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Sample records for recombinante heberbiovac hb

  1. HB - MAC: Improving the Random - HB # Authentication Protocol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rizomiliotis, Panagiotis

    The Random - HB # protocol is a significant improvement of the HB + protocol introduced by Juels and Weis for the authentication of low-cost RFID tags. Random - HB # improves HB + in terms of both security and practicality. It is provably resistant against man-in-the-middle attacks, where the adversary can modify messages send from the reader to the tag and performs significantly better than HB + , since it reduces the transmission costs and provides more practical error rates. The only problem with Random - HB # is that the storage costs for the secret keys are insurmountable to low cost tags. The designers of the protocol have proposed also an enhanced variant which has less storage requirements, but it is not supported by a security proof. They call this variant just HB #. In this paper we propose a variant of the Random - HB #. The new proposal maintains the performance of the Random - HB #, but it requires significantly less storage for the key. To achieve that we add a lightweight message authentication code to protect the integrity of all the exchanged messages.

  2. A Novel Probabilistic Passive Attack on the Protocols HB and HB+

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carrijo, José; Tonicelli, Rafael; Imai, Hideki; Nascimento, Anderson C. A.

    We present a very simple probabilistic, passive attack against the protocols HB and HB+. Our attack presents some interesting features: it requires less captured transcripts of protocol executions when compared to previous results; It makes possible to trade the amount of required transcripts for computational complexity; the value of noise used in the protocols HB and HB+ need not be known.

  3. Hemoglobin (Hb) Val de Marne (Hb Footscray) in Brazil: the first case report.

    PubMed

    Okumura, J V; Shimauti, E L T; Silva, D G H; Torres, L S; Belini-Junior, E; Oliveira, R G; Patussi, E V; Herrero, J C M; Bonini-Domingos, C R

    2016-01-01

    Hemoglobin (Hb) variants involving alpha-chains are less common in the global population than Hb variants resulting from beta-chain alterations. Generally, alpha-chain Hb variants are caused by point mutations affecting alpha-1 and/or alpha-2 genes of the alpha-globin cluster (HBA1 and HBA2). In Brazil, the most prevalent alpha-chain Hb variant is Hb Hasharon. In this study, we present the first case of an Hb Val de Marne variant in the Americas, specifically in Brazil. PMID:27421014

  4. Adherence of Streptococcus salivarius HB and HB-7 to oral surfaces and saliva-coated hydroxyapatite.

    PubMed Central

    Weerkamp, A H; McBride, B C

    1980-01-01

    We compared the binding of Streptococcus salivarius HB and the mutant HB-7 to oral surfaces in vivo. Mutant HB-7 does not aggregate with saliva nor does it bind to buccal epithelium, but it does retain its ability to coaggregate with Veillonella and Fusobacterium. At 1 h after inoculation into the oral cavity of six volunteers, significantly more S. salivarius HB than HB-7 cells were found adhering to the buccal mucosa (P < 0.05) and to a cleaned tooth surface (P < 0.01); there was no significant difference in the numbers adhering to the tongue. The ratio of HB to HB-7 on the tongue increased in samples taken 1, 3, and 9 days after inoculation. The average time required to clear the mutant HB-7 from the oral cavity was 7 days, whereas that for the parent HB was greater than 20 days, and in some cases strain HB was still present 3 months after its inoculation. A representative S. salivarius serotype II strain, designated T3, behaved similarly to mutant HB-7 with respect to its adherence to the buccal mucosa. Strain HB adhered better to hydroxyapatite treated with human saliva than mutant HB-7; both strains adhered in similar numbers to untreated hydroxyapatite. Hydroxyapatite treated with rat saliva bound less HB than hydroxyapatite treated with human saliva, corresponding to the lower aggregating activity of rat saliva. Extraction of saliva with aggregating strains of S. salivarius reduced the ability of saliva to mediate attachment of strain HB to hydroxyapatite. PMID:7439971

  5. HbD Punjab/HbQ India Compound Heterozygosity: An Unusual Association

    PubMed Central

    Colaco, Stacy; Surve, Reema; Sawant, Pratibha; Nadkarni, Anita; Ghosh, Kanjaksha; Colah, Roshan

    2014-01-01

    Background Haemoglobinopathies are the commonest hereditary disorders in India and pose a major health problem. Both beta thalassaemia and structural haemoglobin variants are relatively common in northwestern India. Here we report a 29-year-old Sindhi female who was referred to us for a haemoglobinopathy work up and genetic counseling since her spouse was a classical beta thalassaemia carrier. Method A complete blood count was done on an automated cell counter. Haemoglobin analysis was carried out using HPLC Variant Haemoglobin Testing System. The cellulose acetate electrophoresis was carried out [pH 8.9]. Confirmation of mutations was done by automated DNA sequencing. Results HPLC analysis showed four major peaks, HbA0, a peak in the HbD window, an unknown peak [retention time 4.74 minutes] and a peak in the HbC window. The HbA2 level was 2.2%, and the HbF level was 0.7%. Cellulose acetate electrophoresis at alkaline pH, a slow moving band was seen at the HbS/D position along with a prominent band at the HbA2 position. DNA sequencing of the β and α genes showed presence of the two hemoglobin variants: Hb D [β 121GAA → CAA] and Hb Q [α 64 AAG → GAG]. The δ globin gene was normal. The additional peak in the HbC window was due to the formation of a heterodimer hybrid. Conclusion Both HbD Punjab and HbQ India are relatively common in India, but their co-inheritance has not been described in the country. This case is the third report of compound heterozygosity for HbQ India/HbD Punjab haemoglobinopathy globally and the second one from India. PMID:25408858

  6. The xerocytosis of Hb SC disease.

    PubMed

    Ballas, S K; Larner, J; Smith, E D; Surrey, S; Schwartz, E; Rappaport, E F

    1987-01-01

    Patients with Hb SC disease were found to have microcytic and hyperchromic red cell indices despite mild reticulocytosis. Iron deficiency anemia was ruled out by the finding of normal serum ferritin levels. In order to determine whether the microcytosis was due to coexistent alpha-thalassemia, restriction endonuclease mapping was performed on genomic DNA extracted from peripheral blood leukocytes. Patients with Hb SC disease had microcytic indices despite the presence of a full complement of four alpha-genes (alpha alpha/alpha alpha), suggesting that the microcytosis may be due to cellular dehydration (or xerocytosis), since the mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration in Hb SC disease patients was significantly higher than in controls. This possibility was investigated further by the determination of RBC cation content. RBC Na levels were similar in SC and normal red cells. Hb SC RBCs, however, had significantly reduced K levels. These findings show that RBC cation content, and thus cell water, is decreased in Hb SC disease. The decreased RBC K level in the presence of normal cellular Na concentration suggests selective K loss that is not due to inhibition of the Na K pump. Ouabain-insensitive K+ efflux was increased to four times normal in SC cells. Cell dehydration was confirmed by the demonstration of increased high-density RBCs on discontinuous Stractan density gradients and by osmotic gradient ektacytometry. Cellular dehydration and its sequelae were worse in CC erythrocytes and milder in AC cells than in Hb SC red cells. Taken together, these data indicate that in Hb SC disease the RBCs are severely dehydrated and typically microcytic and hyperchromic. Hb SC RBCs seem to be dehydrated due to selective K loss. These findings suggest a functional interrelationship between Hb SC, the red cell membrane, and cation regulation. PMID:2947642

  7. Analysis of HB Type Vernier Motor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suda, Hiroshi; Matsushima, Yoshitaro; Xu, Li; Anazawa, Yoshihisa

    Direct drive motors are used as actuators in numerous applications in which they must rotate at low speeds with high torque and low torque ripple. Recently, various types of vernier motor have been developed. The HB type vernier motor is one of them. The structure of rotor is the same as HB type stepping motor. Our model of HB type vernier motor has a winding as field system in the rotor, but stator has three-phase windings. Relationship between S, R and P is S ± P/2=R/2, where S, R and P are the numbers of stator and rotor slots and the number of poles. The rotor of the vernier motor moves at a sub-multiple of the angular velocity of the stator mmf. The multiplying factor is P/R. As a result of analysis, the voltage equation on the γ-δ axis of HB type vernier motor is equal to general synchronous machine. The tests were performed on the trial motor. The calculated pull-out torque agreed well with the measured values. Our model of HB type vernier motor is equivalent with the PM type vernier motor which has permanent magnets in the rotor. The result of this analysis is useful for the design of both types of vernier motor.

  8. Cation Homeostasis in Red Cells From Patients With Sickle Cell Disease Heterologous for HbS and HbC (HbSC Genotype)

    PubMed Central

    Hannemann, A.; Rees, D.C.; Tewari, S.; Gibson, J.S.

    2015-01-01

    Sickle cell disease (SCD) in patients of HbSC genotype is considered similar, albeit milder, to that in homozygous HbSS individuals — but with little justification. In SCD, elevated red cell cation permeability is critical as increased solute loss causes dehydration and encourages sickling. Recently, we showed that the KCl cotransporter (KCC) activity in red cells from HbSC patients correlated significantly with disease severity, but that in HbSS patients did not. Two transporters involved in red cell dehydration, the conductive channels Psickle and the Gardos channel, behaved similarly in red cells from the two genotypes, but were significantly less active in HbSC patients. By contrast, KCC activity was quantitatively greater in HbSC red cells. Results suggest that KCC is likely to have greater involvement in red cell dehydration in HbSC patients, which could explain its association with disease severity in this genotype. This work supports the hypothesis that SCD in HbSC patients is a distinct disease entity to that in HbSS patients. Results suggest the possibility of designing specific treatments of particular benefit to HbSC patients and a rationale for the development of prognostic markers, to inform early treatment of children likely to develop more severe complications of the disease. PMID:26870793

  9. Poly(4-hydroxybutyrate) (P4HB) production in recombinant Escherichia coli: P4HB synthesis is uncoupled with cell growth

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Poly(4-hydroxybutyrate) (P4HB), belonging to the family of bacterial polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs), is a strong, flexible and absorbable material which has a large variety of medical applications like tissue engineering and drug delivery. For efficient production of P4HB recombinant Escherichia coli has been employed. It was previously found that the P4HB synthesis is co-related with the cell growth. In this study, we aimed to investigate the physiology of P4HB synthesis, and to reduce the total production cost by using cheap and widely available xylose as the growth substrate and sodium 4-hydroxybutyrate (Na-4HB) as the precursor for P4HB synthesis. Results Six different E. coli strains which are able to utilize xylose as carbon source were compared for their ability to accumulate P4HB. E. coli JM109 was found to be the best strain regarding the specific growth rate and the P4HB content. The effect of growth conditions such as temperature and physiological stage of Na-4HB addition on P4HB synthesis was also studied in E. coli JM109 recombinant in batch culture. Under the tested conditions, a cellular P4HB content in the range of 58 to 70% (w w-1) and P4HB concentrations in the range of 2.76 to 4.33 g L-1 were obtained with a conversion yield (YP4HB/Na-4HB) of 92% w w-1 in single stage batch cultures. Interestingly, three phases were identified during P4HB production: the “growth phase”, in which the cells grew exponentially, the “accumulation phase”, in which the exponential cell growth stopped while P4HB was accumulated exponentially, and the “stagnation phase”, in which the P4HB accumulation stopped and the total biomass remained constant. Conclusions P4HB synthesis was found to be separated from the cell growth, i.e. P4HB synthesis mainly took place after the end of the exponential cell growth. High conversion rate and P4HB contents from xylose and precursor were achieved here by simple batch culture, which was only possible previously

  10. Hydroxyurea decreases hospitalizations in pediatric patients with Hb SC and Hb SB+ thalassemia

    PubMed Central

    Lebensburger, Jeffrey D; Patel, Rakeshkumar J; Palabindela, Prasannalaxmi; Bemrich-Stolz, Christina J; Howard, Thomas H; Hilliard, Lee M

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Patients with hemoglobin SC (Hb SC) and hemoglobin SB+ (Hb SB+) thalassemia suffer from frequent hospitalizations yet strong evidence of a clinical benefit of hydroxyurea (HU) in this population is lacking. Patients with recurrent hospitalizations for pain crisis are offered HU at our institution based on small cohort data and anecdotal benefit. This study identifies outcomes from a large cohort of patients with Hb SC and SB+ thalassemia who were treated with HU for 2 years. Materials and methods A retrospective review was conducted of 32 patients with Hb SC and SB+ thalassemia who were treated with HU. We reviewed the number, and reasons for hospitalization in the 2 years prior to, and 2 years post-HU treatment as well as laboratory changes from baseline, over 1 year. Results Patients with Hb SC and SB+ thalassemia started on HU for frequent pain, had a significant reduction in hospitalizations over 2 years as compared to the 2 years prior to HU initiation (mean total hospitalizations/year: pre-HU: 1.6 vs post-HU 0.4 hospitalizations, P<0.001; mean pain hospitalizations/year: pre-HU 1.5 vs post-HU 0.3 hospitalizations, P<0.001). Patients demonstrated hematologic changes including an increase in percent fetal hemoglobin (%HbF) pre–post HU (4.5% to 7.7%, P=0.002), mean corpuscular volume (74 to 86 fL, P<0,0001), and decrease in absolute neutrophil count (5.0 to 3.2×109/L, P=0.007). Patients with higher doses of HU demonstrated the greatest reduction in hospitalizations but this was unrelated to absolute neutrophil count. Conclusion This cohort of patients with Hb SC and SB+ thalassemia provides additional support for using HU in patients with recurrent hospitalizations for pain. A large randomized multicenter trial of HU to reduce pain admissions should be conducted to confirm these data and provide much needed evidence based recommendations for this population. PMID:26719735

  11. Detection of Hb Constant Spring by a capillary electrophoresis method.

    PubMed

    Liao, Can; Zhou, Jian-Ying; Xie, Xing-Mei; Li, Jian; Li, Ru; Li, Dong-Zhi

    2010-01-01

    Hb Constant Spring [Hb CS; alpha142, Term-->Gln (TAA>CAA in alpha2)] is the most prevalent nondeletional alpha-thalassemia (alpha-thal) anomaly in southern China. In conjunction with alpha(0)-thal, it can cause severe Hb H (beta(4)) disease. The present study was done to evaluate the efficiency of two diagnostic methods in detecting Hb CS. Automated high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and Sebia Capillarys 2, a capillary electrophoresis method, were applied to blood samples from 21 individuals with Hb CS trait. Of the 21 cases, all (100%) were detected by capillary electrophoresis, whereas only 16 (76.2%) were detected by HPLC. We concluded that the Sebia Capillarys 2 is the preferred method for Hb CS screening. PMID:20353355

  12. Measurements of HB photonic crystal fibers with low temperature sensitivity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Makara, Mariusz; Wojcik, Jan; Mergo, Pawel; Klimek, Jacek; Skorupski, Krzysztof; Kopeć, Jarosław

    2008-06-01

    We report on experimental studies of phase and group modal birefringence vs. temperature in two highly birefringent (HB) photonic crystal fibers, in which birefringence is caused by filling factor asymmetry. The sensitivity measurements were carried out at two wavelengths 633 and 834 nm. Our results show that temperature sensitivity in the HB photonic crystal fibers is two orders smaller then in traditional HB fibers. Simultaneously, our results exhibit weak dependence of group modal birefringence on temperature.

  13. First Case of a Compound Heterozygosity for Two Nondeletional α-Thalassemia mutations, Hb Constant Spring and Hb Quong Sze.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Jian-Ying; Yan, Jin-Mei; Li, Jian; Li, Dong-Zhi

    2016-06-01

    Nondeletional α-thalassemia (α-thal) is the result of point mutations in critical regions of the α-globin genes, affecting mRNA processing, mRNA translation, or α-globin stability. Hb Constant Spring (Hb CS, HBA2: c.427T > C) is the most common nondeletional α-thal that results from a nucleotide substitution at the termination codon of the α2-globin gene. Hb Quong Sze (Hb QS, HBA2: c.377T > C) is another nondeletional α-thal in South China with the missense mutation at codon 125 of the α2-globin gene making this hemoglobin (Hb) variant highly unstable. Although homozygosity for Hb CS (α(CS)α/α(CS)α) or Hb QS (α(QS)α/α(QS)α) has been reported, clinical pictures vary from severe hemolysis that developed early in life to only mild anemia, no clinical phenotypic data of compound heterozygosity for Hb CS/Hb QS (α(CS)α/α(QS)α) has been described. In this report we describe an adult case with such a compound heterozygosity who presented with a mild α-thal. PMID:26956449

  14. Dietary determinants for Hb-acrylamide and Hb-glycidamide adducts in Danish non-smoking women.

    PubMed

    Outzen, Malene; Egeberg, Rikke; Dragsted, Lars; Christensen, Jane; Olesen, Pelle T; Frandsen, Henrik; Overvad, Kim; Tjønneland, Anne; Olsen, Anja

    2011-05-01

    Acrylamide (AA) is a probable human carcinogen that is formed in heat-treated carbohydrate-rich foods. The validity of FFQ to assess AA exposure has been questioned. The aim of the present cross-sectional study was to investigate dietary determinants of Hb-AA and Hb-glycidamide (GA) adducts. The study included 537 non-smoking women aged 50-65 years who participated in the Diet, Cancer and Health cohort (1993-97). At study baseline, blood samples and information on dietary and lifestyle variables obtained from self-administered questionnaires were collected. From blood samples, Hb-AA and Hb-GA in erythrocytes were analysed by liquid chromatography/MS/MS. Dietary determinants were evaluated by multiple linear regression analyses adjusted for age and smoking behaviour among ex-smokers. The median for Hb-AA was 35 pmol/g globin (5th percentile 17, 95th percentile 89) and for Hb-GA 21 pmol/g globin (5th percentile 8, 95th percentile 49). Of the dietary factors studied, intakes of coffee and chips were statistically significantly associated with a 4 % per 200 g/d (95 % CI 2, 7; P < 0·0001) and an 18 % per 5 g/d (95 % CI 6, 31; P = 0·002) higher Hb-AA, respectively. This model explained 17 % of the variation in Hb-AA. Intakes of coffee and biscuits/crackers were statistically significantly associated with a 3 % per 200 g/d (95 % CI 1, 6; P = 0·005) and 12 % per 10 g/d (95 % CI 3, 23; P = 0·01) higher Hb-GA, respectively. This model explained 12 % of the variation in Hb-GA. In conclusion, only a few dietary determinants of Hb-AA and Hb-GA were identified. Thus, the present study implies that dietary intake measured by an FFQ explains only to a limited extent the variation in Hb-AA and Hb-GA concentrations. PMID:21272397

  15. The significance of disulfide bonding in biological activity of HB-EGF, a mutagenesis approach

    SciTech Connect

    Hoskins, J.T.; Zhou, Z.; Harding, P.A.

    2008-10-31

    A site-directed mutagenesis approach was taken to disrupt each of 3 disulfide bonds within human HB-EGF by substituting serine for both cysteine residues that contribute to disulfide bonding. Each HB-EGF disulfide analogue (HB-EGF-Cys/Ser{sub 108/121}, HB-EGF-Cys/Ser{sub 116/132}, and HB-EGF-Cys/Ser{sub 134/143}) was cloned under the regulation of the mouse metallothionein (MT) promoter and stably expressed in mouse fibroblasts. HB-EGF immunoreactive proteins with M{sub r} of 6.5, 21 and 24 kDa were observed from lysates of HB-EGF and each HB-EGF disulfide analogue. HB-EGF immunohistochemical analyses of each HB-EGF stable cell line demonstrated ubiquitous protein expression except HB-EGF-Cys/Ser{sub 108/121} and HB-EGF-Cys/Ser{sub 116/132} stable cell lines which exhibited accumulated expression immediately outside the nucleus. rHB-EGF, HB-EGF, and HB-EGF{sub 134/143} proteins competed with {sup 125}I-EGF in an A431 competitive binding assay, whereas HB-EGF-Cys/Ser{sub 108/121} and HB-EGF-Cys/Ser{sub 116/132} failed to compete. Each HB-EGF disulfide analogue lacked the ability to stimulate tyrosine phosphorylation of the 170 kDa EGFR. These results suggest that HB-EGF-Cys/Ser{sub 134/143} antagonizes EGFRs.

  16. Radioisotope Characterization of HB Line Low Activity Waste

    SciTech Connect

    Snyder, S.J.

    1999-08-05

    The purpose of this document is to provide a physical, chemical, hazardous and radiological characterization of Low-Level Waste (LLW) generated in HB-Line as required by the 1S Manual, Savannah River Site Waste Acceptance Criteria Manual.

  17. Haemoglobin J-Baltimore can be detected by HbA1c electropherogram but with underestimated HbA1c value

    PubMed Central

    Brunel, Valéry; Lahary, Agnčs; Chagraoui, Abdeslam; Thuillez, Christian

    2016-01-01

    Glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c) is considered the gold standard for assessing diabetes compensation and treatment. In addition, fortuitous detection of haemoglobin variants during HbA1c measurement is not rare. Recently, two publications reported different conclusions on accuracy of HbA1c value using capillary electrophoresis method in presence of haemoglobin J-Baltimore (HbJ).
Here we describe the fortuitous detection of unknown HbJ using capillary electrophoresis for measurement of HbA1c. A patient followed for gestational diabetes in our laboratory presented unknown haemoglobin on Capillarys 2 Flex Piercing analyser which was identified as HbJ. HbJ is not associated with haematological abnormalities. High Performance Liquid Chromatography methods are known to possibly underestimate HbA1c value in the presence of this variant. This variant and its glycated form are clearly distinguished on electropherogram but HbJ was responsible for underestimating the true area of HbA1c.
Capillary electrophoresis is a good method for detecting HbJ but does not seem suitable for evaluation of HbA1C value in patients in presence of HbJ variant. PMID:27346969

  18. HB-Line Plutonium Oxide Data Collection Strategy

    SciTech Connect

    Watkins, R.; Varble, J.; Jordan, J.

    2015-05-26

    HB-Line and H-Canyon will handle and process plutonium material to produce plutonium oxide for feed to the Mixed Oxide Fuel Fabrication Facility (MFFF). However, the plutonium oxide product will not be transferred to the MFFF directly from HB-Line until it is packaged into a qualified DOE-STD-3013-2012 container. In the interim, HB-Line will load plutonium oxide into an inner, filtered can. The inner can will be placed in a filtered bag, which will be loaded into a filtered outer can. The outer can will be loaded into a certified 9975 with getter assembly in compliance with onsite transportation requirement, for subsequent storage and transfer to the K-Area Complex (KAC). After DOE-STD-3013-2012 container packaging capabilities are established, the product will be returned to HB-Line to be packaged into a qualified DOE-STD-3013-2012 container. To support the transfer of plutonium oxide to KAC and then eventually to MFFF, various material and packaging data will have to be collected and retained. In addition, data from initial HB-Line processing operations will be needed to support future DOE-STD-3013-2012 qualification as amended by the HB-Line DOE Standard equivalency. As production increases, the volume of data to collect will increase. The HB-Line data collected will be in the form of paper copies and electronic media. Paper copy data will, at a minimum, consist of facility procedures, nonconformance reports (NCRs), and DCS print outs. Electronic data will be in the form of Adobe portable document formats (PDFs). Collecting all the required data for each plutonium oxide can will be no small effort for HB-Line, and will become more challenging once the maximum annual oxide production throughput is achieved due to the sheer volume of data to be collected. The majority of the data collected will be in the form of facility procedures, DCS print outs, and laboratory results. To facilitate complete collection of this data, a traveler form will be developed which

  19. Factors influencing the release of Mitragyna speciosa crude extracts from biodegradable P(3HB-co-4HB).

    PubMed

    Chee, Jee-Wei; Amirul, A A; Majid, M I A; Mansor, S M

    2008-09-01

    Copolyesters of 3-hydroxybutyrate (3HB) and 4-hydroxybutyrate (4HB) were produced by Cupriavidus sp. (USMAA2-4) (DSM 19379) from carbon sources of 1,4-butanediol and gamma-butyrolactone. The composition of copolyesters produced varied from 0 to 45 mol% 4HB, depending on the combination of carbon sources supplied. The P(3HB-co-4HB) films containing Mitragyna speciosa crude extract were prepared with the ratio varying from 10 to 40% (w/w). The in vitro crude extract release of the films was studied in 0.1M phosphate buffer (pH 7.4) at 37 degrees C. Although the release rate was slow, it was maintained at a constant rate. This suggests that the crude extract release was due to the polymer degradation because the amount of crude extract released was consistent. The amount of degradation was based on the films' dry weight loss, decrease in molecular weight and surface morphology changes. The degradation rate increased with the 4HB content. This showed that the polymer degradation is dependant on the molecular weight, crystallinity, thermal properties and water permeability. The different drug loading ratio which led to surface morphology changes also gave an effect on polymer degradation. PMID:18584978

  20. Why the DNA self-depurination mechanism operates in HB-β but not in β-globin paralogs HB-δ, HB-ɛ1, HB-γ1 and HB-γ2.

    PubMed

    Amosova, Olga; Alvarez-Dominguez, Juan R; Fresco, Jacques R

    2015-08-01

    The human β-globin, δ-globin and ɛ-globin genes contain almost identical coding strand sequences centered about codon 6 having potential to form a stem-loop with a 5'GAGG loop. Provided with a sufficiently stable stem, such a structure can self-catalyze depurination of the loop 5'G residue, leading to a potential mutation hotspot. Previously, we showed that such a hotspot exists about codon 6 of β-globin, with by far the highest incidence of mutations across the gene, including those responsible for 6 anemias (notably Sickle Cell Anemia) and β-thalassemias. In contrast, we show here that despite identical loop sequences, there is no mutational hotspot in the δ- or ɛ1-globin potential self-depurination sites, which differ by only one or two base pairs in the stem region from that of the β-globin gene. These differences result in either one or two additional mismatches in the potential 7-base pair-forming stem region, thereby weakening its stability, so that either DNA cruciform extrusion from the duplex is rendered ineffective or the lifetime of the stem-loop becomes too short to permit self-catalysis to occur. Having that same loop sequence, paralogs HB-γ1 and HB-γ2 totally lack stem-forming potential. Hence the absence in δ- and ɛ1-globin genes of a mutational hotspot in what must now be viewed as non-functional homologs of the self-depurination site in β-globin. Such stem-destabilizing variants appeared early among vertebrates and remained conserved among mammals and primates. Thus, this study has revealed conserved sequence determinants of self-catalytic DNA depurination associated with variability of mutation incidence among human β-globin paralogs. PMID:26042536

  1. Plasmid-associated aggregation in Thermus thermophilus HB8

    SciTech Connect

    Mather, M.W.; Fee, J.A. )

    1990-01-01

    Thermus thermophilus HB8, a moderate thermophile, exhibits visible aggregation when growing on a rich broth. Strain HB8 also contains two cryptic plasmids. The authors isolated cured strains from HB8 and observed that loss of the 47-MDa plasmid was correlated with loss of aggregation. An enrichment procedure was developed for aggregating cells and used to demonstrate that aggregation was restored upon transformation of a cured strain with plasmid DNA. The aggregation phenotype of transformed cells was variably stable; most did not retain either the plasmid or the phenotype for prolonged periods of growth. Hybridization experiments using a partial sequence from the 47-MDa plasmid suggested the presence of a repeated DNA sequence on this plasmid and on the chromosome. This is the first report of a phenotype associated with a plasmid from a Thermus strain.

  2. Cryo-stability of HB-Cesic optics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krödel, Matthias

    2011-09-01

    The technical requirements for large future space optics are becoming more and more challenging. This is particularly the case with respect to thermal stability under cryogenic conditions. During the past two years, ECM together with its industrial partners carried out extensive cryo-stability tests of its HB-Cesic® optical material under a range of conditions. In this paper we report the test configurations and results of two of these tests and qualification campaigns. The first of the tests was carried out with a 600-mm HB-Cesic® mirror that was polished directly without any overcoating. The second of the tests was carried out with an 800-mm HB-Cesic® mirror whose optical surface was coated with a silicon layer prior to polishing. The 600-mm mirror was tested to a cryogenic temperature of 93 K. The 800-mm mirror was tested to a cryogenic temperature of 18 K.

  3. Preparation of hemoglobin (Hb) imprinted polymer by Hb catalyzed eATRP and its application in biosensor.

    PubMed

    Sun, Yue; Du, Hongying; Lan, Yuting; Wang, Wenjing; Liang, Yuejian; Feng, Chunliang; Yang, Mei

    2016-03-15

    Molecularly imprinted polymer (MIP) was prepared on the surface of Au electrode by electrochemically mediated atom transfer radical polymerization (eATRP) with hemoglobin (Hb) both as catalyst and template molecule. Firstly, the condition for eATRP such as the potential, time and Hb concentration were selected and determined to be -0.51 V, 120 min and 20mg/mL, respectively. Further, the electrode modified with MIP (MIP/Au) was carefully examined by cyclic voltammetry (CV), electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and scanning electron microscope (SEM). Finally, the MIP/Au electrode was used as a biosensor and successfully applied for the determination of Hb by differential pulse voltammetry (DPV) measurement. The results of experiments showed that the proposed biosensor displayed a broader linear range and a lower detection limit for Hb determination when it was compared to those Hb sensors based on MIP. The linear range was from 1.0 × 10(-10) to 1.0 × 10(1)mg/L with a detection limit of 7.8 × 10(-11)mg/L (S/N=3.3). In a word, the work of this paper established a useful way for the preparation and application of biosensor based on protein imprinted polymers. PMID:26520252

  4. Integrated UV fluxes and the HB morphology of Globular Clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Landsman, W. B.; Catelan, M.; O'Connell, R. W.; Pereira, D.; Stecher, T. P.

    2001-12-01

    The UV ( ~ 1500 Å) flux of a globular cluster will be dominated by its blue horizontal branch (HB) population, provided that such a population is present. Thus, the integrated UV - V color of a globular cluster can provide an indication of its HB morphology, without the need to resolve the cluster into a color-magnitude diagram. To date, UV photometry of extragalactic clusters are available for only a few globulars in M31 (e.g. Bohlin et al. 1993, ApJ, 417, 127), but additional UV photometry of extragalactic globulars is soon expected from GALEX (Yi et al. 2001, AAS, 198, 5501), and from STIS FUV-MAMA observations of M87 (HST program 8643). Here we calibrate the relation between UV flux and HB morphology for Galactic globular clusters. The OAO-2 and ANS data tabulated by deBoer (1985, A&A, 142, 321) are supplemented with photometry of 14 globular clusters observed with the Ultraviolet Imaging Telescope (UIT), and a few cluster cores observed with the STIS FUV-MAMA. The UIT data is especially useful since its 40' diameter FOV was sufficient to completely encompass most of the observed clusters, while allowing isolation of hot field and UV-bright stars. We compare the observed Galactic UV color - HB morphology relation with synthetic HB models as a function of age and metallicity. We also estimate the effect of radiative levitation of heavy metals in hot HB stars (e.g. Moehler et al. 2000, , A&A, 360, 120) on the integrated UV flux. This work is funded by STScI grant GO-8358.01.

  5. Mitochondrial Changes in β0-Thalassemia/Hb E Disease.

    PubMed

    Khungwanmaythawee, Kornpat; Sornjai, Wannapa; Paemanee, Atchara; Jaratsittisin, Janejira; Fucharoen, Suthat; Svasti, Saovaros; Lithanatudom, Pathrapol; Roytrakul, Sittiruk; Smith, Duncan R

    2016-01-01

    The compound β°-thalassemia/Hb E hemoglobinopathy is characterized by an unusually large range of presentation from essentially asymptomatic to a severe transfusion dependent state. While a number of factors are known that moderate presentation, these factors do not account for the full spectrum of presentation. Mitochondria are subcellular organelles that are pivotal in a number of cellular processes including oxidative phosphorylation and apoptosis. A mitochondrial protein enriched proteome was determined and validated from erythroblasts from normal controls and β°-thalassemia/Hb E patients of different severities. Mitochondria were evaluated through the use of mitotracker staining, analysis of relative mitochondrial genome number and evaluation of mitochondrial gene expression in addition to assay of overall cellular redox status through the use of alamarBlue assays. Fifty differentially regulated mitochondrial proteins were identified. Mitotracker staining revealed significant differences in staining between normal control erythroblasts and those from β°-thalassemia/Hb E patients. Differences in relative mitochondria number and gene expression were seen primarily in day 10 cells. Significant differences were seen in redox status as evaluated by alamarBlue staining in newly isolated CD34+ cells. Mitochondria mediate oxidative phosphorylation and apoptosis, both of which are known to be dysregulated in differentiating erythrocytes from β°-thalassemia/Hb E patients. The evidence presented here suggest that there are inherent differences in these cells as early as the erythroid progenitor cell stage, and that maximum deficit is seen coincident with high levels of globin gene expression. PMID:27092778

  6. HB-Cesic composite for space optics and structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kroedel, Matthias R.; Ozaki, Tsuyoshi

    2007-09-01

    One of the key technologies for next generation space telescopes requiring large-scale reflectors are light-weight materials having high specific strength, high specific stiffness, low coefficient of thermal expansion and high coefficient of thermal conductivity. Several candidates, such as fused silica, beryllium, silicon carbide and carbon fiber reinforced composites, have been evaluated. An example of the latter material is a Hybrid Carbon-Fiber Reinforced SiC composite or HB-Cesic - a trademark of ECM - which has been developed by ECM and MELCO to meet the stringent space telescope requirements. Mechanical performance, such as stiffness, bending strength and fracture toughness, were significantly improved using HB-Cesic compared to our classic Cesic material. Thermal expansion and thermal conductivity of HB-Cesic at cryogenic temperatures are now partly established and excellent performance for large future space mirrors and structures are expected. In this paper we will report on the current status of development of HB-Cesic and describe the first successful applications made with this new improved material.

  7. Mitochondrial Changes in β0-Thalassemia/Hb E Disease

    PubMed Central

    Khungwanmaythawee, Kornpat; Sornjai, Wannapa; Paemanee, Atchara; Jaratsittisin, Janejira; Fucharoen, Suthat; Svasti, Saovaros; Lithanatudom, Pathrapol; Roytrakul, Sittiruk

    2016-01-01

    The compound β°-thalassemia/Hb E hemoglobinopathy is characterized by an unusually large range of presentation from essentially asymptomatic to a severe transfusion dependent state. While a number of factors are known that moderate presentation, these factors do not account for the full spectrum of presentation. Mitochondria are subcellular organelles that are pivotal in a number of cellular processes including oxidative phosphorylation and apoptosis. A mitochondrial protein enriched proteome was determined and validated from erythroblasts from normal controls and β°-thalassemia/Hb E patients of different severities. Mitochondria were evaluated through the use of mitotracker staining, analysis of relative mitochondrial genome number and evaluation of mitochondrial gene expression in addition to assay of overall cellular redox status through the use of alamarBlue assays. Fifty differentially regulated mitochondrial proteins were identified. Mitotracker staining revealed significant differences in staining between normal control erythroblasts and those from β°-thalassemia/Hb E patients. Differences in relative mitochondria number and gene expression were seen primarily in day 10 cells. Significant differences were seen in redox status as evaluated by alamarBlue staining in newly isolated CD34+ cells. Mitochondria mediate oxidative phosphorylation and apoptosis, both of which are known to be dysregulated in differentiating erythrocytes from β°-thalassemia/Hb E patients. The evidence presented here suggest that there are inherent differences in these cells as early as the erythroid progenitor cell stage, and that maximum deficit is seen coincident with high levels of globin gene expression. PMID:27092778

  8. ASCA observations of HB 21 and Kes 27

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rho, Jeonghee

    1999-04-01

    While shell-like, Crab-like, and composite supernova remnants (SNRs) represent well-defined classes, another group of SNRs with center-filled X-ray and shell-like radio morphology, forms an unique category of ``mixed morphology" (MM) SNR because of distinct physical and environmental properties (Rho & Petre 1998, ApJL, 503, 167). We present ASCA observations of two candidate MM supernova remnants HB 21 and Kes 27. Two pointings (north and east) were observed to cover most bright part of HB21 and one pointing to cover Kes 27. The exposure time of HB21 for good data is 35-40 ks for each pointing, and that of Kes 27 is 20 ks. The ASCA images for both remnants confirm that the X-ray morphology is centrally concentrated within the well-defined radio shell. The emission is smoothly distributed in the interior, and additionally two X-ray bright peaks appear in Kes 27. The ASCA spectra for both remnants reveal that the emission is primarily thermal, HB21 with strong Si and S lines, and weak Fe L, Mg and Ar lines, and Kes 27 with strong lines of Mg, Si, S, and Fe K. The HB 21 spectra fitting yields an acceptable fit with a thermal (Raymond-Smith or Mekal) model with a line of sight absorption of N_H ~ 1.5*E(21) cm(-2) , and a temperature kT ~ 0.68 keV, and no emission above 6 keV was detected from HB21. The temperature distribution of HB 21 is uniform, similar to those of the archetypes of MM SNR (MSH 11-61A and W44). In contrast, the Kes 27 spectra show a hard energy tail (between 5 to 10 keV). Although the Galactic plane region toward Kes 27 has complicated Galactic Ridge emission (GRE), the hard energy maps prove that the hard emission is indeed from the remnant itself. The hard emission peak is located between the two X-ray bright peaks, implying that there is spectral variation across Kes 27. The spectral distribution is different between the two remnants despite of similarity of center-filled X-ray morphology. I will discuss the ISM environments of the remnants using

  9. Characterization of a Novel Anti-Human HB-EGF Monoclonal Antibody Applicable for Paraffin-Embedded Tissues and Diagnosis of HB-EGF-Related Cancers

    PubMed Central

    Iwamoto, Ryo; Takagi, Mika; Akatsuka, Jun-ichi; Ono, Ken-ichiro; Kishi, Yoshiro

    2016-01-01

    Heparin-binding EGF-like growth factor (HB-EGF) is a member of the EGF family of growth factors that bind to and activate the EGF receptor (EGFR/ErbB1) and ErbB4. HB-EGF plays pivotal roles in pathophysiological processes, including cancer. Thus, monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) for HB-EGF detection could be an important tool in the therapeutic diagnosis of HB-EGF-related cancers and other diseases. However, few mAbs, especially those applicable for immunohistochemistry (IHC), have been established to date. In this study, we generated a clone of hybridoma-derived mAb 2-108 by immunizing mice with recombinant human HB-EGF protein expressed by human cells. The mAb 2-108 specifically bound to human HB-EGF but not to mouse HB-EGF and was successful in immunoblotting, even under reducing conditions, immunoprecipitation, and immunofluorescence for unfixed as well as paraformaldehyde-fixed cells. Notably, this mAb was effective in IHC of paraffin-embedded tumor specimens. Epitope mapping analysis showed that mAb 2-108 recognized the N-terminal prodomain in HB-EGF. These results indicate that this new anti-HB-EGF mAb 2-108 would be useful in the diagnosis of HB-EGF-related cancers and would be a strong tool in both basic and clinical research on HB-EGF. PMID:26974561

  10. Hb Wilde and Hb Patagonia: two novel elongated beta-globin variants causing dominant beta-thalassemia.

    PubMed

    Scheps, Karen G; Hasenahuer, Marcia A; Parisi, Gustavo; Fornasari, María S; Pennesi, Sandra P; Erramouspe, Beatriz; Basack, Felisa N; Veber, Ernesto S; Aversa, Luis; Elena, Graciela; Varela, Viviana

    2015-06-01

    We describe here the molecular and hematological characteristics of novel frameshift mutations in exon 2 of the HBB gene (in heterozygous state) found in two Argentinean pediatric patients with dominant β-thalassemia-like features. In Hb Wilde, HBB:c.270_273delTGAG(p.Glu90Cysfs*67), we detected the deletion of the third base of the codon 89 (T) and the codon 90 (GAG), whereas in Hb Patagonia, HBB:c.296_297dupGT(p.Asp99Trpfs*59), the frameshift mutation was due to a duplication of a 'GT' dinucleotide after the second base of codon 98 (GTG). The Hb Patagonia and Hb Wilde mutations would result in elongated β-globin chains with modified C-terminal sequences and a total of 155 and 157 amino acids residues, respectively. Based on bioinformatics and structural analysis, as well as protein modeling, we predict that the elongated β-globins would affect the formation of the αβ dimers and their stability, which would further support the mechanism for the observed clinical features in both patients. PMID:25284604

  11. Hb H disease with various β hemoglobinopathies: molecular, hematological and diagnostic aspects.

    PubMed

    Fucharoen, Supan; Fucharoen, Goonnapa

    2012-01-01

    We report the molecular, hematological and diagnostic features of three Thai patients with Hb H (β4) disease in combination with different β hemoglobinopathies. The first case was a boy with a hitherto undescribed condition of Hb H-Hb Tak (HBB:c.441_442insAC) syndrome. The second case was an adult male with the Hb H-Hb Hope (HBB:c.410G>A) disease. The last case was a male patient with a combination of Hb H-Hb Constant Spring (Hb CS) (HBA2:c.427T>C) and a high Hbs A(2)/F β(0)-thalassemia (β-thal) trait (the 3.4 kb deletion). In all cases, no Hb H was detected and Hb H inclusion was absent, accurate diagnosis could be obtained after DNA analysis. All of them had mild hypochromic microcytic anemia with hemoglobin (Hb) values ranging from 8.8-10.4 g/dL, PCV 0.31-0.36 L/L and MCV 57.6-66.9 fL and none had ever received a blood transfusion. The levels of Hb Tak (7.8%) and Hb Hope (21.6%), respectively, observed in the first two cases were relatively lower than values found in heterozygotes for these two variants. In the last case, the level of Hb A(2) (4.8%) was within the diagnostic range for a β-thal trait. The Hb F level was not elevated but a small amount of Hb Bart's was observed. Hematological findings and diagnostics using combined Hb and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analyses are presented and compared with those of the other Thai patients with Hb H-β(0)-thal, Hb H-Hb CS-Hb J-Bangkok (HBB:c.170G>A) and Hb H-Hb CS-Hb Pyrgos (HBB:c.251G>A) previously observed in our series. PMID:22145566

  12. Expression Profiles, Characterization and Function of HbTCTP in Rubber Tree (Hevea brasiliensis)

    PubMed Central

    Deng, Zhi; Chen, Jiangshu; Leclercq, Julie; Zhou, Zhuangzhi; Liu, Changren; Liu, Hui; Yang, Hong; Montoro, Pascal; Xia, Zhihui; Li, Dejun

    2016-01-01

    As a highly conserved protein, the translationally controlled tumor protein (TCTP) carries out vital roles in various life processes. In rubber tree, two TCTP genes, HbTCTP and HbTCTP1, were cloned, but only HbTCTP1 was studied in details. In this study, cis-acting regulatory elements, expression patterns, subcellular localization, interacting proteins, and antioxidant activity of HbTCTP were systematically analyzed. Besides the common cis-acting regulatory elements, HbTCTP promoter also harbored various known cis-elements that respond to hormone/stresses. Being consistent with the aforementioned results, HbTCTP was regulated by drought, low temperature, high salt, ethylene (ET), wounding, H2O2, and methyl jasmonate (MeJA) treatments. HbTCTP was expressed throughout different tissues and developmental stages of leaves. In addition, HbTCTP was associated with tapping panel dryness (TPD). HbTCTP was localized in the membrane, cytoplasm and the nucleus, and interacted with four proteins rubber elongation factor (REF), 17.5 kDa heat shock family protein, annexin, and REF-like stress related protein 1. Being similar to HbTCTP1, HbTCTP also indicated antioxidant activity in metal-catalyzed oxidation (MCO) system. Our results are useful for further understanding the molecular characterization and expression profiles of HbTCTP, but also lay a solid foundation for elucidating the function of HbTCTP in rubber tree. PMID:27375647

  13. Rare hemoglobin variants: Hb G-Szuhu (HBB: c.243C>G), Hb G-Coushatta (HBB: c.68A>C) and Hb Mizuho (HBB: c.206T>C) in Sri Lankan families.

    PubMed

    Perera, P Shiromi; Silva, Ishari; Hapugoda, Menaka; Wickramarathne, Merita N; Wijesiriwardena, Indira; Efremov, Dimitar G; Fisher, Christopher A; Weatherall, David J; Premawardhena, Anuja

    2015-01-01

    In this short communication, we describe the clinical presentation of unusual hemoglobin (Hb), variants in three Sri Lankan cases under study for β-thalassemia intermedia (β-TI). We believe this is the first report on their occurrence in Sri Lanka as well as from the Indian subcontinent. During a molecular study performed on β-TI patients, we identified three unusual Hb variants as Hb G-Szuhu (HBB: c.243C>G), Hb G-Coushatta (HBB: c.68A>C) and Hb Mizuho (HBB: c.206T>C) in three unrelated families. Hb G-Szuhu and Hb G-Coushatta were found in combination with the common β-thalassemia (β-thal) mutation, IVS-I-5 (G>C). Both probands had mild anemia with greatly reduced red cell indices and had non palpable livers and spleens, however, by ultrasound, both were observed to be enlarged. The final Hb variant, Hb Mizuho, was identified as a heterozygous mutation found in both proband and his mother. Both family members had severe anemia and were regularly transfused and had increased red cell parameters. PMID:25572187

  14. Hb E/beta-thalassaemia: a common & clinically diverse disorder

    PubMed Central

    Olivieri, Nancy F.; Pakbaz, Zahra; Vichinsky, Elliott

    2011-01-01

    Haemoglobin E-beta thalassaemia (Hb E/β-thalassaemia) is the genotype responsible for approximately one-half of all severe beta-thalassaemia worldwide. The disorder is characterized by marked clinical variability, ranging from a mild and asymptomatic anaemia to a life-threatening disorder requiring transfusions from infancy. The phenotypic variability of Hb E/β-thalassaemia and the paucity of long-term clinical data, present challenges in providing definitive recommendations for the optimal management of patients. Genetic factors influencing the severity of this disorder include the type of beta-thalassaemia mutation, the co-inheritance of alpha-thalassaemia, and polymorphisms associated with increased production of foetal haemoglobin. Other factors, including a variable increase in serum erythropoietin in response to anaemia, previous or ongoing infection with malaria, previous splenectomy and other environmental influences, may be involved. The remarkable variation, and the instability, of the clinical phenotype of Hb E beta-thalassaemia suggests that careful tailoring of treatment is required for each patient, and that therapeutic approaches should be re-assessed over-time. PMID:22089616

  15. Glutathione Redox System in β-Thalassemia/Hb E Patients

    PubMed Central

    Tangjaidee, Thongchai; Hatairaktham, Suneerat; Charoensakdi, Ratiya; Panichkul, Narumol; Siritanaratkul, Noppadol; Fucharoen, Suthat

    2013-01-01

    β-thalassemia/Hb E is known to cause oxidative stress induced by iron overload. The glutathione system is the major endogenous antioxidant that protects animal cells from oxidative damage. This study aimed to determine the effect of disease state and splenectomy on redox status expressed by whole blood glutathione (GSH)/glutathione disulfide (GSSG) and also to evaluate glutathione-related responses to oxidation in β-thalassemia/Hb E patients. Twenty-seven normal subjects and 25 β-thalassemia/Hb E patients were recruited and blood was collected. The GSH/GSSG ratio, activities of glutathione-related enzymes, hematological parameters, and serum ferritin levels were determined in individuals. Patients had high iron-induced oxidative stress, shown as significantly increased serum ferritin, a decreased GSH/GSSG ratio, and increased activities of glutathione-related enzymes. Splenectomy increased serum ferritin levels and decreased GSH levels concomitant with unchanged glutathione-related enzyme activities. The redox ratio had a positive correlation with hemoglobin levels and negative correlation with levels of serum ferritin. The glutathione system may be the body's first-line defense used against oxidative stress and to maintain redox homeostasis in thalassemic patients based on the significant correlations between the GSH/GSSH ratio and degree of anemia or body iron stores. PMID:24223032

  16. Inhibition of Hb Binding to GP1bα Abrogates Hb-Mediated Thrombus Formation on Immobilized VWF and Collagen under Physiological Shear Stress

    PubMed Central

    Peng, Yuandong; Guchhait, Prasenjit

    2016-01-01

    Background Reports including our own describe that intravascular hemolysis increases the risk of thrombosis in hemolytic disorders. Our recent study shows that plasma Hb concentrations correlate directly with platelet activation in patients with paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria (PNH). The binding of Hb to glycoprotein1bα (GP1bα) increases platelet activation. A peptide AA1-50, designed from N-terminal amino acid sequence of GP1bα significantly inhibits the Hb binding to GP1bα as well as Hb-induced platelet activation. This study further examined if the Hb-mediated platelet activation plays any significant role in thrombus formation on subendothelium matrix under physiological flow shear stresses and the inhibition of Hb-platelet interaction can abrogate the above effects of Hb. Methods and Results Study performed thrombus formation assay in vitro by perfusing whole blood over immobilized VWF or collagen type I in presence of Hb under shear stresses simulating arterial or venous flow. The Hb concentrations ranging from 5 to 10 μM, commonly observed level in plasma of the hemolytic patients including PNH, dose-dependently increased thrombus formation on immobilized VWF under higher shear stress of 25 dyne/cm2, but not at 5 dyne/cm2. The above Hb concentrations also increased thrombus formation on immobilized collagen under both shear stresses of 5 and 25 dyne/cm2. The peptide AA1-50 abrogated invariably the above effects of Hb on thrombus formation. Conclusions and Significance This study therefore indicates that the Hb-induced platelet activation plays a crucial role in thrombus formation on immobilized VWF or collagen under physiological flow shear stresses. Thus suggesting a probable role of this mechanism in facilitating thrombosis under hemolytic conditions. PMID:27105433

  17. Simultaneous dual syringe electrospinning system using benign solvent to fabricate nanofibrous P(3HB-co-4HB)/collagen peptides construct as potential leave-on wound dressing.

    PubMed

    Vigneswari, S; Murugaiyah, V; Kaur, G; Abdul Khalil, H P S; Amirul, A A

    2016-09-01

    The main focus of this study is the incorporation of collagen peptides to fabricate P(3-hydroxybutyrate-co-4-hydroxybutyrate) [P(3HB-co-4HB)] nano-fiber construct to further enhance surface wettability and support cell growth while harbouring desired properties for biodegradable wound dressing. Simultaneous electrospinning of nanofiber P(3HB-co-4HB)/collagen peptides construct was carried out using dual syringe system. The wettability of the constructs increased with the increase in 4HB molar fraction from 20mol% 4HB [53.2°], P(3HB-co-35mol%4HB)[48.9°], P(3HB-co-50mol%4HB)[44.5°] and P(3HB-co-82mol%4HB) [37.7°]. In vitro study carried out using mouse fibroblast cells (L929) grown on nanofiber P(3HB-co-4HB)/collagen peptides construct showed an increase in cell proliferation. In vivo study using animal model (Sprague Dawley rats) showed that nanofibrous P(3HB-co-4HB)/collagen peptides construct had a significant effect on wound contractions with the highest percentage of wound closure of 79%. Hence, P(3HB-co-4HB)/collagen peptides construct suitable for wound dressing have been developed using nano-fabrication technique. PMID:27207048

  18. Molecular Cloning of HbPR-1 Gene from Rubber Tree, Expression of HbPR-1 Gene in Nicotiana benthamiana and Its Inhibition of Phytophthora palmivora

    PubMed Central

    Khunjan, Uraiwan; Ekchaweng, Kitiya; Panrat, Tanate; Tian, Miaoying; Churngchow, Nunta

    2016-01-01

    This is the first report to present a full-length cDNA (designated HbPR-1) encoding a putative basic HbPR-1 protein from rubber tree (Hevea brasiliensis) treated with salicylic acid. It was characterized and also expressed in Nicotiana benthamiana using Agrobacterium-mediated transient gene expression system in order to investigate the role of HbPR-1 gene in rubber tree against its oomycete pathogen Phytopthora palmivora and to produce recombinant HbPR-1 protein for microbial inhibition test. The HbPR-1 cDNA was 647 bp long and contained an open reading frame of 492 nucleotides encoding 163 amino acid residues with a predicted molecular mass of 17,681 Da and an isoelectric point (pI) of 8.56, demonstrating that HbPR-1 protein belongs to the basic PR-1 type. The predicted 3D structure of HbPR-1 was composed of four α-helices, three β-sheets, seven strands, and one junction loop. Expression and purification of recombinant HbPR-1 protein were successful using Agrobacterium-mediated transient expression and one-step of affinity chromatography. Heterologous expression of HbPR-1 in N. benthamiana reduced necrosis areas which were inoculated with P. palmivora zoospores, indicating that the expressed HbPR-1 protein played an important role in plant resistance to pathogens. The purified recombinant HbPR-1 protein was found to inhibit 64% of P. palmivora zoospore germination on a water agar plate compared with control, suggesting that it was an antimicrobial protein against P. palmivora. PMID:27337148

  19. Molecular Cloning of HbPR-1 Gene from Rubber Tree, Expression of HbPR-1 Gene in Nicotiana benthamiana and Its Inhibition of Phytophthora palmivora.

    PubMed

    Khunjan, Uraiwan; Ekchaweng, Kitiya; Panrat, Tanate; Tian, Miaoying; Churngchow, Nunta

    2016-01-01

    This is the first report to present a full-length cDNA (designated HbPR-1) encoding a putative basic HbPR-1 protein from rubber tree (Hevea brasiliensis) treated with salicylic acid. It was characterized and also expressed in Nicotiana benthamiana using Agrobacterium-mediated transient gene expression system in order to investigate the role of HbPR-1 gene in rubber tree against its oomycete pathogen Phytopthora palmivora and to produce recombinant HbPR-1 protein for microbial inhibition test. The HbPR-1 cDNA was 647 bp long and contained an open reading frame of 492 nucleotides encoding 163 amino acid residues with a predicted molecular mass of 17,681 Da and an isoelectric point (pI) of 8.56, demonstrating that HbPR-1 protein belongs to the basic PR-1 type. The predicted 3D structure of HbPR-1 was composed of four α-helices, three β-sheets, seven strands, and one junction loop. Expression and purification of recombinant HbPR-1 protein were successful using Agrobacterium-mediated transient expression and one-step of affinity chromatography. Heterologous expression of HbPR-1 in N. benthamiana reduced necrosis areas which were inoculated with P. palmivora zoospores, indicating that the expressed HbPR-1 protein played an important role in plant resistance to pathogens. The purified recombinant HbPR-1 protein was found to inhibit 64% of P. palmivora zoospore germination on a water agar plate compared with control, suggesting that it was an antimicrobial protein against P. palmivora. PMID:27337148

  20. Draft genome sequence of Bacillus amyloliquefaciens HB-26

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Xiao-Yan; Min, Yong; Wang, Kai-Mei; Wan, Zhong-Yi; Zhang, Zhi-Gang; Cao, Chun-Xia; Zhou, Rong-Hua; Jiang, Ai-Bing; Liu, Cui-Jun; Zhang, Guang-Yang; Cheng, Xian-Liang; Zhang, Wei; Yang, Zi-Wen

    2014-01-01

    Bacillus amyloliquefaciens HB-26, a Gram-positive bacterium was isolated from soil in China. SDS-PAGE analysis showed this strain secreted six major protein bands of 65, 60, 55, 34, 25 and 20 kDa. A bioassay of this strain reveals that it shows specific activity against P. brassicae and nematode. Here we describe the features of this organism, together with the draft genome sequence and annotation. The 3,989,358 bp long genome (39 contigs) contains 4,001 protein-coding genes and 80 RNA genes. PMID:25197462

  1. Variability in the interaction of beta-thalassemia with the alpha-chain variants Hb G-Philadelphia and Hb Rampa.

    PubMed

    Huisman, T H; Gravely, M E; Henson, J; Felice, A; Wilson, J B; Abraham, E C; Vella, F; Little, M W

    1978-08-01

    Two unrelated families are reported in which beta-thalassemia trait occurred with a heterozygosity of Hb G-Philadelphia (alpha2 68(E17)Asn leads to Lys beta2) in one family and with Hb Rampa (alpha2 95(G2)Pro leads to Ser beta2) in the other. The percentage of Hb G-Philadelphia was not influenced by the simultaneous presence of a beta-thalassemai determinant, but that of Hb Rampa was descreased from 20% in the simple heterozygote to about 6% in persons with the Hb Rampa-beta-thalassemia combination. Data from in vitro recombination experiments with isolated alpha X, alpha A, and beta A chains, with heme attached, indicated a preferential formation of Hb A over Hb Rampa but not over Hb G-Philadelphia in conditions of relative beta-chain deficiency. This suggests that the rate of assembly of monomers to form dimers or tetramers can be an important mechanism of controlling the quantity of certain hemoglobin variants with critical substitutions in heterozygotes. PMID:681817

  2. Genetic analysis of lipolytic activities in Thermus thermophilus HB27.

    PubMed

    Leis, Benedikt; Angelov, Angel; Li, Haijuan; Liebl, Wolfgang

    2014-12-10

    The extremely thermophilic bacterium Thermus thermophilus HB27 displays lipolytic activity for the hydrolysis of triglycerides. In this study we performed a mutational in vivo analysis of esterases and lipases that confer growth on tributyrin. We interrupted 10 ORFs suspected to encode lipolytic enzymes. Two chromosomal loci were identified that resulted in reduced hydrolysis capabilities against tributyrin and various para-nitrophenyl acyl esters. By implementation of a convenient new one-step method which abstains from the use of selectable markers, a mutant strain with multiple scar-less deletions was constructed by sequentially deleting ORFs TT_C1787, TT_C0340, TT_C0341 and TT_C0904. The quadruple deletion mutant of T. thermophilus exhibited significantly lower lipolytic activity (approximately 25% residual activity compared to wild type strain) over a broad range of fatty acyl esters and had lost the ability to grow on agar plates containing tributyrin as the sole carbon source. Furthermore, we were able to determine the impact of each gene disruption on the lipolytic activity profile in this model organism and show that the esterase activity in T. thermophilus HB27 is due to a concerted action of several hydrolases having different substrate preferences and activities. The esterase-less T. thermophilus multi-deletion mutant from this study can be used as a screening and expression host for esterase genes from thermophiles or metagenomes. PMID:25102235

  3. Application of CRISPRi for prokaryotic metabolic engineering involving multiple genes, a case study: Controllable P(3HB-co-4HB) biosynthesis.

    PubMed

    Lv, Li; Ren, Yi-Lin; Chen, Jin-Chun; Wu, Qiong; Chen, Guo-Qiang

    2015-05-01

    Clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats interference (CRISPRi) is used to edit eukaryotic genomes. Here, we show that CRISPRi can also be used for fine-tuning prokaryotic gene expression while simultaneously regulating multiple essential gene expression with less labor and time consumption. As a case study, CRISPRi was used to control polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA) biosynthesis pathway flux and to adjust PHA composition. A pathway was constructed in Escherichia coli for the production of poly(3-hydroxybutyrate-co-4-hydroxybutyrate) [P(3HB-co-4HB)] from glucose. The native gene sad encoding E. coli succinate semi-aldehyde dehydrogenase was expressed under the control of CRISPRi using five specially designed single guide RNAs (sgRNAs) for regulating carbon flux to 4-hydroxybutyrate (4HB) biosynthesis. The system allowed formation of P(3HB-co-4HB) consisting of 1-9mol% 4HB. Additionally, succinate, generated by succinyl-coA synthetase and succinate dehydrogenase (respectively encoded by genes sucC, sucD and sdhA, sdhB) was channeled preferentially to the 4HB precursor by using selected sgRNAs such as sucC2, sucD2, sdhB2 and sdhA1 via CRISPRi. The resulting 4HB content in P(3HB-co-4HB) was found to range from 1.4 to 18.4mol% depending on the expression levels of down-regulated genes. The results show that CRISPRi is a feasible method to simultaneously manipulate multiple genes in E. coli. PMID:25838211

  4. NITRATE CONVERSION OF HB-LINE REILLEXTM HPQ RESIN

    SciTech Connect

    Steimke, J.; Williams, M.; Steeper, T.; Leishear, R.

    2012-05-29

    Reillex{trademark} HPQ ion exchange resin is used by HB Line to remove plutonium from aqueous streams. Reillex{trademark} HPQ resin currently available from Vertellus Specialties LLC is a chloride ionic form, which can cause stress corrosion cracking in stainless steels. Therefore, HB Line Engineering requested that Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) convert resin from chloride form to nitrate form in the Engineering Development Laboratory (EDL). To perform this task, SRNL treated two batches of resin in 2012. The first batch of resin from Reilly Industries Batch 80302MA was initially treated at SRNL in 2001 to remove chloride. This batch of resin, nominally 30 liters, has been stored wet in carboys since that time until being retreated in 2012. The second batch of resin from Batch 23408 consisted of 50 kg of new resin purchased from Vertellus Specialties in 2012. Both batches were treated in a column designed to convert resin using downflow of 1.0 M sodium nitrate solution through the resin bed followed by rinsing with deionized water. Both batches were analyzed for chloride concentration, before and after treatment, using Neutron Activation Analysis (NAA). The resin specification [Werling, 2003] states the total chlorine and chloride concentration shall be less than 250 ppm. The resin condition for measuring this concentration is not specified; however, in service the resin would always be fully wet. Measurements in SRNL showed that changing from oven dry resin to fully wet resin, with liquid in the particle interstices but no supernatant, increases the total weight by a factor of at least three. Therefore, concentration of chlorine or chloride expressed as parts per million (ppm) decreases by a factor of three. Therefore, SRNL recommends measuring chlorine concentration on an oven dry basis, then dividing by three to estimate chloride concentration in the fully wet condition. Chloride concentration in the first batch (No.80302MA) was nearly the same

  5. HB LED color mixture traffic light solution based on EZ-color

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hong, Qunhuan; Wang, Weijian; Xiao, Zhihong

    2010-02-01

    This paper introduces a traffic light design solution using HB LED color mixture,namely an implementation method using a set of traffic lights composed of red, green and blue HB LED to replace ordinary red, yellow and green lights. This scheme realizes HB LED color mixture lighting design on the basis of Cypress EZ-Color controller and codeless embedded design software PSoC Express.

  6. Association of Hb Thailand [α56(E5)Lys→Thr] and Hb Phnom Penh [α117(GH5)-Ile-α118(H1)] with α(0)-thalassemia: molecular and hematological features and differential diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Singha, Kritsada; Srivorakun, Hataichanok; Fucharoen, Goonnapa; Changtrakul, Yossombat; Komwilaisak, Patcharee; Jetsrisuparb, Arunee; Puangplruk, Rawiwan; Fucharoen, Supan

    2013-01-01

    We report the molecular and hematological characteristics of two rare hemoglobin (Hb) variants found in associations with a common α(0)-thalassemia (α(0)-thal) in Thai patients. The first case (P1) was a generally healthy 27-year-old man discovered during our ongoing thalassemia screening program. Hemoglobin and DNA analyses identified a previously undescribed condition of compound heterozygosity for Hb Thailand [α56(E5)Lys→Thr] and α(0)-thal (SEA deletion). The second case (P2) was a 4-year-old boy with hypochromic microcytic anemia. Hemoglobin and DNA analyses also identified a compound heterozygosity for Hb Phnom Penh [α117(GH5)-Ile-α118(H1)] in association with α(0)-thal (SEA deletion). Although Hb H (β(4)) inclusion bodies were observed in both cases, Hb analysis using both high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and capillary electrophoresis (CE) did not show Hb H. While the two Hb variants could be recognized on Hb HPLC analysis, their corresponding Hb A(2) derivatives: the Hb A(2)-Thailand and Hb A(2)-Phnom Penh, were clearly observed on CE. Apparently, combination of these two Hb variants with α(0)-thal are not expressed as Hb H disease. The two Hb variants could be confirmed by polymerase chain restriction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) and allele-specific PCR assays. PMID:23215800

  7. Structure of fully liganded Hb ζ2β2 s trapped in a tense conformation

    PubMed Central

    Safo, Martin K.; Ko, Tzu-Ping; Abdulmalik, Osheiza; He, Zhenning; Wang, Andrew H.-J.; Schreiter, Eric R.; Russell, J. Eric

    2013-01-01

    A variant Hb ζ2β2 s that is formed from sickle hemoglobin (Hb S; α2β2 s) by exchanging adult α-globin with embryonic ζ-globin subunits shows promise as a therapeutic agent for sickle-cell disease (SCD). Hb ζ2β2 s inhibits the polymerization of deoxy­genated Hb S in vitro and reverses characteristic features of SCD in vivo in mouse models of the disorder. When compared with either Hb S or with normal human adult Hb A (α2β2), Hb ζ2β2 s exhibits atypical properties that include a high oxygen affinity, reduced cooperativity, a weak Bohr effect and blunted 2,3-­diphosphoglycerate allostery. Here, the 1.95 Å resolution crystal structure of human Hb ζ2β2 s that was expressed in complex transgenic knockout mice and purified from their erythrocytes is presented. When fully liganded with carbon monoxide, Hb ζ2β2 s displays a central water cavity, a ζ1–βs2 (or ζ2–βs1) interface, intersubunit salt-bridge/hydrogen-bond interactions, C-terminal βHis146 salt-bridge interactions, and a β-cleft, that are highly unusual for a relaxed hemoglobin structure and are more typical of a tense conformation. These quaternary tense-like features contrast with the tertiary relaxed-like conformations of the ζ1βs1 dimer and the CD and FG corners, as well as the overall structures of the heme cavities. This crystallographic study provides insights into the altered oxygen-transport properties of Hb ζ2β2 s and, moreover, decouples tertiary- and quaternary-structural events that are critical to Hb ligand binding and allosteric function. PMID:24100324

  8. The heparin-binding domain of HB-EGF mediates localization to sites of cell-cell contact and prevents HB-EGF proteolytic release

    SciTech Connect

    Prince, Robin N.; Schreiter, Eric R.; Zou, Peng; Wiley, H. S.; Ting, Alice Y.; Lee, Richard T.; Lauffenburger, Douglas A.

    2010-07-01

    Heparin-binding EGF-like growth factor (HB-EGF) is a ligand for EGF receptor (EGFR) and possesses the ability to signal in juxtacrine, autocrine and/or paracrine mode, with these alternatives being governed by the degree of proteolytic release of the ligand. Although the spatial range of diffusion of released HB-EGF is restricted by binding heparan-sulfate proteoglycans (HSPGs) in the extracellular matrix and/or cellular glycocalyx, ascertaining mechanisms governing non-released HB-EGF localization is also important for understanding its effects. We have employed a new method for independently tracking the localization of the extracellular EGFlike domain of HB-EGF and the cytoplasmic C-terminus. A striking observation was the absence of the HB-EGF transmembrane proform from the leading edge of COS-7 cells in a wound-closure assay; instead, this protein localized in regions of cell-cell contact. A battery of detailed experiments found that this localization derives from a trans interaction between extracellular HSPGs and the HBEGF heparin-binding domain, and that disruption of this interaction leads to increased release of soluble ligand and a switch in cell phenotype from juxtacrine-induced growth inhibition to autocrine-induced proliferation. Our results indicate that extracellular HSPGs serve to sequester the transmembrane pro-form of HB-EGF at the point of cell-cell contact, and that this plays a role in governing the balance between juxtacrine versus autocrine and paracrine signaling.

  9. Simulation Analysis for HB-Line Dissolver Mixing

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, S

    2006-03-22

    In support of the HB-Line Engineering agitator mixing project, flow pattern calculations have been made for a 90{sup o} apart and helical pitch agitator submerged in a flat tank containing dissolver baskets. The work is intended to determine maximum agitator speed to keep the dissolver baskets from contacting the agitator for the nominal tank liquid level. The analysis model was based on one dissolver basket located on the bottom surface of the flat tank for a conservative estimate. The modeling results will help determine acceptable agitator speeds and tank liquid levels to ensure that the dissolver basket is kept from contacting the agitator blade during HB-Line dissolver tank operations. The numerical modeling and calculations have been performed using a computational fluid dynamics approach. Three-dimensional steady-state momentum and continuity equations were used as the basic equations to estimate fluid motion driven by an agitator with four 90{sup o} pitched blades or three flat blades. Hydraulic conditions were fully turbulent (Reynolds number about 1 x 10{sup 5}). A standard two-equation turbulence model ({kappa},{var_epsilon}), was used to capture turbulent eddy motion. The commercial finite volume code, Fluent [5], was used to create a prototypic geometry file with a non-orthogonal mesh. Hybrid meshing was used to fill the computational region between the round-edged tank bottom and agitator regions. The nominal calculations and a series of sensitivity runs were made to investigate the impact of flow patterns on the lifting behavior of the dissolver basket. At high rotational speeds and low tank levels, local turbulent flow reaches the critical condition for the dissolver basket to be picked up from the tank floor and to touch the agitator blades during the tank mixing operations. This is not desirable in terms of mixing performance. The modeling results demonstrate that the flow patterns driven by the agitators considered here are not strong enough to

  10. 75 FR 10863 - Savings Association Holding Company Report H-(b)11

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-09

    ... Office of Thrift Supervision Savings Association Holding Company Report H-(b)11 AGENCY: Office of Thrift... collection. Title of Proposal: Savings Association Holding Company Report H- (b)11. OMB Number: 1550-0060. Form Numbers: OTS Form H-(b)11. Regulation requirement: 12 CFR part 584.1. Description: Section...

  11. GENETIC FACTORS INFLUENCING HEMOGLOBIN F LEVEL IN β-THALASSEMIA/HB E DISEASE.

    PubMed

    Ruangrai, Waraporn; Jindadamrongwech, Sumalee

    2016-01-01

    Genetic factors influencing Hb F content in adult red blood cells include β-thalassemia genotypes, co-inheritance of α-thalassemia traits and single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). Genotyping of α- and β-thalassemia and five SNPs in β-globin gene cluster previously identified in genome-wide association studies as being markers of elevated Hb F in β-thalassemia were performed in 81 subjects diagnosed with β-thalassemia/Hb E. Hb F levels are higher (0.9-7.1 g/dl) in subjects (n = 57) with the severe compared to mild β-thalassemia (0.8-2.5 g/ dl) (n = 4) genotypes, and are similarly low (0.7-3.5 g/dl) in those (n = 15) with α-thalassemia co-inheritance. Hb F levels in non-thalassemia controls (n = 150) range from 0 to 0.15 g/dl. The presence of homozygous minor alleles of the 5 SNPs are significant indicators of β-thalassemia/Hb E individuals with high Hb F (> 4 g/dl), independent of their thalassemia genotypes. Given that re-activation of γ-globin genes leads to amelioration of β-thalassemia severity, understanding how genetic factors up-regulate Hb F production may lead to possible therapeutic interventions, genetically or pharmacologically, of this debilitating disease in the not too distant future. PMID:27086429

  12. 75 FR 36152 - Savings Association Holding Company Report H-(b)11

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-24

    ... Office of Thrift Supervision Savings Association Holding Company Report H-(b)11 AGENCY: Office of Thrift... Association Holding Company Report H- (b)11 OMB Number: 1550-0060. Form Number: OTS Form H-(b)11. Regulation... applicable statutes, regulations, and conditions of approval to acquire an insured savings association....

  13. HB 1347 and Its Relationship to Foodservice Outsourcing in Illinois Public Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brashear, Gary L.

    2012-01-01

    This study examined foodservice outsourcing in the State of Illinois. School administrators currently outsourcing foodservice were surveyed about their perceptions of HB1347 and its components. This study looked at HB1347 in Illinois, and its effects on outsourcing in school districts. Data for this study was collected from a survey sent to 100%…

  14. GENERAL VIEW OF TYPE HB54s (BUILDINGS T1088 TO T1093) & ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    GENERAL VIEW OF TYPE HB-54s (BUILDINGS T-1088 TO T-1093) & CONVERTED TYPE HB-54S (BUILDINGS T-1094 TO T-1096), LOOKING SOUTHWEST; BUILDING T-1088 AT LEFT, BUILDING T-1096 AT RIGHT - Fort McCoy, Building No. T-1096, South side of South Ninth Avenue, Block 10, Sparta, Monroe County, WI

  15. [Effect of sheep haptoglobin on the hemoglobin molecule in the Hp-Hb complex].

    PubMed

    Beĭsembaeva, R U; Dzhusupova, R Zh

    1986-01-01

    Sheep haptoglobin (HpC) binding hemoglobin increases the stability of the latter to acid denaturation and oxidation by atmospheric O2. HpC is also capable of binding methemoglobin (MetHb) denaturated at pH 3.5 to form a stable complex. This process is accompanied by partial reconstitution of the structural integrity and peroxidase activity of MetHb. Consequently, the formation of a HpC-MetHb complex leads to changes in the tertiary structure of the MetHb molecule. The increase in the peroxidase activity of MetHb at pH less than or equal to 4.0 after its binding to HpC is due to the stabilizing and stimulating activity of HpC. PMID:3006800

  16. Challenges in HbA1c Analysis and Reporting in Patients with Variant Hemoglobins.

    PubMed

    Sultana, T A; Sheme, Z A; Sultana, G S; Sultana, B; Mishu, F A; Khan, N Z; Sarkar, B C; Muttalib, M A; Khan, S A; Choudhury, S; Mahtab, H

    2016-04-01

    Hemoglobin A1c (HbA(1)c) is a well-established indicator of mean glycemia. The presence of genetic variants of hemoglobin can profoundly affect the accuracy of HbA(1)c measurements. Variants of hemoglobin especially Hemoglobin E (HbE) is prevalent in South East Asia including Bangladesh. The objective of our study is to compare the HbA(1)c values measured on high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and Turbidimetric Inhibition Immunoassay (TINIA) in diabetic patients with variant hemoglobins including HbE. A total of 7595 diabetic patients receiving treatment at BIRDEM General Hospital were analyzed for HbA(1)c results within a period of two months from December 2013 to January 2014. Seventy two cases out of 7595 (0.95%) had either undetectable or below normal HbA(1)c levels (males-33 and females-39; ratio = 0.82:1) by HPLC method. In 34(0.45%) cases, HbA(1)c value was undetectable by HPLC method but was in the reportable range by TINIA method. In the other 38 (0.55%) cases, HbA(1)c levels were below the reportable range (<4%) by HPLC method but were in the normal or higher range by TINIA method. TINIA method did not agree with HPLC method on Bland Altman plot in the 38 cases with below normal HbA(1)c levels, [Mean bias -5.2(-9.3 to 1.0), 95% CI] but agreed very well [mean bias -0.21 (-0.84 to 0.42), y=1.1037+0.776X; r(2)=0.30, p<0.01] in controls. In control group mean MCV was 83.80±7.48 and in study group was 73.65±10.44. Alkaline electrophoresis confirmed the variant hemoglobin to be HbE. The fasting blood sugar levels of all the 72 cases correlated strongly with TINIA method (r(2) =0.75, p<0.0001) but not with HPLC (r = 0.24, p=0.13). In our regions where populations have a high prevalence of Hb variant, proper knowledge of hemoglobin variants which affect the measurements HbA(1)c level is essential. MCV of 80fl or below may serve as a rough guide to select samples that require analysis by TINIA method. Moreover, HPLC may be a convenient and inexpensive

  17. Fasting blood glucose and HbA1c in children with ADHD.

    PubMed

    Lindblad, Frank; Eickhoff, Malin; Forslund, Anders H; Isaksson, Johan; Gustafsson, Jan

    2015-04-30

    Reports of hypocortisolism and overweight in pediatric ADHD motivate an investigation of blood glucose regulation in this group. Fasting blood glucose and HbA1c were investigated in 10 children (10-15 years) with ADHD and 22 comparisons. Fasting blood glucose was similar in both groups. HbA1c values were higher in the ADHD-group. BMI-SDS was also higher in the ADHD-group but did not predict HbA1c. The results suggest an association between ADHD and an altered blood glucose homeostasis. PMID:25747679

  18. Comparison Among HB-inspired Algorithms for Continuous-Spin Systems and Gauge Fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cucchieri, A.; Frigori, R. B.; Mendes, T.; Mihara, A.

    2006-09-01

    We propose a new local algorithm for the thermalization of n-vector spin models, which can also be used in the numerical simulation of SU(N) lattice gauge theories. The algorithm combines heat-bath (HB) and micro-canonical updates in a single step -- as opposed to the hybrid overrelaxation method, which alternates between the two kinds of update steps -- while preserving ergodicity. We test our proposed algorithm in the case of the one-dimensional 4-vector spin model and compare its performance with the standard HB algorithm and with other HB-inspired algorithms.

  19. Spectra of the HB 21 supernova remnant: Evidence of spectrum flattening at the low frequencies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borka, D.; Borka Jovanovic, V.; Uroševic, D.

    2012-04-01

    We use observations of the continuum radio emission at 1420, 820, 408, 34.5 and 22 MHz to estimate the mean brightness temperatures of the HB 21 supernova remnant (SNR) at five frequencies. We also present mean spectral index of HB1. The spectra of HB 21 are estimated from mean temperatures versus frequency plots for 1420, 820, 408, 34.5 and 22 MHz. We also present T-T plots of three frequency pairs: between 1420-34.5, 1420-22, 34.5-22 MHz. We notice flatter spectral indices at frequencies below 408 MHz. Probably this is due to the absorption by thermal plasma at low frequencies.

  20. Complete Genome Sequence of a Phenanthrene Degrader, Burkholderia sp. HB-1 (NBRC 110738)

    PubMed Central

    Moriya, Azusa; Kato, Hiromi; Ogawa, Natsumi; Nagata, Yuji; Tsuda, Masataka

    2015-01-01

    The phenanthrene-degrading Burkholderia sp. HB-1 was isolated from a phenanthrene-enrichment culture seeded with a pristine farm soil sample. We report the complete genome sequence of HB-1, which has been deposited to the stock culture (NBRC 110738) at Biological Resource Center, National Institute of Technology and Evaluation (NITE), Tokyo, Japan. The genome of strain HB-1 comprises two circular chromosomes of 4.1 Mb and 3.1 Mb. The finishing was facilitated by the computational tools GenoFinisher, AceFileViewer, and ShortReadManager. PMID:26543118

  1. α-Thalassemia Associated with Hb Instability: A Tale of Two Features. The Case of Hb Rogliano or α1 Cod 108(G15)Thr→Asn and Hb Policoro or α2 Cod 124(H7)Ser→Pro.

    PubMed Central

    Musollino, Gennaro; Cardiero, Giovanna; Flagiello, Angela; La Porta, Gaetana; Lagona, Laura; Prezioso, Romeo; Qualtieri, Gabriele; Gaudiano, Carlo; Medulla, Emilia; Merlino, Antonello; Pucci, Piero; Lacerra, Giuseppina

    2015-01-01

    We identified two new variants in the third exon of the α-globin gene in families from southern Italy: the Hb Rogliano, α1 cod108 ACC>AAC or α1[α108(G15)Thr→Asn] and the Hb Policoro, α2 cod124 TCC>CCC or α2[α124(H7)Ser→Pro]. The carriers showed mild α-thalassemia phenotype and abnormal hemoglobin stability features. These mutations occurred in the G and H helices of the α-globin both involved in the specific recognition of AHSP and β1 chain. Molecular characterization of mRNA, globin chain analyses and molecular modelling studies were carried out to highlight the mechanisms causing the α-thalassemia phenotype. The results demonstrated that the α-thalassemia defect associated with the two Hb variants originated by different defects. Hb Rogliano showed an intrinsic instability of the tetramer due to anomalous intra- and inter-chain interactions suggesting that the variant chain is normally synthesized and complexed with AHSP but rapidly degraded because it is unable to form the α1β1 dimers. On the contrary in the case of Hb Policoro two different molecular mechanisms were shown: the reduction of the variant mRNA level by an unclear mechanism and the protein instability due to impairment of AHSP interaction. These data highlighted that multiple approaches, including mRNA quantification, are needed to properly identify the mechanisms leading to the α-thalassemia defect. Elucidation of the specific mechanism leads to the definition of a given phenotype providing important guidance for the diagnosis of unstable variants. PMID:25730315

  2. DETAIL VIEW OF A FOREIGN OBSTACLE DEBRIS NET, HB3, FACING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    DETAIL VIEW OF A FOREIGN OBSTACLE DEBRIS NET, HB-3, FACING WEST - Cape Canaveral Air Force Station, Launch Complex 39, Vehicle Assembly Building, VAB Road, East of Kennedy Parkway North, Cape Canaveral, Brevard County, FL

  3. GENERAL VIEW OF VEHICLE ACCESS PLATFORM CNORTH, HB3, FACING NORTHEAST ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    GENERAL VIEW OF VEHICLE ACCESS PLATFORM C-NORTH, HB-3, FACING NORTHEAST - Cape Canaveral Air Force Station, Launch Complex 39, Vehicle Assembly Building, VAB Road, East of Kennedy Parkway North, Cape Canaveral, Brevard County, FL

  4. GENERAL VIEW OF VEHICLE ACCESS PLATFORM ENORTH, HB3, FACING NORTH ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    GENERAL VIEW OF VEHICLE ACCESS PLATFORM E-NORTH, HB-3, FACING NORTH - Cape Canaveral Air Force Station, Launch Complex 39, Vehicle Assembly Building, VAB Road, East of Kennedy Parkway North, Cape Canaveral, Brevard County, FL

  5. GENERAL VIEW OF VEHICLE ACCESS PLATFORM ENORTH, HB3, FACING NORTHWEST ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    GENERAL VIEW OF VEHICLE ACCESS PLATFORM E-NORTH, HB-3, FACING NORTHWEST - Cape Canaveral Air Force Station, Launch Complex 39, Vehicle Assembly Building, VAB Road, East of Kennedy Parkway North, Cape Canaveral, Brevard County, FL

  6. GENERAL VIEW OF VEHICLE ACCESS PLATFORM DNORTH, HB3, FACING NORTHWEST ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    GENERAL VIEW OF VEHICLE ACCESS PLATFORM D-NORTH, HB-3, FACING NORTHWEST - Cape Canaveral Air Force Station, Launch Complex 39, Vehicle Assembly Building, VAB Road, East of Kennedy Parkway North, Cape Canaveral, Brevard County, FL

  7. GENERAL VIEW OF VEHICLE ACCESS PLATFORM CNORTH, HB3, FACING NORTHWEST ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    GENERAL VIEW OF VEHICLE ACCESS PLATFORM C-NORTH, HB-3, FACING NORTHWEST - Cape Canaveral Air Force Station, Launch Complex 39, Vehicle Assembly Building, VAB Road, East of Kennedy Parkway North, Cape Canaveral, Brevard County, FL

  8. GENERAL VIEW OF NORTH VEHICLE ACCESS PLATFORMS, HB3, FACING NORTHEAST ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    GENERAL VIEW OF NORTH VEHICLE ACCESS PLATFORMS, HB-3, FACING NORTHEAST TOWARDS CEILING - Cape Canaveral Air Force Station, Launch Complex 39, Vehicle Assembly Building, VAB Road, East of Kennedy Parkway North, Cape Canaveral, Brevard County, FL

  9. GENERAL VIEW OF VEHICLE ACCESS PLATFORM BNORTH, HB3, FACING NORTHEAST ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    GENERAL VIEW OF VEHICLE ACCESS PLATFORM B-NORTH, HB-3, FACING NORTHEAST - Cape Canaveral Air Force Station, Launch Complex 39, Vehicle Assembly Building, VAB Road, East of Kennedy Parkway North, Cape Canaveral, Brevard County, FL

  10. GENERAL VIEW OF VEHICLE ACCESS PLATFORM DNORTH, HB3, FACING NORTH ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    GENERAL VIEW OF VEHICLE ACCESS PLATFORM D-NORTH, HB-3, FACING NORTH - Cape Canaveral Air Force Station, Launch Complex 39, Vehicle Assembly Building, VAB Road, East of Kennedy Parkway North, Cape Canaveral, Brevard County, FL

  11. GENERAL VIEW OF VEHICLE ACCESS PLATFORM BNORTH, HB3, FACING NORTH ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    GENERAL VIEW OF VEHICLE ACCESS PLATFORM B-NORTH, HB-3, FACING NORTH - Cape Canaveral Air Force Station, Launch Complex 39, Vehicle Assembly Building, VAB Road, East of Kennedy Parkway North, Cape Canaveral, Brevard County, FL

  12. GENERAL VIEW OF NORTH VEHICLE ACCESS PLATFORMS, HB3, FACING NORTH ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    GENERAL VIEW OF NORTH VEHICLE ACCESS PLATFORMS, HB-3, FACING NORTH TOWARDS FLOOR - Cape Canaveral Air Force Station, Launch Complex 39, Vehicle Assembly Building, VAB Road, East of Kennedy Parkway North, Cape Canaveral, Brevard County, FL

  13. Clinical, Hematological and Molecular Analysis of Homozygous Hb E (HBB: c.79G > A) in the Indian Population.

    PubMed

    Jayasree, Divya; Shaji, Ramachandran V; George, Biju; Mathews, Vikram; Srivastava, Alok; Edison, Eunice S

    2016-01-01

    Homozygous Hb E [β26(B8)Glu→Lys; HBB: c.79G > A] is a clinically mild disease with no significant symptoms. Very few studies are available on clinical variability in Hb E disorders. We report the profile of a series of homozygous Hb E patients in the Indian population. We analyzed various genetic factors that contribute to the heterogeneity in the phenotype of homozygous Hb E patients. Analysis of these parameters further enhances our understanding of the Hb E syndrome. PMID:26554862

  14. Significance of HbA1c Test in Diagnosis and Prognosis of Diabetic Patients

    PubMed Central

    Sherwani, Shariq I.; Khan, Haseeb A.; Ekhzaimy, Aishah; Masood, Afshan; Sakharkar, Meena K.

    2016-01-01

    Diabetes is a global endemic with rapidly increasing prevalence in both developing and developed countries. The American Diabetes Association has recommended glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) as a possible substitute to fasting blood glucose for diagnosis of diabetes. HbA1c is an important indicator of long-term glycemic control with the ability to reflect the cumulative glycemic history of the preceding two to three months. HbA1c not only provides a reliable measure of chronic hyperglycemia but also correlates well with the risk of long-term diabetes complications. Elevated HbA1c has also been regarded as an independent risk factor for coronary heart disease and stroke in subjects with or without diabetes. The valuable information provided by a single HbA1c test has rendered it as a reliable biomarker for the diagnosis and prognosis of diabetes. This review highlights the role of HbA1c in diagnosis and prognosis of diabetes patients. PMID:27398023

  15. Guanidine hydrochloride and urea effects upon thermal stability of Glossoscolex paulistus hemoglobin (HbGp).

    PubMed

    Carvalho, Francisco A O; Alves, Fernanda R; Carvalho, José W P; Tabak, Marcel

    2015-03-01

    Glossoscolex paulistus hemoglobin (HbGp) has a molecular mass of 3600kDa. It belongs to the hexagonal bilayer hemoglobin class, which consists of highly cooperative respiratory macromolecules found in mollusks and annelids. The present work focusses on oxy-HbGp thermal stability, in the presence of urea and guanidine hydrochloride (GuHCl), monitored by several techniques. Initially, dynamic light scattering data show that the presence of GuHCl induces the protein oligomeric dissociation, followed by a significant 11-fold increase in the hydrodynamic diameter (DH) values, due to the formation of protein aggregates in solution. In contrast, urea promotes the HbGp oligomeric dissociation, followed by unfolding process at high temperatures, without aggregation. Circular dichroism data show that unfolding critical temperature (Tc) of oxy-HbGp decreases from 57°C, at 0.0 mol/L of the denaturant, to 45°C, in the presence of 3.5 mol/L of urea, suggesting the reduction of HbGp oligomeric stability. Moreover, differential scanning calorimetry results show that at lower GuHCl concentrations, some thermal stabilization of the hemoglobin is observed, whereas at higher concentrations, the reduction of stability takes place. Besides, HbGp is more stable in the presence of urea when compared with the guanidine effect, as deduced from the differences in the concentration range of denaturants. PMID:25433131

  16. Targeting autocrine HB-EGF signaling with specific ADAM12 inhibition using recombinant ADAM12 prodomain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, Miles A.; Moss, Marcia L.; Powell, Gary; Petrovich, Robert; Edwards, Lori; Meyer, Aaron S.; Griffith, Linda G.; Lauffenburger, Douglas A.

    2015-10-01

    Dysregulation of ErbB-family signaling underlies numerous pathologies and has been therapeutically targeted through inhibiting ErbB-receptors themselves or their cognate ligands. For the latter, “decoy” antibodies have been developed to sequester ligands including heparin-binding epidermal growth factor (HB-EGF); however, demonstrating sufficient efficacy has been difficult. Here, we hypothesized that this strategy depends on properties such as ligand-receptor binding affinity, which varies widely across the known ErbB-family ligands. Guided by computational modeling, we found that high-affinity ligands such as HB-EGF are more difficult to target with decoy antibodies compared to low-affinity ligands such as amphiregulin (AREG). To address this issue, we developed an alternative method for inhibiting HB-EGF activity by targeting its cleavage from the cell surface. In a model of the invasive disease endometriosis, we identified A Disintegrin and Metalloproteinase 12 (ADAM12) as a protease implicated in HB-EGF shedding. We designed a specific inhibitor of ADAM12 based on its recombinant prodomain (PA12), which selectively inhibits ADAM12 but not ADAM10 or ADAM17. In endometriotic cells, PA12 significantly reduced HB-EGF shedding and resultant cellular migration. Overall, specific inhibition of ligand shedding represents a possible alternative to decoy antibodies, especially for ligands such as HB-EGF that exhibit high binding affinity and localized signaling.

  17. Significance of HbA1c Test in Diagnosis and Prognosis of Diabetic Patients.

    PubMed

    Sherwani, Shariq I; Khan, Haseeb A; Ekhzaimy, Aishah; Masood, Afshan; Sakharkar, Meena K

    2016-01-01

    Diabetes is a global endemic with rapidly increasing prevalence in both developing and developed countries. The American Diabetes Association has recommended glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) as a possible substitute to fasting blood glucose for diagnosis of diabetes. HbA1c is an important indicator of long-term glycemic control with the ability to reflect the cumulative glycemic history of the preceding two to three months. HbA1c not only provides a reliable measure of chronic hyperglycemia but also correlates well with the risk of long-term diabetes complications. Elevated HbA1c has also been regarded as an independent risk factor for coronary heart disease and stroke in subjects with or without diabetes. The valuable information provided by a single HbA1c test has rendered it as a reliable biomarker for the diagnosis and prognosis of diabetes. This review highlights the role of HbA1c in diagnosis and prognosis of diabetes patients. PMID:27398023

  18. Relationship of HbA1c variability, absolute changes in HbA1c, and all-cause mortality in type 2 diabetes: a Danish population-based prospective observational study

    PubMed Central

    Skriver, Mette V; Sandbæk, Annelli; Kristensen, Jette K; Støvring, Henrik

    2015-01-01

    Objective We assessed the relationship of mortality with glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) variability and with absolute change in HbA1c. Design A population-based prospective observational study with a median follow-up time of 6 years. Methods Based on a validated algorithm, 11 205 Danish individuals with type 2 diabetes during 2001–2006 were identified from public data files, with at least three HbA1c measurements: one index measure, one closing measure 22–26 months later, and one measurement in-between. Medium index HbA1c was 7.3%, median age was 63.9 years, and 48% were women. HbA1c variability was defined as the mean absolute residual around the line connecting index value with closing value. Cox proportional hazard models with restricted cubic splines were used, with all-cause mortality as the outcome. Results Variability between 0 and 0.5 HbA1c percentage point was not associated with mortality, but for index HbA1c ≤8% (64 mmol/mol), a variability above 0.5 was associated with increased mortality (HR of 1 HbA1c percentage point variability was 1.3 (95% CI 1.1 to 1.5) for index HbA1c 6.6–7.4%). For index HbA1c≤8%, mortality increased when HbA1c declined, but was stable when HbA1c rose. For index HbA1c>8%, change in HbA1c was associated with mortality, with the lowest mortality for greatest decline (HR=0.9 (95% CI 0.80 to 0.98) for a 2-percentage point decrease). Conclusions For individuals with an index HbA1c below 8%, both high HbA1c variability and a decline in HbA1c were associated with increased mortality. For individuals with index HbA1c above 8%, change in HbA1c was associated with mortality, whereas variability was not. PMID:25664182

  19. Description of Three New α Variants and Four New β Variants: Hb Montluel [α110(G17)Ala → Val; HBA1: c.332C > T], Hb Cap d'Agde [α131(H14)Ser → Cys; HBA2: c.395C > G] and Hb Corsica [α100(G7)Leu → Pro; HBA1: 302T > C]; Hb Nîmes [β104(G6)Arg → Gly; HBB: c.313A > G], Hb Saint Marcellin [β112(G14)Cys → Gly; HBB: c.337T > G], Hb Saint Chamond [β80(EF4)Asn → 0; HBB: c.241_243delAAC] and Hb Dompierre [β29(B11)Gly → Arg; HBB: c.88G > C].

    PubMed

    Renoux, Céline; Feray, Cécile; Joly, Philippe; Lacan, Philippe; Francina, Alain

    2015-01-01

    We present here seven new hemoglobin (Hb) variants identified during routine Hb analysis. All of them are caused by a missense mutation except Hb Saint Chamond, which results from an in-frame deletion of the asparagine residue at β80. All these variants are clinically silent in the heterozygous state but two of them (Hb Cap d'Agde and Hb Dompierre) may be unstable, whereas Hb Nîmes could present a very slightly elevated oxygen affinity. These data are to be confirmed by appropriate biochemical tests. PMID:26100115

  20. The impact of the HbA1c level of type 2 diabetics on the structure of haemoglobin.

    PubMed

    Ye, Shaoying; Ruan, Ping; Yong, Junguang; Shen, Hongtao; Liao, Zhihong; Dong, Xiaolei

    2016-01-01

    This study explores the impact of HbA1c levels on the structure of haemoglobin (Hb) in patients with type 2 diabetes. Seventy-four diabetic patients were classified into the following two groups based on their level of HbA1c: group A, patients with good glycaemic control (HbA1c < 7.0%, n = 36); group B, patients with persistent hyperglycaemia (HbA1c ≥ 9.0%, n = 38). Thirty-four healthy people served as controls (group H). Hb structure was examined by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), and diabetic erythrocytes were modelled to estimate the impact of glucose on these cells and Hb. Increasing glucose concentrations altered both erythrocyte parameters and the Hb secondary structure. Group B differed significantly from group H (p < 0.05): in the former, the ordered Hb secondary structure had a strong tendency to transform into a disordered secondary structure, decreasing structural stability. We presumed here that high HbA1c levels might be a factor contributing to Hb structural modifications in diabetic patients. FTIR spectral analysis can provide a novel way to investigate the pathogenesis of type 2 diabetes mellitus. PMID:27624402

  1. Evolution, Three-Dimensional Model and Localization of Truncated Hemoglobin PttTrHb of Hybrid Aspen

    PubMed Central

    Dumont, Estelle; Jokipii-Lukkari, Soile; Parkash, Vimal; Vuosku, Jaana; Sundström, Robin; Nymalm, Yvonne; Sutela, Suvi; Taskinen, Katariina; Kallio, Pauli T.; Salminen, Tiina A.; Häggman, Hely

    2014-01-01

    Thus far, research on plant hemoglobins (Hbs) has mainly concentrated on symbiotic and non-symbiotic Hbs, and information on truncated Hbs (TrHbs) is scarce. The aim of this study was to examine the origin, structure and localization of the truncated Hb (PttTrHb) of hybrid aspen (Populus tremula L. × tremuloides Michx.), the model system of tree biology. Additionally, we studied the PttTrHb expression in relation to non-symbiotic class1 Hb gene (PttHb1) using RNAi-silenced hybrid aspen lines. Both the phylogenetic analysis and the three-dimensional (3D) model of PttTrHb supported the view that plant TrHbs evolved vertically from a bacterial TrHb. The 3D model suggested that PttTrHb adopts a 2-on-2 sandwich of α-helices and has a Bacillus subtilis -like ligand-binding pocket in which E11Gln and B10Tyr form hydrogen bonds to a ligand. However, due to differences in tunnel cavity and gate residue (E7Ala), it might not show similar ligand-binding kinetics as in Bs-HbO (E7Thr). The immunolocalization showed that PttTrHb protein was present in roots, stems as well as leaves of in vitro -grown hybrid aspens. In mature organs, PttTrHb was predominantly found in the vascular bundles and specifically at the site of lateral root formation, overlapping consistently with areas of nitric oxide (NO) production in plants. Furthermore, the NO donor sodium nitroprusside treatment increased the amount of PttTrHb in stems. The observed PttTrHb localization suggests that PttTrHb plays a role in the NO metabolism. PMID:24520401

  2. HbA1c Test as a Tool in the Diagnosis of Gestational Diabetes Mellitus

    PubMed Central

    Renz, Paula Breitenbach; Cavagnolli, Gabriela; Weinert, Letícia Schwerz; Silveiro, Sandra Pinho; Camargo, Joíza Lins

    2015-01-01

    Aims Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is a prevalent and potentially serious condition which may put both mothers and neonates at risk. The current recommendation for diagnosis is the oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT). This study aimed to determine the usefulness of HbA1c test as a diagnostic tool for GDM as compared to the traditional criteria based on the OGTT. Methods This was a diagnostic test accuracy study. We performed OGTT and HbA1c test in women attending prenatal visits at a tertiary hospital. GDM was defined according to WHO1999 or ADA/WHO 2013 criteria. ROC curve was used to evaluate the diagnostic performance of HbA1c. Sensitivity, specificity and likelihood ratios for different HbA1c cut-off points were calculated. Results Of the 262 women in the third trimester of gestation enrolled in the study, 86 (33%) were diagnosed with GDM. Only five of these women presented HbA1c ≥48 mmol/mol (6.5%). This cut-off point presented 100% specificity but very low sensitivity (7%). Based on ROC curve, and considering OGTT as the reference criterion, HbA1c ≥40 mmol/mol (5.8%) showed adequate specificity in diagnosing GDM (94.9%) but low sensitivity (26.4%). Unlike, HbA1c values of 31 mmol/mol (5.0%) presented adequate sensitivity (89.7%) but low specificity (32.6%) to detect GDM. For women with HbA1c ≥40 mmol/mol (5.8%), the positive and negative likelihood ratios were 5.14 (95%CI 2.49–10.63) and 0.78 (0.68–0.88), respectively. The post-test probability of GDM was about 40%, representing a 4.0-fold increase in the mean pre-test probability. This cut-off point could eliminate the need for the unpleasant and laborious OGTT tests in almost one third of cases, as 38% of patients with GDM may be diagnosable by HbA1c test alone. Conclusions Our results show that combined HbA1c and OGTT measurements may be useful in diagnosing GDM. PMID:26292213

  3. The Clinical Significance of HbA1c in Operable Chronic Thromboembolic Pulmonary Hypertension

    PubMed Central

    Richter, Manuel Jonas; Milger, Katrin; Haase, Sarah; Sommer, Natascha; Tello, Khodr; Seeger, Werner; Mayer, Eckhard; Wiedenroth, Christoph Benjamin; Grimminger, Friedrich; George, Wolfgang; Ghofrani, Hossein Ardeschir; Guth, Stefan; Gall, Henning

    2016-01-01

    Background Glycosylated hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) has been proposed as an independent predictor of long-term prognosis in pulmonary arterial hypertension. However, the clinical relevance of HbA1c in patients with operable chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension (CTEPH) remains unknown. The aim of the present study was to investigate the clinical significance of HbA1c as a biomarker in CTEPH. Methods Prospectively, 102 patients underwent pulmonary endarterectomy (PEA) in our national referral center between March 2013 and March 2014, of which after exclusion 45 patients were analyzed. HbA1c- levels, hemodynamic and exercise parameters were analyzed prior and one-year post-PEA. Results 45 patients (BMI: 27.3 ± 6.0 kg/m2; age: 62.7 ± 12.3 years) with a mean pulmonary arterial pressure (mPAP) of 43.6 ± 9.4 mmHg, a pulmonary vascular resistance (PVR) of 712.1 ± 520.4 dyn*s/cm5, a cardiac index (CI) of 2.4 ± 0.5 l/min/m2 and a mean HbA1c-level of 39.8 ± 5.6 mmol/mol were included. One-year post-PEA pulmonary hemodynamic and functional status significantly improved in our cohort. Baseline HbA1c-levels were significantly associated with CI, right atrial pressure, peak oxygen uptake and the change of 6-minute walking distance using linear regression analysis. However, using logistic regression analysis baseline HbA1c-levels were not significantly associated with residual post-PEA PH. Conclusions This is the first prospective study to describe an association of HbA1c-levels with pulmonary hemodynamics and exercise capacity in operable CTEPH patients. Our preliminary results indicate that in these patients impaired glucose metabolism as assessed by HbA1c is of clinical significance. However, HbA1c failed as a predictor of the hemodynamic outcome one-year post-PEA. PMID:27031508

  4. A Family with γ-Thalassemia and High Hb A2 Levels.

    PubMed

    Parmeggiani, Giulia; Gualandi, Francesca; Selvatici, Rita; Rimessi, Paola; Bigoni, Stefania; Taddei Masieri, Marina; Dolcini, Bernadetta; Venturoli, Anna; Cappabianca, Maria P; Ferlini, Alessandra; Ravani, Anna

    2016-06-01

    We describe a family carrying a γ-globin gene deletion associated with an increase of Hb A2 level beyond the normal range. The family included the proband, his sister and their father, all with increased Hb A2 and normal Hb F levels. The proband and his sister showed borderline values of mean corpuscular volume (MCV) and reduced values of mean corpuscular hemoglobin (Hb) (MCH). The proband was referred to our Medical Genetics Service for preconception counseling together with his partner, a typical β-thalassemia (β-thal) carrier. The results were negative for the most frequent α-thalassemia (α-thal) mutations, and had no significant sequence variations of the coding sequences and promoter of the β- and δ-globin genes. Quantitative analysis by multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification (MPLA) of the β-globin gene cluster detected a heterozygous deletion, ranging between 2.1 and 4.7 kb, in the proband, his sister and the father. The deletion involved the (G)γ gene and (G)γ-(A)γ intergenic region, whereas the 3' region of the (A)γ gene was preserved. A subsequent gap-polymerase chain reaction (gap-PCR) showed that a hybrid (GA)γ fusion gene was present. The deletion segregated with the elevation of Hb A2. The MLPA analysis of the β-globin gene cluster in 150 control alleles excluded a common polymorphism. Despite stronger evidence being needed, the described family suggests a possible role of this γ-globin gene deletion in contributing to Hb A2 elevation, possibly by altering the transcription regulation of the cluster. We propose γ-globin gene dosage analysis to be performed in patients with unexplained elevated Hb A2 levels. PMID:27117568

  5. Identification and Expression Analysis of a Novel HbCIPK2-Interacting Ferredoxin from Halophyte H. brevisubulatum

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Chao; Ge, Rongchao; Zhang, Junwen; Chen, Yajuan; Wang, Hongzhi; Wei, Jianhua; Li, Ruifen

    2015-01-01

    Ferredoxin is a small iron-sulfer protein involved in various one-eletron transfer pathways. Little is known about how ferredoxin is regulated to distribute electron under abiotic stress. Our previous study has showed that HbCIPK2 conferred salinity and drought tolerance. Thus, we hypothesized that HbCIPK2 could mediate the activities of interacting partners as a signal transducer. In this report, we identified a novel HbCIPK2-interacting ferredoxin (HbFd1) from halophyte Hordeum brevisubulatum by yeast two-hybrid screens, confirmed this interaction by BiFC in vivo and CoIP in vitro, and presented the expression pattern of HbFd1. HbFd1 was down-regulated under salinity and cold stress but up-regulated under PEG stress, its expression showed tissue-specific, mainly in shoot chloroplast, belonging to leaf-type subgroup. Moreover, HbCIPK2 could recruit HbFd1 to the nucleus for their interaction. The C-terminal segment in HbFd1 protein was involved in the interaction with HbCIPK2. These results provided insight into the connection between CBL-CIPK signaling network and Fd-dependent metabolic pathways. PMID:26636581

  6. Low HbA1c and Increased Mortality Risk-is Frailty a Confounding Factor?

    PubMed Central

    Abdelhafiz, Ahmed H; Sinclair, Alan J

    2015-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus is increasingly becoming an older person disease due to the increased survival and aging of the population. Previous studies which showed benefits of tight glycemic control and a linear relationship between HbA1c and mortality have largely included younger patients newly diagnosed with diabetes and with less comorbidities. Recent studies, which included older population with diabetes, have shown a U-shaped relationship of increased mortality associated with low HbA1c. The mechanism of such relationship is unclear. There was no direct causal link between low HbA1c and mortality. It appears that malnutrition, inflammation and functional decline are characteristics shared by the populations that showed increased mortality and low HbA1c. In these studies functional status, disability or frailty was not routinely measured. Therefore, although adjustment for comorbidities was made there may be a residual confounding by unmeasured factors such as frailty. Thus, frailty or decline in functional reserve may be the main confounding factor explaining the relationship between increased mortality risk and low HbA1c. PMID:26236548

  7. Recent achievements with a cryogenic ultra-lightweighted HB-Cesic mirror

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krödel, Matthias R.; Hofbauer, Peter; Devilliers, Christophe; Sodnik, Zoran; Robert, Patrick

    2010-07-01

    During the past two years, ECM, Germany, together with Mitsubishi Electric Corporation (MELCO), Japan, developed a new carbon-fiber-reinforced SiC material, called HB-Cesic®, which possesses superior mechanical and thermal cryogenic properties compared to traditional Cesic®. This combination makes HB-Cesic® an excellent choice for large cryogenic mirrors, which will be required for future scientific space missions, such as SPICA and DARWIN. ESA contracted Thales Alenia Space (TAS), France, to design a super-lightweighted HB-Cesic® mirror with a diameter of 600 mm, isostatic fixations, and a special astigmatism compensation device (ACD) for mirror shape control. The mirror was manufactured by ECM, polished and coated by Société Européenne de Systèmes Optiques (SESO), France, and tested to cryogenic temperatures by TAS. The measured wave-front error at ambient and cryogenic temperatures demonstrated the excellent homogeneity of HB-Cesic® and TAS' expertise in mirror mounting. Furthermore, when thermally actuated, the ACD exhibited perfect control of the mirror shape. This success confirmed HB-Cesic®'s superior material properties and its applicability to future cryogenic space mirrors. In this paper we describe the design and fabrication process of this cryogenic mirror and give test results at ambient and cryogenic temperatures.

  8. Cytogenetic characterization of HB2 epithelial cells from the human breast.

    PubMed

    Caradonna, Fabio; Luparello, Claudio

    2014-01-01

    HB2 is a cell line originated by subcloning of MTSV1-7 mammary luminal epithelial cells isolated from human milk and immortalization via introduction of the gene encoding simian virus 40 (SV40) large T antigen. Despite its wide utilization as non-neoplastic counterpart in assays aimed to elucidating various biochemical and genetical aspects of normal and tumoral breast cells, to our knowledge no literature data have so far appeared concerning the chromosomal characterization of the HB2 cells. Here, we report the cytogenetic characterization of the karyotype of HB2 cells, which puts in evidence the occurrence of changes in chromosomal number and structure and the presence of unidentified chromosomal markers in variable amount. Our results do not detract from the utility of HB2 cells in illustrating fundamental aspects of breast cell biology, but rather interject a note of caution into generalizing results obtained with this cell line to other non-immortalized epithelial cell populations from the human breast. Therefore, this work represents a useful resource for all who want to perform appropriate and focused future studies on this cell line and proposes precise indications for a knowledgeable use of HB2 cells. PMID:23982912

  9. Excess HB-EGF, which promotes VEGF signaling, leads to hydrocephalus

    PubMed Central

    Shim, Joon W.; Sandlund, Johanna; Hameed, Mustafa Q.; Blazer-Yost, Bonnie; Zhou, Feng C.; Klagsbrun, Michael; Madsen, Joseph R.

    2016-01-01

    Heparin binding epidermal growth factor-like growth factor (HB-EGF) is an angiogenic factor mediating radial migration of the developing forebrain, while vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is known to influence rostral migratory stream in rodents. Cell migratory defects have been identified in animal models of hydrocephalus; however, the relationship between HB-EGF and hydrocephalus is unclear. We show that mice overexpressing human HB-EGF with β-galactosidase reporter exhibit an elevated VEGF, localization of β-galactosidase outside the subventricular zone (SVZ), subarachnoid hemorrhage, and ventriculomegaly. In Wistar polycystic kidney rats with hydrocephalus, alteration of migratory trajectory is detected. Furthermore, VEGF infusions into the rats result in ventriculomegaly with an increase of SVZ neuroblast in rostral migratory stream, whereas VEGF ligand inhibition prevents it. Our results support the idea that excess HB-EGF leads to a significant elevation of VEGF and ventricular dilatation. These data suggest a potential pathophysiological mechanism that elevated HB-EGF can elicit VEGF induction and hydrocephalus. PMID:27243144

  10. Excess HB-EGF, which promotes VEGF signaling, leads to hydrocephalus.

    PubMed

    Shim, Joon W; Sandlund, Johanna; Hameed, Mustafa Q; Blazer-Yost, Bonnie; Zhou, Feng C; Klagsbrun, Michael; Madsen, Joseph R

    2016-01-01

    Heparin binding epidermal growth factor-like growth factor (HB-EGF) is an angiogenic factor mediating radial migration of the developing forebrain, while vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is known to influence rostral migratory stream in rodents. Cell migratory defects have been identified in animal models of hydrocephalus; however, the relationship between HB-EGF and hydrocephalus is unclear. We show that mice overexpressing human HB-EGF with β-galactosidase reporter exhibit an elevated VEGF, localization of β-galactosidase outside the subventricular zone (SVZ), subarachnoid hemorrhage, and ventriculomegaly. In Wistar polycystic kidney rats with hydrocephalus, alteration of migratory trajectory is detected. Furthermore, VEGF infusions into the rats result in ventriculomegaly with an increase of SVZ neuroblast in rostral migratory stream, whereas VEGF ligand inhibition prevents it. Our results support the idea that excess HB-EGF leads to a significant elevation of VEGF and ventricular dilatation. These data suggest a potential pathophysiological mechanism that elevated HB-EGF can elicit VEGF induction and hydrocephalus. PMID:27243144

  11. Characterization of DNA transport in the thermophilic bacterium Thermus thermophilus HB27.

    PubMed

    Schwarzenlander, Cornelia; Averhoff, Beate

    2006-09-01

    Horizontal gene transfer has been a major force for genome plasticity over evolutionary history, and is largely responsible for fitness-enhancing traits, including antibiotic resistance and virulence factors. In particular, for adaptation of prokaryotes to extreme environments, lateral gene transfer seems to have played a crucial role. Recently, by performing a genome-wide mutagenesis approach with Thermus thermophilus HB27, we identified the first genes in a thermophilic bacterium for the uptake of free DNA, a process called natural transformation. Here, we present the first data on the biochemistry and bioenergetics of the DNA transport process in this thermophile. We report that linear and circular plasmid DNA are equally well taken up with a high maximal velocity of 1.5 microg DNA.(mg protein)(-1).min(-1), demonstrating an extremely efficient binding and uptake rate of 40 kb.s(-1).cell(-1). Uncouplers and ATPase inhibitors immediately inhibited DNA uptake, providing clear evidence that DNA translocation in HB27 is an energy-dependent process. DNA uptake studies with genomic DNA of Bacteria, Archaea and Eukarya revealed that Thermus thermophilus HB27 takes up DNA from members of all three domains of life. We propose that the extraordinary broad substrate specificity of the highly efficient Thermus thermophilus HB27 DNA uptake system may contribute significantly to thermoadaptation of Thermus thermophilus HB27 and to interdomain DNA transfer in hot environments. PMID:16939619

  12. What is the Role of HbA1c in Diabetic Hemodialysis Patients?

    PubMed

    Coelho, Silvia

    2016-01-01

    The definition of a good glycemic control in patients with diabetes mellitus on hemodialysis is far from settled. In the general population, hemoglobin A1c is highly correlated with the average glycemia of the last 8-12 weeks. However, in hemodialysis patients, the correlation of hbA1c with glycemia is weaker as it also reflects changes in hemoglobin characteristics and red blood cells half-life. As expected, studies show that the association between HbA1c and outcomes in these patients differ from the general population. Therefore, the value of HbA1c in the treatment of hemodialysis patients has been questioned. Guidelines are generally cautious in their recommendations about possible targets of HbA1c in this population. Indeed, the risk of not treating hyperglycemia should be weighed against the particularly high risk of precipitating hypoglycemia in dialysis patients. In this review, a critical analysis of the current role of HbA1c in the care of hemodialysis patients is presented. PMID:26138753

  13. Investigation of local heterogeneity of hbO2 and hb in working dog heart in situ under isovolemic hemodilution and critical coronary stenosis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krug, Alfons; Kessler, Manfred D.; Khuri, Raja; Lust, Robert; Chitwood, Randolph

    1996-12-01

    A tissue spectrophotometer (EMPHO II) working with 70 micrometer micro lightguide sensors enables recording of spectra in the visible wavelength range (500 - 630 nm). During an initial period arterial hypoxia and hyperoxia were induced on working dog heart by mechanical ventilation with oxygen fractions (fiO2) of 0.1 and 0.5. Under these conditions the effects of low and high fiO2 on oxygenation distribution of intracapillary hemoglobin were investigated. In the second part of the experiment the relation between systemic hematocrit, local hemoglobin concentration, local hemoglobin oxygenation and the oxygen regulation mechanism were studied in detail. In the final part of the experiment the effect of critical coronary stenosis on hb and hbO2 was measured. Critical stenosis was achieved by partial clamping of the left anterior coronary artery (LAD).

  14. A spectral-spatial-dynamic hierarchical Bayesian (SSD-HB) model for estimating soybean yield

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kazama, Yoriko; Kujirai, Toshihiro

    2014-10-01

    A method called a "spectral-spatial-dynamic hierarchical-Bayesian (SSD-HB) model," which can deal with many parameters (such as spectral and weather information all together) by reducing the occurrence of multicollinearity, is proposed. Experiments conducted on soybean yields in Brazil fields with a RapidEye satellite image indicate that the proposed SSD-HB model can predict soybean yield with a higher degree of accuracy than other estimation methods commonly used in remote-sensing applications. In the case of the SSD-HB model, the mean absolute error between estimated yield of the target area and actual yield is 0.28 t/ha, compared to 0.34 t/ha when conventional PLS regression was applied, showing the potential effectiveness of the proposed model.

  15. [HbC/beta-thalassemia association. Eleven cases observed in Tunisia].

    PubMed

    Fattoum, S; Guemira, F; Abdennebi, M; Ben Abdeladhim, A

    1993-01-01

    Eleven cases of simultaneous HbC hemoglobinopathy and beta-thalassemia were detected during a study of 11,200 subjects at high risk for inherited hemoglobin anomalies. In seven cases, main clinical manifestations were anemia and enlargement of the spleen, whereas the four other patients were apparently free of symptoms and were diagnosed during routine tests in family members of affected patients. Microcytosis and hypochromia were found in every case. Most of the patients were from the North-Western part of Tunisia. Blood transfusions were required in only one patient, who was an infant with HbC/beta + thalassemia. PMID:8442646

  16. Anaesthesia in a patient with subarachanoidal haemorrhage and high oxygen affinity haemoglobinopathy (HB york): case report

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Approximately 90 haemoglobinopathies have been identified that result in abnormally high oxygen affinity. One of these is haemoglobinopathy York (HbY), first described in 1976. HbY causes an extreme leftward shift of the oxygen dissociation curve with the P50 value changing to 12.5 - 15.5 mmHg (normal value 26.7 mmHg), indicating that approximately half of the haemoglobin is not available as oxygen carrier. Patients with haemoglobinopathies with increased oxygen affinity could suffer from the risk developing ischaemic complications due to a lack of functional oxygen carriers. This is, to best of our knowledge, the first case report on a patient with HbY published in connection with anesthesia. Case Presentation A 42-year-old female with a severe headache and Glasgow coma scale (GCS) of 15 was admitted to the neurosurgical intensive care unit with a ruptured, right sided ICA aneurysm with consecutive subarachnoid haemorrhage [Fisher III, World Federation of Neurosurgical Societies (WFNS) I)]. The medical history of the patient included an erythrocytosis (Hb 17.5 g/dl) on the base of a high-oxygen-affinity haemoglobinopathy, called Hb York (HbY). With no time available to take special preoperative precautions, rapid blood loss occurred during the first attempt to clip the aneurysm. General transfusion procedures, according to the guidelines based on haemoglobin and haematocrit values, could not be applied due to the uncertainty in the oxygen carrier reduction. To maintain tissue oxygen supply, clinical indicators of ischaemia were instead utilized to gauge the appropriate required blood products, crystalloids and colloids replacements. Despite this, the patient survived the neurosurgical intervention without any neurological deficit. Conclusions Family members of patients with HbY (and other haemoglobinopathies with increased oxygen affinity) should undergo clinical assessment, particularly if they are polycythaemic. If the diagnosis of HbY is confirmed

  17. Incidental Identification of Possible Delta-Beta Thalassemia Trait in a Family: A Rare Cause of Elevated Hb F.

    PubMed Central

    Choccalingam, Chidambharam; Samuel, Premila

    2016-01-01

    Delta-Beta thalassaemia is an unusual variant of thalassaemia with elevated level of foetal haemoglobin (HbF). The clinical presentation of delta-beta thalassaemia is mild in both heterozygote and homozygote cases. We hereby describe a rare cause of elevated Hb F in a father and his two daughters. A 52-year-old diabetic male patient, on evaluation of chromatogram of cation exchange HPLC for HbA1c, we incidentally identified elevated Hb F of approximately 20%. Haematological investigation of the patient revealed decreased haemoglobin, normal RBC, leucocyte and platelet count, decreased MCV and MCH. Red cell morphology showed predominantly normocytic normochromic cells with mild anisopoikilocytosis, few microcytes and hypochromic cells seen. His liver function test was normal. Haemoglobin variant analysis revealed decreased Hb A (79.4%), normal Hb A2 (2%) and increased Hb F (19.75%). A possible diagnosis of heterozygous δ β-thalassaemia was considered. Since most laboratories perform HbA1c by cation exchange HPLC method, a careful evaluation of the chromatogram yields useful information. In our case, the elevated Hb F in a father and further careful evaluation of clinical and haematological parameters in the family members made us to possibly think of rare disorders like heterozygous Delta-Beta thalassaemia in the family and provide valuable genetic counseling. PMID:27134860

  18. Incidental Identification of Possible Delta-Beta Thalassemia Trait in a Family: A Rare Cause of Elevated Hb F.

    PubMed

    Kumar, B Vinodh; Choccalingam, Chidambharam; Samuel, Premila

    2016-03-01

    Delta-Beta thalassaemia is an unusual variant of thalassaemia with elevated level of foetal haemoglobin (HbF). The clinical presentation of delta-beta thalassaemia is mild in both heterozygote and homozygote cases. We hereby describe a rare cause of elevated Hb F in a father and his two daughters. A 52-year-old diabetic male patient, on evaluation of chromatogram of cation exchange HPLC for HbA1c, we incidentally identified elevated Hb F of approximately 20%. Haematological investigation of the patient revealed decreased haemoglobin, normal RBC, leucocyte and platelet count, decreased MCV and MCH. Red cell morphology showed predominantly normocytic normochromic cells with mild anisopoikilocytosis, few microcytes and hypochromic cells seen. His liver function test was normal. Haemoglobin variant analysis revealed decreased Hb A (79.4%), normal Hb A2 (2%) and increased Hb F (19.75%). A possible diagnosis of heterozygous δ β-thalassaemia was considered. Since most laboratories perform HbA1c by cation exchange HPLC method, a careful evaluation of the chromatogram yields useful information. In our case, the elevated Hb F in a father and further careful evaluation of clinical and haematological parameters in the family members made us to possibly think of rare disorders like heterozygous Delta-Beta thalassaemia in the family and provide valuable genetic counseling. PMID:27134860

  19. TGF{beta} induces proHB-EGF shedding and EGFR transactivation through ADAM activation in gastric cancer cells

    SciTech Connect

    Ebi, Masahide; Kataoka, Hiromi; Shimura, Takaya; Kubota, Eiji; Hirata, Yoshikazu; Mizushima, Takashi; Mizoshita, Tsutomu; Tanaka, Mamoru; Mabuchi, Motoshi; Tsukamoto, Hironobu; Tanida, Satoshi; Kamiya, Takeshi; Higashiyama, Shigeki; Joh, Takashi

    2010-11-19

    Research highlights: {yields} TGF{beta} induces EGFR transactivation through proHB-EGF shedding by activated ADAM members in gastric cancer cells. {yields} TGF{beta} induces nuclear translocation of HB-EGF-CTF cleaved by ADAM members. {yields} TGF{beta} enhances cell growth by EGFR transactivation and HB-EGF-CTF nuclear translocation and ADAM inhibitors block these effects. {yields} Silencing of ADAM17 also blocks EGFR transactivation, HB-EGF-CTF nuclear translocation and cancer cell growth by TGF{beta}. {yields} ADAM17 may play a crucial role in this TGF{beta}-HB-EGF signal transduction. -- Abstract: Background and aims: Transforming growth factor-beta (TGF{beta}) is known to potently inhibit cell growth. Loss of responsiveness to TGF{beta} inhibition on cell growth is a hallmark of many types of cancer, yet its mechanism is not fully understood. Membrane-anchored heparin-binding EGF-like growth factor (proHB-EGF) ectodomain is cleaved by a disintegrin and metalloproteinase (ADAM) members and is implicated in epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) transactivation. Recently, nuclear translocation of the C-terminal fragment (CTF) of pro-HB-EGF was found to induce cell growth. We investigated the association between TGF{beta} and HB-EGF signal transduction via ADAM activation. Materials and methods: The CCK-8 assay in two gastric cancer cell lines was used to determine the effect for cell growth by TGF{beta}. The effect of two ADAM inhibitors was also evaluated. Induction of EGFR phosphorylation by TGF{beta} was analyzed and the effect of the ADAM inhibitors was also examined. Nuclear translocation of HB-EGF-CTF by shedding through ADAM activated by TGF{beta} was also analyzed. EGFR transactivation, HB-EGF-CTF nuclear translocation, and cell growth were examined under the condition of ADAM17 knockdown. Result: TGF{beta}-induced EGFR phosphorylation of which ADAM inhibitors were able to inhibit. TGF{beta} induced shedding of proHB-EGF allowing HB-EGF-CTF to

  20. Prevalence of sickle cell trait and HbC-trait in Blacks from low socioeconomic conditions.

    PubMed Central

    Hicks, E J; Miller, G D; Horton, R

    1978-01-01

    In the present investigation we did not observe age or sex differentials in the prevalence of sickle cell or HbC-traits in Black males or females of low socioeconomic status. When our data were compared to those of others, we found no evidence for a socioeconomic differential in the prevalence of these traits. PMID:717622

  1. Replacement of PBNA in HB and HC polymers used in SRM propellant and liner

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Levinthal, M. L.; Law, R. D.; Suisse, D. C.

    1981-01-01

    The antioxidant phenyl-beta-naphthylamine (PBNA) was used in both HB and HC polymers. The sole (domestic) supplier of PBNA has withdrawn this product from the market, primarily because of suspected health hazards. Commercially available substitute(s) were selected and qualified for use in the two polymers.

  2. Genotype-phenotype correlation in Iranian patients with Hb H disease.

    PubMed

    Ebrahimkhani, Saedieh; Azarkeivan, Azita; Bayat, Nooshin; Houry-Parvin, Mahdieh; Jalil-Nejad, Sayeh; Zand, Shima; Golkar, Zahra; Hadavi, Valeh; Imanian, Hashem; Oberkanins, Christian; Najmabadi, Hossein

    2011-01-01

    Thalassemia is the most common genetic disorder in Iran. Some α-globin genotypes leading to Hb H disease may cause severe anemia and dependence on regular blood transfusions. In this study, 40 patients were analyzed for the molecular basis and the genotype-phenotype correlation of Hb H disease in Iran. α-Globin molecular analysis was performed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) followed by agarose gel electrophoresis, reverse hybridization test strips or DNA sequencing. The most frequently observed α-globin genotypes were -α(3.7)/- -(MED) in 10 patients (25%), - -(20.5)/α(-5nt)α in six patients (15%) and - -(20.5)/-α(3.7) in four patients (10%). A subset of the identified Hb H genotypes, including - -(MED)/α(CS)α, - -(MED)/α(PolyA2)α and α(CS)α/α(CS)α, was associated with a need for regular or irregular blood transfusions. Our findings provide a basis for predicting phenotype severity by identifying the Hb H genotype and making more selective decisions for prenatal diagnosis. PMID:21250880

  3. Hb lepore/β0-thalassaemia with α+-thalassaemia interactions, a potential diagnostic pitfall.

    PubMed

    Alauddin, Hafiza; Mohamad Nasir, Suziana; Ahadon, Madzlifah; Raja Sabudin, Raja Zahratul Azma; Ithnin, Azlin; Hussin, Noor Hamidah; Alias, Hamidah; Loh, C-Khai; Abdul Latiff, Zarina; Abdul Murad, Nor Azian; Othman, Ainoon

    2015-12-01

    Haemoglobin (Hb) Lepore is a variant Hb consisting of two α-globin and two δβ-globin chains. In a heterozygote, it is associated with clinical findings of thalassaemia minor, but interactions with other haemoglobinopathies can lead to various clinical phenotypes and pose diagnostic challenges. We reported a pair of siblings from a Malay family, who presented with pallor and hepatosplenomegaly at the ages of 21 months and 14 months old. The red cell indices and peripheral blood smears of both patients showed features of thalassaemia intermedia. Other laboratory investigations of the patients showed conflicting results. However, laboratory investigation results of the parents had led to a presumptive diagnosis of compound heterozygote Hb Lepore/β-thalassaemia and co-inheritance α+-thalassaemia (-α3.7). Hb Lepore has rarely been detected in Southeast Asian countries, particularly in Malaysia. These two cases highlight the importance of family studies for accurate diagnosis, hence appropriate clinical management and genetic counseling. PMID:26712677

  4. Viruses of Entamoeba histolytica. 3. Properties of the polyhedral virus of the HB-301 strain.

    PubMed

    Hruska, J F; Mattern, C F; Diamond, L S; Keister, D B

    1973-01-01

    Some biological characteristics and bioassay of a polyhedral virus isolated from normal-appearing strain HB-301 of Entamoeba histolytica are described. The virus produced lysis of susceptible strains of E. histolytica, yet it caused no cytopathological effect in the host strain, HB-301. The virus and host amoeba existed in an equilibrium; approximately 10(4) mean infective dose units of virus were produced per million HB-301 amoebae. Superinfection and antiviral antiserum treatment failed to disturb this equilibrium permanently. The mechanism of viral persistence in strain HB-301 amoebae remains to be determined. Purification of the virus was attempted. Ninety-nine percent of the viral infectivity was associated with a low-speed pellet which consisted of complexes of virus and cellular membranes. Various treatments of this low-speed pellet failed to release virus. Biologically active, membrane-free virus of low titer was prepared by differential centrifugation of supernatant solutions and employed in electron microscopy and other studies. PMID:4346278

  5. Gene expression profile in liver of hB1F transgenic mice

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Shui-Liang; Yang, Hua; Xie, You-Hua; Wang, Yuan; Li, Jian-Zhong; Wang, Long; Wang, Zhu-Gang; Fu, Ji-Liang

    2004-01-01

    AIM: To analyze the tissue morphologic phenotype and liver gene expression profile of hB1F transgenic mice. METHODS: Transgene expression was analyzed with RT-PCR and Western blotting. For one of the transgenic mouse lines, tissue expression pattern of the transgene was also examined with immunochemical methods. Pathological analysis was used to examine the tissue morphologic phenotype of established transgenic mice. The liver gene expression profile of transgenic mice was analyzed with microchip, and some of the differentially expressed genes were verified with RT-PCR. RESULTS: The expressions of hB1F were shown in livers from 6 of 7 transgenic mouse lines. The overexpression of hB1F transgene did not cause pathological changes. Expressions of three genes were up-regulated, while down-regulation was observed for 25 genes. CONCLUSION: The overexpression of hB1F transgene may cause changes of gene expression profiles in the liver of transgenic mice. PMID:15378783

  6. A successful twin pregnancy in a patient with HbE-β-thalassemia in western India

    PubMed Central

    Merchant, R; Italia, K; Ahmed, J; Ghosh, K; Colah, RB

    2015-01-01

    Improvements in medical facilities have helped a large number of clinically severe hemoglobin E (HbE)-β-thalassemia patients reach adulthood. Consequently, there is a new challenge, that of managing women with HbE-β-thalassemia during pregnancy. In particular, they have a high risk of abortion, preterm delivery, intrauterine growth restriction, and thromboembolism. A 27-year-old HbE-β-thalassemia patient on regular transfusion, who was splenectomized and heptatitis C (HCV)-positive, conceived for the first time without any infertility treatment. However, there was incomplete abortion with heavy bleeding at 3 months of gestation, which required bilateral uterine artery angiography. The angiogram showed the left uterine artery to be moderately hypertrophied. This was embolized with 300-500 micron polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) to stop the bleeding. Soon after, she conceived again with a twin pregnancy, and at 33.3 weeks of gestation, there was a normal delivery of twin girls without any postpartum hemorrhage or perineal tear. Both babies were given prematurity care. The mother and children were both normal up till the last follow-up 18 months after delivery, and both the girls are HbE heterozygous. Thorough monitoring of endocrine functions along with proper management of transfusions and iron overload can help in reducing the complications related to pregnancy in these patients. PMID:26119442

  7. Maximum uncertainty estimation for the HB-Line ventilation instrumentation readings

    SciTech Connect

    Melton, D.R.

    1992-12-04

    The HB-Line building vacuum instrumentation and glovebox vacuum instrumentation at the Savannah River Plant are described. The configuration and operation of the Foxboro 834 series transmitters and Moore 350 series controllers is detailed. In particular, the uncertainties in the differential pressure readings are explained.

  8. A successful twin pregnancy in a patient with HbE-β-thalassemia in western India.

    PubMed

    Merchant, R; Italia, K; Ahmed, J; Ghosh, K; Colah, R B

    2015-01-01

    Improvements in medical facilities have helped a large number of clinically severe hemoglobin E (HbE)-β-thalassemia patients reach adulthood. Consequently, there is a new challenge, that of managing women with HbE-β-thalassemia during pregnancy. In particular, they have a high risk of abortion, preterm delivery, intrauterine growth restriction, and thromboembolism. A 27-year-old HbE-β-thalassemia patient on regular transfusion, who was splenectomized and heptatitis C (HCV)-positive, conceived for the first time without any infertility treatment. However, there was incomplete abortion with heavy bleeding at 3 months of gestation, which required bilateral uterine artery angiography. The angiogram showed the left uterine artery to be moderately hypertrophied. This was embolized with 300-500 micron polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) to stop the bleeding. Soon after, she conceived again with a twin pregnancy, and at 33.3 weeks of gestation, there was a normal delivery of twin girls without any postpartum hemorrhage or perineal tear. Both babies were given prematurity care. The mother and children were both normal up till the last follow-up 18 months after delivery, and both the girls are HbE heterozygous. Thorough monitoring of endocrine functions along with proper management of transfusions and iron overload can help in reducing the complications related to pregnancy in these patients. PMID:26119442

  9. A mechanism of ineffective erythropoiesis in β-thalassemia/Hb E disease

    PubMed Central

    Lithanatudom, Pathrapol; Leecharoenkiat, Amporn; Wannatung, Tirawat; Svasti, Saovaros; Fucharoen, Suthat; Smith, Duncan R.

    2010-01-01

    Background Cells respond to stress stimuli through a number of response pathways, of which one of the most important and well characterized is the unfolded protein response. Despite a large body of work which suggests that stress in erythroblasts may play a pivotal role in the pathogenesis of β-thalassemia/Hb E disease, this pathway remains uninvestigated. Design and Methods Day 10 erythroblasts from normal controls and β-thalassemia/Hb E patients were subjected to internal (treatment with tunicamycin) and external (serum and growth factor withdrawal) stress stimuli and the activation of the unfolded protein response pathway was investigated. Results Normal erythroblasts responded to both internal and external stress by activating the unfolded protein response (UPR) pathway while in contrast, erythroblasts from β-thalassemia/Hb E patients only showed activation of the unfolded protein response pathway in response to internal stress. This was reflected by a markedly increased induction of apoptosis in serum and growth factor deprived β-thalassemia/Hb E erythroblasts as compared to control cells. Modulation of the levels of intracellular Ca2+ in thalassemic erythroblasts restored UPR activation during serum deprivation and significantly reduced the level of serum deprivation induced apoptosis to control levels. Conclusions These results suggest the failure of thalassemic erythroblasts to cope with cellular stress caused by an impaired UPR function as a result of high Ca2+ levels may exacerbate thalassemic cell death during erythropoiesis. PMID:20015891

  10. VIEW OF HB1 (VAB HIGH BAY) WITH MOBILE LAUNCHER PLATFORM ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW OF HB-1 (VAB HIGH BAY) WITH MOBILE LAUNCHER PLATFORM (VEHICLE ACCESS PLATFORMS ARE VISIBLE IN THE CENTER), FACING WEST - Cape Canaveral Air Force Station, Launch Complex 39, Vehicle Assembly Building, VAB Road, East of Kennedy Parkway North, Cape Canaveral, Brevard County, FL

  11. Effect of HB complexation on the optical rotatory power of oxiranes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zborowski, Krzysztof; Proniewicz, Leonard M.; Alkorta, Ibon; Elguero, José

    2005-06-01

    The effect produced by the formation of hydrogen bonded complexes on the optical rotatory power of two oxiranes has been studied theoretically using DFT and MP2 methods. The results obtained have been rationalized based on a model oxirane where the chirality is induced by the HB formed. In addition, the effect of solvent continuum models has been calculated for the complexes.

  12. Mild Microcytic Anemia in an Infant with a Compound Heterozygosity for Hb C (HBB: c.19G > A) and Hb Osu Christiansborg (HBB: c.157G > A).

    PubMed

    Boucher, Maria O; Chui, David H K; Woda, Bruce A; Newburger, Peter E

    2016-06-01

    We report an infant with a compound heterozygosity for Hb C (HBB: c.19G > A) and Hb Osu Christiansborg (HBB: c.157G > A) and a phenotype of mild microcytic anemia with target cell morphology but without overt hemolysis. PMID:27117572

  13. Mild pyrolysis of P3HB/Switchgrass blends for the production of bio-oil enriched with crotonic acid

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The mild pyrolysis of switchgrass/poly-3-hydroxybutyrate (P3HB) blends that mimic P3HB-producing switchgrass lines was studied in a pilot scale fluidized bed reactor with the goal of simultaneously producing crotonic acid and switchgrass-based bio-oil. Factors such as pyrolysis temperature, residenc...

  14. Multi centric origin of Hb D-Punjab [beta121(GH4)Glu-->Gln, GAA>CAA].

    PubMed

    Yavarian, Majid; Karimi, Mehran; Paran, Farideh; Neven, Catherine; Harteveld, Cornelis L; Giordano, Piero C

    2009-01-01

    Hb D-Punjab [beta121(GH4)Glu-->Gln, GAA>CAA], common in the northern Indian province, is often unexpectedly found in other populations. To study the multi centric origin of this variant which is causing sickle cell disease in association with Hb S [beta6(A3)Glu-->Val, GAG>GTG], we have examined the haplotype of the Hb D allele in different populations. We studied 43 alleles from south Iran (Hormozgan and Fars provinces) and 14 from Holland and Belgium using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), capillary electrophoresis, direct sequencing and/or restriction enzyme analysis. In Iranians, four haplotypes were observed at different frequencies: haplotype I [+ - - - -,+ +] at 67.5%, subhaplotype I' [+ - - - -,- +] at 17.5%, haplotype V [- + - - +,+ +] at 10.0% and haplotype III [- + - + +,+ +] at 5.0%. All European cases were on haplotype I. The occurrence of high Hb D frequencies on a single haplotype in specific regions can be expected if we consider founder effect and genetic drift mechanisms. However, considering that haplotype I is the most common haplotype worldwide, that Hb D-Punjab is reported in different populations on different haplotypes, and that codon beta121 is a site on which six different mutations are reported, we may expect to observe Hb D-Punjab in different populations, possibly because of a relatively higher occurrence of de novo mutations, generating unexpected risk from mixtures of allochtonous Hb S and indigenous Hb D-Punjab or vice versa. PMID:19958184

  15. A novel β-globin gene mutation HBB.c.22 G>C produces a hemoglobin variant (Hb Vellore) mimicking HbS in HPLC.

    PubMed

    Edison, E S; Sathya, M; Rajkumar, S V; Nair, S C; Srivastava, A; Shaji, R V

    2012-10-01

    Hemoglobinopathies are highly prevalent in Indian population. DNA analysis to detect causative mutations is required for identifying rare hemoglobin variants or when hematological results are discordant with the clinical phenotype. In this report, we describe a novel hemoglobin variant caused by a mutation in beta-globin gene, Codon 7 GAG→CAG (Glu→Gln) that elutes in the position of sickle haemoglobin (HbS) in cation exchange high performance liquid chromatography. This report highlights possible diagnostic pitfalls in interpreting data solely based on haemoglobin analysis and usefulness of mutation screening in definitive diagnosis of hemoglobinopathies. PMID:22471768

  16. Structural basis for the antipolymer activity of Hb ζ2βs2 trapped in a tense conformation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Safo, Martin K.; Ko, Tzu-Ping; Schreiter, Eric R.; Eric Russell, J.

    2015-11-01

    The phenotypical severity of sickle cell disease (SCD) can be mitigated by modifying mutant hemoglobin S (Hb s, Hb α2β 2s) to contain embryonic ζ globin in place of adult α-globin subunits (Hb ζ2β2s). Crystallographical analyses of liganded Hb ζζ2β2s, though, demonstrate a tense (T-state) quaternary structure that paradoxically predicts its participation in--rather than its exclusion from--pathological deoxyHb S polymers. We resolved this structure-function conundrum by examining the effects of α → ζ exchange on the characteristics of specific amino acids that mediate sickle polymer assembly. Superposition analyses of the βs subunits of T-state deoxyHb α2β2s and T-state CO-liganded Hb ζ2β2s reveal significant displacements of both mutant βsVal6 and conserved β-chain contact residues, predicting weakening of corresponding polymer-stabilizing interactions. Similar comparisons of the α- and ζ-globin subunits implicate four amino acids that are either repositioned or undergo non-conservative substitution, abrogating critical polymer contacts. CO-Hb ζ2βs2 additionally exhibits a unique trimer-of-heterotetramers crystal packing that is sustained by novel intermolecular interactions involving the pathological βsVal6, contrasting sharply with the classical double-stranded packing of deoxyHb S. Finally, the unusually large buried solvent-accessible surface area for CO-Hb ζ2β2s suggests that it does not co-assemble with deoxyHb S in vivo. In sum, the antipolymer activities of Hb ζ203b2;2s appear to arise from both repositioning and replacement of specific α- and βs-chain residues, favoring an alternate T-state solution structure that is excluded from pathological deoxyHb S polymers. These data account for the antipolymer activity of Hb ζ2β2s, and recommend the utility of SCD therapeutics that capitalize on α-globin exchange strategies.

  17. Identification, Functional Study, and Promoter Analysis of HbMFT1, a Homolog of MFT from Rubber Tree (Hevea brasiliensis)

    PubMed Central

    Bi, Zhenghong; Li, Xiang; Huang, Huasun; Hua, Yuwei

    2016-01-01

    A homolog of MOTHER OF FT AND TFL1 (MFT) was isolated from Hevea brasiliensis and its biological function was investigated. Protein multiple sequence alignment and phylogenetic analysis revealed that HbMFT1 conserved critical amino acid residues to distinguish MFT, FLOWERING LOCUS T (FT) and TERMINAL FLOWER1 (TFL1)-like proteins and showed a closer genetic relationship to the MFT-like group. The accumulation of HbMFT1 was generally detected in various tissues except pericarps, with the highest expression in embryos and relatively higher expression in roots and stems of seedlings, flowering inflorescences, and male and female flowers. HbMFT1 putative promoter analysis showed that tissue-specific, environmental change responsive and hormone-signaling responsive elements were generally present. HbMFT1 was strongly induced under a short-day condition at 28 °C, with the highest expression after the onset of a day. Overexpression of HbMFT1 inhibited seed germination, seedling growth, and flowering in transgenic Arabidopsis. The qRT-PCR further confirmed that APETALA1 (AP1) and FRUITFULL (FUL) were drastically down-regulated in 35S::HbMFT1 plants. A histochemical β-glucuronidase (GUS) assay showed that HbMFT1::GUS activity was mainly detected in stamens and mature seeds coinciding with its original expression and notably induced in rosette leaves and seedlings of transgenic Arabidopsis by exogenous abscisic acid (ABA) due to the presence of ABA cis-elements in HbMFT1 promoter. These results suggested that HbMFT1 was mainly involved in maintenance of seed maturation and stamen development, but negatively controlled germination, growth and development of seedlings and flowering. In addition, the HbMFT1 promoter can be utilized in controlling transgene expression in stamens and seeds of rubber tree or other plant species. PMID:26950112

  18. Identification, Functional Study, and Promoter Analysis of HbMFT1, a Homolog of MFT from Rubber Tree (Hevea brasiliensis).

    PubMed

    Bi, Zhenghong; Li, Xiang; Huang, Huasun; Hua, Yuwei

    2016-01-01

    A homolog of MOTHER OF FT AND TFL1 (MFT) was isolated from Hevea brasiliensis and its biological function was investigated. Protein multiple sequence alignment and phylogenetic analysis revealed that HbMFT1 conserved critical amino acid residues to distinguish MFT, FLOWERING LOCUS T (FT) and TERMINAL FLOWER1 (TFL1)-like proteins and showed a closer genetic relationship to the MFT-like group. The accumulation of HbMFT1 was generally detected in various tissues except pericarps, with the highest expression in embryos and relatively higher expression in roots and stems of seedlings, flowering inflorescences, and male and female flowers. HbMFT1 putative promoter analysis showed that tissue-specific, environmental change responsive and hormone-signaling responsive elements were generally present. HbMFT1 was strongly induced under a short-day condition at 28 °C, with the highest expression after the onset of a day. Overexpression of HbMFT1 inhibited seed germination, seedling growth, and flowering in transgenic Arabidopsis. The qRT-PCR further confirmed that APETALA1 (AP1) and FRUITFULL (FUL) were drastically down-regulated in 35S::HbMFT1 plants. A histochemical β-glucuronidase (GUS) assay showed that HbMFT1::GUS activity was mainly detected in stamens and mature seeds coinciding with its original expression and notably induced in rosette leaves and seedlings of transgenic Arabidopsis by exogenous abscisic acid (ABA) due to the presence of ABA cis-elements in HbMFT1 promoter. These results suggested that HbMFT1 was mainly involved in maintenance of seed maturation and stamen development, but negatively controlled germination, growth and development of seedlings and flowering. In addition, the HbMFT1 promoter can be utilized in controlling transgene expression in stamens and seeds of rubber tree or other plant species. PMID:26950112

  19. A novel α(0) -thalassemia deletion in a Greek patient with HbH disease and β-thalassemia trait.

    PubMed

    Phylipsen, Marion; Traeger-Synodinos, Jan; van der Kraan, Martijn; van Delft, Peter; Bakker, Greet; Geerts, Mariska; Kanavakis, Emmanuel; Stamoulakatou, Alexandra; Karagiorga, Markissia; Giordano, Piero C; Harteveld, Cornelis L

    2011-12-30

    Objectives:  To determine the molecular basis in a Greek child suspected of having HbH disease and β-thalassemia trait. Methods:  Standard hematology, Hb electrophoresis and HPLC. MLPA, direct sequencing and breakpoint characterization by NimbleGen fine-tiling array analysis. Results:  The index patient showed a moderate microcytic hypochromic anemia with normal ZPP and elevated HbA(2) , indicative for β-thalassemia trait. However the moderate microcytic hypochromic anemia, along with the observation of HbH inclusions in occasional red blood cells suggested a co-existing α-thalassemia. Molecular analysis indicated that the propositus inherited the β(+) -thalassemia mutation IVS2-745 (c>g) and a novel α(0) -thalassemia deletion from the mother, and the common non-deletion α-thalassemia allele α(2) (-5nt)α from the father. The α(0) -thalassemia deletion is approximately 131.6 kb in length. It removes the major regulatory elements along with the functional α-globin genes, but leaves the theta-gene intact. Conclusions:  The compound interaction of a β-thalassemia defect along with a single functional α-globin gene is quite rare. Although patients with HbH/β-thal and simple HbH disease, have comparable levels of Hb, the absence of free β-globin chains and thus detectable non-functional HbH means that in HbH/β-thal the levels of functional Hb are higher, resulting in a better compensated functional anemia. Rare large deletions as the one described here remain undetected by gap-PCR in routine molecular screening. The introduction of MLPA as a diagnostic screening tool may improve laboratory diagnostics for these defects. The use of NimbleGen fine tiling arrays may give additional information about the precise location of breakpoints. © 2011 John Wiley & Sons A/S. PMID:22211883

  20. High Frequency of Hb E-Saskatoon (HBB: c.67G > A) in Brazilians: A New Genetic Origin?

    PubMed

    Wagner, Sandrine C; Lindenau, Juliana D; Castro, Simone M de; Santin, Ana Paula; Zaleski, Carina F; Azevedo, Laura A; Ribeiro Dos Santos, Ândrea K C; Dos Santos, Sidney E B; Hutz, Mara H

    2016-08-01

    Hb E-Saskatoon [β22(B4)Glu→Lys, HBB: c.67G > A] is a rare, nonpathological β-globin variant that was first described in a Canadian woman of Scottish and Dutch ancestry and has since then been detected in several populations. The aim of the present study was to identify the origin of Hb E-Saskatoon in Brazil using β-globin haplotypes and genetic ancestry in carriers of this hemoglobin (Hb) variant. Blood samples were investigated by isoelectric focusing (IEF) and high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) using commercial kits. Hb E-Saskatoon was confirmed by amplification of the HBB gene, followed by sequence analysis. Haplotypes of the β-globin gene were determined by polymerase chain reaction (PCR), followed by digestion with specific restriction enzymes. Individual ancestry was estimated with 48 biallelic insertion/deletions using three 16-plex PCR amplifications. The IEF pattern was similar to Hbs C (HBB: c.19G > A) and Hb E (HBB: c.79G > A) [isoelectric point (pI): 7.59-7.65], and HPLC results showed an elution in the Hb S (HBB: c.20A > T) window [retention time (RT): 4.26-4.38]. DNA sequencing of the amplified β-globin gene showed a mutation at codon 22 (GAA>AAA) corresponding to Hb E-Saskatoon. A total of 11 cases of this variant were identified. In nine unrelated individuals, Hb E-Saskatoon was in linkage disequilibrium with haplotype 2 [+ - - - -]. All subjects showed a high degree of European contribution (mean = 0.85). Hb E-Saskatoon occurred on the β-globin gene of haplotype 2 in all Brazilian carriers. These findings suggest a different genetic origin for this Hb variant from that previously described. PMID:27250692

  1. Significance of HbA1c and its measurement in the diagnosis of diabetes mellitus: US experience.

    PubMed

    Juarez, Deborah Taira; Demaris, Kendra M; Goo, Roy; Mnatzaganian, Christina Louise; Wong Smith, Helen

    2014-01-01

    The 2014 American Diabetes Association guidelines denote four means of diagnosing diabetes. The first of these is a glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c) >6.5%. This literature review summarizes studies (n=47) in the USA examining the significance, strengths, and limitations of using HbA1c as a diagnostic tool for diabetes, relative to other available means. Due to the relatively recent adoption of HbA1c as a diabetes mellitus diagnostic tool, a hybrid systematic, truncated review of the literature was implemented. Based on these studies, we conclude that HbA1c screening for diabetes has been found to be convenient and effective in diagnosing diabetes. HbA1c screening is particularly helpful in community-based and acute care settings where tests requiring fasting are not practical. Using HbA1c to diagnose diabetes also has some limitations. For instance, HbA1c testing may underestimate the prevalence of diabetes, particularly among whites. Because this bias differs by racial group, prevalence and resulting estimates of health disparities based on HbA1c screening differ from those based on other methods of diagnosis. In addition, existing evidence suggests that HbA1c screening may not be valid in certain subgroups, such as children, women with gestational diabetes, patients with human immunodeficiency virus, and those with prediabetes. Further guidelines are needed to clarify the appropriate use of HbA1c screening in these populations. PMID:25349480

  2. DNA studies are necessary for accurate patient diagnosis in compound heterozygosity for Hb Adana (HBA2:c.179>A) with deletional or nondeletional α-thalassaemia.

    PubMed

    Tan, Jin Ai Mary Anne; Kho, Siew Leng; Ngim, Chin Fang; Chua, Kek Heng; Goh, Ai Sim; Yeoh, Seoh Leng; George, Elizabeth

    2016-01-01

    Haemoglobin (Hb) Adana (HBA2:c.179>A) interacts with deletional and nondeletional α-thalassaemia mutations to produce HbH disorders with varying clinical manifestations from asymptomatic to severe anaemia with significant hepatosplenomegaly. Hb Adana carriers are generally asymptomatic and haemoglobin subtyping is unable to detect this highly unstable α-haemoglobin variant. This study identified 13 patients with compound heterozygosity for Hb Adana with either the 3.7 kb gene deletion (-α(3.7)), Hb Constant Spring (HbCS) (HBA2:c.427T>C) or Hb Paksé (HBA2:429A>T). Multiplex Amplification Refractory Mutation System was used for the detection of five deletional and six nondeletional α-thalassaemia mutations. Duplex-PCR was used to confirm Hb Paksé and HbCS. Results showed 84.6% of the Hb Adana patients were Malays. Using DNA studies, compound heterozygosity for Hb Adana and HbCS (α(codon 59)α/α(CS)α) was confirmed in 11 patients. A novel point in this investigation was that DNA studies confirmed Hb Paksé for the first time in a Malaysian patient (α(codon 59)α/α(Paksé)α) after nine years of being misdiagnosis with Hb Adana and HbCS (α(codon 59)α/α(CS)α). Thus, the reliance on haematology studies and Hb subtyping to detect Hb variants is inadequate in countries where thalassaemia is prevalent and caused by a wide spectrum of mutations. PMID:27271331

  3. DNA studies are necessary for accurate patient diagnosis in compound heterozygosity for Hb Adana (HBA2:c.179>A) with deletional or nondeletional α-thalassaemia

    PubMed Central

    Tan, Jin Ai Mary Anne; Kho, Siew Leng; Ngim, Chin Fang; Chua, Kek Heng; Goh, Ai Sim; Yeoh, Seoh Leng; George, Elizabeth

    2016-01-01

    Haemoglobin (Hb) Adana (HBA2:c.179>A) interacts with deletional and nondeletional α-thalassaemia mutations to produce HbH disorders with varying clinical manifestations from asymptomatic to severe anaemia with significant hepatosplenomegaly. Hb Adana carriers are generally asymptomatic and haemoglobin subtyping is unable to detect this highly unstable α-haemoglobin variant. This study identified 13 patients with compound heterozygosity for Hb Adana with either the 3.7 kb gene deletion (-α3.7), Hb Constant Spring (HbCS) (HBA2:c.427T>C) or Hb Paksé (HBA2:429A>T). Multiplex Amplification Refractory Mutation System was used for the detection of five deletional and six nondeletional α-thalassaemia mutations. Duplex-PCR was used to confirm Hb Paksé and HbCS. Results showed 84.6% of the Hb Adana patients were Malays. Using DNA studies, compound heterozygosity for Hb Adana and HbCS (αcodon 59α/αCSα) was confirmed in 11 patients. A novel point in this investigation was that DNA studies confirmed Hb Paksé for the first time in a Malaysian patient (αcodon 59α/αPakséα) after nine years of being misdiagnosis with Hb Adana and HbCS (αcodon 59α/αCSα). Thus, the reliance on haematology studies and Hb subtyping to detect Hb variants is inadequate in countries where thalassaemia is prevalent and caused by a wide spectrum of mutations. PMID:27271331

  4. Brain Activity Evaluation Using Oxy-Hb by Difference in the Strength of Sound Stimulus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Osawa, Takeru; Asano, Hirotoshi; Ide, Hideto

    We carried out a psychological study involving physiological measurements. We used the VAS to research the feeling. The physiological factor measured was the oxy-Hb. It was found that an auditory stimulus of 70[dB] is more uncomfortable than auditory stimulus of 50[dB]. Furthermore, the decrease in oxy-Hb was greater for the auditory stimulus of 70[dB] as compared to the auditory stimulus of 50[dB]. This tendency was found in the center of the forehead (ch22-ch25). There was a difference between the brain activity for the auditory stimulus of 70[dB] and that for the auditory stimulus of 50[dB]. It was also found that the sound level affects the comfort level of humans. It is necessary to obtain additional details on the effects from physiological index to psychological index in a future study.

  5. Hb Toranomon [beta 112(G14)Cys-->Trp]: a new unstable electrophoretically silent hemoglobin.

    PubMed

    Harano, T; Harano, K; Kawasaki, R; Kawakami, K

    1996-11-01

    We describe a silent and unstable hemoglobin variant, Hb Toranomon, which was discovered by high performance liquid chromatography in an apparently healthy Japanese male during a Hb A1c assay. Isoelectrofocusing of his hemolysate and chromatographic separation of globin on a CM-cellulose column revealed no abnormality. The isopropanol precipitation test gave a positive result. Amino acid analysis of all peptides isolated from the tryptic digests of the aminoethylated and non-aminoethylated beta chain (beta A + beta X) by reversed phase high performance liquid chromatography indicated a substitution of Cys-->Trp at position 112 of the beta chain, which was confirmed by protein sequencing. cDNA sequencing showed the nucleotide sequence of the beta 112 codon to be TGG instead of TGT, confirming the amino acid substitution described above. The globin biosynthesis ratio (beta/alpha) was 1.00. PMID:8936462

  6. HB Les Andelys [alpha83(F4)LEU-->PRO]: a new moderately unstable variant.

    PubMed

    Wajcman, H; Promé, D; Préhu, C; Déon, C; Riou, J; Bouanga, J C; Papassotiriou, I; Lahary, A; Galactéros, F

    1998-03-01

    Hb Les Andelys [alpha83(F4)Leu-->Pro] is a mildly unstable variant that was found during glycated hemoglobin measurement in a French family. In this hemoglobin molecule the affected site, in the alpha chain, and the amino acid substitution are identical to those of Hb Santa Ana, an unstable beta chain variant. The structural abnormality was demonstrated by protein chemistry methods, involving, in addition to the classical techniques, a selective precipitation of the abnormal hemoglobin by isopropanol and a mass spectrometry analysis of the alphaT-9 peptide following carboxypeptidase digestion. DNA sequencing demonstrated that the mutation was CTG-->CCG at codon 83 of the alpha2 gene. PMID:9576330

  7. Reducing audible noise for distribution transformer with HB1 amorphous core

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Yeong-Hwa; Hsu, Chang-Hung; Lin, Hung-Wei; Tseng, Ching-Pei

    2011-04-01

    In this paper, the way to reduce the audible noise of a distribution transformer is presented by incorporating a newly developed transformer core and a rigid-structure tank. The vibrations related tothe core structure and tank frame are considered, so that a distribution transformer with accelerometers mounted on the internal core and external tank, respectively, is addressed. In practice, the core with a new joint structure and the tank with a strong rigid-frame (H-type) are applied to a single-phase amorphous HB1-cored transformer with capacity 167 kVA for performance verification. Finally, a personal computer-based data acquisition platform is setup for signal measurement and processing. Experimental results demonstrate that the HB1 amorphous-cored transformer with the proposed core joint and rigid-structure tank can be performed well in the aspect of audible noise reduction.

  8. HbSC Disease and Spontaneous Epidural Hematoma with Kernohan's Notch Phenomena

    PubMed Central

    Yogarajah, Meera; Agu, Chidozie Charles; Sivasambu, Bhradeev; Mittler, Mark A.

    2015-01-01

    Spontaneous (nontraumatic) acute epidural hematoma is a rare and poorly understood complication of sickle cell disease. A 19-year-old African American male with hemoglobin SC disease (HbSC) presented with generalized body aches and was managed for acute painful crisis. During his hospital stay he developed rapid deterioration of his mental status and computed topography revealed a spontaneous massive epidural hematoma with mass effect and midline shift with Kernohan's notch phenomena for which urgent craniotomy and evacuation was done. We report the first case of HbSC disease associated with catastrophic epidural hematoma progressing to transtentorial herniation and Kernohan's notch phenomena within few hours with rapid clinical deterioration. The etiopathogenesis and the rare presentation are discussed in detail in this case report. PMID:26576305

  9. Production of mirrors made of HB-Cesic® for an airborne reconnaissance telescope system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krödel, Matthias R.; Hofbauer, Peter; Luichtel, Georg; Katzer, J.; Tausendfreund, M.; Derst, Gerhard

    2009-08-01

    In support of a new airborne telescope system the Multi-Spectral Telescope for a new Reconnaissance Program ECM was contracted by Carl Zeiss Optronics to produce 20 mirrors made of HB-Cesic®, each mirror with a diameter of 315 mm. The contract requirements were that the mirrors remain stable under extreme mechanical and thermal loads and that the production schedule is 12 months. The main challenges of the project were achieving consistent optical performance of the mirrors and meeting the tight schedule of delivering the mirrors, in lots of four, every two months for a total delivery time of twelve months. In this paper we present the lessons learned in producing the HB-Cesic® mirrors, including all the steps up to the final integration of the mirrors into the telescope system and establishing reliable repeatability of the production cycles.

  10. VizieR Online Data Catalog: Hot HB stars in ω Cen (Moehler+, 2011)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moehler, S.; Dreizler, S.; Lanz, T.; Bono, G.; Sweigart, A. V.; Calamida, A.; Nonino, M.

    2011-05-01

    Moderately high resolution spectra of hot HB stars in the globular cluster omega Cen were analysed for radial velocity variations, atmospheric parameters, and abundances using LTE and non-LTE model atmospheres. The spectroscopic data were obtained in 2005 (4 observations) and in 2006 (5 observations) in Service Mode using the MEDUSA mode of the multi-object fiber spectrograph FLAMES + GIRAFFE on the UT2 Telescope of the VLT. We used the low spectroscopic resolution mode with the spectral range 3964Å-4567Å (LR2, R=6400) and observed spectra for a total of 109 blue hook and canonical blue HB/EHB star candidates (see Table 1) and for 17 sky background positions. Each observation had an exposure time of 2550s to keep the total execution time of the observing block shorter than one hour. (3 data files).

  11. Ultra-lightweighted HB-Cesic one-meter mirror demonstrator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krödel, Matthias R.; Hofbauer, Peter

    2010-07-01

    Future space missions, such as SPICA and DARWIN, require large, light-weighted, and stiff mirrors with excellent stability. During the past years, ECM fabricated a number of light-weighted mirrors. However, future large missions require further advances with light-weighting, pushing this technology to the limit possible with recently developed composite materials, new fabrication processes, and innovative designs. In 2009, ECM took steps in this direction by fabricating successfully an ultra-lightweighted HB-Cesic® mirror demonstrator 1 m in size. We demonstrated that HB-Cesic®, due to its extreme light-weighting capability and manufacturing versatility, combined with high stiffness, high mechanical strength, and low CTE at cryogenic temperatures, is able to fully meet the requirements of future large cryogenic space mirrors. In this paper we describe the fabrication process of this demonstrator and its physical characteristics.

  12. In-situ observation of HB GaAs crystal growth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuo, J. Y.; Guo, Y. D.; Hsu, Juei-Tsang

    1992-10-01

    In-situ monitoring of horizontal Bridgman (HB) growth of GaAs crystals through the furnace window can reveal whether the growth condition is good or not. Good growth conditions are characterized by straight melt/crystal interface and (111) facet growth striations on the grown crystal surface. Abnormal growth conditions including twinning, lineaging and polycrystallizing in the growing crystals usually show curved or irregular-shaped melt/crystal interface and various slanted lines distributed over the crystal surfaces. The monitoring process can spot these defective conditions in the early stage of their formations, and growth parameters thus can be adjusted in real time for correction. It provides a convenient way to help understand the relations between growth parameters and defects formation. The yield and quality of the M2T-HB grown crystals are both increased by this method.

  13. High Resolution Radio Observations of the SNR G160.9+2.6 (HB9)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leahy, D. A.; Roger, R. S.

    New observations of the continuum emission from HB 9 at 408 MHz and 1420 MHz are reported which reveal significant filamentary structure not previously detected. The radio filamentary structure closely follows the optical structure. The radio, optical and particularly, the X-ray surface brightness are all diminished in the northern and northwestern portions of the remnant, in directions approximately coincident with an extensive molecular cloud detected in CO.

  14. Fermi LAT and WMAP observations of the supernova remnant HB 21

    SciTech Connect

    Pivato, G.; Hewitt, J. W.; Tibaldo, L.; Acero, F.; Brandt, T. J.; Ballet, J.; Janssen, G. H.; Jóhannesson, G.; Smith, D. A. E-mail: john.w.hewitt@nasa.gov

    2013-12-20

    We present the analysis of Fermi Large Area Telescope γ-ray observations of HB 21 (G89.0+4.7). We detect significant γ-ray emission associated with the remnant: the flux >100 MeV is 9.4 ± 0.8 (stat) ± 1.6 (syst) × 10{sup –11} erg cm{sup –2} s{sup –1}. HB 21 is well modeled by a uniform disk centered at l = 88.°75 ± 0.°04, b = +4.°65 ± 0.°06 with a radius of 1.°19 ± 0.°06. The γ-ray spectrum shows clear evidence of curvature, suggesting a cutoff or break in the underlying particle population at an energy of a few GeV. We complement γ-ray observations with the analysis of the WMAP 7 yr data from 23 to 93 GHz, achieving the first detection of HB 21 at these frequencies. In combination with archival radio data, the radio spectrum shows a spectral break, which helps to constrain the relativistic electron spectrum, and, in turn, parameters of simple non-thermal radiation models. In one-zone models multiwavelength data favor the origin of γ rays from nucleon-nucleon collisions. A single population of electrons cannot produce both γ rays through bremsstrahlung and radio emission through synchrotron radiation. A predominantly inverse-Compton origin of the γ-ray emission is disfavored because it requires lower interstellar densities than are inferred for HB 21. In the hadronic-dominated scenarios, accelerated nuclei contribute a total energy of ∼3 × 10{sup 49} erg, while, in a two-zone bremsstrahlung-dominated scenario, the total energy in accelerated particles is ∼1 × 10{sup 49} erg.

  15. Fermi LAT and WMAP Observations of the Supernova Remnant HB 21

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pivato, G.; Hewitt, J. W.; Tibaldo, L.; Acero, F.; Ballet, J.; Brandt, T. J.; de Palma, F.; Giordano, F.; Janssen, G. H.; Jóhannesson, G.; Smith, D. A.

    2013-12-01

    We present the analysis of Fermi Large Area Telescope γ-ray observations of HB 21 (G89.0+4.7). We detect significant γ-ray emission associated with the remnant: the flux >100 MeV is 9.4 ± 0.8 (stat) ± 1.6 (syst) × 10-11 erg cm-2 s-1. HB 21 is well modeled by a uniform disk centered at l = 88.°75 ± 0.°04, b = +4.°65 ± 0.°06 with a radius of 1.°19 ± 0.°06. The γ-ray spectrum shows clear evidence of curvature, suggesting a cutoff or break in the underlying particle population at an energy of a few GeV. We complement γ-ray observations with the analysis of the WMAP 7 yr data from 23 to 93 GHz, achieving the first detection of HB 21 at these frequencies. In combination with archival radio data, the radio spectrum shows a spectral break, which helps to constrain the relativistic electron spectrum, and, in turn, parameters of simple non-thermal radiation models. In one-zone models multiwavelength data favor the origin of γ rays from nucleon-nucleon collisions. A single population of electrons cannot produce both γ rays through bremsstrahlung and radio emission through synchrotron radiation. A predominantly inverse-Compton origin of the γ-ray emission is disfavored because it requires lower interstellar densities than are inferred for HB 21. In the hadronic-dominated scenarios, accelerated nuclei contribute a total energy of ~3 × 1049 erg, while, in a two-zone bremsstrahlung-dominated scenario, the total energy in accelerated particles is ~1 × 1049 erg.

  16. Dysregulation of ferroportin gene expression in β(0)-thalassemia/Hb E disease.

    PubMed

    Sornjai, Wannapa; Jaratsittisin, Janejira; Khungwanmaythawee, Kornpat; Svasti, Saovaros; Fucharoen, Suthat; Lithanatudom, Pathrapol; Smith, Duncan R

    2016-02-01

    During erythropoiesis, iron levels need to be carefully regulated to ensure there is sufficient iron available for hemoglobin synthesis, but that there is no excess to cause damage to the developing erythroblast. Iron influx to the developing erythroblast is controlled by the expression of the transferrin receptor, while iron efflux is regulated by ferroportin (FPN), the sole iron-exporting protein. FPN is encoded through multiple messenger RNAs (mRNAs) some of which contain an iron-responsive element (variant I mRNAs) and some of which do not (variant II mRNAs). This study sought to investigate the expression of the FPN mRNAs in developing erythroblasts from normal controls and β(0)-thalassemia/Hb E patients. While levels of FPN protein were relatively constant, marked reductions of the variant I message were seen in erythroblasts from β(0)-thalassemia/Hb E patients as compared to normal control cells, particularly in late erythropoiesis. Variant II mRNAs were generally increased during erythroid differentiation. No difference was seen in levels of either transferrin or ferritin heavy chain expression. While no difference was observed in labile iron pools under normal culture conditions, erythroblasts from β(0)-thalassemia/Hb E patients showed a significantly reduced expression of total FPN message under high iron conditions as compared to normal control erythroblasts. These results are consisted with dysregulation of iron efflux from the maturing erythroblast in β(0)-thalassemia/Hb E patients, and this dysregulation possibly contributes to ineffective erythropoiesis seen in these patients. PMID:26666535

  17. Gas Generation Testing of Neptunium Oxide Generated Using the HB-Line Phase IIFlowsheet

    SciTech Connect

    Duffey, J

    2003-08-29

    The hydrogen (H{sub 2}) gas generation rate for neptunium dioxide (NpO{sub 2}) samples produced on a laboratory scale using the HB-Line Phase II flowsheet has been measured following exposure to 75% relative humidity (RH). As expected, the observed H{sub 2} generation rates for these samples increase with increasing moisture content. A maximum H{sub 2} generation rate of 1.8 x 10{sup -6} moles per day per kilogram (mol {center_dot} day{sup -1} kg{sup -1}) was observed for NpO{sub 2} samples with approximately one and one-half times (1 1/2 X) the expected specific surface area (SSA) for the HB-Line Phase II product. The SSA of NpO{sub 2} samples calcined at 650 C is similar to plutonium dioxide (PuO{sub 2}) calcined at 950 C according to the Department of Energy (DOE) standard for packaging and storage of PuO{sub 2}. This low SSA of the HB-Line Phase II product limits moisture uptake to less than 0.2 weight percent (wt %) even with extended exposure to 75% RH.

  18. Evaluation of the HB&L System for the Microbiological Screening of Storage Medium for Organ-Cultured Corneas

    PubMed Central

    Camposampiero, D.; Grandesso, S.; Zanetti, E.; Mazzucato, S.; Solinas, M.; Parekh, M.; Frigo, A. C.; Gion, M.; Ponzin, D.

    2013-01-01

    Aims. To compare HB&L and BACTEC systems for detecting the microorganisms contaminating the corneal storage liquid preserved at 31°C. Methods. Human donor corneas were stored at 4°C followed by preservation at 31°C. Samples of the storage medium were inoculated in BACTEC Peds Plus/F (aerobic microorganisms), BACTEC Plus Anaerobic/F (anaerobic microorganisms), and HB&L bottles. The tests were performed (a) after six days of storage, (b) end of storage, and (c) after 24 hours of preservation in deturgescent liquid sequentially. 10,655 storage and deturgescent media samples were subjected to microbiological control using BACTEC (6-day incubation) and HB&L (24-hour incubation) systems simultaneously. BACTEC positive/negative refers to both/either aerobic and anaerobic positives/negatives, whereas HB&L can only detect the aerobic microbes, and therefore the positives/negatives depend on the presence/absence of aerobic microorganisms. Results. 147 (1.38%) samples were identified positive with at least one of the two methods. 127 samples (134 identified microorganisms) were positive with both HB&L and BACTEC. 14 HB&L+/BACTEC− and 6 BACTEC+/HB&L− were identified. Sensitivity (95.5%), specificity (99.8%), and positive (90.1%) and negative predictive values (99.9%) were high with HB&L considering a 3.5% annual contamination rate. Conclusion. HB&L is a rapid system for detecting microorganisms in corneal storage medium in addition to the existing methods. PMID:24069532

  19. Evaluation of the HB&L System for the Microbiological Screening of Storage Medium for Organ-Cultured Corneas.

    PubMed

    Camposampiero, D; Grandesso, S; Zanetti, E; Mazzucato, S; Solinas, M; Parekh, M; Frigo, A C; Gion, M; Ponzin, D

    2013-01-01

    Aims. To compare HB&L and BACTEC systems for detecting the microorganisms contaminating the corneal storage liquid preserved at 31°C. Methods. Human donor corneas were stored at 4°C followed by preservation at 31°C. Samples of the storage medium were inoculated in BACTEC Peds Plus/F (aerobic microorganisms), BACTEC Plus Anaerobic/F (anaerobic microorganisms), and HB&L bottles. The tests were performed (a) after six days of storage, (b) end of storage, and (c) after 24 hours of preservation in deturgescent liquid sequentially. 10,655 storage and deturgescent media samples were subjected to microbiological control using BACTEC (6-day incubation) and HB&L (24-hour incubation) systems simultaneously. BACTEC positive/negative refers to both/either aerobic and anaerobic positives/negatives, whereas HB&L can only detect the aerobic microbes, and therefore the positives/negatives depend on the presence/absence of aerobic microorganisms. Results. 147 (1.38%) samples were identified positive with at least one of the two methods. 127 samples (134 identified microorganisms) were positive with both HB&L and BACTEC. 14 HB&L+/BACTEC- and 6 BACTEC+/HB&L- were identified. Sensitivity (95.5%), specificity (99.8%), and positive (90.1%) and negative predictive values (99.9%) were high with HB&L considering a 3.5% annual contamination rate. Conclusion. HB&L is a rapid system for detecting microorganisms in corneal storage medium in addition to the existing methods. PMID:24069532

  20. Capsicum annuum homeobox 1 (CaHB1) is a nuclear factor that has roles in plant development, salt tolerance, and pathogen defense

    SciTech Connect

    Oh, Sang-Keun; Yoon, Joonseon; Choi, Gyung Ja; Jang, Hyun A; Kwon, Suk-Yoon; Choi, Doil

    2013-12-06

    Highlights: •The CaHB1 is a nuclear factor, belonging to HD-Zip proteins. •SA and ET, as signal molecules, modulate CaHB1-mediated responses. •Overexpression of CaHB1 in tomato resulted in a thicker cell wall. •CaHB1-transgenic tomato confers resistance to Phytophthora infestans. •CaHB1 enhanced tolerance to saline stress in tomato. -- Abstract: Homeodomain-leucine zipper (HD-Zip) family proteins are unique to plants, but little is known about their role in defense responses. CaHB1 is a nuclear factor in peppers, belonging to subfamily II of HD-Zip proteins. Here, we determined the role of CaHB1 in the defense response. CaHB1 expression was induced when pepper plants were challenged with Phytophthora capsici, a plant pathogen to which peppers are susceptible, or environmental stresses such as drought and salt stimuli. CaHB1 was also highly expressed in pepper leaves following application of SA, whereas ethephon and MeJA had a moderate effect. To further investigate the function of CaHB1 in plants, we performed gain-of-function study by overexpression of CaHB1 in tomato. CaHB1-transgenic tomatoes showed significant growth enhancement including increased leaf thickness and enlarged cell size (1.8-fold larger than control plants). Microscopic analysis revealed that leaves from CaHB1-transgenic plants had thicker cell walls and cuticle layers than those from controls. Moreover, CaHB1-transgenic plants displayed enhanced resistance against Phytophthora infestans and increased tolerance to salt stress. Additionally, RT-PCR analysis of CaHB1-transgenic tomatoes revealed constitutive up-regulation of multiple genes involved in plant defense and osmotic stress. Therefore, our findings suggest roles for CaHB1 in development, salt stress, and pathogen defense.

  1. Hb Dapu (HBA2: c.52G > T): A Novel Nondeletional α-Thalassemia Mutation.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yu; Li, Dong-Zhi; He, Ping

    2016-08-01

    We report a novel mutation on the α2-globin gene, Hb Dapu [α17(A15)Val →Phe (α2); HBA2: c.52G > T] detected in a Chinese family. This mutation gives rise to a previously undescribed hemoglobin (Hb) variant that was undetectable by electrophoretic or chromatographic methods. The combination of this mutation with an in cis deletion of a double α-globin gene resulting in a mild form of Hb H (β4) disease, is consistent with a thalassemic phenotype associated with the novel mutation. PMID:27258683

  2. Persistent sodium current contributes to induced voltage oscillations in locomotor-related hb9 interneurons in the mouse spinal cord.

    PubMed

    Ziskind-Conhaim, Lea; Wu, Linying; Wiesner, Eric P

    2008-10-01

    Neurochemically induced membrane voltage oscillations and firing episodes in spinal excitatory interneurons expressing the HB9 protein (Hb9 INs) are synchronous with locomotor-like rhythmic motor outputs, suggesting that they contribute to the excitatory drive of motoneurons during locomotion. Similar to central pattern generator neurons in other systems, Hb9 INs are interconnected via electrical coupling, and their rhythmic activity does not depend on fast glutamatergic synaptic transmission. The primary objective of this study was to determine the contribution of fast excitatory and inhibitory synaptic transmission and subthreshold voltage-dependent currents to the induced membrane oscillations in Hb9 INs in the postnatal mouse spinal cord. The non-N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor antagonist 6-cyano-7-nitroquinoxaline-2,3-dione (CNQX) reduced the amplitude of voltage oscillations but did not alter their frequency. CNQX suppressed rhythmic motor activity. Blocking glycine and GABAA receptor-mediated inhibitory synapses as well as cholinergic transmission did not change the properties of CNQX-resistant membrane oscillations. However, disinhibition triggered new episodes of slow motor bursting that were not correlated with induced locomotor-like rhythms in Hb9 INs. Our observations indicated that fast excitatory and inhibitory synaptic inputs did not control the frequency of induced rhythmic activity in Hb9 INs. We next examined the contribution of persistent sodium current (INaP) to subthreshold membrane oscillations in the absence of primary glutamatergic, GABAergic and glycinergic synaptic drive to Hb9 INs. Low concentrations of riluzole that blocked the slow-inactivating component of sodium current gradually suppressed the amplitude and reduced the frequency of voltage oscillations. Our finding that INaP regulates locomotor-related rhythmic activity in Hb9 INs independently of primary synaptic transmission supports the concept that these neurons constitute an

  3. 2D imaging of intracapillary Hb-concentration and oxygenation in the skin of the human forehead in different ages

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kessler, Manfred D.; Cristea, Paul D.; Knaelmann, Rainer; Wittwer, Philipp

    2002-06-01

    On the capillary level of intact organs of humans and mammals, fields of gradients of all measurable parameters are found exclusively. Therefore, a precise monitoring e.g. of hemoglobin concentration (Hb) and oxygenation (HbO2) in the microcosm of blood capillaries is only possible when the heterogeneity of tissue data is recorded at a representative number of measuring points. For the collecting of the required data both stochastic or imaging techniques can be applied.

  4. Analysis of glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c) level on maxillofacial fascial space infection in diabetic patients

    PubMed Central

    Jang, Jong-Won; Kim, Moon-Young

    2015-01-01

    Objectives This study was performed to evaluate the impact of glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c) level on characteristics and prognosis of maxillofacial fascial infection in diabetic patients. Materials and Methods We reviewed the medical records of 72 patients (35 patients with HbA1c lower than 7.0% and 37 patients with HbA1c higher than 7.0%) diagnosed with maxillofacial fascial space infection and hospitalized for treatment at the Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery in Dankook University Hospital (Cheonan, Korea) from January 2005 to February 2014. We compared demographics, parameters of glucoregulation (HbA1c), laboratory parameters of inflammation (white blood cell [WBC], C-reactive protein [CRP] count), type and number of involved spaces, type and number of antibiotics, period of hospitalization, number of surgical operations, need for tracheostomy, complications, computed tomography (CT), and microorganisms between the two groups. Results Compared with the well-controlled diabetes mellitus (DM) group (HbA1c <7.0%), patients in the poorly-controlled (HbA1c ≥7.0%) DM group had the following characteristics: longer hospitalization periods, higher values of laboratory parameters of inflammation (WBC, CRP count) at the time of admission, higher number of antibiotics prescribed, more frequent complications, frequent deep neck space involvement, and distinctive main causative microorganisms. As the HbA1c level increases, hospitalization periods and incidence of complications increase gradually. Conclusion This retrospective study suggests that regulation of DM significantly impacts maxillofacial fascial infection. Poorly controlled DM with high HbA1c level negatively influences the prognosis of infection. PMID:26568927

  5. Source Terms for HFIR Beam Tube Shielding Analyses, and a Complete Shielding Analysis of the HB-3 Tube

    SciTech Connect

    Bucholz, J.A.

    2000-07-01

    The High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory is in the midst of a massive upgrade program to enhance experimental facilities. The reactor presently has four horizontal experimental beam tubes, all of which will be replaced or redesigned. The HB-2 beam tube will be enlarged to support more guide tubes, while the HB-4 beam tube will soon include a cold neutron source.

  6. Two new hemoglobin variants: Hb Aix-Les-Bains [β5(A2)Pro→Leu; HBB:c.17 C>T] and Hb Dubai [α122(H5)His→Leu (α2); HBA2:c.368 A>T].

    PubMed

    Joly, Philippe; Garcia, Caroline; Lacan, Philippe; Couprie, Nicole; Francina, Alain

    2011-01-01

    We report two new hemoglobin (Hb) variants; one causing an impairment of the N-terminal glycation of the β-globin chain and the other a hematological phenotype of α-thalassemia (α-thal). The first variant is Hb Aix-les-Bains [β5(A2)Pro→Leu] and the second Hb Dubai [α122(H5)His→Leu (α2)]. These two new Hb variants were detected by chromatographic and electrophoretic methods and characterized by molecular studies. Hb Dubai gives an α-thalassemic phenotype and should be routinely detected for preventing severe Hb H disease in couples at-risk for α-thal. PMID:21417572

  7. The Chinese medicine formula HB01 reduces choroidal neovascularization by regulating the expression of vascular endothelial growth factor

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Choroidal neovascularization (CNV) remains the leading cause of newly acquired blindness in the developed world. Currently anti-vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) therapies are broadly used to treat neovascular ocular disorders. Here we demonstrate the effect of a traditional Chinese medicine formula, HB01, on CNV. Methods A rat model of laser-induced CNV was used to investigate the effect of HB01 in vivo. The CNV lesions in the eye were evaluated using fundus fluorescein angiography and visualized/quantified using confocal microscopy. Expression of VEGF in the choroidal and retinal tissues was measured using quantitative real-time PCR and immunohistochemistry. Results We demonstrated that a traditional Chinese Medicine formula, named HB01, significantly reduced neovascularization in a rat CNV model. The effect of HB01 on CNV was comparable to the intravitreal injection of bevacizumab (Avastin). Our results also suggested that HB01 may reduce CNV partially through inhibiting the expression of VEGF. Conclusions These data support HB01 as an alternative therapy for ocular neovascular disorders. PMID:22676316

  8. Denaturant effects on HbGp hemoglobin as monitored by 8-anilino-1-naphtalene-sulfonic acid (ANS) probe.

    PubMed

    Barros, Ana E B; Carvalho, Francisco A O; Alves, Fernanda R; Carvalho, José W P; Tabak, Marcel

    2015-03-01

    Glossoscolex paulistus extracellular hemoglobin (HbGp) stability has been monitored in the presence of denaturant agents. 8-Anilino-1-naphtalene-sulfonic acid (ANS) was used, and spectroscopic and hydrodynamic studies were developed. Dodecyltrimethylammonium bromide (DTAB) induces an increase in ANS fluorescence emission intensity, with maximum emission wavelength blue-shifted from 517 to 493 nm. Two transitions are noticed, at 2.50 and 9.50 mmol/L of DTAB, assigned to ANS interaction with pre-micellar aggregates and micelles, respectively. In oxy-HbGp, ANS binds to protein sites less exposed to solvent, as compared to DTAB micelles. In DTAB-HbGp-ANS ternary system, at pH 7.0, protein aggregation, oligomeric dissociation and unfolding were observed, while, at pH 5.0, aggregation is absent. DTAB induced unfolding process displays two transitions, one due to oligomeric dissociation and the second one, probably, to the denaturation of dissociated subunits. Moreover, guanidine hydrochloride and urea concentrations above 1.5 and 4.0 mol/L, respectively, induce the full HbGp denaturation, with reduction of ANS-bound oxy-HbGp hydrophobic patches, as noticed by fluorescence quenching up to 1.0 and 5.0 mol/L of denaturants. Our results show clearly the differences in probe sensitivity to the surfactant, in the presence and absence of protein, and new insights into the denaturant effects on HbGp unfolding. PMID:25546245

  9. Does cigarette smoking affect the diagnostic reliability of hemoglobin alpha 2 delta 2 (HbA2)?

    PubMed

    Tarazi, Issa S; Sirdah, Mahmoud M; El Jeadi, Hesham; Al Haddad, Rami M

    2008-01-01

    Quantitation of hemoglobin alpha 2 delta 2 (HbA2) is a basic and confirmatory test in diagnosing the carrier state of beta-thalassemia. The present study was designed to investigate the effect of cigarette smoking on the diagnostic reliability of HbA2. A total of 2,867 (654 smokers and 2,213 never smokers) male subjects were involved in the present study. The subjects were categorized into three groups according to their laboratory findings: beta-thalassemia minor, iron deficient, and normal groups. Complete blood count (CBC) parameters and HbA2 levels were compared between smokers and never smokers of each group according to the independent-samples t-test using the SPSS program, significance results were reported at P<0.05. The results showed a significant increase in red blood cell (RBC) mass (RBC count and hematocrit [Hct]) and Hb concentration in smokers of all groups; however, no significant differences were reported in the HbA2 level between smokers and never smokers in all groups. It was concluded that cigarette smoking does not affect the diagnostic reliability of the HbA2 test. PMID:18348310

  10. On the ΔV bump HB Parameter in Globular Clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Di Cecco, A.; Bono, G.; Stetson, P. B.; Pietrinferni, A.; Becucci, R.; Cassisi, S.; Degl'Innocenti, S.; Iannicola, G.; Prada Moroni, P. G.; Buonanno, R.; Calamida, A.; Caputo, F.; Castellani, M.; Corsi, C. E.; Ferraro, I.; Dall'Ora, M.; Monelli, M.; Nonino, M.; Piersimoni, A. M.; Pulone, L.; Romaniello, M.; Salaris, M.; Walker, A. R.; Zoccali, M.

    2010-03-01

    We present new empirical estimates of the ΔV bump HB parameter for 15 Galactic globular clusters (GGCs) using accurate and homogeneous ground-based optical data. Together with similar evaluations available in the literature, we ended up with a sample of 62 GGCs covering a very broad range in metal content (-2.16 dex <= [M/H] <= -0.58 dex). Adopting the homogeneous metallicity scale provided either by Kraft & Ivans or by Carretta et al., we found that the observed ΔV bump HB parameters are larger than predicted. In the metal-poor regime ([M/H] <~ -1.7, -1.6 dex) 40% of GCs show discrepancies of 2σ (≈0.40 mag) or more. Evolutionary models that account either for α- and CNO-enhancement or for helium enhancement do not alleviate the discrepancy between theory and observations. The outcome is the same if we use the new solar heavy-element mixture. The comparison between α- and CNO-enhanced evolutionary models and observations in the Carretta et al. metallicity scale also indicates that observed ΔV bump HB parameters, in the metal-rich regime ([M/H] >= 0), might be systematically smaller than predicted. Based in part on data obtained from the ESO/ST-ECF Science Archive Facility, from the Isaac Newton Group Archive which is maintained as part of the CASU Astronomical Data Centre at the Institute of Astronomy, Cambridge, and from the Canadian Astronomy Data Centre operated by the National Research Council of Canada with the support of the Canadian Space Agency.

  11. Beyond HbA1c: Environmental Risk Factors for Diabetic Retinopathy

    PubMed Central

    Nwanyanwu, Kristen Harris; Newman-Casey, Paula-Anne; Gardner, Thomas W; Lim, Jennifer I

    2015-01-01

    Diabetic retinopathy affects 4.2 million people in the United States and is the leading cause of blindness in working-aged people. As the prevalence of diabetes continues to rise, cost-effective interventions to decrease blindness from diabetic retinopathy will be paramount. While HbA1c and duration of disease are known risk factors, they account for only 11% of the risk of developing microvascular complications from the disease. The assessment of environmental risk factors for diabetic eye disease allows for the determination of modifiable population-level challenges that may be addressed to facilitate the end of blindness from diabetes. PMID:26973797

  12. Characterization of Neptunium Oxide Generated Using the HB-Line Phase II Flowsheet

    SciTech Connect

    Duffey, J

    2003-08-29

    Approximately 98 grams of neptunium(IV) oxide (NpO{sub 2}) were produced at the Savannah River Technology Center (SRTC) for use in gas generation tests to support the neptunium stabilization program at the Savannah River Site (SRS). The NpO{sub 2} was produced according to the anticipated HB-Line flowsheet consisting of anion exchange, oxalate precipitation, filtration, and calcination. Characterization of the NpO{sub 2} product to be used in gas generation tests included bulk and tap density measurements, X-ray diffraction, particle size distribution, specific surface area measurements, and moisture analysis.

  13. Many Ingredients, One Sublime Dish: The Recipe for the Passage of Illinois HB5412 Into Law.

    PubMed

    Baté-Ambrus, Venoncia M; Castillo, Amparo; Martinez, Erica; Campbell, Jamie; Boughton-Price, Leticia; Gutierrez Kapheim, Melissa; Arrom, José O; Hernandez, Wandy; Waddy, Jeffery; Castillo, Sheila; Schaps, Margie; Williams, Yolonda

    2015-01-01

    This article contextualizes the need for Illinois House Bill 5412 (HB5412), which calls for the establishment of a state board to create recommendations for the community health worker (CHW) field in Illinois, including a scope of practice, core competencies, training and certification standards, and sustainable funding and reimbursement mechanisms. Multisectorial partnerships and their outputs, coupled with frontline CHW interventions, created a synergistic climate conducive to the passing of this historic CHW legislation. This article provides a timeline and recipe for legislative success as described through processes and activities collaboratively undertaken, concentrating on a 5-year period (2009-2014). PMID:26049653

  14. VizieR Online Data Catalog: NGC6656 spectroscopy of 71 blue HB stars (Salgado+, 2013)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salgado, C.; Moni Bidin, C.; Villanova, S.; Geisler, D.; Catelan, M.

    2013-08-01

    Spectroscopically-derived parameters of 71 blue HB stars. The temperature, gravity, and surface helium abundance were derived fitting the Balmer and helium lines with synthetic spectra. Reddening and mass were estimated from these parameters. Spectra were obtained with the Hydra optical spectrograph mounted on the Blanco 4.0m telescope. It was used the grating KPGL1, coupled with the BG39 filter and the 200μ slit plate. The spectra were obtained on August 27, 2010 and cover the wavelength range of 3700-4900Å with a spectral resolution of 2.7Å. (2 data files).

  15. ECSS-E-HB-32-26 Handbook for Spacecraft Loads Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Calvi, Adriano

    2012-07-01

    The determination and assessment of the mechanical loads acting on the spacecraft is a crucial and difficult task in the design and verification processes of a space project. For this reason European Cooperation for Space Standardization (ECSS) has approved the development of a specific handbook, ECSS-E-HB-32-26, titled “Spacecraft Loads Analysis”. The paper provides an overview of the handbook in particular in terms of objectives and technical contents. The aim is to promote the use of the handbook within the space community.

  16. Simplified white-light interferometric strain sensor based on HB fiber with automatic temperature compensation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Jianjun; Bock, Wojtek J.; Urbanczyk, Waclaw

    2003-02-01

    A simplified white-light interferometric strain sensor based on HB fibers with automatic temperature compensation is presented. A variety of experiments conducted within this study confirm an adequate temperature compensation could be achieved. Several different sensor structures were investigated during these experiments. One of the most important results shows that the interference contrast could significantly influence the measurement accuracy achievable by the system. Consequently, a 1% or even better absolute accuracy for short sensing fibers is possible if the contrast is enhanced to 0.5. A quasi-distributed cascade containing several discrete sensors with 0.5 contrast is also suggested.

  17. VizieR Online Data Catalog: Parameters of HB stars in ω Cen (Moni Bidin+, 2012)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moni Bidin, C.; Villanova, S.; Piotto, G.; Moehler, S.; Cassisi, S.; Momany, Y.

    2012-10-01

    Our observations targeted 115 HB stars in ω Cen, selected from the optical photometry of Bellini et al. (2009, Cat. J/A+A/493/959). The data were collected at the Paranal Observatory in service mode, with the FORS2 spectrograph mounted on the UT1 telescope, in 2006 from January to April. The temperatures, gravities, and surface helium abundances were derived fitting the Balmer and helium lines with synthetic model spectra. Reddening and mass were estimated from these parameters. (1 data file).

  18. The helium content of globular clusters: light element abundance correlations and HB morphology. I. NGC 6752

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Villanova, S.; Piotto, G.; Gratton, R. G.

    2009-06-01

    Context: In the context of the multiple stellar population scenario in globular clusters (GC), helium (He) has been proposed as the key element to interpret the observed multiple main sequences (MS), subgiant branches (SGB) and red giant branches (RGB), as well as the complex horizontal branch (HB) morphology. However, up to now, He has never been directly measured in GC stars (8500 < T_eff < 11 500 K) to verify this hypothesis. Aims: We studied hot blue horizontal branch (BHB) stars in the GC NGC 6752 to measure their He content. Our goal is to verify the feasibility of He measurement from high resolution spectra in stars cooler than 11 500 K, where chemical abundances are not altered by sedimentation or levitation. Methods: We observed 7 BHB stars using the UVES@VLT2 spectroscopic facility. Spectra of S/N~200 were obtained and the very weak He line at 5875 Å measured. We compared this feature with synthetic spectra to obtain He abundances. In addition, iron peak (Fe, Cr), α (Si, Ti), light (O, Na), and s-element (Ba) abundances were measured. Results: We could measure He abundance only for stars warmer than T_eff = 8500 K. All our targets with measurable He are zero age HB (ZAHB) objects and turned out to have a homogeneous He content with a mean value of Y = 0.245±0.012, compatible with the most recent measurements of the primordial He content of the Universe (Y~0.25). The whole sample of stars has a metallicity of [Fe/H] = -1.56±0.03 and [ α/Fe] = +0.21±0.03, in agreement with other studies available in the literature. Our HB targets show the same Na-O anticorrelation identified among the TO-SGB-RGB stars. Conclusions: This is the first direct measurement of the He abundance for a significative sample of GC stars in a temperature regime where the He content is not altered by sedimentation or extreme mixing as suggested for the hottest, late helium flasher HB stars.

  19. Complementary p-MODFET and n-HB MESFET (Al,Ga)As transistors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kiehl, R. A.; Gossard, A. C.

    1984-12-01

    A complementary transistor structure that utilizes a p-channel modulation-doped FET (p-MODFET) to produce improved p-channel characteristics if reported for the first time. The structure also includes a new type of n-channel MESFET in which the electrons are confined by an n-p heterojunction barrier (n-HB MESFET). The complementary transistor pair is fabricated on a novel MBE-grown n-GaAs/p-(Al,Ga)As/i-GaAs heterostructure. The experimental current-voltage characteristics are presented and demonstrate that this is a promising approach for the development of GaAs-based high-speed complementary logic circuits.

  20. The Impact of HbA1c Testing on Total Annual Healthcare Expenditures Among Newly Diagnosed Patients with Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Bhounsule, Prajakta; Peterson, Andrew M.

    2015-01-01

    Background In 2010, diabetes was the seventh leading cause of death in the United States. Diabetes also imposes a huge financial burden on the US economy. In 2009, the American Diabetes Association International Expert Committee recommended the use of the glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) test as a uniform diagnostic measure to identify patients with diabetes. Although HbA1c is a convenient diagnostic test, it is also more expensive than older tests and could, therefore, have an impact on patients’ healthcare expenditures. Objectives To determine if HbA1c testing has an impact on total annual healthcare expenditures among newly diagnosed patients with diabetes and to analyze the factors that are associated with the total healthcare expenditures among diabetic patients before and after HbA1c was implemented as a standard diagnostic factor. Methods This was an observational, retrospective, cross-sectional study. The Medical Expenditure Panel Survey-Household Component 2009 and 2011 databases were used to form the study cohort of patients with diabetes. The total mean healthcare expenditures among patients with diabetes formed the dependent variable. A proxy variable representing a diagnosis of diabetes with and without the use of HbA1c testing in 2009 and in 2011, respectively, formed the main independent variable along with demographic factors, comorbidities, and healthcare services utilization in both years. A generalized linear regression was conducted to determine the association of HbA1c testing with total diabetes-related healthcare expenditures. Results The mean total healthcare expenditure decreased in 2011 compared with 2009. The HbA1c test did not show an association with the total healthcare expenditures versus earlier diabetes-related diagnostic factors. The total expenditures were associated with private insurance, the incidence of a previous heart attack, prescription drug refills, inpatient hospital stays, home care, hospital discharges, and visits to

  1. PET studies with low and high affinity dopamine D2 receptor radioligands: Effects of 4-hydroxybutyrate (4HB)

    SciTech Connect

    Gatley, S.J.; Fowler, J.S.; Dewey, S.

    1994-05-01

    D2 radioligands of varying affinities have been developed as PET and SPECT radiotracers, but no consensus has been reached on the abilities of these tracers to quantify D2 receptor concentrations in vivo. Amongst other differences, competition of the radioligand with endogenous DA is expected to depend on affinity for the D2 receptor, so that changes in DA might confound estimates of Bmax. We examined the uptake and kinetics if C-11 raclopride (RAC; Kd = 1.2 nM) and C-11 N-methylspiperone (NMS); Kd = 75 pM in baboon striatum after pretreatment with 4HB (200 mg/Kg, i/v) which inhibits DA release by nigrostriatal nerve terminals. While 4HB diminished uptake (%ID/g) of NMS, it prolonged tissue retention of RAC, confirming previous observations in rodent models. Logan (for RAC) and Patlak (for NMS) plots gave changes of +24% and -20%, respectively, between control and 4HB treated animals. Since decreased competition with DA should increase uptake of NMS as well as RAC the paradoxical decrease in NMS uptake could be due to a second synaptic effect of DA, such as a decrease in agonist mediated internalization of NMS. Alternatively, it could result from an independent effect of 4HB, perhaps related to this drug`s ability to induce anesthesia and to depress cerebral glucose utilization. Although previous work in the rat suggests that 4HB does not alter brain blood flow, we found O-15 water that baboon striatal blood flow was decreased 22% and 42% at 30 and 60 minutes, respectively, after 4HB. Smaller changes were seen in cerebellar blood flow. Though a 4HB induced decrease in blood flow does not rule out a DA mediated alteration in D2 receptor Bmax or Kd for NMS, or other factor, it is unnecessary to invoke this to account for our results.

  2. RhHB1 mediates the antagonism of gibberellins to ABA and ethylene during rose (Rosa hybrida) petal senescence.

    PubMed

    Lü, Peitao; Zhang, Changqing; Liu, Jitao; Liu, Xiaowei; Jiang, Guimei; Jiang, Xinqiang; Khan, Muhammad Ali; Wang, Liangsheng; Hong, Bo; Gao, Junping

    2014-05-01

    Rose (Rosa hybrida) is one of the most important ornamental plants worldwide; however, senescence of its petals terminates the ornamental value of the flower, resulting in major economic loss. It is known that the hormones abscisic acid (ABA) and ethylene promote petal senescence, while gibberellins (GAs) delay the process. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying the antagonistic effects amongst plant hormones during petal senescence are still unclear. Here we isolated RhHB1, a homeodomain-leucine zipper I transcription factor gene, from rose flowers. Quantitative RT-PCR and GUS reporter analyses showed that RhHB1 was strongly expressed in senescing petals, and its expression was induced by ABA or ethylene in petals. ABA or ethylene treatment clearly accelerated rose petal senescence, while application of the gibberellin GA3 delayed the process. However, silencing of RhHB1 delayed the ABA- or ethylene-mediated senescence, and resulted in higher petal anthocyanin levels and lower expression of RhSAG12. Moreover, treatment with paclobutrazol, an inhibitor of GA biosynthesis, repressed these delays. In addition, silencing of RhHB1 blocked the ABA- or ethylene-induced reduction in expression of the GA20 oxidase encoded by RhGA20ox1, a gene in the GA biosynthetic pathway. Furthermore, RhHB1 directly binds to the RhGA20ox1 promoter, and silencing of RhGA20ox1 promoted petal senescence. Eight senescence-related genes showed substantial differences in expression in petals after treatment with GA3 or paclobutrazol. These results suggest that RhHB1 mediates the antagonistic effect of GAs on ABA and ethylene during rose petal senescence, and that the promotion of petal senescence by ABA or ethylene operates through an RhHB1-RhGA20ox1 regulatory checkpoint. PMID:24589134

  3. Suppression of tumorigenicity of rhabdoid tumor derived G401 cells by the multivalent HB-19 pseudopeptide that targets surface nucleolin.

    PubMed

    Krust, Bernard; El Khoury, Diala; Soundaramourty, Calaiselvy; Nondier, Isabelle; Hovanessian, Ara G

    2011-03-01

    Several studies have indicated that the cell-surface expressed nucleolin is implicated in tumorigenesis and angiogenesis, and represents an important target for cancer therapy. Here we show that treatment of rhabdoid tumor derived G401 cells with a nucleolin antagonist, the HB-19 pseudopeptide, could restore contact inhibition, impair anchorage-independent growth, and suppress tumor development in nude mice. G401 cells grow without contact inhibition, which is an in vitro characteristic property of malignant tumor cells. At concentrations of HB-19 that does not affect cell viability and multiplication index, there is restoration of contact inhibition thus suggesting that HB-19 treatment causes reversion of the malignant phenotype. Accordingly, HB-19 pretreated G401 cells lose the capacity to form colonies in soft agar. When assayed for tumorigenicity in nude mice, only 50% of mice injected with HB-19 pretreated G401 cells developed tumors with the mean tumor weight of 0.32 g, compared to 100% of mice injected with control G401 cells with the mean tumor weight of 2.36 g. Interestingly, the restoration of contact inhibition in HB-19 treated G401 cells is concomitant with marked reduction of transcripts coding the Wilms' tumor 1 gene, matrix metalloproteinase-2, epithelial isoform of CD44, and vascular endothelial growth factor, whereas no apparent modification is detected for transcripts coding the proto-oncogene c-Myc, anti-apoptotic Bcl-2, pro-apoptotic Bax, tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase TIMP-1, angiogenesis inhibitor TSP-1, and growth factor Midkine. These findings indicate that the molecular mechanism of action of HB-19 on such highly malignant rhabdoid tumor cells is associated with a selective inhibitory effect on the expression of genes implicated in tumorigenesis and angiogenesis. PMID:21040752

  4. Femtosecond dynamics of decoupled superlattice zones in 4Hb-TaSe2 single crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olaoye, O.; Erasmus, N.; Haupt, K.; Schwoerer, H.

    2016-03-01

    Strongly correlated electronic crystal systems marked by temperature-dependent phase transitions often feature an emergence of new structural periodicities, arising from an interplay between modulated electron density and periodic lattice distortion. We investigate the structural evolution of \\sqrt{13}a× \\sqrt{13}a× c superlattice clusters in 4Hb-TaSe2 single crystals on a subpicosecond and atomic resolution via femtosecond electron diffraction (FED). The superlattice clusters comprise of two six-member rings each, related by a rotational symmetry and held in position by Coulombic mode repulsion. The two six-member rings are decoupled into two possible zones, which are further decoupled into respective site-specific satellite reflections in the reciprocal space. Governed by the interlayer interactions and the electron diffraction simulation analysis, FED measurements are used to demonstrate the suppression and dynamics of the decoupled superlattice zones. The simultaneous temporal evolution of the two CDW reflection orders are assigned to the decoupled Raman-active A g and {E}2g soft phonon modes previously reported on an isomorphic crystal structure (4Hb-TaS2). It is found that the charge density wave amplitude mode dominates over the corresponding phase mode.

  5. Xanthochromia of the skull bone associated with HbA1c.

    PubMed

    Schäfer, T; Klintschar, M; Lichtinghagen, R; Plagemann, I; Smith, A; Budde, E; Hagemeier, L

    2016-03-01

    The color of the surface of 105 skull bones (part of the parietal bone) was determined using a portable spectral colorimeter (spectro color(®)). By this means it was possible to characterize the color objectively according to the L*a*b* color system defined by the "International Commission de l'Eclairage" (CIE). Biochemical markers of carbohydrate metabolism, HbA1c from venous blood, and glucose/lactate concentrations from vitreous humor, were also determined, for assessment of the ante-mortem plasma glucose concentration using Traub's sum formula. As biochemical markers for lipid metabolism disorder, cholesterol, triglycerides, high density lipoprotein (HDL), low density lipoprotein (LDL) and very low density lipoprotein (VLDL) were all determined from venous blood. There is a significant correlation of bone yellowing with HbA1c (p<0.001) and age (p<0.001). The literature asserts a significant correlation between diabetic condition and yellowing of the skull bone. Despite efforts to find the substance responsible for the yellowing of the bone in chronic metabolism disorder, no significant correlation was found between bone color and lipoproteins/bone extracted lipid acids. PMID:26799427

  6. Genomic characterization of Pasteurella multocida HB01, a serotype A bovine isolate from China.

    PubMed

    Peng, Zhong; Liang, Wan; Liu, Wenjing; Wu, Bin; Tang, Biao; Tan, Chen; Zhou, Rui; Chen, Huanchun

    2016-04-25

    Pasteurella multocida infects various domestic and feral animals, generally causing clinical disease. To investigate P. multocida disease in cattle, we sequenced the complete genome of P. multocida HB01 (GenBank accession CP006976), a serotype A organism isolated from a cow in China. The genome is composed of a single circular chromosome of 2,416,068 base pairs containing 2212 protein-coding sequences, 6 ribosomal rRNA operons, and 56 tRNA genes. The present study confirms that P. multocida HB01 possesses a more complete metabolic pathway with an intact trichloroacetic acid cycle for anabolism compared with A. pleuropneumoniae and Haemophilus parasuis. This is the first time that this metabolic mechanism of P. multocida has been described. We also identified a full spectrum of genes related to known virulence factors of P. multocida. The differences in virulence factors between strains of different serotypes and origins were also compared. This comprehensive comparative genome analysis will help in further studies of the metabolic pathways, genetic basis of serotype, and virulence of P. multocida. PMID:26827796

  7. Features of the electronic structure of the active center of an HbS molecule

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Novoselov, D. Yu.; Korotin, Dm. M.; Anisimov, V. I.

    2016-01-01

    Features of the electronic structure of the nonprotein part of the mutant form of the human hemoglobin molecule, HbS, are studied along with the magnetic state of the iron ion that is the "nucleus" of the active center of the molecule. It is found that the mutant form of the HbS molecule differs from a normal hemoglobin molecule by the distortion of the local environment of the iron ion, which changes the energy level splitting by a crystal field. As a result of ab initio calculations, the magnetic transition in the iron atom from the high-spin state to the low-spin state upon the addition of molecular oxygen to hemoglobin molecule is reproduced. It is established for the first time that a change in the crystal and electronic structure of the active center as a result of a mutation can lead to a substantial change in the energy of the bond between the active center of the hemoglobin molecule and an oxygen molecule.

  8. Quantification of tumour vasculature and hypoxia by immunohistochemical staining and HbO2 saturation measurements.

    PubMed

    Fenton, B M; Paoni, S F; Lee, J; Koch, C J; Lord, E M

    1999-02-01

    Despite the possibility that tumour hypoxia may limit radiotherapeutic response, the underlying mechanisms remain poorly understood. A new methodology has been developed in which information from several sophisticated techniques is combined and analysed at a microregional level. First, tumour oxygen availability is spatially defined by measuring intravascular blood oxygen saturations (HbO2) cryospectrophotometrically in frozen tumour blocks. Second, hypoxic development is quantified in adjacent sections using immunohistochemical detection of a fluorescently conjugated monoclonal antibody (ELK3-51) to a nitroheterocyclic hypoxia marker (EF5), thereby providing information relating to both the oxygen consumption rates and the effective oxygen diffusion distances. Third, a combination of fluorescent (Hoechst 33342 or DiOC7(3)) and immunohistological (PECAM-1/CD31) stains is used to define the anatomical vascular densities and the fraction of blood vessels containing flow. Using a computer-interfaced microscope stage, image analysis software and a 3-CCD colour video camera, multiple images are digitized, combined to form a photo-montage and revisited after each of the three staining protocols. By applying image registration techniques, the spatial distribution of HbO2 saturations is matched to corresponding hypoxic marker intensities in adjacent sections. This permits vascular configuration to be related to oxygen availability and allows the hypoxic marker intensities to be quantitated in situ. PMID:10027314

  9. Synthesis, Antimalarial, Antileishmanial, Antimicrobial, Cytotoxicity and Methemoglobin (MetHb) Formation Activities of New 8-Quinolinamines

    PubMed Central

    Kaur, Kirandeep; Jain, Meenakshi; Khan, Shabana I.; Jacob, Melissa R.; Tekwani, Babu L.; Jain, Rahul

    2014-01-01

    We report the synthesis, in vitro antiprotozoal (against Plasmodium and Leishmania), antimicrobial, cytotoxicity (Vero and MetHb-producing properties) and in vivo antimalarial activities of two series of 8-quinolinamines. N1-{4-[2-(tert-Butyl)-6-methoxy-8-quinolylamino]pentyl}-(2S/2R)-2-aminosubstitutedamides (21–33) and N1-[4-(4-ethyl-6-methoxy-5-pentyloxy-8-quinolylamino)pentyl]-(2S/2R)-2-aminosubstitutedamides (51–63) were synthesized in six steps from 6-methoxy-8-nitroquinoline and 4-methoxy-2-nitro-5-pentyloxyaniline, respectively. Several analogs displayed promising antimalarial activity in vitro against P. falciparum D6 (chloroquine-sensitive) and W2 (chloroquine-resistant) clones with high selectivity indices vs. mammalian cells. The most promising analogs (21–24) also displayed potent antimalarial activity in vivo in a P. berghei-infected mouse model. Most interestingly, many analogs exhibited promising in vitro antileishmanial activity against L. donovani promastigotes, and antimicrobial activities against a panel of pathogenic bacteria and fungi. Several analogs, notably 21–24, 26–32 and 60, showed less MetHb formation compared to primaquine indicating the potential of these compounds in 8-quinolinamine-based antimalarial drug development. PMID:17084633

  10. A Fetus with Hb Bart's Disease Due to Maternal Uniparental Disomy for Chromosome 16.

    PubMed

    Au, Patrick K C; Kan, Anita S Y; Tang, Mary H Y; Leung, Kwok Y; Chan, Kelvin Y K; Tang, Tommy W F; Lau, Elizabeth T

    2016-01-01

    We here report an unusual case of Hb Bart's (γ4) disease. Thalassemia screening of a couple showed that the wife was an α(0)-thalassemia (α(0)-thal) carrier and her husband's mean corpuscular volume (MCV) was normal. Chorionic villus sampling (CVS) was performed at 13 weeks' gestation for positive Down syndrome screening and chromosomal study of the cultured CVS showed a normal karyotype. Ultrasound examination at 22 weeks' gestation showed fetal cardiomegaly and raised middle cerebral artery peak systolic velocity. Cordocentesis confirmed fetal anemia and showed Hb Bart's disease. Multiplex gap-polymerase chain reaction (gap-PCR) for α-thal deletions on DNA extracted from the CVS showed the presence of a homozygous α(0)-thal - -(SEA) (Southeast Asian) deletion. The husband was found to be a carrier of the α(+)-thal -α(3.7) (rightward) deletion. Non paternity was excluded by fluorescent PCR using short tandem repeat (STR) markers on chromosomes 13, 18 and 21. A de novo terminal deletion of chromosome 16 was excluded by array comparative genomic hybridization (aCGH). Detection of uniparental disomy (UPD), using STR markers on chromosome 16 showed maternal uniparental isodisomy from 16pter to 16p13.2, and uniparental heterodisomy from 16p13.13 to 16qter. PMID:26574185

  11. Radio emission from the supernova remnant G160.9 + 2.6 (HB9)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leahy, D. A.; Roger, R. S.

    1991-03-01

    High-resolution radio observations of the large-angular-diameter SNR HB9 are reported. Data obtained in the 408- and 1420-MHz continuum and in H I using the four 9-m paraboloid antennas of the Dominion Radio Astrophysical Observatory synthesis telescope during 1986-1989 are presented in graphs and grey-scale and contour maps and discussed in detail. It is shown that the emission is dominated by filamentary arcs extending across the SNR, often at locations where filaments are seen in H-alpha but at times displaced inward from the optical filaments. The mean spectral index derived from these observations is alpha = 0.61, with rms deviation 0.08 on scale sizes equal to about 15 percent of the SNR diameter. The distance of the SNR is estimated as 4 kpc or less, and it is suggested that HB9 may be associated with PSR 0458 + 46, at about 1.2 kpc. The H I observations show no evidence of interaction between the SNR and the atomic component of the surrounding gas.

  12. Role of curcuminoids in ameliorating oxidative modification in β-thalassemia/Hb E plasma proteome.

    PubMed

    Weeraphan, Churat; Srisomsap, Chantragan; Chokchaichamnankit, Daranee; Subhasitanont, Pantipa; Hatairaktham, Suneerat; Charoensakdi, Ratiya; Panichkul, Narumol; Siritanaratkul, Noppadol; Fucharoen, Suthat; Svasti, Jisnuson; Kalpravidh, Ruchaneekorn W

    2013-03-01

    Thalassemic patients often exhibit high levels of oxidative stress and iron overload, which can lead to hazardous complications. Curcuminoids, extracted from the spice turmeric, are known to have antioxidant and iron-chelating properties and have been proposed as a potential upstream therapy of thalassemia. Here we have applied proteomic techniques to study the protein profile and oxidative damage in the plasma of β-thalassemia/Hb E patients before and after treatment with curcuminoids. In this study, 10 β-thalassemia/Hb E patients were treated with 500 mg curcuminoids daily for 12 months. The plasma protein profile and protein carbonyl content were determined at baseline, 6 and 12 months using two-dimensional fluorescence difference gel electrophoresis and carbonyl immunoblotting, respectively. Other hematological, clinical, and biochemical parameters were also analyzed. Twenty-six spots, identified as coagulation factors and proteins involved in iron homeostasis, showed significantly decreased intensity in thalassemic plasma, compared to those of normal subjects. Treatment with curcuminoids up-regulated the plasma levels of these proteins and reduced their oxidative damage. Serum non-transferrin bound iron, platelet factor-3 like activity, oxidative stress parameters and antioxidant enzymes were also improved after curcuminoids treatment. This study is the first proteomic study of plasma in the thalassemic state and also shows the ameliorating role of curcuminoids towards oxidative stress and iron overload in the plasma proteome. PMID:22818714

  13. An extended source of GeV gamma rays coincident with the supernova remnant HB 21

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reichardt, Ignasi; Oña-Wilhelmi, Emma De; Rico, Javier; Yang, Rui-zhi

    2012-12-01

    We analyze 3.5 years of public Fermi/LAT data around the position of the supernova remnant HB 21, where four point-like sources from the 2nd Fermi/LAT catalog are located. We determine that the gamma-ray source is produced by a single extended source. We model the observed morphology as a uniform circle. The spectral energy distribution is best described by a curved power law, with a maximum at 413+/-11 MeV. We divide the circle into three regions defined by previously identified shocked molecular clouds, and find that one of the se regions has a softer spectrum. The > 3GeV gamma-ray emission of the soft spectrum region is bow-shaped and coincident with the supernova remnant shell seen at radio wavelengths. We suggest that the gamma-ray emission from HB 21 can be understood as a combination of emission from shocked/illuminated molecular clouds, one of them coincident with the supernova remnant shell itself.

  14. A Lead Angle Control for HB-Type Stepping Motor in the Constant Voltage Range

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Okumatsu, Yoshihiro; Kawamura, Atsuo

    Stepping motors are generally used as a positioning servo in the OA (Office Automation) and FA (Factory Automation) system because the construction cost is very low and the construction of system is very easy. Since they are generally driven by an open loop controller, the response of stepping motors is oscillatory and it is possible to be out of drive. Therefore they are driven by a closed loop controller in the special system, which requires the high reliability and stability. The lead angle control is used as a closed loop controller of stepping motors because an applied voltage amplitude is not able to be controlled. However a closed loop control of stepping motors is hardly used at present. This paper presents the lead angle control based on the vector control in the constant voltage drive range for 2 phases HB type stepping motors. In the constant voltage range, since the HB type stepping motor is modeled as a surface permanent magnet motor, the motor torque is controlled by the q-axis current. The d-axis current is calculated by the voltage limit condition because of the constant voltage amplitude operation. The control performances are examined by the simulations and experimental results.

  15. An extended source of GeV gamma rays coincident with the supernova remnant HB 21

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reichardt, I.; de Oña-Wilhelmi, E.; Rico, J.; Yang, R.

    2012-10-01

    We analyze 3.5 years of public Fermi/LAT data around the position of the supernova remnant HB 21, where four point-like sources from the 2nd Fermi/LAT catalog are located. We determine that the gamma-ray source is produced by a single extended source. We model the observed morphology as a uniform circle. The spectral energy distribution is best described by a curved power law, with a maximum at 413 ± 11 MeV. We divide the circle into three regions defined by previously identified shocked molecular clouds, and find that one of these regions has a softer spectrum. The >3 GeV gamma-ray emission of the soft spectrum region is bow-shaped and coincident with the supernova remnant shell seen at radio wavelengths. We suggest that the gamma-ray emission from HB 21 can be understood as a combination of emission from shocked/illuminated molecular clouds, one of them coincident with the supernova remnant shell itself.

  16. Production of monoclonal antibodies for breast cancer by HB8696 hybridoma cells using novel perfusion system.

    PubMed

    Kamthan, Shweta; Gomes, James; Roychoudhury, Pradip K

    2014-10-01

    Perfusion culture using spinfilters have been used for the production of health-care products using mammalian cells culture. However, available spinfilters are either highly prone to clog and/or are disposable and hence affects product formation. To address these problems, a novel non-woven Bombyx mori silk screen based spinfilter module for clog-free extended perfusion culture of hybridoma cells has been designed. The module is versatile in nature and reusable, after autoclaving and replacement of used polymeric membrane. Its application for clog-free extended perfusion culture was demonstrated by comparative perfusion experiments of HB8696 cells with stainless-steel spinfilter. HB8696 cells produce monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) 520C9 active against breast cancer oncoprotein. Silk spinfilter was found to be less prone to clog with cells and debris owing to its negatively charged hydrophobic screen compared to the positively charged hydrophilic stainless-steel spinfilter. Therefore, it provides extended cell growth phase and production phase of up to 56 h and 40 h respectively and 57.4% increase in MAb productivity compared to the stainless-steel spinfilter. The effect of different perfusion rates on MAb production was studied and an optimal MAb productivity of 1.6 g L(-1) day(-1) was achieved. PMID:25152416

  17. First Observation of the Hadronic Transition ϒ (4 S )→η hb(1 P ) and New Measurement of the hb(1 P ) and ηb(1 S ) Parameters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tamponi, U.; Mussa, R.; Abdesselam, A.; Aihara, H.; Arinstein, K.; Asner, D. M.; Atmacan, H.; Aushev, T.; Ayad, R.; Badhrees, I.; Bakich, A. M.; Barberio, E.; Bhardwaj, V.; Bhuyan, B.; Biswal, J.; Bondar, A.; Bonvicini, G.; Bozek, A.; Bračko, M.; Browder, T. E.; Červenkov, D.; Chen, A.; Cheon, B. G.; Cho, K.; Chobanova, V.; Choi, S.-K.; Choi, Y.; Cinabro, D.; Danilov, M.; Doležal, Z.; Drásal, Z.; Drutskoy, A.; Eidelman, S.; Epifanov, D.; Farhat, H.; Fast, J. E.; Ferber, T.; Fulsom, B. G.; Gaur, V.; Gabyshev, N.; Garmash, A.; Getzkow, D.; Gillard, R.; Goh, Y. M.; Golob, B.; Haba, J.; Hayasaka, K.; Hayashii, H.; He, X. H.; Hedges, M. T.; Hou, W.-S.; Iijima, T.; Inami, K.; Ishikawa, A.; Jaegle, I.; Joffe, D.; Julius, T.; Kato, E.; Katrenko, P.; Kichimi, H.; Kiesling, C.; Kim, D. Y.; Kim, H. J.; Kim, J. H.; Kim, K. T.; Kim, S. H.; Kinoshita, K.; Kodyš, P.; Korpar, S.; Križan, P.; Krokovny, P.; Kumita, T.; Kuzmin, A.; Lange, J. S.; Lewis, P.; Libby, J.; Lukin, P.; Matvienko, D.; Miyabayashi, K.; Miyata, H.; Mizuk, R.; Mohanty, G. B.; Moll, A.; Mori, T.; Nakano, E.; Nakao, M.; Nanut, T.; Natkaniec, Z.; Nayak, M.; Nisar, N. K.; Nishida, S.; Ogawa, S.; Okuno, S.; Olsen, S. L.; Ostrowicz, W.; Oswald, C.; Pakhlova, G.; Pal, B.; Park, H.; Pedlar, T. K.; Pesántez, L.; Pestotnik, R.; Petrič, M.; Piilonen, L. E.; Ribežl, E.; Ritter, M.; Rostomyan, A.; Ryu, S.; Sakai, Y.; Sandilya, S.; Santelj, L.; Sanuki, T.; Sato, Y.; Savinov, V.; Schneider, O.; Schnell, G.; Schwanda, C.; Semmler, D.; Senyo, K.; Sevior, M. E.; Shapkin, M.; Shebalin, V.; Shen, C. P.; Shibata, T.-A.; Shiu, J.-G.; Shwartz, B.; Sibidanov, A.; Simon, F.; Sohn, Y.-S.; Sokolov, A.; Starič, M.; Steder, M.; Stypula, J.; Tanida, K.; Teramoto, Y.; Trabelsi, K.; Uchida, M.; Uglov, T.; Unno, Y.; Uno, S.; Urquijo, P.; Van Hulse, C.; Vanhoefer, P.; Varner, G.; Vinokurova, A.; Vossen, A.; Wagner, M. N.; Wang, M.-Z.; Wang, X. L.; Watanabe, Y.; Williams, K. M.; Won, E.; Yamaoka, J.; Yashchenko, S.; Zhang, Z. P.; Zhilich, V.; Zhulanov, V.; Zupanc, A.; Belle Collaboration

    2015-10-01

    Using a sample of 771.6 ×106 ϒ ϒ (4 S ) decays collected by the Belle experiment at the KEKB e+e- collider, we observe, for the first time, the transition ϒ (4 S )→η hb(1 P ) with the branching fraction B [ϒ (4 S )→η hb(1 P )]=(2.18 ±0.11 ±0.18 )×10-3 and we measure the hb(1 P ) mass Mhb(1P )=(9899.3 ±0.4 ±1.0 ) MeV /c2 , corresponding to the hyperfine (HF) splitting Δ MHF(1 P )=(0.6 ±0.4 ±1.0 ) MeV /c2 . Using the transition hb(1 P )→γ ηb(1 S ), we measure the ηb(1 S ) mass Mηb(1S )=(9400.7 ±1.7 ±1.6 ) MeV /c2 , corresponding to Δ MHF(1 S )=(59.6 ±1.7 ±1.6 ) MeV /c2 , the ηb(1 S ) width Γηb(1S )=(8-5+6±5 ) MeV /c2 and the branching fraction B [hb(1 P )→γ ηb(1 S )]=(56 ±8 ±4 )%.

  18. Comparison of the Current Diagnostic Criterion of HbA1c with Fasting and 2-Hour Plasma Glucose Concentration.

    PubMed

    Karnchanasorn, Rudruidee; Huang, Jean; Ou, Horng-Yih; Feng, Wei; Chuang, Lee-Ming; Chiu, Ken C; Samoa, Raynald

    2016-01-01

    To determine the effectiveness of hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) ≥ 6.5% in diagnosing diabetes compared to fasting plasma glucose (FPG) ≥ 126 mg/dL and 2-hour plasma glucose (2hPG) ≥ 200 mg/dL in a previously undiagnosed diabetic cohort, we included 5,764 adult subjects without established diabetes for whom HbA1c, FPG, 2hPG, and BMI measurements were collected. Compared to the FPG criterion, the sensitivity of HbA1c ≥ 6.5% was only 43.3% (106 subjects). Compared to the 2hPG criterion, the sensitivity of HbA1c ≥ 6.5% was only 28.1% (110 subjects). Patients who were diabetic using 2hPG criterion but had HbA1c < 6.5% were more likely to be older (64 ± 15 versus 60 ± 15 years old, P = 0.01, mean ± STD), female (53.2% versus 38.2%, P = 0.008), leaner (29.7 ± 6.1 versus 33.0 ± 6.6 kg/m(2), P = 0.000005), and less likely to be current smokers (18.1% versus 29.1%, P = 0.02) as compared to those with HbA1c ≥ 6.5%. The diagnostic agreement in the clinical setting revealed the current HbA1c ≥ 6.5% is less likely to detect diabetes than those defined by FPG and 2hPG. HbA1c ≥ 6.5% detects less than 50% of diabetic patients defined by FPG and less than 30% of diabetic patients defined by 2hPG. When the diagnosis of diabetes is in doubt by HbA1c, FPG and/or 2hPG should be obtained. PMID:27597979

  19. The correlation between the Glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) in non-diabetics and cardiovascular risk factors.

    PubMed

    Wu, Xinling; Zhao, Youmin; Chai, Jianwen; Hao, Dongqin

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to discuss the relativity between the glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) in non-diabetics and cardiovascular risk factors and definite the significance of predicting the cardiovascular risk factors through cross-sectional research method. There were 2007 cases volunteers (including 650 cases of male, 1357 cases of female) from city community with complete information involved in the research of diabetes. The value of HbA1c 6.5% was set as the diagnose boundary of the diabetes. Differences were considered to be statistically significant at P<0.05. Hypertension, dyslipidemi, being overweight or obesity, age (male was over 45 years old and female was over 55 years old.), HbA1c 6.0% and fasting blood glucose (FBG) 6.1mmol/L were regarded as cardiovascular risk factors. Then we analyzed the number of risk factors for individuals in different HbA1c groups. Meanwhile, patients were grouped into zero, one, two, three, four or more groups with reference to the number of risk factors they had in order to compare the values of risk factors in different groups through Logistic regression. The results showed that (1) For those people who had no less than three risk factors, the frequency of risk factors was on the rise with the increase of HbA1c levels. (2) The value of HbA1c in different groups of risk factors rose with the increasing number of risk factors. There was a significant difference (P<0.001) between groups. (3) The Regression analysis showed that there was a stronger correlation between HbA1c levels and impaired glucose tolerance (IGT), fasting blood glucose (FBG) rather than age. So Non-diabetics whose HbA1c levels ranged from 6.0% to 6.5% were at high risk of cardiovascular risk factors. HbA1c levels, which can be a prediction index for cardiovascular risk factors dependent from other cardiovascular risk factors for non-diabetics, and it were highly relevant with impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) and impaired fasting blood glucose (FBG). PMID:27005508

  20. Relationship between HbA1c and Continuous Glucose Monitoring in Chinese Population: A Multicenter Study

    PubMed Central

    Li, Hong; Ran, Xingwu; Yang, Wenying; Li, Qiang; Peng, Yongde; Li, Yanbing; Gao, Xin; Luan, Xiaojun; Wang, Weiqing; Xie, Yun; Jia, Weiping

    2013-01-01

    Objective Since there is a paucity of reference data in the literature to indicate the relationship between HbA1c, and 24 h mean blood glucose (MBG) from continuous glucose monitoring (CGM) in Chinese populations, we described the above relationship in adult Chinese subjects with different glucose tolerance status. Methods Seven-hundred-and-forty-two individuals without history of diabetes were included to the study at 11 hospitals in urban areas across China from 2007–2009 and data of 673 subjects were included into the final analysis. Oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) classified the participants as nondiabetic subjects, including those with normal glucose regulation (NGR; n = 121) and impaired glucose regulation (IGR; n = 209), or newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes (n = 343). All participants completed testing for HbA1c levels and wore a CGM system for three consecutive days. The 24 h MBG levels were calculated. Spearman correlations and linear regression analyses were applied to quantify the relationship between glucose markers. Results The levels of HbA1c and 24 h MBG significantly increased with presence of glucose intolerance (NGRHbA1c was strongly correlated with 24 h MBG (r = 0.735). The correlation was also found to be significant for the subgroup of participants with newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes (r = 0.694, P<0.001). Linear regression analysis of the total study population yielded the following equation: 24 h MBG mmol/L = 1.198×HbA1c–0.582 (24 h MBG mg/dL = 21.564×HbA1c–10.476) (R2 = 0.670, P<0.001). The model fit was not improved by application of exponential or quadratic modeling. When HbA1c was 6.5%, the calculated 24 h MBG was 7.2 (6.4–8.1) mmol/L (130 (115–146) mg/dL); and when HbA1c was 7.0%, the 24 h MBG was 7.8 (6.9–8.7) mmol/L (140 (124–157) mg/dL). Conclusions Our study provided the reference data of the

  1. Comparison of the Current Diagnostic Criterion of HbA1c with Fasting and 2-Hour Plasma Glucose Concentration

    PubMed Central

    Karnchanasorn, Rudruidee; Huang, Jean; Feng, Wei; Chuang, Lee-Ming

    2016-01-01

    To determine the effectiveness of hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) ≥ 6.5% in diagnosing diabetes compared to fasting plasma glucose (FPG) ≥ 126 mg/dL and 2-hour plasma glucose (2hPG) ≥ 200 mg/dL in a previously undiagnosed diabetic cohort, we included 5,764 adult subjects without established diabetes for whom HbA1c, FPG, 2hPG, and BMI measurements were collected. Compared to the FPG criterion, the sensitivity of HbA1c ≥ 6.5% was only 43.3% (106 subjects). Compared to the 2hPG criterion, the sensitivity of HbA1c ≥ 6.5% was only 28.1% (110 subjects). Patients who were diabetic using 2hPG criterion but had HbA1c < 6.5% were more likely to be older (64 ± 15 versus 60 ± 15 years old, P = 0.01, mean ± STD), female (53.2% versus 38.2%, P = 0.008), leaner (29.7 ± 6.1 versus 33.0 ± 6.6 kg/m2, P = 0.000005), and less likely to be current smokers (18.1% versus 29.1%, P = 0.02) as compared to those with HbA1c ≥ 6.5%. The diagnostic agreement in the clinical setting revealed the current HbA1c ≥ 6.5% is less likely to detect diabetes than those defined by FPG and 2hPG. HbA1c ≥ 6.5% detects less than 50% of diabetic patients defined by FPG and less than 30% of diabetic patients defined by 2hPG. When the diagnosis of diabetes is in doubt by HbA1c, FPG and/or 2hPG should be obtained. PMID:27597979

  2. Establishment of transgenic mice carrying the gene of human nuclear receptor NR5A2 (hB1F)

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Shui-Liang; Yang, Hua; Xie, You-Hua; Wang, Yuan; Li, Jian-Zhong; Wang, Long; Wang, Zhu-Gang; Fu, Ji-Liang

    2003-01-01

    AIM: Human hepatitis B virus enhancer II B1 binding factor (hB1F) was cloned and characterized as a novel member of the Ftz-F1 (NR5A) nuclear receptor subfamily. Although progresses have recently been made, its biological function remains largely unidentified. The aim of this study was to establish an hB1F transgenic mouse model to promote the functional study of hB1F. METHODS: Transgene fragments were microinjected into fertilized eggs of mice. The manipulated embryos were transferred into the oviducts of pseudopregnant female mice. The offsprings were identified by PCR and Southern blot analysis. Transgene expression was analyzed with RT-PCR and Western blot analysis. Transgenic founder mice were used to establish transgenic mouse lineages. The F1 and F2 mice were identified by PCR analysis. RESULTS: Seven mice were identified as carrying copies of transgene. RT-PCR and Western blotting results showed that the transgene was expressed in heart, liver, lung, kidney and stomach in one of the transgenic mouse lineages. Genetic analysis of the transgenic mice demonstrated that the transgene was integrated into the chromosome at a single site, and was transmitted stably. CONCLUSION: In this study we established an hB1F transgenic mouse model, which will facilitate the investigation of the biological function of hB1F in vivo. PMID:12800251

  3. Full-Length cDNA, Prokaryotic Expression, and Antimicrobial Activity of UuHb-F-I from Urechis unicinctus

    PubMed Central

    Niu, Rongli; Chen, Xiang

    2016-01-01

    Hemoglobin, which widely exists in all vertebrates and in some invertebrates, is possibly a precursor of antimicrobial peptides (AMPs). However, AMPs in the hemoglobin of invertebrates have been rarely investigated. This study is the first to report the full-length cDNA, prokaryotic expression, and antimicrobial activity of UuHb-F-I from Urechis unicinctus. The full-length cDNA sequence of UuHb-F-I was 780 bp with an open-reading frame of 429 bp encoding 142 amino acids. MALDI-TOF-MS suggested that the recombinant protein of UuHb-F-I (rUuHb-F-I) yielded a molecular weight of 15,168.01 Da, and its N-terminal amino acid sequence was MGLTGAQIDAIK. rUuHb-F-I exhibited different antimicrobial activities against microorganisms. The lowest minimum inhibitory concentration against Micrococcus luteus was 2.78–4.63 μM. Our results may help elucidate the immune defense mechanism of U. unicinctus and may provide insights into new AMPs in drug discovery. PMID:27471730

  4. Full-Length cDNA, Prokaryotic Expression, and Antimicrobial Activity of UuHb-F-I from Urechis unicinctus.

    PubMed

    Niu, Rongli; Chen, Xiang

    2016-01-01

    Hemoglobin, which widely exists in all vertebrates and in some invertebrates, is possibly a precursor of antimicrobial peptides (AMPs). However, AMPs in the hemoglobin of invertebrates have been rarely investigated. This study is the first to report the full-length cDNA, prokaryotic expression, and antimicrobial activity of UuHb-F-I from Urechis unicinctus. The full-length cDNA sequence of UuHb-F-I was 780 bp with an open-reading frame of 429 bp encoding 142 amino acids. MALDI-TOF-MS suggested that the recombinant protein of UuHb-F-I (rUuHb-F-I) yielded a molecular weight of 15,168.01 Da, and its N-terminal amino acid sequence was MGLTGAQIDAIK. rUuHb-F-I exhibited different antimicrobial activities against microorganisms. The lowest minimum inhibitory concentration against Micrococcus luteus was 2.78-4.63 μM. Our results may help elucidate the immune defense mechanism of U. unicinctus and may provide insights into new AMPs in drug discovery. PMID:27471730

  5. The sunflower transcription factor HaHB11 improves yield, biomass and tolerance to flooding in transgenic Arabidopsis plants.

    PubMed

    Cabello, Julieta V; Giacomelli, Jorge I; Piattoni, Claudia V; Iglesias, Alberto A; Chan, Raquel L

    2016-03-20

    HaHB11 is a member of the sunflower homeodomain-leucine zipper I subfamily of transcription factors. The analysis of a sunflower microarray hybridized with RNA from HaHB11-transformed leaf-disks indicated the regulation of many genes encoding enzymes from glycolisis and fermentative pathways. A 1300bp promoter sequence, fused to the GUS reporter gene, was used to transform Arabidopsis plants showing an induction of expression after flooding treatments, concurrently with HaHB11 regulation by submergence in sunflower. Arabidopsis transgenic plants expressing HaHB11 under the control of the CaMV 35S promoter and its own promoter were obtained and these plants exhibited significant increases in rosette and stem biomass. All the lines produced more seeds than controls and particularly, those of high expression level doubled seeds yield. Transgenic plants also showed tolerance to flooding stress, both to submergence and waterlogging. Carbohydrates contents were higher in the transgenics compared to wild type and decreased less after submergence treatments. Finally, transcript levels of selected genes involved in glycolisis and fermentative pathways as well as the corresponding enzymatic activities were assessed both, in sunflower and transgenic Arabidopsis plants, before and after submergence. Altogether, the present work leads us to propose HaHB11 as a biotechnological tool to improve crops yield, biomass and flooding tolerance. PMID:26876611

  6. Capability to Recover Plutonium-238 in H-Canyon/HB-Line - 13248

    SciTech Connect

    Fuller, Kenneth S. Jr.; Smith, Robert H. Jr.; Goergen, Charles R.

    2013-07-01

    Plutonium-238 is used in Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generators (RTGs) to generate electrical power and in Radioisotope Heater Units (RHUs) to produce heat for electronics and environmental control for deep space missions. The domestic supply of Pu-238 consists of scrap material from previous mission production or material purchased from Russia. Currently, the United States has no significant production scale operational capability to produce and separate new Pu-238 from irradiated neptunium-237 targets. The Department of Energy - Nuclear Energy is currently evaluating and developing plans to reconstitute the United States capability to produce Pu-238 from irradiated Np-237 targets. The Savannah River Site had previously produced and/or processed all the Pu-238 utilized in Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generators (RTGs) for deep space missions up to and including the majority of the plutonium for the Cassini Mission. The previous full production cycle capabilities included: Np- 237 target fabrication, target irradiation, target dissolution and Np-237 and Pu-238 separation and purification, conversion of Np-237 and Pu-238 to oxide, scrap recovery, and Pu-238 encapsulation. The capability and equipment still exist and could be revitalized or put back into service to recover and purify Pu-238/Np-237 or broken General Purpose Heat Source (GPHS) pellets utilizing existing process equipment in HB-Line Scrap Recovery, and H-Canyon Frame Waste Recovery processes. The conversion of Np-237 and Pu-238 to oxide can be performed in the existing HB-Line Phase-2 and Phase- 3 Processes. Dissolution of irradiated Np-237 target material, and separation and purification of Np-237 and Pu-238 product streams would be possible at production rates of ∼2 kg/month of Pu-238 if the existing H-Canyon Frames Process spare equipment were re-installed. Previously, the primary H-Canyon Frames equipment was removed to be replaced: however, the replacement project was stopped. The spare equipment

  7. CAPABILITY TO RECOVER PLUTONIUM-238 IN H-CANYON/HB-LINE

    SciTech Connect

    Fuller, Kenneth S. Jr.; Smith, Robert H. Jr.; Goergen, Charles R.

    2013-01-09

    Plutonium-238 is used in Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generators (RTGs) to generate electrical power and in Radioisotope Heater Units (RHUs) to produce heat for electronics and environmental control for deep space missions. The domestic supply of Pu-238 consists of scrap material from previous mission production or material purchased from Russia. Currently, the United States has no significant production scale operational capability to produce and separate new Pu-238 from irradiated neptunium-237 targets. The Department of Energy - Nuclear Energy is currently evaluating and developing plans to reconstitute the United States capability to produce Pu-238 from irradiated Np-237 targets. The Savannah River Site had previously produced and/or processed all the Pu-238 utilized in Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generators (RTGs) for deep space missions up to and including the majority of the plutonium for the Cassini Mission. The previous full production cycle capabilities included: Np-237 target fabrication, target irradiation, target dissolution and Np-237 and Pu-238 separation and purification, conversion of Np-237 and Pu-238 to oxide, scrap recovery, and Pu-238 encapsulation. The capability and equipment still exist and could be revitalized or put back into service to recover and purify Pu-238/Np-237 or broken General Purpose Heat Source (GPHS) pellets utilizing existing process equipment in HB-Line Scrap Recovery, and H-anyon Frame Waste Recovery processes. The conversion of Np-237 and Pu-238 to oxide can be performed in the existing HB-Line Phase-2 and Phase-3 Processes. Dissolution of irradiated Np-237 target material, and separation and purification of Np-237 and Pu-238 product streams would be possible at production rates of ~ 2 kg/month of Pu-238 if the existing H-Canyon Frames Process spare equipment were re-installed. Previously, the primary H-Canyon Frames equipment was removed to be replaced: however, the replacement project was stopped. The spare equipment is

  8. Growth of InGaAlP HB-LEDs in a large-scale-production reactor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Sherman; Collins, D. A.; Vatanapradit, S.; Ferreira, M.; Zawadzki, Peter A.; Stall, Richard A.; Eliashevich, Ivan; Nering, J. E.

    1999-04-01

    The theory, structure, and current manufacturing technologies for InGaAlP high brightness light emitting diodes (HB-LED) emitting in the range of 650 to 585 nm are described in this paper. A state-of-the-art HB-LED MOCVD reactor designed for high volume manufacturing (42 - 2' or 16 - 3' wafers) is demonstrated. Data for thickness and compositional uniformity and reproducibility are presented showing the material quality and reactor stability that can currently be achieved. In addition, device data for InGaAlP HB-LEDs is reported, including brightness, forward voltage, and emission wavelength with excellent intra and inter wafer uniformity and run-to-run reproducibility.

  9. Quality of HbA1c Measurement in the Practice: The German Perspective.

    PubMed

    Heinemann, Lutz; Freckmann, Guido

    2015-05-01

    Hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) measurement has come to be a cornerstone in modern diabetes therapy. However, the methodological aspects of this type of measurement have been given little attention lately due to its position as an established method of choice. Nevertheless, quite a number of issues face practical application, such as clinically relevant differences between different measurement methods--both lab-based and point-of-care (POCT) systems will show better or worse diabetes management results after switching methods; and there are a number of possible reasons that need to be known and observed in practice. The aim of this review is to draw attention to these problems from a German point of view and provide suggestions for appropriate measures to improve the situation. PMID:25691655

  10. Quality of HbA1c Measurement in the Practice

    PubMed Central

    Freckmann, Guido

    2015-01-01

    Hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) measurement has come to be a cornerstone in modern diabetes therapy. However, the methodological aspects of this type of measurement have been given little attention lately due to its position as an established method of choice. Nevertheless, quite a number of issues face practical application, such as clinically relevant differences between different measurement methods—both lab-based and point-of-care (POCT) systems will show better or worse diabetes management results after switching methods; and there are a number of possible reasons that need to be known and observed in practice. The aim of this review is to draw attention to these problems from a German point of view and provide suggestions for appropriate measures to improve the situation. PMID:25691655

  11. Current meter data report, September 1980 - December 1980: mooring OTEC-HB

    SciTech Connect

    Roman, T M; Wang, D P

    1981-03-01

    Data tapes contained current meter records from instrumented mooring OTEC-HB near the OTEC-1 site approximately 14 nautical miles northwest of Keahole Point, Island of Hawaii. Deployed in 1345 m of water, the mooring had five Aanderaa RCM-5 current meters, one at each of the following depths: 47 m, 70m, 99m, 154m, and 829 m. Raw data consisted of east-west (U) velocity, north-south (V) velocity, temperature (T), and pressure (P) time series from September 23, 1980, through December 20, 1980, with a recording interval of 15 min. The series (U, V, T) were filtered into various frequency domains, thereby removing very high frequencies and separating tidal oscillations from very low frequencies. Spectral analyses were performed on the nontidal U and V time series.

  12. Neutral hydrogen in the vicinity of the supernova remnant HB 9

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gosachinskii, I. V.

    2013-03-01

    The neutral hydrogen emission at 21 cm has been investigated with the RATAN-600 radio telescope in the vicinity of the supernova remnant HB9. A clumpyHI shell with radial motions surrounding the remnant has been detected. Its measured parameters contradict the connection with a shock wave from a supernova explosion. The shell formation under the action of a wind from a star that exploded as a supernova at the end of its evolution seems more realistic. The characteristics of the star obtained from the observed shell parameters are the following: a wind power of 0.5 × 1038 erg s-1, a mass-loss rate of 3.7 × 10-5 M ⊙ yr-1, and an age of 3 × 106 yr. Given the measurement errors, the mass of the star is estimated to be >8 M ⊙.

  13. Multiplexing of electronically scanned white-light interferometric strain sensors based on HB fibers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Urbanczyk, Waclaw; Bock, Wojtek J.; Zaremba, Marek B.

    1993-12-01

    Application of electronic scanning to a sequence of coherence-multiplexed strain sensors is proposed in this paper. The sensors consist of a cascade of HB fibers spliced with their polarization axes rotated by certain angles. We theoretically analyzed the behavior of such chains as a function of their alignment and found the optimal alignment ensuring readout of every sensor with the maximum S/N ratio. The performance of parallel and serial multiplexing configurations was experimentally studied. As a receiving interferometer we used a Wollaston prism followed by a CCD camera and an image processing system while a stepped delay line made of calcite and crystalline quartz was used to match the group delays between sensing and receiving interferometers.

  14. Catalysis of Dioxygen Reduction by Thermus thermophilus Strain HB27 Laccase on Ketjen Black Electrodes

    PubMed Central

    Agbo, Peter; Heath, James R.

    2012-01-01

    We present electrochemical analyses of the catalysis of dioxygen reduction by Thermus thermophilus strain HB27 laccase on ketjen black substrates. Our cathodes reliably produce 0.56 mA cm−2 at 0.0 V vs. Ag|AgCl reference at 30 °C in air-saturated buffer, under conditions of non-limiting O2 flux. We report the electrochemical activity of this laccase as a function of temperature, pH, time, and the efficiency of its conversion of dioxygen to water. We have measured the surface concentration of electrochemically active species, permitting the extraction of electron transfer rates at the enzyme-electrode interface: 1 s−1 for this process at zero driving force at 30 °C and a limiting rate of 23 s−1 at 240 mV overpotential at 50 °C. PMID:23163614

  15. Best use of the recommended IFCC reference method, material and values in HbA1C analyses.

    PubMed

    Penttilä, I M; Halonen, T; Punnonen, K; Tiikkainen, U

    2005-01-01

    The results of Finnish HbA(1C) surveys (Labquality Ltd.) during the past 10 years have undergone continuous improvement with smaller overall coefficients of variation for the HbA(1C) mean values of all methods (from 7.5 to 5.4% for normal and from 8.9 to 4.7% for diabetic samples). Most of the HbA(1C) methods are certified for traceability to the Diabetes Control and Complication Trial (DCCT) designated comparison method, which originally was a high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method (Bio-Rex 70, Bio-Rad) but is no longer in routine use. It was therefore important that the International Federation of Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine (IFCC) had prepared both reference preparations and method for the determination of HbA(1C). However, the very demanding reference method is not realistic for use in clinical laboratories. According to the present study, the mean HbA(1C) values of the Labquality Ltd. showed significant correlations to the HbA(1C) values of The European Reference Laboratory for Glycohemoglobin (r = 0.999) and to the values using the IFCC method (r = 0.999). The reference values of the IFCC method (mainly those of the manufacturer) range from 2.85 to 3.81%, being significantly lower than the present DCCT values (4.0-6.1%). Since it may take some time before consumers are ready to accept the new IFCC reference values for general use, we propose that the IFCC reference materials and method should be used for calibration of the present methods to the well-known DCCT levels. PMID:16179278

  16. Co-inheritance of compound heterozygous Hb Constant Spring and a single -alpha(3.7) gene deletion with heterozygous deltabeta thalassaemia: a diagnostic challenge.

    PubMed

    Azma, Raja Zahratul; Othman, Ainoon; Azman, Norazlina; Alauddin, Hafiza; Ithnin, Azlin; Yusof, Nurasyikin; Razak, Noor Farisah; Sardi, Nor Hidayati; Hussin, Noor Hamidah

    2012-06-01

    Haemoglobin Constant Spring (Hb CS) mutation and single gene deletions are common underlying genetic abnormalities for alpha thalassaemias. Co-inheritance of deletional and non-deletional alpha (alpha) thalassaemias may result in various thalassaemia syndromes. Concomitant co-inheritance with beta (beta) and delta (delta) gene abnormalities would result in improved clinical phenotype. We report here a 33-year-old male patient who was admitted with dengue haemorrhagic fever, with a background history of Grave's disease, incidentally noted to have mild hypochromic microcytic red cell indices. Physical examination revealed no thalassaemic features or hepatosplenomegaly. His full blood picture showed hypochromic microcytic red cells with normal haemoglobin (Hb) level. Quantitation of Hb using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and capillary electrophoresis (CE) revealed raised Hb F, normal Hb A2 and Hb A levels. There was also small peak of Hb CS noted in CE. H inclusions was negative. Kleihauer test was positive with heterocellular distribution of Hb F among the red cells. DNA analysis for alpha globin gene mutations showed a single -alpha(-3.7) deletion and Hb CS mutation. These findings were suggestive of compound heterozygosity of Hb CS and a single -alpha(-3.7) deletion with a concomitant heterozygous deltabeta thalassaemia. Co-inheritance of Hb CS and a single -alpha(-3.7) deletion is expected to result at the very least in a clinical phenotype similar to that of two alpha genes deletion. However we demonstrate here a phenotypic modification of alpha thalassemia presumptively as a result of co-inheritance with deltabeta chain abnormality as suggested by the high Hb F level. PMID:22870600

  17. HB-LINE ANION EXCHANGE PURIFICATION OF AFS-2 PLUTONIUM FOR MOX

    SciTech Connect

    Kyser, E.; King, W.

    2012-04-25

    Non-radioactive cerium (Ce) and radioactive plutonium (Pu) anion exchange column experiments using scaled HB-Line designs were performed to investigate the feasibility of using either gadolinium nitrate (Gd) or boric acid (B as H{sub 3}BO{sub 3}) as a neutron poison in the H-Canyon dissolution process. Expected typical concentrations of probable impurities were tested and the removal of these impurities by a decontamination wash was measured. Impurity concentrations are compared to two specifications - designated as Column A or Column B (most restrictive) - proposed for plutonium oxide (PuO{sub 2}) product shipped to the Mixed Oxide (MOX) Fuel Fabrication Facility (MFFF). Use of Gd as a neutron poison requires a larger volume of wash for the proposed Column A specification. Since boron (B) has a higher proposed specification and is more easily removed by washing, it appears to be the better candidate for use in the H-Canyon dissolution process. Some difficulty was observed in achieving the Column A specification due to the limited effectiveness that the wash step has in removing the residual B after {approx}4 BV's wash. However a combination of the experimental 10 BV's wash results and a calculated DF from the oxalate precipitation process yields an overall DF sufficient to meet the Column A specification. For those impurities (other than B) not removed by 10 BV's of wash, the impurity is either not expected to be present in the feedstock or process, or recommendations have been provided for improvement in the analytical detection/method or validation of calculated results. In summary, boron is recommended as the appropriate neutron poison for H-Canyon dissolution and impurities are expected to meet the Column A specification limits for oxide production in HB-Line.

  18. HB-LINE ANION EXCHANGE PURIFICATION OF AFS-2 PLUTONIUM FOR MOX

    SciTech Connect

    Kyser, E. A.; King, W. D.

    2012-07-31

    Non-radioactive cerium (Ce) and radioactive plutonium (Pu) anion exchange column experiments using scaled HB-Line designs were performed to investigate the feasibility of using either gadolinium nitrate (Gd) or boric acid (B as H{sub 3}BO{sub 3}) as a neutron poison in the H-Canyon dissolution process. Expected typical concentrations of probable impurities were tested and the removal of these impurities by a decontamination wash was measured. Impurity concentrations are compared to two specifications - designated as Column A or Column B (most restrictive) - proposed for plutonium oxide (PuO{sub 2}) product shipped to the Mixed Oxide (MOX) Fuel Fabrication Facility (MFFF). Use of Gd as a neutron poison requires a larger volume of wash for the proposed Column A specification. Since boron (B) has a higher proposed specification and is more easily removed by washing, it appears to be the better candidate for use in the H-Canyon dissolution process. Some difficulty was observed in achieving the Column A specification due to the limited effectiveness that the wash step has in removing the residual B after ~4 BV's wash. However a combination of the experimental 10 BV's wash results and a calculated DF from the oxalate precipitation process yields an overall DF sufficient to meet the Column A specification. For those impurities (other than B) not removed by 10 BV's of wash, the impurity is either not expected to be present in the feedstock or process, or recommendations have been provided for improvement in the analytical detection/method or validation of calculated results. In summary, boron is recommended as the appropriate neutron poison for H-Canyon dissolution and impurities are expected to meet the Column A specification limits for oxide production in HB-Line.

  19. Structure of 3-oxoacyl-(acyl-carrier protein) synthase II from Thermus thermophilus HB8

    SciTech Connect

    Bagautdinov, Bagautdin Ukita, Yoko; Miyano, Masashi; Kunishima, Naoki

    2008-05-01

    The crystal structure of 3-oxoacyl-(acyl-carrier protein) synthase II from T. thermophilus HB8 has been determined at 2.0 Å resolution and compared with the structures of β-keto-ACP synthases from other sources. The β-ketoacyl-(acyl carrier protein) synthases (β-keto-ACP synthases; KAS) catalyse the addition of two-carbon units to the growing acyl chain during the elongation phase of fatty-acid synthesis. As key regulators of bacterial fatty-acid synthesis, they are promising targets for the development of new antibacterial agents. The crystal structure of 3-oxoacyl-ACP synthase II from Thermus thermophilus HB8 (TtKAS II) has been solved by molecular replacement and refined at 2.0 Å resolution. The crystal is orthorhombic, space group P2{sub 1}2{sub 1}2, with unit-cell parameters a = 72.07, b = 185.57, c = 62.52 Å, and contains one homodimer in the asymmetric unit. The subunits adopt the well known α-β-α-β-α thiolase fold that is common to ACP synthases. The structural and sequence similarities of TtKAS II to KAS I and KAS II enzymes of known structure from other sources support the hypothesis of comparable enzymatic activity. The dimeric state of TtKAS II is important to create each fatty-acid-binding pocket. Closer examination of KAS structures reveals that compared with other KAS structures in the apo form, the active site of TtKAS II is more accessible because of the ‘open’ conformation of the Phe396 side chain.

  20. The Haber Bosch-harmful algal bloom (HB-HAB) link

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glibert, Patricia M.; Maranger, Roxane; Sobota, Daniel J.; Bouwman, Lex

    2014-10-01

    Large-scale commercialization of the Haber-Bosch (HB) process is resulting in intensification of nitrogen (N) fertilizer use worldwide. Globally N fertilizer use is far outpacing that of phosphorus (P) fertilizer. Much of the increase in N fertilizers is also now in the form of urea, a reduced form of N. Incorporation of these fertilizers into agricultural products is inefficient leading to significant environmental pollution and aquatic eutrophication. Of particular concern is the increased occurrence of harmful algal blooms (HABs) in waters receiving nutrient enriched runoff. Many phytoplankton causing HABs have physiological adaptive strategies that make them favored under conditions of elevated N : P conditions and supply of chemically reduced N (ammonium, urea). We propose that the HB-HAB link is a function of (1) the inefficiency of incorporation of N fertilizers in the food supply chain, the leakiness of the N cycle from crop to table, and the fate of lost N relative to P to the environment; and (2) adaptive physiology of many HABs to thrive in environments in which there is excess N relative to classic nutrient stoichiometric proportions and where chemically reduced forms of N dominate. The rate of HAB expansion is particularly pronounced in China where N fertilizer use has escalated very rapidly, where soil retention is declining, and where blooms have had large economic and ecological impacts. There, in addition to increased use of urea and high N : P based fertilizers overall, escalating aquaculture production adds to the availability of reduced forms of N, as does atmospheric deposition of ammonia. HABs in both freshwaters and marginal seas in China are highly related to these overall changing N loads and ratios. Without more aggressive N control the future outlook in terms of HABs is likely to include more events, more often, and they may also be more toxic.

  1. Spectral analysis and abundances of the post-HB star HD 76431

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khalack, V.; Yameogo, B.; LeBlanc, F.; Fontaine, G.; Green, E.; Van Grootel, V.; Petit, P.

    2014-12-01

    HD 76431 is a slow rotating post-HB star that shows an underabundance of helium by 0.5 dex relative to the solar value. These observational facts suggest that atomic diffusion could be active in its atmosphere. We have used the MMT and Bok spectra to estimate the atmospheric parameters of the target star using the model atmospheres and synthetic spectra calculated with TLUSTY and SYNSPEC. The derived values of the effective temperature, surface gravity, and helium abundance are consistent with those obtained by Ramspeck et al. It appears that non-local thermodynamic equilibrium (NLTE) effects are not important for HD 76431. We have used Stokes I spectra from ESPaDOnS at CFHT to perform an abundance analysis and a search for observational evidence of vertical stratification of the abundance of certain elements. The results of our abundance analysis are in good agreement with previously published data with respect to average abundances. Our numerical simulations show that carbon and nitrogen reveal signatures of vertical abundance stratification in the atmosphere of HD 76431. It appears that the carbon abundance increases towards the deeper atmospheric layers. Nitrogen also shows a similar behaviour, but in deeper atmospheric layers we obtain a significant dispersion for the estimates of its abundance. To our knowledge, this is the first demonstration of vertical abundance stratification of metals in a post-HB star and up to now it is the hottest star to show such stratification features. We also report the detection of two Si III and one Ti III emission lines in the spectra of HD 76431 that were not detected in previous studies.

  2. Hb G-Waimanalo [A1] or α64(E13)Asp→Asn (α1) (HBA1: c.193G>A) Observed in a Bulgarian Family.

    PubMed

    Petkov, Georgi; Dimishkovska, Marija; Tsoneva Ivanova, Vanya; Yordanov, Georgi; Zdraveski, Alexandar; Plaseska-Karanfilska, Dijana

    2015-01-01

    The abnormal hemoglobin (Hb) with an aspartic acid to asparagine substitution at α64 has been found on both the α2- and α1-globin genes. It has been described in many different populations under different names, but never in Bulgaria. Using the recently proposed nomenclature, Hb G-Waimanalo [A1] refers to the HBA1: c.193G > A, while Hb G-Waimanalo [A2] refers to the HBA2: c.193G > A mutation. Here, we present the first family from Bulgaria with Hb G-Waimanalo [A1]. PMID:26212674

  3. A rare haemoglobin variant (Hb Phnom Penh) manifesting as a falsely high haemoglobin A1c value on ion-exchange chromatography.

    PubMed

    Chen, Chi-Fen; Tai, Yen-Kuang

    2014-08-01

    Most haemoglobin (Hb) variants are clinically silent. However, some Hb variants may interfere with the measurement of haemoglobin A1c (HbA1c), resulting in spurious values depending on the assays used. We herein report the case of a 53-year-old Taiwanese man with type 2 diabetes mellitus, who presented with an abnormal HbA1c peak on ion-exchange chromatography. Additional investigations, including intensified self-monitored blood glucose tests, an alternative HbA1c assay, and a glycaemic indicator based on a different method, revealed that the HbA1c values were falsely elevated. Subsequent DNA analysis confirmed that the patient was heterozygous for the insertion of an isoleucine residue at codons 117/118 of the a1-globin gene, Hb Phnom Penh. Clinical laboratorians should be aware of the interfering factors in their HbA1c analysis. Cautious inspection of the chromatogram may provide a valuable clue to the presence of an Hb variant. PMID:25189312

  4. A New δ-Globin Gene Variant: Hb A2-Fengshun [δ121(GH4)Glu→Lys (HBD: c.364G > A)].

    PubMed

    Yan, Jin-Mei; Zhou, Jian-Ying; Xie, Xing-Mei; Li, Jian; Li, Dong-Zhi

    2016-06-01

    An elevated Hb A2 (α2δ2 level) is a diagnostic marker for heterozygous β-thalassemia (β-thal). Mutations in the δ-globin gene can cause decreased expression of Hb A2, compromising screening for heterozygous β-thal. In this report, we describe a novel missense mutation of the δ-globin [Hb A2-Fengshun or δ121(GH4)Glu→Lys, HBD: c.364G > A] in a Chinese individual who had coinherited a heterozygous β-thal with a normal Hb A2 level. PMID:27117573

  5. Hb Chad or alpha 223(B4)Glu----Lys beta 2 observed in members of a Surinam family in association with alpha-thalassemia-2 and with Hb S.

    PubMed

    Codrington, J F; Codrington, F A; Wisse, J H; Wilson, J B; Webber, B B; Wong, S C; Huisman, T H

    1989-01-01

    Three different hemoglobinopathies, i.e. Hb S, Hb Chad [alpha 23 (B4)Glu----Lys], and alpha-thalassemia-2 (-3.7) have been observed in eight members of a family from Surinam. The proposita had all three abnormalities, while her mother and four of her half-brothers had Hb Chad together with an alpha-thalassemia-2 heterozygosity or homozygosity. Gene mapping and dot-blot analysis of amplified DNA identified a G----A mutation in codon 23 of the alpha 2 alpha 1 hybrid gene resulting in the Glu----Lys substitution. The quantity of the alpha-Chad chain averaged 31.5% in its carriers with an additional alpha-thalassemia-2 heterozygosity [-alpha Chad(-3.7 kb)/alpha alpha], and 43% in the two carriers with an additional alpha-thalassemia-2 homozygosity [-alpha Chad (-3.7 kb)/-alpha (3.7 kb)]. These quantities are considerably higher than those reported for families from Chad, China, and Japan; the low levels of 14.5-24% Hb Chad in members of previously reported cases suggest a mutation on a chromosome with two alpha-globin genes [alpha alpha Chad/alpha alpha or alpha Chad alpha/alpha alpha]. PMID:2606723

  6. Cloning and characterization of HbMT2a, a metallothionein gene from Hevea brasiliensis Muell. Arg differently responds to abiotic stress and heavy metals

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Yan; Chen, Yue Yi; Yang, Shu Guang; Tian, Wei Min

    2015-05-22

    Metallothioneins (MTs) are of low molecular mass, cysteine-rich proteins. They play an important role in the detoxification of heavy metals and homeostasis of intracellular metal ions, and protecting against intracellular oxidative damages. In this study a full-length cDNA of type 2 plant metallothioneins, HbMT2a, was isolated from 25 mM Polyethyleneglycol (PEG) stressed leaves of Hevea brasiliensis by RACE. The HbMT2a was 372 bp in length and had a 237 bp open reading frame (ORF) encoding for a protein of 78 amino acid residues with molecular mass of 7.772 kDa. The expression of HbMT2a in the detached leaves of rubber tree clone RY7-33-97 was up-regulated by Me-JA, ABA, PEG, H{sub 2}O{sub 2}, Cu{sup 2+} and Zn{sup 2+}, but down-regulated by water. The role of HbMT2a protein in protecting against metal toxicity was demonstrated in vitro. PET-28a-HbMT2-beared Escherichia coli. Differential expression of HbMT2a upon treatment with 10 °C was observed in the detached leaves of rubber tree clone 93-114 which is cold-resistant and Reken501 which is cold-sensitive. The expression patterns of HbMT2a in the two rubber tree clones may be ascribed to a change in the level of endogenous H{sub 2}O{sub 2}. - Highlights: • Cloning an HbMT2a gene from rubber tree. • Analyzing expression patterns of HbMT2a upon abiotic stress and heavy metal stress. • Finding different expression patterns of HbMT2a among two Hevea germplasm. • The expressed protein of HbMT2a enhances copper and zinc tolerance in Escherichia coli.

  7. The Change in HbA1c Associated with Initial Adherence and Subsequent Change in Adherence among Diabetes Patients Newly Initiating Metformin Therapy.

    PubMed

    Nichols, Gregory A; Rosales, A Gabriela; Kimes, Teresa M; Tunceli, Kaan; Kurtyka, Karen; Mavros, Panagiotis

    2016-01-01

    Introduction. Whether changes in adherence are associated with changes in HbA1c is assumed but not known. Methods. We conducted a observational study of 2,844 type 2 diabetes patients who initiated metformin as their first antihyperglycemic drug. Using HbA1c measures before, 6-12 months after, and up to 3 years after metformin initiation, we analyzed HbA1c change as a function of initial adherence and change in adherence. Results. Compared with no adherence, initial adherence of 50-79% was associated with an adjusted reduction in HbA1c of 0.45% while adherence ≥80% was associated with HbA1c reduction of 0.73%. Change from some initial adherence (1-79%) to total nonadherence was associated with 0.25% increase in HbA1c. Change from some to full adherence was associated with an HbA1c decrease of 0.15%. Those associations were accentuated among patients not in glycemic control: change from some to no adherence was associated with an HbA1c increase of 0.63% and change from some to full adherence was associated with an HbA1c decrease of 0.40%. Conclusions. Initial adherence to newly prescribed metformin therapy produces substantial HbA1c reduction. Among those with modest adherence but suboptimal glycemic control, the difference between moving to full adherence versus nonadherence results in lower HbA1c of one percentage point. PMID:27579326

  8. The Change in HbA1c Associated with Initial Adherence and Subsequent Change in Adherence among Diabetes Patients Newly Initiating Metformin Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Rosales, A. Gabriela; Kimes, Teresa M.; Tunceli, Kaan; Kurtyka, Karen; Mavros, Panagiotis

    2016-01-01

    Introduction. Whether changes in adherence are associated with changes in HbA1c is assumed but not known. Methods. We conducted a observational study of 2,844 type 2 diabetes patients who initiated metformin as their first antihyperglycemic drug. Using HbA1c measures before, 6–12 months after, and up to 3 years after metformin initiation, we analyzed HbA1c change as a function of initial adherence and change in adherence. Results. Compared with no adherence, initial adherence of 50–79% was associated with an adjusted reduction in HbA1c of 0.45% while adherence ≥80% was associated with HbA1c reduction of 0.73%. Change from some initial adherence (1–79%) to total nonadherence was associated with 0.25% increase in HbA1c. Change from some to full adherence was associated with an HbA1c decrease of 0.15%. Those associations were accentuated among patients not in glycemic control: change from some to no adherence was associated with an HbA1c increase of 0.63% and change from some to full adherence was associated with an HbA1c decrease of 0.40%. Conclusions. Initial adherence to newly prescribed metformin therapy produces substantial HbA1c reduction. Among those with modest adherence but suboptimal glycemic control, the difference between moving to full adherence versus nonadherence results in lower HbA1c of one percentage point.

  9. 75 FR 80545 - Carolina Power & Light Company; H.B. Robinson Steam Electric Plant, Unit No. 2; Environmental...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-22

    ... Register notice dated March 27, 2009 (74 FR 13967). There will be no change to radioactive effluents that... COMMISSION Carolina Power & Light Company; H.B. Robinson Steam Electric Plant, Unit No. 2; Environmental... Carolina Power & Light Company (the licensee), for operation of the H. B. Robinson Steam Electric...

  10. 76 FR 66333 - Carolina Power & Light Company, H.B. Robinson Steam Electric Plant, Unit No. 2; Environmental...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-26

    ... COMMISSION Carolina Power & Light Company, H.B. Robinson Steam Electric Plant, Unit No. 2; Environmental..., ``Acceptance criteria for emergency core cooling systems for light-water nuclear power reactors,'' and 10 CFR... Facility Operating License No. DPR-23, issued to Carolina Power & Light Company (the licensee),...

  11. Effect of drug therapy on HEDIS measurements of HbA1c control in diabetes patients.

    PubMed

    Bazalo, Gary; Weiss, Richard; Clark, Nathaniel; Alemayehu, Berhanu; Forma, Felicia; Ingram, Garrett

    2009-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to corroborate an earlier study that explored the relationship between a health plan's Health Plan Employer Data and Information Set (HEDIS) score for glycolated hemoglobin (HbA1c) control in diabetes patients and its utilization of insulin and oral diabetes products. Prescription volumes were tracked for four categories of diabetes drug therapy: analog insulin, human insulin, single-source brand oral products, and multisource generic oral products, for calendar years 2005 and 2006. The prescription shares of each of the four drug categories for each health plan were matched to the health plan's HEDIS measurements of HbA1c control for each year. Univariate and multivariate regression analysis was performed between the health plan's HbA1c -based HEDIS score and its prescription share of each drug category. A favorable and statistically significant (p < 0.01) relationship was found between plan HbA1c HEDIS score and plan prescription share of analog insulin in both 2005 and 2006. The correlation between HEDIS scores and human insulin was not statistically significant. Unfavorable relationships were found between HEDIS scores and both the single-source brand (statistically significant) and the multisource generic oral category prescription shares (not significant). These results corroborate the relationships found in our earlier study, although a cause and effect relationship cannot be confirmed. PMID:19264026

  12. Hot HB Stars in Globular Clusters: Physical Parameters and Consequences for Theory. 5; Radiative Levitation Versus Helium Mixing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moehler, S.; Sweigart, A. V.; Landsman, W. B.; Heber, U.

    2000-01-01

    Atmospheric parameters (T(sub eff), log g), masses and helium abundances are derived for 42 hot horizontal branch (HB) stars in the globular cluster NGC6752. For 19 stars we derive magnesium and iron abundances as well and find that iron is enriched by a factor of 50 on average with respect to the cluster abundance whereas the magnesium abundances are consistent with the cluster abundance. Radiation pressure may levitate heavy elements like iron to the surface of the star in a diffusive process. Taking into account the enrichment of heavy elements in our spectroscopic analyses we find that high iron abundances can explain part, but not all, of the problem of anomalously low gravities along the blue HB. The blue HB stars cooler than about 15,100 K and the sdB stars (T(sub eff) greater than or = 20,000 K) agree well with canonical theory when analysed with metal-rich ([M/H] = +0.5) model atmospheres, but the stars in between these two groups remain offset towards lower gravities and masses. Deep Mixing in the red giant progenitor phase is discussed as another mechanism that may influence the position of the blue HB stars in the (T(sub eff), log g)-plane but not their masses.

  13. 76 FR 54261 - Carolina Power & Light; H.B. Robinson Steam Electric Plant, Unit No. 2; HBRSEP Independent Spent...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-31

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION Carolina Power & Light; H.B. Robinson Steam Electric Plant, Unit No. 2; HBRSEP Independent Spent Fuel Storage Installations; Notice of Consideration of Approval of Application for Indirect License Transfer Resulting From the Proposed Merger...

  14. HB 2578--Relating to the School Meals Program. Testimony, 79th Texas State Legislature (April 26, 2005)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hagert, Celia

    2005-01-01

    The Center for Public Policy Priorities supports HB 2574. Why encourage school districts to offer free meals to all students? The link between adequate nutrition and improved academic performance creates a clear incentive for Texas to increase participation in the school breakfast and lunch programs, particularly among low-income children.…

  15. HB-EGF embedded in PGA/PLLA scaffolds via subcritical CO2 augments the production of tissue engineered intestine.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yanchun; Nelson, Tyler; Cromeens, Barrett; Rager, Terrence; Lannutti, John; Johnson, Jed; Besner, Gail E

    2016-10-01

    The ability to deliver sustained-release, biologically active growth factors through custom designed tissue engineering scaffolds at sites of tissue regeneration offers great therapeutic opportunity. Due to the short in vivo half-lives of most growth factors, it is challenging to deliver these proteins to sites of interest where they may be used before being degraded. The application of subcritical CO2 uses gas-phase CO2 at subcritical pressures ranging from 41 to 62 bar (595-913 PSI) which avoids foaming by reducing the amount of CO2 dissolved in the polymer and maintains completely reversible plasticization. In the current study, heparin-binding EGF-like growth factor (HB-EGF) was embedded into polyglycolic acid (PGA)/Poly-l-latic acid (PLLA) scaffolds via subcritical CO2 exposure for the production of tissue engineered intestine (TEI). PGA fiber morphology after subcritical CO2 exposure was examined by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and the distribution of HB-EGF embedded in the scaffold fibers was detected by HB-EGF immunofluorescent staining. In vivo implantation of HB-EGF-embedded scaffolds confirmed significantly improved TEI structure as a result of local delivery of the trophic growth factor. These findings may be critical for the production of TEI in the treatment of patients with short bowel syndrome in the future. PMID:27380441

  16. HbA1c measured in stored erythrocytes and mortality rate among middle-aged and older women

    PubMed Central

    Liu, S.; Stampfer, M. J.; Cook, N. R.; Rexrode, K. M.; Ridker, P. M.; Buring, J. E.; Manson, J. E.

    2009-01-01

    Aims/hypothesis Diabetes is known to increase mortality rate, but the degree to which mild hyperglycaemia may be associated with the risk of death is uncertain. We examined the association between HbA1c measured in stored erythrocytes and mortality rate in women with and without diabetes. Methods We conducted a cohort study of 27,210 women ≥45 years old with no history of cardiovascular disease or cancer who participated in the Women’s Health Study, a randomised trial of vitamin E and aspirin. Results Over a median of 10 years of follow-up, 706 women died. Proportional hazards models adjusted for age, smoking, hypertension, blood lipids, exercise, postmenopausal hormone use, multivitamin use and C-reactive protein were used to estimate the relative risk of mortality. Among women without a diagnosis of diabetes and HbA1c <5.60%, those in the top quintile (HbA1c 5.19–5.59%) had a relative risk of mortality of 1.28 (95% CI 0.98–1.69, p value for linear trend=0.14) compared with those with HbA1c 2.27–4.79%. Women with HbA1c 5.60–5.99% and no diagnosis of diabetes had a 54% increased risk of mortality (95% CI 1–136%) compared with those with HbA1c 2.27–4.79%. HbA1c was significantly associated with mortality across the range 4.50–7.00% (p value for linear trend=0.02); a test of deviation from linearity was not statistically significant (p=0.67). Diabetic women had more than twice the mortality risk of non-diabetic women. Conclusions/interpretation This study provides further evidence that chronic mild hyperglycaemia, even in the absence of diagnosed diabetes, is associated with increased risk of mortality. PMID:18043905

  17. Bridging Theory and Experiment to Address Structural Properties of Truncated Haemoglobins: Insights from Thermobifida fusca HbO.

    PubMed

    Howes, Barry D; Boechi, Leonardo; Boffi, Alberto; Estrin, Dario E; Smulevich, Giulietta

    2015-01-01

    In this chapter, we will discuss the paradigmatic case of Thermobifida fusca (Tf-trHb) HbO in its ferrous and ferric states and its behaviour towards a battery of possible ligands. This choice was dictated by the fact that it has been one of the most extensively studied truncated haemoglobins, both in terms of spectroscopic and molecular dynamics studies. Tf-trHb typifies the structural properties of group II trHbs, as the active site is characterized by a highly polar distal environment in which TrpG8, TyrCD1, and TyrB10 provide three potential H-bond donors in the distal cavity capable of stabilizing the incoming ligands. The role of these residues in key topological positions, and their interplay with the iron-bound ligands, has been addressed in studies carried out on the CO, F(-), OH(-), CN(-), and HS(-) adducts formed with the wild-type protein and a combinatorial set of mutants, in which the distal polar residues, TrpG8, TyrCD1, and TyrB10, have been singly, doubly, or triply replaced by a Phe residue. In this context, such a complete analysis provides an excellent benchmark for the investigation of the relationship between protein structure and function, allowing one to translate physicochemical properties of the active site into the observed functional behaviour. Tf-trHb will be compared with other members of the group II trHbs and, more generally, with members of the other trHb subgroups. PMID:26616516

  18. Mechanism of Hb F stimulation by S-stage compounds. In vitro studies with bone marrow cells exposed to 5-azacytidine, Ara-C, or hydroxyurea.

    PubMed Central

    Galanello, R; Stamatoyannopoulos, G; Papayannopoulou, T

    1988-01-01

    The in vitro effect of S-stage-specific drugs on the fetal hemoglobin (Hb F) potential of erythroid precursors and progenitors was tested by exposing bone marrow cells to 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine, Ara-C, or hydroxyurea in suspension cultures and reculturing the cells in drug-free clonal cultures. Analysis of Hb F in the erythroblasts present at the end of suspension cultures and in the erythroid colonies formed from treated progenitors showed that 1 X 10(-9)-5 X 10(-8) M 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine produced a concentration-related increase in the proportion of Hb F-positive erythroblasts, of Hb F-positive erythroid CFU (CFUe) colonies, and at the higher doses used, an increased Hb F expression in erythroid burst-forming unit (BFUe)-derived colonies. Preincubation of bone marrow cells with Ara-C produced significant megaloblastic changes by the end of the 2-d incubation and increased the proportion of Hb F-positive erythroblasts, CFUe colonies, and e-clusters, but BFUe-derived progeny was unaffected. Hydroxyurea failed to produce significant changes in Hb F at the range of concentrations used. The data raise the possibility of more than one mechanism underlying the stimulation of Hb F by S-stage drugs. PMID:2450894

  19. HbA(1c) diagnostic categories and beta-cell function relative to insulin sensitivity in overweight/obese adolescents

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The recommended HbA1c diagnostic categories remain controversial and their utility in doubt in pediatrics. We hypothesized that alterations in the pathophysiologic mechanisms of type 2 diabetes may be evident in the American Diabetes Association recommended at-risk/prediabetes category (HbA(1c) 5.7 ...

  20. Modelling the Relative Contribution of Fasting and Post-Prandial Plasma Glucose to HbA1c in Healthy and Type 2 Diabetic Subjects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ollerton, Richard L.; Luzio, Steven D.; Owens, David R.

    2004-01-01

    Glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c) is regarded as the gold standard of glucose homeostasis assessment in diabetes. There has been much discussion in recent medical literature of experimental results concerning the relative contribution of fasting and post-prandial glucose levels to the value of HbA1c. A mathematical model of haemoglobin glycation is…

  1. Functional characterization of the homeodomain leucine zipper I transcription factor AtHB13 reveals a crucial role in Arabidopsis development.

    PubMed

    Ribone, Pamela A; Capella, Matías; Chan, Raquel L

    2015-09-01

    AtHB13 is a homeodomain leucine zipper I transcription factor whose function in development is largely unknown. AtHB13 and AtHB23 mutant and silenced lines were characterized by expression studies, reciprocal crosses, complementation, molecular analyses, and developmental phenotypes. The athb13-1 and athb13-2 mutants, athb23 silenced, and athb13/athb23 double-silenced plants exhibited faster elongation rates of their inflorescence stems, whereas only athb13-1 and the double-knockdown athb13/athb23 exhibited shorter siliques, fewer seeds, and unfertilized ovules compared with the wild type (WT). The cell sizes of mutant and WT plants were similar, indicating that these transcription factors probably affect cell division. Reciprocal crosses between athb13-1 and the WT genotype indicated that the silique defect was male specific. Pollen hydration assays indicated that the pollen grains of the athb13-1 mutant were unable to germinate on stigmas. AtHB23-silenced plants exhibited normal siliques, whereas double-knockdown athb13/athb23 plants were similar to athb13-1 plants. Both AtHB13 and AtHB23 were able to rescue the abnormal silique phenotype. AtHB23 was upregulated in athb13-2 plants, whereas its transcript levels in athb13-1 mutants were not significantly increased. Transcriptome analysis comparing athb13-1 and WT inflorescences revealed that a large number of genes, including several involved in pollen coat formation, are regulated by AtHB13. Finally, athb13-1 complementation with mutated versions of AtHB13 confirmed that two different tryptophans in its C terminus are essential. We conclude that AtHB13 and AtHB23 play independent, negative developmental roles in stem elongation, whereas only AtHB13 is crucial for pollen germination. Furthermore, AtHB23, which does not normally exert a functional role in pollen, can act as a substitute for AtHB13. PMID:26136262

  2. Transposon Mutagenesis of the Extremely Thermophilic Bacterium Thermus thermophilus HB27

    PubMed Central

    Carr, Jennifer F.; Gregory, Steven T.; Dahlberg, Albert E.

    2014-01-01

    Thermus thermophilus is an extremely thermophilic bacterium that grows between 50 °C and 80 °C and is an excellent model organism not only for understanding life at high temperature but also for its biotechnological and industrial applications. Multiple molecular capabilities are available including targeted gene inactivation and the use of shuttle plasmids that replicate in T. thermophilus and Escherichia coli; however the ability to disrupt gene function randomly by transposon insertion has not been developed. Here we report a detailed method of transposon mutagenesis of T. thermophilus HB27 based on the EZ-Tn5 system from Epicentre Biotechnologies. We were able to generate insertion mutations throughout the chromosome by in vitro transposition and transformation with mutagenized genomic DNA. We also report that an additional step, one that fills in single stranded gaps in donor DNA generated by the transposition reaction, was essential for successful mutagenesis. We anticipate that our method of transposon mutagenesis will enable further genetic development of T. thermophilus and may also be valuable for similar endeavors with other under-developed organisms. PMID:24948436

  3. Report on HbA1c Proficiency Testing in Asia in 2012

    PubMed Central

    Umemoto, Masao; Hoshino, Tadao; Miyashita, Tetsuo; Tani, Wataru

    2015-01-01

    In 2010, the Japan Diabetes Society decided to introduce the National Glycohemoglobin Standardization Program (NGSP) values into clinical practice. Accordingly, NGSP Certification of Japanese manufacturers of HbA1c-related diagnostic reagents and instruments was initiated in February, 2012, through an NGSP network laboratory, the Asian Secondary Reference Laboratory (ASRL) #1. Traceability to the NGSP reference system can be endorsed by manufacturer certification, as well as by the College of American Pathologists (CAP) survey. Nevertheless, only a few manufacturers participate in the CAP survey in Japan. Thus, proficiency testing (PT) was proposed and executed by ASRL #1. Single-donor whole-blood samples were used for the PT. The participated measurement systems were NGSP certified. Twenty-two laboratories obtained certification through ASRL #1; 2 through the Secondary Reference Laboratory (SRL) #8; and 9 through the SRL #9. The combination plots of the bias data in this PT and in the NGSP certification performed in March and May in 2012 were consistent with each other: mean NGSP values at each level agreed well with the target value. In conclusion, PT using whole blood is useful in endorsing NGSP certification. PMID:25932445

  4. Structure of putative 4-amino-4-deoxychorismate lyase from Thermus thermophilus HB8

    PubMed Central

    Padmanabhan, Balasundaram; Bessho, Yoshitaka; Ebihara, Akio; Antonyuk, Svetlana V.; Ellis, Mark J.; Strange, Richard W.; Kuramitsu, Seiki; Watanabe, Nobuhisa; Hasnain, S. Samar; Yokoyama, Shigeyuki

    2009-01-01

    The pyridoxal 5′-phosphate-dependent enzyme 4-amino-4-deoxychorismate lyase converts 4-amino-4-deoxychorismate to p-aminobenzoate and pyruvate in one of the crucial steps in the folate-biosynthesis pathway. The primary structure of the hypothetical protein TTHA0621 from Thermus thermophilus HB8 suggests that TTHA0621 is a putative 4-amino-4-deoxychorismate lyase. Here, the crystal structure of TTHA0621 is reported at 1.93 Å resolution. The asymmetric unit contained four NCS molecules related by 222 noncrystallographic symmetry, in which the formation of intact dimers may be functionally important. The cofactor pyridoxal 5′-phosphate (PLP) binds to the protein in the large cleft formed by the N-terminal and C-terminal domains of TTHA0621. The high structural similarity and the conservation of the functional residues in the catalytic region compared with 4-amino-4-deoxychorismate lyase (PabC; EC 4.1.3.38) from Escherichia coli suggest that the TTHA0621 protein may also possess 4-amino-4-deoxychorismate lyase activity. PMID:20054118

  5. Lipid fluidity at different regions in LDL and HDL of {beta}-thalassemia/Hb E patients

    SciTech Connect

    Morales, Noppawan Phumala . E-mail: scnpm@mahidol.ac.th; Charlermchoung, Chalermkhwan; Luechapudiporn, Rataya; Yamanont, Paveena; Fucharoen, Suthat; Chantharaksri, Udom

    2006-11-24

    Atherosclerosis-related vascular complications in {beta}-thalassemia/hemoglobin E ({beta}-thal/Hb E) patients may result from iron induced oxidation of lipoproteins. To identify the specific site of oxidative damage, changes in lipid fluidity at different regions in LDL and HDL particle were investigated using two fluorescence probes and two ESR spin probes. The magnitude of increased lipid fluidity in thalassemic lipoproteins was dependent on the location of the probes. In hydrophobic region, the rotational correlation times for 16-doxyl stearic acid and DPH anisotropy were markedly changed in LDL and HDL of the patients. In the surface region, there was only a slight change in the order parameter (S) for 5-doxyl stearic acid and TMA-DPH anisotropy. Lipid fluidity at the core of LDL and HDL showed good correlation with oxidative stress markers, the ratio of CL/CO, and the level of {alpha}-tocopherol, suggesting that hydrophobic region of thalassemic lipoprotein was a target site for oxidative damage.

  6. Structure of indole-3-glycerol phosphate synthase from Thermus thermophilus HB8: implications for thermal stability.

    PubMed

    Bagautdinov, Bagautdin; Yutani, Katsuhide

    2011-12-01

    The three-dimensional structure of indole-3-glycerol phosphate synthase (IGPS) from the thermophilic bacterium Thermus thermophilus HB8 (TtIGPS) has been determined at 1.8 Å resolution. The structure adopts a typical (β/α)(8)-barrel fold with an additional N-terminal extension of 46 residues. A detailed comparison of the crystal structure of TtIGPS with available structures of IGPS from the archaeon Sulfolobus solfataricus (SsIGPS) and the bacteria Thermotoga maritima (TmIGPS) and Escherichia coli (EcIGPS) has been performed. Although the overall folds of the proteins are the same, there are differences in amino-acid composition, structural rigidity, ionic features and stability clusters which may account for the high thermostability of the hyperthermophilic (SsIGPS and TmIGPS) and thermophilic (TtIGPS) proteins when compared with the mesophilic EcIGPS. The thermostability of IGPS seems to be established mainly by favourable interactions of charged residues, salt bridges and the spatial distribution of relatively rigid clusters of extensively interacting residues. PMID:22120743

  7. Structure of 3-oxoacyl-(acyl-carrier protein) synthase II from Thermus thermophilus HB8

    PubMed Central

    Bagautdinov, Bagautdin; Ukita, Yoko; Miyano, Masashi; Kunishima, Naoki

    2008-01-01

    The β-ketoacyl-(acyl carrier protein) synthases (β-keto-ACP synthases; KAS) catalyse the addition of two-carbon units to the growing acyl chain during the elongation phase of fatty-acid synthesis. As key regulators of bacterial fatty-acid synthesis, they are promising targets for the development of new antibacterial agents. The crystal structure of 3-oxoacyl-ACP synthase II from Thermus thermophilus HB8 (TtKAS II) has been solved by molecular replacement and refined at 2.0 Å resolution. The crystal is orthorhombic, space group P21212, with unit-cell parameters a = 72.07, b = 185.57, c = 62.52 Å, and contains one homodimer in the asymmetric unit. The subunits adopt the well known α-β-α-β-α thiolase fold that is common to ACP synthases. The structural and sequence similarities of TtKAS II to KAS I and KAS II enzymes of known structure from other sources support the hypothesis of comparable enzymatic activity. The dimeric state of TtKAS II is important to create each fatty-acid-binding pocket. Closer examination of KAS structures reveals that compared with other KAS structures in the apo form, the active site of TtKAS II is more accessible because of the ‘open’ conformation of the Phe396 side chain. PMID:18453702

  8. Structure of 3-oxoacyl-(acyl-carrier protein) synthase II from Thermus thermophilus HB8.

    PubMed

    Bagautdinov, Bagautdin; Ukita, Yoko; Miyano, Masashi; Kunishima, Naoki

    2008-05-01

    The beta-ketoacyl-(acyl carrier protein) synthases (beta-keto-ACP synthases; KAS) catalyse the addition of two-carbon units to the growing acyl chain during the elongation phase of fatty-acid synthesis. As key regulators of bacterial fatty-acid synthesis, they are promising targets for the development of new antibacterial agents. The crystal structure of 3-oxoacyl-ACP synthase II from Thermus thermophilus HB8 (TtKAS II) has been solved by molecular replacement and refined at 2.0 A resolution. The crystal is orthorhombic, space group P2(1)2(1)2, with unit-cell parameters a = 72.07, b = 185.57, c = 62.52 A, and contains one homodimer in the asymmetric unit. The subunits adopt the well known alpha-beta-alpha-beta-alpha thiolase fold that is common to ACP synthases. The structural and sequence similarities of TtKAS II to KAS I and KAS II enzymes of known structure from other sources support the hypothesis of comparable enzymatic activity. The dimeric state of TtKAS II is important to create each fatty-acid-binding pocket. Closer examination of KAS structures reveals that compared with other KAS structures in the apo form, the active site of TtKAS II is more accessible because of the ;open' conformation of the Phe396 side chain. PMID:18453702

  9. Sequences implicated in the processing of Thermus thermophilus HB8 23S rRNA.

    PubMed Central

    Hartmann, R K; Ulbrich, N; Erdmann, V A

    1987-01-01

    Nuclease S1 mapping analyses were performed in order to detect processing intermediates of pre-23S rRNA from Thermus thermophilus HB8. Two processing sites were identified downstream the start of transcription and several consecutive cleavage sites are associated with the mature 5'-end. In the 3'-flanking region one "primary" site and two cleavages which generate short-living intermediates were detected. A series of successive intermediates in the region of the mature 3'-end implies the existence of--in analogy to Escherichia coli--a 3'-exonucleolytic activity. The data were correlated with potential secondary structures within the pre-23S rRNA, which exhibit various repeated sequence elements. M13 sequencing data support the existence of one secondary structural element associated with the strong "primary" cleavage site in the 3'-flanking region. In T. thermophilus we can exclude the formation of an extended base-paired and precursor-specific stem enclosing the 23S rRNA which is inferred to mediate recognition by RNase III in E. coli. Images PMID:3313273

  10. Abnormal behavior of midgap electron trap in HB-GaAs during thermal annealing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Min, Suk-Ki; Kim, Eun Kyu; Cho, Hoon Young

    1988-05-01

    The behavior of the EL2 family in horizontal Bridgman-(HB) grown GaAs by two thermal annealing methods, furnace annealing and rapid thermal annealing, was studied through deep level transient spectroscopy (DLTS) measurements, and a similar behavior of another group of electron traps was observed. As the annealing time is increased, the EL2 trap (Ec-0.81 eV) is transformed to the new trap, EX2 (Ec-0.73 eV), and finally to the other new trap, EX1 (Ec-0.86 eV). Also the EL6 group (Ec-0.18, 0.22, 0.27, and 0.35 eV) varied similarly to the EL2 family as a trap (Ec-0.27 eV) is transformed to the first trap (Ec-0.18 eV) and then the second trap (Ec-0.22 eV). This result revealed that the EL2 family is related to the EL6 group. From the study of photocapacitance quenching, the existence of metastable states of the EL2 family is identified. These results suggest that the atomic structure of the EL2 trap may be an arsenic antisite with an interstitial arsenic and a double vacancy, such as VAsAsIVGaAsGa or its complex.

  11. Detailed Infrared views of the shock-cloud interactions in the supernova remnant HB 21

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shinn, Jong-Ho; Koo, Bon-Chul; Burton, Michael; Lee, Ho-Gyu; Moon, Dae-Sik

    HB 21 (G89.0+4.7) is a nearby (˜ 1 kpc), large (120 ×90 ), middle-aged (˜ 7000 yr) supernova remnant, whose interaction with nearby molecular clouds is known. We observed two specific regions (˜ 10 × 10 ), where the shock-cloud interactions are thought to be under way, with the Japanese infrared satellite AKARI. InfraRed Camera (IRC) onboard AKARI obtained several images at nearand mid-infrared wavebands (3, 4, 7, 11, 15, and 24 µm). Those images show diffuse filamentary features, together with some clumpy features, mainly in the 7, 11, and 15 µm bands. These features are generally consistent with those seen in H2 v = 1 → 0 S(1) 2.122 µm image. We analyzed the color ratios of the features in the IRC images using theoretically calculated emission lines from shocked H2 gas in local thermodynamic equilibrium and statistical equilibrium. The results show that the observed color-ratios are well described by power-law mixtures of H2 gas temperature, and that the degree of mixture varies from region to region (power-law index 4.0). Based on observations with AKARI, a JAXA project with the participation of ESA.

  12. Cloning, overexpression and characterization of a thermostable pullulanase from Thermus thermophilus HB27.

    PubMed

    Wu, Huawei; Yu, Xinxin; Chen, Libing; Wu, Guangxu

    2014-03-01

    A gene encoding a special type of pullulanase from Thermus thermophilus HB27 (TTHpu) was cloned. It has an open reading frame of 1428bp encoding a mature protein with a molecular mass of 52kDa. The gene was expressed in Escherichia coli using pHsh and pET28a vectors. The pHsh expression system produced a 3.6-fold higher recombinant pullulanase than pET28a. The recombinant TTHpu was purified to homogeneity by heat treatment and Ni-NTA affinity chromatography. The purified TTHpu exhibited highest activity at pH 6.5 and 70°C. More than 90% activity was retained after incubation at 60-70°C for 2h and the half-life was 2h at 80°C. The stability of the enzyme was in a pH range from 6.0 to 8.0. Manganese at 5mM enhanced its activity up to 298%. The Km and Vmax for the enzyme activity on pullulan were 0.0031mgmL(-1) and 23.8μmolmin(-1), respectively. Unlike the most of pullulan-hydrolyzing enzymes described to date, this enzyme can attack α-1,6- and α-1,4-glycosidic linkages in pullulan, and produce a mixture of maltotriose, maltose and glucose. The enzyme could be further employed for industrial saccharification of starch. PMID:24316447

  13. HB-EGF-Promoted Airway Smooth Muscle Cells and Their Progenitor Migration Contribute to Airway Smooth Muscle Remodeling in Asthmatic Mouse.

    PubMed

    Wang, Qing; Li, Hequan; Yao, Yinan; Lu, Guohua; Wang, Yuehong; Xia, Dajing; Zhou, Jianying

    2016-03-01

    The airway smooth muscle (ASM) cells' proliferation, migration, and their progenitor's migration are currently regarded as causative factors for ASM remodeling in asthma. Heparin-binding epidermal growth factor (HB-EGF), a potent mitogen and chemotactic factor, could promote ASM cell proliferation through MAPK pathways. In this study, we obtained primary ASM cells and their progenitors from C57BL/6 mice and went on to explore the role of HB-EGF in these cells migration and the underlying mechanisms. We found that recombinant HB-EGF (rHB-EGF) intratracheal instillation accelerated ASM layer thickening in an OVA-induced asthmatic mouse. Modified Boyden chamber assay revealed that rHB-EGF facilitate ASM cell migration in a dose-dependent manner and ASM cells from asthmatic mice had a greater migration ability than that from normal counterparts. rHB-EGF could stimulate the phosphorylation of ERK1/2 and p38 in ASM cells but further migration assay showed that only epidermal growth factor receptor inhibitor (AG1478) or p38 inhibitor (SB203580), but not ERK1/2 inhibitor (PD98059), could inhibit rHB-EGF-mediated ASM cells migration. Actin cytoskeleton experiments exhibited that rHB-EGF could cause actin stress fibers disassembly and focal adhesions formation of ASM cells through the activation of p38. Finally, airway instillation of rHB-EGF promoted the recruitment of bone marrow-derived smooth muscle progenitor cells, which were transferred via caudal vein, migrating into the airway from the circulation. These observations demonstrated that ASM remodeling in asthma might have resulted from HB-EGF-mediated ASM cells and their progenitor cells migration, via p38 MAPK-dependent actin cytoskeleton remodeling. PMID:26826248

  14. Structural Basis of Free Reduced Flavin Generation by Flavin Reductase from Thermus thermophilus HB8*

    PubMed Central

    Imagawa, Takahito; Tsurumura, Toshiharu; Sugimoto, Yasushi; Aki, Kenji; Ishidoh, Kazumi; Kuramitsu, Seiki; Tsuge, Hideaki

    2011-01-01

    Free reduced flavins are involved in a variety of biological functions. They are generated from NAD(P)H by flavin reductase via co-factor flavin bound to the enzyme. Although recent findings on the structure and function of flavin reductase provide new information about co-factor FAD and substrate NAD, there have been no reports on the substrate flavin binding site. Here we report the structure of TTHA0420 from Thermus thermophilus HB8, which belongs to flavin reductase, and describe the dual binding mode of the substrate and co-factor flavins. We also report that TTHA0420 has not only the flavin reductase motif GDH but also a specific motif YGG in C terminus as well as Phe-41 and Arg-11, which are conserved in its subclass. From the structure, these motifs are important for the substrate flavin binding. On the contrary, the C terminus is stacked on the NADH binding site, apparently to block NADH binding to the active site. To identify the function of the C-terminal region, we designed and expressed a mutant TTHA0420 enzyme in which the C-terminal five residues were deleted (TTHA0420-ΔC5). Notably, the activity of TTHA0420-ΔC5 was about 10 times higher than that of the wild-type enzyme at 20–40 °C. Our findings suggest that the C-terminal region of TTHA0420 may regulate the alternative binding of NADH and substrate flavin to the enzyme. PMID:22052907

  15. Head-end reprocessing studies of H.B. Robinson-2 fuel: II. Parametric voloxidation studies

    SciTech Connect

    Goode, J.H.; Stacy, R.G.; Vaughen, V.C.A.

    1980-05-01

    A series of hot-cell tests was conducted with UO{sub 2} that had been irradiated to an average of 28,000 MWd/t in the H.B. Robinson-2 reactor of the Carolina Power and Light Company. The tests examined the effects of temperature and of the rate of oxygen supply on the release of gaseous and semivolatile fission products, while the fuel fragments were tumbled at 12 rpm during voloxidation - the high-temperature oxidation of UO{sub 2} to U{sub 3}O{sub 8}. The experiments showed that >99.9% of the tritium in the irradiated UO{sub 2} was released to the off-gas stream at temperatures of 480 and 550{sup 0}C and at oxygen feed rates ranging from 0.1 to 1.2 mol/h. The release of {sup 85}Kr varied from 2 to 7% of the fuel inventory. The U{sub 3}O{sub 8} product ({similar_to}99% smaller than 44 {mu}m) was easily dissolved in 7 M HNO{sub 3}. One 2-h leach in 7 M HNO{sub 3} dissolved {similar_to}99.5% of the heavy metals; a second 2-h leach in 7 M HNO{sub 3} brought the total to >99.98%. Voloxidation did not affect the final solubility of the uranium and plutonium but did increase the weight of the insoluble fission product residue from 0.18% of the irradiated UO{sub 2} to {similar_to}0.62%.

  16. A Detailed Study of the Structure of the Nested Planetary Nebula, Hb 12, the Matryoshka Nebula

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clark, D. M.; López, J. A.; Edwards, M. L.; Winge, C.

    2014-11-01

    We present near-IR, integral field spectroscopic observations of the planetary nebula (PN) Hb 12 using Near-infrared Integral Field Spectrograph (NIFS) on Gemini-North. Combining NIFS with the adaptive optics system Altair, we provide a detailed study of the core and inner structure of this PN. We focus the analysis in the prominent emission lines [Fe II] (1.6436 μm), He I (2.0585 μm), H2 (2.1214 μm), and Brγ (2.16553 μm). We find that the [Fe II] emission traces a tilted system of bipolar lobes, with the northern lobe being redshifted and the southern lobe blueshifted. The [Fe II] emission is very faint at the core and only present close to the systemic velocity. There is no H2 emission in the core, whereas the core is prominent in the He I and Brγ recombination lines. The H2 emission is concentrated in equatorial arcs of emission surrounding the core and expanding at ~30 km s-1. These arcs are compared with Hubble Space Telescope images and shown to represent nested loops belonging to the inner sections of a much larger bipolar structure that replicates the inner one. The He I and Brγ emission from the core clearly show a cylindrical central cavity that seems to represent the inner walls of an equatorial density enhancement or torus. The torus is 0.''2 wide (≡200 AU radius at a distance of 2000 pc) and expanding at <=30 km s-1. The eastern wall of the inner torus is consistently more intense than the western wall, which could indicate the presence of an off-center star, such as is observed in the similar hourglass PN, MyCn 18. A bipolar outflow is also detected in Brγ emerging within 0.''1 from the core at ~ ± 40 km s-1.

  17. Crystal structure of phenylacetic acid degradation protein PaaG from Thermus thermophilus HB8.

    PubMed

    Kichise, Tomoyasu; Hisano, Tamao; Takeda, Kazuki; Miki, Kunio

    2009-09-01

    Microbial degradation of phenylacetic acid proceeds via the hybrid pathway that includes formation of a coenzyme A thioester, ring hydroxylation, non-oxygenolytic ring opening, and beta-oxidation-like reactions. A phenylacetic acid degradation protein PaaG is a member of the crotonase superfamily, and is a candidate non-oxygenolytic ring-opening enzyme. The crystal structure of PaaG from Thermus thermophilus HB8 was determined at a resolution of 1.85 A. PaaG consists of three identical subunits related by local three-fold symmetry. The monomer is comprised of a spiral and a helical domain with a fold characteristic of the crotonase superfamily. A putative active site residue, Asp136, is situated in an active site cavity and surrounded by several hydrophobic and hydrophilic residues. The active site cavity is sufficiently large to accommodate a ring substrate. Two conformations are observed for helix H2 located adjacent to the active site. Helix H2 is kinked at Asn81 in two subunits, whereas it is kinked at Leu77 in the other subunit, and the side chain of Tyr80 is closer to Asp136. This indicates that catalytic reaction of PaaG may proceed with large conformational changes at the active site. Asp136 is the only conserved polar residue in the active site. It is located at the same position as those of 4-chlorobenzoyl-CoA dehalogenase and peroxisomal Delta(3),Delta(2)-enoyl-CoA isomerase, indicating that PaaG may undergo isomerization or a ring-opening reaction via a Delta(3),Delta(2)-enoyl-CoA isomerase-like mechanism. PMID:19452559

  18. Computational de novo design of a four-helix bundle protein—DND_4HB

    PubMed Central

    Murphy, Grant S; Sathyamoorthy, Bharatwaj; Der, Bryan S; Machius, Mischa C; Pulavarti, Surya V; Szyperski, Thomas; Kuhlman, Brian

    2015-01-01

    The de novo design of proteins is a rigorous test of our understanding of the key determinants of protein structure. The helix bundle is an interesting de novo design model system due to the diverse topologies that can be generated from a few simple α-helices. Previously, noncomputational studies demonstrated that connecting amphipathic helices together with short loops can sometimes generate helix bundle proteins, regardless of the bundle's exact sequence. However, using such methods, the precise positions of helices and side chains cannot be predetermined. Since protein function depends on exact positioning of residues, we examined if sequence design tools in the program Rosetta could be used to design a four-helix bundle with a predetermined structure. Helix position was specified using a folding procedure that constrained the design model to a defined topology, and iterative rounds of rotamer-based sequence design and backbone refinement were used to identify a low energy sequence for characterization. The designed protein, DND_4HB, unfolds cooperatively (Tm >90°C) and a NMR solution structure shows that it adopts the target helical bundle topology. Helices 2, 3, and 4 agree very closely with the design model (backbone RMSD = 1.11 Å) and >90% of the core side chain χ1 and χ2 angles are correctly predicted. Helix 1 lies in the target groove against the other helices, but is displaced 3 Å along the bundle axis. This result highlights the potential of computational design to create bundles with atomic-level precision, but also points at remaining challenges for achieving specific positioning between amphipathic helices. PMID:25287625

  19. A novel arsenate reductase from the bacterium Thermus thermophilus HB27: its role in arsenic detoxification.

    PubMed

    Del Giudice, Immacolata; Limauro, Danila; Pedone, Emilia; Bartolucci, Simonetta; Fiorentino, Gabriella

    2013-10-01

    Microorganisms living in arsenic-rich geothermal environments act on arsenic with different biochemical strategies, but the molecular mechanisms responsible for the resistance to the harmful effects of the metalloid have only partially been examined. In this study, we investigated the mechanisms of arsenic resistance in the thermophilic bacterium Thermus thermophilus HB27. This strain, originally isolated from a Japanese hot spring, exhibited tolerance to concentrations of arsenate and arsenite up to 20mM and 15mM, respectively; it owns in its genome a putative chromosomal arsenate reductase (TtarsC) gene encoding a protein homologous to the one well characterized from the plasmid pI258 of the Gram+bacterium Staphylococcus aureus. Differently from the majority of microorganisms, TtarsC is part of an operon including genes not related to arsenic resistance; qRT-PCR showed that its expression was four-fold increased when arsenate was added to the growth medium. The gene cloning and expression in Escherichia coli, followed by purification of the recombinant protein, proved that TtArsC was indeed a thioredoxin-coupled arsenate reductase with a kcat/KM value of 1.2×10(4)M(-1)s(-1). It also exhibited weak phosphatase activity with a kcat/KM value of 2.7×10(-4)M(-1)s(-1). The catalytic role of the first cysteine (Cys7) was ascertained by site-directed mutagenesis. These results identify TtArsC as an important component in the arsenic resistance in T. thermophilus giving the first structural-functional characterization of a thermophilic arsenate reductase. PMID:23800470

  20. Structural comparison between the open and closed forms of citrate synthase from Thermus thermophilus HB8

    PubMed Central

    Kanamori, Eiji; Kawaguchi, Shin-ichi; Kuramitsu, Seiki; Kouyama, Tsutomu; Murakami, Midori

    2015-01-01

    The crystal structures of citrate synthase from the thermophilic eubacteria Thermus thermophilus HB8 (TtCS) were determined for an open form at 1.5 Å resolution and for closed form at 2.3 Å resolution, respectively. In the absence of ligands TtCS in the open form was crystalized into a tetragonal form with a single subunit in the asymmetric unit. TtCS was also co-crystallized with citrate and coenzyme-A to form an orthorhombic crystal with two homodimers in the asymmetric unit. Citrate and CoA are found in the active site situated between the large domain and the small domain in all subunit whereas the complex shows two distinct closed conformations, the fully closed form and partially closed form. Structural comparisons are performed to describe conformational changes associated with binding of products of TtCS. Upon binding of citrate, basic residues in the active site move toward citrate and make a hydrogen bond network in the active site, inducing a large-scale rotation of the small domain relative to the large domain. CoA is sandwiched between the small and large domains and then the cysteamine tail is inserted into the active site with a cooperative rotation around mainchain dihedrals in the hinge region connecting helices M and N. According to this rotation these helices are extended to close the active site completely. The considerable flexibility and structural rearrangements in the hinge region are crucial for an ordered bibi reaction in catalysis for microbial CSs. PMID:27493854

  1. VizieR Online Data Catalog: Abundances of 9 HB stars in NGC 6352 (Feltzing+, 2009)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feltzing, S.; Primas, F.; Johnson, R. A.

    2008-10-01

    Metal-rich globular clusters provide important tracers of the formation of our Galaxy. Moreover, and not less important, they are very important calibrators for the derivation of properties of extra-galactic metal-rich stellar populations. Nonetheless, only a few of the metal-rich globular clusters in the Milky Way have been studied using high-resolution stellar spectra to derive elemental abundances. Additionally, Rosenberg et al. identified a small group of metal-rich globular clusters that appeared to be about 2 billion years younger than the bulk of the Milky Way globular clusters. However, it is unclear if like is compared with like in this dataset as we do not know the enhancement of alpha-elements in the clusters and the amount of alpha-elements is well known to influence the derivation of ages for globular clusters. We present a study of elemental abundances for alpha and iron-peak elements for nine HB stars in the metal-rich globular cluster NGC 6352. The elemental abundances are based on high-resolution, high signal-to-noise spectra obtained with the UVES spectrograph on VLT. The elemental abundances have been derived using standard LTE calculations and stellar parameters have been derived from the spectra themselves by requiring ionizational as well as excitational equilibrium. We find that NGC 6352 has [Fe/H]=-0.55, is enhanced in the alpha-elements to about +0.2dex for Ca, Si, and Ti relative to Fe. For the iron-peak elements we find solar values. Based on the spectroscopically derived stellar parameters we find that an E(B-V)=0.24 and (m-M). (3 data files).

  2. Sickle cell anemia and α-thalassemia: a modulating factor in homozygous HbS/S patients in Oman.

    PubMed

    Hassan, S M; Al Muslahi, M; Al Riyami, M; Bakker, E; Harteveld, C L; Giordano, P C

    2014-01-01

    We report the general phenotype severity and the hematological presentation in a cohort of 125 sickle cell anemia (SCA) patients with identical homozygous HbS/S genotype and categorized by identical β(S) haplotype, both with and without alpha thalassemia. No clear general phenotype correlation was found when patients were compared regardless of the haplotype but overall, patients with homozygous alpha thalassemia (α-/α-) had the highest Hb, HCT, RBC and the lowest MCV, MCH and MCHC levels. When patients with identical haplotype were compared, the mildest hematological and clinical conditions were observed in patients of the Asian/Asian haplotype, also known as Arab-Indian haplotype, and carriers of α-thalassemia, suggesting an additional ameliorating effect of alpha thalassemia. In conclusion, our results show that alpha thalassemia improves the hematological conditions but amelioration of the general disease severity is only noticed when compared in cohorts of the same haplotype. PMID:25266642

  3. Enhanced recovery and purification of P(3HB-co-3HHx) from recombinant Cupriavidus necator using alkaline digestion method.

    PubMed

    Anis, Siti Nor Syairah; Nurhezreen, M I; Sudesh, K; Amirul, A A

    2012-06-01

    A simple, efficient and economical method for the recovery of P(3HB-co-3HHx) was developed using various chemicals and parameters. The initial content of P(3HB-co-3HHx) in bacterial cells was 50-60 wt%, whereas the monomer composition of 3HHx used in this experiments was 3-5 mol%. It was found that sodium hydroxide (NaOH) was the most effective chemical for the recovery of biodegradable polymer. High polyhydroxyalkanoate purity and recovery yield both in the range of 80-90 wt% were obtained when 10-30 mg/ml of cells were incubated in NaOH at the concentration of 0.1 M for 60-180 min at 30 °C and polished using 20 % (v/v) of ethanol. PMID:22569781

  4. Fermi LAT Discovery of Extended Gamma-Ray Emissions in the Vicinity of the HB 3 Supernova Remnant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Katagiri, H.; Yoshida, K.; Ballet, J.; Grondin, M.-H.; Hanabata, Y.; Hewitt, J. W.; Kubo, H.; Lemoine-Goumard, M.

    2016-02-01

    We report the discovery of extended gamma-ray emission measured by the Large Area Telescope (LAT) onboard the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope in the region of the supernova remnant (SNR) HB 3 (G132.7+1.3) and the W3 II complex adjacent to the southeast of the remnant. W3 is spatially associated with bright 12CO (J = 1-0) emission. The gamma-ray emission is spatially correlated with this gas and the SNR. We discuss the possibility that gamma rays originate in interactions between particles accelerated in the SNR and interstellar gas or radiation fields. The decay of neutral pions produced in nucleon-nucleon interactions between accelerated hadrons and interstellar gas provides a reasonable explanation for the gamma-ray emission. The emission from W3 is consistent with irradiation of the CO clouds by the cosmic rays accelerated in HB 3.

  5. Visceral fat area is associated with HbA1c but not dialysate-related glucose load in nondiabetic PD patients.

    PubMed

    Ho, Li-chun; Yen, Chung-Jen; Chao, Chia-Ter; Chiang, Chih-Kang; Huang, Jenq-Wen; Hung, Kuan-Yu

    2015-01-01

    Factors associated with increased visceral fat area (VFA) have been well documented in the general population but rarely explored in nondiabetic individuals on peritoneal dialysis (PD). As glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c) is positively correlated with VFA in diabetic patients, we hypothesized that the same correlation would exist in nondiabetic PD patients. We enrolled 105 nondiabetic patients who had undergone chronic PD for more than 3 months. Each subject underwent an abdominal computed tomography (CT) scan, and the umbilicus cut was analyzed for VFA. VFA values, corrected for body mass index and subjected to natural logarithm transformations, were examined to determine whether they were correlated with HbA1c and other parameters. PD dialysates prescribed at the time of enrollment were recorded to calculate glucose load. We found that when 105 nondiabetic PD patients were classified according to tertiles of HbA1c, higher HbA1c was associated with larger VFA. Multiple linear regression analysis revealed that HbA1c was an independent determinant of VFA, while glucose load and other PD-specific factors were not. In summary, HbA1c, but not PD-related glucose load, was positively correlated with VFA in nondiabetic PD patients, suggesting clinical utility of HbA1c in the PD population. PMID:26239161

  6. Gq protein mediates UVB-induced cyclooxygenase-2 expression by stimulating HB-EGF secretion from HaCaT human keratinocytes

    SciTech Connect

    Seo, MiRan; Juhnn, Yong-Sung

    2010-03-05

    Ultraviolet (UV) radiation induces cyclooxygenase-2 expression to produce cellular responses including aging and carcinogenesis in skin. We hypothesised that heterotrimeric G proteins mediate UV-induced COX-2 expression by stimulating secretion of soluble HB-EGF (sHB-EGF). In this study, we aimed to elucidate the role and underlying mechanism of the {alpha} subunit of Gq protein (G{alpha}q) in UVB-induced HB-EGF secretion and COX-2 induction. We found that expression of constitutively active G{alpha}q (G{alpha}qQL) augmented UVB-induced HB-EGF secretion, which was abolished by knockdown of G{alpha}q with shRNA in HaCaT human keratinocytes. G{alpha}q was found to mediate the UVB-induced HB-EGF secretion by sequential activation of phospholipase C (PLC), protein kinase C{delta} (PKC{delta}), and matrix metaloprotease-2 (MMP-2). Moreover, G{alpha}qQL mediated UVB-induced COX-2 expression in an HB-EGF-, EGFR-, and p38-dependent manner. From these results, we concluded that G{alpha}q mediates UV-induced COX-2 expression through activation of EGFR by HB-EGF, of which ectodomain shedding was stimulated through sequential activation of PLC, PKC{delta} and MMP-2 in HaCaT cells.

  7. Modifying effects of maternal Hb concentration on infant birth weight in women receiving prenatal iron-containing supplements: a randomised controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Wang, Linlin; Mei, Zuguo; Li, Hongtian; Zhang, Yali; Liu, Jianmeng; Serdula, Mary K

    2016-02-28

    Concerns have been raised about the benefits of Fe-containing supplements on infant birth weight among women with normal/high Hb levels at baseline. Thus far, no clinical trials have examined whether the effects of prenatal Fe-containing supplements on birth weight vary by maternal Hb levels. We compared the effects of Fe-folic acid (IFA) or multiple micronutrients (MMN) with folic acid (FA) supplements on birth weight among pregnant women with mild/no anaemia or high Hb levels. A double-blind randomised controlled trial was conducted in 2006-2009. In total, 18 775 pregnant women with mild/no anaemia (145 g/l) baseline Hb levels, IFA and MMN supplements increased birth weight by 91·44 (95% CI 3·37, 179·51) g and 107·63 (95% CI 21·98, 193·28) g (P<0·05), respectively, compared with the FA group. No differences were found between the IFA and the MMN group, regardless of maternal Hb concentration. In conclusion, the effects of Fe-containing supplements on birth weight depended on baseline Hb concentrations. The Fe-containing supplements improved birth weight in women with very high Hb levels before 20 weeks of gestation. PMID:26824731

  8. A discrepancy between plasma glycated albumin and HbA1c levels in a patient with steroid-induced diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    Iizuka, Katsumi; Kato, Takehiro; Mizuno, Masami; Takeda, Jun

    2016-01-01

    A 57-year-old man was admitted for the treatment of steroid-induced diabetes mellitus (DM). He also had interstitial pneumonia and, to treat it, 20 mg prednisolone had been started in April 2014. Although glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c) level was 7.8% (62 mmol/mol), his glycated albumin (GA) level was normal (13.9%) and the ratio of GA to HbA1c (GA:HbA1c) was lower than that of normal participants and patients with type 2 DM. Plasma GA and GA:HbA1c levels became persistently lower. In September 2015, HbA1c levels measured by HPLC and immunoprecipitation methods were almost the same (6.8% (51 mmol/mol) and 6.7% (50 mmol/mol), respectively), but GA (10.2%) and GA:HbA1c (1.6) were much lower. We report the case of a patient with DM where steroid administration may have caused a decrease in plasma GA and GA:HbA1c levels via increased albumin turnover. PMID:26961565

  9. Visceral fat area is associated with HbA1c but not dialysate-related glucose load in nondiabetic PD patients

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ho, Li-Chun; Yen, Chung-Jen; Chao, Chia-Ter; Chiang, Chih-Kang; Huang, Jenq-Wen; Hung, Kuan-Yu

    2015-08-01

    Factors associated with increased visceral fat area (VFA) have been well documented in the general population but rarely explored in nondiabetic individuals on peritoneal dialysis (PD). As glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c) is positively correlated with VFA in diabetic patients, we hypothesized that the same correlation would exist in nondiabetic PD patients. We enrolled 105 nondiabetic patients who had undergone chronic PD for more than 3 months. Each subject underwent an abdominal computed tomography (CT) scan, and the umbilicus cut was analyzed for VFA. VFA values, corrected for body mass index and subjected to natural logarithm transformations, were examined to determine whether they were correlated with HbA1c and other parameters. PD dialysates prescribed at the time of enrollment were recorded to calculate glucose load. We found that when 105 nondiabetic PD patients were classified according to tertiles of HbA1c, higher HbA1c was associated with larger VFA. Multiple linear regression analysis revealed that HbA1c was an independent determinant of VFA, while glucose load and other PD-specific factors were not. In summary, HbA1c, but not PD-related glucose load, was positively correlated with VFA in nondiabetic PD patients, suggesting clinical utility of HbA1c in the PD population.

  10. Visceral fat area is associated with HbA1c but not dialysate-related glucose load in nondiabetic PD patients

    PubMed Central

    Ho, Li-chun; Yen, Chung-Jen; Chao, Chia-Ter; Chiang, Chih-Kang; Huang, Jenq-Wen; Hung, Kuan-Yu

    2015-01-01

    Factors associated with increased visceral fat area (VFA) have been well documented in the general population but rarely explored in nondiabetic individuals on peritoneal dialysis (PD). As glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c) is positively correlated with VFA in diabetic patients, we hypothesized that the same correlation would exist in nondiabetic PD patients. We enrolled 105 nondiabetic patients who had undergone chronic PD for more than 3 months. Each subject underwent an abdominal computed tomography (CT) scan, and the umbilicus cut was analyzed for VFA. VFA values, corrected for body mass index and subjected to natural logarithm transformations, were examined to determine whether they were correlated with HbA1c and other parameters. PD dialysates prescribed at the time of enrollment were recorded to calculate glucose load. We found that when 105 nondiabetic PD patients were classified according to tertiles of HbA1c, higher HbA1c was associated with larger VFA. Multiple linear regression analysis revealed that HbA1c was an independent determinant of VFA, while glucose load and other PD-specific factors were not. In summary, HbA1c, but not PD-related glucose load, was positively correlated with VFA in nondiabetic PD patients, suggesting clinical utility of HbA1c in the PD population. PMID:26239161