multiple paralogous genes for variable antigens on several linear plasmids. Application of combined long-read and short-read next-generation sequencing provided complete sequences for antigen-encoding plasmids as well as other linear and circular plasmids and the linear chromosome of the genome. PMID:27284141

  10. Coalescent Simulation of Intracodon Recombination

    PubMed Central

    Arenas, Miguel; Posada, David

    2010-01-01

    The coalescent with recombination is a very useful tool in molecular population genetics. Under this framework, genealogies often represent the evolution of the substitution unit, and because of this, the few coalescent algorithms implemented for the simulation of coding sequences force recombination to occur only between codons. However, it is clear that recombination is expected to occur most often within codons. Here we have developed an algorithm that can evolve coding sequences under an ancestral recombination graph that represents the genealogies at each nucleotide site, thereby allowing for intracodon recombination. The algorithm is a modification of Hudson's coalescent in which, in addition to keeping track of events occurring in the ancestral material that reaches the sample, we need to keep track of events occurring in ancestral material that does not reach the sample but that is produced by intracodon recombination. We are able to show that at typical substitution rates the number of nonsynonymous changes induced by intracodon recombination is small and that intracodon recombination does not generally result in inflated estimates of the overall nonsynonymous/synonymous substitution ratio (ω). On the other hand, recombination can bias the estimation of ω at particular codons, resulting in apparent rate variation among sites and in the spurious identification of positively selected sites. Importantly, in this case, allowing for variable synonymous rates across sites greatly reduces the false-positive rate and recovers statistical power. Finally, coalescent simulations with intracodon recombination could be used to better represent the evolution of nuclear coding genes or fast-evolving pathogens such as HIV-1.We have implemented this algorithm in a computer program called NetRecodon, freely available at http://darwin.uvigo.es. PMID:19933876

  11. The 2 micrometer plasmid stability system: analyses of the interactions among plasmid- and host-encoded components.

    PubMed

    Velmurugan, S; Ahn, Y T; Yang, X M; Wu, X L; Jayaram, M

    1998-12-01

    The stable inheritance of the 2 micrometer plasmid in a growing population of Saccharomyces cerevisiae is dependent on two plasmid-encoded proteins (Rep1p and Rep2p), together with the cis-acting locus REP3 (STB). In this study we demonstrate that short carboxy-terminal deletions of Rep1p and Rep2p severely diminish their normal capacity to localize to the yeast nucleus. The nuclear targeting, as well as their functional role in plasmid partitioning, can be restored by the addition of a nuclear localization sequence to the amino or the carboxy terminus of the shortened Rep proteins. Analyses of deletion derivatives of the Rep proteins by using the in vivo dihybrid genetic test in yeast, as well as by glutathione S-transferase fusion trapping assays in vitro demonstrate that the amino-terminal portion of Rep1p (ca. 150 amino acids long) is responsible for its interactions with Rep2p. In a monohybrid in vivo assay, we have identified Rep1p, Rep2p, and a host-encoded protein, Shf1p, as being capable of interacting with the STB locus. The Shf1 protein expressed in Escherichia coli can bind with high specificity to the STB sequence in vitro. In a yeast strain deleted for the SHF1 locus, a 2 micrometer circle-derived plasmid shows relatively poor stability. PMID:9819432

  12. The 2μm Plasmid Stability System: Analyses of the Interactions among Plasmid- and Host-Encoded Components

    PubMed Central

    Velmurugan, Soundarapandian; Ahn, Yong-Tae; Yang, Xian-Mei; Wu, Xu-Li; Jayaram, Makkuni

    1998-01-01

    The stable inheritance of the 2μm plasmid in a growing population of Saccharomyces cerevisiae is dependent on two plasmid-encoded proteins (Rep1p and Rep2p), together with the cis-acting locus REP3 (STB). In this study we demonstrate that short carboxy-terminal deletions of Rep1p and Rep2p severely diminish their normal capacity to localize to the yeast nucleus. The nuclear targeting, as well as their functional role in plasmid partitioning, can be restored by the addition of a nuclear localization sequence to the amino or the carboxy terminus of the shortened Rep proteins. Analyses of deletion derivatives of the Rep proteins by using the in vivo dihybrid genetic test in yeast, as well as by glutathione S-transferase fusion trapping assays in vitro demonstrate that the amino-terminal portion of Rep1p (ca. 150 amino acids long) is responsible for its interactions with Rep2p. In a monohybrid in vivo assay, we have identified Rep1p, Rep2p, and a host-encoded protein, Shf1p, as being capable of interacting with the STB locus. The Shf1 protein expressed in Escherichia coli can bind with high specificity to the STB sequence in vitro. In a yeast strain deleted for the SHF1 locus, a 2μm circle-derived plasmid shows relatively poor stability. PMID:9819432

  13. Plasmid vectors for Xylella fastidiosa utilizing a toxin-antitoxin system for plasmid stability in the absence of antibiotic selection

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The phytopathogen Xylella fastidiosa causes disease in a variety of important crop and landscape plants. Functional genetic studies have led to a broader understanding of virulence mechanisms used by this pathogen in the grapevine host. Plasmid shuttle vectors are important tools in studies of bacte...

  14. The opportunistic marine pathogen Vibrio parahaemolyticus becomes virulent by acquiring a plasmid that expresses a deadly toxin

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Chung-Te; Chen, I-Tung; Yang, Yi-Ting; Ko, Tzu-Ping; Huang, Yun-Tzu; Huang, Jiun-Yan; Huang, Ming-Fen; Lin, Shin-Jen; Chen, Chien-Yu; Lin, Shih-Shun; Lightner, Donald V.; Wang, Han-Ching; Wang, Andrew H.-J.; Wang, Hao-Ching; Hor, Lien-I; Lo, Chu-Fang

    2015-01-01

    Acute hepatopancreatic necrosis disease (AHPND) is a severe, newly emergent penaeid shrimp disease caused by Vibrio parahaemolyticus that has already led to tremendous losses in the cultured shrimp industry. Until now, its disease-causing mechanism has remained unclear. Here we show that an AHPND-causing strain of V. parahaemolyticus contains a 70-kbp plasmid (pVA1) with a postsegregational killing system, and that the ability to cause disease is abolished by the natural absence or experimental deletion of the plasmid-encoded homologs of the Photorhabdus insect-related (Pir) toxins PirA and PirB. We determined the crystal structure of the V. parahaemolyticus PirA and PirB (PirAvp and PirBvp) proteins and found that the overall structural topology of PirAvp/PirBvp is very similar to that of the Bacillus Cry insecticidal toxin-like proteins, despite the low sequence identity (<10%). This structural similarity suggests that the putative PirABvp heterodimer might emulate the functional domains of the Cry protein, and in particular its pore-forming activity. The gene organization of pVA1 further suggested that pirABvp may be lost or acquired by horizontal gene transfer via transposition or homologous recombination. PMID:26261348

  15. Effect of storage and processing on plasmid, yeast and plant genomic DNA stability in juice from genetically modified oranges.

    PubMed

    Weiss, Julia; Ros-Chumillas, Maria; Peña, Leandro; Egea-Cortines, Marcos

    2007-01-30

    Recombinant DNA technology is an important tool in the development of plant varieties with new favourable features. There is strong opposition towards this technology due to the potential risk of horizontal gene transfer between genetically modified plant material and food-associated bacteria, especially if genes for antibiotic resistance are involved. Since horizontal transfer efficiency depends on size and length of homologous sequences, we investigated the effect of conditions required for orange juice processing on the stability of DNA from three different origins: plasmid DNA, yeast genomic DNA and endogenous genomic DNA from transgenic sweet orange (C. sinensis L. Osb.). Acidic orange juice matrix had a strong degrading effect on plasmid DNA which becomes apparent in a conformation change from supercoiled structure to nicked, linear structure within 5h of storage at 4 degrees C. Genomic yeast DNA was degraded during exposure to acidic orange juice matrix within 4 days, and also the genomic DNA of C. sinensis suffered degradation within 2 days of storage as indicated by amplification results from transgene markers. Standard pasteurization procedures affected DNA integrity depending on the method and time used. Our data show that the current standard industrial procedures to pasteurize orange juice as well as its acidic nature causes a strong degradation of both yeast and endogenous genomic DNA below sizes reported to be suitable for horizontal gene transfer. PMID:17064805

  16. Parallel compensatory evolution stabilizes plasmids across the parasitism-mutualism continuum.

    PubMed

    Harrison, Ellie; Guymer, David; Spiers, Andrew J; Paterson, Steve; Brockhurst, Michael A

    2015-08-01

    Plasmids drive genomic diversity in bacteria via horizontal gene transfer [1, 2]; nevertheless, explaining their survival in bacterial populations is challenging [3]. Theory predicts that irrespective of their net fitness effects, plasmids should be lost: when parasitic (costs outweigh benefits), plasmids should decline due to purifying selection [4-6], yet under mutualism (benefits outweigh costs), selection favors the capture of beneficial accessory genes by the chromosome and loss of the costly plasmid backbone [4]. While compensatory evolution can enhance plasmid stability within populations [7-15], the propensity for this to occur across the parasitism-mutualism continuum is unknown. We experimentally evolved Pseudomonas fluorescens and its mercury resistance mega-plasmid, pQBR103 [16], across an environment-mediated parasitism-mutualism continuum. Compensatory evolution stabilized plasmids by rapidly ameliorating the cost of plasmid carriage in all environments. Genomic analysis revealed that, in both parasitic and mutualistic treatments, evolution repeatedly targeted the gacA/gacS bacterial two-component global regulatory system while leaving the plasmid sequence intact. Deletion of either gacA or gacS was sufficient to completely ameliorate the cost of plasmid carriage. Mutation of gacA/gacS downregulated the expression of ∼17% of chromosomal and plasmid genes and appears to have relieved the translational demand imposed by the plasmid. Chromosomal capture of mercury resistance accompanied by plasmid loss occurred throughout the experiment but very rarely invaded to high frequency, suggesting that rapid compensatory evolution can limit this process. Compensatory evolution can explain the widespread occurrence of plasmids and allows bacteria to retain horizontally acquired plasmids even in environments where their accessory genes are not immediately useful. PMID:26190075

  17. Pseudomonas putida KT2440 markerless gene deletion using a combination of λ Red recombineering and Cre/loxP site-specific recombination.

    PubMed

    Luo, Xi; Yang, Yunwen; Ling, Wen; Zhuang, Hao; Li, Qin; Shang, Guangdong

    2016-02-01

    Pseudomonas putida KT2440 is a saprophytic, environmental microorganism that plays important roles in the biodegradation of environmental toxic compounds and production of polymers, chemicals and secondary metabolites. Gene deletion of KT2440 usually involves cloning of the flanking homologous fragments of the gene of interest into a suicide vector followed by transferring into KT2440 via triparental conjugation. Selection and counterselection steps are then employed to generate gene deletion mutant. However, these methods are tedious and are not suitable for the manipulation of multiple genes simultaneously. Herein, a two-step, markerless gene deletion method is presented. First, homologous armsflanked loxP-neo-loxP was knocked-in to replace the gene of interest, then the kanamycin resistance marker is removed by Cre recombinase catalyzed site-specific recombination. Both two-plasmid and one-plasmid gene systems were established. MekR/PmekA regulated gene expression system was found to be suitable for tight Cre expression in one-plasmid deletion system. The straightforward, time saving and highly efficient markerless gene deletion strategy has the potential to facilitate the genetics and functional genomics study of P. putida KT2440. PMID:26802072

  18. Delayed recombination and standard rulers

    SciTech Connect

    De Bernardis, Francesco; Melchiorri, Alessandro; Bean, Rachel; Galli, Silvia; Silk, Joseph I.; Verde, Licia

    2009-02-15

    Measurements of baryonic acoustic oscillations (BAOs) in galaxy surveys have been recognized as a powerful tool for constraining dark energy. However, this method relies on the knowledge of the size of the acoustic horizon at recombination derived from cosmic microwave background (CMB) anisotropy measurements. This estimate is typically derived assuming a standard recombination scheme; additional radiation sources can delay recombination altering the cosmic ionization history and the cosmological inferences drawn from CMB and BAO data. In this paper we quantify the effect of delayed recombination on the determination of dark energy parameters from future BAO surveys such as the Baryon Oscillation Spectroscopic Survey and the Wide-Field Multi-Object Spectrograph. We find the impact to be small but still not negligible. In particular, if recombination is nonstandard (to a level still allowed by CMB data), but this is ignored, future surveys may incorrectly suggest the presence of a redshift-dependent dark energy component. On the other hand, in the case of delayed recombination, adding to the analysis one extra parameter describing deviations from standard recombination does not significantly degrade the error bars on dark energy parameters and yields unbiased estimates. This is due to the CMB-BAO complementarity.

  19. Complete sequence of three plasmids