Science.gov

Sample records for recommended target values

  1. Radionuclide transfer to animal products: revised recommended transfer coefficient values.

    PubMed

    Howard, B J; Beresford, N A; Barnett, C L; Fesenko, S

    2009-03-01

    A compilation has been undertaken of data which can be used to derive animal product transfer coefficients for radionuclides, including an extensive review of Russian language information. The resultant database has been used to provide recommended transfer coefficient values for a range of radionuclides to (i) cow, sheep and goat milk, (ii) meat (muscle) of cattle, sheep, goats, pigs and poultry and (iii) eggs. The values are used in a new IAEA handbook on transfer parameters which replaces that referred to as 'TRS 364'. The paper outlines the approaches and procedures used to identify and collate data, and assumptions used. There are notable differences between the TRS 364 'expected' values and the recommended values in the revised Handbook from the new database. Of the recommended values, three milk values are at least an order of magnitude higher than the TRS 364 values (Cr, Pu (cow) Pu (sheep)) and one milk value is lower (Ni (cow)). For meat, four values (Am, Cd, Sb (beef) I (pork)) are at least an order of magnitude higher than the TRS 364 values and eight values are at least an order of magnitude lower (Ru, Pu (beef), Ru, Sr, Zn (sheep), Ru, Sr (pork), Mn (poultry)). Many data gaps remain. PMID:19200625

  2. Treating Rheumatoid Arthritis to Target: multinational recommendations assessment questionnaire

    PubMed Central

    Haraoui, Boulos; Smolen, Josef S; Aletaha, Daniel; Breedveld, Ferdinand C; Burmester, Gerd; Codreanu, Catalin; Da Silva, José Pereira; de Wit, Maarten; Dougados, Maxime; Durez, Patrick; Emery, Paul; Fonseca, João Eurico; Gibofsky, Allan; Gomez-Reino, Juan; Graninger, Winfried; Hamuryudan, Vedat; Jannaut Peῆa, Maria José; Kalden, Joachim; Kvien, Tore K; Laurindo, Ieda; Martin-Mola, Emilio; Montecucco, Carlomaurizio; Santos Moreno, Pedro; Pavelka, Karel; Poor, Gyula; Cardiel, Mario H; Stanislawska-Biernat, Ewa; Takeuchi, Tsutomu; van der Heijde, Désirée

    2011-01-01

    Aim To measure the level of agreement and application of 10 international recommendations for treating rheumatoid arthritis (RA) to a target of remission/low disease activity. Methods A 10-point Likert scale (1=fully disagree, 10=fully agree) measured the level of agreement with each of 10 recommendations. A 4-point Likert scale (never, not very often, very often, always) assessed the degree to which each recommendation was being applied in current daily practice. If respondents answered ‘never’ or ‘not very often’, they were asked whether they would change their practice according to the particular recommendation. Results A total of 1901 physicians representing 34 countries participated. Both agreement with and application of recommendations was high. With regard to application of recommendations in daily practice, the majority of responses were ‘always’ and ‘very often’. A significant percentage of participants who were currently not applying these recommendations in clinical practice were willing to change their practice according to the recommendations. Conclusion The results of this survey demonstrated great support of ‘Treating RA to Target’ recommendations among the international rheumatology community. Additional efforts may be needed to encourage application of the recommendations among certain clinicians who are resistant to changing their practice. PMID:21803747

  3. COST OF ADDRESSING TARGETS OF UNEQUAL VALUE

    SciTech Connect

    G.H. CANAVAN

    2001-08-01

    The formalism for evaluating first strike costs and incentives for military targeting generalize to include higher value targets. That introduces two new allocations to the usual allocation between missiles and military targets, but they can be performed analytically. As the number of weapons on each side decreases, the optimal fraction of second strike weapons allocated to military values falls. The shift to high value targets is more pronounced below about 1,000 weapons for nominal parameters. Below 500 weapons the first striker's cost of action drops below its cost of inaction. A strike would induce a second strike of about 250 weapons on high value targets. An increase in the first striker's preference for damage to the other's high value targets increases or a decrease in its preference for preventing damage to its own high value targets decreases first strike costs and stability margins. Including defenses complicates allocations slightly. The main effect is increased attrition of second strikes, particularly at larger defenses, which makes it possible to significantly reduce damage to high value targets. At 1,000 weapons, by 300 to 400 interceptors the first striker's costs are reduced to 30% below that of inaction and the number of weapons delivered on the first striker's high value targets is reduced to about 100.

  4. Recommended values of clean metal surface work functions

    SciTech Connect

    Derry, Gregory N. Kern, Megan E.; Worth, Eli H.

    2015-11-15

    A critical review of the experimental literature for measurements of the work functions of clean metal surfaces of single-crystals is presented. The tables presented include all results found for low-index crystal faces except cases that were known to be contaminated surfaces. These results are used to construct a recommended value of the work function for each surface examined, along with an uncertainty estimate for that value. The uncertainties are based in part on the error distribution for all measured work functions in the literature, which is included here. The metals included in this review are silver (Ag), aluminum (Al), gold (Au), copper (Cu), iron (Fe), iridium (Ir), molybdenum (Mo), niobium (Nb), nickel (Ni), palladium (Pd), platinum (Pt), rhodium (Rh), ruthenium (Ru), tantalum (Ta), and tungsten (W)

  5. Attainment of Canadian Diabetes Association recommended targets in patients with type 2 diabetes

    PubMed Central

    McCrate, Farah; Godwin, Marshall; Murphy, Laura

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To examine the degree to which targets for diabetes (blood pressure [BP], glycated hemoglobin [HbA1c], and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol [LDL-C]) are achieved in family practices and how these results compare with family physicians’ perceptions of how well targets are being achieved. DESIGN Chart audit and physician survey. SETTING Newfoundland and Labrador. PARTICIPANTS Patients with type 2 diabetes and their family physicians. INTERVENTIONS The charts of 20 patients with type 2 diabetes were randomly chosen from each of 8 family physician practices in St John’s, Nfld, and data were abstracted. All family physicians in the province were surveyed using a modified Dillman method. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES The most recent HbA1c, LDL-C, and BP measurements listed in each audited chart; surveyed family physicians’ knowledge of the recommended targets for HbA1c, LDL-C, and BP and their estimates of what percentage of their patients were at those recommended targets. RESULTS The chart audit revealed that 20.6% of patients were at the recommended target for BP, 48.1% were at the recommended target for HbA1c, and 17.5% were at the recommended target for LDL-C. When targets were examined collectively, only 2.5% of patients were achieving targets in all 3 areas. The survey found that most family physicians were aware of the recommended targets for BP, LDL-C, and HbA1c. However, their estimates of the percentages of patients in their practices achieving these targets appeared high (59.3% for BP, 58.2% for HbA1c, and 48.4% for LDL-C) compared with the results of the chart audit. CONCLUSION The findings of the chart audit are consistent with other published reports, which have illustrated that a large majority of patients with diabetes fall short of reaching recommended targets for BP, blood glucose, and lipid levels. Although family physicians are knowledgeable about recommended targets, there is a gap between knowledge and clinical outcomes. The reasons for

  6. Diet and Inflammatory Bowel Disease: Review of Patient-Targeted Recommendations

    PubMed Central

    Hou, Jason K.; Lee, Dale; Lewis, James

    2014-01-01

    Patients have strong beliefs about the role of diet in the cause of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) and in exacerbating or alleviating ongoing symptoms from IBD. The rapid increase in the incidence and prevalence of IBD in the past several decades strongly suggests an environmental trigger for IBD, one of which may be dietary patterns. There are several pathways where diet may influence intestinal inflammation such as direct dietary antigens, altering the gut microbiome, and affecting gastrointestinal permeability. However, data that altering diet can change the natural history of IBD are scarce and evidence based dietary guidelines for patients with IBD are lacking. Patients therefore seek non-medical resources for dietary guidance such as patient support groups and unverified sources on the internet. The aim of this review is to identify patient-targeted dietary recommendations for IBD and to critically appraise the nutritional value of these recommendations. We review patient-targeted dietary information for IBD from structured internet searches and popular defined diets. Patient-targeted dietary recommendations focus on food restrictions and are highly conflicting. High quality dietary intervention studies are needed to facilitate creation of evidence-based dietary guidelines for patients with IBD. PMID:24107394

  7. Diet and inflammatory bowel disease: review of patient-targeted recommendations.

    PubMed

    Hou, Jason K; Lee, Dale; Lewis, James

    2014-10-01

    Patients have strong beliefs about the role of diet in the cause of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) and in exacerbating or alleviating ongoing symptoms from IBD. The rapid increase in the incidence and prevalence of IBD in recent decades strongly suggests an environmental trigger for IBD, one of which may be dietary patterns. There are several pathways where diet may influence intestinal inflammation, such as direct dietary antigens, altering the gut microbiome, and affecting gastrointestinal permeability. However, data that altering diet can change the natural history of IBD are scarce, and evidence-based dietary guidelines for patients with IBD are lacking. Patients, therefore, seek nonmedical resources for dietary guidance, such as patient support groups and unverified sources on the Internet. The aim of this review is to identify patient-targeted dietary recommendations for IBD and to critically appraise the nutritional value of these recommendations. We review patient-targeted dietary information for IBD from structured Internet searches and popular defined diets. Patient-targeted dietary recommendations focus on food restrictions and are highly conflicting. High-quality dietary intervention studies are needed to facilitate creation of evidence-based dietary guidelines for patients with IBD. PMID:24107394

  8. Henry's law constants of diacids and hydroxypolyacids: recommended values

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Compernolle, S.; Müller, J.-F.

    2013-09-01

    In spite of the importance of diacids and functionalised diacids for organic aerosol formation through aqueous-phase processes in droplets and aerosol water, there seems to be no reliable set of experimental values for their Henry's law constants (HLC). We show that their estimation through the use of infinite dilution activity coefficients is also prone to error. Here we present HLC values for diacids and hydroxy polyacids determined from solubilities, water activities and vapour pressures of solids or solutions, by employing thermodynamic relationships. The vapour pressures are found to be the largest source of error, but the analysis of the obtained HLC points to inconsistencies among specific vapour pressure data sets. Although there is considerable uncertainty, the HLC of diacids appear to be higher than estimated by the often cited review work of Saxena and Hildemann (1996).

  9. Henry's law constants of diacids and hydroxy polyacids: recommended values

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Compernolle, S.; Müller, J.-F.

    2014-03-01

    In spite of the importance of diacids and functionalised diacids for organic aerosol formation through aqueous-phase processes in droplets and aerosol water, there seems to be no reliable set of experimental values for their Henry's law constants (HLCs). We show that their estimation through the use of infinite dilution activity coefficients is also prone to error. Here we present HLC values for diacids and hydroxy polyacids determined from solubilities, water activities and vapour pressures of solids or solutions, by employing thermodynamic relationships. The vapour pressures are found to be the largest source of error, but the analysis of the obtained HLC points to inconsistencies among specific vapour pressure data sets. Although there is considerable uncertainty, the HLC defined as aqueous concentration per unit gaseous partial pressure of linear α- and ω-diacids appear to be higher than estimated by the often cited review work of Saxena and Hildemann (1996).

  10. Targeting Net Zero Energy at Fort Carson: Assessment and Recommendations

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, K.; Markel, T.; Simpson, M.; Leahey, J.; Rockenbaugh, C.; Lisell, L.; Burman, K.; Singer, M.

    2011-10-01

    The U.S. Army's Fort Carson installation was selected to serve as a prototype for net zero energy assessment and planning. NREL performed the comprehensive assessment to appraise the potential of Fort Carson to achieve net zero energy status through energy efficiency, renewable energy, and electric vehicle integration. This report summarizes the results of the assessment and provides energy recommendations. This study is part of a larger cross-laboratory effort that also includes an assessment of renewable opportunities at seven other DoD Front Range installations, a microgrid design for Fort Carson critical loads and an assessment of regulatory and market-based barriers to a regional secure smart grid.

  11. The Value of Targeted Comic Book Readers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hammond, Kay; Danaher, Katherine

    2012-01-01

    A limitation of extensive reading programmes is the time required for progress in vocabulary acquisition. This paper reports on a qualitative exploration of student perceptions of the value of non-compulsory comic books in ESL elementary and upper-intermediate level courses at a tertiary institution. We aimed to develop supplementary materials…

  12. Cytoskeleton targeting value in prostate cancer treatment

    PubMed Central

    Martin, Sarah K; Kamelgarn, Marisa; Kyprianou, Natasha

    2014-01-01

    Prostate cancer is a disease that affects hundreds of thousands of men in the United States each year. In the early stages of advanced prostate cancer, the disease can be suppressed by androgen deprivation therapy (ADT). Eventually, however, most patients experience resistance to androgen deprivation, and their treatment transitions to alternative targeting of the androgen axis with abiraterone and enzalutamide, as well as taxane-based chemotherapy. Development of advanced castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC) is a consequence of lack of an apoptotic response by the tumor cells to treatment. Understanding the mechanisms contributing to prostate tumor therapeutic resistance and progression to metastasis requires dissection of the signaling mechanisms navigating tumor invasion and metastasis as mediated by cell-matrix interactions engaging components of the extracellular matrix (ECM), to form adhesion complexes. For a tumor call to metastasize from the primary tumor, it requires disruption of cell-cell interactions from the surrounding cells, as well as detachment from the ECM and resistance to anoikis (apoptosis upon cell detachment from ECM). Attachment, movement and invasion of cancer cells are functionally facilitated by the actin cytoskeleton and tubulin as the structural component of microtubules. Transforming growth factor (TGF)-β has tumor-inhibitory activity in the early stages of tumorigenesis, but it promotes tumor invasive characteristics in metastatic disease. Recent evidence implicates active (dephosphorylated) cofilin, an F-actin severing protein required for cytoskeleton reorganization, as an important contributor to switching TGF-β characteristics from a growth suppressor to a promoter of prostate cancer invasion and metastasis. Cancer cells eventually lose the ability to adhere to adjacent neighboring cells as well as ECM proteins, and via epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT), acquire invasive and metastatic characteristics. Microtubule-targeting

  13. Recommended Partition Coefficient (Kd) Values for Nuclide Partitioning in the Presence of Cellulose Degradation Products

    SciTech Connect

    Serkiz, S.M.

    2001-02-23

    This report documents the data analysis of the results of the described laboratory studies in order to recommend Kd values for use in Performance Assessment modeling of nuclide transport in the presence of CDP.

  14. Targeted and comprehensive space-environment sensors: description and recommendations

    SciTech Connect

    Reeves, Geoffrey; O'Brien, Paul; Mazur, Joe; Ginet, Gregory

    2009-01-01

    We discuss the roles of the two classes of space-environment sensors on operational space systems: (1) Targeted sensors capable of measuring the environment and effects at a level sufficient for providing situational awareness for the host spacecraft and (2) Comprehensive sensors capable of providing detailed environment measurements that can be mapped to a broad region of near-Earth space, providing global situational awareness and quantitative characterization of the environment. Our purpose is to show the usefulness of a heterogeneous architecture with both classes of sensors for the near-term and long-term needs of National Security Space

  15. Recommendations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brazelton, G. Blue; Renn, Kristen A.; Stewart, Dafina-Lazarus

    2015-01-01

    In this chapter, the editors provide a summary of the information shared in this sourcebook about the success of students who have minoritized identities of sexuality or gender and offer recommendations for policy, practice, and further research.

  16. Average and recommended half-life values for two neutrino double beta decay: Upgrade-2013

    SciTech Connect

    Barabash, A. S.

    2013-12-30

    All existing positive results on two neutrino double beta decay in different nuclei were analyzed. Using the procedure recommended by the Particle Data Group, weighted average values for half-lives of {sup 48}Ca, {sup 76}Ge, {sup 82}Se, {sup 96}Zr, {sup 100}Mo, {sup 100}Mo−{sup 100}Ru (0{sub 1}{sup +}), {sup 116}Cd, {sup 130}Te, {sup 136}Xe, {sup 150}Nd, {sup 150}Nd−{sup 150}Sm (0{sub 1}{sup +}) and {sup 238}U were obtained. Existing geochemical data were analyzed and recommended values for half-lives of {sup 128}Te and {sup 130}Ba are proposed. I recommend the use of these results as the most currently reliable values for half-lives.

  17. Strike planning against a target base with a value structure

    SciTech Connect

    Chrzanowski, P.L.

    1992-04-21

    With the signing of the Strategic Arms Reduction Treaty (START) and, with the end of the Cold War, two questions arise. How large should force reductions be in a START-II accord How much can the major nuclear powers reduce their nuclear arms and still maintain strategic stability. The results of the analysis presented here are summarized by the following five statements: (1) In the development of target lists, it is important to prioritize. A standard approach is to identify a break-point in the list of installations, to target only those facilities that are above the break-point, and to assign as many weapons as necessary to key installations to achieve damage goals. As an alternative, a systematic method is suggested here that uses the concept of target value. First, an ordinal list of targets must be developed. Then, values can be assigned to targets in a way that leads to reasonable set of targeting priorities and to a useful figure of merit to assess strike effectiveness. (2) Two complementary observations can be made, based on an analysis of optimum attack tactics against a target base with a value structure: It is not practical to size the stockpile based on the number of targets in the target set because a small change in the damage goal for the strike results in large change to the required inventory. By prioritizing targets, it is possible to make large reductions in the force structure while causing only small reductions in the expected target value damaged. (3) Prudence dictates building into strike plans hedges against degraded weapon performance. (4) The impact of defenses on the required offensive inventory depends on details about the management of defensive systems. (5) If timely information can be obtained about damage to targets so that follow-on weapons can be allocated only to undamaged targets, the number of weapons required to achieve the specified damage coal can be reduced significantly.

  18. Strike planning against a target base with a value structure

    SciTech Connect

    Chrzanowski, P.L.

    1992-04-21

    With the signing of the Strategic Arms Reduction Treaty (START) and, with the end of the Cold War, two questions arise. How large should force reductions be in a START-II accord? How much can the major nuclear powers reduce their nuclear arms and still maintain strategic stability. The results of the analysis presented here are summarized by the following five statements: (1) In the development of target lists, it is important to prioritize. A standard approach is to identify a break-point in the list of installations, to target only those facilities that are above the break-point, and to assign as many weapons as necessary to key installations to achieve damage goals. As an alternative, a systematic method is suggested here that uses the concept of target value. First, an ordinal list of targets must be developed. Then, values can be assigned to targets in a way that leads to reasonable set of targeting priorities and to a useful figure of merit to assess strike effectiveness. (2) Two complementary observations can be made, based on an analysis of optimum attack tactics against a target base with a value structure: It is not practical to size the stockpile based on the number of targets in the target set because a small change in the damage goal for the strike results in large change to the required inventory. By prioritizing targets, it is possible to make large reductions in the force structure while causing only small reductions in the expected target value damaged. (3) Prudence dictates building into strike plans hedges against degraded weapon performance. (4) The impact of defenses on the required offensive inventory depends on details about the management of defensive systems. (5) If timely information can be obtained about damage to targets so that follow-on weapons can be allocated only to undamaged targets, the number of weapons required to achieve the specified damage coal can be reduced significantly.

  19. Precision Modeling Of Targets Using The VALUE Computer Program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoffman, George A.; Patton, Ronald; Akerman, Alexander

    1989-08-01

    The 1976-vintage LASERX computer code has been augmented to produce realistic electro-optical images of targets. Capabilities lacking in LASERX but recently incorporated into its VALUE successor include: •Shadows cast onto the ground •Shadows cast onto parts of the target •See-through transparencies (e.g.,canopies) •Apparent images due both to atmospheric scattering and turbulence •Surfaces characterized by multiple bi-directional reflectance functions VALUE provides not only realistic target modeling by its precise and comprehensive representation of all target attributes, but additionally VALUE is very user friendly. Specifically, setup of runs is accomplished by screen prompting menus in a sequence of queries that is logical to the user. VALUE also incorporates the Optical Encounter (OPEC) software developed by Tricor Systems,Inc., Elgin, IL.

  20. Treating rheumatoid arthritis to target: recommendations of an international task force

    PubMed Central

    Smolen, Josef S; Aletaha, Daniel; Bijlsma, Johannes W J; Breedveld, Ferdinand C; Boumpas, Dimitrios; Burmester, Gerd; Combe, Bernard; Cutolo, Maurizio; de Wit, Maarten; Dougados, Maxime; Emery, Paul; Gibofsky, Alan; Gomez-Reino, Juan Jesus; Haraoui, Boulos; Kalden, Joachim; Keystone, Edward C; Kvien, Tore K; McInnes, Iain; Martin-Mola, Emilio; Montecucco, Carlomaurizio; Schoels, Monika; van der Heijde, Desirée

    2010-01-01

    Background Aiming at therapeutic targets has reduced the risk of organ failure in many diseases such as diabetes or hypertension. Such targets have not been defined for rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Objective To develop recommendations for achieving optimal therapeutic outcomes in RA. Methods A task force of rheumatologists and a patient developed a set of recommendations on the basis of evidence derived from a systematic literature review and expert opinion; these were subsequently discussed, amended and voted upon by >60 experts from various regions of the world in a Delphi-like procedure. Levels of evidence, strength of recommendations and levels of agreement were derived. Results The treat-to-target activity resulted in 10 recommendations. The treatment aim was defined as remission with low disease activity being an alternative goal in patients with long-standing disease. Regular follow-up (every 1–3 months during active disease) with appropriate therapeutic adaptation to reach the desired state within 3 to a maximum of 6 months was recommended. Follow-up examinations ought to employ composite measures of disease activity which include joint counts. Additional items provide further details for particular aspects of the disease. Levels of agreement were very high for many of these recommendations (≥9/10). Conclusion The 10 recommendations are supposed to inform patients, rheumatologists and other stakeholders about strategies to reach optimal outcomes of RA based on evidence and expert opinion. PMID:20215140

  1. Progress in the accuracy of the fundamental physical constants: 2010 CODATA recommended values

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karshenboim, S. G.

    2013-09-01

    Every four years, the CODATA Task Group on Fundamental Constants presents tables of recommended values of the fundamental physical constants. Recently, 2010 CODATA recommended values (Mohr P J, Taylor B N, and Newell D B "CODATA recommended values of the fundamental physical constants: 2010" Rev. Mod. Phys. 84 1527 (2012)), based on global data up to 31 December 2010, were published. In the present review, we briefly analyze the new recommended values, as well as new original data, on which the determination is based. To facilitate the consideration, the data are subdivided into several groups. New original theoretical and experimental results are discussed for each group separately. Special attention is paid to experimental and theoretical progress in the determination of the Rydberg constant R_{\\infty}, the electron-proton mass ratio m_{ e}/m_{ p}, the fine-structure constant \\alpha, the Planck constant h, the Boltzmann constant k, the Newtonian constant of gravitation G, and the anomalous magnetic moment of the muon \\alpha_{\\mu}. In conclusion, the prospects of redefining units of the International System (SI) in terms of fundamental physical constants, which is currently under active discussion by the metrological community, are considered. The very possibility and efficiency of a practical realization of such a scenario with the redefinition directly depends on the status of the determination of the fundamental constants.

  2. SU-E-I-27: Establishing Target Exposure Index Values for Computed Radiography

    SciTech Connect

    Murphy, N; Tchou, P; Belcher, K; Scott, A

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: To develop a standard set of target exposure index (TEI) values to be applied to Agfa Computed Radiography (CR) readers in accordance with International Electrotechnical Committee 62494-1 (ed. 1.0). Methods: A large data cohort was collected from six USAF Medical Treatment Facilities that exclusively use Agfa CR Readers. Dose monitoring statistics were collected from each reader. The data was analyzed based on anatomic region, view, and processing speed class. The Agfa specific exposure metric, logarithmic mean (LGM), was converted to exposure index (EI) for each data set. The optimum TEI value was determined by minimizing the number of studies that fell outside the acceptable deviation index (DI) range of +/− 2 for phototimed techniques or a range of +/−3 for fixed techniques. An anthropomorphic radiographic phantom was used to corroborate the TEI recommendations. Images were acquired of several anatomic regions and views using standard techniques. The images were then evaluated by two radiologists as either acceptable or unacceptable. The acceptable image with the lowest exposure and EI value was compared to the recommended TEI values using a passing DI range. Results: Target EI values were determined for a comprehensive list of anatomic regions and views. Conclusion: Target EI values must be established on each CR unit in order to provide a positive feedback system for the technologist. This system will serve as a mechanism to prevent under or overexposures of patients. The TEI recommendations are a first attempt at a large scale process improvement with the goal of setting reasonable and standardized TEI values. The implementation and effectiveness of the recommended TEI values should be monitored and adjustments made as necessary.

  3. AUI&GIV: Recommendation with Asymmetric User Influence and Global Importance Value

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Zhi-Lin; Wang, Chang-Dong; Lai, Jian-Huang

    2016-01-01

    The user-based collaborative filtering (CF) algorithm is one of the most popular approaches for making recommendation. Despite its success, the traditional user-based CF algorithm suffers one serious problem that it only measures the influence between two users based on their symmetric similarities calculated by their consumption histories. It means that, for a pair of users, the influences on each other are the same, which however may not be true. Intuitively, an expert may have an impact on a novice user but a novice user may not affect an expert at all. Besides, each user may possess a global importance factor that affects his/her influence to the remaining users. To this end, in this paper, we propose an asymmetric user influence model to measure the directed influence between two users and adopt the PageRank algorithm to calculate the global importance value of each user. And then the directed influence values and the global importance values are integrated to deduce the final influence values between two users. Finally, we use the final influence values to improve the performance of the traditional user-based CF algorithm. Extensive experiments have been conducted, the results of which have confirmed that both the asymmetric user influence model and global importance value play key roles in improving recommendation accuracy, and hence the proposed method significantly outperforms the existing recommendation algorithms, in particular the user-based CF algorithm on the datasets of high rating density. PMID:26828803

  4. AUI&GIV: Recommendation with Asymmetric User Influence and Global Importance Value.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Zhi-Lin; Wang, Chang-Dong; Lai, Jian-Huang

    2016-01-01

    The user-based collaborative filtering (CF) algorithm is one of the most popular approaches for making recommendation. Despite its success, the traditional user-based CF algorithm suffers one serious problem that it only measures the influence between two users based on their symmetric similarities calculated by their consumption histories. It means that, for a pair of users, the influences on each other are the same, which however may not be true. Intuitively, an expert may have an impact on a novice user but a novice user may not affect an expert at all. Besides, each user may possess a global importance factor that affects his/her influence to the remaining users. To this end, in this paper, we propose an asymmetric user influence model to measure the directed influence between two users and adopt the PageRank algorithm to calculate the global importance value of each user. And then the directed influence values and the global importance values are integrated to deduce the final influence values between two users. Finally, we use the final influence values to improve the performance of the traditional user-based CF algorithm. Extensive experiments have been conducted, the results of which have confirmed that both the asymmetric user influence model and global importance value play key roles in improving recommendation accuracy, and hence the proposed method significantly outperforms the existing recommendation algorithms, in particular the user-based CF algorithm on the datasets of high rating density. PMID:26828803

  5. Treating rheumatoid arthritis to target: 2014 update of the recommendations of an international task force

    PubMed Central

    Smolen, Josef S; Breedveld, Ferdinand C; Burmester, Gerd R; Bykerk, Vivian; Dougados, Maxime; Emery, Paul; Kvien, Tore K; Navarro-Compán, M Victoria; Oliver, Susan; Schoels, Monika; Scholte-Voshaar, Marieke; Stamm, Tanja; Stoffer, Michaela; Takeuchi, Tsutomu; Aletaha, Daniel; Andreu, Jose Louis; Aringer, Martin; Bergman, Martin; Betteridge, Neil; Bijlsma, Hans; Burkhardt, Harald; Combe, Bernard; Durez, Patrick; Fonseca, Joao Eurico; Gibofsky, Alan; Gomez-Reino, Juan J; Graninger, Winfried; Hannonen, Pekka; Haraoui, Boulos; Kouloumas, Marios; Landewe, Robert; Martin-Mola, Emilio; Nash, Peter; Ostergaard, Mikkel; Östör, Andrew; Richards, Pam; Sokka-Isler, Tuulikki; Thorne, Carter; Tzioufas, Athanasios G; van Vollenhoven, Ronald; de Wit, Martinus

    2016-01-01

    Background Reaching the therapeutic target of remission or low-disease activity has improved outcomes in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) significantly. The treat-to-target recommendations, formulated in 2010, have provided a basis for implementation of a strategic approach towards this therapeutic goal in routine clinical practice, but these recommendations need to be re-evaluated for appropriateness and practicability in the light of new insights. Objective To update the 2010 treat-to-target recommendations based on systematic literature reviews (SLR) and expert opinion. Methods A task force of rheumatologists, patients and a nurse specialist assessed the SLR results and evaluated the individual items of the 2010 recommendations accordingly, reformulating many of the items. These were subsequently discussed, amended and voted upon by >40 experts, including 5 patients, from various regions of the world. Levels of evidence, strengths of recommendations and levels of agreement were derived. Results The update resulted in 4 overarching principles and 10 recommendations. The previous recommendations were partly adapted and their order changed as deemed appropriate in terms of importance in the view of the experts. The SLR had now provided also data for the effectiveness of targeting low-disease activity or remission in established rather than only early disease. The role of comorbidities, including their potential to preclude treatment intensification, was highlighted more strongly than before. The treatment aim was again defined as remission with low-disease activity being an alternative goal especially in patients with long-standing disease. Regular follow-up (every 1–3 months during active disease) with according therapeutic adaptations to reach the desired state was recommended. Follow-up examinations ought to employ composite measures of disease activity that include joint counts. Additional items provide further details for particular aspects of the

  6. Energy and nutrient dietary reference values for children in Europe: methodological approaches and current nutritional recommendations.

    PubMed

    Prentice, Ann; Branca, Francesco; Decsi, Tamás; Michaelsen, Kim Fleischer; Fletcher, Reg J; Guesry, Pierre; Manz, Friedrich; Vidailhet, Michel; Pannemans, Daphne; Samartín, Sonia

    2004-10-01

    The Expert Group on the Methodological Approaches and Current Nutritional Recommendations in Children and Adolescents was convened to consider the current situation across Europe with regard to dietary recommendations and reference values for children aged 2-18 years. Information was obtained for twenty-nine of the thirty-nine countries in Europe and a comprehensive compilation was made of the dietary recommendations current up to September 2002. This report presents a review of the concepts of dietary reference values and a comparison of the methodological approaches used in each country. Attention is drawn to the special considerations that are needed for establishing dietary reference values for children and adolescents. Tables are provided of the current dietary reference values for energy and for the macronutrients, vitamins, minerals, trace elements and water. Brief critiques are included to indicate the scientific foundations of the reference values for children and to offer, where possible, an explanation for the wide differences that exist between countries. This compilation demonstrated that there are considerable disparities in the perceived nutritional requirements of European children and adolescents. Although some of this diversity can be attributed to real physiological and environmental differences, most is due to differences in philosophy about the best methodological approach to use and in the way the theoretical approaches are applied. The report highlights the main methodological and technological issues that will need to be resolved before harmonization can be fully considered. Solving these issues may help to improve the quality and consistency of dietary reference values across Europe. However, there are also considerable scientific and political barriers that will need to be overcome and the question of whether harmonization of dietary reference values for children and adolescents is a desirable or achievable goal for Europe requires further

  7. Optimal blood pressure targets in 2014 - Does the guideline recommendation match the evidence base?

    PubMed

    Alviar, C L; Bangalore, S; Messerli, F H

    2015-01-01

    Various scientific societies have recently published practice guidelines for the diagnosis and management of arterial hypertension with no clear consensus on a blood pressure target. This article reviews those recommendations and critically examines if they are based on sound evidence. PMID:26179968

  8. Recommendations from Friends Anytime and Anywhere: Toward a Model of Contextual Offer and Consumption Values

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Xiao-Liang; Wang, Nan

    2013-01-01

    Abstract The ubiquity and portability of mobile devices provide additional opportunities for information retrieval. People can easily access mobile applications anytime and anywhere when they need to acquire specific context-aware recommendations (contextual offer) from their friends. This study, thus, represents an initial attempt to understand users' acceptance of a mobile-based social reviews platform, where recommendations from friends can be obtained with mobile devices. Based on the consumption value theory, a theoretical model is proposed and empirically examined using survey data from 218 mobile users. The findings demonstrate that contextual offers based on users' profiles, access time, and geographic positions significantly predict their value perceptions (utilitarian, hedonic, and social), which, in turn, affect their intention to use a mobile social reviews platform. This study is also believed to provide some useful insights to both research and practice. PMID:23530548

  9. Recommendations from friends anytime and anywhere: toward a model of contextual offer and consumption values.

    PubMed

    Shen, Xiao-Liang; Sun, Yongqiang; Wang, Nan

    2013-05-01

    The ubiquity and portability of mobile devices provide additional opportunities for information retrieval. People can easily access mobile applications anytime and anywhere when they need to acquire specific context-aware recommendations (contextual offer) from their friends. This study, thus, represents an initial attempt to understand users' acceptance of a mobile-based social reviews platform, where recommendations from friends can be obtained with mobile devices. Based on the consumption value theory, a theoretical model is proposed and empirically examined using survey data from 218 mobile users. The findings demonstrate that contextual offers based on users' profiles, access time, and geographic positions significantly predict their value perceptions (utilitarian, hedonic, and social), which, in turn, affect their intention to use a mobile social reviews platform. This study is also believed to provide some useful insights to both research and practice. PMID:23530548

  10. History of the recommended atomic-weight values from 1882 to 1997: A comparision of differences from current values to the estimated uncertainties of earlier values.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Coplen, T.B.; Peiser, H.S.

    1998-01-01

    International commissions and national committees for atomic weights (mean relative atomic masses) have recommended regularly updated, best values for these atomic weights as applicable to terrestrial sources of the chemical elements. Presented here is a historically complete listing starting with the values in F. W. Clarke's 1882 recalculation, followed by the recommended values in the annual reports of the American Chemical Society's Atomic Weights Commission. From 1903, an International Commission published such reports and its values (scaled to an atomic weight of 16 for oxygen) are here used in preference to those of national committees of Britain, Germany, Spain, Switzerland, and the U.S.A. We have, however, made scaling adjustments from Ar(16O) to Ar(12C) where not negligible. From 1920, this International Commission constituted itself under the International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry (IUPAC). Since then, IUPAC has published reports (mostly biennially) listing the recommended atomic weights, which are reproduced here. Since 1979, these values have been called the "standard atomic weights" and, since 1969, all values have been published, with their estimated uncertainties. Few of the earlier values were published with uncertainties. Nevertheless, we assessed such uncertainties on the basis of our understanding of the likely contemporary judgement of the values' reliability. While neglecting remaining uncertainties of 1997 values, we derive "differences" and a retrospective index of reliability of atomic-weight values in relation to assessments of uncertainties at the time of their publication. A striking improvement in reliability appears to have been achieved since the commissions have imposed upon themselves the rule of recording estimated uncertainties from all recognized sources of error.

  11. Recommended Parameter Values for INEEL Subsurface Disposal Area Source Release Modeling

    SciTech Connect

    Riley, Robert G.; Lopresti, Charles A.

    2004-06-23

    The purpose of this report is to summarize 1) associated information and values for key release model parameters (i.e., best estimate, minimum and maximum) obtained where possible from published experimental data, 2) a structure for selection of sensitivity tests cases that can be used to identify test cases, and 3) recommended test cases for selected contaminants of potential concern to assess remedy effectiveness against a no-treatment base case.

  12. A value-based practice model of rehabilitation: consumers' recommendations in action.

    PubMed

    Yoshida, Karen K; Self, Hazel M; Renwick, Rebecca M; Forma, Laura L; King, Audrey J; Fell, Leslie A

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to present a model of rehabilitation practice that is based on the recommendations of consumers who used rehabilitation services and have a life-changing physical impairment (spinal cord injury - SCI). This value-based practice model is based on two qualitative studies. The first study developed the framework (social adaptation) for a new practice model based on values. The second study, described in this paper, used the framework to learn about recommendations for change in the rehabilitation process. Participants in the second study were 80 volunteers who live with a SCI in the community, across the province of Ontario, Canada. A snowball strategy was used to recruit interested participants. Participants were involved in face-to-face interviews which included questions on what helped and hindered their initial rehabilitation process, and their recommendations for change. In this paper, we described a model that demonstrates how consumer input is essential in shaping a comprehensive rehabilitation process. The model is based on overarching value statements that express the worthiness of all individuals, the value of the lived experience of disability and the responsibility of the rehabilitation process to enable client autonomy. Four "values in action" are articulated: caring and respect for the individual and his/her personhood; applying the lived experience of disability; fostering autonomy; and promoting hopefulness. These values have been initially described in another paper based on a specific subset of 15 women living with SCI related to body issues during rehabilitation. This paper builds on this value work and we develop key practices for a progressive rehabilitation culture and model, based on the larger study group of 80 participants (men and women with SCI). This value-based model, when integrated with traditional, physical improvement-focused rehabilitation, has the potential to create a more effective process by offering

  13. Target value design: applications to newborn intensive care units.

    PubMed

    Rybkowski, Zofia K; Shepley, Mardelle McCuskey; Ballard, H Glenn

    2012-01-01

    There is a need for greater understanding of the health impact of various design elements in neonatal intensive care units (NICUs) as well as cost-benefit information to make informed decisions about the long-term value of design decisions. This is particularly evident when design teams are considering the transition from open-bay NICUs to single-family-room (SFR) units. This paper introduces the guiding principles behind target value design (TVD)-a price-led design methodology that is gaining acceptance in healthcare facility design within the Lean construction methodology. The paper also discusses the role that set-based design plays in TVD and its application to NICUs. PMID:23224803

  14. Targeted yield concept and a framework of fertilizer recommendation in irrigated rice domains of subtropical India.

    PubMed

    Bera, R; Seal, A; Bhattacharyya, P; Das, T H; Sarkar, D; Kangjoo, K

    2006-12-01

    Soil test crop response (STCR) correlation studies were carried out in Vindhyan alluvial plain during 2001 to 2004 taking IR-36 as test crop to quantify rice production in the context of the variability of soil properties and use of balanced fertilizers based on targeted yield concept. The soils were developed on gently sloping alluvial plain with different physiographic settings and notable variation in drainage condition. Soil properties show moderate variation in texture (loamy to clay), organic carbon content (4.4 to 9.8 g/kg), cation exchange capacity (10.2 to 22.4 cmol (p+)/kg) and pH (5.3 to 6.4). Soil fertility status for N is low to medium (224 to 348 kg/ha), P is medium to high (87 to 320 kg/ha) and K ranges from medium to high (158 to 678 kg/ha). Database regarding nutrient requirement in kg/t of grain produce (NR), the percent contribution from the soil available nutrients [CS (%)] and the percent contribution from the applied fertilizer nutrients [CF (%)] were computed for calibrating and formulating fertilizer recommendations. Validity of the yield target for 7 and 8 t/ha was tested in farmers' fields and yields targets varied at less than 10%. The percent achievement of targets aimed at different level was more than 90%, indicating soil test based fertilizer recommendation approach was economically viable within the agro-ecological zone with relatively uniform cropping practices and socio-economic conditions. PMID:17111464

  15. Recommended Values of Meteorological Factors to Be Considered in the Design of Aircraft Ice-Prevention Equipment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Alun R; Lewis, William

    1949-01-01

    Meteorological conditions conducive to aircraft icing are arranged in four classifications: three are associated with cloud structure and the fourth with freezing rain. The range of possible meteorological factors for each classification is discussed and specific values recommended for consideration in the design of ice-prevention equipment for aircraft are selected and tabulated. The values selected are based upon a study of the available observational data and theoretical considerations where observations are lacking. Recommendations for future research in the field are presented.

  16. Shilling Attacks Detection in Recommender Systems Based on Target Item Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Wei; Wen, Junhao; Koh, Yun Sing; Xiong, Qingyu; Gao, Min; Dobbie, Gillian; Alam, Shafiq

    2015-01-01

    Recommender systems are highly vulnerable to shilling attacks, both by individuals and groups. Attackers who introduce biased ratings in order to affect recommendations, have been shown to negatively affect collaborative filtering (CF) algorithms. Previous research focuses only on the differences between genuine profiles and attack profiles, ignoring the group characteristics in attack profiles. In this paper, we study the use of statistical metrics to detect rating patterns of attackers and group characteristics in attack profiles. Another question is that most existing detecting methods are model specific. Two metrics, Rating Deviation from Mean Agreement (RDMA) and Degree of Similarity with Top Neighbors (DegSim), are used for analyzing rating patterns between malicious profiles and genuine profiles in attack models. Building upon this, we also propose and evaluate a detection structure called RD-TIA for detecting shilling attacks in recommender systems using a statistical approach. In order to detect more complicated attack models, we propose a novel metric called DegSim’ based on DegSim. The experimental results show that our detection model based on target item analysis is an effective approach for detecting shilling attacks. PMID:26222882

  17. Shilling Attacks Detection in Recommender Systems Based on Target Item Analysis.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Wei; Wen, Junhao; Koh, Yun Sing; Xiong, Qingyu; Gao, Min; Dobbie, Gillian; Alam, Shafiq

    2015-01-01

    Recommender systems are highly vulnerable to shilling attacks, both by individuals and groups. Attackers who introduce biased ratings in order to affect recommendations, have been shown to negatively affect collaborative filtering (CF) algorithms. Previous research focuses only on the differences between genuine profiles and attack profiles, ignoring the group characteristics in attack profiles. In this paper, we study the use of statistical metrics to detect rating patterns of attackers and group characteristics in attack profiles. Another question is that most existing detecting methods are model specific. Two metrics, Rating Deviation from Mean Agreement (RDMA) and Degree of Similarity with Top Neighbors (DegSim), are used for analyzing rating patterns between malicious profiles and genuine profiles in attack models. Building upon this, we also propose and evaluate a detection structure called RD-TIA for detecting shilling attacks in recommender systems using a statistical approach. In order to detect more complicated attack models, we propose a novel metric called DegSim' based on DegSim. The experimental results show that our detection model based on target item analysis is an effective approach for detecting shilling attacks. PMID:26222882

  18. [Reaching Target Groups--Shaping Accessibility. Results of a Survey Among Experts on Recommendations for Science and Practice].

    PubMed

    Jahn, I; Gansefort, D; Lehmann, F; Walter, U; Brand, T

    2015-09-01

    In an online survey, in which 18 experts participated, recommendations for research and practice to improve access to target groups were discussed. The recommendations were developed within the context of the KNP project. For the implementation of the recommendations, not only is an increased cooperation between science and practice particularly important, but also materials and training as well as standardization of methods. Furthermore, financial resources, especially for conducting evaluation studies are needed. PMID:26406533

  19. 2014 Eighth Joint National Committee Panel Recommendation for Blood Pressure Targets Revisited

    PubMed Central

    Bangalore, Sripal; Gong, Yan; Cooper-DeHoff, Rhonda M.; Pepine, Carl J.; Messerli, Franz H.

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND The 2014 Eighth Joint National Committee panel recommendations for management of high blood pressure (BP) recommend a systolic BP threshold for initiation of drug therapy and a therapeutic target of <150 mm Hg in those ≥60 years of age, a departure from prior recommendations of <140 mm Hg. However, it is not known whether this is an optimal choice, especially for the large population with coronary artery disease (CAD). OBJECTIVES This study sought to evaluate optimal BP in patients ≥60 years of age. METHODS Patients 60 years of age or older with CAD and baseline systolic BP >150 mm Hg randomized to a treatment strategy on the basis of either atenolol/hydrochlorothiazide or verapamil-SR (sustained release)/trandolapril in INVEST (INternational VErapamil SR Trandolapril STudy) were categorized into 3 groups on the basis of achieved on-treatment systolic BP: group 1, <140 mm Hg; group 2, 140 to <150 mm Hg; and group 3, ≥150 mm Hg. Primary outcome was first occurrence of all-cause death, nonfatal myocardial infarction (MI), or nonfatal stroke. Secondary outcomes were all-cause mortality, cardiovascular mortality, total MI, nonfatal MI, total stroke, nonfatal stroke, heart failure, or revascularization, tabulated separately. Outcomes for each group were compared in unadjusted and multiple propensity score–adjusted models. RESULTS Among 8,354 patients included in this analysis with an accumulated 22,308 patient-years of follow-up, 4,787 (57%) achieved systolic BP of <140 mm Hg (group 1), 1,747 (21%) achieved systolic BP of 140 to <150 mm Hg (group 2), and 1,820 (22%) achieved systolic BP of ≥150 mm Hg (group 3). In unadjusted models, group 1 had the lowest rates of the primary outcome (9.36% vs. 12.71% vs. 21.32%; p < 0.0001), all-cause mortality (7.92% vs. 10.07% vs. 16.81%; p < 0.0001), cardiovascular mortality (3.26% vs. 4.58% vs. 7.80%; p < 0.0001), MI (1.07% vs. 1.03% vs. 2.91%; p < 0.0001), total stroke (1.19% vs. 2.63% vs. 3.85%; p <0

  20. Management of skin rash during egfr-targeted monoclonal antibody treatment for gastrointestinal malignancies: Canadian recommendations

    PubMed Central

    Melosky, B.; Burkes, R.; Rayson, D.; Alcindor, T.; Shear, N.; Lacouture, M.

    2009-01-01

    The epidermal growth factor receptor (egfr) is often overexpressed or dysregulated in a variety of solid tumours, including gastrointestinal (gi) malignancies. Agents targeting the egfr-mediated signalling pathway are increasingly part of the therapeutic armamentarium for the treatment of advanced lung, head-and-neck, and colorectal carcinoma. The egfr inhibitors (egfris) approved in Canada include the tyrosine kinase inhibitors erlotinib and gefitinib (in selected cases), and the monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) panitumumab and cetuximab. Although egfris have been proven effective in the treatment of a variety of malignancies, the entire class of agents is associated with a high prevalence of dermatologic side effects, most commonly skin rash. This reversible condition requires intervention in approximately one third of patients. A proactive, multidisciplinary approach to management can help to improve skin rash and optimize clinical outcomes by preventing egfri dose reduction or discontinuation. In addition, effective management and patient education may help to alleviate the significant social and emotional anxiety related to this manageable side effect, thus resulting in improved quality of life. The present article focuses on egfr-targeted mAbs for the treatment of gi malignancy, addressing the pathophysiology, clinical presentation, and incidence of skin rash caused by this class of agents. Recommendations aimed at establishing a framework for consistent, proactive management of skin rash in the Canadian setting are presented. PMID:19229368

  1. Navigating the internet safely: recommendations for residential programs targeting at-risk adolescents.

    PubMed

    Pridgen, Bryan

    2010-01-01

    Adolescence is a period during human development characterized by a variety of biological, psychological, and social changes. Navigating these changes can be a stressful experience for both adolescents and their families. To complicate matters further, the Internet has altered the landscape of human interaction in a way that may accentuate deficits in the capacity for self-sustaining, reciprocal peer relationships. Adolescents suffering from emotional and behavioral disorders may be especially prone to this influence, as evidenced by our observation of the growing clinical trend of adolescents admitted to inpatient and residential psychiatric units who present with a history of risky cyber-behaviors. Within these settings, education for adolescents and their families around appropriate use of the Internet, as well as social training for the online management of the impulsivity and poor judgment that is so often characteristic of adolescence, is vital. Milieu models employed in the treatment of emotionally troubled adolescents must adapt so as to incorporate the identification of problematic attachment behaviors not only in real-time relationships, but also as those behaviors inevitably occur in more troubling and potentially destructive ways over the Internet. The article addresses this need by offering recommendations for the creation of a skills-based, Internet-focused curriculum for inpatient and residential programs targeting at-risk adolescents. Evaluating the association between online communication habits and the evolution of disturbances in attachment systems is an important future direction for research aimed at safeguarding the emotional and physical well-being of all adolescents. PMID:20235778

  2. The therapeutic value of targeting inflammation in gastrointestinal cancers

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Beicheng; Karin, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Inflammation has been implicated in the initiation and progression of gastrointestinal (GI) cancers. Inflammation also plays important roles in subverting immune tolerance, escape from immune surveillance, and conferring resistance to chemotherapeutic agents. Targeting key regulators and mediators of inflammation represents an attractive strategy for GI cancer prevention and treatment. However, the targeting of inflammation in GI cancer is not straight-forward and sometimes inflammation may contribute to tumor regression. We discuss the origins and effects of inflammation in GI cancer and how to target it successfully. PMID:24881011

  3. Recommendations for the design of laboratory studies on non-target arthropods for risk assessment of genetically engineered plants

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This paper provides recommendations on experimental design for early-tier laboratory studies used in the risk assessment process to evaluate potential adverse impacts of arthropod-resistant genetically-engineered plants on non-target arthropods. While we rely heavily on the currently used proteins f...

  4. Pursuing optimal thresholds to recommend breast biopsy by quantifying the value of tomosynthesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Yirong; Alagoz, Oguzhan; Vanness, David J.; Trentham-Dietz, Amy; Burnside, Elizabeth S.

    2014-03-01

    A 2% threshold has been traditionally used to recommend breast biopsy in mammography. We aim to characterize how the biopsy threshold varies to achieve the maximum expected utility (MEU) of tomosynthesis for breast cancer diagnosis. A cohort of 312 patients, imaged with standard full field digital mammography (FFDM) and digital breast tomosynthesis (DBT), was selected for a reader study. Fifteen readers interpreted each patient's images and estimated the probability of malignancy using two modes: FFDM versus FFDM + DBT. We generated receiver operator characteristic (ROC) curves with the probabilities for all readers combined. We found that FFDM+DBT provided improved accuracy and MEU compared with FFDM alone. When DBT was included in the diagnosis along with FFDM, the optimal biopsy threshold increased to 2.7% as compared with the 2% threshold for FFDM alone. While understanding the optimal threshold from a decision analytic standpoint will not help physicians improve their performance without additional guidance (e.g. decision support to reinforce this threshold), the discovery of this level does demonstrate the potential clinical improvements attainable with DBT. Specifically, DBT has the potential to lead to substantial improvements in breast cancer diagnosis since it could reduce the number of patients recommended for biopsy while preserving the maximal expected utility.

  5. RECOMMENDATIONS FOR AND DOCUMENTATION OF BIOLOGICAL VALUES FOR USE IN RISK ASSESSMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    The document was prepared by the Office of Health and Environmental Assessment, Environmental Criteria and Assessment Office, Cincinnati, OH for the Office of Solid Waste and Emergency Response. The document consists of an extensive compliation of values gleaned from published li...

  6. Recommended Parameter Values for GENII Modeling of Radionuclides in Routine Air and Water Releases

    SciTech Connect

    Snyder, Sandra F.; Arimescu, Carmen; Napier, Bruce A.; Hay, Tristan R.

    2012-11-01

    The GENII v2 code is used to estimate dose to individuals or populations from the release of radioactive materials into air or water. Numerous parameter values are required for input into this code. User-defined parameters cover the spectrum from chemical data, meteorological data, agricultural data, and behavioral data. This document is a summary of parameter values that reflect conditions in the United States. Reasonable regional and age-dependent data is summarized. Data availability and quality varies. The set of parameters described address scenarios for chronic air emissions or chronic releases to public waterways. Considerations for the special tritium and carbon-14 models are briefly addressed. GENIIv2.10.0 is the current software version that this document supports.

  7. Recommendations on adopting the values and correlations for calculating the thermophysical and kinetic properties of liquid lead

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Savchenko, I. V.; Lezhnin, S. I.; Mosunova, N. A.

    2015-06-01

    Recent years have seen an essentially increased interest in studying the properties of liquid lead, which is primarily connected with the possibility of using it as coolant in nuclear power installations, first of all, in reactors based on fission of heavy nuclei by fast neutrons. The article presents an analysis of published data on the thermophysical and kinetic properties of lead in liquid state, the results of which served as a basis for selecting and recommending correlations to be used in carrying out scientific and engineering calculations. A general assessment of the state of experimental investigations into the thermophysical properties of liquid lead is presented. The presented value of lead solidification temperature is the maximally reliable one. The data on the boiling temperature, melting and vaporization enthalpies, and saturated vapor pressure have been determined with satisfactory accuracy. The published data on the liquid lead heat capacity differ considerably from each other; therefore, the recommended values should be experimentally checked and determined more exactly. The available experimental data on surface tension density, volumetric expansion coefficient, sound velocity, viscosity, and thermal conductivity do not cover the entire range of liquid phase existence temperatures. The temperature region above 1200 K and the crystal-liquid phase transition region are the least studied ones. Additional investigations of these properties in the above-mentioned temperature intervals are necessary. The question about the influence of impurities on the thermophysical properties of lead still remains to be answered and requires experimental investigations.

  8. Sailing From the Seas of Chaos Into the Corridor of Stability: Practical Recommendations to Increase the Informational Value of Studies.

    PubMed

    Lakens, Daniël; Evers, Ellen R K

    2014-05-01

    Recent events have led psychologists to acknowledge that the inherent uncertainty encapsulated in an inductive science is amplified by problematic research practices. In this article, we provide a practical introduction to recently developed statistical tools that can be used to deal with these uncertainties when performing and evaluating research. In Part 1, we discuss the importance of accurate and stable effect size estimates as well as how to design studies to reach a corridor of stability around effect size estimates. In Part 2, we explain how, given uncertain effect size estimates, well-powered studies can be designed with sequential analyses. In Part 3, we (a) explain what p values convey about the likelihood that an effect is true, (b) illustrate how the v statistic can be used to evaluate the accuracy of individual studies, and (c) show how the evidential value of multiple studies can be examined with a p-curve analysis. We end by discussing the consequences of incorporating our recommendations in terms of a reduced quantity, but increased quality, of the research output. We hope that the practical recommendations discussed in this article will provide researchers with the tools to make important steps toward a psychological science that allows researchers to differentiate among all possible truths on the basis of their likelihood. PMID:26173264

  9. The Relationship between Saccadic Choice and Reaction Times with Manipulations of Target Value.

    PubMed

    Milstein, David M; Dorris, Michael C

    2011-01-01

    Choosing the option with the highest expected value (EV; reward probability × reward magnitude) maximizes the intake of reward under conditions of uncertainty. However, human economic choices indicate that our value calculation has a subjective component whereby probability and reward magnitude are not linearly weighted. Using a similar economic framework, our goal was to characterize how subjective value influences the generation of simple motor actions. Specifically, we hypothesized that attributes of saccadic eye movements could provide insight into how rhesus monkeys, a well-studied animal model in cognitive neuroscience, subjectively value potential visual targets. In the first experiment, monkeys were free to choose by directing a saccade toward one of two simultaneously displayed targets, each of which had an uncertain outcome. In this task, choices were more likely to be allocated toward the higher valued target. In the second experiment, only one of the two possible targets appeared on each trial. In this task, saccadic reaction times (SRTs) decreased toward the higher valued target. Reward magnitude had a much stronger influence on both choices and SRTs than probability, whose effect was observed only when reward magnitude was similar for both targets. Across EV blocks, a strong relationship was observed between choice preferences and SRTs. However, choices tended to maximize at skewed values whereas SRTs varied more continuously. Lastly, SRTs were unchanged when all reward magnitudes were 1×, 1.5×, and 2× their normal amount, indicating that saccade preparation was influenced by the relative value of the targets rather than the absolute value of any single-target. We conclude that value is not only an important factor( )for deliberative decision making in primates, but also for the selection and preparation of simple motor actions, such as saccadic eye movements. More precisely, our results indicate that, under conditions of uncertainty

  10. Targeting Net Zero Energy at Marine Corps Base Kaneohe Bay, Hawaii: Assessment and Recommendations

    SciTech Connect

    Burman, K.; Kandt, A.; Lisell, L.; Booth, S.; Walker, A.; Roberts, J.; Falcey, J.

    2011-11-01

    DOD's U.S. Pacific Command has partnered with the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) to assess opportunities for increasing energy security through renewable energy and energy efficiency in Hawaii installations. NREL selected Marine Corps Base Hawaii (MCBH), Kaneohe Bay to receive technical support for net zero energy assessment and planning funded through the Hawaii Clean Energy Initiative (HCEI). NREL performed a comprehensive assessment to appraise the potential of MCBH Kaneohe Bay to achieve net zero energy status through energy efficiency, renewable energy, and electric vehicle integration. This report summarizes the results of the assessment and provides energy recommendations.

  11. Developing clinical practice guidelines: types of evidence and outcomes; values and economics, synthesis, grading, and presentation and deriving recommendations

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Clinical practice guidelines are one of the foundations of efforts to improve healthcare. In 1999, we authored a paper about methods to develop guidelines. Since it was published, the methods of guideline development have progressed both in terms of methods and necessary procedures and the context for guideline development has changed with the emergence of guideline clearinghouses and large scale guideline production organisations (such as the UK National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence). It therefore seems timely to, in a series of three articles, update and extend our earlier paper. In this second paper, we discuss issues of identifying and synthesizing evidence: deciding what type of evidence and outcomes to include in guidelines; integrating values into a guideline; incorporating economic considerations; synthesis, grading, and presentation of evidence; and moving from evidence to recommendations. PMID:22762158

  12. An Integrated Approach to Moral, Value, and Civic Education with Adolescents: An Analysis of Current Theory and Practice and Recommendations for Program Implementation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lickona, Thomas

    Six value education methodologies for use on the secondary level are described and recommendations for implementing values/moral/civic education are presented. The first and second sections describe Lawrence Kohlberg's six-stage moral development approach to value education. The use of moral dilemma discussions to develop moral reasoning is…

  13. 2013 ACC/AHA guideline recommends fixed-dose strategies instead of targeted goals to lower blood cholesterol.

    PubMed

    Smith, Sidney C; Grundy, Scott M

    2014-08-12

    The American College of Cardiology (ACC)/American Heart Association (AHA) Task Force on Practice Guidelines recently issued the 2013 ACC/AHA Guideline on the Treatment of Blood Cholesterol to Reduce Atherosclerotic Cardiovascular Risk in Adults. This new guideline endorses a paradigm shift in strategies for reducing atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD) events by lowering blood cholesterol. Whereas previous guidelines focused on therapy to decrease low-density lipoprotein and non-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol to specific target levels, the new guideline instead proposes implementation of cholesterol-lowering treatment using evidenced-based intensity of statin therapy without such targets. The guideline also provides a new risk estimator for primary prevention decisions, including stroke outcomes and data on African Americans, which will significantly increase the number of patients recommended for outcome-related benefits of cholesterol-lowering therapy. The first section of this paper reviews the process by which the task force developed the new evidence-based guideline, the major findings and recommendations, and their implications. The second section primarily focuses on the question of how much low-density lipoprotein cholesterol should be lowered and on additional considerations in risk assessment. PMID:25104531

  14. Are Doses and Schedules of Small-Molecule Targeted Anticancer Drugs Recommended by Phase I Studies Realistic?

    PubMed

    Roda, Desamparados; Jimenez, Begoña; Banerji, Udai

    2016-05-01

    Tolerability of molecularly targeted agents (MTA) used in cancer therapeutics is determined in phase I trials. We reviewed the reported incidence of toxicity in phase III trials at doses and schedules recommended by phase I trials to evaluate whether these recommendations are realistic when drugs are used in larger populations of patients. We systematically reviewed a safety profile of small molecule (SM-MTA) and mAb MTA (MA-MTA) approved by the FDA in the last 12 years. There was a significantly increased percentage of grade 3 or 4 adverse events reported with SM-MTA compared with MA-MTA [40% vs. 27%; RR 1.5; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.10-2.25, P = 0.038] in phase III studies. Importantly, a substantial proportion of patients (45%) treated with SM-MTA required dose modifications due to drug-related toxicity in phase III trials. However, this toxicity was associated to a definitive study drug discontinuation in only 9%. Overall, 25% of SM-MTA declared recommended phase II doses below MTD based on pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic data and these trials were associated with a significantly reduced number of dose modifications in registration trials (32% vs. 50%; RR 0.64; 95% CI, 0.43-0.88, P = 0.01). Tolerability is going to come into further focus due to the need for combinations of SM-MTA and other anticancer agents. There was a higher incidence of grade 3-4 toxicity in phase III trials in combinations versus single-agent SM-MTAs (64% vs. 37%; RR 1.73; 95% CI, 1.3-2.3, P = 0.001). These results indicate that phase I studies underestimate toxicity while recommending doses of SM-MTA. Clin Cancer Res; 22(9); 2127-32. ©2015 AACR. PMID:26581244

  15. Current HER2 Testing Recommendations and Clinical Relevance as a Predictor of Response to Targeted Therapy.

    PubMed

    Ballinger, Tarah J; Sanders, Melinda E; Abramson, Vandana G

    2015-06-01

    Clinical decision-making in the treatment of breast cancer depends on an accurate determination and understanding of human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) status. The guidelines for HER2 testing were recently updated in late 2013, but limitations continue to exist in the interpretation and clinical application of results when the tumor specimens do not fall neatly into positive or negative categories with immunohistochemistry and fluorescence in situ hybridization testing. The issues, including discordance between pathologists or laboratories, polysomy, and genetic heterogeneity, present challenging situations that are difficult to translate into clinical significance. The present review discussed the changes in the updated American Society of Clinical Oncology/College of American Pathologists guidelines, the clinical relevance of complex issues in HER2 testing, and the implications of the results on the response to HER2-targeted therapies. Great advances have been made in the treatment of HER2-positive breast cancer; however, the challenge remains to determine the best testing analysis that will identify patients who will benefit the most from these therapies. PMID:25516402

  16. Valuing the scholarship of integration and the scholarship of application in the academy for health sciences scholars: recommended methods

    PubMed Central

    Hofmeyer, Anne; Newton, Mandi; Scott, Cathie

    2007-01-01

    In the landmark 1990 publication Scholarship Reconsidered, Boyer challenged the 'teaching verses research debates' by advocating for the scholarship of discovery, teaching, integration, and application. The scholarship of discovery considers publications and research as the yardstick in the merit, promotion and tenure system the world over. But this narrow view of scholarship does not fully support the obligations of universities to serve global societies and to improve health and health equity. Mechanisms to report the scholarship of teaching have been developed and adopted by some universities. In this article, we contribute to the less developed areas of scholarship, i.e. integration and application. We firstly situate the scholarship of discovery, teaching, integration and application within the interprofessional and knowledge exchange debates. Second, we propose a means for health science scholars to report the process and outcomes of the scholarship of integration and application with other disciplines, decision-makers and communities. We conclude with recommendations for structural and process change in faculty merit, tenure, and promotion systems so that health science scholars with varied academic portfolios are valued and many forms of academic scholarship are sustained. It is vital academic institutions remain relevant in an era when the production of knowledge is increasingly recognized as a social collaborative activity. PMID:17535436

  17. Baseline and Target Values for PV Forecasts: Toward Improved Solar Power Forecasting: Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Jie; Hodge, Bri-Mathias; Lu, Siyuan; Hamann, Hendrik F.; Lehman, Brad; Simmons, Joseph; Campos, Edwin; Banunarayanan, Venkat

    2015-08-05

    Accurate solar power forecasting allows utilities to get the most out of the solar resources on their systems. To truly measure the improvements that any new solar forecasting methods can provide, it is important to first develop (or determine) baseline and target solar forecasting at different spatial and temporal scales. This paper aims to develop baseline and target values for solar forecasting metrics. These were informed by close collaboration with utility and independent system operator partners. The baseline values are established based on state-of-the-art numerical weather prediction models and persistence models. The target values are determined based on the reduction in the amount of reserves that must be held to accommodate the uncertainty of solar power output. forecasting metrics. These were informed by close collaboration with utility and independent system operator partners. The baseline values are established based on state-of-the-art numerical weather prediction models and persistence models. The target values are determined based on the reduction in the amount of reserves that must be held to accommodate the uncertainty of solar power output.

  18. Baseline and target values for regional and point PV power forecasts: Toward improved solar forecasting

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Jie; Hodge, Bri -Mathias; Lu, Siyuan; Hamann, Hendrik F.; Lehman, Brad; Simmons, Joseph; Campos, Edwin; Banunarayanan, Venkat; Black, Jon; Tedesco, John

    2015-11-10

    Accurate solar photovoltaic (PV) power forecasting allows utilities to reliably utilize solar resources on their systems. However, to truly measure the improvements that any new solar forecasting methods provide, it is important to develop a methodology for determining baseline and target values for the accuracy of solar forecasting at different spatial and temporal scales. This paper aims at developing a framework to derive baseline and target values for a suite of generally applicable, value-based, and custom-designed solar forecasting metrics. The work was informed by close collaboration with utility and independent system operator partners. The baseline values are established based on state-of-the-art numerical weather prediction models and persistence models in combination with a radiative transfer model. The target values are determined based on the reduction in the amount of reserves that must be held to accommodate the uncertainty of PV power output. The proposed reserve-based methodology is a reasonable and practical approach that can be used to assess the economic benefits gained from improvements in accuracy of solar forecasting. Lastly, the financial baseline and targets can be translated back to forecasting accuracy metrics and requirements, which will guide research on solar forecasting improvements toward the areas that are most beneficial to power systems operations.

  19. Baseline and target values for regional and point PV power forecasts: Toward improved solar forecasting

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Zhang, Jie; Hodge, Bri -Mathias; Lu, Siyuan; Hamann, Hendrik F.; Lehman, Brad; Simmons, Joseph; Campos, Edwin; Banunarayanan, Venkat; Black, Jon; Tedesco, John

    2015-11-10

    Accurate solar photovoltaic (PV) power forecasting allows utilities to reliably utilize solar resources on their systems. However, to truly measure the improvements that any new solar forecasting methods provide, it is important to develop a methodology for determining baseline and target values for the accuracy of solar forecasting at different spatial and temporal scales. This paper aims at developing a framework to derive baseline and target values for a suite of generally applicable, value-based, and custom-designed solar forecasting metrics. The work was informed by close collaboration with utility and independent system operator partners. The baseline values are established based onmore » state-of-the-art numerical weather prediction models and persistence models in combination with a radiative transfer model. The target values are determined based on the reduction in the amount of reserves that must be held to accommodate the uncertainty of PV power output. The proposed reserve-based methodology is a reasonable and practical approach that can be used to assess the economic benefits gained from improvements in accuracy of solar forecasting. Lastly, the financial baseline and targets can be translated back to forecasting accuracy metrics and requirements, which will guide research on solar forecasting improvements toward the areas that are most beneficial to power systems operations.« less

  20. Recommendations for the design of laboratory studies on non-target arthropods for risk assessment of genetically engineered plants

    PubMed Central

    Hellmich, Richard L.; Candolfi, Marco P.; Carstens, Keri; De Schrijver, Adinda; Gatehouse, Angharad M. R.; Herman, Rod A.; Huesing, Joseph E.; McLean, Morven A.; Raybould, Alan; Shelton, Anthony M.; Waggoner, Annabel

    2010-01-01

    This paper provides recommendations on experimental design for early-tier laboratory studies used in risk assessments to evaluate potential adverse impacts of arthropod-resistant genetically engineered (GE) plants on non-target arthropods (NTAs). While we rely heavily on the currently used proteins from Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) in this discussion, the concepts apply to other arthropod-active proteins. A risk may exist if the newly acquired trait of the GE plant has adverse effects on NTAs when they are exposed to the arthropod-active protein. Typically, the risk assessment follows a tiered approach that starts with laboratory studies under worst-case exposure conditions; such studies have a high ability to detect adverse effects on non-target species. Clear guidance on how such data are produced in laboratory studies assists the product developers and risk assessors. The studies should be reproducible and test clearly defined risk hypotheses. These properties contribute to the robustness of, and confidence in, environmental risk assessments for GE plants. Data from NTA studies, collected during the analysis phase of an environmental risk assessment, are critical to the outcome of the assessment and ultimately the decision taken by regulatory authorities on the release of a GE plant. Confidence in the results of early-tier laboratory studies is a precondition for the acceptance of data across regulatory jurisdictions and should encourage agencies to share useful information and thus avoid redundant testing. PMID:20938806

  1. [Clinical investigation on target value of T>MIC in carbapenems].

    PubMed

    Mikamo, Hiroshige; Yamagishi, Yuka; Tanaka, Kaori; Watanabe, Kunitomo

    2008-04-01

    There have been few clinical reports on pharmacokinetics-pharmacodynamics (PK-PD) theory, although many basic or fundamental researches on appropriate use for the antimicrobials based on the PK-PD theory have been performed. We evaluated the target T>MIC values on meropenem and biapenem which have been obtained by basic researches. While we investigated whether the target T>MIC values were also useful for anaerobic infections. Clinical and bacteriological efficacies of meropenem and biapenem were about 70% in T>MIC over 25% or over 80% in T>MIC over 30%. When monomicrobial infections by anaerobes were occurred as abscesses, there have been no correlation between target T>MIC values and clinical effect. When polymicrobial infections between aerobes and anaerobes were occurred, we have achieved over 90% clinical efficacy when over 20% T>MIC values. These results supported the data by Craig, W. A. and Drusano, G. L. The regimen based on PK-PD theory would be useful in clinical practice including against anaerobic infections. PMID:18669417

  2. Value-focused framework for defining landscape-scale conservation targets

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Romanach, Stephanie; Benscoter, Allison M.; Brandt, Laura A.

    2016-01-01

    Conservation of natural resources can be challenging in a rapidly changing world and require collaborative efforts for success. Conservation planning is the process of deciding how to protect, conserve, and enhance or minimize loss of natural and cultural resources. Establishing conservation targets (also called indicators or endpoints), the measurable expressions of desired resource conditions, can help with site-specific up to landscape-scale conservation planning. Using conservation targets and tracking them through time can deliver benefits such as insight into ecosystem health and providing early warnings about undesirable trends. We describe an approach using value-focused thinking to develop statewide conservation targets for Florida. Using such an approach allowed us to first identify stakeholder objectives and then define conservation targets to meet those objectives. Stakeholders were able to see how their shared efforts fit into the broader conservation context, and also anticipate the benefits of multi-agency and -organization collaboration. We developed an iterative process for large-scale conservation planning that included defining a shared framework for the process, defining the conservation targets themselves, as well as developing management and monitoring strategies for evaluation of their effectiveness. The process we describe is applicable to other geographies where multiple parties are seeking to implement collaborative, large-scale biological planning.

  3. Stabilization of prescribed values and periodic orbits with regular and pulse target oriented control.

    PubMed

    Braverman, E; Chan, B

    2014-03-01

    Investigating a method of chaos control for one-dimensional maps, where the intervention is proportional to the difference between a fixed value and a current state, we demonstrate that stabilization is possible in one of the two following cases: (1) for small values, the map is increasing and the slope of the line connecting the points on the line with the origin is decreasing; (2) the chaotic map is locally Lipschitz. Moreover, in the latter case we prove that any point of the map can be stabilized. In addition, we study pulse stabilization when the intervention occurs each m-th step and illustrate that stabilization is possible for the first type of maps. In the context of population dynamics, we notice that control with a positive target, even if stabilization is not achieved, leads to persistent solutions and prevents extinction in models which experience the Allee effect. PMID:24697381

  4. Stabilization of prescribed values and periodic orbits with regular and pulse target oriented control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Braverman, E.; Chan, B.

    2014-03-01

    Investigating a method of chaos control for one-dimensional maps, where the intervention is proportional to the difference between a fixed value and a current state, we demonstrate that stabilization is possible in one of the two following cases: (1) for small values, the map is increasing and the slope of the line connecting the points on the line with the origin is decreasing; (2) the chaotic map is locally Lipschitz. Moreover, in the latter case we prove that any point of the map can be stabilized. In addition, we study pulse stabilization when the intervention occurs each m-th step and illustrate that stabilization is possible for the first type of maps. In the context of population dynamics, we notice that control with a positive target, even if stabilization is not achieved, leads to persistent solutions and prevents extinction in models which experience the Allee effect.

  5. Stabilization of prescribed values and periodic orbits with regular and pulse target oriented control

    SciTech Connect

    Braverman, E. Chan, B.

    2014-03-15

    Investigating a method of chaos control for one-dimensional maps, where the intervention is proportional to the difference between a fixed value and a current state, we demonstrate that stabilization is possible in one of the two following cases: (1) for small values, the map is increasing and the slope of the line connecting the points on the line with the origin is decreasing; (2) the chaotic map is locally Lipschitz. Moreover, in the latter case we prove that any point of the map can be stabilized. In addition, we study pulse stabilization when the intervention occurs each m-th step and illustrate that stabilization is possible for the first type of maps. In the context of population dynamics, we notice that control with a positive target, even if stabilization is not achieved, leads to persistent solutions and prevents extinction in models which experience the Allee effect.

  6. Defining competencies for education in health care value: recommendations from the University of California, San Francisco Center for Healthcare Value Training Initiative.

    PubMed

    Moriates, Christopher; Dohan, Daniel; Spetz, Joanne; Sawaya, George F

    2015-04-01

    Leaders in medical education have increasingly called for the incorporation of cost awareness and health care value into health professions curricula. Emerging efforts have thus far focused on physicians, but foundational competencies need to be defined related to health care value that span all health professions and stages of training. The University of California, San Francisco (UCSF) Center for Healthcare Value launched an initiative in 2012 that engaged a group of educators from all four health professions schools at UCSF: Dentistry, Medicine, Nursing, and Pharmacy. This group created and agreed on a multidisciplinary set of comprehensive competencies related to health care value. The term "competency" was used to describe components within the larger domain of providing high-value care. The group then classified the competencies as beginner, proficient, or expert level through an iterative process and group consensus. The group articulated 21 competencies. The beginner competencies include basic principles of health policy, health care delivery, health costs, and insurance. Proficient competencies include real-world applications of concepts to clinical situations, primarily related to the care of individual patients. The expert competencies focus primarily on systems-level design, advocacy, mentorship, and policy. These competencies aim to identify a standard that may help inform the development of curricula across health professions training. These competencies could be translated into the learning objectives and evaluation methods of resources to teach health care value, and they should be considered in educational settings for health care professionals at all levels of training and across a variety of specialties. PMID:25354077

  7. Best use of the recommended IFCC reference method, material and values in HbA1C analyses.

    PubMed

    Penttilä, I M; Halonen, T; Punnonen, K; Tiikkainen, U

    2005-01-01

    The results of Finnish HbA(1C) surveys (Labquality Ltd.) during the past 10 years have undergone continuous improvement with smaller overall coefficients of variation for the HbA(1C) mean values of all methods (from 7.5 to 5.4% for normal and from 8.9 to 4.7% for diabetic samples). Most of the HbA(1C) methods are certified for traceability to the Diabetes Control and Complication Trial (DCCT) designated comparison method, which originally was a high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method (Bio-Rex 70, Bio-Rad) but is no longer in routine use. It was therefore important that the International Federation of Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine (IFCC) had prepared both reference preparations and method for the determination of HbA(1C). However, the very demanding reference method is not realistic for use in clinical laboratories. According to the present study, the mean HbA(1C) values of the Labquality Ltd. showed significant correlations to the HbA(1C) values of The European Reference Laboratory for Glycohemoglobin (r = 0.999) and to the values using the IFCC method (r = 0.999). The reference values of the IFCC method (mainly those of the manufacturer) range from 2.85 to 3.81%, being significantly lower than the present DCCT values (4.0-6.1%). Since it may take some time before consumers are ready to accept the new IFCC reference values for general use, we propose that the IFCC reference materials and method should be used for calibration of the present methods to the well-known DCCT levels. PMID:16179278

  8. Alternative performance metrics and target values for the CID2013 database

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Virtanen, T.; Nuutinen, M.; Radun, J.; Leisti, T.; Häkkinen, J.

    2015-01-01

    An established way of validating and testing new image quality assessment (IQA) algorithms have been to compare how well they correlate with subjective data on various image databases. One of the most common measures is to calculate linear correlation coefficient (LCC) and Spearman's rank order correlation coefficient (SROCC) against the subjective mean opinion score (MOS). Recently, databases with multiply distorted images have emerged 1,2. However with multidimensional stimuli, there is more disagreement between observers as the task is more preferential than that of distortion detection. This reduces the statistical differences between image pairs. If the subjects cannot distinguish a difference between some of the image pairs, should we demand any better performance with IQA algorithms? This paper proposes alternative performance measures for the evaluation of IQA's for the CID2013 database. One proposed alternative performance measure is root-mean-square-error (RMSE) value for the subjective data as a function of the number of observers. The other alternative performance measure is the number of statistical differences between image pairs. This study shows that after 12 subjects the RMSE value saturates around the level of three, meaning that a target RMSE value for an IQA algorithm for CID2013 database should be three. In addition, this study shows that the state-of-the-art IQA algorithms found the better image from the image pairs with a probability of 0.85 when the image pairs with statistically significant differences were taken into account.

  9. The Value of Energy Performance and Green Attributes in Buildings: A Review of Existing Literature and Recommendations for Future Research

    SciTech Connect

    Stuart, Elizabeth

    2011-09-07

    Labels, certifications, and rating systems for energy efficiency performance and “green” attributes of buildings have been available in the U.S. for over 10 years, and used extensively in the European Union and Australia for longer. Such certifications and ratings can make energy efficiency more visible, and could help spur demand for energy efficiency if these designations are shown to have a positive impact on sales or rental prices. This policy brief discusses the findings and methodologies from recent studies on this topic, and suggests recommendations for future research. Although there have been just a handful of studies within the last 10 years that have investigated these effects, a few key findings emerge: To maximize sales price impact, label or rating information must be disclosed early and visibly in the sales process; The approach to evaluating energy efficiency labels (e.g., ENERGY STAR) and general “green” certifications (e.g., LEED or GreenPoint Rated) may need to be different, depending on the type, vintage and market penetration of the label; Collaborative efforts to promote label adoption and build a large dataset of labeled buildings will be required to produce reliable study results.

  10. Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses - Literature-based Recommendations for Evaluating Strengths, Weaknesses, and Clinical Value.

    PubMed

    Beitz, Janice M; Bolton, Laura L

    2015-11-01

    Good quality systematic reviews (SRs) summarizing best available evidence can help inform clinical decisions, improv- ing patient and wound outcomes. Weak SRs can misinform readers, undermining care decisions and evidence-based practice. To examine the strengths and weaknesses of SRs and meta-analyses and the role of SRs in contemporary evidence-based wound care practice, and using the search terms systematic review, meta-analysis, and evidence-based practice, the authors searched Medline and the Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL) for important terminology and recommendations to help clinicians evaluate SRs with meta-analysis. Reputable websites, recent textbooks, and synthesized available literature also were reviewed to describe and summarize SR strengths and weaknesses. After developing a checklist for critically evaluating SR objectives, inclusion/exclusion criteria, study quality, data extraction and synthesis methods, meta-analysis homogeneity, accuracy of results, interpretation, and consistency between significant findings and abstract or conclusions, the checklist was applied to topical wound care SRs identified in Cochrane and MEDLINE searches. Best available evidence included in the SRs from 169 randomized controlled trials on 11,571 patients supporting topical intervention healing effects on burns, surgical sites, and diabetic, venous, or pressure ulcers was summarized and showed SRs and clinical trials can demonstrate different outcomes because the information/data are compiled differently. The results illustrate how evidence insufficient to support firm conclusions may still meet immediate needs to guide carefully considered clinical wound and patient care decisions while encouraging better future science. PMID:26544016

  11. A user-targeted synthesis of the VALUE perfect predictor experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maraun, Douglas; Widmann, Martin; Gutierrez, Jose; Kotlarski, Sven; Hertig, Elke; Wibig, Joanna; Rössler, Ole; Huth, Radan

    2016-04-01

    VALUE is an open European network to validate and compare downscaling methods for climate change research. A key deliverable of VALUE is the development of a systematic validation framework to enable the assessment and comparison of both dynamical and statistical downscaling methods. VALUE's main approach to validation is user-focused: starting from a specific user problem, a validation tree guides the selection of relevant validation indices and performance measures. We consider different aspects: (1) marginal aspects such as mean, variance and extremes; (2) temporal aspects such as spell length characteristics; (3) spatial aspects such as the de-correlation length of precipitation extremes; and multi-variate aspects such as the interplay of temperature and precipitation or scale-interactions. Several experiments have been designed to isolate specific points in the downscaling procedure where problems may occur. Experiment 1 (perfect predictors): what is the isolated downscaling skill? How do statistical and dynamical methods compare? How do methods perform at different spatial scales? Experiment 2 (Global climate model predictors): how is the overall representation of regional climate, including errors inherited from global climate models? Experiment 3 (pseudo reality): do methods fail in representing regional climate change? Here, we present a user-targeted synthesis of the results of the first VALUE experiment. In this experiment, downscaling methods are driven with ERA-Interim reanalysis data to eliminate global climate model errors, over the period 1979-2008. As reference data we use, depending on the question addressed, (1) observations from 86 meteorological stations distributed across Europe; (2) gridded observations at the corresponding 86 locations or (3) gridded spatially extended observations for selected European regions. With more than 40 contributing methods, this study is the most comprehensive downscaling inter-comparison project so far. The

  12. Connecticut's Value-Based Insurance Plan Increased The Use Of Targeted Services And Medication Adherence.

    PubMed

    Hirth, Richard A; Cliff, Elizabeth Q; Gibson, Teresa B; McKellar, M Richard; Fendrick, A Mark

    2016-04-01

    In 2011 Connecticut implemented the Health Enhancement Program for state employees. This voluntary program followed the principles of value-based insurance design (VBID) by lowering patient costs for certain high-value primary and chronic disease preventive services, coupled with requirements that enrollees receive these services. Nonparticipants in the program, including those removed for noncompliance with its requirements, were assessed a premium surcharge. The program was intended to curb cost growth and improve health through adherence to evidence-based preventive care. To evaluate its efficacy in doing so, we compared changes in service use and spending after implementation of the program to trends among employees of six other states. Compared to employees of other states, Connecticut employees were similar in age and sex but had a slightly higher percentage of enrollees with chronic conditions and substantially higher spending at baseline. During the program's first two years, the use of targeted services and adherence to medications for chronic conditions increased, while emergency department use decreased, relative to the situation in the comparison states. The program's impact on costs was inconclusive and requires a longer follow-up period. This novel combination of VBID principles and participation requirements may be a tool that can help plan sponsors increase the use of evidence-based preventive services. PMID:27044964

  13. Design and conduct of early clinical studies of two or more targeted anticancer therapies: recommendations from the task force on Methodology for the Development of Innovative Cancer Therapies.

    PubMed

    Seymour, Lesley K; Calvert, A Hilary; Lobbezoo, Marinus W; Eisenhauer, Elizabeth A; Giaccone, Giuseppe

    2013-05-01

    The Methodology for the Development of Innovative Cancer Therapies (MDICT) task force considered aspects of the design and conduct of early (phase I and II) studies of combinations of molecular targeted agents during their 2012 meeting. The task force defined necessary non-clinical data, such as evidence of additive or synergistic effects in multiple molecularly credentialed and validated models, and appropriate pharmacodynamic marker development. A robust hypothesis was considered critical while non-clinical pharmacokinetic studies were also considered valuable. Clinical trials should include clear objectives that will prove or disprove the hypothesis. Predictive biomarkers/classifiers should be explored in phase I studies, rather than used to select patients. Trial design should be efficient and flexible rather than based on a strict progression from phase I to II to III; researchers could consider phase I studies with an expansion cohort, Phase I/II designs or phase II studies with a safety run in. Pharmacokinetics are recommended when interactions or overlapping toxicity is expected. Pharmacodynamic evaluations should be considered especially in a subset of patients closest to the recommended dose; an attempt should be made to validate surrogate tissues to enable inclusion for all patients. Schedule and or dose should be formally explored for e.g. with a randomised or an adaptive design. Data and knowledge sharing was strongly recommended, including the creation of formal or informal consortia of laboratories with individual expertise in pathway or target based models, collaboration between companies to ensure that agents which are 'best in class' are combined, and the development of databases which will be able to inform the development of future recommendations/guidelines. PMID:23428669

  14. Sex, Prescribing Practices and Guideline Recommended, Blood Pressure, and LDL Cholesterol Targets at Baseline in the BARI 2D Trial

    PubMed Central

    Magee, Michelle F.; Tamis-Holland, Jacqueline E.; Lu, Jiang; Bittner, Vera A.; Brooks, Maria Mori; Lopes, Neuza; Jacobs, Alice K.; Study Group, BARI 2D

    2015-01-01

    Background. Research has shown less aggressive treatment and poorer control of cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors in women than men. Methods. We analyzed sex differences in pharmacotherapy strategies and attainment of goals for hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c), blood pressure (BP), and low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) in patients with type 2 diabetes and established coronary artery disease enrolled into the BARI 2D trial. Results. Similar numbers of drugs were prescribed in both women and men. Women were less frequent on metformin or sulfonylurea and more likely to take insulin and to be on higher doses of hydroxymethylglutaryl-CoA reductase inhibitors (statins) than men. After adjusting for baseline differences and treatment prescribed, women were less likely to achieve goals for HbA1c (OR = 0.71, 95% CI 0.57, 0.88) and LDL-C (OR = 0.64, 95% CI 0.53, 0.78). More antihypertensives were prescribed to women, and yet BP ≤ 130/80 mmHg did not differ by sex. Conclusions. Women entering the BARI 2D trial were as aggressively treated with drugs as men. Despite equivalent treatment, women less frequently met targets for HbA1c and LDL-C. Our findings suggest that there may be sex differences in response to drug therapies used to treat diabetes, hypertension, and hyperlipidemia. PMID:25873955

  15. Target Selection Recommendations Based on Impact of Deep Brain Stimulation Surgeries on Nonmotor Symptoms of Parkinson's Disease

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xiao-Hong; Zhang, Lin; Sperry, Laura; Olichney, John; Farias, Sarah Tomaszewski; Shahlaie, Kiarash; Chang, Norika Malhado; Liu, Ying; Wang, Su-Ping; Wang, Cui

    2015-01-01

    Objective: This review examines the evidence that deep brain stimulation (DBS) has extensive impact on nonmotor symptoms (NMSs) of patients with Parkinson's disease (PD). Data Sources: We retrieved information from the PubMed database up to September, 2015, using various search terms and their combinations including PD, NMSs, DBS, globus pallidus internus (GPi), subthalamic nucleus (STN), and ventral intermediate thalamic nucleus. Study Selection: We included data from peer-reviewed journals on impacts of DBS on neuropsychological profiles, sensory function, autonomic symptoms, weight changes, and sleep disturbances. For psychological symptoms and cognitive impairment, we tried to use more reliable proofs: Random, control, multicenter, large sample sizes, and long period follow-up clinical studies. We categorized the NMSs into four groups: those that would improve definitively following DBS; those that are not significantly affected by DBS; those that remain controversial on their surgical benefit; and those that can be worsened by DBS. Results: In general, it seems to be an overall beneficial effect of DBS on NMSs, such as sensory, sleep, gastrointestinal, sweating, cardiovascular, odor, urological symptoms, and sexual dysfunction, GPi-DBS may produce similar results; Both STN and Gpi-DBS are safe with regard to cognition and psychology over long-term follow-up, though verbal fluency decline is related to DBS; The impact of DBS on behavioral addictions and dysphagia is still uncertain. Conclusions: As the motor effects of STN-DBS and GPi-DBS are similar, NMSs may determine the target choice in surgery of future patients. PMID:26668154

  16. Use of the Threshold of Toxicological Concern (TTC) approach for deriving target values for drinking water contaminants.

    PubMed

    Mons, M N; Heringa, M B; van Genderen, J; Puijker, L M; Brand, W; van Leeuwen, C J; Stoks, P; van der Hoek, J P; van der Kooij, D

    2013-03-15

    Ongoing pollution and improving analytical techniques reveal more and more anthropogenic substances in drinking water sources, and incidentally in treated water as well. In fact, complete absence of any trace pollutant in treated drinking water is an illusion as current analytical techniques are capable of detecting very low concentrations. Most of the substances detected lack toxicity data to derive safe levels and have not yet been regulated. Although the concentrations in treated water usually do not have adverse health effects, their presence is still undesired because of customer perception. This leads to the question how sensitive analytical methods need to become for water quality screening, at what levels water suppliers need to take action and how effective treatment methods need to be designed to remove contaminants sufficiently. Therefore, in the Netherlands a clear and consistent approach called 'Drinking Water Quality for the 21st century (Q21)' has been developed within the joint research program of the drinking water companies. Target values for anthropogenic drinking water contaminants were derived by using the recently introduced Threshold of Toxicological Concern (TTC) approach. The target values for individual genotoxic and steroid endocrine chemicals were set at 0.01 μg/L. For all other organic chemicals the target values were set at 0.1 μg/L. The target value for the total sum of genotoxic chemicals, the total sum of steroid hormones and the total sum of all other organic compounds were set at 0.01, 0.01 and 1.0 μg/L, respectively. The Dutch Q21 approach is further supplemented by the standstill-principle and effect-directed testing. The approach is helpful in defining the goals and limits of future treatment process designs and of analytical methods to further improve and ensure the quality of drinking water, without going to unnecessary extents. PMID:23312671

  17. The value of prevention: managing the risks associated with targeted violence and active shooters.

    PubMed

    Doherty, Matthew

    2016-01-01

    Every time we turn on the news, or open our Internet browsers, a story about an active shooter--at a school, house of worship, public place and even in our workplace--spills onto the page, the author reports. In this article he focuses on how we can prevent these incidents from occurring. What exactly is "targeted violence"--and why is what experts call "behavioral threat assessment" one of the single most effective ways to prevent the next active shooter incident in any organization? PMID:26978957

  18. Targets for Antibiotic and Health Care Resource Stewardship in Inpatient Community-Acquired Pneumonia: A Comparison of Management Practices with National Guideline Recommendations

    PubMed Central

    Jenkins, Timothy C.; Stella, Sarah A.; Cervantes, Lilia; Knepper, Bryan C.; Sabel, Allison L.; Price, Connie S.; Shockley, Lee; Hanley, Michael E.; Mehler, Philip S.; Burman, William J.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose Community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) is the most common infection leading to hospitalization in the U.S. The objective of this study was to evaluate management practices for inpatient CAP in relation to IDSA/ATS guidelines to identify opportunities for antibiotic and health care resource stewardship. Methods This was a retrospective cohort study of adults hospitalized for CAP at a single institution from April 15, 2008 – May 31, 2009. Results Of 209 cases, 166 (79%) were admitted to a medical ward and 43 (21%) to the intensive care unit (ICU). 61 (29%) cases were candidates for outpatient therapy per IDSA/ATS guidance with a CURB-65 score of 0 or 1 and absence of hypoxemia. 110 sputum cultures were ordered; however, an evaluable sample was obtained in 49 (45%) cases, median time from antibiotic initiation to specimen collection was 11 (IQR 6–19) hours, and a potential pathogen was identified in only 18 (16%). Blood cultures were routinely obtained for both non-ICU (81%) and ICU (95%) cases, but 15 of 36 (42%) positive cultures were false-positive results. The most common antibiotic regimen was ceftriaxone plus azithromycin (182, 87% cases). Discordant with IDSA/ATS recommendations, oral step-down therapy consisted of a new antibiotic class in 120 (66%), most commonly levofloxacin (101, 55%). Treatment durations were typically longer than suggested with a median of 10 (IQR 8 – 12) days. Conclusions In this cohort of patients hospitalized for CAP, management was frequently inconsistent with IDSA/ATS guideline recommendations revealing potential targets to reduce unnecessary antibiotic and health care resource utilization. PMID:23160837

  19. Alternative futures for Borneo show the value of integrating economic and conservation targets across borders.

    PubMed

    Runting, Rebecca K; Meijaard, Erik; Abram, Nicola K; Wells, Jessie A; Gaveau, David L A; Ancrenaz, Marc; Posssingham, Hugh P; Wich, Serge A; Ardiansyah, Fitrian; Gumal, Melvin T; Ambu, Laurentius N; Wilson, Kerrie A

    2015-01-01

    Balancing economic development with international commitments to protect biodiversity is a global challenge. Achieving this balance requires an understanding of the possible consequences of alternative future scenarios for a range of stakeholders. We employ an integrated economic and environmental planning approach to evaluate four alternative futures for the mega-diverse island of Borneo. We show what could be achieved if the three national jurisdictions of Borneo coordinate efforts to achieve their public policy targets and allow a partial reallocation of planned land uses. We reveal the potential for Borneo to simultaneously retain ∼50% of its land as forests, protect adequate habitat for the Bornean orangutan (Pongo pygmaeus) and Bornean elephant (Elephas maximus borneensis), and achieve an opportunity cost saving of over US$43 billion. Such coordination would depend on enhanced information sharing and reforms to land-use planning, which could be supported by the increasingly international nature of economies and conservation efforts. PMID:25871635

  20. Alternative futures for Borneo show the value of integrating economic and conservation targets across borders

    PubMed Central

    Runting, Rebecca K.; Meijaard, Erik; Abram, Nicola K.; Wells, Jessie A.; Gaveau, David L.A.; Ancrenaz, Marc; Posssingham, Hugh P.; Wich, Serge A.; Ardiansyah, Fitrian; Gumal, Melvin T.; Ambu, Laurentius N.; Wilson, Kerrie A.

    2015-01-01

    Balancing economic development with international commitments to protect biodiversity is a global challenge. Achieving this balance requires an understanding of the possible consequences of alternative future scenarios for a range of stakeholders. We employ an integrated economic and environmental planning approach to evaluate four alternative futures for the mega-diverse island of Borneo. We show what could be achieved if the three national jurisdictions of Borneo coordinate efforts to achieve their public policy targets and allow a partial reallocation of planned land uses. We reveal the potential for Borneo to simultaneously retain ∼50% of its land as forests, protect adequate habitat for the Bornean orangutan (Pongo pygmaeus) and Bornean elephant (Elephas maximus borneensis), and achieve an opportunity cost saving of over US$43 billion. Such coordination would depend on enhanced information sharing and reforms to land-use planning, which could be supported by the increasingly international nature of economies and conservation efforts. PMID:25871635

  1. Low Cardiac Output Secondary to a Malpositioned Umbilical Venous Catheter: Value of Targeted Neonatal Echocardiography

    PubMed Central

    Weisz, Dany E.; Poon, Wei Bing; James, Andrew; McNamara, Patrick J.

    2014-01-01

    Systemic hypotension is common in very low birthweight preterm infants but the nature of the precipitating cause may be unclear. Targeted neonatal echocardiography (TnEcho) is being increasingly used to support hemodynamic decisions in the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU), including identifying impairments in the transitional circulation of preterm infants, providing timely re-evaluation after institution of therapies and evaluating the placement of indwelling catheters. We present a case of a preterm infant with systemic hypotension and low cardiac output secondary to a large transatrial shunt induced by a malpositioned umbilical venous catheter. Repositioning of the line led to resolution of the hemodynamic disturbance and clinical instability, highlighting the utility of TnEcho in the NICU. PMID:25032055

  2. Non-cooperative target recognition by means of singular value decomposition applied to radar high resolution range profiles.

    PubMed

    López-Rodríguez, Patricia; Escot-Bocanegra, David; Fernández-Recio, Raúl; Bravo, Ignacio

    2015-01-01

    Radar high resolution range profiles are widely used among the target recognition community for the detection and identification of flying targets. In this paper, singular value decomposition is applied to extract the relevant information and to model each aircraft as a subspace. The identification algorithm is based on angle between subspaces and takes place in a transformed domain. In order to have a wide database of radar signatures and evaluate the performance, simulated range profiles are used as the recognition database while the test samples comprise data of actual range profiles collected in a measurement campaign. Thanks to the modeling of aircraft as subspaces only the valuable information of each target is used in the recognition process. Thus, one of the main advantages of using singular value decomposition, is that it helps to overcome the notable dissimilarities found in the shape and signal-to-noise ratio between actual and simulated profiles due to their difference in nature. Despite these differences, the recognition rates obtained with the algorithm are quite promising. PMID:25551484

  3. Non-Cooperative Target Recognition by Means of Singular Value Decomposition Applied to Radar High Resolution Range Profiles †

    PubMed Central

    López-Rodríguez, Patricia; Escot-Bocanegra, David; Fernández-Recio, Raúl; Bravo, Ignacio

    2015-01-01

    Radar high resolution range profiles are widely used among the target recognition community for the detection and identification of flying targets. In this paper, singular value decomposition is applied to extract the relevant information and to model each aircraft as a subspace. The identification algorithm is based on angle between subspaces and takes place in a transformed domain. In order to have a wide database of radar signatures and evaluate the performance, simulated range profiles are used as the recognition database while the test samples comprise data of actual range profiles collected in a measurement campaign. Thanks to the modeling of aircraft as subspaces only the valuable information of each target is used in the recognition process. Thus, one of the main advantages of using singular value decomposition, is that it helps to overcome the notable dissimilarities found in the shape and signal-to-noise ratio between actual and simulated profiles due to their difference in nature. Despite these differences, the recognition rates obtained with the algorithm are quite promising. PMID:25551484

  4. On Recommending.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Furner, Jonathan

    2002-01-01

    Discusses recommendation, or preference ordering, in document retrieval systems that ranks documents in order of the likelihood with which they match the preferences of any person searching the system. Describes the ERIn (Evaluation-Recommendation-Information) model, a decision-theoretic framework for understanding information-related activity…

  5. Recommender systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lü, Linyuan; Medo, Matúš; Yeung, Chi Ho; Zhang, Yi-Cheng; Zhang, Zi-Ke; Zhou, Tao

    2012-10-01

    The ongoing rapid expansion of the Internet greatly increases the necessity of effective recommender systems for filtering the abundant information. Extensive research for recommender systems is conducted by a broad range of communities including social and computer scientists, physicists, and interdisciplinary researchers. Despite substantial theoretical and practical achievements, unification and comparison of different approaches are lacking, which impedes further advances. In this article, we review recent developments in recommender systems and discuss the major challenges. We compare and evaluate available algorithms and examine their roles in the future developments. In addition to algorithms, physical aspects are described to illustrate macroscopic behavior of recommender systems. Potential impacts and future directions are discussed. We emphasize that recommendation has great scientific depth and combines diverse research fields which makes it interesting for physicists as well as interdisciplinary researchers.

  6. A comparison of food-based recommendations and nutrient values of three food guides: USDA's MyPyramid, NHLBI's Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension Eating Plan, and Harvard's Healthy Eating Pyramid.

    PubMed

    Reedy, Jill; Krebs-Smith, Susan M

    2008-03-01

    The purpose of this research was to compare food-based recommendations and nutrient values of three food guides: the US Department of Agriculture's MyPyramid; the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute's Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension Eating Plan, and Harvard University's Healthy Eating Pyramid. Estimates of nutrient values associated with following each of the food guides at the 2,000-calorie level were made using a composite approach. This approach calculates population-weighted nutrient composites for each food group and subgroup, assuming average choices within food groups. Nutrient estimates were compared to the Dietary Reference Intakes and other goals and limits. Recommendations were similar regarding almost all food groups for both the type and amount of foods. Primary differences were seen in the types of vegetables and protein sources recommended and the amount of dairy products and total oil recommended. Overall nutrient values were also similar for most nutrients, except vitamin A, vitamin E, and calcium. These food guides were derived from different types of nutrition research, yet they share consistent messages: eat more fruits, vegetables, legumes, and whole grains; eat less added sugar and saturated fat; and emphasize plant oils. PMID:18313434

  7. Recommended Distribution Coefficients, Kd Values, for Special Analysis Risk Calculations Related to Waste Disposal and Tank Closure on the Savannah River Site

    SciTech Connect

    Kaplan, D

    2005-08-31

    The purpose of this document is to provide a technically defensible list of distribution coefficients, or Kd values, for use in performance assessment (PA) and special analysis (SA) calculations on the SRS. Only Kd values for radionuclides that have new information related to them or that have recently been recognized as being important are discussed in this report. Some 150 Kd values are provided in this report for various waste-disposal or tank-closure environments: soil, corrosion in grout, oxidizing grout waste, gravel, clay, and reducing concrete environments. Documentation and justification for the selection of each Kd value is provided.

  8. Recommended Paperbacks.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Horn Book Magazine, 1980

    1980-01-01

    Lists recommended paperback books for children in the following categories: picture books; stories for younger, for intermediate, and for older readers; folklore, legend, and mythology; and nonfiction. Tells if and when the original editions were reviewed in this journal. (GT)

  9. Development of dietary-based toxic reference values to assess the risk of chlorophacinone to non-target raptorial birds

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rattner, Barnett A.; Lazarus, Rebecca; Shultz, S. L.; Horak, Katherine E.; Abbo, B.G.; Volker, Steven F.

    2014-01-01

    Regulatory changes in the use of some second-generation anticoagulant rodenticides in parts of North America may result in expanded use of first-generation anticoagulant rodenticides (FGARs). Recent toxicological studies with captive raptors have demonstrated that these species are considerably more sensitive to the FGAR diphacinone than traditional avian wildlife test species (mallard, bobwhite). We have now examined the toxicity of the FGAR chlorophacinone (CPN) to American kestrels fed rat tissue mechanically-amended with CPN, or rat tissue containing biologically-incorporated CPN, for 7 days. Nominal CPN concentrations in these diets were 0.15, 0.75 and 1.5 µg/g food wet weight, and actual CPN concentration in diets were analytically verified as being close to target values. Food intake was consistent among groups, body weight fluctuated by less than 6%, exposure and adverse effects were generally dose-dependent, and there were no dramatic differences in toxicity between mechanically-amended and biologically-incorporated CPN diets. Using benchmark dose statistical methods, toxic reference values at which clotting times were prolonged in 50% of the kestrels was estimated to be about 80 µg CPN consumed/kg body weight-day for prothrombin time and 40 µg CPN/kg body weight-day for Russell's viper venom time. Based upon carcass CPN residues reported in rodents from field baiting studies, empirical measures of food consumption in kestrels, and dietary-based toxic reference values derived from the 7-day exposure scenario, some free-ranging raptors consuming CPN exposed prey might exhibit coagulopathy and hemorrhage. These sublethal responses associated with exposure to environmentally realistic concentrations of CPN could compromise survival of exposed birds.

  10. Re-evaluation of current A0 value recommendations for thermal disinfection of reusable human waste containers based on new experimental data.

    PubMed

    Diab-Elschahawi, M; Fürnkranz, U; Blacky, A; Bachhofner, N; Koller, W

    2010-05-01

    Issues over the correct cleaning and disinfection of reusable medical devices are of great concern for local infection control teams. We investigated the heat resistance of two important micro-organisms implicated in nosocomial infections, Enterococcus spp. and spores of Bacillus subtilis (a surrogate for Clostridium difficile). Disinfection with moist heat, based on the A(0) concept (EN ISO 15883-1), is the most common method for disinfection of human waste containers in the hospital setting. The aim of this study was to scrutinise the A(0) concept regarding the inactivation of the above-mentioned micro-organisms and to look for possible interferences. Experiments were carried out in phosphate-buffered saline, artificial soil in suspension (ASS) and dried artificial soil (AS). Artificial soil was used to simulate insufficient cleaning of bedpans. Micro-organisms were treated at different temperatures and time periods. It was shown that soil protected the micro-organisms against heat and that dried soil enhanced this effect, probably as a result of thermal insulation. The results of the current study do not support the general recommendation to use an A(0) of 60 for the disinfection of bedpans but warrant differential strategies depending on the expected microbial load. We generally recommend for disinfection processes aimed at vegetative bacteria an A(0) of >or=180. Furthermore we want to emphasise the utmost importance of not allowing freshly contaminated bedpans to dry for longer time periods, as the significance of thorough cleaning of contaminated human waste containers before being exposed to heat treatment for their disinfection was clearly demonstrated. PMID:20338666

  11. Diagnosis of idiopathic myositis: value of 99mtechnetium pyrophosphate muscle scintigraphy and magnetic resonance imaging in targeted muscle biopsy.

    PubMed

    von Kempis, J; Kalden, P; Gutfleisch, J; Grimbacher, B; Krause, T; Uhl, M; Ketelsen, U P; Volk, B; Röther, E; Vaith, P; Peter, H H

    1998-01-01

    Our objective was to study the value of 99mtechnetium-pyrophosphate (99mTc-PYP) muscle scintigraphy and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in detecting areas of likely muscle inflammation and in increasing the rate of positive muscle biopsies in patients with suspected myositis. The results showed that in 13 out of 13 patients with clinical and/or signs of inflammatory muscle disease, increased 99mTc-PYP uptake was demonstrated at different muscle sites 3 h after isotope injection. Subsequent MRI of symmetric muscle areas with enhanced 99mTc-PYP uptake revealed signal patterns suggesting inflammation in all cases. Biopsy of these targeted muscles demonstrated characteristic histopathologic signs of muscle inflammation in 9 out of 13 patients. Four of these 9 patients had clinically atypical disease or did not show elevated creatine phosphokinase levels. Seven of these 9 patients had not been pretreated with corticosteroids. In 4 patients only muscle fiber atrophy and/or necrosis without cellular infiltrations was seen. These 4 patients had received either high doses of corticosteroids or low doses over longer periods of time before muscle biopsy. In conclusion, the combination of 99mTc-PYP muscle scintigraphy and MRI demonstrated muscle areas with maximum inflammatory signal patterns. Targeting of muscles by MRI only will probably yield reliable results of muscle biopsy in cases of clinically and serologically characteristic myositis. 99mTc-PYP muscle scintigraphy may provide useful initial information about localization of inflamed muscle tissue, especially in atypical disease. Treatment with corticosteroids prior to histologic diagnosis may abolish inflammatory infiltrations in affected muscle tissue. PMID:9542783

  12. Use of thermodynamic sorption models to derive radionuclide Kd values for performance assessment: Selected results and recommendations of the NEA sorption project

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ochs, M.; Davis, J.A.; Olin, M.; Payne, T.E.; Tweed, C.J.; Askarieh, M.M.; Altmann, S.

    2006-01-01

    For the safe final disposal and/or long-term storage of radioactive wastes, deep or near-surface underground repositories are being considered world-wide. A central safety feature is the prevention, or sufficient retardation, of radionuclide (RN) migration to the biosphere. To this end, radionuclide sorption is one of the most important processes. Decreasing the uncertainty in radionuclide sorption may contribute significantly to reducing the overall uncertainty of a performance assessment (PA). For PA, sorption is typically characterised by distribution coefficients (Kd values). The conditional nature of Kd requires different estimates of this parameter for each set of geochemical conditions of potential relevance in a RN's migration pathway. As it is not feasible to measure sorption for every set of conditions, the derivation of Kd for PA must rely on data derived from representative model systems. As a result, uncertainty in Kd is largely caused by the need to derive values for conditions not explicitly addressed in experiments. The recently concluded NEA Sorption Project [1] showed that thermodynamic sorption models (TSMs) are uniquely suited to derive K d as a function of conditions, because they allow a direct coupling of sorption with variable solution chemistry and mineralogy in a thermodynamic framework. The results of the project enable assessment of the suitability of various TSM approaches for PA-relevant applications as well as of the potential and limitations of TSMs to model RN sorption in complex systems. ?? by Oldenbourg Wissenschaftsverlag.

  13. Groundwater and stream threshold values for targeted and differentiated output based regulation of nutrient loadings to ecosystems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hinsby, Klaus; Refsgaard, Jens Christian

    2015-04-01

    even field scale based on estimated acceptable nutrient loadings to transitional and coastal waters (or any other protected aquatic ecosystem in the river basin) according to the requirements of the EU Water Framework and Groundwater directives, and use these to monitor and plan sustainable water and land use management, e.g. by differentiated practices in farming and land use within sub-catchments. Specifically, we suggest that monitoring of the nitrogen outputs from catchments, sub-catchment and even delineated specific fields with new cost-effective monitoring systems in combination with coupled soil-groundwater-surface water models has a large potential for the development of efficient differentiated measures controlling nutrient loadings to aquatic ecosystems. Here we present initial considerations and suggestions for the development of new governance concepts targeted at differentiated output based regulations using threshold values for N in groundwater and streams derived from acceptable loadings to a small Danish estuary.

  14. National Beef Quality Audit-2011: Harvest-floor assessments of targeted characteristics that affect quality and value of cattle, carcasses, and byproducts

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The National Beef Quality Audit-2011(NBQA-2011) was conducted to assess targeted characteristics on the harvest floor that affect the quality and value of cattle, carcasses, and byproducts. Survey teams evaluated approximately 18,000 cattle/carcasses between May and November 2011 in 8 beef processin...

  15. Olmesartan vs ramipril in the treatment of hypertension and associated clinical conditions in the elderly: a reanalysis of two large double-blind, randomized studies at the light of the most recent blood pressure targets recommended by guidelines

    PubMed Central

    Omboni, Stefano; Malacco, Ettore; Mallion, Jean-Michel; Volpe, Massimo

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we present the results of a reanalysis of the data of two large randomized, double-blind, parallel group studies with a similar design, comparing the efficacy of an angiotensin-receptor blocker (olmesartan medoxomil) with that of an angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor (ramipril), by applying two different blood pressure targets recently recommended by hypertension guidelines for all patients, irrespective of the presence of diabetes (<140/90 mmHg), and for elderly hypertensive patients (<150/90 mmHg). The efficacy of olmesartan was not negatively affected by age, sex, hypertension type, diabetes status or other concomitant clinical conditions, or cardiovascular risk factors. In most cases, olmesartan provided better blood pressure control than ramipril. Olmesartan was significantly more effective than ramipril in male patients, in younger patients (aged 65–69 years), in those with metabolic syndrome, obesity, dyslipidemia, preserved renal function, diastolic ± systolic hypertension, and, in general, in patients with a high or very high cardiovascular risk. Interestingly, patients previously untreated or treated with two or more antihypertensive drugs showed a significantly larger response with olmesartan than with ramipril. Thus, our results confirm the good efficacy of olmesartan in elderly hypertensives even when new blood pressure targets for antihypertensive treatment are considered. Such results may be relevant for the clinical practice, providing some hint on the possible different response of elderly hypertensive patients to two different drugs acting on the renin–angiotensin system, when patients are targeted according to the blood pressure levels recommended by recent hypertension guidelines. PMID:26491273

  16. Differences among Monte Carlo codes in the calculations of voxel S values for radionuclide targeted therapy and analysis of their impact on absorbed dose evaluations

    SciTech Connect

    Pacilio, M.; Lanconelli, N.; Lo Meo, S.; Betti, M.; Montani, L.; Torres Aroche, L. A.; Coca Perez, M. A.

    2009-05-15

    Several updated Monte Carlo (MC) codes are available to perform calculations of voxel S values for radionuclide targeted therapy. The aim of this work is to analyze the differences in the calculations obtained by different MC codes and their impact on absorbed dose evaluations performed by voxel dosimetry. Voxel S values for monoenergetic sources (electrons and photons) and different radionuclides ({sup 90}Y, {sup 131}I, and {sup 188}Re) were calculated. Simulations were performed in soft tissue. Three general-purpose MC codes were employed for simulating radiation transport: MCNP4C, EGSnrc, and GEANT4. The data published by the MIRD Committee in Pamphlet No. 17, obtained with the EGS4 MC code, were also included in the comparisons. The impact of the differences (in terms of voxel S values) among the MC codes was also studied by convolution calculations of the absorbed dose in a volume of interest. For uniform activity distribution of a given radionuclide, dose calculations were performed on spherical and elliptical volumes, varying the mass from 1 to 500 g. For simulations with monochromatic sources, differences for self-irradiation voxel S values were mostly confined within 10% for both photons and electrons, but with electron energy less than 500 keV, the voxel S values referred to the first neighbor voxels showed large differences (up to 130%, with respect to EGSnrc) among the updated MC codes. For radionuclide simulations, noticeable differences arose in voxel S values, especially in the bremsstrahlung tails, or when a high contribution from electrons with energy of less than 500 keV is involved. In particular, for {sup 90}Y the updated codes showed a remarkable divergence in the bremsstrahlung region (up to about 90% in terms of voxel S values) with respect to the EGS4 code. Further, variations were observed up to about 30%, for small source-target voxel distances, when low-energy electrons cover an important part of the emission spectrum of the radionuclide

  17. Distribute The Highest Selected Textual Recommendation (DTHSTR)

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    2012-05-01

    The DTHSTR computer code uses a set of documents as seed documents to recommend documents of interest from a large, target set of documents. The computer code provides results that show the highest recommended documents as well as the terms in common between the recommend document and the corresponding seed document that is most similar.

  18. The value of family planning user profiles in better targeting of family planning: the case of Vanuatu.

    PubMed

    Foy, D

    1993-07-01

    Modern reversible contraceptive methods currently approved in Vanuatu are: oral hormonal contraceptives (OCs), the intrauterine device (IUD), and condoms. These are used by about 9% of all women in childbearing age. A study was undertaken to determine profiles of average current modern FP users in order to identify some of the factors influencing FP use and facilitate better program management. FP records from 3 hospitals were reviewed in 1992, and user profiles were constructed in terms of age, parity, and length of use for the OC and the IUD (used nationally by 60% and 3)% of all modern methods users, respectively). The results involving 513 current OC and 438 IUD users showed that 61% of OC and 6% of IUD user groups were aged 22-30 years and had 2 or 3 children. The 1st finding was that few women with just 1 child use either OCs or the IUD; they represent a potentially under-served target group for the FP programs. Service providers could specifically counsel such women and their partner on planned parenthood and through targeted health education material. The 2nd finding was that the average length of use of the IUD was significantly longer than that of OCs. In a country where access to FP services is frequently difficult and having children (even for single women) socially acceptable, the decision to discontinue OCs is often made by default. In contrast, discontinuation of an IUD requires a more active decision to be made, usually to have another child or because of unacceptable side effects. Hence, the significantly shorter length of use of OCs compared to IUDs by FP users. This finding underlines the importance of promoting IUDs among parous women in Vanuatu. The FP user profiles can be valuable for program planners by identifying groups using FP services, and any significant differences in the pattern of use among acceptors. PMID:8356742

  19. Targeting high value metals in lithium-ion battery recycling via shredding and size-based separation.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xue; Gaustad, Gabrielle; Babbitt, Callie W

    2016-05-01

    Development of lithium-ion battery recycling systems is a current focus of much research; however, significant research remains to optimize the process. One key area not studied is the utilization of mechanical pre-recycling steps to improve overall yield. This work proposes a pre-recycling process, including mechanical shredding and size-based sorting steps, with the goal of potential future scale-up to the industrial level. This pre-recycling process aims to achieve material segregation with a focus on the metallic portion and provide clear targets for subsequent recycling processes. The results show that contained metallic materials can be segregated into different size fractions at different levels. For example, for lithium cobalt oxide batteries, cobalt content has been improved from 35% by weight in the metallic portion before this pre-recycling process to 82% in the ultrafine (<0.5mm) fraction and to 68% in the fine (0.5-1mm) fraction, and been excluded in the larger pieces (>6mm). However, size fractions across multiple battery chemistries showed significant variability in material concentration. This finding indicates that sorting by cathode before pre-treatment could reduce the uncertainty of input materials and therefore improve the purity of output streams. Thus, battery labeling systems may be an important step towards implementation of any pre-recycling process. PMID:26577459

  20. Prognostic Value and Targeted Inhibition of Survivin Expression in Esophageal Adenocarcinoma and Cancer-Adjacent Squamous Epithelium

    PubMed Central

    Malhotra, Usha; Zaidi, Ali H.; Kosovec, Juliann E.; Kasi, Pashtoon M.; Komatsu, Yoshihiro; Rotoloni, Christina L.; Davison, Jon M.; R, Clint; Irvin; Hoppo, Toshitaka; Nason, Katie S.; Kelly, Lori A.; Gibson, Michael K.; Jobe, Blair A.

    2013-01-01

    Background Survivin is an inhibitor of apoptosis and its over expression is associated with poor prognosis in several malignancies. While several studies have analyzed survivin expression in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma, few have focused on esophageal adenocarcinoma (EAC) and/or cancer-adjacent squamous epithelium (CASE). The purpose of this study was 1) to determine the degree of survivin up regulation in samples of EAC and CASE, 2) to evaluate if survivin expression in EAC and CASE correlates with recurrence and/or death, and 3) to examine the effect of survivin inhibition on apoptosis in EAC cells. Methods Fresh frozen samples of EAC and CASE from the same patient were used for qRT-PCR and Western blot analysis, and formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissue was used for immunohistochemistry. EAC cell lines, OE19 and OE33, were transfected with small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) to knockdown survivin expression. This was confirmed by qRT-PCR for survivin expression and Western blot analysis of cleaved PARP, cleaved caspase 3 and survivin. Survivin expression data was correlated with clinical outcome. Results Survivin expression was significantly higher in EAC tumor samples compared to the CASE from the same patient. Patients with high expression of survivin in EAC tumor had an increased risk of death. Survivin expression was also noted in CASE and correlated with increased risk of distant recurrence. Cell line evaluation demonstrated that inhibition of survivin resulted in an increase in apoptosis. Conclusion Higher expression of survivin in tumor tissue was associated with increased risk of death; while survivin expression in CASE was a superior predictor of recurrence. Inhibition of survivin in EAC cell lines further showed increased apoptosis, supporting the potential benefits of therapeutic strategies targeted to this marker. PMID:24223792

  1. Limited value of pro-inflammatory oxylipins and cytokines as circulating biomarkers in endometriosis - a targeted 'omics study.

    PubMed

    Lee, Yie Hou; Cui, Liang; Fang, Jinling; Chern, Bernard Su Min; Tan, Heng Hao; Chan, Jerry K Y

    2016-01-01

    Endometriosis is a common, complex gynecologic disorder characterized by the presence of endometrial-like tissues at extrauterine sites. Elevation in protein and lipid mediators of inflammation including oxylipins and cytokines within the peritoneum characterize the inflamed pelvic region and may contribute to the survival and growth of displaced endometrial tissues. The presence of a clinically silent but molecularly detectable systemic inflammation in endometriosis has been proposed. Thus, we examined serum oxylipin and immunomodulatory protein levels in 103 women undergoing laparoscopy to evaluate systematically any involvement in systemic pathophysiological inflammation in endometriosis. Oxylipin levels were similar between women with and without endometriosis. Stratification by menstrual phase or severity did not offer any difference. Women with ovarian endometriosis had significantly lower 12-HETE relative to peritoneal endometriosis (-50.7%). Serum oxylipin levels were not associated with pre-operative pain symptoms. Changes to immunomodulatory proteins were minimal, with IL-12(p70), IL-13 and VEGF significantly lower in mild endometriotic women compared to non-endometriotic women (-39%, -54% and -76% respectively). Verification using C-reactive protein as a non-specific marker of inflammation further showed similar levels between groups. The implications of our work suggest pro-inflammatory mediators in the classes studied may have potentially limited value as circulating biomarkers for endometriosis, suggesting of potentially tenuous systemic inflammation in endometriosis. PMID:27193963

  2. Targeting and valuing conservation investments in support of a water fund: linking upstream land management with downstream services in the Upper Tana catchment, Kenya

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bryant, B. P.; Droogers, P.; Hunink, J.; Vogl, A.; Wolny, S.

    2014-12-01

    We apply an integrated modeling framework to both target and value watershed management interventions in the Upper Tana watershed, which provides municipal water, irrigation water, and hydropower services to Nairobi and surrounding areas. The analysis begins by applying an index model approach that incorporates existing land use and land surface characteristics to prioritize the type and location of conservation investments in different subbasins, subject to budget constraints and stakeholder concerns (Resource Investment Optimization System -- RIOS). We then run the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) using the RIOS-identified investment scenarios to produce spatially explicit scenarios that simulate changes in water yield and suspended sediment. Finally, we link those biophysical outputs to monetary and non-monetary human well-being metrics for multiple benefit streams, including: Reduced water treatment costs, increased hydropower production, and crop yield benefits for upstream farmers in the conservation area. The viability of a payment for watershed services scheme is discussed, with attention to the various components of value assessed and to dependencies on water management approaches. While other studies have examined links between land use and the provision of hydrologic services, this study is novel in that it presents an integrated analysis that targets interventions in a decision context and then relies on calibrated, process-based, biophysical models to demonstrate the return on those investments considering multiple (and sometimes competing) hydrological services, doing so at a sub-annual time-scale.

  3. LAMOST Spectroscopic Survey of the Galactic Anticentre (LSS-GAC): target selection and the first release of value-added catalogues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuan, H.-B.; Liu, X.-W.; Huo, Z.-Y.; Xiang, M.-S.; Huang, Y.; Chen, B.-Q.; Zhang, H.-H.; Sun, N.-C.; Wang, C.; Zhang, H.-W.; Zhao, Y.-H.; Luo, A.-L.; Shi, J.-R.; Li, G.-P.; Yuan, H.-L.; Dong, Y.-Q.; Li, G.-W.; Hou, Y.-H.; Zhang, Y.

    2015-03-01

    As a major component of the LAMOST Galactic surveys, the LAMOST Spectroscopic Survey of the Galactic Anticentre (LSS-GAC) aims to survey a significant volume of the Galactic thin/thick discs and halo for a contiguous sky area of over 3400 deg2 centred on the Galactic anticentre (|b| ≤ 30°, 150 ≤ l ≤ 210°), and obtain λλ3700-9000 low-resolution (R ˜ 1800) spectra for a statistically complete sample of ˜3 M stars of all colours down to a limiting magnitude of r ˜ 17.8 mag (to 18.5 mag for limited fields). Together with Gaia, the LSS-GAC will yield a unique data set to advance our understanding of the structure and assemblage history of the Galaxy, in particular its disc(s). In addition to the main survey, the LSS-GAC will also target hundreds of thousands objects in the vicinity fields of M 31 and M 33 and survey a significant fraction (over a million) of randomly selected very bright stars (r ≤ 14 mag) in the Northern hemisphere. During the Pilot and the first year Regular Surveys of LAMOST, a total of 1042 586 [750 867] spectra of a signal-to-noise ratio S/N(7450 Å) ≥ 10 [S/N(4650 Å) ≥ 10] have been collected. In this paper, we present a detailed description of the target selection algorithm, survey design, observations and the first data release of value-added catalogues (including radial velocities, effective temperatures, surface gravities, metallicities, values of interstellar extinction, distances, proper motions and orbital parameters) of the LSS-GAC.

  4. Scenario-targeted toxicity assessment through multiple endpoint bioassays in a soil posing unacceptable environmental risk according to regulatory screening values.

    PubMed

    Rodriguez-Ruiz, A; Etxebarria, J; Boatti, L; Marigómez, I

    2015-09-01

    Lanestosa is a chronically polluted site (derelict mine) where the soil (Lanestosa (LA) soil) exceeds screening values (SVs) of regulatory policies in force (Basque Country; Europe) for Zn, Pb and Cd. A scenario-targeted toxicity assessment was carried out on the basis of a multi-endpoint bioassay approach. Acute and chronic toxicity bioassays were conducted with selected test species (Vibrio fischeri, Dictyostelium discoideum, Lactuca sativa, Raphanus sativus and Eisenia fetida) in combination with chemical analysis of soils and elutriates and with bioaccumulation studies in earthworms. Besides, the toxicity profile was compared with that of the mine runoff (RO) soil and of a fresh artificially polluted soil (LAAPS) resembling LA soil pollutant profile. Extractability studies in LA soil revealed that Pb, Zn and Cd were highly available for exchange and/or release into the environment. Indeed, Pb and Zn were accumulated in earthworms and LA soil resulted to be toxic. Soil respiration, V. fischeri, vegetative and developmental cycles of D. discoideum and survival and juvenile production of E. fetida were severely affected. These results confirmed that LA soil had unacceptable environmental risk and demanded intervention. In contrast, although Pb and Zn concentrations in RO soil revealed also unacceptable risk, both metal extractability and toxicity were much lower than in LA soil. Thus, within the polluted site, the need for intervention varied between areas that posed dissimilar risk. Besides, since LAAPS, with a high exchangeable metal fraction, was the most toxic, ageing under in situ natural conditions seemingly contributed to attenuate LA soil risk. As a whole, combining multi-endpoint bioassays with scenario-targeted analysis (including leaching and ageing) provides reliable risk assessment in soils posing unacceptable environmental risk according to SVs, which is useful to optimise the required intervention measures. PMID:25940475

  5. Mean arterial pressure values calculated using seven different methods and their associations with target organ deterioration in a single-center study of 1878 individuals.

    PubMed

    Papaioannou, Theodore G; Protogerou, Athanase D; Vrachatis, Dimitrios; Konstantonis, Giorgos; Aissopou, Evaggelia; Argyris, Antonis; Nasothimiou, Efthimia; Gialafos, Elias J; Karamanou, Marianna; Tousoulis, Dimitris; Sfikakis, Petros P

    2016-09-01

    To assess the differences among seven different methods for the calculation of mean arterial pressure (MAP) and to identify the formula that provides MAP values that are more closely associated with target organ deterioration as expressed by the carotid cross-sectional area (CSA), carotid-to-femoral pulse-wave velocity (cf-PWV) and left ventricular mass (LVM). The study population consisted of 1878 subjects who underwent noninvasive cardiovascular risk assessment. Blood pressure (BP) was assessed in all subjects, and MAP was calculated by direct oscillometry and six different formulas. Carotid artery ultrasound imaging was performed in 1628 subjects. The CSA of the right and left common carotid artery (CCA) were calculated and used as surrogates of arterial wall mass and hypertrophy. Aortic stiffness was evaluated in 1763 subjects by measuring the cf-PWV. Finally, 218 subjects underwent echocardiographic examination for the assessment of LVM. Among the examined methods of MAP calculation, the formula MAP1=[diastolic BP]+0.412 × [pulse pressure] yielded the strongest correlations with the LVM, cf-PWV and CSA of the right and left CCA, even after adjusting for age and gender. The MAP calculation using the 0.412 was superior compared with the traditional formula that uses the 0.33 for the discrimination of subjects with left ventricular and carotid wall hypertrophy, as well as subjects with increased aortic stiffness. MAP estimated with the 0.412 is better correlated with target organ deterioration compared with other formulas. Future studies are needed to explore the accuracy of these formulas for MAP estimation compared with direct intra-arterial BP measurement. PMID:27194570

  6. Measles -- Recommendations for Prevention

    MedlinePlus

    ... Prevent News and Media Resources News Newsletters Events Measles - Recommendations for Prevention Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share ... safest protection you can give your child against measles. Children should be given the first dose of ...

  7. Robust Collaborative Recommendation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burke, Robin; O'Mahony, Michael P.; Hurley, Neil J.

    Collaborative recommender systems are vulnerable to malicious users who seek to bias their output, causing them to recommend (or not recommend) particular items. This problem has been an active research topic since 2002. Researchers have found that the most widely-studied memory-based algorithms have significant vulnerabilities to attacks that can be fairly easily mounted. This chapter discusses these findings and the responses that have been investigated, especially detection of attack profiles and the implementation of robust recommendation algorithms.

  8. Social Manipulation of Online Recommender Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lang, Juan; Spear, Matt; Wu, S. Felix

    Online recommender systems are a common target of attack. Existing research has focused on automated manipulation of recommender systems through the creation of shill accounts, and either do not consider attacks by coalitions of real users, downplay the impact of such attacks, or state that such attacks are difficult to impossible to detect. In this study, we examine a recommender system that is part of an online social network, show that users successfully induced other users to manipulate their recommendations, that these manipulations were effective, and that most such manipulations are detectable even when performed by ordinary, non-automated users.

  9. Recommendation Knowledge Discovery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McSherry, David; Stretch, Christopher

    Recently we presented a novel approach to the discovery of recommendation rules from a product case base that take account of all features of a recommended product, including those with respect to which the user's preferences are unknown. In this paper, we investigate the potential role of default preferences in the discovery of recommendation rules. As we show in the domain of digital cameras, the potential benefits include a dramatic reduction in the effective length of the discovered rules and increased coverage of queries representing the user's personal preferences. Another important finding of the research presented is that in a recommender system that takes account of default preferences, many of the products in the case base may never be recommended.

  10. Updated Lightning Safety Recommendations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vavrek, R. James; Holle, Ronald L.; Lopez, Raul E.

    1999-01-01

    Summarizes the recommendations of the Lightning Safety Group (LSG), which was first convened during the 1998 American Meteorological Society Conference. Findings outline appropriate actions under various circumstances when lightning threatens. (WRM)

  11. The sum of gains and losses of genes encoding the protein tyrosine kinase targets predicts response to multi-kinase inhibitor treatment: Characterization, validation, and prognostic value

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Xiaojun; Pissaloux, Daniel; De La Fouchardiere, Christelle; Desseigne, Françoise; Wang, Qing; Attignon, Valery; Fondrevelle, Marie-Eve; De La Fouchardiere, Arnaud; Perol, Maurice; Cassier, Philippe; Seigne, Christelle; Perol, David; Coquard, Isabelle Ray; Meeus, Pierre; Fayette, Jerome; Flechon, Aude; Le Cesne, Axel; Penel, Nicolas; Tredan, Olivier; Blay, Jean-Yves

    2015-01-01

    Validated predictive biomarkers for multi-tyrosine kinase inhibitors (MTKI) efficacy are lacking. We hypothesized that interindividual response variability is partially dependent on somatic DNA copy number alterations (SCNAs), particularly those of genes encoding the protein tyrosines targeted by MTKI (called target genes). Genomic alterations were investigated in MTKI responsive and non responsive patients with different histological subtypes included in the ProfiLER protocol (NCT 01774409). From March 2013 to August 2014, 58 patients with advanced cancer treated with one of 7 MTKIs were included in the ProfiLER trial and split into one discovery cohort (n = 13), and 2 validation cohorts (n = 12 and 33). An analysis of the copy number alterations of kinase-coding genes for each of 7 MTKIs was conducted. A prediction algorithm (SUMSCAN) based on the presence of specific gene gains (Tumor Target Charge, TTC) and losses (Tumor Target Losses, TTL) was conceived and validated in 2 independent validation cohorts. MTKI sensitive tumors present a characteristic SCNA profile including a global gain profile, and specific gains for target genes while MTKI resistant tumors present the opposite. SUMSCAN favorable patients achieved longer progression-free and overall survival. This work shows that the copy number sum of kinase-coding genes enables the prediction of response of cancer patients to MTKI, opening a novel paradigm for the treatment selection of these patients. PMID:26317543

  12. The sum of gains and losses of genes encoding the protein tyrosine kinase targets predicts response to multi-kinase inhibitor treatment: Characterization, validation, and prognostic value.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Xiaojun; Pissaloux, Daniel; De La Fouchardiere, Christelle; Desseigne, Françoise; Wang, Qing; Attignon, Valery; Fondrevelle, Marie-Eve; De La Fouchardiere, Arnaud; Perol, Maurice; Cassier, Philippe; Seigne, Christelle; Perol, David; Ray-Coquard, Isabelle; Meeus, Pierre; Fayette, Jerome; Flechon, Aude; Le Cesne, Axel; Penel, Nicolas; Tredan, Olivier; Blay, Jean-Yves

    2015-09-22

    Validated predictive biomarkers for multi-tyrosine kinase inhibitors (MTKI) efficacy are lacking. We hypothesized that interindividual response variability is partially dependent on somatic DNA copy number alterations (SCNAs), particularly those of genes encoding the protein tyrosines targeted by MTKI (called target genes). Genomic alterations were investigated in MTKI responsive and non responsive patients with different histological subtypes included in the ProfiLER protocol (NCT 01774409). From March 2013 to August 2014, 58 patients with advanced cancer treated with one of 7 MTKIs were included in the ProfiLER trial and split into one discovery cohort (n = 13), and 2 validation cohorts (n = 12 and 33). An analysis of the copy number alterations of kinase-coding genes for each of 7 MTKIs was conducted. A prediction algorithm (SUMSCAN) based on the presence of specific gene gains (Tumor Target Charge, TTC) and losses (Tumor Target Losses, TTL) was conceived and validated in 2 independent validation cohorts. MTKI sensitive tumors present a characteristic SCNA profile including a global gain profile, and specific gains for target genes while MTKI resistant tumors present the opposite. SUMSCAN favorable patients achieved longer progression-free and overall survival. This work shows that the copy number sum of kinase-coding genes enables the prediction of response of cancer patients to MTKI, opening a novel paradigm for the treatment selection of these patients. PMID:26317543

  13. New Insulin Delivery Recommendations.

    PubMed

    Frid, Anders H; Kreugel, Gillian; Grassi, Giorgio; Halimi, Serge; Hicks, Debbie; Hirsch, Laurence J; Smith, Mike J; Wellhoener, Regine; Bode, Bruce W; Hirsch, Irl B; Kalra, Sanjay; Ji, Linong; Strauss, Kenneth W

    2016-09-01

    Many primary care professionals manage injection or infusion therapies in patients with diabetes. Few published guidelines have been available to help such professionals and their patients manage these therapies. Herein, we present new, practical, and comprehensive recommendations for diabetes injections and infusions. These recommendations were informed by a large international survey of current practice and were written and vetted by 183 diabetes experts from 54 countries at the Forum for Injection Technique and Therapy: Expert Recommendations (FITTER) workshop held in Rome, Italy, in 2015. Recommendations are organized around the themes of anatomy, physiology, pathology, psychology, and technology. Key among the recommendations are that the shortest needles (currently the 4-mm pen and 6-mm syringe needles) are safe, effective, and less painful and should be the first-line choice in all patient categories; intramuscular injections should be avoided, especially with long-acting insulins, because severe hypoglycemia may result; lipohypertrophy is a frequent complication of therapy that distorts insulin absorption, and, therefore, injections and infusions should not be given into these lesions and correct site rotation will help prevent them; effective long-term therapy with insulin is critically dependent on addressing psychological hurdles upstream, even before insulin has been started; inappropriate disposal of used sharps poses a risk of infection with blood-borne pathogens; and mitigation is possible with proper training, effective disposal strategies, and the use of safety devices. Adherence to these new recommendations should lead to more effective therapies, improved outcomes, and lower costs for patients with diabetes. PMID:27594187

  14. Social Tagging Recommender Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marinho, Leandro Balby; Nanopoulos, Alexandros; Schmidt-Thieme, Lars; Jäschke, Robert; Hotho, Andreas; Stumme, Gerd; Symeonidis, Panagiotis

    The new generation of Web applications known as (STS) is successfully established and poised for continued growth. STS are open and inherently social; features that have been proven to encourage participation. But while STS bring new opportunities, they revive old problems, such as information overload. Recommender Systems are well known applications for increasing the level of relevant content over the "noise" that continuously grows as more and more content becomes available online. In STS however, we face new challenges. Users are interested in finding not only content, but also tags and even other users. Moreover, while traditional recommender systems usually operate over 2-way data arrays, STS data is represented as a third-order tensor or a hypergraph with hyperedges denoting (user, resource, tag) triples. In this chapter, we survey the most recent and state-of-the-art work about a whole new generation of recommender systems built to serve STS.We describe (a) novel facets of recommenders for STS, such as user, resource, and tag recommenders, (b) new approaches and algorithms for dealing with the ternary nature of STS data, and (c) recommender systems deployed in real world STS. Moreover, a concise comparison between existing works is presented, through which we identify and point out new research directions.

  15. "Value Added" Modern Languages Teaching in the Classroom: An Investigation into How Teachers' Use of Classroom Target Language Can Aid Pupils' Communication Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crichton, Hazel

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents some of the preliminary findings of a study into modern languages (ML) learning in five Scottish secondary schools. Five ML teachers were observed and audio-recorded over a period of several weeks while teaching their third-year classes (pupils aged 14-15 years). All the teachers used the target language extensively in their…

  16. Distributed Deliberative Recommender Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Recio-García, Juan A.; Díaz-Agudo, Belén; González-Sanz, Sergio; Sanchez, Lara Quijano

    Case-Based Reasoning (CBR) is one of most successful applied AI technologies of recent years. Although many CBR systems reason locally on a previous experience base to solve new problems, in this paper we focus on distributed retrieval processes working on a network of collaborating CBR systems. In such systems, each node in a network of CBR agents collaborates, arguments and counterarguments its local results with other nodes to improve the performance of the system's global response. We describe D2ISCO: a framework to design and implement deliberative and collaborative CBR systems that is integrated as a part of jcolibritwo an established framework in the CBR community. We apply D2ISCO to one particular simplified type of CBR systems: recommender systems. We perform a first case study for a collaborative music recommender system and present the results of an experiment of the accuracy of the system results using a fuzzy version of the argumentation system AMAL and a network topology based on a social network. Besides individual recommendation we also discuss how D2ISCO can be used to improve recommendations to groups and we present a second case of study based on the movie recommendation domain with heterogeneous groups according to the group personality composition and a group topology based on a social network.

  17. Valuing Essays: Essaying Values

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Badley, Graham

    2010-01-01

    The essay regularly comes under attack. It is criticised for being rigidly linear rather than flexible and reflective. I first challenge this view by examining reasons why the essay should be valued as an important genre. Secondly, I propose that in using the essay form students and academics necessarily exemplify their own critical values. Essays…

  18. A recommended practical approach to the management of target therapy and angiogenesis inhibitors cardiotoxicity: an opinion paper of the working group on drug cardiotoxicity and cardioprotection, Italian Society of Cardiology

    PubMed Central

    Maurea, Nicola; Spallarossa, Paolo; Cadeddu, Christian; Madonna, Rosalinda; Mele, Donato; Monte, Ines; Novo, Giuseppina; Pagliaro, Pasquale; Pepe, Alessia; Tocchetti, Carlo G.; Zito, Concetta; Mercuro, Giuseppe

    2016-01-01

    The US National Cancer Institute estimates that cardiotoxicity (CTX) from target therapy refers mostly to four groups of drugs: epidermal growth factor receptor 2 inhibitors, angiogenic inhibitors, directed Abelson murine leukemia viral oncogene homolog inhibitors, and proteasome inhibitors. The main cardiotoxic side-effects related to antiepidermal growth factor receptor 2 therapy are left ventricular systolic dysfunction and heart failure. Angiogenesis inhibitors are associated with hypertension, left ventricular dysfunction/heart failure, myocardial ischemia, QT prolongation, and thrombosis. Moreover, other agents may be related to CTX induced by treatment. In this study, we review the guidelines for a practical approach for the management of CTX in patients under anticancer target therapy. PMID:27183530

  19. A recommended practical approach to the management of target therapy and angiogenesis inhibitors cardiotoxicity: an opinion paper of the working group on drug cardiotoxicity and cardioprotection, Italian Society of Cardiology.

    PubMed

    Maurea, Nicola; Spallarossa, Paolo; Cadeddu, Christian; Madonna, Rosalinda; Mele, Donato; Monte, Ines; Novo, Giuseppina; Pagliaro, Pasquale; Pepe, Alessia; Tocchetti, Carlo G; Zito, Concetta; Mercuro, Giuseppe

    2016-05-01

    The US National Cancer Institute estimates that cardiotoxicity (CTX) from target therapy refers mostly to four groups of drugs: epidermal growth factor receptor 2 inhibitors, angiogenic inhibitors, directed Abelson murine leukemia viral oncogene homolog inhibitors, and proteasome inhibitors. The main cardiotoxic side-effects related to antiepidermal growth factor receptor 2 therapy are left ventricular systolic dysfunction and heart failure. Angiogenesis inhibitors are associated with hypertension, left ventricular dysfunction/heart failure, myocardial ischemia, QT prolongation, and thrombosis. Moreover, other agents may be related to CTX induced by treatment. In this study, we review the guidelines for a practical approach for the management of CTX in patients under anticancer target therapy. PMID:27183530

  20. Aggregated Recommendation through Random Forests

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Aggregated recommendation refers to the process of suggesting one kind of items to a group of users. Compared to user-oriented or item-oriented approaches, it is more general and, therefore, more appropriate for cold-start recommendation. In this paper, we propose a random forest approach to create aggregated recommender systems. The approach is used to predict the rating of a group of users to a kind of items. In the preprocessing stage, we merge user, item, and rating information to construct an aggregated decision table, where rating information serves as the decision attribute. We also model the data conversion process corresponding to the new user, new item, and both new problems. In the training stage, a forest is built for the aggregated training set, where each leaf is assigned a distribution of discrete rating. In the testing stage, we present four predicting approaches to compute evaluation values based on the distribution of each tree. Experiments results on the well-known MovieLens dataset show that the aggregated approach maintains an acceptable level of accuracy. PMID:25180204

  1. Aggregated recommendation through random forests.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Heng-Ru; Min, Fan; He, Xu

    2014-01-01

    Aggregated recommendation refers to the process of suggesting one kind of items to a group of users. Compared to user-oriented or item-oriented approaches, it is more general and, therefore, more appropriate for cold-start recommendation. In this paper, we propose a random forest approach to create aggregated recommender systems. The approach is used to predict the rating of a group of users to a kind of items. In the preprocessing stage, we merge user, item, and rating information to construct an aggregated decision table, where rating information serves as the decision attribute. We also model the data conversion process corresponding to the new user, new item, and both new problems. In the training stage, a forest is built for the aggregated training set, where each leaf is assigned a distribution of discrete rating. In the testing stage, we present four predicting approaches to compute evaluation values based on the distribution of each tree. Experiments results on the well-known MovieLens dataset show that the aggregated approach maintains an acceptable level of accuracy. PMID:25180204

  2. Order Theoretical Semantic Recommendation

    SciTech Connect

    Joslyn, Cliff A.; Hogan, Emilie A.; Paulson, Patrick R.; Peterson, Elena S.; Stephan, Eric G.; Thomas, Dennis G.

    2013-07-23

    Mathematical concepts of order and ordering relations play multiple roles in semantic technologies. Discrete totally ordered data characterize both input streams and top-k rank-ordered recommendations and query output, while temporal attributes establish numerical total orders, either over time points or in the more complex case of startend temporal intervals. But also of note are the fully partially ordered data, including both lattices and non-lattices, which actually dominate the semantic strcuture of ontological systems. Scalar semantic similarities over partially-ordered semantic data are traditionally used to return rank-ordered recommendations, but these require complementation with true metrics available over partially ordered sets. In this paper we report on our work in the foundations of partial order measurement in ontologies, with application to top-k semantic recommendation in workflows.

  3. Space Station Software Recommendations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Voigt, S. (Editor)

    1985-01-01

    Four panels of invited experts and NASA representatives focused on the following topics: software management, software development environment, languages, and software standards. Each panel deliberated in private, held two open sessions with audience participation, and developed recommendations for the NASA Space Station Program. The major thrusts of the recommendations were as follows: (1) The software management plan should establish policies, responsibilities, and decision points for software acquisition; (2) NASA should furnish a uniform modular software support environment and require its use for all space station software acquired (or developed); (3) The language Ada should be selected for space station software, and NASA should begin to address issues related to the effective use of Ada; and (4) The space station software standards should be selected (based upon existing standards where possible), and an organization should be identified to promulgate and enforce them. These and related recommendations are described in detail in the conference proceedings.

  4. Personalized Movie Recommendation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lekakos, George; Charami, Matina; Caravelas, Petros

    This article proposes a movie recommender system, named MoRe, which follows a hybrid approach that combines content-based and collaborative filtering. MoR's performance is empirically evaluated upon the predictive accuracy of the algorithms as well as other important indicators such as the percentage of items that the system can actually predict (called prediction coverage) and the time required for generating predictions. The remainder of this article is organized as follows. The next section is devoted to the fundamental background of recommender systems describing the main recommendation techniques along with their advantages and limitations. Right after, we illustrate the MoRe system overview and in the section following, we describe in detail the algorithms implemented. The empirical evaluation results are then presented, while the final section provides a discussion about conclusions and future research.

  5. Evaluating Recommendation Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shani, Guy; Gunawardana, Asela

    Recommender systems are now popular both commercially and in the research community, where many approaches have been suggested for providing recommendations. In many cases a system designer that wishes to employ a recommendation system must choose between a set of candidate approaches. A first step towards selecting an appropriate algorithm is to decide which properties of the application to focus upon when making this choice. Indeed, recommendation systems have a variety of properties that may affect user experience, such as accuracy, robustness, scalability, and so forth. In this paper we discuss how to compare recommenders based on a set of properties that are relevant for the application. We focus on comparative studies, where a few algorithms are compared using some evaluation metric, rather than absolute benchmarking of algorithms. We describe experimental settings appropriate for making choices between algorithms. We review three types of experiments, starting with an offline setting, where recommendation approaches are compared without user interaction, then reviewing user studies, where a small group of subjects experiment with the system and report on the experience, and finally describe large scale online experiments, where real user populations interact with the system. In each of these cases we describe types of questions that can be answered, and suggest protocols for experimentation. We also discuss how to draw trustworthy conclusions from the conducted experiments. We then review a large set of properties, and explain how to evaluate systems given relevant properties. We also survey a large set of evaluation metrics in the context of the properties that they evaluate.

  6. When to Recommend Intervention.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olswang, Lesley B.; Bain, Barbara A.

    1991-01-01

    This article reviews the critical issues that influence whether a child with language impairments can benefit from intervention. It recommends three procedures (profiling, dynamic assessment, and tracking/monitoring) as tools for helping speech-language pathologists make informed decisions about intervention. (Author/JDD)

  7. Concluding Comments and Recommendations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carson, Russell L.; Landers, Rian Q.; Blankenship, Bonnie Tjeerdsma

    2010-01-01

    Using the expertise from the academy interest areas of the National Association for Sport and Physical Education, the 2010 All-Academy Symposium and this feature set out to discern the promises and pitfalls of youth sport specialization. This final article offers a few conclusions and recommendations based on the multidisciplinary perspectives and…

  8. CASE's ESEA Reauthorization Recommendations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Council of Administrators of Special Education (NJ1), 2011

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents the recommendations by the Council of Administrators of Special Education, Inc. (CASE) for the reauthorization of the Elementary and Secondary Education Act (ESEA). CASE is a non-profit professional organization which provides leadership and support to approximately 5,000 members by influencing policies and practices to improve…

  9. CETA: Assessment and Recommendations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Academy of Sciences - National Research Council, Washington, DC. Committee on Evaluation of Employment and Training Programs.

    This document presents the principal findings and recommendations of a study conducted by the Committee on Evaluation of Employment and Training Program to assess the impact of CETA (Comprehensive Employment and Training Act) on manpower programs. This report is divided into two parts. Part 1 provides an overview of CETA's history, summarizes…

  10. Assessment: DEC Recommended Practices.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neisworth, John T.

    This paper lists practices recommended by the Division for Early Childhood for assessment in early intervention and early childhood special education (EI/ECSE) programs for infants and young children with special needs and their families. Introductory text examines the role of assessment, materials and procedures used, and assessment principles,…

  11. Recommendations for Alternative Credit.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lenderman, Ed; And Others

    Following a review of the mathematics topics taught in accounting, electronics, auto, food and clothing, and metals courses at Linn-Benton Community College, Albany, Oregon, recommendations were made to grant one semester of mathematics credit for completing a two-year sequence of these courses. The other required semester of mathematics should be…

  12. Writing Letters of Recommendation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Withers, Jennie

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this essay is to instruct teachers how to write a letter of recommendation for their students. It includes when to say no, what the student needs to provide the teacher and how to write a strong letter. I am a teacher with sixteen years experience and therefore have written many letters for students. This instructional essay will…

  13. Recommendations for Neophyte Innovators.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilman, Peter J.

    1979-01-01

    The study recorded the origin, development, and implementation of the physical facilities, organizational structure, and program of Chamisa Elementary School, Los Alamos, New Mexico. Recommendations made pertain to administrative and public support, physical facilities, faculty selection, innovating on a limited scale, curriculum development, team…

  14. Prognostic Value of Components of Body Composition in Patients Treated with Targeted Therapy for Advanced Renal Cell Carcinoma: A Retrospective Case Series

    PubMed Central

    Gu, Weijie; Zhu, Yao; Wang, Hongkai; Zhang, Hailiang; Shi, Guohai; Liu, Xiaohang; Ye, Dingwei

    2015-01-01

    Background To evaluate the association between various components of body composition and overall survival of patients treated with targeted therapies for advanced renal cell carcinoma. Methods This retrospective study included 124 Chinese patients with advanced renal cell carcinoma who had been treated with targeted therapy from 2008 to 2012 at Fudan University Cancer Center. The L3 plane from a computed tomography scan was analyzed. Area and density were recorded as quantitative and quality measures. Univariate and multivariate Cox proportion hazard regression models were constructed to calculate the crude and adjusted hazard ratio (HR) of various components of body composition for overall survival. X-tile software was used to search for optimal cutoffs for male and female patients and the concordance index evaluated incremental changes in prognostication. Results After adjusting for age, sex and Heng risk stratification, only visceral adipose tissue index (HR 0.981, p = 0.002) and subcutaneous adipose tissue index (HR 0.987, p = 0.048) were independently associated with overall survival. Visceral adipose tissue remained a significant prognostic factor (HR 0.997, p = 0.005) when the influence of body mass index was included. Using defined cutoffs, patients with low VAT had double the death rate (p = 0.007). Visceral adipose tissue also added significant benefit to Heng risk stratification. Further exploratory analysis revealed that visceral adipose tissue may be an indicator of nutritional status in patients with advanced renal cell carcinoma. Conclusion Radiologic measurement of VAT is an independent prognostic factor for Asian patients treated with targeted therapy for advanced renal cell carcinoma. PMID:25668688

  15. What Value "Value Added"?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richards, Andrew

    2015-01-01

    Two quantitative measures of school performance are currently used, the average points score (APS) at Key Stage 2 and value-added (VA), which measures the rate of academic improvement between Key Stage 1 and 2. These figures are used by parents and the Office for Standards in Education to make judgements and comparisons. However, simple…

  16. Matching Recommendation Technologies and Domains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burke, Robin; Ramezani, Maryam

    Recommender systems form an extremely diverse body of technologies and approaches. The chapter aims to assist researchers and developers to identify the recommendation technologies that are most likely to be applicable to different domains of recommendation. Unlike other taxonomies of recommender systems, our approach is centered on the question of knowledge: what knowledge does a recommender system need in order to function, and where does that knowledge come from? Different recommendation domains (books vs condominiums, for example) provide different opportunities for the gathering and application of knowledge. These considerations give rise to a mapping between domain characteristics and recommendation technologies.

  17. Panel summary of recommendations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dunbar, Bonnie J.; Coleman, Martin E.; Mitchell, Kenneth L.

    1990-01-01

    The following Space Station internal contamination topics were addressed: past flight experience (Skylab and Spacelab missions); present flight activities (Spacelabs and Soviet Space Station Mir); future activities (materials science and life science experiments); Space Station capabilities (PPMS, FMS, ECLSS, and U.S. Laboratory overview); manned systems/crew safety; internal contamination detection; contamination control - stowage and handling; and contamination control - waste gas processing. Space Station design assumptions are discussed. Issues and concerns are discussed as they relate to (1) policy and management, (2) subsystem design, (3) experiment design, and (4) internal contamination detection and control. The recommendations generated are summarized.

  18. Personalized professional content recommendation

    DOEpatents

    Xu, Songhua

    2015-10-27

    A personalized content recommendation system includes a client interface configured to automatically monitor a user's information data stream transmitted on the Internet. A hybrid contextual behavioral and collaborative personal interest inference engine resident to a non-transient media generates automatic predictions about the interests of individual users of the system. A database server retains the user's personal interest profile based on a plurality of monitored information. The system also includes a server programmed to filter items in an incoming information stream with the personal interest profile and is further programmed to identify only those items of the incoming information stream that substantially match the personal interest profile.

  19. Deployment of Recommender Systems: Operational and Strategic Issues

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ghoshal, Abhijeet

    2011-01-01

    E-commerce firms are increasingly adopting recommendation systems to effectively target customers with products and services. The first essay examines the impact that improving a recommender system has on firms that deploy such systems. A market with customers heterogeneous in their search costs is considered. We find that in a monopoly, a firm…

  20. Limited value of pro-inflammatory oxylipins and cytokines as circulating biomarkers in endometriosis – a targeted ‘omics study

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Yie Hou; Cui, Liang; Fang, Jinling; Chern, Bernard Su Min; Tan, Heng Hao; Chan, Jerry K. Y.

    2016-01-01

    Endometriosis is a common, complex gynecologic disorder characterized by the presence of endometrial-like tissues at extrauterine sites. Elevation in protein and lipid mediators of inflammation including oxylipins and cytokines within the peritoneum characterize the inflamed pelvic region and may contribute to the survival and growth of displaced endometrial tissues. The presence of a clinically silent but molecularly detectable systemic inflammation in endometriosis has been proposed. Thus, we examined serum oxylipin and immunomodulatory protein levels in 103 women undergoing laparoscopy to evaluate systematically any involvement in systemic pathophysiological inflammation in endometriosis. Oxylipin levels were similar between women with and without endometriosis. Stratification by menstrual phase or severity did not offer any difference. Women with ovarian endometriosis had significantly lower 12-HETE relative to peritoneal endometriosis (−50.7%). Serum oxylipin levels were not associated with pre-operative pain symptoms. Changes to immunomodulatory proteins were minimal, with IL-12(p70), IL-13 and VEGF significantly lower in mild endometriotic women compared to non-endometriotic women (−39%, −54% and −76% respectively). Verification using C-reactive protein as a non-specific marker of inflammation further showed similar levels between groups. The implications of our work suggest pro-inflammatory mediators in the classes studied may have potentially limited value as circulating biomarkers for endometriosis, suggesting of potentially tenuous systemic inflammation in endometriosis. PMID:27193963

  1. Some target assay uncertainties for passive neutron coincidence counting

    SciTech Connect

    Ensslin, N.; Langner, D.G.; Menlove, H.O.; Miller, M.C.; Russo, P.A.

    1990-01-01

    This paper provides some target assay uncertainties for passive neutron coincidence counting of plutonium metal, oxide, mixed oxide, and scrap and waste. The target values are based in part on past user experience and in part on the estimated results from new coincidence counting techniques that are under development. The paper summarizes assay error sources and the new coincidence techniques, and recommends the technique that is likely to yield the lowest assay uncertainty for a given material type. These target assay uncertainties are intended to be useful for NDA instrument selection and assay variance propagation studies for both new and existing facilities. 14 refs., 3 tabs.

  2. National Beef Quality Audit-2011: In-plant survey of targeted carcass characteristics related to quality, quantity, value, and marketing of fed steers and heifers.

    PubMed

    Moore, M C; Gray, G D; Hale, D S; Kerth, C R; Griffin, D B; Savell, J W; Raines, C R; Belk, K E; Woerner, D R; Tatum, J D; Igo, J L; VanOverbeke, D L; Mafi, G G; Lawrence, T E; Delmore, R J; Christensen, L M; Shackelford, S D; King, D A; Wheeler, T L; Meadows, L R; O'Connor, M E

    2012-12-01

    The 2011 National Beef Quality Audit (NBQA-2011) assessed the current status of quality and consistency of fed steers and heifers. Beef carcasses (n = 9,802), representing approximately 10% of each production lot in 28 beef processing facilities, were selected randomly for the survey. Carcass evaluation for the cooler assessment of this study revealed the following traits and frequencies: sex classes of steer (63.5%), heifer (36.4%), cow (0.1%), and bullock (0.03%); dark cutters (3.2%); blood splash (0.3%); yellow fat (0.1%); calloused rib eye (0.05%); overall maturities of A (92.8%), B (6.0%), and C or greater (1.2%); estimated breed types of native (88.3%), dairy type (9.9%), and Bos indicus (1.8%); and country of origin of United States (97.7%), Mexico (1.8%), and Canada (0.5%). Certified or marketing program frequencies were age and source verified (10.7%), ≤A(40) (10.0%), Certified Angus Beef (9.3%), Top Choice (4.1%), natural (0.6%), and Non-Hormone-Treated Cattle (0.5%); no organic programs were observed. Mean USDA yield grade (YG) traits were USDA YG (2.9), HCW (374.0 kg), adjusted fat thickness (1.3 cm), LM area (88.8 cm2), and KPH (2.3%). Frequencies of USDA YG distributions were YG 1, 12.4%; YG 2, 41.0%; YG 3, 36.3%; YG 4, 8.6%; and YG 5, 1.6%. Mean USDA quality grade (QG) traits were USDA quality grade (Select(93)), marbling score (Small(40)), overall maturity (A(59)), lean maturity (A(54)), and skeletal maturity (A(62)). Frequencies of USDA QG distributions were Prime, 2.1%; Choice, 58.9%; Select, 32.6%; and Standard or less, 6.3%. Marbling score distribution was Slightly Abundant or greater, 2.3%; Moderate, 5.0%; Modest, 17.3%; Small, 39.7%; Slight, 34.6%; and Traces or less, 1.1%. Carcasses with QG of Select or greater and YG 3 or less represented 85.1% of the sample. This is the fifth benchmark study measuring targeted carcass characteristics, and information from this survey will continue to help drive progress in the beef industry. Results will

  3. Wind Farm Recommendation Report

    SciTech Connect

    John Reisenauer

    2011-05-01

    On April 21, 2011, an Idaho National Laboratory (INL) Land Use Committee meeting was convened to develop a wind farm recommendation for the Executive Council and a list of proposed actions for proceeding with the recommendation. In terms of land use, the INL Land Use Committee unanimously agrees that Site 6 is the preferred location of the alternatives presented for an INL wind farm. However, further studies and resolution to questions raised (stated in this report) by the INL Land Use Committee are needed for the preferred location. Studies include, but are not limited to, wind viability (6 months), bats (2 years), and the visual impact of the wind farm. In addition, cultural resource surveys and consultation (1 month) and the National Environmental Policy Act process (9 to 12 months) need to be completed. Furthermore, there is no documented evidence of developers expressing interest in constructing a small wind farm on INL, nor a specific list of expectations or concessions for which a developer might expect INL to cover the cost. To date, INL assumes the National Environmental Policy Act activities will be paid for by the Department of Energy and INL (the environmental assessment has only received partial funding). However, other concessions also may be expected by developers such as roads, fencing, power line installation, tie-ins to substations, annual maintenance, snow removal, access control, down-time, and remediation. These types of concessions have not been documented, as a request, from a developer and INL has not identified the short and long-term cost liabilities for such concessions should a developer expect INL to cover these costs. INL has not identified a go-no-go funding level or the priority this Wind Farm Project might have with respect to other nuclear-related projects, should the wind farm remain an unfunded mandate. The Land Use Committee recommends Legal be consulted to determine what, if any, liabilities exist with the Wind Farm Project and

  4. Music Search and Recommendation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brandenburg, Karlheinz; Dittmar, Christian; Gruhne, Matthias; Abeßer, Jakob; Lukashevich, Hanna; Dunker, Peter; Gärtner, Daniel; Wolter, Kay; Grossmann, Holger

    In the last ten years, our ways to listen to music have drastically changed: In earlier times, we went to record stores or had to use low bit-rate audio coding to get some music and to store it on PCs. Nowadays, millions of songs are within reach via on-line distributors. Some music lovers already got terabytes of music on their hard disc. Users are now no longer desparate to get music, but to select, to find the music they love. A number of technologies has been developed to adress these new requirements. There are techniques to identify music and ways to search for music. Recommendation today is a hot topic as well as organizing music into playlists.

  5. Clinical Recommendation: Labial Adhesions.

    PubMed

    Bacon, Janice L; Romano, Mary E; Quint, Elisabeth H

    2015-10-01

    Labial adhesions, also known as labial agglutination, are a common finding in prepubertal adolescents. They are defined as fusion of the labia minora in the midline or are termed vulvar adhesions when they occur below the labia minora (inner labia). Patients are often asymptomatic but might present with genitourinary complaints. The decision for treatment is based on symptoms. The mainstay of treatment in asymptomatic patients is conservative, with careful attention to vulvar hygiene and reassurance to parents. In symptomatic patients, topical treatment with estrogen and/or steroid cream is often curative. Less often, corrective surgery is necessary. Recurrence is common until a patient goes through puberty. These recommendations are intended for pediatric and gynecologic health care providers who care for pediatric and adolescent girls to facilitate diagnosis and treatment. PMID:26162697

  6. Measuring Nursing Care Value.

    PubMed

    Welton, John M; Harper, Ellen M

    2016-01-01

    The value of nursing care as well as the contribution of individual nurses to clinical outcomes has been difficult to measure and evaluate. Existing health care financial models hide the contribution of nurses; therefore, the link between the cost and quality o nursing care is unknown. New data and methods are needed to articulate the added value of nurses to patient care. The final results and recommendations of an expert workgroup tasked with defining and measuring nursing care value, including a data model to allow extraction of key information from electronic health records to measure nursing care value, are described. A set of new analytic metrics are proposed. PMID:27055306

  7. IRIS Product Recommendations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Short, David A.

    2000-01-01

    This report presents the Applied Meteorology Unit's (AMU) evaluation of SIGMET Inc.'s Integrated Radar Information System (IRIS) Product Generator and recommendations for products emphasizing lightning and microburst tools. The IRIS Product Generator processes radar reflectivity data from the Weather Surveillance Radar, model 74C (WSR-74C), located on Patrick Air Force Base. The IRIS System was upgraded from version 6.12 to version 7.05 in late December 1999. A statistical analysis of atmospheric temperature variability over the Cape Canaveral Air Force Station (CCAFS) Weather Station provided guidance for the configuration of radar products that provide information on the mixed-phase (liquid and ice) region of clouds, between 0 C and -20 C. Mixed-phase processes at these temperatures are physically linked to electrification and the genesis of severe weather within convectively generated clouds. Day-to-day variations in the atmospheric temperature profile are of sufficient magnitude to warrant periodic reconfiguration of radar products intended for the interpretation of lightning and microburst potential of convectively generated clouds. The AMU also examined the radar volume-scan strategy to determine the scales of vertical gaps within the altitude range of the 0 C to -20 C isotherms over the Kennedy Space Center (KSC)/CCAFS area. This report present's two objective strategies for designing volume scans and proposes a modified scan strategy that reduces the average vertical gap by 37% as a means for improving radar observations of cloud characteristics in the critical 0 C to -20 C layer. The AMU recommends a total of 18 products, including 11 products that require use of the IRIS programming language and the IRIS User Product Insert feature. Included is a cell trends product and display, modeled after the WSR-88D cell trends display in use by the National Weather Service.

  8. [Recommendations for neonatal transport].

    PubMed

    Moreno Hernando, J; Thió Lluch, M; Salguero García, E; Rite Gracia, S; Fernández Lorenzo, J R; Echaniz Urcelay, I; Botet Mussons, F; Herranz Carrillo, G; Sánchez Luna, M

    2013-08-01

    During pregnancy, it is not always possible to identify maternal or foetal risk factors. Infants requiring specialised medical care are not always born in centres providing intensive care and will need to be transferred to a referral centre where intensive care can be provided. Therefore Neonatal Transport needs to be considered as part of the organisation of perinatal health care. The aim of Neonatal Transport is to transfer a newborn infant requiring intensive care to a centre where specialised resources and experience can be provided for the appropriate assessment and continuing treatment of a sick newborn infant. Intrauterine transfer is the ideal mode of transport when the birth of an infant with risk factors is diagnosed. Unfortunately, not all problems can be detected in advance with enough time to safely transfer a pregnant woman. Around 30- 50% of risk factors will be diagnosed during labour or soon after birth. Therefore, it is important to have the knowledge and resources to resuscitate and stabilise a newborn infant, as well as a specialised neonatal transport system. With this specialised transport it is possible to transfer newly born infants with the same level of care that they would receive if they had been born in a referral hospital, without increasing their risks or affecting the wellbeing of the newborn. The Standards Committee of the Spanish Society of Neonatology reviewed and updated recommendations for intrauterine transport and indications for neonatal transfer. They also reviewed organisational and logistic factors involved with performing neonatal transport. The Committee review included the type of personnel who should be involved; communication between referral and receiving hospitals; documentation; mode of transport; equipment to stabilise newly born infants; management during transfer, and admission at the referral hospital. PMID:23434016

  9. Models and strategies for value clarification in population education.

    PubMed

    Villanueva, C L

    1976-01-01

    Teachers, principals, supervisiors, superintendents, policymakers, and researchers all agree that value clarification is the most effective method for teaching value-laden population issues. It has been recognized that cultural attitudes and beliefs that are negative to family planning block acceptance of the population program. Education can become an effective vehicle in raising the level of awareness and acceptance of population practices. Teachers and students must 1st critically examine a set of alternative population values, for then they can weigh the pros and cons in order to arrive at value decisions regarding fertility behavior. Discussion and recommendations for practice and policy are presented for 9 problem areas: defining value clarification, affective versus cognitive process, teacher participation, open-ended versus closed-ended approach, use of resources and devices, target group, teacher personality, selecting appropriate issues, and dealing with controversial subjects. PMID:12336126

  10. Value, Value, Where Is the Value?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaufman, Roger

    2003-01-01

    Discusses measurement in performance improvement, including the Kirkpatrick four-level model of evaluation for training, and adding value. Highlights include adding value at all levels of organizational performance, for the clients and society; other models of performance improvement; the major focus of HPT (human performance technology); and…

  11. Hit Identification and Optimization in Virtual Screening: Practical Recommendations Based Upon a Critical Literature Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Tian; Cao, Shuyi; Su, Pin-Chih; Patel, Ram; Shah, Darshan; Chokshi, Heta B.; Szukala, Richard; Johnson, Michael E.; Hevener, Kirk E.

    2013-01-01

    A critical analysis of virtual screening results published between 2007 and 2011 was performed. The activity of reported hit compounds from over 400 studies was compared to their hit identification criteria. Hit rates and ligand efficiencies were calculated to assist in these analyses and the results were compared with factors such as the size of the virtual library and the number of compounds tested. A series of promiscuity, drug-like, and ADMET filters were applied to the reported hits to assess the quality of compounds reported and a careful analysis of a subset of the studies which presented hit optimization was performed. This data allowed us to make several practical recommendations with respect to selection of compounds for experimental testing, defining hit identification criteria, and general virtual screening hit criteria to allow for realistic hit optimization. A key recommendation is the use of size-targeted ligand efficiency values as hit identification criteria. PMID:23688234

  12. Mesothelioma treatment: Are we on target? A review

    PubMed Central

    Hiddinga, Birgitta I.; Rolfo, Christian; van Meerbeeck, Jan P.

    2014-01-01

    Targeted treatment is a therapy directed at a specific molecular target close to a hallmark of cancer. The target should be measurable with a biomarker and measurement of the target should correlate with clinical outcome when targeted treatment is administered. Current clinical guidelines do not recommend targeted or biological therapy in MPM. However, since these recommendations came out, new agents have been investigated in MPM. This review updates the use of targeted and biological treatment in patients with mesothelioma. PMID:26257929

  13. Context-Aware Recommender Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adomavicius, Gediminas; Tuzhilin, Alexander

    The importance of contextual information has been recognized by researchers and practitioners in many disciplines, including e-commerce personalization, information retrieval, ubiquitous and mobile computing, data mining, marketing, and management. While a substantial amount of research has already been performed in the area of recommender systems, most existing approaches focus on recommending the most relevant items to users without taking into account any additional contextual information, such as time, location, or the company of other people (e.g., for watching movies or dining out). In this chapter we argue that relevant contextual information does matter in recommender systems and that it is important to take this information into account when providing recommendations. We discuss the general notion of context and how it can be modeled in recommender systems. Furthermore, we introduce three different algorithmic paradigms - contextual prefiltering, post-filtering, and modeling - for incorporating contextual information into the recommendation process, discuss the possibilities of combining several contextaware recommendation techniques into a single unifying approach, and provide a case study of one such combined approach. Finally, we present additional capabilities for context-aware recommenders and discuss important and promising directions for future research.

  14. Teacher Leadership: Federal Policy Recommendations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gran, Jackie; Young, Margaret; Broin, Alexandra

    2015-01-01

    This policy brief was developed specifically for federal policymakers, and builds upon the policy recommendations included in "Leading from Every Seat: Empowering Principals to Cultivate Teacher Leadership for School Improvement." The recommendations in this report include the following: (1) Uncover New Leadership Ideas and Seed…

  15. Nutritional recommendations for divers.

    PubMed

    Benardot, Dan; Zimmermann, Wes; Cox, Gregory R; Marks, Saul

    2014-08-01

    Competitive diving involves grace, power, balance, and flexibility, which all require satisfying daily energy and nutrient needs. Divers are short, well-muscled, and lean, giving them a distinct biomechanical advantage. Although little diving-specific nutrition research on performance and health outcomes exists, there is concern that divers are excessively focused on body weight and composition, which may result in reduced dietary intake to achieve desired physique goals. This will result in low energy availability, which may have a negative impact on their power-to-weight ratio and health risks. Evidence is increasing that restrictive dietary practices leading to low energy availability also result in micronutrient deficiencies, premature fatigue, frequent injuries, and poor athletic performance. On the basis of daily training demands, estimated energy requirements for male and female divers are 3,500 kcal and 2,650 kcal, respectively. Divers should consume a diet that provides 3-8 g/kg/day of carbohydrate, with the higher values accommodating growth and development. Total daily protein intake (1.2-1.7 g/kg) should be spread evenly throughout the day in 20 to 30 g amounts and timed appropriately after training sessions. Divers should consume nutrient-dense foods and fluids and, with medical supervision, certain dietary supplements (i.e., calcium and iron) may be advisable. Although sweat loss during indoor training is relatively low, divers should follow appropriate fluid-intake strategies to accommodate anticipated sweat losses in hot and humid outdoor settings. A multidisciplinary sports medicine team should be integral to the daily training environment, and suitable foods and fluids should be made available during prolonged practices and competitions. PMID:24936780

  16. Human target acquisition performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Teaney, Brian P.; Du Bosq, Todd W.; Reynolds, Joseph P.; Thompson, Roger; Aghera, Sameer; Moyer, Steven K.; Flug, Eric; Espinola, Richard; Hixson, Jonathan

    2012-06-01

    The battlefield has shifted from armored vehicles to armed insurgents. Target acquisition (identification, recognition, and detection) range performance involving humans as targets is vital for modern warfare. The acquisition and neutralization of armed insurgents while at the same time minimizing fratricide and civilian casualties is a mounting concern. U.S. Army RDECOM CERDEC NVESD has conducted many experiments involving human targets for infrared and reflective band sensors. The target sets include human activities, hand-held objects, uniforms & armament, and other tactically relevant targets. This paper will define a set of standard task difficulty values for identification and recognition associated with human target acquisition performance.

  17. Recommended procedures for measuring aircraft noise and associated parameters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marsh, A. H.

    1977-01-01

    Procedures are recommended for obtaining experimental values of aircraft flyover noise levels (and associated parameters). Specific recommendations are made for test criteria, instrumentation performance requirements, data-acquisition procedures, and test operations. The recommendations are based on state-of-the-art measurement capabilities available in 1976 and are consistent with the measurement objectives of the NASA Aircraft Noise Prediction Program. The recommendations are applicable to measurements of the noise produced by an airplane flying subsonically over (or past) microphones located near the surface of the ground. Aircraft types covered by the recommendations are fixed-wing airplanes powered by turbojet or turbofan engines and using conventional aerodynamic means for takeoff and landing. Various assumptions with respect to subsequent data processing and analysis were made (and are described) and the recommended measurement procedures are compatible with the assumptions. Some areas where additional research is needed relative to aircraft flyover noise measurement techniques are also discussed.

  18. Lifelong Values.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferguson-Florissant School District, Ferguson, MO.

    This booklet was developed by early education teachers to help parents teach their children values necessary for learning and for living. The introduction identifies six lifelong values, discusses the important role played by parents in teaching these values, and offers a checklist of positive ways parents interact with their children. Each of the…

  19. Ada training evaluation and recommendation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Murphy, Robert; Stark, Michael

    1987-01-01

    This paper documents the Ada training experiences and recommendations of the Gamma Ray Observatory dynamics simulator Ada development team. A two month Ada training program for software developers is recommended which stresses the importance of teaching design methodologies early, as well as the use of certain training aids such as videotaped lectures and computer-aided instruction. Furthermore, a separate training program for managers is recommended, so that they may gain a better understanding of modified review products and resource allocation associated with Ada projects.

  20. SIAD: practical recommendations for diagnosis and management.

    PubMed

    Cuesta, M; Garrahy, A; Thompson, C J

    2016-09-01

    Hyponatremia is the commonest electrolyte disturbance encountered in hospitalized patients, and the syndrome of inappropriate antidiuresis (SIAD) is the most frequent underlying disorder. There is a well-recognized relationship between hyponatremia and increased morbidity and mortality. Therefore, to provide appropriate treatment is critical to improve the clinical outcome related to SIAD-hyponatremia. There have been important advances in the treatment of SIAD over the last decade, leading to the publication of several clinical guidelines. In particular, the introduction of the vasopressin-2 receptor antagonists provides a potent pharmacological tool to target the underlying pathophysiology of SIAD. The evidence base recommendations of the available therapies for SIAD are discussed in this study. Fluid restriction is considered the first-line therapy by the recent published guidelines, but it is certainly ineffective or unfeasible in many patients with SIAD. We discuss a number of relevant points to the use of fluid restriction in this study, including the lack of good evidence-based recommendations to support its use. Conversely, the clinical efficacy of oral tolvaptan in SIAD supported by good quality randomized, placebo controlled, clinical trials. However, the cost of the therapy and the need for long-term safety data may limit its widespread use. Finally, new recommendations for the management of acute hyponatremia with a focus on the use of bolus therapy with 3 % hypertonic sodium chloride are described in this study. PMID:27094044

  1. Pantex lightning study recommendations report

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, K.C.; Merewether, K.O.

    1993-12-01

    A brief history of lightning protection at Pantex nuclear explosive areas (NEAs) is given. An assessment of current Pantex lightning protection at NEAs is summarized. Recommendations for further improvements in lightning protection are described.

  2. Recommended Immunizations for Adults 50+

    MedlinePlus

    ... page please turn Javascript on. Health Screenings and Immunizations Recommended Immunizations For Adults 50+ The content in this section ... out more, visit How Vaccines Prevent Disease . Vaccines, Vaccinations, and Immunizations Understanding the difference between vaccines, vaccinations, ...

  3. NUCLEAR DATA EVALUATIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS

    SciTech Connect

    HOLDEN, N.E.

    2005-05-08

    The published scientific literature is scanned and periodically evaluated for neutron and non-neutron nuclear data and the resulting recommendations are published [1,2]. After the literature has been scanned and appropriate data collected, there are often problems with regard to the treatment of the various types of data during this evaluation process and with regard to the method by which the recommendations are drawn from the assessment of the collection of individual measurements. Some-problems with uncertainties are presented.

  4. Constructing an interdisciplinary flow regime recommendation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bartholow, J.M.

    2010-01-01

    It is generally agreed that river rehabilitation most often relies on restoring a more natural flow regime, but credibly defining the desired regime can be problematic. I combined four distinct methods to develop and refine month-by-month and event-based flow recommendations to protect and partially restore the ecological integrity of the Cache la Poudre River through Fort Collins, Colorado. A statistical hydrologic approach was used to summarize the river's natural flow regime and set provisional monthly flow targets at levels that were historically exceeded 75% of the time. These preliminary monthly targets were supplemented using results from three Poudre-specific disciplinary studies. A substrate maintenance flow model was used to better define the high flows needed to flush accumulated sediment from the river's channel and help sustain the riparian zone in this snowmelt-dominated river. A hydraulic/habitat model and a water temperature model were both used to better define the minimum flows necessary to maintain a thriving cool water fishery. The result is a range of recommended monthly flows and daily flow guidance illustrating the advantage of combining a wide range of available disciplinary information, supplemented by judgment based on ecological principles and a general understanding of river ecosystems, in a highly altered, working river. ?? 2010 American Water Resources Association.

  5. Introduction on health recommender systems.

    PubMed

    Sanchez-Bocanegra, C L; Sanchez-Laguna, F; Sevillano, J L

    2015-01-01

    People are looking for appropriate health information which they are concerned about. The Internet is a great resource of this kind of information, but we have to be careful if we don't want to get harmful info. Health recommender systems are becoming a new wave for apt health information as systems suggest the best data according to the patients' needs.The main goals of health recommender systems are to retrieve trusted health information from the Internet, to analyse which is suitable for the user profile and select the best that can be recommended, to adapt their selection methods according to the knowledge domain and to learn from the best recommendations.A brief definition of recommender systems will be given and an explanation of how are they incorporated in the health sector. A description of the main elementary recommender methods as well as their most important problems will also be made. And, to finish, the state of the art will be described. PMID:25417084

  6. Pain after surgery in children: clinical recommendations

    PubMed Central

    Walker, Suellen M.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose of review To summarize recent data related to the safety and efficacy of postoperative analgesia in children that influence clinical practice recommendations. Recent findings Postoperative pain continues to be experienced by hospitalized children and following discharge after short stay or ambulatory surgery. Updated recommendations for post-tonsillectomy analgesia exclude codeine and suggest regular administration of paracetamol and NSAID, but evidence for the most appropriate dose and type of opioid for rescue analgesia is limited. The incidence of opioid-related respiratory depression/over-sedation in hospitalized children ranges from 0.11-0.41%, with recent large series identifying high risk groups and contributory factors that can be targeted to minimize the risk of serious or permanent harm. Data demonstrating feasibility and safety of regional analgesic techniques is increasing, but additional and procedure-specific evidence would improve technique selection and inform discussions of efficacy and safety with patients and families/carers. Persistent postsurgical pain is increasingly recognized following major surgery in adolescents. Evaluation of potential predictive factors in clinical studies, and investigation of underlying mechanisms in laboratory studies, can identify targets for both pharmacological and non-pharmacological interventions. Summary Recommendations for postoperative pain in children continue to evolve, with data incorporated from randomized controlled trials, case series and large audits. Management of pain following surgery in children needs to encompass not only efficacy and safety in the immediate perioperative period, but also consider pain following discharge after ambulatory surgery, and the potential risk of persistent postsurgical pain following major surgery. PMID:26280822

  7. Temperature targets revisited under climate sensitivity uncertainty

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neubersch, Delf; Roth, Robert; Held, Hermann

    2015-04-01

    While the 2° target has become an official goal of the COP (Conference of the Parties) process recent work has shown that it requires re-interpretation if climate sensitivity uncertainty in combination with anticipated future learning is considered (Schmidt et al., 2011). A strict probabilistic limit as suggested by the Copenhagen diagnosis may lead to conceptual flaws in view of future learning such a negative expected value of information or even ill-posed policy recommendations. Instead Schmidt et al. suggest trading off the probabilistic transgression of a temperature target against mitigation-induced welfare losses and call this procedure cost risk analysis (CRA). Here we spell out CRA for the integrated assessment model MIND and derive necessary conditions for the exact nature of that trade-off. With CRA at hand it is for the first time that the expected value of climate information, for a given temperature target, can meaningfully be assessed. When focusing on a linear risk function as the most conservative of all possible risk functions, we find that 2° target-induced mitigation costs could be reduced by up to 1/3 if the climate response to carbon dioxide emissions were known with certainty, amounting to hundreds of billions of Euros per year (Neubersch et al., 2014). Further benefits of CRA over strictly formulated temperature targets are discussed. References: D. Neubersch, H. Held, A. Otto, Operationalizing climate targets under learning: An application of cost-risk analysis, Climatic Change, 126 (3), 305-318, DOI 10.1007/s10584-014-1223-z (2014). M. G. W. Schmidt, A. Lorenz, H. Held, E. Kriegler, Climate Targets under Uncertainty: Challenges and Remedies, Climatic Change Letters, 104 (3-4), 783-791, DOI 10.1007/s10584-010-9985-4 (2011).

  8. Value Added?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    UCLA IDEA, 2012

    2012-01-01

    Value added measures (VAM) uses changes in student test scores to determine how much "value" an individual teacher has "added" to student growth during the school year. Some policymakers, school districts, and educational advocates have applauded VAM as a straightforward measure of teacher effectiveness: the better a teacher, the better students…

  9. Capacity Value of Wind Plants and Overview of U.S. Experience (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect

    Milligan, M.

    2011-08-01

    This presentation provides an overview and summary of the capacity value of wind power plants, based primarily on the U.S. experience. Resource adequacy assessment should explicitly consider risk. Effective load carrying capability (ELCC) captures each generators contribution to resource adequacy. On their own, reserve margin targets as a percent of peak can't capture risks effectively. Recommend benchmarking reliability-based approaches with others.

  10. Chronicle of the Institute of Medicine physical activity recommendation: how a physical activity recommendation came to be among dietary recommendations.

    PubMed

    Brooks, George A; Butte, Nancy F; Rand, William M; Flatt, Jean-Pierre; Caballero, Benjamin

    2004-05-01

    Under a contract from the US Department of Health and Human Services, a multidisciplinary expert panel was appointed to review "the scientific literature regarding macronutrients and energy and develop estimates of daily intake that are compatible with good nutrition throughout the life span and that may decrease the risk of chronic disease." Within the overall context of the charge, the panel sought to quantify rates and components of daily energy expenditure in healthy adults with body mass indexes (in kg/m(2)) of 18.5-25, in growing children (in the 5th-85th percentiles of weight-for-length), and in pregnant and lactating women. The recommendation for adults became the daily energy intake necessary to cover total daily energy expenditure (TEE). For special cases, dietary macronutrients and energy to support child growth and pregnancy and lactation by women were considered. TEE was based on the results of doubly labeled water studies, and the TEE results were presented in units of physical activity level (PAL = TEE/BEE) and DeltaPAL, where BEE is the basal rate of energy expenditure extrapolated to 24 h. Most adults (66%) maintaining a BMI in the healthful range had PAL values >1.6, or the equivalent of > or =60 min of physical activity of moderate intensity each day. Hence, on the basis of the doubly labeled water data and the results of epidemiologic studies, the physical activity recommendation for adults was judged to be 60 min/d. The recommendation for children was for a minimum of 60 min/d. In conclusion, dietary and physical activity recommendations for healthful living are inextricably intertwined. Adequate physical activity provides protection against chronic diseases and helps to balance energy expenditure and intake. PMID:15113740

  11. Infrared target array development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scott, E. A.

    1980-04-01

    The US Army Yuma Proving Ground (USAYPG) was requested to develop and acquire a series of infrared targets with controllable thermal signatures to support the test and evaluation of the Target Acquisition Designation System/Pilot Night Vision System (TADS/PNVS) subsystems of the Advanced Attack Helicopter (AAH) Fire Control System. Prior to this development effort, no capability beyond the use of real-scene targets existed at USAYPG to provide thermally active targets with characteristic signatures in the infrared band. Three targets were acquired: (1) a detection target; (2) a recognition target; and (3) a laser scoring board. It is concluded that design goals were met and the system was delivered in time to perform its function. The system provides sufficient thermal realism and has advanced the state-of-the-art of infrared imaging system test and evaluation. It is recommended that the Field Equivalent Bar Target (FEBT) system be validated as a potential test standard and that environmentally 'hardened' targets be acquired for continued thermal sight testing.

  12. Recommended Practices in Thrust Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Polk, James E.; Pancotti, Anthony; Haag, Thomas; King, Scott; Walker, Mitchell; Blakely, Joseph; Ziemer, John

    2013-01-01

    Accurate, direct measurement of thrust or impulse is one of the most critical elements of electric thruster characterization, and one of the most difficult measurements to make. The American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics has started an initiative to develop standards for many important measurement processes in electric propulsion, including thrust measurements. This paper summarizes recommended practices for the design, calibration, and operation of pendulum thrust stands, which are widely recognized as the best approach for measuring micro N- to mN-level thrust and micro Ns-level impulse bits. The fundamentals of pendulum thrust stand operation are reviewed, along with its implementation in hanging pendulum, inverted pendulum, and torsional balance configurations. Methods of calibration and recommendations for calibration processes are presented. Sources of error are identified and methods for data processing and uncertainty analysis are discussed. This review is intended to be the first step toward a recommended practices document to help the community produce high quality thrust measurements.

  13. Procyon LLC: From Music Recommendations to Preference Mapping

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chinn, Susan J.

    2011-01-01

    Procyon LLC had re-launched and renamed their music discovery site, Electra, to Capella, in 2008. Its core strength had originated from Electra's proprietary technology, which used music libraries from real people, its members, to generating "automated word-of-mouth" recommendations, targeted advertising and editorial content. With the re-launch,…

  14. Action Recommendation for Cyber Resilience

    SciTech Connect

    Choudhury, Sutanay; Rodriguez, Luke R.; Curtis, Darren S.; Oler, Kiri J.; Nordquist, Peter L.; Chen, Pin-Yu; Ray, Indrajit

    2015-09-01

    This paper presents an unifying graph-based model for representing the infrastructure, behavior and missions of an enterprise. We describe how the model can be used to achieve resiliency against a wide class of failures and attacks. We introduce an algorithm for recommending resilience establishing actions based on dynamic updates to the models. Without loss of generality, we show the effectiveness of the algorithm for preserving latency based quality of service (QoS). Our models and the recommendation algorithms are implemented in a software framework that we seek to release as an open source framework for simulating resilient cyber systems.

  15. Office lighting: A review of 80 years of standards and recommendations

    SciTech Connect

    Osterhaus, W.K.E.

    1993-05-01

    This paper traces the development of quantitative office lighting standards from its beginnings to the present. It discusses the sources of recommended lighting practice, the nature of the quantitative recommendations, and trends in recommended values on a comparative basis. A critical assessment of contemporary standards is provided within this historical context.

  16. Alleviating bias leads to accurate and personalized recommendation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qiu, Tian; Wang, Tian-Tian; Zhang, Zi-Ke; Zhong, Li-Xin; Chen, Guang

    2013-11-01

    Recommendation bias towards objects has been found to have an impact on personalized recommendation, since objects present heterogeneous characteristics in some network-based recommender systems. In this article, based on a biased heat conduction recommendation algorithm (BHC) which considers the heterogeneity of the target objects, we propose a heterogeneous heat conduction algorithm (HHC), by further taking the heterogeneity of the source objects into account. Tested on three real datasets, the Netflix, RYM and MovieLens, the HHC algorithm is found to present better recommendation in both the accuracy and diversity than two benchmark algorithms, i.e., the original BHC and a hybrid algorithm of heat conduction and mass diffusion (HHM), while not requiring any other accessorial information or parameter. Moreover, the HHC algorithm also elevates the recommendation accuracy on cold objects, referring to the so-called cold-start problem. Eigenvalue analyses show that, the HHC algorithm effectively alleviates the recommendation bias towards objects with different level of popularity, which is beneficial to solving the accuracy-diversity dilemma.

  17. Ubiquitous Multicriteria Clinic Recommendation System.

    PubMed

    Chen, Toly

    2016-05-01

    Advancements in information, communication, and sensor technologies have led to new opportunities in medical care and education. Patients in general prefer visiting the nearest clinic, attempt to avoid waiting for treatment, and have unequal preferences for different clinics and doctors. Therefore, to enable patients to compare multiple clinics, this study proposes a ubiquitous multicriteria clinic recommendation system. In this system, patients can send requests through their cell phones to the system server to obtain a clinic recommendation. Once the patient sends this information to the system, the system server first estimates the patient's speed according to the detection results of a global positioning system. It then applies a fuzzy integer nonlinear programming-ordered weighted average approach to assess four criteria and finally recommends a clinic with maximal utility to the patient. The proposed methodology was tested in a field experiment, and the experimental results showed that it is advantageous over two existing methods in elevating the utilities of recommendations. In addition, such an advantage was shown to be statistically significant. PMID:26984357

  18. Reading First: Cautions and Recommendations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yatvin, Joanne; Weaver, Constance; Garan, Elaine

    2003-01-01

    Identifies inaccuracies and distortions in the research supporting the No Child Left Behind legislation, as well as in government documents and the National Reading Panel "Summary Booklet." Offers alternatives to the limitations of the Reading First initiative through five major sections. Presents 12 recommendations regarding Reading First. (SG)

  19. Adolescent contraception. Review and recommendations.

    PubMed

    Turetsky, R A; Strasburger, V C

    1983-05-01

    In the light of the increase in teenage sexual activity over the past decade, the authors review current social, psychological, and educational attitudes. Together with a summary of the legal ramifications, they provide recommendations for treatment of this patient group. PMID:6839616

  20. Recommendations for Institutional Prematriculation Immunizations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Journal of American College Health, 2011

    2011-01-01

    The recommendations presented in this article are provided to colleges and universities to facilitate the implementation of a comprehensive institutional prematriculation immunization policy. Vaccine-preventable diseases continue to occur on American campuses. In response to changing epidemiology and the introduction of new vaccines, the ACHA…

  1. Recommendations for Institutional Prematriculation Immunizations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Journal of American College Health, 2006

    2006-01-01

    The "Recommendations for Institutional Prematriculation Immunizations" described in this article are provided to colleges and universities to facilitate the implementation of a comprehensive institutional prematriculation immunization policy. In response to changing epidemiology and the introduction of new vaccines, the American College Health…

  2. Recommendations for the Maryland Conference.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frazer, M. J.

    1981-01-01

    Presents 15 recommendations to be discussed by delegates attending the international conference on chemical education at the University of Maryland during August 1981, including: exchange of information, new organizations, college instruction, new experiments and low cost equipment, academic-industry cooperation, popularizing chemistry, and…

  3. Grower Recommendations: Fusarium Race 4

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fusarium, particularly race 4, has become a significant management issue in the San Joaquin Valley cotton production area of California. Recommendations for limiting spread of inoculum of this fungal disease have been modified somewhat over the approximately 10 years of experience with this disease,...

  4. Percentage of Surgical Patients Receiving Recommended Care

    MedlinePlus

    ... Recommended Care Percentage of Surgical Patients Receiving Recommended Care This is a composite measure based on individual ... Age Group Percentage of Surgical Patients Receiving Recommended Care by Age Group uzrc-9bvr Download these data » ...

  5. New Recommendations for Mefloquine Use in Pregnancy

    MedlinePlus

    ... CDC Malaria Branch clinician. malaria@cdc.gov Update: New Recommendations for Mefloquine Use in Pregnancy Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Update: New Recommendations for Mefloquine Use in Pregnancy The Centers ...

  6. A Flexible Electronic Commerce Recommendation System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gong, Songjie

    Recommendation systems have become very popular in E-commerce websites. Many of the largest commerce websites are already using recommender technologies to help their customers find products to purchase. An electronic commerce recommendation system learns from a customer and recommends products that the customer will find most valuable from among the available products. But most recommendation methods are hard-wired into the system and they support only fixed recommendations. This paper presented a framework of flexible electronic commerce recommendation system. The framework is composed by user model interface, recommendation engine, recommendation strategy model, recommendation technology group, user interest model and database interface. In the recommender strategy model, the method can be collaborative filtering, content-based filtering, mining associate rules method, knowledge-based filtering method or the mixed method. The system mapped the implementation and demand through strategy model, and the whole system would be design as standard parts to adapt to the change of the recommendation strategy.

  7. Treatment of Neuromyelitis Optica: Review and Recommendations.

    PubMed

    Kimbrough, Dorlan J; Fujihara, Kazuo; Jacob, Anu; Lana-Peixoto, Marco A; Leite, Maria Isabel; Levy, Michael; Marignier, Romain; Nakashima, Ichiro; Palace, Jacqueline; de Seze, Jérôme; Stuve, Olaf; Tenembaum, Silvia N; Traboulsee, Anthony; Waubant, Emmanuelle; Weinshenker, Brian G; Wingerchuk, Dean M

    2012-10-01

    Neuromyelitis optica (NMO) is an autoimmune demyelinating disease preferentially targeting the optic nerves and spinal cord. Once regarded as a variant of multiple sclerosis (MS), NMO is now recognized to be a different disease with unique pathology and immunopathogenesis that does not respond to traditional MS immunomodulators such as interferons. Preventive therapy in NMO has focused on a range of immunosuppressive medications, none of which have been validated in a rigorous randomized trial. However, multiple retrospective and a few recent prospective studies have provided evidence for the use of six medications for the prevention of NMO exacerbations: azathioprine, rituximab, mycophenolate mofetil, prednisone, methotrexate and mitoxantrone. This review provides a comprehensive analysis of each of these medications in NMO and concludes with a set of recommended consensus practices. PMID:24555176

  8. Treatment of Neuromyelitis Optica: Review and Recommendations

    PubMed Central

    Kimbrough, Dorlan J; Fujihara, Kazuo; Jacob, Anu; Lana-Peixoto, Marco A; Leite, Maria Isabel; Levy, Michael; Marignier, Romain; Nakashima, Ichiro; Palace, Jacqueline; de Seze, Jérôme; Stuve, Olaf; Tenembaum, Silvia N; Traboulsee, Anthony; Waubant, Emmanuelle; Weinshenker, Brian G; Wingerchuk, Dean M

    2014-01-01

    Neuromyelitis optica (NMO) is an autoimmune demyelinating disease preferentially targeting the optic nerves and spinal cord. Once regarded as a variant of multiple sclerosis (MS), NMO is now recognized to be a different disease with unique pathology and immunopathogenesis that does not respond to traditional MS immunomodulators such as interferons. Preventive therapy in NMO has focused on a range of immunosuppressive medications, none of which have been validated in a rigorous randomized trial. However, multiple retrospective and a few recent prospective studies have provided evidence for the use of six medications for the prevention of NMO exacerbations: azathioprine, rituximab, mycophenolate mofetil, prednisone, methotrexate and mitoxantrone. This review provides a comprehensive analysis of each of these medications in NMO and concludes with a set of recommended consensus practices. PMID:24555176

  9. Finding Your Literature Match - A Recommender System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Henneken, Edwin A.; Kurtz, Michael J.; Accomazzi, Alberto; Grant, Carolyn; Thompson, Donna; Bohlen, Elizabeth; Di Milia, Giovanni; Luker, Jay; Murray, Stephen S.

    The universe of potentially interesting, searchable literature is expanding continuously. Besides the normal expansion, there is an additional influx of literature because of interdisciplinary boundaries becoming more and more diffuse. Hence, the need for accurate, efficient and intelligent search tools is bigger than ever. Even with a sophisticated search engine, looking for information can still result in overwhelming results. An overload of information has the intrinsic danger of scaring visitors away, and any organization, for-profit or not-for-profit, in the business of providing scholarly information wants to capture and keep the attention of its target audience. Publishers and search engine engineers alike will benefit from a service that is able to provide visitors with recommendations that closely meet their interests. Providing visitors with special deals, new options and highlights may be interesting to a certain degree, but what makes more sense (especially from a commercial point of view) than to let visitors do most of the work by the mere action of making choices? Hiring psychics is not an option, so a technological solution is needed to recommend items that a visitor is likely to be looking for. In this presentation we will introduce such a solution and argue that it is practically feasible to incorporate this approach into a useful addition to any information retrieval system with enough usage.

  10. Valuing Difference?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watters, Kate

    2005-01-01

    How well are adult and community learning providers doing when it comes to ensuring equality of opportunity (EO) and valuing diversity? Many are in transition from a defensive position of emphasising legal compliance towards making respect for diversity intrinsic to their strategic aims, plans and actions, according to the February edition of…

  11. Value Added

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, M. Roy

    2015-01-01

    With more than a thousand honors programs or colleges in the United States and that number growing every year, defining the value of honors is a significant undertaking. Honors seems to have become an obligatory upgrade that no college or university president can afford to be without, but there is more than institutional trending to be considered,…

  12. Value Added

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Welch, Matt

    2004-01-01

    This article profiles retiring values teacher Gene Doxey and describes his foundational contributions to the students of California's Ramona Unified School District. Every one of the Ramona Unified School District's 7,200 students is eventually funneled through Doxey's Contemporary Issues class, a required rite of passage between elementary school…

  13. Adding Value.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Orsini, Larry L.; Hudack, Lawrence R.; Zekan, Donald L.

    1999-01-01

    The value-added statement (VAS), relatively unknown in the United States, is used in financial reports by many European companies. Saint Bonaventure University (New York) has adapted a VAS to make it appropriate for not-for-profit universities by identifying stakeholder groups (students, faculty, administrators/support personnel, creditors, the…

  14. Mania: diagnosis and treatment recommendations.

    PubMed

    Malhi, Gin S; Tanious, Michelle; Berk, Michael

    2012-12-01

    This article provides recommendations for the diagnosis and treatment of mania, which characterizes bipolar I disorder (BD I). Failure to detect mania leads to misdiagnosis and suboptimal treatment. To diagnose mania, clinicians should include a detailed mood history within their assessment of patients presenting with depression, agitation, psychosis or insomnia. With regards to treatment, by synthesizing the findings from recent treatment guidelines, and reviewing relevant literature, this paper has distilled recommendations for both acute and long-term management. Antimanic agents including atypical antipsychotics and traditional mood stabilizers are employed to reduce acute manic symptoms, augmented by benzodiazepines if needed, and in refractory or severe cases with behavioural and/or psychotic disturbance, electroconvulsive therapy may occasionally be necessary. Maintenance/prophylaxis therapy aims to reduce recurrences/relapse, for which the combination of psychological interventions with pharmacotherapy is beneficial as it ensures adherence and monitoring of tolerability. PMID:22986995

  15. Automatic home medical product recommendation.

    PubMed

    Luo, Gang; Thomas, Selena B; Tang, Chunqiang

    2012-04-01

    Web-based personal health records (PHRs) are being widely deployed. To improve PHR's capability and usability, we proposed the concept of intelligent PHR (iPHR). In this paper, we use automatic home medical product recommendation as a concrete application to demonstrate the benefits of introducing intelligence into PHRs. In this new application domain, we develop several techniques to address the emerging challenges. Our approach uses treatment knowledge and nursing knowledge, and extends the language modeling method to (1) construct a topic-selection input interface for recommending home medical products, (2) produce a global ranking of Web pages retrieved by multiple queries, and (3) provide diverse search results. We demonstrate the effectiveness of our techniques using USMLE medical exam cases. PMID:20703712

  16. Finding and Recommending Scholarly Articles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kurtz, Michael J.; Henneken, Edwin A.

    2014-05-01

    The rate at which scholarly literature is being produced has been increasing at approximately 3.5 percent per year for decades. This means that during a typical 40 year career the amount of new literature produced each year increases by a factor of four. The methods scholars use to discover relevant literature must change. Just like everybody else involved in information discovery, scholars are confronted with information overload. Two decades ago, this discovery process essentially consisted of paging through abstract books, talking to colleagues and librarians, and browsing journals. A time-consuming process, which could even be longer if material had to be shipped from elsewhere. Now much of this discovery process is mediated by online scholarly information systems. All these systems are relatively new, and all are still changing. They all share a common goal: to provide their users with access to the literature relevant to their specific needs. To achieve this each system responds to actions by the user by displaying articles which the system judges relevant to the user's current needs. Recently search systems which use particularly sophisticated methodologies to recommend a few specific papers to the user have been called "recommender systems". These methods are in line with the current use of the term "recommender system" in computer science. We do not adopt this definition, rather we view systems like these as components in a larger whole, which is presented by the scholarly information systems themselves. In what follows we view the recommender system as an aspect of the entire information system; one which combines the massive memory capacities of the machine with the cognitive abilities of the human user to achieve a human-machine synergy.

  17. Automatic Home Nursing Activity Recommendation

    PubMed Central

    Luo, Gang; Tang, Chunqiang

    2009-01-01

    The rapid deployment of Web-based, consumer-centric electronic medical records (CEMRs) is an important trend in healthcare. In this paper, we incorporate nursing knowledge into CEMR so that it can automatically recommend home nursing activities (HNAs). Those more complex HNAs are made clickable for users to find detailed implementation procedures. We demonstrate the effectiveness of our techniques using USMLE medical exam cases. PMID:20351888

  18. Recommendation for DSM-V

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Causal specifiers are certain and possible causes of mental disorders and can be biological, genetic, environmental, developmental, social, psychodynamic, behavioral, cognitive, or personality characteristics. Depending upon the clinical judgment of the degree of certainty, a causal specifier can be a definite etiopathogenesis or a factor contributing to manifestations of mental disorders. The author recommends adding causal specifiers to Axis I diagnoses in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition to improve communication among clinicians. PMID:21274393

  19. Screening recommendations for the elderly.

    PubMed Central

    Beers, M H; Fink, A; Beck, J C

    1991-01-01

    BACKGROUND. Studies have documented the potential contributions of preventive health care programs. Yet little is known about which screening tests should be included in public health programs for older persons. This study offers recommendations regarding these tests. METHODS. The recommendations come from synthesizing the findings of the US Preventive Services Task Force, the literature, and the consensus of experts in geriatrics, gerontology, and health policy research. The literature was evaluated to identify methodologically sound studies of the prevalence of selected disorders and benefits and availability of screening procedures for those disorders. Experts from various fields specializing in the care of the elderly formed panels to assist in evaluating the literature and providing further information from gerontological and public health perspectives. RESULTS. We recommend vision testing for refractive error; inspection of the skin surface for fungal infection and skin cancer, drug eruptions, and xerosis; a history for symptoms of xerosis; audiometric testing for presbycusis; surveys for hearing loss; otoscopic inspection for cerumen impaction; dental examination for caries; measurement of blood pressure for hypertension; and breast examination and mammography for cancer. CONCLUSIONS. Our study suggests that these screening procedures are useful for public health screening programs. More information is needed on the effects of screening services on the health and functioning of older persons. PMID:1951823

  20. Impact of a physician recommendation

    PubMed Central

    Darden, Paul M; Jacobson, Robert M

    2014-01-01

    HPV vaccination has failed to achieve uptake comparable to the other adolescent-specific vaccines. Gargano et al. conducted a survey of parents of adolescents in a single Georgia county and found uptake similar to national surveys. They also found among the most commonly cited reasons for receiving vaccines a recommendation from a health care provider and among the most commonly cited reasons for not getting any of the adolescent vaccines were concerns for adverse effects. Of note, they found that the recommendation for any one vaccine had a positive effect on the uptake of other vaccines. Their findings of the importance of provider recommendations matched findings from other studies of adolescent vaccines, infant vaccines, and adult vaccines. This is despite flaws in their study including a very poor response rate (effectively 4.5%) of those surveyed and in their reporting including a lack of details of survey methods. Local surveys of vaccination have much to offer the national and local discussion about immunization delivery and how delivery should be optimized, but such surveys should use standardized approaches as well as pursue more comprehensive investigations at the local level to address the nuances national complex-cluster surveys cannot. PMID:25483503

  1. Towards Information Enrichment through Recommendation Sharing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weng, Li-Tung; Xu, Yue; Li, Yuefeng; Nayak, Richi

    Nowadays most existing recommender systems operate in a single organisational basis, i.e. a recommender system recommends items to customers of one organisation based on the organisation's datasets only. Very often the datasets of a single organisation do not have sufficient resources to be used to generate quality recommendations. Therefore, it would be beneficial if recommender systems of different organisations with similar nature can cooperate together to share their resources and recommendations. In this chapter, we present an Ecommerce-oriented Distributed Recommender System (EDRS) that consists of multiple recommender systems from different organisations. By sharing resources and recommendations with each other, these recommenders in the distributed recommendation system can provide better recommendation service to their users. As for most of the distributed systems, peer selection is often an important aspect. This chapter also presents a recommender selection technique for the proposed EDRS, and it selects and profiles recommenders based on their stability, average performance and selection frequency. Based on our experiments, it is shown that recommenders' recommendation quality can be effectively improved by adopting the proposed EDRS and the associated peer selection technique.

  2. Costs and Consequences of the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's Recommendations for Opt-Out HIV Testing

    PubMed Central

    Holtgrave, David R

    2007-01-01

    Background The United States Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) recently recommended opt-out HIV testing (testing without the need for risk assessment and counseling) in all health care encounters in the US for persons 13–64 years old. However, the overall costs and consequences of these recommendations have not been estimated before. In this paper, I estimate the costs and public health impact of opt-out HIV testing relative to testing accompanied by client-centered counseling, and relative to a more targeted counseling and testing strategy. Methods and Findings Basic methods of scenario and cost-effectiveness analysis were used, from a payer's perspective over a one-year time horizon. I found that for the same programmatic cost of US$864,207,288, targeted counseling and testing services (at a 1% HIV seropositivity rate) would be preferred to opt-out testing: targeted services would newly diagnose more HIV infections (188,170 versus 56,940), prevent more HIV infections (14,553 versus 3,644), and do so at a lower gross cost per infection averted (US$59,383 versus US$237,149). While the study is limited by uncertainty in some input parameter values, the findings were robust across a variety of assumptions about these parameter values (including the estimated HIV seropositivity rate in the targeted counseling and testing scenario). Conclusions While opt-out testing may be able to newly diagnose over 56,000 persons living with HIV in one year, abandoning client-centered counseling has real public health consequences in terms of HIV infections that could have been averted. Further, my analyses indicate that even when HIV seropositivity rates are as low as 0.3%, targeted counseling and testing performs better than opt-out testing on several key outcome variables. These analytic findings should be kept in mind as HIV counseling and testing policies are debated in the US. PMID:17564488

  3. Sputter target

    DOEpatents

    Gates, Willard G.; Hale, Gerald J.

    1980-01-01

    The disclosure relates to an improved sputter target for use in the deposition of hard coatings. An exemplary target is given wherein titanium diboride is brazed to a tantalum backing plate using a gold-palladium-nickel braze alloy.

  4. Professional values and nursing.

    PubMed

    Sellman, Derek

    2011-05-01

    The values of nursing arise from a concern with human flourishing. If the desire to become a nurse is a reflection of an aspiration to care for others in need then we should anticipate that those who choose to nurse have a tendency towards the values we would normally associate with a caring profession (care, compassion, perhaps altruism, and so on). However, these values require a secure base if they are not to succumb to the corrupting pressures of the increasingly instrumental nature of the values of the institutions in which healthcare in general and nursing in particular takes place. One way of securing a base for withstanding the corrupting influences of the institution is to understand nursing as a practice in the sense in which Alasdair MacIntyre uses that term. In this brief paper I will outline ways in which the managerial imperative of meeting targets is both distorting practice and undermining nursing's values. I conclude that understanding nursing as a MacIntyrean practice provides a refuge from what might otherwise be overwhelming pressures for nurses to adopt instrumental values to the detriment of professional caring values. PMID:21061069

  5. Research of intelligent recommendation for mobile reading

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Qu

    2013-07-01

    Mobile reading is the trend of current publishing industry. Intelligent Recommendation system is useful and profitable for mobile reading platforms. Currently, intelligent recommendation systems mainly focus on news recommendation or production recommendation in e-commerce. In this paper, we designed and implemented an intelligent recommendation system based on slope one algorithm. Results show that our algorithm can help the users to find their interested books and thus greatly improve the income of mobile reading platform.

  6. Recommendable Communication Method in Project Management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Watanabe, Kosei

    A role of communication among project stakeholders in project execution is significant, sometimes it makes a project with bad. General speaking, most Japanese think that communication between Japanese is easy, because we are living in relatively homogenized sense of value. In my experience, I have opposite opinion, because most Japanese don't study communication theory and practical training. For example, when they ask something to someone, they never offer their request clearly, because of expecting him to understand context of the request. This is typical way of Japanese communication. I recommend if you want to be good communicator, you have to think what is your mission, your purpose and your goal, prior to ask your request to someone. It is self-evident that unclear request never lead to proper results. There is some difficulty on communication in our society as high context culture.

  7. WRS: The Wikipedia Recommender System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lefévre, Thomas; Jensen, Christian Damsgaard; Korsgaard, Thomas Rune

    In 2005, the Wikipedia became the most popular reference website on the Internet and it has continued to grow in size and popularity ever since. With the increasing reliance on the Wikipedia comes issues of the credibility and provenance of content. In order to address these issues, we have developed a Recommender System for the Wikipedia, which allows the users of the Wikipedia to rate articles in order to guide other users about the quality of articles. This rating system provides both an incentive for authors to improve articles and a quantifiable measure of the perceived quality of articles.

  8. Clinical recommendation: pediatric lichen sclerosus.

    PubMed

    Bercaw-Pratt, Jennifer L; Boardman, Lori A; Simms-Cendan, Judith S

    2014-04-01

    Lichen sclerosus is a chronic inflammatory condition affecting the anogenital region that may present in the prepubertal or adolescent patient. Clinical presentations include significant pruritus, labial adhesions, and loss of pigmentation. Treatment includes topical anti-inflammatory agents and long-term follow-up as there is a high risk of recurrence and an increased risk of vulvar cancer in adult women with history of lichen sclerosus. These recommendations are intended for pediatricians, gynecologists, nurse practitioners and others who care for pediatric/adolescent girls in order to facilitate diagnosis and treatment. PMID:24602304

  9. Senate committee recommends replacing FEMA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zielinski, Sarah

    2006-05-01

    Flaws in the U.S. Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) that were exposed after Hurricane Katrina struck the U.S. Gulf Coast in August 2005 are too substantial to be fixed, and the agency should be replaced with a more capable structure, recommends a 27 April report released by the Senate Committee on Homeland Security and Government Affairs. ``FEMA is discredited, demoralized, and dysfunctional. It is beyond repair. Just tweaking the organizational chart will not solve the problem,'' said Committee Chair Sen. Susan Collins (R-Maine).

  10. Recommended Dosimetry Cross Section Compendium.

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    1994-07-11

    Version 00 The data is recommended for spectrum determination applications and for the prediction of neutron activation of typical radiation sensor materials. The library has been tested for consistency of the cross sections in a wide variety of neutron environments. The results and cautions from this testing have been documented. The data has been interfaced with radiation transport codes, such as TWODANT-SYS (CCC-547) and MCNP (CCC-200), in order to compare calculated and measured activities formore » benchmark reactor experiments.« less

  11. Analysis and recommendations for DPA calculations in SiC

    SciTech Connect

    Heinisch, H.L.

    1998-09-01

    Recent modeling results, coupled with the implications of available experimental results, provide sufficient information to achieve consensus on the values of threshold displacement energies to use in displacements per atom (DPA) calculations. The values recommended here, 20 eV for C and 35 eV for Si, will be presented for adoption by the international fusion materials community at the next IEA SiC/SiC workshop.

  12. Valuing Stillbirths

    PubMed Central

    Phillips, John; Millum, Joseph

    2016-01-01

    Estimates of the burden of disease assess the mortality and morbidity that affect a population by producing summary measures of health such as quality-adjusted life years (QALYs) and disability-adjusted life years (DALYs). These measures typically do not include stillbirths (fetal deaths occurring during the later stages of pregnancy or during labor) among the negative health outcomes they count. Priority setting decisions that rely on these measures are therefore likely to place little value on preventing the more than three million stillbirths that occur annually worldwide. In contrast, neonatal deaths, which occur in comparable numbers, have a substantial impact on burden of disease estimates and are commonly seen as a pressing health concern. In this paper we argue in favor of incorporating unintended fetal deaths that occur late in pregnancy into estimates of the burden of disease. Our argument is based on the similarity between late-term fetuses and newborn infants and the assumption that protecting newborns is important. We respond to four objections to counting stillbirths: (1) that fetuses are not yet part of the population and so their deaths should not be included in measures of population health; (2) that valuing the prevention of stillbirths will undermine women’s reproductive rights; (3) that including stillbirths implies that miscarriages (fetal deaths early in pregnancy) should also be included; and (4) that birth itself is in fact ethically significant. We conclude that our proposal is ethically preferable to current practice and, if adopted, is likely to lead to improved decisions about health spending. PMID:25395144

  13. Valuing Stillbirths.

    PubMed

    Phillips, John; Millum, Joseph

    2015-07-01

    Estimates of the burden of disease assess the mortality and morbidity that affect a population by producing summary measures of health such as quality-adjusted life years (QALYs) and disability-adjusted life years (DALYs). These measures typically do not include stillbirths (fetal deaths occurring during the later stages of pregnancy or during labor) among the negative health outcomes they count. Priority-setting decisions that rely on these measures are therefore likely to place little value on preventing the more than three million stillbirths that occur annually worldwide. In contrast, neonatal deaths, which occur in comparable numbers, have a substantial impact on burden of disease estimates and are commonly seen as a pressing health concern. In this article we argue in favor of incorporating unintended fetal deaths that occur late in pregnancy into estimates of the burden of disease. Our argument is based on the similarity between late-term fetuses and newborn infants and the assumption that protecting newborns is important. We respond to four objections to counting stillbirths: (1) that fetuses are not yet part of the population and so their deaths should not be included in measures of population health; (2) that valuing the prevention of stillbirths will undermine women's reproductive rights; (3) that including stillbirths implies that miscarriages (fetal deaths early in pregnancy) should also be included; and (4) that birth itself is in fact ethically significant. We conclude that our proposal is ethically preferable to current practice and, if adopted, is likely to lead to improved decisions about health spending. PMID:25395144

  14. Competence Description for Personal Recommendations: The Importance of Identifying the Complexity of Learning and Performance Situations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prins, Frans J.; Nadolski, Rob J.; Berlanga, Adriana J.; Drachsler, Hendrik; Hummel, Hans G. K.; Koper, Rob

    2008-01-01

    For competences development of learners and professionals, target competences and corresponding competence development opportunities have to be identified. Personal Recommender Systems (PRS) provide personal recommendations for learners aimed at finding and selecting learning activities that best match their needs. This article argues that a…

  15. Safety recommendations for laser pointers.

    PubMed

    Rockwell, R J; Ertle, W J; Moss, C E

    1998-08-01

    The use of laser diode pointers that operate in the visible radiation region (400-760 nm) is becoming widespread. These pointers are intended for use by educators while presenting talks in the classroom or at conventions and meetings. They are also useful in any situation where one needs to point out special items during any instructive situation. The pointers can be purchased in novelty stores, mail-order magazines, office supply stores, common electronic stores, and over the internet. The power omitted by these laser pointers ranges from 1 to 5 mW. The potential for hazard with laser pointers is generally considered to be limited to the unprotected eyes of individuals who might be exposed by a direct beam (intrabeam viewing). No skin hazard usually exists. There are, however, even more powerful laser pointers now appearing. The units are imported into the U.S. often without proper manufacturer certification or labeling. The potential for hazards with these devices is not well understood by the general public and workers, and numerous exposure incidents have been recorded by the authors. Users of these products need to be alerted to the potential hazards and be encouraged to follow appropriate safety recommendations. These factors are discussed and safety recommendations for laser pointers are presented. PMID:10182367

  16. Recommendations for management of patients with neuroendocrine liver metastases.

    PubMed

    Frilling, Andrea; Modlin, Irvin M; Kidd, Mark; Russell, Christopher; Breitenstein, Stefan; Salem, Riad; Kwekkeboom, Dik; Lau, Wan-yee; Klersy, Catherine; Vilgrain, Valerie; Davidson, Brian; Siegler, Mark; Caplin, Martyn; Solcia, Enrico; Schilsky, Richard

    2014-01-01

    Many management strategies exist for neuroendocrine liver metastases. These strategies range from surgery to ablation with various interventional radiology procedures, and include both regional and systemic therapy with diverse biological, cytotoxic, or targeted agents. A paucity of biological, molecular, and genomic information and an absence of data from rigorous trials limit the validity of many publications detailing management. This Review represents the views from an international conference, for which 15 expert working groups prepared evidence-based assessments addressing specific questions, and from which an independent jury derived final recommendations. The aim of the conference was to review the existing approaches to neuroendocrine liver metastases, assess the evidence on which management decisions were based, develop internationally acceptable recommendations for clinical practice (when evidence was available), and make recommendations for clinical and research endeavours. This report represents the final clinical statements and proposals for future research. PMID:24384494

  17. Methodology of systematic reviews and recommendations.

    PubMed

    Furlan, Julio C; Singh, Jeffrey; Hsieh, Jane; Fehlings, Michael G

    2011-08-01

    Although research in the field of spinal cord injury (SCI) is a relatively new endeavor, a remarkable number of papers focused on this subspecialty have been published in a broad variety of journals over the last two decades. A multidisciplinary group of experts, including clinical epidemiologists, neurosurgical and orthopedic spine surgeons, basic scientists, rehabilitation specialists, intensivists, and allied health professionals (nursing and physical therapy) was assembled through the Spinal Cord Injury Solutions Network to summarize the existing literature focusing on 12 key topics related to acute traumatic SCI, which have not been recently reviewed. The objective was to develop evidence-based recommendations to help translate current science into clinical practice and to identify new directions for research. For each topic one to three specific questions were formulated by consensus through the expert panel. A systematic review of the literature was performed to determine the current evidence for the specific questions. A primary literature search was performed using MEDLINE, CINAHL, EMBASE, and Cochrane databases. A secondary search strategy incorporated additional articles referenced in significant publications (i.e., meta-analysis, systematic and nonsystematic review articles). Two reviewers independently reviewed the titles and abstracts yielded by this comprehensive search and subsequently selected articles based on the predetermined inclusion and inclusion criteria. Data were extracted for population into evidentiary tables. Selected articles were rated for level of evidence and methodological quality, information that was also included in evidentiary tables. Disagreements were resolved by a third reviewer or consensus-based discussion. Based on the evidence compiled, answers to the targeted questions were formulated and recommendations generated by consensus-based discussion and anonymized voting using Delphi methodology. A level of consensus of 80

  18. Target capture and target ghosts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Auerbach, Steven P.

    1996-05-01

    Optimal detection methods for small targets rely on whitened matched filters, which convolve the measured data with the signal model, and whiten the result with the noise covariance. In real-world implementations of such filters, the noise covariance must be estimated from the data, and the resulting covariance estimate may be corrupted by presence of the target. The resulting loss in SNR is called 'target capture'. Target capture is often thought to be a problem only for bright targets. This presentation shows that target capture also arises for dim targets, leading to an SNR loss which is independent of target strength and depends on the averaging method used to estimate the noise covariance. This loss is due to a 'coherent beat' between the true noise and that portion of the estimated noise covariance due to the target. This beat leads to 'ghost targets', which diminish the target SNR by producing a negative target ghost at the target's position. A quantitative estimate of this effect will be given, and shown to agree with numerical results. The effect of averaging on SNR is also discussed for data scenes with synthetic injected targets, in cases where the noise covariance is estimated using 'no target' data. For these cases, it is shown that the so-called 'optimal' filter, which uses the true noise covariance, is actually worse than a 'sub-optimal' filter which estimates the noise from scene. This apparent contradiction is resolved by showing that the optimal filter is best if the same filter is used for many scenes, but is outperformed by a filter adapted to a specific scene.

  19. A heterogeneous graph-based recommendation simulator

    SciTech Connect

    Yeonchan, Ahn; Sungchan, Park; Lee, Matt Sangkeun; Sang-goo, Lee

    2013-01-01

    Heterogeneous graph-based recommendation frameworks have flexibility in that they can incorporate various recommendation algorithms and various kinds of information to produce better results. In this demonstration, we present a heterogeneous graph-based recommendation simulator which enables participants to experience the flexibility of a heterogeneous graph-based recommendation method. With our system, participants can simulate various recommendation semantics by expressing the semantics via meaningful paths like User Movie User Movie. The simulator then returns the recommendation results on the fly based on the user-customized semantics using a fast Monte Carlo algorithm.

  20. A Group Recommender System for Tourist Activities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garcia, Inma; Sebastia, Laura; Onaindia, Eva; Guzman, Cesar

    This paper introduces a method for giving recommendations of tourist activities to a group of users. This method makes recommendations based on the group tastes, their demographic classification and the places visited by the users in former trips. The group recommendation is computed from individual personal recommendations through the use of techniques such as aggregation, intersection or incremental intersection. This method is implemented as an extension of the e-Tourism tool, which is a user-adapted tourism and leisure application, whose main component is the Generalist Recommender System Kernel (GRSK), a domain-independent taxonomy-driven search engine that manages the group recommendation.

  1. Valuing vaccination

    PubMed Central

    Bärnighausen, Till; Bloom, David E.; Cafiero-Fonseca, Elizabeth T.; O’Brien, Jennifer Carroll

    2014-01-01

    Vaccination has led to remarkable health gains over the last century. However, large coverage gaps remain, which will require significant financial resources and political will to address. In recent years, a compelling line of inquiry has established the economic benefits of health, at both the individual and aggregate levels. Most existing economic evaluations of particular health interventions fail to account for this new research, leading to potentially sizable undervaluation of those interventions. In line with this new research, we set forth a framework for conceptualizing the full benefits of vaccination, including avoided medical care costs, outcome-related productivity gains, behavior-related productivity gains, community health externalities, community economic externalities, and the value of risk reduction and pure health gains. We also review literature highlighting the magnitude of these sources of benefit for different vaccinations. Finally, we outline the steps that need to be taken to implement a broad-approach economic evaluation and discuss the implications of this work for research, policy, and resource allocation for vaccine development and delivery. PMID:25136129

  2. EURRECA-Evidence-based methodology for deriving micronutrient recommendations.

    PubMed

    Dhonukshe-Rutten, Rosalie A M; Bouwman, Jildau; Brown, Kerry A; Cavelaars, Adriënne E J M; Collings, Rachel; Grammatikaki, Evangelia; de Groot, Lisette C P G M; Gurinovic, Mirjana; Harvey, Linda J; Hermoso, Maria; Hurst, Rachel; Kremer, Bas; Ngo, Joy; Novakovic, Romana; Raats, Monique M; Rollin, Fanny; Serra-Majem, Lluis; Souverein, Olga W; Timotijevic, Lada; Van't Veer, Pieter

    2013-01-01

    The EURopean micronutrient RECommendations Aligned (EURRECA) Network of Excellence explored the process of setting micronutrient recommendations to address the variance in recommendations across Europe. Work centered upon the transparent assessment of nutritional requirements via a series of systematic literature reviews and meta-analyses. In addition, the necessity of assessing nutritional requirements and the policy context of setting micronutrient recommendations was investigated. Findings have been presented in a framework that covers nine activities clustered into four stages: stage one "Defining the problem" describes Activities 1 and 2: "Identifying the nutrition-related health problem" and "Defining the process"; stage two "Monitoring and evaluating" describes Activities 3 and 7: "Establishing appropriate methods," and "Nutrient intake and status of population groups"; stage three "Deriving dietary reference values" describes Activities 4, 5, and 6: "Collating sources of evidence," "Appraisal of the evidence," and "Integrating the evidence"; stage four "Using dietary reference values in policy making" describes Activities 8 and 9: "Identifying policy options," and "Evaluating policy implementation." These activities provide guidance on how to resolve various issues when deriving micronutrient requirements and address the methodological and policy decisions, which may explain the current variation in recommendations across Europe. [Supplementary materials are available for this article. Go to the publisher's online edition of Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition for the following free supplemental files: Additional text, tables, and figures.]. PMID:23952085

  3. SYNTHETIC SLING FAILURE - EVALUATIONS & RECOMMENDATIONS

    SciTech Connect

    MACKEY TC; HENDERSON CS

    2009-10-26

    The information and evaluations provided in this report were compiled to address the recurring problem of synthetic sling failure. As safety is the number one priority in all work aspects, a solution must be devised to prevent accidents from occurring. A total of thirteen cases regarding synthetic sling failure were evaluated in order to determine their causes, effects, and preventative measures. From the collected data, it was found that all cases in which the synthetic sling contacted the edge of its load resulted in sling failure. It is required that adequate synthetic sling protection devices be used to protect slings in any lift where the sling comes in direct contact with the edge or corner of its load. However, there are no consensus codes or standards stating the type, material, or purpose of the type of protective device used to protect the sling from being cut. Numerous industry standards and codes provide vague descriptions on how to protect synthetic slings. Without a clear, concise statement of how to protect synthetic slings, it is common for inadequate materials and sling protection devices to be used in an attempt to meet the intent of these requirements. The use of an inadequate sling protection device is the main cause of synthetic sling failure in all researched cases. Commercial sling protection devices come in many shapes and sizes, and have a variety of names, as well as advertised uses. 'Abrasion pads' and 'wear protectors' are two different names for products with the same intended purpose. There is no distinguishable way to determine the extent of sling protection which these devices will provide, or what specific scenarios they are made for. This creates room for error in a field where error is unacceptable. This report provides a recommended action for hoisting and rigging activities which require synthetic slings to contact a load, as well as recommended changes to industry standards which will benefit overall industry safety.

  4. [Vaccination schedule of the Spanish association of paediatrics: recommendations 2010].

    PubMed

    Marès Bermúdez, J; van Esso Arbolave, D; Arístegui Fernández, J; Ruiz Contreras, J; González Hachero, J; Merino Moína, M; Barrio Corrales, F; Alvarez García, F J; Cilleruelo Ortega, M J; Ortigosa Del Castillo, L; Moreno Pérez, D

    2010-06-01

    The Vaccine Advisory Committee of the Spanish Association of Paediatrics updates annually, the immunization schedule, taking into account epidemiological data, as well as evidence of the effectiveness and efficiency of vaccines. This vaccination schedule includes grades of recommendation. The committee has graded as universal vaccines those that all children should receive, as recommended those with a profile of universal vaccination in childhood and which are desirable that all children receive, but that can be prioritized based on resources for its public funding and for risk groups those targeting groups of people in situations of epidemiological risk. The Committee considers as a priority to achieve a common immunization schedule. The Committee reaffirms the recommendation to include pneumococcal vaccination in the routine vaccination schedule. Vaccination against varicella in the second year of life is an effective strategy and therefore a desirable goal. Vaccination against rotavirus is recommended for all infants given the morbidity and high burden on the health care system. The Committee adheres to the recommendations of the Interterritorial Council of the National Health Care System in reference to routine vaccination against HPV for all girls aged 11 to 14 years and stresses the need to vaccinate against influenza and hepatitis A all patients with risk factors for these diseases. Finally, it stresses the need to update incomplete immunization schedules using accelerated immunization schedules. PMID:20457016

  5. Treatment of psoriatic arthritis: management recommendations.

    PubMed

    Gossec, Laure; Smolen, Josef S

    2015-01-01

    Given the varied therapeutic options available for the management of psoriatic arthritis (PsA), recommendations for the management of PsA have been developed by several expert groups. These recommendations deal mainly with pharmacological treatments. At the international level, 2 recommendations sets are available: these have been developed by the Group for Research and Assessment of Psoriasis and Psoriatic Arthritis (GRAPPA) and by the European League against Rheumatism (EULAR). These recommendations were published in 2009 and in 2012, respectively; and updates of these recommendations are currently ongoing. The first sets of recommendations dealt with non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, glucocorticoids, conventional synthetic disease modifying drugs and tumour necrosis factor inhibitors; the 2015 sets of recommendations also deal with new drugs with other mechanisms of action, namely ustekinumab, secukinumab and apremilast. In the present paper, we will review these management recommendations. PMID:26471459

  6. Preventive Care Recommendations for Adults with MS

    MedlinePlus

    Preventive Care Recommendations THE BASIC FACTS MULTIPLE SCLEROSIS The Three Most Common Eye Disorders Carlos Healey, diagnosed in 2001 in Multiple Sclerosis Medical checklist: Recommendations: Dates of last & next test ...

  7. Can soda fountains be recommended in hospitals?

    PubMed

    Chaberny, Iris F; Kaiser, Peter; Sonntag, Hans-Günther

    2006-09-01

    Mineral water (soda water) is very popular in Germany. Therefore, soda fountains were developed as alternatives to the traditional deposit bottle system. Nowadays, different systems of these devices are commercially available. For several years, soda fountains produced by different companies have been examined at the University Hospital of Heidelberg. In 1998, it was possible for the first time to observe and evaluate one of these systems over a period of 320 days in a series of microbiological examinations. The evaluation was implemented on the basis of the German drinking water regulation (Anonymous, 1990. Gesetz über Trinkwasser und Wasser für Lebensmittelbetriebe (Trinkwasserverordnung - TrinkwV) vom 12. Dezember 1990. Bundesgesetzblatt 66, 2613ff). Initially, the bacteria counts exceeded the reference values imposed by the German drinking water regulation in almost 50% of the analyses. Pseudomonas aeruginosa was also detected in almost 38% of the samples. After a re-arrangement of the disinfection procedure and the removal of the charcoal filter, Pseudomonas aeruginosa was not detectable any more. However, the bacteria counts still frequently exceeded the reference values of the German drinking water regulation. Following our long-term analysis, we would not recommend soda fountains in high-risk areas of hospitals. If these devices are to be used in hospitals, the disinfection procedures should be executed in weekly or fortnightly intervals and the water quality should be examined periodically. PMID:16740412

  8. Recommendations for the management of tyrosinaemia type 1

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    The management of tyrosinaemia type 1 (HT1, fumarylacetoacetase deficiency) has been revolutionised by the introduction of nitisinone but dietary treatment remains essential and the management is not easy. In this review detailed recommendations for the management are made based on expert opinion, published case reports and investigational studies as the evidence base is limited and there are no prospective controlled studies. The added value of this paper is that it summarises in detail current clinical knowledge about HT1 and makes recommendations for the management. PMID:23311542

  9. Recommendations for the management of tyrosinaemia type 1.

    PubMed

    de Laet, Corinne; Dionisi-Vici, Carlo; Leonard, James V; McKiernan, Patrick; Mitchell, Grant; Monti, Lidia; de Baulny, Hélène Ogier; Pintos-Morell, Guillem; Spiekerkötter, Ute

    2013-01-01

    The management of tyrosinaemia type 1 (HT1, fumarylacetoacetase deficiency) has been revolutionised by the introduction of nitisinone but dietary treatment remains essential and the management is not easy. In this review detailed recommendations for the management are made based on expert opinion, published case reports and investigational studies as the evidence base is limited and there are no prospective controlled studies.The added value of this paper is that it summarises in detail current clinical knowledge about HT1 and makes recommendations for the management. PMID:23311542

  10. Standardization of enterococci density estimates by EPA qPCR methods and comparison of beach action value exceedances in river waters with culture methods.

    PubMed

    Haugland, Richard A; Siefring, Shawn D; Varma, Manju; Dufour, Alfred P; Brenner, Kristen P; Wade, Timothy J; Sams, Elizabeth; Cochran, Stacey; Braun, Steve; Sivaganensan, Mano

    2014-10-01

    The U.S. EPA has published recommendations for calibrator cell equivalent (CCE) densities of enterococci in recreational waters determined by a qPCR method in its 2012 recreational water quality criteria (RWQC). The CCE quantification unit stems from the calibration model used to estimate enterococci densities in recreational beach waters in the EPA National Epidemiological and Environmental Assessment of Recreational (NEEAR) Water Study and directly informed the derivation of the RWQC recommendations. Recent studies have demonstrated that CCE estimates from the method can vary when using different cultured Enterococcus cell preparations in calibrator samples. These differences have been attributed to differences in the quantities of targeted gene copies (target sequences) that are recovered per nominal calibrator cell by DNA extraction. Standardization of results from the calibration model will require the estimation of target sequence recoveries from the calibrator and water samples. In addition, comparisons of water sample results with the RWQC values will require a knowledge of target sequence recoveries from the NEEAR study calibrator samples. In this study recoveries of target sequences and the mean target sequence/cell ratio for the NEEAR study calibrator samples were retrospectively estimated with a corroborated standard curve. A modification of the calibration model was then used to estimate enterococci target sequence quantities in water samples from eight midwestern U.S. rivers. CCE estimates were obtained by dividing these target sequence quantities by the mean NEEAR study target sequence/cell ratio. This target sequence-based quantification approach resulted in a high degree of agreement in beach action decisions (determinations of whether bacterial fecal indicator densities are above or below RWQC-recommended values) from CCE results of the qPCR method and from culture dependent enumeration of both enterococci and Eschericia coli in the corresponding

  11. Decision-Guided Recommenders with Composite Alternatives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alodhaibi, Khalid

    2011-01-01

    Recommender systems aim to support users in their decision-making process while interacting with large information spaces and recommend items of interest to users based on preferences they have expressed, either explicitly or implicitly. Recommender systems are increasingly used with product and service selection over the Internet. Although…

  12. 78 FR 41352 - Adoption of Recommendations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-10

    ... Disclosure Concerning the Use of Cost- Benefit and Similar Analyses in Regulation, 44 FR 38826 (July 3, 1979... Program, 56 FR 33847 (July 24, 1991); Recommendation 90-4, Social Security Disability Program Appeals Process: Supplementary Recommendation, 55 FR 34213 (Aug. 22, 1990); Recommendation 89-10, Improved Use...

  13. 28 CFR 0.36 - Recommendations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Recommendations. 0.36 Section 0.36 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE ORGANIZATION OF THE DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE Office of the Pardon Attorney § 0.36 Recommendations. The Pardon Attorney shall submit all recommendations in...

  14. Group Recommender Systems: Combining Individual Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masthoff, Judith

    This chapter shows how a system can recommend to a group of users by aggregating information from individual user models and modelling the users affective state. It summarizes results from previous research in this area. It also shows how group recommendation techniques can be applied when recommending to individuals, in particular for solving the cold-start problem and dealing with multiple criteria.

  15. LIQUID TARGET

    DOEpatents

    Martin, M.D.; Salsig, W.W. Jr.

    1959-01-13

    A liquid handling apparatus is presented for a liquid material which is to be irradiated. The apparatus consists essentially of a reservoir for the liquid, a target element, a drain tank and a drain lock chamber. The target is in the form of a looped tube, the upper end of which is adapted to be disposed in a beam of atomic particles. The lower end of the target tube is in communication with the liquid in the reservoir and a means is provided to continuously circulate the liquid material to be irradiated through the target tube. Means to heat the reservoir tank is provided in the event that a metal is to be used as the target material. The apparatus is provided with suitable valves and shielding to provide maximum safety in operation.

  16. The turnaround value of values.

    PubMed

    Thorbeck, J

    1991-01-01

    John Thorbeck is an executive with a ten-year career history of successes--and a sense of repeated failure. Just out of business school, he was marketing director at the Aspen Skiing Company for three years and helped to reverse thirteen seasons of decline. At the Timberland shoe company in the mid-1980s, he led a marketing strategy that tripled sales. At the Bass shoe company, where he was CEO from 1987 to 1990, he took the company from big losses to big profits. Now he is president, CEO, and part owner of a third shoe company--Geo. E. Keith--that is surely the oldest, perhaps the smallest, and arguably the finest shoemaker in the United States. But the high points of Thorbeck's résumé conceal a leadership education that led him only slowly to abandon confrontational management in favor of management by history, values, competence, and what he calls organizational coherence. In his first two marketing jobs, he fought wars with his opponents and won. Then at Bass, he tried to recapture the company's proud past. He revived company folklore and history, gave workers back their pride in workmanship, and used this rejuvenated company spirit to meet and win new markets. Yet he was trying to take Bass someplace its owners simply wouldn't let it go, and he left the company profitable but divided, the work force eager to go one way, owenership another. In each of his jobs, Thorbeck overlooked some vital part of the organizational community.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:10109472

  17. Implementation strategies: recommendations for specifying and reporting

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Implementation strategies have unparalleled importance in implementation science, as they constitute the ‘how to’ component of changing healthcare practice. Yet, implementation researchers and other stakeholders are not able to fully utilize the findings of studies focusing on implementation strategies because they are often inconsistently labelled and poorly described, are rarely justified theoretically, lack operational definitions or manuals to guide their use, and are part of ‘packaged’ approaches whose specific elements are poorly understood. We address the challenges of specifying and reporting implementation strategies encountered by researchers who design, conduct, and report research on implementation strategies. Specifically, we propose guidelines for naming, defining, and operationalizing implementation strategies in terms of seven dimensions: actor, the action, action targets, temporality, dose, implementation outcomes addressed, and theoretical justification. Ultimately, implementation strategies cannot be used in practice or tested in research without a full description of their components and how they should be used. As with all intervention research, their descriptions must be precise enough to enable measurement and ‘reproducibility.’ We propose these recommendations to improve the reporting of implementation strategies in research studies and to stimulate further identification of elements pertinent to implementation strategies that should be included in reporting guidelines for implementation strategies. PMID:24289295

  18. Recommended Screening Practices for Launch Collision Aviodance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beaver, Brian A.; Hametz, Mark E.; Ollivierre, Jarmaine C.; Newman, Lauri K.; Hejduk, Matthew D.

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this document is to assess the value of launch collision avoidance (COLA) practices and provide recommendations regarding its implementation for NASA robotic missions. The scope of this effort is limited to launch COLA screens against catalog objects that are either spacecraft or debris. No modifications to manned safety COLA practices are considered in this effort. An assessment of the value of launch COLA can be broken down into two fundamental questions: 1) Does collision during launch represent a significant risk to either the payload being launched or the space environment? 2) Can launch collision mitigation be performed in a manner that provides meaningful risk reduction at an acceptable level of operational impact? While it has been possible to piece together partial answers to these questions for some time, the first attempt to comprehensively address them is documented in reference (a), Launch COLA Operations: an Examination of Data Products, Procedures, and Thresholds, Revision A. This report is the product of an extensive study that addressed fundamental technical questions surrounding launch collision avoidance analysis and practice. The results provided in reference (a) will be cited throughout this document as these two questions are addressed. The premise of this assessment is that in order to conclude that launch COLA is a value-added activity, the answer to both of these questions must be affirmative. A "no" answer to either of these questions points toward the conclusion that launch COLA provides little or no risk mitigation benefit. The remainder of this assessment will focus on addressing these two questions.

  19. Human Genetic Engineering: A Survey of Student Value Stances

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, Sara McCormack; And Others

    1975-01-01

    Assesses the values of high school and college students relative to human genetic engineering and recommends that biology educators explore instructional strategies merging human genetic information with value clarification techniques. (LS)

  20. Vietnam recommended dietary allowances 2007.

    PubMed

    Khan, Nguyen Cong; Hoan, Pham Van

    2008-01-01

    It has been well acknowledged that Vietnam is undergoing a nutrition transition. With a rapid change in the country's reform and economic growth, food supply at the macronutrient level has improved. Changes of the Vietnamese diet include significantly more foods of animal origin, and an increase of fat/oils, and ripe fruits. Consequently, nutritional problems in Vietnam now include not only malnutrition but also overweight/obesity, metabolic syndrome and other chronic diseases related to nutrition and lifestyles. The recognition of these shifts, which is also associated with morbidity and mortality, was a major factor in the need to review and update the Recommended Dietary Allowances (RDA) for the Vietnamese population. This revised RDA established an important science-based tool for evaluation of nutrition adequacy, for teaching, and for scientific communications within Vietnam. It is expected that the 2007 Vietnam RDA and its conversion to food-based dietary guidelines will facilitate education to the public, as well as the policy implementation of programs for prevention of non-communicable chronic diseases and addressing the double burden of both under and over nutrition. PMID:18460440

  1. Vitamin D recommendations: beyond deficiency.

    PubMed

    Biesalski, Hans K

    2011-01-01

    Vitamin D plays an important role in regular bone growth and in adequate function of the innate immune system, including barrier functions of mucous membranes. A sufficient supply during pregnancy and lactation protects the child from infectious diseases. Clinical symptoms of severe vitamin D deficiency (rickets) are well known and can be easily detected. Signs and symptoms beyond deficiency, however, remain to be elucidated. Based on clinical and observational data, the plasma level of 25(OH)D may serve as a 'marker' to detect or define a subclinical deficiency. Levels below 50 nmol/l might be insufficient to maintain the non-bone-related activities of vitamin D. Finally, it has to be considered that all of the nonbone activities of vitamin D are in concert with vitamin A (9-cis retinoic acid). Studies combining both vitamins in sufficient amounts (cod liver oil) demonstrated a beneficial effect on the prevention of respiratory tract infections. Consequently, it should be strongly recommended to increase the intake of vitamin D and to ensure a daily intake of vitamin A as counseled. PMID:22123631

  2. Recommendations for pathology peer review.

    PubMed

    Morton, Daniel; Sellers, Rani S; Barale-Thomas, Erio; Bolon, Brad; George, Catherine; Hardisty, Jerry F; Irizarry, Armando; McKay, Jennifer S; Odin, Marielle; Teranishi, Munehiro

    2010-12-01

    Pathology peer review verifies and improves the accuracy and quality of pathology diagnoses and interpretations. Pathology peer review is recommended when important risk assessment or business decisions are based on nonclinical studies. For pathology peer review conducted before study completion, the peer-review pathologist reviews sufficient slides and pathology data to assist the study pathologist in refining pathology diagnoses and interpretations. Materials to be reviewed are selected by the peer-review pathologist. Consultations with additional experts or a formal (documented) pathology working group may be used to resolve discrepancies. The study pathologist is solely responsible for the content of the final pathology data and report, makes changes resulting from peer-review discussions, initiates the audit trail for microscopic observations after all changes resulting from peer-review have been made, and signs the final pathologist's report. The peer-review pathologist creates a signed peer-review memo describing the peer-review process and confirming that the study pathologist's report accurately and appropriately reflects the pathology data. The study pathologist also may sign a statement of consensus. It is not necessary to archive working notes created during the peer-review process. PMID:20924082

  3. Argon Purification Reference and Recommendation

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, J.; /Fermilab

    1991-05-23

    This engineering note is a reference for future consideration on the purification of argon. The original concern was for the possibility of argon contamination from components in the cryostats over long-term storage. An argon purification system could also be useful for purifying the contents of the argon dewar. The general conclusion is that most of the systems researched are too expensive at this time, but the recommended choice would be Centorr Furnaces. There were three basic types of purification systems which were to be considered. The first was the molecular sieve. This method would have been the preferred one, because it was claimed that it could purify liquid argon, removing liquid oxygen from the argon. However, none of the commercial companies researched provided this type of purification for use with liquid argon. Most companies said that this type of purification was impossible, and tests at IB-4 confirmed this. The second system contained a copper oxide to remove gaseous oxygen from argon gas. The disadvantage of this system wass that the argon had to be heated to a gas, and then cooled back down to liquid. The third system was similar to the second, except that it used tungsten or another material like titanium. This system also needed to heat the argon to gas, however the advantage of this system was that it supposedly removed all contaminants, that is, everything except for inert gases. Of the three systems, the third is the type manufactured by Centorr Furnaces, which uses a titanium charge.

  4. Nutritional recommendations for synchronized swimming.

    PubMed

    Robertson, Sherry; Benardot, Dan; Mountjoy, Margo

    2014-08-01

    The sport of synchronized swimming is unique, because it combines speed, power, and endurance with precise synchronized movements and high-risk acrobatic maneuvers. Athletes must train and compete while spending a great amount of time underwater, upside down, and without the luxury of easily available oxygen. This review assesses the scientific evidence with respect to the physiological demands, energy expenditure, and body composition in these athletes. The role of appropriate energy requirements and guidelines for carbohydrate, protein, fat, and micronutrients for elite synchronized swimmers are reviewed. Because of the aesthetic nature of the sport, which prioritizes leanness, the risks of energy and macronutrient deficiencies are of significant concern. Relative Energy Deficiency in Sport and disordered eating/eating disorders are also of concern for these female athletes. An approach to the healthy management of body composition in synchronized swimming is outlined. Synchronized swimmers should be encouraged to consume a well-balanced diet with sufficient energy to meet demands and to time the intake of carbohydrate, protein, and fat to optimize performance and body composition. Micronutrients of concern for this female athlete population include iron, calcium, and vitamin D. This article reviews the physiological demands of synchronized swimming and makes nutritional recommendations for recovery, training, and competition to help optimize athletic performance and to reduce risks for weight-related medical issues that are of particular concern for elite synchronized swimmers. PMID:24667278

  5. Epilepsy surgery: recommendations for India.

    PubMed

    Chandra, P Sarat; Tripathi, Manjari

    2010-04-01

    The following article recommends guidelines for epilepsy surgery for India. This article reviews the indications, the various surgical options available and the outcome of surgery for drug resistant epilepsy based on current evidence. Epilepsy surgery is a well-established option for patients who have been diagnosed to have drug resistant epilepsy (DRE) (on at least two appropriate, adequate anti-epileptic drugs (AEDs) (either in monotherapy or in combination) with continuing seizures), where the presurgical work-up has shown concordance of structural imaging (magnetic resonance imaging) and electrical mapping data (electroencephalography (EEG), video EEG). There may be a requirement of functional imaging techniques in a certain number of DRE like positron emission tomography (PET), single photon emission tomography, (SPECT)). Invasive monitoring should be restricted to a few when all noninvasive investigations are inconclusive, there is a dual pathology or there is a discordance of noninvasive data. The types of surgery could be curative (resective surgeries: amygdalo hippocampectomy, lesionectomy and multilobar resections; functional surgeries: hemispherotomy) and palliative (multiple subpial transaction, corpus callosotomy, vagal nerve stimulation). Epilepsy surgery in indicated cases has a success range from 50 to 86% in achieving seizure freedom as compared with <5% success rate with AEDs only in persons with DRE. Centers performing surgery should be categorized into Level I and Level II. PMID:20814490

  6. Erotomania and Recommendations for Treatment.

    PubMed

    Seeman, Mary V

    2016-06-01

    The aim of this paper is to help clinicians better understand how erotomania originates in order to facilitate treatment and make it more effective. Data sources are the narratives of six women who spoke in detail about the beginnings of their delusional beliefs and about the nature of the evidence that convinced them that their beliefs were well-founded. In every case, low self-esteem and emotional arousal preceded the emergence of the delusion. Misperceptions and misattributions appeared responsible for keeping the delusion alive. Despite external disconfirmation, social isolation protected the delusional beliefs from revision and extinction. The erotomanic delusion provided a sense of well-being that probably contributed to its maintenance. As well, a delusion-induced boost in well-being delayed help-seeking. Recommendations for treatment include staged interventions, first establishing a therapeutic alliance with a focus on understanding the psychological factors contributing to the origin and maintenance of the delusion. The next stage is the provision of social support and strategies directed at the restoration of self-esteem. The third stage is the gradual introduction of techniques to correct cognitive biases. Medication and risk management form an integral part of overall management. Objective evidence for the effectiveness of this approach is, however, not yet available. PMID:26442945

  7. Hybrid recommendation methods in complex networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fiasconaro, A.; Tumminello, M.; Nicosia, V.; Latora, V.; Mantegna, R. N.

    2015-07-01

    We propose two recommendation methods, based on the appropriate normalization of already existing similarity measures, and on the convex combination of the recommendation scores derived from similarity between users and between objects. We validate the proposed measures on three data sets, and we compare the performance of our methods to other recommendation systems recently proposed in the literature. We show that the proposed similarity measures allow us to attain an improvement of performances of up to 20% with respect to existing nonparametric methods, and that the accuracy of a recommendation can vary widely from one specific bipartite network to another, which suggests that a careful choice of the most suitable method is highly relevant for an effective recommendation on a given system. Finally, we study how an increasing presence of random links in the network affects the recommendation scores, finding that one of the two recommendation algorithms introduced here can systematically outperform the others in noisy data sets.

  8. Does Values Education Belong in the Curriculum?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hornbeck, David W.

    This report recommends ways to integrate values education into schools' curricula. Societal problems indicate that values play as important a role in students' development as math and science, as suggested by statistics on increasing teenage suicide, pregnancies, and dropping out. While it is important to ensure that at-risk students become…

  9. Values Education and Some Suggestions to Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Demirhan Iscan, Canay

    2011-01-01

    This paper focuses on the process, approaches and teacher roles in values education and offers recommendations for teachers. It uses print materials and Internet sources on values education. These sources were analyzed and synthesized to reveal certain cases and/or opinions. In addition to contemporary sources, older reference materials were also…

  10. 78 FR 18983 - Proposed Data Collections Submitted for Public Comment and Recommendations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-28

    ... representative sample on the slide that is free of obscuring blood, mucus, and non-diagnostic debris in a circle... along with presentations describing workload studies and use of the workload limit as a target. The... targets. CLIAC recommended that standardized criteria be developed for use in determining workload...

  11. Non-target effects of pretilachlor on microbial properties in tropical rice soil.

    PubMed

    Sahoo, Subhashree; Adak, Totan; Bagchi, Torit B; Kumar, Upendra; Munda, Sushmita; Saha, Sanjoy; Berliner, J; Jena, Mayabini; Mishra, B B

    2016-04-01

    The use of herbicides has been questioned in recent past for their non-target effects. Therefore, we planned to study the effect of pretilachlor on growth and activities of microbes in tropical rice soil under controlled condition at National Rice Research Institute, Cuttack, India. Three pretilachlor treatments, namely, recommended dose at 600 g a.i. ha(-1) (RD), double the recommended dose at 1200 g a.i. ha(-1) (2RD), and ten times of the recommended dose at 6000 g a.i. ha(-1) (10RD) along with control, were imposed. The initial residue (after 2 h of spray) deposits in soil were 0.174, 0.968, and 3.35 μg g(-1) for recommended, double the recommended, and ten times of the recommended doses, respectively. No residue in soil was detected in RD treatment on day 45. The half life values were 16.90, 17.76, and 36.47 days for RD, 2RD, and 10RD treatments, respectively. Application of pretilachlor at 10RD, in general, had significantly reduced the number of bacteria, actinomycetes, fungi, nitrogen fixers, and microbial biomass carbon. Pretilachlor at RD did not record any significant changes in microbial properties compared to control. The results of the present study thus indicated that pretilachlor at RD can be safely used for controlling grassy weeds in rice fields. PMID:26739987

  12. Target-detection strategies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schachter, Bruce J.

    2013-04-01

    Hundreds of simple target-detection algorithms were tested on mid- and long-wave forward-looking infrared images. Each algorithm is briefly described. Indications are given as to which performed well. Most of these simple algorithms are loosely derived from standard tests of the difference of two populations. For target detection, these are populations of pixel grayscale values or features derived from them. The statistical tests are implemented in the form of sliding triple window filters. Several more elaborate algorithms are also described with their relative performances noted. They utilize neural networks, deformable templates, and adaptive filtering. Algorithm design issues are broadened to cover system design issues and concepts of operation. Since target detection is such a fundamental problem, it is often used as a test case for developing technology. New technology leads to innovative approaches for attacking the problem. Eight inventive paradigms, each with deep philosophical underpinnings, are described in relation to their effect on target detector design.

  13. [Practical recommendations for general introduction of hepatitis B vaccination].

    PubMed

    Vaudaux, B; Wimmersberger, A

    1998-01-01

    The Swiss Federal Office of Public Health and the Swiss Advisory Board on Immunisation recommended that universal vaccination against hepatitis B be introduced in January 1998. The target population for immunisation are youngsters between 11 and 15 years of age. This recommendation does not preclude ongoing selective vaccination of individuals in high risk groups, nor the routine immunisation of individuals younger or older than the target age (if needed). Injections should be given in the deltoïd area and needle length is critical to ensure proper resorption of the antigen and adequate immune response. Three doses are recommended at times 0, 1 month and 6 months with no booster dose. The time interval between the second and third dose should not be shorter than 2 months but can be longer than 5 months. Vaccination initiated with one commercial brand can be completed with a different brand. The simultaneous administration of immune globulin with the initiation of vaccination and the measurement of serum antibodies after completion of vaccination are unnecessary. PMID:9833271

  14. New recommendations for measuring collagen solubility.

    PubMed

    Latorre, María E; Lifschitz, Adrian L; Purslow, Peter P

    2016-08-01

    The heat-solubility of intramuscular collagen is usually conducted in 1/4 Ringer's solution at pH7.4, despite this ionic strength and pH being inappropriate for post-rigor meat. The current work studied the percentage of soluble collagen and hydrothermal isometric tension characteristics of perimysial strips on bovine semitendinosus muscles in either 1/4 Ringer's solution, distilled water, PBS, or a solution of the same salt concentration as 1/4 Ringer's but at pH5.6. Values of % soluble collagen were lower at pH7.4 than 5.6. Increasing ionic strength reduced % soluble collagen. The maximum perimysial isometric tension was independent of the bathing medium, but the percent relaxation was higher at pH7.4 than at pH5.6, and increased with ionic strength of the media. It is recommended that future measurements of collagen solubility and tests on connective tissue components of post-rigor meat should be carried out in a solution of concentrations NaCl and KCl equivalent to those in 1/4 Ringer's, but at pH5.6, a pH relevant to post-rigor meat. PMID:27057755

  15. Network-based recommendation algorithms: A review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Fei; Zeng, An; Gillard, Sébastien; Medo, Matúš

    2016-06-01

    Recommender systems are a vital tool that helps us to overcome the information overload problem. They are being used by most e-commerce web sites and attract the interest of a broad scientific community. A recommender system uses data on users' past preferences to choose new items that might be appreciated by a given individual user. While many approaches to recommendation exist, the approach based on a network representation of the input data has gained considerable attention in the past. We review here a broad range of network-based recommendation algorithms and for the first time compare their performance on three distinct real datasets. We present recommendation topics that go beyond the mere question of which algorithm to use-such as the possible influence of recommendation on the evolution of systems that use it-and finally discuss open research directions and challenges.

  16. On the Evolution of Critiquing Recommenders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McGinty, Lorraine; Reilly, James

    Over the past decade a significant amount of recommender systems research has demonstrated the benefits of conversational architectures that employ critique-based interfacing (e.g., Show me more like item A, but cheaper). The critiquing phenomenon has attracted great interest in line with the growing need for more sophisticated decision/recommendation support systems to assist online users who are overwhelmed by multiple product alternatives. Originally proposed as a powerful yet practical solution to the preference elicitation problem central to many conversational recommenders, critiquing has proved to be a popular topic in a variety of related areas (e.g., group recommendation, mixed-initiative recommendation, adaptive user interfacing, recommendation explanation). This chapter aims to provide a comprehensive, yet concise, source of reference for researchers and practitioners starting out in this area. Specifically, we present a deliberately non-technical overview of the critiquing research which has been covered in recent years.

  17. 2 × 2 Tables: a note on Campbell's recommendation.

    PubMed

    Busing, F M T A; Weaver, B; Dubois, S

    2016-04-15

    For 2 × 2 tables, Egon Pearson's N - 1 chi-squared statistic is theoretically more sound than Karl Pearson's chi-squared statistic, and provides more accurate p values. Moreover, Egon Pearson's N - 1 chi-squared statistic is equal to the Mantel-Haenszel chi-squared statistic for a single 2 × 2 table, and as such, is often available in statistical software packages like SPSS, SAS, Stata, or R, which facilitates compliance with Ian Campbell's recommendations. PMID:26576745

  18. Recommendation advertising method based on behavior retargeting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Yao; YIN, Xin-Chun; CHEN, Zhi-Min

    2011-10-01

    Online advertising has become an important business in e-commerce. Ad recommended algorithms are the most critical part in recommendation systems. We propose a recommendation advertising method based on behavior retargeting which can avoid leakage click of advertising due to objective reasons and can observe the changes of the user's interest in time. Experiments show that our new method can have a significant effect and can be further to apply to online system.

  19. Uncovering the information core in recommender systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeng, Wei; Zeng, An; Liu, Hao; Shang, Ming-Sheng; Zhou, Tao

    2014-08-01

    With the rapid growth of the Internet and overwhelming amount of information that people are confronted with, recommender systems have been developed to effectively support users' decision-making process in online systems. So far, much attention has been paid to designing new recommendation algorithms and improving existent ones. However, few works considered the different contributions from different users to the performance of a recommender system. Such studies can help us improve the recommendation efficiency by excluding irrelevant users. In this paper, we argue that in each online system there exists a group of core users who carry most of the information for recommendation. With them, the recommender systems can already generate satisfactory recommendation. Our core user extraction method enables the recommender systems to achieve 90% of the accuracy of the top-L recommendation by taking only 20% of the users into account. A detailed investigation reveals that these core users are not necessarily the large-degree users. Moreover, they tend to select high quality objects and their selections are well diversified.

  20. Uncovering the information core in recommender systems.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Wei; Zeng, An; Liu, Hao; Shang, Ming-Sheng; Zhou, Tao

    2014-01-01

    With the rapid growth of the Internet and overwhelming amount of information that people are confronted with, recommender systems have been developed to effectively support users' decision-making process in online systems. So far, much attention has been paid to designing new recommendation algorithms and improving existent ones. However, few works considered the different contributions from different users to the performance of a recommender system. Such studies can help us improve the recommendation efficiency by excluding irrelevant users. In this paper, we argue that in each online system there exists a group of core users who carry most of the information for recommendation. With them, the recommender systems can already generate satisfactory recommendation. Our core user extraction method enables the recommender systems to achieve 90% of the accuracy of the top-L recommendation by taking only 20% of the users into account. A detailed investigation reveals that these core users are not necessarily the large-degree users. Moreover, they tend to select high quality objects and their selections are well diversified. PMID:25142186

  1. Uncovering the information core in recommender systems

    PubMed Central

    Zeng, Wei; Zeng, An; Liu, Hao; Shang, Ming-Sheng; Zhou, Tao

    2014-01-01

    With the rapid growth of the Internet and overwhelming amount of information that people are confronted with, recommender systems have been developed to effectively support users' decision-making process in online systems. So far, much attention has been paid to designing new recommendation algorithms and improving existent ones. However, few works considered the different contributions from different users to the performance of a recommender system. Such studies can help us improve the recommendation efficiency by excluding irrelevant users. In this paper, we argue that in each online system there exists a group of core users who carry most of the information for recommendation. With them, the recommender systems can already generate satisfactory recommendation. Our core user extraction method enables the recommender systems to achieve 90% of the accuracy of the top-L recommendation by taking only 20% of the users into account. A detailed investigation reveals that these core users are not necessarily the large-degree users. Moreover, they tend to select high quality objects and their selections are well diversified. PMID:25142186

  2. EURRECA-Principles and future for deriving micronutrient recommendations.

    PubMed

    Claessens, Mandy; Contor, Laura; Dhonukshe-Rutten, Rosalie; De Groot, Lisette C P G M; Fairweather-Tait, Susan J; Gurinovic, Mirjana; Koletzko, Berthold; Van Ommen, Ben; Raats, Monique M; Van't Veer, Pieter

    2013-01-01

    The EURopean micronutrient RECommendations Aligned (EURRECA) Network of Excellence (NoE) explored an approach for setting micronutrient recommendations, which would address the variation in recommendations across Europe. Therefore, a framework for deriving and using micronutrient Dietary Reference Values (DRVs) has been developed. This framework comprises four stages (defining the problem-monitoring and evaluating-deriving dietary reference values-using dietary reference values in policy making). The aim of the present paper is to use this framework to identify specific research gaps and needs related to (1) knowledge available on specific micronutrients (folate, iodine, iron, selenium, vitamin B12, vitamin D, and zinc) and (2) the methodology presented in the framework. Furthermore, the paper describes the different outputs that support the process like protocols, guidelines, systematic review databases, and peer-reviewed publications, as well as the principal routes of dissemination of these outputs to ensure their optimal uptake in policy, practice, and research collaborations. The importance of ensuring transparency in risk assessment and risk management, systematic searching the literature, and taking into account policy options is highlighted. [Supplementary materials are available for this article. Go to the publisher's online edition of Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition for the following free supplemental files: Additional tables.]. PMID:23952093

  3. Nutrition for Tennis: Practical Recommendations

    PubMed Central

    Ranchordas, Mayur K.; Rogersion, David; Ruddock, Alan; Killer, Sophie C.; Winter, Edward M.

    2013-01-01

    Tennis is a pan-global sport that is played year-round in both hemispheres. This places notable demands on the physical and psychological preparation of players and included in these demands are nutritional and fluid requirements both of training and match- play. Thus, the purpose of this article is to review nutritional recommendations for tennis. Notably, tennis players do not excel in any particular physiological or anthropometric characteristic but are well adapted in all areas which is probably a result of the varied nature of the training demands of tennis match play. Energy expenditures of 30.9 ± 5.5 and 45.3 ± 7.3 kJ·min-1 have been reported in women and men players respectively regardless of court surface. Tennis players should follow a habitually high carbohydrate diet of between 6-10 g·kg-1·d-1 to ensure adequate glycogen stores, with women generally requiring slightly less than men. Protein intake guidelines for tennis players training at a high intensity and duration on a daily basis should be ~1.6 g·kg-1·d-1 and dietary fat intake should not exceed 2 g·kg-1·d-1. Caffeine in doses of 3 mg·kg-1 provides ergogenic benefit when taken before and/or during tennis match play. Depending on environmental conditions, sweat rates of 0.5 to and over 5 L·hr-1 and sodium losses of 0.5 - 1.8 g have been recorded in men and women players. 200 mL of fluid containing electrolytes should be consumed every change-over in mild to moderate temperatures of < 27°C but in temperatures greater than 27°C players should aim for ≤ 400 mL. 30-60 g·hr-1 of carbohydrate should be ingested when match play exceeds 2 hours. Key Points Tennis players should follow a habitually high carbohydrate diet of between 6-10 g·kg-1 to ensure adequate glycogen stores, with women generally requiring slightly less than men. Protein intake guidelines for tennis players training at a high intensity and duration on a daily basis should be ~1.6 g·kg-1·d-1. Dietary fat intake should

  4. Voyager: Exploratory Analysis via Faceted Browsing of Visualization Recommendations.

    PubMed

    Wongsuphasawat, Kanit; Moritz, Dominik; Anand, Anushka; Mackinlay, Jock; Howe, Bill; Heer, Jeffrey

    2016-01-01

    General visualization tools typically require manual specification of views: analysts must select data variables and then choose which transformations and visual encodings to apply. These decisions often involve both domain and visualization design expertise, and may impose a tedious specification process that impedes exploration. In this paper, we seek to complement manual chart construction with interactive navigation of a gallery of automatically-generated visualizations. We contribute Voyager, a mixed-initiative system that supports faceted browsing of recommended charts chosen according to statistical and perceptual measures. We describe Voyager's architecture, motivating design principles, and methods for generating and interacting with visualization recommendations. In a study comparing Voyager to a manual visualization specification tool, we find that Voyager facilitates exploration of previously unseen data and leads to increased data variable coverage. We then distill design implications for visualization tools, in particular the need to balance rapid exploration and targeted question-answering. PMID:26390469

  5. Recommendations for NEAMS Engagement with the NRC: Preliminary Report

    SciTech Connect

    Bernholdt, David E

    2012-06-01

    The vision of the Nuclear Energy Advanced Modeling and Simulation (NEAMS) program is to bring a new generation of analytic tools to the nuclear engineering community in order to facilitate students, faculty, industry and laboratory researchers in investigating advanced reactor and fuel cycle designs. Although primarily targeting at advance nuclear technologies, it is anticipated that these new capabilities will also become interesting and useful to the nuclear regulator Consequently, the NEAMS program needs to engage with the Nuclear Regulatory Commission as the software is being developed to ensure that they are familiar with and ready to respond to this novel approach when the need arises. Through discussions between key NEAMS and NRC staff members, we tentatively recommend annual briefings to the Division of Systems Analysis in the NRC's Office of Nuclear Regulatory Research. However the NEAC subcommittee review of the NEAMS program may yield recommendations that would need to be considered before finalizing this plan.

  6. Value Personalisation: A Base for Value Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fernandes, Lydia

    This study examined the impact of the Value Clarification Action Plan on the quality of values education for secondary school students. The study identified values to be modeled through teacher behavior, created an action plan for preservice teachers through the values clarification process, trained students in values personalization, helped…

  7. Factors influencing intentions to use social recommender systems: a social exchange perspective.

    PubMed

    Chang, Tsung-Sheng; Hsiao, Wei-Hung

    2013-05-01

    This study employs the perspective of social exchange theory and seeks to understand users' intentions to use social recommender systems (SRS) through three psychological factors: trust, shared values, and reputation. We use structural equation modeling to analyze 221 valid questionnaires. The results show that trust has a direct positive influence on the intention to use SRS, followed by shared values, whereas reputation has an indirect influence on SRS use. We further discuss specific recommendations concerning these factors for developing SRS. PMID:23374171

  8. Activation of microRNA-494-targeting Bmi1 and ADAM10 by silibinin ablates cancer stemness and predicts favourable prognostic value in head and neck squamous cell carcinomas.

    PubMed

    Chang, Yu-Chao; Jan, Chia-Ing; Peng, Chih-Yu; Lai, Yu-Chi; Hu, Fang-Wei; Yu, Cheng-Chia

    2015-09-15

    Tumor initiating cells (TICs) possessing cancer stemness were shown to be enriched after therapy, resulting in the relapse and metastasis of head and neck squamous cell carcinomas (HNC). An effective therapeutic approach suppressing the HNC-TICs would be a potential method to improve the treatments for HNC. We observed that the treatment of silibinin (SB) dose dependently down-regulated the ALDH1 activity, CD133 positivity, stemness signatures expression, self-renewal property, and chemoresistance in ALDH1+CD44+ HNC-TICs. Using miRNA-microarray and mechanistic studies, SB increased the expression of microRNA-494 (miR-494) and both Bmi1 and ADAM10 were identified as the novel targets of miR-494. Moreover, overexpression of miR-494 results in a reduction in cancer stemness. However, knockdown of miR-494 in CD44-ALDH1- non-HNC-TICs enhanced cancer stemness and oncogenicity, while co-knockdown of Bmi1 and ADAM10 effectively reversed these phenomena. Mice model showed that SB treatment by oral gavage to xenograft tumors reduced tumor growth and prolonged the survival time of tumor-bearing mice by activation of miR-494-inhibiting Bmi1/ADAM10 expression. Survival analysis indicated that a miR494highBmi1lowADAM10low phenotype predicted a favourable clinical outcome. We conclude that the inhibition of tumor aggressiveness in HNC-TICs by SB was mediated by up-regulation miR-494, suggesting that SB would be a valuable anti-cancer drug for treatment of HNC. PMID:26090866

  9. A combinatorial relative mass value evaluation of endogenous bioactive proteins in three-dimensional cultured nucleus pulposus cells of herniated intervertebral discs: identification of potential target proteins for gene therapeutic approaches.

    PubMed

    Mern, Demissew S; Fontana, Johann; Beierfuß, Anja; Thomé, Claudius; Hegewald, Aldemar A

    2013-01-01

    Painful degenerative disc diseases have been targeted by different biological treatment approaches. Nucleus pulposus (NP) cells play a central role in intervertebral disc (IVD) maintenance by orchestrating catabolic, anabolic and inflammatory factors that affect the extracellular matrix. IVD degeneration is associated with imbalances of these factors, resulting in a catabolic inflammatory metabolism. Therefore, accurate knowledge about their quantity and quality with regard to matrix synthesis is vital for a rational gene therapeutic approach. NP cells were isolated from 63 patients operated due to lumbar disc herniation (mean age 56 / range 29 - 84 years). Then, three-dimensional culture with low-glucose was completed in a collagen type I scaffold for four weeks. Subsequently cell proliferation evaluation was performed using 3-(4, 5-dimethylthiazolyl-2)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide and intracellular concentration of 28 endogenously expressed anabolic, catabolic, inflammatory factors and relevant matrix proteins was determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Specimen-related grades of degeneration were confirmed by preoperative magnetic resonance imaging. Independent from gender, age and grade of degeneration proliferation rates remained similar in all groups of NP cells. Progressive grades of degeneration, however, showed a significant influence on accumulation of selective groups of factors such as disintegrin and metalloproteinase with thrombospondin motifs 4 and 5, matrix metalloproteinase 3, metalloproteinase inhibitor 1 and 2, interleukin-1β and interleukin-1 receptor. Along with these changes, the key NP matrix proteins aggrecan and collagen II decreased significantly. The concentration of anabolic factors bone morphogenetic proteins 2, 4, 6 and 7, insulin-like growth factor 1, transforming growth factor beta 1 and 3, however, remained below the minimal detectable quantities. These findings indicate that progressive degenerative changes in NP may

  10. A Combinatorial Relative Mass Value Evaluation of Endogenous Bioactive Proteins in Three-Dimensional Cultured Nucleus Pulposus Cells of Herniated Intervertebral Discs: Identification of Potential Target Proteins for Gene Therapeutic Approaches

    PubMed Central

    Mern, Demissew S.; Fontana, Johann; Beierfuß, Anja; Thomé, Claudius; Hegewald, Aldemar A.

    2013-01-01

    Painful degenerative disc diseases have been targeted by different biological treatment approaches. Nucleus pulposus (NP) cells play a central role in intervertebral disc (IVD) maintenance by orchestrating catabolic, anabolic and inflammatory factors that affect the extracellular matrix. IVD degeneration is associated with imbalances of these factors, resulting in a catabolic inflammatory metabolism. Therefore, accurate knowledge about their quantity and quality with regard to matrix synthesis is vital for a rational gene therapeutic approach. NP cells were isolated from 63 patients operated due to lumbar disc herniation (mean age 56 / range 29 - 84 years). Then, three-dimensional culture with low-glucose was completed in a collagen type I scaffold for four weeks. Subsequently cell proliferation evaluation was performed using 3-(4, 5-dimethylthiazolyl-2)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide and intracellular concentration of 28 endogenously expressed anabolic, catabolic, inflammatory factors and relevant matrix proteins was determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Specimen-related grades of degeneration were confirmed by preoperative magnetic resonance imaging. Independent from gender, age and grade of degeneration proliferation rates remained similar in all groups of NP cells. Progressive grades of degeneration, however, showed a significant influence on accumulation of selective groups of factors such as disintegrin and metalloproteinase with thrombospondin motifs 4 and 5, matrix metalloproteinase 3, metalloproteinase inhibitor 1 and 2, interleukin-1β and interleukin-1 receptor. Along with these changes, the key NP matrix proteins aggrecan and collagen II decreased significantly. The concentration of anabolic factors bone morphogenetic proteins 2, 4, 6 and 7, insulin-like growth factor 1, transforming growth factor beta 1 and 3, however, remained below the minimal detectable quantities. These findings indicate that progressive degenerative changes in NP may

  11. Tackling Targets.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Further Education Unit, London (England).

    This document is designed to help British training and enterprise councils (TECs) and further education (FE) colleges develop and implement strategies for achieving the National Targets for Education and Training (NTET), which were developed by the Confederation of British Industry in 1992 and endorsed by the British government. The findings from…

  12. 33 CFR 62.63 - Recommendations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ....63 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY AIDS TO NAVIGATION UNITED STATES AIDS TO NAVIGATION SYSTEM Public Participation in the Aids to Navigation System § 62.63 Recommendations. (a) The public may recommend changes to existing aids to navigation, request new aids or...

  13. 33 CFR 62.63 - Recommendations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ....63 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY AIDS TO NAVIGATION UNITED STATES AIDS TO NAVIGATION SYSTEM Public Participation in the Aids to Navigation System § 62.63 Recommendations. (a) The public may recommend changes to existing aids to navigation, request new aids or...

  14. 33 CFR 62.63 - Recommendations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ....63 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY AIDS TO NAVIGATION UNITED STATES AIDS TO NAVIGATION SYSTEM Public Participation in the Aids to Navigation System § 62.63 Recommendations. (a) The public may recommend changes to existing aids to navigation, request new aids or...

  15. 33 CFR 62.63 - Recommendations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ....63 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY AIDS TO NAVIGATION UNITED STATES AIDS TO NAVIGATION SYSTEM Public Participation in the Aids to Navigation System § 62.63 Recommendations. (a) The public may recommend changes to existing aids to navigation, request new aids or...

  16. 33 CFR 62.63 - Recommendations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ....63 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY AIDS TO NAVIGATION UNITED STATES AIDS TO NAVIGATION SYSTEM Public Participation in the Aids to Navigation System § 62.63 Recommendations. (a) The public may recommend changes to existing aids to navigation, request new aids or...

  17. Culinary Occupations. Instructional Materials Committee Recommendations Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Louisiana State Technical Resource Center, Natchitoches.

    This resource listing contains those culinary occupations instructional materials given a rating of "highly recommended" or "recommended" by a committee of instructors. Titles are arranged alphabetically by title within each of the following Classification of Instructional Programs (CIP) categories: institutional management; personal services;…

  18. 40 CFR 1502.10 - Recommended format.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Recommended format. 1502.10 Section... § 1502.10 Recommended format. Agencies shall use a format for environmental impact statements which will... following standard format for environmental impact statements should be followed unless the...

  19. 40 CFR 108.6 - Recommendations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Recommendations. 108.6 Section 108.6 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS EMPLOYEE PROTECTION HEARINGS § 108.6 Recommendations. At the conclusion of any hearing under this part, the Administrative...

  20. Recommendations for future research in hypersonic instrumentation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ocheltree, S. L.

    1993-01-01

    An overview of the NATO Advanced Research Workshop is presented. It describes the process followed to obtain a group consensus on the main technical recommendations for each of the five technical sessions of the Workshop and presents the general conclusions and recommendations for future research agreed upon by the workshop participants.

  1. 5 CFR 2638.506 - Director's recommendation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Director's recommendation. 2638.506... Cases Involving Individual Executive Agency Employees § 2638.506 Director's recommendation. (a) Where the Director has made a finding under § 2638.504(e) or has issued a decision and order under §...

  2. 5 CFR 2638.506 - Director's recommendation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Director's recommendation. 2638.506... Cases Involving Individual Executive Agency Employees § 2638.506 Director's recommendation. (a) Where the Director has made a finding under § 2638.504(e) or has issued a decision and order under §...

  3. 40 CFR 108.6 - Recommendations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 22 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Recommendations. 108.6 Section 108.6 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS EMPLOYEE PROTECTION HEARINGS § 108.6 Recommendations. At the conclusion of any hearing under this part, the Administrative...

  4. 40 CFR 231.5 - Recommended determination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2012-07-01 2011-07-01 true Recommended determination. 231.5 Section 231.5 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) OCEAN DUMPING SECTION 404(c) PROCEDURES § 231.5 Recommended determination. (a) The Regional Administrator or his designee shall, within 30 days after the conclusion of...

  5. Educators' Liability for Negative Letters of Recommendation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tidwell, James A.

    1986-01-01

    Discusses the protection of "qualified privilege" provided by the law to teachers writing letters of recommendation for students. The letter must be written in good faith and with a belief that it contains no inaccurate information. Reviews some related court decisions and provides seven recommendations for writing such letters. (MD)

  6. 40 CFR 231.5 - Recommended determination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Recommended determination. 231.5 Section 231.5 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) OCEAN DUMPING SECTION 404(c) PROCEDURES § 231.5 Recommended determination. (a) The Regional Administrator or his...

  7. Developing a Standardized Letter of Recommendation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walters, Alyssa M.; Kyllonen, Patrick C.; Plante, Janice W.

    2006-01-01

    The Standardized Letter of Recommendation (SLR) is a Web-based admission tool designed to replace traditional, narrative letters of recommendation with a more systematic and equitable source of information about applicants to institutions of higher education. The SLR includes a rating scale and open-ended response space that prompt evaluators to…

  8. Vitamin D recommendations for older adults

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This position paper of the International Osteoporosis Foundation makes recommendations for vitamin D nutrition in elderly men and women from an evidence-based perspective. The key recommendations are that the optimal level of 25-hydroxyvitamin D for musculoskeletal health is 75 nmol/L. An intake of ...

  9. 40 CFR 231.5 - Recommended determination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Recommended determination. 231.5 Section 231.5 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) OCEAN DUMPING SECTION 404(c) PROCEDURES § 231.5 Recommended determination. (a) The Regional Administrator or his...

  10. 40 CFR 108.6 - Recommendations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Recommendations. 108.6 Section 108.6 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS EMPLOYEE PROTECTION HEARINGS § 108.6 Recommendations. At the conclusion of any hearing under this part, the Administrative...

  11. 5 CFR 2638.506 - Director's recommendation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Director's recommendation. 2638.506... Cases Involving Individual Executive Agency Employees § 2638.506 Director's recommendation. (a) Where... of the respondent employee's agency that appropriate disciplinary action be taken. If the...

  12. 78 FR 2939 - Adoption of Recommendations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-15

    ... their implementation. The Conference based these recommendations on research reports that it has posted... FR 84954 (Dec. 24, 1980); Administrative Conference of the United States, Recommendation 82-3, Federal Venue Provisions Applicable to Suits Against the United States, 47 FR 30706 (June 18,...

  13. Higher Education Funding Recommendations, 1997-98.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New Mexico Commission on Higher Education.

    This report summarizes recommendations by New Mexico's Commission on Higher Education for funding the state's two- and four-year colleges in fiscal year 1997-98. Following a preface reviewing the 3-year policy framework and priorities used by the Commission in making its funding recommendations, the first section provides a summary of the…

  14. Higher Education Funding Recommendations. 1989-99.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New Mexico Commission on Higher Education.

    This report presents the recommendations of the New Mexico Commission on Higher Education for funding public institutions of higher education in fiscal year 1998-99. An executive summary notes the recommendations' four key components: (1) a $28.7 million overall increase in higher education funding; (2) a commitment by institutions and the…

  15. ACS Task Force Frames Recommendations on Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chemical and Engineering News, 1984

    1984-01-01

    Discusses findings and recommendations of an American Chemical Society (ACS) task force study on the status of chemical education in the United States. Recommendations relate to national concerns; all educational levels; elementary, secondary, university, college, and two-year college chemistry and science; chemistry careers; and industry and…

  16. 45 CFR 1606.9 - Recommended decision.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Recommended decision. 1606.9 Section 1606.9 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) LEGAL SERVICES CORPORATION TERMINATION AND DEBARMENT PROCEDURES; RECOMPETITION § 1606.9 Recommended decision. (a) Within 20 calendar days after...

  17. Aggregation Trade Offs in Family Based Recommendations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berkovsky, Shlomo; Freyne, Jill; Coombe, Mac

    Personalized information access tools are frequently based on collaborative filtering recommendation algorithms. Collaborative filtering recommender systems typically suffer from a data sparsity problem, where systems do not have sufficient user data to generate accurate and reliable predictions. Prior research suggested using group-based user data in the collaborative filtering recommendation process to generate group-based predictions and partially resolve the sparsity problem. Although group recommendations are less accurate than personalized recommendations, they are more accurate than general non-personalized recommendations, which are the natural fall back when personalized recommendations cannot be generated. In this work we present initial results of a study that exploits the browsing logs of real families of users gathered in an eHealth portal. The browsing logs allowed us to experimentally compare the accuracy of two group-based recommendation strategies: aggregated group models and aggregated predictions. Our results showed that aggregating individual models into group models resulted in more accurate predictions than aggregating individual predictions into group predictions.

  18. [Vaccination schedule of the Spanish Association of Paediatrics: recommendations 2011].

    PubMed

    Marès Bermúdez, J; van Esso Arbolave, D; Moreno-Pérez, D; Merino Moína, M; Alvarez García, F J; Cilleruelo Ortega, M J; Arístegui Fernández, J; Ortigosa del Castillo, L; Ruiz-Contreras, J; Barrio Corrales, F; González-Hachero, J

    2011-02-01

    The Advisory Committee on Vaccines of the Spanish Paediatric Association updates annually the immunization schedule, taking into account epidemiological data as well as evidence of the effectiveness and efficiency of vaccines. This vaccination schedule includes grades of recommendation. The committee has graded as universal vaccines those that all children should receive, as recommended, those with a profile of universal vaccines of childhood and as are desirable those that all children may receive, but that can be prioritized based on public funding resources and for risk groups, targeting those groups of people in epidemiological situations of risk. The Committee considers as a priority to achieve a common immunization schedule for Spain. The Committee reaffirms the recommendation to include pneumococcal vaccination in the routine vaccination schedule. Vaccination against varicella in the second year of life is an effective strategy and therefore a desirable goal. Given the morbidity and high burden on the health care system, vaccination against rotavirus is recommended for all infants. Due to the current problems of availability of both vaccines, associated with the recent finding of circovirus, the committee urges that rotavirus vaccination is restarted as soon as possible as it is considered a desirable health benefit for all children in our country. The Committee adheres to the recommendations of the National Health Coordination Council in reference to routine vaccination against HPV for all girls aged 11 to 14 years and stresses the need to vaccinate all patients with risk factors for these diseases against influenza and hepatitis A. Finally, it stresses the need to update incomplete immunizations using accelerated immunization schedules. PMID:21215719

  19. Vision Screening for Children 36 to <72 Months: Recommended Practices

    PubMed Central

    Cotter, Susan A.; Cyert, Lynn A.; Miller, Joseph M.; Quinn, Graham E.

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Purpose This article provides recommendations for screening children aged 36 to younger than 72 months for eye and visual system disorders. The recommendations were developed by the National Expert Panel to the National Center for Children’s Vision and Eye Health, sponsored by Prevent Blindness, and funded by the Maternal and Child Health Bureau of the Health Resources and Services Administration, United States Department of Health and Human Services. The recommendations describe both best and acceptable practice standards. Targeted vision disorders for screening are primarily amblyopia, strabismus, significant refractive error, and associated risk factors. The recommended screening tests are intended for use by lay screeners, nurses, and other personnel who screen children in educational, community, public health, or primary health care settings. Characteristics of children who should be examined by an optometrist or ophthalmologist rather than undergo vision screening are also described. Results There are two current best practice vision screening methods for children aged 36 to younger than 72 months: (1) monocular visual acuity testing using single HOTV letters or LEA Symbols surrounded by crowding bars at a 5-ft (1.5 m) test distance, with the child responding by either matching or naming, or (2) instrument-based testing using the Retinomax autorefractor or the SureSight Vision Screener with the Vision in Preschoolers Study data software installed (version 2.24 or 2.25 set to minus cylinder form). Using the Plusoptix Photoscreener is acceptable practice, as is adding stereoacuity testing using the PASS (Preschool Assessment of Stereopsis with a Smile) stereotest as a supplemental procedure to visual acuity testing or autorefraction. Conclusions The National Expert Panel recommends that children aged 36 to younger than 72 months be screened annually (best practice) or at least once (accepted minimum standard) using one of the best practice approaches

  20. Complex-Valued Autoencoders

    PubMed Central

    Baldi, Pierre; Lu, Zhiqin

    2012-01-01

    Autoencoders are unsupervised machine learning circuits, with typically one hidden layer, whose learning goal is to minimize an average distortion measure between inputs and outputs. Linear autoencoders correspond to the special case where only linear transformations between visible and hidden variables are used. While linear autoencoders can be defined over any field, only real-valued linear autoencoders have been studied so far. Here we study complex-valued linear autoencoders where the components of the training vectors and adjustable matrices are defined over the complex field with the L2 norm. We provide simpler and more general proofs that unify the real-valued and complex-valued cases, showing that in both cases the landscape of the error function is invariant under certain groups of transformations. The landscape has no local minima, a family of global minima associated with Principal Component Analysis, and many families of saddle points associated with orthogonal projections onto sub-space spanned by sub-optimal subsets of eigenvectors of the covariance matrix. The theory yields several iterative, convergent, learning algorithms, a clear understanding of the generalization properties of the trained autoencoders, and can equally be applied to the hetero-associative case when external targets are provided. Partial results on deep architecture as well as the differential geometry of autoencoders are also presented. The general framework described here is useful to classify autoencoders and identify general properties that ought to be investigated for each class, illuminating some of the connections between autoencoders, unsupervised learning, clustering, Hebbian learning, and information theory. PMID:22622264

  1. Congressional panel makes recommendations on belt safety

    SciTech Connect

    Fiscor, S.

    2007-12-15

    The Mine Improvement and New Emergency Response Act of 2006 (MINER Act) called for a Technical Study Panel to present a review and make recommendations on the use of belt air and the composition and fire retardant properties of belt materials in underground coal mining. In October 2007 the Panel released 20 recommendations publicly. These are presented in the article. Many recommendations encouraged the MSHA to enforce existing laws of maintenance and fire protection or example more vigorously. Maybe the biggest change recommended was that the industry should adopt the Belt Evaluation Laboratory Test (BELT) standard proposed in 1992. Another important recommendation was one that would help eliminate hazards associated with point feeding. 1 photo.

  2. Recommendations for field measurements of aircraft noise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marsh, A. H.

    1982-01-01

    Specific recommendations for environmental test criteria, data acquisition procedures, and instrument performance requirements for measurement of noise levels produced by aircraft in flight are provided. Recommendations are also given for measurement of associated airplane and engine parameters and atmospheric conditions. Recommendations are based on capabilities which were available commercially in 1981; they are applicable to field tests of aircraft flying subsonically past microphones located near the surface of the ground either directly under or to the side of a flight path. Aircraft types covered by the recommendations include fixed-wing airplanes powered by turbojet or turbofan engines or by propellers. The recommended field-measurement procedures are consistent with assumed requirements for data processing and analysis.

  3. Designing and Evaluating Explanations for Recommender Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tintarev, Nava; Masthoff, Judith

    This chapter gives an overview of the area of explanations in recommender systems. We approach the literature from the angle of evaluation: that is, we are interested in what makes an explanation "good", and suggest guidelines as how to best evaluate this. We identify seven benefits that explanations may contribute to a recommender system, and relate them to criteria used in evaluations of explanations in existing systems, and how these relate to evaluations with live recommender systems. We also discuss how explanations can be affected by how recommendations are presented, and the role the interaction with the recommender system plays w.r.t. explanations. Finally, we describe a number of explanation styles, and how they may be related to the underlying algorithms. Examples of explanations in existing systems are mentioned throughout.

  4. Unified Synthesis Product (USP) Recommendations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peterson, T. C.

    2009-05-01

    points are reached. 5. Enhance understanding of how society can adapt to climate change in the context of multiple stresses. There is currently limited knowledge about the ability of communities, regions, and sectors to adapt to future climate change. It is essential to improve understanding of how the capacity to adapt to a changing climate might be exercised, and the vulnerabilities to climate change and other environmental stresses that might remain. Results from these efforts would inform future assessments that continue building our understanding of humanity's impacts on climate, and climate's impacts on us. Such assessments will continue to play a role in helping the U.S. respond to changing conditions. A vision for future climate change assessments includes both sustained extensive practitioner and stakeholder involvement, and periodic, targeted, scientifically rigorous reports similar to the CCSP Synthesis and Assessment Products.

  5. Target assembly

    DOEpatents

    Lewis, Richard A.

    1980-01-01

    A target for a proton beam which is capable of generating neutrons for absorption in a breeding blanket includes a plurality of solid pins formed of a neutron emissive target material disposed parallel to the path of the beam and which are arranged axially in a plurality of layers so that pins in each layer are offset with respect to pins in all other layers, enough layers being used so that each proton in the beam will strike at least one pin with means being provided to cool the pins. For a 300 mA, 1 GeV beam (300 MW), stainless steel pins, 12 inches long and 0.23 inches in diameter are arranged in triangular array in six layers with one sixth of the pins in each layer, the number of pins being such that the entire cross sectional area of the beam is covered by the pins with minimum overlap of pins.

  6. Towards Privacy Compliant and Anytime Recommender Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brun, Armelle; Boyer, Anne

    Recommendation technologies have traditionally been used in domains such as E-commerce and Web navigation to recommend resources to customers so as to help them to get the pertinent resources. Among the possible approaches is collaborative filtering that does not take into account the content of the resources: only the traces of usage of the resources are considered. State of the art models, such as sequential association-rules and Markov models, that can be used in the frame of privacy concerns, are usually studied in terms of performance, state space complexity and time complexity. Many of them have a large time complexity and require a long time to compute recommendations. However, there are domains of application of the models where recommendations may be required quickly. This paper focuses on the study of how these state of the art models can be adapted so as to be anytime. In that case recommendations can be proposed to the user whatever is the computation time available, the quality of the recommendations increases according to the computation time. We show that such models can be adapted so as to be anytime and we propose several strategies to compute recommendations iteratively. We also show that the computation time needed by these new models is not increased compared to classical ones; even so, it sometimes decreases.

  7. Recommendations for the management of autoinflammatory diseases.

    PubMed

    ter Haar, Nienke M; Oswald, Marlen; Jeyaratnam, Jerold; Anton, Jordi; Barron, Karyl S; Brogan, Paul A; Cantarini, Luca; Galeotti, Caroline; Grateau, Gilles; Hentgen, Veronique; Hofer, Michael; Kallinich, Tilmann; Kone-Paut, Isabelle; Lachmann, Helen J; Ozdogan, Huri; Ozen, Seza; Russo, Ricardo; Simon, Anna; Uziel, Yosef; Wouters, Carine; Feldman, Brian M; Vastert, Sebastiaan J; Wulffraat, Nico M; Benseler, Susanne M; Frenkel, Joost; Gattorno, Marco; Kuemmerle-Deschner, Jasmin B

    2015-09-01

    : Autoinflammatory diseases are characterised by fever and systemic inflammation, with potentially serious complications. Owing to the rarity of these diseases, evidence-based guidelines are lacking. In 2012, the European project Single Hub and Access point for paediatric Rheumatology in Europe (SHARE) was launched to optimise and disseminate regimens for the management of children and young adults with rheumatic diseases, facilitating the clinical practice of paediatricians and (paediatric) rheumatologists. One of the aims of SHARE was to provide evidence-based recommendations for the management of the autoinflammatory diseases cryopyrin-associated periodic syndromes (CAPS), tumour necrosis factor (TNF) receptor-associated periodic syndrome (TRAPS) and mevalonate kinase deficiency (MKD). These recommendations were developed using the European League Against Rheumatism standard operating procedure. An expert committee of paediatric and adult rheumatologists was convened. Recommendations derived from the systematic literature review were evaluated by an online survey and subsequently discussed at a consensus meeting using Nominal Group Technique. Recommendations were accepted if more than 80% agreement was reached. In total, four overarching principles, 20 recommendations on therapy and 14 recommendations on monitoring were accepted with ≥80% agreement among the experts. Topics included (but were not limited to) validated disease activity scores, therapy and items to assess in monitoring of a patient. By developing these recommendations, we aim to optimise the management of patients with CAPS, TRAPS and MKD. PMID:26109736

  8. OARSI Clinical Trials Recommendations: Hand imaging in clinical trials in osteoarthritis.

    PubMed

    Hunter, D J; Arden, N; Cicuttini, F; Crema, M D; Dardzinski, B; Duryea, J; Guermazi, A; Haugen, I K; Kloppenburg, M; Maheu, E; Miller, C G; Martel-Pelletier, J; Ochoa-Albíztegui, R E; Pelletier, J-P; Peterfy, C; Roemer, F; Gold, G E

    2015-05-01

    Tremendous advances have occurred in our understanding of the pathogenesis of hand osteoarthritis (OA) and these are beginning to be applied to trials targeted at modification of the disease course. The purpose of this expert opinion, consensus driven exercise is to provide detail on how one might use and apply hand imaging assessments in disease modifying clinical trials. It includes information on acquisition methods/techniques (including guidance on positioning for radiography, sequence/protocol recommendations/hardware for MRI); commonly encountered problems (including positioning, hardware and coil failures, sequences artifacts); quality assurance/control procedures; measurement methods; measurement performance (reliability, responsiveness, validity); recommendations for trials; and research recommendations. PMID:25952345

  9. Routine or targeted HIV screening of Indonesian prisoners.

    PubMed

    Nelwan, Erni Juwita; Isa, Ahmad; Alisjahbana, Bachti; Triani, Nurlita; Djamaris, Iqbal; Djaja, Ilham; Pohan, Herdiman T; Zwanikken, Prisca; Crevel, Reinout van; van der Ven, Andre; Meheus, Andre

    2016-03-14

    Purpose - Routine HIV screening of prisoners is generally recommended, but rarely implemented in low-resource settings. Targeted screening can be used as an alternative. Both strategies may provide an opportunity to start HIV treatment but no formal comparisons have been done of these two strategies. The paper aims to discuss these issues. Design/methodology/approach - The authors compared yield and costs of routine and targeted screening in a narcotic prison in Indonesia. Routine HIV screening was done for all incoming prisoners from August 2007-February 2009, after it was switched for budgetary reasons to targeted ("opt-out") HIV screening of inmates classified as people who inject drugs (PWIDs), and "opt-in" HIV testing for all non-PWIDs. Findings - During routine screening 662 inmates were included. All 115 PWIDs and 93.2 percent of non-PWIDs agreed to be tested, 37.4 percent and 0.4 percent respectively were HIV-positive. During targeted screening (March 2009-October 2010), of 888 inmates who entered prison, 107 reported injecting drug use and were offered HIV testing, of whom 31 (29 percent) chose not to be tested and 25.0 percent of those tested were HIV-positive. Of 781 non-PWIDs, 187 (24 percent) came for testing (opt-in), and 2.1 percent were infected. During targeted screening fewer people admitted drug use (12.0 vs 17.4 percent). Routine screening yielded twice as many HIV-infected subjects (45 vs 23). The estimated cost per detected HIV infection was 338 USD for routine and 263 USD for targeted screening. Originality/value - In a resource limited setting like Indonesia, routine HIV screening in prison is feasible and more effective than targeted screening, which may be stigmatizing. HIV infections that remain unrecognized can fuel ongoing transmission in prison and lead to unnecessary disease progression and deaths. PMID:26933989

  10. International recommendations for glucose control in adult non diabetic critically ill patients

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Introduction The purpose of this research is to provide recommendations for the management of glycemic control in critically ill patients. Methods Twenty-one experts issued recommendations related to one of the five pre-defined categories (glucose target, hypoglycemia, carbohydrate intake, monitoring of glycemia, algorithms and protocols), that were scored on a scale to obtain a strong or weak agreement. The GRADE (Grade of Recommendation, Assessment, Development and Evaluation) system was used, with a strong recommendation indicating a clear advantage for an intervention and a weak recommendation indicating that the balance between desirable and undesirable effects of an intervention is not clearly defined. Results A glucose target of less than 10 mmol/L is strongly suggested, using intravenous insulin following a standard protocol, when spontaneous food intake is not possible. Definition of the severe hypoglycemia threshold of 2.2 mmol/L is recommended, regardless of the clinical signs. A general, unique amount of glucose (enteral/parenteral) to administer for any patient cannot be suggested. Glucose measurements should be performed on arterial rather than venous or capillary samples, using central lab or blood gas analysers rather than point-of-care glucose readers. Conclusions Thirty recommendations were obtained with a strong (21) and a weak (9) agreement. Among them, only 15 were graded with a high level of quality of evidence, underlying the necessity to continue clinical studies in order to improve the risk-to-benefit ratio of glucose control. PMID:20840773

  11. Mobile Recommendation Based on Link Community Detection

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Jianpei; Yang, Jing

    2014-01-01

    Since traditional mobile recommendation systems have difficulty in acquiring complete and accurate user information in mobile networks, the accuracy of recommendation is not high. In order to solve this problem, this paper proposes a novel mobile recommendation algorithm based on link community detection (MRLD). MRLD executes link label diffusion algorithm and maximal extended modularity (EQ) of greedy search to obtain the link community structure, and overlapping nodes belonging analysis (ONBA) is adopted to adjust the overlapping nodes in order to get the more accurate community structure. MRLD is tested on both synthetic and real-world networks, and the experimental results show that our approach is valid and feasible. PMID:25243204

  12. Leveraging Position Bias to Improve Peer Recommendation

    PubMed Central

    Lerman, Kristina; Hogg, Tad

    2014-01-01

    With the advent of social media and peer production, the amount of new online content has grown dramatically. To identify interesting items in the vast stream of new content, providers must rely on peer recommendation to aggregate opinions of their many users. Due to human cognitive biases, the presentation order strongly affects how people allocate attention to the available content. Moreover, we can manipulate attention through the presentation order of items to change the way peer recommendation works. We experimentally evaluate this effect using Amazon Mechanical Turk. We find that different policies for ordering content can steer user attention so as to improve the outcomes of peer recommendation. PMID:24919071

  13. Treatment recommendations in Primary Ciliary Dyskinesia.

    PubMed

    Polineni, Deepika; Davis, Stephanie D; Dell, Sharon D

    2016-03-01

    Primary Ciliary Dyskinesia (PCD) is a rare heterogenic disorder leading to significant respiratory morbidity. Health-care providers who treat PCD must familiarize themselves with recommended treatment strategies. However, most of the treatments recommended in PCD have been extrapolated from cystic fibrosis (CF) and non-CF bronchiectasis literature. Mainstays of therapy are reviewed in detail, and should include at a minimum: regular airway clearance, routine microbiological surveillance, antibiotic treatment for pulmonary exacerbation, and health vaccinations. This review summarizes both medical and surgical pulmonary treatment considerations, as well as recommendations for the integration of non-pulmonary subspecialty care in the management of PCD. PMID:26586601

  14. Training Research: Practical Recommendations for Maximum Impact

    PubMed Central

    Beidas, Rinad S.; Koerner, Kelly; Weingardt, Kenneth R.; Kendall, Philip C.

    2011-01-01

    This review offers practical recommendations regarding research on training in evidence-based practices for mental health and substance abuse treatment. When designing training research, we recommend: (a) aligning with the larger dissemination and implementation literature to consider contextual variables and clearly defining terminology, (b) critically examining the implicit assumptions underlying the stage model of psychotherapy development, (c) incorporating research methods from other disciplines that embrace the principles of formative evaluation and iterative review, and (d) thinking about how technology can be used to take training to scale throughout all stages of a training research project. An example demonstrates the implementation of these recommendations. PMID:21380792

  15. The NSABB recommendations: rationale, impact, and implications.

    PubMed

    Keim, Paul S

    2012-01-01

    The National Science Advisory Board for Biosecurity (NSABB) has recommended that two scientific papers concerning the laboratory adaptation of avian H5N1 influenza virus to mammal-to-mammal respiratory transmission restrict their content to prevent others from replicating their work. After hearing from experts in the field of influenza research and public health, the benefits of the research were deemed less important than the potential negative consequences. The evaluation followed established NSABB procedures and prior policy recommendations for identifying dual use research of concern (DURC). This recommendation was received by the United States Government, endorsed and forwarded to the research teams and scientific journals involved with the publications. PMID:22294677

  16. Beyond Wishful Thinking: Integrating Consumer Preferences in the Assessment of Dietary Recommendations

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Convenience, taste, and prices are the main determinants of food choices. Complying with dietary recommendations therefore imposes a “taste cost” on consumers, potentially hindering adoption of those recommendations. The study presents and applies a new methodology, based on economic theory, to quantify this taste cost and assess the health and welfare effects of different dietary recommendations. Then, by comparison of those effects, we identify socially desirable recommendations that are most compatible with consumer preferences (i.e., that best balance health benefits against”taste cost”) and should be prioritized for promotion. The methodology proceeds in three-steps: first, an economic-behavioral model simulates how whole diets would change if consumers complied with dietary recommendations; second, an epidemiological model estimates the number of deaths avoided (DA) due to the dietary change; third, an efficiency analysis weighs the health benefits against the taste and policy costs of each recommendation. The empirical model is calibrated using French data. We find that recommendations to reduce consumption of red meat and soft-drinks, or raise consumption of milk products and fish/seafood impose relatively moderate taste costs. By comparison, recommendations related to F&V consumption and, to a lesser extent, butter/cream/cheese, snacks, and all meats impose larger taste costs on consumers. The F&V recommendation is the costliest for consumers to comply with, but it also reduces diet-related mortality the most, so that a large budget could be allocated to promoting F&V consumption while keeping this policy cost-beneficial. We conclude that promotion of most dietary recommendations improves social welfare. Our framework complements the programming models available in nutrition and public health: those models are best used to identify dietary targets, following which our framework identifies cost-beneficial ways of moving towards those targets. PMID

  17. Beyond Wishful Thinking: Integrating Consumer Preferences in the Assessment of Dietary Recommendations.

    PubMed

    Irz, Xavier; Leroy, Pascal; Réquillart, Vincent; Soler, Louis-Georges

    2016-01-01

    Convenience, taste, and prices are the main determinants of food choices. Complying with dietary recommendations therefore imposes a "taste cost" on consumers, potentially hindering adoption of those recommendations. The study presents and applies a new methodology, based on economic theory, to quantify this taste cost and assess the health and welfare effects of different dietary recommendations. Then, by comparison of those effects, we identify socially desirable recommendations that are most compatible with consumer preferences (i.e., that best balance health benefits against"taste cost") and should be prioritized for promotion. The methodology proceeds in three-steps: first, an economic-behavioral model simulates how whole diets would change if consumers complied with dietary recommendations; second, an epidemiological model estimates the number of deaths avoided (DA) due to the dietary change; third, an efficiency analysis weighs the health benefits against the taste and policy costs of each recommendation. The empirical model is calibrated using French data. We find that recommendations to reduce consumption of red meat and soft-drinks, or raise consumption of milk products and fish/seafood impose relatively moderate taste costs. By comparison, recommendations related to F&V consumption and, to a lesser extent, butter/cream/cheese, snacks, and all meats impose larger taste costs on consumers. The F&V recommendation is the costliest for consumers to comply with, but it also reduces diet-related mortality the most, so that a large budget could be allocated to promoting F&V consumption while keeping this policy cost-beneficial. We conclude that promotion of most dietary recommendations improves social welfare. Our framework complements the programming models available in nutrition and public health: those models are best used to identify dietary targets, following which our framework identifies cost-beneficial ways of moving towards those targets. PMID:27362764

  18. Targetting Teenagers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bernard van Leer Foundation Newsletter, 1995

    1995-01-01

    This theme issue of the Bernard van Leer Foundation newsletter focuses on the problem of teenage pregnancy and teenage parenthood in developing and developed nations, and examines the problems that teenage mothers face in different societies. It explores societal norms and values related to teenage parenting; the effects of teenage parents on…

  19. Recommendations following a multi-laboratory comparison of microbial source tracking methods.

    PubMed

    Stewart, Jill R; Boehm, Alexandria B; Dubinsky, Eric A; Fong, Theng-Theng; Goodwin, Kelly D; Griffith, John F; Noble, Rachel T; Shanks, Orin C; Vijayavel, Kannappan; Weisberg, Stephen B

    2013-11-15

    Microbial source tracking (MST) methods were evaluated in the Source Identification Protocol Project (SIPP), in which 27 laboratories compared methods to identify host sources of fecal pollution from blinded water samples containing either one or two different fecal types collected from California. This paper details lessons learned from the SIPP study and makes recommendations to further advance the field of MST. Overall, results from the SIPP study demonstrated that methods are available that can correctly identify whether particular host sources including humans, cows and birds have contributed to contamination in a body of water. However, differences between laboratory protocols and data processing affected results and complicated interpretation of MST method performance in some cases. This was an issue particularly for samples that tested positive (non-zero Ct values) but below the limits of quantification or detection of a PCR assay. Although false positives were observed, such samples in the SIPP study often contained the fecal pollution source that was being targeted, i.e., the samples were true positives. Given these results, and the fact that MST often requires detection of targets present in low concentrations, we propose that such samples be reported and identified in a unique category to facilitate data analysis and method comparisons. Important data can be lost when such samples are simply reported as positive or negative. Actionable thresholds were not derived in the SIPP study due to limitations that included geographic scope, age of samples, and difficulties interpreting low concentrations of target in environmental samples. Nevertheless, the results of the study support the use of MST for water management, especially to prioritize impaired waters in need of remediation. Future integration of MST data into quantitative microbial risk assessments and other models could allow managers to more efficiently protect public health based on site conditions

  20. Target injection methods for inertial fusion energy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petzoldt, Ronald W.; Moir, Ralph W.

    1994-06-01

    We have studied four methods to inject IFE targets: the gas gun, electrostatic accelerator, induction accelerator, and rail gun. We recommend a gas gun for indirect drive targets because they can support a gas pressure load on one end and can slide along the gun barrel without damage. With the gas gun, the amount of gas required for each target (about 10 to 100 mg) is acceptable; for other types of targets, a sabot would be necessary. A cam and poppet valve arrangement is recommended for gas flow control. An electrostatic accelerator is attractive for use with lightweight spherical direct drive targets. Since there is no physical contact between the target and the injector, there will be no wear of either component during the injection process. An induction accelerator has an advantage of no electrical contact between the target and the injector. Physical contact is not even necessary, so the wear should be minimal. It requires a cylindrical conductive target sleeve which is a substantial added mass. A rail gun is a simpler device than an electrostatic accelerator or induction accelerator. It requires electrical contact between the target and the rails and may have a significant wear rate. The wear in a vacuum could be reduced by use of a solid lubricant such as MoS2. The total required accuracy of target injection, tracking and beam pointing of +/- 0.4 mm appears achievable but will require development and experimental verification.

  1. Target injection methods for inertial fusion energy

    SciTech Connect

    Petzoldt, R.W.; Moir, R.W.

    1994-06-01

    We have studied four methods to inject IFE targets: the gas gun, electrostatic accelerator, induction accelerator, and rail gun. We recommend a gas gun for indirect drive targets because they can support a gas pressure load on one end and can slide along the gun barrel without damage. With the gas gun, the amount of gas required for each target (about 10 to 100 mg) is acceptable; for other types of targets, a sabot would be necessary. A cam and poppet valve arrangement is recommended for gas flow control. An electrostatic accelerator is attractive for use with lightweight spherical direct drive targets. Since there is no physical contact between the target and the injector, there will be no wear of either component during the injection process. An induction accelerator has an advantage of no electrical contact between the target and the injector. Physical contact is not even necessary, so the wear should be minimal. It requires a cylindrical conductive target sleeve which is a substantial added mass. A rail gun is a simpler device than an electrostatic accelerator or induction accelerator. It requires electrical contact between the target and the rails and may have a significant wear rate. The wear in a vacuum could be reduced by use of a solid lubricant such as MoS{sub 2}. The total required accuracy of target injection, tracking and beam pointing of {plus_minus}0.4 mm appears achievable but will require development and experimental verification.

  2. Study Partners Recommendation for xMOOCs Learners

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Bin; Yang, Dan

    2015-01-01

    Massive open online courses (MOOCs) provide an opportunity for people to access free courses offered by top universities in the world and therefore attracted great attention and engagement from college teachers and students. However, with contrast to large scale enrollment, the completion rate of these courses is really low. One of the reasons for students to quit learning process is problems which they face that could not be solved by discussing them with classmates. In order to keep them staying in the course, thereby further improving the completion rate, we address the task of study partner recommendation for students based on both content information and social network information. By analyzing the content of messages posted by learners in course discussion forum, we investigated the learners' behavior features to classify the learners into three groups. Then we proposed a topic model to measure learners' course knowledge awareness. Finally, a social network was constructed based on their activities in the course forum, and the relationship in the network was then employed to recommend study partners for target learner combined with their behavior features and course knowledge awareness. The experiment results show that our method achieves better performance than recommending method only based on content information. PMID:25663836

  3. Study Partners Recommendation for xMOOCs learners.

    PubMed

    Xu, Bin; Yang, Dan

    2015-01-01

    Massive open online courses (MOOCs) provide an opportunity for people to access free courses offered by top universities in the world and therefore attracted great attention and engagement from college teachers and students. However, with contrast to large scale enrollment, the completion rate of these courses is really low. One of the reasons for students to quit learning process is problems which they face that could not be solved by discussing them with classmates. In order to keep them staying in the course, thereby further improving the completion rate, we address the task of study partner recommendation for students based on both content information and social network information. By analyzing the content of messages posted by learners in course discussion forum, we investigated the learners' behavior features to classify the learners into three groups. Then we proposed a topic model to measure learners' course knowledge awareness. Finally, a social network was constructed based on their activities in the course forum, and the relationship in the network was then employed to recommend study partners for target learner combined with their behavior features and course knowledge awareness. The experiment results show that our method achieves better performance than recommending method only based on content information. PMID:25663836

  4. Accelerator target

    SciTech Connect

    Schlyer, D.J.; Ferrieri, R.A.; Koehler, C.

    1999-06-29

    A target includes a body having a depression in a front side for holding a sample for irradiation by a particle beam to produce a radioisotope. Cooling fins are disposed on a backside of the body opposite the depression. A foil is joined to the body front side to cover the depression and sample therein. A perforate grid is joined to the body atop the foil for supporting the foil and for transmitting the particle beam therethrough. A coolant is circulated over the fins to cool the body during the particle beam irradiation of the sample in the depression. 5 figs.

  5. Accelerator target

    DOEpatents

    Schlyer, David J.; Ferrieri, Richard A.; Koehler, Conrad

    1999-01-01

    A target includes a body having a depression in a front side for holding a sample for irradiation by a particle beam to produce a radioisotope. Cooling fins are disposed on a backside of the body opposite the depression. A foil is joined to the body front side to cover the depression and sample therein. A perforate grid is joined to the body atop the foil for supporting the foil and for transmitting the particle beam therethrough. A coolant is circulated over the fins to cool the body during the particle beam irradiation of the sample in the depression.

  6. Meeting the milestones. Strategies for including high-value care education in pulmonary and critical care fellowship training.

    PubMed

    Courtright, Katherine R; Weinberger, Steven E; Wagner, Jason

    2015-04-01

    Physician decision making is partially responsible for the roughly 30% of U.S. healthcare expenditures that are wasted annually on low-value care. In response to both the widespread public demand for higher-quality care and the cost crisis, payers are transitioning toward value-based payment models whereby physicians are rewarded for high-value, cost-conscious care. Furthermore, to target physicians in training to practice with cost awareness, the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education has created both individual objective milestones and institutional requirements to incorporate quality improvement and cost awareness into fellowship training. Subsequently, some professional medical societies have initiated high-value care educational campaigns, but the overwhelming majority target either medical students or residents in training. Currently, there are few resources available to help guide subspecialty fellowship programs to successfully design durable high-value care curricula. The resource-intensive nature of pulmonary and critical care medicine offers unique opportunities for the specialty to lead in modeling and teaching high-value care. To ensure that fellows graduate with the capability to practice high-value care, we recommend that fellowship programs focus on four major educational domains. These include fostering a value-based culture, providing a robust didactic experience, engaging trainees in process improvement projects, and encouraging scholarship. In doing so, pulmonary and critical care educators can strive to train future physicians who are prepared to provide care that is both high quality and informed by cost awareness. PMID:25714122

  7. New Guidelines Recommend Inpatient Rehab After Stroke

    MedlinePlus

    ... nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/news/fullstory_158656.html New Guidelines Recommend Inpatient Rehab After Stroke American Heart ... skilled nursing facility or nursing home, according to new guidelines by the American Heart Association/American Stroke ...

  8. Recommendations on routine screening pelvic examination

    PubMed Central

    Tonelli, Marcello; Gorber, Sarah Connor; Moore, Ainsley; Thombs, Brett D.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Objective To review the 2014 American College of Physicians (ACP) guideline on the use of pelvic examinations to screen for cancer (other than cervical), pelvic inflammatory disease, or other benign gynecologic conditions to determine whether the ACP guideline on routine pelvic examinations was consistent with Canadian Task Force on Preventive Health Care (CTFPHC) standards and could be adapted or adopted. Methods The SNAP-IT (Smooth National Adaptation and Presentation of Guidelines to Improve Thrombosis Treatment) method was used to determine whether the ACP guideline was consistent with CTFPHC standards and could be adapted or adopted. Recommendations The CTFPHC recommends not performing a screening pelvic examination to screen for noncervical cancer, pelvic inflammatory disease, or other gynecological conditions in asymptomatic women. This is a strong recommendation with moderate-quality evidence. Conclusion The CTFPHC adopts the recommendation on screening pelvic examination as published by the ACP in 2014. PMID:26975912

  9. Report recommends new 'customer care programme'.

    PubMed

    2014-07-15

    Nurses and other front line health workers in Wales should be sent on customer care training programmes to reduce the number of patient complaints, an independent review has recommended. PMID:25005374

  10. Personalized recommendation based on unbiased consistence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Xuzhen; Tian, Hui; Zhang, Ping; Hu, Zheng; Zhou, Tao

    2015-08-01

    Recently, in physical dynamics, mass-diffusion-based recommendation algorithms on bipartite network provide an efficient solution by automatically pushing possible relevant items to users according to their past preferences. However, traditional mass-diffusion-based algorithms just focus on unidirectional mass diffusion from objects having been collected to those which should be recommended, resulting in a biased causal similarity estimation and not-so-good performance. In this letter, we argue that in many cases, a user's interests are stable, and thus bidirectional mass diffusion abilities, no matter originated from objects having been collected or from those which should be recommended, should be consistently powerful, showing unbiased consistence. We further propose a consistence-based mass diffusion algorithm via bidirectional diffusion against biased causality, outperforming the state-of-the-art recommendation algorithms in disparate real data sets, including Netflix, MovieLens, Amazon and Rate Your Music.

  11. Travel Recommendations for the Nursing Mother

    MedlinePlus

    ... Physical Activity Overweight & Obesity Healthy Weight Breastfeeding Micronutrient Malnutrition State and Local Programs Travel Recommendations for the ... Physical Activity Overweight & Obesity Healthy Weight Breastfeeding Micronutrient Malnutrition State and Local Programs File Formats Help: How ...

  12. Voltage-clearance recommendations for printed boards

    SciTech Connect

    Jennings, C W; Cave, G; Evans, A; Harrington, D J; Kirchenbaum, J; Martz, R E; Mierendorf, R C; Smith, G A

    1980-01-01

    Present and future trends in printed board designs point to higher circuit densities with narrower lines and closer spacings. Some designers are now laying out boards with 0.13 mm lines and spacings. The reduction of nominal spacing between conductive elements has raised questions concerning the adequacy of present voltage-clearance recommendations. The present recommendations are considered too conservative in that they are weighted with large safety factors, especially for small clearances, and are frequently disregarded by many designers. Published voltage breakdown measurements made on printed boards with comb patterns with their enhanced conductor test lengths show breakdowns occurring at much higher voltages than those specified for the clearances in existing documents. A Task Group was set up to review published breakdown measurements and to make any additional measurements necessary to provide voltage-clearance recommendations. These recommendations are reported.

  13. Potosi Reservoir Modeling; History and Recommendations

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, Valerie; Leetaru, Hannes

    2014-09-30

    from using data from a single well in 2010 to the inclusion of data from three wells in 2013 which largely leverage the porosity and permeability logs plus knowledge of lost circulation zones. The first Potosi model (Potosi Geobody Model 2010) attempted to use the available seismic inversion data to inform the geomodel and predict vugular zones in advance of drilling VW1. Lost circulation zones in VW1 came in as the geologists predicted. The model was not implemented in subsequent simulation work. To date, reservoir models used for flow simulation work have relied predominately on Gaussian distributed properties (porosity and permeability) and have employed a single injection well. Potosi Model 2013b incorporated the new VW2 logs, and exhibited an extra level of sophistication by delineating the vugular intervals. This method added further realism that likely represents the best reservoir approximation to date. Where the 2010 reservoir models were 10 by 10 mi (16 by 16 km) in area, the 2013 models were expanded in size to 30 by 30 mi (48 by 48 km). The latest reservoir simulations show that a minimum of four injectors might be required to meet target injection rates. Still, there is data that requires further scrutiny and modeling methodologies that require testing for the Potosi Formation. This work is currently ongoing, and the next phase of the reservoir modeling intends to implement valuable data like porosity derived from seismic inversion, seismically derived geobodies, or a combination of both to further define vugular zones and the porosity distribution within the Potosi Formation. Understanding the dual porosity, dual permeability character of the Potosi remains the greatest challenge in representing this formation. Further analysis of the FMI* fullbore formation microimager data may aid in assessing this uncertainty. The Potosi Formation is indeed an interesting formation, and recommendations to further characterize it are included in the following list

  14. A recommender system for prostate cancer websites.

    PubMed

    Witteman, Holly; Chignell, Mark; Krahn, Murray

    2008-01-01

    One of the challenges for people seeking health information online is the difficulty in locating health Websites that are personally relevant, credible and useful. We developed a Web-based recommender system in order to help address this problem in the context of prostate cancer. We are conducting an online randomized controlled trial to evaluate the accuracy of its recommendations and to compare the efficacy of content-based and collaborative filtering. PMID:18999034

  15. Biological Contamination of Mars: Issues and Recommendations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    The ad hoc Task Group on Planetary Protection formed by the Space Studies Board (SSB) of the National Research Council focused on making recommendations concerning the protection of Mars from forward contamination (i.e., Earth to Mars) during upcoming missions by both the United States and the former Soviet Union. In so doing, it distinguished between missions whose goals include reconnaissance and measurement and those that specifically include experiments to detect life. The task group also discussed what additional knowledge will be needed in order to assure that future recommendations regarding contamination of Earth from Mars might be made with a higher degree of certainty than is now possible. Following a short introduction to the rationale underlying planetary exploration (Chapter 1) is a brief summary of approved and contemplated missions to Mars (Chapter 2). Chapter 3 briefly reviews the state of knowledge in several areas pertinent to the problem of planetary protection, in the limits of life on Earth and the abilities of known terrestrial organisms to withstand extreme environment conditions, as well as new approaches to detecting life forms. Chapter 5 includes a review and comments (made in light of current knowledge)- on the recommendations made in 'Recommendations on Quarantine Policy for Mars, Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, Neptune, and Titan'. Updates to the recommendations made in 1978 are also given in Chapter 5. Chapter 6 gives additional recommendations concerning collection of essential data, spacecraft sterilization and bioburden assessment, and future research, as well as legal and social issues and NASA's overall planetary protection program.

  16. Standards of Evidence for Behavioral Counseling Recommendations.

    PubMed

    McNellis, Robert J; Ory, Marcia G; Lin, Jennifer S; O'Connor, Elizabeth A

    2015-09-01

    Behavioral counseling interventions to promote healthy behaviors can significantly reduce leading causes of disease and death. Recommendations for delivery of these interventions in primary care have been and continue to be an important part of the U.S. Preventive Services Task Force's portfolio of clinical preventive services recommendations. However, primary and secondary research on the effectiveness of behavioral counseling interventions can be more complex than recommendations for screening or use of preventive medications. The nature of behavior change and interventions to promote it can lead to unique challenges. This paper summarizes and expands upon an extensive discussion held at the U.S. Preventive Services Task Force's Expert Forum on behavioral counseling interventions held in November 2013. The paper describes the foundational challenges for using behavioral outcomes as evidence to support a Task Force recommendation. The paper discusses research design and reporting characteristics needed by behavioral counseling intervention researchers in order for their research to contribute to the evidentiary basis of a Task Force recommendation. Finally, the paper identifies critical issues that need to be considered by the Task Force and other stakeholders to maintain confidence and credibility in the standards of evidence for behavioral counseling recommendations. PMID:26296549

  17. Recommendations for reducing ambiguity in written procedures.

    SciTech Connect

    Matzen, Laura E.

    2009-11-01

    Previous studies in the nuclear weapons complex have shown that ambiguous work instructions (WIs) and operating procedures (OPs) can lead to human error, which is a major cause for concern. This report outlines some of the sources of ambiguity in written English and describes three recommendations for reducing ambiguity in WIs and OPs. The recommendations are based on commonly used research techniques in the fields of linguistics and cognitive psychology. The first recommendation is to gather empirical data that can be used to improve the recommended word lists that are provided to technical writers. The second recommendation is to have a review in which new WIs and OPs and checked for ambiguities and clarity. The third recommendation is to use self-paced reading time studies to identify any remaining ambiguities before the new WIs and OPs are put into use. If these three steps are followed for new WIs and OPs, the likelihood of human errors related to ambiguity could be greatly reduced.

  18. Revisiting the NIOSH Criteria for a Recommended Standard: Occupational Noise Exposure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murphy, William J.; Franks, John R.

    2002-05-01

    In 1998, the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) revised the Criteria for a Recommended Standard: Occupational Noise Exposure [DHHS (NIOSH) Publication No. 98-126]. NIOSH reevaluated the recommended exposure limit (REL) for occupational noise exposure and reaffirms support for 85-dBA REL. Based upon scientific evidence, NIOSH recommends a 3-dB exchange rate. NIOSH recommends that significant threshold shift be identified as an increase of 15 dB in the hearing threshold level at 500, 1000, 2000, 3000, 4000, or 6000 Hz in either ear, with two consecutive audiometric tests. The new criterion has the advantages of a high identification rate and a low false-positive rate. In contrast with the former 1972 criterion, NIOSH no longer recommends age correction on individual audiograms. NIOSH has revisited its recommendations on the using of single-number laboratory-derived Noise Reduction Rating (NRR) required by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency for labeling of hearing protectors sold within the United States. In 1972, NIOSH recommended the use of the full NRR value; however, the new criterion recommends derating the NRR by 25%, 50%, and 70% for earmuffs, formable earplugs, and all other earplugs, respectively. This presentation will compare and contrast current regulations against the NIOSH recommendations.

  19. What's the Value in Value-Added?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duffrin, Elizabeth

    2011-01-01

    A growing number of school districts are adopting "value-added" measures of teaching quality to award bonuses or even tenure. And two competitive federal grants are spurring them on. Districts using value-added data are encouraged by the results. But researchers who support value-added measures advise caution. The ratings, which use a statistical…

  20. Clarifying values: an updated review

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Consensus guidelines have recommended that decision aids include a process for helping patients clarify their values. We sought to examine the theoretical and empirical evidence related to the use of values clarification methods in patient decision aids. Methods Building on the International Patient Decision Aid Standards (IPDAS) Collaboration’s 2005 review of values clarification methods in decision aids, we convened a multi-disciplinary expert group to examine key definitions, decision-making process theories, and empirical evidence about the effects of values clarification methods in decision aids. To summarize the current state of theory and evidence about the role of values clarification methods in decision aids, we undertook a process of evidence review and summary. Results Values clarification methods (VCMs) are best defined as methods to help patients think about the desirability of options or attributes of options within a specific decision context, in order to identify which option he/she prefers. Several decision making process theories were identified that can inform the design of values clarification methods, but no single “best” practice for how such methods should be constructed was determined. Our evidence review found that existing VCMs were used for a variety of different decisions, rarely referenced underlying theory for their design, but generally were well described in regard to their development process. Listing the pros and cons of a decision was the most common method used. The 13 trials that compared decision support with or without VCMs reached mixed results: some found that VCMs improved some decision-making processes, while others found no effect. Conclusions Values clarification methods may improve decision-making processes and potentially more distal outcomes. However, the small number of evaluations of VCMs and, where evaluations exist, the heterogeneity in outcome measures makes it difficult to determine their

  1. [Immunisation schedule of the Spanish Association of Paediatrics: 2014 recommendations].

    PubMed

    Moreno-Pérez, D; Alvarez García, F J; Arístegui Fernández, J; Cilleruelo Ortega, M J; Corretger Rauet, J M; García Sánchez, N; Hernández Merino, A; Hernández-Sampelayo Matos, T; Merino Moína, M; Ortigosa Del Castillo, L; Ruiz-Contreras, J

    2014-01-01

    The Advisory Committee on Vaccines of the Spanish Association of Paediatrics (CAV-AEP) updates the immunisation schedule every year, taking into account epidemiological data as well as evidence on safety, effectiveness and efficiency of vaccines. The present schedule includes levels of recommendation. We have graded, as routine vaccinations, those that the CAV-AEP consider all children should receive; as recommended those that fit the profile for universal childhood immunisation and would ideally be given to all children, but that can be prioritised according to the resources available for their public funding; and as risk group vaccinations those that specifically target individuals in special situations. Immunisation schedules tend to be dynamic and adaptable to ongoing epidemiological changes. Based on the latest epidemiological trends, CAV-AEP recommends the administration of the first dose of MMR and varicella vaccines at age 12 months, with the second dose at age 2-3 years; the administration of DTaP or Tdap vaccine at age 4-6 years, always followed by another Tdap dose at 11-12 years; and the three meningococcal C scheme at 2 months, 12 months and 12 years of age. It reasserts its recommendation to include vaccination against pneumococcal disease in the routine immunisation schedule. The CAV-AEP believes that the coverage of vaccination against human papillomavirus in girls aged 11-12 years must be increased. Universal vaccination against varicella in the second year of life is an effective strategy, and the immediate public availability of the vaccine is requested in order to guarantee the right of healthy children to be vaccinated. Vaccination against rotavirus is recommended in all infants due to the morbidity and elevated healthcare burden of the virus. The Committee stresses the need to vaccinate population groups considered at risk against influenza and hepatitis A. The recently authorised meningococcal B vaccine has opened a chapter of hope in the

  2. Values for Educational Leadership

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haydon, Graham

    2007-01-01

    What are values? Where do our values come from? How do our values make a difference in education? For educational leaders to achieve distinction in their practice, it is vital to establish clear personal values rather than reacting to the implicit values of others. This engaging book guides readers in considering the values they bring to their…

  3. The Value of Reciprocity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Molm, Linda D.; Schaefer, David R.; Collett, Jessica L.

    2007-01-01

    The value of reciprocity in social exchange potentially comprises both instrumental value (the value of the actual benefits received from exchange) and communicative or symbolic value (the expressive and uncertainty reduction value conveyed by features of the act of reciprocity itself). While all forms of exchange provide instrumental value, we…

  4. Pharmacoinformatics elucidation of potential drug targets against migraine to target ion channel protein KCNK18.

    PubMed

    Sehgal, Sheikh Arslan; Hassan, Mubashir; Rashid, Sajid

    2014-01-01

    Migraine, a complex debilitating neurological disorder is strongly associated with potassium channel subfamily K member 18 (KCNK18). Research has emphasized that high levels of KCNK18 may be responsible for improper functioning of neurotransmitters, resulting in neurological disorders like migraine. In the present study, a hybrid approach of molecular docking and virtual screening were followed by pharmacophore identification and structure modeling. Screening was performed using a two-dimensional similarity search against recommended migraine drugs, keeping in view the physicochemical properties of drugs. LigandScout tool was used for exploring pharmacophore properties and designing novel molecules. Here, we report the screening of four novel compounds that have showed maximum binding affinity against KCNK18, obtained through the ZINC database, and Drug and Drug-Like libraries. Docking studies revealed that Asp-46, Ile-324, Ile-44, Gly-118, Leu-338, Val-113, and Phe-41 are critical residues for receptor-ligand interaction. A virtual screening approach coupled with docking energies and druglikeness rules illustrated that ergotamine and PB-414901692 are potential inhibitor compounds for targeting KCNK18. We propose that selected compounds may be more potent than the previously listed drug analogs based on the binding energy values. Further analysis of these inhibitors through site-directed mutagenesis could be helpful for exploring the details of ligand-binding pockets. Overall, the findings of this study may be helpful for designing novel therapeutic targets to cure migraine. PMID:24899801

  5. Pharmacoinformatics elucidation of potential drug targets against migraine to target ion channel protein KCNK18

    PubMed Central

    Sehgal, Sheikh Arslan; Hassan, Mubashir; Rashid, Sajid

    2014-01-01

    Migraine, a complex debilitating neurological disorder is strongly associated with potassium channel subfamily K member 18 (KCNK18). Research has emphasized that high levels of KCNK18 may be responsible for improper functioning of neurotransmitters, resulting in neurological disorders like migraine. In the present study, a hybrid approach of molecular docking and virtual screening were followed by pharmacophore identification and structure modeling. Screening was performed using a two-dimensional similarity search against recommended migraine drugs, keeping in view the physicochemical properties of drugs. LigandScout tool was used for exploring pharmacophore properties and designing novel molecules. Here, we report the screening of four novel compounds that have showed maximum binding affinity against KCNK18, obtained through the ZINC database, and Drug and Drug-Like libraries. Docking studies revealed that Asp-46, Ile-324, Ile-44, Gly-118, Leu-338, Val-113, and Phe-41 are critical residues for receptor–ligand interaction. A virtual screening approach coupled with docking energies and druglikeness rules illustrated that ergotamine and PB-414901692 are potential inhibitor compounds for targeting KCNK18. We propose that selected compounds may be more potent than the previously listed drug analogs based on the binding energy values. Further analysis of these inhibitors through site-directed mutagenesis could be helpful for exploring the details of ligand-binding pockets. Overall, the findings of this study may be helpful for designing novel therapeutic targets to cure migraine. PMID:24899801

  6. A guide for health professionals to interpret and use recommendations in guidelines developed with the GRADE approach.

    PubMed

    Neumann, Ignacio; Santesso, Nancy; Akl, Elie A; Rind, David M; Vandvik, Per Olav; Alonso-Coello, Pablo; Agoritsas, Thomas; Mustafa, Reem A; Alexander, Paul Elias; Schünemann, Holger; Guyatt, Gordon H

    2016-04-01

    An increasing number of organizations worldwide are using new and improved standards for developing trustworthy clinical guidelines. One of such approaches, developed by the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development, and Evaluation (GRADE) working group, offers systematic and transparent guidance in moving from evidence to recommendations. The GRADE strategy concentrates on four factors: the balance between benefits and harms, the certainty of the evidence, values and preferences, and resource considerations. However, it also considers issues around feasibility, equity, and acceptability of recommendations. GRADE distinguishes two types of recommendations: strong and weak. Strong recommendations reflect a clear preference for one alternative and should apply to all or almost all patients, obviating the need for a careful review of the evidence with each patient. Weak recommendations are appropriate when there is a close balance between desirable and undesirable consequences of alternative management strategies, uncertainty regarding the effects of the alternatives, uncertainty or variability in patients' values and preferences, or questionable cost-effectiveness. Weak recommendations usually require accessing the underlying evidence and a shared decision-making approach. Clinicians using GRADE recommendations should understand the meaning of the strength of the recommendation, be able to critically appraise the recommendation, and apply trustworthy recommendations according to their strength. PMID:26772609

  7. Recommendations on Model Fidelity for Wind Turbine Gearbox Simulations: Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Guo, Y.; Keller, J.; La Cava, W.; Austin, J.; Nejad, A. R.; Halse, C.; Bastard, L.; Helsen, J.

    2015-01-01

    This work investigates the minimum level of fidelity required to accurately simulate wind turbine gearboxes using state-of-the-art design tools. Excessive model fidelity including drivetrain complexity, gearbox complexity, excitation sources, and imperfections, significantly increases computational time, but may not provide a commensurate increase in the value of the results. Essential design parameters are evaluated, including the planetary load-sharing factor, gear tooth load distribution, and sun orbit motion. Based on the sensitivity study results, recommendations for the minimum model fidelities are provided.

  8. Toxicity considerations when revising the Nordic nutrition recommendations.

    PubMed

    Sandström, B

    1998-02-01

    The Nordic countries have issued common nutrition recommendations since 1980. In connection with the 3rd revision, a joint working group of nutritionists and toxicologists assessed the toxicology of selected trace elements. Values for upper limits of intake were established for iron, zinc, iodine and selenium. The safety factors between the lowest intakes at which adverse effects had been reported and the suggested upper limits of intake were small. In the toxicological evaluation of upper safe intake levels of essential trace elements, interactions between trace elements as well as long-term exposure to moderately elevated trace element intakes have to be considered. PMID:9478028

  9. Creating More Credible and Persuasive Recommender Systems: The Influence of Source Characteristics on Recommender System Evaluations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoo, Kyung-Hyan; Gretzel, Ulrike

    Whether users are likely to accept the recommendations provided by a recommender system is of utmost importance to system designers and the marketers who implement them. By conceptualizing the advice seeking and giving relationship as a fundamentally social process, important avenues for understanding the persuasiveness of recommender systems open up. Specifically, research regarding the influence of source characteristics, which is abundant in the context of humanhuman relationships, can provide an important framework for identifying potential influence factors. This chapter reviews the existing literature on source characteristics in the context of human-human, human-computer, and human-recommender system interactions. It concludes that many social cues that have been identified as influential in other contexts have yet to be implemented and tested with respect to recommender systems. Implications for recommender system research and design are discussed.

  10. Target fragmentation in radiobiology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, John W.; Cucinotta, Francis A.; Shinn, Judy L.; Townsend, Lawrence W.

    1993-01-01

    Nuclear reactions in biological systems produce low-energy fragments of the target nuclei seen as local high events of linear energy transfer (LET). A nuclear-reaction formalism is used to evaluate the nuclear-induced fields within biosystems and their effects within several biological models. On the basis of direct ionization interaction, one anticipates high-energy protons to have a quality factor and relative biological effectiveness (RBE) of unity. Target fragmentation contributions raise the effective quality factor of 10 GeV protons to 3.3 in reasonable agreement with RBE values for induced micronuclei in bean sprouts. Application of the Katz model indicates that the relative increase in RBE with decreasing exposure observed in cell survival experiments with 160 MeV protons is related solely to target fragmentation events. Target fragment contributions to lens opacity given an RBE of 1.4 for 2 GeV protons in agreement with the work of Lett and Cox. Predictions are made for the effective RBE for Harderian gland tumors induced by high-energy protons. An exposure model for lifetime cancer risk is derived from NCRP 98 risk tables, and protraction effects are examined for proton and helium ion exposures. The implications of dose rate enhancement effects on space radiation protection are considered.

  11. Mutation based treatment recommendations from next generation sequencing data: a comparison of web tools

    PubMed Central

    Patel, Jaymin M.; Knopf, Joshua; Reiner, Eric; Bossuyt, Veerle; Epstein, Lianne; DiGiovanna, Michael; Chung, Gina; Silber, Andrea; Sanft, Tara; Hofstatter, Erin; Mougalian, Sarah; Abu-Khalaf, Maysa; Platt, James; Shi, Weiwei; Gershkovich, Peter; Hatzis, Christos; Pusztai, Lajos

    2016-01-01

    Interpretation of complex cancer genome data, generated by tumor target profiling platforms, is key for the success of personalized cancer therapy. How to draw therapeutic conclusions from tumor profiling results is not standardized and may vary among commercial and academically-affiliated recommendation tools. We performed targeted sequencing of 315 genes from 75 metastatic breast cancer biopsies using the FoundationOne assay. Results were run through 4 different web tools including the Drug-Gene Interaction Database (DGidb), My Cancer Genome (MCG), Personalized Cancer Therapy (PCT), and cBioPortal, for drug and clinical trial recommendations. These recommendations were compared amongst each other and to those provided by FoundationOne. The identification of a gene as targetable varied across the different recommendation sources. Only 33% of cases had 4 or more sources recommend the same drug for at least one of the usually several altered genes found in tumor biopsies. These results indicate further development and standardization of broadly applicable software tools that assist in our therapeutic interpretation of genomic data is needed. Existing algorithms for data acquisition, integration and interpretation will likely need to incorporate artificial intelligence tools to improve both content and real-time status. PMID:26980737

  12. Mutation based treatment recommendations from next generation sequencing data: a comparison of web tools.

    PubMed

    Patel, Jaymin M; Knopf, Joshua; Reiner, Eric; Bossuyt, Veerle; Epstein, Lianne; DiGiovanna, Michael; Chung, Gina; Silber, Andrea; Sanft, Tara; Hofstatter, Erin; Mougalian, Sarah; Abu-Khalaf, Maysa; Platt, James; Shi, Weiwei; Gershkovich, Peter; Hatzis, Christos; Pusztai, Lajos

    2016-04-19

    Interpretation of complex cancer genome data, generated by tumor target profiling platforms, is key for the success of personalized cancer therapy. How to draw therapeutic conclusions from tumor profiling results is not standardized and may vary among commercial and academically-affiliated recommendation tools. We performed targeted sequencing of 315 genes from 75 metastatic breast cancer biopsies using the FoundationOne assay. Results were run through 4 different web tools including the Drug-Gene Interaction Database (DGidb), My Cancer Genome (MCG), Personalized Cancer Therapy (PCT), and cBioPortal, for drug and clinical trial recommendations. These recommendations were compared amongst each other and to those provided by FoundationOne. The identification of a gene as targetable varied across the different recommendation sources. Only 33% of cases had 4 or more sources recommend the same drug for at least one of the usually several altered genes found in tumor biopsies. These results indicate further development and standardization of broadly applicable software tools that assist in our therapeutic interpretation of genomic data is needed. Existing algorithms for data acquisition, integration and interpretation will likely need to incorporate artificial intelligence tools to improve both content and real-time status. PMID:26980737

  13. Recommendations for damping and treatment of modeling uncertainty in seismic analysis of CANDU nuclear power plant

    SciTech Connect

    Usmani, S.A.; Baughman, P.D.

    1996-12-01

    The seismic analysis of the CANDU nuclear power plant is governed by Canadian Standard series N289. However, the dynamic analysis of some equipment and system such as the CANDU reactor and fueling machine must treat unique components not directly covered by the broad recommendations of these standards. This paper looks at the damping values and treatment of modeling uncertainty recommended by CSA N289.3, the current state of knowledge and expert opinion as reflected in several current standards, testing results, and the unique aspects of the CANDU system. Damping values are recommended for the component parts of the CANDU reactor and fueling machine system: reactor building, calandria vault, calandria, fuel channel, pressure tube, fueling machine and support structure. Recommendations for treatment of modeling and other uncertainties are also presented.

  14. The Power of Ground User in Recommender Systems

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Yanbo; Lü, Linyuan; Liu, Weiping; Zhang, Jianlin

    2013-01-01

    Accuracy and diversity are two important aspects to evaluate the performance of recommender systems. Two diffusion-based methods were proposed respectively inspired by the mass diffusion (MD) and heat conduction (HC) processes on networks. It has been pointed out that MD has high recommendation accuracy yet low diversity, while HC succeeds in seeking out novel or niche items but with relatively low accuracy. The accuracy-diversity dilemma is a long-term challenge in recommender systems. To solve this problem, we introduced a background temperature by adding a ground user who connects to all the items in the user-item bipartite network. Performing the HC algorithm on the network with ground user (GHC), it showed that the accuracy can be largely improved while keeping the diversity. Furthermore, we proposed a weighted form of the ground user (WGHC) by assigning some weights to the newly added links between the ground user and the items. By turning the weight as a free parameter, an optimal value subject to the highest accuracy is obtained. Experimental results on three benchmark data sets showed that the WGHC outperforms the state-of-the-art method MD for both accuracy and diversity. PMID:23936380

  15. The power of ground user in recommender systems.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Yanbo; Lü, Linyuan; Liu, Weiping; Zhang, Jianlin

    2013-01-01

    Accuracy and diversity are two important aspects to evaluate the performance of recommender systems. Two diffusion-based methods were proposed respectively inspired by the mass diffusion (MD) and heat conduction (HC) processes on networks. It has been pointed out that MD has high recommendation accuracy yet low diversity, while HC succeeds in seeking out novel or niche items but with relatively low accuracy. The accuracy-diversity dilemma is a long-term challenge in recommender systems. To solve this problem, we introduced a background temperature by adding a ground user who connects to all the items in the user-item bipartite network. Performing the HC algorithm on the network with ground user (GHC), it showed that the accuracy can be largely improved while keeping the diversity. Furthermore, we proposed a weighted form of the ground user (WGHC) by assigning some weights to the newly added links between the ground user and the items. By turning the weight as a free parameter, an optimal value subject to the highest accuracy is obtained. Experimental results on three benchmark data sets showed that the WGHC outperforms the state-of-the-art method MD for both accuracy and diversity. PMID:23936380

  16. Streamline and Improve the Targeting of Education Tax Benefits

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Institute for College Access & Success, 2014

    2014-01-01

    This one-page document presents The Institute for College Access & Success' (TICAS') recommendations for ways to improve the targeting of higher education tax benefits. The TICAS white paper, "Aligning the Means and the Ends: How to Improve Federal Student Aid and Increase College Access and Success," recommends almost entirely…

  17. Recommended values of the thermophysical properties of eight alloys, their major constituents and oxides

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Touloukian, Y. S.

    1967-01-01

    Reference work provides in tabular and graphical form the thermophysical properties of basic alloys, their constituents and oxides. This is useful for personnel who deal with extreme temperature environments.

  18. COMPARING THE RECOMMENDED DIETARY ALLOWANCE TO TOXICITY VALUES FOR ZN, SE, MN, AND MB

    EPA Science Inventory

    Certain essential nutrients can be toxic when ingested at dosages higher than the daily nutritional requirement. Research data for the essential trace elements, zinc, selenium, manganese and molybdenum have been reviewed by various government agencies for both their nutritional n...

  19. [Recommendations for palivizumab use. Update 2015].

    PubMed

    Fernández Jonusas, Silvia; Albas Maubett, Deleys; Satragno, Daniela; Cattaino, Adriana; Martin Alonso, Margarita; Rubio, Cecilia; Nieto, Ricardo

    2016-02-01

    This recommendation updates the Argentinean Pediatrics' Neonatal Committee (CEFEN) ones published in 2007. The respiratory syncytial virus is the most frequent agent for lower respiratory infection. Tiny premature, bronchopulmonary dysplasia and significant hemodynamic congenital heart disease babies are the most vulnerable populations. Palivizumab is a humanized monoclonal antibody against respiratory syncytial virus used in the cold season. These recommendations are based on the scientific review of the literature published up to date. We reinforce the importance of general prevention measures like hand hygiene and family education among others. During the predominant season of respiratory syncytial virus in our country (April to September) a monthly dose of intramuscular 15 mg/kg of palivizumab is recommended. The safety and effectiveness has been proved as well as a reduction in the hospitalizations rates. In addition, epidemiological data of previous years are provided here. PMID:26914078

  20. Nutrition recommendations and science: next parallel steps.

    PubMed

    Fogelholm, Mikael

    2016-03-15

    This article examines nutrition recommendations in relation to developments in nutrition science. Combining data on the genome, metabolome and microbiota is likely to open possibilities for personalized nutrition planning, but we are still far from practical applications. However, even these new steps are unlikely to challenge the role and importance of population-based nutrition recommendations as a tool to promote dietary patterns, policies and public health. Developments in science could help in deriving more benefits from nutrition recommendations. For instance, improved accuracy of dietary intake assessment is needed both for surveillance and for understanding the quantitative interplay between diet and health. Applying metabolomics together with food diaries or questionnaires, and also modern technologies such as digital photography, are potentially interesting methods in this respect. Research on consumer behaviour, attitudes and policy interventions, such as taxation of unhealthy foods and nutrition labelling, are needed to gain more insight into how to change eating behaviour for better health at the population level. PMID:26531226

  1. Patients Provide Recommendations for Improving Patient Satisfaction.

    PubMed

    Moore, Angelo D; Hamilton, Jill B; Krusel, Jessica L; Moore, LeeAntoinette G; Pierre-Louis, Bosny J

    2016-04-01

    National Committee for Quality Assurance recommends patient-centered medical homes incorporate input from patient populations; however, many health care organizations do not. This qualitative study used two open-ended questions from 148 active duty Army Soldiers and their family members to illicit recommendations for primary care providers and clinic leadership that would improve their health care experiences. Content analysis and descriptive statistics were used to analyze responses. Participant responses were related to four major themes: Access to Care, Interpersonal Interaction, Satisfaction of Care, and Quality of Care. Participants were overall satisfied with their care; however, spending less time waiting for appointments and to see the provider or specialist were the most frequently requested improvements related to Access to Care. For Interpersonal Interaction, 82% of the responses recommended that providers be more attentive listeners, courteous, patient, caring, and respectful. Decreasing wait times and improving interpersonal skills would improve health care experiences and patient satisfaction. PMID:27046182

  2. Implementing AORN recommended practices for electrosurgery.

    PubMed

    Spruce, Lisa; Braswell, Melanie L

    2012-03-01

    Technology is constantly changing, and it is important for perioperative nurses to stay current on new products and technologies in the perioperative setting. AORN's "Recommended practices for electrosurgery" addresses safety standards that all perioperative personnel should follow to minimize risks to both patients and staff members during the use of electrosurgical devices. Recommendations include how to select electrosurgical units and accessories for purchase, how to minimize the potential for patient and staff member injuries, what precautions to take during minimally invasive surgery, and how to avoid surgical smoke hazards. The recommendations also address education/competency, documentation, policies and procedures, and quality assurance/performance improvement. Perioperative nurses should consider the use of checklists and safety posters to remind staff members of the dangers of electrosurgery and the steps to take to minimize the risks for injury. PMID:22381556

  3. A Classification-based Review Recommender

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Mahony, Michael P.; Smyth, Barry

    Many online stores encourage their users to submit product/service reviews in order to guide future purchasing decisions. These reviews are often listed alongside product recommendations but, to date, limited attention has been paid as to how best to present these reviews to the end-user. In this paper, we describe a supervised classification approach that is designed to identify and recommend the most helpful product reviews. Using the TripAdvisor service as a case study, we compare the performance of several classification techniques using a range of features derived from hotel reviews. We then describe how these classifiers can be used as the basis for a practical recommender that automatically suggests the mosthelpful contrasting reviews to end-users. We present an empirical evaluation which shows that our approach achieves a statistically significant improvement over alternative review ranking schemes.

  4. Technology assessment of future intercity passenger transportation systems. Volume 7: Study recommendations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    Research and analysis tasks to alleviate negative impacts, to augment positive impacts, or to better understand the impacts produced by the potential introduction of the alternate transportation technologies are identified. The project team's recommendations on research and analysis efforts which have resulted from the technology assessment are provided. Many of the recommendations apply to the future supply of intercity passenger transportation services, categorized by mode. Other recommendations pertain to broad issues in intercity transportation--e.g., finance, regulation, traveler values--that will affect all modes.

  5. Twelve Recommendations for Strengthening Mathematics and Science Programs Serving a Diverse Population

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaser, Joyce S.

    2010-01-01

    Based on the data gathered and the interviews with administrators, the author makes the following suggestions. These twelve recommendations are targeted primarily toward educators wanting to strengthen their own mathematics and science offerings, possibly by establishing a school-within-a school or launching a charter school. The recommendations…

  6. 76 FR 39808 - International Fisheries; Pacific Tuna Fisheries; Recommendations Adopted by the Inter-American...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-07

    ... States implemented IATTC Resolution C-09-01 in November 2010 (74 FR 61046, November 23, 2009). Similar to... International Fisheries; Pacific Tuna Fisheries; Recommendations Adopted by the Inter-American Tropical Tuna... longline and purse seine fisheries targeting tuna and tuna-like species in the eastern Pacific Ocean...

  7. Elimination of Subjectivity from Trust Recommendation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hasan, Omar; Brunie, Lionel; Pierson, Jean-Marc; Bertino, Elisa

    In many distributed applications, a party who wishes to make a transaction requires that it has a certain level of trust in the other party. It is frequently the case that the parties are unknown to each other and thus share no pre-existing trust. Trust-based systems enable users to establish trust in unknown users through trust recommendation from known users. For example, Bob may choose to trust an unknown user Carol when he receives a recommendation from his friend Alice that Carol’s trustworthiness is 0.8 on the interval [0,1].

  8. GPS Integrity Channel RTCA Working Group recommendations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalafus, Rudolph M.

    Recommendations made by a working group established by the Radio Technical Commission for Aeronautics are presented for the design of a wide-area broadcast service to provide indications on the status of GPS satellites. The integrity channel requirements and operational goals are outlined. Six integrity channel system concepts are considered and system design and time-to-alarm considerations are examined. The recommended system includes the broadcast of a coarse range measurement for each satellite which will enable the on-board GPS receiver to determine whether or not the navigation accuracy is within prescribed limits.

  9. Redundant correlation effect on personalized recommendation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qiu, Tian; Han, Teng-Yue; Zhong, Li-Xin; Zhang, Zi-Ke; Chen, Guang

    2014-02-01

    The high-order redundant correlation effect is investigated for a hybrid algorithm of heat conduction and mass diffusion (HHM), through both heat conduction biased (HCB) and mass diffusion biased (MDB) correlation redundancy elimination processes. The HCB and MDB algorithms do not introduce any additional tunable parameters, but keep the simple character of the original HHM. Based on two empirical datasets, the Netflix and MovieLens, the HCB and MDB are found to show better recommendation accuracy for both the overall objects and the cold objects than the HHM algorithm. Our work suggests that properly eliminating the high-order redundant correlations can provide a simple and effective approach to accurate recommendation.

  10. [Bladder cancer: interpretation of international recommendations].

    PubMed

    Rivière, Adrien; Ploussard, Guillaume; Desgrandchamps, François

    2014-12-01

    European and North-American onco-urology guidelines represent a thorough synthesis of published scientific data regarding the diagnosis and the therapeutic management of bladder cancer. Even though they have the same bases, their goal is very different. North American recommendations exhaustively present the whole set of available diagnostic and therapeutic options; they apparently aim at defining and legitimizing them all. European recommendations offer a precise stratification of patients according to their prognosis and therefore propose a specific and oriented management/care. They are more guiding and favor a homogenization of the various practices. PMID:25668833

  11. 10 Practice Recommendations in Adult Vaccination Administration.

    PubMed

    Oldfield, Benjamin J; Stewart, Rosalyn W

    2016-02-01

    Although the provision of immunoprophylaxis to children has become routine in the practice of pediatric preventive care, the same is not true in adult primary care. Contributing to this problem is a lack of knowledge among providers of adult preventive care. This review aimed to bolster providers' understanding of adult vaccinations by highlighting changes in vaccination recommendations and addressing common knowledge gaps. This is not a comprehensive list of vaccination recommendations, but rather the "top 10" common misconceptions, advancements, and updates we have found in our reading of the vaccination literature and in our own experience in a training institution. PMID:26840962

  12. Recommendations from NASA's Operational and Research Musculoskeletal Summit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, J. A.; Johnson-Throop, K. A.; Scheuring, R. A.; Walton, M. E.; Davis-Street, J. E.; Smaka, T.; McCulley, P. A.; Jones, J. A.; Stokes, C. R.; Parker, K. K.; Wear, M.; Johnson-Throop, K. A.

    2006-01-01

    Introduction: Continuously evolving medical standards of care, limited crew training time, and the inherent constraints of space flight necessitate regular revisions of the mission medical support infrastructure and methodology. A three-day Operational and Research Musculoskeletal Summit was held to review NASA s current strategy for preflight health maintenance and injury screening, risk mitigation for musculoskeletal injuries or syndromes, treatment methods during flight, and research topics to mitigate risks to astronaut health. The Summit also undertook consideration of the best evidence-based terrestrial musculoskeletal practices to recommend their adaptation for use in space. Methods: The types and frequencies of musculoskeletal injuries sustained by short- and long-duration astronauts were obtained from the Longitudinal Study of Astronaut Health. The Summit panel was comprised of experts from the clinical and research communities, as well as representatives from NASA Headquarters, the Astronaut corps, and the offices of JSC Medical Operations, JSC Human Adaptation and Countermeasures, Glenn Research Center Human Research, and Astronaut Strength Conditioning and Rehabilitation. Before the summit, panelists participated in a Web-based review of NASA s Space Medical Conditions List (SMCL). Results: The Summit generated seventy-five operational and research recommendations to the NASA Office of Space Medicine, including changes to the SMCL and to the musculoskeletal section of the ISS debrief questionnaire. From these recommendations, seven were assigned highest value and priority, and could be immediately adopted for the exploration architecture. Discussion: Optimized exercise and conditioning to improve performance and forestall musculoskeletal damage on orbit were the primary area of focus. Special attention was paid to exercise timing and muscle group specificity. The panel s recommendations are currently in various stages of consideration or integration

  13. Maslow and Values Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farmer, Rodney

    1978-01-01

    Identifies major value bases which have been used to teach values in the classroom and outlines a values education program which stresses teaching about values without indoctrination. Based upon the hierarchy of human needs developed by psychologist Abraham Maslow, the program is based upon universal values, basic human needs, and recognition of…

  14. Targeting ion transport in cancer

    PubMed Central

    Oosterwijk, E.; Gillies, R. J.

    2014-01-01

    The metabolism of cancer cells differs substantially from normal cells, including ion transport. Although this phenomenon has been long recognized, ion transporters have not been viewed as suitable therapeutic targets. However, the acidic pH values present in tumours which are well outside of normal limits are now becoming recognized as an important therapeutic target. Carbonic anhydrase IX (CAIX) is fundamental to tumour pH regulation. CAIX is commonly expressed in cancer, but lowly expressed in normal tissues and that presents an attractive target. Here, we discuss the possibilities of exploiting the acidic, hypoxic tumour environment as possible target for therapy. Additionally, clinical experience with CAIX targeting in cancer patients is discussed. PMID:24493755

  15. Challenges in harmonizing energy and nutrient recommendations in Europe.

    PubMed

    Pavlovic, Mirjana; Prentice, Ann; Thorsdottir, Inga; Wolfram, Gunther; Branca, Francesco

    2007-01-01

    At the present time, there is considerable diversity in the dietary reference values and recommendations used across Europe, both in terms of terminology and guideline values. Harmonization of dietary reference values would be beneficial in simplifying nutritional policy, trade, and public understanding of diet and health issues. However, this is not a simple task because of the differences in methodological approaches adopted and the assumptions made. In addition, there are genuine differences in diet, lifestyle and geography that may necessitate retaining variation in some dietary reference values between European nations. The complexities of harmonization were discussed at a recent symposium held under the auspices of the Federation of European Nutrition Societies (FENS). This provided overviews of the different terminologies currently in use, of the variations in reference values for children and adolescents, and of the disparities between different groups of countries in Europe. The symposium hosted by FENS provided a forum to exchange views and to consider the steps that will be needed if harmonization is to be realized in the future. A summary of the presentations and conclusions is presented here. PMID:17489023

  16. Soft Regulation with Crowd Recommendation: Coordinating Self-Interested Agents in Sociotechnical Systems under Imperfect Information

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Regulating emerging industries is challenging, even controversial at times. Under-regulation can result in safety threats to plant personnel, surrounding communities, and the environment. Over-regulation may hinder innovation, progress, and economic growth. Since one typically has limited understanding of, and experience with, the novel technology in practice, it is difficult to accomplish a properly balanced regulation. In this work, we propose a control and coordination policy called soft regulation that attempts to strike the right balance and create a collective learning environment. In soft regulation mechanism, individual agents can accept, reject, or partially accept the regulator’s recommendation. This non-intrusive coordination does not interrupt normal operations. The extent to which an agent accepts the recommendation is mediated by a confidence level (from 0 to 100%). Among all possible recommendation methods, we investigate two in particular: the best recommendation wherein the regulator is completely informed and the crowd recommendation wherein the regulator collects the crowd’s average and recommends that value. We show by analysis and simulations that soft regulation with crowd recommendation performs well. It converges to optimum, and is as good as the best recommendation for a wide range of confidence levels. This work sheds a new theoretical perspective on the concept of the wisdom of crowds. PMID:26977699

  17. Soft Regulation with Crowd Recommendation: Coordinating Self-Interested Agents in Sociotechnical Systems under Imperfect Information.

    PubMed

    Luo, Yu; Iyengar, Garud; Venkatasubramanian, Venkat

    2016-01-01

    Regulating emerging industries is challenging, even controversial at times. Under-regulation can result in safety threats to plant personnel, surrounding communities, and the environment. Over-regulation may hinder innovation, progress, and economic growth. Since one typically has limited understanding of, and experience with, the novel technology in practice, it is difficult to accomplish a properly balanced regulation. In this work, we propose a control and coordination policy called soft regulation that attempts to strike the right balance and create a collective learning environment. In soft regulation mechanism, individual agents can accept, reject, or partially accept the regulator's recommendation. This non-intrusive coordination does not interrupt normal operations. The extent to which an agent accepts the recommendation is mediated by a confidence level (from 0 to 100%). Among all possible recommendation methods, we investigate two in particular: the best recommendation wherein the regulator is completely informed and the crowd recommendation wherein the regulator collects the crowd's average and recommends that value. We show by analysis and simulations that soft regulation with crowd recommendation performs well. It converges to optimum, and is as good as the best recommendation for a wide range of confidence levels. This work sheds a new theoretical perspective on the concept of the wisdom of crowds. PMID:26977699

  18. Method and system of filtering and recommending documents

    DOEpatents

    Patton, Robert M.; Potok, Thomas E.

    2016-02-09

    Disclosed is a method and system for discovering documents using a computer and providing a small set of the most relevant documents to the attention of a human observer. Using the method, the computer obtains a seed document from the user and generates a seed document vector using term frequency-inverse corpus frequency weighting. A keyword index for a plurality of source documents can be compared with the weighted terms of the seed document vector. The comparison is then filtered to reduce the number of documents, which define an initial subset of the source documents. Initial subset vectors are generated and compared to the seed document vector to obtain a similarity value for each comparison. Based on the similarity value, the method then recommends one or more of the source documents.

  19. Whole-grain dietary recommendations: the need for a unified global approach.

    PubMed

    Seal, Chris J; Nugent, Anne P; Tee, E-Siong; Thielecke, Frank

    2016-06-01

    Increased whole-grain (WG) consumption reduces the risk of CVD, type 2 diabetes and some cancers, is related to reduced body weight and weight gain and is related to improved intestinal health. Definitions of 'WG' and 'WG food' are proposed and used in some countries but are not consistent. Many countries promote WG consumption, but the emphasis given and the messages used vary. We surveyed dietary recommendations of fifty-three countries for mentions of WG to assess the extent, rationale and diversity in emphasis and wording of any recommendations. If present, recommendations were classified as either 'primary', where the recommendation was specific for WG, or 'secondary', where recommendations were made in order to achieve another (primary) target, most often dietary fibre intake. In total, 127 organisations were screened, including government, non-governmental organisations, charities and professional bodies, the WHO and European Food Safety Authority, of which forty-nine including WHO provide a WG intake recommendation. Recommendations ranged from 'specific' with specified target amounts (e.g. x g WG/d), 'semi-quantitative' where intake was linked to intake of cereal/carbohydrate foods with proportions of WG suggested (e.g. x servings of cereals of which y servings should be WG) to 'non-specific' based on 'eating more' WG or 'choosing WG where possible'. This lack of a harmonised message may result in confusion for the consumer, lessen the impact of public health messages and pose barriers to trade in the food industry. A science-based consensus or expert opinion on WG recommendations is needed, with a global reach to guide public health decision making and increase WG consumption globally. PMID:27082494

  20. Clinical Recommendations in Medical Practice: A Proposed Framework to Reduce Bias and Improve the Quality of Medical Decisions.

    PubMed

    Alfandre, David

    2016-01-01

    Patients rely on, benefit from, and are strongly influenced by physicians' recommendations. In spite of the centrality and importance of physicians' recommendations to clinical care, there is only a scant literature describing the conceptual process of forming a clinical recommendation, and no discrete professional standards for making individual clinical recommendations. Evidence-based medicine and shared decision making together are intended to improve medical decision making, but there has been limited attention to how a recommendation is discretely formulated from either of those processes or how patients' preferences ought to be considered and how much weight they should hold. Moreover, physicians' bias has been reported to strongly influence how a recommendation is derived, thereby undermining the quality of healthcare decisions and patients' trust. To demonstrate a potential for improving the quality of decisions, this article proposes a conceptual framework for how physicians should reach a clinical recommendation and apply the process in practice. For preference-sensitive clinical decisions-that is, clinical decisions when patients' values and preferences are relevant-the process for reaching a recommendation should be transparent to patients and should be based solely on the medical evidence and patients' values and preferences. When patients' preferences for care do not prioritize health, physicians decide whether their recommendation will prioritize a welfare-enhancing versus an autonomy-enhancing approach. When there are gaps in understanding how physicians derive their clinical recommendations and how to further improve the quality of the decisions, the author calls for further empiric research. PMID:27045301

  1. 77 FR 47800 - Adoption of Recommendations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-10

    ...\\ See generally Exec. Order No. 12,866, 58 FR 51735 (Oct. 4, 1993). Independent regulatory agencies, as.... Order No. 13,132, 64 FR 43255 (Aug. 10, 1999). \\4\\ See generally Exec. Order No. 12,630, 53 FR 8859 (Mar... Rules, 50 FR 28364 (July 12, 1985) (preamble). Specifically, the recommendation states that ``...

  2. Teaching Cell Division: Basics and Recommendations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Mike U.; Kindfield, Ann C. H.

    1999-01-01

    Presents a concise overview of cell division that includes only the essential concepts necessary for understanding genetics and evolution. Makes recommendations based on published research and teaching experiences that can be used to judge the merits of potential activities and materials for teaching cell division. Makes suggestions regarding the…

  3. Mining Feedback in Ranking and Recommendation Systems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhuang, Ziming

    2009-01-01

    The amount of online information has grown exponentially over the past few decades, and users become more and more dependent on ranking and recommendation systems to address their information seeking needs. The advance in information technologies has enabled users to provide feedback on the utilities of the underlying ranking and recommendation…

  4. DEMO: Action Recommendation for Cyber Resilience

    SciTech Connect

    Rodriguez, Luke R.; Curtis, Darren S.; Choudhury, Sutanay; Oler, Kiri J.; Nordquist, Peter L.; Chen, Pin-Yu; Ray, Indrajit

    2015-09-01

    In this demonstration we show the usefulness of our unifying graph-based model for the representation of infrastructure, behavior, and missions of cyber enterprise in both a software simulation and on an Amazon Web Services (AWS) instance. We show the effectiveness of our recommendation algorithm for preserving various system health metrics in both cases.

  5. Recommended tritium surface contamination release guides

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, J.R.; Draper, D.G.; Foulke, J.D.; Hafner, R.S.; Jalbert, R.A.; Kennedy, W.E.; Myers, D.S.; Strain, C.D. )

    1991-03-01

    This document was prepared to provide scientific basis for recommended changes in specific limits for tritium surface contamination in DOE Order 5480.11. A summary of the physical and biological characteristics of tritium has been provided that illustrate the unique nature of this radionuclide when compared to other pure beta emitters or to beta-gamma emitting radionuclides. This document is divided into nine sections. The introduction and the purpose and scope are addressed in Section 1.0 and Section 2.0, respectively. Section 3.0 contains recommended interpretation of terms used in this document. Section 4.0 addresses recommended methods for evaluating surface contamination. Biological and physical characteristics of tritium compounds are discussed in Section 5.0, as they relate to tritium radiotoxicity. Scenarios and dose calculations for selected, conservatively limiting cases of tritium intake are given and discussed in Section 6.0 and Section 7.0. Section 8.0 provides conclusions on the information given and recommendations for changes in the surface contamination limits for total tritium to 1 {times} 10{sup 6} dpm per 100 cm{sup 2}. 30 refs., 2 tabs.

  6. 5 CFR 9001.108 - Prohibited recommendations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Prohibited recommendations. 9001.108 Section 9001.108 Administrative Personnel FEDERAL HOUSING FINANCE AGENCY SUPPLEMENTAL STANDARDS OF ETHICAL CONDUCT FOR EMPLOYEES OF THE FEDERAL HOUSING FINANCE AGENCY § 9001.108 Prohibited...

  7. 5 CFR 9001.108 - Prohibited recommendations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Prohibited recommendations. 9001.108 Section 9001.108 Administrative Personnel FEDERAL HOUSING FINANCE AGENCY SUPPLEMENTAL STANDARDS OF ETHICAL CONDUCT FOR EMPLOYEES OF THE FEDERAL HOUSING FINANCE AGENCY § 9001.108 Prohibited...

  8. 5 CFR 9001.108 - Prohibited recommendations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Prohibited recommendations. 9001.108 Section 9001.108 Administrative Personnel FEDERAL HOUSING FINANCE AGENCY SUPPLEMENTAL STANDARDS OF ETHICAL CONDUCT FOR EMPLOYEES OF THE FEDERAL HOUSING FINANCE AGENCY § 9001.108 Prohibited...

  9. SREB's Nursing Curriculum Project: Summary and Recommendations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Southern Regional Education Board, Atlanta, GA. Nursing Curriculum Project.

    This manual reports the summary and conclusions of the series "Pathway to Practice," the Nursing Curriculum Project conducted by the Southern Regional Education Board (SREB). The project's aims, procedures and methods, and specific findings are identified, followed by a discussion of ten recommendations concerned with implications for the nursing…

  10. Rethinking Ovarian Cancer: Recommendations for Improving Outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Vaughan, Sebastian; Coward, Jermaine I.; Bast Jr., Robert C.; Berchuck, Andy; Berek, Jonathan S.; Brenton, James D.; Coukos, George; Crum, Christopher C.; Drapkin, Ronny; Etemadmoghadam, Dariush; Friedlander, Michael; Gabra, Hani; Kaye, Stan B.; Lord, Chris J.; Lengyel, Ernst; Levine, Douglas A.; McNeish, Iain A.; Menon, Usha; Mills, Gordon B.; Nephew, Kenneth P.; Oza, Amit M.; Sood, Anil K.; Stronach, Euan A.; Walczak, Henning; Bowtell, David D.; Balkwill, Frances R.

    2012-01-01

    There have been major advances in our understanding of the cellular and molecular biology of the human malignancies collectively referred to as ovarian cancer. At a recent Helene Harris Memorial Trust meeting, an international group of researchers considered actions that should be taken to improve the outcome for women with ovarian cancer. Nine major recommendations are outlined in this Perspective. PMID:21941283

  11. Paediatric pandemic planning: children's perspectives and recommendations.

    PubMed

    Koller, Donna; Nicholas, David; Gearing, Robin; Kalfa, Ora

    2010-07-01

    Children, as major stakeholders in paediatric hospitals, have remained absent from discussions on important healthcare issues. One critical area where children's voices have been minimised is in the planning for future pandemics. This paper presents a subset of data from a programme of research which examined various stakeholder experiences of the severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) outbreaks of 2003. These data also generated recommendations for future pandemic planning. Specifically, this paper will examine the perspectives and recommendations of children hospitalised during SARS in a large paediatric hospital in Canada. Twenty-one (n = 21) child and adolescent participants were interviewed from a variety of medical areas including cardiac (n = 2), critical care (n = 2), organ transplant (n = 4), respiratory medicine (n = 8) and infectious diseases (patients diagnosed with suspected or probable SARS; n = 5). Data analyses exposed a range of children's experiences associated with the outbreaks as well as recommendations for future pandemic planning. Key recommendations included specific policies and guidelines concerning psychosocial care, infection control, communication strategies and the management of various resources. This paper is guided by a conceptual framework comprised of theories from child development and literature on children's rights. The authors call for greater youth participation in healthcare decision-making and pandemic planning. PMID:20180866

  12. 12 CFR 625.26 - Recommended decision.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Recommended decision. 625.26 Section 625.26 Banks and Banking FARM CREDIT ADMINISTRATION FARM CREDIT SYSTEM APPLICATION FOR AWARD OF FEES AND OTHER EXPENSES UNDER THE EQUAL ACCESS TO JUSTICE ACT Procedures for Considering Applications § 625.26...

  13. 12 CFR 625.26 - Recommended decision.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Recommended decision. 625.26 Section 625.26 Banks and Banking FARM CREDIT ADMINISTRATION FARM CREDIT SYSTEM APPLICATION FOR AWARD OF FEES AND OTHER EXPENSES UNDER THE EQUAL ACCESS TO JUSTICE ACT Procedures for Considering Applications § 625.26...

  14. Insecticide Recommendations for Arkansas. MP 144.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Bill F.; Barnes, Gordon

    This publication gives, in chart form, insecticides for use on animals, field crops, fruits, flowers, trees and shrubs, household pests, recreation areas, lawn and turf grass, pecans, stored grain, and vegetables. Included in the charts are the insecticides recommended for each insect, formulation to be used, amount, time to apply, and other…

  15. Recommendations Regarding Computers in High School Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Conference Board of the Mathematical Sciences, Washington, DC.

    Recommendations include: (1) the development of a computer-literacy course at the junior-high level to inform students about the nature of computers and their impact on daily life; (2) the development of an independent follow-up course designed to develop proficiency in the use of computers; (3) the development of short modules emphasizing the…

  16. Pupil Personnel Services: Material Review List Recommendations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cardinale, Anthony

    This list of materials provides recommendations to counselors and guidance personnel for the purchase of materials for pupil personnel services programs in the Department of Defense Dependents Schools (DDDS). The listing, based on staff reviews in each of the six DDDS regions, is divided into 10 content areas: (1) assessment and evaluation; (2)…

  17. Collaborative Filtering Recommendation on Users’ Interest Sequences

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Weijie; Yin, Guisheng; Dong, Yuxin; Dong, Hongbin; Zhang, Wansong

    2016-01-01

    As an important factor for improving recommendations, time information has been introduced to model users’ dynamic preferences in many papers. However, the sequence of users’ behaviour is rarely studied in recommender systems. Due to the users’ unique behavior evolution patterns and personalized interest transitions among items, users’ similarity in sequential dimension should be introduced to further distinguish users’ preferences and interests. In this paper, we propose a new collaborative filtering recommendation method based on users’ interest sequences (IS) that rank users’ ratings or other online behaviors according to the timestamps when they occurred. This method extracts the semantics hidden in the interest sequences by the length of users’ longest common sub-IS (LCSIS) and the count of users’ total common sub-IS (ACSIS). Then, these semantics are utilized to obtain users’ IS-based similarities and, further, to refine the similarities acquired from traditional collaborative filtering approaches. With these updated similarities, transition characteristics and dynamic evolution patterns of users’ preferences are considered. Our new proposed method was compared with state-of-the-art time-aware collaborative filtering algorithms on datasets MovieLens, Flixster and Ciao. The experimental results validate that the proposed recommendation method is effective and outperforms several existing algorithms in the accuracy of rating prediction. PMID:27195787

  18. 76 FR 81 - Adoption of Recommendation

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-03

    ... of Executive Departments and agencies (May 20, 2009), 74 FR 24,693, 24,693-94 (May 22, 2009), available at http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-2009-05-22/pdf/E9-12250.pdf#page=1 (last visited October 29...; ] ADMINISTRATIVE CONFERENCE OF THE UNITED STATES Adoption of Recommendation AGENCY: Administrative Conference...

  19. Recommending Research Profiles for Multidisciplinary Academic Collaboration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gunawardena, Sidath Deepal

    2013-01-01

    This research investigates how data on multidisciplinary collaborative experiences can be used to solve a novel problem: recommending research profiles of potential collaborators to academic researchers seeking to engage in multidisciplinary research collaboration. As the current domain theories of multidisciplinary collaboration are insufficient…

  20. 77 FR 2257 - Adoption of Recommendations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-17

    ...-Setting Organizations in Health and Safety Regulation, 44 FR 1,357 (Jan. 5, 1979) (recommending agencies... Health and Safety Regulation, 44 FR 1,357 (Jan. 5, 1979). 8. Agencies should not address difficulties... Noncontroversial and Expedited Rulemaking, 60 FR 43,108, 43,112 (June 15, 1995). 11. Congress should...

  1. User Controllability in a Hybrid Recommender System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parra Santander, Denis Alejandro

    2013-01-01

    Since the introduction of Tapestry in 1990, research on recommender systems has traditionally focused on the development of algorithms whose goal is to increase the accuracy of predicting users' taste based on historical data. In the last decade, this research has diversified, with "human factors" being one area that has received…

  2. Interdisciplinary Collaboration: Ethical Issues and Recommendations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paproski, D. L.; Haverkamp, Beth E.

    2000-01-01

    Explores issues and ethics of interdisciplinary care based upon discussion among five experienced mental health professionals. Presents their recommendations for effective interdisciplinary work including, ensuring clients give informed consent, maintaining confidentiality, and making sure paraprofessionals and families are involved. Reports that…

  3. Who Recommends Long-Term Care Matters

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kane, Robert L.; Bershadsky, Boris; Bershadsky, Julie

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: Making good consumer decisions requires having good information. This study compared long-term-care recommendations among various types of health professionals. Design and Methods: We gave randomly varied scenarios to a convenience national sample of 211 professionals from varying disciplines and work locations. For each scenario, we…

  4. 40 CFR 231.5 - Recommended determination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Regional Administrator or his designee shall promptly forward the recommended determination and... mail, with a copy to the Assistant Administrator for Water and Waste Management, who shall have 10 days... forward the administrative record to the Administrator for a final determination under § 231.6....

  5. 40 CFR 231.5 - Recommended determination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Regional Administrator or his designee shall promptly forward the recommended determination and... mail, with a copy to the Assistant Administrator for Water and Waste Management, who shall have 10 days... forward the administrative record to the Administrator for a final determination under § 231.6....

  6. Ten recommendations for software engineering in research.

    PubMed

    Hastings, Janna; Haug, Kenneth; Steinbeck, Christoph

    2014-01-01

    Research in the context of data-driven science requires a backbone of well-written software, but scientific researchers are typically not trained at length in software engineering, the principles for creating better software products. To address this gap, in particular for young researchers new to programming, we give ten recommendations to ensure the usability, sustainability and practicality of research software. PMID:25685331

  7. Understanding Student Recommendations to Attend NIACC

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morrison, Michael C.

    2008-01-01

    Successful organizations, both public and private, rely heavily on "word-of-mouth recommendations" for their products and services. Financial viability of any organization depends profoundly on formal and informal networks of customers who pass their assessments of an organization's performance to acquaintances, friends and families. This analysis…

  8. Recommendations for Undergraduate Public Health Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Riegelman, Richard K.; Albertine, Susan

    2008-01-01

    This curriculum guide serves to assist faculty who are developing undergraduate courses in public health as well as educational administrators and faculty curriculum committees who are designing undergraduate public health curricula. The approach outlined in these recommendations focuses on the development of three core courses, each of which is…

  9. Interactive Video Program. Final Report and Recommendations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Midwestern Higher Education Commission, Minneapolis, MN.

    This report presents recommendations on interactive video transmission standards, equipment, room designs, and service plans for member institutions of the Midwestern Higher Education Commission (MHEC) and reviews MHEC's efforts to find and contract for such services with vendors. The report describes the MHEC objective of establishing a dial-up,…

  10. Recommendations on Writing Assessments for Future NAEPs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coffman, William E.

    These comments provide further details which expand upon the recommendations of the subcommittee on National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP) Writing. Three issues are discussed. The first concerns how objectives of assessment in writing ought to be stated. The 1984 objectives are stated in general terms without reference to what might…

  11. Video Games: Research, Ratings, Recommendations. ERIC Digest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cesarone, Bernard

    This Digest reviews research on the demographics and effects of video game playing, discusses game rating systems, and offers recommendations for parents. The Digest begins by discussing research on the time children spend playing electronic games, which shows that younger children's game playing at home (90% of fourth-graders played at least one…

  12. Academic Freedom in Europe: Reviewing UNESCO's "Recommendation"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karran, Terence

    2009-01-01

    This paper examines the compliance of universities in the European Union with the UNESCO Recommendation concerning the Status of Higher-Education Teaching Personnel, which deals primarily with protection for academic freedom. The paper briefly surveys the European genesis of the modern research university and academic freedom, before evaluating…

  13. Latinos in Pennsylvania: Summary Report & Recommendations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pennsylvania Governor's Advisory Commission on Latino Affairs, Harrisburg.

    This report summarizes the activities of the Pennsylvania Governor's Advisory Commission on Latino Affairs from its inception in January, 1989, to December, 1990; and makes recommendations to the Governor on policies, procedures, and legislation that would make the state more responsive to the Latin American community. Latin Americans are the…

  14. Policy Recommendations for Community Colleges in Vietnam

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harvey, David, J.

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to recommend policy changes that would enhance Vietnamese community colleges related to lifelong learning, governance, and program relevance. The project was not a typical education research paper. The study utilized a policy-oriented research methodology. Its purpose was not to yield "findings" in the traditional…

  15. In-season nitrogen recommendations for corn

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Nitrogen fertilizer continues to be the major input influencing corn yield in the Midwest. Improved N recommendations should result in greater N use efficiency and producer profit while reducing surface and groundwater contamination. This study was conducted to develop a plant-based technique to det...

  16. 40 CFR 1502.10 - Recommended format.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 1502.10 Protection of Environment COUNCIL ON ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT STATEMENT § 1502.10 Recommended format. Agencies shall use a format for environmental impact statements which will... following standard format for environmental impact statements should be followed unless the...

  17. Collaborative Filtering Recommendation on Users' Interest Sequences.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Weijie; Yin, Guisheng; Dong, Yuxin; Dong, Hongbin; Zhang, Wansong

    2016-01-01

    As an important factor for improving recommendations, time information has been introduced to model users' dynamic preferences in many papers. However, the sequence of users' behaviour is rarely studied in recommender systems. Due to the users' unique behavior evolution patterns and personalized interest transitions among items, users' similarity in sequential dimension should be introduced to further distinguish users' preferences and interests. In this paper, we propose a new collaborative filtering recommendation method based on users' interest sequences (IS) that rank users' ratings or other online behaviors according to the timestamps when they occurred. This method extracts the semantics hidden in the interest sequences by the length of users' longest common sub-IS (LCSIS) and the count of users' total common sub-IS (ACSIS). Then, these semantics are utilized to obtain users' IS-based similarities and, further, to refine the similarities acquired from traditional collaborative filtering approaches. With these updated similarities, transition characteristics and dynamic evolution patterns of users' preferences are considered. Our new proposed method was compared with state-of-the-art time-aware collaborative filtering algorithms on datasets MovieLens, Flixster and Ciao. The experimental results validate that the proposed recommendation method is effective and outperforms several existing algorithms in the accuracy of rating prediction. PMID:27195787

  18. [Day surgery: recommendations, tools and feedback].

    PubMed

    Bontemps, Gilles

    2015-05-01

    The ANAP (French agency for supporting medical institutions' performance) has the legal responsibility to provide tools and recommendations and to support institutions in improving their organisational performance. In the context of the public authorities' push for day surgery, the ANAP has specifically addressed this issue, gathering feedback from French and European health institutions. PMID:26126379

  19. ISO/GUM UNCERTAINTIES AND CIAAW (UNCERTAINTY TREATMENT FOR RECOMMENDED ATOMIC WEIGHTS AND ISOTOPIC ABUNDANCES)

    SciTech Connect

    HOLDEN,N.E.

    2007-07-23

    The International Organization for Standardization (ISO) has published a Guide to the expression of Uncertainty in Measurement (GUM). The IUPAC Commission on Isotopic Abundance and Atomic Weight (CIAAW) began attaching uncertainty limits to their recommended values about forty years ago. CIAAW's method for determining and assigning uncertainties has evolved over time. We trace this evolution to their present method and their effort to incorporate the basic ISO/GUM procedures into evaluations of these uncertainties. We discuss some dilemma the CIAAW faces in their present method and whether it is consistent with the application of the ISO/GUM rules. We discuss the attempt to incorporate variations in measured isotope ratios, due to natural fractionation, into the ISO/GUM system. We make some observations about the inconsistent treatment in the incorporation of natural variations into recommended data and uncertainties. A recommendation for expressing atomic weight values using a tabulated range of values for various chemical elements is discussed.

  20. [The "recommendations of 1928" and its background].

    PubMed

    Sugimoto, Y

    1993-01-01

    In the "recommendations of the International X-ray Units Committee" published in 1928, the first international unit "Roentgen" was given without any specific definition of the physical quantity represented by the unit. This introduced confusion into the subsequent history of radiation units. The "recommendations" had another distinctive feature, i.e., more than half of the recommendations were concerned with the problems of X-ray measurement. Around 1925, almost all Roentgen societies and physics societies in the world regarded the ionization of air by X-ray as a basic phenomenon for the establishment of the unit. Many devices were proposed for counting the number of ions. O. Glasser and his joint research workers examined the accuracy of each apparatus to choose the best one. The results of their study were adopted in the "recommendations of 1928". In the meantime, owing to the Compton effect discovered in 1923, it had become difficult to relate the X-ray dose unconditionally with air ionization quantity. Consequently, the physical quantity represented by the unit "Roentgen" became difficult to specify, and much time was needed to resolve these problemss. Various sicknesses and lesions had been caused by the misuse of X-ray. To avoid the damage and to reproduce the conditions of treatment, physicians took it as a matter of urgency to standardize the international units. They thought that practical convenience should be given priority over the pursuit of physical precision in the standardization of units and measurements. These factors led to the vagueness of the physical quantity represented by "Roentgen" in the "recommendations of 1928". PMID:11639745

  1. Electron source of triode type with radial converging electron flow for irradiation of cylindrical targets

    SciTech Connect

    Engelko, V. I.; Kuznetsov, V. S.; Mueller, Georg

    2009-01-15

    Design of an electron source of triode type is described, which produces a radial converging electron beam employed for modification of the outer surface of fuel element claddings. Experimental investigations of the source showed that beam current magnitude, efficiency of beam focusing to the target, stability of source operation, and beam pulse duration become worse when the target diameter drops below certain values. A method for the calculation of the source operation was developed. Calculations showed that the reason of worse source operation is the initial angular spread of electrons when the target diameter is small. Because of the angular spread a part of electrons passes by the target and oscillates between the target and cathode. The space charge of the oscillating electrons lowers the emission current magnitude and leads to the formation of a virtual cathode in the grid-target gap despite the fact that the emission beam current is less than the limiting one. Formation of a virtual cathode is a reason for the unstable source operation and restriction of the beam pulse duration. Recommendations for the improvement of the source design are suggested.

  2. Toward clinical genomics in everyday medicine: perspectives and recommendations.

    PubMed

    Delaney, Susan K; Hultner, Michael L; Jacob, Howard J; Ledbetter, David H; McCarthy, Jeanette J; Ball, Michael; Beckman, Kenneth B; Belmont, John W; Bloss, Cinnamon S; Christman, Michael F; Cosgrove, Andy; Damiani, Stephen A; Danis, Timothy; Delledonne, Massimo; Dougherty, Michael J; Dudley, Joel T; Faucett, W Andrew; Friedman, Jennifer R; Haase, David H; Hays, Tom S; Heilsberg, Stu; Huber, Jeff; Kaminsky, Leah; Ledbetter, Nikki; Lee, Warren H; Levin, Elissa; Libiger, Ondrej; Linderman, Michael; Love, Richard L; Magnus, David C; Martland, AnneMarie; McClure, Susan L; Megill, Scott E; Messier, Helen; Nussbaum, Robert L; Palaniappan, Latha; Patay, Bradley A; Popovich, Bradley W; Quackenbush, John; Savant, Mark J; Su, Michael M; Terry, Sharon F; Tucker, Steven; Wong, William T; Green, Robert C

    2016-01-01

    Precision or personalized medicine through clinical genome and exome sequencing has been described by some as a revolution that could transform healthcare delivery, yet it is currently used in only a small fraction of patients, principally for the diagnosis of suspected Mendelian conditions and for targeting cancer treatments. Given the burden of illness in our society, it is of interest to ask how clinical genome and exome sequencing can be constructively integrated more broadly into the routine practice of medicine for the betterment of public health. In November 2014, 46 experts from academia, industry, policy and patient advocacy gathered in a conference sponsored by Illumina, Inc. to discuss this question, share viewpoints and propose recommendations. This perspective summarizes that work and identifies some of the obstacles and opportunities that must be considered in translating advances in genomics more widely into the practice of medicine. PMID:26810587

  3. Toward clinical genomics in everyday medicine: perspectives and recommendations

    PubMed Central

    Delaney, Susan K.; Hultner, Michael L.; Jacob, Howard J.; Ledbetter, David H.; McCarthy, Jeanette J.; Ball, Michael; Beckman, Kenneth B.; Belmont, John W.; Bloss, Cinnamon S.; Christman, Michael F.; Cosgrove, Andy; Damiani, Stephen A.; Danis, Timothy; Delledonne, Massimo; Dougherty, Michael J.; Dudley, Joel T.; Faucett, W. Andrew; Friedman, Jennifer R.; Haase, David H.; Hays, Tom S.; Heilsberg, Stu; Huber, Jeff; Kaminsky, Leah; Ledbetter, Nikki; Lee, Warren H.; Levin, Elissa; Libiger, Ondrej; Linderman, Michael; Love, Richard L.; Magnus, David C.; Martland, AnneMarie; McClure, Susan L.; Megill, Scott E.; Messier, Helen; Nussbaum, Robert L.; Palaniappan, Latha; Patay, Bradley A.; Popovich, Bradley W.; Quackenbush, John; Savant, Mark J.; Su, Michael M.; Terry, Sharon F.; Tucker, Steven; Wong, William T.; Green, Robert C.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Precision or personalized medicine through clinical genome and exome sequencing has been described by some as a revolution that could transform healthcare delivery, yet it is currently used in only a small fraction of patients, principally for the diagnosis of suspected Mendelian conditions and for targeting cancer treatments. Given the burden of illness in our society, it is of interest to ask how clinical genome and exome sequencing can be constructively integrated more broadly into the routine practice of medicine for the betterment of public health. In November 2014, 46 experts from academia, industry, policy and patient advocacy gathered in a conference sponsored by Illumina, Inc. to discuss this question, share viewpoints and propose recommendations. This perspective summarizes that work and identifies some of the obstacles and opportunities that must be considered in translating advances in genomics more widely into the practice of medicine. PMID:26810587

  4. Communicating science-based recommendations with memorable and actionable guidelines

    PubMed Central

    Ratner, Rebecca K.; Riis, Jason

    2014-01-01

    For many domains of basic and applied science, a key set of scientific facts is well established and there is a need for public action in light of those facts. However, individual citizens do not consistently follow science-based recommendations, even when they accept the veracity of the advice. To address this challenge, science communicators need to develop a guideline that individuals can commit to memory easily and act on straightforwardly at moments of decision. We draw on research from psychology to discuss several characteristics that will enhance a guideline’s memorability and actionability and illustrate using a case study from the US Department of Agriculture’s communications based on nutrition science. We conclude by discussing the importance of careful research to test whether any given guideline is memorable and actionable by the intended target audience. PMID:25225363

  5. Communicating science-based recommendations with memorable and actionable guidelines.

    PubMed

    Ratner, Rebecca K; Riis, Jason

    2014-09-16

    For many domains of basic and applied science, a key set of scientific facts is well established and there is a need for public action in light of those facts. However, individual citizens do not consistently follow science-based recommendations, even when they accept the veracity of the advice. To address this challenge, science communicators need to develop a guideline that individuals can commit to memory easily and act on straightforwardly at moments of decision. We draw on research from psychology to discuss several characteristics that will enhance a guideline's memorability and actionability and illustrate using a case study from the US Department of Agriculture's communications based on nutrition science. We conclude by discussing the importance of careful research to test whether any given guideline is memorable and actionable by the intended target audience. PMID:25225363

  6. Recommendations for treatment of childhood non-severe pneumonia.

    PubMed

    Grant, Gavin B; Campbell, Harry; Dowell, Scott F; Graham, Stephen M; Klugman, Keith P; Mulholland, E Kim; Steinhoff, Mark; Weber, Martin W; Qazi, Shamim

    2009-03-01

    WHO recommendations for early antimicrobial treatment of childhood pneumonia have been effective in reducing childhood mortality, but the last major revision was over 10 years ago. The emergence of antimicrobial resistance, new pneumonia pathogens, and new drugs have prompted WHO to assemble an international panel to review the literature on childhood pneumonia and to develop evidence-based recommendations for the empirical treatment of non-severe pneumonia among children managed by first-level health providers. Treatment should target the bacterial causes most likely to lead to severe disease, including Streptoccocus pneumoniae and Haemophilus influenzae. The best first-line agent is amoxicillin, given twice daily for 3-5 days, although co-trimoxazole may be an alternative in some settings. Treatment failure should be defined in a child who develops signs warranting immediate referral or who does not have a decrease in respiratory rate after 48-72 h of therapy. If failure occurs, and no indication for immediate referral exists, possible explanations for failure should be systematically determined, including non-adherence to therapy and alternative diagnoses. If failure of the first-line agent remains a possible explanation, suitable second-line agents include high-dose amoxicillin-clavulanic acid with or without an affordable macrolide for children over 3 years of age. PMID:19246022

  7. Inertial fusion energy target injection, tracking, and beam pointing

    SciTech Connect

    Petzoldt, R.W.

    1995-03-07

    Several cryogenic targets must be injected each second into a reaction chamber. Required target speed is about 100 m/s. Required accuracy of the driver beams on target is a few hundred micrometers. Fuel strength is calculated to allow acceleration in excess of 10,000 m/s{sup 2} if the fuel temperature is less than 17 K. A 0.1 {mu}m thick dual membrane will allow nearly 2,000 m/s{sup 2} acceleration. Acceleration is gradually increased and decreased over a few membrane oscillation periods (a few ms), to avoid added stress from vibrations which could otherwise cause a factor of two decrease in allowed acceleration. Movable shielding allows multiple targets to be in flight toward the reaction chamber at once while minimizing neutron heating of subsequent targets. The use of multiple injectors is recommended for redundancy which increases availability and allows a higher pulse rate. Gas gun, rail gun, induction accelerator, and electrostatic accelerator target injection devices are studied, and compared. A gas gun is the preferred device for indirect-drive targets due to its simplicity and proven reliability. With the gas gun, the amount of gas required for each target (about 10 to 100 mg) is acceptable. A revolver loading mechanism is recommended with a cam operated poppet valve to control the gas flow. Cutting vents near the muzzle of the gas gun barrel is recommended to improve accuracy and aid gas pumping. If a railgun is used, we recommend an externally applied magnetic field to reduce required current by an order of magnitude. Optical target tracking is recommended. Up/down counters are suggested to predict target arrival time. Target steering is shown to be feasible and would avoid the need to actively point the beams. Calculations show that induced tumble from electrostatically steering the target is not excessive.

  8. Teaching Absolute Value Meaningfully

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wade, Angela

    2012-01-01

    What is the meaning of absolute value? And why do teachers teach students how to solve absolute value equations? Absolute value is a concept introduced in first-year algebra and then reinforced in later courses. Various authors have suggested instructional methods for teaching absolute value to high school students (Wei 2005; Stallings-Roberts…

  9. Values as Defenses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hultman, Kenneth E.

    1976-01-01

    The author outlines a cognitive approach for explaining how and why people use values as defenses. He examines the relationship between defensive values and irrational beliefs, suggests a number of criteria for diagnosing the presence of defensive values, and proposes some strategies for dealing with defensive values in counseling. (Author)

  10. Five Values of Giftedness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Besjes-de Bock, Karin M.; de Ruyter, Doret J.

    2011-01-01

    This article describes five values attributed to giftedness. The ascription of values to this phenomenon resembles values attached to gifts in gift-giving processes. Whereas gift-giving often includes expectations of reciprocity, each gift possesses a numerical, utility, social, personal, and intrinsic value. Developmental models of giftedness and…

  11. Values: A Symposium Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ryan, T. A., Ed.

    This publication brings together a set of four papers prepared for a symposium on values at the 1972 annual meeting of the American Educational Research Association. The first paper, by Fred N. Kerlinger, establishes a rationale for values research. The discussion focuses on the definition of values, relationship between values and attitudes,…

  12. Recommended guidelines for infant hearing screening: analysis.

    PubMed

    Turner, R G

    1990-09-01

    This paper has identified problems with the guidelines and the disadvantages of the ASHA protocol. Some of these are significant. Others are less important but represent issues that should be considered when designing an EID protocol. The problems and disadvantages are summarized below. 1. The guidelines should have estimated and cost and performance of the recommended protocol. 2. The guidelines should have identified the true advantage of ABR screening (lower cost) and the disadvantage (lower hit rate) as compared to other protocols. 3. The guidelines should have evaluated other possible protocols. 4. The guidelines recommended the same protocol for all facilities (with adequate resources) independent of local factors. 5. The guidelines recommended the same screening strategy for the ICN and the WBN when different protocols may be appropriate. 6. The guidelines reject ABR screening of all WBN infants as too expensive without estimates of cost. More importantly, this is a decision that should be made by local institutions or governments. 7. The screening protocol was developed without a detailed description of the diagnostic component of the EID protocol. 8. The guidelines should have provided more information to hospitals that do not have the resources necessary to implement the recommended protocol. 9. The recommended protocol requires significant in-patient testing that can cause problems with reimbursement. 10. Some infants at risk for progressive loss can be lost from follow-up. Apparently, the guidelines were developed using a subjective, experiential approach. Although clinical experience is important, subjective impressions can be subject to bias and error. Some type of quantitative analysis is essential when developing test protocols. Perhaps a more rigorous theoretical foundation is needed to focus research and guide the development of EID protocols. The ASHA protocol is reasonable, but there is little evidence indicating that it is superior to, or even

  13. Strategies for targeting lentiviral vectors.

    PubMed

    Frecha, Cecilia; Szécsi, Judit; Cosset, Francois-Loîc; Verhoeyen, Els

    2008-12-01

    Vectors derived from retroviruses such as lentiviruses and onco-retroviruses are probably among the most suitable tools to achieve a long-term gene transfer since they allow stable integration of a transgene and its propagation in daughter cells. Lentiviral vectors should be preferred gene delivery vehicles over vectors derived from onco-retroviruses (MLV) since in contrast to the latter they can transduce non-proliferating target cells. Moreover, lentiviral vectors that have the capacity to deliver transgenes into specific tissues are expected to be of great value for various gene transfer approaches in vivo. Here we provide an overview of innovative approaches to upgrade lentiviral vectors for tissue or cell targeting and which have potential for in vivo gene delivery. In this overview we distinguish between three types of lentiviral vector targeting strategies (Fig 1): 1) targeting of vectors at the level of vector-cell entry through lentiviral vector surface modifications; 2) targeting at the level of transgene transcription by insertion of tissue specific promoters into lentiviral vectors; 3) a novel microRNA technology that rather than targeting the 'right' cells will 'detarget' transgene expression from non-target cells while achieving high expression in the target-cell. It is clear that each strategy is of enormous value for several gene therapy approaches but combining these three layers of transgene expression control will offer tools to really overcome several drawbacks in the field such as side-effect of off-target expression, clearance of transgene modified cells by immune response to the transgene and lack of biosecurity and efficiency in in vivo approaches. PMID:19075628

  14. Capturing the clinical utility of genomic testing: medical recommendations following pediatric microarray

    PubMed Central

    Hayeems, Robin Z; Hoang, Ny; Chenier, Sebastien; Stavropoulos, Dimitri J; Pu, Shuye; Weksberg, Rosanna; Shuman, Cheryl

    2015-01-01

    Interpretation of pediatric chromosome microarray (CMA) results presents diagnostic and medical management challenges. Understanding management practices triggered by CMA will inform clinical utility and resource planning. Using a retrospective cohort design, we extracted clinical and management-related data from the records of 752 children with congenital anomalies and/or developmental delay who underwent CMA in an academic pediatric genetics clinic (2009–2011). Frequency distributions and relative rates (RR) of post-CMA medical recommendations in children with reportable and benign CMA results were calculated. Medical recommendations were provided for 79.6% of children with reportable results and 62.0% of children with benign results. Overall, recommendations included specialist consultation (40.8%), imaging (32.5%), laboratory investigations (17.2%), surveillance (4.6%), and family investigations (4.9%). Clinically significant variants and variants of uncertain clinical significance were associated with higher and slightly higher rates of management recommendations, respectively, compared with benign/no variants (RR=1.34; 95% CI (1.22–1.47); RR=1.23; 95% CI (1.09–1.38)). Recommendation rates for clinically significant versus uncertain results depended upon how uncertainty was classified (RRbroad=1.09; 95% CI (0.99–1.2); RRnarrow=1.12; 95% CI (1.02–1.24)). Recommendation rates also varied by the child's age and provider type. In conclusion, medical recommendations follow CMA for the majority of children. Compared with benign CMA results, clinically significant CMA variants are a significant driver of pediatric medical recommendations. Variants of uncertain clinical significance drive recommendations, but to a lesser extent. As a broadening range of specialists will need to respond to CMA results, targeted capacity building is warranted. PMID:25491637

  15. General recommendations on immunization --- recommendations of the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP).

    PubMed

    2011-01-28

    This report is a revision of the General Recommendations on Immunization and updates the 2006 statement by the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP) (CDC. General recommendations on immunization: recommendations of the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices [ACIP]. MMWR 2006;55[No. RR-15]). The report also includes revised content from previous ACIP recommendations on the following topics: adult vaccination (CDC. Update on adult immunization recommendations of the immunization practices Advisory Committee [ACIP]. MMWR 1991;40[No. RR-12]); the assessment and feedback strategy to increase vaccination rates (CDC. Recommendations of the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices: programmatic strategies to increase vaccination rates-assessment and feedback of provider-based vaccination coverage information. MMWR 1996;45:219-20); linkage of vaccination services and those of the Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children (WIC program) (CDC. Recommendations of the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices: programmatic strategies to increase vaccination coverage by age 2 years-linkage of vaccination and WIC services. MMWR 1996;45:217-8); adolescent immunization (CDC. Immunization of adolescents: recommendations of the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices, the American Academy of Pediatrics, the American Academy of Family Physicians, and the American Medical Association. MMWR 1996;45[No. RR-13]); and combination vaccines (CDC. Combination vaccines for childhood immunization: recommendations of the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices [ACIP], the American Academy of Pediatrics [AAP], and the American Academy of Family Physicians [AAFP]. MMWR 1999;48[No. RR-5]). Notable revisions to the 2006 recommendations include 1) revisions to the tables of contraindications and precautions to vaccination, as well as a separate table of conditions that are commonly misperceived as contraindications and precautions; 2

  16. Therapeutic targets in subependymoma.

    PubMed

    Kong, Ling-Yuan; Wei, Jun; Haider, Ali S; Liebelt, Brandon D; Ling, Xiaoyang; Conrad, Charles A; Fuller, Gregory N; Levine, Nicholas B; Priebe, Waldemar; Sawaya, Raymond; Heimberger, Amy B

    2014-12-15

    Subependymomas are usually treated with surgical resection; however, no standard, defined alternative medical therapy is recommended for patients who are not surgical candidates, owing to a paucity of molecular, immunological, and genetic characterization. To address this, an ex vivo functional analysis of the immune microenvironment in subependymoma was conducted, a subependymoma cytokine/chemokine microarray was constructed for the evaluation of operational immune and molecular pathways, and a subependymoma cell line was derived and used to test a variety of cytotoxic agents that target operational pathways identified in subependymoma. We found that immune effectors are detectable within the microenvironment of subependymoma; however, marked immune suppression is not observed. The subependymoma tissue microarrays demonstrated tumor expression of p53, MDM2, HIF-1α, topoisomerase II-β, p-STAT3, and nucleolin, but not EGFRvIII, EphA2, IL-13RA2, CMV, CTLA-4, FoxP3, PD-1, PD-L1, EGFR, PDGF-α, PDGF-β, PDGFR-α, PDGFR-β, PTEN, IGFBP2, PI3K, MDM4, IDH1, mTOR, or Jak2. A topoisomerase inhibitor (WP744, IC50=0.83 μM) and a p-STAT3/HIF-1α inhibitor (WP1066, IC50=3.15 μM) demonstrated a growth inhibition of the subependymoma cell proliferation. Cumulatively, these data suggest that those agents that interfere with oncogenes operational in subependymoma may have clinical impact. PMID:25465288

  17. Target Homework to Maximize Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heitzmann, Ray

    2007-01-01

    Targeted homework is based upon the belief that homework can make a significant contribution to student achievement in the areas of knowledge, skills, and values. It centers on the notion that homework achieves maximum effectiveness when teachers share the school's homework policy as well as their policy with students and parents or guardians. The…

  18. Cardiovascular Update: Risk, Guidelines, and Recommendations.

    PubMed

    Pearson, Tamera

    2015-09-01

    This article provides an update of the current status of cardiovascular disease (CVD) in the United States, including a brief review of the underlying pathophysiology and epidemiology. This article presents a discussion of the latest American Heart Association guidelines that introduce the concept of promoting ideal cardiovascular health, defined by seven identified metrics. Specific CVD risk factors and utilization of the 10-year CVD event prediction calculator are discussed. In addition, current management recommendations of health-related conditions that increase risk for CVD, such as hypertension and hypercholesterolemia, are provided. Finally, a discussion of detailed evidence-based lifestyle recommendations to promote cardiovascular health and reduce CVD risks concludes the update. PMID:26156147

  19. SESAC releases recommendations for NASA science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Katzoff, Judith A.

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) needs to take action to ensure the long-term health of the space and earth science program in the wake of the Challenger accident, according to recommendations made recently by the Space and Earth Science Advisory Committee (SESAC) of the NASA Advisory Council (NAC). The space agency also must hasten to address “more immediate threats to the survival of significant elements of the space and earth science infrastructure that require near-term actions,” (see boxed item with SESAC recommendations). “It is important that NASA seek means to address both the near-term and longer-term needs of the program simultaneously,” the committee emphasized.

  20. Implementing AORN recommended practices for hand hygiene.

    PubMed

    Patrick, Marcia; Van Wicklin, Sharon A

    2012-04-01

    This article focuses on implementing the revised AORN "Recommended practices for hand hygiene in the perioperative setting." The content of the document has been expanded and reorganized from the previous iteration and now includes specific activity statements about water temperature, water and soap dispensing controls, the type of dispensers to use, paper towel dispenser requirements, placement of soap and rub dispensers, and regulatory requirements for products and recommendations for hand hygiene practices. A successful hand hygiene program allows end users to have input into the selection and evaluation of products and should include educating personnel about proper hand hygiene, product composition and safety, and how and when to use specific products. Measures for competency evaluation and compliance monitoring include observations, quizzes, skills labs, electronic monitoring systems, handheld device applications, and data collection forms. PMID:22464622

  1. The New CCSDS Image Compression Recommendation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yeh, Pen-Shu; Armbruster, Philippe; Kiely, Aaron B.; Masschelein, Bart; Moury, Gilles; Schafer, Christoph

    2004-01-01

    The Consultative Committee for Space Data Systems (CCSDS) data compression working group has recently adopted a recommendation for image data compression, with a final release expected in 2005. The algorithm adopted in the recommendation consists a two dimensional discrete wavelet transform of the image, followed by progressive bit-plane coding of the transformed data. The algorithm can provide both lossless and lossy compression, and allows a user to directly control the compressed data volume or the fidelity with which the wavelet-transformed data can be reconstructed. The algorithm is suitable for both frame-based image data and scan-based sensor data, and has applications for near-earth and deep-space missions. The standard will be accompanied by free software sources on a future web site. An ASIC implementation of the compressor is currently under development. This paper describes the compression algorithm along with the requirements that drove the selection of the algorithm.

  2. The ICET-A Survey on Current Criteria Used by Clinicians for the Assessment of Central Adrenal Insufficiency in Thalassemia: Analysis of Results and Recommendations

    PubMed Central

    De Sanctis, Vincenzo; Soliman, Ashraf T.; Elsedfy, Heba; Albu, Alice; Al Jaouni, Soad; Yaarubi, Saif AL; Anastasi, Salvatore; Canatan, Duran; Di Maio, Massimo; Di Maio, Salvatore; El Kholy, Mohamed; Karimi, Mehran; Khater, Doaa; Kilinc, Yurdanur; Lum, Su Han; Skordis, Nicos; Sobti, Praveen; Stoeva, Iva; Tzoulis, Ploutarchos; Wali, Yasser; Kattamis, Christos

    2016-01-01

    Background In March 2015, the International Network of Clinicians for Endocrinopathies in Thalassemia and Adolescent Medicine (ICET-A) implemented a two-step survey on central adrenal insufficiency (CAI) assessment in TM patients and after analysis of the collected data, recommendations for the assessment of hypothalamic-pituitary- adrenal (HPA) axis in clinical practice were defined. Methods To ascertain the current practice for assessment of CAI in thalassemia, the Coordinator of ICET-A sent two questionnaires by email: i) The first to evaluate the current interpretation of basal serum cortisol level (first step) and ii) The second to assess the current usage of ACTH test and the variability in practice” (second step). Based on the surveys the core ICET-A group prepared the recommendations for the assessment of suspected CAI in thalassemia (third step). Results A total of 19 thalassemologists/endocrinologists have participated in the first survey and 35 specialists participated in the second step questionnaire. The study demonstrated a considerable variability in almost all aspects of relevant current criteria used for the diagnosis of CAI. An ROC analysis using peak value > 20 μg/dl (> 550 nmol/L), after ACTH stimulation test, was performed with the aim of identifying the optimal basal serum cortisol cut-off. The optimal threshold that maximizes sensitivity plus specificity for morning basal cortisol against peak post-ACTH value >20 μg/dl (>550 nmol/L) was 10 μg/dl (275 nmol/L). Furthermore, the values associated with the highest negative predictive value (NPV) and highest, positive predictive value (PPV) were 4.20 (115 nmol/L) and 18.45 μg/dl (510 nmol/L), respectively. Surprisingly, 20 specialists in thalassemia working in blood bank, thalassemia centres (day hospital), internal medicine, hematology and onco-hematology had poor knowledge and experience in testing for CAI and stopped filling the questionnaire after the second question. In contrast, 9

  3. New Reference Values for Vitamin C Intake.

    PubMed

    2015-01-01

    The German, Austrian, and Swiss nutrition societies are the editors of the 'reference values for nutrient intake'. They have revised the reference values for the intake of vitamin C and published them in February 2015. The average vitamin C requirement in healthy adults is considered to be the vitamin C amount that compensates for the metabolic losses of vitamin C, and ensures a fasting ascorbate plasma level of 50 µmol/l. Based on the present data from studies with non-smoking men, metabolic losses of 50 mg/day are assumed, as well as an absorption rate of 80% and an urinary excretion of 25% of the vitamin C intake. Taking this into account, the calculated average requirement in men is 91 mg/day. Considering a coefficient of variation of 10%, a reference value (recommended intake) of 110 mg/day for men is derived. The vitamin C requirement in women as well as in children and adolescents is extrapolated from the requirement in men and in relation to their body weight. This results in a recommended intake of about 95 mg/day for adult women. Because the requirement in pregnant and lactating women is increased, higher recommended intakes are derived for them, 105 mg/day for pregnant women from the fourth month on and 125 mg/day for lactating women, respectively. For boys and girls at the age of 1 to under 15 years, there are increasing recommended intake values from 20 to 85 mg/day. For male and female adolescents, at the age of 15 to under 19 years, the recommended intake is 105 and 90 mg, respectively. As smokers have higher metabolic losses and lower plasma levels of vitamin C than non-smokers (turnover is 40% higher), the reference value for vitamin C intake is set to 135 mg/day for female smokers and 155 mg/day for male smokers. For infants in their first year of life, the reference value (estimated value) is set to 20 mg vitamin C/ day, based upon the lowest observed vitamin C intake for infants in the United Kingdom and the United States, that obviously meets

  4. Geothermal Technologies Program Blue Ribbon Panel Recommendations

    SciTech Connect

    none,

    2011-06-17

    The Geothermal Technologies Program assembled a geothermal Blue Ribbon Panel on March 22-23, 2011 in Albuquerque, New Mexico for a guided discussion on the future of geothermal energy in the United States and the role of the DOE Program. The Geothermal Blue Ribbon Panel Report captures the discussions and recommendations of the experts. An addendum is available here: http://www.eere.energy.gov/geothermal/pdfs/gtp_blue_ribbon_panel_report_addendum10-2011.pdf

  5. Rethinking ovarian cancer: recommendations for improving outcomes.

    PubMed

    Vaughan, Sebastian; Coward, Jermaine I; Bast, Robert C; Berchuck, Andy; Berek, Jonathan S; Brenton, James D; Coukos, George; Crum, Christopher C; Drapkin, Ronny; Etemadmoghadam, Dariush; Friedlander, Michael; Gabra, Hani; Kaye, Stan B; Lord, Chris J; Lengyel, Ernst; Levine, Douglas A; McNeish, Iain A; Menon, Usha; Mills, Gordon B; Nephew, Kenneth P; Oza, Amit M; Sood, Anil K; Stronach, Euan A; Walczak, Henning; Bowtell, David D; Balkwill, Frances R

    2011-10-01

    There have been major advances in our understanding of the cellular and molecular biology of the human malignancies that are collectively referred to as ovarian cancer. At a recent Helene Harris Memorial Trust meeting, an international group of researchers considered actions that should be taken to improve the outcome for women with ovarian cancer. Nine major recommendations are outlined in this Opinion article. PMID:21941283

  6. Radiation recommendation series: administratively required dental radiographs

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1981-09-01

    Administrative requirements for radiographs are found in many segments of the United States health care system. This document presents an FDA radiation recommendation on administratively required dental x-ray examinations. In general, such examinations are not requested to further the patient's dental health, but rather as a means of monitoring claims. However, the administrative use of radiographs that have been taken in the normal course of patient care is usually appropriate, as long as the patient's right to privacy is respected.

  7. A recommender system for medical imaging diagnostic.

    PubMed

    Monteiro, Eriksson; Valente, Frederico; Costa, Carlos; Oliveira, José Luís

    2015-01-01

    The large volume of data captured daily in healthcare institutions is opening new and great perspectives about the best ways to use it towards improving clinical practice. In this paper we present a context-based recommender system to support medical imaging diagnostic. The system relies on data mining and context-based retrieval techniques to automatically lookup for relevant information that may help physicians in the diagnostic decision. PMID:25991188

  8. Recommended reference figures for geophysics and geodesy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Khan, M. A.; Okeefe, J. A.

    1973-01-01

    Specific reference figures are recommended for consistent use in geophysics and geodesy. The selection of appropriate reference figure for geophysical studies suggests a relationship between the Antarctic negative gravity anomaly and the great shrinkage of the Antarctic ice cap about 4-5 million years ago. The depression of the south polar regions relative to the north polar regions makes the Southern Hemisphere flatter than the Northern Hemisphere, thus producing the third harmonic (pear-shaped) contribution to the earth's figure.

  9. An Expertise Recommender using Web Mining

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Joshi, Anupam; Chandrasekaran, Purnima; ShuYang, Michelle; Ramakrishnan, Ramya

    2001-01-01

    This report explored techniques to mine web pages of scientists to extract information regarding their expertise, build expertise chains and referral webs, and semi automatically combine this information with directory information services to create a recommender system that permits query by expertise. The approach included experimenting with existing techniques that have been reported in research literature in recent past , and adapted them as needed. In addition, software tools were developed to capture and use this information.

  10. Ethical conduct recommendations for quality improvement projects.

    PubMed

    Layer, Toni

    2003-01-01

    The distinction between QI, research, and clinical care projects has never been clear. However, QI projects may raise ethical concerns, and organizations need to ensure that patients involved in QI projects are adequately protected. The recommendations within the VHA report are intended as a starting point for dialogue to provide guidance for the responsible ethical conduct of QI projects. Discussion and oversight will need to occur at several levels within organizations to ensure ethical care is being provided. PMID:14606212

  11. How to Write a Letter of Recommendation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Felton, George

    2005-01-01

    Letters of recommendation for students are never easy to write. All faculty feel charged with telling the truth, but they also feel compelled to go over the top far enough that the student won't seem damned with faint praise. And, as with grade point averages, the top gets higher every year. Is it possible to write too positive a letter anymore?…

  12. Space shuttle earth orbital rendezvous targeting techniques for near circular target satellite orbits

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Deaton, A. W.

    1972-01-01

    The targeting techniques are developed which are required to determine the guidance reference release time of the space shuttle navigation system, the orbital insertion targeting values, and a time line of orbital maneuvers. An extension is made for rendezvous with a target satellite in an elliptical orbit.

  13. Virtual Goods Recommendations in Virtual Worlds

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Kuan-Yu; Liao, Hsiu-Yu; Chen, Jyun-Hung; Liu, Duen-Ren

    2015-01-01

    Virtual worlds (VWs) are computer-simulated environments which allow users to create their own virtual character as an avatar. With the rapidly growing user volume in VWs, platform providers launch virtual goods in haste and stampede users to increase sales revenue. However, the rapidity of development incurs virtual unrelated items which will be difficult to remarket. It not only wastes virtual global companies' intelligence resources, but also makes it difficult for users to find suitable virtual goods fit for their virtual home in daily virtual life. In the VWs, users decorate their houses, visit others' homes, create families, host parties, and so forth. Users establish their social life circles through these activities. This research proposes a novel virtual goods recommendation method based on these social interactions. The contact strength and contact influence result from interactions with social neighbors and influence users' buying intention. Our research highlights the importance of social interactions in virtual goods recommendation. The experiment's data were retrieved from an online VW platform, and the results show that the proposed method, considering social interactions and social life circle, has better performance than existing recommendation methods. PMID:25834837

  14. Personalized recommendation based on heat bidirectional transfer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Wenping; Feng, Xiang; Wang, Shanfeng; Gong, Maoguo

    2016-02-01

    Personalized recommendation has become an increasing popular research topic, which aims to find future likes and interests based on users' past preferences. Traditional recommendation algorithms pay more attention to forecast accuracy by calculating first-order relevance, while ignore the importance of diversity and novelty that provide comfortable experiences for customers. There are some levels of contradictions between these three metrics, so an algorithm based on bidirectional transfer is proposed in this paper to solve this dilemma. In this paper, we agree that an object that is associated with history records or has been purchased by similar users should be introduced to the specified user and recommendation approach based on heat bidirectional transfer is proposed. Compared with the state-of-the-art approaches based on bipartite network, experiments on two benchmark data sets, Movielens and Netflix, demonstrate that our algorithm has better performance on accuracy, diversity and novelty. Moreover, this method does better in exploiting long-tail commodities and cold-start problem.

  15. Adult immunization in India: Importance and recommendations

    PubMed Central

    Verma, Ramesh; Khanna, Pardeep; Chawla, Suraj

    2015-01-01

    Vaccination is recommended throughout life to prevent infectious diseases and their sequelae. Vaccines are crucial to prevent mortality in that >25% of deaths are due to infections. Vaccines are recommended for adults on the basis of a range of factors. Substantial improvement and increases in adult vaccination are needed to reduce the health consequences of vaccine-preventable diseases among adults. Incomplete and inadequate immunization in India against these communicable diseases results in substantial and unnecessary costs both in terms of hospitalization and treatment. The government of India as well as the World Health Organization (WHO) consider childhood vaccination as the first priority, but there is not yet focus on adult immunization. Adult immunization in India is the most ignored part of heath care services. The Expert Group recommended that data on infectious diseases in India should be updated, refined, and reviewed periodically and published regularly. This group suggested that the consensus guidelines about adult immunization should be reviewed every 3 years to incorporate new strategies from any emerging research from India. There is an immediate need to address the problem of adult immunization in India. Although many issues revolving around efficacy, safety, and cost of introducing vaccines for adults at the national level are yet to be resolved, there is an urgent need to sensitize the health planners as well as health care providers regarding this pertinent issue. PMID:25483654

  16. Recommendations for pediatric tuberculosis vaccination in Italy.

    PubMed

    Montagnani, Carlotta; Esposito, Susanna; Galli, Luisa; Chiappini, Elena; Principi, Nicola; de Martino, Maurizio

    2016-03-01

    Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) vaccine is still the only vaccine approved for the prevention of tuberculosis (TB), and is widely used in highly endemic countries, where all newborns receive a single intradermal dose immediately after birth; however, the recommendations concerning its use in Europe vary widely from country to country. This document describes the recommendations of a group of Italian scientific societies concerning its pediatric use in Italy, the persistence of the protection it provides, its safety, its interference with tuberculin skin test (TST) responses, and the children who should be vaccinated. The experts conclude that BCG vaccination provides a good level of protection against tuberculous meningitis and disseminated forms, and a fair level of protection against pulmonary disease; the protective effective lasts at least 10 years, and revaccination offers no advantages over a single administration. The vaccine is safe in immunocompetent subjects, and affects the response to a TST for at least 6 y On the basis of these observations, we recommend its use in Italy in all TST-negative immunocompetent newborns and breastfeeding infants aged <6 months, and all TST-negative children aged between 6 months and 5 y who come from highly epidemic areas, or whose parents come from highly endemic areas, or who have been in contact with a family member with active TB without contracting the disease themselves. PMID:26587764

  17. [Immunisation schedule of the Spanish Association of Paediatrics: 2013 recommendations].

    PubMed

    Moreno-Pérez, D; Álvarez García, F J; Arístegui Fernández, J; Barrio Corrales, F; Cilleruelo Ortega, M J; Corretger Rauet, J M; González-Hachero, J; Hernández-Sampelayo Matos, T; Merino Moína, M; Ortigosa Del Castillo, L; Ruiz-Contreras, J

    2013-01-01

    The Advisory Committee on Vaccines of the Spanish Association of Paediatrics (CAV-AEP) updates the immunisation schedule every year, taking into account epidemiological data as well as evidence on the safety, effectiveness and efficiency of vaccines. The present schedule includes levels of recommendation. We have graded as routine vaccinations those that the CAV-AEP consider all children should receive; as recommended those that fit the profile for universal childhood immunisation and would ideally be given to all children, but that can be prioritised according to the resources available for their public funding; and as risk group vaccinations those that specifically target individuals in situations of risk. Immunisation schedules tend to be dynamic and adaptable to ongoing epidemiological changes. Nevertheless, the achievement of a unified immunisation schedule in all regions of Spain is a top priority for the CAV-AEP. Based on the latest epidemiological trends, CAV-AEP follows the innovations proposed in the last year's schedule, such as the administration of the first dose of the MMR and the varicella vaccines at age 12 months and the second dose at age 2-3 years, as well as the administration of the Tdap vaccine at age 4-6 years, always followed by another dose at 11-14 years of age, preferably at 11-12 years. The CAV-AEP believes that the coverage of vaccination against human papillomavirus in girls aged 11-14 years, preferably at 11-12 years, must increase. It reasserts its recommendation to include vaccination against pneumococcal disease in the routine immunisation schedule. Universal vaccination against varicella in the second year of life is an effective strategy and therefore a desirable objective. Vaccination against rotavirus is recommended in all infants due to the morbidity and elevated healthcare burden of the virus. The Committee stresses the need to vaccinate population groups considered at risk against influenza and hepatitis A. Finally, it

  18. Physicians’ Human Papillomavirus Vaccine Recommendations in the Context of Permissive Guidelines for Male Patients: A National Study

    PubMed Central

    Malo, Teri L.; Giuliano, Anna R.; Kahn, Jessica A.; Zimet, Gregory D.; Lee, Ji-Hyun; Zhao, Xiuhua; Vadaparampil, Susan T.

    2014-01-01

    Background Little is known about physicians’ human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine recommendations for males while the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices’ (ACIP) permissive guidelines for male vaccination were in effect. The purpose of this study was to examine and explore factors associated with U.S. physicians’ HPV vaccine recommendations to early (ages 11–12), middle (13–17), and late adolescent/young adult (18–26) males. Methods Nationally representative samples of family physicians and pediatricians were selected in 2011 (n=1,219). Physicians reported the frequency with which they recommended HPV vaccine to male patients (“always” [>75% of the time] vs. other) for each age group. Statistically significant predictors of vaccine recommendation were identified using multivariable logistic regression. Results The prevalence of physicians reporting they “always” recommended HPV vaccination for males was 10.8% for ages 11–12, 12.9% for ages 13–17, and 13.2% for ages 18–26. Pediatrician specialty and self-reported early adoption of new vaccines were significantly associated with recommendation for all patient age groups. Additionally, physician race and patient payment method were associated with physician recommendations to patients ages 11–12, and patient race was associated with recommendations to ages 13–17 and 18–26. Conclusions Less than 15% of physicians surveyed reported “always” recommending HPV vaccine to male patients following national guidelines for permissive vaccination. Vaccine financing may have affected physicians’ vaccine recommendations. Impact If these recommendation practices continue following the ACIP’s routine recommendation for males in October 2011, then interventions designed to increase recommendations should target family physicians and possibly utilize early adopters to encourage support of HPV vaccination guidelines. PMID:25028456

  19. Factors Associated with Medicaid Providers Recommendation of the HPV Vaccine to Low-Income Adolescent Girls

    PubMed Central

    Bynum, Shalanda A.; Staras, Stephanie A. S.; Malo, Teri L.; Giuliano, Anna R.; Shenkman, Elizabeth; Vadaparampil, Susan T.

    2013-01-01

    Background HPV vaccination in the US remains a public health challenge with vaccine rates of 50%. Although health care providers can facilitate HPV vaccination, several factors may impede their ability to universally recommend the vaccine. To maximize the potential of HPV vaccines, it is important to understand challenges providers face in the clinical environment. Purpose The study sought to identify factors associated with recommendation of the HPV vaccine for low-income adolescents in the early (9–10), target (11–12), early adolescent catch-up (13–14), and late adolescent catch-up (15–17) vaccination groups. Methods Surveys were mailed from October 2009-April 2010 to a random sample of Florida-based physicians serving Medicaid-enrolled adolescents. Data were analyzed in 2013. Results Among early adolescents, discomfort discussing sexually transmitted infections (STIs) with teens (odds ratio [OR]=1.75), difficulty ensuring vaccine completion (OR=0.73), and discomfort discussing STIs with parents (OR=0.44) were associated with recommendation. For target adolescents, discomfort discussing STIs with teens (OR=2.45), time constraints (OR=0.70), vaccine efficacy concerns (OR=0.65), discomfort discussing STIs with parents (OR=0.33), obstetrics/gynecology (OR=0.25) and family medicine (OR=0.24) specialty, and non-Hispanic Black patient (OR=0.15) were associated with recommendation. In early catch-up adolescents, concerns that teens will practice riskier behaviors (OR=0.57), discomfort discussing STIs with parents (OR=0.47), and family medicine specialty (OR=0.20) were associated with recommendation. For late catch-up adolescents, family medicine specialty (OR=0.13) was associated with recommendation. Conclusion Modifiable factors that impede or influence provider recommendations of HPV vaccines can be addressed through intervention. Overall, findings suggest that efforts should focus on sexuality communication and family medicine specialty. PMID:24064282

  20. ACMG recommendations for reporting of incidental findings in clinical exome and genome sequencing.

    PubMed

    Green, Robert C; Berg, Jonathan S; Grody, Wayne W; Kalia, Sarah S; Korf, Bruce R; Martin, Christa L; McGuire, Amy L; Nussbaum, Robert L; O'Daniel, Julianne M; Ormond, Kelly E; Rehm, Heidi L; Watson, Michael S; Williams, Marc S; Biesecker, Leslie G

    2013-07-01

    In clinical exome and genome sequencing, there is a potential for the recognition and reporting of incidental or secondary findings unrelated to the indication for ordering the sequencing but of medical value for patient care. The American College of Medical Genetics and Genomics (ACMG) recently published a policy statement on clinical sequencing that emphasized the importance of alerting the patient to the possibility of such results in pretest patient discussions, clinical testing, and reporting of results. The ACMG appointed a Working Group on Incidental Findings in Clinical Exome and Genome Sequencing to make recommendations about responsible management of incidental findings when patients undergo exome or genome sequencing. This Working Group conducted a year-long consensus process, including an open forum at the 2012 Annual Meeting and review by outside experts, and produced recommendations that have been approved by the ACMG Board. Specific and detailed recommendations, and the background and rationale for these recommendations, are described herein. The ACMG recommends that laboratories performing clinical sequencing seek and report mutations of the specified classes or types in the genes listed here. This evaluation and reporting should be performed for all clinical germline (constitutional) exome and genome sequencing, including the "normal" of tumor-normal subtractive analyses in all subjects, irrespective of age but excluding fetal samples. We recognize that there are insufficient data on penetrance and clinical utility to fully support these recommendations, and we encourage the creation of an ongoing process for updating these recommendations at least annually as further data are collected. PMID:23788249

  1. Identifying existing Choosing Wisely recommendations of high relevance and importance to hematology.

    PubMed

    Hicks, Lisa K; Rajasekhar, Anita; Bering, Harriet; Carson, Kenneth R; Kleinerman, Judith; Kukreti, Vishal; Ma, Alice; Mueller, Brigitta U; O'Brien, Sarah H; Panepinto, Julie A; Pasquini, Marcelo C; Sarode, Ravi; Wood, William A

    2016-08-01

    Choosing Wisely (CW) is a medical stewardship initiative led by the American Board of Internal Medicine Foundation in collaboration with professional medical societies in the United States. In an effort to learn from and leverage the work of others, the American Society of Hematology CW Task Force developed a method to identify and prioritize CW recommendations from other medical societies of high relevance and importance to patients with blood disorders and their physicians. All 380 CW recommendations were reviewed and assessed for relevance and importance. Relevance was assessed using the MORE(TM) relevance scale. Importance was assessed with regard to six guiding principles: harm avoidance, evidence, aggregate cost, relevance, frequency and impact. Harm avoidance was considered the most important principle. Ten highly relevant and important recommendations were identified from a variety of professional societies. Recommendations focused on decreasing unnecessary imaging, blood work, treatments and transfusions, as well as on increasing collaboration across disciplines and considering value when recommending treatments. Many CW recommendations have relevance beyond the society of origin. The methods developed by the ASH CW Task Force could be easily adapted by other Societies to identify additional CW recommendations of relevance and importance to their fields. Am. J. Hematol. 91:787-792, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:27152483

  2. E-book recommender system design and implementation based on data mining

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Zongjiang

    2011-12-01

    In the knowledge explosion, rapid development of information age, how quickly the user or users interested in useful information for feedback to the user problem to be solved in this article. This paper based on data mining, association rules to the model and classification model a combination of electronic books on the recommendation of the user's neighboring users interested in e-books to target users. Introduced the e-book recommendation and the key technologies, system implementation algorithms, and implementation process, was proved through experiments that this system can help users quickly find the required e-books.

  3. Exploring Existence Value

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Madariaga, Bruce; McConnell, Kenneth E.

    1987-05-01

    The notion that individuals value the preservation of water resources independent of their own use of these resources is discussed. Issues in defining this value, termed "existence value," are explored. Economic models are employed to assess the role of existence value in benefit-cost analysis. The motives underlying existence value are shown to matter to contingent valuation measurement of existence benefits. A stylized contingent valuation experiment is used to study nonusers' attitudes regarding projects to improve water quality in the Chesapeake Bay. Survey results indicate that altruism is one of the motives underlying existence value and that goods other than environmental and natural resources may provide existence benefits.

  4. Strategically targeting MYC in cancer

    PubMed Central

    Posternak, Valeriya; Cole, Michael D.

    2016-01-01

    MYC is a major driver of cancer cell growth and mediates a transcriptional program spanning cell growth, the cell cycle, metabolism, and cell survival. Many efforts have been made to deliberately target MYC for cancer therapy. A variety of compounds have been generated to inhibit MYC function or stability, either directly or indirectly. The most direct inhibitors target the interaction between MYC and MAX, which is required for DNA binding. Unfortunately, these compounds do not have the desired pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics for in vivo application. Recent studies report the indirect inhibition of MYC through the development of two compounds, JQ1 and THZ1, which target factors involved in unique stages of transcription. These compounds appear to have significant therapeutic value for cancers with high levels of MYC, although some effects are MYC-independent. These approaches serve as a foundation for developing novel compounds to pharmacologically target MYC-driven cancers. PMID:27081479

  5. The Comparison of Personalization Recommendation for E-Commerce

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ya, Luo

    Personalization recommendation is the key technology in E-commerce, which affects the performance of E-commerce system. This paper mainly introduces personalization recommendation system and its role, and several widely used recommendation technology. Through comparing and analyzing on the strengths and weaknesses of recommendation technology, it concludes that the combined application for a variety of techniques should satisfy the actual needs better.

  6. 12 CFR 908.64 - Exceptions to recommended decision.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Exceptions to recommended decision. 908.64... Proceedings § 908.64 Exceptions to recommended decision. (a) Filing exceptions. Within thirty (30) days after service of the recommended decision, recommended findings and conclusions, and proposed order under §...

  7. 12 CFR 1780.54 - Exceptions to recommended decision.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Exceptions to recommended decision. 1780.54... Posthearing Proceedings § 1780.54 Exceptions to recommended decision. (a) Filing exceptions. Within 30 days after service of the recommended decision, recommended findings and conclusions, and proposed...

  8. 12 CFR 308.39 - Exceptions to recommended decision.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Exceptions to recommended decision. 308.39... recommended decision. (a) Filing exceptions. Within 30 days after service of the recommended decision... written exceptions to the administrative law judge's recommended decision, findings, conclusions...

  9. Recommendations for safety pharmacology evaluations of oligonucleotide-based therapeutics.

    PubMed

    Berman, Cindy L; Cannon, Keri; Cui, Yi; Kornbrust, Douglas J; Lagrutta, Armando; Sun, Sunny Z; Tepper, Jeff; Waldron, Gareth; Younis, Husam S

    2014-08-01

    This document was prepared by the Safety Pharmacology Subcommittee of the Oligonucleotide Safety Working Group (OSWG), a group of industry and regulatory scientists involved in the development and regulation of therapeutic oligonucleotides. The mission of the Subcommittee was to develop scientific recommendations for the industry regarding the appropriate scope and strategies for safety pharmacology evaluations of oligonucleotides (ONs). These recommendations are the consensus opinion of the Subcommittee and do not necessarily reflect the current expectations of regulatory authorities. 1) Safety pharmacology testing, as described in the International Conference on Harmonisation (ICH) S7 guidance, is as applicable to ONs as it is to small molecule drugs and biotherapeutics. 2) Study design considerations for ONs are similar to those for other classes of drugs. In general, as with other therapeutics, studies should evaluate the drug product administered via the clinical route. Species selection should ideally consider relevance of the model with regard to the endpoints of interest, pharmacological responsiveness, and continuity with the nonclinical development program. 3) Evaluation of potential effects in the core battery (cardiovascular, central nervous, and respiratory systems) is recommended. In general: a. In vitro human ether-a-go-go-related gene (hERG) testing does not provide any specific value and is not warranted. b. Emphasis should be placed on in vivo evaluation of cardiovascular function, typically in nonhuman primates (NHPs). c. Due to the low level of concern, neurologic and respiratory function can be assessed concurrently with cardiovascular safety pharmacology evaluation in NHPs, within repeat-dose toxicity studies, or as stand-alone studies. In the latter case, rodents are most commonly used. 4) Other dedicated safety pharmacology studies, beyond the core battery, may have limited value for ONs. Although ONs can accumulate in the kidney and liver

  10. Incidental findings in emergency imaging: frequency, recommendations, and compliance with consensus guidelines.

    PubMed

    Hanna, Tarek N; Shekhani, Haris; Zygmont, Matthew E; Kerchberger, James Matthew; Johnson, Jamlik-Omari

    2016-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the frequency of incidental findings (IFs) in emergency department (ED) imaging reports and evaluate the adherence of imaging recommendations to consensus societal guidelines for IFs. A retrospective review of consecutive ED computed tomography (CT) and ultrasonography (US) reports from two university-affiliated EDs over a 2-month period was performed. Each imaging report was reviewed in its entirety, and incidental findings were documented along with recommendations for additional imaging. Imaging recommendations were compared to published societal guidelines from the American College of Radiology (ACR) and Fleischner Society. Three thousand one hundred thirty-one total cases consisting of 1967 CTs and 1164 US contained 514 incidental findings (16.4 %), with 329 CT IFs (64 %) and 185 US IFs (36 %). The ovary was the most common organ for an IF (n = 214, 42 %). Of all IFs, 347 (67.5 %) recommendations were concordant with societal guidelines and 167 (32.5 %) were discordant. 39.8 % of CT recommendations were discordant, while 19.5 % of US recommendations were discordant (p < 0.0001). Incidental findings are commonly encountered in the emergent setting. Variable adherence to societal guidelines is noted. Targeted radiologist education and technological solutions may decrease rates of discordance. PMID:26842832

  11. Education, Values, and Valuing in Cosmopolitan Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hansen, David T.; Burdick-Shepherd, Stephanie; Cammarano, Cristina; Obelleiro, Gonzalo

    2009-01-01

    In this article we describe a cosmopolitan orientation toward the place of values in human life. We argue that a cosmopolitan outlook can assist people in engaging the challenges of being thrown together with others whose roots, traditions, and inheritances differ. We show that cosmopolitanism implies neither an elite nor an aloof posture toward…

  12. The Dubious Value of Value Neutrality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Balch, Stephen H.

    2006-01-01

    Hard science is properly value neutral. But when that ideological neutrality extends to the whole university, the traditional foundation crumbles. Steve Balch laments the moral vacuum that now substitutes for fundamental principles, because it is impossible to frame a program of education--especially in the humanities and social sciences--without…

  13. What's the Value in Value-Added?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duffrin, Elizabeth

    2011-01-01

    As the profession of teaching continues to get more attention given recent events, a growing number of school districts from New York to California are adopting "value-added" measures of teaching quality to award bonuses or even tenure. And two competitive federal grants are spurring them on. The Teacher Incentive Fund has awarded 95 grants since…

  14. A Search for Values

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abruscato, Joseph

    1972-01-01

    Explains the place the values of truth, freedom, skepticism and dissent, originality, order, and communication play in science, and states implications of these values for science curricula and instructional practices. (AL)

  15. Share Your Values

    MedlinePlus

    ... Español Text Size Email Print Share Share Your Values Page Content Article Body Today, teenagers are bombarded ... mid-twenties. The Most Effective Way to Instill Values? By Example Your words will carry more weight ...

  16. Recommendations for Soluble Biomarker Assessments in Osteoarthritis Clinical Trials

    PubMed Central

    Kraus, Virginia Byers; Blanco, Francisco J; Englund, Martin; Henrotin, Yves; Lohmander, L Stefan; Losina, Elena; Önnerfjord, Patrik; Persiani, Stefano

    2015-01-01

    Objective To describe requirements for inclusion of soluble biomarkers in osteoarthritis (OA) clinical trials and progress toward OA-related biomarker qualification. Methods The Guidelines for Biomarkers Working Group, representing experts in the field of OA biomarker research from both academia and industry, convened to discuss issues related to soluble biomarkers and to make recommendations for their use in OA clinical trials based on current knowledge and anticipated benefits. Results This document summarizes current guidance on use of biomarkers in OA clinical trials and their utility at 5 stages, including preclinical development and phase I to phase IV trials. Conclusions Biomarkers can provide value at all stages of therapeutics development. When resources permit, we recommend collection of biospecimens in all OA clinical trials for a wide variety of reasons but in particular, to determine whether biomarkers are useful in identifying those individuals most likely to receive clinically important benefits from an intervention; and to determine whether biomarkers are useful for identifying individuals at earlier stages of OA in order to institute treatment at a time more amenable to disease modification. PMID:25952342

  17. Recommendations for health information technology implementation in rural hospitals.

    PubMed

    Huang, Yuan-Han; Gramopadhye, Anand K

    2016-05-01

    Purpose - The purpose of this paper is to investigate violations against work standards associated with using a new health information technology (HIT) system. Relevant recommendations for implementing HIT in rural hospitals are provided and discussed to achieve meaningful use. Design/methodology/approach - An observational study is conducted to map medication administration process while using a HIT system in a rural hospital. Follow-up focus groups are held to determine and verify potential adverse factors related to using the HIT system while passing drugs to patients. Findings - A detailed task analysis demonstrated several violations, such as only relying on the barcode scanning system to match up with patient and drugs could potentially result in the medical staff forgetting to provide drug information verbally before administering drugs. There was also a lack of regulated and clear work procedure in using the new HIT system. In addition, the computer system controls and displays could not be adjusted so as to satisfy the users' expectations. Nurses prepared medications and documentation in an environment that was prone to interruptions. Originality/value - Recommendations for implementing a HIT system in rural healthcare facilities can be categorized into five areas: people, tasks, tools, environment, and organization. Detailed remedial measures are provided for achieving continuous process improvements at resource-limited healthcare facilities in rural areas. PMID:27142953

  18. Claw length recommendations for dairy cow foot trimming

    PubMed Central

    Archer, S. C.; Newsome, R.; Dibble, H.; Sturrock, C. J.; Chagunda, M. G. G.; Mason, C. S.; Huxley, J. N.

    2015-01-01

    The aim was to describe variation in length of the dorsal hoof wall in contact with the dermis for cows on a single farm, and hence, derive minimum appropriate claw lengths for routine foot trimming. The hind feet of 68 Holstein-Friesian dairy cows were collected post mortem, and the internal structures were visualised using x-ray µCT. The internal distance from the proximal limit of the wall horn to the distal tip of the dermis was measured from cross-sectional sagittal images. A constant was added to allow for a minimum sole thickness of 5 mm and an average wall thickness of 8 mm. Data were evaluated using descriptive statistics and two-level linear regression models with claw nested within cow. Based on 219 claws, the recommended dorsal wall length from the proximal limit of hoof horn was up to 90 mm for 96 per cent of claws, and the median value was 83 mm. Dorsal wall length increased by 1 mm per year of age, yet 85 per cent of the null model variance remained unexplained. Overtrimming can have severe consequences; the authors propose that the minimum recommended claw length stated in training materials for all Holstein-Friesian cows should be increased to 90 mm. PMID:26220848

  19. Claw length recommendations for dairy cow foot trimming.

    PubMed

    Archer, S C; Newsome, R; Dibble, H; Sturrock, C J; Chagunda, M G G; Mason, C S; Huxley, J N

    2015-09-01

    The aim was to describe variation in length of the dorsal hoof wall in contact with the dermis for cows on a single farm, and hence, derive minimum appropriate claw lengths for routine foot trimming. The hind feet of 68 Holstein-Friesian dairy cows were collected post mortem, and the internal structures were visualised using x-ray µCT. The internal distance from the proximal limit of the wall horn to the distal tip of the dermis was measured from cross-sectional sagittal images. A constant was added to allow for a minimum sole thickness of 5 mm and an average wall thickness of 8 mm. Data were evaluated using descriptive statistics and two-level linear regression models with claw nested within cow. Based on 219 claws, the recommended dorsal wall length from the proximal limit of hoof horn was up to 90 mm for 96 per cent of claws, and the median value was 83 mm. Dorsal wall length increased by 1 mm per year of age, yet 85 per cent of the null model variance remained unexplained. Overtrimming can have severe consequences; the authors propose that the minimum recommended claw length stated in training materials for all Holstein-Friesian cows should be increased to 90 mm. PMID:26220848

  20. Air pollution prevention at the Hanford Site: Status and recommendations

    SciTech Connect

    Engel, J.A.

    1995-08-01

    With the introduction of the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 and other air and pollution prevention regulations, there has been increased focus on both pollution prevention and air emissions at US DOE sites. The Pollution Prevention (P2) Group of WHC reviewed the status of air pollution prevention with the goal of making recommendations on how to address air emissions at Hanford through pollution prevention. Using the air emissions inventory from Hanford`s Title V permit, the P2 Group was able to identify major and significant air sources. By reviewing the literature and benchmarking two other DOE Sites, two major activities were recommended to reduce air pollution and reduce costs at the Hanford Site. First, a pollution prevention opportunity assessment (P2OA) should be conducted on the significant painting sources in the Maintenance group and credit should be taken for reducing the burning of tumbleweeds, another significant source of air pollution. Since they are significant sources, reducing these emissions will reduce air emission fees, as well as have the potential to reduce material and labor costs, and increase worker safety. Second, a P2OA should be conducted on alternatives to the three coal-fired powerhouses (steam plants) on-site, including a significant costs analysis of alternatives. This analysis could be of significant value to other DOE sites. Overall, these two activities would reduce pollution, ease regulatory requirements and fees, save money, and help Hanford take a leadership role in air pollution prevention.

  1. Management of radon: a review of ICRP recommendations.

    PubMed

    Vaillant, Ludovic; Bataille, Céline

    2012-09-01

    This article proposes a review of past and current ICRP publications dealing with the management of radon exposures. Its main objective is to identify and discuss the driving factors that have been used by the Commission during the last 50 years so as to better appreciate current issues regarding radon exposure management. The analysis shows that major evolutions took place in very recent years. As far as the management of radon exposures is concerned, ICRP recommended, until ICRP Publication 103 (ICRP 2007 ICRP Publication 103; Ann. ICRP 37), to use action levels and to consider only exposures above these levels. The Commission has reviewed its approach and now proposes to manage any radon exposure through the application of the optimisation principle and associated reference levels. As far as the assessment of the radon risk is concerned, it appears that the successive changes made by ICRP did not have a strong impact on the values of radon gas concentration recommended as action levels either in dwellings or in workplaces. The major change occurred in late 2009 with the publication of the ICRP Statement on Radon, which acknowledged that the radon risk has been underestimated by a factor of 2, thus inducing a major revision of radon reference levels. PMID:22809956

  2. Overall Ventilation System Flow Network Calculation for Site Recommendation

    SciTech Connect

    Jeff J. Steinhoff

    2001-08-02

    The scope of this calculation is to determine ventilation system resistances, pressure drops, airflows, and operating cost estimates for the Site Recommendation (SR) design as detailed in the ''Site Recommendation Subsurface Layout'' (BSC (Bechtel SAIC Company) 2001a). The statutory limit for emplacement of waste in Yucca Mountain is 70,000 metric tons of uranium (MTU) and is considered the base case for this report. The objective is to determine the overall repository system ventilation flow network for the monitoring phase during normal operations and to provide a basis for the system description document design descriptions. Any values derived from this calculation will not be used to support construction, fabrication, or procurement. The work scope is identified in the ''Technical Work Plan for Subsurface Design Section FY01 Work Activities'' (CRWMS M&O 2001, pp. 6 and 13). In accordance with the technical work plan this calculation was prepared in accordance with AP-3.12Q, ''Calculations'' and other procedures invoked by AP-3.12Q. It also incorporates the procedure AP-SI1.Q, ''Software Management''.

  3. Personalized Popular Blog Recommender Service for Mobile Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsai, Pei-Yun; Liu, Duen-Ren

    Weblogs have emerged as a new communication and publication medium on the Internet for diffusing the latest useful information. Providing value-added mobile services such as blog articles is increasingly important to attract mobile users to mobile commerce. There are, however, a tremendous number of blog articles, and mobile users generally have difficulty in browsing weblogs. Accordingly, providing mobile users with blog articles that suit their interests is an important issue. Very little research, however, focuses on this issue. In this work, we propose a Customized Content Service on a mobile device (m-CCS) to filter and push blog articles to mobile users. The m-CCS can predict the latest popular blog topics by forecasting the trend of time-sensitive popularity of weblogs. Furthermore, to meet the diversified interest of mobile users, m-CCS further analyzes users’ browsing logs to derive their interests, which are then used to recommend their preferred popular blog topics and articles. The prototype system of m-CCS demonstrates that the system can effectively recommend mobile users desirable blog articles with respect to both popularity and personal interests.

  4. Emergy and Nonmarket Value

    EPA Science Inventory

    The purpose of this study is to better understand the differences and similarities between emergy and nonmarket economic valuation, when both are applied to value the same policies or development alternatives. The emdollar value of a good or service often exceeds the market value...

  5. Values in Further Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Halliday, John, Ed.

    This book explores educational values in the British further education system. Following an introductory discussion of educational values by the editor, John Halliday, the book contains 21 short essays organized in the areas of cultural values, curriculum, and management and staff development. The following are included: "Democratic…

  6. Information Economics: Valuing Information.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brinberg, Herbert R.

    1989-01-01

    Addresses the question of why previous articles and studies on the value of information have failed to provide meaningful techniques for measuring that value. The discussion covers four principle causes for confusion surrounding the valuation of information and draws conclusions about the value added model of information. (seven references) (CLB)

  7. Values Clarification in EFL.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Mary S.

    1976-01-01

    This paper briefly outlines the theory and development of Values Clarification and explores its possible applications to English as a foreign language (EFL). The five basic types of Values Clarification exercises are discussed: (1) interviewing, (2) rank-ordering, (3) forced choice, (4) values continuum, and (5) sentence completion. The theory and…

  8. Values Drive the Plan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cook, Les P.

    2010-01-01

    Values-integrated strategic planning provides the opportunity to clarify professional values as one envisions a future that is exciting and perhaps a bit provocative. This chapter explores the role and importance of student affairs and institutional values in strategic planning. It also looks at the historical roots of the profession and methods…

  9. Hierarchical Classification of Values

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ergen, Gürkan

    2015-01-01

    Values are of utmost importance for the creation, development and sustainability of a life worthy of human dignity. However, because even superficial views of values are regarded as values themselves, they have become relative and become degenerated; therefore, they have lost the properties--potentials and powers--essential to human dignity. This…

  10. Environmental restoration value engineering guidance document

    SciTech Connect

    1995-07-01

    This document provides guidance on Value Engineering (VE). VE is an organized team effort led by a person trained in the methodology to analyze the functions of projects, systems, equipment, facilities, services, and processes for achieving the essential functions at the lowest life cycle cost while maintaining required performance, reliability, availability, quality, and safety. VE has proven to be a superior tool to improve up-front project planning, cut costs, and create a better value for each dollar spent. This document forms the basis for the Environmental Restoration VE Program, describes the VE process, and provides recommendations on when it can be most useful on ER projects.

  11. Targeting Net Zero Energy at Marine Corps Air Station Miramar: Assessment and Recommendations

    SciTech Connect

    Booth, S.; Barnett, J.; Burman, K.; Hambrick, J.; Helwig, M.; Westby, R.

    2010-12-01

    The U.S. Department of Defense (DoD) is the largest energy consumer in the U.S. government. Present energy use impacts DoD global operations by constraining freedom of action and self-sufficiency, demanding enormous economic resources, and putting many lives at risk in logistics support for deployed environments. There are many opportunities for DoD to more effectively meet energy requirements through a combination of human actions, energy efficiency technologies, and renewable energy resources. In 2008, a joint initiative was formed between DoD and the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) to address military energy use. This initiative created a task force comprised of representatives from each branch of the military, the Office of the Secretary of Defense (OSD), the Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP), and the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) to examine the potential for ultra high efficiency military installations. This report presents an assessment of Marine Corps Air Station (MCAS) Miramar, selected by the task force as the initial prototype installation based on its strong history of energy advocacy and extensive track record of successful energy projects.

  12. Dystonia rating scales: critique and recommendations

    PubMed Central

    Albanese, Alberto; Sorbo, Francesca Del; Comella, Cynthia; Jinnah, H.A.; Mink, Jonathan W.; Post, Bart; Vidailhet, Marie; Volkmann, Jens; Warner, Thomas T.; Leentjens, Albert F.G.; Martinez-Martin, Pablo; Stebbins, Glenn T.; Goetz, Christopher G.; Schrag, Anette

    2014-01-01

    Background Many rating scales have been applied to the evaluation of dystonia, but only few have been assessed for clinimetric properties. The Movement Disorders Society commissioned this task force to critique existing dystonia rating scales and place them in the clinical and clinimetric context. Methods A systematic literature review was conducted to identify rating scales that have either been validated or used in dystonia. Results Thirty six potential scales were identified. Eight were excluded because they did not meet review criteria, leaving twenty-eight scales that were critiqued and rated by the task force. Seven scales were found to meet criteria to be “recommended”: the Blepharospasm Disability Index is recommended for rating blepharospasm; the Cervical Dystonia Impact Scale and the Toronto Western Spasmodic Torticollis Rating Scale for rating cervical dystonia; the Craniocervical Dystonia Questionnaire for blepharospasm and cervical dystonia; the Voice Handicap Index (VHI) and the Vocal Performance Questionnaire (VPQ) for laryngeal dystonia; and the Fahn-Marsden Dystonia Rating Scale for rating generalized dystonia. Two “recommended” scales (VHI and VPQ) are generic scales validated on few patients with laryngeal dystonia, whereas the others are disease-specific scales. Twelve scales met criteria for “suggested” and seven scales met criteria for “listed”. All the scales are individually reviewed in the online appendix. Conclusion The task force recommends five specific dystonia scales and suggests to further validate in dystonia two recommended generic voice-disorder scales. Existing scales for oromandibular, arm and task-specific dystonia should be refined and fully assessed. Scales should be developed for body regions where no scales are available, such as lower limbs and trunk. PMID:23893443

  13. Realizing "value-added" metrology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bunday, Benjamin; Lipscomb, Pete; Allgair, John; Patel, Dilip; Caldwell, Mark; Solecky, Eric; Archie, Chas; Morningstar, Jennifer; Rice, Bryan J.; Singh, Bhanwar; Cain, Jason; Emami, Iraj; Banke, Bill, Jr.; Herrera, Alfredo; Ukraintsev, Vladamir; Schlessinger, Jerry; Ritchison, Jeff

    2007-03-01

    The conventional premise that metrology is a "non-value-added necessary evil" is a misleading and dangerous assertion, which must be viewed as obsolete thinking. Many metrology applications are key enablers to traditionally labeled "value-added" processing steps in lithography and etch, such that they can be considered integral parts of the processes. Various key trends in modern, state-of-the-art processing such as optical proximity correction (OPC), design for manufacturability (DFM), and advanced process control (APC) are based, at their hearts, on the assumption of fine-tuned metrology, in terms of uncertainty and accuracy. These trends are vehicles where metrology thus has large opportunities to create value through the engineering of tight and targetable process distributions. Such distributions make possible predictability in speed-sorts and in other parameters, which results in high-end product. Additionally, significant reliance has also been placed on defect metrology to predict, improve, and reduce yield variability. The necessary quality metrology is strongly influenced by not only the choice of equipment, but also the quality application of these tools in a production environment. The ultimate value added by metrology is a result of quality tools run by a quality metrology team using quality practices. This paper will explore the relationships among present and future trends and challenges in metrology, including equipment, key applications, and metrology deployment in the manufacturing flow. Of key importance are metrology personnel, with their expertise, practices, and metrics in achieving and maintaining the required level of metrology performance, including where precision, matching, and accuracy fit into these considerations. The value of metrology will be demonstrated to have shifted to "key enabler of large revenues," debunking the out-of-date premise that metrology is "non-value-added." Examples used will be from critical dimension (CD

  14. Evidence-informed recommendations for constructing and disseminating messages supplementing the new Canadian Physical Activity Guidelines

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Few validated guidelines exist for developing messages in health promotion practice. In clinical practice, the Appraisal of Guidelines, Research, and Evaluation II (AGREE II) Instrument is the international gold standard for guideline assessment, development, and reporting. In a case study format, this paper describes the application of the AGREE II principles to guide the development of health promotion guidelines for constructing messages to supplement the new Canadian Physical Activity Guidelines (CPAG) released in 2011. Methods The AGREE II items were modified to suit the objectives of developing messages that (1) clarify key components of the new CPAG and (2) motivate Canadians to meet the CPAG. The adapted AGREE II Instrument was used as a systematic guide for the recommendation development process. Over a two-day meeting, five workgroups (one for each CPAG – child, youth, adult, older adult – and one overarching group) of five to six experts (including behavior change, messaging, and exercise physiology researchers, key stakeholders, and end users) reviewed and discussed evidence for creating and targeting messages to supplement the new CPAG. Recommendations were summarized and reviewed by workgroup experts. The recommendations were pilot tested among end users and then finalized by the workgroup. Results The AGREE II was a useful tool in guiding the development of evidence-based specific recommendations for constructing and disseminating messages that supplement and increase awareness of the new CPAG (child, youth, adults, and older adults). The process also led to the development of sample messages and provision of a rationale alongside the recommendations. Conclusions To our knowledge, these are the first set of evidence-informed recommendations for constructing and disseminating messages supplementing physical activity guidelines. This project also represents the first application of international standards for guideline development (i

  15. Recommended radiative property data for Venusian entry calculations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, J. J.; Boughner, R. E.; Haggard, K. V.; Nealy, J. E.; Schryer, D. R.; Zoby, E. V.

    1974-01-01

    A compilation of experimental and calculated data on the radiative properties species important in Venusian entry is presented. Molecular band systems, atomic lines, free-bound, and free-free continua are considered for the principal radiating species of shock heated carbon dioxide. A limited amount of data pertinent to the species in the ablation layer is also included. The assumption is made that the Venus atmosphere so closely approximates pure CO2 that the inviscid layer radiation is due almost entirely to thermally excited CO2. The only exception is the inclusion of data on the Violet band system of CN. Recommendations are made as to best property values for radiative heating calculations. A review of the basic equations and the relationships of the various emission-absorption gas porperties is also included.

  16. Modified Kriging: evaluation, modification, and recommendations

    SciTech Connect

    Schultz, C.A.; Myers, S.C.

    1997-09-01

    This report describes modifications to a technique developed by Sandia National Laboratory (SNL) to predict general corrections (traveltime, etc.) for a geographic grid only sparsely covered by calibration points (Hipp and Young, 1997). SNL has worked to create a modified version of linear prediction (kriging) based on the idea of blending the surface back to zero at some distance from the points or, in other words, by damping the solution through the damping of the input data points. LLNL has been working with SNL to evaluate Modified Kriging. This report documents our evaluation of the technique and our resulting recommendations to SNL.

  17. State recommendations on approaches to LANDSAT

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bay, S. M.; Wubker, P.

    1977-01-01

    The feasibility of continuing the LANDSAT program is contingent upon the success of the technology transfer process to state and local governments. The focus of these concerns can be generally expressed in terms of these issue areas: (1) user needs, in terms of awareness, technical capabilities, and training; (2) product availability and pricing; and (3) roles and communication links, in terms of federal and state governments, the private sector, and the universities. The perspective of the states on these issues are classified. Where possible, alternative strategies for accomplishing the satellite technology transfer for effective state implementation are suggested. Those suggestions are based on the recommendations offered by the state and local user community.

  18. The P450 gene superfamily: recommended nomenclature.

    PubMed

    Nebert, D W; Adesnik, M; Coon, M J; Estabrook, R W; Gonzalez, F J; Guengerich, F P; Gunsalus, I C; Johnson, E F; Kemper, B; Levin, W

    1987-02-01

    A nomenclature for the P450 gene superfamily is proposed based on evolution. Recommendations include Roman numerals for distinct gene families, capital letters for subfamilies, and Arabic numerals for individual genes. An updating of this list, which presently includes 65 entries, will be required every 1-2 years. Assignment of orthologous genes is presently uncertain in some cases--between widely diverged species and especially in the P450II family due to the large number of genes. As more is known, it might become necessary to change some gene assignments that are based on our present knowledge. PMID:3829886

  19. Physician Recommendation of Diabetes Clinical Protocols.

    PubMed

    McMaughan, Darcy K; Huber, John C; Forjuoh, Samuel N; Vuong, Ann M; Helduser, Janet; Ory, Marcia G; Bolin, Jane N

    2016-01-01

    The authors examined the responses of 63 primary care physicians to diabetes clinical protocols (DCPs) for the management of type II diabetes (T2DM). We measured physician demographics, current diabetes patient loads, and responses to DCPs (physician attitudes, physician familiarity, and physician recommendation of DCPs) using a 20-question electronic survey. Results of the survey indicate that primary care physicians may be unfamiliar with the benefits of diabetes clinical protocols for the self-management of T2DM. Given the importance of diabetes self-management education in controlling T2DM, those interested in implementing DCPs should address the beliefs and attitudes of primary care physicians. PMID:26980203

  20. SNL RML recommended dosimetry cross section compendium

    SciTech Connect

    Griffin, P.J.; Kelly, J.G.; Luera, T.F.; VanDenburg, J.

    1993-11-01

    A compendium of dosimetry cross sections is presented for use in the characterization of fission reactor spectrum and fluence. The contents of this cross section library are based upon the ENDF/B-VI and IRDF-90 cross section libraries and are recommended as a replacement for the DOSCROS84 multigroup library that is widely used by the dosimetry community. Documentation is provided on the rationale for the choice of the cross sections selected for inclusion in this library and on the uncertainty and variation in cross sections presented by state-of-the-art evaluations.