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Sample records for reconstruction technical aspects

  1. Technical aspects of resolution recovery reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Pagnanelli, Robert; Borges-Neto, Salvador

    2016-02-01

    Technological advances in processing have allowed nuclear cardiology labs to increase efficiency as well as reduce radiation exposure to both patients and staff. With increased awareness on reduced radiation exposure, efficiency and quality resolution recovery reconstruction is a perfect fit for nuclear cardiology. Having a basic understanding of what is required as well as being aware of the potential pitfalls can provide some clarity on how to incorporate resolution recovery reconstruction into the existing workflow of a nuclear cardiology lab. PMID:26645602

  2. Technical basis for dose reconstruction

    SciTech Connect

    Anspaugh, L.R.

    1996-12-31

    The purpose of this paper is to consider two general topics: Technical considerations of why dose-reconstruction studies should or should not be performed and methods of dose reconstruction. The first topic is of general and growing interest as the number of dose-reconstruction studies increases, and one asks the question whether it is necessary to perform a dose reconstruction for virtually every site at which, for example, the Department of Energy (DOE) has operated a nuclear-related facility. And there is the broader question of how one might logically draw the line at performing or not performing dose-reconstruction (radiological and chemical) studies for virtually every industrial complex in the entire country. The second question is also of general interest. There is no single correct way to perform a dose-reconstruction study, and it is important not to follow blindly a single method to the point that cheaper, faster, more accurate, and more transparent methods might not be developed and applied. 90 refs., 4 tabs.

  3. Technical basis for dose reconstruction

    SciTech Connect

    Anspaugh, L.R.

    1996-01-31

    The purpose of this paper is to consider two general topics: technical considerations of why dose-reconstruction studies should or should not be performed and methods of dose reconstruction. The first topic is of general and growing interest as the number of dose-reconstruction studies increases, and one asks the question whether it is necessary to perform a dose reconstruction for virtually every site at which, for example, the Department of Energy (DOE) has operated a nuclear-related facility. And there is the broader question of how one might logically draw the line at performing or not performing dose-reconstruction (radiological and chemical) studies for virtually every industrial complex in the entire country. The second question is also of general interest. There is no single correct way to perform a dose-reconstruction study, and it is important not to follow blindly a single method to the point that cheaper, faster, more accurate, and more transparent methods might not be developed and applied.

  4. [Phoniatric aspects of reconstructive laryngectomy].

    PubMed

    Genovese, E; Calearo, C; Bignardi, I

    1992-01-01

    Reconstructive laryngectomy has been performed at the E.N.T. Clinic in Ferrara for some time. After surgery the patients undergo speech therapy and phoniatric treatment for a period of time varying from 2 to 6 months. In order to better evaluate the vocal quality obtained after such reeducation the vocal emissions of 25 patients were examined and recorded. The recorded material, made up of prolonged vowels and 6 phonetically balanced sentences, was then evaluated by a panel of 7 "trained" listeners. The evaluation score-card proposed by Woiers in 1977 was used in taking the data. This not only provides a scale for evaluating the main voice quality features, but also includes a final judgement on parameters including intelligibility, acceptability and pleasantness. Statistical processing of the data inherent to voice quality indicated a decrease in intensity and pitch when compared to normal values. Nonetheless, the listening test showed a high degree of intelligibility, acceptability and pleasantness. These values confirm the fact that, although the new voice achieved through reconstructive laryngectomy surgery is less sonorous, it allows for perfectly understandable, socially acceptable speech. PMID:1344550

  5. Technical aspects of microwave thermotherapy.

    PubMed

    Vrba, J; Lapes, M; Oppl, L

    1999-05-01

    We describe our new technical results dealing with microwave thermotherapy (hyperthermia) in cancer treatment, see Refs. [S.B. Field, C. Franconi (Eds.), Physics and technology of hyperthermia, NATO Seminar Proceedings, Urbino, Italy, 1986; J. Hand, J.R. James (Eds.), Physical Techniques in Clinical Hyperthermia, Wiley, New York, 1986; J. Vrba, M. Lapes, Microwave Applicators for Medical Purposes, CTU Press, 1996, in Czech; J. Vrba, C. Franconi, M. Lapes, Theoretical limits for the penetration depth of the intracavitary applicators, International Journal of Hyperthermia, 12:6 (1996) 737-742; C. Franconi, J. Vrba, F. Montecchia, 27 MHz hybrid evanescent-mode applicators with flexible heating field for deep and safe subcutaneous hyperthermia, International Journal of Hyperthermia, 9:5 (1993) 655-674.]. Our research interest is to develop applicators for deep local heating and for intracavitary cancer and/or prostate treatment as well. Further, a system for 3D SAR distribution measurements in water phantom is explained. Basic evaluation of clinical results is given. PMID:10379544

  6. Modeling aspects of the surface reconstruction problem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toth, Charles K.; Melykuti, Gabor

    1994-08-01

    The ultimate goal of digital photogrammetry is to automatically produce digital maps which may in turn form the basis of GIS. Virtually all work in surface reconstruction deals with various kinds of approximations and constraints that are applied. In this paper we extend these concepts in various ways. For one, matching is performed in object space. Thus, matching and densification (modeling) is performed in the same reference system. Another extension concerns the solution of the second sub-problem. Rather than simply densifying (interpolating) the surface, we propose to model it. This combined top-down and bottom-up approach is performed in scale space, whereby the model is refined until compatibility between the data and expectations is reached. The paper focuses on the modeling aspects of the surface reconstruction problem. Obviously, the top-down and bottom-up model descriptions ought to be in a form which allows the generation and verification of hypotheses. Another crucial question is the degree of a priori scene knowledge necessary to constrain the solution space.

  7. DXA: Technical aspects and application.

    PubMed

    Bazzocchi, Alberto; Ponti, Federico; Albisinni, Ugo; Battista, Giuseppe; Guglielmi, Giuseppe

    2016-08-01

    The key role of dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) in the management of metabolic bone diseases is well known. The role of DXA in the study of body composition and in the clinical evaluation of disorders which directly or indirectly involve the whole metabolism as they may induce changes in body mass and fat percentage is less known or less understood. DXA has a range of clinical applications in this field, from assessing associations between adipose or lean mass and the risk of disease to understanding and measuring the effects of pathophysiological processes or therapeutic interventions, in both adult and paediatric human populations as well as in pre-clinical settings. DXA analyses body composition at the molecular level that is basically translated into a clinical model made up of fat mass, non-bone lean mass, and bone mineral content. DXA allows total and regional assessment of the three above-mentioned compartments, usually by a whole-body scan. Since body composition is a hot topic today, manufacturers have steered the development of DXA technology and methodology towards this. New DXA machines have been designed to accommodate heavier and larger patients and to scan wider areas. New strategies, such as half-body assessment, permit accurate body scan and analysis of individuals exceeding scan field limits. Although DXA is a projective imaging technique, new solutions have recently allowed the differential estimate of subcutaneous and intra-abdominal visceral fat. The transition to narrow fan-beam densitometers has led to faster scan times and better resolution; however, inter- or intra-device variation exists depending on several factors. The purposes of this review are: (1) to appreciate the role of DXA in the study of body composition; (2) to understand potential limitations and pitfalls of DXA in the analysis of body composition; (3) to learn about technical elements and methods, and to become familiar with biomarkers in DXA. PMID:27157852

  8. Categorical aspects of reconstructing quantum theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lal, Raymond; Coecke, Bob

    2012-02-01

    We present steps towards a new understanding of reconstructions of quantum theory. Chiribella, D'Ariano, and Perinotti (CDP) have recently produced a fascinating reconstruction of the formalism of quantum theory, which brings to light its operational origins. We use parts of the formalism of categorical quantum mechanics to expose the underlying mathematical structures of information flow in the CDP reconstruction. Our results include an elegant relation between teleportation and local tomography, and an equivalence betweeen a purely category-theoretic description of the purification of a mixed state, and the purification axiom of CDP.

  9. Hindlimb unloading rodent model: technical aspects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morey-Holton, Emily R.; Globus, Ruth K.

    2002-01-01

    Since its inception at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Ames Research Center in the mid-1970s, many laboratories around the world have used the rat hindlimb unloading model to simulate weightlessness and to study various aspects of musculoskeletal loading. In this model, the hindlimbs of rodents are elevated to produce a 30 degrees head-down tilt, which results in a cephalad fluid shift and avoids weightbearing by the hindquarters. Although several reviews have described scientific results obtained with this model, this is the first review to focus on the technical aspects of hindlimb unloading. This review includes a history of the technique, a brief comparison with spaceflight data, technical details, extension of the model to mice, and other important technical considerations (e.g., housing, room temperature, unloading angle, the potential need for multiple control groups, age, body weight, the use of the forelimb tissues as internal controls, and when to remove animals from experiments). This paper is intended as a reference for researchers, reviewers of manuscripts, and institutional animal care and use committees. Over 800 references, related to the hindlimb unloading model, can be accessed via the electronic version of this article.

  10. Technical aspects of PACS in Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, JongHyo

    2002-05-01

    Korea is one of the fastest growing countries in the number of filmless hospitals. More than 70 hospitals have converted to filmless environments by adopting full PAC systems during the last two years. The patient care environment in Korean hospitals was not favorable to PACS implementation. In many out patient clinics, doctors had to see more than hundred patients a day. It was not rare for a radiologist to read several hundred of exams a day. Also, the PACS teams were mandated to acquire full scale PACS capable of incorporating not only radiological images but also color images produced in other imaging departments. In order to take root in Korean environment, the PACS in Korea had to pass through some technical modifications that included introduction of recent hardware technologies and development of new software features. This paper describes various technical aspects of PAC systems in Korea that have met difficult requirements and enabled wide spread of PAC systems to real clinical practice.

  11. Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction Project. Monthly Technical Report, November 1987

    SciTech Connect

    Haerer, H. A.

    1987-11-01

    This monthly report for November 1987 summarizes the technical progress and project status for the Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction Project being conducted at Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) under the direction of a Technical Steering Panel (TSP).

  12. Technical aspects of dental CBCT: state of the art

    PubMed Central

    Araki, K; Siewerdsen, J H; Thongvigitmanee, S S

    2015-01-01

    As CBCT is widely used in dental and maxillofacial imaging, it is important for users as well as referring practitioners to understand the basic concepts of this imaging modality. This review covers the technical aspects of each part of the CBCT imaging chain. First, an overview is given of the hardware of a CBCT device. The principles of cone beam image acquisition and image reconstruction are described. Optimization of imaging protocols in CBCT is briefly discussed. Finally, basic and advanced visualization methods are illustrated. Certain topics in these review are applicable to all types of radiographic imaging (e.g. the principle and properties of an X-ray tube), others are specific for dental CBCT imaging (e.g. advanced visualization techniques). PMID:25263643

  13. The NIOSH Radiation Dose Reconstruction Project: managing technical challenges.

    PubMed

    Moeller, Matthew P; Townsend, Ronald D; Dooley, David A

    2008-07-01

    Approximately two years after promulgation of the Energy Employees Occupational Illness Compensation Program Act, the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health Office of Compensation and Analysis Support selected a contractor team to perform many aspects of the radiation dose reconstruction process. The project scope and schedule necessitated the development of an organization involving a comparatively large number of health physicists. From the initial stages, there were many technical and managerial challenges that required continuous planning, integration, and conflict resolution. This paper identifies those challenges and describes the resolutions and lessons learned. These insights are hopefully useful to managers of similar scientific projects, especially those requiring significant data, technical methods, and calculations. The most complex challenge has been to complete defensible, individualized dose reconstructions that support timely compensation decisions at an acceptable production level. Adherence to applying claimant-favorable and transparent science consistent with the requirements of the Act has been the key to establishing credibility, which is essential to this large and complex project involving tens of thousands of individual stakeholders. The initial challenges included garnering sufficient and capable scientific staff, developing an effective infrastructure, establishing necessary methods and procedures, and integrating activities to ensure consistent, quality products. The continuing challenges include maintaining the project focus on recommending a compensation determination (rather than generating an accurate dose reconstruction), managing the associated very large data and information management challenges, and ensuring quality control and assurance in the presence of an evolving infrastructure. The lessons learned concern project credibility, claimant favorability, project priorities, quality and consistency, and critical

  14. LDL-Apheresis: Technical and Clinical Aspects

    PubMed Central

    Bambauer, Rolf; Bambauer, Carolin; Lehmann, Boris; Latza, Reinhard; Schiel, Ralf

    2012-01-01

    The prognosis of patients suffering from severe hyperlipidemia, sometimes combined with elevated lipoprotein (a) levels, and coronary heart disease refractory to diet and lipid-lowering drugs is poor. For such patients, regular treatment with low-density lipoprotein (LDL) apheresis is the therapeutic option. Today, there are five different LDL-apheresis systems available: cascade filtration or lipid filtration, immunoadsorption, heparin-induced LDL precipitation, dextran sulfate LDL adsorption, and the LDL hemoperfusion. There is a strong correlation between hyperlipidemia and atherosclerosis. Besides the elimination of other risk factors, in severe hyperlipidemia therapeutic strategies should focus on a drastic reduction of serum lipoproteins. Despite maximum conventional therapy with a combination of different kinds of lipid-lowering drugs, sometimes the goal of therapy cannot be reached. Hence, in such patients, treatment with LDL-apheresis is indicated. Technical and clinical aspects of these five different LDL-apheresis methods are shown here. There were no significant differences with respect to or concerning all cholesterols, or triglycerides observed. With respect to elevated lipoprotein (a) levels, however, the immunoadsorption method seems to be most effective. The different published data clearly demonstrate that treatment with LDL-apheresis in patients suffering from severe hyperlipidemia refractory to maximum conservative therapy is effective and safe in long-term application. PMID:22654591

  15. The Swedish Space Science programme - technical aspects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lundahl, Kaj

    2001-08-01

    The Swedish Space Science programme comprises sounding rockets, balloons and satellites. The investigations relate to geophysical disciplines, astrophysics and microgravity research. Current and future scientific projects using sounding rockets, balloons and satellites are planned for investigation of the Earth's atmosphere, the aurora and its origin, submillimeter observations of interstellar medium and fluid physics. These investigations require increased technical capabilities with respect to payload design and ground based equipment. A GPS system for real time trajectory determination and a hybrid propulsion system are two examples in the technical development program.

  16. The Swedish Space Science programme - technical aspects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lundahl, Kaj

    2003-08-01

    The Swedish Space Science programme comprises sounding rockets, balloons and satellites. The investigations relate to geophysical disciplines, astrophysics and microgravity research. Current and future scientific projects using sounding rockets, balloons and satellites are planned for investigation of the Earth's atmosphere, the aurora and its origin, sub-millimeter observations of interstellar medium and fluid physics. These investigations require increased technical capabilities with respect to playload and spacecraft design and ground based equipment.

  17. The Swedish Space Research Programme - technical aspects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lundahl, Kaj

    2005-08-01

    The Swedish Space Research Programme compries sounding rockets, balloons and satellites. The investigations relate to geophysical disciplines, astrophysics and microgravity research. Current and future scientific projects using sounding rockets, balloons and satellites are planned for investigation of the Earth's atmosphere, the aurora and its origin, submillimeter observations of interstellar medium and fluid physics. These investigations require increased technical capabilities with respect to payload and spacecraft design and ground based equipment.

  18. Accuracy of Gradient Reconstruction on Grids with High Aspect Ratio

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thomas, James

    2008-01-01

    Gradient approximation methods commonly used in unstructured-grid finite-volume schemes intended for solutions of high Reynolds number flow equations are studied comprehensively. The accuracy of gradients within cells and within faces is evaluated systematically for both node-centered and cell-centered formulations. Computational and analytical evaluations are made on a series of high-aspect-ratio grids with different primal elements, including quadrilateral, triangular, and mixed element grids, with and without random perturbations to the mesh. Both rectangular and cylindrical geometries are considered; the latter serves to study the effects of geometric curvature. The study shows that the accuracy of gradient reconstruction on high-aspect-ratio grids is determined by a combination of the grid and the solution. The contributors to the error are identified and approaches to reduce errors are given, including the addition of higher-order terms in the direction of larger mesh spacing. A parameter GAMMA characterizing accuracy on curved high-aspect-ratio grids is discussed and an approximate-mapped-least-square method using a commonly-available distance function is presented; the method provides accurate gradient reconstruction on general grids. The study is intended to be a reference guide accompanying the construction of accurate and efficient methods for high Reynolds number applications

  19. Technical aspects of oxygen saving devices.

    PubMed

    Brambilla, I; Arlati, S; Chiusa, I; Micallef, E

    1990-01-01

    Oxygen economizing devices have been extensively studied, both at rest and during muscular exercise, in an attempt to increase the autonomy of a portable oxygen apparatus. The aim of this study is threefold: first, to suggest a simple method to verify in a simple way the technical accuracy of a demand flow oxygen delivery device; second, to suggest how we can monitor in a simple way the clinical efficacy of an economizer; and third, to remember that we can utilize an oxygen saving device to give a better protection than nasal prongs against the worsening of HbO2 desaturation induced by exercise. PMID:2117198

  20. Oocyte donation: particular technical and ethical aspects.

    PubMed

    Englert, Y; Govaerts, I

    1998-05-01

    This paper analyses the reasons that oocyte and sperm donation are experienced very differently by couples, despite their apparent similarity, and stresses the impact of the difficulties on donor recruitment in all oocyte donation programmes. The various types of donors (occasional, relational, in-vitro fertilization patient and professional) are described together with their motivations, resistance, advantages and disadvantages. The contradictory consequences with free or paid donation, the particular risks of oocyte donation (in comparison with sperm donation) both for the donor and for the recipient are highlighted. The problem of maintaining anonymity is then analysed in ethical terms but also in terms of technical efficacy. A strategy is described which, due to the decision of retaining anonymity, authorizes the sharing of oocytes between recipients. This has as a consequence, an increase in treatment efficacy by avoiding wastage of oocytes offered as a donation. PMID:9665329

  1. Brain-mind operational architectonics imaging: technical and methodological aspects.

    PubMed

    Fingelkurts, Andrew A; Fingelkurts, Alexander A

    2008-01-01

    This review paper deals with methodological and technical foundations of the Operational Architectonics framework of brain and mind functioning. This theory provides a framework for mapping and understanding important aspects of the brain mechanisms that constitute perception, cognition, and eventually consciousness. The methods utilized within Operational Architectonics framework allow analyzing with an incredible detail the operational behavior of local neuronal assemblies and their joint activity in the form of unified and metastable operational modules, which constitute the whole hierarchy of brain operations, operations of cognition and phenomenal consciousness. PMID:19526071

  2. Reference radiochromic film dosimetry: Review of technical aspects.

    PubMed

    Devic, Slobodan; Tomic, Nada; Lewis, David

    2016-04-01

    For decades, film was used as a powerful two-dimensional (2D) dosimetry tool for radiotherapy treatment verification and quality assurance. Unlike the old silver-halide based radiographic films, radiochromic films change its color upon irradiation without the need for chemical development. Radiation dose deposited within a sensitive layer of the radiochromic film initiates polymerization of the active component, the degree of which depends on the amount of energy deposited. Response of the film to radiation is commonly expressed in terms of optical density change, which can be easily measured by any photometric device. However, a number of factors may have an impact on the signal detected by the measuring device. This review summarizes technical aspects associated with the establishment of reference radiochromic film dosimetry and its subsequent use for either clinical or research applications. PMID:27020097

  3. Simultaneous robotic-assisted adrenalectomy and partial nephrectomy: technical aspects.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Aditya Prakash; Devana, Sudheer Kumar; Bora, Girdhar Singh; Mavuduru, Ravimohan; Mandal, Arup Kumar

    2016-06-01

    Robot-assisted partial nephrectomy has become a safe and feasible procedure for small renal masses (SRM). Similarly, robot-assisted adrenalectomy has also been well established. Robotic surgery has provided the possibility to manage complex cases that are considered technically challenging for traditional laparoscopy. We describe in this video the details of performing simultaneous robotic adrenalectomy with partial nephrectomy highlighting the technical aspects of the same. A 62-year-old gentleman presented to us with incidentally detected left renal complex cyst (Bosniak IIF) and a concomitant left adrenal mass. Hormonal evaluation of adrenal tumor revealed raised levels of serum estrogen and DHEAS. A robotic-assisted simultaneous procedure was planned. Patient was positioned in right lateral position. After port placement, robot was brought from the shoulder of the patient and docked. We first excised the adrenal tumor followed by the renal cyst. Total operative time was 180 min with warm ischemia time of 20 min for renal cyst excision. Drain was removed on post-operative day 2. Patient was discharged on post-operative day 3. Histopathology revealed adrenocortical adenoma and benign hemorrhagic renal cyst. We found simultaneous ipsilateral adrenalectomy with partial nephrectomy using robotic assistance is feasible and safe with minimal morbidity. Port placement in such cases should be individualized according to the location of the SRM. The robot provides the ergonomic advantage and 3D vision for better anatomic definition as compared to laparoscopy. PMID:26861448

  4. Robotic liver surgery: technical aspects and review of the literature

    PubMed Central

    Bianco, Francesco Maria; Daskalaki, Despoina; Gonzalez-Ciccarelli, Luis Fernando; Kim, Jihun; Benedetti, Enrico

    2016-01-01

    Minimally invasive surgery for liver resections has a defined role and represents an accepted alternative to open techniques for selected cases. Robotic technology can overcome some of the disadvantages of the laparoscopic technique, mainly in the most complex cases. Precise dissection and microsuturing is possible, even in narrow operative fields, allowing for a better dissection of the hepatic hilum, fine lymphadenectomy, and biliary reconstruction even with small bile ducts and easier bleeding control. This technique has the potential to allow for a greater number of major resections and difficult segmentectomies to be performed in a minimally invasive fashion. The implementation of near-infrared fluorescence with indocyanine green (ICG) also allows for a more accurate recognition of vascular and biliary anatomy. The perspectives of this kind of virtually implemented imaging are very promising and may be reflected in better outcomes. The overall data present in current literature suggests that robotic liver resections are at least comparable to both open and laparoscopic surgery in terms of perioperative and postoperative outcomes. This article provides technical details of robotic liver resections and a review of the current literature. PMID:27500143

  5. Technical aspects of quality assurance in radiation oncology

    PubMed Central

    Saw, CB; Ferenci, MS; Wanger, H

    2008-01-01

    The technical aspects of quality assurance (QA) in radiation oncology as practice in the United States will be reviewed and updated in the spirit of offering the experience to the radiation oncology communities in the Asia-Pacific region. The word “technical” is used to express the organisational components or processes and not the materials within the QA program. A comprehensive QA program in radiation oncology will have an official statement declaring the quality plan for effective patient care services it provides in a document. The QA program will include all aspects of patient care: physical, clinical, and medical aspects of the services. The document will describe the organisational structure, responsibilities, checks and procedures, and resources allocated to ensure the successful implementation of the quality of patient management. Regulatory guidelines and guidelines from accreditation agencies should be incorporated in the QA program to ensure compliance. The organisational structure will have a multidisciplinary QA committee that has the authority to evaluate continuously the effectiveness of the QA program to provide prompt corrective recommendations and to request feedback as needed to monitor the response. The continuous monitoring aspects require meetings to be held at regular intervals with the minutes of the meetings officially recorded and documented. To ensure that a QA program is effective, the program itself should be audited for quality at regular intervals at least annually. It has been recognised that the current QA program has not kept abreast with the rapid implementation of new and advanced radiation therapy technologies with the most recent in image-based radiation therapy technology. The societal bodies (ASTRO and AAPM) and federal agency (NCI) acknowledge this inadequacy and have held workshops to address this issue. The challenges for the societal bodies and federal agency are numerous that include (a) the prescriptive methodology

  6. Reconstruction of the System for Technical Education and Improvement of Teachers' Abilities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shioiri, Mutsuo

    It is necessary to reconstruct the system for technical education and to improve teachers' abilities in order to educate children who have a great interest in creation. This paper describes that, the revised education ministry guidelines, the relation between the reconstruction of system for technical education and the combined primary and junior-high school, the improvement of teachers' abilities, the change of teacher service examination, the technical education in junior high school, and the advertisement of the importance of technical education according to the report of the central education council.

  7. Greater Trochanter Reconstruction in Unstabl Intertrochanteric Fractures Treated With Cemented Bipolar Hemiarthroplasty: A Technical Note

    PubMed Central

    Subramanian, G V; Guravareddy, A V; Reddy, Anil Kumar K R; Chiranjeevi, T

    2012-01-01

    Cemented Bipolar arthroplasty is an established method for treatment of comminuted Intertrochanteric fractures. Reconstruction of greater trochanter is an essential technical step to avoid complications like abductor lurch gait. We here describe a technique of reconstruction and fixation of greater trochanter using cancellous screws with wide washers made of reconstruction plate and tension band wiring. This gives a stable fixation of greater trochanter and avoids cut out, slippage of implants.

  8. Greater Trochanter Reconstruction in Unstabl Intertrochanteric Fractures Treated With Cemented Bipolar Hemiarthroplasty: A Technical Note.

    PubMed

    Subramanian, G V; Guravareddy, A V; Reddy, Anil Kumar K R; Chiranjeevi, T

    2012-01-01

    Cemented Bipolar arthroplasty is an established method for treatment of comminuted Intertrochanteric fractures. Reconstruction of greater trochanter is an essential technical step to avoid complications like abductor lurch gait. We here describe a technique of reconstruction and fixation of greater trochanter using cancellous screws with wide washers made of reconstruction plate and tension band wiring. This gives a stable fixation of greater trochanter and avoids cut out, slippage of implants. PMID:27298870

  9. Reconstructive Recall of Linguistic Style. Technical Report No. 286.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brewer, William F.; Hay, Anne E.

    A study investigated reconstructive recall for linguistic style. It was hypothesized that (1) features of linguistic style would be more difficult to recall than underlying content, (2) reconstructive errors would include stylistic forms recalled as standard forms when subjects lacked productive control of a particular feature of a style, and (3)…

  10. On The Human, Organizational, and Technical Aspects of Software Development and Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Damaševičius, Robertas

    Information systems are designed, constructed, and used by people. Therefore, a software design process is not purely a technical task, but a complex psycho-socio-technical process embedded within organizational, cultural, and social structures. These structures influence the behavior and products of the programmer's work such as source code and documentation. This chapter (1) discusses the non-technical (organizational, social, cultural, and psychological) aspects of software development reflected in program source code; (2) presents a taxonomy of the social disciplines of computer science; and (3) discusses the socio-technical software analysis methods for discovering the human, organizational, and technical aspects embedded within software development artifacts.

  11. Aspects of Machine-Assisted Translation in Technical Sublanguage Communication.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Larsson, Arne

    Technical sublanguages are discussed as a medium for communication between individuals, corporations, and non-commercial organizations. The technical translator's professional activities are regarded as a means for achieving specific goals in communication. Features of languages for specific purposes (LSP) and sublanguages are discussed briefly.…

  12. Aesthetic aspects of abdominal wall and external genital reconstructive surgery in bladder exstrophy-epispadias complex.

    PubMed

    VanderBrink, Brian A; Stock, Jeffrey A; Hanna, Moneer K

    2006-03-01

    Long-term follow-up of patients born with classical bladder exstrophy-epispadias complex (EEC) reveals that many of them suffer from poor self-image, and the aesthetic aspects of the genitalia and lower abdomen acquire greater significance with age. In this article, we review the aesthetic outcomes in performing puboplasty, umbilicoplasty, and genitoplasty in patients born with EEC. Retrospective review of the cosmetic and functional outcomes in 116 patients born with EEC treated by puboplasty, umbilicoplasty, or genitoplasty was performed. Satisfaction with the cosmetic and functional outcomes of these three reconstructive surgeries was high following initial reconstructive efforts (> 90%). Attention to cosmesis during abdominal wall and genital reconstruction for EEC helps to improve a patient's perception of body image and self-esteem. Our experience with these procedures over the past 25 years demonstrated that the efforts directed toward aesthetics have been well worthwhile. PMID:16527001

  13. Laparoscopic Navigated Liver Resection: Technical Aspects and Clinical Practice in Benign Liver Tumors

    PubMed Central

    Kleemann, Markus; Deichmann, Steffen; Esnaashari, Hamed; Besirevic, Armin; Shahin, Osama; Bruch, Hans-Peter; Laubert, Tilman

    2012-01-01

    Laparoscopic liver resection has been performed mostly in centers with an extended expertise in both hepatobiliary and laparoscopic surgery and only in highly selected patients. In order to overcome the obstacles of this technique through improved intraoperative visualization we developed a laparoscopic navigation system (LapAssistent) to register pre-operatively reconstructed three-dimensional CT or MRI scans within the intra-operative field. After experimental development of the navigation system, we commenced with the clinical use of navigation-assisted laparoscopic liver surgery in January 2010. In this paper we report the technical aspects of the navigation system and the clinical use in one patient with a large benign adenoma. Preoperative planning data were calculated by Fraunhofer MeVis Bremen, Germany. After calibration of the system including camera, laparoscopic instruments, and the intraoperative ultrasound scanner we registered the surface of the liver. Applying the navigated ultrasound the preoperatively planned resection plane was then overlain with the patient's liver. The laparoscopic navigation system could be used under sterile conditions and it was possible to register and visualize the preoperatively planned resection plane. These first results now have to be validated and certified in a larger patient collective. A nationwide prospective multicenter study (ProNavic I) has been conducted and launched. PMID:23133783

  14. Technical and economic aspects of the Intelsat system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jefferis, A. K.

    1992-03-01

    The paper gives some background on the Intelsat system and explains the financial principles of the organization, which operates as a cost sharing cooperative. The members contribute both capital and operating costs in accordance with their use. The determination of the measure of 'use' in such a complex system requires a careful analysis of the factors which cause the cost. Most of these are technical, based on the use of satellite power, bandwidth and similar factors. Others reflect service related features such as priority, long-term commitment and market elasticity. This last element is only taken into account after ensuring that every service fully contributes the marginal cost of providing it.

  15. Conceptual and technical aspects of transfection and gene delivery.

    PubMed

    Kaestner, Lars; Scholz, Anke; Lipp, Peter

    2015-03-15

    Genetically modified animals are state of the art in biomedical research as gene therapy is a promising perspective in the attempt to cure hereditary diseases. Both approaches have in common that modified or corrected genetic information must be transferred into cells in general or into particular cell types of an organism. Here we give an overview of established and emerging methods of transfection and gene delivery and provide conceptual and technical advantages and drawbacks of their particular use. Additionally, based on a flow chart, we compiled a rough guideline to choose a gene transfer method for a particular field of application. PMID:25677659

  16. Technical and economic aspects of hydrogen storage in metal hydrides

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schmitt, R.

    1981-01-01

    The recovery of hydrogen from such metal hydrides as LiH, MgH2, TiH2, CaH2 and FeTiH compounds is studied, with the aim of evaluating the viability of the technique for the storage of hydrogen fuel. The pressure-temperature dependence of the reactions, enthalpies of formation, the kinetics of the hydrogen absorption and desorption, and the mechanical and chemical stability of the metal hydrides are taken into account in the evaluation. Economic aspects are considered. Development of portable metal hydride hydrogen storage reservoirs is also mentioned.

  17. Evaluating the technical aspects of mixed waste treatment technologies

    SciTech Connect

    Bagaasen, L.M.; Scott, P.A.

    1992-10-01

    This report discusses treatment of mixed wastes which is thought to be more complicated than treatment of either hazardous or radioactive wastes. In fact, the treatment itself is no more complicated: however, the regulations that define acceptability of the final waste disposal system are significantly more entangled, and sometimes in apparent conflict. This session explores the factors that influence the choice of waste treatment technologies, and expands on some of the limitations to their application. The objective of the presentation is to describe the technical factors that influence potential treatment processes and the ramifications associated with particular selections (for example, the generation of secondary waste streams). These collectively provide a framework for making informed treatment process selections.

  18. Multi-scale measures of rugosity, slope and aspect from benthic stereo image reconstructions.

    PubMed

    Friedman, Ariell; Pizarro, Oscar; Williams, Stefan B; Johnson-Roberson, Matthew

    2012-01-01

    This paper demonstrates how multi-scale measures of rugosity, slope and aspect can be derived from fine-scale bathymetric reconstructions created from geo-referenced stereo imagery. We generate three-dimensional reconstructions over large spatial scales using data collected by Autonomous Underwater Vehicles (AUVs), Remotely Operated Vehicles (ROVs), manned submersibles and diver-held imaging systems. We propose a new method for calculating rugosity in a Delaunay triangulated surface mesh by projecting areas onto the plane of best fit using Principal Component Analysis (PCA). Slope and aspect can be calculated with very little extra effort, and fitting a plane serves to decouple rugosity from slope. We compare the results of the virtual terrain complexity calculations with experimental results using conventional in-situ measurement methods. We show that performing calculations over a digital terrain reconstruction is more flexible, robust and easily repeatable. In addition, the method is non-contact and provides much less environmental impact compared to traditional survey techniques. For diver-based surveys, the time underwater needed to collect rugosity data is significantly reduced and, being a technique based on images, it is possible to use robotic platforms that can operate beyond diver depths. Measurements can be calculated exhaustively at multiple scales for surveys with tens of thousands of images covering thousands of square metres. The technique is demonstrated on data gathered by a diver-rig and an AUV, on small single-transect surveys and on a larger, dense survey that covers over [Formula: see text]. Stereo images provide 3D structure as well as visual appearance, which could potentially feed into automated classification techniques. Our multi-scale rugosity, slope and aspect measures have already been adopted in a number of marine science studies. This paper presents a detailed description of the method and thoroughly validates it against traditional

  19. Multi-Scale Measures of Rugosity, Slope and Aspect from Benthic Stereo Image Reconstructions

    PubMed Central

    Friedman, Ariell; Pizarro, Oscar; Williams, Stefan B.; Johnson-Roberson, Matthew

    2012-01-01

    This paper demonstrates how multi-scale measures of rugosity, slope and aspect can be derived from fine-scale bathymetric reconstructions created from geo-referenced stereo imagery. We generate three-dimensional reconstructions over large spatial scales using data collected by Autonomous Underwater Vehicles (AUVs), Remotely Operated Vehicles (ROVs), manned submersibles and diver-held imaging systems. We propose a new method for calculating rugosity in a Delaunay triangulated surface mesh by projecting areas onto the plane of best fit using Principal Component Analysis (PCA). Slope and aspect can be calculated with very little extra effort, and fitting a plane serves to decouple rugosity from slope. We compare the results of the virtual terrain complexity calculations with experimental results using conventional in-situ measurement methods. We show that performing calculations over a digital terrain reconstruction is more flexible, robust and easily repeatable. In addition, the method is non-contact and provides much less environmental impact compared to traditional survey techniques. For diver-based surveys, the time underwater needed to collect rugosity data is significantly reduced and, being a technique based on images, it is possible to use robotic platforms that can operate beyond diver depths. Measurements can be calculated exhaustively at multiple scales for surveys with tens of thousands of images covering thousands of square metres. The technique is demonstrated on data gathered by a diver-rig and an AUV, on small single-transect surveys and on a larger, dense survey that covers over . Stereo images provide 3D structure as well as visual appearance, which could potentially feed into automated classification techniques. Our multi-scale rugosity, slope and aspect measures have already been adopted in a number of marine science studies. This paper presents a detailed description of the method and thoroughly validates it against traditional in

  20. Single balloon enteroscopy: Technical aspects and clinical applications.

    PubMed

    Manno, Mauro; Barbera, Carmelo; Bertani, Helga; Manta, Raffaele; Mirante, Vincenzo Giorgio; Dabizzi, Emanuele; Caruso, Angelo; Pigo, Flavia; Olivetti, Giampiero; Conigliaro, Rita

    2012-02-16

    The small bowel has long been considered a black box for endoscopists because of its long length and the presence of multiple complex loop. Most of the small bowel is inaccessible by traditional endoscopic means. In addition, radiographic studies have significant limitations with regard to diagnostic yield, and surgery is an invasive alternative. This limitation was overcome through the development of balloon enteroscopy that becomes established throughout the world for diagnostic and therapeutic examinations of the small bowel. The single-balloon enteroscope (SBE) system (Olympus, Tokyo, Japan) was introduced into the commercial market in 2007. Several study demonstrated its efficacy and safety. Early reports on the use of single-balloon enteroscopy have suggested a high diagnostic yield and similar therapeutic potential to that of the double-balloon endoscope. SBE is viable technique for in the management of small bowel disease. Technically, it is easy to perform, may be efficient, and in the literature data available, seems to provide high diagnostic and therapeutic yield. PMID:22347529

  1. Associative-memory biological and mathematical aspects. Technical report

    SciTech Connect

    Eggers, M.

    1987-12-29

    A tutorial is presented encompassing both biological and mathematical aspects of associative memory for pattern processing. A systems viewpoint is adopted whereby biological associative memory is viewed as a system of adaptive filters, with the free parameters of the filter corresponding to the strengths of the biological neural connections. Certainly such viewpoint is not intended to accurately depict the true mechanisms underlying the extraordinary capabilities of biological associative memory-fast pattern recognition and apparently infinite memory capacity. For such mechanisms will unlikely be discovered in the absence of tools allowing the observance of collective behavior over systems of neurons. However, the viewpoint does serve to integrate both mathematics and biology on a general level. Of most significance is perhaps the systematic treatment of mathematical associative memory. In the adaptive filter framework, associative memory is described and compared to traditional statistical techniques. Also, new insight into the generalization capability of associative memory is expressed. Conditions are presented to ensure both correct memory recall and significant generalization.

  2. Acute inhalation toxicity testing: considerations of technical and regulatory aspects.

    PubMed

    Pauluhn, J; Bury, D; Föst, U; Gamer, A; Hoernicke, E; Hofmann, T; Kunde, M; Neustadt, T; Schlede, E; Schnierle, H; Wettig, K; Westphal, D

    1996-01-01

    The EU regulatory statute for the acute hazard identification of chemicals requires selection of the two most appropriate routes of administration. Testing employing the oral route is mandatory, whereas selection of the dermal or inhalation route requires expert judgement, i.e. considerations of structural alerts with regard to the inherent acute inhalation toxicity as well as the likelihood of dermal and inhalation exposure, respectively. Currently, testing of chemicals requires acute inhalation exposure of 4-h and 1-h durations according the EU classification and labelling and UN Transport Guidelines, respectively. The analysis made revealed that 1-h exposures appear to add little knowledge in addition to existing 4-h LC50 values and a default value of 4 should be used for conversion of 4-h to 1-h LC50 values, independently of the physical state of the chemical. Therefore, also the unit of concentration of exposure atmospheres should be independent of nominal features of the test substance. Hence, the preferred dose metric is mass (mg/liter air) rather than volume (ppm). Taking into account the overall variability of acute toxicity data the recommendations given are classification into the following groups of 4-h LC50 values: < or = 0.05, > 0.05-0.2, > 0.2-1, > 1-5 and > 5.0 mg/l. No distinction should be made concerning vapours and aerosols with regard to units and conversion factors from 4-h to 1-h LC50 values and the default factor of 4 appears to be most suitable. Further differentiation of classification is not indicated due to technical variability of acute inhalation testing and resolution of the acute bioassay. PMID:9010579

  3. Structured light optical microscopy for three-dimensional reconstruction of technical surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kettel, Johannes; Reinecke, Holger; Müller, Claas

    2016-04-01

    In microsystems technology quality control of micro structured surfaces with different surface properties is playing an ever more important role. The process of quality control incorporates three-dimensional (3D) reconstruction of specularand diffusive reflecting technical surfaces. Due to the demand on high measurement accuracy and data acquisition rates, structured light optical microscopy has become a valuable solution to solve this problem providing high vertical and lateral resolution. However, 3D reconstruction of specular reflecting technical surfaces still remains a challenge to optical measurement principles. In this paper we present a measurement principle based on structured light optical microscopy which enables 3D reconstruction of specular- and diffusive reflecting technical surfaces. It is realized using two light paths of a stereo microscope equipped with different magnification levels. The right optical path of the stereo microscope is used to project structured light onto the object surface. The left optical path is used to capture the structured illuminated object surface with a camera. Structured light patterns are generated by a Digital Light Processing (DLP) device in combination with a high power Light Emitting Diode (LED). Structured light patterns are realized as a matrix of discrete light spots to illuminate defined areas on the object surface. The introduced measurement principle is based on multiple and parallel processed point measurements. Analysis of the measured Point Spread Function (PSF) by pattern recognition and model fitting algorithms enables the precise calculation of 3D coordinates. Using exemplary technical surfaces we demonstrate the successful application of our measurement principle.

  4. Geological-Technical and Geo-engineering Aspects of Dimensional Stone Underground Quarrying

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fornaro, Mauro; Lovera, Enrico

    improved. The paper refers to some of the most important and significant examples in Italy, and underlines the possibility of extending, by underground quarrying, the exploitation of important and well-appreciated natural stones, as the quartzite-sandstone of the Tosco-Emiliano Appennini (Firenzuola Stone) and the Alpine gneisses. In order to pass from the simple experimental stage (explorative drift) to the more complex 3D design of the underground voids, detailed geo-structural reconstruction of the rock body and specific lithological in situ surveys are needed: such important aspects represent a very interesting common field between mining engineers and geologists.

  5. Porcelain veneering of titanium--clinical and technical aspects.

    PubMed

    Haag, Per

    2011-01-01

    Gold and other alloys have long been used for the production of crowns and bridges as replacements for damaged or lost teeth. However, doubts have arisen on the suitability of using these materials for dental restorations, as gold has also shown a capacity to cause side-effects such as allergic reactions. This is especially valid for alloys, which during the last decades have been used as porcelain-fused-to metal restorations. This fact has led to an interest in using titanium instead of these alloys. Trials to use titanium for this purpose were initiated in Japan in the early 1980s. Titanium as an unalloyed metal differs in two aspects from the above named alloys: it has a phase transformation at 882 degrees C, which changes its outer and inner properties, and it has an expansion that lies between that of the porcelain types available on the market at the time. In Japan a technique for casting titanium was developed, where the after-treatment of the casting was elaborate, to re-establish the original properties of titanium. The porcelain developed for veneering had shortcomings as the rendering produced a rough surface and non satisfactory esthetics. In Sweden a new concept was introduced in 1989. Here the processing of titanium was performed by industrial methods such as milling, spark erosion and laser welding. The idea behind this was to avoid phase transformation. During the 1990s a number of porcelain products were launched and a vast number of both laboratory and clinical studies were performed and published, with varying results. In the first study of this thesis a prospective clinical trial was performed at a public dental health clinic in Sweden. Twenty-five patients were provided with 40 copings of pure titanium, which were veneered with porcelain. After 2 years 36 of these crowns were evaluated and the patients were also interviewed regarding problems such as shooting pains or difficulties in cleaning around the teeth that were crowned. This evaluation

  6. Technical note: easy graft passage without posterior portals in PCL reconstruction.

    PubMed

    van den Broek, Chris M; van Tienen, Tony G; Defoort, Koen C; Wymenga, Ate B

    2012-03-01

    Graft passage during arthroscopically assisted, single-bundle transtibial PCL reconstruction is a technically demanding surgical procedure. We propose the use of a so called Deschamps clamp, originally designed for cerclage wire transport, in combination with a meniscal repair needle with an eye. This facilitates easy passage of a pull-through needle and obviates extensive debridement of the tibial insertion. Posterior portals are not needed. PMID:20832325

  7. Automated cyclers used in peritoneal dialysis: technical aspects for the clinician

    PubMed Central

    Chaudhry, Rafia I; Golper, Thomas A

    2015-01-01

    Peritoneal dialysis (PD) is a widely accepted and increasingly popular form of dialysis. The invention and technological advancement of the PD cycler further makes PD a convenient option. Prescription-specific parameters are entered into the cycler, which then automatically carries out the steps involved in continuous cycling PD. We review the basics, technical aspects, challenges, and advancements of the cycler. PMID:25653566

  8. Streamlining Software Aspects of Certification: Technical Team Report on the First Industry Workshop

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hayhurst, Kelly J.; Holloway, C. Michael; Knight, John C.; Leveson, Nancy G.; Yang, Jeffrey C.; Dorsey, Cheryl A.; McCormick, G. Frank

    1998-01-01

    To address concerns about time and expense associated with software aspects of certification, the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) began the Streamlining Software Aspects of Certification (SSAC) program. As part of this program, a Technical Team was established to determine whether the cost and time associated with certifying aircraft can be reduced while maintaining or improving safety, with the intent of impacting the FAA's Flight 2000 program. The Technical Team conducted a workshop to gain a better understanding of the major concerns in industry about software cost and schedule. Over 120 people attended the workshop, including representatives from the FAA,commercial transport and general aviation aircraft manufacturers and suppliers, and procurers and developers of non-airborne systems; and, more than 200 issues about software aspects of certification were recorded. This paper provides an overview of the SSAC program, motivation for the workshop, details of the workshop activities and outcomes, and recommendations for follow-on work.

  9. Joint space aspect reconstruction of wide-angle SAR exploiting sparsity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stojanovic, Ivana; Cetin, Mujdat; Karl, William C.

    2008-04-01

    In this paper we present an algorithm for wide-angle synthetic aperture radar (SAR) image formation. Reconstruction of wide-angle SAR holds a promise of higher resolution and better information about a scene, but it also poses a number of challenges when compared to the traditional narrow-angle SAR. Most prominently, the isotropic point scattering model is no longer valid. We present an algorithm capable of producing high resolution reflectivity maps in both space and aspect, thus accounting for the anisotropic scattering behavior of targets. We pose the problem as a non-parametric three-dimensional inversion problem, with two constraints: magnitudes of the backscattered power are highly correlated across closely spaced look angles and the backscattered power originates from a small set of point scatterers. This approach considers jointly all scatterers in the scene across all azimuths, and exploits the sparsity of the underlying scattering field. We implement the algorithm and present reconstruction results on realistic data obtained from the XPatch Backhoe dataset.

  10. C-arm cone-beam computed tomography in interventional oncology: technical aspects and clinical applications

    PubMed Central

    Floridi, Chiara; Radaelli, Alessandro; Abi-Jaoudeh, Nadine; Grass, Micheal; Lin, Ming De; Chiaradia, Melanie; Geschwind, Jean-Francois; Kobeiter, Hishman; Squillaci, Ettore; Maleux, Geert; Giovagnoni, Andrea; Brunese, Luca; Wood, Bradford; Carrafiello, Gianpaolo; Rotondo, Antonio

    2014-01-01

    C-arm cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) is a new imaging technology integrated in modern angiographic systems. Due to its ability to obtain cross-sectional imaging and the possibility to use dedicated planning and navigation software, it provides an informed platform for interventional oncology procedures. In this paper, we highlight the technical aspects and clinical applications of CBCT imaging and navigation in the most common loco-regional oncological treatments. PMID:25012472

  11. International Clinical Guidelines for the Adoption of Digital Pathology: A Review of Technical Aspects.

    PubMed

    García-Rojo, Marcial

    2016-01-01

    Digital slides, also called whole-slide images, are being evaluated to replace conventional microscopy, and several guidelines have been published. This paper reviews technical specifications of digital pathology systems that have been included in the guidelines and position papers from the Canadian Association of Pathologists, the College of American Pathologists, the American Telemedicine Association, the Digital Pathology Association, the Food and Drug Administration, the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, the Society of Toxicologic Pathology, the European Commission, the Spanish Society of Anatomic Pathology, The Royal College of Pathologists and The Royal College of Pathologists of Australasia. In conclusion, most technical aspects are well covered by these guidelines, although they offer limited information regarding image quality and compression, and file formats. PMID:27100834

  12. Technical Aspects of Holmium Laser Enucleation of the Prostate for Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Myong; Lee, Hahn-Ey

    2013-01-01

    Holmium laser enucleation of the prostate (HoLEP) is a minimally invasive procedure and a size-independent treatment for benign prostatic hyperplasia with excellent long-term surgical outcome. HoLEP has become an alternative to conventional transurethral resection of the prostate or open prostatectomy owing to its efficacy and safety. Although HoLEP is known to have a steep learning curve, very few articles have addressed the technical aspects of HoLEP. Herein, we described detailed techniques and tips for HoLEP as performed at Seoul National University Hospital in a step-by-step manner with extensive review of the literature. PMID:24044089

  13. Susceptibility-Weighted Imaging: Technical Aspects and Clinical Applications, Part 2

    PubMed Central

    Mittal, S.; Wu, Z.; Neelavalli, J.; Haacke, E.M.

    2013-01-01

    SUMMARY Susceptibility-weighted imaging (SWI) has continued to develop into a powerful clinical tool to visualize venous structures and iron in the brain and to study diverse pathologic conditions. SWI offers a unique contrast, different from spin attenuation, T1, T2, and T2* (see Susceptibility-Weighted Imaging: Technical Aspects and Clinical Applications, Part 1). In this clinical review (Part 2), we present a variety of neurovascular and neurodegenerative disease applications for SWI, covering trauma, stroke, cerebral amyloid angiopathy, venous anomalies, multiple sclerosis, and tumors. We conclude that SWI often offers complementary information valuable in the diagnosis and potential treatment of patients with neurologic disorders. PMID:19131406

  14. Technical aspects of holmium laser enucleation of the prostate for benign prostatic hyperplasia.

    PubMed

    Kim, Myong; Lee, Hahn-Ey; Oh, Seung-June

    2013-09-01

    Holmium laser enucleation of the prostate (HoLEP) is a minimally invasive procedure and a size-independent treatment for benign prostatic hyperplasia with excellent long-term surgical outcome. HoLEP has become an alternative to conventional transurethral resection of the prostate or open prostatectomy owing to its efficacy and safety. Although HoLEP is known to have a steep learning curve, very few articles have addressed the technical aspects of HoLEP. Herein, we described detailed techniques and tips for HoLEP as performed at Seoul National University Hospital in a step-by-step manner with extensive review of the literature. PMID:24044089

  15. Using the Tycho catalogue for AXAF: Guiding and aspect reconstruction for half-arcsecond X-ray images

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Green, P. J.; Aldcroft, T. A.; Garcia, M. R.; Slane, P.; Vrtilek, J.

    1997-01-01

    The Advanced X-ray Astrophysics Facility (AXAF) will carry a high resolution mirror, two imaging detectors, and two sets of transmission gratings. The Tycho catalog from the Hipparcos mission will serve as a primary part of the AXAF Guide and Aspect Star Catalog (AGASC). The incorporation of Tycho into AGASC will provide: accurate positions and magnitudes for target acquisition and guidance; the necessary colors for magnitude transformations to the AXAF aspect camera system; high internal astrometric accuracy for half-arcsecond, post-facto image reconstruction; and an external astrometric system.

  16. Exemplar-based inpainting: technical review and new heuristics for better geometric reconstructions.

    PubMed

    Buyssens, Pierre; Daisy, Maxime; Tschumperle, David; Lezoray, Olivier

    2015-06-01

    This paper proposes a technical review of exemplar-based inpainting approaches with a particular focus on greedy methods. Several comparative and illustrative experiments are provided to deeply explore and enlighten these methods, and to have a better understanding on the state-of-the-art improvements of these approaches. From this analysis, three improvements over Criminisi et al. algorithm are then presented and detailed: 1) a tensor-based data term for a better selection of pixel candidates to fill in; 2) a fast patch lookup strategy to ensure a better global coherence of the reconstruction; and 3) a novel fast anisotropic spatial blending algorithm that reduces typical block artifacts using tensor models. Relevant comparisons with the state-of-the-art inpainting methods are provided that exhibit the effectiveness of our contributions. PMID:25775490

  17. Technical Aspects of the Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph Repair (STIS-R)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rinehart, Stephen

    2008-01-01

    In August 2004, the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph (STIS) ceased operation, due to a failure in the Side 2 Low Voltage Power Supply (LVPS2). LVPS2 provided power to the entire instrument, including all detectors and mechanisms. Following the LVPS2 failure, a team was assembled to analyze the fault and to determine if STIS repair (STIS-R) was feasible. The team concluded that by replacing a power supply board within LVPS2, STIS could be brought back to full functionality. STIS-R will be conducted during Servicing Mission 4 (SM4), and will consist of replacing the power supply board and a new passive cooling system. STIS-R will restore full function of the instrument with one of the two redundant sides of the instrument. In this presentation, we focus on the technical aspects associated with STISR.

  18. Technical Aspects of the Advanced Camera For Surveys Repair (ACS-R)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rinehart, Stephen; Cheng, Edward S.; Sirianni, Marco

    2008-01-01

    The ACS Repair (ACS-R) team includes contributors from NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center, Ball Aerospace, and Teledyne Imaging Sensors; It determined that all of the capabilities of the ACS could be restored and created a concept for the ACS-R component of SN4. ACSR will restore the WFC of ACS by replacing the existing CCD Electronics Box (CEB) with the CEB-Replacement (CEB-R) and providing power from a new Low Voltage Power Supply Replacement (LVPS-8). The new LVPS-R will also attempt to restore the HRC function by providing power through the original power bus. In this presentation, we faeus on the concept and technical aspects of the ACS-R.

  19. [Broncho-alveolar lavage. From technical aspects to standards of interpretation].

    PubMed

    Wallaert, B; De Vuyst, P; Israel-Biet, D

    1992-01-01

    Broncho-alveolar lavage is a simple investigation to carry out and enables the gathering of biological information such as inflammatory and immuno-competent cells, tumour cells, microorganisms as well as mineral particles which are found in the biological milieux present in the distal air spaces. The performance of LBA assumes a mastering of the correct technical aspects of this method of investigation, particularly in the phase of injecting and recovering of physiological saline and an understanding of the indications and contraindications of the technique. The interpretation of the information gathered by cytological, microbiological, mineralogical and biochemical study of the bronchoalveolar lavage liquid should comply with a strict set of rules and justifies a close working contact between the clinician and the biological scientist. PMID:1542750

  20. Technical aspects of a large size industrial process turbo compressor revamp

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Świder, Piotr; Kozanecki, Zbigniew, Jr.; Graczykowski, Marek; Kryłłowicz, Władysław

    2015-12-01

    This paper describes several modernization aspects of the process 8 MW air compressor and its driver. The main aim of the revamp was to increase internal efficiencies of both the compressor and turbine and increase the load of the compressor without additional power consumption. The original pressure ratio was preserved. To meet these requirements a redesign of the flow path of both machineswas necessary.Moreover, the turbineworking conditions were changed from extraction-condensing to condensing. In terms of compressor, impeller blade redesign, adaptation of diffusers and Abradable seals were a part of the scope. The revamp was completed in April 2014 with all the requirements met. This paper covers the general outline and a comparison of the original and modernized machine operating parameters, design and technical assumptions and also describes some problematic issues which occurred during the realization of the project.

  1. Technical and organizational aspects of protection from ionizing radiations within the defense

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sabbatini, Vittorio

    2000-04-01

    When the Defense is not interested in the nuclear aspects connected with energy production or basic research, it must feel compelled to follow the nuclear activities for what concerns the nuclear protection needs within the operational forces. During the years, this has caused the installation and utilization of a nuclear reactor, laboratories specialized in radiological and nuclear matters and the management and utilization of radioactive material and radiogenic machines to satisfy additional requirements. A specific structure (CISAM) has been created within the Defense for these activities; it is able both to offer a valid protection organization to the forces assigned to operate military and to operate in peace time for the safety of personnel and the protection of environment. The purpose of this paper is to conduct a quick analysis of the Defense nuclear and radioprotection needs and to illustrate CISAM's function, the technical methods adopted and some specific protection arrangements connected with radiological emergencies.

  2. Technical and Organizational Aspects of Protection from Ionizing Radiations within the Defence

    SciTech Connect

    Sabbatini, Vittorio

    2000-12-31

    When the Defence is not interested in the nuclear aspects connected with energy production or basic research, it must feel compelled to follow the nuclear activities for what concerns the nuclear protection needs within the operational forces. During the years, this has caused the installation and utilization of a nuclear reactor, laboratories specialized in radiological and nuclear matters and the management and utilization of radioactive material and radiogenic machines to satisfy additional requirements. A specific structure (CISAM) has been created within the Defence for these activities; it is able both to offer a valid protection organization to the forces assigned to operate militarily and to operate in peace time for the safety of personnel and the protection of environment. The purpose of this paper is to conduct a quick analysis of the Defence nuclear and radioprotection needs and to illustrate CISAM's function, the technical methods adopted and some specific protection arrangements connected with radiological emergencies.

  3. Open Stented Grafts for Frozen Elephant Trunk Technique: Technical Aspects and Current Outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Wei-Guo; Zheng, Jun; Sun, Li-Zhong; Elefteriades, John A.

    2015-01-01

    With growing experience in patients with aneurysms and dissections in the arch and proximal descending aorta, the frozen elephant trunk (FET) technique has been shown to be safe and effective, and has achieved favorable short to mid-term outcomes. As the FET technique is gaining wider acceptance, there is a growing need for versatile, technically simple, and highly durable open stented grafts involving less complicated deployment mechanisms enabling use in various indications. This paper gives a brief review on the technical aspects and clinical outcomes of currently available open stented grafts used in the FET technique, including the E-vita Open Plus, Thoraflex Hybrid, Cronus, and J Graft. While none of these grafts can claim to be an ideal device, technology continues to improve towards this goal. As newer devices and systems are developed, more widespread use of the FET technique can be expected; such progress promises to improve the clinical outcomes and quality of life for patients with complex aortic diseases. PMID:27069943

  4. Social media and nursing practice: changing the balance between the social and technical aspects of work.

    PubMed

    Casella, Evan; Mills, Jane; Usher, Kim

    2014-01-01

    Modern communication methods are drastically changing the way people interact with each other. Professions such as nursing need to evolve to remain relevant as social infrastructure changes. In the 1960s, researchers developed a sociotechnical theory that stated workers were more motivated and productive if there was a good balance between the social and technical aspects of their work. Today's technology is blurring the boundaries between the social and the technical thereby transforming human contact and communication into a multi-method process. In Australia, people are adept at utilising social media technology to become more efficient, creative and connected; Australian nurses also need to embrace changing technology to capitalise on the professional opportunities offered by social media. This paper imagines a world where nurses integrate social media into assessing, diagnosing, planning, implementing and evaluating care. Discussion draws on a combination of real-world examples of best-practice and blue-sky thinking to demonstrate that evidence-based care must be combined with the adoption of future-forward technology. PMID:25109210

  5. Technical Aspects Regarding the Management of Radioactive Waste from Decommissioning of Nuclear Facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Dragolici, F.; Turcanu, C. N.; Rotarescu, G.; Paunica, I.

    2003-02-25

    The proper application of the nuclear techniques and technologies in Romania started in 1957, once with the commissioning of the Research Reactor VVR-S from IFIN-HH-Magurele. During the last 45 years, appear thousands of nuclear application units with extremely diverse profiles (research, biology, medicine, education, agriculture, transport, all types of industry) which used different nuclear facilities containing radioactive sources and generating a great variety of radioactive waste during the decommissioning after the operation lifetime is accomplished. A new aspect appears by the planning of VVR-S Research Reactor decommissioning which will be a new source of radioactive waste generated by decontamination, disassembling and demolition activities. By construction and exploitation of the Radioactive Waste Treatment Plant (STDR)--Magurele and the National Repository for Low and Intermediate Radioactive Waste (DNDR)--Baita, Bihor county, in Romania was solved the management of radioactive wastes arising from operation and decommissioning of small nuclear facilities, being assured the protection of the people and environment. The present paper makes a review of the present technical status of the Romanian waste management facilities, especially raising on treatment capabilities of ''problem'' wastes such as Ra-266, Pu-238, Am-241 Co-60, Co-57, Sr-90, Cs-137 sealed sources from industrial, research and medical applications. Also, contain a preliminary estimation of quantities and types of wastes, which would result during the decommissioning project of the VVR-S Research Reactor from IFIN-HH giving attention to some special category of wastes like aluminum, graphite and equipment, components and structures that became radioactive through neutron activation. After analyzing the technical and scientific potential of STDR and DNDR to handle big amounts of wastes resulting from the decommissioning of VVR-S Research Reactor and small nuclear facilities, the necessity of

  6. Uncommon Flaps for Chest Wall Reconstruction

    PubMed Central

    Matros, Evan; Disa, Joseph J.

    2011-01-01

    The omentum, external oblique musculocutaneous, and thoracoepigastric flaps are uncommonly used for chest wall reconstruction. Nevertheless, awareness and knowledge of these flaps is essential for reconstructive surgeons because they fill specific niche indications or serve as lifeboats when workhorse flaps are unavailable. The current report describes the anatomic basis, technical aspects of flap elevation, and indications for these unusual flaps. PMID:22294943

  7. Technical procedures for template-guided surgery for mandibular reconstruction based on digital design and manufacturing

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The occurrence of mandibular defects caused by tumors has been continuously increasing in China in recent years. Conversely, results of the repair of mandibular defects affect the recovery of oral function and patient appearance, and the requirements for accuracy and high surgical quality must be more stringent. Digital techniques — including model reconstruction based on medical images, computer-aided design, and additive manufacturing — have been widely used in modern medicine to improve the accuracy and quality of diagnosis and surgery. However, some special software platforms and services from international companies are not always available for most of researchers and surgeons because they are expensive and time-consuming. Methods Here, a new technical solution for guided surgery for the repair of mandibular defects is proposed, based on general popular tools in medical image processing, 3D (3 dimension) model reconstruction, digital design, and fabrication via 3D printing. First, CT (computerized tomography) images are processed to reconstruct the 3D model of the mandible and fibular bone. The defect area is then replaced by healthy contralateral bone to create the repair model. With the repair model as reference, the graft shape and cutline are designed on fibular bone, as is the guide for cutting and shaping. The physical model, fabricated via 3D printing, including surgical guide, the original model, and the repair model, can be used to preform a titanium locking plate, as well as to design and verify the surgical plan and guide. In clinics, surgeons can operate with the help of the surgical guide and preformed plate to realize the predesigned surgical plan. Results With sufficient communication between engineers and surgeons, an optimal surgical plan can be designed via some common software platforms but needs to be translated to the clinic. Based on customized models and tools, including three surgical guides, preformed titanium plate for

  8. Cryo-technical design aspects of the superconducting SIS100 quadrupole doublet modules

    SciTech Connect

    Meier, J. P.; Bleile, A.; Fischer, E.; Hess, G.; Macavei, J.; Spiller, P.

    2014-01-29

    The FAIR project was initiated to build an international accelerator and experimental facility for basic research activities in various fields of modern physics. The core component of the project will be the SIS100 heavy ion accelerator, producing heavy ion beams of uniquely high intensities and qualities. The superconducting main quadrupoles and corrector magnets are assembled within complex quadrupole doublet modules (QDMs), combining two superconducting quadrupole (focusing and defocusing), sextupole and steering magnets in one cryostat. In addition a cryo-catcher, a beam position monitor and a cold beam pipe will be integrated. In accordance with the magnet lattice structure, the QDM series for the SIS100 consists of four main families composed of eleven different configurations. The common technical feature of all configurations is a sophisticated common girder structure, mechanically integrating all functional components in one cold mass and being suspended in a corresponding cryostat system. The requirements to position preservation during thermal cycling are to be fulfilled by a precise and stable support of the functional elements, as well as by a reliable, reproducible and stable cold mass suspension system. The main design aspects of the QDMs will be discussed as a result of these requirements.

  9. Technical Aspects of Acoustical Engineering for the ISS [International Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Allen, Christopher S.

    2009-01-01

    It is important to control acoustic levels on manned space flight vehicles and habitats to protect crew-hearing, allow for voice communications, and to ensure a healthy and habitable environment in which to work and live. For the International Space Station (ISS) this is critical because of the long duration crew-stays of approximately 6-months. NASA and the JSC Acoustics Office set acoustic requirements that must be met for hardware to be certified for flight. Modules must meet the NC-50 requirement and other component hardware are given smaller allocations to meet. In order to meet these requirements many aspects of noise generation and control must be considered. This presentation has been developed to give an insight into the various technical activities performed at JSC to ensure that a suitable acoustic environment is provided for the ISS crew. Examples discussed include fan noise, acoustic flight material development, on-orbit acoustic monitoring, and a specific hardware development and acoustical design case, the ISS Crew Quarters.

  10. Technical Aspects and Difficulties in the Management of Head and Neck Cutaneous Malignancies in Xeroderma Pigmentosum

    PubMed Central

    Findikcioglu, Kemal; Erdal, Ayhan Isik; Barut, Ismail; Ozmen, Selahattin

    2016-01-01

    Background Xeroderma pigmentosum (XP) is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by xerosis, ultraviolet light sensitivity, and cutaneous dyspigmentation. Due to defects in their DNA repair mechanism, genetic mutations and carcinogenesis inevitably occurs in almost all patients. In these patients, reconstruction of cutaneous malignancies in the head and neck area is associated with some challenges such as likelihood of recurrence and an aggressive clinical course. The aim of this study is to discuss the therapeutic options and challenges commonly seen during the course of treatment. Methods Between 2005 and 2015, 11 XP patients with head and neck cutaneous malignancies were included in this study. Demographic data and treatment options of the patients were evaluated. Results The mean age of the patients was 32 years (range, 10–43) (4 males, 7 females). The most common tumor type and location were squamous cell carcinoma (6 patients) and the orbital region (4 patients), respectively. Free tissue transfer was the most commonly performed surgical intervention (4 patients). The average number of surgical procedures was 5.5 (range, 1–25). Six patients were siblings with each other, 5 patients had local recurrences, and one patient was lost to follow-up. Conclusions Although genetic components of the disease have been elucidated, there is no definitive treatment algorithm. Early surgical intervention and close follow-up are the gold standard modalities due to the tendency toward rapid tumor growth and possible recurrence. Treatment must be individualized for each patient. In addition, the psychological aspect of the disease is an important issue for both patients and families. PMID:27462567

  11. Technical Note: Algebraic iterative image reconstruction using a cylindrical image grid for tetrahedron beam computed tomography

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Joshua; Ionascu, Dan; Zhang, Tiezhi

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: To accelerate iterative algebraic reconstruction algorithms using a cylindrical image grid. Methods: Tetrahedron beam computed tomography (TBCT) is designed to overcome the scatter and detector problems of cone beam computed tomography (CBCT). Iterative algebraic reconstruction algorithms have been shown to mitigate approximate reconstruction artifacts that appear at large cone angles, but clinical implementation is limited by their high computational cost. In this study, a cylindrical voxelization method on a cylindrical grid is developed in order to take advantage of the symmetries of the cylindrical geometry. The cylindrical geometry is a natural fit for the circular scanning trajectory employed in volumetric CT methods such as CBCT and TBCT. This method was implemented in combination with the simultaneous algebraic reconstruction technique (SART). Both two- and three-dimensional numerical phantoms as well as a patient CT image were utilized to generate the projection sets used for reconstruction. The reconstructed images were compared to the original phantoms using a set of three figures of merit (FOM). Results: The cylindrical voxelization on a cylindrical reconstruction grid was successfully implemented in combination with the SART reconstruction algorithm. The FOM results showed that the cylindrical reconstructions were able to maintain the accuracy of the Cartesian reconstructions. In three dimensions, the cylindrical method provided better accuracy than the Cartesian methods. At the same time, the cylindrical method was able to provide a speedup factor of approximately 40 while also reducing the system matrix storage size by 2 orders of magnitude. Conclusions: TBCT image reconstruction using a cylindrical image grid was able to provide a significant improvement in the reconstruction time and a more compact system matrix for storage on the hard drive and in memory while maintaining the image quality provided by the Cartesian voxelization on a

  12. Archaeology of fire: Methodological aspects of reconstructing fire history of prehistoric archaeological sites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alperson-Afil, Nira

    2012-07-01

    Concepts which are common in the reconstruction of fire histories are employed here for the purpose of interpreting fires identified at archaeological sites. When attempting to evaluate the fire history of ancient occupations we are limited by the amount and quality of the available data. Furthermore, the identification of archaeological burned materials, such as stone, wood, and charcoal, is adequate for the general assumption of a "fire history", but the agent responsible - anthropogenic or natural - cannot be inferred from the mere presence of burned items. The large body of scientific data that has accumulated, primarily through efforts to prevent future fire disasters, enables us to reconstruct scenarios of past natural fires. Adopting this line of thought, this paper attempts to evaluate the circumstances in which a natural fire may have ignited and spread at the 0.79 Ma occupation site of Gesher Benot Ya'aqov (Israel), resulting with burned wood and burned flint within the archaeological layers. At Gesher Benot Ya'aqov, possible remnants of hearths are explored through analyses of the spatial distribution of burned flint-knapping waste products. These occur in dense clusters in each of the archaeological occupations throughout the long stratigraphic sequence. In this study, the combination between the spatial analyses results, paleoenvironmental information, and various factors involved in the complex process of fire ignition, combustion, and behavior, has enabled the firm rejection of recurrent natural fires as the responsible agent for the burned materials. In addition, it suggested that mainly at early sites, where evidence for burning is present yet scarce, data on fire ecology can be particularly useful when it is considered in relation to paleoenvironmental information.

  13. Technical Aspects for the Creation of a Multi-Dimensional Land Information System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ioannidis, Charalabos; Potsiou, Chryssy; Soile, Sofia; Verykokou, Styliani; Mourafetis, George; Doulamis, Nikolaos

    2016-06-01

    The complexity of modern urban environments and civil demands for fast, reliable and affordable decision-making requires not only a 3D Land Information System, which tends to replace traditional 2D LIS architectures, but also the need to address the time and scale parameters, that is, the 3D geometry of buildings in various time instances (4th dimension) at various levels of detail (LoDs - 5th dimension). This paper describes and proposes solutions for technical aspects that need to be addressed for the 5D modelling pipeline. Such solutions include the creation of a 3D model, the application of a selective modelling procedure between various time instances and at various LoDs, enriched with cadastral and other spatial data, and a procedural modelling approach for the representation of the inner parts of the buildings. The methodology is based on automatic change detection algorithms for spatial-temporal analysis of the changes that took place in subsequent time periods, using dense image matching and structure from motion algorithms. The selective modelling approach allows a detailed modelling only for the areas where spatial changes are detected. The procedural modelling techniques use programming languages for the textual semantic description of a building; they require the modeller to describe its part-to-whole relationships. Finally, a 5D viewer is developed, in order to tackle existing limitations that accompany the use of global systems, such as the Google Earth or the Google Maps, as visualization software. An application based on the proposed methodology in an urban area is presented and it provides satisfactory results.

  14. Technical innovations in ear reconstruction using a skin expander with autogenous cartilage grafts.

    PubMed

    Dashan, Yu; Haiyue, Jiang; Qinghua, Yang; Bo, Pan; Lin, Lin; Tailing, Wang; Yanmei, Wang; Xiao, Qin; Hongxing, Zhuang

    2008-01-01

    Pioneers such as Tanzer and Brent have established the foundations of microtia reconstruction using an autogenous costal cartilage framework. The framework and its skin coverage are the two limiting factors in ear reconstruction. At the present time autogenous rib cartilage and mastoid skin are still first choice materials for most surgeons. They have the combined advantages of well-matched texture and colour. To reconstruct a symmetrical, accurate, prominent auricle and minimise as much as possible the chest wall deformity caused by rib cartilage harvesting, we set out to improve our techniques for cartilaginous framework definition and to use the remnant ear to enhance the projection of the reconstructed ear. Since 2000, 342 cases (366 ears) were treated using our current techniques. Data pertaining to complications were recorded. Final results were assessed a minimum of 1 year postoperatively. The follow-up period ranged from 1 to 6 years. Most of the patients with microtia were satisfied with the results of their ear reconstruction. In conclusion, our techniques help to reduce the quantity of rib cartilage needed to fabricate ear framework and minimise chest wall deformity. The frameworks are accurate, prominent and stable. Reconstructed ears are similar in colour and appearance to the normal side. Our innovations are practical and reliable for microtia reconstruction using skin expanders in combination with a sculpted autogenous rib cartilage framework. PMID:18849209

  15. The impact of immediate breast reconstruction on the technical delivery of postmastectomy radiotherapy

    SciTech Connect

    Motwani, Sabin B.; Strom, Eric A. . E-mail: estrom@mdanderson.org; Schechter, Naomi R.; Butler, Charles E.; Lee, Gordon K.; Langstein, Howard N.; Kronowitz, Steven J.; Meric-Bernstam, Funda; Ibrahim, Nuhad K.; Buchholz, Thomas A.

    2006-09-01

    Purpose: To quantify the impact of immediate breast reconstruction on postmastectomy radiation therapy (PMRT) planning. Methods: A total of 110 patients (112 treatment plans) who had mastectomy with immediate reconstruction followed by radiotherapy were compared with contemporaneous stage-matched patients who had undergone mastectomy without intervening reconstruction. A scoring system was used to assess optimal radiotherapy planning using four parameters: breadth of chest wall coverage, treatment of the ipsilateral internal mammary chain, minimization of lung, and avoidance of heart. An 'optimal' plan achieved all objectives or a minor 0.5 point deduction; 'moderately' compromised treatment plans had 1.0 or 1.5 point deductions; and 'major' compromised plans had {>=}2.0 point deductions. Results: Of the 112 PMRT plans scored after reconstruction, 52% had compromises compared with 7% of matched controls (p < 0.0001). Of the compromised plans after reconstruction, 33% were considered to be moderately compromised plans and 19% were major compromised treatment plans. Optimal chest wall coverage, treatment of the ipsilateral internal mammary chain, lung minimization, and heart avoidance was achieved in 79%, 45%, 84%, and 84% of the plans in the group undergoing immediate reconstruction, compared respectively with 100%, 93%, 97%, and 92% of the plans in the control group (p < 0.0001, p < 0.0001, p = 0.0015, and p = 0.1435). In patients with reconstructions, 67% of the 'major' compromised radiotherapy plans were left-sided (p < 0.16). Conclusions: Radiation treatment planning after immediate breast reconstruction was compromised in more than half of the patients (52%), with the largest compromises observed in those with left-sided cancers. For patients with locally advanced breast cancer, the potential for compromised PMRT planning should be considered when deciding between immediate and delayed reconstruction.

  16. Endovascular Reconstruction of Complex Arterial Obstructions in the Mesenteric Arcade with 'Kissing Stents': Technical Note

    SciTech Connect

    Daliri, Armand; Krause, Ulrich C.; Kalinowski, Marc; Heverhagen, Johannes; Froelich, Jens J.

    2008-05-15

    This report describes a technique for advanced endoluminal reconstruction of complex bifurcational arterial obstructions located within the mesenteric arcade deploying applications from percutaneous transluminal coronary artery angioplasty. A patient was treated for persistent mesenteric ischemia during prolonged recovery after initial small bowel resection due to acute mesenteric ischemia. Following endovascular reconstruction of a complex arterial obstruction within the mesenteric arcade, ischemic symptoms subsided quickly and the patient recovered well. According to the literature, this seems to be the first case where such distal reconstruction of the mesenteric arcade has successfully been achieved percutaneously.

  17. Technical and commercial aspects of the connection of wind turbines to electricity supply networks in Europe

    SciTech Connect

    Gardner, P.

    1996-12-31

    This paper reviews some technical and commercial issues now topical for wind energy developments in Europe. The technical issues are important because of the weak nature of the existing electricity systems in rural or upland areas. Several commercial issues are considered which may improve the economics of wind energy as market incentives are gradually withdrawn. 9 refs.

  18. Technical report on the surface reconstruction of stacked contours by using the commercial software

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shin, Dong Sun; Chung, Min Suk; Hwang, Sung Bae; Park, Jin Seo

    2007-03-01

    After drawing and stacking contours of a structure, which is identified in the serially sectioned images, three-dimensional (3D) image can be made by surface reconstruction. Usually, software is composed for the surface reconstruction. In order to compose the software, medical doctors have to acquire the help of computer engineers. So in this research, surface reconstruction of stacked contours was tried by using commercial software. The purpose of this research is to enable medical doctors to perform surface reconstruction to make 3D images by themselves. The materials of this research were 996 anatomic images (1 mm intervals) of left lower limb, which were made by serial sectioning of a cadaver. On the Adobe Photoshop, contours of 114 anatomic structures were drawn, which were exported to Adobe Illustrator files. On the Maya, contours of each anatomic structure were stacked. On the Rhino, superoinferior lines were drawn along all stacked contours to fill quadrangular surfaces between contours. On the Maya, the contours were deleted. 3D images of 114 anatomic structures were assembled with their original locations preserved. With the surface reconstruction technique, developed in this research, medical doctors themselves could make 3D images of the serially sectioned images such as CTs and MRIs.

  19. The submental flap for oral cavity reconstruction: Extended indications and technical refinements

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background and purpose The submental flap is gaining popularity as a simple technique for reconstruction of small to moderate size defects of the oral cavity. However, its role in composite defects involving the jaw is not clearly defined. Indeed, controversy exists about the flap's interference with an oncologically sound neck dissection Patients and Methods A total of 21 patients with oral cavity cancers over a three year period were included. All patients underwent surgical resection and immediate reconstruction with submental flap except one patient who had delayed reconstruction with reversed flap. The flap was used for reconstruction of intra-oral soft tissue defect in 13 patients and composite defects in 8 patients. Results Of 21 patients 12 were males and 9 were females, age ranged from 32 to 83 years. The primary tumor sites included buccal mucosa (7), tongue (4), alveolar margin (3), floor of mouth (5) and lip (2). Eventually in this study, we adopted completing the neck dissection first before flap harvest. Complete flap loss occurred in 2 whereas 3 patients had partial flap loss. Follow up ranged from 3 to 44 months, one patient died from metastatic disease. Four patients developed neck recurrences. Conclusion The submental flap is a valid option for reconstruction of intra-oral soft tissue as well as composite oral defects particularly in elderly patients. However, oncologically sound neck dissection should be assured. PMID:22185515

  20. Technical Note: Probabilistically constraining proxy age-depth models within a Bayesian hierarchical reconstruction model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Werner, J. P.; Tingley, M. P.

    2014-12-01

    Reconstructions of late-Holocene climate rely heavily upon proxies that are assumed to be accurately dated by layer counting, such as measurement on tree rings, ice cores, and varved lake sediments. Considerable advances may be achievable if time uncertain proxies could be included within these multiproxy reconstructions, and if time uncertainties were recognized and correctly modeled for proxies commonly treated as free of age model errors. Current approaches to accounting for time uncertainty are generally limited to repeating the reconstruction using each of an ensemble of age models, thereby inflating the final estimated uncertainty - in effect, each possible age model is given equal weighting. Uncertainties can be reduced by exploiting the inferred space-time covariance structure of the climate to re-weight the possible age models. Here we demonstrate how Bayesian Hierarchical climate reconstruction models can be augmented to account for time uncertain proxies. Critically, while a priori all age models are given equal probability of being correct, the probabilities associated with the age models are formally updated within the Bayesian framework, thereby reducing uncertainties. Numerical experiments show that updating the age-model probabilities decreases uncertainty in the climate reconstruction, as compared with the current de-facto standard of sampling over all age models, provided there is sufficient information from other data sources in the region of the time-uncertain proxy. This approach can readily be generalized to non-layer counted proxies, such as those derived from marine sediments.

  1. Technical Note: Probabilistically constraining proxy age-depth models within a Bayesian hierarchical reconstruction model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Werner, J. P.; Tingley, M. P.

    2015-03-01

    Reconstructions of the late-Holocene climate rely heavily upon proxies that are assumed to be accurately dated by layer counting, such as measurements of tree rings, ice cores, and varved lake sediments. Considerable advances could be achieved if time-uncertain proxies were able to be included within these multiproxy reconstructions, and if time uncertainties were recognized and correctly modeled for proxies commonly treated as free of age model errors. Current approaches for accounting for time uncertainty are generally limited to repeating the reconstruction using each one of an ensemble of age models, thereby inflating the final estimated uncertainty - in effect, each possible age model is given equal weighting. Uncertainties can be reduced by exploiting the inferred space-time covariance structure of the climate to re-weight the possible age models. Here, we demonstrate how Bayesian hierarchical climate reconstruction models can be augmented to account for time-uncertain proxies. Critically, although a priori all age models are given equal probability of being correct, the probabilities associated with the age models are formally updated within the Bayesian framework, thereby reducing uncertainties. Numerical experiments show that updating the age model probabilities decreases uncertainty in the resulting reconstructions, as compared with the current de facto standard of sampling over all age models, provided there is sufficient information from other data sources in the spatial region of the time-uncertain proxy. This approach can readily be generalized to non-layer-counted proxies, such as those derived from marine sediments.

  2. Microscopic and Metallurgical Aspects of the Space Shuttle Columbia Accident Investigation and Reconstruction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McDaniels, Steven J.

    2004-01-01

    The Space Shuttle Columbia was descending for a landing at the Kennedy Space Center (KSC) on February 1, 2003. Approximately 20 minutes prior to touchdown, the Columbia began disintegrating over the western United States; the majority of debris eventually impacted in eastern Texas and western Louisiana. A monumental effort eventually recovered approximately 84,000 pieces of debris, approximately 38% of the Orbiter's original dry weight. The debris was transported to KSC, where the items were catalogued and evaluated. Critical areas of interest, such as the left and right leading edge surfaces and the underside of the ship, were placed upon a grid to aid in the reconstruction. Items of interest included metallic structures, reinforced carbon-carbon composites, and ceramic heat insulation tiles. Many of the leading edge elements had re-solidified metallic deposits spattered on them. These deposits became known as slag and were one of the main focuses of the investigation. In order to help determine the sequence of events inside the left wing during the accident, the slag's composition, layering order, and directionality of deposition were studied. A myriad of analytical tests were performed in an attempt to ascertain the compositional and depositional characteristics of selected slag deposits, including the ordering of deposited layers within each individual slag deposit harvested. Initially, Scanning Electron Microscopy and Energy Dispersive X-Ray Spectroscopy (SEM/EDX) were performed to quickly characterize the overall composition of individual slag deposits: SEM utilizes a narrowlyfocused high-energy electron beam impinging upon a specimen. The incident beam excites and liberates lower energy secondary electrons, which are detected and analyzed, providing a visual representation of the sample's surface topography. EDX also relies on an incident electron beam, except an EDX unit measures X-ray energies generated by the impinging beam. Each element generates a

  3. Orbital Osteoblastoma: Technical Innovations in Resection and Reconstruction Using Virtual Surgery Simulation.

    PubMed

    Novelli, Giorgio; Gramegna, Marco; Tonellini, Gabriele; Valente, Gabriella; Boni, Pietro; Bozzetti, Alberto; Sozzi, Davide

    2016-09-01

    Osteoblastoma is a benign tumor of bone, representing less than 1% of bone tumors. Craniomaxillofacial localizations account for up to 15% of the total and frequently involve the posterior mandible. Endo-orbital localization is very rare, with most occurring in young patients. Very few of these tumors become malignant. Orbital localization requires radical removal of the tumor followed by careful surgical reconstruction of the orbit to avoid subsequent aesthetic or functional problems. Here, we present a clinical case of this condition and describe a surgical protocol that uses and integrates state-of-the art technologies to achieve orbital reconstruction. PMID:27516847

  4. Overview of Image Reconstruction

    SciTech Connect

    Marr, R. B.

    1980-04-01

    Image reconstruction (or computerized tomography, etc.) is any process whereby a function, f, on Rn is estimated from empirical data pertaining to its integrals, ∫f(x) dx, for some collection of hyperplanes of dimension k < n. The paper begins with background information on how image reconstruction problems have arisen in practice, and describes some of the application areas of past or current interest; these include radioastronomy, optics, radiology and nuclear medicine, electron microscopy, acoustical imaging, geophysical tomography, nondestructive testing, and NMR zeugmatography. Then the various reconstruction algorithms are discussed in five classes: summation, or simple back-projection; convolution, or filtered back-projection; Fourier and other functional transforms; orthogonal function series expansion; and iterative methods. Certain more technical mathematical aspects of image reconstruction are considered from the standpoint of uniqueness, consistency, and stability of solution. The paper concludes by presenting certain open problems. 73 references. (RWR)

  5. Technical aspects of neurostimulation: Focus on equipment, electric field modeling, and stimulation protocols.

    PubMed

    Klooster, D C W; de Louw, A J A; Aldenkamp, A P; Besseling, R M H; Mestrom, R M C; Carrette, S; Zinger, S; Bergmans, J W M; Mess, W H; Vonck, K; Carrette, E; Breuer, L E M; Bernas, A; Tijhuis, A G; Boon, P

    2016-06-01

    Neuromodulation is a field of science, medicine, and bioengineering that encompasses implantable and non-implantable technologies for the purpose of improving quality of life and functioning of humans. Brain neuromodulation involves different neurostimulation techniques: transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS), transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS), vagus nerve stimulation (VNS), and deep brain stimulation (DBS), which are being used both to study their effects on cognitive brain functions and to treat neuropsychiatric disorders. The mechanisms of action of neurostimulation remain incompletely understood. Insight into the technical basis of neurostimulation might be a first step towards a more profound understanding of these mechanisms, which might lead to improved clinical outcome and therapeutic potential. This review provides an overview of the technical basis of neurostimulation focusing on the equipment, the present understanding of induced electric fields, and the stimulation protocols. The review is written from a technical perspective aimed at supporting the use of neurostimulation in clinical practice. PMID:27021215

  6. Anatomic Double Bundle single tunnel Foreign Material Free ACL-Reconstruction – a technical note

    PubMed Central

    Felmet, Gernot

    2011-01-01

    Summary The anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) consists of two bundles, the anteromedial (AM) and posterolateral bundle (PM). Double bundle reconstructions appear to give better rotational stability. The usual technique is to make two tunnels in the femur and two in the tibia. This is difficult and in small knees may not even be possible. We have developed a foreign material free press fit fixation for double bundle ACL reconstruction using a single femoral tunnel (R). This is based on the ALL PRESS FIT ACL reconstruction. It is suitable for the most common medium and, otherwise difficult, small sizes of knees. Method: Using diamond edged wet grinding hollow reamers, bone cylinders in different diameters are harvested from the implantation tunnels of the tibia and femur and used for the press fit fixation. Using the press fit technique the graft is first fixed in tibia. It is then similarly fixed under tension in the femoral side with the knee in 120 degree flexion. This is called Bottom To Top Fixation (BTT). On extending the knee the graft tension is self adapting. Depending on the size of the individual knee, the diameter of the femoral bone plug is varied from 8 to 13 mm to achieve an anatomic spread with a double bundle-like insertion. The tibia tunnel can be applied with two 7 or 8 mm diameter tunnels overlapping to a semi oval tunnel between 10 to 13 mm. Results: Since May 2003 we have carried out ACL-reconstructions with Hamstring grafts without foreign material using the ALL PRESS FIT technique. Initially, an 8 mm press fit fixation was used proximally with good results. Since April 2008, the range of diameters was increased up to 13 mm. The results of the Lachman tests have been good to excellent. Results of the Pivot shift test suggested more stability with femoral broader diameters of 9,5 to 13 mm. Conclusions: The foreign material free fixation of ham-string in the ALL PRESS FIT Bottom To Top Fixation is a successful method for ACL Reconstruction. The

  7. Technical aspects of a demonstration tape for three-dimensional sound displays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Begault, Durand R.; Wenzel, Elizabeth M.

    1990-01-01

    This document was developed to accompany an audio cassette that demonstrates work in three-dimensional auditory displays, developed at the Ames Research Center Aerospace Human Factors Division. It provides a text version of the audio material, and covers the theoretical and technical issues of spatial auditory displays in greater depth than on the cassette. The technical procedures used in the production of the audio demonstration are documented, including the methods for simulating rotorcraft radio communication, synthesizing auditory icons, and using the Convolvotron, a real-time spatialization device.

  8. Orbital Wall Reconstruction with Two-Piece Puzzle 3D Printed Implants: Technical Note.

    PubMed

    Mommaerts, Maurice Y; Büttner, Michael; Vercruysse, Herman; Wauters, Lauri; Beerens, Maikel

    2016-03-01

    The purpose of this article is to describe a technique for secondary reconstruction of traumatic orbital wall defects using titanium implants that act as three-dimensional (3D) puzzle pieces. We present three cases of large defect reconstruction using implants produced by Xilloc Medical B.V. (Maastricht, the Netherlands) with a 3D printer manufactured by LayerWise (3D Systems; Heverlee, Belgium), and designed using the biomedical engineering software programs ProPlan and 3-Matic (Materialise, Heverlee, Belgium). The smaller size of the implants allowed sequential implantation for the reconstruction of extensive two-wall defects via a limited transconjunctival incision. The precise fit of the implants with regard to the surrounding ledges and each other was confirmed by intraoperative 3D imaging (Mobile C-arm Systems B.V. Pulsera, Philips Medical Systems, Eindhoven, the Netherlands). The patients showed near-complete restoration of orbital volume and ocular motility. However, challenges remain, including traumatic fat atrophy and fibrosis. PMID:26889349

  9. Cost Effectiveness in Evaluation Technical Assistance: Different Aspects of Measuring Cost and Outcomes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Estes, Gary D.

    The paper focuses on the Title I Evaluation Technical Assistance Centers to illustrate issues of measuring costs and deciding on outcome criteria before promoting "cost-effective" approaches. Effects are illustrated for varying resource allocations among personnel, travel, materials, and phone costs as a function of emphasizing workshops, on-site…

  10. A Tanzanian Perspective of the Technical Aspects of IT Service Management Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kemppainen, Jyri; Tedre, Matti; Sutinen, Erkki

    2012-01-01

    Information technology (IT) professionals face markedly different kinds of challenges in developing countries from the ones in developed countries. Based on the research literature and our fourteen years of fieldwork in Iringa, Tanzania, we have identified eight groups of technical characteristics of IT work that significantly affect the work of…

  11. [Technical aspects of treatments with single- and multi-unit fixed dental prostheses].

    PubMed

    Wiersema, E J; Kreulen, C M; Latzke, P; Witter, D J; Creugers, N H J

    2014-05-01

    For the manufacture of single- and multi-unit fixed dental prostheses, effective communication between dentist and dental technician is required. Mutual insight concerning the (im)possibilities of available treatments and technical options is prerequisitefor this communication. The manufacture of single- and multi-unit fixed dental prostheses involves 4 phases: recording the required detailed information on the relevant teeth and the occlusal system, the technical adjustments, the technical design and the technical fabrication. These phases can be accomplished through an analogue or (semi)digital procedure. Pioneering developments are computer aided design and computer aided manufacturing (CAD/CAM), and computerised milling machines. Associated with this are 3 manufacturing methods which can be distinguished: the dental practice method, the dental laboratory method and the milling centre method. Materials applied are metal alloys and ceramics, while resins are used for provisional and transitional constructions. Due to the fact that the choice of material in the analogue procedure is limited, CAD/CAM offers more options, the digital procedure is expected to gain ground gradually. It is expected that this development will provide an impulse to higher quality. PMID:24881256

  12. Developments in Demographic Training and Research Projects: Aspects of Technical Cooperation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    United Nations, New York, NY. Population Div.

    This report was prepared in connection with work related to programs for support for population training in English-speaking countries of Africa. The United Nations Secretariat has so far provided technical assistance for the establishment of demographic training and research centers in 14 English-speaking countries in Africa. In compiling the…

  13. Managed care's reconstruction of human existence: the triumph of technical reason.

    PubMed

    Phillips, James

    2002-01-01

    To achieve its goals of managing and restricting access to psychiatric care, managed care organizations rely on an instrument, the outpatient treatment report, that carries significant implications about how they view psychiatric patients and psychiatric care. In addition to involving ethical transgressions such as violation of patient confidentiality, denial of access to care, spurious use of concepts like quality of care, and harassment of practitioners, the managed care approach also depends on an overly technical, instrumental interpretation of human beings and psychiatric treatment. It is this grounding of managed care in technical reason that I will explore in this study. I begin with a review of a typical outpatient treatment report and show how, with its dependence on the DSM-IV, on behavioral symptoms and patient 'functioning', on the biomedical model of psychiatric illness, and on gross quantitative measures, the report results in a crude, skeletonized view of the human being as a congeries of behavioral symptoms and functions. I then develop the managed care construal of human existence further by showing its grounding in technical reason, exploring the latter in its modern embodiment and deriving it and its opposite, practical reason, from Aristotle's distinction between technical and practical reason, techne and phronesis. In this analysis of the role of technical reason in managed care, I point out that managed care did not have to develop its rationale de novo but could rather lift its arguments, e.g. the biomedical model, from contemporary psychiatry and simply apply them in a restrictive manner. Finally, I conclude this study by arguing for psychiatry's status as a discipline of practical knowledge. PMID:12516837

  14. The Upgrade of CEBAF to 12 GeV: Physics Motivations and Technical Aspects

    SciTech Connect

    Bernhard Mecking; Larry Cardman

    2002-08-01

    The Continuous Electron Beam Accelerator Facility, CEBAF, makes use of electron and photon beams with an energy up to 6 GeV to investigate the electromagnetic structure of mesons, nucleons, and nuclei. We discuss the physics motivation for upgrading the facility to a maximum energy of 12 GeV and some of the key technological aspects of the upgrade.

  15. Technical aspects of clinical videoconferencing: a large scale review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Fatehi, Farhad; Armfield, Nigel R; Dimitrijevic, Mila; Gray, Leonard C

    2015-04-01

    Telemedicine has been increasingly researched during the past few decades and the technology used by health care providers and recipients has changed dramatically. However, little has been published on technical characteristics of video consultations and how these characteristics have changed over time due to rapid advancement of information and communication technology. We aimed to summarize various types of technologies used for interactive videoconferencing between health care providers and patients, and identify the trend of their change from 2002 to 2012. A comprehensive electronic search was performed using PubMed, Embase and CINAHL databases which yielded 2,411 unique records. After screening at title/abstract level, full texts of 505 articles were retrieved and explored for technical information of videoconferencing. The trend of number of publications fluctuated between 41 and 47 articles with no specific pattern, though a dip in 2004 (n = 35) and drastic increase in 2012 (n = 68) was evident. The equipment used for videoconferencing was not mentioned in 15% of the papers. Dedicated VC systems (CODECs), were the most commonly used hardware, followed by computer/laptop/notebook. The connection speed (bandwidth) was not reported in 46% of the papers. The proportion of articles reporting the connection speed declined over time. Details of image quality and frame rate were mentioned in 11% and 5% of the papers, respectively. The results of this study showed that a high proportion of telemedicine papers lack sufficient technical details that limits their repeatability and generalizability. PMID:25697489

  16. Technical note: virtual reconstruction of KNM-ER 1813 Homo habilis cranium.

    PubMed

    Benazzi, Stefano; Gruppioni, Giorgio; Strait, David S; Hublin, Jean-Jacques

    2014-01-01

    A very limiting factor for paleoanthropological studies is the poor state of preservation of the human fossil record, where fragmentation and deformation are considered normal. Although anatomical information can still be gathered from a distorted fossil, such specimens must typically be excluded from advanced morphological and morphometric analyses, thus reducing the fossil sample size and, ultimately, our knowledge of human evolution. In this contribution we provide the first digital reconstruction of the KNM-ER 1813 Homo habilis cranium. Based on state of-the-art three-dimensional digital modeling and geometric morphometric (GM) methods, the facial portion was aligned to the neurocranium, the overall distortion was removed, and the missing regions were restored. The reconstructed KNM-ER 1813 allows for an adjustment of the anthropometric measurements gathered on the original fossil. It is suitable for further quantitative studies, such as GM analyses focused on skull morphology or for finite element analysis to explore the mechanics of early Homo feeding behavior and diet. PMID:24318950

  17. Comparing a thermo-mechanical Weichselian Ice Sheet reconstruction to reconstructions based on the sea level equation: aspects of ice configurations and glacial isostatic adjustment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmidt, P.; Lund, B.; Näslund, J.-O.; Fastook, J.

    2014-05-01

    In this study we compare a recent reconstruction of the Weichselian Ice Sheet as simulated by the University of Maine ice sheet model (UMISM) to two reconstructions commonly used in glacial isostatic adjustment (GIA) modelling: ICE-5G and ANU (Australian National University, also known as RSES). The UMISM reconstruction is carried out on a regional scale based on thermo-mechanical modelling, whereas ANU and ICE-5G are global models based on the sea level equation. The three models of the Weichselian Ice Sheet are compared directly in terms of ice volume, extent and thickness, as well as in terms of predicted glacial isostatic adjustment in Fennoscandia. The three reconstructions display significant differences. Whereas UMISM and ANU includes phases of pronounced advance and retreat prior to the last glacial maximum (LGM), the thickness and areal extent of the ICE-5G ice sheet is more or less constant up until the LGM. During the post-LGM deglaciation phase ANU and ICE-5G melt relatively uniformly over the entire ice sheet in contrast to UMISM, which melts preferentially from the edges, thus reflecting the fundamental difference in the reconstruction scheme. We find that all three reconstructions fit the present-day uplift rates over Fennoscandia equally well, albeit with different optimal earth model parameters. Given identical earth models, ICE-5G predicts the fastest present-day uplift rates, and ANU the slowest. Moreover, only for ANU can a unique best-fit model be determined. For UMISM and ICE-5G there is a range of earth models that can reproduce the present-day uplift rates equally well. This is understood from the higher present-day uplift rates predicted by ICE-5G and UMISM, which result in bifurcations in the best-fit upper- and lower-mantle viscosities. We study the areal distributions of present-day residual surface velocities in Fennoscandia and show that all three reconstructions generally over-predict velocities in southwestern Fennoscandia and that

  18. Evaluation of Angiographic and Technical Aspects of Carotid Stenting with Diffusion-Weighted Magnetic Resonance Imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Blasel, Stella Hattingen, Elke; Berkefeld, Joachim; Kurre, Wiebke; Morawe, Gerald; Zanella, Friedhelm; Rochemont, Richard Du Mesnil de

    2009-07-15

    The detection of clinically silent ischemic lesions on postprocedural diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance images has become a preferred method for the description of embolic risks. The purpose of this single-center study was to evaluate whether diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) could determine material related or technical risk factors of filter-protected carotid stenting. Eighty-four patients with symptomatic severe ({>=}60%) carotid artery stenoses received filter-protected carotid stenting. Standard DWI (b = 1000) was performed within 48 h before and after carotid stenting. The occurrence and load of new postinterventional DWI lesions were assessed. Multivariate analysis was performed to determine risk factors associated with DWI lesions, with emphasis on technical factors such as use of different access devices (guiding catheter method vs. long carotid sheath method), type of stent (open-cell nitinol stent vs. closed-cell Wallstent), and protective device (filters with 80-{mu}m vs. 110-120-{mu}m pore size). Markers for generalized atherosclerosis and for degree and site of stenosis were assessed to allow comparison of adequate risk profiles. Access, protective device, and stent type were not significantly associated with new embolic DWI lesions when we compared patients with equivalent risk profiles (long carotid sheath method 48% [11 of 23] vs. guiding catheter method 44% [27 of 61], Wallstent 47% [15 of 32] vs. nitinol stent 44% [23 of 52], and small pore size filter 61% [11 of 18] vs. large pore size filter 41% [27 of 66]). Single-center DWI studies with a moderate number of cases are inadequate for proper assessment of the embolic risk of technical- or material-related risk factors in carotid stenting. Larger multicenter studies with more cases are needed.

  19. Approach to MR Imaging of the Elbow and Wrist: Technical Aspects and Innovation.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Dustin; Stevens, Kathryn J; Riley, Geoffrey; Shapiro, Lauren; Yoshioka, Hiroshi; Gold, Garry E

    2015-08-01

    Wrist and elbow MR imaging technology is advancing at a dramatic rate. Wrist and elbow MR imaging is performed at medium and higher field strengths with more specialized surface coils and more variable pulse sequences and postprocessing techniques. High field imaging and improved coils lead to an increased signal-to-noise ratio and increased variety of soft tissue contrast options. Three-dimensional imaging is improving in terms of usability and artifacts. Some of these advances have challenges in wrist and elbow imaging, such as postoperative patient imaging, cartilage mapping, and molecular imaging. This review considers technical advances in hardware and software and their clinical applications. PMID:26216768

  20. [Technical aspects of mechanical insufflator-exsufflators. Construction and function of the Emerson CoughAssist].

    PubMed

    Bosch, A; Winterholler, M

    2008-03-01

    The electromechanical insufflator-exsufflator (Emerson CoughAssist) was developed as an aid for patients with neuromuscular disorders suffering from impaired cough. The insufflator-exsufflator simulates and supports physiological cough by supporting inspiration with positive pressure and shifting this positive pressure rapidly into a negative pressure that supports exsufflation and thus bronchial clearance. Maximum pressures are +/- 60 cm H2O, pressures between 30 and 50 cm H2O are sufficient to produce assisted cough in adults with neuromuscular disease. The pressure shift from positive to negative occurs with 0.02 sec and is regulated by a magnetic valve. An anaesthetic facemask is used as interface, alternatively, a mouthpiece can be used in combination with a nose strap. It is also possible to use the insufflator-exsufflator in patients with tracheostomy. We present in this article detailed information about the technical principles and practical use of the electromechanical insufflator-exsufflator. PMID:18317985

  1. [Regional electro-hyperthermia--technical principles, clinical results and health insurance aspects].

    PubMed

    Heyll, Uwe

    2012-06-01

    The method of electro-hyperthermia is based on the production of alternating currents from capacitive coupled electrodes. Because of the associated heating of body tissues, the electro-hyperthermia is promoted as an alternative to the more sophisticated methods of scientific hyperthermia, which find use in oncologic diseases. The analysis of technical data, however, reveals that the electro-hyperthermia is not qualified for a focused, effective and therapeutically useful heating of circumscribed target areas. Data from clinical studies demonstrating efficacy for defined indications are not available. The application of electro-hyperthermia is excluded form the German system of public health insurance. As proof of medical necessity cannot be provided, there is also no claim for reimbursement from private health insurance. According to legal regulations in Germany, an invoice as hyperthermia treatment is usually not possible. Rather, an item from the electrotherapy section of the official provision of medical fees (GOA) has to be chosen. PMID:22808643

  2. Susceptibility-Weighted Imaging: Technical Aspects and Clinical Applications, Part 1

    PubMed Central

    Haacke, E.M.; Mittal, S.; Wu, Z.; Neelavalli, J.; Cheng, Y.-C.N.

    2013-01-01

    SUMMARY Susceptibility-weighted imaging (SWI) is a new neuroimaging technique, which uses tissue magnetic susceptibility differences to generate a unique contrast, different from that of spin density, T1, T2, and T2*. In this review (the first of 2 parts), we present the technical background for SWI. We discuss the concept of gradient-echo images and how we can measure local changes in susceptibility. Armed with this material, we introduce the steps required to transform the original magnitude and phase images into SWI data. The use of SWI filtered phase as a means to visualize and potentially quantify iron in the brain is presented. Advice for the correct interpretation of SWI data is discussed, and a set of recommended sequence parameters for different field strengths is given. PMID:19039041

  3. Approach to MRI of the Elbow and Wrist: Technical Aspects and Innovation

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Dustin; Stevens, Kathryn J.; Riley, Geoffrey; Shapiro, Lauren; Yoshioka, Hiroshi; Gold, Garry E.

    2015-01-01

    The technology of wrist and elbow MRI imaging is advancing at a dramatic rate. MRI of the wrist and elbow is now commonly performed at medium and higher field strengths with more specialized surface coils and with more variable pulse sequences and post processing techniques than ever before. High field imaging and improved coils lead to an increased signal to noise ratio and increased variety of soft tissue contrast options. Three-dimensional imaging is also improving in terms of usability and artifacts. Some of these advances have challenges in wrist and elbow imaging such as postoperative patient imaging, cartilage mapping, and molecular imaging. In this review, we consider technical advances in hardware and software of wrist and elbow MR imaging along with their clinical applications. PMID:26216768

  4. CT-guided Bipolar and Multipolar Radiofrequency Ablation (RF Ablation) of Renal Cell Carcinoma: Specific Technical Aspects and Clinical Results

    SciTech Connect

    Sommer, C. M.; Lemm, G.; Hohenstein, E.; Bellemann, N.; Stampfl, U.; Goezen, A. S.; Rassweiler, J.; Kauczor, H. U.; Radeleff, B. A.; Pereira, P. L.

    2013-06-15

    Purpose. This study was designed to evaluate the clinical efficacy of CT-guided bipolar and multipolar radiofrequency ablation (RF ablation) of renal cell carcinoma (RCC) and to analyze specific technical aspects between both technologies. Methods. We included 22 consecutive patients (3 women; age 74.2 {+-} 8.6 years) after 28 CT-guided bipolar or multipolar RF ablations of 28 RCCs (diameter 2.5 {+-} 0.8 cm). Procedures were performed with a commercially available RF system (Celon AG Olympus, Berlin, Germany). Technical aspects of RF ablation procedures (ablation mode [bipolar or multipolar], number of applicators and ablation cycles, overall ablation time and deployed energy, and technical success rate) were analyzed. Clinical results (local recurrence-free survival and local tumor control rate, renal function [glomerular filtration rate (GFR)]) and complication rates were evaluated. Results. Bipolar RF ablation was performed in 12 procedures and multipolar RF ablation in 16 procedures (2 applicators in 14 procedures and 3 applicators in 2 procedures). One ablation cycle was performed in 15 procedures and two ablation cycles in 13 procedures. Overall ablation time and deployed energy were 35.0 {+-} 13.6 min and 43.7 {+-} 17.9 kJ. Technical success rate was 100 %. Major and minor complication rates were 4 and 14 %. At an imaging follow-up of 15.2 {+-} 8.8 months, local recurrence-free survival was 14.4 {+-} 8.8 months and local tumor control rate was 93 %. GFR did not deteriorate after RF ablation (50.8 {+-} 16.6 ml/min/1.73 m{sup 2} before RF ablation vs. 47.2 {+-} 11.9 ml/min/1.73 m{sup 2} after RF ablation; not significant). Conclusions. CT-guided bipolar and multipolar RF ablation of RCC has a high rate of clinical success and low complication rates. At short-term follow-up, clinical efficacy is high without deterioration of the renal function.

  5. Technical aspects of nuclear microprobe analysis of senile plaques from alzheimer patients

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Larsson, N. P.-O.; Tapper, U. A. S.; Sturesson, K.; Odselius, R.; Brun, A.

    1990-04-01

    Alzheimer's disease, a common form of senile dementia, has been proposed to be caused by aluminium. One of the interesting structures to be studied, senile plaque cores in the brain, have centres of only about 10 μm. We have investigated the possibility of applying nuclear microprobes to sections containing senile plaques. An alternative staining procedure, TMToluidin blue staining using a spray technique, is also presented. An outline is given of a procedure for preparing senile plaque specimens for nuclear microprobe analysis. This includes a technique for accurate ion beam positioning, utilizing electron microscopy-grids. The subject may be of general interest since sample preparation is one of the most important aspects in microprobe analysis of biological matter.

  6. Role of the Technical Aspects of Hypofractionated Radiation Therapy Treatment of Prostate Cancer: A Review

    SciTech Connect

    Clemente, Stefania; Nigro, Roberta; Oliviero, Caterina; Marchioni, Chiara; Esposito, Marco; Giglioli, Francesca Romana; Mancosu, Pietro; Marino, Carmelo; Russo, Serenella; Stasi, Michele; Strigari, Lidia; Veronese, Ivan; Landoni, Valeria

    2015-01-01

    The increasing use of moderate (<35 fractions) and extreme (<5 fractions) hypofractionated radiation therapy in prostate cancer is yielding favorable results, both in terms of maintained biochemical response and toxicity. Several hypofractionation (HF) schemes for the treatment of prostate cancer are available, although there is considerable variability in the techniques used to manage intra-/interfraction motion and deliver radiation doses. We performed a review of the published studies on HF regimens as a topic of interest for the Stereotactic Ablative Radiotherapy working group, which is part of the Italian Association of Medical Physics. Aspects of organ motion management (imaging for contouring, target volume definition, and rectum/bladder preparation) and treatment delivery (prostate localization, image guided radiation therapy strategy and frequency) were evaluated and categorized to assess outcome relative to disease control and toxicity. Despite the heterogeneity of the data, some interesting trends that emerged from the review might be useful in identifying an optimum HF strategy.

  7. Systems Modelling of the Socio-Technical Aspects of Residential Electricity Use and Network Peak Demand.

    PubMed

    Lewis, Jim; Mengersen, Kerrie; Buys, Laurie; Vine, Desley; Bell, John; Morris, Peter; Ledwich, Gerard

    2015-01-01

    Provision of network infrastructure to meet rising network peak demand is increasing the cost of electricity. Addressing this demand is a major imperative for Australian electricity agencies. The network peak demand model reported in this paper provides a quantified decision support tool and a means of understanding the key influences and impacts on network peak demand. An investigation of the system factors impacting residential consumers' peak demand for electricity was undertaken in Queensland, Australia. Technical factors, such as the customers' location, housing construction and appliances, were combined with social factors, such as household demographics, culture, trust and knowledge, and Change Management Options (CMOs) such as tariffs, price, managed supply, etc., in a conceptual 'map' of the system. A Bayesian network was used to quantify the model and provide insights into the major influential factors and their interactions. The model was also used to examine the reduction in network peak demand with different market-based and government interventions in various customer locations of interest and investigate the relative importance of instituting programs that build trust and knowledge through well designed customer-industry engagement activities. The Bayesian network was implemented via a spreadsheet with a tickbox interface. The model combined available data from industry-specific and public sources with relevant expert opinion. The results revealed that the most effective intervention strategies involve combining particular CMOs with associated education and engagement activities. The model demonstrated the importance of designing interventions that take into account the interactions of the various elements of the socio-technical system. The options that provided the greatest impact on peak demand were Off-Peak Tariffs and Managed Supply and increases in the price of electricity. The impact in peak demand reduction differed for each of the locations

  8. Systems Modelling of the Socio-Technical Aspects of Residential Electricity Use and Network Peak Demand

    PubMed Central

    Lewis, Jim; Mengersen, Kerrie; Buys, Laurie; Vine, Desley; Bell, John; Morris, Peter; Ledwich, Gerard

    2015-01-01

    Provision of network infrastructure to meet rising network peak demand is increasing the cost of electricity. Addressing this demand is a major imperative for Australian electricity agencies. The network peak demand model reported in this paper provides a quantified decision support tool and a means of understanding the key influences and impacts on network peak demand. An investigation of the system factors impacting residential consumers’ peak demand for electricity was undertaken in Queensland, Australia. Technical factors, such as the customers’ location, housing construction and appliances, were combined with social factors, such as household demographics, culture, trust and knowledge, and Change Management Options (CMOs) such as tariffs, price, managed supply, etc., in a conceptual ‘map’ of the system. A Bayesian network was used to quantify the model and provide insights into the major influential factors and their interactions. The model was also used to examine the reduction in network peak demand with different market-based and government interventions in various customer locations of interest and investigate the relative importance of instituting programs that build trust and knowledge through well designed customer-industry engagement activities. The Bayesian network was implemented via a spreadsheet with a tickbox interface. The model combined available data from industry-specific and public sources with relevant expert opinion. The results revealed that the most effective intervention strategies involve combining particular CMOs with associated education and engagement activities. The model demonstrated the importance of designing interventions that take into account the interactions of the various elements of the socio-technical system. The options that provided the greatest impact on peak demand were Off-Peak Tariffs and Managed Supply and increases in the price of electricity. The impact in peak demand reduction differed for each of the

  9. Extracorporeal machine perfusion of the pancreas: technical aspects and its clinical implications--a systematic review of experimental models.

    PubMed

    Kuan, Kean Guan; Wee, Mau Nam; Chung, Wen Yuan; Kumar, Rohan; Mees, Soeren Torge; Dennison, Ashley; Maddern, Guy; Trochsler, Markus

    2016-01-01

    Pancreas or pancreatic islet transplantation is an important treatment option for insulin-dependent diabetes and its complications. However, as the pancreas is particularly susceptible to ischaemic-reperfusion injury, the criteria for pancreas and islet donation are especially strict. With a chronic shortage of donors, one critical challenge is to maximise organ availability and expand the donor pool. To achieve that, continuous improvement in organ preservation is required, with the aims of reducing ischaemia-reperfusion injury, prolong preservation time and improve graft function. Static cold storage, the only method used in clinical pancreas and islet cell transplant currently, has likely reached its plateau. Machine perfusion, hypothermic or normothermic, could hold the key to improving donor pancreas quality as well as quantity available for transplant. This article reviews the literature on experimental models of pancreas machine perfusion, examines the benefits of machine perfusion, the technical aspects and their clinical implications. PMID:26253243

  10. Overview and technical and practical aspects for use of geostatistics in hazardous-, toxic-, and radioactive-waste-site investigations

    SciTech Connect

    Bossong, C.R.; Karlinger, M.R.; Troutman, B.M.; Vecchia, A.V.

    1999-10-01

    Technical and practical aspects of applying geostatistics are developed for individuals involved in investigation at hazardous-, toxic-, and radioactive-waste sites. Important geostatistical concepts, such as variograms and ordinary, universal, and indicator kriging, are described in general terms for introductory purposes and in more detail for practical applications. Variogram modeling using measured ground-water elevation data is described in detail to illustrate principles of stationarity, anisotropy, transformations, and cross validation. Several examples of kriging applications are described using ground-water-level elevations, bedrock elevations, and ground-water-quality data. A review of contemporary literature and selected public domain software associated with geostatistics also is provided, as is a discussion of alternative methods for spatial modeling, including inverse distance weighting, triangulation, splines, trend-surface analysis, and simulation.

  11. Technical Aspects on the Use of Ultrasonic Bone Shaver in Spine Surgery: Experience in 307 Patients

    PubMed Central

    Hazer, Derya Burcu; Yaşar, Barış; Rosberg, Hans-Eric; Akbaş, Aytaç

    2016-01-01

    Aim. We discuss technical points, the safety, and efficacy of ultrasonic bone shaver in various spinal surgeries within our own series. Methods. Between June 2010 and January 2014, 307 patients with various spinal diseases were operated on with the use of an ultrasonic bone curette with microhook shaver (UBShaver). Patients' data were recorded and analyzed retrospectively. The technique for the use of the device is described for each spine surgery procedure. Results. Among the 307 patients, 33 (10.7%) cases had cervical disorder, 17 (5.5%) thoracic disorder, 3 (0.9%) foramen magnum disorder, and 254 (82.7%) lumbar disorders. Various surgical techniques were performed either assisted or alone by UBShaver. The duration of the operations and the need for blood replacement were relatively low. The one-year follow-up with Neck Disability Index (NDI) and Oswestry Disability Index (ODI) scores were improved. We had 5 cases of dural tears (1.6%) in patients with lumbar spinal disease. No neurological deficit was found in any patients. Conclusion. We recommend this device as an assistant tool in various spine surgeries and as a primary tool in foraminotomies. It is a safe device in spine surgery with very low complication rate. PMID:27195299

  12. [The practical aspects of using "superelastic" arch wires in the edgewise technic].

    PubMed

    Linge, L; Dahm, S

    1994-12-01

    Ever increasing refinements in orthodontic treatment and the corresponding increase in technical demands are challenges to both the dentist in his/her practice and to the manufacturers of orthodontic materials. One interesting development has been the introduction of "super-elastic" arch wires, which have now been on the market for some years. Such arch wires are characterized by an excellent "shape memory", various levels of super-elasticity, a remarkable hysteresis, and temperature sensitivity. On the basis of findings from temperature controlled tests of arch wires in a "Lloyd 1000 R" testing machine, the following conclusions can be drawn. Shape memory can, from a clinical point of view, be regarded as being a positive feature. "Super-elasticity" is of lesser value, because conventional activation of edgewise arches rarely reaches the level of deformation necessary for super-elasticity to be called into play. Hysteresis and temperature sensitivity make a biomechanical control of the arch wires difficult. Reducing active forces by chilling the archwire brings relief to sore teeth. Whether this possibly leads to an improvement in blood circulation in the periodontal tissue, which would be biologically advantageous, should be made the subject of further research. PMID:7851829

  13. Technical aspects of using human adenovirus as a viral water quality indicator.

    PubMed

    Rames, Emily; Roiko, Anne; Stratton, Helen; Macdonald, Joanne

    2016-06-01

    Despite dramatic improvements in water treatment technologies in developed countries, waterborne viruses are still associated with many of cases of illness each year. These illnesses include gastroenteritis, meningitis, encephalitis, and respiratory infections. Importantly, outbreaks of viral disease from waters deemed compliant from bacterial indicator testing still occur, which highlights the need to monitor the virological quality of water. Human adenoviruses are often used as a viral indicator of water quality (faecal contamination), as this pathogen has high UV-resistance and is prevalent in untreated domestic wastewater all year round, unlike enteroviruses and noroviruses that are often only detected in certain seasons. Standard methods for recovering and measuring adenovirus numbers in water are lacking, and there are many variations in published methods. Since viral numbers are likely under-estimated when optimal methods are not used, a comprehensive review of these methods is both timely and important. This review critically evaluates how estimates of adenovirus numbers in water are impacted by technical manipulations, such as during adenovirus concentration and detection (including culturing and polymerase-chain reaction). An understanding of the implications of these issues is fundamental to obtaining reliable estimation of adenovirus numbers in water. Reliable estimation of HAdV numbers is critical to enable improved monitoring of the efficacy of water treatment processes, accurate quantitative microbial risk assessment, and to ensure microbiological safety of water. PMID:27065054

  14. Design and Technical Aspects of a New in Vacuum Transfocator at ESRF Beamline ID11

    SciTech Connect

    Rossat, M.; Vaughan, G. B. M.; Snigirev, A.; Wright, J. P; Bytchkov, A.; Dabin, Y.; Zhang, L.

    2010-06-23

    A tunable X-Ray focusing apparatus based on compound refractive lenses (CRL), referred to as a transfocator, has been installed for monochromatic beam (IAT in air transfocator) two years ago in the second optics hutch at ID11 at the ESRF. By varying the number of lenses in the beam, the energy focused and the focal length can be varied continuously throughout a large range of energies and distances.Based the success of the IAT, an in-vacuum transfocator (IVT) has now been built and installed at ID11.The aim of this poster is to describe and show the mechanical and technical solutions used to design and manufacture this new IVT.The IVT was installed last January in the first optics hutch at ID11. The IVT consists of nine water cooled cartridges containing 1, 2, 4, 8, 16, 32 Be lenses, and 32 and 64 Al lenses, and a protective aperture of Oe 900 {mu}m. The mechanical design is based on a system of pneumatically actuated cartridges with an auto positioning on two stainless steel rods. The vacuum vessel has translations and rotations perpendicular to the beam direction in order to align the axis of the cartridges with the x-ray beam.

  15. Technical and dosimetric aspects of the total skin electron beam technique implemented at Heidelberg University Hospital

    PubMed Central

    Hensley, Frank W.; Major, Gerald; Edel, Carolin; Hauswald, Henrik; Bischof, Marc

    2013-01-01

    Aim To give a technical description and present the dosimetric proporties of the total skin electron beam technique implemented at Heidelberg University Hospital. Background Techniques used for total skin electron beam irradiation were developed as early as in the 1960s to 1980s and have, since then, hardly changed. However, new measurements of the established methods allow deeper insight into the dose distributions and reasons for possible deviations from uniform dose. Materials and methods The TSEI technique applied at Heidelberg University Hospital since 1992 consists of irradiating the patient with a superposition of two beams of low energy electrons at gantry angles of 72° and 108° while he is rotating in a standing position on a turntable at 370 cm distance from the accelerator. The energy of the electron beam is degraded to 3.9 MeV by passing through an attenuator of 6 mm of Perspex. A recent re-measurement of the dose distribution is presented using modern dosimetry tools like a linear array of ionization chambers in combination with established methods like thermoluminescent detectors and film dosimetry. Results The measurements show a strong dependence of dose uniformity on details of the setup like gantry angles. Conclusions Dose uniformity of −4/+8% to the majority of the patient's skin can be achieved, however, for the described rotational technique overdoses up to more than 20% in small regions seem unavoidable. PMID:24936332

  16. Where no flag has gone before: Political and technical aspects of placing a flag on the Moon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Platoff, Anne M.

    1993-01-01

    The flag on the Moon represents an important event in vexillological history. The political and technical aspects of placing a flag on the Moon, focusing on the first Moon landing, is examined. During their historic extravehicular activity, the Apollo 11 crew planted the flag of the United States on the lunar surface. This flag-raising was strictly a symbolic activity, as the United Nations Treaty on Outer Space precluded any territorial claim. Nevertheless, there were domestic and international debates over the appropriateness of the event. Congress amended the agency's appropriations bill to prevent the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) from placing flags of other nations, or those of international associations, on the Moon during missions funded solely by the United States. Like any activity in space exploration, the Apollo flag-raising also provided NASA engineers with an interesting technical challenge. They designed a flagpole with a horizontal bar allowing the flag to 'fly' without the benefit of wind to overcome the effects of the Moon's lack of an atmosphere. Other factors considered in the design were weight, heat resistance, and ease of assembly by astronauts whose space suits restricted their range of movement and ability to grasp items. As NASA plans a return to the Moon and an expedition to Mars, we will likely see flags continue to go 'where no flag has gone before'.

  17. Technical, occupational health and environmental aspects of metal degreasing with aqueous cleaners.

    PubMed

    Lavoué, Jérôme; Bégin, Denis; Géerin, Michel

    2003-08-01

    Aqueous cleaners used for metal degreasing are detergent formulations containing surfactants (such as linear alkylbenzene sulphonates, alkylphenol ethoxylates or alcohol ethoxylates), builders (such as hydroxides, phosphates or silicates), sequestrants (such as EDTA or NTA), anti-corrosive agents (such as ethanolamines), solvents (such as glycol ethers or d-limonene) and other specialty additives. Generally sold as concentrates, they are typically diluted between 3 and 20 times in water, leading to solutions containing only a few per cent active products. The cleaning efficiency depends on physicochemical phenomena such as wetting, solubilization, emulsification, dispersion, sequestration and saponification, and is enhanced by thermal and mechanical energy. Cleaning equipment is based on spraying or immersion of the parts and may include drying and rinsing steps. Because of the complexity and variability of the mixtures, the occupational health and environmental evaluation of aqueous cleaners is based on the study of their components. Aqueous cleaners are generally believed to present a low risk to workers' health and to the environment. However, some anionic surfactants and strong alkalis are skin and eye irritants, ethanolamines are allergenic and several glycol ethers of the ethylene glycol family are proven systemic toxicants that are easily absorbed through the skin. Although most components of aqueous cleaners are biodegradable and of low ecotoxicity, alkylphenol ethoxylates degrade into persistent and toxic compounds. Phosphates, if released directly into the environment, may cause eutrophication of rivers and lakes. Waste recycling or treatment by specialized facilities is usually required for spent solutions containing contaminants such as oils and heavy metals. From a technical, toxicological and environmental standpoint, aqueous cleaners can be used successfully to replace traditional organic solvents used in metal degreasing. PMID:12890654

  18. Platform development for merging various information sources for water management: methodological, technical and operational aspects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galvao, Diogo

    2013-04-01

    As a result of various economic, social and environmental factors, we can all experience the increase in importance of water resources at a global scale. As a consequence, we can also notice the increasing need of methods and systems capable of efficiently managing and combining the rich and heterogeneous data available that concerns, directly or indirectly, these water resources, such as in-situ monitoring station data, Earth Observation images and measurements, Meteorological modeling forecasts and Hydrological modeling. Under the scope of the MyWater project, we developed a water management system capable of satisfying just such needs, under a flexible platform capable of accommodating future challenges, not only in terms of sources of data but also on applicable models to extract information from it. From a methodological point of view, the MyWater platform obtains data from distinct sources, and in distinct formats, be they Satellite images or meteorological model forecasts, transforms and combines them in ways that allow them to be fed to a variety of hydrological models (such as MOHID Land, SIMGRO, etc…), which themselves can also be combined, using such approaches as those advocated by the OpenMI standard, to extract information in an automated and time efficient manner. Such an approach brings its own deal of challenges, and further research was developed under this project on the best ways to combine such data and on novel approaches to hydrological modeling (like the PriceXD model). From a technical point of view, the MyWater platform is structured according to a classical SOA architecture, with a flexible object oriented modular backend service responsible for all the model process management and data treatment, while the information extracted can be interacted with using a variety of frontends, from a web portal, including also a desktop client, down to mobile phone and tablet applications. From an operational point of view, a user can not only see

  19. Charging of the Electric Vehicles in Private Sector: Technical and Economic Aspects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grackova, L.; Oleinikova, I.; Klavs, G.

    2014-12-01

    The economic aspect considered in the work is related to the charging of an electric vehicle (EV) at a single private house when this is done every day. To perform the relevant cost estimation it was necessary to determine: the average annual electricity consumption under the condition of everyday charging an EV and the average electricity consumption off the mains for covering a distance of 100 km by an EV and the time in hours for its charging. Comparison is made for the day-time intervals from which it is possible to choose the preferable for proper loading the electric line and the most beneficial for the consumer. Under analysis are two EV connection scenarios for 100 individual households from which 10%, 20% and 30% have EVs, with 8-h duration of each charging at the current of 13A. The authors consider the consumption and electric energy payment packages which - with planned opening of the electric energy market on January 1, 2015 - will offer the clients the enterprises rendering services on the electric energy sale. Šajā rakstā tiek analizēts vidējais diennakts elektroenerģijas patēriņš un diennakts slodzes grafiki privātmājās apstākļos, kad privātmājas īpašnieki lādē elektroautomobili katru dienu vidējam brauciena attālumam 100 km. Elektroautomobiļa uzlādes režīmi tiek analizēti, ņemot vērā patēriņa elektriskās slodzes grafika kvalitāti raksturojošos rādītājus un patērētāja ekonomiskos ieguvumus. Lai novērtētu ekonomiski stimulētu patērētāju elektroautomobiļa uzlādes laika izvēles ietekmi uz diennakts elektriskās slodzes aizpildījuma koeficientu, tika izveidoti un analizēti 2 scenāriji, kas apraksta 100 privātmāju ar dažādu elektroautomobiļu piederības īpatsvaru divas atšķirīgas automobiļu uzlādes gadījumus.

  20. Penile Reconstruction

    PubMed Central

    Salgado, Christopher J.; Chim, Harvey; Tang, Jennifer C.; Monstrey, Stan J.; Mardini, Samir

    2011-01-01

    A variety of surgical options exists for penile reconstruction. The key to success of therapy is holistic management of the patient, with attention to the psychological aspects of treatment. In this article, we review reconstructive modalities for various types of penile defects inclusive of partial and total defects as well as the buried penis, and also describe recent basic science advances, which may promise new options for penile reconstruction. PMID:22851914

  1. Osseointegration aspects of placed implant in bone reconstruction with newly developed block-type interconnected porous calcium hydroxyapatite

    PubMed Central

    DOI, Kazuya; KUBO, Takayasu; MAKIHARA, Yusuke; OUE, Hiroshi; MORITA, Koji; OKI, Yoshifumi; KAJIHARA, Shiho; TSUGA, Kazuhiro

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Artificial bone has been employed to reconstruct bone defects. However, only few reports on implant placement after block bone grafting exist. Objectives The purpose of this study was to evaluate the osseointegration of dental implant in bone reconstructions with interconnected porous calcium hydroxyapatite (IP-CHA). Material and Methods The IP-CHA cylinders (D; 4.3 mm, H; 10.0 mm) were placed into bone sockets in each side of the femurs of four male dogs. The IP-CHA on the right side was a 24-week sample. Twelve weeks after placement, a titanium implant was placed into a socket that was prepared in half of the placed IP-CHA cylinder on the right side. On the left side, another IP-CHA cylinder was placed as a 12-week sample. After another 12 weeks, the samples were harvested, and the bone regeneration and bone-implant contact (BIC) ratios were measured. Results New bone formation area was superior in the 24-week IP-CHA compared with the 12-week IP-CHA. BIC was not significantly different between IP-CHA and the parent sites. Osseointegration was detected around the implant in IP-CHA-reconstructed bone. Conclusion Our preliminary results suggest that IP-CHA may be a suitable bone graft material for reconstructing bones that require implant placement. PMID:27556202

  2. Technical refinements of composite thoracodorsal system free flaps for 1-stage lower extremity reconstruction resulting in reduced donor-site morbidity.

    PubMed

    Bannasch, Holger; Strohm, Peter C; Al Awadi, Khalid; Stark, G Björn; Momeni, Arash

    2008-04-01

    A multitude of local flaps has been suggested for lower extremity reconstruction. However, the gold standard for defect coverage remains free tissue transfer. In this regard, the scapular vascular axis is a well-established source of expendable skin, fascia, muscle, and bone for use in free flap reconstruction of defects requiring bone and soft tissue in complex 3-dimensional relationships. Composite bone and soft-tissue flaps derived from the subscapular vascular axis include the osteocutaneous scapular flap, the "latissimus/bone flap," and the thoracodorsal artery perforator-scapular osteocutaneous flap.Patient outcome following reconstruction of lower extremity defects with composite free flaps from the thoracodorsal system were analyzed. Here, we demonstrate the execution of technical refinements on free composite flap transfers based on the thoracodorsal vascular axis, thus resulting in a stepwise reduction of donor-site morbidity. PMID:18362565

  3. Reconstruction of a rare variant of the left hepatic vein in a left lateral segment liver graft from a living donor: Technical notes

    PubMed Central

    Veerankutty, Fadl H.; Ali, T.U. Shabeer; Manoj, Krishnan Sarojam; Venugopal, B.

    2016-01-01

    Reconstruction of hepatic veins in living donor liver transplantation (LDLT) is often technically challenging and a good venous outflow is essential for survival of the graft and patient. We describe a quadrangular patch venoplasty technique used for the reconstruction of a rare variant of the left hepatic vein (LHV) in a pediatric LDLT with left lateral segment (LLS) graft. Segment II vein in the graft was draining directly into the inferior vena cava (IVC) and segment III vein was draining into the middle hepatic vein (MHV) after receiving a tributary from segment IV so that there were two widely separated ostia at the cut surface. This is one of the rarest variations of the LHV and is so called type 3 variant; it is usually reconstructed using interposition tubular conduits necessitating two separate anastomoses at the IVC. PMID:26862296

  4. Reconstruction of a rare variant of the left hepatic vein in a left lateral segment liver graft from a living donor: Technical notes.

    PubMed

    Veerankutty, Fadl H; Ali, T U Shabeer; Manoj, Krishnan Sarojam; Venugopal, B

    2016-01-01

    Reconstruction of hepatic veins in living donor liver transplantation (LDLT) is often technically challenging and a good venous outflow is essential for survival of the graft and patient. We describe a quadrangular patch venoplasty technique used for the reconstruction of a rare variant of the left hepatic vein (LHV) in a pediatric LDLT with left lateral segment (LLS) graft. Segment II vein in the graft was draining directly into the inferior vena cava (IVC) and segment III vein was draining into the middle hepatic vein (MHV) after receiving a tributary from segment IV so that there were two widely separated ostia at the cut surface. This is one of the rarest variations of the LHV and is so called type 3 variant; it is usually reconstructed using interposition tubular conduits necessitating two separate anastomoses at the IVC. PMID:26862296

  5. Manual Arts to Technology Education: Are We Ripe for Infusing Aspects of a Green Technology into Career and Technical Education Constituent Subjects?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Asunda, Paul A.

    2010-01-01

    This paper is a conceptual essay that reviews industrial and economic changes that have shaped vocational education to present day Career and Technical Education (CTE) curriculum, and specifically the role of technology education in meeting societal needs. An argument is presented that CTE is ripe to integrate aspects of green technology and…

  6. Tumour ablation: technical aspects

    PubMed Central

    Bodner, Gerd; Bale, Reto

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Image-guided percutaneous radiofrequency ablation (RFA) is a minimally invasive, relatively low-risk procedure for tumour treatment. Local recurrence and survival rates depend on the rate of complete ablation of the entire tumour including a sufficient margin of surrounding healthy tissue. Currently a variety of different RFA devices are available. The interventionalist must be able to predict the configuration and extent of the resulting ablation necrosis. Accurate planning and execution of RFA according to the size and geometry of the tumour is essential. In order to minimize complications, individualized treatment strategies may be necessary for tumours close to vital structures. This review examines the state-of-the art of different device technologies, approaches, and treatment strategies for percutaneous RFA of liver tumours. PMID:19965296

  7. Technical aspects of CNG

    SciTech Connect

    Stephenson, J.; Jones, K.

    1983-07-01

    This report contains the following information: the volumetric Efficiency of Engines using Liquid and Gaseous Fuels (Why do CNG vehicles suffer a power loss.); Facilities and Procedures for CNG Testing at the University of Auckland. (What tests are the University of Auckland CNG Research Group able to do.); Carbon Monoxide Exhaust Emissions and the CNG Engine. (How can a CO exhaust emissions analyser be used to get the best fuel economy.); Ignition Timing and the Performance of a Dual-Fuel CNG-Petrol Engine. (How should ignition timing be set.); Ignition System Performance and Requirements for Dual Fuel CNG-Petrol Operation. (What are the spark plug temperature and voltage requirements.)

  8. Practical aspects of complex permittivity reconstruction with neural-network-controlled FDTD modeling of a two-port fixture.

    PubMed

    Eves, E Eugene; Murphy, Ethan K; Yakovlev, Vadim V

    2007-01-01

    The paper discusses characteristics of a new modeling-based technique for determining dielectric properties of materials. Complex permittivity is found with an optimization algorithm designed to match complex S-parameters obtained from measurements and from 3D FDTD simulation. The method is developed on a two-port (waveguide-type) fixture and deals with complex reflection and transmission characteristics at the frequency of interest. A computational part is constructed as an inverse-RBF-network-based procedure that reconstructs dielectric constant and the loss factor of the sample from the FDTD modeling data sets and the measured reflection and transmission coefficients. As such, it is applicable to samples and cavities of arbitrary configurations provided that the geometry of the experimental setup is adequately represented by the FDTD model. The practical implementation of the method considered in this paper is a section of a WR975 waveguide containing a sample of a liquid in a cylindrical cutout of a rectangular Teflon cup. The method is run in two stages and employs two databases--first, built for a sparse grid on the complex permittivity plane, in order to locate a domain with an anticipated solution and, second, made as a denser grid covering the determined domain, for finding an exact location of the complex permittivity point. Numerical tests demonstrate that the computational part of the method is highly accurate even when the modeling data is represented by relatively small data sets. When working with reflection and transmission coefficients measured in an actual experimental fixture and reconstructing a low dielectric constant and the loss factor the technique may be less accurate. It is shown that the employed neural network is capable of finding complex permittivity of the sample when experimental data on the reflection and transmission coefficients are numerically dispersive (noise-contaminated). A special modeling test is proposed for validating the

  9. Dosimetric and technical aspects of intraoperative I-125 brachytherapy for stage I non-small cell lung cancer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, Mark; Colonias, Athanasios; Parda, David; Trombetta, Mark; Gayou, Olivier; Reitz, Bodo; Miften, Moyed

    2007-03-01

    Initial treatment outcome data from our institution for stage I non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients have shown that sublobar resection in combination with iodine-125 (I-125) brachytherapy is associated with recurrence rates of 2.0%, compared to 18.6% with sublobar resection alone. In this work, the technical and dosimetric aspects required to execute this procedure from the radiation oncology perspective as well as an analysis of the dose distributions of patients treated with this technique are presented. In this treatment technique, I-125 seeds in vicryl suture are embedded into vicryl mesh and surgically inserted providing a 2.0 cm margin on each side of the resection staple line. A nomogram is developed to determine the suture spacing in the vicryl mesh, as a function of seed activity in order to deliver 120 Gy at a distance of 0.5 cm above and below the seed array. Post-operative dosimetry consists of a CT-based planning and dose volume analysis. Dose distributions, dose volume histograms and mean dose data for lung are analysed in a group of patients. Dosimetric results show significant lung sparing with only a small volume of lung irradiated for all patients with mean lung dose values ranging from 1.5 Gy to 5.4 Gy. Lung brachytherapy with I-125 at the time of sublobar resection is a highly conformal option of dose delivery for stage I NSCLC patients with compromised physiologic reserve. Patient-related toxicity clinically measured by loss of pulmonary function and radiation-induced pneumonitis have not been linked to this procedure.

  10. [Esthetic and technical aspects of conventional removable dentures. Design of a complete denture in the upper jaw and a telescopic denture in the lower jaw. A case report].

    PubMed

    Teubner, Eckart; Lorenzon, Andreas; Marinello, Carlo P

    2007-01-01

    Removable partial dentures and complete dentures are still an important part of the daily prosthetic work of dentists and dental technicians. Thereby the esthetic design of conventional fixed restorations is challenging the dentist and the dental technician in removable prosthodontics. The result is mainly influenced by the clinical and technical procedure as well as by the choice of material. In this article, the reconstruction of a patient with a complete removable dental prosthesis in the upper jaw and an overlay denture on four telescopes in the lower jaw is presented. PMID:17557643

  11. Expose and Biopan - Technical and operational aspects in the development of exposure platforms for exobiology and radiation biology research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baglioni, P.; Demets, R.; Brillouet, C.; von Heise-Rotenburg, R.; Schulte, W.

    , protected with a variety of windows and filters. This paper focuses mainly on the technical aspects related to the development of the experiment-dedicated hardware and the sensor packages for these exposure platforms; in particular, it analyses the impact of the scientific requirements and of the constraints due to resources limitation and to safety issues (ISS operations) on the design and on the operational scenarios. Improvements and possible upgrading of the existing design solutions are also explored in view of a future and more intensive utilization of these facilities, in the frame of the new ESA Exploration Programme.

  12. Technical aspects of pediatric epilepsy surgery: Report of a multicenter, multinational web-based survey by the ILAE Task Force on Pediatric Epilepsy Surgery.

    PubMed

    Cukiert, Arthur; Rydenhag, Bertil; Harkness, William; Cross, J Helen; Gaillard, William D

    2016-02-01

    Surgical techniques may vary extensively between centers. We report on a web-based survey aimed at evaluating the current technical approaches in different centers around the world performing epilepsy surgery in children. The intention of the survey was to establish technical standards. A request was made to 88 centers to complete a web-based survey comprising 51 questions. There were 14 questions related to general issues, 13 questions investigating the different technical aspects for children undergoing epilepsy surgery, and 24 questions investigating surgical strategies in pediatric epilepsy surgery. Fifty-two centers covering a wide geographic representation completed the questionnaire. The median number of resective procedures per center per year was 47. Some important technical practices appeared (>80% of the responses) such as the use of prophylactic antibiotics (98%), the use of high-speed drills for bone opening (88%), nonresorbable material for bone flap closure (85%), head fixation (90%), use of the surgical microscope (100%), and of free bone flaps. Other questions, such as the use of drains, electrocorticography (ECoG) and preoperative withdrawal of valproate, led to mixed, inconclusive results. Complications were noted in 3.8% of the patients submitted to cortical resection, 9.9% hemispheric surgery, 5% callosotomy, 1.8% depth electrode implantation, 5.9% subdural grids implantation, 11.9% hypothalamic hamartoma resection, 0.9% vagus nerve stimulation (VNS), and 0.5% deep brain stimulation. There were no major differences across regions or countries in any of the subitems above. The present data offer the first overview of the technical aspects of pediatric epilepsy surgery worldwide. Surprisingly, there seem to be more similarities than differences. That aside many of the evaluated issues should be examined by adequately designed multicenter randomized controlled trials (RCTs). Further knowledge on these technical issues might lead to increased

  13. Squamous cell carcinoma of the heel with free latissimus dorsi myocutaneous flap reconstruction: case report and technical note.

    PubMed

    Al Maksoud, Ahmed Mahmoud; Barsoum, Adel K; Moneer, Mohammed

    2016-01-01

    Squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) is the second most common skin cancer; however, it is relatively rare on the foot. Wide excision of SCC is the recommended surgical treatment. The extent of the excision may involve resection of muscles and bone in cases of deep lesions. The functional and anatomic properties and lack of sufficient locally available tissues make the reconstruction of post-oncosurgical defects of the foot a challenging process. Heel reconstruction poses the biggest challenge due to the unique weight-bearing requirements. We present a case of a Marjolin's ulcer on the heel in a 62-year-old woman complicating a chronic non-healing wound. The heel defect was reconstructed with a free latissimus dorsi myocutaneous flap with delayed secondary closure. The outcome was successful both functionally and cosmetically. No further procedures were needed. PMID:27161144

  14. Squamous cell carcinoma of the heel with free latissimus dorsi myocutaneous flap reconstruction: case report and technical note

    PubMed Central

    Al Maksoud, Ahmed Mahmoud; Barsoum, Adel K.; Moneer, Mohammed

    2016-01-01

    Squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) is the second most common skin cancer; however, it is relatively rare on the foot. Wide excision of SCC is the recommended surgical treatment. The extent of the excision may involve resection of muscles and bone in cases of deep lesions. The functional and anatomic properties and lack of sufficient locally available tissues make the reconstruction of post-oncosurgical defects of the foot a challenging process. Heel reconstruction poses the biggest challenge due to the unique weight-bearing requirements. We present a case of a Marjolin’s ulcer on the heel in a 62-year-old woman complicating a chronic non-healing wound. The heel defect was reconstructed with a free latissimus dorsi myocutaneous flap with delayed secondary closure. The outcome was successful both functionally and cosmetically. No further procedures were needed. PMID:27161144

  15. Avoiding Complications and Technical Variability During Arthroscopically Assisted Transtibial ACL Reconstructions by Using a C-Arm With Image Intensifier

    PubMed Central

    Trentacosta, Natasha; Fillar, Allison Liefeld; Liefeld, Cynthia Pierce; Hossack, Michael D.; Levy, I. Martin

    2014-01-01

    Background: Surgical reconstruction of the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) can be complicated by incorrect and variable tunnel placement, graft tunnel mismatch, cortical breaches, and inadequate fixation due to screw divergence. This is the first report describing the use of a C-arm with image intensifier employed for the sole purpose of eliminating those complications during transtibial ACL reconstruction. Purpose: To determine if the use of a C-arm with image intensifier during arthroscopically assisted transtibial ACL reconstruction (IIAA-TACLR) eliminated common complications associated with bone–patellar tendon–bone ACL reconstruction, including screw divergence, cortical breaches, graft-tunnel mismatch, and improper positioning of the femoral and tibial tunnels. Study Design: Case series; Level of evidence, 4. Methods: A total of 110 consecutive patients (112 reconstructed knees) underwent identical IIAA-TACLR using a bone–patellar tendon–bone autograft performed by a single surgeon. Intra- and postoperative radiographic images and operative reports were evaluated for each patient looking for evidence of cortical breeching and screw divergence. Precision of femoral tunnel placement was evaluated using a sector map modified from Bernard et al. Graft recession distance and tibial α angles were recorded. Results: There were no femoral or tibial cortical breaches noted intraoperatively or on postoperative images. There were no instances of loss of fixation screw major thread engagement. There were no instances of graft-tunnel mismatch. The positions of the femoral tunnels were accurate and precise, falling into the desired sector of our location map (sector 1). Tibial α angles and graft recession distances varied widely. Conclusion: The use of the C-arm with image intensifier enabled accurate and precise tunnel placement and completely eliminated cortical breach, graft-tunnel mismatch, and screw divergence during IIAA-TACLR by allowing incremental

  16. Molecular aspects of transport in thin films of controlled architecture. [Annual] technical summary, July 1, 1992--June 30, 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-12-01

    Work has progressed in two principal areas during the past year: diffusion in swollen polymer films with and without a barrier layer, and molecular aspects of swelling using enhanced Raman spectroscopy.

  17. Wildland fires and nuclear winters. Selected reconstruction of historic large fires. Technical report, 1 March 1985-28 February 1986

    SciTech Connect

    Pyne, S.J.; Omi, P.N.

    1986-02-28

    Under the nuclear winter scenario, large wildland fires are expected to contribute to a general smoke plume and are considered potential analogues for the behavior of gigantic palls. As a means of testing the reasonableness of current estimates of a wildland fire contribution, the authors reconstructed from the historic record two major events; the Tillamook Burn of August 1933 and the 1910 fire complex in the Northern Rocky Mountains. Both events are near the upper limit for wildland fires - the Tillamook Burn for a single fire. For the 1910 fires, for which environmental data are skimpy, a modern analogue, the Sundance fire (1967), was used for certain extrapolations. Reconstructed fire behavior and estimated smoke production suggest that current nuclear winter models overestimate the magnitude of a wildland component.

  18. Radiation dose reconstruction for epidemiologic uses. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    1995-05-12

    The report presents specific and practical recommendations for whether, when, and how dose-reconstruction studies should be conducted, with an emphasis on public participation. The book provides an overview of the basic requirements and technical aspects of dose reconstruction; presents lessons to be learned from dose reconstructions after Chernobyl, Three Mile Island, and elsewhere; explores the potential benefits and limitations of using current available biological markers; discusses how to establish the source term determining what was released; explores methods for identifying the environmental pathways by which radiation reaches the body; offers details on three major categories of dose assessment; and examines priority-setting and strengths and limitations of epidemiological studies.

  19. Technical Note: Measuring contrast- and noise-dependent spatial resolution of an iterative reconstruction method in CT using ensemble averaging

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Lifeng; Vrieze, Thomas J.; Leng, Shuai; Fletcher, Joel G.; McCollough, Cynthia H.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The spatial resolution of iterative reconstruction (IR) in computed tomography (CT) is contrast- and noise-dependent because of the nonlinear regularization. Due to the severe noise contamination, it is challenging to perform precise spatial-resolution measurements at very low-contrast levels. The purpose of this study was to measure the spatial resolution of a commercially available IR method using ensemble-averaged images acquired from repeated scans. Methods: A low-contrast phantom containing three rods (7, 14, and 21 HU below background) was scanned on a 128-slice CT scanner at three dose levels (CTDIvol = 16, 8, and 4 mGy). Images were reconstructed using two filtered-backprojection (FBP) kernels (B40 and B20) and a commercial IR method (sinogram affirmed iterative reconstruction, SAFIRE, Siemens Healthcare) with two strength settings (I40-3 and I40-5). The same scan was repeated 100 times at each dose level. The modulation transfer function (MTF) was calculated based on the edge profile measured on the ensemble-averaged images. Results: The spatial resolution of the two FBP kernels, B40 and B20, remained relatively constant across contrast and dose levels. However, the spatial resolution of the two IR kernels degraded relative to FBP as contrast or dose level decreased. For a given dose level at 16 mGy, the MTF50% value normalized to the B40 kernel decreased from 98.4% at 21 HU to 88.5% at 7 HU for I40-3 and from 97.6% to 82.1% for I40-5. At 21 HU, the relative MTF50% value decreased from 98.4% at 16 mGy to 90.7% at 4 mGy for I40-3 and from 97.6% to 85.6% for I40-5. Conclusions: A simple technique using ensemble averaging from repeated CT scans can be used to measure the spatial resolution of IR techniques in CT at very low contrast levels. The evaluated IR method degraded the spatial resolution at low contrast and high noise levels. PMID:25979020

  20. Technical Note: Measuring contrast- and noise-dependent spatial resolution of an iterative reconstruction method in CT using ensemble averaging

    SciTech Connect

    Yu, Lifeng Vrieze, Thomas J.; Leng, Shuai; Fletcher, Joel G.; McCollough, Cynthia H.

    2015-05-15

    Purpose: The spatial resolution of iterative reconstruction (IR) in computed tomography (CT) is contrast- and noise-dependent because of the nonlinear regularization. Due to the severe noise contamination, it is challenging to perform precise spatial-resolution measurements at very low-contrast levels. The purpose of this study was to measure the spatial resolution of a commercially available IR method using ensemble-averaged images acquired from repeated scans. Methods: A low-contrast phantom containing three rods (7, 14, and 21 HU below background) was scanned on a 128-slice CT scanner at three dose levels (CTDI{sub vol} = 16, 8, and 4 mGy). Images were reconstructed using two filtered-backprojection (FBP) kernels (B40 and B20) and a commercial IR method (sinogram affirmed iterative reconstruction, SAFIRE, Siemens Healthcare) with two strength settings (I40-3 and I40-5). The same scan was repeated 100 times at each dose level. The modulation transfer function (MTF) was calculated based on the edge profile measured on the ensemble-averaged images. Results: The spatial resolution of the two FBP kernels, B40 and B20, remained relatively constant across contrast and dose levels. However, the spatial resolution of the two IR kernels degraded relative to FBP as contrast or dose level decreased. For a given dose level at 16 mGy, the MTF{sub 50%} value normalized to the B40 kernel decreased from 98.4% at 21 HU to 88.5% at 7 HU for I40-3 and from 97.6% to 82.1% for I40-5. At 21 HU, the relative MTF{sub 50%} value decreased from 98.4% at 16 mGy to 90.7% at 4 mGy for I40-3 and from 97.6% to 85.6% for I40-5. Conclusions: A simple technique using ensemble averaging from repeated CT scans can be used to measure the spatial resolution of IR techniques in CT at very low contrast levels. The evaluated IR method degraded the spatial resolution at low contrast and high noise levels.

  1. Historical reconstruction of major pollutant levels in the Hudson-Raritan Basin: 1880-1980. Volume 1. Summary. Technical memo

    SciTech Connect

    Ayres, R.U.; Ayres, L.W.

    1988-05-01

    The report is a summary of the results of a larger effort carried out by Variflex Corp. for Martin-Marietta Environmental Systems, Inc. under a grant from the Ocean Assessment Division of the National Oceanographic and Atmospheric Agency (NOAA). The background research is described in volumes 2 and 3, on Heavy Metals and Fossil Fuels (HMFF) and Chemicals and Other Wastes (COW), respectively. The specific purpose of the present report is to reconstruct historical pollutant loadings in the Hudson-Raritan (H-R) basin from the material production and use data (as compiled in HMFF and COW) consistent with recent empirical evidence. The larger purpose of NOAA in commissioning the report is to provide input data for a statistical test of various hypotheses concerning the long-term relationships between commercial fish stocks and anthropogenic activities in estuarine water bodies. The analysis of fish stocks is the responsibility of MMES. As a test of the overall methodology, the pilot study has been focussed explicitly on the Hudson-Raritan basin.

  2. Atomic and molecular collision aspects of thermospheric uranium-vapor releases. Technical report, 15 February 1980-31 December 1985

    SciTech Connect

    Hamlin, D.A.

    1990-05-01

    The DNA Uranium (Oxides) LWIR Review Committee considered the effectiveness of field measurements of the LWIR from uranium oxides produced by (hypothetical) controlled releases of uranium vapor from rockets in the thermosphere. Collated here is the writer's work supporting the committee on atomic and molecular collision aspects of such releases. Included is an essential auxiliary study to (a) understand, in terms of atomic and molecular parameters, coefficients for Ba+ diffusion along the magnetic field as measured and predicted for Ba-release events and (b) apply that (limited) understanding to U-release studies. For particles colliding with neutral atmospheric species, several interaction potentials are used to compute velocity-dependent momentum-transfer cross sections, stopping power and range versus energy, and diffusion coefficients. The momentum-transfer cross sections are also compared with cross sections for certain uranium oxide reactions specially atom-transfer reactions.

  3. An assessment of scientific and technical aspects of closed investigations of canine forensics DNA – case series from the University of California, Davis, USA

    PubMed Central

    Scharnhorst, Günther; Kanthaswamy, Sree

    2011-01-01

    Aim To describe and assess the scientific and technical aspects of animal forensic testing at the University of California, Davis. The findings and recommendations contained in this report are designed to assess the past, evaluate the present, and recommend reforms that will assist the animal forensic science community in providing the best possible services that comply with court standards and bear judicial scrutiny. Methods A batch of 32 closed files of domestic dog DNA cases processed at the University of California, Davis, between August 2003 and July 2005 were reviewed in this study. The case files comprised copies of all original paperwork, copies of the cover letter or final report, laboratory notes, notes on analyses, submission forms, internal chains of custody, printed images and photocopies of evidence, as well as the administrative and technical reviews of those cases. Results While the fundamental aspects of animal DNA testing may be reliable and acceptable, the scientific basis for forensic testing animal DNA needs to be improved substantially. In addition to a lack of standardized and validated genetic testing protocols, improvements are needed in a wide range of topics including quality assurance and quality control measures, sample handling, evidence testing, statistical analysis, and reporting. Conclusion This review implies that although a standardized panel of short tandem repeat and mitochondrial DNA markers and publicly accessible genetic databases for canine forensic DNA analysis are already available, the persistent lack of supporting resources, including standardized quality assurance and quality control programs, still plagues the animal forensic community. This report focuses on closed cases from the period 2003-2005, but extends its scope more widely to include other animal DNA forensic testing services. PMID:21674824

  4. Reconstruction of the bronchus and pulmonary artery

    PubMed Central

    D’Andrilli, Antonio; Venuta, Federico; Rendina, Erino Angelo

    2016-01-01

    Bronchovascular reconstructive procedures employed in order to avoid pneumonectomy (PN) in patients functionally unsuitable have provided, over time, excellent results, similar or even better than those obtained by PN. In recent years, new successful techniques have been developed that pertain in particular the prevention of major complications and the reconstruction of the pulmonary artery (PA). Encouraging data from increasing number of published experiences support the choice of parenchymal sparing procedures for lung cancer also in patients with good functional reserve. This is even more true if considering trials published in the last 10 years, thus indicating that improved outcome can be achieved with increased experience in reconstructive techniques and perioperative management. This article discusses the main technical aspects and results of literature. PMID:26981268

  5. Measurements of functional residual capacity during intensive care treatment: the technical aspects and its possible clinical applications.

    PubMed

    Heinze, H; Eichler, W

    2009-10-01

    Direct measurement of lung volume, i.e. functional residual capacity (FRC) has been recommended for monitoring during mechanical ventilation. Mostly due to technical reasons, FRC measurements have not become a routine monitoring tool, but promising techniques have been presented. We performed a literature search of studies with the key words 'functional residual capacity' or 'end expiratory lung volume' and summarize the physiology and patho-physiology of FRC measurements in ventilated patients, describe the existing techniques for bedside measurement, and provide an overview of the clinical questions that can be addressed using an FRC assessment. The wash-in or wash-out of a tracer gas in a multiple breath maneuver seems to be best applicable at bedside, and promising techniques for nitrogen or oxygen wash-in/wash-out with reasonable accuracy and repeatability have been presented. Studies in ventilated patients demonstrate that FRC can easily be measured at bedside during various clinical settings, including positive end-expiratory pressure optimization, endotracheal suctioning, prone position, and the weaning from mechanical ventilation. Alveolar derecruitment can easily be monitored and improvements of FRC without changes of the ventilatory setting could indicate alveolar recruitment. FRC seems to be insensitive to over-inflation of already inflated alveoli. Growing evidence suggests that FRC measurements, in combination with other parameters such as arterial oxygenation and respiratory compliance, could provide important information on the pulmonary situation in critically ill patients. Further studies are needed to define the exact role of FRC in monitoring and perhaps guiding mechanical ventilation. PMID:19681779

  6. Minimal Incision Scar-Less Open Umbilical Hernia Repair in Adults – Technical Aspects and Short-Term Results

    PubMed Central

    Zachariah, Sanoop K.; Kolathur, Najeeb Mohamed; Balakrishnan, Mahesh; Parakkadath, Arun Joseph

    2014-01-01

    Background: There is no gold standard technique for umbilical hernia (UH) repair. Conventional open UH repair often produces an undesirable scar. Laparoscopic UH repair requires multiple incisions beyond the umbilicus, specialized equipments, and expensive tissue separating mesh. We describe our technique of open UH repair utilizing a small incision. The technique was derived from our experience with single incision laparoscopy. We report the technical details and short-term results. Methods: This is a retrospective analysis of the first 20 patients, who underwent minimal incision scar-less open UH repair, from June 2011 to February 2014. A single intra-umbilical curved incision was used to gain access to the hernia sac. Primary suture repair was performed for defects up to 2 cm. Larger defects were repaired using an onlay mesh. In patients with a BMI of 30 kg/m2 or greater, onlay mesh hernioplasty was performed irrespective of the defect size. Results: A total of 20 patients, 12 males and 8 females underwent the procedure. Mean age was 50 (range 29–82) years. Mean BMI was 26.27 (range 20.0–33.1) kg/m2. Average size of the incision was 1.96 range (1.5–2.5) cm. Mesh hernioplasty was done in nine patients. Eleven patients underwent primary suture repair alone. There were no postoperative complications associated with this technique. Average postoperative length of hospital stay was 3.9 (range 2–10) days. Mean follow-up was 29.94 months (2 weeks to 2.78 years). On follow-up there was no externally visible scar in any of the patients. There were no recurrences on final follow-up. Conclusion: This technique provides a similar cosmetic effect as obtained from single port laparoscopy. It is easy to perform, safe, offers good cosmesis, does not require incisions beyond the umbilicus, and cost effective, with encouraging results on short-term follow-up. Further research is needed to assess the true potential of the technique and the long-term results. PMID

  7. Breast Reconstruction after Mastectomy

    PubMed Central

    Schmauss, Daniel; Machens, Hans-Günther; Harder, Yves

    2016-01-01

    Breast cancer is the leading cause of cancer death in women worldwide. Its surgical approach has become less and less mutilating in the last decades. However, the overall number of breast reconstructions has significantly increased lately. Nowadays, breast reconstruction should be individualized at its best, first of all taking into consideration not only the oncological aspects of the tumor, neo-/adjuvant treatment, and genetic predisposition, but also its timing (immediate versus delayed breast reconstruction), as well as the patient’s condition and wish. This article gives an overview over the various possibilities of breast reconstruction, including implant- and expander-based reconstruction, flap-based reconstruction (vascularized autologous tissue), the combination of implant and flap, reconstruction using non-vascularized autologous fat, as well as refinement surgery after breast reconstruction. PMID:26835456

  8. Arthroscopic reconstruction of chronic AC joint dislocations by transposition of the coracoacromial ligament augmented by the Tight Rope device: a technical note.

    PubMed

    Hosseini, Hamid; Friedmann, Svenja; Tröger, Markus; Lobenhoffer, Philipp; Agneskirchner, Jens D

    2009-01-01

    We present a new arthroscopic technique for chronic AC joint dislocations with coracoacromial ligament transposition and augmentation by the Tight Rope device (Arthrex, Naples, USA). First the glenohumeral joint is visualised to repair concomitant lesions, such as SLAP lesions, if needed. Once the rotator interval is opened and the coracoid is identified, the arthroscope is moved to an additional anterolateral portal. A 1.5 cm incision is made 2 cm medial to the AC joint. After drilling a 4 mm hole with a cannulated drill through the clavicle and coracoid a Tight Rope is inserted, the clavicule is reduced and stabilized with the implant. The arthroscope is moved to the subacromial space and a partial bursectomy is performed to visualise the CA ligament and lateral clavicle. The CA ligament is armed with a strong braided suture using a Lasso stitch and dissected from the undersurface of the acromion. It is then reattached to the distal part of the clavicle by transosseous suture fixation after abrasion of its undersurface. Although this combined arthroscopic procedure of AC joint augmentation with a Tight Rope combined with a ligament transposition is technically demanding, it is a safe method to reconstruct the coracoclavicular ligaments and achieve a sufficient reduction of the clavicle without the need of further implant removal or autologous tendon transplantation. PMID:18836701

  9. HLW Return from France to Germany - 15 Years of Experience in Public Acceptance and Technical Aspects - 12149

    SciTech Connect

    Graf, Wilhelm

    2012-07-01

    Since in 1984 the national reprocessing concept was abandoned the reprocessing abroad was the only existing disposal route until 1994. With the amendment of the Atomic Energy Act in 2001 spent fuel management changed completely since from 1 June 2005 any delivery of spent fuel to reprocessing plants was prohibited and the direct disposal of spent fuel became mandatory. Until 2005 the total amount of spent fuel to be reprocessed abroad added up to 6080 t HM, 5309 t HM thereof in France. The waste generated from reprocessing - alternatively an equivalent amount of radioactive material - has to be returned to the country of origin according to the commercial contracts signed between the German utilities and COGEMA, now AREVA NC, in France and BNFL, now INS in UK. In addition the German and the French government exchanged notes with the obligation of both sides to enable and support the return of reprocessing residues or equivalents to Germany. The return of high active vitrified waste from La Hague to the interim storage facility at Gorleben was demanding from the technical view i. e. the cask design and the transport. Unfortunately the Gorleben area served as a target for nuclear opponents from the first transport in 1996 to the latest one in 2011. The protection against sabotage of the railway lines and mass protests needed highly improved security measures. In France and Germany special working forces and projects have been set up to cope with this extraordinary situation. A complex transport organization was established to involve all parties in line with the German and French requirements during transport. The last transport of vitrified residues from France has been completed successfully so far thus confirming the efficiency of the applied measures. Over 15 years there was and still is worldwide no comparable situation it is still unique. Summing up, the exceptional project handling challenge that resulted from the continuous anti-nuclear civil disobedience in

  10. Femoral tunnel malposition in ACL revision reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Morgan, Joseph A; Dahm, Diane; Levy, Bruce; Stuart, Michael J

    2012-11-01

    The Multicenter Anterior Cruciate Ligament (ACL) Revision Study (MARS) group was formed to study a large cohort of revision ACL reconstruction patients. The purpose of this subset analysis study of the MARS database is to describe specific details of femoral tunnel malposition and subsequent management strategies that surgeons chose in the revision setting. The design of this study is a case series. The multicenter MARS database is compiled from a questionnaire regarding 460 ACL reconstruction revision cases returned by 87 surgeons. This subset analysis described technical aspects and operative findings in specifically those cases in which femoral tunnel malposition was cited as the cause of primary ACL reconstruction failure. Of the 460 revisions included for study, 276 (60%) cases cited a specific "technical cause of failure." Femoral tunnel malposition was cited in 219 (47.6%) of 460 cases. Femoral tunnel malposition was cited as the only cause of failure in 117 cases (25.4%). Surgeons judged the femoral tunnel too vertical in 42 cases (35.9%), too anterior in 35 cases (29.9%), and too vertical and anterior in 31 cases (26.5%). Revision reconstruction involved the drilling of an entirely new femoral tunnel in 91 cases (82.1%). For primary reconstruction, autograft tissue was used in 82 cases (70.1%). For revision reconstruction, autograft tissue was used in 61 cases (52.1%) and allograft tissue in 56 cases (47.9%). Femoral tunnel malposition in primary ACL reconstruction was the most commonly cited reason for graft failure in this cohort. Graft selection is widely variable among surgeons. PMID:23150344

  11. Femoral Tunnel Malposition in ACL Revision Reconstruction

    PubMed Central

    Morgan, Joseph A.; Dahm, Diane; Levy, Bruce; Stuart, Michael J.

    2013-01-01

    The Multicenter Anterior Cruciate Ligament (ACL) Revision Study (MARS) group was formed to study a large cohort of revision ACL reconstruction patients. The purpose of this subset analysis study of the MARS database is to describe specific details of femoral tunnel malposition and subsequent management strategies that surgeons chose in the revision setting. The design of this study is a case series. The multicenter MARS database is compiled from a questionnaire regarding 460 ACL reconstruction revision cases returned by 87 surgeons. This subset analysis described technical aspects and operative findings in specifically those cases in which femoral tunnel malposition was cited as the cause of primary ACL reconstruction failure. Of the 460 revisions included for study, 276 (60%) cases cited a specific “technical cause of failure.” Femoral tunnel malposition was cited in 219 (47.6%) of 460 cases. Femoral tunnel malposition was cited as the only cause of failure in 117 cases (25.4%). Surgeons judged the femoral tunnel too vertical in 42 cases (35.9%), too anterior in 35 cases (29.9%), and too vertical and anterior in 31 cases (26.5%). Revision reconstruction involved the drilling of an entirely new femoral tunnel in 91 cases (82.1%). For primary reconstruction, autograft tissue was used in 82 cases (70.1%). For revision reconstruction, autograft tissue was used in 61 cases (52.1%) and allograft tissue in 56 cases (47.9%). Femoral tunnel malposition in primary ACL reconstruction was the most commonly cited reason for graft failure in this cohort. Graft selection is widely variable among surgeons. PMID:23150344

  12. New aspects of the application of sterane isomerization and steroid aromatization to petroleum exploration and the reconstruction of geothermal histories of sedimentary basins

    SciTech Connect

    Rullkoetter, J.; Marzi, R. , Julich )

    1989-03-01

    Two organic geochemical biological marker reactions, i.e. isomerization of C{sub 29} steranes at C-20 and transformation of mono- into triaromatic steroid hydrocarbons, could be efficiently simulated by hydrous pyrolysis. It was shown that both reactions proceed through a maximum instead of leading to a maximum end value. Pseudokinetic constants for both reactions were determined using the ascending parts of the evolution curves. Application of the kinetics of sterane isomerization to the reconstruction of the geothermal history of the Michigan Basin supports the idea of higher geothermal heat flow and deeper subsidence particularly of Devonian but probably also of Pennsylvanian sediments, presently outcropping at the surface, in the geological past. Oil generation from Devonian strata thus is feasible.

  13. The biomechanical aspects of reconstruction for segmental defects of the mandible: a finite element study to assess the optimisation of plate and screw factors.

    PubMed

    Bujtár, Péter; Simonovics, János; Váradi, Károly; Sándor, George K B; Avery, C M E

    2014-09-01

    A bone plate is required to restore the load-bearing capacity of the mandible following a segmental resection. A good understanding of the underlying principles is crucial for developing a reliable reconstruction. A finite element analysis (FEA) technique has been developed to study the biomechanics of the clinical scenarios managed after surgical resection of a tumour or severe trauma to assist in choosing the optimal hardware elements. A computer aided design (CAD) model of an edentulous human mandible was created. Then 4 common segmental defects were simulated. A single reconstruction plate was designed to span the defects. The hardware variations studied were: monocortical or bicortical screw fixation and non-locking or locking plate design. A standardized load was applied to mimic the human bite. The von Mises stress and strain, spatial changes at the screw-bone interfaces were analysed. In general, the locking plate and monocortical screw fixation systems were most effective. Non-locking plating systems produced larger screw "pull-out" displacements, especially at the hemimandible (up to 5% strain). Three screws on either side of the defect were adequate for all scenarios except extensive unilateral defects when additional screws and an increased screw diameter are recommended. The simplification of screw geometry may underestimate stress levels and factors such as poor adaptation of the plate or reduced bone quality are likely to be indications for bicortical locking screw fixation. The current model provides a good basis for understanding the complex biomechanics and developing future refinements in plate or scaffold design. PMID:24467871

  14. Applying the European protocol for the quality control of the physical and technical aspects of mammography screening threshold contrast visibility assessment to digital systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Van Metter, Richard; Heath, Michael; Fletcher-Heath, Lynn

    2006-03-01

    The need to assure the image quality of digital systems for mammography screening applications is now widely recognized. One approach is embodied in Part B of the European Protocol for the Quality Control of the Physical and Technical Aspects of Mammography Screening (EPQCM), which prescribes criteria for several interconnected image quality metrics. The focus of this study is on the "threshold contrast visibility" (TCV) protocol (section 2.4.1 of the EPQCM), in which human observers score images of a CDMAM or similar 4-AFC phantom. This section of the EPQCM currently omits many critical experimental details, which must be gleaned from ancillary documents. Given these, the purpose of this study is to quantify the effects of several remaining experimental variables, including phantom design, and the methods used for scoring and analysis, on the measured results. Preliminary studies of two CDMAM version 3.4 (CDMAM 3.4) phantoms have revealed a 17% difference in TCV when averaged over all target diameters from 0.1 to 2.0 mm. This indicates phantom variability may affect results at some sites. More importantly, we have shown that the current CDMAM phantom design, methods for scoring, and analysis, substantially limit the ability to measure system performance accurately and precisely. An improved phantom design has been shown to avoid these limitations. Viewing environment and presentation context affect the performance and efficiency of visual scoring of phantom images. An automated display tool has been developed that isolates individual 4-AFC targets of CDMAM phantom images, automatically optimizes window/level, and automatically records observers' scores. While not substantially changing TCV, the tool has increased scoring efficiency while mitigating several of the limitations associated with unassisted visual scoring. For example, learning bias and navigational issues are completely avoided. Ultimately, software-based ideal observer scoring will likely prove to be

  15. Analysis of the architecture and urbanism aspects of the reconstruction after the l'Aquila earthquake in the context of European social housing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bostenaru, Maria

    2010-05-01

    This paper proposes to analyse the architectural and urbanism aspects of the progetto C.A.S.E. The new architecture of the progetto C.A.S.E. is put in the context of similar developments, namely: - buildings for student dormitories, as the foreseen development is that the dwellings in progetto C.A.S.E. are only temporarily in this use, and will later build a campus. For this purpose the HaDiKo (Hans Dickmann Kolleg) from Karlsruhe, Germany, is considered. This features an award winning building from the 1960s, four others from the 1970s and an extension from 2006, with also a tight construction shedule which was followed by the author; - Italian buildings from the 20th century which do not feature Modernism, in connection with other rather traditional buildings of the Modernity, namely the Vienneise "Hof"s; - social housing from the 20th and 21st century, taking as examples the construction of the office Kramm et Strigl from the 1990s and on in Germany. Particularly the example of Bürgerparkviertel in Darmstadt from 1999 was also seen when in construction; - from the later a case is particulary considered: the prefabricated housing in Wiesbaden, which has been, in a former research of the author, put in connection with the prefabricated buildings from seismically prone Bucharest, where they proved earthquake resistant. A first interpretation is in the context of the so-called "Zeilenbau" - the opposite of the traditional urban tissue with blocks. This interpretation is helpful since in case of the social housing investigted above this was always building at the periphery as it is the case in l'Aquila. When social housing reaches the core of the towns, it becomes block building, as the "Hof"s are different from the "Neues Bauen" siedlungen. The Italian examples are helpful to see how middle class housing in Italy is seen, not only social. Construction times are also relevant, and two of the examples were investigated as such, as the progetto C.A.S.E. is currently

  16. U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Technical Assistance to Beichuan Reconstruction: Creating and Designing Low- to Zero-carbon Communities in New Beichuan, Sichuan Province

    SciTech Connect

    Xu, Tengfang; Wang, Chuang; Hong, Tianzhen; Levine, Mark

    2009-10-29

    Beichuan county, located in north of Sichuan Province, was the most severely damaged township in last May's Sichuan earthquake. Reconstruction of a new Beichuan is a high-profiled project by the governments. In addition to constructing structurally-sound, quake-safe buildings in the new development, rebuilding Beichuan presents an opportunity for constructing new low- to zero-carbon communities in the region. In fact, building up greener communities in the reconstruction has become a top priority for the county, which, at an estimated 7 square km, is expected to have 50,000 residents in 2015 and 70,000 in 2020. The recent focus of construction projects is on the east side of the river, while land on its west bank will be reserved for development in the mid- to long-term. In the near term, a number of new public buildings are scheduled to be constructed starting in November 2009. As indicated by the deputy county chief, Mr. He Wang, the construction timeframe is unusually tight. Many buildings, although in various stages of planning and design, will be constructed starting in November 2009. Timely expert advice on design improvement and planning considerations will benefit the integration of energy efficiency and environmental benign elements in Beichuan's reconstruction, and will help promoting integrated development of green communities with low- to zero-carbon emission from the region.

  17. Changes in Aspects of Students' Self-Reported Personal, Social and Technical Skills during a Six-Week Wilderness Expedition in Arctic Greenland

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stott, Tim; Hall, Neil

    2003-01-01

    This investigation focuses on students' self-reported changes in personal, social and technical skills that took place during a six-week long expedition to East Greenland. A 105-item pre-and post-expedition questionnaire was completed by 60 young expeditioners aged 16 to 20. Before the expedition participants generally felt that they had high…

  18. [White House Conference on Aging, 1981. Social & Health Aspects of Long Term Care. Report and Executive Summary of the Technical Committee.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fahey, Charles J.; And Others

    The introduction to this Technical Committee Report describes the committee's procedures, provides an overview of long-term care, and enumerates assumptions and values identified by the committee as important factors in the formation of recommendations. Four major findings and seven key issues of the committee are also listed. Eight…

  19. Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction Project

    SciTech Connect

    Cannon, S.D.; Finch, S.M.

    1992-10-01

    The objective of the Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction (HEDR) Project is to estimate the radiation doses that individuals and populations could have received from nuclear operations at Hanford since 1944. The independent Technical Steering Panel (TSP) provides technical direction. The project is divided into the following technical tasks. These tasks correspond to the path radionuclides followed from release to impact on humans (dose estimates):Source Terms, Environmental Transport, Environmental Monitoring Data, Demography, Food Consumption, and Agriculture, and Environmental Pathways and Dose Estimates.

  20. Keyhole Flap Nipple Reconstruction

    PubMed Central

    Cash, Camille G.; Iman, Al-Haj; Spiegel, Aldona J.; Cronin, Ernest D.

    2016-01-01

    Summary: Nipple-areola reconstruction is often one of the final but most challenging aspects of breast reconstruction. However, it is an integral and important component of breast reconstruction because it transforms the mound into a breast. We performed 133 nipple-areola reconstructions during a period of 4 years. Of these reconstructions, 76 of 133 nipple-areola complexes were reconstructed using the keyhole flap technique. The tissue used for the keyhole dermoadipose flap technique include transverse rectus abdominus myocutaneous flaps (60/76), latissimus dorsi flaps (15/76), or mastectomy skin flaps after tissue expanders (1/76). The average patient follow-up was 17 months. The design of the flap is based on a keyhole configuration. The base of the flap determines the width of the future nipple, whereas the length of the flap determines the projection. We try to match the projection of the contralateral nipple if present. The keyhole flap is simple to construct yet reliable. It provides good symmetry and projection and avoids the creation of new scars. The areola is then tattooed approximately 3 months after the nipple reconstruction.

  1. Keyhole Flap Nipple Reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Chen, Joseph I; Cash, Camille G; Iman, Al-Haj; Spiegel, Aldona J; Cronin, Ernest D

    2016-05-01

    Nipple-areola reconstruction is often one of the final but most challenging aspects of breast reconstruction. However, it is an integral and important component of breast reconstruction because it transforms the mound into a breast. We performed 133 nipple-areola reconstructions during a period of 4 years. Of these reconstructions, 76 of 133 nipple-areola complexes were reconstructed using the keyhole flap technique. The tissue used for the keyhole dermoadipose flap technique include transverse rectus abdominus myocutaneous flaps (60/76), latissimus dorsi flaps (15/76), or mastectomy skin flaps after tissue expanders (1/76). The average patient follow-up was 17 months. The design of the flap is based on a keyhole configuration. The base of the flap determines the width of the future nipple, whereas the length of the flap determines the projection. We try to match the projection of the contralateral nipple if present. The keyhole flap is simple to construct yet reliable. It provides good symmetry and projection and avoids the creation of new scars. The areola is then tattooed approximately 3 months after the nipple reconstruction. PMID:27579228

  2. AICE Survey of USSR Air Pollution Literature, Volume 14: Technical Papers from the Leningrad International Symposium on the Meteorological Aspects of Atmospheric Pollution, Part 3.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nuttonson, M. Y.

    Fifteen papers were translated: On the removal of impurities from the atmosphere by clouds and precipitation; Some aspects of the adoption of automatic methods of determining atmospheric pollutants; Recording of sulfur dioxide content at the outskirts of a city. Comparison of measurement results for a valley and an elevation; Theoretical and…

  3. AICE Survey of USSR Air Pollution Literature, Volume 12: Technical Papers from the Leningrad International Symposium on the Meteorological Aspects of Atmospheric Pollution, Part I.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nuttonson, M. Y.

    Twelve papers dealing with the meteorological aspects of air pollution were translated. These papers were initially presented at an international symposium held in Leningrad during July 1968. The papers are: Status and prospective development of meteorological studies of atmospheric pollution, Effect of the stability of the atmosphere on the…

  4. AICE Survey of USSR Air Pollution Literature, Volume 15: A Third Compilation of Technical Reports on the Biological Effects and the Public Health Aspects of Atmospheric Pollutants.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nuttonson, M. Y.

    Ten papers were translated: Maximum permissible concentrations of noxious substances in the atmospheric air of populated areas; Some aspects of the biological effect of microconcentrations of two chloroisocyanates; The toxicology of low concentrations of aromatic hydrocarbons; Chronic action of low concentrations of acrolein in air on the…

  5. Submarine disposal of mill tailings from on-land sources: An overview and bibliographic compilation of references on the biological, chemical, environmental, and technical aspects

    SciTech Connect

    Baer, R.L.; Sherman, G.E.; Plumb, P.D.

    1992-07-01

    The U.S. Bureau of Mines (BOM) has undertaken studies of the disposal of mining and milling wastes in the marine environment. The BOM Alaska Field Operations Center, Juneau, initiated a review of the technology, regulations, and economic aspects of submarine tailings disposal (STD). The review illuminated the need for organization of literature on the subject, therefore the Bureau compiled this extensive bibliography on marine disposal of mill tailings. The bibliography presented here contains 1483 references and is also available through diskette in the WordPerfect format. A review of the references indicates that literature on submarine disposal inadequately covers the subject. The majority of the references listed only peripherally relate to the subject. Published literature on the engineering and environmental aspects of STD is severely limited.

  6. Biology, ecology, and social aspects of wild edible mushrooms in the forests of the Pacific northwest: A preface to managing commercial harvest. Forest Service general technical report

    SciTech Connect

    Molina, R.; O'Dell, T.; Luoma, D.; Amaranthus, M.; Costellano, M.

    1993-02-01

    The commercial harvest of edible, forest fungi has a multimillion dollar industry with several thousand tons harvested annually. The primary objectives of the overview paper are to provide information on the biology of forest fungi, describe the major edible fungi harvested in the Pacific Northwest, integrate a perspective on the social aspects of the mushroom harvest issue, summarize the development of the commercial mushroom industry, and suggest research and monitoring protocols for developing management guidelines.

  7. Vehicle and positive control values from the in vivo rodent comet assay and biomonitoring studies using human lymphocytes: historical database and influence of technical aspects.

    PubMed

    Pant, Kamala; Springer, S; Bruce, S; Lawlor, T; Hewitt, N; Aardema, M J

    2014-10-01

    There is increased interest in the in vivo comet assay in rodents as a follow-up approach for determining the biological relevance of chemicals that are genotoxic in in vitro assays. This is partly because, unlike other assays, DNA damage can be assessed in this assay in virtually any tissue. Since background levels of DNA damage can vary with the species, tissue, and cell processing method, a robust historical control database covering multiple tissues is essential. We describe extensive vehicle and positive control data for multiple tissues from rats and mice. In addition, we report historical data from control and genotoxin-treated human blood. Technical issues impacting comet results are described, including the method of cell preparation and freezing. Cell preparation by scraping (stomach and other GI tract organs) resulted in higher % tail DNA than mincing (liver, spleen, kidney etc) or direct collection (blood or bone marrow). Treatment with the positive control genotoxicant, ethyl methanesulfonate (EMS) in rats and methyl methanesulfonate in mice, resulted in statistically significant increases in % tail DNA. Background DNA damage was not markedly increased when cell suspensions were stored frozen prior to preparing slides, and the outcome of the assay was unchanged (EMS was always positive). In conclusion, historical data from our laboratory for the in vivo comet assay for multiple tissues from rats and mice, as well as human blood show very good reproducibility. These data and recommendations provided are aimed at contributing to the design and proper interpretation of results from comet assays. PMID:24957907

  8. Transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunting (TIPS) with balloon-expandable and self-expanding stents: Technical and clinical aspects after 3 1/2 years' experience

    SciTech Connect

    Tesdal, I. Kaare; Jaschke, Werner; Buehler, Mathias; Adamus, Ralf; Filser, Thomas; Holm, Eggert; Georgi, Max

    1997-01-15

    Purpose. To evaluate prospectively our experience with transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt (TIPS) using four different metallic stents. Methods. Between November 1991 and April 1995, 57 patients (41 men and 16 women; age 35-72 years, mean 54 years) underwent the TIPS procedure. Techniques for portal vein localization before and during TIPS were fluoroscopy, computed tomography (CT) studies, wedged hepatic venography, arterial portography, and ultrasound. After predilation we deployed balloon-expandable (n=48) and self-expanding (n=45) metallic stents. Fifteen patients underwent variceal embolization. Initial follow-up angiograms (mean 6.9 months, range 3-24 months) were obtained in 39 of these patients. Results. Fifty-three patients (93%) had successful TIPS placement. The mean decrease in portal pressure was 42.7%. Besides fluoroscopy, the most helpful techniques for portal vein localization were venography and CT. Residual stenosis (n=1) and late shortening (n=4) of Wallstents resulted in shunt dysfunction. The technical problems encountered with the Palmaz stent resulted from its lack of flexibility. We combined balloon-expandable and self-expanding stents in 12 patients. The 30-day and late follow-up (mean 11.9 months) percutaneous reintervention rates were 11.3% and 64.2%, respectively. There were no clinically significant complications related to the TIPS insertions. Conclusion. An ideal stent does not exist for TIPS, and the authors recommend combining a Palmaz stent with a flexible self-expanding stent.

  9. Penile reconstruction

    PubMed Central

    Garaffa, Giulio; Sansalone, Salvatore; Ralph, David J

    2013-01-01

    During the most recent years, a variety of new techniques of penile reconstruction have been described in the literature. This paper focuses on the most recent advances in male genital reconstruction after trauma, excision of benign and malignant disease, in gender reassignment surgery and aphallia with emphasis on surgical technique, cosmetic and functional outcome. PMID:22426595

  10. Image reconstruction

    SciTech Connect

    Defrise, Michel; Gullberg, Grant T.

    2006-04-05

    We give an overview of the role of Physics in Medicine andBiology in development of tomographic reconstruction algorithms. We focuson imaging modalities involving ionizing radiation, CT, PET and SPECT,and cover a wide spectrum of reconstruction problems, starting withclassical 2D tomogra tomography in the 1970s up to 4D and 5D problemsinvolving dynamic imaging of moving organs.

  11. Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction Project

    SciTech Connect

    Finch, S.M.

    1990-09-01

    This monthly report summarizes the technical progress and project status for the Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction (HEDR) Project being conducted at the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) under the direction of a Technical Steering Panel (TSP). The TSP is composed of experts in numerous technical fields related to this project and represents the interests of the public. The objective of the Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction Project is to estimate the radiation doses that populations could have received from nuclear operations at Hanford since 1944. The project is divided into the following technical tasks. These tasks correspond to the path radionuclides followed, from release to impact on humans (dose estimates): source terms, environmental transport, environmental monitoring data, demographics, agriculture, food habits, environmental pathways and dose estimates. 3 figs.

  12. Geographical aspects of a territory and the velocity of liquidation natural-technical emergency situations' consequences (the case of Leningradskaya oblast in Russia)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vashalova, Tatiana; Gavrilova, Sofia

    2013-04-01

    The velocity of liquidation of consequences of emergency situation or natural hazards is on of two main components of nonmonetized evaluation of their graveness. Besides the level of technical and economical securance of repair works the big role in their differentiation plays macro and mesolocation of the repaire object in phisical- and economicalgeographical space. The enlistment of theses factors differs very much for the accidents of various origin and for various territories with their own combination of phisical- and economicalgeographical conditions. In this work the first attempt of analysis of influence of the phisical- and economicalgeographical conditions on the duration of repair the electricity supplies, broken down by the hazardous hydrometeorological phenomena in Leneigradskaya oblast in Russia was made. This region, situated on north-west of the country, outstands with variety of phisical- and economicalgeographical conditions. In this project the data of Laboratory of snow avalanches and mudflows (geographical faculty, MSU), open-sourced map data and the archive of newspapers of Leningradskaya oblast were used. It is very important to understand, that the transportation of the electricity by electric power lines is the main way of transportation energy in Russia. The interruption of power supply, caused by dangerous phenomena, happens in majority cases because of kinking or break of the cable. The break takes places during the strong winds and fall of the trees on the cable or icing and their break during the strong winds. The frequency of strong winds in the terms of one sinoptical cicle (5-7 days) appears as an independent factor of elongation of terms of repairing the power supply. Such phisicogeographical singularities of landscape of Leningradkaya oblast as the grade of loiss soil and swampiness of different districts apears as a factor, wgich modulate the dependence of the velocity of repairing the power supply from the characteristics of

  13. Breast reconstruction.

    PubMed

    DellaCroce, Frank J; Wolfe, Emily T

    2013-04-01

    As diagnostic technology has progressed and the understanding of the disease process has evolved, the number of mastectomies performed in the United States has increased. Breast reconstructive techniques have commensurately become more sophisticated along the same timeline. The result is that those facing mastectomy have the potential to simultaneously retain physical beauty and wholeness. Only 33% of women who are otherwise candidates for immediate reconstruction at the time of mastectomy choose reconstruction. Patients generally have a high level of satisfaction with the option they choose, contributing to a feeling of overall recovery and physical and emotional wholeness. PMID:23464695

  14. ACL reconstruction

    MedlinePlus

    ... Tissue taken from a donor is called an allograft. The procedure is usually performed with the help ... This increases the chance you may have a meniscus tear. ACL reconstruction may be used for these ...

  15. ICCS 2009 Technical Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schulz, Wolfram, Ed.; Ainley, John, Ed.; Fraillon, Julian, Ed.

    2011-01-01

    This report is structured so as to provide technical detail about each aspect of International Civic and Citizenship Education Study (ICCS). The overview is followed by a series of chapters that provide detail about different aspects of ICCS. Chapters, 2, 3, 4, and 5 are concerned with the instruments. Chapter 2 provides information about the…

  16. [AN ENTRY FOR A "DICTIONARY OF GENETICS" GENERATION AND ASPECTS OF HEREDITY FROM THE PRESOCRATICS TO GALEN: THE MAIN NOTIONS AND THE TECHNICAL TERMINOLOGY].

    PubMed

    Giorgianni, Franco; Provenza, Antonietta

    2015-01-01

    This article aims at dealing with the historical development and the terminology of the notion of generation in ancient Greece, taking as well into consideration several aspects of the notion of heredity, for, at present, research in this field lacks a consistent encyclopedic entry on such subjects. The Presocratic - mainly Empedoclean - notions of 'mixing' and 'separation' lurk behind the Hippocratic treatise De genitura/De natura pueri, in which the process of generation is explained through the 'mixing' mechanism of a female semen and a male one. Semen comes from each part of both parents, so it is sound from the sound parts, and unhealthy from the unhealthy parts. It is considered as the "foam of blood" (Diogenes, A 24 DK), gathering itself into a web of blood vessels that bring it to the genital organs. The mixed semen keeps on fixing itself in the womb thanks to pneuma ('breath'), until the embryo takes human shape. Generation is influenced by both the environment (Airs, Waters, Places) and dietetics (On Regimen, I). Male and female are on different levels in CH, since the former is characterized as hot and strong, and the latter is considered as cold and weak; as a consequence of this, the articulation takes longer in the case of a female embryo. On the other hand, the pangenesis and the preformism theory claim for a strong mutual relationship. Sex determination depends from the 'prevalence' of the male or female semen. The generation of twins of different sex depends from such 'prevalence', as well as from the conformation of the womb and its places (right/male, left/female). Both nature (physis) and use (nomos) have a role in the mechanism of inheritance, as the case of the Macrocephalians in Airs Waters Places shows. On the other hand, Plato's Timaeus exemplifies the theory according to which semen derives from the spinal marrow. The structures of the body - bones, flesh, nerves - aim at protecting marrow itself for the sake of maintaining the continuity

  17. [Eyebrow reconstruction].

    PubMed

    Baraër, F; Darsonval, V; Lejeune, F; Bochot-Hermouet, B; Rousseau, P

    2013-10-01

    The eyebrow is an essential anatomical area, from a social point of view, so its reconstruction, in case of skin defect, must be as meticulous as possible, with the less residual sequela. Capillary density extremely varies from one person to another and the different methods of restoration of this area should absolutely take this into consideration. We are going to review the various techniques of reconstruction, according to the sex and the surface to cover. PMID:23896574

  18. Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction Project

    SciTech Connect

    Finch, S.M.; McMakin, A.H.

    1992-06-01

    The objective of the Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction Project is to estimate the radiation doses that individuals and populations could have received from nuclear operations at Hanford since 1944. The project is being managed and conducted by the Battelle Pacific Northwest Laboratories under contract with the Centers for Disease Control. The independent Technical Steering Panel (TSP) provides technical direction. The project is divided into the following technical tasks. These tasks correspond to the path radionuclides followed, from release to impact on humans (dose estimates): source terms; environmental transport; environmental monitoring data; demography, food consumption, and agriculture; environmental pathways and dose estimates.

  19. Legal aspects.

    PubMed

    Escher, A

    1975-01-01

    The manufacture, application, use and disposal of fluorescent whitening agents (FWAs) may give rise to legal questions relating mainly to environmental protection and the effects on man and animals. In addition to legal aspects, certain commercial aspects such as the law of competition and the obligations of industry, including compensation for damage caused by FWAs, are discussed. PMID:1064546

  20. International Survey on Technical Aspects of Laparoscopic Liver Resection: a web-based study on the global diffusion of laparoscopic liver surgery prior to the 2nd International Consensus Conference on Laparoscopic Liver Resection in Iwate, Japan.

    PubMed

    Hibi, Taizo; Cherqui, Daniel; Geller, David A; Itano, Osamu; Kitagawa, Yuko; Wakabayashi, Go

    2014-10-01

    The technique of laparoscopic liver resection (LLR) has been greatly improved since the first international consensus conference. Our aim was to evaluate the worldwide spread of LLR prior to the 2nd International Consensus Conference on Laparoscopic Liver Resection in Iwate, Japan (4-6 October 2014). The International Survey on Technical Aspects of Laparoscopic Liver resection was designed to assess dissemination of LLR, indications, and the surgical techniques. The anonymous questionnaire was e-mailed to liver surgeons worldwide. A total of 448 liver surgeons responded to the survey. The peak age range of surgeons performing LLR was 41-50 years. Japan had by far the largest number of respondents (n = 223), followed by the US (n = 38) and France (n = 20). In Japan, the majority of surgeons performing LLR belonged to community hospitals, where LLR has been increasingly used since its implementation in 2009 or later, comprising up to 40% of all liver resection cases. In contrast, in North America and Europe, LLR was mostly performed at academic medical centers. LLR has undergone global dissemination after the first international consensus conference in 2008. Japan has experienced unparalleled, explosive diffusion characterized by the adoption of LLR at middle-tier, regional institutions. PMID:25088825

  1. Exhaled Breath Condensate: Technical and Diagnostic Aspects

    PubMed Central

    Konstantinidi, Efstathia M.; Lappas, Andreas S.; Tzortzi, Anna S.; Behrakis, Panagiotis K.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose. The aim of this study was to evaluate the 30-year progress of research on exhaled breath condensate in a disease-based approach. Methods. We searched PubMed/Medline, ScienceDirect, and Google Scholar using the following keywords: exhaled breath condensate (EBC), biomarkers, pH, asthma, gastroesophageal reflux (GERD), smoking, COPD, lung cancer, NSCLC, mechanical ventilation, cystic fibrosis, pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH), idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis, interstitial lung diseases, obstructive sleep apnea (OSA), and drugs. Results. We found 12600 related articles in total in Google Scholar, 1807 in ScienceDirect, and 1081 in PubMed/Medline, published from 1980 to October 2014. 228 original investigation and review articles were eligible. Conclusions. There is rapidly increasing number of innovative articles, covering all the areas of modern respiratory medicine and expanding EBC potential clinical applications to other fields of internal medicine. However, the majority of published papers represent the results of small-scale studies and thus current knowledge must be further evaluated in large cohorts. In regard to the potential clinical use of EBC-analysis, several limitations must be pointed out, including poor reproducibility of biomarkers and absence of large surveys towards determination of reference-normal values. In conclusion, contemporary EBC-analysis is an intriguing achievement, but still in early stage when it comes to its application in clinical practice. PMID:26106641

  2. TECHNICAL ASPECTS OF UNDERGROUND STORAGE TANK CLOSURE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The overall objective of the study was to develop a deeper understanding of UST residuals at closure: their quantities, origins, physical/chemical properties, ease of removal by various cleaning methods, and their environmental mobility and persistence. The investigation covered ...

  3. Aspects of knowledge discovery in technical data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brueckner, Steffen; Rudolph, Stephan

    2002-03-01

    In many engineering applications numerical software has reached a more or less satisfactory quality of predicting the system behavior. A major disadvantage with this kind of software is that it can only be used in a later step in the engineering design process since it requires a detailed system model, such as a finite element simulation model for structural mechanics. Finite element software can only give satisfying results when the complete geometry and all material parameters are specified. However, despite all the parameter definitions in such simulation models, still a severe validation effort with experiments is needed to investigate the model abstractions. Especially in the early conceptual design phase, a need for simplified modeling and the prediction of the system behavior using only little knowledge about a new design exists. This kind of conceptual knowledge can be given e.g. in simple algebraic equations. These equations can either be derived from first principles or from knowledge discovery in data of previous designs, the latter being the topic of this work. Huge amounts of experimental data have been recorded and stored by industry especially in the past ten years with microcomputers being available throughout the companies. Additionally the engineering domain, other than e.g. the business domain, has the advantage that at least a small number of planned experiments can be conducted to enhance the data quantity and quality and to validate the knowledge discovery results. This paper emphasizes the need for a modified knowledge discovery process for engineering (and other scientific domains) and shows the differences to the traditional knowledge discovery in data bases.

  4. Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction Project. Monthly report

    SciTech Connect

    Cannon, S.D.; Finch, S.M.

    1992-10-01

    The objective of the Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction (HEDR) Project is to estimate the radiation doses that individuals and populations could have received from nuclear operations at Hanford since 1944. The independent Technical Steering Panel (TSP) provides technical direction. The project is divided into the following technical tasks. These tasks correspond to the path radionuclides followed from release to impact on humans (dose estimates):Source Terms, Environmental Transport, Environmental Monitoring Data, Demography, Food Consumption, and Agriculture, and Environmental Pathways and Dose Estimates.

  5. Porcelain three-dimensional shape reconstruction and its color reconstruction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Xiaoyang; Wu, Haibin; Yang, Xue; Yu, Shuang; Wang, Beiyi; Chen, Deyun

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, structured light three-dimensional measurement technology was used to reconstruct the porcelain shape, and further more the porcelain color was reconstructed. So the accurate reconstruction of the shape and color of porcelain was realized. Our shape measurement installation drawing is given. Because the porcelain surface is color complex and highly reflective, the binary Gray code encoding is used to reduce the influence of the porcelain surface. The color camera was employed to obtain the color of the porcelain surface. Then, the comprehensive reconstruction of the shape and color was realized in Java3D runtime environment. In the reconstruction process, the space point by point coloration method is proposed and achieved. Our coloration method ensures the pixel corresponding accuracy in both of shape and color aspects. The porcelain surface shape and color reconstruction experimental results completed by proposed method and our installation, show that: the depth range is 860 ˜ 980mm, the relative error of the shape measurement is less than 0.1%, the reconstructed color of the porcelain surface is real, refined and subtle, and has the same visual effect as the measured surface.

  6. Reconstructing Validity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moss, Pamela A.

    2007-01-01

    In response to Lissitz and Samuelsen (2007), the author reconstructs the historical arguments for the more comprehensive unitary concept of validity and the principles of scientific inquiry underlying it. Her response is organized in terms of four questions: (a) How did validity in educational measurement come to be conceptualized as unitary, and…

  7. Vaginal reconstruction

    SciTech Connect

    Lesavoy, M.A.

    1985-05-01

    Vaginal reconstruction can be an uncomplicated and straightforward procedure when attention to detail is maintained. The Abbe-McIndoe procedure of lining the neovaginal canal with split-thickness skin grafts has become standard. The use of the inflatable Heyer-Schulte vaginal stent provides comfort to the patient and ease to the surgeon in maintaining approximation of the skin graft. For large vaginal and perineal defects, myocutaneous flaps such as the gracilis island have been extremely useful for correction of radiation-damaged tissue of the perineum or for the reconstruction of large ablative defects. Minimal morbidity and scarring ensue because the donor site can be closed primarily. With all vaginal reconstruction, a compliant patient is a necessity. The patient must wear a vaginal obturator for a minimum of 3 to 6 months postoperatively and is encouraged to use intercourse as an excellent obturator. In general, vaginal reconstruction can be an extremely gratifying procedure for both the functional and emotional well-being of patients.

  8. Project Reconstruct.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Helisek, Harriet; Pratt, Donald

    1994-01-01

    Presents a project in which students monitor their use of trash, input and analyze information via a database and computerized graphs, and "reconstruct" extinct or endangered animals from recyclable materials. The activity was done with second-grade students over a period of three to four weeks. (PR)

  9. ACL reconstruction - discharge

    MedlinePlus

    Anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction - discharge; ACL reconstruction - discharge ... had surgery to reconstruct your anterior cruciate ligament (ACL). The surgeon drilled holes in the bones of ...

  10. Breast Reconstruction After Mastectomy

    MedlinePlus

    ... around the cancer removed (lumpectomy or breast-conserving surgery) might not need reconstruction, but sometimes they do. Breast reconstruction is done by a plastic surgeon. Should I have breast reconstruction? Breast reconstruction ...

  11. Secondary femoropopliteal reconstruction.

    PubMed Central

    Whittemore, A D; Clowes, A W; Couch, N P; Mannick, J A

    1981-01-01

    Retrospective analysis of the authors' experience with 109 primary femoropopliteal bypass vein grafts that failed allows description of three distinct modes of failure. Within 30 days of surgery, failure resulted primarily from technical or judgmental errors. The development of stenotic lesions within the vein graft caused a second group of failures during the first year after bypass. The third group most commonly failed due to progression of peripheral atherosclerosis a year or more following original bypass. No correlation was found, however, between the mode of failure and results of secondary femoropopliteal-tibial reconstruction, which yielded an overall 50% five-year cumulative limb salvage rate. The results indicate that this salvage rate can be anticipated regardless of the number of secondary operations required. The highest long-term patency rate was achieved when frequent postoperative follow-up examinations allowed recognition of graft failure prior to total occlusion. Under such circumstances a simple vein patch of stenotic lesions yielded an 85% five-year graft patency. Following actual thrombosis, however, the highest five-year patency rate was achieved when reconstruction was performed using a new vein graft; saphenous vein and arm vein were equally effective. When prosthetic material was used, no secondary graft remained patent beyond three years. Finally, when a proximal or distal portion of the original vein graft proved adequate in caliber following thrombectomy, it could be successfully incorporated in a secondary reconstruction with the expectation of a 50% five-year limb salvage rate. No statistically significant difference was found in salvage rates among each of the patient groups representing the three common modes of graft failure. This finding, coupled with an acceptable 2.5% operative mortality rate, provides justification for an aggressive approach toward secondary femoropopliteal reconstruction. Images Fig. 1a. Fig. 1c. PMID:7458449

  12. Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction Project Monthly Report

    SciTech Connect

    Finch, S.M.

    1990-10-01

    This monthly report summarizes the technical progress and project status for the Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction (HEDR) Project being conducted at the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) under the direction of a Technical Steering Panel (TSP). The TSP is composed of experts in numerous technical fields related to this project and represents the interests of the public. The objective of the Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction Project is to estimate the radiation doses that populations could have received from nuclear operations at Hanford since 1944. The project is being managed and conducted by the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) under the direction of an independent Technical Steering Panel (TSP). The project is divided into the following technical tasks. These tasks correspond to the path radionuclides followed, from release to impact on humans (dose estimates): source terms, environmental transport, environmental monitoring data, demographics, agriculture, food habits, and environmental pathways and dose estimates. 3 figs., 3 tabs.

  13. D Virtual Reconstructions of Minoan Rural Sites: the Case of Livari Cheromylia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alusik, T.; Chalupka, M.; Kopernicky, D.

    2011-09-01

    The use of 3D sophisticated visualizations and reconstructions is still not common during the process of reconstruction or recreation of the appearance of any preserved architecture of prehistoric (Bronze Age) Crete. However, the author believes that in modern archaeology the use of the up-to-date computer technologies and sophisticated software is necessary. In their opinion, in case of presenting of sites with preserved architecture a creation of ideal 3D reconstruction should become a standard feature of final publications in the near future. The author deals with the study of Minoan architecture, settlement pattern and rural aspect of Minoan Crete in the last years. In this paper, the author - in cooperation with an architect and a specialist in technical modelling - is presenting an ideal 3D virtual reconstruction of the small rural site of Livari Cheromylia (consisting of 4 main structures and several terrace walls), situated on the southern coast in the Bay of Livari, between Goudouras and Aghia Irini. The 3D reconstruction of the individual structures and the site as a whole based on the up-to-date scholarship on Minoan architecture and the actual archaeological/architectural parallels in situ as well as on the iconographical sources, is presented below.

  14. Advances in breast reconstruction after mastectomy.

    PubMed

    Edlich, Richard F; Winters, Kathryne L; Faulkner, Brent C; Bill, Timothy J; Lin, Kant Y

    2005-01-01

    Over the past 40 years, surgical reconstruction of the breast following mastectomy has become an important aspect of the cancer patient's rehabilitation process. While the surgical emphasis remains on a cure for the cancer, experience with breast reconstruction has not demonstrated any increased rate of cancer recurrence, even when reconstruction is performed immediately following tumor resection. Advances in surgical technique and biotechnology have made post-mastectomy reconstruction possible. The development of silicone gel and saline-filled implants as well as tissue expanders has revolutionized breast reconstruction. The elucidation of musculocutaneous flaps now provides the surgeon with the ability to transfer adequate quantities of vascularized tissue to reconstruct the surgical defects. The advent of microsurgical techniques has provided an additional reconstructive option, with free tissue transfer allowing the plastic surgeon to move musculocutaneous flaps from remote or distant sites to reconstruct the defect. The option of having the reconstruction immediately following the mastectomy procedure is now available to the patient. When reviewing the anatomy of the breast region, the surgeon must consider the mammary gland, its vascular supply, and its lymphatic system. The surgical techniques involved in reconstruction after mastectomy include the use of breast implants and tissue expansion, as well as reconstruction with autogenous tissues. Reconstruction with autogenous tissues includes the use of latissimus dorsi musculocutaneous flap, transverse rectus abdominus musculocutaneous flap, free flap transfer, as well as nipple-areola reconstruction. Breast reconstruction after mastectomy should be undertaken by a plastic and reconstructive surgeon with considerable training and experience with these diversified procedures. PMID:15777171

  15. Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction Project

    SciTech Connect

    Finch, S.M.; McMakin, A.H.

    1992-02-01

    The objective of the Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction Project is to estimate the radiation doses that individuals and populations could have received from nuclear operations at Hanford since 1944. The project is divided into the following technical tasks. These tasks correspond to the path radionuclides followed, from release to impact on humans (dose estimates): source terms; environmental transport; environmental monitoring data; demography, food consumption, and agriculture; environmental pathways and dose estimates.

  16. Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction Project

    SciTech Connect

    Finch, S.M.; McMakin, A.H.

    1992-01-01

    The objective of the Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction Project is to estimate the radiation doses that individuals and populations could have received from nuclear operations at Hanford since 1944. The project is divided into the following technical tasks. These tasks correspond to the path radionuclides followed, from release to impact on humans (dose estimates): Source Terms, Environmental Transport, Environmental Monitoring Data, Demography, Food Consumption, and Agriculture, and Environmental Pathways and Dose Estimates.

  17. Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction Project

    SciTech Connect

    Finch, S.M.; McMakin, A.H.

    1991-01-01

    The objective of the Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction Project is to estimate the radiation doses that individuals and populations could have received from nuclear operations at Hanford since 1944. The project is divided into the following technical tasks. These tasks correspond to the path radionuclides followed, from release to impact on humans (dose estimates): Source terms; environmental transport environmental monitoring data; demographics, agriculture, food habits; environmental pathways and dose estimates.

  18. Tracheal reconstructions.

    PubMed

    Srikrishna, S V; Shekar, P S; Shetty, N

    1998-12-01

    Surgical reconstruction of the trachea is a relatively complex procedure. We had 20 cases of tracheal stenosis. We have a modest experience of 16 tracheal reconstructions for acquired tracheal stenosis. Two patients underwent laser treatment while another two died before any intervention. The majority of these cases were a result of prolonged ventilation (14 cases), following organophosphorous poisoning (11 cases), Guillain-Barré syndrome, bullet injury, fat embolism and surprisingly only one tumor, a case of mucoepidermoid carcinoma, who had a very unusual presentation. There were 12 males and 4 females in this series, age ranging from 12-35 years. The duration of ventilation ranged from 1-21 days and the interval from decannulation to development of stridor was between 5-34 days. Six of them were approached by the cervical route, 5 by thoracotomy and cervical approach, 2 via median sternotomy and 3 by thoracotomy alone. Five of them required an additional laryngeal drop and 1 required pericardiotomy and release of pulmonary veins to gain additional length. The excised segments of trachea measured 3 to 5 cms in length. All were end to end anastomosis with interrupted Vicryl sutures. We have had no experience with stents or prosthetic tubes. Three patients developed anastomotic leaks which were controlled conservatively. Almost all of them required postoperative tracheo-bronchial suctioning with fibreoptic bronchoscope. We had one death in this series due to sepsis. PMID:9914459

  19. TECHNICAL SUPPORT TO IAEA

    EPA Science Inventory

    IAEA sponsors meetings of technical specialists from many nations on NORM and NORM industries in Member States, with particular emphasis on potential public exposure to, and the residual waste arising from, these activities, and aspects of how NORM differs from artificial, man-ma...

  20. Parallel ptychographic reconstruction

    PubMed Central

    Nashed, Youssef S. G.; Vine, David J.; Peterka, Tom; Deng, Junjing; Ross, Rob; Jacobsen, Chris

    2014-01-01

    Ptychography is an imaging method whereby a coherent beam is scanned across an object, and an image is obtained by iterative phasing of the set of diffraction patterns. It is able to be used to image extended objects at a resolution limited by scattering strength of the object and detector geometry, rather than at an optics-imposed limit. As technical advances allow larger fields to be imaged, computational challenges arise for reconstructing the correspondingly larger data volumes, yet at the same time there is also a need to deliver reconstructed images immediately so that one can evaluate the next steps to take in an experiment. Here we present a parallel method for real-time ptychographic phase retrieval. It uses a hybrid parallel strategy to divide the computation between multiple graphics processing units (GPUs) and then employs novel techniques to merge sub-datasets into a single complex phase and amplitude image. Results are shown on a simulated specimen and a real dataset from an X-ray experiment conducted at a synchrotron light source. PMID:25607174

  1. Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction Using a Flexible Reamer System

    PubMed Central

    Fitzgerald, Judd; Saluan, Paul; Richter, Dustin L.; Huff, Nathan; Schenck, Robert C.

    2015-01-01

    Anatomic reconstruction of the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) has been shown to improve stability of the knee, particularly rotational stability, potentially leading to superior clinical outcomes and a shorter return to sport. Nonanatomic ACL reconstruction has been linked to graft failure and abnormal cartilage loading thought to contribute to progression of degenerative joint disease. Use of the far anteromedial portal (FAMP) to uncouple the tibial and femoral tunnels has led to improved reproduction of the femoral footprint and facilitates drilling of the femoral tunnel in an anatomic position. The use of the FAMP and straight reamer systems introduces its own set of potential complications, including short femoral tunnels and peroneal nerve injury. These potential complications have been addressed by drilling the femoral tunnel in a hyperflexed position, which can lead to difficulty with positioning the operative extremity, visualization, and identification of anatomic landmarks. The purpose of this case report was to review the advantages and technical aspects of using a flexible reamer system and the FAMP to achieve an anatomic ACL reconstruction while avoiding potential complications and pitfalls. Flexible reamer systems allow an additional way of uncoupling the tibial and femoral tunnels to clearly visualize and establish an anatomic starting point within the femoral footprint of the native ACL while avoiding the complications associated with knee hyperflexion and straight reamers with the far anteromedial portal. In the authors’ experience, an anatomic reconstruction of the ACL can be achieved safely using flexible reamers while avoiding some of the difficulties seen with straight reamers used in conjunction with an uncoupled, far anteromedial approach. PMID:26673860

  2. Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction Project

    SciTech Connect

    Finch, S.M.; McMakin, A.H.

    1991-01-01

    The objective of the Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction Project is to estimate the radiation doses that individuals and populations could have received from nuclear operations at Hanford since 1944. The project is being managed and conducted by the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) under the direction of an independent Technical Steering Panel (TSP). The TSP consists of experts in environmental pathways, epidemiology, surface-water transport, ground-water transport, statistics, demography, agriculture, meteorology, nuclear engineering, radiation dosimetry, and cultural anthropology. Included are appointed technical members representing the states of Oregon and Washington, a representative of Native American tribes, and an individual representing the public. The project is divided into the following technical tasks. These tasks correspond to the path radionuclides followed, from release to impact on human (dose estimates): Source Terms; Environmental Transport; Environmental Monitoring Data; Demographics, Agriculture, Food Habits and; Environmental Pathways and Dose Estimates.

  3. Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction Project Monthly Report

    SciTech Connect

    Finch, S.M.

    1990-06-01

    This monthly report summarizes the technical progress and project status for the Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction (HEDR) Project being conducted at Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) under the direction of a Technical Steering Panel (TSP). The TSP is composed of experts in numerous technical fields related to this project and represents the interests of the public. The objective of the Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction Project is to estimate the radiation doses that populations could have received from nuclear operations at Hanford since 1944. The project is divided into technical tasks which address each of the primary steps in the path from radioactive releases to dose estimates: source terms, environmental transport, environmental monitoring data, demographics, agriculture, and food habits, and environmental pathways and dose estimates.

  4. Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction Project Monthly Report

    SciTech Connect

    Finch, S.M.

    1990-05-01

    This monthly report summarizes the technical progress and project status for the Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction (HEDR) Project being conducted at Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) under the direction of a Technical Steering Panel (TSP). The TSP is composed of experts in numerous technical fields related to this project and represents the interests of the public. The US Department of Energy (DOE) funds the project. The objective of the Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction Project is to estimate the radiation doses that populations could have received from nuclear operations at Hanford since 1944. The project is divided into the following technical tasks. These tasks address each of the primary steps in the path from radioactive releases to dose estimates source terms, environmental transport, environmental monitoring data, demographics, agriculture, and food habits, and environmental pathways and dose estimates.

  5. Technical writing versus technical writing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dillingham, J. W.

    1981-01-01

    Two terms, two job categories, 'technical writer' and 'technical author' are discussed in terms of industrial and business requirements and standards. A distinction between 'technical writing' and technical 'writing' is made. The term 'technical editor' is also considered. Problems inherent in the design of programs to prepare and train students for these jobs are discussed. A closer alliance between industry and academia is suggested as a means of preparing students with competent technical communication skills (especially writing and editing skills) and good technical skills.

  6. Technical Shibboleths.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harris, John S.

    1998-01-01

    Focuses on technical sub-languages to reveal sociological functions of language that transcend mere transfer of substantive information. Finds one sociological feature, the shibboleth, acting widely throughout technical fields. (PA)

  7. Hanford environmental dose reconstruction project: Monthly report

    SciTech Connect

    Dennis, B.S.

    1989-02-01

    The objective of the Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction Project is to estimate the radiation doses that populations could have received from nuclear operations at Hanford since 1944. The Technical Steering Panel consists of experts in environmental pathways, epidemiology, surface-water transport, ground-water transport, statistics, demography, agriculture, meteorology, nuclear engineering, radiation dosimetry, and cultural anthropology. Included among the members are appointed technical members representing the States of Oregon and Washington, cultural and technical experts nominated by the Indian tribes in the region, and an individual representing the public.

  8. Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction Project Monthly Report

    SciTech Connect

    Dennis, B.S.

    1990-04-01

    This monthly report summarizes the technical progress and project status for the Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction (HEDR) Project being conducted at Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) under the direction of a Technical Steering Panel (TSP). The project is divided into the following technical tasks. These tasks address each of the primary steps in the path from radioactive releases to dose estimates: source terms, environmental transport, environmental monitoring data, demographics, agriculture, and food habits, and environmental pathways and dose estimates. The source terms task will develop estimates for radioactive emissions from Hanford facilities since 1944. These estimates will be based on historical measurements and production information. 1 fig., 1 tab.

  9. Regulatory aspects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stern, Arthur M.

    1986-07-01

    At this time, there is no US legislation that is specifically aimed at regulating the environmental release of genetically engineered organisms or their modified components, either during the research and development stage or during application. There are some statutes, administered by several federal agencies, whose language is broad enough to allow the extension of intended coverage to include certain aspects of biotechnology. The one possible exception is FIFRA, which has already brought about the registration of several natural microbial pesticides but which also has provision for requiring the registration of “strain improved” microbial pesticides. Nevertheless, there may be gaps in coverage even if all pertinent statutes were to be actively applied to the control of environmental release of genetically modified substances. The decision to regulate biotechnology under TSCA was justified, in part, on the basis of its intended role as a gap-filling piece of environmental legislation. The advantage of regulating biotechnology under TSCA is that this statute, unlike others, is concerned with all media of exposure (air, water, soil, sediment, biota) that may pose health and environmental hazards. Experience may show that extending existing legislation to regulate biotechnology is a poor compromise compared to the promulgation of new legislation specifically designed for this purpose. It appears that many other countries are ultimately going to take the latter course to regulate biotechnology.

  10. Every factor helps: Rapid Ptychographic Reconstruction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nashed, Youssef

    2015-03-01

    Recent advances in microscopy, specifically higher spatial resolution and data acquisition rates, require faster and more robust phase retrieval reconstruction methods. Ptychography is a phase retrieval technique for reconstructing the complex transmission function of a specimen from a sequence of diffraction patterns in visible light, X-ray, and electron microscopes. As technical advances allow larger fields to be imaged, computational challenges arise for reconstructing the correspondingly larger data volumes. Waiting to postprocess datasets offline results in missed opportunities. Here we present a parallel method for real-time ptychographic phase retrieval. It uses a hybrid parallel strategy to divide the computation between multiple graphics processing units (GPUs). A final specimen reconstruction is then achieved by different techniques to merge sub-dataset results into a single complex phase and amplitude image. Results are shown on a simulated specimen and real datasets from X-ray experiments conducted at a synchrotron light source.

  11. Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction Project

    SciTech Connect

    McMakin, A.H.; Cannon, S.D.; Finch, S.M.

    1992-07-01

    The objective of the Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction (HEDR) Project is to estimate the radiation doses that individuals and populations could have received from nuclear operations at Hanford since 1944. The TSP consists of experts in environmental pathways, epidemiology, surface-water transport, ground-water transport, statistics, demography, agriculture, meteorology, nuclear engineering, radiation dosimetry, and cultural anthropology. Included are appointed technical members representing the states of Oregon, Washington, and Idaho, a representative of Native American tribes, and an individual representing the public. The project is divided into the following technical tasks. These tasks correspond to the path radionuclides followed from release to impact on humans (dose estimates): Source terms, environmental transport, environmental monitoring data, demography, food consumption, and agriculture, and environmental pathways and dose estimates. Progress is discussed.

  12. Neuromagnetic source reconstruction

    SciTech Connect

    Lewis, P.S.; Mosher, J.C.; Leahy, R.M.

    1994-12-31

    In neuromagnetic source reconstruction, a functional map of neural activity is constructed from noninvasive magnetoencephalographic (MEG) measurements. The overall reconstruction problem is under-determined, so some form of source modeling must be applied. We review the two main classes of reconstruction techniques-parametric current dipole models and nonparametric distributed source reconstructions. Current dipole reconstructions use a physically plausible source model, but are limited to cases in which the neural currents are expected to be highly sparse and localized. Distributed source reconstructions can be applied to a wider variety of cases, but must incorporate an implicit source, model in order to arrive at a single reconstruction. We examine distributed source reconstruction in a Bayesian framework to highlight the implicit nonphysical Gaussian assumptions of minimum norm based reconstruction algorithms. We conclude with a brief discussion of alternative non-Gaussian approachs.

  13. Da Capo Reconstructions: Time and Chance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howard, Vernon A.

    2006-01-01

    In this article, the author discusses the down side of a personal/professional makeover at any age, less to discourage risk-taking than to render it transparent, even plausible. He explores one aspect of the experience of redevelopment, what John Dewey called the "reconstruction of experience", with attention to the role of personality, ingrained…

  14. Trends and concepts in post-mastectomy breast reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Farhangkhoee, Hana; Matros, Evan; Disa, Joseph

    2016-06-01

    A number of factors have contributed to a paradigm shift in US post-mastectomy breast reconstruction. The increasing numbers of contralateral prophylactic mastectomies strongly correlated to a rise in implant-based reconstructions. Autologous reconstruction, however, has faced a number of barriers including technically complicated perforator flaps and declining reimbursements. As such, a market concentration has developed within high volume microsurgical centers. As more patients receive radiation, the timing and method of reconstruction has become a controversial topic. J. Surg. Oncol. 2016;113:891-894. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26876921

  15. Magnetic Field Configuration Models and Reconstruction Methods: a comparative study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al-haddad, Nada; Möstl, Christian; Roussev, Ilia; Nieves-Chinchilla, Teresa; Poedts, Stefaan; Hidalgo, Miguel Angel; Marubashi, Katsuhide; Savani, Neel

    2012-07-01

    This study aims to provide a reference to different magnetic field models and reconstruction methods. In order to understand the dissimilarities of those models and codes, we analyze 59 events from the CDAW list, using four different magnetic field models and reconstruction techniques; force- free reconstruction (Lepping et al.(1990); Lynch et al.(2003)), magnetostatic reconstruction, referred as Grad-Shafranov (Hu & Sonnerup(2001); Mostl et al.(2009)), cylinder reconstruction (Marubashi & Lepping(2007)), elliptical, non-force free (Hidalgo et al.(2002)). The resulted parameters of the reconstructions, for the 59 events are compared, statistically, as well as in more details for some cases. The differences between the reconstruction codes are discussed, and suggestions are provided as how to enhance them. Finally we look at 2 unique cases under the microscope, to provide a comprehensive idea of the different aspects of how the fitting codes work.

  16. Economics of abdominal wall reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Bower, Curtis; Roth, J Scott

    2013-10-01

    The economic aspects of abdominal wall reconstruction are frequently overlooked, although understandings of the financial implications are essential in providing cost-efficient health care. Ventral hernia repairs are frequently performed surgical procedures with significant economic ramifications for employers, insurers, providers, and patients because of the volume of procedures, complication rates, the significant rate of recurrence, and escalating costs. Because biological mesh materials add significant expense to the costs of treating complex abdominal wall hernias, the role of such costly materials needs to be better defined to ensure the most cost-efficient and effective treatments for ventral abdominal wall hernias. PMID:24035086

  17. Head and face reconstruction

    MedlinePlus

    ... Birth defects and deformities from conditions such as cleft lip or palate , craniosynostosis , Apert syndrome Deformities caused by ... Orbital-craniofacial surgery; Facial reconstruction Images Skull Skull Cleft lip repair - series Craniofacial reconstruction - series References Baker SR. ...

  18. Head and face reconstruction

    MedlinePlus

    Head and face reconstruction is surgery to repair or reshape deformities of the head and face (craniofacial). ... How surgery for head and face deformities (craniofacial reconstruction) ... and the person's condition. Surgical repairs involve the ...

  19. Helical surface reconstruction based on CMM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pan, Zhikang; Zhu, Lianqing; Chen, Qingshan; Guo, Yangkuan

    2010-12-01

    The reconstruction of helical surface plays an important role in many engineering and scientific applications. This paper tends to establish an effective processing scheme of surface reconstruction of scatter 3D points, and make an in-depth exploration for the preprocessing technology of scatter points set and the algorithm of three-dimension model surface reconstruction. This paper has three main aspects: data acquisition, data preprocess and surface reconstruction. First, by comparing several measuring equipments, the screw parts are scanned via CMM (Coordinate Measuring Machine). Initial 3D point clouds are obtained by setting the scanning route according to the shape of the targets. Second, Using "3σ" criteria point de-noising is applied to the initial data points. Then Heap Sort is used to sort these points, being convenient for saving data and reconstructing the surface. Third, this paper presents a surface reconstruction method based on triangulation algorithm. The triangular meshes are generated based on Delaunay triangulation technique in two dimensions. And Loop Subdivision is adopted in order to get manifold meshes. Finally the surface reconstruction of an involute worm and an Archimedes worm shows that this approach is feasible.

  20. Helical surface reconstruction based on CMM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pan, Zhikang; Zhu, Lianqing; Chen, Qingshan; Guo, Yangkuan

    2011-05-01

    The reconstruction of helical surface plays an important role in many engineering and scientific applications. This paper tends to establish an effective processing scheme of surface reconstruction of scatter 3D points, and make an in-depth exploration for the preprocessing technology of scatter points set and the algorithm of three-dimension model surface reconstruction. This paper has three main aspects: data acquisition, data preprocess and surface reconstruction. First, by comparing several measuring equipments, the screw parts are scanned via CMM (Coordinate Measuring Machine). Initial 3D point clouds are obtained by setting the scanning route according to the shape of the targets. Second, Using "3σ" criteria point de-noising is applied to the initial data points. Then Heap Sort is used to sort these points, being convenient for saving data and reconstructing the surface. Third, this paper presents a surface reconstruction method based on triangulation algorithm. The triangular meshes are generated based on Delaunay triangulation technique in two dimensions. And Loop Subdivision is adopted in order to get manifold meshes. Finally the surface reconstruction of an involute worm and an Archimedes worm shows that this approach is feasible.

  1. Methods of Voice Reconstruction

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Hung-Chi; Kim Evans, Karen F.; Salgado, Christopher J.; Mardini, Samir

    2010-01-01

    This article reviews methods of voice reconstruction. Nonsurgical methods of voice reconstruction include electrolarynx, pneumatic artificial larynx, and esophageal speech. Surgical methods of voice reconstruction include neoglottis, tracheoesophageal puncture, and prosthesis. Tracheoesophageal puncture can be performed in patients with pedicled flaps such as colon interposition, jejunum, or gastric pull-up or in free flaps such as perforator flaps, jejunum, and colon flaps. Other flaps for voice reconstruction include the ileocolon flap and jejunum. Laryngeal transplantation is also reviewed. PMID:22550443

  2. Reoperative midface reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Acero, Julio; García, Eloy

    2011-02-01

    Reoperative reconstruction of the midface is a challenging issue because of the complexity of this region and the severity of the aesthetic and functional sequela related to the absence or failure of a primary reconstruction. The different situations that can lead to the indication of a reoperative reconstructive procedure after previous oncologic ablative procedures in the midface are reviewed. Surgical techniques, anatomic problems, and limitations affecting the reoperative reconstruction in this region of the head and neck are discussed. PMID:21126882

  3. Selection of secondary breast reconstruction procedures.

    PubMed

    Maxwell, G P

    1984-04-01

    Careful individualization to the patient is the key to selecting a procedure for breast reconstruction. There will be several options to choose from in a given situation, and the most appropriate selection can be achieved only through preoperative planning, patient education, and frank discussion. With continued progress in breast cancer treatment and technical advances in reconstructive techniques, plastic surgeons must make the effort to remain current in the midst of this change in order to advise their patients appropriately about the pros and cons of each available alternative. PMID:6723195

  4. Autologous Microvascular Breast Reconstruction

    PubMed Central

    Ramakrishnan, Venkat

    2013-01-01

    Autologous microvascular breast reconstruction is widely accepted as a key component of breast cancer treatment. There are two basic donor sites; the anterior abdominal wall and the thigh/buttock region. Each of these regions provides for a number of flaps that are successfully utilised in breast reconstruction. Refinement of surgical technique and the drive towards minimising donor site morbidity whilst maximising flap vascularity in breast reconstruction has seen an evolution towards perforator based flap reconstructions, however myocutaneous flaps are still commonly practiced. We review herein the current methods of autologous microvascular breast reconstruction. PMID:23362474

  5. Auricular reconstruction for microtia: Part II. Surgical techniques.

    PubMed

    Walton, Robert L; Beahm, Elisabeth K

    2002-07-01

    Reconstruction of the microtic ear represents one of the most demanding challenges in reconstructive surgery. In this review the two most commonly used techniques for ear reconstruction, the Brent and Nagata techniques, are addressed in detail. Unique to this endeavor, the originator of each technique has been allowed to submit representative case material and to address the pros and cons of the other's technique. What follows is a detailed, insightful overview of microtia reconstruction, as a state of the art. The review then details commonly encountered problems in ear reconstruction and pertinent technical points. Finally, a glimpse into the future is offered with an accounting of the advances made in tissue engineering as this technology applies to auricular reconstruction. PMID:12087261

  6. Exploration Flight Test 1 Afterbody Aerothermal Environment Reconstruction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hyatt, Andrew J.; Oliver, Brandon; Amar, Adam; Lessard, Victor

    2016-01-01

    The Exploration Flight Test 1 vehicle included roughly 100 near surface thermocouples on the after body of the vehicle. The temperature traces at each of these instruments have been used to perform inverse environment reconstruction to determine the aerothermal environment experienced during re-entry of the vehicle. This paper provides an overview of the reconstructed environments and identifies critical aspects of the environment. These critical aspects include transition and reaction control system jet influence. A blind test of the process and reconstruction tool was also performed to build confidence in the reconstructed environments. Finally, an uncertainty quantification analysis was also performed to identify the impact of each of the uncertainties on the reconstructed environments.

  7. Magnetic Reconstruction of PEGASUS Equilibria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sontag, A. C.; Fonck, R. J.; Garstka, G. D.; Tritz, K. L.

    2000-10-01

    Magnetic equilibrium reconstruction on the PEGASUS Toroidal Experiment is a crucial tool to determine macroscopic plasma parameters such as geometry, l_i, beta, and edge q. To date, plasmas on the order of 0.1 MA with aspect ratios from 1.1 to 1.4, elongations from 1 to >3, l_is in the range 0.3 to 0.7, and β_ts on the order of 0.2 at toroidal fields less than 0.07 T have been analyzed with the TokaMac magnetic reconstruction code. To support a wide variety of diagnostic measurements and plasma profile models, a code using a nonlinear least-squares fitting routine coupled to a Grad-Shafranov solver has been developed. Induced currents are estimated using a time-evolving current filament model and are constrained during the reconstruction using wall mounted flux loops. A scan of model plasma parameters has been employed to determine a minimal array of magnetic diagnostics for accurately characterizing the plasma equilibrium and induced wall currents. This set includes a poloidal array of 13 magnetic pickup coils , 9 plasma flux loops, and a Rogowski loop for the toroidal plasma current.

  8. [Reconstruction of sexual offences--forensic aspects of sperm traces].

    PubMed

    Laberke, Patrick J; Bockholdt, Britta; Hausmann, Roland; Balitzki, Beate

    2010-01-01

    The investigation of sexual offences is a real challenge, as the injuries are often unspecific or faint and may sometimes be missing completely. Evidence recovery and analysis as well as the statements of the victims and suspects are therefore of vital importance. In both presented cases, the results of trace evidence analysis were basically consistent with a sexual assault, but the victims' statements regarding the course of events and the pattern of traces showed severe discrepancies. PMID:21254703

  9. Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction Project monthly report

    SciTech Connect

    Finch, S.M.

    1990-12-01

    The objective of the Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction Project is to estimate the radiation doses that populations could have been have received from nuclear operations at Hanford since 1944. The project is being managed and conducted by the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) under the direction of an independent Technical Steering Panel (TSP). The project is divided into the following technical tasks. These tasks correspond to the path radionuclides followed, from release to impact on humans (dose estimates): source terms; environmental transport; environmental monitoring data; demographics, agriculture, food habits; and environmental pathways and dose estimates. 3 figs., 3 tabs.

  10. Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction Project Monthly Report

    SciTech Connect

    Finch, S.M.

    1990-01-01

    The objective of the Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction Project is to estimate the radiation doses that populations could have received from nuclear operations at Hanford since 1944. The project is being managed and conducted by the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) under the direction of an independent Technical Steering Panel (TSP). The project is divided into the following technical tasks. These tasks correspond to the path radionuclides followed, from release to impact on humans (dose estimates): source terms; environmental transport; environmental monitoring data; demographics; agriculture; food habits; and environmental pathways and dose estimates. 3 figs.

  11. Ethical and technical considerations for the creation of cell lines in the head & neck and tissue harvesting for research and drug development (Part II): Ethical aspects of obtaining tissue specimens

    PubMed Central

    Upile, Tahwinder; Jerjes, Waseem; Kafas, Panagiotis; Singh, Sandeep U; Mahil, Jaspal; Sandison, Ann; Hopper, Colin; Sudhoff, Holger

    2009-01-01

    Background Although much has been published for the development of cell lines, these were lab based and developed for scientific technical staff. Objective of review We discuss the ethical implications of tissue retention and present a generic consent form (Part II). We also present a simple and successful protocol for the development of cell lines and tissue harvesting for the clinical scientist (Part I). Conclusion Consent is also more proximate and assurance can be given of appropriate usage. Ethical questions concerning tissue ownership are in many institutions raised during the current consenting procedure. We provide a robust ethical framework, based on the current legislation, which allows clinicians to be directly involved in cell and tissue harvesting. PMID:19344502

  12. Inventors Center of Michigan Technical Assessment Program

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-01-01

    The Technical Assessment Program at the Inventors Center of Michigan is designed to provide independent inventors with a reliable assessment of the technical merits of their proposed inventions. Using faculty from within Ferris State University's College of Technology an assessment process examines the inventor's assumptions, documentation, and prototypes, as well as, reviewing patent search results and technical literature to provide the inventor with a written report on the technical aspects of the proposed invention. The forms for applying for a technical assessment of an invention are included.

  13. Technical Guid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanasescu, F. T.; Stanciu, V.; Nitu, V.; Nitu, C.

    The book contains the most important informations from Physics,Mechanics,Heat,Electromagnetism, Nuclear Physics as well as tables with values for physical and technical Quantities. The book is designed especially for engineers, but could be useful for physicists

  14. Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction Project. Monthly report

    SciTech Connect

    Finch, S.M.; McMakin, A.H.

    1992-02-01

    The objective of the Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction Project is to estimate the radiation doses that individuals and populations could have received from nuclear operations at Hanford since 1944. The project is divided into the following technical tasks. These tasks correspond to the path radionuclides followed, from release to impact on humans (dose estimates): source terms; environmental transport; environmental monitoring data; demography, food consumption, and agriculture; environmental pathways and dose estimates.

  15. Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction Project Monthly Report

    SciTech Connect

    Finch, S.M.; McMakin, A.H.

    1992-03-01

    The objective of the Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction Project is to estimate the radiation doses that individuals and populations could have received from nuclear operations at Hanford since 1944. The project is divided into the following technical tasks. These tasks correspond to the path radionuclides followed, from release to impact on humans (dose estimates): Source Terms, Environmental Transport, Environmental Monitoring Data, Demography, Food Consumption, and Agriculture, and Environmental Pathways and Dose Estimates.

  16. Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction Project. Monthly report

    SciTech Connect

    Finch, S.M.; McMakin, A.H.

    1992-04-01

    The objective of the Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction Project is to estimate the radiation doses that individuals and populations could have received from nuclear operations at Hanford since 1944. The project is divided into the following technical tasks. These tasks correspond to the path radionuclides followed, from release to impact on humans (dose estimates): Source terms, environmental transport, environmental monitoring data, demography, food consumption, and agriculture, and environmental pathways and dose estimates.

  17. Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction Project monthly report

    SciTech Connect

    Finch, S.M.

    1991-10-01

    The objective of the Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction Project is to estimate the radiation doeses that individuals and populations could have received from nuclear operations at Hanford since 1944. The project is divided into the following technical tasks. These tasks correspond to the path radionuclides followed, from release to impact on humans (dose estimates): Source terms; environmental transport; environmental monitoring data; demographics, agriculture, food habits; environmental pathways and dose estimates.

  18. Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction Project. Monthly report

    SciTech Connect

    Finch, S.M.; McMakin, A.H.

    1992-03-01

    The objective of the Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction Project is to estimate the radiation doses that individuals and populations could have received from nuclear operations at Hanford since 1944. The project is divided into the following technical tasks. These tasks correspond to the path radionuclides followed, from release to impact on humans (dose estimates): Source Terms, Environmental Transport, Environmental Monitoring Data, Demography, Food Consumption, and Agriculture, and Environmental Pathways and Dose Estimates.

  19. [Latissimus dorsi myocutaneous flap combined with implant in breast reconstruction: The technique of the dorsal bra].

    PubMed

    Bruant-Rodier, C; Chiriac, S; Baratte, A; Dissaux, C; Bodin, F

    2016-06-01

    The latissimus dorsi myocutaneous flap combined with an implant is an effective breast reconstruction solution especially in irradiated patients. The authors describe the specific technical aspects that allow them to optimize the results of this intervention. In the back, the skin paddle is drawn in the shape of a horizontal spindle so as to conceal the residual scar under the bra. In breast area, a J-shaped contraincision barring the mastectomy scar ensures a harmonious positioning of the skin paddle to the inferolateral part of the breast. After a 180° rotation, the latissimus dorsi muscle envelops the implant like a bra. Its upper edge is attached at the bottom to define the new submammary fold. Under the pectoralis major muscle, its distal end comes to fill the décolleté above the implant. PMID:26117706

  20. Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction Project: Monthly report, May 1989

    SciTech Connect

    Dennis, B.S.

    1989-01-01

    The objective of the Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction Project is to estimate the radiation doses that populations could have received from nuclear operations at Hanford since 1944. The project is being managed and conducted by Pacific Northwest Laboratory under the direction of independent Technical Steering Panel. The Technical Steering Panel consists of experts in environmental pathways, epidemiology, surface-water transport, ground-water transport, statistics, demography, agriculture, meteorology, nuclear engineering, radiation dosimetry, and cultural anthropology. Included among the members are appointed technical members representing the States of Oregon and Washington, cultural and technical experts nominated by the Indian tribes in the region, and an individual representing the public.

  1. Individualizing Instruction in Vocational and Technical Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nee, John G.

    On the premise that individualized instruction and its many variations has become increasingly more important to the vocational and technical educator, various aspects of an individualized instructional program are discussed under eight headings: (1) What Is Meant by Individualizing Instruction in Vocational and Technical Education? (2) Why Do We…

  2. Lower Eyelid Reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Holds, John B

    2016-05-01

    Lower eyelid defects are common, and a systematic approach to reconstruction of the lower eyelid is required. Attention to the bilaminar eyelid anatomy and canthal support structures, with efforts to maintain functionally important structures, such as the lacrimal canalicular system, is vital to appropriate lower eyelid reconstruction. Techniques of advancement and rotation flaps and grafting of skin and mucosa are mainstays of lower eyelid reconstruction. An appropriate armamentarium of techniques allows for optimal surgical results. PMID:27105804

  3. Flexor pulley reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Dy, Christopher J; Daluiski, Aaron

    2013-05-01

    Flexor pulley reconstruction is a challenging surgery. Injuries often occur after traumatic lacerations or forceful extension applied to an acutely flexed finger. Surgical treatment is reserved for patients with multiple closed pulley ruptures, persistent pain, or dysfunction after attempted nonoperative management of a single pulley rupture, or during concurrent or staged flexor tendon repair or reconstruction. If the pulley cannot be repaired primarily, pulley reconstruction can be performed using graft woven into remnant pulley rim or looping graft around the phalanx. Regardless of the reconstructive technique, the surgeon should emulate the length, tension, and glide of the native pulley. PMID:23660059

  4. Head and neck reconstruction

    PubMed Central

    Yadav, Prabha

    2013-01-01

    Whatever is excisable, is reconstructable! “You excise, we will reconstruct” are the confident words of reconstructive surgeons today. Reconstruction with multiple flaps has become routine. Radial artery (FRAF), Antero lateral thigh (ALT) and Fibula osteo cutaneous flap (FFOCF) are three most popular free flaps which can reconstruct any defect with excellent asthetics and performance. Radial Artery provides thin, pliable innervated skin; ALT large amount of skin & bulk; and FFOCF strong 22 to 25 centimetres of bone and reliable skin paddle. Free flap survival has gone to 98% in most of the renouned institutes and is an established escalator in management of defects. PMID:24501464

  5. Facial artery flaps in facial oncoplastic reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Fabrizio, Tommaso

    2013-10-01

    The face is one of the common sites for cutaneous cancer localization. It is well known that the face is the localization of more than 50% of skin cancers. Nowadays, the principles of modern "oncoplasty" recommend the complete excision of the cancer and the reconstruction with respect to cosmetic features of the face in terms of good color, good softness, and good texture of the flaps, utilized in cancer repair. The oncological and cosmetic results of facial reconstruction are strictly linked and the modern plastic and reconstructive surgeon must respect both oncological and cosmetic aspects. For that reason the best solution in facial cancer repair is the utilization of locoregional flaps based on the tributary vessels of the facial artery. In consideration of the dimension of recipient area to repair, the retroangular flap (RAF) or the submental flap could be used. This article is voted to illustrate a very large and long-term casuistry dedicated to these flaps. PMID:24037925

  6. The new ATLAS track reconstruction (NEWT)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cornelissen, T.; Elsing, M.; Gavrilenko, I.; Liebig, W.; Moyse, E.; Salzburger, A.

    2008-07-01

    The track reconstruction of modern high energy physics experiments is a very complex task that puts stringent requirements onto the software realisation. The ATLAS track reconstruction software has been in the past dominated by a collection of individual packages, each of which incorporating a different intrinsic event data model, different data flow sequences and calibration data. Recently, the ATLAS track reconstruction has undergone a major design revolution to ensure maintainability during the long lifetime of the ATLAS experiment and the flexibility needed for the startup phase. The entire software chain has been re-organised in modular components and a common event data model has been deployed. A complete new track reconstruction that concentrates on common tools aimed to be used by both ATLAS tracking devices, the Inner Detector and the Muon System, has been established. It has been already used during many large scale tests with data from Monte Carlo simulation and from detector commissioning projects such as the combined test beam 2004 and cosmic ray events. This document concentrates on the technical and conceptual details of the newly developed track reconstruction.

  7. Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction Project

    SciTech Connect

    Finch, S. M.; McMakin, A. H.

    1991-09-01

    The objective of the Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction Project is to estimate the radiation dose that individuals and populations could have received from nuclear operations at Hanford since 1944. The project is divided into five technical tasks. These tasks correspond to the path radionuclides followed, from release to impact on humans (i.e., dose estimates). The Source Terms Task develops estimates of radioactive emissions from Hanford facilities since 1944. The Environmental Transport Task reconstructs the movements of radioactive particles from the areas of release to populations. The Environmental Monitoring Data Task assemblies, evaluates and reports historical environmental monitoring data. The Demographics, Agriculture and Food Habits Task develops the data needed to identify the populations that could have been affected by the releases. The Environmental Pathways and Dose Estimates Task used the information derived from the other Tasks to estimate the radiation doses individuals could have received from Hanford radiation. This document lists the progress on this project as of September 1991. 3 figs., 2 tabs.

  8. Reconstructing Climates of the Last Millennium: Next Steps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ammann, C. M.; Wahl, E. R.; Obbink, E. A.

    2006-12-01

    Large-scale temperature reconstructions have recently attracted heightened scrutiny from various interest groups and policy makers. The debate centered mostly around accuracy, robustness and uncertainty in 'hockey stick' shaped hemispheric surface temperature reconstructions. The 2006 NRC report also focused extensively on multiple aspects of uncertainty arising from proxies and reconstruction techniques used for surface temperature estimates at the hemispheric scale. So far, the broader scientific community as well as most decision makers have given little attention to the spatial aspects provided by climate field reconstructions, the spatial perspective ultimately of most relevance for decision makers and to the majority of people. Here we illustrate how climate field reconstructions perform at regional scales, and how uncertainty at the hemispheric level is influencing the spatial reconstructions. We apply climate field reconstruction algorithms to pseudo-proxy samples from coupled GCM output and compare the resulting spatial climate variations with the known model targets. We use these exercises to sketch out a pathway for future reconstruction efforts and then discuss their potential to advance our understanding of the climate system as well as their limitations.

  9. Aspects of computer vision in surgical endoscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodin, Vincent; Ayache, Alain; Berreni, N.

    1993-09-01

    This work is related to a project of medical robotics applied to surgical endoscopy, led in collaboration with Doctor Berreni from the Saint Roch nursing-home in Perpignan, France). After taking what Doctor Berreni advises, two aspects of endoscopic color image processing have been brought out: (1) The help to the diagnosis by the automatic detection of the sick areas after a learning phase. (2) The 3D reconstruction of the analyzed cavity by using a zoom.

  10. Bitzer's Model Reconstructed.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lybarger, Scott; Smith, Craig R.

    1996-01-01

    Reconstructs Lloyd Bitzer's situational model to serve as a guide for the generation of multiperspectival critical assessments of rhetorical discourse. Uses two of President Bush's speeches on the drug crisis to illustrate how the reconstructed model can account for such modern problems as multiple audiences, perceptions, and exigencies. (PA)