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Sample records for reconnaissance imaging spectrometer

  1. Compact Reconnaissance Imaging Spectrometer for Mars (CRISM) on Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter (MRO)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murchie, S.; Arvidson, R.; Bedini, P.; Beisser, K.; Bibring, J.-P.; Bishop, J.; Boldt, J.; Cavender, P.; Choo, T.; Clancy, R. T.; Darlington, E. H.; Des Marais, D.; Espiritu, R.; Fort, D.; Green, R.; Guinness, E.; Hayes, J.; Hash, C.; Heffernan, K.; Hemmler, J.; Heyler, G.; Humm, D.; Hutcheson, J.; Izenberg, N.; Lee, R.; Lees, J.; Lohr, D.; Malaret, E.; Martin, T.; McGovern, J. A.; McGuire, P.; Morris, R.; Mustard, J.; Pelkey, S.; Rhodes, E.; Robinson, M.; Roush, T.; Schaefer, E.; Seagrave, G.; Seelos, F.; Silverglate, P.; Slavney, S.; Smith, M.; Shyong, W.-J.; Strohbehn, K.; Taylor, H.; Thompson, P.; Tossman, B.; Wirzburger, M.; Wolff, M.

    2007-05-01

    The Compact Reconnaissance Imaging Spectrometer for Mars (CRISM) is a hyperspectral imager on the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter (MRO) spacecraft. CRISM consists of three subassemblies, a gimbaled Optical Sensor Unit (OSU), a Data Processing Unit (DPU), and the Gimbal Motor Electronics (GME). CRISM's objectives are (1) to map the entire surface using a subset of bands to characterize crustal mineralogy, (2) to map the mineralogy of key areas at high spectral and spatial resolution, and (3) to measure spatial and seasonal variations in the atmosphere. These objectives are addressed using three major types of observations. In multispectral mapping mode, with the OSU pointed at planet nadir, data are collected at a subset of 72 wavelengths covering key mineralogic absorptions and binned to pixel footprints of 100 or 200 m/pixel. Nearly the entire planet can be mapped in this fashion. In targeted mode the OSU is scanned to remove most along-track motion, and a region of interest is mapped at full spatial and spectral resolution (15-19 m/pixel, 362-3920 nm at 6.55 nm/channel). Ten additional abbreviated, spatially binned images are taken before and after the main image, providing an emission phase function (EPF) of the site for atmospheric study and correction of surface spectra for atmospheric effects. In atmospheric mode, only the EPF is acquired. Global grids of the resulting lower data volume observations are taken repeatedly throughout the Martian year to measure seasonal variations in atmospheric properties. Raw, calibrated, and map-projected data are delivered to the community with a spectral library to aid in interpretation.

  2. CRISM (Compact Reconnaissance Imaging Spectrometer for Mars) on MRO (Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murchie, Scott L.; Arvidson, Raymond E.; Bedini, Peter; Beisser, K.; Bibring, Jean-Pierre; Bishop, J.; Boldt, John D.; Choo, Tech H.; Clancy, R. Todd; Darlington, Edward H.; Des Marais, D.; Espiritu, R.; Fasold, Melissa J.; Fort, Dennis; Green, Richard N.; Guinness, E.; Hayes, John R.; Hash, C.; Heffernan, Kevin J.; Hemmler, J.; Heyler, Gene A.; Humm, David C.; Hutchison, J.; Izenberg, Noam R.; Lee, Robert E.; Lees, Jeffrey J.; Lohr, David A.; Malaret, Erick R.; Martin, T.; Morris, Richard V.; Mustard, John F.; Rhodes, Edgar A.; Robinson, Mark S.; Roush, Ted L.; Schaefer, Edward D.; Seagrave, Gordon G.; Silverglate, Peter R.; Slavney, S.; Smith, Mark F.; Strohbehn, Kim; Taylor, Howard W.; Thompson, Patrick L.; Tossman, Barry E.

    2004-12-01

    CRISM (Compact Reconnaissance Imaging Spectrometer for Mars) is a hyperspectral imager that will be launched on the MRO (Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter) spacecraft in August 2005. MRO"s objectives are to recover climate science originally to have been conducted on the Mars Climate Orbiter (MCO), to identify and characterize sites of possible aqueous activity to which future landed missions may be sent, and to characterize the composition, geology, and stratigraphy of Martian surface deposits. MRO will operate from a sun-synchronous, near-circular (255x320 km altitude), near-polar orbit with a mean local solar time of 3 PM. CRISM"s spectral range spans the ultraviolet (UV) to the mid-wave infrared (MWIR), 383 nm to 3960 nm. The instrument utilizes a Ritchey-Chretien telescope with a 2.12° field-of-view (FOV) to focus light on the entrance slit of a dual spectrometer. Within the spectrometer, light is split by a dichroic into VNIR (visible-near-infrared, 383-1071 nm) and IR (infrared, 988-3960 nm) beams. Each beam is directed into a separate modified Offner spectrometer that focuses a spectrally dispersed image of the slit onto a two dimensional focal plane (FP). The IR FP is a 640 x 480 HgCdTe area array; the VNIR FP is a 640 x 480 silicon photodiode area array. The spectral image is contiguously sampled with a 6.6 nm spectral spacing and an instantaneous field of view of 61.5 μradians. The Optical Sensor Unit (OSU) can be gimbaled to take out along-track smear, allowing long integration times that afford high signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) at high spectral and spatial resolution. The scan motor and encoder are controlled by a separately housed Gimbal Motor Electronics (GME) unit. A Data Processing Unit (DPU) provides power, command and control, and data editing and compression. CRISM acquires three major types of observations of the Martian surface and atmosphere. In Multispectral Mapping Mode, with the gimbal pointed at planet nadir, data are collected at frame rates

  3. System design of the CRISM (compact reconnaissance imaging spectrometer for Mars) hyperspectral imager

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silverglate, Peter R.; Fort, Dennis E.

    2004-01-01

    CRISM (Compact Reconnaissance Imaging Spectrometer for Mars) is a hyperspectral imager that will be launched on the MRO (Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter) in August 2005. The MRO will circle Mars in a polar orbit at a nominal altitude of 325 km. The CRISM spectral range spans the ultraviolet (UV) to the mid-wave infrared (MWIR), 400 nm to 4050 nm. The instrument utilizes a Ritchey-Chretien telescope with a 2.06º field of view (FOV) to focus light on the entrance slit of a dual spectrometer. Within the spectrometer light is split by a dichroic into VNIR (visible-near infrared) (λ <= 1.05 μm) and IR (infrared) (λ >= 1.05 μm) beams. Each beam is directed into a separate modified Offner spectrometer that focuses a spectrally dispersed image of the slit onto a two dimensional focal plane (FP). The IR FP is a 640 x 480 HgCdTe area array; the VNIR FP is a 640 x 480 silicon photodiode area array. The spectral image is contiguously sampled with a 6.55 nm spectral spacing and an instantaneous field of view of 60 μradians. The orbital motion of the MRO pushbroom scans the spectrometer slit across the Martian surface, allowing the planet to be mapped in 558 spectral bands. There are four major mapping modes: A quick initial multi-spectral mapping of a major portion of the Martian surface in 59 selected spectral bands at a spatial resolution of 600 μradians (10:1 binning); an extended multi-spectral mapping of the entire Martian surface in 59 selected spectral bands at a spatial resolution of 300 μradians (5:1 binning); a high resolution Target Mode, performing hyperspectral mapping of selected targets of interest at full spatial and spectral resolution; and an atmospheric Emission Phase Function (EPF) mode for atmospheric study and correction at full spectral resolution at a spatial resolution of 300 μradians (5:1 binning). The instrument is gimbaled to allow scanning over +/-60° for the EPF and Target modes. The scanning also permits orbital motion compensation, enabling

  4. System design of the CRISM (compact reconnaissance imaging spectrometer for Mars) hyperspectral imager

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silverglate, Peter R.; Fort, Dennis E.

    2003-12-01

    CRISM (Compact Reconnaissance Imaging Spectrometer for Mars) is a hyperspectral imager that will be launched on the MRO (Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter) in August 2005. The MRO will circle Mars in a polar orbit at a nominal altitude of 325 km. The CRISM spectral range spans the ultraviolet (UV) to the mid-wave infrared (MWIR), 400 nm to 4050 nm. The instrument utilizes a Ritchey-Chretien telescope with a 2.06º field of view (FOV) to focus light on the entrance slit of a dual spectrometer. Within the spectrometer light is split by a dichroic into VNIR (visible-near infrared) (λ <= 1.05 μm) and IR (infrared) (λ >= 1.05 μm) beams. Each beam is directed into a separate modified Offner spectrometer that focuses a spectrally dispersed image of the slit onto a two dimensional focal plane (FP). The IR FP is a 640 x 480 HgCdTe area array; the VNIR FP is a 640 x 480 silicon photodiode area array. The spectral image is contiguously sampled with a 6.55 nm spectral spacing and an instantaneous field of view of 60 μradians. The orbital motion of the MRO pushbroom scans the spectrometer slit across the Martian surface, allowing the planet to be mapped in 558 spectral bands. There are four major mapping modes: A quick initial multi-spectral mapping of a major portion of the Martian surface in 59 selected spectral bands at a spatial resolution of 600 μradians (10:1 binning); an extended multi-spectral mapping of the entire Martian surface in 59 selected spectral bands at a spatial resolution of 300 μradians (5:1 binning); a high resolution Target Mode, performing hyperspectral mapping of selected targets of interest at full spatial and spectral resolution; and an atmospheric Emission Phase Function (EPF) mode for atmospheric study and correction at full spectral resolution at a spatial resolution of 300 μradians (5:1 binning). The instrument is gimbaled to allow scanning over +/-60° for the EPF and Target modes. The scanning also permits orbital motion compensation, enabling

  5. Compact Reconnaissance Imaging Spectrometer for Mars investigation and data set from the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter's primary science phase

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Murchie, S.L.; Seelos, F.P.; Hash, C.D.; Humm, D.C.; Malaret, E.; McGovern, J.A.; Choo, T.H.; Seelos, K.D.; Buczkowski, D.L.; Morgan, M.F.; Barnouin-Jha, O. S.; Nair, H.; Taylor, H.W.; Patterson, G.W.; Harvel, C.A.; Mustard, J.F.; Arvidson, R. E.; McGuire, P.; Smith, M.D.; Wolff, M.J.; Titus, T.N.; Bibring, J.-P.; Poulet, F.

    2009-01-01

    The part of the Compact Reconnaissance Imaging Spectrometer (CRISM) for Mars investigation conducted during the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter's (MRO's) primary science phase was a comprehensive investigation of past aqueous environments, structure of the planet's crust, past climate, and current meteorology. The measurements to implement this investigation include over 9500 targeted observations of surface features taken at spatial resolutions of better than 40 m/pixel, monitoring of seasonal variations in atmospheric aerosols and trace gases, and acquisition of a 200 m/pixel map covering over 55% of Mars in 72 selected wavelengths under conditions of relatively low atmospheric opacity. Key results from these data include recognition of a diversity of aqueous mineral-containing deposits, discovery of a widespread distribution of phyllosilicates in early to middle Noachian units, the first definitive detection of carbonates in bedrock, new constraints on the sequence of events that formed Hesperian-aged, sulfate-rich layered deposits, characterization of seasonal polar processes, and monitoring of the 2007 global dust event. Here we describe CRISM's science investigations during the Primary Science Phase, the data sets that were collected and their calibration and uncertainties, and how they have been processed and made available to the scientific community. We also describe the ongoing investigation during MRO's extended science phase. Copyright 2009 by the American Geophysical Union.

  6. Compact Reconnaissance Imaging Spectrometer Observations of Water Vapor and Carbon Monoxide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Michael D.; Wolff, Michael J.; Clancy, R. Todd; Murchie, Scott L.

    2009-01-01

    The Compact Reconnaissance Imaging Spectrometer for Mars (CRISM) onboard the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter (MRO) spacecraft began taking observations in September 2006 and has now collected more than a full Martian year of data. Retrievals performed using the near-infrared spectra obtained by CRISM are used to characterize the seasonal and spatial variation of the column abundance of water vapor and the column-averaged mixing ratio of carbon monoxide. CRISM retrievals show nominal behavior in water vapor during northern hemisphere spring and summer with maximum abundance reaching 50 precipitable micrometers. Water vapor abundance during the southern hemisphere spring and summer appears significantly reduced compared to observations by other instruments taken during previous years. The CRISM retrievals show the seasonally and globally averaged carbon monoxide mixing ratio to be 700 ppm, but with strong seasonal variations at high latitudes. The summertime near-polar carbon monoxide mixing ratio falls to 200 ppm in the south and 400 ppm in the north as carbon dioxide sublimates from the seasonal polar ice caps and dilutes noncondensable species including carbon monoxide. At low latitudes, the carbon monoxide mixing ratio varies in response to the mean seasonal cycle of surface pressure.

  7. Aerosol Particle Size Retrievals from the Compact Reconnaissance Imaging Spectrometer for Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guzewich, S.; Smith, M. D.; Wolff, M. J.

    2013-12-01

    During the extended mission of the Mars Reconnaisance Orbiter, the Compact Reconnaissance Imaging Spectrometer for Mars (CRISM) has made periodic limb-viewing geometry observations of the Martian atmosphere. Sufficient radiance is typically available to produce a vertical distribution of dust and water ice aerosols from the surface to approximately 50 km altitude. Radiative transfer modeling is conducted to achieve a best fit between the observed and modeled spectrum. The spherical geometry of the limb-viewing geometry is handled using a pseudo-spherical approximation that is computationally efficient and accurate to within a few percent of a Monte Carlo method for the geometries observed. Different particle sizes of dust and water ice have unique extinction coefficients across the visible and near-infrared portion of the spectrum observed by CRISM. We use a wide range of wavelengths across the CRISM spectrum to conduct the retrieval. Here we provide initial results on the retrieval of dust and water ice particle sizes over the duration of the CRISM limb-viewing observations.

  8. Wavelength dependence of dust aerosol single scattering albedo as observed by the Compact Reconnaissance Imaging Spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wolff, M. J.; Smith, M. D.; Clancy, R. T.; Arvidson, R.; Kahre, M.; Seelos, F.; Murchie, S.; Savijärvi, H.

    2009-06-01

    Observations by the Compact Reconnaissance Imaging Spectrometer (CRISM) onboard the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter (MRO) over the range 440-2920 nm of the very dusty Martian atmosphere of the 2007 planet-encircling dust event are combined with those made by both Mars Exploration Rovers (MERs) to better characterize the single scattering albedo (ω 0) of Martian dust aerosols. Using the diagnostic geometry of the CRISM emission phase function (EPF) sequences and the “ground truth” connection provided at both MER locations allows one to more effectively isolate the single scattering albedo (ω 0). This approach eliminates a significant portion of the type of uncertainty involved in many of the earlier radiative transfer analyses. Furthermore, the use of a “first principles” or microphysical representation of the aerosol scattering properties offers a direct path to produce a set of complex refractive indices (m = n + ik) that are consistent with the retrieved ω 0 values. We consider a family of effective particle radii: 1.2, 1.4, 1.6, and 1.8 μm. The resulting set of model data comparisons, ω 0, and m are presented along with an assessment of potential sources of error and uncertainty. We discuss our results within the context of previous work, including the apparent dichotomy of the literature values: “dark” (solar band ω 0 = 0.89-0.90) and “bright” (solar band ω 0 = 0.92-0.94). Previous work suggests that a mean radius of 1.8 μm is representative for the conditions sampled by the CRISM observations. Using the m for this case and a smaller effective particle radius more appropriate for diffuse dust conditions (1.4 μm), we examine EPF-derived optical depths relative to the MER 880 nm optical depths. Finally, we explore the potential impact of the resulting brighter solar band ω 0 of 0.94 to atmospheric temperatures in the planetary boundary layer.

  9. Study of phyllosilicates and carbonates from the Capri Chasma region of Valles Marineris on Mars based on Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter-Compact Reconnaissance Imaging Spectrometer for Mars (MRO-CRISM) observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jain, Nirmala; Chauhan, Prakash

    2015-04-01

    Spectral reflectance data from the MRO-CRISM (Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter-Compact Reconnaissance Imaging Spectrometer for Mars) of Capri Chasma, a large canyon within Valles Marineris on Mars, have been studied. Results of this analysis reveal the presence of minerals, such as, phyllosilicates (illite, smectite (montmorillonite)) and carbonates (ankerite and manganocalcite). These minerals hint of the aqueous history of Noachian time on Mars. Phyllosilicates are products of chemical weathering of igneous rocks, whereas carbonates could have formed from local aqueous alteration of olivine and other igneous minerals. Four different locations within the Capri Chasma region were studied for spectral reflectance based mineral detection. The study area also shows the spectral signatures of iron-bearing minerals, e.g. olivine with carbonate, indicating partial weathering of parent rocks primarily rich in ferrous mineral. The present study shows that the minerals of Capri Chasma are characterized by the presence of prominent spectral absorption features at 2.31 μm, 2.33 μm, 2.22 μm, 2.48 μm and 2.52 μm wavelength regions, indicating the existence of hydrous minerals, i.e., carbonates and phyllosilicates. The occurrence of carbonates and phyllosilicates in the study area suggests the presence of alkaline environment during the period of their formation. Results of the study are important to understand the formation processes of these mineral assemblages on Mars, which may help in understanding the evolutionary history of the planet.

  10. Camouflage target reconnaissance based on hyperspectral imaging technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hua, Wenshen; Guo, Tong; Liu, Xun

    2015-08-01

    Efficient camouflaged target reconnaissance technology makes great influence on modern warfare. Hyperspectral images can provide large spectral range and high spectral resolution, which are invaluable in discriminating between camouflaged targets and backgrounds. Hyperspectral target detection and classification technology are utilized to achieve single class and multi-class camouflaged targets reconnaissance respectively. Constrained energy minimization (CEM), a widely used algorithm in hyperspectral target detection, is employed to achieve one class camouflage target reconnaissance. Then, support vector machine (SVM), a classification method, is proposed to achieve multi-class camouflage target reconnaissance. Experiments have been conducted to demonstrate the efficiency of the proposed method.

  11. Imaging Fourier transform spectrometer

    SciTech Connect

    Bennett, C.L.

    1993-09-13

    This invention is comprised of an imaging Fourier transform spectrometer having a Fourier transform infrared spectrometer providing a series of images to a focal plane array camera. The focal plane array camera is clocked to a multiple of zero crossing occurrences as caused by a moving mirror of the Fourier transform infrared spectrometer and as detected by a laser detector such that the frame capture rate of the focal plane array camera corresponds to a multiple of the zero crossing rate of the Fourier transform infrared spectrometer. The images are transmitted to a computer for processing such that representations of the images as viewed in the light of an arbitrary spectral ``fingerprint`` pattern can be displayed on a monitor or otherwise stored and manipulated by the computer.

  12. The imaging spectrometer approach

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wellman, J. B.

    1982-01-01

    Two important sensor design drivers are the requirement for spatial registration of the spectral components and the implementation of the advanced multispectral capability, including spectral band width, number of bands and programmability. The dispersive approach, fundamental to the imaging spectrometer concept, achieves these capabilities by utilizing a spectrometer to disperse the spectral content while preserving the spatial identity of the information in the cross-track direction. Area array detectors in the spectrometer focal plane detect and store the spatial and multispectral content for each line of the image. The choice of spectral bands, image IFOV and swath width is implemented by programmed readout of the focal plane. These choices in conjunction with data compression are used to match the output data rate with the telemetry link capability. Progress in the key technologies of optics, focal plane detector arrays, onboard processing, and focal plane cooling supports the viability of the imaging spectrometer approach.

  13. Microbolometer imaging spectrometer.

    PubMed

    Johnson, William R; Hook, Simon J; Shoen, Steven M

    2012-03-01

    Newly developed, high-performance, long-wave- and mid-wave-IR Dyson spectrometers offer a compact, low-distortion, broadband, imaging spectrometer design. The design is further accentuated when coupled to microbolometer array technology. This novel coupling allows radiometric and spectral measurements of high-temperature targets. It also serves to be unique since it allows for the system to be aligned warm. This eliminates the need for cryogenic temperature cycling. Proof of concept results are shown for a spectrometer with a 7.5 to 12.0 μm spectral range and approximately 20 nm per spectral band (~200 bands). Results presented in this Letter show performance for remote hot targets (>200 °C) using an engineering grade spectrometer and IR commercial lens assembly. PMID:22378399

  14. Comparison of imaging spectrometers

    SciTech Connect

    Bennett, C

    2000-01-09

    Realistic signal to noise performance estimates for the various types of instruments being considered for NGST are compared, based on the point source detection values quoted in the available ISIM final reports. The corresponding sensitivity of the various types of spectrometers operating in a full field imaging mode, for both emission line objects and broad spectral distribution objects, is computed and displayed. For the purpose of seeing the earliest galaxies, or the faintest possible emission line sources, the imaging Fourier transform spectrometer emerges superior to all others, by orders of magnitude in speed.

  15. Imaging Fourier Transform Spectrometer

    SciTech Connect

    Bennett, C.L.; Carter, M.R.; Fields, D.J.; Hernandez, J.

    1993-04-14

    The operating principles of an Imaging Fourier Transform Spectrometer (IFTS) are discussed. The advantages and disadvantages of such instruments with respect to alternative imaging spectrometers are discussed. The primary advantages of the IFTS are the capacity to acquire more than an order of magnitude more spectral channels than alternative systems with more than an order of magnitude greater etendue than for alternative systems. The primary disadvantage of IFTS, or FTS in general, is the sensitivity to temporal fluctuations, either random or periodic. Data from the IRIFTS (ir IFTS) prototype instrument, sensitive in the infrared, are presented having a spectral sensitivity of 0.01 absorbance units, a spectral resolution of 6 cm{sup {minus}1} over the range 0 to 7899 cm{sup {minus}1}, and a spatial resolution of 2.5 mr.

  16. Mapping Imaging Spectrometer for Europa (MISE)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blaney, D. L.; Clark, R. N.; Dalton, J. B.; Davies, A. G.; Green, R. O.; Hedman, M. M.; Hibbits, C. A.; Langevin, Y. J.; Lunine, J. I.; McCord, T. B.; Soderblom, J. M.; Cable, M. L.; Mouroulis, P.; Kim, W.; Dorsky, L. I.; Strohbehn, K.

    2015-10-01

    The Mapping Imaging Spectrometer for Europa(MISE) instrument is designed to be able to unravel the composition of Europa, and to provide new insight into the processes that have in the past and continue to shape Europa, and on the habitability of Europa's ocean. The MISE design is the result of collaboration between NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory (California Institute of Technology) and the Applied Physics Laboratory (John Hopkins' University). JPL's Discovery Moon Mineralogy Mapper (M3) on Chandrayan-1 and APL's Compact Reconnaissance Imaging Spectrometer for Mars (CRISM) comprise the technical basis for MISE. Internal JPL and APL investments in conjunction with NASA support under the ICEE program has allowed for instrument technology development and testing to achieve a design which would perform in Europa's radiation environment and meet potential sterilization requirements due to planetary protection.

  17. Coastal Research Imaging Spectrometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lucey, Paul G.; Williams, Timothy; Horton, Keith A.

    2002-01-01

    The Coastal Research Imaging Spectrometer (CRIS) is an airborne remote-sensing system designed specifically for research on the physical, chemical, and biological characteristics of coastal waters. The CRIS includes a visible-light hyperspectral imaging subsystem for measuring the color of water, which contains information on the biota, sediment, and nutrient contents of the water. The CRIS also includes an infrared imaging subsystem, which provides information on the temperature of the water. The combination of measurements enables investigation of biological effects of both natural and artificial flows of water from land into the ocean, including diffuse and point-source flows that may contain biological and/or chemical pollutants. Temperature is an important element of such measurements because temperature contrasts can often be used to distinguish among flows from different sources: for example, a sewage outflow could manifest itself in spectral images as a local high-temperature anomaly.

  18. Coastal Research Imaging Spectrometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    The Coastal Research Imaging Spectrometer (CRIS) is an airborne remote-sensing system designed specifically for research on the physical, chemical, and biological characteristics of coastal waters. The CRIS includes a visible-light hyperspectral imaging subsystem for measuring the color of water, which contains information on the biota, sediment, and nutrient contents of the water. The CRIS also includes an infrared imaging subsystem, which provides information on the temperature of the water. The combination of measurements enables investigation of biological effects of both natural and artificial flows of water from land into the ocean, including diffuse and point-source flows that may contain biological and/or chemical pollutants. Temperature is an important element of such measurements because temperature contrasts can often be used to distinguish among flows from different sources: for example, a sewage outflow could manifest itself in spectral images as a local high-temperature anomaly.anomaly. Both the visible and infrared subsystems scan in "pushbroom" mode: that is, an aircraft carrying the system moves along a ground track, the system is aimed downward, and image data are acquired in acrosstrack linear arrays of pixels. Both subsystems operate at a frame rate of 30 Hz. The infrared and visible-light optics are adjusted so that both subsystems are aimed at the same moving swath, which has across-track angular width of 15. Data from the infrared and visible imaging subsystems are stored in the same file along with aircraft-position data acquired by a Global Positioning System receiver. The combination of the three sets of data is used to construct infrared and hyperspectral maps of scanned areas shown.

  19. Coastal Research Imaging Spectrometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lucey, Paul G.; Williams, Timothy; Horton, Keith A.

    2004-01-01

    The Coastal Research Imaging Spectrometer (CRIS) is an airborne remote sensing system designed specifically for research on the physical, chemical, and biological characteristics of coastal waters. The CRIS includes a visible-light hyperspectral imaging subsystem for measuring the color of water, which contains information on the biota, sediment, and nutrient contents of the water. The CRIS also includes an infrared imaging subsystem, which provides information on the temperature of the water. The combination of measurements enables investigation of biological effects of both natural and artificial flows of water from land into the ocean, including diffuse and point-source flows that may contain biological and/or chemical pollutants. Temperature is an important element of such measurements because temperature contrasts can often be used to distinguish among flows from different sources: for example, a sewage outflow could manifest itself in spectral images as a local high-temperature anomaly. Both the visible and infrared subsystems scan in pushbroom mode: that is, an aircraft carrying the system moves along a ground track, the system is aimed downward, and image data are acquired in across-track linear arrays of pixels. Both subsystems operate at a frame rate of 30 Hz. The infrared and visible-light optics are adjusted so that both subsystems are aimed at the same moving swath, which has across-track angular width of 15 . Data from the infrared and visible imaging subsystems are stored in the same file along with aircraft- position data acquired by a Global Positioning System receiver. The combination of the three sets of data is used to construct infrared and hyperspectral maps of scanned areas (see figure). The visible subsystem is based on a grating spectrograph and a rapid-readout charge-coupled-device camera. Images of the swatch are acquired in 256 spectral bands at wavelengths from 400 to 800 nm. The infrared subsystem, which is sensitive in a single

  20. Cascaded interferometric imaging spectrometer.

    PubMed

    Swinyard, Bruce; Ferlet, Marc

    2007-09-01

    We present what we believe to be a novel method for order sorting a Fabry-Perot interferometer using a Fourier transform spectrometer (FTS) in tandem. We demonstrate how the order sorting is achieved using a model instrument response as an example of an instrument working in the 5-25 microm band, although the method is generally applicable at all wavelengths. We show that an instrument of this type can be realized with a large bandwidth, a large field of view, and good transmission efficiency. These attributes make this instrument concept a useful technique in applications where true imaging spectroscopy is required, such as mapping large astronomical sources. We compare the performance of the new instrument to grating and standard FTS instruments in circumstances where the measurement is background and detector noise limited. We use a figure of merit based on the field of view and speed of detection and find that the new system has a speed advantage over a FTS with the same field of view in all circumstances. The instrument will be faster than a grating instrument with the same spectral resolution once the field of view is >13 times larger under high background conditions and >50 times larger with detector performances that match the photon noise from Zodiacal light. PMID:17805378

  1. Micromachined Slits for Imaging Spectrometers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, Daniel; Kenny, James; White, Victor

    2008-01-01

    Slits for imaging spectrometers can now be fabricated to a precision much greater than previously attainable. What makes this possible is a micromachining process that involves the use of microlithographic techniques.

  2. Reconnaissance with slant plane circular SAR imaging.

    PubMed

    Soumekh, M

    1996-01-01

    This paper presents a method for imaging from the slant plane data collected by a synthetic aperture radar (SAR) over the full rotation or a partial segment of a circular flight path. A Fourier analysis for the Green's function of the imaging system is provided. This analysis is the basis of an inversion for slant plane circular SAR data. The reconstruction algorithm and resolution for this SAR system are outlined. It is shown that the slant plane circular SAR, unlike the slant plane linear SAR, has the capability to extract three-dimensional imaging information of a target scene. The merits of the algorithm are demonstrated via a simulated target whose ultra wideband foliage penetrating (FOPEN) or ground penetrating (GPEN) ultrahigh frequency (UHF) radar signature varies with the radar's aspect angle. PMID:18285213

  3. Management Of Airborne Reconnaissance Images Through Real-Time Processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Endsley, Neil H.

    1985-12-01

    Digital reconnaissance images gathered by low-altitude over-flights with resolutions on the order of a few feet and fields of view up to 120 degrees can generate millions of pixels per second. Storing this data in-flight, transmitting it to the ground, and analyzing it presents significant problems to the tactical community. One potential solution is in-flight preview and pruning of the data where an operator keeps or transmits only those image segments which on first view contain potential intelligence data. To do this, the images must be presented to the operator in a geometrically correct form. Wide-angle dis-tortion, distortions induced by yaw, pitch, roll and altitude variations, and distortions due to non-ideal alignment of the focal plane array must be removed so the operator can quickly assess the scene content and make decisions on which image segments to keep. When multiple sensors are used with a common field of view, they must be mutually coregistered to permit multispectral or multimode processing to exploit these rich data dimensions. In addition, the operator should be able to alter the apparent point of view of the image, i.e., be able to zoom in and out, rotate, and roam through the displayed field of view while maintaining geometric and radiometric precision. These disparate requirements have a common feature in the ability to perform real-time image geometry manipulation. The role of image geometry manipulation, or image warping, is reviewed and a "strawman" system dis-cussed which incorporates the Pipelined Resampling Processor (PRP). The PRP is a real-time image warping processor discussed at this conference in previous years"2'3". Actual results from the PRP prototype are presented. In addition, other image processing aids such as image enhancement and object classification are discussed as they apply to reconnaissance applications.

  4. HuntIR thermal imagers for reconnaissance and targeting applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Breiter, Rainer; Cabanski, Wolfgang A.; Ihle, Tobias; Mauk, Karl-Heinz; Rode, Werner

    2004-08-01

    A new family of light handheld military thermal imagers for reconnaissance and targeting applications was developed based on AIM's IR components like IR detection modules, command and control electronics and image processing units. Three different types of imagers provide solutions for different requirements in identification ranges of targets. The highest performance device makes use of a FPA MCT 384x288 MWIR detector with a motorized double field of view optics. An identification range up to 2400m for the NATO standard target was proven according to the FGAN-FOM TRM3 range model. The device provides a mechanical adaptation to weapon systems and provides target markers for common hand weapons of the German army. A single field of view MCT device for 1000m ranges and an uncooled device on the lower performance end complete the imager family. Electronics for intelligent power management from batteries and display electronics were developed to provide stand alone operation. The modular concept allows the use of the same image processing unit for all devices providing special features for best performance like scene-based non-uniformity correction together with an optical calibration element and dynamic reduction including automatic histogram equalization for optimized scene display and text or graphics overlay. Due to the modular concept the components like the image processing unit are already used and validated in programs like the thermal sight for the self defense gun of the reconnaissance vehicle FENNEK together with a 320x240 LWIR uncooled microbolometer detector or with the MCT 384x288 MWIR detection module in a thermal imager for the German army UAV Luna.

  5. Imaging spectrometers for remote sensing from space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chrisp, M. P.; Breckinridge, J. B.; Macenka, S. A.; Page, N. A.

    1986-01-01

    Three imaging spectrometers and two camera systems for remote sensing are described. Two of the imaging spectrometers are versions of the Visible and Infrared Mapping Spectrometer (VIMS) for Mars Observer and the Comet Rendezvous Asteroid Flyby (CRAF) mission. The other spectrometer is the Airborne Visible/Infrared Imaging Spectrometer (AVIRIS) which is currently under construction. The optical imaging systems are the wide angle and narrow angle cameras for the CRAF mission.

  6. Convex Diffraction Grating Imaging Spectrometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chrisp, Michael P. (Inventor)

    1999-01-01

    A 1:1 Offner mirror system for imaging off-axis objects is modified by replacing a concave spherical primary mirror that is concentric with a convex secondary mirror with two concave spherical mirrors M1 and M2 of the same or different radii positioned with their respective distances d1 and d2 from a concentric convex spherical diffraction grating having its grooves parallel to the entrance slit of the spectrometer which replaces the convex secondary mirror. By adjusting their distances d1 and d2 and their respective angles of reflection alpha and beta, defined as the respective angles between their incident and reflected rays, all aberrations are corrected without the need to increase the spectrometer size for a given entrance slit size to reduce astigmatism, thus allowing the imaging spectrometer volume to be less for a given application than would be possible with conventional imaging spectrometers and still give excellent spatial and spectral imaging of the slit image spectra over the focal plane.

  7. Spectrometer Images of Candidate Landing Sites for Next Mars Rover

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    This composite shows four examples of 'browse' products the Compact Reconnaissance Imaging Spectrometer for Mars (CRISM) instrument obtained of areas on Mars near proposed landing sites for NASA's 2009 Mars Science Laboratory. These examples are from two of more than 30 candidate sites. They are enhanced color images of West Candor chasm (A) and Nili Fossae trough (B); and false color images indicating the presence of hydrated (water-containing) minerals in West Candor (C); and clay-like (phyllosilicate) minerals in Nili Fossae (D).

    CRISM is one of six science instruments on NASA's Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter. Led by The Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory, Laurel, Md., the CRISM team includes expertise from universities, government agencies and small businesses in the United States and abroad. NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena, manages the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter and the Mars Science Laboratory for NASA's Science Mission Directorate, Washington. Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver, built the orbiter.

  8. The Search for Lunar Lobate Scarps Using Images from the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter Camera

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Banks, M. E.; Watters, T. R.; Robinson, M. S.; Bell, J. F.; Pritchard, M. E.; Williams, N. R.; Daud, K.; Lroc Team

    2011-03-01

    A search for previously undetected lobate scarps was conducted using images from the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter Camera. To date, previously undetected lobate scarps have been identified in LROC images and mosaics in 73 different locations.

  9. Imaging X-ray spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grant, P. A.; Jackson, J. W., Jr.; Alcorn, G. E.; Marshall, F. E.

    1984-09-01

    An X-ray spectrometer for providing imaging and energy resolution of an X-ray source is described. This spectrometer is comprised of a thick silicon wafer having an embedded matrix or grid of aluminum completely through the wafer fabricated, for example, by thermal migration. The aluminum matrix defines the walls of a rectangular array of silicon X-ray detector cells or pixels. A thermally diffused aluminum electrode is also formed centrally through each of the silicon cells with biasing means being connected to the aluminum cell walls and causes lateral charge carrier depletion between the cell walls so that incident X-ray energy causes a photoelectric reaction within the silicon producing collectible charge carriers in the form of electrons which are collected and used for imaging.

  10. Imaging X-ray spectrometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grant, P. A.; Jackson, J. W., Jr.; Alcorn, G. E.; Marshall, F. E. (Inventor)

    1984-01-01

    An X-ray spectrometer for providing imaging and energy resolution of an X-ray source is described. This spectrometer is comprised of a thick silicon wafer having an embedded matrix or grid of aluminum completely through the wafer fabricated, for example, by thermal migration. The aluminum matrix defines the walls of a rectangular array of silicon X-ray detector cells or pixels. A thermally diffused aluminum electrode is also formed centrally through each of the silicon cells with biasing means being connected to the aluminum cell walls and causes lateral charge carrier depletion between the cell walls so that incident X-ray energy causes a photoelectric reaction within the silicon producing collectible charge carriers in the form of electrons which are collected and used for imaging.

  11. Imaging IR spectrometer, phase 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gradie, Jonathan; Lewis, Ralph; Lundeen, Thomas; Wang, Shu-I

    1990-01-01

    The development is examined of a prototype multi-channel infrared imaging spectrometer. The design, construction and preliminary performance is described. This instrument is intended for use with JPL Table Mountain telescope as well as the 88 inch UH telescope on Mauna Kea. The instrument is capable of sampling simultaneously the spectral region of 0.9 to 2.6 um at an average spectral resolution of 1 percent using a cooled (77 K) optical bench, a concave holographic grating and a special order sorting filter to allow the acquisition of the full spectral range on a 128 x 128 HgCdTe infrared detector array. The field of view of the spectrometer is 0.5 arcsec/pixel in mapping mode and designed to be 5 arcsec/pixel in spot mode. The innovative optical design has resulted in a small, transportable spectrometer, capable of remote operation. Commercial applications of this spectrometer design include remote sensing from both space and aircraft platforms as well as groundbased astronomical observations.

  12. High-Resolution Imaging Spectrometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dozier, Jeff; Goetz, Alexander F. H.

    1990-01-01

    Earth resources observed in greater detail. High-Resolution Imaging Spectrometer, undergoing development for use in NASA's Earth Observing System, measures reflectance of Earth's surface in visible and near-infrared wavelengths. From an orbit around Earth, instrument scans surface of Earth in 200 wavelength bands simultaneously. Produces images enabling identification of minerals in rocks and soils, important algal pigments in oceans and inland waters, changes in spectra associated with biochemistry of plant canopies, compositions of atmospheric aerosols, sizes of grains in snow, and contamination of snow by impurities that absorb visible light.

  13. Airborne Visible/Infrared Imaging Spectrometer (AVIRIS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Macenka, Steven A.; Chrisp, Michael P.

    1988-01-01

    The development of the Airborne Visible/Infrared Imaging Spectrometer (AVIRIS) has been completed at JPL. This paper outlines the functional requirements of the spectrometer optics subsystem, and describes the spectrometer optical design. The optical subsystem performance is shown in terms of spectral modulation transfer functions, radial energy distributions, and system transmission at selected wavelengths for the four spectrometers. An outline of the spectrometer alignment is included.

  14. Airborne infrared hyperspectral imager for intelligence, surveillance and reconnaissance applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lagueux, Philippe; Puckrin, Eldon; Turcotte, Caroline S.; Gagnon, Marc-André; Bastedo, John; Farley, Vincent; Chamberland, Martin

    2012-09-01

    Persistent surveillance and collection of airborne intelligence, surveillance and reconnaissance information is critical in today's warfare against terrorism. High resolution imagery in visible and infrared bands provides valuable detection capabilities based on target shapes and temperatures. However, the spectral resolution provided by a hyperspectral imager adds a spectral dimension to the measurements, leading to additional tools for detection and identification of targets, based on their spectral signature. The Telops Hyper-Cam sensor is an interferometer-based imaging system that enables the spatial and spectral analysis of targets using a single sensor. It is based on the Fourier-transform technology yielding high spectral resolution and enabling high accuracy radiometric calibration. It provides datacubes of up to 320×256 pixels at spectral resolutions as fine as 0.25 cm-1. The LWIR version covers the 8.0 to 11.8 μm spectral range. The Hyper-Cam has been recently used for the first time in two compact airborne platforms: a bellymounted gyro-stabilized platform and a gyro-stabilized gimbal ball. Both platforms are described in this paper, and successful results of high-altitude detection and identification of targets, including industrial plumes, and chemical spills are presented.

  15. Airborne infrared hyperspectral imager for intelligence, surveillance, and reconnaissance applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Puckrin, Eldon; Turcotte, Caroline S.; Gagnon, Marc-André; Bastedo, John; Farley, Vincent; Chamberland, Martin

    2012-06-01

    Persistent surveillance and collection of airborne intelligence, surveillance and reconnaissance information is critical in today's warfare against terrorism. High resolution imagery in visible and infrared bands provides valuable detection capabilities based on target shapes and temperatures. However, the spectral resolution provided by a hyperspectral imager adds a spectral dimension to the measurements, leading to additional tools for detection and identification of targets, based on their spectral signature. The Telops Hyper-Cam sensor is an interferometer-based imaging system that enables the spatial and spectral analysis of targets using a single sensor. It is based on the Fourier-transform technology yielding high spectral resolution and enabling high accuracy radiometric calibration. It provides datacubes of up to 320×256 pixels at spectral resolutions as fine as 0.25 cm-1. The LWIR version covers the 8.0 to 11.8 μm spectral range. The Hyper-Cam has been recently used for the first time in two compact airborne platforms: a belly-mounted gyro-stabilized platform and a gyro-stabilized gimbal ball. Both platforms are described in this paper, and successful results of high-altitude detection and identification of targets, including industrial plumes, and chemical spills are presented.

  16. Landsat swath imaging spectrometer design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mouroulis, Pantazis; Green, Robert O.; Van Gorp, Byron; Moore, Lori B.; Wilson, Daniel W.; Bender, Holly A.

    2016-01-01

    This paper describes the design of a high-throughput and high-uniformity pushbroom imaging spectrometer and telescope system that is capable of Landsat swath and resolution while providing better than 10 nm per pixel spectral resolution over the full visible to short-wave infrared band. The design is based on a 3200×480 element×18 μm pixel size focal plane array, two of which are utilized to cover the full swath. At an optical speed of F/1.8, the system is the fastest proposed to date to our knowledge. The utilization of only two Dyson-type spectrometer modules fed from the same telescope reduces system complexity while providing a solution within achievable detector technology. Two telescope designs are shown to achieve the required swath and resolution from different altitudes. Predictions of complete system response are shown. Also, it is shown that detailed ghost analysis is a requirement for this type of spectrometer and forms an essential part of a complete design.

  17. Imaging spectrometer/camera having convex grating

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reininger, Francis M. (Inventor)

    2000-01-01

    An imaging spectrometer has fore-optics coupled to a spectral resolving system with an entrance slit extending in a first direction at an imaging location of the fore-optics for receiving the image, a convex diffraction grating for separating the image into a plurality of spectra of predetermined wavelength ranges; a spectrometer array for detecting the spectra; and at least one concave sperical mirror concentric with the diffraction grating for relaying the image from the entrance slit to the diffraction grating and from the diffraction grating to the spectrometer array. In one embodiment, the spectrometer is configured in a lateral mode in which the entrance slit and the spectrometer array are displaced laterally on opposite sides of the diffraction grating in a second direction substantially perpendicular to the first direction. In another embodiment, the spectrometer is combined with a polychromatic imaging camera array disposed adjacent said entrance slit for recording said image.

  18. Compact reflective imaging spectrometer utilizing immersed gratings

    DOEpatents

    Chrisp, Michael P.

    2006-05-09

    A compact imaging spectrometer comprising an entrance slit for directing light, a first mirror that receives said light and reflects said light, an immersive diffraction grating that diffracts said light, a second mirror that focuses said light, and a detector array that receives said focused light. The compact imaging spectrometer can be utilized for remote sensing imaging spectrometers where size and weight are of primary importance.

  19. Fluorescence imaging spectrometer optical design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taiti, A.; Coppo, P.; Battistelli, E.

    2015-09-01

    The optical design of the FLuORescence Imaging Spectrometer (FLORIS) studied for the Fluorescence Explorer (FLEX) mission is discussed. FLEX is a candidate for the ESA's 8th Earth Explorer opportunity mission. FLORIS is a pushbroom hyperspectral imager foreseen to be embarked on board of a medium size satellite, flying in tandem with Sentinel-3 in a Sun synchronous orbit at a height of about 815 km. FLORIS will observe the vegetation fluorescence and reflectance within a spectral range between 500 and 780 nm. Multi-frames acquisitions on matrix detectors during the satellite movement will allow the production of 2D Earth scene images in two different spectral channels, called HR and LR with spectral resolution of 0.3 and 2 nm respectively. A common fore optics is foreseen to enhance by design the spatial co-registration between the two spectral channels, which have the same ground spatial sampling (300 m) and swath (150 km). An overlapped spectral range between the two channels is also introduced to simplify the spectral coregistration. A compact opto-mechanical solution with all spherical and plane optical elements is proposed, and the most significant design rationales are described. The instrument optical architecture foresees a dual Babinet scrambler, a dioptric telescope and two grating spectrometers (HR and LR), each consisting of a modified Offner configuration. The developed design is robust, stable vs temperature, easy to align, showing very high optical quality along the whole field of view. The system gives also excellent correction for transverse chromatic aberration and distortions (keystone and smile).

  20. Airborne imaging spectrometer development tasks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bolten, John

    The tasks that must be completed to design and build an airborne imaging spectrometer are listed. The manpower and resources required to do these tasks must be estimated by the people responsible for that work. The tasks are broken down by instrument subsystem or discipline. The instrument performance can be assessed at various stages during the development. The initial assessment should be done with the preliminary computer model. The instrument calibration facilities should be designed, but no calibration facilities are needed. The intermediate assessment can be done when the front end has been assembled. The preliminary instrument calibration facility should be available at this stage. The final assessment can only be done when the instrument is complete and ready for flight. For this, the final instrument calibration facility and the flight qualification facilities must be ready. The final assessment is discussed in each discipline under the section on integration and test.

  1. LIFTIRS, the Livermore imaging FTIR spectrometer

    SciTech Connect

    Bennett, C.L.

    1998-06-01

    The imaging FTIR spectrometer was invented 25 years ago. Only recently, however, with the development of infrared focal plane array technology and high speed microprocessors, has the imaging FTIR spectrometer become a practical instrument. Among the class of imaging spectrometer instruments, the imaging Fourier transform spectrometer enjoys a great advantage in terms of calibratibility, sensitivity, broad band coverage and resolution flexibility. Recent experience with the LIFTIRS instrument is summarized. As a concrete example of the acquisition, calibration, and comprehension of the data from an imaging Fourier transform spectrometer, the case history of a geological sample is discussed in great detail. In particular, the importance of principle component analysis to imaging spectroscopy is especially emphasized. It is shown how the various spatial/spectral constituents within a sample can be detected, located, identified and quantified. {copyright} {ital 1998 American Institute of Physics.}

  2. Imaging Spectrometer on a Chip

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, Yu; Pain, Bedabrata; Cunningham, Thomas; Zheng, Xinyu

    2007-01-01

    A proposed visible-light imaging spectrometer on a chip would be based on the concept of a heterostructure comprising multiple layers of silicon-based photodetectors interspersed with long-wavelength-pass optical filters. In a typical application, this heterostructure would be replicated in each pixel of an image-detecting integrated circuit of the active-pixel-sensor type (see figure). The design of the heterostructure would exploit the fact that within the visible portion of the spectrum, the characteristic depth of penetration of photons increases with wavelength. Proceeding from the front toward the back, each successive long-wavelength-pass filter would have a longer cutoff wavelength, and each successive photodetector would be made thicker to enable it to absorb a greater proportion of incident longer-wavelength photons. Incident light would pass through the first photodetector and encounter the first filter, which would reflect light having wavelengths shorter than its cutoff wavelength and pass light of longer wavelengths. A large portion of the incident and reflected shorter-wavelength light would be absorbed in the first photodetector. The light that had passed through the first photodetector/filter pair of layers would pass through the second photodetector and encounter the second filter, which would reflect light having wavelengths shorter than its cutoff wavelength while passing light of longer wavelengths. Thus, most of the light reflected by the second filter would lie in the wavelength band between the cutoff wavelengths of the first and second filters. Thus, further, most of the light absorbed in the second photodetector would lie in this wavelength band. In a similar manner, each successive photodetector would detect, predominantly, light in a successively longer wavelength band bounded by the shorter cutoff wavelength of the preceding filter and the longer cutoff wavelength of the following filter.

  3. Electro-optic Imaging Fourier Transform Spectrometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chao, Tien-Hsin

    2005-01-01

    JPL is developing an innovative compact, low mass, Electro-Optic Imaging Fourier Transform Spectrometer (E-O IFTS) for hyperspectral imaging applications. The spectral region of this spectrometer will be 1 - 2.5 micron (1000-4000/cm) to allow high-resolution, high-speed hyperspectral imaging applications. One application will be the remote sensing of the measurement of a large number of different atmospheric gases simultaneously in the same airmass. Due to the use of a combination of birefringent phase retarders and multiple achromatic phase switches to achieve phase delay, this spectrometer is capable of hyperspectral measurements similar to that of the conventional Fourier transform spectrometer but without any moving parts. In this paper, the principle of operations, system architecture and recent experimental progress will be presented.

  4. Electro-optic Imaging Fourier Transform Spectrometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chao, Tien-Hsin

    2005-01-01

    JPL is developing an innovative compact, low mass, Electro-Optic Imaging Fourier Transform Spectrometer (E-0IFTS) for hyperspectral imaging applications. The spectral region of this spectrometer will be 1 - 2.5 pm (1000 -4000 cm-') to allow high-resolution, high-speed hyperspectral imaging applications [l-51. One application will be theremote sensing of the measurement of a large number of different atmospheric gases simultaneously in the sameairmass. Due to the use of a combination of birefiingent phase retarders and multiple achromatic phase switches toachieve phase delay, this spectrometer is capable of hyperspectral measurements similar to that of the conventionalFourier transform spectrometer but without any moving parts. In this paper, the principle of operations, systemarchitecture and recent experimental progress will be presen.

  5. Advanced x-ray imaging spectrometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Callas, John L. (Inventor); Soli, George A. (Inventor)

    1998-01-01

    An x-ray spectrometer that also provides images of an x-ray source. Coded aperture imaging techniques are used to provide high resolution images. Imaging position-sensitive x-ray sensors with good energy resolution are utilized to provide excellent spectroscopic performance. The system produces high resolution spectral images of the x-ray source which can be viewed in any one of a number of specific energy bands.

  6. Imaging Spectrometers Using Concave Holographic Gratings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gradie, J.; Wang, S.

    1993-01-01

    Imaging spectroscopy combines the spatial attributes of imaging with the compositionally diagnostic attributes of spectroscopy. For spacebased remote sensing applications, mass, size, power, data rate, and application constrain the scanning approach. For the first three approaches, substantial savings in mass and size of the spectrometer can be achieved in some cases with a concave holographic grating and careful placement of an order-sorting filter. A hologram etched on the single concave surface contains the equivalent of the collimating, dispersing, and camera optics of a conventional grating spectrometer and provides substantial wavelength dependent corrections for spherical aberrations and a flat focal field. These gratings can be blazed to improve efficiency when used over a small wavelength range or left unblazed for broadband uniform efficiency when used over a wavelength range of up to 2 orders. More than 1 order can be imaged along the dispersion axis by placing an appropriately designed step order-sorting filter in front of the one- or two-dimensional detector. This filter can be shaped for additional aberration corrections. The VIRIS imaging spectrometer based on the broadband design provides simultaneous imaging of the entrance slit from lambda = 0.9 to 2.6 microns (1.5 orders) onto a 128 x 128 HgCdTe detector (at 77 K). The VIRIS spectrometer was used for lunar mapping with the UH 24.in telescope at Mauna Kea Observatory. The design is adaptable for small, low mass, space based imaging spectrometers.

  7. Improved real-time imaging spectrometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lambert, James L. (Inventor); Chao, Tien-Hsin (Inventor); Yu, Jeffrey W. (Inventor); Cheng, Li-Jen (Inventor)

    1993-01-01

    An improved AOTF-based imaging spectrometer that offers several advantages over prior art AOTF imaging spectrometers is presented. The ability to electronically set the bandpass wavelength provides observational flexibility. Various improvements in optical architecture provide simplified magnification variability, improved image resolution and light throughput efficiency and reduced sensitivity to ambient light. Two embodiments of the invention are: (1) operation in the visible/near-infrared domain of wavelength range 0.48 to 0.76 microns; and (2) infrared configuration which operates in the wavelength range of 1.2 to 2.5 microns.

  8. Livermore Imaging Fourier Transform Infrared Spectrometer (LIFTIRS)

    SciTech Connect

    Carter, M.R.; Bennett, C.L.; Fields, D.J.; Lee, F.D.

    1995-05-10

    Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory is currently operating a hyperspectral imager, the Livermore Imaging Fourier Transform Infrared Spectrometer (LIFTIRS). This instrument is capable of operating throughout the infrared spectrum from 3 to 12.5 {mu}m with controllable spectral resolution. In this presentation we report on it`s operating characteristics, current capabilities, data throughput and calibration issues.

  9. Compact Imaging Spectrometer Utilizing Immersed Gratings

    DOEpatents

    Chrisp, Michael P.; Lerner, Scott A.; Kuzmenko, Paul J.; Bennett, Charles L.

    2006-03-21

    A compact imaging spectrometer with an immersive diffraction grating that compensates optical distortions. The imaging spectrometer comprises an entrance slit for transmitting light, a system for receiving the light and directing the light, an immersion grating, and a detector array. The entrance slit, the system for receiving the light, the immersion grating, and the detector array are positioned wherein the entrance slit transmits light to the system for receiving the light and the system for receiving the light directs the light to the immersion grating and the immersion grating receives the light and directs the light through an optical element to the detector array.

  10. Imaging spectrometer for fugitive gas leak detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hinnrichs, Michele

    1999-12-01

    Under contract to the U.S. Air Force and Navy, Pacific Advanced Technology has developed a very sensitive infrared imaging spectrometer that can perform remote imaging and spectro-radiometry. One of the most exciting applications for this technology is in the remote monitoring of smoke stack emissions and fugitive leaks. To date remote continuous emission monitoring (CEM) systems have not been approved by the EPA, however, they are under consideration. If the remote sensing technology is available with the sensitivity to monitor emission at the required levels and man portable it can reduce the cost and improve the reliability of performing such measurements. Pacific Advanced Technology (PAT) believes that it currently has this technology available to industry. This paper will present results from a field test where gas vapors during a refueling process were imaged and identified. In addition images of propane from a leaking stove will be presented. We at PAT have developed a real time image processing board that enhances the signal to noise ratio of low contrast gases and makes them easily viewable using the Image Multispectral Sensing (IMSS) imaging spectrometer. The IMSS imaging spectrometer is the size of a camcorder. Currently the data is stored in a Notebook computer thus allowing the system to be easily carried into power plants to look for fugitive leaks. In the future the IMSS will have an embedded processor and DSP and will be able to transfer data over an Ethernet link.

  11. Compact real-time birefringent imaging spectrometer.

    PubMed

    Kudenov, Michael W; Dereniak, Eustace L

    2012-07-30

    The design and experimental demonstration of a snapshot hyperspectral imaging Fourier transform (SHIFT) spectrometer is presented. The sensor, which is based on a multiple-image FTS (MFTS), offers significant advantages over previous implementations using Michelson interferometers. Specifically, its use of birefringent interferometry creates a vibration insensitive and ultra-compact (15x15x10 mm(3)) common-path interferometer while offering rapid reconstruction rates through the graphics processing unit. The SHIFT spectrometer's theory and experimental prototype are described in detail. Included are reconstruction and spectral calibration procedures, followed by the spectrometer's validation using measurements of gas-discharge lamps. Lastly, outdoor measurements demonstrate the sensor's ability to resolve spectral signatures in typical outdoor lighting and environmental conditions. PMID:23038346

  12. Compact snapshot birefringent imaging Fourier transform spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kudenov, Michael W.; Dereniak, Eustace L.

    2010-08-01

    The design and implementation of a compact multiple-image Fourier transform spectrometer (FTS) is presented. Based on the multiple-image FTS originally developed by A. Hirai, the presented device offers significant advantages over his original implementation. Namely, its birefringent nature results in a common-path interferometer which makes the spectrometer insensitive to vibration. Furthermore, it enables the potential of making the instrument ultra-compact, thereby improving the portability of the sensor. The theory of the birefringent FTS is provided, followed by details of its specific embodiment. A laboratory proof of concept of the sensor, designed and developed at the Optical Detection Lab, is also presented. Spectral measurements of laboratory sources are provided, including measurements of light-emitting diodes and gas-discharge lamps. These spectra are verified against a calibrated Ocean Optics USB2000 spectrometer. Other data were collected outdoors, demonstrating the sensor's ability to resolve spectral signatures in standard outdoor lighting and environmental conditions.

  13. Reflecting Schmidt/Littrow Prism Imaging Spectrometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Breckinridge, J. B.; Page, N. A.; Shack, R. V.; Shannon, R. R.

    1985-01-01

    High resolution achieved with wide field of view. Imaging Spectrometer features off-axis reflecting optics, including reflecting "slit" that also serves as field flattener. Only refracting element is prism. By scanning slit across object or scene and timing out signal, both spectral and spatial information in scene are obtained.

  14. Compact imaging spectrometer utilizing immersed gratings

    DOEpatents

    Lerner, Scott A.

    2005-12-20

    A compact imaging spectrometer comprising an entrance slit for directing light, lens means for receiving the light, refracting the light, and focusing the light; an immersed diffraction grating that receives the light from the lens means and defracts the light, the immersed diffraction grating directing the detracted light back to the lens means; and a detector that receives the light from the lens means.

  15. Expert system for imaging spectrometer analysis results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Borchardt, Gary C.

    1985-01-01

    Information on an expert system for imaging spectrometer analysis results is outlined. Implementation requirements, the Simple Tool for Automated Reasoning (STAR) program that provides a software environment for the development and operation of rule-based expert systems, STAR data structures, and rule-based identification of surface materials are among the topics outlined.

  16. The LINUS UV imaging spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davis, D. S.; Harkins, Richard M.; Olsen, Richard C.

    2003-09-01

    We present an overview of the Naval Postgraduate School's new LINUS instrument. This is a spectral imager designed to observe atmospheric gas plumes by means of absorption spectroscopy, using background Rayleigh-scattered daylight as an illumination source. It is a pushbroom instrument, incorporating a UV-intensified digital camera, interchangeable gratings and filters, and a DC servo-controlled image scanning system. LINUS has been developed to operate across both the near-ultraviolet and the short visible wavelength portions of the spectrum in overlapping passbands. This paper provides an outline of LINUS's design, operation and capabilities, and it summarizes results from initial laboratory and field trials.

  17. Airborne Visible/Infrared Imaging Spectrometer (AVIRIS) spectrometer design and performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Macenka, Steven A.; Chrisp, Michael P.

    1987-01-01

    The development of the Airborne Visible/Infrared Imaging Spectrometer (AVIRIS) has been completed at JPL. This paper outlines the functional requirements of the spectrometer optics subsystem, and describes the spectrometer optical design. The optical subsystem performance is shown in terms of spectral modulation transfer functions, radial energy distributions, and system transmission at selected wavelengths for the four spectrometers. An outline of the spectrometer alignment is included.

  18. HyTES: Thermal Imaging Spectrometer Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, William R.; Hook, Simon J.; Mouroulis, Pantazis; Wilson, Daniel W.; Gunapala, Sarath D.; Realmuto, Vincent; Lamborn, Andy; Paine, Chris; Mumolo, Jason M.; Eng, Bjorn T.

    2011-01-01

    The Jet Propulsion Laboratory has developed the Hyperspectral Thermal Emission Spectrometer (HyTES). It is an airborne pushbroom imaging spectrometer based on the Dyson optical configuration. First low altitude test flights are scheduled for later this year. HyTES uses a compact 7.5-12 micrometer m hyperspectral grating spectrometer in combination with a Quantum Well Infrared Photodetector (QWIP) and grating based spectrometer. The Dyson design allows for a very compact and optically fast system (F/1.6). Cooling requirements are minimized due to the single monolithic prism-like grating design. The configuration has the potential to be the optimal science-grade imaging spectroscopy solution for high altitude, lighter-than-air (HAA, LTA) vehicles and unmanned aerial vehicles (UAV) due to its small form factor and relatively low power requirements. The QWIP sensor allows for optimum spatial and spectral uniformity and provides adequate responsivity which allows for near 100mK noise equivalent temperature difference (NEDT) operation across the LWIR passband. The QWIP's repeatability and uniformity will be helpful for data integrity since currently an onboard calibrator is not planned. A calibration will be done before and after eight hour flights to gage any inconsistencies. This has been demonstrated with lab testing. Further test results show adequate NEDT, linearity as well as applicable earth science emissivity target results (Silicates, water) measured in direct sunlight.

  19. Hadamard transform imager and imaging spectrometer.

    PubMed

    Swift, R D; Wattson, R B; Decker, J A; Paganetti, R; Harwit, M

    1976-06-01

    An imager and a spectrometric imager, which achieve multiplexing by the use of binary optical encoding masks, have been built and tested. The masks are based on orthogonal, pseudorandom digital codes derived from Hadamard matrices. The spatial (and/or spectral) data are therefore obtained in the form of a Hadamard transform of the spatial (and/or spectral) scene; computer algorithms are used to decode the data and reconstruct images of the original scene. The hardware, algorithms processing and display facility are described. A number of spatial and spatial/spectral images, obtained in the laboratory, are presented. We present an analysis of the situations for which the multiplex advantage may be gained and of the limitations of the technique. Potential applications of the spectrometric imager are discussed. The spectrometric imager is covered by U.S. Patent 3,720,469 assigned to Spectral Imaging Inc., Concord, Mass. PMID:20165224

  20. Imaging spectrometer wide field catadioptric design

    DOEpatents

    Chrisp; Michael P.

    2008-08-19

    A wide field catadioptric imaging spectrometer with an immersive diffraction grating that compensates optical distortions. The catadioptric design has zero Petzval field curvature. The imaging spectrometer comprises an entrance slit for transmitting light, a system with a catadioptric lens and a dioptric lens for receiving the light and directing the light, an immersion grating, and a detector array. The entrance slit, the system for receiving the light, the immersion grating, and the detector array are positioned wherein the entrance slit transmits light to the system for receiving the light and the system for receiving the light directs the light to the immersion grating and the immersion grating receives the light and directs the light through the system for receiving the light to the detector array.

  1. Compact imaging spectrometer utilizing immersed gratings

    DOEpatents

    Chrisp, Michael P.; Lerner, Scott A.; Kuzmenko, Paul J.; Bennett, Charles L.

    2007-07-03

    A compact imaging spectrometer with an immersive diffraction grating that compensates optical distortions. The imaging spectrometer comprises an entrance slit for transmitting light, means for receiving the light and directing the light, an immersion grating, and a detector array. The entrance slit, the means for receiving the light, the immersion grating, and the detector array are positioned wherein the entrance slit transmits light to the means for receiving the light and the means for receiving the light directs the light to the immersion grating and the immersion grating receives the light and directs the light to the means for receiving the light, and the means for receiving the light directs the light to the detector array.

  2. Scanning imaging absorption spectrometer for atmospheric chartography

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burrows, John P.; Chance, Kelly V.

    1991-01-01

    The SCanning Imaging Absorption SpectroMeter for Atmospheric CHartographY is an instrument which measures backscattered, reflected, and transmitted light from the earth's atmosphere and surface. SCIAMACHY has eight spectral channels which observe simultaneously the spectral region between 240 and 1700 nm and selected windows between 1940 and 2400 nm. Each spectral channel contains a grating and linear diode array detector. SCIAMACHY observes the atmosphere in nadir, limb, and solar and lunar occultation viewing geometries.

  3. AIM thermal imagers for reconnaissance and targeting applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Breiter, Rainer; Cabanski, Wolfgang; Ihle, Tobias; Mauk, Karl-Heinz; Rode, Werner

    2006-05-01

    AIM has developed a thermal weapon sight HuntIR based on a cooled MCT 384x288 MWIR detection module combining long range battlefield surveillance and target engagement purposes. Since December 2004 the device is in service for the Germany Future Infantryman (IdZ) basic system. To satisfy the demands of the follow-up program German Future Infantryman extended system (IdZ ES) additional components like a laser range finder, digital magnetic compass and a wireless data link will be included to provide e.g. an improved hit rate by accurate range data. To reduce power consumption and increase operation time of the actual device on the one hand and give the possibility to include new components and functions a new optimized command and control electronics and image processing unit was designed using latest digital signal processors resulting in lower power consumption and higher computing power. This allows also an implementation of additional image enhancement functions. The design concept of the upgraded HuntIR is introduced together which the features of the new electronics. Additionally some new implementations will be presented concerning the existing HuntIR device like fire control for the 40mm Grenade Machine Gun made by Heckler&Koch which where possible due to the reprogrammable architecture of the design. Also an uncooled IR Imaging Module designed for use in small UAVs and short range thermal weapon sights was successfully tested in the German Army small UAV ALADIN made by EMT. After the first flight trials the design was revised to incorporate lessons learned including e.g. an athermal lens design to avoid any need of focussing. The features of the revised design will be presented.

  4. Compact snapshot real-time imaging spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kudenov, Michael W.; Dereniak, Eustace L.

    2011-11-01

    The described spectral imaging system, referred to as a Snapshot Hyperspectral Imaging Fourier Transform (SHIFT) spectrometer, is capable of acquiring spectral image data of a scene in a single integration of a camera, is ultra-compact, inexpensive (commercial off-the-shelf), has no moving parts, and can produce datacubes (x, y, λ) in real time. Based on the multiple-image FTS originally developed by A. Hirai [1], the presented device offers significant advantages over his original implementation. Namely, its birefringent nature results in a common-path interferometer which makes the spectrometer insensitive to vibration. Furthermore, it enables the potential of making the instrument ultra-compact, thereby improving the portability of the sensor. By combining a birefringent interferometer with a lenslet array, the entire spectrometer consumes approximately 15×15×20 mm3, excluding the imaging camera. The theory of the birefringent FTS is provided, followed by details of its specific embodiment and a laboratory proof of concept of the sensor. Post-processing is currently accomplished in Matlab, but progress is underway in developing real-time reconstruction capabilities with software programmed on a graphics processing unit (GPU). It is anticipated that processing of >30 datacubes per second can be achieved with modest GPU hardware, with spatial/spectral data of or exceeding 256×256 spatial resolution elements and 60 spectral bands over the visible (400-800 nm) spectrum. Data were collected outdoors, demonstrating the sensor's ability to resolve spectral signatures in standard outdoor lighting and environmental conditions as well as retinal imaging.

  5. Electro-optic imaging Fourier transform spectrometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chao, Tien-Hsin (Inventor); Znod, Hanying (Inventor)

    2009-01-01

    An Electro-Optic Imaging Fourier Transform Spectrometer (EOIFTS) for Hyperspectral Imaging is described. The EOIFTS includes an input polarizer, an output polarizer, and a plurality of birefringent phase elements. The relative orientations of the polarizers and birefringent phase elements can be changed mechanically or via a controller, using ferroelectric liquid crystals, to substantially measure the spectral Fourier components of light propagating through the EIOFTS. When achromatic switches are used as an integral part of the birefringent phase elements, the EIOFTS becomes suitable for broadband applications, with over 1 micron infrared bandwidth.

  6. Imaging Spectrometer for NEO Mission: Seta Instrument

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Sanctis, Maria Cristina; Filacchione, Gianrico; Capaccioni, Fabrizio; Ammannito, Eleonora; Capria, Maria Teresa; Coradini, Angioletta; Migliorini, Alessandra

    NASA, ESA and JAXA have proposed NEO Sample Return Missions to a Near Earth Object. With these missions we will have the opportunity to return for study in Earth-based laboratories a direct sample of the earliest record of how our solar system formed. The landing site and sample selection will be the most important scientific decision to make during the course of the mission. For this reason, powerful on-board remote sensing science instruments are needed to support the selection. Among these instruments, the imaging spectrometer is a key instrument, being capable to: • Characterize the mineralogical composition of the entire object; • Analyze the of the landing site and the returned sample in its own native environment; • Establish the broadest possible scientific context for the target objects within our current understanding of the solar system. Scientific Objectives: Aim of SETA experiment is to perform imaging spectroscopy in the spectral range 400-3300 nm for a complete mapping of the target with a spectral sampling of at least 20 nm and a spatial resolution of the order of meters. SETA shall be able to return a detailed determination of the mineralogical composition for the different geologic units as well as the overall surface mineralogy with a spatial resolution of the order of few meters. These compositional characterizations involve the analysis of spectral parameters that are diagnostic of the presence and composition of various mineral species and materials that may be present on the target body. Most of the interesting minerals have electronic and vibrational absorption features in their VIS-NIR reflectance spectra. Identification of these related mineral phases requires a moderate spectral resolution. The presence of organic materials may be more difficult to identify. The SETA design is based on a pushbroom imaging spectrometer operating in the 400-3300 nm range, using a 2D array HgCdTe detector. This kind of instrument allows a simultaneous

  7. Geometric Calibration of the Clementine UVVIS Camera Using Images Acquired by the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Speyerer, E. J.; Wagner, R. V.; Robinson, M. S.

    2016-06-01

    The Clementine UVVIS camera returned over half a million images while in orbit around the Moon in 1994. Since the Clementine mission, our knowledge of lunar topography, gravity, and the location of features on the surface has vastly improved with the success of the Gravity Recovery and Interior Laboratory (GRAIL) mission and ongoing Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO) mission. In particular, the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter Camera (LROC) has returned over a million images of the Moon since entering orbit in 2009. With the aid of improved ephemeris and on-orbit calibration, the LROC team created a series of precise and accurate global maps. With the updated reference frame, older lunar maps, such as those generated from Clementine UVVIS images, are misaligned making cross-mission analysis difficult. In this study, we use feature-based matching routines to refine and recalibrate the interior and exterior orientation parameters of the Clementine UVVIS camera. After applying these updates and rigorous orthorectification, we are able generate precise and accurate maps from UVVIS images to help support lunar science and future cross-mission investigations.

  8. The Gas Imaging Spectrometer on Board ASCA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ohashi, Takaya; Ebisawa, Ken; Fukazawa, Yasushi; Hiyoshi, Kenji; Horii, Michihiro; Ikebe, Yasushi; Ikeda, Hitoshi; Inoue, Hajime; Ishida, Manabu; Ishisaki, Yoshitaka; Ishizuka, Toshio; Kamijo, Shunsuke; Kaneda, Hidehiro; Kohmura, Yoshiki; Makishima, Kazuo; Mihara, Tatehiro; Tashiro, Makoto; Murakami, Toshio; Shoumura, Riichirou; Tanaka, Yasuo; Ueda, Yoshihiro; Taguchi, Koji; Tsuru, Takeshi; Takeshima, Toshiaki

    1996-04-01

    The Gas Imaging Spectrometer (GIS) system on board ASCA is described. The experiment consists of 2 units of imaging gas scintillation proportional counters with a sealed-off gas cell equipped with an imaging phototube. The performance is characterized by the high X-ray sensitivity (from 0.7 keV to over 10 keV), good energy resolution (7.8% FWHM at 6 keV following E(-0.5) as a function of X- ray energy E), moderate position resolution (0.5 mm FWHM at 6 keV with E(-0.5) dependence), fast time resolution down to 61 mu s, and an effective area of 50 mm diameter . The on-board signal processing system and the data transmitted to the ground are also described. The background rejection efficiency of the GIS is reaching the level achieved by the non-imaging multi-c ell proportional counters.

  9. Reflecting Schmidt imaging spectrometers. [for earth remote sensing applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Breckinridge, J. B.; Page, N. A.; Shannon, R. R.; Rodgers, J. M.

    1983-01-01

    A new wide-angle imaging spectrometer configuration is proposed where an all-reflecting Schmidt camera is used with a prism spectrometer to give a field of view up to 60 deg or more. Four different designs using this approach are presented. These are the Imaging Spectrometer Free Flyer, the Shuttle Imaging Spectrometer A, the Shuttle Imaging Spectrometer B, and the Wide-Field System. These systems are capable of broadband spectral coverage from 0.4 to 2.5 microns, with footprints 20 m on a side or less, and with swath widths hundreds of kilometers; they are capable of spectral resolving powers of 200 or more.

  10. Image reconstruction algorithms for DOIS: a diffractive optic image spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lyons, Denise M.; Whitcomb, Kevin J.

    1996-06-01

    The diffractive optic imaging spectrometer, DOIS, is a compact, economical, rugged, programmable, multi-spectral imager. The design implements a conventional CCD camera and emerging diffractive optical element (DOE) technology in an elegant configuration, adding spectroscopy capabilities to current imaging systems (Lyons 1995). This paper reports on the visible prototype DOIS that was designed, fabricated and characterized. Algorithms are presented for simulation and post-detection processing with digital image processing techniques. This improves the spectral resolution by removing unwanted blurred components from the spectral images. DOIS is a practical image spectrometer that can be built to operate at ultraviolet, visible or infrared wavelengths for applications in surveillance, remote sensing, law enforcement, environmental monitoring, laser communications, and laser counter intelligence.

  11. Dual waveband compact catadioptric imaging spectrometer

    DOEpatents

    Chrisp, Michael P.

    2012-12-25

    A catadioptric dual waveband imaging spectrometer that covers the visible through short-wave infrared, and the midwave infrared spectral regions, dispersing the visible through shortwave infrared with a zinc selenide grating and midwave infrared with a sapphire prism. The grating and prism are at the cold stop position, enabling the pupil to be split between them. The spectra for both wavebands are focused onto the relevant sections of a single dual waveband detector. Spatial keystone distortion is controlled to less than one tenth of a pixel over the full wavelength range, facilitating the matching of the spectra in the midwave infrared with the shorter wavelength region.

  12. An imaging spectrometer for planetary studies.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bellucci, G.; Mastracci, F.; Formisano, V.; Adriani, A.; Capaccioni, F.

    1993-10-01

    VNIR, a Visible Near-Infrared Mapping Spectrometer, was developed at IFSI-CNR and it is the visible channel of an experiment, named OMEGA, to be flown on the Russian Mars 94 mission, that will provide detailed mineralogical and chemical maps of the Mars surface. The authors have tested and calibrated the instrument in their laboratory, using it to take images and spectra of meteorites and terrestrial rocks. In the present work a description of the camera with some preliminary results of this activity are given.

  13. Compact catadioptric imaging spectrometer utilizing reflective grating

    DOEpatents

    Lerner, Scott A.

    2005-12-27

    An imaging spectrometer apparatus comprising an entrance slit for directing light, a light means for receiving the light and directing the light, a grating that receives the light from the light means and defracts the light back onto the light means which focuses the light, and a detector that receives the focused light. In one embodiment the light means is a rotationally symmetric ZNSE aspheric lens. In another embodiment the light means comprises two ZNSE aspheric lenses that are coaxial. In another embodiment the light means comprises an aspheric mirror and a ZNSE aspheric lens.

  14. Optical processing of imaging spectrometer data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liu, Shiaw-Dong; Casasent, David

    1988-01-01

    The data-processing problems associated with imaging spectrometer data are reviewed; new algorithms and optical processing solutions are advanced for this computationally intensive application. Optical decision net, directed graph, and neural net solutions are considered. Decision nets and mineral element determination of nonmixture data are emphasized here. A new Fisher/minimum-variance clustering algorithm is advanced, initialization using minimum-variance clustering is found to be preferred and fast. Tests on a 500-class problem show the excellent performance of this algorithm.

  15. Imaging spectrometer for process industry applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herrala, Esko; Okkonen, Jukka T.; Hyvarinen, Timo S.; Aikio, Mauri; Lammasniemi, Jorma

    1994-11-01

    This paper presents an imaging spectrometer principle based on a novel prism-grating-prism (PGP) element as the dispersive component and advanced camera solutions for on-line applications. The PGP element uses a volume type holographic plane transmission grating made of dichromated gelatin (DCG). Currently, spectrographs have been realized for the 400 - 1050 nm region but the applicable spectral region of the PGP is 380 - 1800 nm. Spectral resolution is typically between 1.5 and 5 nm. The on-axis optical configuration and simple rugged tubular optomechanical construction of the spectrograph provide a good image quality and resistance to harsh environmental conditions. Spectrograph optics are designed to be interfaced to any standard CCD camera. Special camera structures and operating modes can be used for applications requiring on-line data interpretation and process control.

  16. TIFR Near Infrared Spectrometer and Imager (TIRSPEC)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ojha, D. K.; Ghosh, S. K.; D'Costa, S. L. A.; Naik, M. B.; Sandimani, P. R.; Poojary, S. S.; Bhagat, S. B.; Jadhav, R. B.; Meshram, G. S.; Bakalkar, C. B.

    TIFR Near Infrared Spectrometer and Imager (TIRSPEC) which is based on 1024 x 1024 HgCdTe focal plane array (Rockwell HAWAII-1 PACE detector with imaging capabilities in 1 - 2.5 μm waveband range) at the focal plane of the 2 m Himalayan Chandra Telescope (HCT) will be a major workhorse for a variety of challenging astrophysical problems. This will be extremely sensitive to low temperature stellar photospheres (T ≤ 2500 K) and objects surrounded by warm dust envelopes or embedded in dust/molecular clouds. It is therefore particularly suited to the search for low and very low mass stellar populations (M/L dwarfs, brown dwarfs), strong mass-losing stars on the asymptotic giant branch, young stellar objects still in their protostellar envelopes and active galactic nuclei. TIRSPEC is being developed by Mauna Kea Infrared, LLC, Hawaii, USA (MKIR) in collaboration with the infrared astronomy group of TIFR.

  17. The Polaris-H imaging spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wahl, Christopher G.; Kaye, Willy R.; Wang, Weiyi; Zhang, Feng; Jaworski, Jason M.; King, Alexis; Boucher, Y. Andy; He, Zhong

    2015-06-01

    Recently, H3D has designed and introduced a gamma-ray imaging spectrometer system named Polaris-H. Polaris-H was designed to perform gamma spectroscopy and imaging throughout nuclear power plants. It integrates a 3D-position-sensitive pixelated CZT detector (20 mm×20 mm×15 mm), associated readout electronics, an embedded computer, a 5-h battery, and an optical camera in a portable water-proof enclosure. The total mass is about 4 kg, and the system startup time is 2 min. Additionally, it has a connection for a tablet, which displays a gamma-ray spectrum and isotope-specific images of the gamma-ray distribution in all directions in real time. List-mode data is saved to an external USB memory stick. Based on pixelated depth-sensing technology, spectroscopy is routinely better than 1.1% FWHM at 662 keV, and imaging efficiency at 662 keV varies less than a factor of two for all directions, except through the battery. Measurements have been performed in contaminated environments, in high radiation fields, and in cramped quarters.

  18. An imaging spectrometer for microgravity application

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wong, Wallace K.

    1995-01-01

    Flame structure is the result of complex interaction of mechanisms operating in both unwanted fires and controlled combustion systems. The scientific study of gas-jet diffusion flames in reduced-gravity environment is of interest because the effects of buoyancy on flow entrainment and acceleration are lessened. Measurements of flames have been restricted to cinematography, thermocouples, and radiometers. SSG, Inc. is developing an MWIR imaging spectrometer (MIS) for microgravity flame measurements. The device will be delivered to NASA Lewis at the end of this project to demonstrate flame measurements in the laboratory. With proper modifications, the MIS can be used to monitor a gas-jet flame under microgravity on a NASA Learjet or DC-9.

  19. Ultrahigh-speed chemical imaging spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wadsworth, Winthrop; Dybwad, Jens-Peter

    1997-07-01

    A new type of imaging spectrometer is being developed for remote sensing and chemical detection. It is based on a rotary Fourier Transform Spectrometer design. The rotary nature of the scan allows both high speed operation and laserless sampling of the detector signal. Its small size also allows cryogenic operation for enhanced detection capability and stable calibration. A 360 scan per single pixel prototype was built and demonstrated at ERDEC in April 1996. The single scan time at this speed is just under 1 millisecond. The optical sensor measures 6' X 4' X 2', and weighs approximately 3 lbs. Spectral resolution is 2 wavenumbers (cm-1) maximum, and coverage is 12 - 14 microns using Zinc Selenide (ZnSe) optics. Power consumption is less than 1 watt at steady state, slightly more at spinup. Electronics and software package used COTS 12 bit, 10 MHz data acquisition and DSP board in conjunction with Labview software for acquisition and analysis on a desktop PC. Following this demonstration, the scan linearity was studied by passing a 3.3 micron laser signal through the IR channel using different rotor materials, and using laserless sampling to look at the resulting lineshape. The results of that testing is the subject of this paper. Subsequently, a 3 by 3 HgCdTe (MCT) detector array is being mated to the optical sensor. An enhanced data channel with 16 simultaneous 12 bit inputs is also being fitted, running at 1/10 of original speed. Image quality and pixel crosstalk are being analyzed at this lower speed. Field measurements will be made in summer 1997.

  20. Mission-adaptable narrowband tunable imaging spectrometer (MANTIS): tactical spectral sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dirbas, Joseph; Mireles, Tony; Schoonmaker, Jon; Bush, Andy

    2004-08-01

    A series of low cost, light weight, mission-adaptable multispectral imaging spectrometers have been developed by PAR Government Systems Corporation (PGSC), utilizing mass-produced commercial off-the-shelf (COTS) components. The developed MANTIS sensors have been used to collect continuous multispectral data for mine counter measures (MCM) and intelligence, surveillance, and reconnaissance (ISR) applications aboard low cost manned aircraft platforms. Each MANTIS system images four spectral bands simultaneously. The four user-selectable spectral filters are inserted into an easily accessible filter cartridge supporting pre-flight filter selection. Data acquisition is accomplished by COTS frame grabbers installed in a Pentium based personal computer and all digitized data is written in real-time to a redundant array of independent disks (RAID). PGSC has also developed a graphical user interface providing control, display and recording options. The MANTIS approach and simple design lends itself to low-cost modifications and improvements.

  1. Imaging Spectrometer Using a Liquid Crystal Tunable Filter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chrien, Tomas G.; Chovit, Christopher; Miller, Peter J.

    1993-01-01

    A demonstration imaging spectrometer using a liquid crystal tunable filter (LCTF) was built and tested on a hot air balloon platform. The LCTF is a tunable polarization interference or Lyot filter. The LCTF enables a small, light weight, low power, band sequential imaging spectrometer design.

  2. Two-Diffraction-Order, Beam-Splitting, Imaging Spectrometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Labaw, Clayton C.; Burns, Ronald N.

    1995-01-01

    Two-octave imaging spectrometer utilizes light of two harmonically related wavelengths diffracted to harmonically related orders at same angles, followed by separation via dichroic beam splitter before final imaging. Conceptual design of spectrometer calls for minimum number of optical elements to achieve coverage of required visible and near-infrared wavelengths in instrument of reduced size, weight, and cost.

  3. Imaging slitless spectrometer for X-ray astronomy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gursky, H.; Zehnpfennig, T.

    1968-01-01

    Imaging slitless spectrometer, a combination of an X ray transmission /or reflection/ grating and image-forming X ray telescope, is capable of obtaining simultaneous spatial and spectral information about celestial X ray sources.

  4. Artificial intelligence for geologic mapping with imaging spectrometers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kruse, F. A.

    1993-01-01

    This project was a three year study at the Center for the Study of Earth from Space (CSES) within the Cooperative Institute for Research in Environmental Science (CIRES) at the University of Colorado, Boulder. The goal of this research was to develop an expert system to allow automated identification of geologic materials based on their spectral characteristics in imaging spectrometer data such as the Airborne Visible/Infrared Imaging Spectrometer (AVIRIS). This requirement was dictated by the volume of data produced by imaging spectrometers, which prohibits manual analysis. The research described is based on the development of automated techniques for analysis of imaging spectrometer data that emulate the analytical processes used by a human observer. The research tested the feasibility of such an approach, implemented an operational system, and tested the validity of the results for selected imaging spectrometer data sets.

  5. An acousto-optical imaging spectrometer for astrophysical measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anikin, S. P.; Esipov, V. F.; Molchanov, V. Ya.; Tatarnikov, A. M.; Yushkov, K. B.

    2016-07-01

    An optical scheme of an acousto-optical imaging spectrometer for observing extended astrophysical objects with line emission spectra is proposed. The use of an additional prism with a specified angular dispersion makes it possible to separate images of an extended object at different emission lines and images generated by minor maxima of the acousto-optical filter transmission function. A prototype of the imaging spectrometer has been designed.

  6. High resolution ultraviolet imaging spectrometer for latent image analysis.

    PubMed

    Lyu, Hang; Liao, Ningfang; Li, Hongsong; Wu, Wenmin

    2016-03-21

    In this work, we present a close-range ultraviolet imaging spectrometer with high spatial resolution, and reasonably high spectral resolution. As the transmissive optical components cause chromatic aberration in the ultraviolet (UV) spectral range, an all-reflective imaging scheme is introduced to promote the image quality. The proposed instrument consists of an oscillating mirror, a Cassegrain objective, a Michelson structure, an Offner relay, and a UV enhanced CCD. The finished spectrometer has a spatial resolution of 29.30μm on the target plane; the spectral scope covers both near and middle UV band; and can obtain approximately 100 wavelength samples over the range of 240~370nm. The control computer coordinates all the components of the instrument and enables capturing a series of images, which can be reconstructed into an interferogram datacube. The datacube can be converted into a spectrum datacube, which contains spectral information of each pixel with many wavelength samples. A spectral calibration is carried out by using a high pressure mercury discharge lamp. A test run demonstrated that this interferometric configuration can obtain high resolution spectrum datacube. The pattern recognition algorithm is introduced to analyze the datacube and distinguish the latent traces from the base materials. This design is particularly good at identifying the latent traces in the application field of forensic imaging. PMID:27136837

  7. Panoramic Imaging Spectroscopy with the Ultra Compact Imaging Spectrometer (UCIS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blaney, D. L.; Mouroulis, P.; Van Gorp, B.; Green, R. O.; Borden, M.; Smith-Dryden, S. D.; Bender, H.; Sellar, R. G.; Rodriguez, J.; Wilson, D.

    2012-12-01

    In Situ imaging spectroscopy provides a way to address complex questions of geological evolution for aqueous, volcanic, and impact processes by mapping mineral composition at the spatial scale of rocks and outcrops. Spectroscopy from 500-2600 nm is an established technique for measuring the mineralogy of sedimentary and igneous rocks, outcrops, and regoliths. Minerals such as olivine, pyroxene, carbonates, clays, and sulfates exhibit absorption features that are highly diagnostic of their structure and composition in this wavelength range. Imaging spectroscopy allows for mineralogy to be mapped at geological important special scales thus allowing for the investigation of the spatial relationship between minerals and compositions and of the geologic and geochemical processes of planets, asteroids, comets, and moons. The Ultra Compact Imaging Spectrometer (UCIS) is a JPL developed imaging spectrometer suitable for inclusion on a Mars or lunar rover or asteroid lander but packaged for operation at terrestrial ambient conditions. UCIS is an Offner spectrometer using JPL e-beam gratings, HgCdTe detectors with many components having direct heritage from the Moon Mineralogy Mapper (M3). UCIS covers the wavelength range from 500-2600 nm with 10 nm sampling/resolution with a 30 deg. field of view with and instantaneous field of view 1.4 mrad (spatial sampling of 4.2 mm at 3 m.) The optical head of the instrument has a mass of < 2 kg on the mass and takes 5.2 W of power (Van Gorp et al. 2011). The instrument has completed calibration and has begun field trials. Initial trials were carried out in the JPL "Mars Yard" robotic testbed. The Mars Yard contains a large number of basaltic boulders and other rocks/soils. Additional rocks and spectrally interesting materials were place in the Mars Yard to fully assess the ability of the instrument to identify spectrally distinct material. To collect data the instrument was mounted with the spectrometer slit oriented in elevation on a

  8. TIRSPEC: TIFR Near Infrared Spectrometer and Imager

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ninan, J. P.; Ojha, D. K.; Ghosh, S. K.; D'Costa, S. L. A.; Naik, M. B.; Poojary, S. S.; Sandimani, P. R.; Meshram, G. S.; Jadhav, R. B.; Bhagat, S. B.; Gharat, S. M.; Bakalkar, C. B.; Prabhu, T. P.; Anupama, G. C.; Toomey, D. W.

    We describe the TIFR Near Infrared Spectrometer and Imager (TIRSPEC) designed and built in collaboration with M/s. Mauna Kea Infrared LLC, Hawaii, USA, now in operation on the side port of the 2-m Himalayan Chandra Telescope (HCT), Hanle (Ladakh), India at an altitude of 4500 meters above mean sea level (amsl). The TIRSPEC provides for various modes of operation which include photometry with broad and narrow band filters, spectrometry in single order mode with long slits of 300″ length and different widths, with order sorter filters in the Y, J, H and K bands and a grism as the dispersing element as well as a cross dispersed mode to give a coverage of 1.0 to 2.5 μm at a resolving power R of 1200. The TIRSPEC uses a Teledyne 1024 × 1024 pixel Hawaii-1 PACE array detector with a cutoff wavelength of 2.5 μm and on HCT, provides a field of view of 307″ × 307″ with a plate scale of 0.3″/pixel. The TIRSPEC was successfully commissioned in June 2013 and the subsequent characterization and astronomical observations are presented here. The TIRSPEC has been made available to the worldwide astronomical community for science observations from May 2014.

  9. Wide swath imaging spectrometer utilizing a multi-modular design

    DOEpatents

    Chrisp, Michael P.

    2010-10-05

    A wide swath imaging spectrometer utilizing an array of individual spectrometer modules in the telescope focal plane to provide an extended field of view. The spectrometer modules with their individual detectors are arranged so that their slits overlap with motion on the scene providing contiguous spatial coverage. The number of modules can be varied to take full advantage of the field of view available from the telescope.

  10. Research on imaging spectrometer using LC-based tunable filter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shen, Zhixue; Li, Jianfeng; Huang, Lixian; Luo, Fei; Luo, Yongquan; Zhang, Dayong; Long, Yan

    2012-09-01

    A liquid crystal tunable filter (LCTF) with large aperture is developed using PDLC liquid crystal. A small scale imaging spectrometer is established based on this tunable filter. This spectrometer can continuously tuning, or random-access selection of any wavelength in the visible and near infrared (VNIR) band synchronized with the imaging processes. Notable characteristics of this spectrometer include the high flexibility control of its operating channels, the image cubes with high spatial resolution and spectral resolution and the strong ability of acclimation to environmental temperature. The image spatial resolution of each tuning channel is almost near the one of the same camera without the LCTF. The spectral resolution is about 20 nm at 550 nm. This spectrometer works normally under 0-50°C with a maximum power consumption of 10 Watts (with exclusion of the storage module). Due to the optimization of the electrode structure and the driving mode of the Liquid Crystal cell, the switch time between adjacent selected channels can be reduced to 20 ms or even shorter. Spectral imaging experiments in laboratory are accomplished to verify the performance of this spectrometer, which indicate that this compact imaging spectrometer works reliably, and functionally. Possible applications of this imaging spectrometer include medical science, protection of historical relics, criminal investigation, disaster monitoring and mineral detection by remote sensing.

  11. Geosynchronous Imaging Fourier Transform Spectrometer (GIFTS): Imaging and Tracking Capability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zhou, D. K.; Larar, A. M.; Liu, Xu; Reisse, R. A.; Smith, W. L.; Revercomb, H. E.; Bingham, G. E.; Zollinger, L. J.; Tansock, J. J.; Huppi, Ronald J.

    2007-01-01

    The geosynchronous-imaging Fourier transform spectrometer (GIFTS) engineering demonstration unit (EDU) is an imaging infrared spectrometer designed for atmospheric soundings. It measures the infrared spectrum in two spectral bands (14.6 to 8.8 microns, 6.0 to 4.4 microns) using two 128 128 detector arrays with a spectral resolution of 0.57/cm with a scan duration of approx. 11 seconds. From a geosynchronous orbit, the instrument will have the capability of taking successive measurements of such data to scan desired regions of the globe, from which atmospheric status, cloud parameters, wind field profiles, and other derived products can be retrieved. The GIFTS EDU provides a flexible and accurate testbed for the new challenges of the emerging hyperspectral era. The EDU ground-based measurement experiment, held in Logan, Utah during September 2006, demonstrated its extensive capabilities and potential for geosynchronous and other applications (e.g., Earth observing environmental measurements). This paper addresses the experiment objectives and overall performance of the sensor system with a focus on the GIFTS EDU imaging capability and proof of the GIFTS measurement concept.

  12. Effect of jitter on an imaging FTIR spectrometer

    SciTech Connect

    Bennett, C. L., LLNL

    1997-04-01

    Line of sight (LOS) jitter produces temporal modulations of the signals which are detected in the focal plane of a temporally modulated imaging Fourier Transform Spectrometer. A theoretical treatment of LOS jitter effects is given, and is compared with the results of measurements with LIFTIRS1 (the Livermore Imaging Fourier Transform InfraRed Spectrometer). The identification, isolation, quantification and removal of jitter artifacts in hyperspectral imaging data by means of principal components analysis is discussed. The theoretical distribution of eigenvalues expected from principal components analysis is used to determine the level of significance of spatially coherent instrumental artifacts in general, including jitter as a representative example. It is concluded that an imaging FTIR spectrometer is much less seriously impacted by a given LOS jitter level than a non imaging FTIR spectrometer.

  13. Optical design of prism-grating-prism imaging spectrometers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Shanbing; Tang, Minxue; Ji, Yiqun; Gong, Guangbiao; Zhang, Ruirui; Shen, Weimin

    2008-12-01

    Imaging spectrometers can provide imagery and spectrum information of objects and form so-called three-dimensional spectral imagery, two spatial and one spectral dimension. Most of imaging spectrometers use conventional spectroscopic elements or systems, such as reflective diffraction gratings, prisms, filters, spatial modulated interferometers, and so on. Here a special imaging spectrometer which is based on a novel cemented Prism-Grating-Prism (PGP) is reported. Its spectroscopic element PGP consists of two prisms and a holographic transmission volume grating, which is cemented between these prisms. The two prisms mainly function as beam deviation, the grating as a disperser. In addition to the high light efficiency of the volume gratings that is required for high spectral resolution, the cementing difficulty when surface relief gratings are used can be avoided due to its voluminal characteristic. The PGP imaging spectrometer has advantages of direct vision, dispersion uniform, compactness, low cost, and facility to be used. The principle, structure, and optimized design of the PGP imaging spectrometer are given in detail. Its front collimation optics and rear focusing lenses are same so as to reduce its cost further. The spectral coverage, resolution, and track length of the designed system are respectively visible light from 400nm to 800nm, 1.6nm/pixel, and 85mm. From its performance evaluation, it is shown that the PGP imaging spectrometer has the potentiality to be used in microscopic hyperspectral imagers and hyperspectral imaging remote sensors.

  14. Alignment and Characterization of High Uniformity Imaging Spectrometers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bender, Holly A.; Mouroulis, Pantazis; Eastwood, Michael L.; Green, Robert O.; Geier, Sven; Hochberg, Eric B.

    2011-01-01

    Imaging spectrometers require precise adjustments, in some cases at the sub-micrometer level, in order to achieve auniform response over both the spectral and spatial dimensions. We describe a set of measurement techniques and theircorresponding alignment adjustments to achieve the 95% or higher uniformity specifications required for Earthobservingimaging spectrometers. The methods are illustrated with measurements from the Next Generation Imaging Spectrometer system that has been built at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, under contract with the National Aeronautics and Space Administration.

  15. Parallel Computing for the Computed-Tomography Imaging Spectrometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Seungwon

    2008-01-01

    This software computes the tomographic reconstruction of spatial-spectral data from raw detector images of the Computed-Tomography Imaging Spectrometer (CTIS), which enables transient-level, multi-spectral imaging by capturing spatial and spectral information in a single snapshot.

  16. Monolithic CMOS imaging x-ray spectrometers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kenter, Almus; Kraft, Ralph; Gauron, Thomas; Murray, Stephen S.

    2014-07-01

    The Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory (SAO) in collaboration with SRI/Sarnoff is developing monolithic CMOS detectors optimized for x-ray astronomy. The goal of this multi-year program is to produce CMOS x-ray imaging spectrometers that are Fano noise limited over the 0.1-10keV energy band while incorporating the many benefits of CMOS technology. These benefits include: low power consumption, radiation "hardness", high levels of integration, and very high read rates. Small format test devices from a previous wafer fabrication run (2011-2012) have recently been back-thinned and tested for response below 1keV. These devices perform as expected in regards to dark current, read noise, spectral response and Quantum Efficiency (QE). We demonstrate that running these devices at rates ~> 1Mpix/second eliminates the need for cooling as shot noise from any dark current is greatly mitigated. The test devices were fabricated on 15μm, high resistivity custom (~30kΩ-cm) epitaxial silicon and have a 16 by 192 pixel format. They incorporate 16μm pitch, 6 Transistor Pinned Photo Diode (6TPPD) pixels which have ~40μV/electron sensitivity and a highly parallel analog CDS signal chain. Newer, improved, lower noise detectors have just been fabricated (October 2013). These new detectors are fabricated on 9μm epitaxial silicon and have a 1k by 1k format. They incorporate similar 16μm pitch, 6TPPD pixels but have ~ 50% higher sensitivity and much (3×) lower read noise. These new detectors have undergone preliminary testing for functionality in Front Illuminated (FI) form and are presently being prepared for back thinning and packaging. Monolithic CMOS devices such as these, would be ideal candidate detectors for the focal planes of Solar, planetary and other space-borne x-ray astronomy missions. The high through-put, low noise and excellent low energy response, provide high dynamic range and good time resolution; bright, time varying x-ray features could be temporally and

  17. A Visible, Spatially-Modulated Imaging Fourier Transform Spectrometer (SMIFTS) for Astronomical Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rafert, J. B.; Holbert, E. T.; Rusk, E. T.; Durham, S. E.; Caudill, E.; Keating, D.; Newby, H.

    1992-12-01

    We have constructed several visible, Spatially-Modulated Imaging Fourier Transform Spectrometers (SMIFTS) for spatially resolved spectral imaging in the visible wavelength region based on work by several authors including Yoshihara and Kitade (1967), Okamoto et al. (1984), Barnes (1985) and Smith and Schempp (1991). Our spectrometers require no moving parts, are compact and enjoy a number of advantages over the other spectral data collection technologies. The unique combination of characteristics define an important niche for astronomical, remote sensing, and reconnaissance spectral data acquisition. Our SMIFTS simultaneously acquires hundreds or thousands of spectral bands for hundreds or thousands of spectral channesl. This type of sensor has been called a "hyperspectral" sensor to emphasize the major quantitative difference between this type of sensor and multispectral imagers which collect only a few spectral bands. The SMIFTS consists of input optics (a telescope), a field limiting aperture, a beamsplitter which divides the input beam into two paths, two mirrors which redirect the split beams through the same path, a collimating lens which forms the interferogram of the input aperture on the detector plane, and a cylindrical imaging lens. Thus on the detector array one axis contains spatial information and the other axis contains the spectral information for each point of the spatial axis. The result of this arrangement is that each row of the detector array contains the interferogram of the corresponding point on the aperture or slit. This slit can be fixed upon the target, or the slit can be scanned across the target to build up a second axis of spatial information resulting in a data set with four dimensions: two spatial, one spectral, and one temporal. We present sample data for both astronomical and remote sensing applications taken with the Malabar SMIFTS. Barnes, T.H. "Photodiode Array Fourier Transform Spectrometer with Improved Dynamic Range", Appl

  18. Large aperture spatial heterodyne imaging spectrometer: Principle and experimental results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiangli, Bin; Cai, Qisheng; Du, Shusong

    2015-12-01

    A large aperture spatial heterodyne imaging spectrometer (LASHIS) is proposed. It is a kind of pushbroom Fourier transform ultraspectral imager with no moving parts. This imaging spectrometer, based on a Sagnac lateral shearing interferometer combined with a pair of gratings, has the advantages of high spectral resolution, high throughput and robustness. The principle of LASHIS and its spectral retrieval method are introduced. The processing chain to convert raw images to ultraspectral datacube is also described. Experimental results demonstrate the high resolving power of LASHIS with the emission spectrum of a low pressure sodium lamp.

  19. Imaging mass spectrometer with mass tags

    DOEpatents

    Felton, James S.; Wu, Kuang Jen J.; Knize, Mark G.; Kulp, Kristen S.; Gray, Joe W.

    2013-01-29

    A method of analyzing biological material by exposing the biological material to a recognition element, that is coupled to a mass tag element, directing an ion beam of a mass spectrometer to the biological material, interrogating at least one region of interest area from the biological material and producing data, and distributing the data in plots.

  20. Imaging mass spectrometer with mass tags

    DOEpatents

    Felton, James S.; Wu, Kuang Jen; Knize, Mark G.; Kulp, Kristen S.; Gray, Joe W.

    2010-06-01

    A method of analyzing biological material by exposing the biological material to a recognition element, that is coupled to a mass tag element, directing an ion beam of a mass spectrometer to the biological material, interrogating at least one region of interest area from the biological material and producing data, and distributing the data in plots.

  1. The Widespread Distribution of Swirls in Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter Camera Images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Denevi, B. W.; Robinson, M. S.; Boyd, A. K.; Blewett, D. T.

    2015-10-01

    Lunar swirls, the sinuous high-and low-reflectance features that cannot be mentioned without the associated adjective "enigmatic,"are of interest because of their link to crustal magnetic anomalies [1,2]. These localized magnetic anomalies create mini-magnetospheres [3,4] and may alter the typical surface modification processes or result in altogether distinct processes that form the swirls. One hypothesis is that magnetic anomalies may provide some degree of shielding from the solar wind [1,2], which could impede space weathering due to solar wind sputtering. In this case, swirls would serve as a way to compare areas affected by typical lunar space weathering (solar wind plus micrometeoroid bombardment) to those where space weathering is dominated by micrometeoroid bombardment alone, providing a natural means to assess the relative contributions of these two processes to the alteration of fresh regolith. Alternately,magnetic anomalies may play a role in the sorting of soil grains, such that the high-reflectance portion of swirls may preferentially accumulate feldspar-rich dust [5]or soils with a lower component of nanophase iron [6].Each of these scenarios presumes a pre-existing magnetic anomaly; swirlshave also been suggested to be the result of recent cometary impacts in which the remanent magnetic field is generated by the impact event[7].Here we map the distribution of swirls using ultraviolet and visible images from the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter Camera(LROC) Wide Angle Camera (WAC) [8,9]. We explore the relationship of the swirls to crustal magnetic anomalies[10], and examine regions with magnetic anomalies and no swirls.

  2. Birefringent Fourier transform imaging spectrometer with a rotating retroreflector.

    PubMed

    Bai, Caixun; Li, Jianxin; Shen, Yan; Zhou, Jianqiang

    2016-08-01

    A birefringent Fourier transform imaging spectrometer with a new lateral shearing interferometer is presented. The interferometer includes a Wollaston prism and a retroreflector. It splits an incident light beam into two shearing parallel parts to obtain interference fringe patterns of an imaging target, which is well established as an aid in reducing problems associated with optical alignment and manufacturing precision. Continuously rotating the retroreflector enables the spectrometer to acquire two-dimensional spectral images without spatial scanning. This technology, with a high work efficiency and low complexity, is inherently compact and robust. The effectiveness of the proposed method is demonstrated by the experimental results. PMID:27472640

  3. Analysis of the throughput of onboard polarization interference imaging spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Chunmin; Zhao, Baochang; Yuan, Yan; He, Jian

    2006-01-01

    The mechanism of beam shearing splitting and principle of the interfering imaging of the self-developed onboard Polarization Interference Imaging Spectrometer (PIIS) were expounded in this paper. The throughput of PIIS is analyzed. The relation of the throughput with the angle of the polarized orientation of the polarizer to the ideal direction is derived. This Polarization Interference Imaging Spectrometer has the merit of simple structure, no moving parts, and high throughput. Because of its unique advantage of static, compact in size, wide field of view, it is applicable for the aviation, spaceflight, remote sensing, fieldwork or weak signal detection.

  4. C-III flow measurements with a coherence imaging spectrometer

    SciTech Connect

    Weber, T. R.; Allen, S. L.; Howard, J.

    2012-10-15

    This work describes a coherence imaging spectrometer capable of making spatially resolved CIII flow measurements in the DIII-D lower divertor. The spectrometer exploits a periscope view of the plasma to produce line-of-sight averaged velocity measurements of CIII. From these chord averaged flow measurements, a 2D poloidal cross section of the CIII flow is tomographically reconstructed. Details of the diagnostic setup, acquired data, and data analysis will be presented, along with prospects for future applications.

  5. Electro-Optical Imaging Fourier-Transform Spectrometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chao, Tien-Hsin; Zhou, Hanying

    2006-01-01

    An electro-optical (E-O) imaging Fourier-transform spectrometer (IFTS), now under development, is a prototype of improved imaging spectrometers to be used for hyperspectral imaging, especially in the infrared spectral region. Unlike both imaging and non-imaging traditional Fourier-transform spectrometers, the E-O IFTS does not contain any moving parts. Elimination of the moving parts and the associated actuator mechanisms and supporting structures would increase reliability while enabling reductions in size and mass, relative to traditional Fourier-transform spectrometers that offer equivalent capabilities. Elimination of moving parts would also eliminate the vibrations caused by the motions of those parts. Figure 1 schematically depicts a traditional Fourier-transform spectrometer, wherein a critical time delay is varied by translating one the mirrors of a Michelson interferometer. The time-dependent optical output is a periodic representation of the input spectrum. Data characterizing the input spectrum are generated through fast-Fourier-transform (FFT) post-processing of the output in conjunction with the varying time delay.

  6. Night reconnaissance for F-16 multirole reconnaissance pod

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brownie, Ralph S.; Larroque, Clement

    2004-08-01

    The Belgian Air Force successfully carried out flight trials of the latest Low Light CCD focal plane technology during December of 2003. Simultaneous imaging of the ground was performed by conventional CCD, Infra Red Linescan and Low Light CCD reconnaissance sensors; provided and integrated by Thales within the Modular Reconnaissance Pod (MRP). This paper reports on the results and compares capability of the technologies.

  7. APEX: current status of the airborne dispersive pushbroom imaging spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nieke, Jens; Itten, Klaus I.; Kaiser, Johannes W.; Schlapfer, Daniel R.; Brazile, Jason; Debruyn, Walter; Meuleman, Koen; Kempeneers, Pieter B.; Neukom, Andreas; Feusi, Hans; Adolph, Peter; Moser, Renzo; Schilliger, Thomas; van Quickelberghe, Marie; Alder, John; Mollet, Dominique; De Vos, Lieve; Kohler, Peter; Meng, Markus; Piesbergen, Jens; Strobl, Peter; Schaepman, Michael E.; Gavira, Jose; Ulbrich, Gerd J.; Meynart, Roland

    2004-10-01

    Recently, a joint Swiss/Belgian initiative started a project to build a new generation airborne imaging spectrometer, namely APEX (Airborne Prism Experiment) under the ESA funding scheme named PRODEX. APEX is a dispersive pushbroom imaging spectrometer operating in the spectral range between 380 - 2500 nm. The spectral resolution will be better then 10 nm in the SWIR and < 5 nm in the VNIR range of the solar reflected range of the spectrum. The total FOV will be +/- 14 deg, recording 1000 pixels across track with max. 300 spectral bands simultaneously. APEX is subdivided into an industrial team responsible for the optical instrument, the calibration homebase, and the detectors, and a science and operational team, responsible for the processing and archiving of the imaging spectrometer data, as well as for its operation. APEX is in its design phase and the instrument will be operationally available to the user community in the year 2006.

  8. [Spatially modulated Fourier transform imaging spectrometer data compression research].

    PubMed

    Huang, Min; Xiangli, Bin; Yuan, Yan; Shen, Zhong; Lu, Qun-bo; Wang, Zhong-hou; Liu, Xue-bin

    2010-01-01

    Fourier transform imaging spectrometer is a new technic, and has been developed very fast in recent ten years. When it is used in satellite, because of the limit by the data transmission, the authors need to compress the original data obtained by the Fourier transform imaging spectrometer, then, the data can be transmitted, and can be incepted on the earth and decompressed. Then the authors can do data process to get spectrum data which can be used by user. Data compression technic used in Fourier transform imaging spectrometer is a new technic, and few papers introduce it at home and abroad. In this paper the authors will give a data compression method, which has been used in EDIS, and achieved a good result. PMID:20302132

  9. [Sub-field imaging spectrometer design based on Offner structure].

    PubMed

    Wu, Cong-Jun; Yan, Chang-Xiang; Liu, Wei; Dai, Hu

    2013-08-01

    To satisfy imaging spectrometers's miniaturization, lightweight and large field requirements in space application, the current optical design of imaging spectrometer with Offner structure was analyzed, and an simple method to design imaging spectrometer with concave grating based on current ways was given. Using the method offered, the sub-field imaging spectrometer with 400 km altitude, 0.4-1.0 microm wavelength range, 5 F-number of 720 mm focal length and 4.3 degrees total field was designed. Optical fiber was used to transfer the image in telescope's focal plane to three slits arranged in the same plane so as to achieve subfield. The CCD detector with 1 024 x 1 024 and 18 microm x 18 microm was used to receive the image of the three slits after dispersing. Using ZEMAX software optimization and tolerance analysis, the system can satisfy 5 nm spectrum resolution and 5 m field resolution, and the MTF is over 0.62 with 28 lp x mm(-1). The field of the system is almost 3 times that of similar instruments used in space probe. PMID:24159892

  10. A New Class of Imaging Spectrometer for Planetary Science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sellar, R.; Boreman, G. D.; Kirkland, L. E.; Arabatti, A.

    2002-12-01

    A NASA-funded Planetary Instrument Definition and Development Project (PIDDP) has led to the development of a new class of imaging spectrometer that combines the principal advantages of two traditional techniques used for imaging spectrometry: the signal collection advantage offered by the interferometric or Fourier Transform Spectrometer (FTS) class, and the no-moving-parts advantage offered by the dispersive and filter-array classes. This new class of imaging spectrometer, referred to as windowing interferometric, has no filters, no slit, and no moving parts. The advantage of having no moving parts provides high reliability, low cost, and allows the interferometer to be monolithic and therefore extremely rugged. The high signal collection ability of this instrument allows it to be miniaturized for use from a rover or small orbiter while still obtaining a high signal-to-noise ratio. The high signal collection ability also makes this approach ideal for missions to the outer planets. In order to put these advantages in perspective we have developed a comprehensive classification of imaging spectrometers, and a novel graphical technique for describing the principal of operation and relative signal collection abilities of the classes of imaging spectrometers. We divide imaging spectrometers into a matrix of classes based on their method of obtaining spatial information and their method of obtaining spectral information. Methods of acquiring spatial information include whiskbroom, pushbroom, staring, and a new class we refer to as windowing. We use the term windowing to describe the new class of instruments that employ a two-dimensional FOV which moves across the object in the along-track direction during each acquisition. The classifications by spectral approach include the familiar filtering, dispersive, and interferometric techniques. A novel graphical technique for comparing the classes of imaging spectrometers is to plot the transmittance as a function of the

  11. Optical design of a coastal ocean imaging spectrometer.

    PubMed

    Mouroulis, Pantazis; Green, Robert O; Wilson, Daniel W

    2008-06-01

    We present an optical design for an airborne imaging spectrometer that addresses the unique constraints imposed by imaging the coastal ocean region. A fast (F/1.8) wide field system (36 degrees) with minimum polarization dependence and high response uniformity is required, that covers the spectral range 350-1050 nm with 3 nm sampling. We show how these requirements can be achieved with a two-mirror telescope and a compact Dyson spectrometer utilizing a polarization-insensitive diffraction grating. PMID:18545620

  12. Laboratory radiometric calibration for the convex grating imaging spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Jiankang; Chen, Xinhua; Chen, Yuheng; Ji, Yiqun; Shen, Weimin

    2014-09-01

    The radiometric calibration of imaging spectrometer plays an import role for scientific application of spectral data. The radiometric calibration accuracy is influenced by many factors, such as the stability and uniformity of light source, the transfer precision of radiation standard and so on. But the deviation from the linear response mode and the polarization effect of the imaging spectrometer are always neglected. In this paper, the linear radiometric calibration model is constructed and the radiometric linear response capacity is test by adjusting electric gain, exposure time and radiance level. The linear polarizer and the sine function fitting algorithm are utilized to measure polarization effect. The integrating sphere calibration system is constructed in our Lab and its spectral radiance is calibrated by a well-characterized and extremely stable NIST traceable transfer spectroradiometer. Our manufactured convex grating imaging spectrometer is relative and absolute calibrated based on the integrating sphere calibration system. The relative radiometric calibration data is used to remove or reduce the radiometric response non-uniformity every pixel of imaging spectrometer while the absolute radiometric calibration is used to construct the relationship between the physical radiant of the scene and the digital number of the image. The calibration coefficients are acquired at ten radiance levels. The diffraction noise in the images can be corrected by the calibration coefficients and the uniform radiance image can be got. The calibration result shows that our manufactured imaging spectrometer with convex grating has 3.0% degree of polarization and the uncertainties of the relative and absolute radiometric calibrations are 2.4% and 5.6% respectively.

  13. Color Mosaics and Multispectral Analyses of Mars Reconnaissance Orbit Mars Color Imager (MARCI) Observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bell, J. F.; Anderson, R. B.; Kressler, K.; Wolff, M. J.; Cantor, B.; Science; Operations Teams, M.

    2008-12-01

    The Mars Color Imager (MARCI) on the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter (MRO) spacecraft is a is a wide-angle, multispectral Charge-Coupled Device (CCD) "push-frame" imaging camera designed to provide frequent, synoptic-scale imaging of Martian atmospheric and surface features and phenomena. MARCI uses a 1024x1024 pixel interline transfer CCD detector that has seven narrowband interference filters bonded directly to the CCD. Five of the filters are in the visible to short-wave near-IR wavelength range (MARCI-VIS: 437, 546, 604, 653, and 718 nm) and two are in the UV (MARCI-UV: 258 and 320 nm). During the MRO primary mission (November 2006 through November 2008), the instrument has acquired data swaths on the dayside of the planet, at an equator-crossing local solar time of about 3:00 p.m. We are analyzing the MARCI-VIS multispectral imaging data from the MRO primary mission in order to investigate (a) color variations in the surface and their potential relationship to variations in iron mineralogy; and (b) the time variability of surface albedo features at the approx. 1 km/pixel scale typical of MARCI nadir-pointed observations. Raw MARCI images were calibrated to radiance factor (I/F) using pre-flight and in-flight calibration files and a pipeline calibration process developed by the science team. We are using these calibrated MARCI files to generate map-projected mosaics of each of the 30 USGS standard quadrangles on Mars in each of the five MARCI-VIS bands. Our mosaicking software searches the MARCI data set to identify files that match a user- defined set of limits such as latitude, longitude, Ls, incidence angle, emission angle, and year. Each of the files matching the desired criteria is then map-projected and inserted in series into an output mosaic covering the desired lat/lon range. In cases of redundant coverage of the same pixels by different files, the user can set the program to use the pixel with the lowest I/F value for each individual MARCI-VIS band, thus

  14. Cooled Dyson long-wave infrared push-broom imaging spectrometer by re-imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Jiayin; Liu, Ying; Jiang, Yang; Li, Chun; Sun, Qiang; Hu, Xinrong

    2016-05-01

    A cooled long-wave infrared push-broom imaging spectrometer with an F-number of 2 was designed based on the Dyson configuration. A three-mirror off-axis aspherical optical system that provided excellent slit-shaped images was selected as the fore telescope objective. The re-imaging method was applied to obtain a cold stop efficiency of 100%, and the corrector lens in traditional Dyson imaging spectrometers was replaced with re-imaging lenses to correct spherical aberrations. The designed imaging spectrometer provided a spectral resolution of 25 nm at a range of 8-12 μm and possessed a relatively small volume.

  15. Large format imaging spectrometers for future hyperspectral Landsat mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silny, John F.; Chrien, Thomas G.

    2011-10-01

    This paper describes a design concept for a Landsat-class imaging spectrometer. The challenge is to match the Landsat data parameters, including a 185 Km swath and a 30 meter ground sample distance (GSD) from a 705 Km sun-synchronous orbit with a sensor that has contiguous spectral coverage of the solar reflected spectrum (400 to 2500 nm). The result is a remote sensing satellite that provides global access imaging spectrometer data at moderate spatial resolution. Key design trades exist for the spectrometer, focal plane array, dispersive element, and calibrator. Recent developments in large format imaging spectrometers at Raytheon are presented in support of a monolithic spectrometer approach. Features of the design include (1) high signal-to-noise ratio, (2) well-corrected spectral fidelity across a 6,000 pixel push-broom field-of-view, (3) straightforward calibration of the data to units of absolute spectral radiance, and (4) real-time simulation of Thematic Mapper bands, vegetation indices, and water vapor maps for direct continuous downlink.

  16. [Design of a Component and Transmission Imaging Spectrometer].

    PubMed

    Sun, Bao-peng; Zhang, Yi; Yue, Jiang; Han, Jing; Bai, Lian-fa

    2015-05-01

    In the reflection-based imaging spectrometer, multiple reflection(diffraction) produces stray light and it is difficult to assemble. To address that, a high performance transmission spectral imaging system based on general optical components was developed. On the basis of simple structure, the system is easy to assemble. And it has wide application and low cost compared to traditional imaging spectrometers. All components in the design can be replaced according to different application situations, having high degree of freedom. In order to reduce the influence of stray light, a method based on transmission was introduced. Two sets of optical systems with different objective lenses were simulated; the parameters such as distortion, MTF and aberration.were analyzed and optimized in the ZEMAX software. By comparing the performance of system with different objective len 25 and 50 mm, it can be concluded that the replacement of telescope lens has little effect on imaging quality of whole system. An imaging spectrometer is developed successfully according design parameters. The telescope lens uses double Gauss structures, which is beneficial to reduce field curvature and distortion. As the craftsmanship of transmission-type plane diffraction grating is mature, it can be used without modification and it is easy to assemble, so it is used as beam-split. component of the imaging spectrometer. In addition, the real imaging spectrometer was tested for spectral resolution and distortion. The result demonstrates that the system has good ability in distortion control, and spectral resolution is 2 nm. These data satisfy the design requirement, and obtained spectrum of deuterium lamp through calibrated system are ideal results. PMID:26415470

  17. The MARTE VNIR Imaging Spectrometer Experiment: Design and Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, Adrian J.; Sutter, Brad; Dunagan, Stephen

    2008-10-01

    We report on the design, operation, and data analysis methods employed on the VNIR imaging spectrometer instrument that was part of the Mars Astrobiology Research and Technology Experiment (MARTE). The imaging spectrometer is a hyperspectral scanning pushbroom device sensitive to VNIR wavelengths from 400-1000 nm. During the MARTE project, the spectrometer was deployed to the Río Tinto region of Spain. We analyzed subsets of three cores from Río Tinto using a new band modeling technique. We found most of the MARTE drill cores to contain predominantly goethite, though spatially coherent areas of hematite were identified in Core 23. We also distinguished non Fe-bearing minerals that were subsequently analyzed by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and found to be primarily muscovite. We present drill core maps that include spectra of goethite, hematite, and non Fe-bearing minerals.

  18. Optical design of MWIR imaging spectrometer with a cold slit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Shiyao; Wang, Yueming; Qian, Liqun; Yuan, Liyin; Wang, Jianyu

    2016-05-01

    MWIR imaging spectrometer is promising in detecting spectral signature of high temperature object such as jet steam, guided missile and explosive gas. This paper introduces an optical design of a MWIR imaging spectrometer with a cold slit sharply reducing the stray radiation from exterior environment and interior structure. The spectrometer is composed of a slit, a spherical prism as disperser, two concentric spheres and a correction lens. It has a real entrance pupil to match the objective and for setting the infrared cold shield near the slit and a real exit pupil to match the cold shield of the focal plane array (FPA). There are two cooled parts, one includes the aperture stop and slit, and the other is the exit pupil and the FPA with two specially positioned cooled shields. A detailed stray radiation analysis is represented which demonstrates the outstanding effect of this system in background radiation restraint.

  19. Portable Remote Imaging Spectrometer (PRISM): Laboratory and Field Calibration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mouroulis, Pantazis; Van Gorp, Byron; Green, Robert O.; Eastwood, Michael; Boardman, Joseph; Richardson, Brandon S.; Rodriguez, Jose I.; Urquiza, Eugenio; Franklin, Brian D.; Gao, Bo-Cai

    2012-01-01

    We report the characteristics of the Portable Remote Imaging Spectrometer, an airborne sensor specifically designed for the challenges of coastal ocean research. PRISM has high signal to noise ratio and uniformity, as well as low polarization sensitivity. Acquisition of high quality data has been demonstrated with the first engineering flight.

  20. The Portable Remote Imaging Spectrometer (PRISM) Coastal Ocean Sensor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mouroulis, Pantazis; VanGorp, Byron E.; Green, Robert O.; Eastwppd, Michael; Wilson, Daniel W.; Richardson, Brandon; Dierssen, Heidi

    2012-01-01

    PRISM is an airborne pushbroom imaging spectrometer intended to address the needs of airborne coastal ocean science research. Its critical characteristics are high throughput and signal-to-noise ratio, high uniformity of response to reduce spectral artifacts, and low polarization sensitivity. We give a brief overview of the instrument and results from laboratory calibration measurements regarding the spatial, spectral, radiometric and polarization characteristics.

  1. Proceedings of the Third Airborne Imaging Spectrometer Data Analysis Workshop

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vane, Gregg (Editor)

    1987-01-01

    Summaries of 17 papers presented at the workshop are published. After an overview of the imaging spectrometer program, time was spent discussing AIS calibration, performance, information extraction techniques, and the application of high spectral resolution imagery to problems of geology and botany.

  2. Calibration Of Airborne Visible/IR Imaging Spectrometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vane, G. A.; Chrien, T. G.; Miller, E. A.; Reimer, J. H.

    1990-01-01

    Paper describes laboratory spectral and radiometric calibration of Airborne Visible/Infrared Imaging Spectrometer (AVIRIS) applied to all AVIRIS science data collected in 1987. Describes instrumentation and procedures used and demonstrates that calibration accuracy achieved exceeds design requirements. Developed for use in remote-sensing studies in such disciplines as botany, geology, hydrology, and oceanography.

  3. Compact Catadioptric Imaging Spectrometer Designs Utilizing Immersed Gratings

    DOEpatents

    Lerner, Scott A.

    2006-02-28

    An imaging spectrometer comprising an entrance slit for directing light, a lens that receives said light and reflects said light, a grating that defracts said light back onto said lens which focuses said light, and a detector array that receives said focused light. In one embodiment the grating has rulings immersed into a germanium surface.

  4. Imaging spectrometer technologies for advanced Earth remote sensing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wellman, J. B.; Breckinridge, J. B.; Kuperfman, P.; Salazar, R. P.; Sigurdson, K. B.

    1982-01-01

    A major requirement of multispectral imaging systems for advanced Earth remote sensing is the provision for greater spectral resolution and more versatile spectral band selection. The imaging spectrometer instrument concept provides this versatility by the combination of pushbroom imaging and spectrally dispersing optics using area array detectors in the focal plane. The shuttle imaging spectrometer concept achieves 10- and 20-meter ground instantaneous fields of view with 20-nanometer spectral resolution from Earth Orbit. Onboard processing allows the selection of spectral bands during flight; this, in turn, permits the sensor parameters to be tailored to the experiment objectives. Advances in optical design, infrared detector arrays, and focal plane cooling indicate the feasibility of the instrument concept and support the practicability of a validation flight experiment for the shuttle in the late 1980s.

  5. Geometric error analysis for shuttle imaging spectrometer experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, S. J.; Ih, C. H.

    1984-01-01

    The demand of more powerful tools for remote sensing and management of earth resources steadily increased over the last decade. With the recent advancement of area array detectors, high resolution multichannel imaging spectrometers can be realistically constructed. The error analysis study for the Shuttle Imaging Spectrometer Experiment system is documented for the purpose of providing information for design, tradeoff, and performance prediction. Error sources including the Shuttle attitude determination and control system, instrument pointing and misalignment, disturbances, ephemeris, Earth rotation, etc., were investigated. Geometric error mapping functions were developed, characterized, and illustrated extensively with tables and charts. Selected ground patterns and the corresponding image distortions were generated for direct visual inspection of how the various error sources affect the appearance of the ground object images.

  6. Imaging spectrometer technologies for advanced earth remote sensing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wellman, J. B.; Breckinridge, J. B.; Kupferman, P.; Salazar, R. P.; Sigurdson, K. B.

    1982-01-01

    A major requirement of multispectral imaging systems for advanced earth remote sensing is the provision for greater spectral resolution and more versatile spectral band selection. The imaging spectrometer instrument concept provides this versatility by the combination of pushbroom imaging and spectrally dispersing optics using area array detectors in the focal plane. The shuttle imaging spectrometer concept achieves 10- and 20-meter ground instantaneous fields of view with 20-nanometer spectral resolution from earth orbit. Onboard processing allows the selection of spectral bands during flight; this, in turn, permits the sensor parameters to be tailored to the experiment objectives. Advances in optical design, infrared detector arrays, and focal plane cooling indicate the feasibility of the instrument concept and support the practicability of a validation flight experiment for the shuttle in the late 1980s. Previously announced in STAR as N83-28542

  7. Airborne Visible / Infrared Imaging Spectrometer AVIS: Design, Characterization and Calibration

    PubMed Central

    Oppelt, Natascha; Mauser, Wolfram

    2007-01-01

    The Airborne Visible / Infrared imaging Spectrometer AVIS is a hyperspectral imager designed for environmental monitoring purposes. The sensor, which was constructed entirely from commercially available components, has been successfully deployed during several experiments between 1999 and 2007. We describe the instrument design and present the results of laboratory characterization and calibration of the system's second generation, AVIS-2, which is currently being operated. The processing of the data is described and examples of remote sensing reflectance data are presented.

  8. Visible Imaging Fourier Transform Spectrometer: Design and Calibration

    SciTech Connect

    Wishnow, E H; Wurtz, R; Blais-Ouellette, S; Cook, K H; Carr, D; Lewis, I; Grandmont, F; Stubbs, C W

    2002-09-19

    We present details of the design, operation and calibration of an astronomical visible-band imaging Fourier transform spectrometer (IFTS). This type of instrument produces a spectrum for every pixel in the field of view where the spectral resolution is flexible. The instrument is a dual-input/dual-output Michelson interferometer coupled to the 3.5 meter telescope at the Apache Point Observatory. Imaging performance and interferograms and spectra from calibration sources and standard stars are discussed.

  9. Compact Refractive Imaging Spectrometer Designs Utilizing Immersed Gratings

    DOEpatents

    Lerner, Scott A.; Bennett, Charles L.; Bixler, Jay V.; Kuzmenko, Paul J.; Lewis, Isabella T.

    2005-07-26

    A compact imaging spectrometer comprising an entrance slit for directing light, a first means for receiving the light and focusing the light, an immersed diffraction grating that receives the light from the first means and defracts the light, a second means for receiving the light from the immersed diffraction grating and focusing the light, and an image plane that receives the light from the second means

  10. Tectonic Mapping of Mare Frigoris Using Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter Camera Images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williams, N. R.; Bell, J. F.; Watters, T. R.; Banks, M. E.; Robinson, M. S.

    2012-12-01

    Conventional wisdom has been that extensional tectonism on the Moon largely ended ~3.6 billion years ago and that contractional deformation ended ~1.2 billion years ago. New NASA Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter Camera (LROC) high resolution images are forcing a re-assessment of this view. Mapping in Mare Frigoris and the surrounding area has revealed many tectonic landforms enabling new investigations of the region's structural evolution. Sinuous wrinkle ridges with hundreds of meters of relief are interpreted as folded basalt layers overlying thrust faults. They have often been associated with lunar mascons identified by positive free-air gravity anomalies where thick basaltic lava causes flexure and subsidence to form ridges. No mascon-like gravity anomaly is associated with Mare Frigoris, yet large ridges deform the mare basalts. Lobate scarps are also found near Frigoris. These asymmetric linear hills inferred to be surface expressions of thrust faults are distributed globally and thought to originate from cooling and radial contraction of the lunar interior. Clusters of meter-scale extensional troughs or graben bounded by normal faults also occur in Frigoris. Tectonic landforms are being mapped in and around Mare Frigoris using LROC Narrow Angle Camera (NAC) images. Preliminary results show that wrinkle ridges in Frigoris occur both near and distal to the basin perimeter, trend E/W in western and central Frigoris, and form a polygonal pattern in the eastern section. Several complex wrinkle ridges are observed to transition into morphologically simpler lobate scarps at mare/highland boundaries, with the contrast in tectonic morphology likely due to the change from layered (mare) to un-layered (highlands) substrate. Lobate scarps in Frigoris occur primarily in the highlands, tend to strike E/W, and often but not always follow the boundary between mare and highlands. Small graben mapped in Frigoris occur in several clusters adjacent to or atop ridges and scarps, and

  11. Hyperspectral data collections with the new wedge imaging spectrometer

    SciTech Connect

    Jeter, J.W.; Hartshorne, R.; Thunen, J.G.

    1996-11-01

    The Wedge Imaging Spectrometer (WIS) applies a unique technology to hyperspectral imaging systems, allowing flexibility and high performance in a very compact package. This innovation is based on the use of a linear spectral wedge filter mated directly to an area detector array, avoiding the use of bulky and complex optics required for imaging spectrometers based on gratings or prism concepts. The technology was realized in an earlier flight demonstration system as previously reported. Second generation VNIR and SWIR instruments have now been developed, each with two filters whose spectral bandwidths are optimized for specific spectral features. The SWIR instrument can be extended to operate in the 3-5 PM mid-wave spectral region. The new instrument is currently completing its integration and test phase. Preliminary results indicate excellent performance potential for a wide range of applications. 2 figs., 1 tab.

  12. Error analysis of large aperture static interference imaging spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Fan; Zhang, Guo

    2015-12-01

    Large Aperture Static Interference Imaging Spectrometer is a new type of spectrometer with light structure, high spectral linearity, high luminous flux and wide spectral range, etc ,which overcomes the contradiction between high flux and high stability so that enables important values in science studies and applications. However, there're different error laws in imaging process of LASIS due to its different imaging style from traditional imaging spectrometers, correspondingly, its data processing is complicated. In order to improve accuracy of spectrum detection and serve for quantitative analysis and monitoring of topographical surface feature, the error law of LASIS imaging is supposed to be learned. In this paper, the LASIS errors are classified as interferogram error, radiometric correction error and spectral inversion error, and each type of error is analyzed and studied. Finally, a case study of Yaogan-14 is proposed, in which the interferogram error of LASIS by time and space combined modulation is mainly experimented and analyzed, as well as the errors from process of radiometric correction and spectral inversion.

  13. [Research of image spectrometer using linear variable interference filter].

    PubMed

    Xu, Xiao-xuan; Lin, Hai-bo; Yu, Gang; Zhu, Jian; Zhang, Cun-zhou; Zhang, Guang-yin

    2002-10-01

    In the present work we have designed a small-size portable imaging spectrometer using linear variable interference filter, with CCD camera as picture sensor, and micromotion stage to bring along interference filter which scan across every pixel of CCD array. The difference column pixel in the picture which we get at every step is monocolour partial image under different wavelength, with the step by step, these column monocolour pixels change the wavelength. And finally we reassembled these images and get the whole monocolour image with different wavelength. The interval of sweep step length decided by the required spectrum resolution and the required wavelength interval of different pictures. The experiment demonstrated the resolution of this spectrometer is about 16 nm, but that major reason of the limiting resolution is the band width of the linear variable interference filter. The spatial resolution of the instrument ultimately decided by CCD, filter and imaging lens. This spectrometer has some characters such as compact structure, higher spatial resolution, higher spectrum resolution, higher scan rate and so on. Furthermore, an application of this instrument in distinguishing from camouflage have been showed. PMID:12938409

  14. HySens-DAIS/ROSIS Imaging Spectrometers at DLR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mueller, Andreas A.; Hausold, Andrea; Strobl, Peter

    2002-01-01

    Airborne imaging spectroscopy has undergone a rapid development over the last decade. The number of research groups making use of this technology has increased by an order of a magnitude. Starting from the late 1980s at the DLR research center 'Oberpfaffenhofen' spectroscopic earth observation facilities have been continuously improved in order to be able to provide reliable imaging spectrometer data to the scientific community. At the current stage the integrated hyperspectral facilities at DLR Cluster for Applied Remote Sensing consists of the two imaging spectrometers DAIS 7915 and ROSIS, a laboratory calibration facility and the respective processing and archiving facilities. As an additional important factor in airborne remote sensing access to a DLR-own fleet of research aircraft (Dornier Do228, Cessna 208B Grand-Caravan, FALCON 20 E5 jet) is granted. Numerous imaging spectrometer campaigns have been carried out during the last years with flight activities all over Europe. Currently the two airborne imaging sensors are identified by the European Commission as a mayor research infrastructure and supported in a 3 year project. In the frame of this project hyperspectral data sets will be acquired over different test areas proposed by international research teams. In this paper the installation of the facility in an European research environment, the technical components as well as the currently ongoing research activities will be described. A list of already acquired data sets and the corresponding thematic applications is shown. An outlook to future improvements including new sensor initiatives is given.

  15. Assessment of soil surface BRDF using an imaging spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Z.; Coburn, C. A.; Ren, X.; Mazumdar, D.; Myshak, S.; Mullin, A.; Teillet, P. M.

    2010-10-01

    Ground reference data are important for understanding and characterizing angular effects on the images acquired by satellite sensors with off-nadir capability. However, very few studies have considered image-based soil reference data for that purpose. Compared to non-imaging instruments, imaging spectrometers can provide detailed information to investigate the influence of spatial components on the bidirectional reflectance distribution function (BRDF) of a mixed target. This research reported in this paper investigated soil spectral reflectance changes as a function of surface roughness, scene components and viewing geometries, as well as wavelength. Soil spectral reflectance is of particular interest because it is an essential factor in interpreting the angular effects on images of vegetation canopies. BRDF data of both rough and smooth soil surfaces were acquired in the laboratory at 30° illumination angle using a Specim V10E imaging spectrometer mounted on the University of Lethbridge Goniometer System version 2.5 (ULGS-2.5). The BRDF results showed that the BRDF of the smooth soil surface was dominated by illuminated pixels, whereas the shaded pixels were a larger component of the BRDF of the rough surface. In the blue, green, red, and near-infrared (NIR), greater BRDF variation was observed for the rough than for the smooth soil surface. For both soil surface roughness categories, the BRDF exhibited a greater range of values in the NIR than in the blue, green, or red. The imaging approach allows the characterization of the impact of spatial components on soil BRDF and leads to an improved understanding of soil reflectance compared to non-imaging BRDF approaches. The imaging spectrometer is an important sensor for BRDF investigations where the effects of individual spatial components need to be identified.

  16. Design and modeling of a compact imaging spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feng, Chen; Ahmad, Anees

    1995-11-01

    A novel low-f-number, wide-field-of-view imaging spectrometer has been designed for measuring the day-glow spectrum over the wavelength range of 260 to 870 nm with spectral resolutions of 0.5 and 0.03 nm. The zero-obstruction all-reflective design is an f/2.0 imaging spectrograph using commercial gratings. The field of view along the spatial direction is 6 deg, with a spatial resolution of 0.1 mrad. The spectrometer is designed to work with a commercially available 1037 X 1340 CCD detector with 6.8 X 6.8-micrometers pixel size. The imaging spectrometer optics consists of an aspheric toroidal telescope, a slit, an aspheric toroidal collimator, a planar reflective grating, and three off-axis higher-order aspheric imaging mirrors. Significant improvements in the performance have been achieved by introducing aspheric toroidal elements in the design. The weight and size have been reduced by a factor of 20 as compared to previous similar instruments. A virtual prototype of the instrument has also been modeled by using integrated optical and mechanical design software.

  17. Imaging Fourier transform spectrometer (IFTS): parametric sensitivity analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keller, Robert A.; Lomheim, Terrence S.

    2005-06-01

    Imaging Fourier transform spectrometers (IFTS) allow for very high spectral resolution hyperspectral imaging while using moderate size 2D focal plane arrays in a staring mode. This is not the case for slit scanning dispersive imaging spectrometers where spectral sampling is related to the focal plane pixel count along the spectral dimension of the 2D focal plane used in such an instrument. This can become a major issue in the longwave infrared (LWIR) where the operability and yield of highly sensitivity arrays (i.e.HgCdTe) of large dimension are generally poor. However using an IFTS introduces its own unique set of issues and tradeoffs. In this paper we develop simplified equations for describing the sensitivity of an IFTS, including the effects of data windowing. These equations provide useful insights into the optical, focal plane and operational design trade space that must be considered when examining IFTS concepts aimed at a specific sensitivity and spectral resolution application. The approach is illustrated by computing the LWIR noise-equivalent spectral radiance (NESR) corresponding to the NASA Geosynchronous Imaging Fourier Transform Spectrometer (GIFTS) concept assuming a proven and reasonable noise-equivalent irradiance (NEI) capability for the focal plane.

  18. SETA-Hyperspectral Imaging Spectrometer for Marco Polo mission.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Sanctis, M. Cristina; Filacchione, Gianrico; Capaccioni, Fabrizio; Piccioni, Giuseppe; Ammannito, Eleonora; Capria, M. Teresa; Coradini, Angioletta; Migliorini, Alessandra; Battistelli, Enrico; Preti, Giampaolo

    2010-05-01

    The Marco Polo NEO sample return M-class mission has been selected for assessment study within the ESA Cosmic Vision 2015-2025 program. The Marco Polo mission proposes to do a sample return mission to Near Earth Asteroid. With this mission we have the opportunity to return for study in Earth-based laboratories a direct sample of the earliest record of how our solar system formed. The landing site and sample selection will be the most important scientific decision to make during the course of the entire mission. The imaging spectrometer is a key instrument being capable to characterize the mineralogical composition of the entire asteroid and to analyze the of the landing site and the returned sample in its own native environment. SETA is a Hyperspectral Imaging Spectrometer able to perform imaging spectroscopy in the spectral range 400-3300 nm for a complete mapping of the target in order to characterize the mineral properties of the surface. The spectral sampling is of at least 20 nm and the spatial resolution of the order of meter. SETA shall be able to return a detailed determination of the mineralogical composition for the different geologic units as well as the overall surface mineralogy with a spatial resolution of the order of few meters. These compositional characterizations involve the analysis of spectral parameters that are diagnostic of the presence and composition of various mineral species and materials that may be present on the target body. Most of the interesting minerals have electronic and vibrational absorption features in their VIS-NIR reflectance spectra. The SETA design is based on a pushbroom imaging spectrometer operating in the 400-3300 nm range, using a 2D array HgCdTe detector. This kind of instrument allows a simultaneous measurement of a full spectrum taken across the field of view defined by the slit's axis (samples). The second direction (lines) of the hyperspectral image shall be obtained by using the relative motion of the orbiter

  19. Snapshot hyperspectral retinal camera with the Image Mapping Spectrometer (IMS)

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Liang; Smith, R. Theodore; Tkaczyk, Tomasz S.

    2011-01-01

    We present a snapshot hyperspectral retinal camera with the Image Mapping Spectrometer (IMS) for eye imaging applications. The resulting system is capable of simultaneously acquiring 48 spectral channel images in the range 470 nm–650 nm with frame rate at 5.2 fps. The spatial sampling of each measured spectral scene is 350 × 350 pixels. The advantages of this snapshot device are elimination of the eye motion artifacts and pixel misregistration problems in traditional scanning-based hyperspectral retinal cameras, and real-time imaging of oxygen saturation dynamics with sub-second temporal resolution. The spectral imaging performance is demonstrated in a human retinal imaging experiment in vivo. The absorption spectral signatures of oxy-hemoglobin and macular pigments were successfully acquired by using this device. PMID:22254167

  20. Optical simulation of large aperture spatial heterodyne imaging spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cai, Qisheng; Xiangli, Bin; Fang, Yu

    2016-05-01

    Large aperture spatial heterodyne imaging spectrometer (LASHIS) is a new pushbroom Fourier transform ultraspectral imager with no moving parts. It is based on a Sagnac interferometer combined with a pair of gratings. In this paper, the basic principle of LASHIS is reviewed and an optical LASHIS model is set up in ZEMAX. Three interference images are presented, one is calculated according to the basic theory, one is simulated using the optical model in ZEMAX, and the other is generated by the experimental device set up in our laboratory. These three interference images show a good agreement with each other that demonstrate the correctness of the optical model. Using this model, we can simulate the interference image quickly. This image gives a visualized evaluation of the system performance, and it will be more convenient for system design or tolerance analysis of LASHIS.

  1. Experimental results from an airborne static Fourier transform imaging spectrometer.

    PubMed

    Ferrec, Yann; Taboury, Jean; Sauer, Hervé; Chavel, Pierre; Fournet, Pierre; Coudrain, Christophe; Deschamps, Joël; Primot, Jérôme

    2011-10-20

    A high étendue static Fourier transform spectral imager has been developed for airborne use. This imaging spectrometer, based on a Michelson interferometer with rooftop mirrors, is compact and robust and benefits from a high collection efficiency. Experimental airborne images were acquired in the visible domain. The processing chain to convert raw images to hyperspectral data is described, and airborne spectral images are presented. These experimental results show that the spectral resolution is close to the one expected, but also that the signal to noise ratio is limited by various phenomena (jitter, elevation fluctuations, and one parasitic image). We discuss the origin of those limitations and suggest solutions to circumvent them. PMID:22015418

  2. A visible-infrared imaging spectrometer for planetary missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McCord, Thomas (Principal Investigator); Voelker, Mark; Owensby, Pam; Warren, Cris; Mooradian, Greg

    1996-01-01

    This final report summarizes the design effort for the construction of a visible-infrared imaging spectrometer for planetary missions, funded by NASA under the Planetary Instrument Definition and Development Program. The goal was to design and develop a prototype brassboard pushbroom imaging spectrometer covering the 0.35 gm to 2.5 gm spectral region using a simplified optical layout that would minimize the size, mass and parts count of the instrument by using a single holographic grating to disperse and focus light from a single slit onto both the infrared and visible focal plane arrays. Design approaches are presented and analyzed, along with problems encountered and recommended solutions to those problems. In particular, a new type of grating, incorporating two sets of rulings and a filter in a layered structure, is presented for further development.

  3. High resolution imaging science experiment (HiRISE) images of volcanic terrains from the first 6 months of the Mars reconnaissance orbiter primary science phase

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Keszthelyi, L.; Jaeger, W.; McEwen, A.; Tornabene, L.; Beyer, R.A.; Dundas, C.; Milazzo, M.

    2008-01-01

    In the first 6 months of the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter's Primary Science Phase, the High Resolution Imaging Science Experiment (HiRISE) camera has returned images sampling the diversity of volcanic terrains on Mars. While many of these features were noted in earlier imaging, they are now seen with unprecedented clarity. We find that some volcanic vents produced predominantly effusive products while others generated mostly pyroclastics. Flood lavas were emplaced in both turbulent and gentle eruptions, producing roofed channels and inflation features. However, many areas on Mars are too heavily mantled to allow meter-scale volcanic features to be discerned. In particular, the major volcanic edifices are extensively mantled, though it is possible that some of the mantle is pyroclastic material rather than atmospheric dust. Support imaging by the Context Imager (CTX) and topographic information derived from stereo imaging are both invaluable in interpreting the HiRISE data. Copyright 2008 by the American Geophysical Union.

  4. A mixture neural net for multispectral imaging spectrometer processing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Casasent, David; Slagle, Timothy

    1990-01-01

    Each spatial region viewed by an imaging spectrometer contains various elements in a mixture. The elements present and the amount of each are to be determined. A neural net solution is considered. Initial optical neural net hardware is described. The first simulations on the component requirements of a neural net are considered. The pseudoinverse solution is shown to not suffice, i.e. a neural net solution is required.

  5. Imaging Spectrometer With Liquid-Crystal Tunable Filter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chrien, Thomas G.

    1996-01-01

    Imaging spectrometer constructed from charged-coupled-device video camera; liquid-crystal tunable filter (LCTF) placed in front of camera lens; and associated digital and analog control, signal-processing, and data-processing circuits. To enable operation of instrument in specific application for which designed (balloon flights in cold weather), camera and LCTF surrounded by electric heating pad. Total operating power, excluding that consumed by heating pad, 16 W. Instrument weighs 4.5 kg.

  6. A Compact, Fast, Wide-Field Imaging Spectrometer System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mouroulis, Pantazis; VanGorp, Byron E.; White, Victor E.; Mumolo, Jason M.; Hebert, Daniel; Feldman, Martin

    2011-01-01

    We present test results from a compact, fast (F/1.4) imaging spectrometer system with a 33 degree field of view, operating in the 450-1650 nm wavelength region with an extended response InGaAs detector array. The system incorporates a simple two-mirror telescope and a steeply concave bilinear groove diffraction grating made with gray scale x-ray lithography techniques. High degree of spectral and spatial uniformity (97%) is achieved.

  7. Proceedings of the Airborne Imaging Spectrometer Data Analysis Workshop

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vane, G. (Editor); Goetz, A. F. H. (Editor)

    1985-01-01

    The Airborne Imaging Spectrometer (AIS) Data Analysis Workshop was held at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory on April 8 to 10, 1985. It was attended by 92 people who heard reports on 30 investigations currently under way using AIS data that have been collected over the past two years. Written summaries of 27 of the presentations are in these Proceedings. Many of the results presented at the Workshop are preliminary because most investigators have been working with this fundamentally new type of data for only a relatively short time. Nevertheless, several conclusions can be drawn from the Workshop presentations concerning the value of imaging spectrometry to Earth remote sensing. First, work with AIS has shown that direct identification of minerals through high spectral resolution imaging is a reality for a wide range of materials and geological settings. Second, there are strong indications that high spectral resolution remote sensing will enhance the ability to map vegetation species. There are also good indications that imaging spectrometry will be useful for biochemical studies of vegetation. Finally, there are a number of new data analysis techniques under development which should lead to more efficient and complete information extraction from imaging spectrometer data. The results of the Workshop indicate that as experience is gained with this new class of data, and as new analysis methodologies are developed and applied, the value of imaging spectrometry should increase.

  8. Depth-resolved image mapping spectrometer (IMS) with structured illumination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Liang; Bedard, Noah; Hagen, Nathan; Kester, Robert T.; Tkaczyk, Tomasz S.

    2011-08-01

    We present a depth-resolved Image Mapping Spectrometer (IMS) which is capable of acquiring 4D (x, y, z, λ) datacubes. Optical sectioning is implemented by structured illumination. The device's spectral imaging performance is demonstrated in a multispectral microsphere and mouse kidney tissue fluorescence imaging experiment. We also compare quantitatively the depth-resolved IMS with a hyperspectral confocal microscope (HCM) in a standard fluorescent bead imaging experiment. The comparison results show that despite the use of a light source with four orders of magnitude lower intensity in the IMS than that in the HCM, the image signal-to-noise ratio acquired by the IMS is 2.6 times higher than that achieved by the equivalent confocal approach.

  9. Research on design method of spaceborne imaging spectrometer system based on telecentric optical system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Xiaomei; Liu, Hua

    2015-08-01

    Imaging spectrometer is widely applied in the field of space remote sensing. Dispersion imaging spectrometer with prism or grating is developed rapidly and used widely. It is developed to the direction of high performance and miniaturization, such as large field of view, high resolution, small volume, etc. For meeting the demand of the development, by comparing the characteristics and the situation of development and application about the two kinds of spectrometer, based on the imaging theory of telecentric optical system, the article studied a design method of prism dispersion imaging spectrometer with telecentric Off-axis Three-Mirror imaging system. The instrument designed by using this method has smaller volume and weight than traditional instrument. It overcomes the biggest defect that traditional prism dispersion imaging spectrometer is bigger, increases its advantages in actual use in contrast to grating dispersion imaging spectrometer, and promotes the development and application of prism dispersion imaging spectrometer.

  10. Characterization of the holographic imaging grating of GOMOS UVIS spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Graeffe, Jussi; Saari, Heikki K.; Astola, Heikki; Rainio, Kari; Mazuray, Lorand; Pierot, Dominique; Craen, Pierre; Gruslin, Michel; Lecat, Jean-Herve; Bonnemason, Francis; Flamand, Jean; Thevenon, Alain

    1996-11-01

    A Finnish-French group has proposed an imaging spectrometer- based instrument for the ENVISAT Earth observation satellite of ESA, which yields a global mapping of the vertical profile of ozone and other related atmospheric gases. The GOMOS instrument works by measuring the UV-visible spectrum of a star that is occulting behind the Earth's atmosphere. The prime contractor of GOMOS is Matra Marconi Space France. The focal plane optics are designed and manufactured by Spacebel Instrumentation S.A. and the holographic grating by Jobin-Yvon. VTT Automation, Measurement Technology has participated in the GOMOS studies since 1989 and is presently responsible for the verification tests of the imaging quality and opto-mechanical interfaces of the holographic imaging grating of GOMOS. The UVIS spectrometer of GOMOS consists of a holographic, aberration corrected grating and of a CCD detector. The alignment of the holographic grating needs as an input very accurate knowledge of the mechanical interfaces. VTT Automation has designed, built and tested a characterization system for the holographic grating. This system combines the accurate optical imaging measurements with the absolute knowledge of the geometrical parameters at the accuracy of plus or minus 10 micrometers which makes the system unique. The developed system has been used for two breadboard gratings and the qualification model grating. The imaging quality results and their analysis together with alignment procedure utilizing of the knowledge of mechanical interfaces is described.

  11. Determination of technical readiness for an atmospheric carbon imaging spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mobilia, Joseph; Kumer, John B.; Palmer, Alice; Sawyer, Kevin; Mao, Yalan; Katz, Noah; Mix, Jack; Nast, Ted; Clark, Charles S.; Vanbezooijen, Roel; Magoncelli, Antonio; Baraze, Ronald A.; Chenette, David L.

    2013-09-01

    The geoCARB sensor uses a 4-channel push broom slit-scan infrared imaging grating spectrometer to measure the absorption spectra of sunlight reflected from the ground in narrow wavelength regions. The instrument is designed for flight at geostationary orbit to provide mapping of greenhouse gases over continental scales, several times per day, with a spatial resolution of a few kilometers. The sensor provides multiple daily maps of column-averaged mixing ratios of CO2, CH4, and CO over the regions of interest, which enables flux determination at unprecedented time, space, and accuracy scales. The geoCARB sensor development is based on our experience in successful implementation of advanced space deployed optical instruments for remote sensing. A few recent examples include the Atmospheric Imaging Assembly (AIA) and Helioseismic and Magnetic Imager (HMI) on the geostationary Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO), the Space Based Infrared System (SBIRS GEO-1) and the Interface Region Imaging Spectrograph (IRIS), along with sensors under development, the Near Infared camera (NIRCam) for James Webb (JWST), and the Global Lightning Mapper (GLM) and Solar UltraViolet Imager (SUVI) for the GOES-R series. The Tropospheric Infrared Mapping Spectrometer (TIMS), developed in part through the NASA Instrument Incubator Program (IIP), provides an important part of the strong technological foundation for geoCARB. The paper discusses subsystem heritage and technology readiness levels for these subsystems. The system level flight technology readiness and methods used to determine this level are presented along with plans to enhance the level.

  12. Overall design of imaging spectrometer on-board light aircraft

    SciTech Connect

    Zhongqi, H.; Zhengkui, C.; Changhua, C.

    1996-11-01

    Aerial remote sensing is the earliest remote sensing technical system and has gotten rapid development in recent years. The development of aerial remote sensing was dominated by high to medium altitude platform in the past, and now it is characterized by the diversity platform including planes of high-medium-low flying altitude, helicopter, airship, remotely controlled airplane, glider, and balloon. The widely used and rapidly developed platform recently is light aircraft. Early in the close of 1970s, Beijing Research Institute of Uranium Geology began aerial photography and geophysical survey using light aircraft, and put forward the overall design scheme of light aircraft imaging spectral application system (LAISAS) in 19905. LAISAS is comprised of four subsystem. They are called measuring platform, data acquiring subsystem, ground testing and data processing subsystem respectively. The principal instruments of LAISAS include measuring platform controlled by inertia gyroscope, aerial spectrometer with high spectral resolution, imaging spectrometer, 3-channel scanner, 128-channel imaging spectrometer, GPS, illuminance-meter, and devices for atmospheric parameters measuring, ground testing, data correction and processing. LAISAS has the features of integrity from data acquisition to data processing and to application; of stability which guarantees the image quality and is comprised of measuring, ground testing device, and in-door data correction system; of exemplariness of integrated the technology of GIS, GPS, and Image Processing System; of practicality which embodied LAISAS with flexibility and high ratio of performance to cost. So, it can be used in the fields of fundamental research of Remote Sensing and large-scale mapping for resource exploration, environmental monitoring, calamity prediction, and military purpose.

  13. Towards an Imaging Mid-Infrared Heterodyne Spectrometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hewagama, T.; Aslam, S.; Jones, H.; Kostiuk, T.; Villanueva, G.; Roman, P.; Shaw, G. B.; Livengood, T.; Allen, J. E.

    2012-01-01

    We are developing a concept for a compact, low-mass, low-power, mid-infrared (MIR; 5- 12 microns) imaging heterodyne spectrometer that incorporates fiber optic coupling, Quantum Cascade Laser (QCL) local oscillator, photomixer array, and Radio Frequency Software Defined Readout (RFSDR) for spectral analysis. Planetary Decadal Surveys have highlighted the need for miniaturized, robust, low-mass, and minimal power remote sensing technologies for flight missions. The drive for miniaturization of remote sensing spectroscopy and radiometry techniques has been a continuing process. The advent of MIR fibers, and MEMS techniques for producing waveguides has proven to be an important recent advancement for miniaturization of infrared spectrometers. In conjunction with well-established photonics techniques, the miniaturization of spectrometers is transitioning from classic free space optical systems to waveguide/fiber-based structures for light transport and producing interference effects. By their very nature, these new devices are compact and lightweight. Mercury-Cadmium-Telluride (MCT) and Quantum Well Infrared Photodiodes (QWIP) arrays for heterodyne applications are also being developed. Bulky electronics is another barrier that precluded the extension of heterodyne systems into imaging applications, and our RFSDR will address this aspect.

  14. Imaging spectrometer concepts for next-generation planetary missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Herring, M.; Juergens, D. W.; Kupferman, P. N.; Vane, G.

    1984-01-01

    In recent years there has been an increasing interest in the imaging spectrometer concept, in which imaging is accomplished in multiple, contiguous spectral bands at typical intervals of 5 to 20 nm. There are two implementations of this concept under consideration for upcoming planetary missions. One is the scanning, or 'whisk-broom' approach, in which each picture element (pixel) of the scene is spectrally dispersed onto a linear array of detectors; the spatial information is provided by a scan mirror in combination with the vehicle motion. The second approach is the 'push-broom' imager, in which a line of pixels from the scene is spectrally dispersed onto a two-dimensional (area-array) detector. In this approach, the scan mirror is eliminated, but the optics and focal plane are more complex. This paper discusses the application of these emerging instrument concepts to the planetary program. Key issues are the trade-off between the two types of imaging spectrometer, the available data rate from a typical planetary mission, and the focal-plane cooling requirements. Specific straw-man conceptual designs for the Mars Geoscience/Climatology Orbiter (MGCO) and the Mariner Mark II Comet Rendezvous/Asteroid Flyby (CRAF) missions are discussed.

  15. Imaging and radiometric performance simulation for a new high-performance dual-band airborne reconnaissance camera

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seong, Sehyun; Yu, Jinhee; Ryu, Dongok; Hong, Jinsuk; Yoon, Jee-Yeon; Kim, Sug-Whan; Lee, Jun-Ho; Shin, Myung-Jin

    2009-05-01

    In recent years, high performance visible and IR cameras have been used widely for tactical airborne reconnaissance. The process improvement for efficient discrimination and analysis of complex target information from active battlefields requires for simultaneous multi-band measurement from airborne platforms at various altitudes. We report a new dual band airborne camera designed for simultaneous registration of both visible and IR imagery from mid-altitude ranges. The camera design uses a common front end optical telescope of around 0.3m in entrance aperture and several relay optical sub-systems capable of delivering both high spatial resolution visible and IR images to the detectors. The camera design is benefited from the use of several optical channels packaged in a compact space and the associated freedom to choose between wide (~3 degrees) and narrow (~1 degree) field of view. In order to investigate both imaging and radiometric performances of the camera, we generated an array of target scenes with optical properties such as reflection, refraction, scattering, transmission and emission. We then combined the target scenes and the camera optical system into the integrated ray tracing simulation environment utilizing Monte Carlo computation technique. Taking realistic atmospheric radiative transfer characteristics into account, both imaging and radiometric performances were then investigated. The simulation results demonstrate successfully that the camera design satisfies NIIRS 7 detection criterion. The camera concept, details of performance simulation computation, the resulting performances are discussed together with future development plan.

  16. Instrument concept of the imaging Fourier transform spectrometer GLORIA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Friedl-Vallon, F.; Gulde, T.; Hase, F.; Kleinert, A.; Kulessa, T.; Maucher, G.; Neubert, T.; Olschewski, F.; Piesch, C.; Preusse, P.; Rongen, H.; Sartorius, C.; Schneider, H.; Schönfeld, A.; Tan, V.; Bayer, N.; Blank, J.; Dapp, R.; Ebersoldt, A.; Fischer, H.; Graf, F.; Guggenmoser, T.; Höpfner, M.; Kaufmann, M.; Kretschmer, E.; Latzko, T.; Nordmeyer, H.; Oelhaf, H.; Orphal, J.; Riese, M.; Schardt, G.; Schillings, J.; Sha, M. K.; Suminska-Ebersoldt, O.; Ungermann, J.

    2014-03-01

    The Gimballed Limb Observer for Radiance Imaging of the Atmosphere (GLORIA) is an imaging limb emission sounder operating in the thermal infrared region. It is designed to provide measurements of the Upper Troposphere/Lower Stratosphere with high spatial and high spectral resolution. The instrument consists of an imaging Fourier transform spectrometer integrated in a gimbal. The assembly can be mounted in the belly pod of the German high altitude and long range research aircraft HALO and in instrument bays of the Russian M55 Geophysica. Measurements are made predominantly in two distinct modes: the chemistry mode emphasises chemical analysis with high spectral resolution, the dynamics mode focuses on dynamical processes of the atmosphere with very high spatial resolution. In addition the instrument allows tomographic analyses of air volumes. The first measurement campaigns have shown compliance with key performance and operational requirements.

  17. Instrument concept of the imaging Fourier transform spectrometer GLORIA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Friedl-Vallon, F.; Gulde, T.; Hase, F.; Kleinert, A.; Kulessa, T.; Maucher, G.; Neubert, T.; Olschewski, F.; Piesch, C.; Preusse, P.; Rongen, H.; Sartorius, C.; Schneider, H.; Schönfeld, A.; Tan, V.; Bayer, N.; Blank, J.; Dapp, R.; Ebersoldt, A.; Fischer, H.; Graf, F.; Guggenmoser, T.; Höpfner, M.; Kaufmann, M.; Kretschmer, E.; Latzko, T.; Nordmeyer, H.; Oelhaf, H.; Orphal, J.; Riese, M.; Schardt, G.; Schillings, J.; Sha, M. K.; Suminska-Ebersoldt, O.; Ungermann, J.

    2014-10-01

    The Gimballed Limb Observer for Radiance Imaging of the Atmosphere (GLORIA) is an imaging limb emission sounder operating in the thermal infrared region. It is designed to provide measurements of the upper troposphere/lower stratosphere with high spatial and high spectral resolution. The instrument consists of an imaging Fourier transform spectrometer integrated into a gimbal. The assembly can be mounted in the belly pod of the German High Altitude and Long Range research aircraft (HALO) and in instrument bays of the Russian M55 Geophysica. Measurements are made in two distinct modes: the chemistry mode emphasises chemical analysis with high spectral resolution, and the dynamics mode focuses on dynamical processes of the atmosphere with very high spatial resolution. In addition, the instrument allows tomographic analyses of air volumes. The first measurement campaigns have shown compliance with key performance and operational requirements.

  18. Two wide-angle imaging neutral-atom spectrometers

    SciTech Connect

    McComas, D.J.

    1997-12-31

    The Two Wide-angle Imaging Neutral-atom Spectrometers (TWINS) mission provides a new capability for stereoscopically imaging the magnetosphere. By imaging the charge exchange neutral atoms over a broad energy range (1 < E , {approximately} 100 keV) using two identical instruments on two widely-spaced high-altitude, high-inclination spacecraft, TWINS will enable the 3-dimensional visualization and the resolution of large scale structures and dynamics within the magnetosphere for the first time. These observations will provide a leap ahead in the understanding of the global aspects of the terrestrial magnetosphere and directly address a number of critical issues in the ``Sun-Earth Connections`` science theme of the NASA Office of Space Science.

  19. The Spectrometer Telescope for Imaging X-rays (STIX)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krucker, Sam; STIX Team

    2013-07-01

    The Spectrometer Telescope for Imaging X-rays (STIX) is one of 10 instruments on board Solar Orbiter, a confirmed M-class mission of the European Space Agency (ESA) within the Cosmic Vision program scheduled to be launched in 2017. STIX applies a Fourier-imaging technique using a set of tungsten grids (at pitches from 0.038 to 1 mm) in front of 32 pixelized CdTe detectors to provide imaging spectroscopy of solar thermal and non-thermal hard X-ray emissions from 4 to 150 keV. The status of the instrument that will be presented at the Critical Design Review (CDR) later this year will be discussed in this poster.

  20. Wedge imaging spectrometer: application to drug and pollution law enforcement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elerding, George T.; Thunen, John G.; Woody, Loren M.

    1991-08-01

    The Wedge Imaging Spectrometer (WIS) represents a novel implementation of an imaging spectrometer sensor that is compact and rugged and, therefore, suitable for use in drug interdiction and pollution monitoring activities. With performance characteristics equal to comparable conventional imaging spectrometers, it would be capable of detecting and identifying primary and secondary indicators of drug activities and pollution events. In the design, a linear wedge filter is mated to an area array of detectors to achieve two-dimensional sampling of the combined spatial/spectral information passed by the filter. As a result, the need for complex and delicate fore optics is avoided, and the size and weight of the instrument are approximately 50% that of comparable sensors. Spectral bandwidths can be controlled to provide relatively narrow individual bandwidths over a broad spectrum, including all visible and infrared wavelengths. This sensor concept has been under development at the Hughes Aircraft Co. Santa Barbara Research Center (SBRC), and hardware exists in the form of a brassboard prototype. This prototype provides 64 spectral bands over the visible and near infrared region (0.4 to 1.0 micrometers ). Implementation issues have been examined, and plans have been formulated for packaging the sensor into a test-bed aircraft for demonstration of capabilities. Two specific areas of utility to the drug interdiction problem are isolated: (1) detection and classification of narcotic crop growth areas and (2) identification of coca processing sites, cued by the results of broad-area survey and collateral information. Vegetation stress and change-detection processing may also be useful in detecting active from dormant airfields. For pollution monitoring, a WIS sensor could provide data with fine spectral and spatial resolution over suspect areas. On-board or ground processing of the data would isolate the presence of polluting effluents, effects on vegetation caused by

  1. Panoramic imaging mass-spectrometer for planetary studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vaisberg, O.; Berthelier, J.; Torkar, K.; Leblanc, F.; Escoubet, P.; Woch, J.; Baumjohann, W.; Avanov, L.; Burch, J.; McComas, D.; Delcourt, D.; Wurz, P.; Grishin, V.; Smirnov, V.; Babkin, V.; Szego, K.

    2004-12-01

    Plasma diagnostics can provide extremely useful information for solar system studies. Neutral and ion sputtering from the surface leads to the formation of neutral and ion exospheres with compositions that reflect the surface composition modified by ionization and transport processes around the body. Measurements of ion composition and velocity distributions provide important information about surface composition and its recycling. Plasma measurements from low altitude spacecraft and landers on planetary bodies without atmospheres can be used to map the surface composition, while spectrometers onboard spacecraft orbiting planets with atmosphere are used for study of planetary losses, mass-exchange with the solar wind, and the long-term evolution of their environment. To perform reliable measurements of planetary plasmas a complete 3-dimensional velocity distributions of various ion species is necessary. In addition, if fast measurements of the major ion species are the main goal of plasma physics studies, precise measurements of the minor ion composition are often essential to unveil important properties of the atmosphere or the surface. Therefore ion mass spectrometers for solar system missions require both the capability of making fast measurements of the 3D-velocity distribution of ions and high mass resolution for detailed composition studies. We describe a novel type of miniature panoramic ion mass-spectrometer suitable for making such 3-dimensional measurements of ion components with high mass resolution. The feeding electron optics of our plasma analyzer (CAMERA) allows for fast measurements within an instantaneous 2p field of view, which has no gaps and can be accomplished on either stabilized or rotating spacecraft, or landers. It is followed by a time-of-flight mass-spectrometer that retains imaging capabilities of the feeding optics and provides mass-resolution M/ΔM in excess of 100. Our spectrometer also provides flexible control of the energy

  2. Field observations using an AOTF polarimetric imaging spectrometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cheng, Li-Jen; Hamilton, Mike; Mahoney, Colin; Reyes, George

    1993-01-01

    This paper reports preliminary results of recent field observations using a prototype acousto-optic tunable filter (AOTF) polarimetric imaging spectrometer. The data illustrate application potentials for geoscience. The operation principle of this instrument is different from that of current airborne multispectral imaging instruments, such as AVIRIS. The AOTF instrument takes two orthogonally polarized images at a desired wavelength at one time, whereas AVIRIS takes a spectrum over a predetermined wavelength range at one pixel at a time and the image is constructed later. AVIRIS does not have any polarization measuring capability. The AOTF instrument could be a complement tool to AVIRIS. Polarization measurement is a desired capability for many applications in remote sensing. It is well know that natural light is often polarized due to various scattering phenomena in the atmosphere. Also, scattered light from canopies is reported to have a polarized component. To characterize objects of interest correctly requires a remote sensing imaging spectrometer capable of measuring object signal and background radiation in both intensity and polarization so that the characteristics of the object can be determined. The AORF instrument has the capability to do so. The AOTF instrument has other unique properties. For example, it can provide spectral images immediately after the observation. The instrument can also allow observations to be tailored in real time to perform the desired experiments and to collect only required data. Consequently, the performance in each mission can be increased with minimal resources. The prototype instrument was completed in the beginning of this year. A number of outdoor field experiments were performed with the objective to evaluate the capability of this new technology for remote sensing applications and to determine issues for further improvements.

  3. Material characterization using a hyperspectral infrared imaging spectrometer

    SciTech Connect

    Aimonetti, W D; Bixler, J V; Roberts, R S

    1998-10-30

    Fourier transform spectroscopy has found application in many areas including chemometrics, biomedical and biochemical studies, and atmospheric chemistry. This paper describes an investigation into the application of the LLNL Hyperspectral Infrared Imaging Spectrometer (HIRIS) to the non-destructive evaluation of man-made and natural materials. We begin by describing the HIRIS system and the objects studied in the investigation. Next, we describe the technique used to collect the hyperspec- tral imagery, and discuss the processing required to transform the data into usable form. We then describe a technique to analyze the data, and provide some preliminary results.

  4. Preliminary evaluation of the airborne imaging spectrometer for vegetation analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Strahler, A. H.; Woodcock, C. E.

    1984-01-01

    The primary goal of the project was to provide ground truth and manual interpretation of data from an experimental flight of the Airborne Infrared Spectrometer (AIS) for a naturally vegetated test site. Two field visits were made; one trip to note snow conditions and temporally related vegetation states at the time of the sensor overpass, and a second trip following acquisition of prints of the AIS images for field interpretation. Unfortunately, the ability to interpret the imagery was limited by the quality of the imagery due to the experimental nature of the sensor.

  5. Chemical detection using the airborne thermal infrared imaging spectrometer (TIRIS)

    SciTech Connect

    Gat, N.; Subramanian, S.; Sheffield, M.; Erives, H.; Barhen, J.

    1997-04-01

    A methodology is described for an airborne, downlooking, longwave infrared imaging spectrometer based technique for the detection and tracking of plumes of toxic gases. Plumes can be observed in emission or absorption, depending on the thermal contrast between the vapor and the background terrain. While the sensor is currently undergoing laboratory calibration and characterization, a radiative exchange phenomenology model has been developed to predict sensor response and to facilitate the sensor design. An inverse problem model has also been developed to obtain plume parameters based on sensor measurements. These models, the sensors, and ongoing activities are described.

  6. Calibration of the National Ecological Observatory Network's Airborne Imaging Spectrometers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leisso, N.; Kampe, T. U.; Karpowicz, B. M.

    2014-12-01

    The National Ecological Observatory Network (NEON) is currently under construction by the National Science Foundation. NEON is designed to collect data on the causes and responses to change in the observed ecosystem. The observatory will combine site data collected by terrestrial, instrumental, and aquatic observation systems with airborne remote sensing data. The Airborne Observation Platform (AOP) is designed to collect high-resolution aerial imagery, waveform and discrete LiDAR, and high-fidelity imaging spectroscopic data over the NEON sites annually at or near peak-greenness. Three individual airborne sensor packages will be installed in leased Twin Otter aircraft and used to the collect the NEON sites as NEON enters operations. A key driver to the derived remote sensing data products is the calibration of the imaging spectrometers. This is essential to the overall NEON mission to detect changes in the collected ecosystems over the 30-year expected lifetime. The NEON Imaging Spectrometer (NIS) is a Visible and Shortwave Infrared (VSWIR) grating spectrometer designed by NASA JPL. Spectroscopic data is collected at 5-nm intervals from 380-2500-nm. A single 480 by 640 pixel HgCdTe Focal Plane Array collects dispersed light from a grating tuned for efficiency across the solar-reflective utilized in a push-broom configuration. Primary calibration of the NIS consists of the characterizing the FPA behavior, spectral calibration, and radiometric calibration. To this end, NEON is constructing a Sensor Test Facility to calibrate the NEON sensors. This work discusses the initial NIS laboratory calibration and verification using vicarious calibration techniques during operations. Laboratory spectral calibration is based on well-defined emission lines in conjunction with a scanning monochromator to define the individual spectral response functions. A NIST traceable FEL bulb is used to radiometrically calibrate the imaging spectrometer. An On-board Calibration (OBC) system

  7. Compact Image Slicing Spectrometer (ISS) for hyperspectral fluorescence microscopy

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Liang; Kester, Robert T.; Tkaczyk, Tomasz S.

    2009-01-01

    An image slicing spectrometer (ISS) for microscopy applications is presented. Its principle is based on the redirecting of image zones by specially organized thin mirrors within a custom fabricated component termed an image slicer. The demonstrated prototype can simultaneously acquire a 140nm spectral range within its 2D field of view from a single image. The spectral resolution of the system is 5.6nm. The FOV and spatial resolution of the ISS depend on the selected microscope objective and for the results presented is 45×45μm2 and 0.45μm respectively. This proof-of-concept system can be easily improved in the future for higher (both spectral and spatial) resolution imaging. The system requires no scanning and minimal post data processing. In addition, the reflective nature of the image slicer and use of prisms for spectral dispersion make the system light efficient. Both of the above features are highly valuable for real time fluorescent-spectral imaging in biological and diagnostic applications. PMID:19654631

  8. The Spectral Image Processing System (SIPS) - Interactive visualization and analysis of imaging spectrometer data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kruse, F. A.; Lefkoff, A. B.; Boardman, J. W.; Heidebrecht, K. B.; Shapiro, A. T.; Barloon, P. J.; Goetz, A. F. H.

    1993-01-01

    The Center for the Study of Earth from Space (CSES) at the University of Colorado, Boulder, has developed a prototype interactive software system called the Spectral Image Processing System (SIPS) using IDL (the Interactive Data Language) on UNIX-based workstations. SIPS is designed to take advantage of the combination of high spectral resolution and spatial data presentation unique to imaging spectrometers. It streamlines analysis of these data by allowing scientists to rapidly interact with entire datasets. SIPS provides visualization tools for rapid exploratory analysis and numerical tools for quantitative modeling. The user interface is X-Windows-based, user friendly, and provides 'point and click' operation. SIPS is being used for multidisciplinary research concentrating on use of physically based analysis methods to enhance scientific results from imaging spectrometer data. The objective of this continuing effort is to develop operational techniques for quantitative analysis of imaging spectrometer data and to make them available to the scientific community prior to the launch of imaging spectrometer satellite systems such as the Earth Observing System (EOS) High Resolution Imaging Spectrometer (HIRIS).

  9. Optical alignment of the SPICE EUV imaging spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rogers, Kevin; Caldwell, Martin; Eccleston, Paul; Griffin, Doug; Greenway, Paul; Fludra, Andrzej; Middleton, Kevin; Tosh, Ian; Richards, Tony; Phillipon, Anne; Schühle, Udo

    2015-09-01

    SPICE is a high resolution imaging spectrometer operating at extreme ultraviolet wavelengths, 70.4 - 79.0 nm and 97.3 - 104.9 nm. It is a facility instrument on the ESA Solar Orbiter mission. SPICE will address the key science goals of Solar Orbiter by providing the quantitative knowledge of the physical state and composition of the plasmas in the solar atmosphere, in particular investigating the source regions of outflows and ejection processes which link the solar surface and corona to the heliosphere. By observing the intensities of selected spectral lines and line profiles, SPICE will derive temperature, density, flow and composition information for the plasmas in the temperature range from 10,000 K to 10MK. The optical components of the instrument consist of an off axis parabolic mirror mounted on a mechanism with a scan range of 8 arc minutes. This allows the rastering of an image of the spectrometer slit, which is interchangeable defining the instrument resolution, on the sky. A concave toroidal variable line space grating disperses, magnifies, and re-images incident radiation onto a pair of photocathode coated microchannel plate image intensifiers, coupled to active pixel sensors. For the instrument to meet the scientific and engineering objectives these components must be tightly aligned with each other and the mechanical interface to the spacecraft. This alignment must be maintained throughout the environmental exposure of the instrument to vibration and thermal cycling seen during launch, and as the spacecraft orbits around the sun. The built alignment is achieved through a mixture of dimensional metrology, autocollimation, interferometry and imaging tests. This paper shall discuss the requirements and the methods of optical alignment.

  10. Spatial image modulation to improve performance of computed tomography imaging spectrometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bearman, Gregory H. (Inventor); Wilson, Daniel W. (Inventor); Johnson, William R. (Inventor)

    2010-01-01

    Computed tomography imaging spectrometers ("CTIS"s) having patterns for imposing spatial structure are provided. The pattern may be imposed either directly on the object scene being imaged or at the field stop aperture. The use of the pattern improves the accuracy of the captured spatial and spectral information.

  11. GIFS Imaging Fabry--Perot Spectrometer: Measurement Technique and Intercomparison

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Demajistre, R.; Yee, J.; Swartz, W. H.; Kelly, M. A.; Pitts, M. C.; Hostetler, C. A.

    2008-05-01

    A Geostationary Imaging Fabry--Perot Spectrometer (GIFS) prototype instrument has been developed and tested during a recent NASA P3B aircraft field campaign based at NASA/Wallops (Jan--Feb 2008). GIFS is a very high- resolution imaging spectrometer that resolves individual molecular oxygen lines for the inference of cloud height and other properties. Cloud properties are inferred by accurate measurement of the line shape of the backscattered light incident on the instrument. In particular, the line shape contains a record of the pressure broadening that occurs along the multiply scattered path of the light reaching the instrument. We present our initial analysis of the data collected during this campaign. We have identified several representative cases of cloud scenes in the dataset to validate the measurement concept. These cases include cloud-free measurements made over open ocean and thick unbroken cloud decks in areas where coincident high-precision cloud measurements are available from the NASA/Langley LIDAR onboard the Langley B200 research aircraft and CALIPSO. The data for these cases are analyzed in the context of standard radiation field modeling and instrument optical performance taken both during the flight and on the ground.

  12. Imaging X-ray Thomson Scattering Spectrometer Design and Demonstration

    SciTech Connect

    Gamboa, E.J.; Huntington, C.M.; Trantham, M.R.; Keiter, P.A; Drake, R.P.; Montgomery, David; Benage, John F.; Letzring, Samuel A.

    2012-05-04

    In many laboratory astrophysics experiments, intense laser irradiation creates novel material conditions with large, one-dimensional gradients in the temperature, density, and ionization state. X-ray Thomson scattering is a powerful technique for measuring these plasma parameters. However, the scattered signal has previously been measured with little or no spatial resolution, which limits the ability to diagnose inhomogeneous plasmas. We report on the development of a new imaging x-ray Thomson spectrometer (IXTS) for the Omega laser facility. The diffraction of x-rays from a toroidally-curved crystal creates high-resolution images that are spatially resolved along a one-dimensional profile while spectrally dispersing the radiation. This focusing geometry allows for high brightness while localizing noise sources and improving the linearity of the dispersion. Preliminary results are presented from a scattering experiment that used the IXTS to measure the temperature profile of a shocked carbon foam.

  13. Airborne imaging spectrometer - A new tool for remote sensing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vane, G.; Goetz, A. F. H.; Wellman, J. B.

    1983-01-01

    The first of a new class of remote sensing instruments is described. The Airborne Imaging Spectrometer represents the first use of two-dimensional area arrays in a scientific application. The instrument images 32 cross-track pixels simultaneously, each in 128 spectral bands in the 1.2 to 2.4 micro region. The IFOV of the instrument is 1.9 mrad and the spectral sampling interval is 9.6 nanometers. Plans include upgrading the detector from the current 32 x 32 element HgCdTe CCD array to a 64 x 64 element array in 1984. Science and engineering data are currently being actively gathered with the instrument.

  14. Airborne imaging spectrometer - A new tool for remote sensing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vane, G.; Goetz, A. F. H.; Wellman, J. B.

    1984-01-01

    The first of a new class of remote sensing instruments is described. The Airborne Imaging Spectrometer represents the first use of two-dimensional integrated infrared area arrays in a scientific application. The instrument images 32 cross-track pixels simultaneously, each in 128 spectral bands in the 1.2- to 2.4-micron region. The IFOV of the instrument is 1.9 mrad/pixel and the spectral sampling interval is 9.6 nm. Plans include upgrading the detector from the current 32 x 32 element HgCdTe CCD array to a 64 x 64 element array in 1985. Science and engineering data are currently being actively gathered with the instrument.

  15. Panoramic imaging mass-spectrometer for planetary studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vaisberg, O.; Berthelier, J.-J.; Torkar, K.; Leblanc, F.; Woch, J.; Avanov, L.; Skalski, A.; Delcourt, D.; Smirnov, V.; Koinash, G.

    Plasma diagnostics can provide extremely useful information for solar system studies. Neutral and ion sputtering from the surface leads to the formation of neutral and ion exospheres with compositions that reflect the surface composition modified by ionization and transport processes around the body. Measurements of ion composition and velocity distributions provide important information about surface composition and its recycling. Plasma measurements from low altitude spacecraft and landers on planetary bodies without atmospheres can be used to map the surface composition, while spectrometers onboard spacecraft orbiting planets with atmosphere are used for study of planetary losses, mass-exchange with the solar wind, and the long-term evolution of their environment. To perform reliable measurements of planetary plasmas a complete 3-dimensional velocity distributions of various ion species is necessary. In addition, if fast measurements of the major ion species are the main goal of plasma physics studies, precise measurements of the minor ion composition are often essential to unveil important properties of the atmosphere or the surface. Therefore ion mass spectrometers for solar system missions require both the capability of making fast measurements of the 3D-velocity distribution of ions and high mass resolution for detailed composition studies. We describe a novel type of miniature panoramic ion mass-spectrometer suitable for making such 3-dimensional measurements of ion components with high mass resolution. The feeding electron optics of our plasma analyzer (CAMERA) allows for fast measurements within an instantaneous 2π field of view, which has no gaps and can be accomplished on either stabilized or rotating spacecraft, or landers. It is followed by a time-of-flight mass-spectrometer that retains imaging capabilities of the feeding optics and provides mass-resolution M/?M in excess of 100. Our spectrometer also provides flexible control of the energy

  16. Light weight airborne imaging spectrometer remote sensing system for mineral exploration in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Taixia; Zhang, Lifu; Cen, Yi; Wang, Jinnian; Tong, Qingxi

    2014-05-01

    Imaging spectrometers provide the unique combination of both spatially contiguous spectra and spectrally contiguous images of the Earth's surface that allows spatial mapping of these minerals. One of the successful applications of imaging spectrometers remote sensing identified was geological mapping and mineral exploration. A Light weight Airborne Imaging Spectrometer System (LAISS) has been developed in China. The hardware of the compact LAISS include a VNIR imaging spectrometer, a SWIR imaging spectrometer, a high resolution camera and a position and attitude device. The weight of the system is less than 20kg. The VNIR imaging spectrometer measures incoming radiation in 344 contiguous spectral channels in the 400-1000 nm wavelength range with spectral resolution of better than 5 nm and creates images of 464 pixels for a line of targets with a nominal instantaneous field of view (IFOV) of ~1 mrad. The SWIR imaging spectrometer measures incoming radiation in the 1000-2500 nm wavelength range with spectral resolution of better than 10 nm with a nominal instantaneous field of view (IFOV) of ~2 mrad. The 400 to 2500nm spectral range provides abundant information about many important Earth-surface minerals. A ground mineral scan experiment and an UAV carried flying experiment has been done. The experiment results show the LAISS have achieved relative high performance levels in terms of signal to noise ratio and image quality. The potential applications for light weight airborne imaging spectrometer system in mineral exploration are tremendous.

  17. Integrated optics in an electrically scanned imaging Fourier transform spectrometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Breckinridge, James B. (Inventor); Ocallaghan, Fred G. (Inventor)

    1982-01-01

    An efficient, lightweight and stable, Fourier transform spectrometer was developed. The mechanical slide mechanism needed to create a path difference was eliminated by the use of retro-reflecting mirrors in a monolithic interferometer assembly in which the mirrors are not at 90 degrees to the propagation vector of the radiation, but rather at a small angle. The resulting plane wave fronts create a double-sided inteferogram of the source irradiance distribution which is detected by a charge-coupled device image sensor array. The position of each CCD pixel in the array is an indication of the path difference between the two retro-reflecting mirrors in the monolithic optical structure. The Fourier transform of the signals generated by the image sensor provide the spectral irradiance distribution of the source. For imaging, the interferometer assembly scans the source of irradiation by moving the entire instrument, such as would occur if it was fixedly mounted to a moving platform, i.e., a spacecraft. During scanning, the entrace slot to the monolithic optical structure sends different pixels to corresponding interferograms detected by adjacent columns of pixels of the image sensor.

  18. An all-reflective computed tomography imaging spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, William R.; Wilson, Daniel W.; Bearman, Gregory H.; Backlund, Johan

    2004-12-01

    The computed tomographic imaging spectrometer (CTIS) is a passive non-scanning instrument which simultaneously records a scenes spectral content as well as its 2-D spatial. Simultaneously implies a time frame limited only by the frame rate and signal-to-noise of the imaging device. CTIS accomplishes this by feeding incident scene radiation through a computer generated hologram (CGH) in Fourier space. The resulting dispersion pattern is recorded on a conventional pixilated imager and is stored on a local computer for post processing using iterative reconstruction techniques. A virtual 3-D datacube is constructed with one dimension in terms of energy weights for each wavelength band. CTIS is ideal for observing rapidly varying targets and has found use in military, bio-medical and astronomical applications. For the first time we have built an entirely reflective design based on the popular Offner reflector using a computer generated hologram formed on a convex mirror surface. Furthermore, a micro electro-mechanical system (MEMS) has been uniquely incorporated as a dynamic field stop for smart scene selection. Both the MEMS and reflective design are discussed. The CTIS multiplexes spatial and spectral information, so the two quantities are interdependent and adjustments must be made to the design in order to allow adequate sampling for our given application. Optical aberrations arising from a tilted image plane are alleviated through design optimization.

  19. Continued Development of a Planetary Imaging Fourier Transform Spectrometer (PIFTS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sromovsky, L. A.

    2002-01-01

    This report describes continued efforts to evaluate a breadboard of a Planetary Imaging Fourier Transform Spectrometer (PIFTS). The PIFTS breadboard was developed under prior PIDDP funding. That effort is described in the final report for NASA Grant NAG5-6248 and in two conference papers (Sromovsky et al. 2000; Revercomb et al. 2000). The PIFTS breadboard was designed for near-IR (1-5.2 micrometer imaging of planetary targets with spectral resolving powers of several hundred to several thousand, using an InSb detector array providing at least 64x64 pixels imaging detail. The major focus of the development effort was to combine existing technologies to produce a small and low power design compatible with a very low mass flyable instrument. The objective of this grant (NAG5-10729) was further characterization of the breadboard performance, including intercomparisons with the highly accurate non-imaging Advanced Emitted Radiance Interferometer (AERI) (Revercomb et al. 1994; Best et al. 1997).

  20. Imaging Electron Spectrometer (IES) Electron Preprocessor (EPP) Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fennell, J. F.; Osborn, J. V.; Christensen, John L. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    The Aerospace Corporation developed the Electron PreProcessor (EPP) to support the Imaging Electron Spectrometer (IES) that is part of the RAPID experiment on the ESA/NASA CLUSTER mission. The purpose of the EPP is to collect raw data from the IES and perform processing and data compression on it before transferring it to the RAPID microprocessor system for formatting and transmission to the CLUSTER satellite data system. The report provides a short history of the RAPID and CLUSTER programs and describes the EPP design. Four EPP units were fabricated, tested, and delivered for the original CLUSTER program. These were destroyed during a launch failure. Four more EPP units were delivered for the CLUSTER II program. These were successfully launched and are operating nominally on orbit.

  1. Calibration of the Geostationary Imaging Fourier Transform Spectrometer (GIFTS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Best, F. A.; Revercomb, H. E.; Bingham, G. E.; Knuteson, R. O.; Tobin, D. C.; LaPorte, D. D.; Smith, W. L.

    2001-01-01

    The NASA New Millennium Program's Geostationary Imaging Fourier Transform Spectrometer (GIFTS) requires highly accurate radiometric and spectral calibration in order to carry out its mission to provide water vapor, wind, temperature, and trace gas profiling from geostationary orbit. A calibration concept has been developed for the GIFTS Phase A instrument design. The in-flight calibration is performed using views of two on-board blackbody sources along with cold space. A radiometric calibration uncertainty analysis has been developed and used to show that the expected performance for GIFTS exceeds its top level requirement to measure brightness temperature to better than 1 K. For the Phase A GIFTS design, the spectral calibration is established by the highly stable diode laser used as the reference for interferogram sampling, and verified with comparisons to atmospheric calculations.

  2. Martian spectral units derived from ISM imaging spectrometer data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Murchie, S.; Mustard, J.; Saylor, R.

    1993-01-01

    Based on results of the Viking mission, the soil layer of Mars has been thought to be fairly homogeneous and to consist of a mixture of as few as two components, a 'dark gray' basaltic material and a 'bright red' altered material. However, near-infrared reflectance spectra measured recently both telescopically and from spacecraft indicate compositional heterogeneity beyond what can be explained by just two components. In particular, data from the ISM imaging spectrometer, which observed much of the equatorial region at a spatial resolution of approximately 22 km, indicate spatial differences in the presence and abundance of Fe-containing phases, hydroxylated silicates, and H2O. The ISM data was used to define, characterize, and map soil 'units' based on their spectral properties. The spatial distribution of these 'units' were compared to morphologic, visible color, and thermal inertia features recognized in Viking data.

  3. Neutron beam imaging at neutron spectrometers at Dhruva

    SciTech Connect

    Desai, Shraddha S.; Rao, Mala N.

    2012-06-05

    A low efficiency, 2-Dimensional Position Sensitive Neutron Detector based on delay line position encoding is developed. It is designed to handle beam flux of 10{sup 6}-10{sup 7} n/cm{sup 2}/s and for monitoring intensity profiles of neutron beams. The present detector can be mounted in transmission mode, as the hardware allows maximum neutron transmission in sensitive region. Position resolution of 1.2 mm in X and Y directions, is obtained. Online monitoring of beam images and intensity profile of various neutron scattering spectrometers at Dhruva are presented. It shows better dynamic range of intensity over commercial neutron camera and is also time effective over the traditionally used photographic method.

  4. An expert system for geologic mapping with imaging spectrometers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kruse, F. A.; Seznec, O.; Krotkov, P. M.

    1990-01-01

    Techniques have been developed for the extraction and characterization of absorption features from visible and infrared reflectance spectra and an expert system has been designed, implemented, and successfully tested that allows automated identification of minerals based on their spectral characteristics. A suite of laboratory spectra of common minerals was analyzed and the absorption band characteristics tabulated and used to develop a generalized knowledge base for analysis of the reflectance spectra. A tree hierarchy was designed to emulate the decision process followed by an experienced analyst for analysis of laboratory and field reflectance spectra and aircraft imaging spectrometer spectra. Good results were obtained with the expert system for all three types of spectra, with the critical factor in the analysis being the signal-to-noise ratio of the spectral data.

  5. Identification of hydrothermal alteration assemblages using airborne imaging spectrometer data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Feldman, S. C.; Taranik, J. V.

    1986-01-01

    Airborne Imaging Spectrometer (AIS) data, field and laboratory spectra and samples for X-ray diffraction analysis were collected in argillically altered Tertiary volcanic rocks in the Hot Creek Range, Nevada. From laboratory and field spectral measurements in the 2.0 to 2.4 micron range and using a spectroradiometer with a 4 nm sampling interval, the absorption band centers for kaolinite were loacted at 2.172 and 2.215 microns, for montmorillonite at 2.214 micron and for illite at 2.205. Based on these values and the criteria for resolution and separtion of spectral features, a spectral sampling interval of less than 4 nm is necessary to separate the clays. With an AIS spectral sampling interval of 9.3 nm, a spectral matching algorithm is more effective for separating kaolinite, montmorillonite, ad illite in Hot Creek Range than using the location of absorption minima alone.

  6. The Mapping Imaging Spectrometer for Europa (MISE) Investigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blaney, D. L.; Hibbitts, C.; Clark, R. N.; Dalton, J. B., III; Davies, A. G.; Green, R. O.; Hedman, M. M.; Langevin, Y.; Lunine, J. I.; McCord, T. B.; Murchie, S. L.; Paranicas, C.; Seelos, F. P., IV; Soderblom, J. M.; Cable, M. L.

    2015-12-01

    The Mapping Imaging Spectrometer for Europa (MISE) investigation was selected by NASA to be part of the next Europa Mission in May 2015. The MISE instrument is designed to enable the identification and mapping of organics, salts, acid hydrates, water ice phases, altered silicates, and radiolytic compounds at global (≤ 10 km), regional (≤ 300 m), and local scales (~ 25 m). Mapping the composition of specific landforms is critical to understanding surface and subsurface geologic processes, including recent or current activity. High spatial resolution compositional mapping is also essential for detecting small outcrops of organics and salts. Distribution maps of astrobiologically relevant compounds and their geologic context can be used to assess whether Europa's ocean is capable of supporting life. MISE could provide fundamental information on where future Europa landers would have the highest probability of detecting evidence of life. The MISE instrument design is for a high-optical throughput pushbroom imaging spectrometer that could observe effectively throughout a flyby or in orbit around Europa. MISE would cover a spectral range from 0.8-5 μm at 10 nm/channel, with an instantaneous field of view (IFOV) of 250 μrad/pixel and a swath width of 300 active pixels. The 0.8-2.5 μm region is essential for quantifying hydrates and bulk surface composition, while the 3-5 μm region is required for detecting low abundances of organics, most radiolytic products, and discriminating salts from acid hydrates. These longer wavelengths can also be used to measure thermal emissions from currently active regions. MISE is designed to operate within Europa's challenging radiation environment and deal with both radiation noise and total integrated dose. The MISE design is the result of collaboration between NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory (California Institute of Technology) and the Applied Physics Laboratory (John Hopkins' University).

  7. A compact imaging spectrometer (COMIS) for the microsatellite STSAT3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, J. H.; Lee, C. W.; Kang, K. I.; Jang, T. S.; Yang, H. S.; Han, W.; Park, J. O.; Rhee, S. W.

    2007-10-01

    STSAT-3, a ~150kg micro satellite, is the third experimental microsatellite of the STSAT series designated in the Long- Term Plan for Korea's Space Development by the Ministry of Science and Technology of Korea. The STSAT-3 satellite was initiated in October 2006 and will be launched into a lower sun-synchronous earth orbit (~ 700km) in 2010. This paper presents a brief introduction of STSAT-3 and also introduces its secondary payload, i.e. COMIS, a compact imaging spectrometer, which was inspired by the success of CHRIS, a previous PROBA payload. COMIS takes hyperspectral images of 30m/60m ground sampling distance over a 30km swath width. The number of bands is selectable among 18 or 62. COMIS takes hyper-spectral images in two different modes: a) Pushbroom and b) multi-directional observation. The payload will be used for environmental monitoring, such as in-land water quality monitoring of Paldang Lake located next to Seoul, the capital of South Korea.

  8. [Analysis and experimental validation of signal-to-noise for limb imaging spectrometer].

    PubMed

    Xue, Qing-Sheng; Wang, Shu-Rong; Li, Fu-Tian; Lin, Guang-Yu; Duan, Ming-Zheng

    2010-06-01

    Limb imaging spectrometer is an important new remote sensor for research and application. Signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) is one of the key parameters to quantitatively evaluate the image quality and radiometric performance of an imaging spectrometer. The estimation and testing of SNR are very important for developing an imaging spectrometer. From the perspectives of radiative transmission and energy conversion, the SNR model is proposed, and the SNR equation of dispersive-type limb imaging spectrometer is derived, and the SNR values under several observing conditions for an limb imaging spectrometer prototype developed are theoretically evaluated based on atmospheric radiative transfer code MODTRAN 4.0. The results show that the SNR of the prototype under typical viewing geometry is not less than 8. As experimental validation, SNR testing was performed using an internally illuminated integrating sphere, and the experimental results have proved the correctness of this theoretical model. PMID:20707179

  9. Visible-Near Infrared Imaging Spectrometer Data of Explosion Craters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Farr, T. G.

    2005-01-01

    In a continuing study to capture a realistic terrain applicable to studies of cratering processes and landing hazards on Mars, we have obtained new high resolution visible-near infrared images of several explosion craters at the Nevada Test Site. We used the Airborne Visible-Infrared Imaging Spectrometer (AVIRIS) to obtain images in 224 spectral bands from 0.4-2.5 microns [1]. The main craters that were imaged were Sedan, Scooter, Schooner, Buggy, and Danny Boy [2]. The 390 m diameter Sedan crater, located on Yucca Flat, is the largest and freshest explosion crater on Earth that was formed under conditions similar to hypervelocity impact cratering. As such, it is effectively pristine, having been formed in 1962 as a result of the detonation of a 104 kiloton thermonuclear device, buried at the appropriate equivalent depth of burst required to make a "simple" crater [2]. Sedan was formed in alluvium of mixed lithology [3] and subsequently studied using a variety of field-based methods. Nearby secondary craters were also formed at the time and were also imaged by AVIRIS. Adjacent to Sedan and also in alluvium is Scooter, about 90 m in diameter and formed by a high-explosive event. Schooner (240 m) and Danny Boy (80 m, Fig. 1) craters were also important targets for AVIRIS as they were excavated in hard welded tuff and basaltic andesite, respectively [3, 4]. This variation in targets will allow the study of ejecta patterns, compositional modifications due to the explosions, and the role of craters as subsurface probes.

  10. Acousto-Optic Imaging Spectrometers for Mars Surface Science

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Glenar, D. A.; Blaney, D. L.

    2000-01-01

    NASA's long term plan for Mars sample collection and return requires a highly streamlined approach for spectrally characterizing a landing site, documenting the mineralogical make-up of the site and guiding the collections of samples which represent the diversity of the site. Ideally, image data should be acquired at hundreds of VIS and IR wavelengths, in order to separately distinguish numerous anticipated species, using principal component analysis and linear unmixing. Cameras with bore-sighted point spectrometers can acquire spectra of isolated scene elements, but it requires 10(exp 2) to 10(exp 2) successive motions and precise relative pointing knowledge in order to create a single data cube which qualifies as a spectral map. These and other competing science objectives have to be accomplished within very short lander/rover operational lifetime (a few sols). True, 2-D imaging spectroscopy greatly speeds up the data acquisition process, since the spectra of all pixels in the scene are collected at once. This task can be accomplished with cameras that use electronically tunable acousto-optic tunable filters (AOTFs) as the optical tuning element. AOTFs made from TeO2 are now a mature technology, and operate at wavelengths from near-UV to about 5 microns. Because of incremental improvements in the last few years, present generation devices are rugged, radiation-hard and operate at temperatures down to at least 150K so they can be safely integrated into the ambient temperature optics of in-situ instruments such as planetary or small-body landers. They have been used for ground-based astronomy, and were also baselined for the ST-4 Champollion IR comet lander experiment (CIRCLE), prior to cancellation of the ST-4 mission last year. AIMS (for Acousto-optic Imaging spectrometer), is a prototype lander instrument which is being built at GSFC with support by the NASA OSS Advanced Technologies and Mission Studies, Mars Instrument Definition and Development Program (MIDP

  11. Imaging spectrometers for terrestrial and planetary remote sensing - A progress report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wellman, John B.

    1987-01-01

    Attention is given to two major design approaches, the 'whiskbroom' and the 'pushbroom', in the present consideration of imaging spectroscopy for both planetary and terrestrial missions. A near-IR mapping spectrometer has been developed for the Galileo Jupiter Orbiter Mission; on the basis of this design, and incorporating focal plane array technology improvements, a family of imaging spectrometers exemplified by the Visual and IR Mapping Spectrometer is under development for other planetary missions.

  12. [Effect of spectrum distortion on modulation transfer function in imaging fiber-optic spectrometer].

    PubMed

    Cheng, Xin; Wang, Jing; Zhang, Bao; Hong, Yong-Feng

    2011-10-01

    Imaging fiber bundles were introduced to dispersion imaging spectrometer and substituted for slit, connecting the telescope and spectrometer to yield the imaging fiber-optic spectrometer. It is a double sampling system, the misalignment between image of optical fiber and detector pixel has arisen because of the spectrum distortion of spectrometer, which affected the second sampling process, and the modulation transfer function (MTF) therefore degraded. Optical transfer function of sampling process was derived from line spread function. The effect of spectrum distortion on system MTF was analyzed, and a model evaluating the MTF of imaging fiber-optic spectrometer was developed. Compared to the computation model of MTF of slit imaging spectrometer, a MTF item of sampling by optical fiber and a MTF item of misalignment arising from spectrum distortion were added in this model. Employing this, the MTF of an airborne imaging fiber-optic spectrometer for visible near infrared band was evaluated. The approach ro deriving and developing the MTF model has a reference signification for the computation of MTF of double sampling system, which can direct the design of imaging fiber-optic spectrometer also. PMID:22250572

  13. HiRISE: The High Resolution Imaging Science Experiment for Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McEwen, A. S.; Delamere, W. A.; Eliason, E. M.; Grant, J. A.; Gulick, V. C.; Hansen, C. J.; Herkenhoff, K. E.; Keszthelyi, L.; Kirk, R. L.; Mellon, M. T.

    2002-01-01

    HiRISE, an experiment on the 2005 MRO mission, will provide an unprecedented combination of ground sampling dimension (25-50 cm/pixel), signal-to-noise ratio (greater than 100:1 at all latitudes), swath width (5-10 km), partial 3-color coverage, greater than 2% coverage of Mars at 1 m/pixel or better, and stereo imaging. Additional information is contained in the original extended abstract.

  14. Mars reconnaissance orbiter's high resolution imaging science experiment (HiRISE)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McEwen, A.S.; Eliason, E.M.; Bergstrom, J.W.; Bridges, N.T.; Hansen, C.J.; Delamere, W.A.; Grant, J. A.; Gulick, V.C.; Herkenhoff, K. E.; Keszthelyi, L.; Kirk, R.L.; Mellon, M.T.; Squyres, S. W.; Thomas, N.; Weitz, C.M.

    2007-01-01

    The HiRISE camera features a 0.5 m diameter primary mirror, 12 m effective focal length, and a focal plane system that can acquire images containing up to 28 Gb (gigabits) of data in as little as 6 seconds. HiRISE will provide detailed images (0.25 to 1.3 m/pixel) covering ???1% of the Martian surface during the 2-year Primary Science Phase (PSP) beginning November 2006. Most images will include color data covering 20% of the potential field of view. A top priority is to acquire ???1000 stereo pairs and apply precision geometric corrections to enable topographic measurements to better than 25 cm vertical precision. We expect to return more than 12 Tb of HiRISE data during the 2-year PSP, and use pixel binning, conversion from 14 to 8 bit values, and a lossless compression system to increase coverage. HiRISE images are acquired via 14 CCD detectors, each with 2 output channels, and with multiple choices for pixel binning and number of Time Delay and Integration lines. HiRISE will support Mars exploration by locating and characterizing past, present, and future landing sites, unsuccessful landing sites, and past and potentially future rover traverses. We will investigate cratering, volcanism, tectonism, hydrology, sedimentary processes, stratigraphy, aeolian processes, mass wasting, landscape evolution, seasonal processes, climate change, spectrophotometry, glacial and periglacial processes, polar geology, and regolith properties. An Internet Web site (HiWeb) will enable anyone in the world to suggest HiRISE targets on Mars and to easily locate, view, and download HiRISE data products. Copyright 2007 by the American Geophysical Union.

  15. Color camera computed tomography imaging spectrometer for improved spatial-spectral image accuracy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, Daniel W. (Inventor); Bearman, Gregory H. (Inventor); Johnson, William R. (Inventor)

    2011-01-01

    Computed tomography imaging spectrometers ("CTIS"s) having color focal plane array detectors are provided. The color FPA detector may comprise a digital color camera including a digital image sensor, such as a Foveon X3.RTM. digital image sensor or a Bayer color filter mosaic. In another embodiment, the CTIS includes a pattern imposed either directly on the object scene being imaged or at the field stop aperture. The use of a color FPA detector and the pattern improves the accuracy of the captured spatial and spectral information.

  16. Progress Toward A Very High Angular Resolution Imaging Spectrometer (VERIS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Korendyke, Clarence M.; Vourlidas, A.; Landi, E.; Seely, J.; Klimchuck, J.

    2007-07-01

    Recent imaging at arcsecond (TRACE) and sub-arcsecond (VAULT) spatial resolution clearly show that structures with fine spatial scales play a key role in the physics of the upper solar atmosphere. Both theoretical and observational considerations point to the importance of small spatial scales, impulsive energy release, strong dynamics, and extreme plasma nonuniformity. Fundamental questions regarding the nature, structure, properties and dynamics of loops and filamentary structures in the upper atmosphere have been raised. To address these questions, we are developing a next generation, VEry high angular Resolution Imaging Spectrometer (VERIS) as a sounding rocket instrument. VERIS will obtain the necessary high spatial resolution, high fidelity measurements of plasma temperatures, densities and velocities. With broad simultaneous temperature coverage, the VERIS observations will directly address unresolved issues relating to interconnections of various temperature solar plasmas. VERIS will provide the first ever subarcsecond spectra of transition region and coronal structures. It will do so with a sufficient spectral resolution of to allow centroided Doppler velocity determinations to better than 3 km/s. VERIS uses a novel two element, normal incidence optical design with highly reflective EUV coatings to access a spectral range with broad temperature coverage (0.03-15 MK) and density-sensitive line ratios. Finally, in addition to the spectra, VERIS will simultaneously obtain spectrally pure slot images (10x150 arcsec) in the +/-1 grating orders, which can be combined to make instantaneous line-of-sight velocity maps with 8km/s accuracy over an unprecedented field of view. The VERIS program is beginning the second year of its three year development cycle. All design activities and reviews are complete. Fabrication of all major components has begun. Brassboard electronics cards have been fabricated, assembled and tested. The paper presents the essential scientific

  17. Airborne reconnaissance XV; Proceedings of the Meeting, San Diego, CA, July 23, 24, 1991

    SciTech Connect

    Augustyn, T.W.; Henkel, P.A.

    1991-01-01

    Recent advances in airborne reconnaissance are reported focusing on reconnaissance requiremnts; image processing and exploitation, image acquisition and recording; and advanced development. Particular attention is given to low-intensity conflict aircraft systems; low-cost, low-risk approach to tactical reconnaissance; mission verification systems for FMS applications; tactical reconnaissance mission survivability requirements; high-bandwidth recording in a hostile environment; direct-drive film magazines; a CCD performance model for airborne reconnaissance, and an Ericsson digital recce management system.

  18. The SAFARI imaging spectrometer for the SPICA space observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roelfsema, Peter; Giard, Martin; Najarro, Francisco; Wafelbakker, Kees; Jellema, Willem; Jackson, Brian; Swinyard, Bruce; Audard, Marc; Doi, Yasuo; Griffin, Matt; Helmich, Frank; Kerschbaum, Franz; Meyer, Michael; Naylor, David; Nielsen, Hans; Olofsson, Göran; Poglitsch, Albrecht; Spinoglio, Luigi; Vandenbussche, Bart; Isaak, Kate; Goicoechea, Javier R.

    2012-09-01

    The Japanese SPace Infrared telescope for Cosmology and Astrophysics, SPICA, will provide astronomers with a long awaited new window on the universe. Having a large cold telescope cooled to only 6K above absolute zero, SPICA will provide a unique environment where instruments are limited only by the cosmic background itself. A consortium of European and Canadian institutes has been established to design and implement the SpicA FAR infrared Instrument SAFARI, an imaging spectrometer designed to fully exploit this extremely low far infrared background environment provided by the SPICA observatory. SAFARI’s large instantaneous field of view combined with the extremely sensitive Transition Edge Sensing detectors will allow astronomers to very efficiently map large areas of the sky in the far infrared - in a square degree survey of a 1000 hours many thousands of faint sources will be detected, and a very large fraction of these sources will be fully spectroscopically characterised by the instrument. Efficiently obtaining such a large number of complete spectra is essential to address several fundamental questions in current astrophysics: how do galaxies form and evolve over cosmic time?, what is the true nature of our own Milky Way?, and why and where do planets like those in our own solar system come into being?

  19. SAFARI: A Far Infrared Imaging FTS-Spectrometer for SPICA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goicoechea, J. R.; Roelfsema, P. R.; Jellema, W.; Swinyard, B. M.

    2011-05-01

    The far-IR spectral window plays host to a critical range of both spectroscopic and photometric diagnostics with which to study our Galaxy and beyond, at wavelengths completely blocked by the Earth’s atmosphere. The proposed Japanese-led IR space telescope SPICA, with its cryogenically cooled ~3.2m telescope (<6 K) will be the next step in sensitivity after Herschel. SPICA is a "mission of opportunity" in ESA's Cosmic Vision 2015-2025 Program. SPICA will be the only space observatory of its era to bridge the far-IR wavelength gap between JWST and ALMA, and carry out unique science not achievable at visible or submm wavelengths. This contribution summarizes the design concept behind SAFARI: a far-IR imaging FTS-spectrometer covering the ~34-210 μm waveband that is one of a suite of instruments for SPICA. SAFARI is proposed by a consortium of European and Canadian institutions led by SRON. We also highlight some of the science questions that it will be possible to address in the field of Astrochemistry.

  20. Detecting methane plumes with the APEX imaging spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuhlmann, Gerrit; Hueni, Andreas; Brunner, Dominik

    2016-04-01

    The Airborne Prism EXperiment (APEX) is an imaging spectrometer primarily designed for environmental remote sensing of the land surface but also allows observing atmospheric trace gases. To test if APEX can be used to detect strong methane plumes, the instrument was flown over a coal mining area near Ibbenbürren (Germany). According to the European Point source emission inventory (E-PRTR), emissions from the ventilation shafts of these coal mines are the largest single source of methane in Germany. We present the first measurements of methane ever taken by APEX making use of the absorption features of methane in the short-wave infrared spectral range. Our detection algorithm uses a matched filter to identify the presence of methane. The filter is tested in two spectral windows (1600-1700 nm and 2100-2500 nm) and for different spatial binning of pixels to improve the signal-to-noise. Using this approach, we could clearly identify two meandering methane plumes originating from the ventilation shafts of two coal mines (Bockradener Schacht and Theodor Schacht). The filter performed best for the spectral window from 1600-1700 nm with a binning of 10×10 pixels corresponding to a spatial resolution of about 35×25 m2 In conclusions, we could demonstrate that APEX is able to detect strong methane plumes. The results provide a basis for developing more sophisticated and quantitative methane retrievals.

  1. Current instrument status of the Airborne Visible/Infrared Imaging Spectrometer (AVIRIS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eastwood, Michael L.; Sarture, Charles M.; Chrien, Thomas G.; Green, Robert O.; Porter, Wallace M.

    1991-01-01

    An upgraded version of AVIRIS, an airborne imaging spectrometer based on a whiskbroom-type scanner coupled via optical fibers to four dispersive spectrometers, that has been in operation since 1987 is described. Emphasis is placed on specific AVIRIS subsystems including foreoptics, fiber optics, and an in-flight reference source; spectrometers and detector dewars; a scan drive mechanism; a signal chain; digital electronics; a tape recorder; calibration systems; and ground support requirements.

  2. Computing Global Mosaics of Titan With the VIMS Imaging Spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Le Mouelic, S.; Cornet, T.; Rodriguez, S.; Sotin, C.; Barnes, J. W.; Brown, R. H.; Baines, K. H.; Buratti, B. J.; Clark, R. N.; Nicholson, P. D.

    2015-12-01

    The Visual and Infrared Mapping Spectrometer (VIMS) onboard Cassini observes the surface of Titan in seven narrow atmospheric windows in the infrared at 0.93, 1.08, 1.27, 1.59, 2.01, 2.68-2.78, and 4.9-5.1 microns. We have produced a global hyperspectral mosaic of the complete VIMS data set of Titan between T0 (July 2004) and T112 flyby (July 2015), by merging all the data cubes sorted by increasing spatial resolution, with the high resolution images on top of the mosaic and the low resolution images used as background. We filtered out the observing geometry in order to remove the pixels acquired in too extreme illuminating and viewing conditions, which systematically produce atmospheric artifacts. We used thresholds of 80° both on the incidence and emission angles, 100° on the phase angle, and 7 on the airmass. These thresholds corresponds to a trade-off between surface coverage and data quality. The viewing geometry is normalized at first order using a surface photometric function derived from the observation at 5 μm, where the atmospheric scattering is almost negligible. We also use the wings of the atmospheric windows as a proxy to correct for the amount of additive scattering present in the center of these windows, where the surface is seen by VIMS. Various color composites can then be produced using combinations of different wavelengths to emphasize surface heterogeneities. Among these, a RGB composite with red controlled by the 5 μm image, the green by the 2 μm image and the blue by the 1.27 μm, reveals the extent of equatorial dune fields appearing in brownish tones. Bluish areas corresponds to regions possibly enriched in water ice or other organic compounds. Composite of band ratios such as 1.59/1.27 μm, 2.03/1.27 μm and 1.27/1.08 also prove to be more useful to better emphasize surface variations, even if they are also more sensitive to residual artefacts due to atmospheric and geometric effects or calibration residuals.

  3. Passive Spectroscopy Bolometers, Grating- And X-Ray Imaging Crystal Spectrometers

    SciTech Connect

    Bitter, M; Hill, K W; Scott, S; Paul, S; Ince-Cushmann, A; Reinke, M; Rice, J; Beiersdorfer, P; Gu, M F; Lee, S G; Broennimann, C; Eikenberry, E F

    2007-11-07

    This tutorial gives a brief introduction into passive spectroscopy and describes the working principles of bolometers, a high-resolution grating spectrometer, and a novel X-ray imaging crystal spectrometer, which is of particular interest for profile measurements of the ion temperature and plasma rotation velocity on ITER and future burning plasma experiments.

  4. Passive Spectroscopy Bolometers, Grating- And X-ray Imaging Crystal Spectrometers

    SciTech Connect

    Bitter, M.; Hill, K. W.; Scott, S.; Paul, S.; Ince-Cushman, A.; Reinke, M.; Rice, J. E.; Beiersdorfer, P.; Gu, M. F.; Lee, S. G.; Broennimann, Ch.; Eikenberry, E. F.

    2008-03-12

    This tutorial gives a brief introduction into passive spectroscopy and describes the working principles of bolometers, a high-resolution grating spectrometer, and a novel X-ray imaging crystal spectrometer, which is also of particular interest for profile measurements of the ion temperature and plasma rotation velocity on ITER and future burning plasma experiments.

  5. Geostationary Imaging Fourier Transform Spectrometer (GIFTS): science applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, W. L.; Revercomb, H. E.; Zhou, D. K.; Bingham, G. E.; Feltz, W. F.; Huang, H. L.; Knuteson, R. O.; Larar, A. M.; Liu, X.; Reisse, R.; Tobin, D. C.

    2006-12-01

    A revolutionary satellite weather forecasting instrument, called the "GIFTS" which stands for the "Geostationary Imaging Fourier Transform Spectrometer", was recently completed and successfully tested in a space chamber at the Utah State University's Space Dynamics Laboratory. The GIFTS was originally proposed by the NASA Langley Research Center, the University of Wisconsin, and the Utah State University and selected for flight demonstration as NASA's New Millennium Program (NMP) Earth Observing-3 (EO-3) mission, which was unfortunately cancelled in 2004. GIFTS is like a digital 3-d movie camera that, when mounted on a geostationary satellite, would provide from space a revolutionary four-dimensional view of the Earth's atmosphere. GIFTS will measure the distribution, change, and movement of atmospheric moisture, temperature, and certain pollutant gases, such as carbon monoxide and ozone. The observation of the convergence of invisible water vapor, and the change of atmospheric temperature, provides meteorologists with the observations needed to predict where, and when, severe thunderstorms, and possibly tornados, would occur, before they are visible on radar or in satellite cloud imagery. The ability of GIFTS to observe the motion of moisture and clouds at different altitudes enables atmospheric winds to be observed over vast, and otherwise data sparse, oceanic regions of the globe. These wind observations would provide the means to greatly improve the forecast of where tropical storms and hurricanes will move and where and when they will come ashore (i.e., their landfall position and time). GIFTS, if flown into geostationary orbit, would provide about 80,000 vertical profiles per minute, each one like a low vertical resolution (1-2km) weather balloon sounding, but with a spacing of 4 km. GIFTS is a revolutionary atmospheric sensing tool. A glimpse of the science measurement capabilities of GIFTS is provided through airborne measurements with the NPOESS Airborne

  6. Optical system design of the Dyson imaging spectrometer based on the Fery prism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pei, Linlin; Xiangli, Bin; Lv, Qunbo; Shao, Xiaopeng

    2016-08-01

    Imaging spectrometer has obtained wide development since rich feature information can be obtained by it; now, we focus on its high spectral resolution and miniaturization. In this paper, we design the Dyson imaging spectrometer system based on Fery prism. The average spectral resolution is 4.3 nm and the structure of the total length is 229 mm. It is a small, high-spectrometer imaging system. The front and rear surface of the traditional prism are plane, but the surfaces of the Fery prism are spherical, which can provide some optical power to realize imaging function and produce the dispersion effect. The Fery prism does not need to be placed in the parallel optical path, which simplifies the collimator lens and the imaging lens and are necessary in the prism spectrometer, making it possible to obtain a compact spectrometer. Full-spectrum transmittance of the prism is up to 94 %. Compared to the convex grating, the energy efficiency is greatly improved, and the free spectral range is wider, and its dispersion will not bring higher-order spectral aliasing problem. The small high spectrometer only includes two components. Its spectral range is from 400 to 1000 nm, covering the near-ultraviolet to near-infrared. The various aberrations of the typical spectrum are corrected. The spectrometer is excellent in performance.

  7. Optical system design of the Dyson imaging spectrometer based on the Fery prism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pei, Linlin; Xiangli, Bin; Lv, Qunbo; Shao, Xiaopeng

    2016-07-01

    Imaging spectrometer has obtained wide development since rich feature information can be obtained by it; now, we focus on its high spectral resolution and miniaturization. In this paper, we design the Dyson imaging spectrometer system based on Fery prism. The average spectral resolution is 4.3 nm and the structure of the total length is 229 mm. It is a small, high-spectrometer imaging system. The front and rear surface of the traditional prism are plane, but the surfaces of the Fery prism are spherical, which can provide some optical power to realize imaging function and produce the dispersion effect. The Fery prism does not need to be placed in the parallel optical path, which simplifies the collimator lens and the imaging lens and are necessary in the prism spectrometer, making it possible to obtain a compact spectrometer. Full-spectrum transmittance of the prism is up to 94 %. Compared to the convex grating, the energy efficiency is greatly improved, and the free spectral range is wider, and its dispersion will not bring higher-order spectral aliasing problem. The small high spectrometer only includes two components. Its spectral range is from 400 to 1000 nm, covering the near-ultraviolet to near-infrared. The various aberrations of the typical spectrum are corrected. The spectrometer is excellent in performance.

  8. An image recorded by the Airborne Visible/Infrared Imaging Spectrometer (AVIRIS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Curran, Paul J.; Dungan, Jennifer L.

    1990-01-01

    The airborne visible/infrared imaging spectrometer (AVIRIS) is described, and an example of a false-color image recorded by this device is provided. The AVIRIS is capable of sensing in 209 visible and near-infrared wavebands with an 11km swath and a 20m spatial resolution. Evaluation flights for AVIRIS were made at an altitude of approximately 20km x 10.2km of low-lying and relatively flat irrigated land near Yuba City and Sacramento, California. Raw data were converted from digital numbers to radiance and radiometrically corrected at the NASA Jet Propulsion Laboratory. Notch filtering in the frequency domain of the image was used to remove periodic noise. The illustration of both spatial and spectral properties on the false-color image are explained. AVIRIS is designed to be flown in an ER-2 aircraft and will serve as a test-bed sensor for the High-Resolution Imaging Spectrometer (HIRIS) planned for the Earth Observing System.

  9. [Study on far ultraviolet imaging spectrometer with grating dispersion for atmosphere remote sensing].

    PubMed

    Yu, Lei; Wang, Shu-rong; Lin, Guan-yu; Qu, Yi; Wang, Long-qi

    2012-03-01

    The far ultraviolet imaging spectrometer with grating dispersion is mainly used in the detection of the ionosphere, thermosphere, auroral zone and glow zone. It is important for the study and application of the remote sensing of atmosphere in China. We designed two optical systems for the far ultraviolet imaging spectrometer, and obtained the plane grating structure prototype based on the principles of nadir and limb atmospheric sounding. The prototype working at the waveband of 120-180 nm consists of an off-axis parabolic mirror and an advanced Czerny-Turner spectral imaging system. The far ultraviolet response back-illuminating CCD is adopted as the detector. The corresponding experiment system was built to calibrate the basic performances of the spectrometer prototype. The spectral and spatial resolutions are 2 nm and 0.5 mrad respectively. The far ultraviolet imaging spectrometer prototype plays an important role in the study and application of atmospheric remote sensing. PMID:22582666

  10. The ITER core imaging x-ray spectrometer: x-ray calorimeter performance.

    PubMed

    Beiersdorfer, P; Brown, G V; Clementson, J; Dunn, J; Morris, K; Wang, E; Kelley, R L; Kilbourne, C A; Porter, F S; Bitter, M; Feder, R; Hill, K W; Johnson, D; Barnsley, R

    2010-10-01

    We describe the anticipated performance of an x-ray microcalorimeter instrument on ITER. As part of the core imaging x-ray spectrometer, the instrument will augment the imaging crystal spectrometers by providing a survey of the concentration of heavy ion plasma impurities in the core and possibly ion temperature values from the emission lines of different elemental ions located at various radial positions. PMID:21034021

  11. Field-of-view analysis of a polarization interference Fourier transform imaging spectrometer.

    PubMed

    DeHoog, Edward; Xia, Xiaowei; Parfenov, Alexander; Shih, Min-Yi

    2011-09-20

    The Fourier transform imaging spectrometer (FTIS) is an important tool for the measurement of spectral information in a scene. Advances in electro-optic crystal systems have led to the advent of the FTIS based on polarization interference filters. The operation of these devices as spectrometers has been well characterized, but the imaging capabilities have yet to be thoroughly explored. We explore the field-of-view limitations that occur when using this particular type of FTIS. PMID:21947057

  12. Compact imaging spectrometer combining Fourier transform spectroscopy with a Fabry-Perot interferometer.

    PubMed

    Pisani, Marco; Zucco, Massimo

    2009-05-11

    An imaging spectrometer based on a Fabry-Perot interferometer is presented. The Fabry-Perot interferometer scans the mirror distance up to contact and the intensity modulated light signal is transformed using a Fourier Transform based algorithm, as the Michelson based Fourier Transform Spectrometers does. The resulting instrument has the advantage of a compact, high numerical aperture, high luminosity hyperspectral imaging device. Theory of operation is described along with one experimental realization and preliminary results. PMID:19434165

  13. Precise spectrum reconstruction of the Fourier transforms imaging spectrometer based on polarization beam splitters.

    PubMed

    Ren, Wenyi; Zhang, Chunmin; Jia, Chenling; Mu, Tingkui; Li, Qiwei; Zhang, Lin

    2013-04-15

    A method was proposed to precisely reconstruct the spectrum from the interferogram taken by the Fourier transform imaging spectrometer (FTIS) based on the polarization beam splitters. Taken the FTISs based on the Savart polariscope and Wollaston prism as examples, the distorted spectrums were corrected via the proposed method effectively. The feasibility of the method was verified via simulation. The distorted spectrum, recovered from the interferogram taken by the polarization imaging spectrometer developed by us, was corrected. PMID:23595463

  14. Research on algorithm for infrared hyperspectral imaging Fourier transform spectrometer technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wan, Lifang; Chen, Yan; Liao, Ningfang; Lv, Hang; He, Shufang; Li, Yasheng

    2015-08-01

    This paper reported the algorithm for Infrared Hyperspectral Imaging Radiometric Spectrometer Technology. Six different apodization functions are been used and compared, and the phase corrected technologies of Forman is researched and improved, fast fourier transform(FFT)is been used in this paper instead of the linear convolution to reduce the quantity of computation.The interferograms is achieved by the Infrared Hyperspectral Imaging Radiometric Spectrometer which are corrected and rebuilded by the improved algorithm, this algorithm reduce the noise and accelerate the computing speed with the higher accuracy of spectrometers.

  15. A high-resolution imaging x-ray crystal spectrometer for high energy density plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Hui E-mail: bitter@pppl.gov; Magee, E.; Nagel, S. R.; Park, J.; Schneider, M. B.; Stone, G.; Williams, G. J.; Beiersdorfer, P.; Bitter, M. E-mail: bitter@pppl.gov; Hill, K. W.; Kerr, S.

    2014-11-15

    Adapting a concept developed for magnetic confinement fusion experiments, an imaging crystal spectrometer has been designed and tested for HED plasmas. The instrument uses a spherically bent quartz [211] crystal with radius of curvature of 490.8 mm. The instrument was tested at the Titan laser at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory by irradiating titanium slabs with laser intensities of 10{sup 19}–10{sup 20} W/cm{sup 2}. He-like and Li-like Ti lines were recorded, from which the spectrometer performance was evaluated. This spectrometer provides very high spectral resolving power (E/dE > 7000) while acquiring a one-dimensional image of the source.

  16. Determination of combined measurement uncertainty via Monte Carlo analysis for the imaging spectrometer ROSIS.

    PubMed

    Lenhard, Karim

    2012-06-20

    To enable traceability of imaging spectrometer data, the associated measurement uncertainties have to be provided reliably. Here a new tool for a Monte-Carlo-type measurement uncertainty propagation for the uncertainties that originate from the spectrometer itself is described. For this, an instrument model of the imaging spectrometer ROSIS is used. Combined uncertainties are then derived for radiometrically and spectrally calibrated data using a synthetic at-sensor radiance spectrum as input. By coupling this new software tool with an inverse modeling program, the measurement uncertainties are propagated for an exemplary water data product. PMID:22722281

  17. Modified tandem gratings anastigmatic imaging spectrometer with oblique incidence for spectral broadband

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cui, Chengguang; Wang, Shurong; Huang, Yu; Xue, Qingsheng; Li, Bo; Yu, Lei

    2015-09-01

    A modified spectrometer with tandem gratings that exhibits high spectral resolution and imaging quality for solar observation, monitoring, and understanding of coastal ocean processes is presented in this study. Spectral broadband anastigmatic imaging condition, spectral resolution, and initial optical structure are obtained based on geometric aberration theory. Compared with conventional tandem gratings spectrometers, this modified design permits flexibility in selecting gratings. A detailed discussion of the optical design and optical performance of an ultraviolet spectrometer with tandem gratings is also included to explain the advantage of oblique incidence for spectral broadband.

  18. Calibration and Validation of Images from the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter Mars Color Imager (MARCI) and Context Camera (CTX) Instruments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schaeffer, Derek; Bell, J. F., III; Malin, M.; Caplinger, M.; Calvin, W. M.; Cantor, B.; Clancy, R. T.; Haberle, R. M.; James, P. B.; Lee, S.; Thomas, P.; Wolff, M. J.

    2006-09-01

    The MRO CTX instrument is a monochrome (611±189; nm), linear array CCD pushbroom camera with a nominal surface resolution of 6 m/pixel. The MARCI instrument is a 2-D CCD framing camera with 5 visible (420, 550, 600, 650, and 720 nm) and 2 UV (260 and 320 nm) filters, a 180° field of view, and a nominal resolution of about 1 km/pixel at nadir. Following Mars Orbital Insertion (MOI) in March 2006, CTX and MARCI images were acquired for initial instrument checkouts and validation of the pre-flight and in-flight calibration pipeline. CTX in-flight bias and dark current levels are derived from masked pixels at the edges of the array. A dark current model derived during pre-flight calibration is applied if the masked pixels exhibit a gradient across the field or noise above an acceptable threshold. The CTX flatfield removes residual pixel non-uniformities and a subtle ''jail bar'' effect caused by the CCD's alternating register readout. Radiances are derived from bias, dark, and flat-corrected images using pre-flight scaling factors. Dividing the average radiances by the solar spectral radiance convolved over the CTX filter transmission and applying a Minnaert phase angle correction yields an average I/F level in the CTX post-MOI Mars images near an expected value of 0.2. Bias and dark current subtraction of the MARCI images uses either a pre-flight model or dark sky data from the far left or far right parts of the field (nominally off the Mars limb). The preflight flatfield data were modified based on in-flight performance to remove residual non-pixel uniformities. Some residual pixel-dependent bias nonuniformities were also corrected using in-flight data. Bias, dark, and flat-corrected images were converted to radiance using pre-flight scaling factors. Phase-corrected 7-filter I/F values for the region of Mars imaged during the post-MOI campaign are consistent with previous data.

  19. Virtis: An Imaging Spectrometer for the Rosetta Mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coradini, A.; Capaccioni, F.; Drossart, P.; Arnold, G.; Ammannito, E.; Angrilli, F.; Barucci, A.; Bellucci, G.; Benkhoff, J.; Bianchini, G.; Bibring, J. P.; Blecka, M.; Bockelee-Morvan, D.; Capria, M. T.; Carlson, R.; Carsenty, U.; Cerroni, P.; Colangeli, L.; Combes, M.; Combi, M.; Crovisier, J.; De Sanctis, M. C.; Encrenaz, E. T.; Erard, S.; Federico, C.; Filacchione, G.; Fink, U.; Fonti, S.; Formisano, V.; Ip, W. H.; Jaumann, R.; Kuehrt, E.; Langevin, Y.; Magni, G.; McCord, T.; Mennella, V.; Mottola, S.; Neukum, G.; Palumbo, P.; Piccioni, G.; Rauer, H.; Saggin, B.; Schmitt, B.; Tiphene, D.; Tozzi, G.

    2007-02-01

    The VIRTIS (Visual IR Thermal Imaging Spectrometer) experiment has been one of the most successful experiments built in Europe for Planetary Exploration. VIRTIS, developed in cooperation among Italy, France and Germany, has been already selected as a key experiment for 3 planetary missions: the ESA-Rosetta and Venus Express and NASA-Dawn. VIRTIS on board Rosetta and Venus Express are already producing high quality data: as far as Rosetta is concerned, the Earth-Moon system has been successfully observed during the Earth Swing-By manouver (March 2005) and furthermore, VIRTIS will collect data when Rosetta flies by Mars in February 2007 at a distance of about 200 kilometres from the planet. Data from the Rosetta mission will result in a comparison using the same combination of sophisticated experiments of targets that are poorly differentiated and are representative of the composition of different environment of the primordial solar system. Comets and asteroids, in fact, are in close relationship with the planetesimals, which formed from the solar nebula 4.6 billion years ago. The Rosetta mission payload is designed to obtain this information combining in situ analysis of comet material, obtained by the small lander Philae, and by a long lasting and detailed remote sensing of the comet, obtained by instrument on board the orbiting Spacecraft. The combination of remote sensing and in situ measurements will increase the scientific return of the mission. In fact, the “ in situ” measurements will provide “ground-truth” for the remote sensing information, and, in turn, the locally collected data will be interpreted in the appropriate context provided by the remote sensing investigation. VIRTIS is part of the scientific payload of the Rosetta Orbiter and will detect and characterise the evolution of specific signatures such as the typical spectral bands of minerals and molecules arising from surface components and from materials dispersed in the coma. The

  20. Recovery of Atmospheric Water Vapor Total Column Abundance from Imaging Spectrometer Data Around 940 nm - Sensitivity Analysis and Application to Airborne Visible/Infrared Imaging Spectrometer (AVIRI

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carrere, V.; Conel, J. E.

    1993-01-01

    Twosimple techniques to retrieve path precipitable water fromthe Airborne Visible/Infrared Imaging Spectrometer (AVIRIS) high spectral resolution radiance data (Continuum Interpolated Band Ratio, CIBR, and Narrow/Wide Ratio, N/W), using the 940 nm water absorption band, are compared.

  1. Data correction techniques for the airborne large-aperture static image spectrometer based on image registration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Geng; Shi, Dalian; Wang, Shuang; Yu, Tao; Hu, Bingliang

    2015-01-01

    We propose an approach to correct the data of the airborne large-aperture static image spectrometer (LASIS). LASIS is a kind of stationary interferometer which compromises flux output and device stability. It acquires a series of interferograms to reconstruct the hyperspectral image cube. Reconstruction precision of the airborne LASIS data suffers from the instability of the plane platform. Usually, changes of plane attitudes, such as yaws, pitches, and rolls, can be precisely measured by the inertial measurement unit. However, the along-track and across-track translation errors are difficult to measure precisely. To solve this problem, we propose a co-optimization approach to compute the translation errors between the interferograms using an image registration technique which helps to correct the interferograms with subpixel precision. To demonstrate the effectiveness of our approach, experiments are run on real airborne LASIS data and our results are compared with those of the state-of-the-art approaches.

  2. Theoretical description and numerical simulations of a simplified Hadamard transform imaging spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Mark W.; Smith, Jody L.; Torrington, Geoffrey K.; Wehlburg, Christine M.; Wehlburg, Joseph C.

    2002-11-01

    A familiar concept in imaging spectrometry is that of the three dimensional data cube, with one spectral and two spatial dimensions. However, available detectors have at most two dimensions, which generally leads to the introduction of either scanning or multiplexing techniques for imaging spectrometers. For situations in which noise increases less rapidly than as the square root of the signal, multiplexing techniques have the potential to provide superior signal-to-noise ratios. This paper presents a theoretical description and numerical simulations for a new and simple type of Hadamard transform multiplexed imaging spectrometer. Compared to previous types of spatially encoded imaging spectrometers, it increases etendue by eliminating the need for anamorphically compressed re-imaging onto the entrance aperture of a monochromator or spectrophotometer. Compared to previous types of spectrally encoded imaging spectrometers, it increases end-to-end transmittance by eliminating the need for spectral re-combining optics. These simplifications are attained by treating the pixels of a digital mirror array as virtual entrance slits and the pixels of a 2-D array detector as virtual exit slits of an imaging spectrometer, and by applying a novel signal processing technique.

  3. RecceMan: an interactive recognition assistance for image-based reconnaissance: synergistic effects of human perception and computational methods for object recognition, identification, and infrastructure analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El Bekri, Nadia; Angele, Susanne; Ruckhäberle, Martin; Peinsipp-Byma, Elisabeth; Haelke, Bruno

    2015-10-01

    This paper introduces an interactive recognition assistance system for imaging reconnaissance. This system supports aerial image analysts on missions during two main tasks: Object recognition and infrastructure analysis. Object recognition concentrates on the classification of one single object. Infrastructure analysis deals with the description of the components of an infrastructure and the recognition of the infrastructure type (e.g. military airfield). Based on satellite or aerial images, aerial image analysts are able to extract single object features and thereby recognize different object types. It is one of the most challenging tasks in the imaging reconnaissance. Currently, there are no high potential ATR (automatic target recognition) applications available, as consequence the human observer cannot be replaced entirely. State-of-the-art ATR applications cannot assume in equal measure human perception and interpretation. Why is this still such a critical issue? First, cluttered and noisy images make it difficult to automatically extract, classify and identify object types. Second, due to the changed warfare and the rise of asymmetric threats it is nearly impossible to create an underlying data set containing all features, objects or infrastructure types. Many other reasons like environmental parameters or aspect angles compound the application of ATR supplementary. Due to the lack of suitable ATR procedures, the human factor is still important and so far irreplaceable. In order to use the potential benefits of the human perception and computational methods in a synergistic way, both are unified in an interactive assistance system. RecceMan® (Reconnaissance Manual) offers two different modes for aerial image analysts on missions: the object recognition mode and the infrastructure analysis mode. The aim of the object recognition mode is to recognize a certain object type based on the object features that originated from the image signatures. The

  4. Echelle grating multi-order imaging spectrometer utilizing a catadioptric lens

    DOEpatents

    Chrisp, Michael P; Bowers, Joel M

    2014-05-27

    A cryogenically cooled imaging spectrometer that includes a spectrometer housing having a first side and a second side opposite the first side. An entrance slit is on the first side of the spectrometer housing and directs light to a cross-disperser grating. An echelle immersions grating and a catadioptric lens are positioned in the housing to receive the light. A cryogenically cooled detector is located in the housing on the second side of the spectrometer housing. Light from the entrance slit is directed to the cross-disperser grating. The light is directed from the cross-disperser grating to the echelle immersions grating. The light is directed from the echelle immersions grating to the cryogenically cooled detector on the second side of the spectrometer housing.

  5. High-performance image deinterlacing using optical flow and artifact post-processing on GPU/CPU for surveillance and reconnaissance tasks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Müller, Thomas

    2016-05-01

    The necessity to process interlaced images in surveillance, reconnaissance, or further computer vision areas should be a topic of the past. But, for different reasons, it is not. So, there are situations in practice, in which interlaced images have to be processed. Since a lot of algorithms strongly degrade when working with such images directly, a usual method is to double or interpolate image lines in order to discard one of the two enclosed image frames. This is efficient but leads to weak results, in which half of the original information is lost. Alternatively, a lot of valuable computation time has to be spent to solve the highly complex motion compensation task in order to improve the results significantly. In this paper, an efficient algorithm is presented to solve this dilemma. First, the algorithm solves the complex 2-D mapping problem using the best state-of-theart optical flow method that could be found for this purpose. But, of course, for different physical reasons there are regions which cannot properly be handled by optical flow by itself. Therefore, an efficient post-processing method detects and removes remaining artifacts afterwards, which is the main contribution of this paper. This method is based on color interpolation incorporating local image structure. The presented results document the overall performance of the approach with respect to obtained image quality and calculation time. The method is easy to implement and offers a valuable pre-processing for a lot of computer vision tasks.

  6. Optical Design and Performance of the Ultra-Compact Imaging Spectrometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Van Gorp, B.; Mouroulis, P.; Wilson, D. W.; Rodriguez, J.; Sobel, H.; Sellar, R. G.; Blaney, D.; Green, R. O.

    2011-01-01

    We present the optical design and performance of the Ultra-Compact Imaging Spectrometer (UCIS) currently under development at Caltech's Jet Propulsion Laboratory. The new instrument demonstrates a low optical bench mass of less than 0.5 kg and compact size that enables Mars Rover or other in situ planetary applications. UCIS is a F/4, wide field (30deg) design, covering the spectral range 500-2600 nm and is enabled by a simple all aluminum two-mirror telescope and Offner spectrometer. We discuss here the optical design and alignment method that enables this compact and low mass imaging spectrometer and demonstrate successful spectrometer alignment with smile and keystone levels at 2-3% of a pixel width.

  7. Design of onboard calibration unit of space-borne imaging spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Ming; Ding, Shitao; Xiao, Dazhou

    2014-11-01

    The onboard calibration unit is an important part of the space-borne imaging spectrometer and used for the onboard radiometric calibration and spectral calibration of the spectrometer. An imaging spectrometer used in marine satellite is given as an example and its onboard calibration unit is introduced. The onboard calibration unit is in the front of the optical path of the spectrometer, with the sun as the light source, the space qualified PTFE diffusers are used for the onboard radiometric calibration, and the space qualified PTFE diffuser doped with rare earth elements is used for the onboard spectral calibration. The components of the calibration unit are introduced. For the main radiometric calibration diffuser and the redundant radiometric calibration diffuser, the BDRF test results in component level are introduced. Considering the effects of the assembly error and the stray light after the assembly of the spectrometer, the BDRF test method of the radiometric calibration diffuser in system level is introduced. The test results of the directional hemispherical reflectance of the radiometric calibration diffusers and the spectral calibration diffuser are given and the wavelengths of the absorption peaks of the spectral calibration diffuser are obtained. According to the measurement signal of the spectrometer while the onboard spectral calibration, the wavelengths of the absorption peaks of the spectral calibration diffuser which can be used for the onboard spectral calibration are determined. The onboard calibration unit can satisfy the onboard calibration requirements of the spectrometer.

  8. Standing wave integrated Fourier transform spectrometer for imaging spectrometry in the near infrared

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Osowiecki, Gaël. D.; Madi, Mohammad; Shorubalko, Ivan; Philipoussis, Irène; Alberti, Edoardo; Scharf, Toralf; Herzig, Hans P.

    2015-09-01

    We show the miniaturization and parallelization of a scanning standing wave spectrometer with a long term goal of creating a compact imaging spectrometer. In our standing wave integrated Fourier transform spectrometer, light is injected with micro-lenses into several optical polymer waveguides. A piezo actuated mirror located at the waveguide end-facet can shift the interferogram to increase its sampling frequency. The spatial distribution of the standing wave intensity inside the waveguide is partially scattered out of the plane by a periodic metallic grating and recorded by a CCD camera. We present spectra acquisition for six adjacent waveguides simultaneously at a wavelength of 632.8 nm.

  9. Calibration of an imaging crystal spectrometer for low x-ray energies

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, S. G.; Bak, J. G.; Bitter, M.

    2008-01-15

    An x-ray imaging crystal spectrometer was designed for the Hanbit magnetic mirror device to observe spectra of heliumlike neon at 13.4474 A. The spectrometer consists of a spherically bent mica crystal and an x-ray sensitive vacuum charge coupled device camera. This spectrometer can provide spatially resolved spectra, making it possible to obtain profiles of the ion charge state distribution from line ratios and profiles of the plasma rotation velocity from Doppler shift measurements. The paper describes measurements of spectral resolution of this instrument for low x-ray energies.

  10. A Bremsstrahlung Spectrometer using k-edge and Differential Filters with Image plate dosimeters

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, C; Mackinnon, A; Beg, F; Chen, H; Key, M; King, J A; Link, A; MacPhee, A; Patel, P; Porkolab, M; Stephens, R; VanWoerkom, L; Akli, K; Freeman, R

    2008-05-02

    A Bremsstrahlung spectrometer using k-edge and differential filtering has been used with Image Plate dosimeters to measure the x-ray fluence from short-pulse laser/target interactions. An electron spectrometer in front of the Bremsstrahlung spectrometer deflects electrons from the x-ray line of sight and simultaneously measures the electron spectrum. The response functions were modeled with the Monte Carlo code Integrated Tiger Series 3.0 and the dosimeters calibrated with radioactive sources. Electron distributions with slope temperatures in the MeV range are inferred from the Bremsstrahlung spectra.

  11. A Bremsstrahlung spectrometer using k-edge and differential filters with image plate dosimeters

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, C. D.; Porkolab, M.; King, J. A.; Beg, F. N.; Key, M. H.; Chen, H.; Mackinnon, A. J.; MacPhee, A. G.; Patel, P. K.; Akli, K. U.; Stephens, R. B.; Freeman, R. R.; Link, A.; Van Woerkom, L. D.

    2008-10-15

    A Bremsstrahlung spectrometer using k-edge and differential filtering has been used with image plate dosimeters to measure the x-ray fluence from short-pulse laser/target interactions. An electron spectrometer in front of the Bremsstrahlung spectrometer deflects electrons from the x-ray line of sight and simultaneously measures the electron spectrum. The response functions were modeled with the Monte Carlo code INTEGRATED TIGER SERIES 3.0 and the dosimeters calibrated with radioactive sources. An electron distribution with a slope temperature of 1.3 MeV is inferred from the Bremsstrahlung spectra.

  12. Atomic data for the ITER Core Imaging X-ray Spectrometer

    SciTech Connect

    Clementson, J; Beiersdorfer, P; Biedermann, C; Bitter, M; Delgado-Aparicio, L F; Graf, A; Gu, M F; Hill, K W; Barnsley, R

    2012-06-15

    The parameters of the ITER core plasmas will be measured using the Core Imaging X-ray Spectrometer (CIXS), a high-resolution crystal spectrometer focusing on the L-shell spectra of highly ionized tungsten atoms. In order to correctly infer the plasma properties accurate atomic data are required. Here, some aspects of the underlying physics are discussed using experimental data and theoretical predictions from modeling.

  13. Using an NMR Spectrometer to Do Magnetic Resonance Imaging: An Undergraduate Physical Chemistry Laboratory Experiment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steinmetz, Wayne E.; Maher, M. Cyrus

    2007-01-01

    A conventional Fourier-transform NMR spectrometer with a triple-axis gradient probe can function as a MRI imager. In this experiment students gain hands-on experience with MRI while they learn about important principles underlying the practice of NMR, such as gradients, multi-dimensional spectroscopy, and relaxation. Students image a biological…

  14. Data processing assessment for the Lunar Geoscience Observer imaging spectrometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Irigoyen, R. E.; Liaw, H. M.

    1988-01-01

    On the Lunar Geoscience Observer project, a Visible and Infrared Mapping Spectrometer instrument has been proposed. This instrument will have science data input rates in the hundreds of kilobits per second (kbps) and an average telemetry output data rate of 4 kbps. Techniques that can be used to reduce the throughput of the instrument are editing, summing and averaging, data compression, data preprocessing, pattern recognition and snapshot data taking. Due to instrument limitations in the buffer memory size and processing speeds, a careful selection of the available techniques must be made.

  15. Mars-Moons Exploration, Reconnaissance and Landed Investigation (MERLIN)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murchie, S. L.; Chabot, N. L.; Buczkowski, D.; Arvidson, R. E.; Castillo, J. C.; Peplowski, P. N.; Ernst, C. M.; Rivkin, A.; Eng, D.; Chmielewski, A. B.; Maki, J.; trebi-Ollenu, A.; Ehlmann, B. L.; Spence, H. E.; Horanyi, M.; Klingelhoefer, G.; Christian, J. A.

    2015-12-01

    The Mars-Moons Exploration, Reconnaissance and Landed Investigation (MERLIN) is a NASA Discovery mission proposal to explore the moons of Mars. Previous Mars-focused spacecraft have raised fundamental questions about Mars' moons: What are their origins and compositions? Why do the moons resemble primitive outer solar system D-type objects? How do geologic processes modify their surfaces? MERLIN answers these questions through a combination of orbital and landed measurements, beginning with reconnaissance of Deimos and investigation of the hypothesized Martian dust belts. Orbital reconnaissance of Phobos occurs, followed by low flyovers to characterize a landing site. MERLIN lands on Phobos, conducting a 90-day investigation. Radiation measurements are acquired throughout all mission phases. Phobos' size and mass provide a low-risk landing environment: controlled descent is so slow that the landing is rehearsed, but gravity is high enough that surface operations do not require anchoring. Existing imaging of Phobos reveals low regional slope regions suitable for landing, and provides knowledge for planning orbital and landed investigations. The payload leverages past NASA investments. Orbital imaging is accomplished by a dual multispectral/high-resolution imager rebuilt from MESSENGER/MDIS. Mars' dust environment is measured by the refurbished engineering model of LADEE/LDEX, and the radiation environment by the flight spare of LRO/CRaTER. The landed workspace is characterized by a color stereo imager updated from MER/HazCam. MERLIN's arm deploys landed instrumentation using proven designs from MER, Phoenix, and MSL. Elemental measurements are acquired by a modified version of Rosetta/APXS, and an uncooled gamma-ray spectrometer. Mineralogical measurements are acquired by a microscopic imaging spectrometer developed under MatISSE. MERLIN delivers seminal science traceable to NASA's Strategic Goals and Objectives, Science Plan, and the Decadal Survey. MERLIN's science

  16. Automated extraction of absorption features from Airborne Visible/Infrared Imaging Spectrometer (AVIRIS) and Geophysical and Environmental Research Imaging Spectrometer (GERIS) data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kruse, Fred A.; Calvin, Wendy M.; Seznec, Olivier

    1988-01-01

    Automated techniques were developed for the extraction and characterization of absorption features from reflectance spectra. The absorption feature extraction algorithms were successfully tested on laboratory, field, and aircraft imaging spectrometer data. A suite of laboratory spectra of the most common minerals was analyzed and absorption band characteristics tabulated. A prototype expert system was designed, implemented, and successfully tested to allow identification of minerals based on the extracted absorption band characteristics. AVIRIS spectra for a site in the northern Grapevine Mountains, Nevada, have been characterized and the minerals sericite (fine grained muscovite) and dolomite were identified. The minerals kaolinite, alunite, and buddingtonite were identified and mapped for a site at Cuprite, Nevada, using the feature extraction algorithms on the new Geophysical and Environmental Research 64 channel imaging spectrometer (GERIS) data. The feature extraction routines (written in FORTRAN and C) were interfaced to the expert system (written in PROLOG) to allow both efficient processing of numerical data and logical spectrum analysis.

  17. An EUV Wide-Field Imager and Spectrometer for the ISS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Golub, Leon; Savage, Sabrina

    2016-01-01

    The Coronal Spectrographic Imager in the EUV, COSIE, combines a wide-field solar coronal EUV imager (EUVC) and an on-disk EUV imaging spectrometer (EUVS). Located on the International Space Station (ISS), the goal of the mission is to enhance our understanding of the dynamics of the Transition Corona (the region in which the coronal magnetic field transitions from closed to open), and to provide improved detection and tracking of solar eruptive events for space weather research.

  18. Compact static imaging spectrometer combining spectral zooming capability with a birefringent interferometer.

    PubMed

    Li, Jie; Zhu, Jingping; Qi, Chun; Zheng, Chuanlin; Gao, Bo; Zhang, Yunyao; Hou, Xun

    2013-04-22

    A compact static birefringent imaging spectrometer (BIS) with spectral zooming capability is presented. It based on two identical Wollaston prisms and has no slit. The most significant advantage of the BIS is that we can conveniently select spectral resolution to adapt to different application requirements and greatly reduce the size of the spectral image data for capturing, saving, transferring, and processing. Also, we show this configuration blend the advantage of a grating spectrometer and a Michelson interferometer: extremely compact, robust, wide free spectral range and very high throughput. PMID:23609723

  19. [Research on spatially modulated Fourier transform imaging spectrometer data processing method].

    PubMed

    Huang, Min; Xiangli, Bin; Lü, Qun-Bo; Zhou, Jin-Song; Jing, Juan-Juan; Cui, Yan

    2010-03-01

    Fourier transform imaging spectrometer is a new technic, and has been developed very rapidly in nearly ten years. The data catched by Fourier transform imaging spectrometer is indirect data, can not be used by user, and need to be processed by various approaches, including data pretreatment, apodization, phase correction, FFT, and spectral radicalization calibration. No paper so far has been found roundly to introduce this method. In the present paper, the author will give an effective method to process the interfering data to spectral data, and with this method we can obtain good result. PMID:20496726

  20. Spectral calibration for infrared hyperspectral imaging Fourier transform spectrometer based on absorption peaks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, YaSheng; Chen, Yan; Liao, Ningfang; Lyu, Hang; He, Shufang; Wan, Lifang

    2015-08-01

    A new calibration method for infrared hyperspectral imaging Fourier transform spectrometer is presented. Two kinds of common materials as Polypropylene (PP) and Polyethylene Terephthalate (PET) films which have special absorption peaks in the infrared band were used in the calibration experiment. As the wavelengths at the sharp absorption peaks of the films are known, an infrared imaging spectrometer can be calibrated on spectra with two or three peaks. With high precision and stability, this method simplifies the calibration work. It is especially appropriate for the measuring condition with a lack of calibration equipment or with inconvenience to calibrate the multiple light sources outdoors.

  1. An imaging spectrometer with a convex crystal for pulsed x rays in plasma experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yanagidaira, Takeshi; Shimoda, Katsuji; Ono, Yasushi; Hirano, Katsumi

    2000-01-01

    An imaging spectrometer with a convex rubidium acid phthalate (RbAP) crystal is designed and examined. Using the ray tracing technique based on the kinematical theory of diffraction, resolution power, dispersion, linearity, spatial resolution and dynamic range of the monochromatic image are discussed. Broadening by a rocking curve is also taken into account. Performance of the spectrometer is successfully examined using the so-called hot spots as the soft x-ray source which are generated in the pinched plasma by the plasma focus facility with an additional gas puff.

  2. Airborne Visible/Infrared Imaging Spectrometer (AVIRIS): Sensor improvements for 1994 and 1995

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sarture, C. M.; Chrien, T. G.; Green, R. O.; Eastwood, M. L.; Raney, J. J.; Hernandez, M. A.

    1995-01-01

    AVIRIS is a NASA-sponsored Earth-remote-sensing imaging spectrometer designed, built and operated by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL). While AVIRIS has been operational since 1989, major improvements have been completed in most of the sensor subsystems during the winter maintenance cycles. As a consequence of these efforts, the capabilities of AVIRIS to reliably acquire and deliver consistently high quality, calibrated imaging spectrometer data continue to improve annually, significantly over those in 1989. Improvements to AVIRIS prior to 1994 have been described previously. This paper details recent and planned improvements to AVIRIS in the sensor task.

  3. Decision net, directed graph, and neural net processing of imaging spectrometer data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Casasent, David; Liu, Shiaw-Dong; Yoneyama, Hideyuki; Barnard, Etienne

    1989-01-01

    A decision-net solution involving a novel hierarchical classifier and a set of multiple directed graphs, as well as a neural-net solution, are respectively presented for large-class problem and mixture problem treatments of imaging spectrometer data. The clustering method for hierarchical classifier design, when used with multiple directed graphs, yields an efficient decision net. New directed-graph rules for reducing local maxima as well as the number of perturbations required, and the new starting-node rules for extending the reachability and reducing the search time of the graphs, are noted to yield superior results, as indicated by an illustrative 500-class imaging spectrometer problem.

  4. RAPID: The imaging energetic particle spectrometer on Cluster

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilken, B.; Guettler, W.; Korth, A.; Livi, S.; Weiss, W.; Gliem, F.; Muellers, A.; Rathje, R.; Fritz, T. A.; Fennell, J. F.

    1993-01-01

    The RAPID spectrometer for the Cluster mission, an advanced particle detector for the analysis of suprathermal plasma distributions in the energy range from 20 to 400 keV and from 2 keV/nuc to 1500 keV for electrons and ions, respectively, is presented. Novel detector concepts in combination with pinhole acceptance permit the measurement of angular distributions over a range of 180 deg in polar angle for either species. The detection principle for the ionic component is based on a two dimensional analysis of a particle's velocity and energy. Electrons are identified by the well known energy range relationship. The detection techniques are described and selected areas in geospace are used to highlight the scientific objectives of this investigation.

  5. Depth resolved hyperspectral imaging spectrometer based on structured light illumination and Fourier transform interferometry.

    PubMed

    Choi, Heejin; Wadduwage, Dushan; Matsudaira, Paul T; So, Peter T C

    2014-10-01

    A depth resolved hyperspectral imaging spectrometer can provide depth resolved imaging both in the spatial and the spectral domain. Images acquired through a standard imaging Fourier transform spectrometer do not have the depth-resolution. By post processing the spectral cubes (x, y, λ) obtained through a Sagnac interferometer under uniform illumination and structured illumination, spectrally resolved images with depth resolution can be recovered using structured light illumination algorithms such as the HiLo method. The proposed scheme is validated with in vitro specimens including fluorescent solution and fluorescent beads with known spectra. The system is further demonstrated in quantifying spectra from 3D resolved features in biological specimens. The system has demonstrated depth resolution of 1.8 μm and spectral resolution of 7 nm respectively. PMID:25360367

  6. Accurate band-to-band registration of AOTF imaging spectrometer using motion detection technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Pengwei; Zhao, Huijie; Jin, Shangzhong; Li, Ningchuan

    2016-05-01

    This paper concerns the problem of platform vibration induced band-to-band misregistration with acousto-optic imaging spectrometer in spaceborne application. Registrating images of different bands formed at different time or different position is difficult, especially for hyperspectral images form acousto-optic tunable filter (AOTF) imaging spectrometer. In this study, a motion detection method is presented using the polychromatic undiffracted beam of AOTF. The factors affecting motion detect accuracy are analyzed theoretically, and calculations show that optical distortion is an easily overlooked factor to achieve accurate band-to-band registration. Hence, a reflective dual-path optical system has been proposed for the first time, with reduction of distortion and chromatic aberration, indicating the potential of higher registration accuracy. Consequently, a spectra restoration experiment using additional motion detect channel is presented for the first time, which shows the accurate spectral image registration capability of this technique.

  7. Depth resolved hyperspectral imaging spectrometer based on structured light illumination and Fourier transform interferometry

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Heejin; Wadduwage, Dushan; Matsudaira, Paul T.; So, Peter T.C.

    2014-01-01

    A depth resolved hyperspectral imaging spectrometer can provide depth resolved imaging both in the spatial and the spectral domain. Images acquired through a standard imaging Fourier transform spectrometer do not have the depth-resolution. By post processing the spectral cubes (x, y, λ) obtained through a Sagnac interferometer under uniform illumination and structured illumination, spectrally resolved images with depth resolution can be recovered using structured light illumination algorithms such as the HiLo method. The proposed scheme is validated with in vitro specimens including fluorescent solution and fluorescent beads with known spectra. The system is further demonstrated in quantifying spectra from 3D resolved features in biological specimens. The system has demonstrated depth resolution of 1.8 μm and spectral resolution of 7 nm respectively. PMID:25360367

  8. Optical design of a static LWIR Fourier-transform imaging spectrometer with high throughput

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Hai-yang; Fu, Yan-peng; Zheng, Wei-jian; Liao, Ning-fang; Jin, Wei-qi

    2013-08-01

    A LWIR Fourier-transform imaging spectrometer based on the static Michelson interferometer with high throughput is presented. Advantages and disadvantages of some common structures of imaging spectrometer are analyzed. Some selection of optimum configurations for imaging spectrometer is proceeded. The interferogram is acquired over the whole field of the camera while the scene of interest scans the path difference range, and vignetting should be strongly limited while keeping the size of the interferometer as small as possible for manufacturability and practicability reasons. The key point is to put the entrance pupil of the imaging lens inside the interferometer. The design of optical system is proposed. The field of view(FOV) is 10°.The operating wavelength range is from 8 to 12μm, F number is 2 and the working temperature range is -20°C~40°C. Optical system with 100% cold shield efficiency is good adaptability to wide environment temperature change. The spectrometer system has low utilization of solar energy in the infrared band, so to ensure its transmittance, and it is necessary to use a small amount of lenses as possible, so here the method of the active electromechanical athermalisation just uses four lenses in the system. Modulation transfer function (MTF), aberrant and distortion etc of optical system are analyzed. The results show that an excellent performance and image performance are obtained despite the simple structure.

  9. A Demonstration of Imaging on an NMR Spectrometer.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hull, L. A.

    1990-01-01

    Described is a simple demonstration that relates the techniques of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) used in medicine and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy. Included are materials, procedures, and probable results. (KR)

  10. Imaging mass-spectrometer of ions for studying near-planetary plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vaisberg, O. L.; Leibov, A. V.; Smirnov, V. N.; Avanov, L. A.; Bertelier, J.-J.; Torcar, K.; Leblan, F.; Babkin, V. F.; Grishin, V. A.; Baumjohann, V.; Escoubet, F.

    2006-05-01

    A numerical model of an ion mass-spectrometer is developed based on the new type of charged-particle analyzer CAMERA suggested previously [1 3]. The spectrometer provides for complete instantaneous imaging of the flux distribution of various ions in a hemisphere. Such a type of the mass-spectrometer is chosen, which allows one to analyze a conelike beam of ions at the exit of the CAMERA. The mathematical model of the CAMERA with this time-of-flight mass-analyzer ensures sufficiently high mass resolution (M/ΔM > 100) at conserved imaging capabilities of the CAMERA. Such an instrument can find a wide application both in magnetospheric studies and in studying various objects of the solar system.

  11. Development and characterization of a multiple-coincidence ion-momentum imaging spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laksman, J.; Céolin, D.; Mânsson, E. P.; Sorensen, S. L.; Gisselbrecht, M.

    2013-12-01

    The design and performance of a high-resolution momentum-imaging spectrometer for ions which is optimized for experiments using synchrotron radiation is presented. High collection efficiency is achieved by a focusing electrostatic lens; a long drift tube improves mass resolution and a position-sensitive detector enables measurement of the transverse momentum of ions. The optimisation of the lens for particle momentum measurement at the highest resolution is described. We discuss the overall performance of the spectrometer and present examples demonstrating the momentum resolution for both kinetics and for angular measurements in molecular fragmentation for carbon monoxide and fullerenes. Examples are presented that confirm that complete space-time focussing is possible for a two-field three-dimensional imaging spectrometer.

  12. Development and characterization of a multiple-coincidence ion-momentum imaging spectrometer.

    PubMed

    Laksman, J; Céolin, D; Månsson, E P; Sorensen, S L; Gisselbrecht, M

    2013-12-01

    The design and performance of a high-resolution momentum-imaging spectrometer for ions which is optimized for experiments using synchrotron radiation is presented. High collection efficiency is achieved by a focusing electrostatic lens; a long drift tube improves mass resolution and a position-sensitive detector enables measurement of the transverse momentum of ions. The optimisation of the lens for particle momentum measurement at the highest resolution is described. We discuss the overall performance of the spectrometer and present examples demonstrating the momentum resolution for both kinetics and for angular measurements in molecular fragmentation for carbon monoxide and fullerenes. Examples are presented that confirm that complete space-time focussing is possible for a two-field three-dimensional imaging spectrometer. PMID:24387426

  13. Development and characterization of a multiple-coincidence ion-momentum imaging spectrometer

    SciTech Connect

    Laksman, J.; Céolin, D.; Månsson, E. P.; Sorensen, S. L.; Gisselbrecht, M.

    2013-12-15

    The design and performance of a high-resolution momentum-imaging spectrometer for ions which is optimized for experiments using synchrotron radiation is presented. High collection efficiency is achieved by a focusing electrostatic lens; a long drift tube improves mass resolution and a position-sensitive detector enables measurement of the transverse momentum of ions. The optimisation of the lens for particle momentum measurement at the highest resolution is described. We discuss the overall performance of the spectrometer and present examples demonstrating the momentum resolution for both kinetics and for angular measurements in molecular fragmentation for carbon monoxide and fullerenes. Examples are presented that confirm that complete space-time focussing is possible for a two-field three-dimensional imaging spectrometer.

  14. An imaging proton spectrometer for short-pulse laser plasma experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, H; Hazi, A; van Maren, R; Chen, S; Fuchs, J; Gauthier, M; Pape, S L; Rygg, J R; Shepherd, R

    2010-05-11

    Ultra intense short pulse laser pulses incident on solid targets can generate energetic protons. In additions to their potentially important applications such as in cancer treatments and proton fast ignition, these protons are essential to understand the complex physics of intense laser plasma interaction. To better characterize these laser-produced protons, we designed and constructed a novel, spatially imaging proton spectrometer that will not only measure proton energy distribution with high resolution, but also provide its angular characteristics. The information obtained from this spectrometer compliments those from commonly used diagnostics including radiochromic film packs, CR39 nuclear track detectors, and non-imaging magnetic spectrometers. The basic characterizations and sample data from this instrument are presented.

  15. Development of a single-shot-imaging thin film for an online Thomson parabola spectrometer

    SciTech Connect

    Sakaki, H.; Fukuda, Y.; Nishiuchi, M.; Hori, T.; Yogo, A.; Jinno, S.; Kanasaki, M.; Niita, K.

    2013-01-15

    A single-shot-imaging thin scintillator film was developed for an online Thomson parabola (TP) spectrometer and the first analysis of laser accelerated ions, using the online TP spectrometer, was demonstrated at the JAEA-Kansai Advanced Relativistic Engineering Laser System (J-KAREN). An energy spectrum of {approx}4.0 MeV protons is obtained using only this imaging film without the need of a microchannel plate that is typically utilized in online ion analyses. A general-purpose Monte Carlo particle and heavy ion-transport code system, which consists of various quantum dynamics models, was used for the prediction of the luminescent properties of the scintillator. The simulation can reasonably predict not only the ion trajectories detected by the spectrometer, but also luminescence properties.

  16. SOLAR-B Mission Extreme Ultraviolet (EUV) Imaging Spectrometer (EIS) Instrument Components

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Doschek, George A.

    2001-01-01

    This Monthly Progress Report covers the reporting period July 2001 of the Detailed Design and Development through Launch plus Thirty Days, Phase C/D, for selected components and subsystems of the Extreme Ultraviolet Imaging Spectrometer (EIS) instrument, hereafter referred to as EIS Instrument Components. This document contains the program status through the reporting period and forecasts the status for the upcoming reporting period.

  17. SOLAR-B Mission Extreme Ultraviolet (EUV) Imaging Spectrometer (EIS) Instrument Components

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Doschek, George A.

    2001-01-01

    This Monthly Progress Report covers the reporting period through June 2001, Phase C/D, Detailed Design and Development Through Launch Plus Thirty Days, for selected components and subsystems of the Extreme ultraviolet Imaging Spectrometer (EIS) instrument, hereafter referred to as EIS Instrument Components. This document contains the program status through the reporting period and forecasts the status for the upcoming reporting period.

  18. Solar-B Mission Extreme Ultraviolet (EUV) Imaging Spectrometer (EIS) Instrument Components

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Doschek, George A.

    2002-01-01

    This Monthly Progress Report covers the reporting period August 2002 of the Detailed Design and Development through Launch plus Thirty Days, Phase C/D, for selected components and subsystems of the Extreme ultraviolet Imaging Spectrometer (EIS) instrument, hereafter referred to as EIS Instrument Components. This document contains the program status through the reporting period and forecasts the status for the upcoming reporting period.

  19. Gallery of Datacubes Obtained with the Livermore Imaging Fourier Transform Spectrometer

    SciTech Connect

    Wurtz, R; Wishnow, E H; Blais-Ouellette, S; Cook, K H; Holden, B P; Carr, D J; Stubbs, C W

    2002-09-12

    We have acquired spatial-spectral datacubes of astronomical objects using the Livermore visible-band imaging Fourier transform spectrometer at Apache Point Observatory. Each raw datacube contains hundreds of thousands of spectral interferograms. We present in-progress demonstrations of these observations.

  20. Design of imaging spectrometer based on Czerny-Turner in FUV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Jianpeng; Tang, Yi; Wu, Yan; Zhang, Zhige; Ni, Guoqiang

    2010-11-01

    It is the astigmatism that leads the traditional imaging spectrometer based on Czerny-Turner to have low spatial resolution. And it is discovered that when the distance between concave mirror and grating, x, is equal to the twice of focal length, ?, of the mirror, SII = SIII = 0 and the aberration is the least as well as the astigmatism is eliminated greatly. Meanwhile the toroidal mirror is presented to correct the astigmatism, and as well the aberration caused by the large FOV is corrected by optimizing the surface tilt. Then both of the spatial and spectral resolutions are improved. Finally a Czerny-Turner imaging spectrometer working in FUV (120 nm { 180 nm) with 2.5° FOV is designed, and its focal length is 147.61 mm, its F number is 3.93. MTF of this imaging spectrometer is more than 0.39 at 20 lp/mm in the total wavelength band of FOV, which satisfied the requirements of imaging spectrometer working on satellite in FUV.

  1. Validation of Airborne Visible-Infrared Imaging Spectrometer Data at Ray Mine, AZ

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lang, H.; Baloga, S.

    1999-01-01

    We validate 1997 Airborne Visible-Infrared Imaging Spectrometer (AVIRIS) reflectance spectra covering 0.4 meu - 2.4 meu from a stable, flat mineralogically characterized man-made target at Ray Mine, AZ, the site for an EPA/NASA assessment of the utility of remote sensing for monitoring acid drainage from an active open pit mine.

  2. Imaging extreme ultraviolet spectrometer employing a single toroidal diffraction grating: the initial evaluation.

    PubMed

    Huber, M C; Timothy, J G; Morgan, J S; Lemaitre, G; Tondello, G; Jannitti, E; Scarin, P

    1988-08-15

    A high-efficiency extreme ultraviolet (EUV) imaging spectrometer has been constructed and tested. The spectrometer employs a concave toroidal grating illuminated at normal incidence in a Rowland circle mounting and has only one reflecting surface. The toroidal grating has been fabricated by a new technique employing an elastically deformable submaster grating which is replicated in a spherical form and then mechanically distorted to produce the desired aspect ratio of the toroidal surface for stigmatic imaging over the selected wavelength range. The fixed toroidal grating used in the spectrometer is then replicated from this surface. Photographic tests and initial photoelectric tests with a 2-D pulse-counting detector system have verified the image quality of the toroidal grating at wavelengths near 600 A. The results of these initial tests are described in detail, and the basic designs of two instruments which could employ the imaging spectrometer for astrophysical investigations in space are briefly described, namely, a high-resolution EUV spectroheliometer for studies of the solar chromosphere, transition region, and corona and an EUV spectroscopic telescope for studies of nonsolar objects. PMID:20539406

  3. Compton imaging with the PorGamRays spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Judson, D. S.; Boston, A. J.; Coleman-Smith, P. J.; Cullen, D. M.; Hardie, A.; Harkness, L. J.; Jones, L. L.; Jones, M.; Lazarus, I.; Nolan, P. J.; Pucknell, V.; Rigby, S. V.; Seller, P.; Scraggs, D. P.; Simpson, J.; Slee, M.; Sweeney, A.; PorGamRays Collaboration

    2011-10-01

    The PorGamRays project aims to develop a portable gamma-ray detection system with both spectroscopic and imaging capabilities. The system is designed around a stack of thin Cadmium Zinc Telluride (CZT) detectors. The imaging capability utilises the Compton camera principle. Each detector is segmented into 100 pixels which are read out through custom designed Application Specific Integrated Circuits (ASICs). This device has potential applications in the security, decommissioning and medical fields. This work focuses on the near-field imaging performance of a lab-based demonstrator consisting of two pixelated CZT detectors, each of which is bonded to a NUCAM II ASIC. Measurements have been made with point 133Ba and 57Co sources located ˜35 mm from the surface of the scattering detector. Position resolution of ˜20 mm FWHM in the x and y planes is demonstrated.

  4. Spectrometer Telescope for Imaging X-rays (STIX)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benz, A. O.; Gallagher, P.; Veronig, A.; Grimm, O.; Sylwester, J.; Orleanski, P.; Arnold, N.; Bednarzik, M.; Farnik, F.; Hurford, G.; Krucker, S.; Limousin, O.; Mann, G.; Vilmer, N.

    2012-12-01

    The Solar Orbiter Mission has been confirmed within ESA's M-class Cosmic Vision plan. Launch date is January 2017 into an orbit that reaches nearly one quarter AU in the perihelion. STIX is one of the 10 instruments selected for close cooperation. STIX applies a Fourier-imaging technique using shading tungsten grids. A total of 32 pixelized CdTe detectors will permit high resolution imaging spectroscopy. The design has passed ESA's Preliminary Design Review and will be finalized by the end of 2012. The instrument specification will be presented and its scientific potential discussed.

  5. Image Stability Requirements For a Geostationary Imaging Fourier Transform Spectrometer (GIFTS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bingham, G. E.; Cantwell, G.; Robinson, R. C.; Revercomb, H. E.; Smith, W. L.

    2001-01-01

    A Geostationary Imaging Fourier Transform Spectrometer (GIFTS) has been selected for the NASA New Millennium Program (NMP) Earth Observing-3 (EO-3) mission. Our paper will discuss one of the key GIFTS measurement requirements, Field of View (FOV) stability, and its impact on required system performance. The GIFTS NMP mission is designed to demonstrate new and emerging sensor and data processing technologies with the goal of making revolutionary improvements in meteorological observational capability and forecasting accuracy. The GIFTS payload is a versatile imaging FTS with programmable spectral resolution and spatial scene selection that allows radiometric accuracy and atmospheric sounding precision to be traded in near real time for area coverage. The GIFTS sensor combines high sensitivity with a massively parallel spatial data collection scheme to allow high spatial resolution measurement of the Earth's atmosphere and rapid broad area coverage. An objective of the GIFTS mission is to demonstrate the advantages of high spatial resolution (4 km ground sample distance - gsd) on temperature and water vapor retrieval by allowing sampling in broken cloud regions. This small gsd, combined with the relatively long scan time required (approximately 10 s) to collect high resolution spectra from geostationary (GEO) orbit, may require extremely good pointing control. This paper discusses the analysis of this requirement.

  6. Optical design of wide waveband compact imaging spectrometer with fast speed

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Li; Ji, Yiqun; Shen, Weimin; Tang, Minxue

    2011-11-01

    Here two imaging spectrometers, based on a different prism-grating-prism (PGP) dispersing component, are designed and presented. One works at the visible near infrared (VNIR) waveband from 400nm to 1000nm with 1.7nm/pixel spectral resolution, 85mm track length. As for the other, its spectral coverage, spectral resolution, and track length are the short wavelength infrared (SWIR) waveband from 900nm to 1700nm, 3nm/pixel, and 108mm, respectively. Both of the imaging spectrometers have advantages of fast speed (F/2.0), wide spectral range, low distortion, low cost, even relative illumination, and compactness made them ideally suited for hyperspectral imaging remote sensing. Either of them gains the preferable imaging quality.

  7. Advanced astigmatism-corrected Czerny-Turner imaging spectrometer in spectral broadband

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cong, Hai-fang

    2014-12-01

    This paper reports an advanced Czerny-Turner optical structure which is used for the application in imaging spectrometers. To obtain the excellent imaging quality, a cylindrical lens with a wedge angle is used between the focusing mirror and the imaging plane to remove astigmatism in broadband. It makes the advanced optical system presents high resolution over the full bandwidth and decreases the cost. An example of the imaging spectrometer in the waveband of 260nm~520nm has been designed to prove our theory. It yields the excellent modulation transfer functions (MTF) of all fields of view which are more than 0.75 over the broadband under the required Nyquist frequency (20lp/mm).

  8. High performance Czerny-Turner imaging spectrometer with aberrations corrected by tilted lenses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhong, Xing; Zhang, Yuan; Jin, Guang

    2015-03-01

    The design of the high performance imaging spectrometer using low-cost plane grating is researched in this paper. In order to correct the aberrations well, under the guidance of the vector aberration theory, the modification of Czerny-Turner system with inserted tilt lenses is proposed. The novel design of a short-wave infrared imaging spectrometer working at between wavelengths of 1-2.5 μm is shown as an example, whose numerical aperture achieves 0.15 in image space. The aberrations are corrected well and the Modulation Transfer Function (MTF) performance is the same as the convex gratings systems. The smiles and keystones of the spectral image are acceptable. Advantages of the proposed design with a plane grating are obviously that the diffraction efficiency is high while the cost is very low.

  9. Design and performance evaluation of the modular imaging spectrometer instrument MISI

    SciTech Connect

    Feng, X.; Schott, J.R., Gallagher, T.

    1996-11-01

    A Modular Imaging Spectrometer Instrument (MISI) for airborne data acquisition is described. The instrument is intended to function as a research tool in support of advanced image analysis and data exploitation tasks, serving as both a primary sensor and as a verification sensor for satellite under flights. It is also intended to function as a testbed for development and testing of sensor and system performance specifications related to radiometric calibration, image quality, and spatial, spectral, and radiometric trades. Configurations of the optical scanner and pyramid mirror/focal plane are provided. Measured spatial resolution metrics (modulation transfer function) of the silicon detector, thermal infrared detectors, and imaging spectrometer components are given. A summary of operational parameters for the 12 MISI channels is also presented. 3 refs., 9 figs., 1 tab.

  10. Analysis of computed tomographic imaging spectrometers. I. Spatial and spectral resolution.

    PubMed

    Hagen, Nathan; Dereniak, Eustace L

    2008-10-01

    Computed tomographic imaging spectrometers measure the spectrally resolved image of an object scene in an entirely different manner from traditional whisk-broom or push-broom systems, and thus their noise behavior and data artifacts are unfamiliar. We review computed tomographic imaging spectrometry (CTIS) measurement systems and analyze their performance, with the aim of providing a vocabulary for discussing resolution in CTIS instruments, by illustrating the artifacts present in their reconstructed data and contributing a rule-of-thumb measure of their spectral resolution. We also show how the data reconstruction speed can be improved, at no cost in reconstruction quality, by ignoring redundant projections within the measured raw images. PMID:18830288

  11. Cylindrical Crystal Imaging Spectrometer (CCIS) for cosmic X-ray spectroscopy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schnopper, H. W.; Taylor, P. O.

    1981-01-01

    A "stigmatic" focusing, Bragg crystal spectrometer was developed and used for high spectral resolution X-ray emission line diagnostics on hot laboratory plasmas. The concept be applied at the focal plane of an orbiting X-ray telescope where it offers several advantages over conventional spectrometers, i.e., mechanical simplicity, high resolving power and sensitivity, simultaneous measurement of an extended segment of spectrum, and good imaging properties. The instrument features a simple, unambiguous, non-scanning spectrum readout that is not adversely affected by either spacecraft pointing error or source extent. The performance of the instrument is estimated in the context of the Advanced X-Ray Astrophysical Facility mission.

  12. A liquid helium cooled mid-infrared imaging Fabry-Perot spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Watarai, H.; Chaen, K.; Matsuhara, H.; Matsumoto, T.; Takahashi, H.

    1994-03-01

    A liquid helium cooled mid-infrared imaging Fabry-Perot spectrometer has been under development. A Si:P 5x5 detector array is used for this instrument. Although the array system has small format, but combination with junction field effect transistor (JFET) array will provide noise equivalent line flux of 1.0 x 10-21 w/sq cm(1000 sec, 10 sigma). This sensitivity is comparable with the short wavelength spectrometer (SWS) of the Infrared Space Observatory (ISO).

  13. Ultra-Compact Imaging Spectrometer (UCIS) for In-Situ Planetary Mineralogy: Laboratory and Field Calibration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Van Gorp, Byron; Mouroulis, Pantazis; Green, Robert O.; Rodriguez, Jose I.; Blaney, Diana; Wilson, Daniel W.; Sellar, R. Glenn; Richardson, Brandon S.

    2012-01-01

    The Ultra-Compact Imaging Spectrometer (UCIS) is a miniature telescope and spectrometer system intended for mapping terrain mineralogy over distances from 1.5 m to infinity with spatial sampling of 1.35 mrad over a 33 deg field, and spectral sampling of 10 nm in the 600-2500 nm range. The core of the system has been designed for operation in a Martian environment, but can also be used in a terrestrial environment when placed inside a vacuum vessel. We report the laboratory and field calibration data that include spatial and spectral calibration, and demonstrate the use of the system.

  14. A Super-Imaging Fourier Transform Spectrometer for the VLT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maillard, Jean-Pierre; Bacon, Roland

    A cryogenic, near-infrared (Hawaii2 domain) imaging FTS is proposed for a Nasmyth focus of an 8-m VLT, as a unique solution for providing integral field spectroscopy at high spectral resolution (R = 50,000 at 2 μm) over a large field, up to 3 x 3 arcmin FOV. Another mode is proposed behind AO with a smaller field but preserving high spectral resolution.

  15. Characterization of Forest Ecosystems by combined Radiative Transfer Modeling for Imaging Spectrometer and LiDAR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koetz, B.; Sun, G.; Morsdorf, F.; Rubio, J.; Kimes, D.; Ranson, J.

    2009-04-01

    This research was motivated by the increased information dimensionality provided by current Earth Observation systems measuring the complex and dynamic medium of the vegetated surface of the Earth. Advanced and reliable algorithms that fully exploit this enhanced Earth Observation information are needed to deliver consistent data sets of the Earth vegetation condition describing its spatial distribution and change over time. Spectral observation provided by imaging spectrometers and the waveform from large-footprint LiDAR are now available from space for forest ecosystem studies. The imaging spectrometer data contains information about the biochemical composition of the canopy foliage, and is widely used to estimate biophysical canopy parameters such as LAI and fractional cover. LiDAR responds to the vertical distribution of scatters and permits inferences about the plant structures required to supply water and mechanical support to those surfaces. Various canopy height indices derived from LiDAR waveform have been successfully used to infer forest above-ground biomass and the characterization of canopy structure. The structure parameters derived from LiDAR data can improve the accuracy and robustness of canopy parameter retrieval from imaging spectrometer by reducing uncertainties related to the canopy structure. The specific information content, inherent to the observations of imaging spectrometry and LIDAR, assesses thus different but complementary characteristics of the complex vegetation canopy. The combination of these two information dimensions offers a unique and reliable canopy characterization including information relevant to different aspects of the biochemical and biophysical properties and thus understanding of processes within forest ecosystems. A comprehensive canopy characterization of a forest ecosystem is derived from the combined remote sensing signal of imaging spectrometry and large footprint LIDAR. The inversion of two linked physically based

  16. Imaging spectrometer mission for the monitoring of desertification processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mueller, Andreas A.; Kaufmann, Hermann J.; Briottet, Xavier; Pinet, Patrick; Hill, Joachim; Dech, Stefan

    2001-12-01

    Desertification has become a major environmental issue in scientific, political and public circles. Notwithstanding the many inaccurate statements concerning the extension and dynamics of desertification, the fact that dry ecosystems are by nature fragile and susceptible to degradation, and that desertification is to be considered a serious problem, there is now large agreement that the phenomenon is related to particular geographic and physical conditions. The processes are context specific and climate sensitive, and the probability or onset of desertification is a function of biotic and abiotic exchanges at the regional level, and human activity at the local level . While standard methods for identifying and monitoring environmental change in drylands are imperfect or expensive, remote sensing approaches to degradation monitoring can characterize surface properties in terms of physical, bio- and geo- chemical components with indicator function and linkages into appropriate process models. Repeated and, by force, standardized observations over longer time periods are indispensable to assess significant changes. The concept of hyperspectral imaging or imaging spectrometry, i.e. the acquisition of surface spectral signatures in a wide wavelength range with numerous narrow and contiguously spaced spectral bands, has meanwhile provided the user community with a range of powerful, yet experimental airborne sensor systems. Considerable efforts have been taken to construct hyperspectral imaging systems which are able to observe the Earth from space orbits. Encouraging results are delivered from the Hyperion senso r on board EOS-1. Nevertheless, none of the existing sesors will allow a long term monitoring of dry ecosystems. In this view, the paper ill discuss a concept for developing a hyperspectral satellite mission named 'Spectral Analyses for Dryland Degradation (SAND)' dedicated to the assessment of land degradation in arid and semi-arid areas that attempts to

  17. Airborne Visible/Infrared Imaging Spectrometer (AVIRIS) onboard calibration system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chrien, Thomas G.; Eastwood, Mike; Green, Robert O.; Sarture, Charles; Johnson, Howell; Chovit, Chris; Hajek, Pavel

    1995-01-01

    The AVIRIS instrument uses an onboard calibration system to provide auxiliary calibration data. The system consist of a tungsten halogen cycle lamp imaged onto a fiber bundle through an eight position filter wheel. The fiber bundle illuminates the back side of the foreoptics shutter during a pre-run and post-run calibration sequence. The filter wheel contains two neutral density filters, five spectral filters and one blocked position. This paper reviews the general workings of the onboard calibrator system and discusses recent modifications.

  18. Mars ultraviolet imaging spectrometer experiment on the planet-B mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fukunishi, H.; Watanabe, S.; Taguchi, M.; Okano, S.; Takahashi, Y.

    1999-01-01

    An ultraviolet imaging spectrometer (UVS) has been developed for the PLANET-B spacecraft. The UVS instrument is composed of a grating spectrometer (UVS-G) and a D/H absorption cell photometer (UVS-P). The UVS-G is a flat-field type spectrometer measuring optical emissions in the FUV and MUV range between 115 nm and 310 nm with a spectral resolution of 2 - 3 nm. The UVS-P is a photometer detecting hydrogen (H) and deuterium (D) Lyman α emissions separately by an absorption cell technique. Scientific targets of the UVS experiment are the investigation of (1) hydrogen and oxygen coronas around Mars, (2) the D/H ratio in the upper atmosphere, (3) dayglow, (4) aurora and nightglow, (5) dust, clouds and ozone, and (6) the surface composition of Phobos and Deimos.

  19. Miniature spectrometer and multispectral imager as a potential diagnostic aid in dermatology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeng, Haishan; MacAulay, Calum E.; McLean, David I.; Lui, Harvey; Palcic, Branko

    1995-04-01

    A miniature spectrometer system has been constructed for both reflectance and autofluorescence spectral measurements of skin. The system is based on PC plug-in spectrometer, therefore, it is miniature and easy to operate. The spectrometer has been used clinically to collect spectral data from various skin lesions including skin cancer. To date, 48 patients with a total of 71 diseased skin sites have been measured. Analysis of these preliminary data suggests that unique spectral characteristics exist for certain types of skin lesions, i.e. seborrheic keratosis, psoriasis, etc.. These spectral characteristics will help the differential diagnosis in Dermatology practice. In conjunction with the spectral point measurements, we are building and testing a multispectral imaging system to measure the spatial distribution of skin reflectance and autofluorescence. Preliminary results indicate that a cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma has a weak autofluorescence signal at the edge of the lesion, but a higher autofluorescence signal in the central area.

  20. Home-built magnetic resonance imaging system (0.3 T) with a complete digital spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jie, Shen; Qin, Xu; Ying, Liu; Gengying, Li

    2005-10-01

    A home-built magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) system with a complete digital spectrometer has been designed for investigation of plants and animals. With the application of the latest digital integrated circuit technology, the digital spectrometer is greatly simplified without the loss of flexibility and performance. A powerful pulse sequence compiler with a graphical editor can allow the user to edit the pulse sequence more easily and more conveniently than ever before. Moreover, a permanent magnet capable of producing a 180 mm diam spherical homogeneous region is employed in our MRI system to ensure a comparatively large image size. Compared with previous work, our MRI system has the features of flexibility, relatively large imaging size, and low cost. Experimental results obtained with the proposed system are presented in this article.

  1. SAFIRE: A Far-Infrared Imaging Spectrometer for SOFIA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shafer, Richard A.; Benford, D. J.; Moseley, S. H.; Pajot, F.; Stacey, G. J.; Staguhn, J. G.; Fisher, Richard R. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    The SOFIA airborne observatory will provide a high spatial resolution, low background telescope for far-infrared astrophysical investigations. Selected as a PI instrument for SOFIA, SAFIRE is an imaging Fabry-Perot spectrograph covering 145 micrometers-655 micrometers with spectral resolving power of approx. 1500 (200km/s). This resolution is well matched to extragalactic emission lines and yields the greatest sensitivity for line detection. SAFIRE will make important scientific contributions to the study of the powering of ULIRGs and AGN, the role of CII cooling in extragalactic star formation, the evolution of matter in the early Universe, and the energetics of the Galactic center. SAFIRE will employ a two-dimensional pop-up bolometer array to provide background-limited imaging spectrometry. Superconducting transition edge bolometers and SQUID amplifiers have been developed for these detectors. An engineering prototype of SAFIRE with a small but cutting edge detector array will be available for use during the initial SOFIA operations; further expansion to larger format arrays will be incorporated during SAFIRE's lifetime.

  2. Evaluation of Airborne Visible/Infrared Imaging Spectrometer Data of the Mountain Pass, California carbonatite complex

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crowley, James; Rowan, Lawrence; Podwysocki, Melvin; Meyer, David

    1988-01-01

    Airborne Visible/Infrared Imaging Spectrometer (AVIRIS) data of the Mountain Pass, California carbonatite complex were examined to evaluate the AVIRIS instrument performance and to explore alternative methods of data calibration. Although signal-to-noise estimates derived from the data indicated that the A, B, and C spectrometers generally met the original instrument design objectives, the S/N performance of the D spectrometer was below expectations. Signal-to-noise values of 20 to 1 or lower were typical of the D spectrometer and several detectors in the D spectrometer array were shown to have poor electronic stability. The AVIRIS data also exhibited periodic noise, and were occasionally subject to abrupt dark current offsets. Despite these limitations, a number of mineral absorption bands, including CO3, Al-OH, and unusual rare earth element bands, were observed for mine areas near the main carbonatite body. To discern these bands, two different calibration procedures were applied to remove atmospheric and solar components from the remote sensing data. The two procedures, referred to as the single spectrum and the flat field calibration methods gave distinctly different results. In principle, the single spectrum method should be more accurate; however, additional fieldwork is needed to rigorously determine the degree of calibration success.

  3. Chukar III-R Reconnaissance System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toops, Laurence C.

    1990-02-01

    This paper describes Northrop's developmental Chukar 111-R reconnaissance system, which is based on the Chukar III target drone. Some military needs for reconnaissance and the advantages of employing an unmanned air vehicle to satisfy these needs are noted. Next, features incorporated into the new Chukar III-R reconnaissance system are described. These features include a high performance unmanned air vehicle (UAV), an infrared line scanner for imaOng targets, radio position-fix enhanced navigation, and a new mission planning and control station. Sensor slight test results, a pay-load mockup, and mission planning and image exploitation capabilities are discussed. The advantages of high speed and low observability are cited. Launch and retrieval techniques are described.

  4. AOTF-based near-infrared imaging spectrometer for rapid identification of camouflaged target

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Zhifan; Zeng, Libo; Wu, Qiongshui

    2014-11-01

    Acousto-optic tunable filter (AOTF) is a novel device for spectrometer. The electronic tunability qualifies it with the most compelling advantages of higher wavelength scan rate over the conventional spectrometers that are mechanically tuned, and the feature of large angular aperture makes the AOTF particularly suitable in imaging applications. In this research, an AOTF-based near-infrared imaging spectrometer was developed. The spectrometer consists of a TeO2 AOTF module, a near-infrared imaging lens assembly, an AOTF controller, an InGaAs array detector, an image acquisition card, and a PC. A precisely designed optical wedge is placed at the emergent surface of the AOTF to deal with the inherent dispersion of the TeO2 that may degrade the spatial resolution. The direct digital synthesizer (DDS) techniques and the phase locked loop (PLL) techniques are combined for radio frequency (RF) signal synthesis. The PLL is driven by the DDS to take advantage of both their merits of high frequency resolution, high frequency scan rate and strong spurious signals resistance capability. All the functions relating to wavelength scan, image acquisition, processing, storge and display are controlled by the PC. Calibration results indicate that the spectral range is 898~1670 nm, the spectral resolution is 6.8 nm(@1064 nm), the wavelength separation between frames in the spectral image assembly is 1.0 nm, and the processing time of a single image is less than 1 ms if a TV camera with 640×512 detector is incorporated. A prototype device was assembled to test the capability of differentiating samples with similar appearances, and satisfactory results were achieved. By this device, the chemical compositions and the distribution information can be obtained simultaneously. This system has the most advantages of no moving parts, fast wavelength scan and strong vibration resistance. The proposed imaging spectrometer has a significant application prospect in the area of identification of

  5. Configurable-bandwidth imaging spectrometer based on an acousto-optic tunable filter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vila-Francés, Joan; Calpe-Maravilla, Javier; Muñoz-Mari, Jordi; Gómez-Chova, Luis; Amorós-López, Julia; Ribes-Gómez, Emilio; Durán-Bosch, Vicente

    2006-07-01

    This article presents a new imaging spectrometer called autonomous tunable filtering system. The instrument acquires sequential images at different spectral wavelengths in the visible and near infrared range of the electromagnetic spectrum. The spectral selection is performed by an acousto-optic tunable filter (AOTF), which is driven by a custom radio-frequency (rf) generator based on a direct digital synthesizer (DDS). The DDS allows a high flexibility in terms of acquisition speed and bandwidth selection. The rf power is dynamically controlled to drive the AOTF with the optimum value for each wavelength. The images are formed through a carefully designed optical layout and acquired with a high performance digital camera. The application software controls the instrument and acquires the raw spectral images from the camera. This software optionally corrects the image for the AOTF nonidealities, such as diffraction efficiency variations, spatial nonuniformity, and chromatic aberration, and generates a single multiband image file. Moreover, the software can calculate the reflectance or transmittance of the acquired images. The instrument has been calibrated to give precise and repetitive measurements and has been validated against a high performance point spectrometer. As a case example, the instrument has been successfully used for the mapping of chlorophyll content of plant leaves from their multispectral reflectance images.

  6. Snapshot Image Mapping Spectrometer (IMS) with high sampling density for hyperspectral microscopy

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Liang; Kester, Robert T.; Hagen, Nathan; Tkaczyk, Tomasz S.

    2010-01-01

    A snapshot Image Mapping Spectrometer (IMS) with high sampling density is developed for hyperspectral microscopy, measuring a datacube of dimensions 285 × 285 × 60 (x, y, λ). The spatial resolution is ~0.45 µm with a FOV of 100 × 100 µm2. The measured spectrum is from 450 nm to 650 nm and is sampled by 60 spectral channels with average sampling interval ~3.3 nm. The channel’s spectral resolution is ~8nm. The spectral imaging results demonstrate the potential of the IMS for real-time cellular fluorescence imaging. PMID:20639917

  7. The data processing of the temporarily and spatially mixed modulated polarization interference imaging spectrometer.

    PubMed

    Jian, Xiaohua; Zhang, Chunmin; Zhang, Lin; Zhao, Baochang

    2010-03-15

    Based on the basic imaging theory of the temporally and spatially mixed modulated polarization interference imaging spectrometer (TSMPIIS), a method of interferogram obtaining and processing under polychromatic light is presented. Especially, instead of traditional Fourier transform spectroscopy, according to the unique imaging theory and OPD variation of TSMPIIS, the spectrum is reconstructed respectively by wavelength. In addition, the originally experimental interferogram obtained by TSMPIIS is processed in this new way, the satisfying result of interference data and reconstructed spectrum prove that the method is very precise and feasible, which will great improve the performance of TSMPIIS. PMID:20389583

  8. A digital magnetic resonance imaging spectrometer using digital signal processor and field programmable gate array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liang, Xiao; Binghe, Sun; Yueping, Ma; Ruyan, Zhao

    2013-05-01

    A digital spectrometer for low-field magnetic resonance imaging is described. A digital signal processor (DSP) is utilized as the pulse programmer on which a pulse sequence is executed as a subroutine. Field programmable gate array (FPGA) devices that are logically mapped into the external addressing space of the DSP work as auxiliary controllers of gradient control, radio frequency (rf) generation, and rf receiving separately. The pulse programmer triggers an event by setting the 32-bit control register of the corresponding FPGA, and then the FPGA automatically carries out the event function according to preset configurations in cooperation with other devices; accordingly, event control of the spectrometer is flexible and efficient. Digital techniques are in widespread use: gradient control is implemented in real-time by a FPGA; rf source is constructed using direct digital synthesis technique, and rf receiver is constructed using digital quadrature detection technique. Well-designed performance is achieved, including 1 μs time resolution of the gradient waveform, 1 μs time resolution of the soft pulse, and 2 MHz signal receiving bandwidth. Both rf synthesis and rf digitalization operate at the same 60 MHz clock, therefore, the frequency range of transmitting and receiving is from DC to ˜27 MHz. A majority of pulse sequences have been developed, and the imaging performance of the spectrometer has been validated through a large number of experiments. Furthermore, the spectrometer is also suitable for relaxation measurement in nuclear magnetic resonance field.

  9. A digital magnetic resonance imaging spectrometer using digital signal processor and field programmable gate array.

    PubMed

    Liang, Xiao; Binghe, Sun; Yueping, Ma; Ruyan, Zhao

    2013-05-01

    A digital spectrometer for low-field magnetic resonance imaging is described. A digital signal processor (DSP) is utilized as the pulse programmer on which a pulse sequence is executed as a subroutine. Field programmable gate array (FPGA) devices that are logically mapped into the external addressing space of the DSP work as auxiliary controllers of gradient control, radio frequency (rf) generation, and rf receiving separately. The pulse programmer triggers an event by setting the 32-bit control register of the corresponding FPGA, and then the FPGA automatically carries out the event function according to preset configurations in cooperation with other devices; accordingly, event control of the spectrometer is flexible and efficient. Digital techniques are in widespread use: gradient control is implemented in real-time by a FPGA; rf source is constructed using direct digital synthesis technique, and rf receiver is constructed using digital quadrature detection technique. Well-designed performance is achieved, including 1 μs time resolution of the gradient waveform, 1 μs time resolution of the soft pulse, and 2 MHz signal receiving bandwidth. Both rf synthesis and rf digitalization operate at the same 60 MHz clock, therefore, the frequency range of transmitting and receiving is from DC to ~27 MHz. A majority of pulse sequences have been developed, and the imaging performance of the spectrometer has been validated through a large number of experiments. Furthermore, the spectrometer is also suitable for relaxation measurement in nuclear magnetic resonance field. PMID:23742570

  10. Visible and near-infrared imaging spectrometer (VNIS) for in-situ lunar surface measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Zhiping; Xu, Rui; Li, Chunlai; Lv, Gang; Yuan, Liyin; Wang, Binyong; Shu, Rong; Wang, Jianyu

    2015-10-01

    The Visible and Near-Infrared Imaging Spectrometer (VNIS) onboard China's Chang'E 3 lunar rover is capable of simultaneously in situ acquiring full reflectance spectra for objects on the lunar surface and performing calibrations. VNIS uses non-collinear acousto-optic tunable filters and consists of a VIS/NIR imaging spectrometer (0.45-0.95 μm), a shortwave IR spectrometer (0.9-2.4 μm), and a calibration unit with dust-proofing functionality. To been underwent a full program of pre-flight ground tests, calibrations, and environmental simulation tests, VNIS entered into orbit around the Moon on 6 December 2013 and landed on 14 December 2013 following Change'E 3. The first operations of VNIS were conducted on 23 December 2013, and include several explorations and calibrations to obtain several spectral images and spectral reflectance curves of the lunar soil in the Imbrium region. These measurements include the first in situ spectral imaging detections on the lunar surface. This paper describes the VNIS characteristics, lab calibration, in situ measurements and calibration on lunar surface.

  11. High-SNR static Fourier-transform imaging spectrometer based on differential structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jin, Peng; Zhu, Shuaishuai; Zhang, Yu; Lin, Jie

    2015-03-01

    Fourier-transform imaging spectrometers are rapidly developed due to their extensive use in industrial monitoring, target detection, and chemical identification. Static Fourier-transform imaging spectrometer (SFIS) containing a birefringent interferometer is one of the most popular directions due to its inherent robustness. However, the SFIS suffers from its low achievable signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) because of the restriction of incident angle. Meanwhile, in applications, the SNR is perhaps the most important factor to determine the usefulness of an instrument. In this paper, we report here a Static Fourier-transform imaging spectrometer based on differential structure (SFIS-DS) in the 400-800nm wavelength range with a high SNR. As in electronic system, the differential structure can double optical efficiency and strongly restrain common mode error in the SFIS-DS. And the differential structure described here is also available for any instruments containing a birefringent interferometer. However, the drawback of the SFIS-DS is that the two images obtained by the two differential channels need precise registration which can be overcome by a sub-pixel spatial registration algorithm. The experimental results indicate the SFIS-DS can increase the SNR by no less than 40%.

  12. Radiometric calibration of G-LiHT's imaging spectrometer using GLAMR for satellite sensor intercalibration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Angal, Amit; McCorkel, Joel; Cook, Bruce; Corp, Lawrence A.; Thome, Kurt

    2015-09-01

    NASA Goddard's Lidar, Hyperspectral and Thermal Imager (G-LiHT) facilitates simultaneous measurements beneficial to variety of applications. Of the suite of "off-the shelf" instruments of G-LiHT, the Visible Near-Infrared (VNIR) Imaging Spectrometer acquires high resolution spectral measurements (1.5 nm resolution) from 0.4 to 1 μm. Goddard Space Flight Center's Laser for Absolute Measurement of Response (GLAMR) was used to measure the absolute spectral response (ASR) of the G-LiHT's imaging spectrometer. Continuously tunable lasers coupled to an integrating sphere allow a radiance-based calibration for the detectors at reflective solar wavelengths. GLAMR measurements, covering a wavelength range from 0.58 to 0.99 μm were acquired between July 30 to August 2, 2013. In order to account for the large field-of-view (50°), G-LiHT was rotated in 2 degree increments so that the same area of the sphere is viewed by all detectors. Using this data along with the coincident Silicon trap radiometer measurements, the ASR was computed. The derived calibration parameters for G-LiHT's Imaging Spectrometer are to be transferred to near-simultaneous measurements of Landsat sensors. Calibration uncertainty of G-LiHT is 1-3% depending spectral region and transferring this traceability to coincident satellite sensors has 3-5% depending on spectral region.

  13. A rapid method for creating qualitative images indicative of thick oil emulsion on the ocean's surface from imaging spectrometer data

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kokaly, Raymond F.; Hoefen, Todd M.; Livo, K. Eric; Swayze, Gregg A.; Leifer, Ira; McCubbin, Ian B.; Eastwood, Michael L.; Green, Robert O.; Lundeen, Sarah R.; Sarture, Charles M.; Steele, Denis; Ryan, Thomas; Bradley, Eliza S.; Roberts, Dar A.; AVIRIS Team

    2010-01-01

    This report describes a method to create color-composite images indicative of thick oil:water emulsions on the surface of clear, deep ocean water by using normalized difference ratios derived from remotely sensed data collected by an imaging spectrometer. The spectral bands used in the normalized difference ratios are located in wavelength regions where the spectra of thick oil:water emulsions on the ocean's surface have a distinct shape compared to clear water and clouds. In contrast to quantitative analyses, which require rigorous conversion to reflectance, the method described is easily computed and can be applied rapidly to radiance data or data that have been atmospherically corrected or ground-calibrated to reflectance. Examples are shown of the method applied to Airborne Visible/Infrared Imaging Spectrometer data collected May 17 and May 19, 2010, over the oil spill from the Deepwater Horizon offshore oil drilling platform in the Gulf of Mexico.

  14. A dynamically aligned, step scanning mechanism for an imaging Fourier transform spectrometer for astronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Landry, Jean-Thomas; Grandmont, Frédéric

    2006-06-01

    This paper presents an overview of a step scanning mechanism employing a flexure stage coupled with a dynamically aligned mirror used in the SpIOMM (Spectrometre Imageur de l'Observatoire du Mont Megantic) instrument, an Imaging Fourier Transform Spectrometer (IFTS) concept for ground based telescopes produced in collaboration with ABB and Universite Laval. This instrument can acquire spectra of variable resolutions up to R = λ/Δλ = 10 000 from the near UV to the near IR (350 nm to 900 nm). It is designed to fit the f/8 focus of the Mont Megantic (Quebec, Canada) 1.6m optical telescope. The innovative aspect of this instrument compared to other imaging spectrometers is the spatial coverage. The FOV covers spans of 12 arc minutes in diameter with a pixel sampling of 0.55 arc seconds. Hence spectra of more than a million scene elements are acquired at each measurement.

  15. Snow and Water Imaging Spectrometer (SWIS): development of a CubeSat-compatible instrument

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bender, Holly A.; Mouroulis, Pantazis; Gross, Johannes; Painter, Thomas; Smith, Christopher D.; Wilson, Daniel W.; Smith, Colin H.; Van Gorp, Byron E.; Eastwood, Michael L.

    2016-05-01

    The Snow and Water Imaging Spectrometer (SWIS) is a fast, high-uniformity, low-polarization sensitivity imaging spectrometer and telescope system designed for integration on a 6U CubeSat platform. Operating in the 350-1700 nm spectral region with 5.7 nm sampling, SWIS is capable of simultaneously addressing the demanding needs of coastal ocean science and snow and ice monitoring. New key technologies that facilitate the development of this instrument include a linear variable anti-reflection (LVAR) detector coating for stray light management, and a single drive on-board calibration mechanism utilizing a transmissive diffuser for solar calibration. We provide an overview of the SWIS instrument design, spacecraft configuration design, and potential science missions.

  16. Impacts of dichroic prism coatings on radiometry of the airborne imaging spectrometer APEX.

    PubMed

    Hueni, A; Schlaepfer, D; Jehle, M; Schaepman, M

    2014-08-20

    The generation of well-calibrated radiometric measurements from imaging spectrometer data requires careful consideration of all influencing factors, as well as an instrument calibration based on a detailed sensor model. Deviations of ambient parameters (i.e., pressure, humidity, temperature) from standard laboratory conditions during airborne operations can lead to biases that should be accounted for and properly compensated by using dedicated instrument models. This study introduces a model for the airborne imaging spectrometer airborne prism experiment (APEX), describing the impact of spectral shifts as well as polarization effects on the radiometric system response due to changing ambient parameters. Key issues are related to changing properties of the dichroic coating applied to the dispersing elements within the optical path. We present a model based on discrete numerical simulations. With the improved modeling approach, we predict radiometric biases with an root mean square error (RMSE) below 1%, leading to a substantial improvement of radiometric stability and predictability of system behavior. PMID:25321104

  17. JPL activities on development of acousto-optic tunable filter imaging spectrometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cheng, Li-Jen; Chao, Tien-Hsin; Reyes, George

    1992-01-01

    Recent activities of JPL in the development of a new type of imaging spectrometers for earth observation and planetary exploration are reported. This instrument uses the acousto-optic tunable filter (AOTF) as high resolution and fast programmable bandpass filter. AOTF operates in the principle of acousto-optic interaction in an anisotropic medium. This filter can be tuned in sequential, random, and multiwavelength access modes, providing observational flexibility. The diffraction process in the filter generates two diffracted monochromatic beams with polarization orthogonal to each other, creating a unique capability to measure both polarimetric and spectral properties of the incoming light simultaneously with a single instrument. The device gives wide wavelength operations with reasonably large throughput. In addition, it is in a compact solid-state structure without moving parts, providing system reliability. These attractive features give promising opportunities to develop a new generation of airborne/spaceborne and ground, real-time, imaging spectrometer systems for remote sensing applications.

  18. Airborne Visible/Infrared Imaging Spectrometer (AVIRIS): Recent improvements to the sensor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chrien, Thomas G.; Green, Robert O.; Sarture, Charles M.; Chovit, Christopher; Eastwood, Michael L.; Eng, Bjorn T.

    1993-01-01

    AVIRIS is a NASA-sponsored Earth-looking imaging spectrometer designed, built and operated by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory. Spectral, radiometric and geometric characteristics of the data acquired by AVIRIS are given in Table 1. AVIRIS has been operational since 1989, however in each year since 1989 major improvements have been completed in most of the subsystems of the sensor. As a consequence of these efforts, the capabilities of AVIRIS to acquire and deliver calibrated imaging spectrometer data of high quality have improved significantly over those in 1989. Improvements to AVIRIS prior to 1992 have been described previously (Porter et al., 1990, Chrien et al., 1991, & Chrien et al., 1992). In the following sections of this paper we describe recent and planned improvements to AVIRIS in the sensor task.

  19. Multispectral imaging of tissue absorption and scattering using spatial frequency domain imaging and a computed-tomography imaging spectrometer

    PubMed Central

    Weber, Jessie R.; Cuccia, David J.; Johnson, William R.; Bearman, Gregory H.; Durkin, Anthony J.; Hsu, Mike; Lin, Alexander; Binder, Devin K.; Wilson, Dan; Tromberg, Bruce J.

    2011-01-01

    We present an approach for rapidly and quantitatively mapping tissue absorption and scattering spectra in a wide-field, noncontact imaging geometry by combining multifrequency spatial frequency domain imaging (SFDI) with a computed-tomography imaging spectrometer (CTIS). SFDI overcomes the need to spatially scan a source, and is based on the projection and analysis of periodic structured illumination patterns. CTIS provides a throughput advantage by simultaneously diffracting multiple spectral images onto a single CCD chip to gather spectra at every pixel of the image, thus providing spatial and spectral information in a single snapshot. The spatial-spectral data set was acquired 30 times faster than with our wavelength-scanning liquid crystal tunable filter camera, even though it is not yet optimized for speed. Here we demonstrate that the combined SFDI-CTIS is capable of rapid, multispectral imaging of tissue absorption and scattering in a noncontact, nonscanning platform. The combined system was validated for 36 wavelengths between 650–1000 nm in tissue simulating phantoms over a range of tissue-like absorption and scattering properties. The average percent error for the range of absorption coefficients (μa) was less than 10% from 650–800 nm, and less than 20% from 800–1000 nm. The average percent error in reduced scattering coefficients (\\documentclass[12pt]{minimal} \\usepackage{amsmath} \\usepackage{wasysym} \\usepackage{amsfonts} \\usepackage{amssymb} \\usepackage{amsbsy} \\usepackage{upgreek} \\usepackage{mathrsfs} \\setlength{\\oddsidemargin}{-69pt} \\begin{document} \\begin{equation*}\\mu_{\\rm s}^{\\prime}\\end{equation*} \\end{document}μs′) was less than 5% from 650–700 nm and less than 3% from 700–1000 nm. The SFDI-CTIS platform was applied to a mouse model of brain injury in order to demonstrate the utility of this approach in characterizing spatially and spectrally varying tissue optical properties. PMID:21280902

  20. [Design of airborne dual channel ultraviolet-visible imaging spectrometer with large field of view, wide spectrum, and high resolution].

    PubMed

    Hao, Ai-Hua; Hu, Bing-Liang; Bai, Jia-Guang; Li, Li-Bo; Yu, Tao; Li, Si-Yuan

    2013-12-01

    The ultraviolet-visible (UV-Vis 200-500 nm) imaging spectrometer is an important part of space remote sensing. Based on special requirements and practical application of the airborne UV-VIS spectrometer, a kind of scanning imaging spectrometer using area array CCD is proposed, which can meet the application requirements of large field of view, wide spectrum and high resolution. It overcomes low spatial resolution of traditional line array CCD scanning imaging spectrometer, and limited field of view of the pushbroom imaging spectrometer. In addition, dual channel was designed to reduce stray light. 400-500 nm band includes two order spectrum for 200-250 nm band, and variation of radiance from earth between the shorter wavelength (<290 nm) and the longer wavelength (>310 nm) is above three orders of magnitude. In the structure design of the system, the imaging spectrometer is composed of a two-mirror concentric telescope and two Czerny-Turner plane grating imaging spectrometers. The whole system doesn't use any additional optical elements in addition to spherical mirrors. The whole system has the advantage of simple structure, excellent performance, and very good feasibility. The modulation transfer function value of full spectrum and full field of view is above 0.6. PMID:24611417

  1. Compact Reflective Imaging Spectrometer Design Utilizing An Immersed Grating And Anamorphic Mirror

    DOEpatents

    Lerner, Scott A.

    2006-01-10

    A compact imaging spectrometer comprising an entrance slit, an anamorphic mirror, a grating, and a detector array. The entrance slit directs light to the anamorphic mirror. The anamorphic mirror receives the light and directs the light to the grating. The grating receives the light from the anamorphic mirror and defracts the light back onto the anamorphic mirror. The anamorphic mirror focuses the light onto a detector array.

  2. The moderate resolution imaging spectrometer: An EOS facility instrument candidate for application of data compression methods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Salomonson, Vincent V.

    1991-01-01

    The Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectrometer (MODIS) observing facility will operate on the Earth Observing System (EOS) in the late 1990's. It is estimated that this observing facility will produce over 200 gigabytes of data per day requiring a storage capability of just over 300 gigabytes per day. Archiving, browsing, and distributing the data associated with MODIS represents a rich opportunity for testing and applying both lossless and lossy data compression methods.

  3. Concept Study Report: Extreme-Ultraviolet Imaging Spectrometer Solar-B

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Doschek, George, A.; Brown, Charles M.; Davila, Joseph M.; Dere, Kenneth P.; Korendyke, Clarence M.; Mariska, John T.; Seely, John F.

    1999-01-01

    We propose a next generation Extreme-ultraviolet Imaging Spectrometer (EIS) that for the first time combines high spectral, spatial, and temporal resolution in a single solar spectroscopic instrument. The instrument consists of a multilayer-coated off-axis telescope mirror and a multilayer-coated grating spectrometer. The telescope mirror forms solar images on the spectrometer entrance slit assembly. The spectrometer forms stigmatic spectra of the solar region located at the slit. This region is selected by the articulated telescope mirror. Monochromatic images are obtained either by rastering the solar region across a narrow entrance slit, or by using a very wide slit (called a slot) in place of the slit. Monochromatic images of the region centered on the slot are obtained in a single exposure. Half of each optic is coated to maximize reflectance at 195 Angstroms; the other half to maximize reflectance at 270 Angstroms. The two Extreme Ultraviolet (EUV) wavelength bands have been selected to maximize spectral and dynamical and plasma diagnostic capabilities. Spectral lines are observed that are formed over a temperature range from about 0.1 MK to about 20 MK. The main EIS instrument characteristics are: wavelength bands - 180 to 204 Angstroms; 250 to 290 Angstroms; spectral resolution - 0.0223 Angstroms/pixel (34.3km/s at 195 Angstroms and 23.6 km/s at 284 Angstroms); slit dimensions - 4 slits, two currently specified dimensions are 1" x 1024" and 50" x 1024" (the slot); largest spatial field of view in a single exposure - 50" x 1024"; highest time resolution for active region velocity studies - 4.4 s.

  4. Spherical crystal imaging spectrometer (SCIS) for cosmic x-ray spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Schnopper, H W; Taylor, P O

    1980-10-01

    The application of a spherically bent crystal x-ray spectrometer to cosmic x-ray problems is discussed. This is the only geometry whose diffraction properties are preserved under all rotations of the spacecraft. The combination of Bragg reflection and spherical aberration provides for stigmatic imaging of extended sources and minimum spatial and/or spectral resolution loss arising from source extent and spacecraft pointing errors. The sensitivity of the instrument is discussed in the context of a Spacelab mission. PMID:20234612

  5. The Tomographic Ionized-Carbon Mapping Experiment (TIME) CII Imaging Spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Staniszewski, Z.; Bock, J. J.; Bradford, C. M.; Brevik, J.; Cooray, A.; Gong, Y.; Hailey-Dunsheath, S.; O'Brient, R.; Santos, M.; Shirokoff, E.; Silva, M.; Zemcov, M.

    2014-09-01

    The Tomographic Ionized-Carbon Mapping Experiment (TIME) and TIME-Pilot are proposed imaging spectrometers to measure reionization and large scale structure at redshifts 5-9. We seek to exploit the 158 restframe emission of [CII], which becomes measurable at 200-300 GHz at reionization redshifts. Here we describe the scientific motivation, give an overview of the proposed instrument, and highlight key technological developments underway to enable these measurements.

  6. Recent Improvements to the Airborne Visible/Infrared Imaging Spectrometer (AVRIS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chrien, T.; Eastwood, M.; Green, R.; Sarture, C.

    1995-01-01

    Several improvements have been made to the Airborne Visible/Infrared Imaging Spectrometer (AVRIS) since 1994--new focal plane arrays, a new analog and digital chain and an onboard calibration lamp controlled by radiance feedback. These changes increased the signal-to- noise ratio by 2 to 3 times, eliminated noise spikes and the need for spectral sampling, and greatly reduced dark-current noise.

  7. Compact Micro-Imaging Spectrometer (CMIS): Investigation of Imaging Spectroscopy and Its Application to Mars Geology and Astrobiology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Staten, Paul W.

    2005-01-01

    Future missions to Mars will attempt to answer questions about Mars' geological and biological history. The goal of the CMIS project is to design, construct, and test a capable, multi-spectral micro-imaging spectrometer use in such missions. A breadboard instrument has been constructed with a micro-imaging camera and Several multi-wavelength LED illumination rings. Test samples have been chosen for their interest to spectroscopists, geologists and astrobiologists. Preliminary analysis has demonstrated the advantages of isotropic illumination and micro-imaging spectroscopy over spot spectroscopy.

  8. Ultraviolet imaging spectrometer (UVS) experiment on board the NOZOMI spacecraft: Instrumentation and initial results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taguchi, M.; Fukunishi, H.; Watanabe, S.; Okano, S.; Takahashi, Y.; Kawahara, T. D.

    2000-01-01

    An ultraviolet imaging spectrometer (UVS) on board the PLANET-B (NOZOMI) spacecraft has been developed. The UVS instrument consists of a grating spectrometer (UVS-G), an absorption cell photometer (UVS-P) and an electronics unit (UVS-E). The UVS-G features a flat-field type spectrometer measuring emissions in the FUV and MUV range between 110 nm and 310 nm with a spectral resolution of 2-3 nm. The UVS-P is a photometer separately detecting hydrogen (H) and deuterium (D) Lyman aemissions by the absorption cell technique. They take images using the spin and orbital motion of the spacecraft. The major scientific objectives of the UVS experiment at Mars and the characteristics of the UVS are described. The MUV spectra of geocoronal and interplanetary Lyman aemissions and lunar images taken at wavelength of hydrogen Lyman a and the background at 170 nm are presented as representative examples of the UVS observations during the Earth orbiting phase and the Mars transfer phase.

  9. [Spectral Calibration of Space-born Imaging Spectrometers Using Spectrum-Matching Technique].

    PubMed

    Zhao, Min-jie; Si, Fu-qi; Lu, Yi-huai; Wang, Yu; Wang, Shi-mei; Jiang, Yu; Zhou, Hai-jin; Liu, Wen-qing

    2015-07-01

    Spectral calibration of space-born imaging spectrometers based on spectrum-matching technique is presented, which adopts atmospheric absorption lines as the matching lines, and chooses correlation coefficient method as the criteria. In order to simulation the onboard spectral calibration, the spectrum-matching technique is applied on the imaging spectrometers that after the vibration test. The vibration test is able to simulation the launching. The spectral resolution, center wavelength of two-dimensional pixel is determined during onboard spectral calibration. As the calibration results show, the spectral resolution of imaging spectrometers after the vibration test is 0.40 nm, it is the same comparing to the value before the vibration, the wavelength shifts 0.08 nm towards the long wave for the spectral pixels, and the spectral smile is determined for all spatial elements, which shifts towards the short wave direction, with the max smile value is 0.96 nm, the result is similar to that before the vibration. As a result, the spectrum-matching technique is tested and verified. PMID:26717777

  10. [Design of optical system for solar extreme-ultraviolet imaging spectrometer].

    PubMed

    Liu, Zhuang; Gong, Yan

    2012-03-01

    Hyper-spectral imaging observation of the sun in the EUV region is an important method of research for solar's upper transition region, corona and plasma's physical property. Based on the application objective of solar extreme ultraviolet imaging spectrometer (SEUIS), combined with the current states of domestic and foreign extreme ultraviolet imaging spectrometer, a few of parameters for SEUIS design were drew up in the present paper. The advantages and disadvantages of all kinds of optical configurations were discussed,and the configuration of combination of telescope and spectrometer was chosen. The available main components were also described, off-axis parabolic mirror was chosen for telescope, and a high density uniform-line-space toroidal grating for dispersion device. The optical system which satisfies the performance parameters was designed. The design process, detailed parameters and results were presented in the end. The working wavelength of the optics system is 17.0-21.0 nm, the field of view is 1 228" x 1 024", the spatial resolution is 0.8 arc sec x pixel(-1), the spectral resolution is about 0.00198 nm x pixel(-1), and the total length of system is about 2.8 m. PMID:22582664

  11. Imaging performance and modeling of the Infrared Multi-Object Spectrometer focal reducer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Connelly, Joseph A.; Ohl, Raymond G., IV; Saha, Timo T.; Hadjimichael, Theo; Mentzell, John E.; Mink, Ronald G.; Hylan, Jason E.; Sparr, Leroy M.; Chambers, John; Hagopian, John J.; Greenhouse, Matthew A.; Winsor, Robert S.; MacKenty, John W.

    2003-03-01

    The Infrared Multi-Object Spectrometer (IRMOS) is a facility instrument for the Kitt Peak National Observatory 4 and 2.1 meter telescopes. IRMOS is a near-IR (0.8 2.5 μm) spectrometer with low- to mid-resolving power (R = 300 3000). The IRMOS spectrometer produces simultaneous spectra of ~100 objects in its 2.8 x 2.0 arcmin field of view using a commercial MEMS multi-mirror array device (MMA) from Texas Instruments. The IRMOS optical design consists of two imaging subsystems. The focal reducer images the focal plane of the telescope onto the MMA field stop, and the spectrograph images the MMA onto the detector. We describe the breadboard subsystem alignment method and imaging performance of the focal reducer. This testing provides verification of the optomechanical alignment method and a measurement of near-angle scattered light due to mirror small-scale surface error. Interferometric measurements of subsystem wavefront error serve to verify alignment and are accomplished using a commercial, modified Twyman-Green laser unequal path interferometer. Image testing is then performed for the central field point. A mercury-argon pencil lamp provides the spectral line at 546.1 nm, and a CCD camera is the detector. We use the Optical Surface Analysis Code to predict the point-spread function and its effect on instrument slit transmission, and our breadboard test results validate this prediction. Our results show that scattered light from the subsystem and encircled energy is slightly worse than expected. Finally, we perform component level image testing of the MMA, and our results show that scattered light from the MMA is of the same magnitude as that of the focal reducer.

  12. An Overview of High-Resolution, Non-Dispersive, Imaging Spectrometers for High-Energy Photons

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kilbourne, Caroline

    2010-01-01

    High-resolution x-ray spectroscopy has become a powerful tool for studying the evolving universe. The grating spectrometers on the XMM and Chandra satellites initiated a new era in x-ray astronomy. Despite their successes, there is still need for instrumentation that can provide higher spectral resolution with high throughput in the Fe-K band and for extended sources. What is needed is a non-dispersive imaging spectrometer - essentially a 14-bit x-ray color camera. And a requirement for a nondispersive spectrometer designed to provide eV-scale spectral resolution is a temperature below 0.1 K. The required spectral resolution and the constraints of thermodynamics and engineering dictate the temperature regime nearly independently of the details of the sensor or the read-out technology. Low-temperature spectrometers can be divided into two classes - - equilibrium and non-equilibrium. In the equilibrium devices, or calorimeters, the energy is deposited in an isolated thermal mass and the resulting increase in temperature is measured. In the non-equilibrium devices, the absorbed energy produces quantized excitations that are counted to determine the energy. The two approaches have different strong points, and within each class a variety of optimizations have been pursued. I will present the basic fundamentals of operation and the details of the most successful device designs to date. I will also discuss how the measurement priorities (resolution, energy band, count rate) influence the optimal choice of detector technology.

  13. Comparison of techniques for discriminating hydrothermal alteration minerals with Airborne Imaging Spectrometer data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Feldman, Sandra C.; Taranik, James V.

    1988-01-01

    Hydrothermal alteration mineralogy in the Tybo mining district of Nevada has been mapped on the basis of high spectral and spatial resolution Airborne Imaging Spectrometer (AIS) data, using band ratios, principal component analysis, and a signature-matching algorithm to delineate the alteration zones and limestone foundations. The signature-matching algorithm is found to be the most effective method of discriminating alteration minerals, and is noted to be able to identify mineralogy by matching AIS image spectra with library reference spectra. AIS bands in the 2048-2337-nm portion of the spectrum accounted for the greatest amount of variance.

  14. Detection and direct identification of liquid contaminants at standoff distances with an imaging polarimetric spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsiang, Eugene; Oberbeck, Adam; Akagi, Jason; Knobbe, Ed

    2015-06-01

    We demonstrate a remote sensing method, based on an imaging polarimetric spectrometer, to determine the complex refractive index of materials. The approach represents an adaptation of a technique used in semiconductor ellipsometry. Our experimental demonstration setup comprises a Sagnac-type LWIR spatial interferometer (8 - 12 micron) designed for hyperspectral imaging in emission and reflection. The method facilitates direct measurement of the complex refractive index and the thickness of a layer. Presented work focuses on SF96, a liquid surrogate for toxic chemicals, but the method is generally applicable to solids, including soils, and to any substrate with a general bidirectional reflectance distribution function.

  15. Automated turbulences jitters correction with a dual ports imaging Fourier-transform spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prel, Florent; Lantagne, Stéphane; Moreau, Louis; Roy, Claude

    2015-05-01

    When the scene observed by an imaging Fourier-Transform Spectrometer is not stable in amplitude or in position during the time it takes to acquire to spectrum, spectro-radiometric artifacts are generated. These artifacts reduce the radiometric accuracy and may also damage the spectral line shape. The displacements of the scene in the field of view can be due to air turbulence, platform jitters or scene jitters. We describe an automated correction process based on the information provided by the second output port of a two-port imaging FTS. Corrected and uncorrected data will be compared.

  16. Advanced Remote-Sensing Imaging Emission Spectrometer (ARIES): AIRS Spectral Resolution with MODIS Spatial Resolution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pagano, Thomas S.; Chahine, Moustafa T.; Aumann, Hartmut H.; OCallaghan, Fred

    2006-01-01

    The Advanced Remote-sensing Imaging Emission Spectrometer (ARIES) will measure a wide range of earth quantities fundamental to the study of global climate change. It will build upon the success of the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) and the Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) instruments currently flying on the EOS Aqua Spacecraft. Both instruments are facility instruments for NASA providing data to thousands of scientists investigating land, ocean and atmospheric Earth System processes. ARIES will meet all the requirements of AIRS and MODIS in a single compact instrument, while providing the next-generation capability of improved spatial resolution for AIRS and improved spectral resolution for MODIS.

  17. Overview of Austrian Airborne Imaging Spectrometer (AIS) programme and first results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Banninger, C.

    1987-01-01

    Airborne Imaging Spectrometer (AIS) data collected from eight test areas in Austria were evaluated for their usefulness in forest damage assessment, geobotany, alpine vegetation mapping, and land use classification. Difficulties encountered in installing the SPAM spectral analysis software for use on the image display system and the necessity to adapt existing programs for this task impeded and delayed the analysis of the AIS data. Spectral reflectance curves obtained from a geobotanical test site show a marked increase in reflectance across most of the measured spectrum for metal stressed spruce trees compared with nonstressed spruce trees.

  18. A Web-Based Search Service to Support Imaging Spectrometer Instrument Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Alexander; Thompson, David R.; Sayfi, Elias; Xing, Zhangfan; Castano, Rebecca

    2013-01-01

    Imaging spectrometers yield rich and informative data products, but interpreting them demands time and expertise. There is a continual need for new algorithms and methods for rapid first-draft analyses to assist analysts during instrument opera-tions. Intelligent data analyses can summarize scenes to draft geologic maps, searching images to direct op-erator attention to key features. This validates data quality while facilitating rapid tactical decision making to select followup targets. Ideally these algorithms would operate in seconds, never grow bored, and be free from observation bias about the kinds of mineral-ogy that will be found.

  19. MODIS: Moderate-resolution imaging spectrometer. Earth observing system, volume 2B

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1986-01-01

    The Moderate-Resolution Imaging Spectrometer (MODIS), as presently conceived, is a system of two imaging spectroradiometer components designed for the widest possible applicability to research tasks that require long-term (5 to 10 years), low-resolution (52 channels between 0.4 and 12.0 micrometers) data sets. The system described is preliminary and subject to scientific and technological review and modification, and it is anticipated that both will occur prior to selection of a final system configuration; however, the basic concept outlined is likely to remain unchanged.

  20. A compact Fourier transform imaging spectrometer employing a variable gap Fabry-Perot interferometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lucey, Paul G.; Akagi, Jason; Bingham, Adam L.; Hinrichs, John L.; Knobbe, Edward T.

    2014-05-01

    Fourier transform spectroscopy is a widely employed method for obtaining visible and infrared spectral imagery, with applications ranging from the desktop to remote sensing. Most fielded Fourier transform spectrometers (FTS) employ the Michelson interferometer and measure the spectrum encoded in a time-varying signal imposed by the source spectrum interaction with the interferometer. A second, less widely used form of FTS is the spatial FTS, where the spectrum is encoded in a pattern sampled by a detector array. Recently we described using a Fabry-Perot interferometer, with a deliberately wedged gap geometry and engineered surface reflectivities, to produce an imaging spatial FTS. The Fabry-Perot interferometer can be much lighter and more compact than a conventional interferometer configuration, thereby making them suitable for portable and handheld applications. This approach is suitable for use over many spectral regimes of interest, including visible and infrared regions. Primary efforts to date have focused on development and demonstration of long wave infrared (LWIR) spectral imagers. The LWIR version of the miniaturized Fabry-Perot has been shown to be effective for various applications including spectral imaging-based chemical detection. The compact LWIR spectral imager employs uncooled optics and a microbolometer camera; a handheld version is envisioned for future development. Recent advancements associated with the spatial Fourier Transform imaging spectrometer system are described.

  1. A Digital Sensor Simulator of the Pushbroom Offner Hyperspectral Imaging Spectrometer

    PubMed Central

    Tao, Dongxing; Jia, Guorui; Yuan, Yan; Zhao, Huijie

    2014-01-01

    Sensor simulators can be used in forecasting the imaging quality of a new hyperspectral imaging spectrometer, and generating simulated data for the development and validation of the data processing algorithms. This paper presents a novel digital sensor simulator for the pushbroom Offner hyperspectral imaging spectrometer, which is widely used in the hyperspectral remote sensing. Based on the imaging process, the sensor simulator consists of a spatial response module, a spectral response module, and a radiometric response module. In order to enhance the simulation accuracy, spatial interpolation-resampling, which is implemented before the spatial degradation, is developed to compromise the direction error and the extra aliasing effect. Instead of using the spectral response function (SRF), the dispersive imaging characteristics of the Offner convex grating optical system is accurately modeled by its configuration parameters. The non-uniformity characteristics, such as keystone and smile effects, are simulated in the corresponding modules. In this work, the spatial, spectral and radiometric calibration processes are simulated to provide the parameters of modulation transfer function (MTF), SRF and radiometric calibration parameters of the sensor simulator. Some uncertainty factors (the stability, band width of the monochromator for the spectral calibration, and the integrating sphere uncertainty for the radiometric calibration) are considered in the simulation of the calibration process. With the calibration parameters, several experiments were designed to validate the spatial, spectral and radiometric response of the sensor simulator, respectively. The experiment results indicate that the sensor simulator is valid. PMID:25615727

  2. A digital sensor simulator of the pushbroom Offner hyperspectral imaging spectrometer.

    PubMed

    Tao, Dongxing; Jia, Guorui; Yuan, Yan; Zhao, Huijie

    2014-01-01

    Sensor simulators can be used in forecasting the imaging quality of a new hyperspectral imaging spectrometer, and generating simulated data for the development and validation of the data processing algorithms. This paper presents a novel digital sensor simulator for the pushbroom Offner hyperspectral imaging spectrometer, which is widely used in the hyperspectral remote sensing. Based on the imaging process, the sensor simulator consists of a spatial response module, a spectral response module, and a radiometric response module. In order to enhance the simulation accuracy, spatial interpolation-resampling, which is implemented before the spatial degradation, is developed to compromise the direction error and the extra aliasing effect. Instead of using the spectral response function (SRF), the dispersive imaging characteristics of the Offner convex grating optical system is accurately modeled by its configuration parameters. The non-uniformity characteristics, such as keystone and smile effects, are simulated in the corresponding modules. In this work, the spatial, spectral and radiometric calibration processes are simulated to provide the parameters of modulation transfer function (MTF), SRF and radiometric calibration parameters of the sensor simulator. Some uncertainty factors (the stability, band width of the monochromator for the spectral calibration, and the integrating sphere uncertainty for the radiometric calibration) are considered in the simulation of the calibration process. With the calibration parameters, several experiments were designed to validate the spatial, spectral and radiometric response of the sensor simulator, respectively. The experiment results indicate that the sensor simulator is valid. PMID:25615727

  3. Spectrometer-free vibrational imaging by retrieving stimulated Raman signal from highly scattered photons

    PubMed Central

    Liao, Chien-Sheng; Wang, Pu; Wang, Ping; Li, Junjie; Lee, Hyeon Jeong; Eakins, Gregory; Cheng, Ji-Xin

    2015-01-01

    In vivo vibrational spectroscopic imaging is inhibited by relatively slow spectral acquisition on the second scale and low photon collection efficiency for a highly scattering system. Recently developed multiplex coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering and stimulated Raman scattering techniques have improved the spectral acquisition time down to microsecond scale. These methods using a spectrometer setting are not suitable for turbid systems in which nearly all photons are scattered. We demonstrate vibrational imaging by spatial frequency multiplexing of incident photons and single photodiode detection of a stimulated Raman spectrum within 60 μs. Compared to the spectrometer setting, our method improved the photon collection efficiency by two orders of magnitude for highly scattering specimens. We demonstrated in vivo imaging of vitamin E distribution on mouse skin and in situ imaging of human breast cancerous tissues. The reported work opens new opportunities for spectroscopic imaging in a surgical room and for development of deep-tissue Raman spectroscopy toward molecular level diagnosis. PMID:26601311

  4. Surface mineral maps of Afghanistan derived from HyMap imaging spectrometer data, version 2

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kokaly, Raymond F.; King, Trude V.V.; Hoefen, Todd M.

    2013-01-01

    This report presents a new version of surface mineral maps derived from HyMap imaging spectrometer data collected over Afghanistan in the fall of 2007. This report also describes the processing steps applied to the imaging spectrometer data. The 218 individual flight lines composing the Afghanistan dataset, covering more than 438,000 square kilometers, were georeferenced to a mosaic of orthorectified Landsat images. The HyMap data were converted from radiance to reflectance using a radiative transfer program in combination with ground-calibration sites and a network of cross-cutting calibration flight lines. The U.S. Geological Survey Material Identification and Characterization Algorithm (MICA) was used to generate two thematic maps of surface minerals: a map of iron-bearing minerals and other materials, which have their primary absorption features at the shorter wavelengths of the reflected solar wavelength range, and a map of carbonates, phyllosilicates, sulfates, altered minerals, and other materials, which have their primary absorption features at the longer wavelengths of the reflected solar wavelength range. In contrast to the original version, version 2 of these maps is provided at full resolution of 23-meter pixel size. The thematic maps, MICA summary images, and the material fit and depth images are distributed in digital files linked to this report, in a format readable by remote sensing software and Geographic Information Systems (GIS). The digital files can be downloaded from http://pubs.usgs.gov/ds/787/downloads/.

  5. JIRAM, the image spectrometer in the near infrared on board the Juno mission to Jupiter.

    PubMed

    Adriani, Alberto; Coradini, Angioletta; Filacchione, Gianrico; Lunine, Jonathan I; Bini, Alessandro; Pasqui, Claudio; Calamai, Luciano; Colosimo, Fedele; Dinelli, Bianca M; Grassi, Davide; Magni, Gianfranco; Moriconi, Maria L; Orosei, Roberto

    2008-06-01

    The Jovian InfraRed Auroral Mapper (JIRAM) has been accepted by NASA for inclusion in the New Frontiers mission "Juno," which will launch in August 2011. JIRAM will explore the dynamics and the chemistry of Jupiter's auroral regions by high-contrast imaging and spectroscopy. It will also analyze jovian hot spots to determine their vertical structure and infer possible mechanisms for their formation. JIRAM will sound the jovian meteorological layer to map moist convection and determine water abundance and other constituents at depths that correspond to several bars pressure. JIRAM is equipped with a single telescope that accommodates both an infrared camera and a spectrometer to facilitate a large observational flexibility in obtaining simultaneous images in the L and M bands with the spectral radiance over the central zone of the images. Moreover, JIRAM will be able to perform spectral imaging of the planet in the 2.0-5.0 microm interval of wavelengths with a spectral resolution better than 10 nm. Instrument design, modes, and observation strategy will be optimized for operations onboard a spinning satellite in polar orbit around Jupiter. The JIRAM heritage comes from Italian-made, visual-infrared imaging spectrometers dedicated to planetary exploration, such as VIMS-V on Cassini, VIRTIS on Rosetta and Venus Express, and VIR-MS on the Dawn mission. PMID:18680411

  6. Ultra-compact imaging spectrometer for remote, in situ, and microscopic planetary mineralogy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Van Gorp, Byron; Mouroulis, Pantazis; Blaney, Diana; Green, Robert O.; Ehlmann, Bethany L.; Rodriguez, Jose I.

    2014-01-01

    The ultra-compact imaging spectrometer is a miniature imaging spectrometer that has been designed for compatibility with operation in a Martian environment. The spectrometer can be mated to a variety of front optics, both telescopic and microscopic. With a miniature telescope, it can serve as a rover mast instrument that surveys the surrounding area from a distance of ˜1 m to infinity and produces full spectral data (500 to 2500 nm) of a wide panoramic scene in order to find the most mineralogically promising targets for further analysis and for directing subsequent rover activities. With a microscopic front lens, it can serve as an analytical tool for determining types of minerals in a rock and their spatial relations at a scale of tens of micrometers in order to make detailed interpretations of geological history. A realization of the instrument, adapted for operation in the Earth's atmosphere, has been produced and tested both in the laboratory and in the field. The results prove the ability of the instrument to detect and map minerals of interest in both modes of operation.

  7. Compact snapshot birefringent imaging Fourier transform spectrometer for remote sensing and endoscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kudenov, Michael W.; Banerjee, Bhaskar; Chan, Victoria C.; Dereniak, Eustace L.

    2012-09-01

    The design and implementation of a compact multiple-image Fourier transform spectrometer (FTS) is presented. Based on the multiple-image FTS originally developed by A. Hirai, the presented device offers significant advantages over his original implementation. Namely, its birefringent nature results in a common-path interferometer which makes the spectrometer insensitive to vibration. Furthermore, it enables the potential of making the instrument ultra-compact, thereby improving the portability of the sensor. The theory of the birefringent FTS is provided, followed by details of its specific embodiment. A laboratory proof of concept of the sensor, designed and developed at the Optical Detection Lab, is also presented. Spectral measurements of laboratory sources are provided, including measurements of light-emitting diodes and gas-discharge lamps. These spectra are verified against a calibrated Ocean Optics USB2000 spectrometer. Other data were collected outdoors and of a rat esophagus, demonstrating the sensor's ability to resolve spectral signatures in both standard outdoor lighting and environmental conditions, as well as in fluorescence spectroscopy.

  8. Influence of wavefront aberration on the imaging performance of the solar grating spectrometer.

    PubMed

    Zheng, L H; Rao, C H; Gu, N T; Huang, L H; Qiu, Q

    2016-01-11

    The solar grating spectrometer is an important tool to study the thermodynamic properties of the solar atmosphere with different height distribution, but its imaging performance will be degraded by the wavefront aberration. On the other hand, narrow slit of the grating spectrometer will filter the wavefront aberration to a certain extent. In this paper, the mathematical relation between the wavefront aberration and the imaging performance of the grating spectrometer is derived. The numerical simulation is performed and is validated by the experiment. The results demonstrate that: The influence of the wavefront aberration with the different types and magnitudes on the spectral resolution and the energy utilization is different. The influence of the different slits on the wavefront aberrations is different. Generally, the smaller the slit is, the better the spectral resolution is. However, this is not true for the low-frequency dominated aberration, e.g. the defocus, since its low frequency will also be blocked by the narrow slit. If the influence of the filter slit on the wavefront aberration cannot be taken into account, it will lead to adaptive optics over-compensation. PMID:26832247

  9. Spectrometer Observations Near Mawrth Vallis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    This targeted image from the Compact Reconnaissance Imaging Spectrometer for Mars (CRISM) shows a region of heavily altered rock in Mars' ancient cratered highlands. The featured region is just south of Mawrth Vallis, a channel cut by floodwaters deep into the highlands.

    CRISM acquired the image at 1216 UTC (8:16 a.m. EDT) on Oct. 2, 2006, near 25.4 degrees north latitude, 340.7 degrees east longitude. It covers an area about 13 kilometers (8 miles) long and, at the narrowest point, about 9 kilometers (5.6 miles) wide. At the center of the image, the spatial resolution is as good as 35 meters (115 feet) per pixel. The image was taken in 544 colors covering 0.36-3.92 micrometers.

    This image includes four renderings of the data, all map-projected. At top left is an approximately true-color representation. At top right is false color showing brightness of the surface at selected infrared wavelengths. In the two bottom views, brightness of the surface at different infrared wavelengths has been compared to laboratory measurements of minerals, and regions that match different minerals have been colored. The bottom left image shows areas high in iron-rich clay, and the bottom right image shows areas high in aluminum-rich clay.

    Clay minerals are important to understanding the history of water on Mars because their formation requires that rocks were exposed to liquid water for a long time. Environments where they form include soils, cold springs, and hot springs. There are many clay minerals, and which ones form depends on the composition of the rock, and the temperature, acidity, and salt content of the water. CRISM's sister instrument on the Mars Express spacecraft, OMEGA, has spectrally mapped Mars at lower spatial resolution and found several regions rich in clay minerals. The Mawrth Vallis region, in particular, was found to contain iron-rich clay. CRISM is observing these regions at several tens of times higher spatial resolution, to correlate the

  10. Gaseous effluent monitoring and identification using an imaging Fourier transform spectrometer

    SciTech Connect

    Carter, M.R.; Bennett, C.L.; Fields, D.J.; Hernandez, J.

    1993-10-01

    We are developing an imaging Fourier transform spectrometer for chemical effluent monitoring. The system consists of a 2-D infrared imaging array in the focal plane of a Michelson interferometer. Individual images are coordinated with the positioning of a moving mirror in the Michelson interferometer. A three dimensional data cube with two spatial dimensions and one interferogram dimension is then Fourier transformed to produce a hyperspectral data cube with one spectral dimension and two spatial dimensions. The spectral range of the instrument is determined by the choice of optical components and the spectral range of the focal plane array. Measurements in the near UV, visible, near IR, and mid-IR ranges are possible with the existing instrument. Gaseous effluent monitoring and identification measurements will be primarily in the ``fingerprint`` region of the spectrum, ({lambda} = 8 to 12 {mu}m). Initial measurements of effluent using this imaging interferometer in the mid-IR will be presented.

  11. The Moon Mineralogy (M3) Imaging Spectrometer: Early Assessment of the Spectral, Radiometric, Spatial and Uniformity Properties

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Green, Robert O.; Pieters, C. M.; Boardman, J.; Barr, D.; Bruce, C.; Bousman, J.; Chatterjee, A.; Eastwood, M.; Essandoh, V.; Geier, S.; Glavich, T.; Green, R.; Haemmerle, V.; Hyman, S.; Hovland, L.; Koch, T.; Lee, K.; Lundeen, S.; Motts, E.; Mouroulis, P.; Paulson, S.; Plourde, K.; Racho, C.; Robinson, D.; Rodriquez, J.

    2009-01-01

    The Moon Mineralogy Mapper's (M3) is a high uniformity and high signal-to-noise ratio NASA imaging spectrometer that is a guest instrument on the Indian Chandrayaan-1 Mission to the Moon. The laboratory measured spectral, radiometric, spatial, and uniformity characteristics of the M3 instrument are given. The M3 imaging spectrometer takes advantage of a suite of critical enabling capabilities to achieve its measurement requirement with a mass of 8 kg, power usage of 15 W, and volume of 25X18X12 cm. The M3 detector and spectrometer are cooled by a multi-stage passive cooler. This paper presents early M3 performance assessment results.

  12. X-Ray Imaging Crystal Spectrometer for Extended X-Ray Sources

    SciTech Connect

    Bitter, Manfred L.; Fraekel, Benjamin; Gorman, James L.; Hill, Kenneth W.; Roquemore, Lane A.; Stodiek, Wolfgang; Goeler, Schweickhard von

    1999-05-01

    Spherically or toroidally curved, double focusing crystals are used in a spectrometer for X-ray diagnostics of an extended X-ray source such as a hot plasma produced in a tokamak fusion experiment to provide spatially and temporally resolved data on plasma parameters such as ion temperature, toroidal and poloidal rotation, electron temperature, impurity ion charge-state distributions, and impurity transport. The imaging properties of these spherically or toroidally curved crystals provide both spectrally and spatially resolved X-ray data from the plasma using only one small spherically or toroidally curved crystal, thus eliminating the requirement for a large array of crystal spectrometers and the need to cross-calibrate the various crystals.

  13. Optical simulation for imaging reconnaissance and intelligence sensors OSIRIS: High fidelity sensor simulation test bed; Modified user`s manual

    SciTech Connect

    Abernathy, M.F.; Puccetti, M.G.

    1988-01-04

    The OSIRIS program is an imaging optical simulation program which has been developed to predict the output of space-borne sensor systems. The simulation is radiometrically precise and includes highly realistic laser, atmosphere, and earth background models, as well as detailed models of optical components. This system was developed by Rockwell Power Services for the Los Alamos National Laboratory. It is based upon the LARC (Los Alamos Radiometry Code, also by Rockwell), and uses a similar command structure and 3d coordinate system as LARC. At present OSIRIS runs on the Cray I computer under the CTSS operating s stem, and is stored in the OSIRIS root directory on LANL CTSS mass storage.

  14. Effect of the fringe visibility on spectrum SNR of Fourier transform imaging spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Shuang; Bin, Xiangli; Jing, Juanjuan; Pi, Haifeng

    2013-08-01

    The principle of Fourier transform spectrometer is based on the relationship of Fourier-Transform between interferogram and spectrum. The spectral information of Fourier transform imaging spectrometer (FTIS) reconstructed from raw interferogram by data processing. So there are two kinds of signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) to evaluate instrument performance, one regarding interferogram and the other regarding reconstructed spectrum. Because the raw interferogram is intuitive, the interferogram SNR is studied usually. On the contrary, the spectrum SNR is studied less because of the complexity of the data processing from interferogram to spectrum. The research about the effect of the interference fringe visibility on the spectrum SNR is especially few. This paper present a research work on the relations between the interference fringe visibility and the spectrum SNR. Firstly, the reduction of fringe visibility caused by imaging lens defocus was analyzed. Secondly, the changes of the average spectrum signal and noise caused by the reduction of fringe visibility were calculated. For average spectrum signal, the math deductions are done base on Fourier transform theory. The average noise with different input signal optic-electrons number are simulated. the results show that the average spectrum signal is directly proportional to the fringe visibility, and the effect of fringe visibility on the noise related to signal can be ignorable. Finally, In order to demonstrate above results, the imaging experiment was done with white-light source, using LASIS (Large aperture static imaging spectrometer) based on Sagnac Interferometer. The average spectrum SNRs under different fringe visibility are calculated and analyzed. The experimental results show that: the average spectrum SNRs increase from 42.7 to 62.4.along with the fringe visibility increasing from 0.5051 to 0.687. the reconstructed spectrum SNR is directly proportional to the fringe visibility. As a result, the interferogram

  15. DELICIOUS III: A multipurpose double imaging particle coincidence spectrometer for gas phase vacuum ultraviolet photodynamics studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garcia, G. A.; Cunha de Miranda, B. K.; Tia, M.; Daly, S.; Nahon, L.

    2013-05-01

    We present a versatile double imaging particle coincidence spectrometer operating in fully continuous mode, named DELICIOUS III, which combines a velocity map imaging device and a modified Wiley-McLaren time of flight momentum imaging analyzer for photoelectrons and photoions, respectively. The spectrometer is installed in a permanent endstation on the DESIRS vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) beamline at the French National Synchrotron Radiation Facility SOLEIL, and is dedicated to gas phase VUV spectroscopy, photoionization, and molecular dynamics studies. DELICIOUS III is capable of recording mass-selected threshold photoelectron photoion coincidence spectra with a sub-meV resolution, and the addition of a magnifying lens inside the electron drift tube provides a sizeable improvement of the electron threshold/ion mass resolution compromise. In fast electron mode the ultimate kinetic energy resolution has been measured at ΔE/E = 4%. The ion spectrometer offers a mass resolution—full separation of adjacent masses—of 250 amu for moderate extraction fields and the addition of an electrostatic lens in the second acceleration region allows measuring the full 3D velocity vector for a given mass with an ultimate energy resolution of ΔE/E = 15%, without sacrificing the mass resolution. Hence, photoelectron images are correlated both to the mass and to the ion kinetic energy and recoil direction, to access the electron spectroscopy of size-selected species, to study the photodissociation processes of state-selected cations in detail, or to measure in certain cases photoelectron angular distributions in the ion recoil frame. The performances of DELICIOUS III are explored through several examples including the photoionization of N2, NO, and CF3.

  16. Simulation of parafoil reconnaissance imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kogler, Kent J.; Sutkus, Linas; Troast, Douglas; Kisatsky, Paul; Charles, Alain M.

    1995-08-01

    Reconnaissance from unmanned platforms is currently of interest to DoD and civil sectors concerned with drug trafficking and illegal immigration. Platforms employed vary from motorized aircraft to tethered balloons. One appraoch currently under evaluation deploys a TV camera suspended from a parafoil delivered to the area of interest by a cannon launched projectile. Imagery is then transmitted to a remote monitor for processing and interpretation. This paper presents results of imagery obtained from simulated parafoil flights in which software techniques were developed to process-in image degradation caused by atmospheric obscurants and perturbations in the normal parafoil flight trajectory induced by wind gusts. The approach to capturing continuous motion imagery from captive flight test recordings, the introduction of simulated effects, and the transfer of the processed imagery back to video tape is described.

  17. SHAred Reconnaissance Pod (SHARP) program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kent, Dennis C.

    2001-12-01

    The SHAred Reconnaissance Pod (SHARP) Program is a United States Navy tactical reconnaissance program that culminates in the supply of visible and infrared imagery products to the fleet. The intent of the program is to provide the warfighter the most robust tactical reconnaissance capability possible in a timely manner. The SHARP concept is a multi-function reconnaissance pod, adaptable to several airborne platforms for tactical manned airborne reconnaissance. The genesis platform is the Navy F/A-18. With regard to multi-platform application, a smart pod approach has been pursued with most of the required functionality being incorporated into the pod. SHARP will replace the Tactical Airborne Reconnaissance Pod System (TARPS) flying on the Navy F-14. This paper outlines the SHARP Program requirements and acquisition approach, along with the SHARP system capabilities and operation.

  18. Analysis of airborne imaging spectrometer data for the Ruby Mountains, Montana, by use of absorption-band-depth images

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brickey, David W.; Crowley, James K.; Rowan, Lawrence C.

    1987-01-01

    Airborne Imaging Spectrometer-1 (AIS-1) data were obtained for an area of amphibolite grade metamorphic rocks that have moderate rangeland vegetation cover. Although rock exposures are sparse and patchy at this site, soils are visible through the vegetation and typically comprise 20 to 30 percent of the surface area. Channel averaged low band depth images for diagnostic soil rock absorption bands. Sets of three such images were combined to produce color composite band depth images. This relative simple approach did not require extensive calibration efforts and was effective for discerning a number of spectrally distinctive rocks and soils, including soils having high talc concentrations. The results show that the high spectral and spatial resolution of AIS-1 and future sensors hold considerable promise for mapping mineral variations in soil, even in moderately vegetated areas.

  19. The use of airborne imaging spectrometer data to determine experimentally induced variation in coniferous canopy chemistry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Swanberg, Nancy A.; Matson, Pamela A.

    1987-01-01

    It was experimentally determined whether induced differences in forest canopy chemical composition can be detected using data from the Airborne Imaging Spectrometer (AIS). Treatments were applied to an even-aged forest of Douglas fir trees. Work to date has stressed wet chemical analysis of foilage samples and correction of AIS data. Plot treatments were successful in providing a range of foliar N2 concentrations. Much time was spent investigating and correcting problems with the raw AIS data. Initial problems with groups of drop out lines in the AIS data were traced to the tape recorder and the tape drive. Custom adjustment of the tape drive led to recovery of most missing lines. Remaining individual drop out lines were replaced using average of adjacent lines. Application of a notch filter to the Fourier transform of the image in each band satisfactorily removed vertical striping. The aspect ratio was corrected by resampling the image in the line direction using nearest neighbor interpolation.

  20. The spectrometer telescope for imaging x-rays on board the Solar Orbiter mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benz, A. O.; Krucker, S.; Hurford, G. J.; Arnold, N. G.; Orleanski, P.; Gröbelbauer, H.-P.; Klober, S.; Iseli, L.; Wiehl, H. J.; Csillaghy, A.; Etesi, L.; Hochmuth, N.; Battaglia, M.; Bednarzik, M.; Resanovic, R.; Grimm, O.; Viertel, G.; Commichau, V.; Meuris, A.; Limousin, O.; Brun, S.; Vilmer, N.; Skup, K. R.; Graczyk, R.; Stolarski, M.; Michalska, M.; Nowosielski, W.; Cichocki, A.; Mosdorf, M.; Seweryn, K.; Przepiórka, A.; Sylwester, J.; Kowalinski, M.; Mrozek, T.; Podgorski, P.; Mann, G.; Aurass, H.; Popow, E.; Onel, H.; Dionies, F.; Bauer, S.; Rendtel, J.; Warmuth, A.; Woche, M.; Plüschke, D.; Bittner, W.; Paschke, J.; Wolker, D.; Van Beek, H. F.; Farnik, F.; Kasparova, J.; Veronig, A. M.; Kienreich, I. W.; Gallagher, P. T.; Bloomfield, D. S.; Piana, M.; Massone, A. M.; Dennis, B. R.; Schwarz, R. A.; Lin, R. P.

    2012-09-01

    The Spectrometer Telescope for Imaging X-rays (STIX) is one of 10 instruments on board Solar Orbiter, a confirmed Mclass mission of the European Space Agency (ESA) within the Cosmic Vision program scheduled to be launched in 2017. STIX applies a Fourier-imaging technique using a set of tungsten grids (at pitches from 0.038 to 1 mm) in front of 32 pixelized CdTe detectors to provide imaging spectroscopy of solar thermal and non-thermal hard X-ray emissions from 4 to 150 keV. The status of the instrument reviewed in this paper is based on the design that passed the Preliminary Design Review (PDR) in early 2012. Particular emphasis is given to the first light of the detector system called Caliste-SO.

  1. Testing of an experimental photographic reconnaissance system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keil, H.; Schulz, P.

    1991-07-01

    A scientific flight experiment system for image processing and disturbance safe image transmission was tested, with a view to a Remotely Piloted Vehicle application. The special features of the system are IR image representation and storage, evaluation in the ground station, systems and image sensor control from the ground station, and disturbance safe duplex radio transmission between test aircraft and ground station. This experimental system was demonstrated to be an excellent tool for studies in the field of disturbance safe photographic reconnaissance. Parameters such as the reduction factor of the information flow and the influence of perturbations can be determined.

  2. Rest-wavelength fiducials for the ITER core imaging x-ray spectrometer.

    PubMed

    Beiersdorfer, P; Brown, G V; Graf, A T; Bitter, M; Hill, K W; Kelley, R L; Kilbourne, C A; Leutenegger, M A; Porter, F S

    2012-10-01

    Absolute wavelength references are needed to derive the plasma velocities from the Doppler shift of a given line emitted by a moving plasma. We show that such reference standards exist for the strongest x-ray line in neonlike W(64+), which has become the line of choice for the ITER (Latin "the way") core imaging x-ray spectrometer. Close-by standards are the Hf Lβ(3) line and the Ir Lα(2) line, which bracket the W(64+) line by ±30 eV; other standards are given by the Ir Lα(1) and Lα(2) lines and the Hf Lβ(1) and Lβ(2) lines, which bracket the W(64+) line by ±40 and ±160 eV, respectively. The reference standards can be produced by an x-ray tube built into the ITER spectrometer. We present spectra of the reference lines obtained with an x-ray microcalorimeter and compare them to spectra of the W(64+) line obtained both with an x-ray microcalorimeter and a crystal spectrometer. PMID:23126933

  3. Rest-wavelength Fiducials for the ITER Core Imaging X-ray Spectrometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beiersdorfer, P.; Brown, G. V.; Graf, A. T.; Bitter, M.; Hill, K. W.; Kelley, R. L.; Kilbourne, C. A.; Leutenegger, M. A.; Porter, F. S.

    2012-01-01

    Absolute wavelength references are needed to derive the plasma velocities from the Doppler shift of a given line emitted by a moving plasma. We show that such reference standards exist for the strongest x-ray line in neonlike W64+, which has become the line of choice for the ITER (Latin the way) core imaging x-ray spectrometer. Close-by standards are the Hf L3 line and the Ir L2 line, which bracket the W64+ line by 30 eV; other standards are given by the Ir L1 and L2 lines and the Hf L1 and L2 lines, which bracket the W64+ line by 40 and 160 eV, respectively. The reference standards can be produced by an x-ray tube built into the ITER spectrometer. We present spectra of the reference lines obtained with an x-ray microcalorimeter and compare them to spectra of the W64+ line obtained both with an x-ray microcalorimeter and a crystal spectrometer

  4. The spectrometer telescope for imaging X-rays (STIX) on board Solar Orbiter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vilmer, Nicole; Krucker, Samuel; Karol Seweryn, D..; Orleanski, Piotr; Limousin, Olivier; Meuris, Aline; Brun, Allan Sacha; Grimm, Oliver; Groebelbauer, HansPeter; Rendtel, J.

    The Spectrometer Telescope for Imaging X-rays (STIX) is one of 10 instruments on board Solar Orbiter, a confirmed M-class mission of the European Space Agency (ESA) within the Cosmic Vision program scheduled to be launched in 2017. STIX applies a Fourier-imaging technique using a set of tungsten grids (at pitches from 0.038 to 1 mm) in front of 32 pixelized CdTe detectors to provide imaging spectroscopy of solar thermal and non-thermal hard X-ray emissions from 4 to 150 keV. The paper presents the status of the instrument for the Critical Design Review to be held with ESA in June 2014. Particular emphasis is given to the CdTe hybrid detector called Caliste-SO for high resolution hard X-ray spectroscopy from 4 to 150 keV: Characterizations of the first production batch are reported. Caliste-SO spectrometer units could also fulfill the needs for the SORENTO instrument of the Russian Interhelioprobe mission currently in assessment study.

  5. Oil Spill Detection along the Gulf of Mexico Coastline based on Airborne Imaging Spectrometer Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arslan, M. D.; Filippi, A. M.; Guneralp, I.

    2013-12-01

    The Deepwater Horizon oil spill in the Gulf of Mexico between April and July 2010 demonstrated the importance of synoptic oil-spill monitoring in coastal environments via remote-sensing methods. This study focuses on terrestrial oil-spill detection and thickness estimation based on hyperspectral images acquired along the coastline of the Gulf of Mexico. We use AVIRIS (Airborne Visible/Infrared Imaging Spectrometer) imaging spectrometer data collected over Bay Jimmy and Wilkinson Bay within Barataria Bay, Louisiana, USA during September 2010. We also employ field-based observations of the degree of oil accumulation along the coastline, as well as in situ measurements from the literature. As part of our proposed spectroscopic approach, we operate on atmospherically- and geometrically-corrected hyperspectral AVIRIS data to extract image-derived endmembers via Minimum Noise Fraction transform, Pixel Purity Index-generation, and n-dimensional visualization. Extracted endmembers are then used as input to endmember-mapping algorithms to yield fractional-abundance images and crisp classification images. We also employ Multiple Endmember Spectral Mixture Analysis (MESMA) for oil detection and mapping in order to enable the number and types of endmembers to vary on a per-pixel basis, in contast to simple Spectral Mixture Analysis (SMA). MESMA thus better allows accounting for spectral variabiltiy of oil (e.g., due to varying oil thicknesses, states of degradation, and the presence of different oil types, etc.) and other materials, including soils and salt marsh vegetation of varying types, which may or may not be affected by the oil spill. A decision-tree approach is also utilized for comparison. Classification results do indicate that MESMA provides advantageous capabilities for mapping several oil-thickness classes for affected vegetation and soils along the Gulf of Mexico coastline, relative to the conventional approaches tested. Oil thickness-mapping results from MESMA

  6. The Thermal Infrared Compact Imaging Spectrometer (TIRCIS): a follow-on to the Space Ultra Compact Hyperspectral Imager (SUCHI)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crites, S. T.; Wright, R.; Lucey, P. G.; Chan, J.; Gabrieli, A.; Garbeil, H.; Horton, K. A.; Imai-Hong, A. K. R.; Pilger, E. J.; Wood, M.; Yoneshige, L.

    2015-05-01

    The Thermal Infrared Compact Imaging Spectrometer (TIRCIS) is a long wave infrared (LWIR, 8-14 microns) hyperspectral imager designed as the follow-on to the University of Hawaii's SUCHI (Space Ultra Compact Hyperspectral Imager). SUCHI is a low-mass (<9kg), low-volume (10x12x40cm3) LWIR spectrometer designed as the primary payload on the University of Hawaii-built 'HiakaSat' microsatellite. SUCHI is based on a variable-gap Fabry Perot interferometer employed as a Fourier transform spectrometer with images collected by a commercial off-the-shelf microbolometer contained inside a 1-atm sealed vessel. The sensor has been fully integrated with the HiakaSat microsatellite and is awaiting launch in 2015. The TIRCIS instrument is based on the same principles but takes lessons learned from SUCHI and applies them to a new design with improvements in spatial resolution, spectral resolution and spectral responsivity. The TIRCIS instrument is based on an uncooled microbolometer array with custom detector coatings to enhance responsivity towards 7 microns. Like SUCHI, TIRCIS utilizes a variable-gap Fabry Perot interferometer to create the spectra, but three different interferometer wedges with varying slopes resulting in spectral resolution ranging from 44 cm-1 to 6.5 cm-1 will be tested to explore tradeoffs between spectral resolution and sensitivity. TIRCIS is designed to achieve 120 m spatial resolution, compared with 230 m for SUCHI, from a theoretical 500 km orbit. It will be used for ground and aircraft data collection but will undergo environmental testing to demonstrate its relevance to the space environment. TIRCIS has been fully designed and is entering fabrication, with an operational instrument to be delivered in October, 2015.

  7. Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter Camera (LROC) instrument overview

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Robinson, M.S.; Brylow, S.M.; Tschimmel, M.; Humm, D.; Lawrence, S.J.; Thomas, P.C.; Denevi, B.W.; Bowman-Cisneros, E.; Zerr, J.; Ravine, M.A.; Caplinger, M.A.; Ghaemi, F.T.; Schaffner, J.A.; Malin, M.C.; Mahanti, P.; Bartels, A.; Anderson, J.; Tran, T.N.; Eliason, E.M.; McEwen, A.S.; Turtle, E.; Jolliff, B.L.; Hiesinger, H.

    2010-01-01

    The Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter Camera (LROC) Wide Angle Camera (WAC) and Narrow Angle Cameras (NACs) are on the NASA Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO). The WAC is a 7-color push-frame camera (100 and 400 m/pixel visible and UV, respectively), while the two NACs are monochrome narrow-angle linescan imagers (0.5 m/pixel). The primary mission of LRO is to obtain measurements of the Moon that will enable future lunar human exploration. The overarching goals of the LROC investigation include landing site identification and certification, mapping of permanently polar shadowed and sunlit regions, meter-scale mapping of polar regions, global multispectral imaging, a global morphology base map, characterization of regolith properties, and determination of current impact hazards.

  8. Design of an Airborne Portable Remote Imaging Spectrometer (PRISM) for the Coastal Ocean

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mouroulis, P.; vanGorp, B.; Green, R. O.; Cohen, D.; Wilson, D.; Randall, D.; Rodriguez, J.; Polanco, O.; Dierssen, H.; Balasubramanian, K.; Vargas, R.; Hein, R.; Sobel, H.; Eastwood, M.

    2010-01-01

    PRISM is a pushbroom imaging spectrometer currently under development at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, intended to address the needs of airborne coastal ocean science research. We describe here the instrument design and the technologies that enable it to achieve its distinguishing characteristics. PRISM covers the 350-1050 nm range with a 3.1 nm sampling and a 33(deg) field of view. The design provides for high signal to noise ratio, high uniformity of response, and low polarization sensitivity. The complete instrument also incorporates two additional wavelength bands at 1240 and 1610 nm in a spot radiometer configuration to aid with atmospheric correction.

  9. Analysis of the Advantages and Limitations of Stationary Imaging Fourier Transform Spectrometer. Revised

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beecken, Brian P.; Kleinman, Randall R.

    2004-01-01

    New developments in infrared sensor technology have potentially made possible a new space-based system which can measure far-infrared radiation at lower costs (mass, power and expense). The Stationary Imaging Fourier Transform Spectrometer (SIFTS) proposed by NASA Langley Research Center, makes use of new detector array technology. A mathematical model which simulates resolution and spectral range relationships has been developed for analyzing the utility of such a radically new approach to spectroscopy. Calculations with this forward model emulate the effects of a detector array on the ability to retrieve accurate spectral features. Initial computations indicate significant attenuation at high wavenumbers.

  10. Enhancing Sensitivity of a Miniature Spectrometer Using a Real-Time Image Processing Algorithm.

    PubMed

    Chandramohan, Sabarish; Avrutsky, Ivan

    2016-05-01

    A real-time image processing algorithm is developed to enhance the sensitivity of a planar single-mode waveguide miniature spectrometer with integrated waveguide gratings. A novel approach of averaging along the arcs in a curved coordinate system is introduced which allows for collecting more light, thereby enhancing the sensitivity. The algorithm is tested using CdSeS/ZnS quantum dots drop casted on the surface of a single-mode waveguide. Measurements indicate that a monolayer of quantum dots is expected to produce guided mode attenuation approximately 11 times above the noise level. PMID:27170777

  11. Spectral resolution measurement of an x-ray imaging crystal spectrometer for KSTAR.

    PubMed

    Lee, S G; Bak, J G; Nam, U W; Moon, M K; Cheon, J K; Bitter, M; Hill, K

    2008-10-01

    A spectral resolution measurement of the x-ray imaging crystal spectrometer for the Korea Superconducting Tokamak Advanced Research machine utilizing a segmented position-sensitive detector and time-to-digital converter based delay-line readout electronics was performed by using an x-ray tube in a laboratory. The measured spectral resolution is about 12,600, which means the actual energy resolution is 0.32 eV for the x-ray tube's bremsstrahlung peak energy of 4 keV. The results from the spectral resolution measurement are described. PMID:19044479

  12. A compact, high numerical aperture imaging Fourier transform spectrometer and its application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alcock, R. D.; Coupland, J. M.

    2006-11-01

    This paper describes a compact imaging Fourier transform spectrometer with high numerical aperture. In comparison with other optical arrangements in which extended interferometer paths are required for the inclusion of dispersion compensation optics, this technique utilizes a rudimentary cubic beam splitter based Michelson interferometer with minimal optical path so that the numerical aperture of the system is maximized. Mathematical modelling is presented showing that the fringe distortions caused by the dispersion in the cubic beam splitter can be entirely removed without any loss of the spectral information. An illustration of the power of the technique is given classifying between different plant foliage performed using a Fisher discriminant function based optimal linear filtering.

  13. Wavelength calibration of x-ray imaging crystal spectrometer on Joint Texas Experimental Tokamak

    SciTech Connect

    Yan, W.; Chen, Z. Y. Jin, W.; Huang, D. W.; Ding, Y. H.; Li, J. C.; Zhang, X. Q.; Zhuang, G.; Lee, S. G.; Shi, Y. J.

    2014-11-15

    The wavelength calibration of x-ray imaging crystal spectrometer is a key issue for the measurements of plasma rotation. For the lack of available standard radiation source near 3.95 Å and there is no other diagnostics to measure the core rotation for inter-calibration, an indirect method by using tokamak plasma itself has been applied on joint Texas experimental tokamak. It is found that the core toroidal rotation velocity is not zero during locked mode phase. This is consistent with the observation of small oscillations on soft x-ray signals and electron cyclotron emission during locked-mode phase.

  14. Imaging open-path Fourier transform infrared spectrometer for 3D cloud profiling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rentz Dupuis, Julia; Mansur, David J.; Vaillancourt, Robert; Carlson, David; Evans, Thomas; Schundler, Elizabeth; Todd, Lori; Mottus, Kathleen

    2009-05-01

    OPTRA is developing an imaging open-path Fourier transform infrared (I-OP-FTIR) spectrometer for 3D profiling of chemical and biological agent simulant plumes released into test ranges and chambers. An array of I-OP-FTIR instruments positioned around the perimeter of the test site, in concert with advanced spectroscopic algorithms, enables real time tomographic reconstruction of the plume. The approach is intended as a referee measurement for test ranges and chambers. This Small Business Technology Transfer (STTR) effort combines the instrumentation and spectroscopic capabilities of OPTRA, Inc. with the computed tomographic expertise of the University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill.

  15. Note: A novel dual-channel time-of-flight mass spectrometer for photoelectron imaging spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Qin Zhengbo; Wu Xia; Tang Zichao

    2013-06-15

    A novel dual-channel time-of-flight mass spectrometer (D-TOFMS) has been designed to select anions in the photoelectron imaging measurements. In this instrument, the radiation laser can be triggered precisely to overlap with the selected ion cloud at the first-order space focusing plane. Compared with that of the conventional single channel TOFMS, the in situ mass selection performance of D-TOFMS is significantly improved. Preliminary experiment results are presented for the mass-selected photodetachment spectrum of F{sup -} to demonstrate the capability of the instrument.

  16. Wavelength calibration of x-ray imaging crystal spectrometer on Joint Texas Experimental Tokamak.

    PubMed

    Yan, W; Chen, Z Y; Jin, W; Huang, D W; Ding, Y H; Li, J C; Zhang, X Q; Lee, S G; Shi, Y J; Zhuang, G

    2014-11-01

    The wavelength calibration of x-ray imaging crystal spectrometer is a key issue for the measurements of plasma rotation. For the lack of available standard radiation source near 3.95 Å and there is no other diagnostics to measure the core rotation for inter-calibration, an indirect method by using tokamak plasma itself has been applied on joint Texas experimental tokamak. It is found that the core toroidal rotation velocity is not zero during locked mode phase. This is consistent with the observation of small oscillations on soft x-ray signals and electron cyclotron emission during locked-mode phase. PMID:25430323

  17. Design of spatio-temporally modulated static infrared imaging Fourier transform spectrometer.

    PubMed

    Wang, WenCong; Liang, JingQiu; Liang, ZhongZhu; Lü, JinGuang; Qin, YuXin; Tian, Chao; Wang, WeiBiao

    2014-08-15

    A novel static medium wave infrared (MWIR) imaging Fourier transform spectrometer (IFTS) is conceptually proposed and experimentally demonstrated. In this system, the moving mirror in traditional temporally modulated IFTS is replaced by multi-step micro-mirrors to realize the static design. Compared with the traditional spatially modulated IFTS, they have no slit system and are superior with larger luminous flux and higher energy efficiency. The use of the multi-step micro-mirrors can also make the system compact and light. PMID:25121906

  18. Wide-spectrum reconstruction method for a birefringence interference imaging spectrometer.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Chunmin; Jian, Xiaohua

    2010-02-01

    We present a mathematical method used to determine the spectrum detected by a birefringence interference imaging spectrometer (BIIS). The reconstructed spectrum has good precision over a wide spectral range, 0.4-1.0 microm. This method considers the light intensity as a function of wavelength and avoids the fatal error caused by birefringence effect in the conventional Fourier transform method. The experimental interferogram of the BIIS is processed in this new way, and the interference data and reconstructed spectrum are in good agreement, proving this method to be very exact and useful. Application of this method will greatly improve the instrument performance. PMID:20125723

  19. [Spectral reconstruction using algebraic reconstruction technology for Fourier transform computed tomography imaging spectrometer].

    PubMed

    Lin, Yu; Liao, Ning-fang; Luo, Yong-dao; Cui, De-qi; Tan, Bo-neng; Wu, Wen-min

    2010-08-01

    In the present paper, the authors will introduce our research on spectral reconstruction of Fourier transform computed tomography imaging spectrometer by means of the algebraic reconstruction technology. A simulation experiment was carried out to demonstrate the algorithm. The spatial similarities and spectral similarities were evaluated using the normalized correlation coefficient. The performance of ART was evaluated when the quantity of projection is 45. In that case, filter back projection can't work well. Actual spectral slices were reconstructed by using ART in the last part of this paper. PMID:20939312

  20. Spectral resolution measurement of an x-ray imaging crystal spectrometer for KSTAR

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, S. G.; Bak, J. G.; Nam, U. W.; Moon, M. K.; Cheon, J. K.; Bitter, M.; Hill, K.

    2008-10-15

    A spectral resolution measurement of the x-ray imaging crystal spectrometer for the Korea Superconducting Tokamak Advanced Research machine utilizing a segmented position-sensitive detector and time-to-digital converter based delay-line readout electronics was performed by using an x-ray tube in a laboratory. The measured spectral resolution is about 12 600, which means the actual energy resolution is 0.32 eV for the x-ray tube's bremsstrahlung peak energy of 4 keV. The results from the spectral resolution measurement are described.

  1. Single-lens computed tomography imaging spectrometer and method of capturing spatial and spectral information

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, Daniel W. (Inventor); Johnson, William R. (Inventor); Bearman, Gregory H. (Inventor)

    2011-01-01

    Computed tomography imaging spectrometers ("CTISs") employing a single lens are provided. The CTISs may be either transmissive or reflective, and the single lens is either configured to transmit and receive uncollimated light (in transmissive systems), or is configured to reflect and receive uncollimated light (in reflective systems). An exemplary transmissive CTIS includes a focal plane array detector, a single lens configured to transmit and receive uncollimated light, a two-dimensional grating, and a field stop aperture. An exemplary reflective CTIS includes a focal plane array detector, a single mirror configured to reflect and receive uncollimated light, a two-dimensional grating, and a field stop aperture.

  2. First results from the Airborne Visible/Infrared Imaging Spectrometer (AVIRIS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vane, Gregg

    1987-01-01

    After engineering flights aboard the NASA U-2 research aircraft in the winter of 1986 to 1987 and spring of 1987, extensive data collection across the United States was begun with the Airborne Visible/Infrared Imaging Spectrometer (AVIRIS) in the summer of 1987 in support of a NASA data evaluation and technology assessment program. This paper presents some of the first results obtained from AVIRIS. Examples of spectral imagery acquired over Mountain View and Mono Lake, California, and the Cuprite Mining District in western Nevada are presented. Sensor performance and data quality are described, and in the final section of this paper, plans for the future are discussed.

  3. Ma_Miss for ExoMars mission: miniaturized imaging spectrometer for subsurface studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Sanctis, M. C.; Altieri, F.; Ammannito, E.; De Angelis, S.; Di Iorio, T.; Manzari, P.; Mugnuolo, R.; Soldani-Benzi, M.; Battistelli, E.; Coppo, P.; Novi, S.; Meini, M.

    2014-04-01

    The study of the Martian subsurface will provide important constraints on the nature, timing and duration of alteration and sedimentation processes on Mars, as well as on the complex interactions between the surface and the atmosphere. A Drilling system, coupled with an in situ analysis package, is installed on the ExoMars Rover to perform in situ investigations up to 2m in the Mars soil. Ma_Miss (Mars Multispectral Imager for Subsurface Studies) is a spectrometer devoted to observe the lateral wall of the borehole generated by the Drilling system [1,2]. The instrument is fully integrated with the Drill and shares its structure and electronics.

  4. A photoelectron velocity map imaging spectrometer for experiments combining synchrotron and laser radiations

    SciTech Connect

    O'Keeffe, P.; Bolognesi, P.; Coreno, M.; Avaldi, L.; Moise, A.; Richter, R.; Cautero, G.; Stebel, L.; Sergo, R.; Pravica, L.; Ovcharenko, Y.

    2011-03-15

    A velocity map imaging/ion time-of-flight spectrometer designed specifically for pump-probe experiments combining synchrotron and laser radiations is described. The in-house built delay line detector can be used in two modes: the high spatial resolution mode and the coincidence mode. In the high spatial resolution mode a kinetic energy resolution of 6% has been achieved. The coincidence mode can be used to improve signal-to-noise ratio for the pump-probe experiments either by using a gate to count electrons only when the laser is present or by recording coincidences with the ion formed in the ionization process.

  5. Airborne imaging spectrometer data of the Ruby Mountains, Montana: Mineral discrimination using relative absorption band-depth images

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Crowley, J.K.; Brickey, D.W.; Rowan, L.C.

    1989-01-01

    Airborne imaging spectrometer data collected in the near-infrared (1.2-2.4 ??m) wavelength range were used to study the spectral expression of metamorphic minerals and rocks in the Ruby Mountains of southwestern Montana. The data were analyzed by using a new data enhancement procedure-the construction of relative absorption band-depth (RBD) images. RBD images, like bandratio images, are designed to detect diagnostic mineral absorption features, while minimizing reflectance variations related to topographic slope and albedo differences. To produce an RBD image, several data channels near an absorption band shoulder are summed and then divided by the sum of several channels located near the band minimum. RBD images are both highly specific and sensitive to the presence of particular mineral absorption features. Further, the technique does not distort or subdue spectral features as sometimes occurs when using other data normalization methods. By using RBD images, a number of rock and soil units were distinguished in the Ruby Mountains including weathered quartz - feldspar pegmatites, marbles of several compositions, and soils developed over poorly exposed mica schists. The RBD technique is especially well suited for detecting weak near-infrared spectral features produced by soils, which may permit improved mapping of subtle lithologic and structural details in semiarid terrains. The observation of soils rich in talc, an important industrial commodity in the study area, also indicates that RBD images may be useful for mineral exploration. ?? 1989.

  6. Imaging Fourier Transform Spectroscopy from a Space Based Platform -- The Herschel/SPIRE Fourier Transform Spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spencer, Locke Dean

    The Herschel Space Observatory (Herschel), a flagship mission of the European Space Agency (ESA), is comprised of three cryogenically cooled instruments commissioned to explore the far-infrared/submillimetre universe. Herschel's remote orbit at the second Lagrangian point (L2) of the Sun-Earth system, and its cryogenic payload, impose a need for thorough instrument characterization and rigorous testing as there will be no possibility for any servicing after launch. The Spectral and Photometric Imaging Receiver (SPIRE) is one of the instrument payloads aboard Herschel and consists of a three band imaging photometer and a two band imaging spectrometer. The imaging spectrometer on SPIRE consists of a Mach-Zehnder (MZ)-Fourier transform spectrometer (FTS) coupled with bolometric detector arrays to form an imaging FTS (IFTS). This thesis presents experiments conducted to verify the performance of an IFTS system from a space based platform, Le. the use of the SPIRE IFTS within the Herschel space observatory. Prior to launch, the SPIRE instrument has undergone a series of performance verification tests conducted at the Rutherford Appleton Laboratory (RAL) near Oxford, UK. Canada is involved in the SPIRE project through provision of instrument development hardware and software, mission flight software, and support personnel. Through this thesis project I have been stationed at RAL for a period spanning fifteen months to participate in the development, performance verification, and characterization of both the SPIRE FTS and photometer instruments. This thesis discusses Fourier transform spectroscopy and related FTS data processing (Chapter 2). Detailed discussions are included on the spectral phase related to the FTS beamsplitter (Chapter 3), the imaging aspects of the SPIRE IFTS instrument (Chapter 4), and the noise characteristics of the SPIRE bolometer detector arrays as measured using the SPIRE IFTS (Chapter 5). This thesis presents results from experiments performed

  7. Development of the APEX experiment, preparatory activities for an airborne system supporting future space-borne imaging spectrometers in Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schaepman, M.

    2002-06-01

    APEX is an airborne imaging spectrometer built in the framework of ESA PRODEX (Programme développement d'expériences scientifiques) with the support of ESA EO-EP. It is based on a Swiss/Belgian initiative and designed to be an airborne simulator for the support and development of future spaceborne systems for the study of land surface processes. It will be able to contribute to the simulation, calibration, and validation of planned ESA imaging spectrometer missions (e.g., MERIS/ENVISAT, SPECTRA, etc.) in the 400 - 2500 nm region of the spectrum. APEX will foster the use of imaging spectrometer data in Europe and will support the application development for imaging spectroscopy products. The industrial consortium building the instrument is composed out of joint Swiss/Belgian industries with the support of ESA EO-EP (e.g., detectors, calibration, technical management).

  8. The electronic subsystem design of the interference imaging spectrometer on CE-1 satellite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qiu, Yue-Hong; Wen, De-sheng; Zhao, Bao-chang

    2009-07-01

    The Interference Imaging Spectrometer (IIS) is the one of payloads of the Chang'e-1 (CE-1) lunar satellite, which is used to acquire the spectral information and the global distribution information about lunar minerals. In this paper, some information about the electronic subsystem design of the Interference Imaging Spectrometer (IIS) is given. First, the technical specifications and requirements, architecture, function and operating modes of the electronic subsystem are described briefly. Secondly, the focus plane assembly (FPA) including CCD, CCD driving circuits, CCD buffering circuits, CCD biasing circuits and low-noise preamp circuits is introduced. Thirdly, the video processing and control assembly including the correlated double sampling(CDS) circuit, the programmable gain amplifier circuit, the active filter circuit, the A/D conversion circuit, digital video signal buffers, the timing module, the output interface circuit is treated. Fourthly, the timing description and logical architecture are given. Finally, some results are supplied. After careful design, thorough analyses and simulation, sufficient debug and test, the design has satisfied the technical requirements and achieved the goal of the one-year on-orbit operation.

  9. MAJIS, the Moons And Jupiter Imaging Spectrometer, designed for the future ESA/JUICE mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piccioni, Giuseppe; Langevin, Yves; Filacchione, Gianrico; Poulet, Francois; Tosi, Federico; Eng, Pascal; Dumesnil, Cydalise; Zambelli, Massimo; Saggin, Bortolino; Fonti, Sergio; Grassi, Davide; Altieri, Francesca

    2014-05-01

    The Moons And Jupiter Imaging Spectrometer (MAJIS) is the VIS-IR spectral mapper selected for JUICE (Jupiter Icy Moon Explorer), the first Large-class mission in the ESA Cosmic Vision Programme. Scheduled for a launch in 2022, JUICE will perform a comprehensive exploration of the Jovian system thanks to several flybys of Callisto, Ganymede and Europa, before finally entering orbit around Ganymede. During these phases, MAJIS will acquire hyperspectral data necessary to unveil and map the surface composition of different geologic units of the satellites. Transfers between successive satellites' flybys shall be devoted to remote observations of Jupiter's atmosphere and auroras. MAJIS' instrument design relies on a 75 mm pupil, f/3.2 aperture TMA telescope matching two Czerny-Turner imaging spectrometers. A dichroic element is used to split the beam between the two spectral channels. The VIS-NIR spectral channel covers the 0.4-1.9 μm range with a sampling of 2.3 nm/band. The IR channel works in the 1.5-5.7 μm range with a 6.6 nm/band sampling. The entire optical structure is passively cooled at cryogenic temperature

  10. Multi-Beam Approach for Accelerating Alignment and Calibration of HyspIRI-Like Imaging Spectrometers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eastwood, Michael L.; Green, Robert O.; Mouroulis, Pantazis; Hochberg, Eric B.; Hein, Randall C.; Kroll, Linley A.; Geier, Sven; Coles, James B.; Meehan, Riley

    2012-01-01

    A paper describes an optical stimulus that produces more consistent results, and can be automated for unattended, routine generation of data analysis products needed by the integration and testing team assembling a high-fidelity imaging spectrometer system. One key attribute of the system is an arrangement of pick-off mirrors that provides multiple input beams (five in this implementation) to simultaneously provide stimulus light to several field angles along the field of view of the sensor under test, allowing one data set to contain all the information that previously required five data sets to be separately collected. This stimulus can also be fed by quickly reconfigured sources that ultimately provide three data set types that would previously be collected separately using three different setups: Spectral Response Function (SRF), Cross-track Response Function (CRF), and Along-track Response Function (ARF), respectively. This method also lends itself to expansion of the number of field points if less interpolation across the field of view is desirable. An absolute minimum of three is required at the beginning stages of imaging spectrometer alignment.

  11. Evaluation of the airborne visible-infrared imaging spectrometer for mapping subtle lithological variation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kruse, Fred A.

    1990-01-01

    The Airborne Visible/Infrared Imaging Spectrometer (AVIRIS), flown aboard the NASA ER-2 aircraft in 1987 and 1989, used four linear arrays and four individual spectrometers to collect data simultaneously from the 224 bands in a scanned 614 pixel-wide swath perpendicular to the aircraft direction. The research had two goals. One was to evaluate the AVIRIS data. The other was to look at the subtle lithological variation at the two test sites to develop a better understanding of the regional geology and surficial processes. The geometric characteristics of the data, adequacy of the spatial resolution, and adequacy of the spectral sampling interval are evaluated. Geologic differences at the test sites were mapped. They included lithological variation caused by primary sedimentary layering, facies variation, and weathering; and subtle mineralogical differences caused by hydrothermal alterations of igneous and sedimentary rocks. The investigation used laboratory, field, and aircraft spectral measurements; known properties of geological materials; digital image processing and spectrum processing techniques; and field geologic data to evaluate the selected characteristics of the AVIRIS data.

  12. Design considerations for the development of a space qualification Short Wavelength Imaging Fourier Transform Spectrometer (SWIFTS)

    SciTech Connect

    Abbink, R.E.

    1997-06-01

    This document is the final report on work performed at Sandia National Laboratories during FY 1992 and 1993 for a Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) program to look at problems associated with the design and long term operation of a short wavelength imaging Fourier Transform (FT) spectrometer for use in space. In attempts to answer two fundamental questions: is a FT spectrometer with a resolution of 1 cm{sup {minus}1} covering the silicon detector wavelength range of 0.4 to 1.1 microns feasible in a long life space instrument and, if so, is it the best method of obtaining the desired information? Emphasis has been on identifying methods which minimize reliance on precision mechanical alignment and precise velocity control. An important consideration has also been to develop methods which will be compatible with a variety of self-scanning solid state imaging devices. A breadboard instrument was constructed using cube corner retroreflectors and a laser diode position reference. Some preliminary results are reported. This work is primarily intended to act as an aid to engineers at Sandia who wish to pursue the fabrication of a flight qualified instrument. The theoretical parts are intended to be somewhat tutorial in nature to aid the engineer who is not familiar with FT spectroscopy.

  13. Implementation of an imaging spectrometer for localization and identification of radioactive sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lemaire, H.; Khalil, R. Abou; Amgarou, K.; Angélique, J.-C.; Bonnet, F.; De Toro, D.; Carrel, F.; Giarmana, O.; Gmar, M.; Menaa, N.; Menesguen, Y.; Normand, S.; Patoz, A.; Schoepff, V.; Talent, P.; Timi, T.

    2014-11-01

    Spatial localization of radioactive sources is currently a main issue interesting nuclear industry as well as homeland security applications and can be achieved using gamma cameras. For several years, CEA LIST has been designing a new system, called GAMPIX, with improved sensitivity, portability and ease of use. The main remaining limitation of this system is the lack of spectrometric information, preventing the identification of radioactive materials. This article describes the development of an imaging spectrometer based on the GAMPIX technology. Experimental tests have been carried out according to both spectrometric methods enabled by the pixelated Timepix chip used in the GAMPIX gamma camera. The first method is based on the size of the impacts produced by a gamma-ray energy deposition in the detection matrix. The second one uses the Time over Threshold (ToT) mode of the Timepix chip and deals with time spent by pulses generated by charge preamplifiers over a user-specified threshold. Both energy resolution and sensitivity studies demonstrated the superiority of the ToT approach which will consequently be further explored. Energy calibration, tests of different pixel sizes for the Timepix chip and use of the Medipix3 chip are future milestones to improve performances of the newly implemented imaging spectrometer.

  14. X-ray imaging crystal spectrometer for extended X-ray sources

    DOEpatents

    Bitter, Manfred L.; Fraenkel, Ben; Gorman, James L.; Hill, Kenneth W.; Roquemore, A. Lane; Stodiek, Wolfgang; von Goeler, Schweickhard E.

    2001-01-01

    Spherically or toroidally curved, double focusing crystals are used in a spectrometer for X-ray diagnostics of an extended X-ray source such as a hot plasma produced in a tokomak fusion experiment to provide spatially and temporally resolved data on plasma parameters using the imaging properties for Bragg angles near 45. For a Bragg angle of 45.degree., the spherical crystal focuses a bundle of near parallel X-rays (the cross section of which is determined by the cross section of the crystal) from the plasma to a point on a detector, with parallel rays inclined to the main plain of diffraction focused to different points on the detector. Thus, it is possible to radially image the plasma X-ray emission in different wavelengths simultaneously with a single crystal.

  15. Imaging x-ray Thomson scattering spectrometer design and demonstration (invited)

    SciTech Connect

    Gamboa, E. J.; Huntington, C. M.; Trantham, M. R.; Keiter, P. A.; Drake, R. P.; Montgomery, D. S.; Benage, J. F.; Letzring, S. A.

    2012-10-15

    In many laboratory astrophysics experiments, intense laser irradiation creates novel material conditions with large, one-dimensional gradients in the temperature, density, and ionization state. X-ray Thomson scattering is a powerful technique for measuring these plasma parameters. However, the scattered signal has previously been measured with little or no spatial resolution, which limits the ability to diagnose inhomogeneous plasmas. We report on the development of a new imaging x-ray Thomson spectrometer (IXTS) for the Omega laser facility. The diffraction of x-rays from a toroidally curved crystal creates high-resolution images that are spatially resolved along a one-dimensional profile while spectrally dispersing the radiation. This focusing geometry allows for high brightness while localizing noise sources and improving the linearity of the dispersion. Preliminary results are presented from a scattering experiment that used the IXTS to measure the temperature profile of a shocked carbon foam.

  16. Multielement continuum-source atomic-absorption spectrometry with an echelle-spectrometer/image-dissector system.

    PubMed

    Masters, R; Hsiech, C; Pardue, H L

    1989-01-01

    The continued development of the echelle-spectrometer/image-dissector system for multielement determination by continuum-source atomic-absorption spectrometry is presented. Modifications of the instruments include the use of a 20-groove/mm echelle grating blazed at 76 degrees , and the removal of the magnetic shield from the image dissector. The spectral range is from 300 to 430 nm and the observed resolution is better than 0.005 nm at 400 nm. Calibration curves are linear up to an absorbance of 0.2, and absorption sensitivities are up to 4-fold better than with the previous design. Fundamental characteristics of the detector limit the application of the instrument to sequential single-element quantifications with the electrothermal atomizer, and to sequential multielement quantification with the flame atomizer. The further development of the instrument for simultaneous multielement qualification is discussed. PMID:18964682

  17. Imaging x-ray Thomson scattering spectrometer design and demonstration (invited).

    PubMed

    Gamboa, E J; Huntington, C M; Trantham, M R; Keiter, P A; Drake, R P; Montgomery, D S; Benage, J F; Letzring, S A

    2012-10-01

    In many laboratory astrophysics experiments, intense laser irradiation creates novel material conditions with large, one-dimensional gradients in the temperature, density, and ionization state. X-ray Thomson scattering is a powerful technique for measuring these plasma parameters. However, the scattered signal has previously been measured with little or no spatial resolution, which limits the ability to diagnose inhomogeneous plasmas. We report on the development of a new imaging x-ray Thomson spectrometer (IXTS) for the Omega laser facility. The diffraction of x-rays from a toroidally curved crystal creates high-resolution images that are spatially resolved along a one-dimensional profile while spectrally dispersing the radiation. This focusing geometry allows for high brightness while localizing noise sources and improving the linearity of the dispersion. Preliminary results are presented from a scattering experiment that used the IXTS to measure the temperature profile of a shocked carbon foam. PMID:23126930

  18. Imaging x-ray Thomson scattering spectrometer design and demonstration (invited)a)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gamboa, E. J.; Huntington, C. M.; Trantham, M. R.; Keiter, P. A.; Drake, R. P.; Montgomery, D. S.; Benage, J. F.; Letzring, S. A.

    2012-10-01

    In many laboratory astrophysics experiments, intense laser irradiation creates novel material conditions with large, one-dimensional gradients in the temperature, density, and ionization state. X-ray Thomson scattering is a powerful technique for measuring these plasma parameters. However, the scattered signal has previously been measured with little or no spatial resolution, which limits the ability to diagnose inhomogeneous plasmas. We report on the development of a new imaging x-ray Thomson spectrometer (IXTS) for the Omega laser facility. The diffraction of x-rays from a toroidally curved crystal creates high-resolution images that are spatially resolved along a one-dimensional profile while spectrally dispersing the radiation. This focusing geometry allows for high brightness while localizing noise sources and improving the linearity of the dispersion. Preliminary results are presented from a scattering experiment that used the IXTS to measure the temperature profile of a shocked carbon foam.

  19. Thermal design and performance of the REgolith x-ray imaging spectrometer (REXIS) instrument

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stout, Kevin D.; Masterson, Rebecca A.

    2014-08-01

    The REgolith X-ray Imaging Spectrometer (REXIS) instrument is a student collaboration instrument on the OSIRIS-REx asteroid sample return mission scheduled for launch in September 2016. The REXIS science mission is to characterize the elemental abundances of the asteroid Bennu on a global scale and to search for regions of enhanced elemental abundance. The thermal design of the REXIS instrument is challenging due to both the science requirements and the thermal environment in which it will operate. The REXIS instrument consists of two assemblies: the spectrometer and the solar X-ray monitor (SXM). The spectrometer houses a 2x2 array of back illuminated CCDs that are protected from the radiation environment by a one-time deployable cover and a collimator assembly with coded aperture mask. Cooling the CCDs during operation is the driving thermal design challenge on the spectrometer. The CCDs operate in the vicinity of the electronics box, but a 130 °C thermal gradient is required between the two components to cool the CCDs to -60 °C in order to reduce noise and obtain science data. This large thermal gradient is achieved passively through the use of a copper thermal strap, a large radiator facing deep space, and a two-stage thermal isolation layer between the electronics box and the DAM. The SXM is mechanically mounted to the sun-facing side of the spacecraft separately from the spectrometer and characterizes the highly variable solar X-ray spectrum to properly interpret the data from the asteroid. The driving thermal design challenge on the SXM is cooling the silicon drift detector (SDD) to below -30 °C when operating. A two-stage thermoelectric cooler (TEC) is located directly beneath the detector to provide active cooling, and spacecraft MLI blankets cover all of the SXM except the detector aperture to radiatively decouple the SXM from the flight thermal environment. This paper describes the REXIS thermal system requirements, thermal design, and analyses, with

  20. The Rosetta UV imaging spectrometer ALICE: First light optical and radiometric performance results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Slater, D. C.; Stern, S. A.; A'Hearn, M. F.; Bertaux, J. L.; Feldman, P. D.; Festou, M. C.

    2000-10-01

    We describe the design, scientific objectives, and "first-light" radiometric testing results of the Rosetta/ALICE instrument. ALICE is a lightweight (2.7 kg), low-power (4 W), and low-cost imaging spectrometer optimized for cometary ultraviolet spectroscopy. ALICE, which is funded by NASA (with hardware contributions from CNES, France), will fly on the ESA Rosetta Orbiter to characterize the cometary nucleus, coma, and nucleus/coma coupling of the target comet 46P/Wirtanen. It will obtain spatially-resolved, far-UV spectra of Wirtanen's nucleus and coma in the 700-2050 Å passband with a spectral resolution of 5-10 Å for extended sources that fill the entrance slit's field- of-view. ALICE is also the UV spectrometer model for the PERSI remote sensing suite proposed for the Pluto Kuiper Express (PKE) mission. ALICE uses modern technology to achieve its low mass and low power design specifications. It employs an off-axis telescope feeding a 0.15-m normal incidence Rowland circle spectrograph with a concave (toroidal) holographic reflection grating. The imaging microchannel plate (MCP) detector utilizes dual solar-blind opaque photocathodes of KBr and CsI deposited on a cylindrically-curved (7.5-cm radius) MCP Z-stack, and a matching 2-D cylindrically-curved double delay-line readout array with a 1024 x 32 pixel array format. This array format provides a point source response that is twice that originally proposed (Δ λ 3 Å). Three data taking modes are possible: (i) histogram image mode for 2-D images, (ii) pixel list mode with periodic time hacks for temporal studies, and (iii) count rate mode for broadband photometric studies. Optical and radiometric sensitivity performance results based on subsystem tests of the flight optics, detector, and preliminary integrated system level tests of the integrated ALICE flight model are presented and discussed.

  1. The Spectrometer Telescope for Imaging X-rays STIX on Solar Orbiter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Csillaghy, A.; Battaglia, M.; Krucker, S.; Hurford, G. J.

    2012-12-01

    The Spectrometer Telescope for Imaging X-rays (STIX) will provide imaging spectroscopy of solar thermal and non-thermal X-ray emissions from ~4 to 150 keV. STIX will play an important role in answering two of Solar Orbiter's main science questions: (1) How and where are energetic particles accelerated at the Sun, and how are they transported into interplanetary space? X-ray images and spectra will provide information on the location, spectrum and intensity of flare accelerated electrons near the Sun. (2) What is the magnetic connection from Solar Orbiter back to the Sun? STIX will play a key role in linking remote sensing and in-situ observations on Solar Orbiter. Radio signatures of flare accelerated electrons will be observed by the Radio and Plasma wave instrument (RPW), while the SupraThermal Electron sensor (STE) of the Energetic Particle Detector suite (EPD) will detect electrons in-situ. Thus, the magnetic structure, field line length and connectivity can be tracked. STIX is based on a Fourier-transform imaging technique similar to that used successfully by the Hard X-ray Telescope (HXT) on the Japanese Yohkoh mission, and related to that used for the Reuven Ramaty High Energy Solar Spectroscopic Imager mission. STIX has a higher sensitivity than RHESSI, with comparable image quality and spectral and spatial resolution. It will be able to observe thermal and non-thermal emission from nanoflares up to the largest X- class events. STIX consists of three main parts: 1. An X-ray window, 2. An imager with 32 subcollimators, and 3. A spectrometer with 32 Cadmium Telluride (CdTe) X-ray detectors The transmission through the grid pairs to the detectors is a very sensitive function of the direction of incidence of the X-ray flux. The relative count rates of the detectors behind the different sets of grids encode the spatial information that can be subsequently decoded on the ground to reconstruct images of the source region at different X-ray energies.

  2. Infrared imaging spectrometer for measurement of temperature in high-speed events

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hopkins, Mark Franklin

    Munition development has always been driven by the necessity of delivering enough explosives to a targeted object to destroy it. Targets that are protected by steel reinforced concrete housings have become increasingly more difficult to destroy. Improvements must be made in munitions engineering design to either deliver more payload to the target or to make the weapon more potent. In most cases, due to aircraft weight limitations, the delivery of more payload is not an option. Therefore, improving the destructive power of a weapon of a given payload requires the use of more powerful explosives. However, when the potency of an explosive is increased, its sensitivity to premature detonation also increases. The characteristics of the metal casing containing the explosive contribute significantly to the weapon's detonation sensitivity. Casing experience significant heating during weapon penetration. This heating can cause the weapon to detonate before it reaches its target location. In the past, computer codes used to model detonating weapons have not taken heating into account in their performance predictions. Consequently, the theoretical models and the actual field tests are not in agreement. New models, that include temperature information, are currently being developed which are based on work done in the area of computational fluid dynamics. In this research, a remotely located, high-speed, infrared (IR) camera is used to obtain detailed measurements of the passive radiation from an object in an energetic environment. This radiation information is used to determine both the emissivity and the temperature of the surface of an object. However, before the temperature or emissivity was determined, the functional form of the emissivity was calculated to be an Mth degree polynomial with respect to wavelength dependence. With the advent of large, high-speed, IR detector arrays, it has now become possible to realize IR imaging spectrometers that have very high spatial

  3. Use of AVIRIS data to the definition of optimised specifications for land applications with future spaceborne imaging spectrometers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bodechtel, J.

    1992-01-01

    Recent experience with airborne imaging spectrometers demonstrated the advantages of narrow band sensors over broad band scanners for characterizing the nature, extent, and physical status of typical land surfaces. Information on key spectral features associated with various land surfaces can be obtained from the data of such instruments, which can be used to simulate spaceborne imaging spectrometer data and to assess their information content if comprehensive underpinning is provided by ground data. The collection of such information was an issue of airborne imaging spectrometer campaigns like the NASA MAC-Europe 1991. Airborne and ground data obtained from different test sites in Europe are utilized for a comparative analysis of the spectral signatures of various land surfaces (vegetation, bare soils and rocks, and mixed soil/rock-vegetation) as seen from different imaging spectrometers like Airborne Visible/Infrared Imaging Spectrometer (AVIRIS), GERIS 63 band scanner, and CASI. The following items are discussed: (1) the significance of different spectral regions within the wavelength interval between 0.4 m and 2.5 m for the differentiation of different land units; (2) recommendations on the optimum band selection and band-widths to be used for the application of future satellite-based imaging spectrometers for land applications; (3) the boundaries for the detection of plant features in mixed-soil plant spectra and the influence of different soil properties on the mixture of the spectra; (4) recommendations on the optimum spatial resolution and recording dates for the discrimination of spectral features of various surface types; and (5) evaluation of different data compressing techniques for the optimum extraction of spectral information from imaging spectrometry data.

  4. ARES: a new reflective/emissive imaging spectrometer for terrestrial applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mueller, Andreas; Richter, Rolf; Habermeyer, Martin; Mehl, Harald; Dech, Stefan; Kaufmann, Hermann J.; Segl, Karl; Strobl, Peter; Haschberger, Peter; Bamler, Richard

    2004-10-01

    Airborne imaging spectrometers have a history of about 20 years starting with the operation of AIS in 1982. During the following years, many other instruments were built and successfully operated, e.g., AVIRIS, CASI, DAIS-7915, and HyMap. Since imaging spectrometers cover a spectral region with a large number of narrow contiguous bands they are able to retrieve the spectral reflectance signature of the earth allowing tasks such as mineral identification and abundance mapping, monitoring of vegetation properties, and assessment of water constituents. An essential prerequisite for the evaluation of imaging spectrometer data is a stable spectral and radiometric calibration. Although a considerable progress has been achieved in this respect over the last two decades, this issue is still technically challenging today, especially for low-to-medium cost instruments. This paper introduces a new airborne imaging spectrometer, the ARES (Airborne Reflective Emissive Spectrometer) to be built by Integrated Spectronics, Sydney, Australia, and co-financed by DLR German Aerospace Center and the GFZ GeoResearch Center Potsdam, Germany. The instrument shall feature a high performance over the entire optical wavelength range and will be available to the scientific community from 2006 on. The ARES sensor will provide 150 channels in the solar reflective region (0.47-2.42 μm) and the thermal region (8.1-12.1 μm). It will consist of two co-registered optical systems for the reflective and thermal part of the spectrum. The spectral resolution is intended to be between 12 and 16 nm in the solar wavelength range and should reach 150 nm in the thermal range. ARES will be used mainly for environmental applications in terrestrial ecosystems. The thematic focus is thought to be on soil sciences, geology, agriculture and forestry. Limnologic applications should be possible but will not play a key role in the thematic applications. For all above mentioned key application scenarios, the

  5. Multiaperture Spectrometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schindler, Rudolf A.; Pagano, Robert J.; O'Callaghan, Fred G.

    1991-01-01

    Proposed multiaperture spectrometer containing single grating provides high spectral resolution over broad spectrum. Produces parallel line images, each of which highly spectrally resolved display of intensity vs. wavelength in wavelength band of one of orders of spectrum produced by grating. Advantages; convenient two-dimensional spectral image, fewer components, and greater efficiency.

  6. Hyperspectral imaging Fourier transform spectrometers for astronomical and remote sensing observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rafert, J. Bruce; Sellar, R. Glenn; Holbert, Eirik; Blatt, Joel H.; Tyler, David W.; Durham, Susan E.; Newby, Harold D.

    1994-06-01

    The Florida Institue of Technology and the Phillips Laboratory have developed several advanced visible (0.4-0.8 micrometers ) imaging fourier transform spectrometer (IFTS) brassboards, which simultaneously acquire one spatial and one spectral dimension of the hyperspectral image cube. The initial versions of these instruments may be scanned across a scene or configured with a scan mirror to pick up the second spatial dimension of the image cube. The current visible hyperspectral imagers possess a combination of features, including (1) low to moderate spectral resolution for hundreds/thousands of spectral channels, (2) robust design, with no moving parts, (3) detector limited free spectral range, (4) detector-limited spatial and spectral resolution, and (5) field widened operation. The utility of this type of instrument reaches its logical conclusion however, with an instrument designed to acquire all three dimensions of the hyperspectral image cube (both spatial and one spectral) simultaneously. In this paper we present the (1) detailed optical system designs for the brassboard instruments, (2) the current data acquisition system, (3) data reduction and analysis techniques unique to hyperspectral sensor systems which operate with photometric accuracy, and (4) several methods to modify the basic instrument design to allow simultaneous acquistion of the entire hyperspectral image cube. The hyperspectral sensor systems which are being developed and whose utility is being pioneered by Florida Tech and the Phillips Laboratory are applicable to numerous DoD and civil applications including (1) space object identification, (2) radiometrically correct satellite image and spectral signature database observations, (3) simultaneous spactial/spectral observations of booster plumes for strategic and surrogate tactical missile signature identification, and (4) spatial/spectral visible and IR astronomical observations with photometric accuracy.

  7. HIRIS - NASAS's High-Resolution Imaging Spectrometer for the Earth Observing System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dozier, J.

    1992-01-01

    Modern Earth science is beginning to examine interactions among the different terrestrial components at all temporal and spatial scales. Such a global perspective requires an integrated remote-sensing program, the Earth Observing System (EOS), which uses instruments throughout the electromagnetic spectrum to collect data about the Earth's surface, oceans and atmosphere over a range of selected scales. At the finest scales, we will require instruments capable of detailed sampling both spatially and spectrally. We have designed the High-Resoulution Imaging Spectrometer (HIRIS) to acquire simultaneous images in 192 spectral bands in the dominant wavelengths of the solar spectrum, 0.4 to 2.5 micrometers, at a spectral sampling interval of 10 nm. The ground instantaneous field of view (GIFOV) will be 30 m over a 24 km swath. A pointing capability will allow image acquisition up to +52 deg/-30 deg down track and +/-45 deg or more cross-track. Thus we will be able to study surface spectral bidirectional reflectance properties and variations in atmospheric attenuation with viewing angle. The cross-track pointing will also allow multiple viewing opportunities during one 16-day orbital revisit cycle, so that any part of the Earth may be imaged in a two-day period.

  8. The (new) Mid-Infrared Spectrometer and Imager (MIRSI) for the NASA Infrared Telescope Facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hora, Joseph L.; Trilling, David; Mommert, Michael; Smith, Howard A.; Moskovitz, Nicholas; Marscher, Alan P.; Tokunaga, Alan; Bergknut, Lars; Bonnet, Morgan; Bus, Schelte J.; Connelly, Michael; Rayner, John; Watanabe, Darryl

    2015-11-01

    The Mid-Infrared Spectrometer and Imager (MIRSI) was developed at Boston University and has been in use since 2002 on the Infrared Telescope Facility (IRTF), making observations of asteroids, planets, and comets in the 2 - 25 μm wavelength range. Recently the instrument has been unavailable due to electronics issues and the high cost of supplying liquid helium on Maunakea. We have begun a project to upgrade MIRSI to a cryocooler-based system with new array readout electronics and a dichroic and optical camera to simultaneously image the science field for image acquisition and optical photometry. The mechanical cryocooler will enable MIRSI to be continuously mounted on the IRTF multiple instrument mount (MIM) along with the other facility instruments, making it available to the entire community for multi-wavelength imaging and spectral observations. We will propose to use the refurbished MIRSI to measure the 10 μm flux from Near Earth Objects (NEOs) and determine their diameters and albedos through the use of a thermal model. We plan to observe up to 750 NEOs over the course of a three year survey, most of whose diameters will be under 300 meters. Here we present an overview of the MIRSI upgrade and give the current status of the project.This work is funded by the NASA Solar System Observations/NEOO program.

  9. Fluorescence imaging for visualization of the ion cloud in a quadrupole ion trap mass spectrometer.

    PubMed

    Talbot, Francis O; Sciuto, Stephen V; Jockusch, Rebecca A

    2013-12-01

    Laser-induced fluorescence is used to visualize populations of gaseous ions stored in a quadrupole ion trap (QIT) mass spectrometer. Presented images include the first fluorescence image of molecular ions collected under conditions typically used in mass spectrometry experiments. Under these "normal" mass spectrometry conditions, the radial (r) and axial (z) full-width at half maxima (FWHM) of the detected ion cloud are 615 and 214 μm, respectively, corresponding to ~6% of r0 and ~3% of z0 for the QIT used. The effects on the shape and size of the ion cloud caused by varying the pressure of helium bath gas, the number of trapped ions, and the Mathieu parameter q z are visualized and discussed. When a "tickle voltage" is applied to the exit end-cap electrode, as is done in collisionally activated dissociation, a significant elongation in the axial, but not the radial, dimension of the ion cloud is apparent. Finally, using spectroscopically distinguishable fluorophores of two different m/z values, images are presented that illustrate stratification of the ion cloud; ions of lower m/z (higher qz) are located in the center of the trapping region, effectively excluding higher m/z (lower qz) ions, which form a surrounding layer. Fluorescence images such as those presented here provide a useful reference for better understanding the collective behavior of ions in radio frequency (rf) trapping devices and how phenomena such as collisions and space-charge affect ion distribution. PMID:24092629

  10. Fluorescence Imaging for Visualization of the Ion Cloud in a Quadrupole Ion Trap Mass Spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Talbot, Francis O.; Sciuto, Stephen V.; Jockusch, Rebecca A.

    2013-12-01

    Laser-induced fluorescence is used to visualize populations of gaseous ions stored in a quadrupole ion trap (QIT) mass spectrometer. Presented images include the first fluorescence image of molecular ions collected under conditions typically used in mass spectrometry experiments. Under these "normal" mass spectrometry conditions, the radial ( r) and axial ( z) full-width at half maxima (FWHM) of the detected ion cloud are 615 and 214 μm, respectively, corresponding to ~6 % of r 0 and ~3 % of z 0 for the QIT used. The effects on the shape and size of the ion cloud caused by varying the pressure of helium bath gas, the number of trapped ions, and the Mathieu parameter q z are visualized and discussed. When a "tickle voltage" is applied to the exit end-cap electrode, as is done in collisionally activated dissociation, a significant elongation in the axial, but not the radial, dimension of the ion cloud is apparent. Finally, using spectroscopically distinguishable fluorophores of two different m/ z values, images are presented that illustrate stratification of the ion cloud; ions of lower m/ z (higher q z ) are located in the center of the trapping region, effectively excluding higher m/ z (lower q z ) ions, which form a surrounding layer. Fluorescence images such as those presented here provide a useful reference for better understanding the collective behavior of ions in radio frequency (rf) trapping devices and how phenomena such as collisions and space-charge affect ion distribution.

  11. The Two Wide-angle Imaging Neutral-atom Spectrometers (TWINS) NASA Mission-of-Opportunity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McComas, D. J.; Allegrini, F.; Baldonado, J.; Blake, B.; Brandt, P. C.; Burch, J.; Clemmons, J.; Crain, W.; Delapp, D.; Demajistre, R.; Everett, D.; Fahr, H.; Friesen, L.; Funsten, H.; Goldstein, J.; Gruntman, M.; Harbaugh, R.; Harper, R.; Henkel, H.; Holmlund, C.; Lay, G.; Mabry, D.; Mitchell, D.; Nass, U.; Pollock, C.; Pope, S.; Reno, M.; Ritzau, S.; Roelof, E.; Scime, E.; Sivjee, M.; Skoug, R.; Sotirelis, T. S.; Thomsen, M.; Urdiales, C.; Valek, P.; Viherkanto, K.; Weidner, S.; Ylikorpi, T.; Young, M.; Zoennchen, J.

    2009-02-01

    Two Wide-angle Imaging Neutral-atom Spectrometers (TWINS) is a NASA Explorer Mission-of-Opportunity to stereoscopically image the Earth’s magnetosphere for the first time. TWINS extends our understanding of magnetospheric structure and processes by providing simultaneous Energetic Neutral Atom (ENA) imaging from two widely separated locations. TWINS observes ENAs from 1-100 keV with high angular (˜4°×4°) and time (˜1-minute) resolution. The TWINS Ly- α monitor measures the geocoronal hydrogen density to aid in ENA analysis while environmental sensors provide contemporaneous measurements of the local charged particle environments. By imaging ENAs with identical instruments from two widely spaced, high-altitude, high-inclination spacecraft, TWINS enables three-dimensional visualization of the large-scale structures and dynamics within the magnetosphere for the first time. This “instrument paper” documents the TWINS design, construction, calibration, and initial results. Finally, the appendix of this paper describes and documents the Southwest Research Institute (SwRI) instrument calibration facility; this facility was used for all TWINS instrument-level calibrations.

  12. Portable Remote Imaging Spectrometer coastal ocean sensor: design, characteristics, and first flight results.

    PubMed

    Mouroulis, Pantazis; Van Gorp, Byron; Green, Robert O; Dierssen, Heidi; Wilson, Daniel W; Eastwood, Michael; Boardman, Joseph; Gao, Bo-Cai; Cohen, David; Franklin, Brian; Loya, Frank; Lundeen, Sarah; Mazer, Alan; McCubbin, Ian; Randall, David; Richardson, Brandon; Rodriguez, Jose I; Sarture, Charles; Urquiza, Eugenio; Vargas, Rudolph; White, Victor; Yee, Karl

    2014-03-01

    The design, characteristics, and first test flight results are described of the Portable Remote Imaging Spectrometer, an airborne sensor specifically designed to address the challenges of coastal ocean remote sensing. The sensor incorporates several technologies that are demonstrated for the first time, to the best of our knowledge, in a working system in order to achieve a high performance level in terms of uniformity, signal-to-noise ratio, low polarization sensitivity, low stray light, and high spatial resolution. The instrument covers the 350-1050 nm spectral range with a 2.83 nm sampling per pixel, and a 0.88 mrad instantaneous field of view, with 608 cross-track pixels in a pushbroom configuration. Two additional infrared channels (1240 and 1610 nm) are measured by a spot radiometer housed in the same head. The spectrometer design is based on an optically fast (F/1.8) Dyson design form coupled to a wide angle two-mirror telescope in a configuration that minimizes polarization sensitivity without the use of a depolarizer. A grating with minimum polarization sensitivity and broadband efficiency was fabricated as well as a slit assembly with black (etched) silicon surface to minimize backscatter. First flight results over calibration sites as well as Monterey Bay in California have demonstrated good agreement between in situ and remotely sensed data, confirming the potential value of the sensor to the coastal ocean science community. PMID:24663366

  13. The Chlorophyll Fluorescence Imaging Spectrometer (CFIS): A New Airborne Instrument for Quantifying Solar-Induced Fluorescence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drewry, D.; Frankenberg, C.; Verma, M.; Berry, J. A.; Schimel, D.; Geier, S.; Schwochert, M.

    2015-12-01

    Recent demonstrations of the retrieval of vegetation solar-induced fluorescence (SIF) emission from satellite platforms have opened up the possibility of remotely monitoring photosynthetic function, in addition to the structural and biochemical parameters that characterize the current capabilities of vegetation observing systems. These satellite retrievals, from platforms such as GOSAT, GOME-2, and most recently NASA's Orbiting Carbon Observatory 2 (OCO-2), provide powerful evidence of the correlation between vegetation productivity and SIF at seasonal to annual timescales, and at spatial resolutions of tens to hundreds of kilometers. The Chlorophyll Fluorescence Imaging Spectrometer (CFIS) was recently developed for OCO-2 validation purposes and provides an airborne capability to help fill the spatial gap between leaf- or canopy-level observations of SIF flux and extensive satellite footprints. The flexibility of an airborne instrument likewise allows for studies of the temporal variability of SIF emission over consecutive days, or with meteorological variability throughout a day. CFIS is a high resolution (<0.1nm) spectrometer covering the 740-770nm wavelength range, optimized for SIF quantification. Here we present an overview of the instrument design and capabilities, along with the retrieval methodology. An evaluation of data collected during initial campaigns conducted during the spring and summer of 2015 are also presented, demonstrating variability within and between days for campaigns spanning multiple days in the Midwest US and Northern California. Results will be compared to OCO-2 data as well as flux-tower measurements made during the CFIS flights.

  14. F/A-18 tactical reconnaissance (tac recce) capability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heinz, David; Pugh, Gregory G.; Wolters, David

    1996-11-01

    In 1995 the F/A-18 TAC RECCE Program was expanded beyond the initial electro-optic and infrared image recording capability of the Advanced Tactical Air Reconnaissance System (ATARS). The program now also includes integration of new high-resolution Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) reconnaissance modes and air-to-ground data link of ATARS and SAR image data. Delivery of the first reconnaissance equipment production units and fleet release is scheduled for 1998. F/A-18D two-seat aircraft will be retrofit with the RECCE equipment and designated F/A-18D(RC) (Reconnaissance Capable). This presentation describes recent F/A-18D(RC) operational assessment results, tactical reconnaissance equipment, functions, and interfaces for the 1998 fleet release. The equipment consists of the ATARS, the aircraft RECCE kit (access door, sensor windows, fairings), the upgraded APG-73 radar, and the data link pod. Functions include mission planning, automatic and manual acquisition of RECCE targets, image data recording, crew-station image review and edit, and data link. Interfaces include those with the Tactical Automated Mission Planning System, ground exploitation stations, and the aircraft carrier environment.

  15. Comparison of spectral data gathered from a laboratory spectrometer and TM images with and without shadow correction

    SciTech Connect

    Thiessen, R.L.; Eliason, J.R.

    1989-01-01

    Spectral reflectance data from field samples were determined with a laboratory spectrometer (Beckman DK-2A). The spectral curves obtained with the spectrometer were correlated with the histograms determined from the images. The tightly defined histograms from the shadow corrected TM provided the best correlation with the rock data. Several units, including the Rainier Mesa Member of the Timber Mountain Tuff, showed multiple spectral patterns on both images and rock spectra. This difference was evaluated versus geochemistry, hematitic alteration, devitrification, pumice content, and degree of welding. 11 refs., 3 figs., 3 tabs.

  16. Hypersonic reconnaissance aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bulk, Tim; Chiarini, David; Hill, Kevin; Kunszt, Bob; Odgen, Chris; Truong, Bon

    1992-01-01

    A conceptual design of a hypersonic reconnaissance aircraft for the U.S. Navy is discussed. After eighteen weeks of work, a waverider design powered by two augmented turbofans was chosen. The aircraft was designed to be based on an aircraft carrier and to cruise 6,000 nautical miles at Mach 4;80,000 feet and above. As a result the size of the aircraft was only allowed to have a length of eighty feet, fifty-two feet in wingspan, and roughly 2,300 square feet in planform area. Since this is a mainly cruise aircraft, sixty percent of its 100,000 pound take-off weight is JP fuel. At cruise, the highest temperature that it will encounter is roughly 1,100 F, which can be handled through the use of a passive cooling system.

  17. Development and evaluation of a Hadamard transform imaging spectrometer and a Hadamard transform thermal imager

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harwit, M.; Swift, R.; Wattson, R.; Decker, J.; Paganetti, R.

    1976-01-01

    A spectrometric imager and a thermal imager, which achieve multiplexing by the use of binary optical encoding masks, were developed. The masks are based on orthogonal, pseudorandom digital codes derived from Hadamard matrices. Spatial and/or spectral data is obtained in the form of a Hadamard transform of the spatial and/or spectral scene; computer algorithms are then used to decode the data and reconstruct images of the original scene. The hardware, algorithms and processing/display facility are described. A number of spatial and spatial/spectral images are presented. The achievement of a signal-to-noise improvement due to the signal multiplexing was also demonstrated. An analysis of the results indicates both the situations for which the multiplex advantage may be gained, and the limitations of the technique. A number of potential applications of the spectrometric imager are discussed.

  18. The reconnaissance and siting of field hospitals.

    PubMed

    Boreham, A; Bricknell, M C M

    2002-03-01

    This paper describes the reconnaissance function for the siting of deployable field hospitals. It reports two levels of reconnaissance, theatre/operational and tactical. The paper describes the factors to be considered when conducting the reconnaissance and the format of the reconnaissance report. PMID:12024890

  19. Design of a high aperture compression ratio, dual-band static Fourier transform imaging spectrometer for remote sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zou, Chun-bo; Hu, Bing-Liang; Li, Li-bo; Bai, Qing-Lan; Sun, Xin; Li, Ran; Yang, Jian-Feng

    2014-11-01

    A novel dual-band static Fourier transform imaging spectrometer was designed, which was the spatio-temporally modulated imaging Fourier transform spectrometer based on Sagnac interferometer. The approach represented a simplification and mass reduction over the traditional approach. It could obtain two-dimensional spatial images and one dimensional spectral image in two bands simultaneously. The two bands was separated through a dichroic prism and imaging in two detectors. one band was the visible and near infrared band, with the spectral range 400nm-1000nm and spectral resolution 187.5 wave numbers; the other was the short wave infrared band, with the spectral range 1000nm- 2500nm and spectral resolution 150 wave numbers. To reduce the size of the Interferometer, a high aperture compression ratio telescope system was designed before. The optical aperture was compressed to 1/10, and the volume of interferometer was reduced to 1/1000. For the convenience of engineering implementation, the telescope was composed of two no-aberration object lens: fore-lens and Collimating lens. The two band imaging spectrometers shared the primary lens and the second lens of the fore-lens and use their own collimating lens, interferometers and Fourier transform lens. The collimating lens and the Fourier transform lens of each spectrometer could be designed to the same structural style and parameters. The both spectrometers had a focal length of 1000mm, F number of 5, FOV(field of view) of 1°. Moreover, both image qualities were close to the diffraction limit, the distortion was less than 2%. The advantage of the instrument was that dual band spectral image could be acquired at the same time and the interferometer was miniaturized extremely in the case of unchanged technical indicators.

  20. LROC - Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter Camera

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robinson, M. S.; Eliason, E.; Hiesinger, H.; Jolliff, B. L.; McEwen, A.; Malin, M. C.; Ravine, M. A.; Thomas, P. C.; Turtle, E. P.

    2009-12-01

    The Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO) went into lunar orbit on 23 June 2009. The LRO Camera (LROC) acquired its first lunar images on June 30 and commenced full scale testing and commissioning on July 10. The LROC consists of two narrow-angle cameras (NACs) that provide 0.5 m scale panchromatic images over a combined 5 km swath, and a wide-angle camera (WAC) to provide images at a scale of 100 m per pixel in five visible wavelength bands (415, 566, 604, 643, and 689 nm) and 400 m per pixel in two ultraviolet bands (321 nm and 360 nm) from the nominal 50 km orbit. Early operations were designed to test the performance of the cameras under all nominal operating conditions and provided a baseline for future calibrations. Test sequences included off-nadir slews to image stars and the Earth, 90° yaw sequences to collect flat field calibration data, night imaging for background characterization, and systematic mapping to test performance. LRO initially was placed into a terminator orbit resulting in images acquired under low signal conditions. Over the next three months the incidence angle at the spacecraft’s equator crossing gradually decreased towards high noon, providing a range of illumination conditions. Several hundred south polar images were collected in support of impact site selection for the LCROSS mission; details can be seen in many of the shadows. Commissioning phase images not only proved the instruments’ overall performance was nominal, but also that many geologic features of the lunar surface are well preserved at the meter-scale. Of particular note is the variety of impact-induced morphologies preserved in a near pristine state in and around kilometer-scale and larger young Copernican age impact craters that include: abundant evidence of impact melt of a variety of rheological properties, including coherent flows with surface textures and planimetric properties reflecting supersolidus (e.g., liquid melt) emplacement, blocks delicately perched on

  1. New scientific results with SpIOMM: a testbed for CFHT's imaging Fourier transform spectrometer SITELLE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drissen, L.; Alarie, A.; Martin, T.; Lagrois, D.; Rousseau-Nepton, L.; Bilodeau, A.; Robert, C.; Joncas, G.; Iglesias-Páramo, J.

    2012-09-01

    We present new data obtained with SpIOMM, the imaging Fourier transform spectrometer attached to the 1.6-m telescope of the Observatoire du Mont-Megantic in Québec. Recent technical and data reduction improvements have significantly increased SpIOMM's capabilities to observe fainter objects or weaker nebular lines, as well as continuum sources and absorption lines, and to increase its modulation efficiency in the near ultraviolet. To illustrate these improvements, we present data on the supernova remnant Cas A, planetary nebulae M27 and M97, the Wolf-Rayet ring nebula M1-67, spiral galaxies M63 and NGC 3344, as well as the interacting pair of galaxies Arp 84.

  2. Science results from the imaging Fourier transform spectrometer SpIOMM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drissen, L.; Bernier, A.-P.; Charlebois, M.; Brière, É.; Robert, C.; Joncas, G.; Martin, P.; Grandmont, F.

    2008-07-01

    SpIOMM is an imaging Fourier transform spectrometer designed to obtain the visible range (350 - 850 nm) spectrum of every light source in a circular field of view of 12 arcminutes in diameter. Attached to the 1.6-m telescope of the Observatoire du Mont Megantic in southern Quebec. We present here some results of three successful observing runs in 2007, which highlight SpIOMM's capabilities to map emission line objects over a very wide field of view and a broad spectral range. In particular, we discuss data cubes from the planetary nebula M27, the supernova remnants NGC 6992 and M1, the barred spiral galaxy NGC7479, as well as Stephan's quintet, and interacting group of galaxies.

  3. Imaging open-path Fourier transform infrared spectrometer for 3D cloud profiling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rentz Dupuis, Julia; Mansur, David J.; Vaillancourt, Robert; Carlson, David; Evans, Thomas; Schundler, Elizabeth; Todd, Lori; Mottus, Kathleen

    2010-04-01

    OPTRA has developed an imaging open-path Fourier transform infrared (I-OP-FTIR) spectrometer for 3D profiling of chemical and biological agent simulant plumes released into test ranges and chambers. An array of I-OP-FTIR instruments positioned around the perimeter of the test site, in concert with advanced spectroscopic algorithms, enables real time tomographic reconstruction of the plume. The approach is intended as a referee measurement for test ranges and chambers. This Small Business Technology Transfer (STTR) effort combines the instrumentation and spectroscopic capabilities of OPTRA, Inc. with the computed tomographic expertise of the University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill. In this paper, we summarize the design and build and detail system characterization and test of a prototype I-OP-FTIR instrument. System characterization includes radiometric performance and spectral resolution. Results from a series of tomographic reconstructions of sulfur hexafluoride plumes in a laboratory setting are also presented.

  4. Imaging open-path Fourier transform infrared spectrometer for 3D cloud profiling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rentz Dupuis, Julia; Mansur, David J.; Engel, James R.; Vaillancourt, Robert; Todd, Lori; Mottus, Kathleen

    2008-04-01

    OPTRA and University of North Carolina are developing an imaging open-path Fourier transform infrared (I-OP-FTIR) spectrometer for 3D profiling of chemical and biological agent simulant plumes released into test ranges and chambers. An array of I-OP-FTIR instruments positioned around the perimeter of the test site, in concert with advanced spectroscopic algorithms, enables real time tomographic reconstruction of the plume. The approach will be considered as a candidate referee measurement for test ranges and chambers. This Small Business Technology Transfer (STTR) effort combines the instrumentation and spectroscopic capabilities of OPTRA, Inc. with the computed tomographic expertise of the University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill. In this paper, we summarize progress to date and overall system performance projections based on the instrument, spectroscopy, and tomographic reconstruction accuracy. We then present a preliminary optical design of the I-OP-FTIR.

  5. Comparison of solar spectra from the Hinode extreme-ultraviolet imaging spectrometer (EIS) to preflight calibrations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seely, John; Feldman, Uri; Brown, Charles; Doschek, George; Hara, H.

    2007-09-01

    The Extreme-Ultraviolet Imaging Spectrometer (EIS) on the Hinode satellite records high-resolution solar spectra in the 170-210 Å and 246-290 Å wavelength ranges. The EIS optics operate at near normal incidence and consist of an off-axis parabolic mirror, a toroidal diffraction grating, two CCD detectors, and two thin aluminum filters. To increase the normal incidence efficiency, high-reflectance multilayer interference coatings were deposited on the mirror and the grating. Prior to launch, each of the optical components was calibrated using synchrotron radiation, and the spectral and spatial resolution of the complete instrument were measured. In this paper, we compare the preflight calibrations with the first-light spectra recorded in space.

  6. USING HINODE/EXTREME-ULTRAVIOLET IMAGING SPECTROMETER TO CONFIRM A SEISMOLOGICALLY INFERRED CORONAL TEMPERATURE

    SciTech Connect

    Marsh, M. S.; Walsh, R. W.

    2009-11-20

    The Extreme-Ultraviolet Imaging Spectrometer on board the HINODE satellite is used to examine the loop system described in Marsh et al. by applying spectroscopic diagnostic methods. A simple isothermal mapping algorithm is applied to determine where the assumption of isothermal plasma may be valid, and the emission measure locii technique is used to determine the temperature profile along the base of the loop system. It is found that, along the base, the loop has a uniform temperature profile with a mean temperature of 0.89 +- 0.09 MK which is in agreement with the temperature determined seismologically in Marsh et al., using observations interpreted as the slow magnetoacoustic mode. The results further strengthen the slow mode interpretation, propagation at a uniform sound speed, and the analysis method applied in Marsh et al. It is found that it is not possible to discriminate between the slow mode phase speed and the sound speed within the precision of the present observations.

  7. Intercalibration of the X-ray Telescope and the EUV Imaging Spectrometer on Hinode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Golub, Leon; Cirtain, J.; DeLuca, E. E.; Hara, H.; Warren, H.; Weber, M.

    2007-05-01

    The X-Ray Telescope and the Extreme-Ultra Violet Imaging Spectrometer on Hinode are designed to measure the emission of excited ions formed at temperatures ranging from 104-108 K. The temperature overlap of these two telescope is from 0.7 to 20 MK, and an on-orbit calibration of the sensitivity of the two instruments to solar features will provide a basis for future observational comparisons. Using calibrated samples of data from each instrument, and relying to a great extent on the CHIANTI spectral code, we have derived an estimate of the inter-calibration of the two telescope for a variety of different solar features and conditions. This is a major step in enhancing our ability to use the instruments together for providing quantitative diagnostics of the solar plasma.

  8. Characterization of aerosol-containing chemical simulant clouds using a sensitive, thermal infrared imaging spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hall, Jeffrey L.; D'Amico, Francis M.; Kolodzey, Steven J.; Qian, Jun; Polak, Mark L.; Westerberg, Karl; Chang, Clement S.

    2011-05-01

    A sensitive, ground-based thermal imaging spectrometer was deployed at the Army's Dugway Proving Ground to remotely monitor explosively released chemical-warfare-agent-simulant clouds from stand-off ranges of a few kilometers. The sensor has 128 spectral bands covering the 7.6 to 13.5 micron region. The measured cloud spectra clearly showed scattering of high-elevation-angle sky radiance by liquid aerosols or dust in the clouds: we present arguments that show why the scattering is most likely due to dust. This observation has significant implications for early detection of dust-laden chemical clouds. On one hand, detection algorithms must properly account for the scattered radiation component, which would include out-of-scene radiation components as well as a dust signature; on the other hand, this scattering gives rise to an enhanced "delta-T" for detection by a ground-based sensor.

  9. Depth profiling and imaging capabilities of an ultrashort pulse laser ablation time of flight mass spectrometer

    PubMed Central

    Cui, Yang; Moore, Jerry F.; Milasinovic, Slobodan; Liu, Yaoming; Gordon, Robert J.; Hanley, Luke

    2012-01-01

    An ultrafast laser ablation time-of-flight mass spectrometer (AToF-MS) and associated data acquisition software that permits imaging at micron-scale resolution and sub-micron-scale depth profiling are described. The ion funnel-based source of this instrument can be operated at pressures ranging from 10−8 to ∼0.3 mbar. Mass spectra may be collected and stored at a rate of 1 kHz by the data acquisition system, allowing the instrument to be coupled with standard commercial Ti:sapphire lasers. The capabilities of the AToF-MS instrument are demonstrated on metal foils and semiconductor wafers using a Ti:sapphire laser emitting 800 nm, ∼75 fs pulses at 1 kHz. Results show that elemental quantification and depth profiling are feasible with this instrument. PMID:23020378

  10. [Simulated annealing based phase correction of interferogram in Fourier transform imaging spectrometer].

    PubMed

    Huang, Feng-zhen; Yuan, Yan; Zhang, Xiu-bao; Wang, Qian; Zhou, Zhi-liang

    2011-07-01

    Phase correction is one of the key technologies in the spectrum recovery of the Fourier transform imaging spectrometer. The present paper proposes a correction method based on simulated annealing algorithm to calculate phase error, which overcomes the disadvantage of the existing methods that can not correct the interferogram with noise. The method determines the phase optimum solution by controlling the phase decrease function, attaining objective function value by correcting interferogram data with random phase value generated in the phase range, and determining the objective function increment in accordance with the Metropolis criterion. The simulation result of the algorithm indicates that the optimized phase error is less than 0.5%, and both the error accuracy and stability of the spectrum-recovered relative spectrum is less than 1%, which is a great improvement compared with the existing algorithm. PMID:21942072

  11. A Preliminary Investigation of Systematic Noise in Data Acquired with the Airborne Imaging Spectrometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Masuoka, E.

    1985-01-01

    Systematic noise is present in Airborne Imaging Spectrometer (AIS) data collected on October 26, 1983 and May 5, 1984 in grating position 0 (1.2 to 1.5 microns). In the October data set the noise occurs as 135 scan lines of low DN's every 270 scan lines. The noise is particularly bad in bands nine through thirty, restricting effective analysis to at best ten of the 32 bands. In the May data the regions of severe noise have been eliminated, but systematic noise is present with three frequencies (3, 106 and 200 scan lines) in all thirty two bands. The periodic nature of the noise in both data sets suggests that it could be removed as part of routine processing. This is necessary before classification routines or statistical analyses are used with these data.

  12. Discrimination of hydrothermal alteration mineral assemblages at Virginia City, Nevada, using the airborne imaging spectrometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hutsinpiller, Amy

    1988-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to use airborne imaging spectrometer data to discriminate hydrothermal alteration mineral assemblages associated with silver and gold mineralization at Virginia City, NV. The data is corrected for vertical striping and sample gradients, and converted to flat-field logarithmic residuals. Log residual spectra from areas known to be altered are compared to field spectra for kaolinitic, illitic, sericitic, and propylitic alteration types. The areal distributions of these alteration types are estimated using a spectral matching technique. Both visual examination of spectra and the matching techniques are effective in distinguishing kaolinitic, illitic, and propylitic alteration types from each other. However, illitic and sericitic alteration cannot be separated using these techniques because the spectra of illite and sericite are very similar. A principal components analysis of 14 channels in the 2.14-2.38 micron wavelength region is also successful in discriminating and mapping illitic, kaolinitic, and propylitic alteration types.

  13. Upgrading and testing program for narrow band high resolution planetary IR imaging spectrometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wattson, R. B.; Rappaport, S.

    1977-01-01

    An imaging spectrometer, intended primarily for observations of the outer planets, which utilizes an acoustically tuned optical filter (ATOF) and a charge coupled device (CCD) television camera was modified to improve spatial resolution and sensitivity. The upgraded instrument was a spatial resolving power of approximately 1 arc second, as defined by an f/7 beam at the CCD position and it has this resolution over the 50 arc second field of view. Less vignetting occurs and sensitivity is four times greater. The spectral resolution of 15 A over the wavelength interval 6500 A - 11,000 A is unchanged. Mechanical utility has been increased by the use of a honeycomb optical table, mechanically rigid yet adjustable optical component mounts, and a camera focus translation stage. The upgraded instrument was used to observe Venus and Saturn.

  14. Design and Test of a Deployable Radiation Cover for the REgolith X-Ray Imaging Spectrometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carte, David B.; Inamdar, Niraj K.; Jones, Michael P.; Masterson, Rebecca A.

    2014-01-01

    The REgolith X-ray Imaging Spectrometer (REXIS) instrument contains a one-time deployable radiation cover that is opened using a shape memory alloy actuator (a "Frangibolt") from TiNi Aerospace and two torsion springs. The door will be held closed by the bolt for several years in cold storage during travel to the target asteroid, Bennu, and it is imperative to gain confidence that the door will open at predicted operational temperatures. This paper briefly covers the main design features of the radiation cover and measures taken to mitigate risks to cover deployment. As the chosen FD04 model Frangibolt actuator has minimal flight heritage, the main focus of this paper is the testing, results and conclusions with the FD04 while discussing key lessons learned with respect to the use of the FD04 actuator in this application.

  15. Atmospheric water mapping with the Airborne Visible/Infrared Imaging Spectrometer (AVIRIS), Mountain Pass, California

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Conel, James E.; Green, Robert O.; Carrere, Veronique; Margolis, Jack S.; Alley, Ronald E.; Vane, Gregg; Bruegge, Carol J.; Gary, Bruce L.

    1988-01-01

    Observations are given of the spatial variation of atmospheric precipitable water using the Airborne Visible/Infrared Imaging Spectrometer (AVIRIS) over a desert area in eastern California, derived using a band ratio method and the 940 nm atmospheric water band and 870 nm continuum radiances. The ratios yield total path water from curves of growth supplied by the LOWTRAN 7 atmospheric model. An independent validation of the AVIRIS-derived column abundance at a point is supplied by a spectral hygrometer calibrated with respect to radiosonde observations. Water values conform to topography and fall off with surface elevation. The edge of the water vapor boundary layer defined by topography is thought to have been recovered. The ratio method yields column abundance estimates of good precision and high spatial resolution.

  16. In-Flight Spectral Calibration of the APEX Imaging Spectrometer Using Fraunhofer Lines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuhlmann, Gerrit; Hueni, Andreas; Damm, Aalexander; Brunner, Dominik

    2015-06-01

    The Airborne Prism EXperiment (APEX) is an imaging spectrometer which allows to observe atmospheric trace gases such as nitrogen dioxide (NO2). Using a high resolution spectrum of solar Fraunhofer lines, APEX measurements collected during flight have been spectrally calibrated for centre wavelength positions (CW) and instrument slit function (ISF) and compared to the laboratory calibration. We find that CWs depend strongly on both across- and along-track position due to spectral smile and CWs dependency on ambient pressure. The width of the ISF is larger than estimated from the laboratory calibration but can be described by a linear scaling of the laboratory values. The ISF width depends on across but not on along-track direction. The results demonstrate the importance of characterizing and monitoring the instrument performance during flight and will be used to improve the Empa APEX NO2 retrieval algorithm.

  17. New calibration techniques for the Airborne Visible/Infrared Imaging Spectrometer (AVIRIS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chrien, Thomas G.; Green, Robert O.; Chovit, Chris; Eastwood, Mike; Faust, Jessica; Hajek, Pavel; Johnson, Howell; Novack, H. Ian; Sarture, Charles

    1995-01-01

    Recent laboratory calibrations of the Airborne Visible/Infrared Imaging Spectrometer (AVIRIS) include new methods for the characterization of the geometric, spectral, temporal and radiometric properties of the sensor. New techniques are desired in order to: (1) increase measurement accuracy and precision, (2) minimize measurement time and expense, (3) prototype new field and inflight calibration systems, (4) resolve measurement ambiguities, and (5) add new measurement dimensions. One of the common features of these new methods is the use of the full data collection and processing power of the AVIRIS instrument and data facility. This allows the collection of large amounts of calibration data in a short period of time and is well suited to modular data analysis routines.

  18. [Research of spectrum signal-to-noise ratio of large aperture static imaging spectrometer].

    PubMed

    Wang, Shuang; Li, Li-Bo; Pi, Hai-Feng

    2014-03-01

    The process of acquiring hyperspectral data cube of a Large Aperture Static Imaging Spectrometer (LASIS) includes several vital and essential steps, such as interferometer modulation, rectangular convolution sampling by pixels of detector and spectra retrieving. In this process, how to precisely evaluate the Signal-Noise Ratio (SNR) of spectra and how to wholly establish a related evaluation model were both generally very complicated. After a full consideration of the transmission process, utilizing the theory of rectangular convolution sampling and the spectral retrieving method regarding the computation of real part of the discrete Fourier transform of interferogram, formulas of both spectral signal and spectral noise were deduced theoretically, and then a evaluation model regarding the spectral SNR of LASIS was established. By using this model and other design factors of LASIS involving the wavenumber related optical transmittance, the interferometer beam splitter efficiency, the detector quantum efficiency and the main circuit noise, a simulation of spectral SNR was implemented. The simulation result was compared with the measurement result of the SNR of a LASIS instrument. The SNR lines and trends of the two match each other basically in single spectral band. The average deviation between them is proved to be 3.58%. This comparison result demonstrates the feasibility and effectiveness of the evaluation model. This SNR evaluation model consisting of the main technical aspects of typical LASIS instrument from the input spectral radiation to the output spectrum data is possible to be applied widely in practical design and implement of LASIS, as well as may provide valuable reference on SNR calculation and evaluation for other imaging spectrometers. PMID:25208427

  19. Calibration, Sensor Model Improvements and Uncertainty Budget of the Airborne Imaging Spectrometer APEX

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hueni, A.

    2015-12-01

    ESA's Airborne Imaging Spectrometer APEX (Airborne Prism Experiment) was developed under the PRODEX (PROgramme de Développement d'EXpériences scientifiques) program by a Swiss-Belgian consortium and entered its operational phase at the end of 2010 (Schaepman et al., 2015). Work on the sensor model has been carried out extensively within the framework of European Metrology Research Program as part of the Metrology for Earth Observation and Climate (MetEOC and MetEOC2). The focus has been to improve laboratory calibration procedures in order to reduce uncertainties, to establish a laboratory uncertainty budget and to upgrade the sensor model to compensate for sensor specific biases. The updated sensor model relies largely on data collected during dedicated characterisation experiments in the APEX calibration home base but includes airborne data as well where the simulation of environmental conditions in the given laboratory setup was not feasible. The additions to the model deal with artefacts caused by environmental changes and electronic features, namely the impact of ambient air pressure changes on the radiometry in combination with dichroic coatings, influences of external air temperatures and consequently instrument baffle temperatures on the radiometry, and electronic anomalies causing radiometric errors in the four shortwave infrared detector readout blocks. Many of these resolved issues might be expected to be present in other imaging spectrometers to some degree or in some variation. Consequently, the work clearly shows the difficulties of extending a laboratory-based uncertainty to data collected under in-flight conditions. The results are hence not only of interest to the calibration scientist but also to the spectroscopy end user, in particular when commercial sensor systems are used for data collection and relevant sensor characteristic information tends to be sparse. Schaepman, et al, 2015. Advanced radiometry measurements and Earth science

  20. MAGI-L: A Space-Based High-Performance Thermal Infrared Imaging Spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hall, J. L.; Hackwell, J. A.; Tratt, D. M.; Warren, D. W.; Young, S. J.

    2009-12-01

    An innovative multi-channel, thermal-band imager is proposed for space-based Earth science measurement applications. The low-earth-orbit instrument, MAGI-L (Mineral and Gas Identifier - LEO), would use 28 spectral bands between 7 and 12 microns to both exceed the capabilities of existing spaceborne thermal IR imagers and to enable additional applications, such as detection of gases from natural and anthropogenic sources. The higher spectral resolution, compared to ASTER-type (5 band) sensors, will improve discrimination of rock types, greatly expand the gas-detection capability, and result in more accurate land-surface temperature retrieval (important in evapotranspiration and drought studies) by enabling in-scene atmospheric compensation methods. The smaller pixel size and improved temperature sensitivity of MAGI-L will enable smaller thermal changes to be tracked and weaker gas-emission sources to be monitored, both of which will aid in emission inventory characterization of volcanoes and large industrial complexes, for example. The inclusion of spectral channels near 7 microns will permit better detection of contaminating cirrus clouds at night, when visible sensors are compromised, and will provide a second sulfur dioxide detection channel. To maximize swath width, MAGI-L will use a whiskbroom scanner. The optical design for MAGI-L will incorporate a novel Dyson spectrometer mated to a high-frame-rate 2-D HgCdTe focal plane array. The compact Dyson spectrometer design permits operation at low f-numbers while maintaining very low optical distortions. Data from our airborne SEBASS thermal IR sensor have been used to examine the trade-offs between spectral resolution, spectral range, and instrument sensitivity for the proposed MAGI-L sensor. These studies are being used to guide the design and construction of an airborne demonstrator sensor, MAGI, which is being funded by NASA’s Instrument Incubator Program.

  1. Column atmospheric water vapor and vegetation liquid water retrievals from airborne imaging spectrometer data

    SciTech Connect

    Bo-Cai Gao; Goetz, A.F.H. )

    1990-03-20

    High spatial resolution column atmospheric water vapor amounts were derived from spectral data collected by the airborne visible-infrared imaging spectrometer (AVIRIS). The quantitative derivation is made by curve fitting observed spectra with calculated spectra in the 1.14-{mu}m and 0.94-{mu}m water vapor band absorption regions using an atmospheric model, a narrow-band spectral model, and a nonlinear least squares fitting technique. The derivation makes use of the facts that (1) the reflectances of many ground targets vary approximately linearly with wavelength in the 0.94- and 1.14-{mu}m water vapor band absorption regions, (2) the scattered radiation near 1 {mu}m is small compared with the directly reflected radiation when the atmospheric aerosol concentrations are low, and (3) the scattered radiation in the lower part of the atmosphere is subjected to the water vapor absorption. Based on the analyses of an AVIRIS data set that was acquired within an hour of radiosonde launch, it appears that the accuracy approaches the precision. The derived column water vapor amounts are independent of the absolute surface reflectances. It now appears feasible to derive high spatial resolution column water vapor amounts over land areas from satellite altitude with the proposed high resolution imaging spectrometer (HIRIS). Curve fitting of spectra near 1 {mu}m from areas covered with vegetation, using an atmospheric model and a simplified vegetation reflectance model, indicates that both the amount of atmospheric water vapor and the moisture content of vegetation can be retrieved simultaneously because the band centers of liquid water in vegetation and the atmospheric water vapor are offset by approximately 0.05 {mu}m.

  2. Mapping methane concentrations from a controlled release experiment using the next generation Airborne Visible/Infrared Imaging Spectrometer (AVIRISng)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thorpe, A. K.; Frankenberg, C.; Roberts, D. A.; Aubrey, A. D.; Green, R. O.; Hulley, G. C.; Hook, S. J.

    2014-12-01

    Airborne imaging spectrometers like the next generation Airborne Visible/Infrared Imaging Spectrometer (AVIRISng) are well suited for monitoring local methane sources by covering large regions with the high spatial resolution necessary to resolve emissions. As part of a field campaign with controlled methane releases at the Rocky Mountain Oilfield Testing Center (RMOTC), a number of methane plumes were clearly visible at multiple flux rates and flight altitudes. Images of plumes appeared consistent with wind directions measured at ground stations and were present for fluxes as low as 14.2 cubic meters of methane per hour, equivalent to 0.09 kt/year. Direct comparison of results from AVIRISng and plume dispersion models is ongoing and will be used to assess the potential of constraining emission fluxes using AVIRISng. Methane plumes observed at RMOTC with the Hyperspectral Thermal Emission Spectrometer (HyTES) will also be presented. This controlled release experiment was used to determine the methane sensitivity of AVIRISng and inform sensor design for future imaging spectrometers that could constrain natural and anthropogenic methane emissions on local and regional scales. Imaging spectrometers permit direct attribution of emissions to individual point sources which is particularly useful given the large uncertainties associated with anthropogenic emissions, including industrial point source emissions and fugitive methane from the oil and gas industry. Figure caption: a. AVIRISng true color image indicating tube trailer (TT), meteorological tower (MT), and release point (RP). b. Prominent methane plume and measured enhancements for 70.8 cubic meters per hour methane flux is consistent with wind speed and direction (see arrow) measured by meteorological tower. A linear transect is shown in red and corresponds to enhancements shown in c. d. True color image showing release point (RP). e. Smaller methane plume for 14.2 cubic meters per hour flux. f. Methane

  3. SITELLE: a wide-field imaging Fourier transform spectrometer for the Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drissen, L.; Bernier, A.-P.; Rousseau-Nepton, L.; Alarie, A.; Robert, C.; Joncas, G.; Thibault, S.; Grandmont, F.

    2010-07-01

    We describe the concept of a new instrument for the Canada-France-Hawaii telescope (CFHT), SITELLE (Spectromètre Imageur à Transformée de Fourier pour l'Etude en Long et en Large de raies d'Emission), as well as a science case and a technical study of its preliminary design. SITELLE will be an imaging Fourier transform spectrometer capable of obtaining the visible (350 nm - 950 nm) spectrum of every source of light in a field of view of 15 arcminutes, with 100% spatial coverage and a spectral resolution ranging from R = 1 (deep panchromatic image) to R = 104 (for gas dynamics). SITELLE will cover a field of view 100 to 1000 times larger than traditional integral field spectrographs, such as GMOS-IFU on Gemini or the future MUSE on the VLT. It is a legacy from BEAR, the first imaging FTS installed on the CFHT and the direct successor of SpIOMM, a similar instrument attached to the 1.6-m telescope of the Observatoire du Mont-Mégantic in Québec. SITELLE will be used to study the structure and kinematics of HII regions and ejecta around evolved stars in the Milky Way, emission-line stars in clusters, abundances in nearby gas-rich galaxies, and the star formation rate in distant galaxies.

  4. RIMAS - Optical Design Development of the Imager/Spectrometer for the Discovery Channel Telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Capone, John

    2012-01-01

    The Rapid IMAger - Spectrometer (RIMAS) is a collaborative effort between the University of Maryland at College Park, NASA-GSFC and Lowell Observatory designed for use on the 4.3 meter Discovery Channel Telescope at Lowell. The primary science goal of the instrument is the study of gamma-ray burst (ORB) afterglow appearing in the near-infrared. Continuous operation will allow measurements beginning minutes after the prompt emission. We present the results of the RIMAS optical design development. The instrument consists of two arms separated by a dichroic: the first for the Y and J bands (0.9 - 1.35 microns) and the second for the Hand K-bands (1.5 - 1.8 and 2.0 - 2.4 microns). Each arm will be equipped with two broad band filters for imaging, as well as low resolution and echelle grisms. The imaging modes are designed to be diffraction limited, with one pixel corresponding to approx.0.35 arcseconds, while the diffractive modes have resolving powers of approximately 20 and 4,000. With photometric and spectroscopic capabilities, RIMAS will be well positioned to quickly determine redshifts, followed by high resolution spectroscopic studies of ORB afterglow.

  5. First Near Infrared Mapping Spectrometer (NIMS) Image of the Great Red Spot

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    This image of Jupiter's Great Red Spot has different colors than what you normally see. This is because it was recorded by an instrument that looks at infrared 'light' (rather than visible), the Near Infrared Mapping Spectrometer (NIMS) in late June, 1996. Red, green, and blue colors were chosen to represent what the NIMS 'eye' saw at three different infrared wavelengths, which were picked because they reveal the differences in Jupiter's cloud heights. The yellow-green tinge of the Great Red Spot indicates the cloud particles are higher relative to the surrounding region, and shows structure within the red spot itself. The blue regions indicate a thinning of the clouds there.

    The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA manages the mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, DC.

    This image and other images and data received from Galileo are posted on the World Wide Web, on the Galileo mission home page at URL http://galileo.jpl.nasa.gov.

  6. Instrument data processing unit for spectrometer/telescope for imaging x-rays (STIX)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skup, Konrad R.; Cichocki, A.; Graczyk, R.; Michalska, M.; Mosdorf, M.; Nowosielski, W.; Orleański, P.; Przepiórka, A.; Seweryn, K.; Stolarski, M.; Winkler, M.; Sylwester, J.; Kowalinski, M.; Mrozek, T.; Podgorski, P.; Benz, A. O.; Krucker, S.; Hurford, G. J.; Arnold, N. G.; Önele, H.; Meuris, A.; Limousin, O.; Grimm, O.

    2012-05-01

    The Spectrometer/Telescope for Imaging X-rays (STIX) is one of 10 instruments on board Solar Orbiter, an M-class mission of the European Space Agency (ESA) scheduled to be launch in 2017. STIX applies a Fourier-imaging technique using a set of tungsten grids in front of 32 pixelized CdTe detectors to provide imaging spectroscopy of solar thermal and non-thermal hard X-ray emissions from 4 to 150 keV. These detectors are source of data collected and analyzed in real-time by Instrument Data Processing Unit (IDPU). Besides the data processing the IDPU controls and manages other STIX's subsystems: ASICs and ADCs associated with detectors, Aspect System, Attenuator, PSU and HK. The instrument reviewed in this paper is based on the design that passed the Instrument Preliminary Design Review (IPDR) in early 2012 and Software Preliminary Design Review (SW PDR) in middle of 2012. Particular emphasis is given to the IDPU and low level software called Basic SW (BSW).

  7. Imaging and Rapid-Scanning Ion Mass Spectrometer (IRM) for the CASSIOPE e-POP Mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yau, Andrew W.; Howarth, Andrew; White, Andrew; Enno, Greg; Amerl, Peter

    2015-06-01

    The imaging and rapid-scanning ion mass spectrometer (IRM) is part of the Enhanced Polar Outflow Probe (e-POP) instrument suite on the Canadian CASSIOPE small satellite. Designed to measure the composition and detailed velocity distributions of ions in the ˜1-100 eV/q range on a non-spinning spacecraft, the IRM sensor consists of a planar entrance aperture, a pair of electrostatic deflectors, a time-of-flight (TOF) gate, a hemispherical electrostatic analyzer, and a micro-channel plate (MCP) detector. The TOF gate measures the transit time of each detected ion inside the sensor. The hemispherical analyzer disperses incident ions by their energy-per-charge and azimuth in the aperture plane onto the detector. The two electrostatic deflectors may be optionally programmed to step through a sequence of deflector voltages, to deflect ions of different incident elevation out of the aperture plane and energy-per-charge into the sensor aperture for sampling. The position and time of arrival of each detected ion at the detector are measured, to produce an image of 2-dimensional (2D), mass-resolved ion velocity distribution up to 100 times per second, or to construct a composite 3D velocity distribution by combining successive images in a deflector voltage sequence. The measured distributions are then used to investigate ion composition, density, drift velocity and temperature in polar ion outflows and related acceleration and transport processes in the topside ionosphere.

  8. Data processing pipeline for a time-sampled imaging Fourier transform spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naylor, David A.; Fulton, Trevor R.; Davis, Peter W.; Chapman, Ian M.; Gom, Brad G.; Spencer, Locke D.; Lindner, John V.; Nelson-Fitzpatrick, Nathan E.; Tahic, Margaret K.; Davis, Gary R.

    2004-10-01

    Imaging Fourier transform spectrometers (IFTS) are becoming the preferred systems for remote sensing spectral imaging applications because of their ability to provide, simultaneously, both high spatial and spectral resolution images of a scene. IFTS can be operated in either step-and-integrate or rapid-scan modes, where it is common practice to sample interferograms at equal optical path difference intervals. The step-and-integrate mode requires a translation stage with fast and precise point-to-point motion and additional external trigger circuitry for the detector focal plane array (FPA), and produces uniformly position-sampled interferograms which can be analyzed using standard FFT routines. In the rapid-scan mode, the translation stage is continuously moving and interferograms are often acquired at the frame-rate of the FPA. Since all translation stages have associated velocity errors, the resulting interferograms are sampled at non-uniform intervals of optical path difference, which requires more sophisticated analysis. This paper discusses the processing pipeline which is being developed for the analysis of the non-uniform rapid-scan data produced by the Herschel/SPIRE IFTS.

  9. Real-time hyperspectral fluorescence imaging of pancreatic β-cell dynamics with the image mapping spectrometer

    PubMed Central

    Elliott, Amicia D.; Gao, Liang; Ustione, Alessandro; Bedard, Noah; Kester, Robert; Piston, David W.; Tkaczyk, Tomasz S.

    2012-01-01

    Summary The development of multi-colored fluorescent proteins, nanocrystals and organic fluorophores, along with the resulting engineered biosensors, has revolutionized the study of protein localization and dynamics in living cells. Hyperspectral imaging has proven to be a useful approach for such studies, but this technique is often limited by low signal and insufficient temporal resolution. Here, we present an implementation of a snapshot hyperspectral imaging device, the image mapping spectrometer (IMS), which acquires full spectral information simultaneously from each pixel in the field without scanning. The IMS is capable of real-time signal capture from multiple fluorophores with high collection efficiency (∼65%) and image acquisition rate (up to 7.2 fps). To demonstrate the capabilities of the IMS in cellular applications, we have combined fluorescent protein (FP)-FRET and [Ca2+]i biosensors to measure simultaneously intracellular cAMP and [Ca2+]i signaling in pancreatic β-cells. Additionally, we have compared quantitatively the IMS detection efficiency with a laser-scanning confocal microscope. PMID:22854044

  10. Fast Imaging Detector Readout Circuits with In-Pixel ADCs for Fourier Transform Imaging Spectrometers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rider, D.; Blavier, J-F.; Cunningham, T.; Hancock, B.; Key, R.; Pannell, Z.; Sander, S.; Seshadri, S.; Sun, C.; Wrigley, C.

    2011-01-01

    Focal plane arrays (FPAs) with high frame rates and many pixels benefit several upcoming Earth science missions including GEO-CAPE, GACM, and ACE by enabling broader spatial coverage and higher spectral resolution. FPAs for the PanFTS, a high spatial resolution Fourier transform spectrometer and a candidate instrument for the GEO-CAPE mission are the focus of the developments reported here, but this FPA technology has the potential to enable a variety of future measurements and instruments. The ESTO ACT Program funded the developed of a fast readout integrated circuit (ROIC) based on an innovative in-pixel analog-to-digital converter (ADC). The 128 X 128 pixel ROIC features 60 ?m pixels, a 14-bit ADC in each pixel and operates at a continuous frame rate of 14 kHz consuming only 1.1 W of power. The ROIC outputs digitized data completely eliminating the bulky, power consuming signal chains needed by conventional FPAs. The 128 X 128 pixel ROIC has been fabricated in CMOS and tested at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory. The current version is designed to be hybridized with PIN photodiode arrays via indium bump bonding for light detection in the visible and ultraviolet spectral regions. However, the ROIC design incorporates a small photodiode in each cell to permit detailed characterization of the ROICperformance without the need for hybridization. We will describe the essential features of the ROIC design and present results of ROIC performance measurements.

  11. A comparison of LOWTRAN-7 corrected Airborne Visible/Infrared Imaging Spectrometer (AVIRIS) data with ground spectral measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Xu, Peng-Yang; Greeley, Ronald

    1992-01-01

    Atmospheric correction of imaging spectroscopy data is required for quantitative analysis. Different models were proposed for atmospheric correction of these data. LOWTRAN-7 is a low-resolution model and computer code for predicting atmospheric transmittance and background radiance from 0 to 50,00 cm(sup -1) which was developed by the Air Force Geophysics Laboratory. The Airborne Visible/Infrared Imaging Spectrometer (AVIRIS) data used are radiometrically calibrated and include the 28 Sep. 1989 Providence Fan flight line segment 07, California. It includes a dark gravel surface defined as a calibration site by the Geologic Remote Sensing Field Experiment (GRSFE). Several ground measurements of portable spectrometer DAEDALUS AA440 Spectrafax were taken during the GRSFE, July 1989 field campaign. Comparisons of the LOWTRAN-7 corrected AVIRIS data with the ground spectrometer measurement were made.

  12. Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter Mission Highlights

    NASA Video Gallery

    Since launch on June 18, 2009 as a precursor mission, the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO) has remained in orbit around the moon, collecting vast amounts of science data in support of NASA's expl...

  13. Imaging spectrometer measurement of water vapor in the 400 to 2500 nm spectral region

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Green, Robert O.; Roberts, Dar A.; Conel, James E.; Dozier, Jeff

    1995-01-01

    The Airborne Visible-Infrared Imaging Spectrometer (AVIRIS) measures the total upwelling spectral radiance from 400 to 2500 nm sampled at 10 nm intervals. The instrument acquires spectral data at an altitude of 20 km above sea level, as images of 11 by up to 100 km at 17x17 meter spatial sampling. We have developed a nonlinear spectral fitting algorithm coupled with a radiative transfer code to derive the total path water vapor from the spectrum, measured for each spatial element in an AVIRIS image. The algorithm compensates for variation in the surface spectral reflectance and atmospheric aerosols. It uses water vapor absorption bands centered at 940 nm, 1040 nm, and 1380 nm. We analyze data sets with water vapor abundances ranging from 1 to 40 perceptible millimeters. In one data set, the total path water vapor varies from 7 to 21 mm over a distance of less than 10 km. We have analyzed a time series of five images acquired at 12 minute intervals; these show spatially heterogeneous changes of advocated water vapor of 25 percent over 1 hour. The algorithm determines water vapor for images with a range of ground covers, including bare rock and soil, sparse to dense vegetation, snow and ice, open water, and clouds. The precision of the water vapor determination approaches one percent. However, the precision is sensitive to the absolute abundance and the absorption strength of the atmospheric water vapor band analyzed. We have evaluated the accuracy of the algorithm by comparing several surface-based determinations of water vapor at the time of the AVIRIS data acquisition. The agreement between the AVIRIS measured water vapor and the in situ surface radiometer and surface interferometer measured water vapor is 5 to 10 percent.

  14. Spectrum reconstruction using relative-deviation-based kernel regression in temporally and spatially modulated Fourier transform imaging spectrometer.

    PubMed

    Huang, Fengzhen; Yuan, Yan; Li, Jingzhen; Cao, Jun

    2015-08-01

    During the temporally and spatially modulated Fourier transform imaging spectrometer push-broom scanning process, the motion state of the spectrometer platform can vary. Thus, the target interferogram obtained from the image sequence deviates from the ideal interferogram obtained using high platform stability. The recovered target spectrum will not reflect the true target characteristics. We adopted target tracking to acquire the target position in the image sequence via a proposed kernel regression, with a relative deviation method for determining the target intensities, and the recovery of the spectrogram using the nonuniform fast Fourier transform algorithm. We tested our algorithm on simulated and experimentally obtained aerial images and, from comparison with accurate spectrograms, demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed method. PMID:26368088

  15. [Design of a dual-channel Mach-Zehnder lateral shearing interferometer for the large aperture static imaging spectrometer].

    PubMed

    Fu, Qiang; Xiangli, Bin; Lü, Qun-bo; Jing, Juan-juan

    2012-02-01

    Large aperture static imaging spectrometry (LASIS) is a kind of joint temporally and spatially modulated Fourier transform imaging spectrometry. In such instruments, lateral shearing interferometer is a key element, the most frequently used type of which is the Sagnac interferometer. In this configuration, one half of the light entering the interferometer backtracks and causes a great decrease in energy efficiency. The present paper proposes a modified Mach-Zehnder lateral shearing interferometer structure to tackle this problem. With the ability to produce the same lateral shear, it features the advantage of dual channel output. We present a ray tracing procedure to induce the general expression of the lateral shear as well as analyze the contributions of error sources to the shear accuracy. The results serve as a new idea for the design of large aperture static imaging spectrometers and can be used to instruct the design and optimization of this kind of imaging spectrometer. PMID:22512210

  16. First test results of the airborne dispersive pushbroom imaging spectrometer APEX

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meuleman, K.; Itten, K.; Schaepman, M.

    2009-04-01

    APEX, ESA-Prodex "Airborne Prism Experiment" comprises the development of an airborne dispersive pushbroom imaging spectrometer and has originally been designed as flexible hyperspectral mission simulator and calibrator for existing and upcoming or planned future space missions. The APEX project is co-funded by Switzerland and Belgium and built by a Belgian-Swiss industrial team under the prime RUAG Aerospace (CH), responsible for the total system and the mechanical components, OIP (Oudenaarde, BE) contributing the spectrometer, and Netcetera (Zurich, CH) being responsible for the electronics. RSL (University of Zurich, CH) acts as scientific PI together with the Co-PI VITO (Mol, BE). The APEX sensor is operating between 380 nm and 2500 nm in more than 300 freely configurable bands (up to 512 bands in full spectral mode), by means of two dispersive spectrometer channels. 1000 pixels across track and a total field of view of 28° define the ground pixel size (e.g. 2,5 m from 5000 m AGL). A stabilized platform (Leica PAV-30) reduces major geometric distortions due to aircraft instabilities while a GPS/IMU system (Applanix PosAV 410) measures continuously the sensors' position and orientation allowing direct georeferencing of the acquired data . The system is currently is phase D, the calibration and test phase, and first testflights have been performed on a Do-228 in cooperation of DLR while the acquired data is currently under evaluation. Discussions are ongoing to fly APEX on the new DLR High Altitude Research Aircraft (HALO) as well. The system is currently in phase D, the calibration and test phase, and will deliver first scientific data to users by mid 2009. The APEX processing and archiving facility (PAF) is hosted by VITO in the APEX Operations Center (AOC) at Mol, Belgium . A specific level 0-1 processing software module producing uniform, radiometrically calibrated data has been developed by RSL and is integrated into the PAF by VITO. An APEX Calibration

  17. A Panchromatic Imaging Fourier Transform Spectrometer for the NASA Geostationary Coastal and Air Pollution Events Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wu, Yen-Hung; Key, Richard; Sander, Stanley; Blavier, Jean-Francois; Rider, David

    2011-01-01

    This paper summarizes the design and development of the Panchromatic Imaging Fourier Transform Spectrometer (PanFTS) for the NASA Geostationary Coastal and Air Pollution Events (GEO-CAPE) Mission. The PanFTS instrument will advance the understanding of the global climate and atmospheric chemistry by measuring spectrally resolved outgoing thermal and reflected solar radiation. With continuous spectral coverage from the near-ultraviolet through the thermal infrared, this instrument is designed to measure pollutants, greenhouse gases, and aerosols as called for by the U.S. National Research Council Decadal Survey; Earth Science and Applications from Space: National Imperatives for the Next Decade and Beyond1. The PanFTS instrument is a hybrid instrument based on spectrometers like the Tropospheric Emissions Spectrometer (TES) that measures thermal emission, and those like the Orbiting Carbon Observatory (OCO), and the Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) that measure scattered solar radiation. Simultaneous measurements over the broad spectral range from IR to UV is accomplished by a two sided interferometer with separate optical trains and detectors for the ultraviolet-visible and infrared spectral domains. This allows each side of the instrument to be independently optimized for its respective spectral domain. The overall interferometer design is compact because the two sides share a single high precision cryogenic optical path difference mechanism (OPDM) and metrology laser as well as a number of other instrument systems including the line-of-sight pointing mirror, the data management system, thermal control system, electrical system, and the mechanical structure. The PanFTS breadboard instrument has been tested in the laboratory and demonstrated the basic functionality for simultaneous measurements in the visible and infrared. It is set to begin operations in the field at the California Laboratory for Atmospheric Remote Sensing (CLARS) observatory on Mt. Wilson

  18. A Panchromatic Imaging Fourier Transform Spectrometer for the NASA Geostationary Coastal and Air Pollution Events Mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Yen-Hung; Key, Richard; Sander, Stanley; Blavier, Jean-Francois; Rider, David

    2011-10-01

    This paper summarizes the design and development of the Panchromatic Imaging Fourier Transform Spectrometer (PanFTS) for the NASA Geostationary Coastal and Air Pollution Events (GEO-CAPE) Mission. The PanFTS instrument will advance the understanding of the global climate and atmospheric chemistry by measuring spectrally resolved outgoing thermal and reflected solar radiation. With continuous spectral coverage from the near-ultraviolet through the thermal infrared, this instrument is designed to measure pollutants, greenhouse gases, and aerosols as called for by the U.S. National Research Council Decadal Survey; Earth Science and Applications from Space: National Imperatives for the Next Decade and Beyond1. The PanFTS instrument is a hybrid based on spectrometers like the Tropospheric Emissions Spectrometer (TES) that measures thermal emission, and those like the Orbiting Carbon Observatory (OCO), and the Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) that measure scattered solar radiation. Simultaneous measurements over the broad spectral range from IR to UV is accomplished by a two sided interferometer with separate optical trains and detectors for the UV-visible and IR spectral domains. This allows each side of the instrument to be independently optimized for its respective spectral domain. The overall interferometer design is compact because the two sides share a single high precision cryogenic optical path difference mechanism (OPDM) and metrology laser as well as a number of other instrument systems including the line-of-sight pointing mirror, the data management system, thermal control system, electrical system, and the mechanical structure. The PanFTS breadboard instrument has been tested in the laboratory and demonstrated the basic functionality for simultaneous measurements in the visible and IR. It is set to begin operations in the field at the California Laboratory for Atmospheric Remote Sensing (CLARS) observatory on Mt. Wilson measuring the atmospheric chemistry

  19. Calibration and Validation of the National Ecological Observatory Network's Airborne Imaging Spectrometers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leisso, N.

    2015-12-01

    The National Ecological Observatory Network (NEON) is being constructed by the National Science Foundation and is slated for completion in 2017. NEON is designed to collect data to improve the understanding of changes in observed ecosystems. The observatory will produce data products on a variety of spatial and temporal scales collected from individual sites strategically located across the U.S. including Alaska, Hawaii, and Puerto Rico. Data sources include standardized terrestrial, instrumental, and aquatic observation systems in addition to three airborne remote sensing observation systems installed into leased Twin Otter aircraft. The Airborne Observation Platforms (AOP) are designed to collect 3-band aerial imagery, waveform and discrete LiDAR, and high-fidelity imaging spectroscopy data over the NEON sites annually at or near peak-greenness. The NEON Imaging Spectrometer (NIS) is a Visible and Shortwave Infrared (VSWIR) sensor designed by NASA JPL for ecological applications. Spectroscopic data is collected at 5-nm intervals across the solar-reflective spectral region (380-nm to 2500-nm) in a 34-degree FOV swath. A key uncertainty driver to the derived remote sensing NEON data products is the calibration of the imaging spectrometers. In addition, the calibration and accuracy of the higher-level data product algorithms is essential to the overall NEON mission to detect changes in the collected ecosystems over the 30-year expected lifetime. The typical calibration workflow of the NIS consists of the characterizing the focal plane, spectral calibration, and radiometric calibration. Laboratory spectral calibration is based on well-defined emission lines in conjunction with a scanning monochromator to define the individual spectral response functions. The radiometric calibration is NIST traceable and transferred to the NIS with an integrating sphere calibrated through the use of transfer radiometers. The laboratory calibration is monitored and maintained through

  20. [Research on an Equal Wavelength Spectrum Reconstruction Method of Interference Imaging Spectrometer].

    PubMed

    Xie, Pei-yue; Yang, Jian-feng; Xue, Bin; Lü, Juan; He, Ying-hong; Li, Ting; Ma, Xiao-long

    2016-03-01

    Interference imaging spectrometer is one of the most important equipments of Chang'E 1 satellite, which is applied to analysis the material composition and its distribution of the surface on the moon. At present, the spectral resolution of level 2B scientific data obtained by existing methods is 325 cm(-1). If we use the description way of wavelength resolution, various spectrum is different: the first band is 7.6 nm, the last band is 29 nm, which introduces two questions: (1) the spectral resolution description way mismatch with the way of ground spectral library used for calibration and comparison; (2) The signal-to-noise ratio of the spectra in the shortwave band is low due to the signal entering narrow band is little. This paper discussed the relationship between wavelength resolution and cut-off function based on the reconstruction model of CE-1 interference imaging spectrometer. It proposed an adjustable cut-off function changing with wavelength or wavelength resolution, while selected the appropriate Sinc function as apodization to realize the reconstruction of arbitrary specified wavelength resolution in the band coverage. Then we used this method to CE-1 on orbit 0B data to get a spectral image of 29 nm wavelength resolution. Finally, by using the signal-to-noise ratio, principal component analysis and unsupervised classification method on the reconstruction results with 2 grade science data from ground application system for comparison, the results showed that: signal-to-noise ratio of the shortwave band increased about 4 times, and the average increased about 2.4 times, the classification based on the spectrum was consistent, and the quality of the data was greatly improved. So, EWSR method has the advantages that: (1) in the case of keeping spectral information steadiness, it can improve the signal-to-noise ratio of shortwave band spectrum though sacrificed part of spectral resolution; (2) it can achieve the spectral data reconstruction which can set

  1. ARES: a new reflective/emissive imaging spectrometer for terrestrial applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mueller, Andreas A.; Richter, Rolf; Habermeyer, Martin; Mehl, Harald; Dech, Stefan; Kaufmann, Hermann J.; Segl, Karl; Strobl, Peter; Haschberger, Peter; Bamler, Richard

    2003-04-01

    A new airborne imaging spectrometer introduced: the ARES (Airborne Reflective Emissive Spectrometer) to be built by Integrated Spectronics, Sydney, Australia, financed by DLR German Aerospace Center and the GFZ GeoResearch Center Potsdam, Germany, and will be available to the scientific community from 2003/2004 on. The ARES sensor will provide 160 channels in the solar reflective region (0.45-2.45 μm) and the thermal region (8-13 μm). It will consists of two separate coregistered optical systems for the reflective and thermal part of the spectrum. The spectral resolution is intended to be between 12 and 15 nm in the solar wavelength range and should reach 150nm in the thermal. ARES will be used mainly for environmental applications in terrestrial ecosystems. The thematic focus is thought to be on soil sciences, geology, agriculture and forestry. Limnologic applications should be possible but will not play a key role in the thematic applications. For all above mentioned key application scenarios the spectral response of soils, rocks, and vegetation as well as their mixtures contain the valuable information to be extracted and quantified. The radiometric requirements for the instrument have been modelled based on realistic application scenarios and account for the most demanding requirements of the three application fields: a spectral bandwidth of 15 nm in the 0.45-1.8 μm region, and 12 nm in the 2 - 2.45 μm region. The required noise equivalent radiance is 0.005, 0.003, and 0.003 mWcm-2sr-1μm-1 for the spectral regions 0.45-1 μm, 1 - 1.8 μm, and 2 - 2.45 μm, respectively.

  2. Future Development Trajectories for Imaging X-rays Spectrometers Based on Microcalorimeters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kilbourne, Caroline A.; Bandler, Simon R.

    2013-01-01

    Future development trajectories for imaging x-ray spectrometers based on microcalorimeters. Since their invention 30 years ago, the capability of X-ray microcalorimeters has increased steadily, with continual improvements in energy resolution, speed, and array size. Arrays of up to 1024 pixels have been produced, and resolution better than 1 eV at 1.5 keV has been achieved. These detectors can be optimized for the highest priority science, such as designing for the highest resolving power at low energies at the expense of dynamic range, or the greatest focal-plane coverage at the expense of speed. Three types of X-ray microcalorimeters presently dominate the field, each characterized by the thermometer technology. The first two types use temperature-sensitive resistors: semiconductors in the metal-insulator transition and superconductors operated in the superconducting-normal transition. The third type uses a magnetically coupled thermometer, and is at an earlier stage of development than the other two. The Soft X-ray Spectrometer (SXS) on Astro-H, expected to launch in 2015, will use an array of silicon thermistors with HgTe X-ray absorbers that will operate at 50 mK. Both the semiconductor and superconductor calorimeters have been implemented in small arrays. Kilopixel arrays of the superconducting calorimeters are being produced, and much larger arrays may require the non-dissipative advantage of magnetically coupled thermometers. I will project the development trajectories of these detectors and their read-out technologies and assess what their capabilities and limitations will be 10 - 20 years from now.

  3. REgolith X-Ray Imaging Spectrometer (REXIS) Aboard NASA’s OSIRIS-REx Mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hong, JaeSub; Allen, Branden; Grindlay, Jonathan E.; Binzel, Richard P.; Masterson, Rebecca; Inamdar, Niraj K; Chodas, Mark; Smith, Matthew W; Bautz, Mark W.; Kissel, Steven E; Villasenor, Jesus Noel; Oprescu, Antonia

    2014-06-01

    The REgolith X-Ray Imaging Spectrometer (REXIS) is a student-led instrument being designed, built, and operated as a collaborative effort involving MIT and Harvard. It is a part of NASA's OSIRIS-REx mission, which is scheduled for launch in September of 2016 for a rendezvous with, and collection of a sample from the surface of the primitive carbonaceous chondrite-like asteroid 101955 Bennu in 2019. REXIS will determine spatial variations in elemental composition of Bennu's surface through solar-induced X-ray fluorescence. REXIS consists of four X-ray CCDs in the detector plane and an X-ray mask. It is the first coded-aperture X-ray telescope in a planetary mission, which combines the benefit of high X-ray throughput of wide-field collimation with imaging capability of a coded-mask, enabling detection of elemental surface distributions at approximately 50-200 m scales. We present an overview of the REXIS instrument and the expected performance.

  4. Modeling the expected performance of the REgolith X-ray Imaging Spectrometer (REXIS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Inamdar, Niraj K.; Binzel, Richard P.; Hong, Jae Sub; Allen, Branden; Grindlay, Jonathan; Masterson, Rebecca A.

    2014-09-01

    OSIRIS-REx is the third spacecraft in the NASA New Frontiers Program and is planned for launch in 2016. OSIRIS-REx will orbit the near-Earth asteroid (101955) Bennu, characterize it, and return a sample of the asteroid's regolith back to Earth. The Regolith X-ray Imaging Spectrometer (REXIS) is an instrument on OSIRIS-REx designed and built by students at MIT and Harvard. The purpose of REXIS is to collect and image sun-induced fluorescent X-rays emitted by Bennu, thereby providing spectroscopic information related to the elemental makeup of the asteroid regolith and the distribution of features over its surface. Telescopic reflectance spectra suggest a CI or CM chondrite analog meteorite class for Bennu, where this primitive nature strongly motivates its study. A number of factors, however, will influence the generation, measurement, and interpretation of the X-ray spectra measured by REXIS. These include: the compositional nature and heterogeneity of Bennu, the time-variable solar state, X-ray detector characteristics, and geometric parameters for the observations. In this paper, we will explore how these variables influence the precision to which REXIS can measure Bennu's surface composition. By modeling the aforementioned factors, we place bounds on the expected performance of REXIS and its ability to ultimately place Bennu in an analog meteorite class.

  5. Technical improvements and performances of SpIOMM: an imaging Fourier transform spectrometer for astronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bernier, Anne-Pier; Charlebois, Maxime; Drissen, Laurent; Grandmont, Frédéric

    2008-07-01

    We present the most recent technical improvements on SpIOMM, an Imaging Fourier Transform Spectrometer (IFTS) attached to the 1.6 telescope of the Mont Megantic Observatory. The recent development of SpIOMM demonstrates that the concept of IFTS for ground telescopes is a promising astronomical 3D spectroscopy technique for multi-object spectroscopy and multi-band imaging. SpIOMM has been developed through a collaboration between Universite Laval and the industry (ABB Bomem). It is designed for optical observations from the near UV (350 nm) to the near IR (850 nm) with variable spectral resolution. The circular FOV of the instrument covers 12' in diameter. We have recently improved the servo system algorithm which now controls the mirror displacement and alignment at a rate of ~7kHz. Hardware improvements to the servo and the metrology system will be described along with their impacts on performance in the laboratory and in observing conditions. The instrument has successfully been operated at the 1.6 meter telescope this year using the revised control systems and acquired several datacubes. We will discuss some issues regarding the sensitivity to environmental conditions implied by the use of such an instrument. An overview of the datacube reduction procedure will show some solutions proposed for observational problems encountered that affect the quality of the data such as sky transmission variations, wind, changing gravity vector and temperature.

  6. Imaging Fourier-transform spectrometer measurements of a turbulent nonpremixed jet flame.

    PubMed

    Harley, Jacob L; Rankin, Brent A; Blunck, David L; Gore, Jay P; Gross, Kevin C

    2014-04-15

    This work presents recent measurements of a CH4/H2/N2 turbulent nonpremixed jet flame using an imaging Fourier-transform spectrometer (IFTS). Spatially resolved (128×192 pixels, 0.72  mm/pixel) mean radiance spectra were collected between 1800  cm(-1)≤ν˜≤4500  cm(-1) (2.22  μm≤λ≤5.55  μm) at moderate spectral resolution (δν=16  cm(-1), δλ=20  nm) spanning the visible flame. Higher spectral-resolution measurements (δν=0.25  cm(-1), δλ=0.3  nm) were also captured on a smaller window (8×192) at 20, 40, and 60 diameters above the jet exit and reveal the rotational fine structure associated with various vibrational transitions in CH4, CO2, CO, and H2O. These new imaging measurements compare favorably with existing spectra acquired at select flame locations, demonstrating the capability of IFTS for turbulent combustion studies. PMID:24978990

  7. WARM AND FUZZY: TEMPERATURE AND DENSITY ANALYSIS OF AN Fe XV EUV IMAGING SPECTROMETER LOOP

    SciTech Connect

    Schmelz, J. T.; Rightmire, L. A.; Kimble, J. A.; Worley, B. T.; Pathak, S.; Saar, S. H.

    2011-09-10

    The Hinode EUV Imaging Spectrometer (EIS) and X-Ray Telescope (XRT) were designed in part to work together. They have the same spatial resolution and cover different but overlapping coronal temperature ranges. These properties make a combined data set ideal for multithermal analysis, where EIS provides the best information on the cooler corona (log T < 6.5) and XRT provides the best information on the hotter corona (log T > 6.5). Here, we analyze a warm non-flaring loop detected in images made in a strong EIS Fe XV emission line with a wavelength of 284.16 A and peak formation temperature of log T = 6.3. We perform differential emission measure (DEM) analysis in three pixels at different heights above the footpoint and find multithermal results with the bulk of the emission measure in the range 6.0 < log T < 6.6. Analysis with the EIS lines alone gave a DEM with huge amounts of emission measure at very high temperatures (log T >7.2); analysis with XRT data alone resulted in a DEM that was missing most of the cooler emission measure required to produce many of the EIS lines. Thus, both results were misleading and unphysical. It was only by combining the EIS and XRT data that we were able to produce a reasonable result, one without ad hoc assumptions on the shape and range of the DEM itself.

  8. Spectroscopic measurements and terahertz imaging of the cornea using a rapid scanning terahertz time domain spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wen-Quan, Liu; Yuan-Fu, Lu; Guo-Hua, Jiao; Xian-Feng, Chen; Zhi-Sheng, Zhou; Rong-Bin, She; Jin-Ying, Li; Si-Hai, Chen; Yu-Ming, Dong; Jian-Cheng, Lv

    2016-06-01

    Spectroscopic measurements and terahertz imaging of the cornea are carried out by using a rapid scanning terahertz time domain spectroscopy (THz-TDS) system. A voice coil motor stage based optical delay line (VCM-ODL) is developed to provide a rather simple and robust structure with both the high scanning speed and the large delay length. The developed system is used for THz spectroscopic measurements and imaging of the corneal tissue with different amounts of water content, and the measurement results show the consistence with the reported results, in which the measurement time using VCM-ODL is a factor of 360 shorter than the traditional motorized optical delay line (MDL). With reducing the water content a monotonic decrease of the complex permittivity of the cornea is observed. The two-term Debye relaxation model is employed to explain our experimental results, revealing that the fast relaxation time of a dehydrated cornea is much larger than that of a hydrated cornea and its dielectric behavior can be affected by the presence of the biological macromolecules. These results demonstrate that our THz spectrometer may be a promising candidate for tissue hydration sensing and practical application of THz technology. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 61205101), the Shenzhen Municipal Research Foundation, China (Grant Nos. GJHZ201404171134305 and JCYJ20140417113130693), and the Marie Curie Actions-International Research Staff Exchange Scheme (IRSES) (Grant No. FP7 PIRSES-2013-612267).

  9. Equation-of-State Measurements of Resorcinol Formaldehyde Foam Using Imaging X-Ray Thomson Spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belancourt, Patrick; Theobald, W.; Keiter, P. A.; Collins, T. J. B.; Bonino, M. J.; Kozlowski, P.; Drake, R. P.

    2015-11-01

    Understanding the equation of state of materials under shocked conditions is important for laboratory astrophysics and high-energy-density physics experiments. This talk will focus on experiments dedicated to developing a platform for measuring the equation of state of shocked foams on OMEGA EP. The foam used in the development of this platform is resorcinol formaldehyde foam with an initial density of 0.34 g/cc. One OMEGA EP beam drives a shock into the foam, while the remaining three beams irradiate a nickel foil to create the x-ray backlighter. The primary diagnostic for this platform, the imaging x-ray Thomson spectrometer (IXTS), spectrally resolves the scattered x-ray beam while imaging in one spatial dimension. The IXTS is ideally suited to measure plasma conditions upstream, downstream and at the shock front in the foam. Preliminary results from these experiments will be shown. This material is based upon work supported by the Department of Energy National Nuclear Security Administration under Award Number DE-NA0001944, the NNSA-DS and SC-OFES Joint Program in High-Energy-Density Laboratory Plasmas DE-NA0001840, and by the National Laser User Facility Program DE-NA0000850.

  10. Improvement in the synchronization between the radio frequency signal and the image detector in an acousto-optic tunable filter imaging spectrometer.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Huijie; Li, Chongchong; Zhang, Ying; Xu, Zefu

    2014-04-10

    An improved synchronization between the radio frequency (RF) signal and the image detector in an acousto-optic tunable filter (AOTF) imaging spectrometer is proposed to optimize power consumption and eliminate image smear. The RF signal is controlled on and off alternately to match the exposure of the image sensor. This scheme reduces the RF power and rejects the light illumination on the image sensor in the interval of charge transfer. An experiment using a visible AOTF, a frame transfer charge-coupled device camera, and an incandescent lamp is conducted for demonstration. The average RF power decreases 7.6%, and the image smear is eliminated. PMID:24787400

  11. High altitude reconnaissance aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yazdo, Renee Anna; Moller, David

    1990-01-01

    At the equator the ozone layer ranges from 65,000 to 130,000 plus feet, which is beyond the capabilities of the ER-2, NASA's current high altitude reconnaissance aircraft. The Universities Space Research Association, in cooperation with NASA, is sponsoring an undergraduate program which is geared to designing an aircraft that can study the ozone layer at the equator. This aircraft must be able to cruise at 130,000 feet for six hours at Mach 0.7, while carrying 3,000 lbs. of payload. In addition, the aircraft must have a minimum range of 6,000 miles. In consideration of the novel nature of this project, the pilot must be able to take control in the event of unforeseen difficulties. Three aircraft configurations were determined to be the most suitable - a joined-wing, a biplane, and a twin-boom conventional airplane. The performance of each configuration was analyzed to investigate the feasibility of the project.

  12. Airborne system for testing multispectral reconnaissance technologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmitt, Dirk-Roger; Doergeloh, Heinrich; Keil, Heiko; Wetjen, Wilfried

    1999-07-01

    There is an increasing demand for future airborne reconnaissance systems to obtain aerial images for tactical or peacekeeping operations. Especially Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) equipped with multispectral sensor system and with real time jam resistant data transmission capabilities are of high interest. An airborne experimental platform has been developed as testbed to investigate different concepts of reconnaissance systems before their application in UAVs. It is based on a Dornier DO 228 aircraft, which is used as flying platform. Great care has been taken to achieve the possibility to test different kinds of multispectral sensors. Hence basically it is capable to be equipped with an IR sensor head, high resolution aerial cameras of the whole optical spectrum and radar systems. The onboard equipment further includes system for digital image processing, compression, coding, and storage. The data are RF transmitted to the ground station using technologies with high jam resistance. The images, after merging with enhanced vision components, are delivered to the observer who has an uplink data channel available to control flight and imaging parameters.

  13. Objectives and Layout of a High-Resolution X-ray Imaging Crystal Spectrometer for the Large Helical Device (LHD)

    SciTech Connect

    Bitter, M; Gates, D; Monticello, D; Neilson, H; Reiman, A; Roquemore, A L; Morita, S; Goto, M; Yamada, H

    2010-07-29

    A high-resolution X-ray imaging crystal spectrometer, whose concept was tested on NSTX and Alcator C-Mod, is being designed for LHD. This instrument will record spatially resolved spectra of helium-like Ar16+ and provide ion temperature profiles with spatial and temporal resolutions of < 2 cm and ≥ 10 ms. The stellarator equilibrium reconstruction codes, STELLOPT and PIES, will be used for the tomographic inversion of the spectral data. The spectrometer layout and instrumental features are largely determined by the magnetic field structure of LHD.

  14. The Gamma-Ray Imaging Spectrometer (GRIS): A new balloon-borne experiment for gamma-ray line astronomy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Teegarden, B. J.; Cline, T. L.; Gehrels, N.; Porreca, G.; Tueller, J.; Leventhal, M.; Huters, A. F.; Maccallum, C. J.; Stang, P. D.

    1985-01-01

    High resolution gamma-ray spectroscopy is a relatively new field that holds great promise for further understanding of high energy astrophysical processes. When the high resolution gamma-ray spectrometer (GRSE) was removed from the GRO payload, a balloon program was initiated to permit continued development and improvement of instrumentation in this field, as well as continued scientific observations. The Gamma-Ray Imaging Spectrometer (GRIS) is one of the experiments selected as part of this program. The instrument contains a number of new and innovative features that are expected to produce a significant improvement in source location accuracy and sensitivity over previous balloon and satellite experiments.

  15. Objectives and layout of a high-resolution x-ray imaging crystal spectrometer for the large helical device

    SciTech Connect

    Bitter, M.; Hill, K.; Gates, D.; Monticello, D.; Neilson, H.; Reiman, A.; Roquemore, A. L.; Morita, S.; Goto, M.; Yamada, H.; Rice, J. E.

    2010-10-15

    A high-resolution x-ray imaging crystal spectrometer, whose concept was tested on NSTX and Alcator C-Mod, is being designed for the large helical device (LHD). This instrument will record spatially resolved spectra of helium-like Ar{sup 16+} and will provide ion temperature profiles with spatial and temporal resolutions of <2 cm and {>=}10 ms, respectively. The spectrometer layout and instrumental features are largely determined by the magnetic field structure of LHD. The stellarator equilibrium reconstruction codes, STELLOPT and PIES, will be used for the tomographic inversion of the spectral data.

  16. Remote sensing of Earth's atmosphere and surface using a digital array scanned interferometer: A new type of imaging spectrometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hammer, Philip D.; Valero, Francisco P. J.; Peterson, David L.; Smith, William Hayden

    1991-01-01

    The capabilities of the digital array scanned interferometer (DASI) class of instruments for measuring terrestrial radiation fields over the visible to mid-infrared are evaluated. DASI's are capable of high throughput, sensitivity and spectral resolution and have the potential for field-of-view spatial discrimination (an imaging spectrometer). The simplicity of design and operation of DASI's make them particularly suitable for field and airborne platform based remote sensing. The long term objective is to produce a versatile field instrument which may be applied toward a variety of atmospheric and surface studies. The operation of DASI and its advantages over other spectrometers are discussed.

  17. Computed tomography imaging spectrometer by using a novel hybrid diffractive-refractive element

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fan, Dongdong; Wu, Minxian; He, Qingsheng; Yong, Tao; Wei, Haoyun

    2001-09-01

    The multi-spectal or hyper-spectral imager provides three dimensional description for spatial and spectral intensity distribution of objective scenes and it can be a powerful tool for remote sensing in much application. There are several approaches to collection three dimensional data cube of image, and most of them require a scanning mechanism. Therefore those methods are difficult to record both spectral and spatial information of a dynamic scene such as a missile in flight, changing rapidly red tide, and so forth. Computed Tomography Imaging Spectrometer (CTIS) is a new branch application of computed tomography technology. The CTISs with different type configuration have been reported by a few of author. Two main types of CTISs are proposed. One is to use the two dimension gratings like Dammann gratings, the two 1-D gratings placed in orthogonal way, or three 1-D gratings separated by 60 degree. Due to its temporally and spatially non-scanning technique, this type is capable of capturing the flash events and can be used for instantaneous spectral imaging. The main problem of these CTISs is that the diffractive efficiencies are not only depended on the various wavelength but also on the different diffractive orders. That will effect the reconstruction algorithm and its results. These problems lead to reduce the signal to noise and dynamic range of spectral imaging system. The other is to take the approaches such as rotational spectro-tomography, or grating combined with a rotational direct-view prism. The advantages of these approaches are a)high throughput and b)easy to obtain more uniform data of different projection, but its disadvantage is obvious that the moving parts must be adopted. In our work, a principle and configuration of CTIS is indicated, and especially, a novel hybrid diffractive-refractive element is proposed, which is a combination of an array of optical prisms and one dimension holographic gratings. It can provide the uniformity of performance

  18. Enhanced Analysis Techniques for an Imaging Neutron and Gamma Ray Spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Madden, Amanda C.

    The presence of gamma rays and neutrons is a strong indicator of the presence of Special Nuclear Material (SNM). The imaging Neutron and gamma ray SPECTrometer (NSPECT) developed by the University of New Hampshire and Michigan Aerospace corporation detects the fast neutrons and prompt gamma rays from fissile material, and the gamma rays from radioactive material. The instrument operates as a double scatter device, requiring a neutron or a gamma ray to interact twice in the instrument. While this detection requirement decreases the efficiency of the instrument, it offers superior background rejection and the ability to measure the energy and momentum of the incident particle. These measurements create energy spectra and images of the emitting source for source identification and localization. The dual species instrument provides superior detection than a single species alone. In realistic detection scenarios, few particles are detected from a potential threat due to source shielding, detection at a distance, high background, and weak sources. This contributes to a small signal to noise ratio, and threat detection becomes difficult. To address these difficulties, several enhanced data analysis tools were developed. A Receiver Operating Characteristic Curve (ROC) helps set instrumental alarm thresholds as well as to identify the presence of a source. Analysis of a dual-species ROC curve provides superior detection capabilities. Bayesian analysis helps to detect and identify the presence of a source through model comparisons, and helps create a background corrected count spectra for enhanced spectroscopy. Development of an instrument response using simulations and numerical analyses will help perform spectra and image deconvolution. This thesis will outline the principles of operation of the NSPECT instrument using the double scatter technology, traditional analysis techniques, and enhanced analysis techniques as applied to data from the NSPECT instrument, and an

  19. Cooling rate of some active lavas determined using an orbital imaging spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wright, Robert; Garbeil, Harold; Davies, Ashley G.

    2010-06-01

    The surface temperature of an active lava flow is an important physical property to measure. Through its influence on lava crystallinity, cooling exerts a fundamental control on lava rheology. Remotely sensed thermal radiance data acquired by multispectral sensors such as Landsat Thematic Mapper and the Terra Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer are of insufficient spectral and radiometric fidelity to allow for realistic determination of lava surface temperatures from Earth orbit. This paper presents results obtained from the analysis of active lava flows using hyperspectral data acquired by NASA's Earth Observing-1 Hyperion imaging spectrometer. The contiguous nature of the measured radiance spectrum in the 0.4-2.5 μm region means that, although sensor saturation most certainly occurs, unsaturated radiance data are always available from even the hottest, and most radiant, active lava flow surfaces. The increased number of wave bands available allows for the assumption of more complex flow surface temperature distributions in the radiance-to-temperature inversion processes. The technique is illustrated by using a hyperspectral image of the active lava lake at Erta Ale volcano, Ethiopia, a well-characterized calibration target, a time series of three Hyperion images of an active lava flow acquired during a 4 day period at Mount Etna, Sicily, as well as a lava flow erupted at Nyamuragira, Democratic Republic of Congo. The results provide insights into the temperature-radiance mixture modeling problem that will aid in the analysis of data acquired by future hyperspectral remote sensing missions, such as NASA's proposed HyspIRI mission.

  20. The Cooling Rate of an Active Aa Lava Flow Determined Using an Orbital Imaging Spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wright, Robert; Garbeil, Harold

    2010-05-01

    The surface temperature of an active lava flow is an important physical property to measure. Through its influence on lava crystallinity, cooling exerts a fundamental control on lava rheology. Remotely sensed thermal radiance data acquired by multispectral sensors such as Landsat Thematic Mapper and the Terra Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer, are of insufficient spectral and radiometric fidelity to allow for realistic determination of lava surface temperatures from Earth orbit. This paper presents results obtained from the analysis of active lava flows using hyperspectral data acquired by NASA's Earth Observing-1 Hyperion imaging spectrometer. The contiguous nature of the measured radiance spectrum in the 0.4-2.5 micron region means that, although sensor saturation most certainly occurs, unsaturated radiance data are always available from even the hottest, and most radiant, active lava flow surfaces. The increased number of wavebands available allows for the assumption of more complex flow surface temperature distributions in the radiance-to-temperature inversion processes. The technique is illustrated by using a hyperspectral image of the active lava lake at Erta Ale volcano, Ethiopia, a well characterized calibration target. We then go on to demonstrate how this approach can be used to constrain the surface cooling rate of an active lava flow at Mount Etna, Sicily, using three images acquired during a four day period in September 2004. The cooling rate of the active channel as determined from space falls within the limits commonly assumed in numerical lava flow models. The results provide insights into the temperature-radiance mixture modeling problem that will aid in the analysis of data acquired by future hyperspectral remote sensing missions, such as NASA's proposed HyspIRI mission.

  1. GREGOR Fabry-Pérot interferometer and its companion the blue imaging solar spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Puschmann, Klaus G.; Denker, Carsten; Balthasar, Horst; Louis, Rohan E.; Popow, Emil; Woche, Manfred; Beck, Christian; Seelemann, Thomas; Volkmer, Reiner

    2013-08-01

    The GREGOR Fabry-Pérot Interferometer (GFPI) is one of three first-light instruments of the German 1.5-m GREGOR solar telescope at the Observatorio del Teide, Tenerife, Spain. The GFPI allows fast narrow-band imaging and postfactum image restoration. The retrieved physical parameters will be a fundamental building block for understanding the dynamic sun and its magnetic field at spatial scales down to ˜50 km on the solar surface. The GFPI is a tunable dual-etalon system in a collimated mounting. It is designed for spectrometric and spectropolarimetric observations between 530-860 nm and 580-660 nm, respectively, and possesses a theoretical spectral resolution of R≈250,000. Large-format, high-cadence charged coupled device detectors with sophisticated computer hard- and software enable the scanning of spectral lines in time-spans equivalent to the evolution time of solar features. The field-of-view (FOV) of 50″×38″ covers a significant fraction of the typical area of active regions in the spectroscopic mode. In case of Stokes-vector spectropolarimetry, the FOV reduces to 25″×38″. The main characteristics of the GFPI including advanced and automated calibration and observing procedures are presented. Improvements in the optical design of the instrument are discussed and first observational results are shown. Finally, the first concrete ideas for the integration of a second FPI, the blue imaging solar spectrometer, are laid out, which will explore the blue spectral region below 530 nm.

  2. [High precision all-reflection Fourier transform imaging spectrometer spectral calibration using homogeneous broadening of the wave number model].

    PubMed

    Cui, De-qi; Liao, Ning-fang; Cao, Wei-liang; Tan, Bo-neng; Tian, Li-xun

    2011-07-01

    All-reflection Fourier transform imaging spectrometer (ARFTIS) is a novel imaging spectrometer. The specialty is not only high spectrum resolution, but also wide band and non-chromatism. It is good for remote sensing field of wide band imaging. Single spectrum calibration, average calibration and weighted average calibration are three common calibration methods. However, they all are limited. Because they cannot meet the demand on both convenience and high precision. In the present paper, the authors propose a novel model for spectrum calibration. It can work in high precision with single spectrum calibration. At the same time, the method is steady, and the average error is less than 5% with multi-bands calibration. It provides a convenient way for the non-professional calibration situation and outer simply calibration work. PMID:21942019

  3. Image sensor as a three-channel spectrometer with application to in situ monitoring of wet etching.

    PubMed

    Gerling, John; Cheung, Nathan W

    2011-07-01

    A three-channel spectrometer is constructed with a 460 nm high brightness light-emitting diode (LED) source (250 mW peak optical power output, 1 mm sq, 150 μm thick) and a red-green-blue (RGB) image sensor (3 × 4 mm, 1 mm thick) for purposes of a small form factor spectrometer to monitor reflectance/emission spectra from chemical wet etching experiments. The linearity and spectral response of the RGB image sensor is characterized and a three-channel spectral model is fitted to the extracted spectral response. We use this information to quantify time developments of the RGB image sensor outputs for in situ copper and aluminum etching experiments in terms of three defined spectral bands. PMID:21806223

  4. Evidence for beamed electrons in a limb X-ray flare observed by Hard X-Ray Imaging Spectrometer (HXIS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haug, Eberhard; Elwert, Gerhard

    1986-01-01

    The limb flare of November 18, 1980, 14:51 UT, was investigated on the basis of X-ray images taken by the Hard X-ray Imaging Spectrometer (HXIS) and of X-ray spectra from the Hard X-Ray Burst Spectrometer (HXRBS) aboard the Solar Maximum Mission (SMM). The impulsive burst was also recorded at microwave frequencies between 2 and 20 GHz whereas no optical flare and no radio event at frequencies below 1 GHz were reported. The flare occurred directly at the SW limb of the solar disk. Taking advantage of the spatial resolution of HXIS images, the time evolution of the X-radiation originating from relatively small source regions can be studied. Using Monte Carlo computations of the energy distribution of energetic electrons traversing the solar plasma, the bremsstrahlung spectra produced by the electrons were derived.

  5. Miniaturized high-resolution NUV-VIS-NIR imaging spectrometer array for FAST SAT applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Torr, Douglas G.; Zukic, Muamer; Feng, Chen; Ahmad, Anees; Swift, Wesley R.

    1994-09-01

    We report the design of a miniature imaging spectrometer array (ISA) for observations of the daytime and nighttime mesosphere, capable of operating in a spectral range extending from the near-ultraviolet (NUV) to the near-infrared (NIR) -- 260 to 870 nm. The instrument comprises an array of f/2 all-reflective imaging spectrometers with a 6 degree(s) field of view. The design comprises an offset single aspheric toroidal telescope mirror, a slit, an offset aspheric toroidal collimator, a plane reflective grating and a camera with three offset decentered aspheric mirrors. The optical system has a 75 mm effective focal length and approximately 7.5 micrometers spot size. The slit image curvature distortion for the system is less than 7.5 micrometers . Sampling of the image plane is provided by a 1317 X 1035 spatial x spectral pixel CCD array with 6.8 micrometers X 6.8 micrometers pixel size. Three modules of the array cover the wavelength range 260 to 400 and 550 to 870 nm at 0.3 nm spectral resolution. One high resolution module covers the range 306 to 310 at 0.05 nm resolution. This channel is used for the measurement of the hydroxyl radical. The sensitivity in the mid visible is approximately 0.1 counts/R-s/spatial bin, dropping to approximately 0.05 count/R-s/bin in the NUV. The readout electronics software allows the 1317 spatial pixels to be summed into any number of selectable bin sizes incurring a single read per bin. Since much of the full slit sensitivity is attributable to the large (6 degree(s)) field of view, the slit could be slanted with respect to the vertical, in order to enhance the sensitivity per vertical spatial bin, at the cost of some horizontal smearing. The instrument offers a powerful means for conducting comprehensive spectroscopic studies of the lower thermosphere and mesosphere, since the overall performance is better than that of the Imaging Spectrometric Observatory (ISO) flown on the ATLAS 1 shuttle mission in 1992. The weight and size

  6. A synthesis of Martian aqueous mineralogy after 1 Mars year of observations from the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Murchie, S.L.; Mustard, J.F.; Ehlmann, B.L.; Milliken, R.E.; Bishop, J.L.; McKeown, N.K.; Noe Dobrea, E.Z.; Seelos, F.P.; Buczkowski, D.L.; Wiseman, S.M.; Arvidson, R. E.; Wray, J.J.; Swayze, G.; Clark, R.N.; Des Marais, D.J.; McEwen, A.S.; Bibring, J.-P.

    2009-01-01

    Martian aqueous mineral deposits have been examined and characterized using data acquired during Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter's (MRO) primary science phase, including Compact Reconnaissance Imaging Spectrometer for Mars hyperspectral images covering the 0.4-3.9 ??m wavelength range, coordinated with higher-spatial resolution HiRISE and Context Imager images. MRO's new high-resolution measurements, combined with earlier data from Thermal Emission Spectrometer; Thermal Emission Imaging System; and Observatoire pour la Min??ralogie, L'Eau, les Glaces et l'Activiti?? on Mars Express, indicate that aqueous minerals are both diverse and widespread on the Martian surface. The aqueous minerals occur in 9-10 classes of deposits characterized by distinct mineral assemblages, morphologies, and geologic settings. Phyllosilicates occur in several settings: in compositionally layered blankets hundreds of meters thick, superposed on eroded Noachian terrains; in lower layers of intracrater depositional fans; in layers with potential chlorides in sediments on intercrater plains; and as thousands of deep exposures in craters and escarpments. Carbonate-bearing rocks form a thin unit surrounding the Isidis basin. Hydrated silica occurs with hydrated sulfates in thin stratified deposits surrounding Valles Marineris. Hydrated sulfates also occur together with crystalline ferric minerals in thick, layered deposits in Terra Meridiani and in Valles Marineris and together with kaolinite in deposits that partially infill some highland craters. In this paper we describe each of the classes of deposits, review hypotheses for their origins, identify new questions posed by existing measurements, and consider their implications for ancient habitable environments. On the basis of current data, two to five classes of Noachian-aged deposits containing phyllosilicates and carbonates may have formed in aqueous environments with pH and water activities suitable for life. Copyright 2009 by the American

  7. Exoplanetary Systems with SAFARI: A Far Infrared Imaging Spectrometer for SPICA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goicoechea, J. R.; Swinyard, B.

    2010-10-01

    The far-infrared (far-IR) spectral window plays host to a wide range of spectroscopic diagnostics with which to study planetary disk systems and exoplanets at wavelengths completely blocked by the Earth atmosphere. These include the thermal emission of dusty belts in debris disks, the water ice features in the “snow lines” of protoplanetary disks, as well as many key chemical species (O, OH, H2O, NH3, HD, etc.). These tracers play a critical diagnostic role in a number of key areas including the early stages of planet formation and potentially, exoplanets. The proposed Japanese-led IR space telescope SPICA, with its 3m-class cooled mirror (˜5 K) will be the next step in sensitivity after ESA’s Herschel Space Observatory (successfully launched in May 2009). SPICA is a candidate “M-mission” in ESA’s Cosmic Vision 2015-2025 process. We summarize the science possibilities of SAFARI: a far-IR imaging-spectrometer (covering the &sim34 - 210 μm band) that is one of a suite of instruments for SPICA.

  8. ORBS: A data reduction software for the imaging Fourier transform spectrometers SpIOMM and SITELLE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martin, T.; Drissen, L.; Joncas, G.

    2012-09-01

    SpIOMM (Spectromètre-Imageur de l'Observatoire du Mont Mégantic) is still the only operational astronomical Imaging Fourier Transform Spectrometer (IFTS) capable of obtaining the visible spectrum of every source of light in a field of view of 12 arc-minutes. Even if it has been designed to work with both outputs of the Michelson interferometer, up to now only one output has been used. Here we present ORBS (Outils de Réduction Binoculaire pour SpIOMM/SITELLE), the reduction software we designed in order to take advantage of the two output data. ORBS will also be used to reduce the data of SITELLE (Spectromètre-Imageur pour l' Étude en Long et en Large des raies d' Émissions) { the direct successor of SpIOMM, which will be in operation at the Canada-France- Hawaii Telescope (CFHT) in early 2013. SITELLE will deliver larger data cubes than SpIOMM (up to 2 cubes of 34 Go each). We thus have made a strong effort in optimizing its performance efficiency in terms of speed and memory usage in order to ensure the best compliance with the quality characteristics discussed with the CFHT team. As a result ORBS is now capable of reducing 68 Go of data in less than 20 hours using only 5 Go of random-access memory (RAM).

  9. Plasma Distribution in Mercury's Magnetosphere Derived from MESSENGER Magnetometer and Fast Imaging Plasma Spectrometer Observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Korth, Haje; Anderson, Brian J.; Gershman, Daniel J.; Raines, Jim M.; Slavin, James A.; Zurbuchen, Thomas H.; Solomon, Sean C.; McNutt, Ralph L.

    2014-01-01

    We assess the statistical spatial distribution of plasma in Mercury's magnetosphere from observations of magnetic pressure deficits and plasma characteristics by the MErcury Surface, Space ENvironment, GEochemistry, and Ranging (MESSENGER) spacecraft. The statistical distributions of proton flux and pressure were derived from 10months of Fast Imaging Plasma Spectrometer (FIPS) observations obtained during the orbital phase of the MESSENGER mission. The Magnetometer-derived pressure distributions compare favorably with those deduced from the FIPS observations at locations where depressions in the magnetic field associated with the presence of enhanced plasma pressures are discernible in the Magnetometer data. The magnitudes of the magnetic pressure deficit and the plasma pressure agree on average, although the two measures of plasma pressure may deviate for individual events by as much as a factor of approximately 3. The FIPS distributions provide better statistics in regions where the plasma is more tenuous and reveal an enhanced plasma population near the magnetopause flanks resulting from direct entry of magnetosheath plasma into the low-latitude boundary layer of the magnetosphere. The plasma observations also exhibit a pronounced north-south asymmetry on the nightside, with markedly lower fluxes at low altitudes in the northern hemisphere than at higher altitudes in the south on the same field line. This asymmetry is consistent with particle loss to the southern hemisphere surface during bounce motion in Mercury's offset dipole magnetic field.

  10. Estimates of forest structure parameters from GLAS data and multi-angle imaging spectrometer data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Ying; Yang, Xiguang; Fan, Wenyi

    2015-06-01

    Quantitative estimates of forest vertical and spatial distribution using remote sensing technology play an important role in better understanding forest ecosystem function, forest carbon storage and the global carbon cycle. Although most remote sensing systems can provide horizontal distribution of canopies, information concerning the vertical distribution of canopies cannot be detected. Fortunately, laser radars have become available, such as GLAS (Geoscience laser altimeter system). Because laser radar can penetrate foliage, it is superior to other remote sensing technologies for detecting vertical forest structure and has higher accuracy. GLAS waveform data were used in this study to retrieve average tree height and biomass in a GLAS footprint area in Heilongjiang Province. However, GLAS data are not spatially continuous. To fill the gaps, MISR (multi- angle imaging spectrometer) spectral radiance was chosen to predict the regional continuous tree height by developing a multivariate linear regression model. We compared tree height estimated by the regression model and GLAS data. The results confirmed that estimates of tree height and biomass based on GLAS data are considerably more accurate than estimates based on traditional methods. The accuracy is approximately 90%. MISR can be used to estimate tree height in continuous areas with a robust regression model. The R2, precision and root mean square error of the regression model were 0.8, 83% and 1 m, respectively. This study provides an important reference for mapping forest vertical parameters.

  11. Detecting X-ray Emission from Cometary Atmospheres Using the Suzaku X-ray Imaging Spectrometer

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, G V; Beiersdorfer, P; Bodewits, D; Porter, F S; Ezoe, Y; Hamaguchi, K; Hanya, M; Itoh, M; Kilbourne, C A; Kohmura, T; Maeda, Y; Negoro, H; Tsuboi, Y; Tsunemi, H; Urata, Y

    2009-11-16

    The Suzaku X-ray imaging spectrometer has been used to observe the X-ray emission from comets 73P/Schwassmann-Wachmann 3C and 8P/Tuttle. Comet 73P/Schwassmann-Wachmann 3C was observed during May and June of 2006, while it was near perihelion and passed within 0.1 AU of the Earth. Comet 8P/Tuttle was observed during January of 2008 when it was at its closest approach to the Earth at 0.25 AU, and again near perihelion at a distance of 0.5 Au from Earth. In the case of comet 73P/Schwassmann Wachmann 3C, the XIS spectra show line emission from highly charged oxygen and carbon ions as well as emission from what is most likely L-shell transitions from Mg, Si, and S ions. This line emission is caused by charge exchange recombination between solar wind ions and cometary neutrals, and can be used as a diagnostic of the solar wind. Here we present some of the results of the observation of the comet 73P/Schwassmann-Wachmann 3C.

  12. [Stability analysis of on-board calibration system of spatially modulated imaging Fourier transform spectrometer].

    PubMed

    Gao, Jingz; Ji, Zhong-Ying; Wang, Zhong-Hou; Cui, Yan

    2010-04-01

    Spatially modulated imaging Fourier transform spectrometer (SMIFTS) was an instrument that depended on interference, and after calibration, the reconstruction spectrum can quantificationally reflect the diffuse reflection of target under sunshine. On-board calibration of SMIFTS confirmed the change of SMIFTS according to relative spectrum calibration, inspected long-time attenuation of SMIFTS optical system, and corrected export data of SMIFTS. According to the requirement of remote sensor application, it must stay in vacuum environment for a long time. As a radiant standard, the stability of lamp-house in long time is the most important characteristic of on-board calibration system. By calculation and experimentation, analyses of on-board calibration of SMIFTS, and testing spaceflight environment characteristic of on-board calibration, the difficulty in the key parts of on-board calibration of SMIFTS such as lamp-house, spectrum filter and integrating sphere was solved. According to the radiation-time stability testing for lamp-house and optics, particle-radiation testing, environmental-mechanics testing and hot vacuum examination, good result was obtained. By whole-aperture and part-field comparative wavelength calibration, the spectrum curve and before-launch interferogram were obtained. After comparison with reconstruction spectrum under different condition, the stability and credibility of SMIFTS on-board calibration system was proved. PMID:20545151

  13. First results and current development of SpIOMM: an imaging Fourier transform spectrometer for astronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bernier, A.-P.; Grandmont, F.; Rochon, J.-F.; Charlebois, M.; Drissen, L.

    2006-06-01

    We present an overview of SpIOMM, an Imaging Fourier Transform Spectrometer (IFTS) for astronomy developed at University Laval in collaboration with ABB, INO and the Canadian Space Agency. SpIOMM, attached to the 1.6 meter (f/8) telescope at the Observatoire du mont Megantic in Quebec. It is a Michelson-type interferometer capable of obtaining the visible spectrum (from 350 nm to 900 nm) of every light source within its 12 arcminute circular field of view. This design will allow the correction of variable sky transmission. It consists of a dual output port and the total throughput is exploited by two CCDs used as detectors. We present the concept and design of this unique instrument. A metrology system combined with a dynamic alignment assures a good sampling and mirror alignment during the entire acquisition sequence. This particular servo control is explained and demonstrated and its capabilities and performance are discussed. We introduce the use of specific bandpass filters centered on the most important groups of emission lines which, when combined with spectral folding algorithms, allows us to reach high spectral resolution (R = 25 000, or 1 cm -1). Astronomical data collected by SpIOMM in 2004-2005 are also presented.

  14. Bright soil units on Mars determined from ISM imaging spectrometer data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Murchie, Scott; Mustard, John

    1993-01-01

    The lithology of bright Martian soil provides evidence for chemical and physical processes that have modified the planet's surface. Data from the ISM imaging spectrometer, which observed much of the equatorial region at a spatial resolution of approximately 22 km, cover the NIR wavelength range critical to ascertaining the presence and abundance of Fe-containing phases, hydroxylated silicates, and H2O in the bright soil. ISM data previously have revealed spatial variations in depth of the 3.0-microns H2O absorption suggesting differences in water content, a weak absorption at 2.2 microns indicative of metal-OH in phyllosilicate, and variations in the 1-micron Fe absorption indicative of differences in Fe mineralogy. This paper summarizes first results of a systematic investigation of spectral heterogeneity in bright soils observed by ISM. At least seven 'units' with distinctive properties were discriminated. Comparison of their spatial distributions with Viking data shows that they generally correspond with previously recognized morphologic, color, and thermal features. These correspondences and the units' spectral attributes provide evidence for lithologic differences between the soils in different geologic settings.

  15. Study on optical design of all-reflective Fourier transform imaging spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liang, Min-yong; Liao, Ning-fang

    2008-03-01

    The Fourier Transform Imaging Spectrometer (FTIS) used for remote sensing has been developed rapidly in the past two decades. Most of the Temporarily Modulated FTIS and the Spatially Modulated FTIS include a beam splitter structure, such as Sagnac prism or double refraction crystal beam splitter. The material of the beam splitter which is optical glass, crystalline materials or plastic optical materials all have the transmission limitation, so the spectrum range would be limited; the transparent material also would cause the chromatic aberration. We presented an all-reflective optical structure based on the Fresnel double mirror interference structure that could overcome these two shortcomings. The three-mirror anastigmat (TMA) telescope is employed to realize all-reflective fore-optics, it has a compact structure, wide field of view (FOV) and competent modulation transfer function (MTF). An abaxial parabolic-cylindrical mirror has been designed to focus the interference fringes onto the plane focal array (FPA) which would increase the signal to noise ratio (SNR).

  16. Compact imaging spectrometer for induced emissions. Final technical report, 31 March 1986-1 February 1988

    SciTech Connect

    Torr, D.G.

    1988-09-01

    On the basis of spectral measurements made from the Space Shuttle and on models of the possible Space Station external environment, it appears likely that, even at the planned altitudes of Space Station, photon emissions will be induced. These emissions will occur to some degree throughout the ultraviolet-visible-infrared spectrum. The emissions arise from a combination of processes including gas phase collisions between relatively energetic ambient and surface emitted or re-emitted atoms or molecules, where the surface raises some species to excited energy states. At the present time it is not possible to model these processes or the anticipated intensity levels with any accuracy, as a number of fundamental parameters needed for such calculations are still poorly known or unknown. However, it is possible that certain spectral line and band features will exceed the desired goal that concomitant emissions not exceed the natural zodiacal background. Also, in the near infrared and infrared, it appears that this level will be exceeded to a significant degree. Therefore it will be necessary to monitor emission levels in the vicinity of Space Station, both in order to establish the levels and to better model the environment. A small spectrometer is briefly described which is suitable for monitoring the spectrum from 1200 A to less than or equal to 12,000 A. The instrument uses focal plane array detectors to image this full spectral range simultaneously. The spectral resolution is 4 to 12 A, depending on the portion of the wavelength range.

  17. Cryogenic optical systems for the rapid infrared imager/spectrometer (RIMAS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Capone, John I.; Content, David A.; Kutyrev, Alexander S.; Robinson, Frederick D.; Lotkin, Gennadiy N.; Toy, Vicki L.; Veilleux, Sylvain; Moseley, Samuel H.; Gehrels, Neil A.; Vogel, Stuart N.

    2014-07-01

    The Rapid Infrared Imager/Spectrometer (RIMAS) is designed to perform follow-up observations of transient astronomical sources at near infrared (NIR) wavelengths (0.9 - 2.4 microns). In particular, RIMAS will be used to perform photometric and spectroscopic observations of gamma-ray burst (GRB) afterglows to compliment the Swift satellite's science goals. Upon completion, RIMAS will be installed on Lowell Observatory's 4.3 meter Discovery Channel Telescope (DCT) located in Happy Jack, Arizona. The instrument's optical design includes a collimator lens assembly, a dichroic to divide the wavelength coverage into two optical arms (0.9 - 1.4 microns and 1.4 - 2.4 microns respectively), and a camera lens assembly for each optical arm. Because the wavelength coverage extends out to 2.4 microns, all optical elements are cooled to ~70 K. Filters and transmission gratings are located on wheels prior to each camera allowing the instrument to be quickly configured for photometry or spectroscopy. An athermal optomechanical design is being implemented to prevent lenses from loosing their room temperature alignment as the system is cooled. The thermal expansion of materials used in this design have been measured in the lab. Additionally, RIMAS has a guide camera consisting of four lenses to aid observers in passing light from target sources through spectroscopic slits. Efforts to align these optics are ongoing.

  18. Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectrometer (MODIS) design evolution and associated development and verification of data product efforts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Salomonson, Vincent V.

    1991-01-01

    The Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectrometer (MODIS) is a key observing facility to be flown on the Earth Observing System (EOS). The facility is composed of two instruments called MODIS-N (nadir) and MODIS-T (tilt). The MODIS-N is being built under contract to NASA by the Santa Barbara Research Center. The MODIS-T is being fabricated by the Engineering Directorate at the Goddard Space Flight Center. The MODIS Science Team has defined nearly 40 biogeophysical data products for studies of the ocean and land surface and properties of the atmosphere including clouds that can be expected to be produced from the MODIS instruments shortly after the launch of EOS. The ocean, land, atmosphere, and calibration groups of the MODIS Science Team are now proceeding to plan and implement the operations and facilities involving the analysis of data from existing spaceborne, airborne, and in-situ sensors required to develop and validate the algorithms that will produce the geophysical data products. These algorithm development and validation efforts will be accomplished wherever possible within the context of existing or planned national and international experiments or programs such as those in the World Climate Research Program.

  19. Measurement of the Spectral Absorption of Liquid Water in Melting Snow With an Imaging Spectrometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Green, Robert O.; Dozier, Jeff

    1995-01-01

    Melting of the snowpack is a critical parameter that drives aspects of the hydrology in regions of the Earth where snow accumulates seasonally. New techniques for measurement of snow melt over regional scales offer the potential to improve monitoring and modeling of snow-driven hydrological processes. In this paper we present the results of measuring the spectral absorption of liquid water in a melting snowpack with the Airborne Visible/Infrared Imaging Spectrometer (AVIRIS). AVIRIS data were acquired over Mammoth Mountain, in east central California on 21 May 1994 at 18:35 UTC. The air temperature at 2926 m on Mammoth Mountain at site A was measured at 15-minute intervals during the day preceding the AVIRIS data acquisition. At this elevation. the air temperature did not drop below freezing the night of the May 20 and had risen to 6 degrees Celsius by the time of the overflight on May 21. These temperature conditions support the presence of melting snow at the surface as the AVIRIS data were acquired.

  20. Measurement of the spectral absorption of liquid water in melting snow with an imaging spectrometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Green, Robert O.; Dozier, Jeff

    1995-01-01

    Melting of the snowpack is a critical parameter that drives aspects of the hydrology in regions of the earth where snow accumulates seasonally. New techniques for measurement of snow melt over regional scales offer the potential to improve monitoring and modeling of snow-driven hydrological processes. We present the results of measuring the spectral absorption of liquid water in a melting snowpack with the Airborne Visible/Infrared Imaging Spectrometer (AVIRIS). AVIRIS data were acquired over Mammoth Mountain, in east central California on 21 May 1994 at 18:35 UTC. The air temperature at 2926 m on Mammoth Mountain at site A was measured at 15-minute intervals during the day preceding the AVIRIS data acquisition. At this elevation, the air temperature did not drop below freezing the night of May 20 and had risen to 6 degrees Celsius by the time of the overflight on May 21. These temperature conditions support the presence of melting snow at the surface as the AVIRIS data were acquired.

  1. Spatio-temporal dynamics of alpine snow algae measured with multi-year imaging spectrometer data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Painter, T.; Thomas, W. H.; Duval, B.

    2003-04-01

    The spatio-temporal dynamics of alpine snow algae have not been documented at the basin scale. This study focuses on the interannual variability of the concentration of alga chlamydomonas nivalis as mapped with the Airborne Visible Infrared Imaging Spectrometer (AVIRIS) over the Sierra Nevada, California, USA in the springs of 2000, 2001, and 2002. AVIRIS was flown at high spatial resolution (1.5 m) and medium spatial resolution (8 m) on board the NOAA Twin Otter and the NASA ER-2. AVIRIS data were atmospherically-corrected to apparent surface reflectance using a non-linear least squares vapor-fitting algorithm coupled with the atmospheric transmission MODTRAN4. We calculated algal concentration using a model that relates concentration to the continuum-normalized integral of the coupled chlorophyll-a, b absorption features with peak at 680 nm wavelength in the snow spectral reflectance signatures (Painter et al., 2001, Applied and Environmental Microbiology). The AVIRIS data were georeferenced to a digital elevation model of the Tioga Pass, CA region generated in the NASA Shuttle Radar Topography Mission. Interannual variability in basin-wide concentration and pixel-by-pixel concentration trajectories were evaluated.

  2. Evaluation of the airborne imaging spectrometer for remote sensing of forest stand conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Olson, Charles E., Jr.

    1986-01-01

    Five pairs of plots were established in forest stands with one of each pair trenched and covered to prevent precipitation from reaching the tree roots. High winds and falling limbs destroyed the covers on three of the plots. The two remaining plots were in a red pine plantation and in a natural stand of sugar maple. Trees in both plots developed levels of moisture stress more than nine bars higher than control trees on the dates of overflights with the Airborne Imaging Spectrometer (AIS) and the Collins' Airborne Spectroradiometer (CAS). Hemispherical reflectance from stressed and control trees was measured with a Beckman DK2A spectrophotometer. On the day of the AIS overflight, stressed maple foliage was less reflective than the control from 1000 to 1300 nm, but more reflective at wavelengths longer than 1300 nm. Pine foliage was less reflective than the control from 1000 to 1600 nm, but the difference was small at wavelengths longer than 1350 nm. AIS data collected showed brightness values for both maple and pine to be lower than for the controls from 1000 to 1300 nm. CAS data were used to determine the gain in species identification accuracy obtainable with high spectral resolution data.

  3. Development and Application of a High-Resolution Imaging Mass Spectrometer for the Study of Plant Tissues.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, Katsutoshi; Kozuka, Toshiaki; Anegawa, Aya; Nagatani, Akira; Mimura, Tetsuro

    2015-07-01

    Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization (MALDI) mass spectrometry imaging (MSI) or imaging mass spectrometry (imaging MS) has been a powerful tool to map the spatial distribution of molecules on the surface of biological materials. This technique has frequently been applied to animal tissue slices for the purpose of mapping proteins, peptides, lipids, sugars or small metabolites to find disease-specific biomarkers or to study drug metabolism. Recently, it has also been applied to intact plant tissues or thin slices thereof using commercial mass spectrometers. The present work is concerned with the refinement of MALDI/laser desorption/ionization (LDI)-Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance (FTICR)-MS incorporating certain specific features namely, ultra-high mass resolution (>100,000), ultra-high molecular mass accuracy (<1 p.p.m.) and high spatial resolution (<10 µm) for imaging MS of plant tissues. Employing an in-house built mass spectrometer, the imaging MS analysis of intact Arabidopsis thaliana tissues, namely etiolated seedlings and roots of seedlings, glued to a small transparent ITO (indium tin oxide)-coated conductive glass was performed. A matrix substance was applied to the vacuum-dried intact tissues by sublimation prior to the imaging MS analysis. The images of various small metabolites representing their two-dimensional distribution on the dried intact tissues were obtained with or without different matrix substances. The effects of MALDI matrices on the ionization of small metabolites during imaging MS acquisition are discussed. PMID:26063395

  4. SAFARI new and improved: extending the capabilities of SPICA's imaging spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roelfsema, Peter; Giard, Martin; Najarro, Francisco; Wafelbakker, Kees; Jellema, Willem; Jackson, Brian; Sibthorpe, Bruce; Audard, Marc; Doi, Yasuo; di Giorgio, Anna; Griffin, Matthew; Helmich, Frank; Kamp, Inga; Kerschbaum, Franz; Meyer, Michael; Naylor, David; Onaka, Takashi; Poglitch, Albrecht; Spinoglio, Luigi; van der Tak, Floris; Vandenbussche, Bart

    2014-08-01

    The Japanese SPace Infrared telescope for Cosmology and Astrophysics, SPICA, aims to provide astronomers with a truly new window on the universe. With a large -3 meter class- cold -6K- telescope, the mission provides a unique low background environment optimally suited for highly sensitive instruments limited only by the cosmic background itself. SAFARI, the SpicA FAR infrared Instrument SAFARI, is a Fourier Transform imaging spectrometer designed to fully exploit this extremely low far infrared background environment. The SAFARI consortium, comprised of European and Canadian institutes, has established an instrument reference design based on a Mach-Zehnder interferometer stage with outputs directed to three extremely sensitive Transition Edge Sensor arrays covering the 35 to 210 μm domain. The baseline instrument provides R > 1000 spectroscopic imaging capabilities over a 2' by 2' field of view. A number of modifications to the instrument to extend its capabilities are under investigation. With the reference design SAFARI's sensitivity for many objects is limited not only by the detector NEP but also by the level of broad band background radiation - the zodiacal light for the shorter wavelengths and satellite baffle structures for the longer wavelengths. Options to reduce this background are dedicated masks or dispersive elements which can be inserted in the optics as required. The resulting increase in sensitivity can directly enhance the prime science goals of SAFARI; with the expected enhanced sensitivity astronomers would be in a better position to study thousands of galaxies out to redshift 3 and even many hundreds out to redshifts of 5 or 6. Possibilities to increase the wavelength resolution, at least for the shorter wavelength bands, are investigated as this would significantly enhance SAFARI's capabilities to study star and planet formation in our own galaxy.

  5. Remote sensing of cloud, aerosol and water vapor properties from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectrometer (MODIS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    King, M. D.

    1992-01-01

    The Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectrometer (MODIS) is an Earth-viewing sensor being developed as a facility instrument for the Earth Observing System (EOS) to be launched in the late 1990s. MODIS consists of two separate instruments that scan a swath width sufficient to provide nearly complete global coverage every two days from a polar-orbiting, Sun-synchronous, platform at an altitude of 705 km. Of primary interest for studies of atmospheric physics is the MODIS-N (nadir) instrument which will provide images in 36 spectral bands between 0.415 and 14.235 micrometers with spatial resoulutions of 250 m (2 bands), 500 m (5 bands) and 1000 m (29 bands). These bands have been carefully selected to enable advanced studies of land, ocean and atmosperhic processes. The intent of this lecture is to describe the current status of MODIS-N and its companion instrument MODIS-T (tilt), a tiltable cross-track scanning radiometer with 32 uniformly spaced channels between 0.410 and 0.875 micrometers, and to describe the physical principles behind the development of MODIS for the remote sensing of atmospheric properties. Primary emphasis will be placed on the main atmospheric applications of determining the optical, microphysical and physical properties of clouds and aerosol particles form spectral-reflection and thermal-emission measurements. In addition to cloud and aerosol properties, MODIS-N will be utilized for the determination of the total precipitable water vapor over land and atmospheric stability. The physical principles behind the determination of each of these atmospheric products will be described herein.

  6. Effect of Spatial Resolution for Characterizing Soil Properties from Imaging Spectrometer Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dutta, D.; Kumar, P.; Greenberg, J. A.

    2015-12-01

    The feasibility of quantifying soil constituents over large areas using airborne hyperspectral data [0.35 - 2.5 μm] in an ensemble bootstrapping lasso algorithmic framework has been demonstrated previously [1]. However the effects of coarsening the spatial resolution of hyperspectral data on the quantification of soil constituents are unknown. We use Airborne Visible Infrared Imaging Spectrometer (AVIRIS) data collected at 7.6m resolution over Birds Point New Madrid (BPNM) floodway for up-scaling and generating multiple coarser resolution datasets including the 60m Hyperspectral Infrared Imager (HyspIRI) like data. HyspIRI is a proposed visible shortwave/thermal infrared mission, which will provide global data over a spectral range of 0.35 - 2.5μm at a spatial resolution of 60m. Our results show that the lasso method, which is based on point scale observational data, is scalable. We found consistent good model performance (R2) values (0.79 < R2 < 0.82) and correct classifications as per USDA soil texture classes at multiple spatial resolutions. The results further demonstrate that the attributes of the pdf for different soil constituents across the landscape and the within-pixel variance are well preserved across scales. Our analysis provides a methodological framework with a sufficient set of metrics for assessing the performance of scaling up analysis from point scale observational data and may be relevant for other similar remote sensing studies. [1] Dutta, D.; Goodwell, A.E.; Kumar, P.; Garvey, J.E.; Darmody, R.G.; Berretta, D.P.; Greenberg, J.A., "On the Feasibility of Characterizing Soil Properties From AVIRIS Data," Geoscience and Remote Sensing, IEEE Transactions on, vol.53, no.9, pp.5133,5147, Sept. 2015. doi: 10.1109/TGRS.2015.2417547.

  7. Mapping of methane from Scanning Imaging Absorption Spectrometer for Atmospheric Cartography (SCIAMACHY)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tan, K. C.; Lim, H. S.; MatJafri, M. Z.

    2012-11-01

    Among all the greenhouse gases, methane is the most dynamic and abundant greenhouse gas in the atmosphere. The global concentrations of atmospheric methane has increased more than doubled since pre-industrial times, with a current globally-averaged mixing ratio of ~ 1750 ppbv. Due to its high growth rate, methane brings significant effects on climate and atmospheric chemistry. There has a significant gap for variables between anthropogenic and natural sources and sinks of methane. Satellite observation of methane has been identified that it can provide the precise and accurate data globally, which sensitive to the small regional biases. We present measurements from Scanning Imaging Absorption Spectrometer for Atmospheric Cartography (SCIAMACHY) included on the European environmental satellite ENVISAT, launched on 1st of March 2002. Main objective of this study is to examine the methane distribution over Peninsular Malaysia using SCIAMACHY level-3 data. They are derived from the near-infrared nadir observations of the SCIAMACHY at the University of Bremen through scientific WFM-DOAS retrieval algorithm version 2.0.2.Maps of time averaged (yearly, tri-monthly) methane was generated and analyzed over Peninsular Malaysia for the year 2003 using PCI Geomatica 10.3 image processing software. The maps show dry-air column averaged mixing ratios of methane (denoted XCH4). It was retrieved using the interpolation technique. The concentration changes within boundary layer at all altitude levels are equally sensitive through the SCIAMACHY near-infrared nadir observations. Hence, we can make observation of methane at surface source region. The results successfully identify the area with highest and lowest concentration of methane at Peninsular Malaysia using SCIAMACHY data. Therefore, the study is suitable to examine the distribution of methane at tropical region.

  8. Preliminary analysis of Airborne Visible/Infrared Imaging Spectrometer (AVIRIS) for mineralogic mapping at sites in Nevada and Colorado

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kruse, Fred A.; Taranik, Dan L.; Kierein-Young, Kathryn S.

    1988-01-01

    Airborne Visible/Infrared Imaging Spectrometer (AVIRIS) data for sites in Nevada and Colorado were evaluated to determine their utility for mineralogical mapping in support of geologic investigations. Equal energy normalization is commonly used with imaging spectrometer data to reduce albedo effects. Spectra, profiles, and stacked, color-coded spectra were extracted from the AVIRIS data using an interactive analysis program (QLook) and these derivative data were compared to Airborne Imaging Spectrometer (AIS) results, field and laboratory spectra, and geologic maps. A feature extraction algorithm was used to extract and characterize absorption features from AVIRIS and laboratory spectra, allowing direct comparison of the position and shape of absorption features. Both muscovite and carbonate spectra were identified in the Nevada AVIRIS data by comparison with laboratory and AIS spectra, and an image was made that showed the distribution of these minerals for the entire site. Additional, distinctive spectra were located for an unknown mineral. For the two Colorado sites, the signal-to-noise problem was significantly worse and attempts to extract meaningful spectra were unsuccessful. Problems with the Colorado AVIRIS data were accentuated by the IAR reflectance technique because of moderate vegetation cover. Improved signal-to-noise and alternative calibration procedures will be required to produce satisfactory reflectance spectra from these data. Although the AVIRIS data were useful for mapping strong mineral absorption features and producing mineral maps at the Nevada site, it is clear that significant improvements to the instrument performance are required before AVIRIS will be an operational instrument.

  9. Geometric correction of synchronous scanned Operational Modular Imaging Spectrometer II hyperspectral remote sensing images using spatial positioning data of an inertial navigation system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Xiaohu; Neubauer, Franz; Zhao, Dong; Xu, Shichao

    2015-01-01

    The high-precision geometric correction of airborne hyperspectral remote sensing image processing was a hard nut to crack, and conventional methods of remote sensing image processing by selecting ground control points to correct the images are not suitable in the correction process of airborne hyperspectral image. The optical scanning system of an inertial measurement unit combined with differential global positioning system (IMU/DGPS) is introduced to correct the synchronous scanned Operational Modular Imaging Spectrometer II (OMIS II) hyperspectral remote sensing images. Posture parameters, which were synchronized with the OMIS II, were first obtained from the IMU/DGPS. Second, coordinate conversion and flight attitude parameters' calculations were conducted. Third, according to the imaging principle of OMIS II, mathematical correction was applied and the corrected image pixels were resampled. Then, better image processing results were achieved.

  10. Laser diode arrays for naval reconnaissance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holloway, John H., Jr.; Crosby, Frank J.; Petee, Danny A.; Suiter, Harold R.; Witherspoon, Ned H.

    2003-09-01

    The Airborne Littoral Reconnaissance Technologies (ALRT) Project has demonstrated a nighttime operational minefield detection capability using commercial off-the-shelf high-power Laser Diode Arrays (LDAs). Historically, optical aerial detection of minefields has primarily been limited to daytime operations but LDAs promise compact and efficient lighting to allow for enhanced reconnaissance operations for future mine detection systems. When combined with high-resolution intensified imaging systems, LDAs can illuminate otherwise unseen areas. Future wavelength options will open the way for active multispectral imaging with LDAs. The Coastal Systems Station working for the Office of Naval Research on the ALRT project has designed, developed, integrated, and tested both prototype and commercial arrays from a Cessna airborne platform. Detailed test results show the ability to detect several targets of interest in a variety of background conditions. Initial testing of the prototype arrays, reported on last year, was completed and further investigations of the commercial versions were performed. Polarization-state detection studies were performed, and advantageous properties of the source-target-sensor geometry noted. Current project plans are to expand the field-of-view coverage for Naval exercises in the summer of 2003. This paper describes the test collection, data library products, array information, on-going test analysis results, and future planned testing of the LDAs.

  11. Oxygen airglow emission on Venus and Mars as seen by VIRTIS/VEX and OMEGA/MEX imaging spectrometers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Migliorini, A.; Altieri, F.; Zasova, L.; Piccioni, G.; Bellucci, G.; Cardesín Moinelo, A.; Drossart, P.; D'Aversa, E.; Carrozzo, F. G.; Gondet, B.; Bibring, J.-P.

    2011-08-01

    Imaging spectrometers are highly effective instruments for investigation of planetary atmospheres. They present the advantage of coupling the compositional information to the spatial distribution, allowing simultaneous study of chemistry and dynamics in the atmospheres of Venus and Mars. In this work, we summarize recent results about the O 2(a 1Δg) night and day glows, respectively obtained by VIRTIS/Venus Express and OMEGA/Mars Express, the imaging spectrometers currently in orbit around Venus and Mars. The case of the O 2(a 1Δg - X 3Σg-) IR emission at 1.27 μm on the night side of Venus and the day side of Mars is analyzed, pointing out dynamical aspects of these planets, like the detection of gravity waves in their atmospheres. The monitoring of seasonal and daily airglow variations provides hints about the photochemistry on these planets.

  12. Data acquisition system for an advanced x-ray imaging crystal spectrometer using a segmented position-sensitive detector.

    PubMed

    Nam, U W; Lee, S G; Bak, J G; Moon, M K; Cheon, J K; Lee, C H

    2007-10-01

    A versatile time-to-digital converter based data acquisition system for a segmented position-sensitive detector has been developed. This data acquisition system was successfully demonstrated to a two-segment position-sensitive detector. The data acquisition system will be developed further to support multisegmented position-sensitive detector to improve the photon count rate capability of the advanced x-ray imaging crystal spectrometer system. PMID:17979416

  13. Observation of Accumulated Metal Cation Distribution in Fish by Novel Stigmatic Imaging Time-of-Flight Mass Spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aoki, Jun; Ikeda, Shinichiro; Toyoda, Michisato

    2014-02-01

    The accumulation of radioactive substances in biological organisms is a matter of great concern since the incident at the nuclear power plant in Fukushima, Japan. We have developed a novel technique for observing the distribution of accumulated metal cations in fish that employs a new imaging mass spectrometer, MULTUM-IMG2. Distributions of 133Cs and 88Sr in a sliced section of medaka (Oryzias latipes) are obtained with spatial resolution of µm-scale.

  14. On-Orbit Calibration of a Multi-Spectral Satellite Satellite Sensor Using a High Altitude Airborne Imaging Spectrometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Green, R. O.; Shimada, M.

    1996-01-01

    Earth-looking satellites must be calibrated in order to quantitatively measure and monitor components of land, water and atmosphere of the Earth system. The inevitable change in performance due to the stress of satellite launch requires that the calibration of a satellite sensor be established and validated on-orbit. A new approach to on-orbit satellite sensor calibration has been developed using the flight of a high altitude calibrated airborne imaging spectrometer below a multi-spectral satellite sensor.

  15. TIRCIS: Hyperspectral Thermal Infrared Imaging Using a Small-Satellite Compliant Fourier-Transform Imaging Spectrometer, for Natural Hazard Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wright, R.; Lucey, P. G.; Crites, S.; Garbeil, H.; Wood, M.

    2015-12-01

    Many natural hazards, including wildfires, volcanic eruptions, and, from the perspective of climate-related hazards, urban heat islands, could be better quantified via the routine availability of hyperspectral thermal infrared remote sensing data from orbit. However, no sensors are currently in operation that provide such data at high-to-moderate spatial resolution (e.g. Landsat-class resolution). In this presentation we will describe a prototype instrument, developed using funding provided by NASA's Instrument Incubator Program, that can make these important measurements. Significantly, the instrument has been designed such that its size, mass, power, and cost are consistent with its integration into small satellite platforms, or deployment as part of small satellite constellations. The instrument, TIRCIS (Thermal Infra-Red Compact Imaging Spectrometer), uses a Fabry-Perot interferometer, an uncooled microbolometer array, and push-broom scanning to acquire hyperspectral image data cubes. Radiometric calibration is provided by blackbody targets while spectral calibration is achieved using monochromatic light sources. Neither the focal plane nor the optics need to be cooled, and the instrument has a mass of <10 kg and dimensions of 53 cm × 25 cm × 22 cm. Although the prototype has four moving parts, this can easily be reduced to one. The current optical design yields a 120 m ground sample size given an orbit of 500 km. Over the wavelength interval of 7.5 to 14 microns up to 90 spectral samples are possible, by varying the physical design of the interferometer. Our performance model indicates signal-to-noise ratios of the order of about 200 to 300:1. In this presentation we will provide an overview of the instrument design, fabrication, results from our initial laboratory characterization, and some of the application areas in which small-satellite-ready instruments such as TIRCIS could make a valuable contribution to the study of natural hazards.

  16. Automated ambient desorption-ionization platform for surface imaging integrated with a commercial Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometer.

    PubMed

    Pól, Jaroslav; Vidová, Veronika; Kruppa, Gary; Kobliha, Václav; Novák, Petr; Lemr, Karel; Kotiaho, Tapio; Kostiainen, Risto; Havlícek, Vladimír; Volný, Michael

    2009-10-15

    A fully automated atmospheric pressure ionization platform has been built and coupled with a commercial high-resolution Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometer (FTICR-MS) instrument. The outstanding performance of this instrument allowed screening on the basis of exact masses in imaging mode. The main novel aspect was in the integration of the atmospheric pressure ionization imaging into the current software for matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization (MALDI) imaging, which allows the user of this commercial dual-source mass spectrometer to perform MALDI-MS and different ambient MS imaging from the same user interface and to utilize the same software tools. Desorption electrospray ionization (DESI) and desorption atmospheric pressure photoionization (DAPPI) were chosen to test the ambient surface imaging capabilities of this new ionization platform. Results of DESI imaging experiments performed on brain tissue sections are in agreement with previous MS imaging reports obtained by DESI imaging, but due to the high resolution and mass accuracy of the FTICR instrument it was possible to resolve several ions at the same nominal mass in the DESI-MS spectra of brain tissue. These isobaric interferences at low resolution are due to the overlap of ions from different lipid classes with different biological relevance. It was demonstrated that with the use of high-resolution MS fast imaging screening of lipids can be achieved without any preseparation steps. DAPPI, which is a relatively new and less developed ambient ionization technique compared to DESI, was used in imaging mode for the first time ever. It showed promise in imaging of phytocompounds from plant leaves, and selective ionization of a sterol lipid was achieved by DAPPI from a brain tissue sample. PMID:19761221

  17. Operating principles and detection characteristics of the Visible and Near-Infrared Imaging Spectrometer in the Chang'e-3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Zhi-Ping; Wang, Bin-Yong; Lü, Gang; Li, Chun-Lai; Yuan, Li-Yin; Xu, Rui; Liu, Bin; Chen, Kai; Wang, Jian-Yu

    2014-12-01

    The Visible and Near-Infrared Imaging Spectrometer (VNIS), using two acousto-optic tunable filters as dispersive components, consists of a VIS/NIR imaging spectrometer (0.45-0.95 μm), a shortwave IR spectrometer (0.9-2.4 μm) and a calibration unit with dust-proofing functionality. The VNIS was utilized to detect the spectrum of the lunar surface and achieve in-orbit calibration, which satisfied the requirements for scientific detection. Mounted at the front of the Yutu rover, lunar objects that are detected with the VNIS with a 45° visual angle to obtain spectra and geometrical data in order to analyze the mineral composition of the lunar surface. After landing successfully on the Moon, the VNIS performed several explorations and calibrations, and obtained several spectral images and spectral reflectance curves of the lunar soil in the region of Mare Imbrium. This paper describes the working principle and detection characteristics of the VNIS and provides a reference for data processing and scientific applications.

  18. Spatially Resolved Spectra from a new X-ray Imaging Crystal Spectrometer for Measurements of Ion and Electron Temperature Profiles

    SciTech Connect

    Bitter, M; Stratton, B; Roquemore, A; Mastrovito, D; Lee, S; Bak, J; Moon, M; Nam, U; Smith, G; Rice, J; Beiersdorfer, P; Fraenkel, B

    2004-08-10

    A new type of high-resolution X-ray imaging crystal spectrometer is being developed to measure ion and electron temperature profiles in tokamak plasmas. The instrument is particularly valuable for diagnosing plasmas with purely Ohmic heating and rf heating, since it does not require the injection of a neutral beam - although it can also be used for the diagnosis of neutral-beam heated plasmas. The spectrometer consists of a spherically bent quartz crystal and a two-dimensional position-sensitive detector. It records spectra of helium-like argon (or krypton) from multiple sightlines through the plasma and projects a de-magnified image of a large plasma cross-section onto the detector. The spatial resolution in the plasma is solely determined by the height of the crystal, its radius of curvature, and the Bragg angle. This new X-ray imaging crystal spectrometer may also be of interest for the diagnosis of ion temperature profiles in future large tokamaks, such as KSTAR and ITER, where the application of the presently used charge-exchange spectroscopy will be difficult, if the neutral beams do not penetrate to the plasma center. The paper presents the results from proof-of-principle experiments performed with a prototype instrument at Alcator C-Mod.

  19. Comparative analysis of Airborne Visible/Infrared Imaging Spectrometer (AVIRIS), and Hyperspectral Thermal Emission Spectrometer (HyTES) longwave infrared (LWIR) hyperspectral data for geologic mapping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kruse, Fred A.

    2015-05-01

    Airborne Visible/Infrared Imaging Spectrometer (AVIRIS) and spatially coincident Hyperspectral Thermal Emission Spectrometer (HyTES) data were used to map geology and alteration for a site in northern Death Valley, California and Nevada, USA. AVIRIS, with 224 bands at 10 nm spectral resolution over the range 0.4 - 2.5 μm at 3-meter spatial resolution were converted to reflectance using an atmospheric model. HyTES data with 256 bands at approximately 17 nm spectral resolution covering the 8 - 12 μm range at 4-meter spatial resolution were converted to emissivity using a longwave infrared (LWIR) radiative transfer atmospheric compensation model and a normalized temperature-emissivity separation approach. Key spectral endmembers were separately extracted for each wavelength region and identified, and the predominant material at each pixel was mapped for each range using Mixture-Tuned-Matched Filtering (MTMF), a partial unmixing approach. AVIRIS mapped iron oxides, clays, mica, and silicification (hydrothermal alteration); and the difference between calcite and dolomite. HyTES separated and mapped several igneous phases (not possible using AVIRIS), silicification, and validated separation of calcite from dolomite. Comparison of the material maps from the different modes, however, reveals complex overlap, indicating that multiple materials/processes exist in many areas. Combined and integrated analyses were performed to compare individual results and more completely characterize occurrences of multiple materials. Three approaches were used 1) integrated full-range analysis, 2) combined multimode classification, and 3) directed combined analysis in geologic context. Results illustrate that together, these two datasets provide an improved picture of the distribution of geologic units and subsequent alteration.

  20. FLORIS: phase A status of the fluorescence imaging spectrometer of the Earth Explorer mission candidate FLEX

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kraft, S.; Bézy, J.-L.; Del Bello, U.; Berlich, R.; Drusch, M.; Franco, R.; Gabriele, A.; Harnisch, B.; Meynart, R.; Silvestrin, P.

    2013-10-01

    The Fluorescence Explorer (FLEX) mission is currently subject to feasibility (Phase A) study as one of the two candidates of ESA's 8th Earth Explorer opportunity mission. The FLuORescence Imaging Spectrometer (FLORIS) will be an imaging grating spectrometer onboard of a medium sized satellite flying in tandem with Sentinel-3 in a Sun synchronous orbit at a height of about 815 km. FLORIS will observe vegetation fluorescence and reflectance within a spectral range between 500 nm and 780 nm. It will thereby cover the photochemical reflection features between 500 nm and 600 nm, the Chlorophyll absorption band between 600 and 677 nm, and the red-edge in the region from 697 nm to 755 nm being located between the Oxygen A and B absorption bands. By this measurement approach, it is expected that the full spectrum and amount of the vegetation fluorescence radiance can be retrieved, and that atmospheric corrections can efficiently be applied. FLORIS will measure Earth reflected spectral radiance at a relatively high spectral resolution of ~0.3 nm around the Oxygen absorption bands. Other spectral band areas with less pronounced absorption features will be measured at medium spectral resolution between 0.5 and 2 nm. FLORIS will provide imagery at 300 m resolution on ground with a swath width of 150 km. This will allow achieving global revisit times of less than one month so as to monitor seasonal variations of the vegetation cycles. The mission life time is expected to be at least 4 years. The fluorescence retrieval will make use of information coming from OLCI and SLSTR, which are onboard of Sentinel-3, to monitor temperature, to detect thin clouds and to derive vegetation reflectance and information on the aerosol content also outside the FLORIS spectral range. In order to mitigate the technological and programmatic risk of this Explorer mission candidate, ESA has initiated two comprehensive bread-boarding activities, in which the most critical technologies and instrument